Sample records for history politics sociology

  1. Citation Behavior of Undergraduate Students: A Study of History, Political Science, and Sociology Papers

    Hendley, Michelle


    The goal of this analysis was to obtain local citation behavior data on undergraduates researching history, political science, and sociology papers. The study found that students cited books and journals even with the availability of web sources; however, usage varied by subject. References to specific websites' domains also varied across subject…

  2. Social History and Historical Sociology

    Wolfgang Knöbl


    Full Text Available This paper deals with exchanges and misunderstandings between the German school of social history (most prominently represented by scholars from the University of Bielefeld (such as Hans-Ulrich Wehler and Anglo-American trends in historical sociology (exemplified by the works of Barrington Moore, Theda Skocpol and Michael Mann. The social historians tended to dismiss historical sociology as too dependent on modernization theory, without taking into account the critique of that tradition by authors who brought processes of state formation and revolutionary change into the debate. On the other side, mainstream historical sociology worked with assumptions that limited its ability to change the terms and directions of sociological discourse, and to assimilate lessons from history. Among these inbuilt biases, organizational realism and materialism – particularly pronounced in the work of Michael Mann – stand out as particularly important. The paper closes with arguments in favour of bringing more history into historical sociology, with particular emphasis on three sets of problems. There is a need for more historical approaches to differentiation, less dependent on functionalist premises than the hitherto prevalent paradigm. A more explicit thematization of temporality in history and society would, among other things, help to clarify issues linked to the notion of path dependency. Finally, a reconsideration of the models and types of explanation in historical sociology would place more emphasis on their interpretive dimension.

  3. Social History and Historical Sociology

    Wolfgang Knöbl


    Full Text Available This paper deals with exchanges and misunderstandings between the German school of social history (most prominently represented by scholars from the University of Bielefeld (such as Hans-Ulrich Wehler and Anglo-American trends in historical sociology (exemplified by the works of Barrington Moore, Theda Skocpol and Michael Mann. The social historians tended to dismiss historical sociology as too dependent on modernization theory, without taking into account the critique of that tradition by authors who brought processes of state formation and revolutionary change into the debate. On the other side, mainstream historical sociology worked with assumptions that limited its ability to change the terms and directions of sociological discourse, and to assimilate lessons from history. Among these inbuilt biases, organizational realism and materialism - particularly pronounced in the work of Michael Mann - stand out as particularly important. The paper closes with arguments in favour of bringing more history into historical sociology, with particular emphasis on three sets of problems. There is a need for more historical approaches to differentiation, less dependent on functionalist premises than the hitherto prevalent paradigm. A more explicit thematization of temporality in history and society would, among other things, help to clarify issues linked to the notion of path dependency. Finally, a reconsideration of the models and types of explanation in historical sociology would place more emphasis on their interpretive dimension.

  4. Political sociology of human rights

    Mahdi Kazemi


    Full Text Available The dominant approach in the field of human rights is Legal attitude. Legal attitude more than anything else on the identification and recognition of human rights by the government is focused. At the same time, governments are the biggest violators of human rights norms. Despite the gap between the legal obligations of states and the real world, legal analysis of this gap is not possible. Therefore, in the era of inflation of rights, according to Louis Henkin , transition needs based approach to the protection of human rights is justified. Social sciences, especially political sociology may be, to identify obstacles to the realization of human rights in different societies and operate it is used. Since the main subject of political sociology "explores the relationship between state and society" is, knowledge can be produced in the field of political sociology in understanding the inability of governments establishing human rights norms and effective ways to fix it. Therefore, it can be said that human rights political sociology focus on: how to advance the state of human rights in a society and its institutionalization and consolidation within all relationships and political processes. رهیافت مسلط در حوزه مطالعات حقوق بشر، نگرش حقوقی است.نگرش حقوقی بیش از هرچیز بر شناسایی و به رسمیت شناختن حقوق بشر توسط دولت‌ها متمرکز است.در عین حال، دولت‌ها خود بزرگترین ناقضین هنجارهای حقوق بشری می‌باشند. با وجود شکاف میان تعهدات حقوقی دولت‌ها و جهان واقعی، تحلیل حقوقی از این شکاف ممکن نیست. لذا، در عصر تورم حقوق به تعبیر هنکین، نیازمند گذار از رهیافت مبتنی بر توجیه به حفاظت از حقوق بشر هستیم. علوم اجتماعی بویژه جامعه

  5. Restoring Politics to Political History

    Kousser, J. Morgan


    If history ever was simply the study of past politics, it is no longer. Dissatisfied with narratives of Great Men, more interested in analyzing the impact of larger forces and in tracing out patterns of the lives of the masses of people, skeptical that a recounting of election campaigns and a counting of votes reveals much about social thought or action, strongly affected by currents of opinion which have long run deep in France, American historians have turned increas...

  6. USSR Report, Political and Sociological Affairs.


    discord or hatred are fermented in connection with religious cults. CSO: 1809/15 72 JPRS-ÜPS-85-071 12 September 1985 SOCIOLOGY TV VIEWERS forbidden to bring viticulture products acquired from retail enterprises to canteens and cafes, and the sale of beer in cultural-entertainment...fact that it is planned to open two beer bars, two beer restaurants and a beer -hall on Zelenyy Islands, while Selenyy Island, as the author of the

  7. Sociological analysis of contemporary Turkish political elites

    D. Ali Arslan


    This study was designed to find general characteristics of Contemporary Turkish political Elites since 1995 up to date. Social background characteristics were employed to realise the purposes. Documentary and historical research techniques were used during the study. As a result of examining the Contemporary Turkish political elites (since 1995 up to 2005) these major findings were discovered: the large majority of the Turkish parliamentary elites were well educated, male, middle aged, marrie...

  8. All about science philosophy, history, sociology & communication

    Lam, Liu


    There is a lot of confusion and misconception concerning science. The nature and contents of science is an unsettled problem. For example, Thales of 2,600 years ago is recognized as the father of science but the word science was introduced only in the 14th century; the definition of science is often avoided in books about philosophy of science. This book aims to clear up all these confusions and present new developments in the philosophy, history, sociology and communication of science. It also aims to showcase the achievement of China's top scholars in these areas. The 18 chapters, divided into five parts, are written by prominent scholars including the Nobel laureate Robin Warren, sociologist Harry Collins, and physicist-turned-historian Dietrich Stauffer.

  9. The limits of historical sociology: Temporal borders and the reproduction of the 'modern' political present.

    Lundborg, Tom


    This article develops a poststructuralist critique of the historical sociology of International Relations project. While the historical sociology of International Relations project claims to offer a more nuanced understanding of the state and the international, this article argues that it lacks critical reflection on the notion of a common ground on which 'history' and 'sociology' can successfully be combined. In order to problematize this 'ground', the article turns to Jacques Derrida's critique of attempts to solve the history-structure dichotomy by finding a perfect combination of historicist and structuralist modes of explanation. Exploring the implications of Derrida's critique, the article considers how the combination of 'history' and 'sociology' can be linked to a sovereign politics of time, which reaffirms rather than challenges the limits of the 'modern' political present and its relationship to the past, as well as the future. In response, it is suggested that a more radical critique is needed, one that seeks to disrupt the 'modern' political present and the contingent ground on which it rests.

  10. Origins and canons: medicine and the history of sociology.

    Collyer, Fran


    Differing accounts are conventionally given of the origins of medical sociology and its parent discipline sociology. These distinct "histories" are justified on the basis that the sociological founders were uninterested in medicine, mortality and disease. This article challenges these "constructions" of the past, proposing the theorization of health not as a "late development of sociology" but an integral part of its formation. Drawing on a selection of key sociological texts, it is argued that evidence of the founders' sustained interest in the infirmities of the individual, of mortality, and in medicine, have been expunged from the historical record through processes of "canonization" and "medicalization."

  11. USSR Report, Political and Sociological Affairs


    Partial Contents: International, Maternity Leaves, Costs, Trade Workers, Labor, Population problems, International Seminar, War Crimes, Radio Broadcast, Milk Production, Scientific Programs, History, Socialisms...

  12. USSR Report, Political and Sociological Affairs.


    an indivi- dual: culture, language, paternal or maternal descent, membership in a clan or the immediate feeling of belonging to his people. In... authoritarian - bureaucratic to revolutionary-demo- cratic. It is indicative that such approach is rejected by western liberal-bourgeois political the kolkhoz and Nina Leonidovna at the present time is on a one and a half year’s maternity leave taking care of the baby. The young family has

  13. USSR Report: Political and Sociological Affairs.


    something at which to look closely, besides porno - graphy. For example, to notice and report in good time that video takes root more rapidly far away from...of Video Technology (Vsevolod Vilchek; ZHURNALIST, No 5, May 86) . 42 Ukrainian Obkom Chief on Congress Propaganda Drive (B. Goncharenko...POLITICAL, SOCIAL ASPECTS OF VIDEO TECHNOLOGY Moscow ZHURNALIST in Russian No 5, May 86 pp 44-46 [Article by Vsevolod Vilchek, candidate of art

  14. History and Sociology: A genealogical perspective

    Ştefan UNGUREAN


    Full Text Available What could we possibly learn from a 70 year correspondence from the years of the Second World War, when the course of subsequent history has already been known? The sociologist is interested in seeing how an event unfolds, how it generates other actions, how the actors are driven by, what their strategies are and how they interact. The aim of the present essay is to identify those sociological concepts, that could lead us to explanations of the geopolitical, regarding the way Germany built up its hegemony, by starting from a genealogical perspective, that is, by identifying the logics of a situation and by understanding the reasoning behind individual decision while taking into consideration the analysis of the discourse. We take into account how enforcing a drastic peace treaty on Germany has lead to high surveillance costs that could not be sustained by the victors because of their path dependence, which ultimately led to the fact of the ‘good’ being sacrificed for the sake of the ‘comfortable’. We understand how military successes represent the test of truth for an ideology and provide the Nazi leaders with their legitimacy, inciting a group phantasm. We discern, in the relations between Germany, Soviet Union and the French-English duo, all the elements of a triad and, implicitly, all elements of power that are generated by a game based on imposing and accepting uncertainties. All of the above bare evidence to the fact that sociological notions and concepts can produce revelations when taken into new domains, such as geopolitics and war.

  15. The History and Sociology of Nutrition

    Yuri V. Veselov


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history and sociology of food in the context of discussion about Boris Mironov’s monograph, “The Russian Empire: From Tradition to Modernity.” According to Veselov, Mironov was among the first researchers to study nutrition in Russian history. For the first time in Russian historiography, he analyzed the fundamentally important questions of the nutrition of all social classes in the period of the Empire from the point of view of quantity, quality, and conformity with the physiological needs of human beings. Veselov considers that Mironov’s approach has an integrative and systematic character. It is not limited to the study of cultural practices and rituals, or to the symbolic meanings of food. Mironov also analyzes what, when, and how much people ate, evaluates the adequacy of nutrition, its impact on human health and labor efficiency, and also the modernization of consumption. Veselov suggests that Mironov’s findings, according to which the nutrition of the urban and rural population in the Imperial period was more or less satisfactory, are thoroughly and convincingly substantiated, and that this became possible due to the fact that the modernization of consumption and production of food products took place in close interaction.

  16. USSR Report, Political and Sociological Affairs


    resolutions on Namibia. However, the world has not failed to note that France and Britain have demonstrated some realism on that problem and have...Kagoshima, in a few days’ time. Seven ships of Japan’s navy and of the US 7th Fleet, two British patrol ships and a French destroyer will take...affairs in the Far East and in the history of war art. That event is well remembered in our country. Our poeple associate it with the stupid avarice of

  17. History, Science And The Dilemma Of Contemporary Sociology: The ...

    History and natural sciences are two important fields of study that have informed and influenced sociology as a discipline. Traditionally common to these influences on sociology is the need to generalise. Today, however only the natural sciences can still lay claim to this principle. In generalising, the natural science ...

  18. Revitalizing sociology: urban life and mental illness between history and the present.

    Fitzgerald, Des; Rose, Nikolas; Singh, Ilina


    This paper proposes a re-thinking of the relationship between sociology and the biological sciences. Tracing lines of connection between the history of sociology and the contemporary landscape of biology, the paper argues for a reconfiguration of this relationship beyond popular rhetorics of 'biologization' or 'medicalization'. At the heart of the paper is a claim that, today, there are some potent new frames for re-imagining the traffic between sociological and biological research - even for 'revitalizing' the sociological enterprise as such. The paper threads this argument through one empirical case: the relationship between urban life and mental illness. In its first section, it shows how this relationship enlivened both early psychiatric epidemiology, and some forms of the new discipline of sociology; it then traces the historical division of these sciences, as the sociological investment in psychiatric questions waned, and 'the social' become marginalized within an increasingly 'biological' psychiatry. In its third section, however, the paper shows how this relationship has lately been revivified, but now by a nuanced epigenetic and neurobiological attention to the links between mental health and urban life. What role can sociology play here? In its final section, the paper shows how this older sociology, with its lively interest in the psychiatric and neurobiological vicissitudes of urban social life, can be our guide in helping to identify intersections between sociological and biological attention. With a new century now underway, the paper concludes by suggesting that the relationship between urban life and mental illness may prove a core testing-ground for a 'revitalized' sociology. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  19. G. H. Mead in the History of Sociological Ideas

    Silva, Filipe Carreira da


    My aim is to discuss the history of the reception of George Herbert Mead’s ideas in sociology. After discussing the methodological debate between presentism and historicism, I address the interpretations of those responsible for Mead’s inclusion in the sociological canon: Herbert Blumer, Jürgen Habermas, and Hans Joas. In the concluding section, I as- sess these reconstructions of Mead’s thought and suggest an alternative more consistent with my initial methodological remarks. In particular, ...

  20. Life politics, nature and the state: Giddens' sociological theory and The Politics of Climate Change.

    Thorpe, Charles; Jacobson, Brynna


    Anthony Giddens' The Politics of Climate Change represents a significant shift in the way in which he addresses ecological politics. In this book, he rejects the relevance of environmentalism and demarcates climate-change policy from life politics. Giddens addresses climate change in the technocratic mode of simple rather than reflexive modernization. However, Giddens' earlier sociological theory provides the basis for a more reflexive understanding of climate change. Climate change instantiates how, in high modernity, the existential contradiction of the human relationship with nature returns in new form, expressed in life politics and entangled with the structural contradictions of the capitalist state. The interlinking of existential and structural contradiction is manifested in the tension between life politics and the capitalist nation-state. This tension is key for understanding the failures so far of policy responses to climate change. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  1. Politics out of the History of Politics

    Diana Sartori


    Full Text Available Wendy Brown’s approach in Politics out of History is characterized by an attempt to analyze the presence of the past which can be read not only under the light of Nietzsche’s legacy, but also through a comparison with Hannah Arendt’s conception of the gap between the past and the future. Like Arendt, Brown aims to look at the present as the site of politics and freedom, even though the former conceives the break with tradition as the unavoidable starting point, while the latter assumes that that break is not fully accomplished because it was not recognized. Rather, it produces Wounded Attachments whose effect is that of limiting the possibility of left criticism. Moving from this parallel, Brown’s analysis is compared to the Italian philosophy of sexual difference, stressing their common interest in thinking freedom beyond a female identity built on a presumed common oppression.

  2. Trends in Funding for Dissertation Field Research: Why Do Political Science and Sociology Students Win so Few Awards?

    Agarwala, Rina; Teitelbaum, Emmanuel


    Despite the size and growth of political science and sociology relative to other disciplines, political science and sociology graduate students have received a declining share of funding for dissertation field research in recent years. Specifically, political science and sociology students are losing out to competitive applicants from…

  3. Theories of social mobility in the history of sociological thought

    S. A. Baturenko


    Full Text Available In this article evolution of theories of social mobility in the history of social thought from the classical period of development until the end of the XX century is analyzed. The author describes the main directions of theoretical interest of research of this problem and their peculiar features. The main questions raised by classics of the sociological theory were actual during all XX century, and empirical research of a problem of social mobility resulted in concentration of attention of scientists on more specific questions, in particular such as studying of professional career, reproduction of the social statuses that promoted emergence of separate discipline in the western sociology, so-called to “sociology of a course of life”, investigating biographic mobility.

  4. Ilya Neustadt, Norbert Elias, and the Leicester Department: personal correspondence and the history of sociology in Britain.

    Goodwin, John; Hughes, Jason


    The central aims of this paper are: (1) to explore the utility of using personal correspondence as a source of data for sociological investigations into the history of sociology in the UK; (2) in relation to this undertaking, to advance the beginnings of a figurational analysis of epistolary forms; and (3), to provide an empirically-grounded discussion of the historical significance of the Department of Sociology at the University of Leicester (a University largely ignored in 'standard histories' of the subject) at a formative phase in the development of the discipline within the UK. The correspondence drawn upon in the paper is between Norbert Elias and Ilya Neustadt between 1962 and 1964 when Elias was Professor of Sociology at the University of Ghana and Ilya Neustadt was Professor of Sociology and Head of the Sociology Department at the University of Leicester. From an analysis of this correspondence, we elucidate an emergent dynamic to the relationship between Neustadt and Elias, one which, we argue, undergirds the development of sociology at Leicester and the distinctive character of the intellectual climate that prevailed there during the 1960s. The paper concludes with a consideration of whether it was a collapse of this dynamic that led to a total breakdown in the relationship between Neustadt and Elias, and by extension, an important phase in the expansion of sociology at Leicester. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  5. G. H. Mead in the history of sociological ideas.

    da Silva, Filipe Carreira


    My aim is to discuss the history of the reception of George Herbert Mead's ideas in sociology. After discussing the methodological debate between presentism and historicism, I address the interpretations of those responsible for Mead's inclusion in the sociological canon: Herbert Blumer, Jürgen Habermas, and Hans Joas. In the concluding section, I assess these reconstructions of Mead's thought and suggest an alternative more consistent with my initial methodological remarks. In particular, I advocate a reconstruction of Mead's ideas that apprehends simultaneously its evolution over time and its thematic breadth. Such a historically minded reconstruction can be not only a useful corrective to possible anachronisms incurred by contemporary social theorists, but also a fruitful resource for their theory-building endeavors. Only then can meaningful and enriching dialogue with Mead begin. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Water, Politics and Development: Framing a Political Sociology of Water Resources Management

    Peter P. Mollinga


    Full Text Available The first issue of Water Alternatives presents a set of papers that investigates the inherently political nature of water resources management. A Water, Politics and Development initiative was started at ZEF (Center for Development Research, Bonn, Germany in 2004/2005 in the context of a national-level discussion on the role of social science in global (environmental change research. In April 2005 a roundtable workshop with this title was held at ZEF, sponsored by the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft/German Research Foundation and supported by the NKGCF (Nationales Komitee für Global Change Forschung/German National Committee on Global Change Research, aiming to design a research programme in the German context. In 2006 it was decided to design a publication project on a broader, European and international basis. The Irrigation and Water Engineering Group at Wageningen University, the Netherlands joined as a co-organiser and co-sponsor. The collection of papers published in this issue of Water Alternatives is one of the products of the publication project. As part of the initiative a session on Water, Politics and Development was organised at the Stockholm World Water Week in August 2007, where most of the papers in this collection were presented and discussed. Through this publication, the Water, Politics and Development initiative links up with other initiatives simultaneously ongoing, for instance the 'Water governance – challenging the consensus' project of the Bradford Centre for International Development at Bradford University, UK. At this point in time, the initiative has formulated its thrust as 'framing a political sociology of water resources management'. This, no doubt, is an ambitious project, methodologically, theoretically as well as practically. Through the compilation of this collection we have started to explore whether and how such an endeavour might make sense. The participants in the initiative think it does, are quite

  7. Critical issues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of astrobiology.

    Dick, Steven J


    Fifty years after serious scientific research began in the field of exobiology, and forty years after serious historical research began on the subject of extraterrestrial life, this paper identifies and examines some of the most important issues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of what is today known as astrobiology. As in the philosophy of science in general, and in the philosophies of particular sciences, critical issues in the philosophy and sociology of astrobiology are both stimulated and illuminated by history. Among those issues are (1) epistemological issues such as the status of astrobiology as a science, the problematic nature of evidence and inference, and the limits of science; (2) metaphysical/scientific issues, including the question of defining the fundamental concepts of life, mind, intelligence, and culture in a universal context; the role of contingency and necessity in the origin of these fundamental phenomena; and whether or not the universe is in some sense fine-tuned for life and perhaps biocentric; (3) societal issues such as the theological, ethical, and worldview impacts of the discovery of microbial or intelligent life; and the question of whether the search for extraterrestrial life should be pursued at all, and with what precautions; and (4) issues related to the sociology of scientific knowledge, including the diverse attitudes and assumptions of different scientific communities and different cultures to the problem of life beyond Earth, the public "will to believe," and the formation of the discipline of astrobiology. All these overlapping issues are framed by the concept of cosmic evolution-the 13.7 billion year Master Narrative of the Universe-which may result in a physical, biological, or postbiological universe and determine the long-term destiny of humanity.

  8. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 2219


    takes place in training booths and classrooms. On the way to warrant officer one must take sociology, Russian, basic construction, materials...polemics. I admit that I like this much more than the obligatory hearty kiss on both cheeks along with, of course, the assumption that polemicists have

  9. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs


    sudden nervous disorder as an "attempted anamnesis ." Both grew up well cared for and normally in a suburban street of a GDR city. Yet Voellger does...This anamnesis of a genera- tion should be taken seriously, not only for literary reasons, but also in a sociological interest. 5885 CSO: 2300/638

  10. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs


    successfully abroad, revealed television to be the most significant factor in the political socialization of the children. Is it legitimate for a...about political socialization facing every society; to find out what the role of the most phenomena in the political world. (This has significance...societal level is felt more strongly in the political socialization process as the children grow older. This is further reinforced by data we


    Yu. V. Krasilnikova


    Full Text Available We consider the category of law, morality and politics in the sociological knowledge in the context of theoretical and methodological aspects. We give a detailed and incomplete, structural and content characteristics of these categories in the interpretation of their manifestation in thepolitical and social dimension of society.

  12. Neo-Pluralist Political Science, Economic Sociology and the Conceptual Foundations of the Comparative Capitalisms Literatures

    Bruff, Ian; Hartmann, Eva


    the strengths of neo-pluralism and economic sociology – their attention to detail in considering the huge range of ‘types’ of capitalism that exist across the world – come at a high price. Put briefly, the redefinition of ‘capitalism’ as ‘the economy’ concentrates research agendas on the specific political...

  13. On the Political Sociology of the Imperial Greek City

    Arjan Zuiderhoek


    Full Text Available Elements of oligarchy, democracy, and hierarchy coexisted in the polis of Roman times, and the survival of the democratic element may reflect the prospering of small businessmen with their own political interests.

  14. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 413


    country, Taoism has had over 1,700 years of history, Islamism has had over 1,300 years of history while Catholicism and Christianity have developed...beliefs. The major religions that are practiced in the areas inhabited by minority nationalities are Buddhism, Islamism , Christianity, Catholicism...Shamanism, the East Pakistan religion, Taoism and the Orthodox Eastern Church. Among them, Buddhism has enjoyed nearly 2,000 years of history in our

  15. Economics, Politics and Education. Sociology of the School.

    Dawkins, David

    This monograph, one in a series on theory and educational issues in Australia, explores links between education and political and economic structures. Two sections provide an analysis of an education-work program and five readings. The Transition Education Program is described as a government response to the 1979 economic crisis. The policy and…

  16. China Report: Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 470.


    legislation if it was passed by the Senate. At a press conference today, when he was asked why had he changed his mind, he said it was "of great...force in the political sphere. Therefore, with the election year approaching the legislation concerning Martin Luther King has become a sensitive...the fifth round today they will be armed with a brief from the prime minister. Senior sources at Westminister say Mrs Thatcher is now looking to Hong

  17. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs


    CNS here, the reader will not know, I am sure, what it means, although it is simple. The reader has seen it as often as, say, the slogan. " Smoke ...It can be done. If, let us suppose, our distinguished ruler was not only just but also abstinent , then the menu would list only authentic juices and...not to mention the unemployed, seasonal workers and other groups which have become altogether marginalized as far as politics go. [Question] Why

  18. Public political thought: bridging the sociological-philosophical divide in the study of legitimacy.

    Abulof, Uriel


    The study of political legitimacy is divided between prescriptive and descriptive approaches. Political philosophy regards legitimacy as principled justification, sociology regards legitimacy as public support. However, all people can, and occasionally do engage in morally reasoning their political life. This paper thus submits that in studying socio-political legitimation - the legitimacy-making process - the philosophical ought and the sociological is can be bridged. I call this construct 'public political thought' (PPT), signifying the public's principled moral reasoning of politics, which need not be democratic or liberal. The paper lays PPT's foundations and identifies its 'builders' and 'building blocks'. I propose that the edifice of PPT is built by moral agents constructing and construing socio-moral order (nomization). PPT's building blocks are justificatory common beliefs (doxa) and the deliberative language of legitimation. I illustrate the merits of this groundwork through two empirical puzzles: the end of apartheid and the emergence of Québécois identity. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  19. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs


    organs of state administration who enters the type of workplace, e.g., crafts, farming or horticulture , church or convent, trade or restaurant... therapeutic function of history is frequently emphasized. From our past triumphs we draw consolation and hope. On the other hand, it has been...warning, to draw proper conclusions from unfortunate experiences of the past. Such a " therapeutic function" of history can play a double role—to bring

  20. Sociology at Washington University in St. Louis: History and Reflections, 1906-1989.

    Pittman, David J.; Boden, Deirdre


    Traces the history of sociology at Washington University (Missouri) from 1906 to 1989 in relation to the decision to abolish the department. Maintains that this decision began in 1968. Defines the contours of the sociology department, including a discussion of prominent scholars, contending that the decision will harm the discipline in the long…

  1. The Hidden Battle that Shaped the History of Sociology

    Thomassen, Bjørn


    This article engages the so far neglected intellectual dispute between Emile Durkheim and Arnold van Gennep. It revisits the most salient points of van Gennep’s critique of Durkheim’s sociology, especially as relates to the study of religion. In this context, the article also discusses the possible...... influence of van Gennep’s work on Marcel Mauss. The article ends by indicating why a revisitation of van Gennep’s critique of Durkheim might matter for contemporary sociology....

  2. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 2175.


    might be derived from the analysis of a single country or a single society. This must be kept in mind in reading this essay which seeks to explore...Jahre" [Scien- tific-technical Revolution in the GDR. Essays on the History of the Develop- ment and Problems of the SED’s Concept of Society Since...his poems, which he presents at exhibits with or without official permission. And he has written lyrics for the rock band whose performance in Halle

  3. Sociological social workers: a history of the present?

    Shaw, Ian Frank


    I argue that there is a submerged cluster of people who, at one or other stage of their careers, took positions in relation to social problems, social work practice, modes of understanding, and research practice that reflected and anticipated ? knowingly or not ? something we might call a Chicago......-enriched sociological social work. They are Harriett Bartlett, Stuart Queen, Ada Sheffield, Erle Fisk Young and Pauline Young. Several of the themes that emerge from a review of their work are today, as then, as much sociology as social work. In closing, I consider three questions. How can we generally explain...

  4. Thinking politics sociologically - The Daily Life of the Professional Politician between Innovation and Determinism

    Massimo Cerulo


    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of my essay is to present some reflections on the possibility of thinking politics sociologically, from the point of view of a sociologist of everyday-life. During more than one year of ethnographic research on the field, I followed sixteen politicians in Calabria (south of Italy, eleven men and five women, using theshadowing technique and interviews. I will, here, attempt to resume some results of my enquiry, focusing in particular on the relation between innovation and determinism, as it comes out from the everyday actions of the political agents. Referring to the socialtheory of Pierre Bourdieu and to his analysis of the political field, I will underline how this latter influences practically the political agents. The internal dynamics in the political field seem to firmly bind the politicians and by consequence these latter appearto be forced to lay down experience and innovation. Their behaviour and their actions are determined by the political field’s logic and they seem compelled to act and take the world for granted.It appears therefore that there is no space for imagination in the professional politician’s everyday-life. The political field seems to spread an inescapable determinism.

  5. Towards a Figurational History of Leicester Sociology, 1954–1982

    Kaspersen, Lars Bo; Mulvad, Andreas Møller


    This article applies Norbert Elias’s ‘processual-relational approach’ to an empirical case: the influential Leicester Department of Sociology between 1954 and 1982. Based on 42 qualitative interviews and extensive archival materials, we identify two phases: the early phase of cohesion is characte......-authoritarian civilisational trend, which increasingly put strains on the established power nexus: the autocratic leadership model embodied by the department’s inspirational leader, Ilya Neustadt....

  6. Water, Politics and Development: Framing a Political Sociology of Water Resources Management

    Mollinga, P.P.; Bhat, A.; Cleaver, F.; Meinzen-Dick, R.; Molle, F.; Neef, A.; Subramanian, S.; Wester, P.


    EDITORIAL PREAMBLE: The first issue of Water Alternatives presents a set of papers that investigates the inherently political nature of water resources management. A Water, Politics and Development initiative was started at ZEF (Center for Development Research, Bonn, Germany) in 2004/2005 in the

  7. Philosophy, history and sociology of science: interdisciplinary relations and complex social identities.

    Riesch, Hauke


    Sociology and philosophy of science have an uneasy relationship, while the marriage of history and philosophy of science has--on the surface at least--been more successful I will take a sociological look at the history of the relationships between philosophy and history as well as philosophy and sociology of science. Interdisciplinary relations between these disciplines will be analysed through social identity complexity theory in oider to draw out some conclusions on how the disciplines interact and how they might develop. I will use the relationships between the disciplines as a pointer for a more general social theory of interdisciplinarity which will then be used to sound a caution on how interdisciplinary relations between the three disciplines might be managed.

  8. History and sociology – the First Century. From Ranke to Weber

    Tyrell, Hartmann


    The contribution deals with the complicated history of the sciences of history and sociology (predominantly in Germany). It shows, firstly, how Ranke formulated one of his essential world-historical insights as definitely closing off from contemporary discourses of the social and the »social movement«. Almost one hundred years later Max Weber integrated this insight of Ranke in his early days into his sociology. Secondly, Tyrell highlights the importance of Dilthey’s »studies of society and h...

  9. Seventh Grade Social Studies. A Program in Sociology and American History.

    Clancy, Patricia; And Others

    GRADES OR AGES: Seventh grade. SUBJECT MATTER: Sociology and American history. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide covers five units: "Biological Basis of Human Behavior,""How We Become Human,""The Family and Other Socializing Institutions,""Man's Behavior in Groups and Crowds," and "Minority Group Problems." The presentation of the…

  10. National IQs: A Review of Their Educational, Cognitive, Economic, Political, Demographic, Sociological, Epidemiological, Geographic and Climatic Correlates

    Lynn, Richard; Vanhanen, Tatu


    This paper summarizes the results of 244 correlates of national IQs that have been published from 2002 through 2012 and include educational attainment, cognitive output, educational input, per capita income, economic growth, other economic variables, crime, political institutions, health, fertility, sociological variables, and geographic and…

  11. Theoretical bases of formation of political consciousness of the citizens of Ukraine - as the actual direction of the development of the mainstreaming political sociology

    K. U. Kublik


    Full Text Available Analyzing the political life through political ideology and political culture should pay attention to political consciousness, which presents set of theoretical positions, views, opinions, attitudes, values orientation, etc. that are implemented in the process of implementing functions of political power. Because postulates political ideology are implemented using some mechanism, election campaigns and public opinion, their analysis is undoubtedly one of the major directions of political sociology. At the present stage of creation of the state of Ukraine, formation of the Institute of civil society is important to the study of the mechanism of formation of political consciousness of the nation. On the state of political consciousness influenced by processes not only within the country but also in the international arena. The growing interdependence of countries and peoples, General threat to the existence of humans and the General difficulties on the path of human progress lead to the «globalization» of all the forms of public consciousness, including political. A shift from confrontation to mutual understanding and cooperation means considerable changes in the political consciousness and politics subjects of international cooperation. These are not only the state but also directly peoples, peace­loving democratic mass movements, people of good will on all continents. Consolidation of their efforts is able to resist all forms of hegemony and dictates, any policy which is conducted from a position of strength.


    Olivier Christin


    Full Text Available A few years ago, together with Franz Schultheis, of the University of Saint-Gallen and coordinator of the social sciences network ESSE, we chose to study the international circulation of the categories and concepts that are in use in European social sciences. With the publication of the Dictionnaire des concepts  nomades (“Dictionary of nomadic concepts”, that includes only a small number of quite lengthy entries, what we tried to propose were not ready-made solutions, or vademecums for the comparative academic, but a series of questions, or rather the means to ask crucial questions for anyone who practises history, political science, history of economic ideas, or comparative sociology. We did so with two considerations in mind: one political, and the other academic, both of which I will evoke in turn in this paper.

  13. The emergence of sociology from political economy in the United States: 1890 to 1940.

    Young, Cristobal


    Professional sociology in the U.S. began as a field area within economics, but gradually emerged as a separate discipline. Using new data on joint meetings and the separation of departments, I track interdisciplinary relations through three phases: sponsorship (1890-1905), collaboration (1905-1940), and disengagement (post-1940). In the early years, sociology was mostly a branch of economics departments. With the formation of the American Sociological Society, relations with economics began to be more characterized by professionally autonomous collaboration. The 1920s saw a large wave of sociology departments separating from economics. Still, joint annual meetings (including joint presidential addresses) remained the norm until 1940. Paradigmatic conflict between institutional and neoclassical economists was the major force that sustained the economics-sociology collaboration. As institutionalism faded from the scene in the late 1930s, so went interdisciplinary contact.

  14. Energy - politics - history. National and international energy politics since 1945

    Hohensee, J.; Salewski, M.


    All articles focus on historical aspects of the development of energy politics in the Federal Republic of Germany (energy enconomy and industry, hard coal, nuclear energy). Some articles also look at international developments (oil boycott, Saudia Arabias's oil policies, International Energy Agency). (UA) [de

  15. Left or right? Teachers, political options and history didactics.

    Caroline Pacievitch


    Full Text Available In this text we discuss the political options of history teachers and its consequences to teaching. We ask if there are relations between political options and didactical choices of the history teacher. The data were obtained from the project “Youth and History in MERCOSUR”, that uses a questionnaire which was responded by a sample of 288 history teacher of Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile and Paraguay. A descriptive and inferential statics treatment was given to the answers, with special attention to political options of the teachers, and crossing general information with stances about didactical aspects.  Norberto Bobbio’s notion about left and right was used. It was noted that the teachers, regardless of political opinion, defend the history teaching importance and care about their own political participation. There are subtle differences about the  teaching objectives evaluation and about professional difficulties among teachers, that also interpret sensitive historical themes coherently to their political stances. These findings invite to think more about the role of those professors who performs history teachers training, as to reinforce the importance of connecting politics and didactics in the making of teaching responsibility.

  16. From political economy to sociology: Francis Galton and the social-scientific origins of eugenics.

    Renwick, Chris


    Having coined the word 'eugenics' and inspired leading biologists and statisticians of the early twentieth century, Francis Galton is often studied for his contributions to modern statistical biology. However, whilst documenting this part of his work, historians have frequently neglected crucial aspects of what motivated Galton to establish his eugenics research programme. Arguing that his work was shaped more by social than by biological science, this paper addresses these oversights by tracing the development of Galton's programme, from its roots in a debate about political economy to his appeals for it to be taken up by sociologists. In so doing, the paper not only returns Galton's ideas to their original context but also provides a reason to reflect on the place of the social sciences in history-of-science scholarship.

  17. The limits of historical sociology: Temporal borders and the reproduction of the ‘modern’ political present

    Lundborg, Tom


    This article develops a poststructuralist critique of the historical sociology of International Relations project. While the historical sociology of International Relations project claims to offer a more nuanced understanding of the state and the international, this article argues that it lacks critical reflection on the notion of a common ground on which ‘history’ and ‘sociology’ can successfully be combined. In order to problematize this ‘ground’, the article turns to Jacques Derrida’s critique of attempts to solve the history–structure dichotomy by finding a perfect combination of historicist and structuralist modes of explanation. Exploring the implications of Derrida’s critique, the article considers how the combination of ‘history’ and ‘sociology’ can be linked to a sovereign politics of time, which reaffirms rather than challenges the limits of the ‘modern’ political present and its relationship to the past, as well as the future. In response, it is suggested that a more radical critique is needed, one that seeks to disrupt the ‘modern’ political present and the contingent ground on which it rests. PMID:29708104

  18. The Political History of European Integration

    Schulz-Forberg, Hagen; Stråth, Bo

    This book adopts a historical perspective to explore the tensions between the idea of a European democracy through a European market, and the observations that there are signs of increasing social disintegration, political extremism and populism in the wake of economic integration. It was shortli......This book adopts a historical perspective to explore the tensions between the idea of a European democracy through a European market, and the observations that there are signs of increasing social disintegration, political extremism and populism in the wake of economic integration...

  19. Political Repression in U.S. History

    van Minnen, C.A.


    The authors of the essays in this book amass considerable historical evidence illustrating various forms of political repression and its relationship with democracy in the United States, from the late-eighteenth century to the present. They discuss efforts, made mostly but not only by government

  20. Cinema as the Interdisciplinary Conjuncture of Political Thought and History

    S. M. Alavipoor


    Full Text Available From the dawn of its history, cinema has been considered as a phenomenon in which different thoughts, among them the political, could be addressed. Indeed, many film-makers have presented various aspects of political norms and the good order of society through movies. However, this combination of the idea and image has been addressed in different ways and among others, as seems, the historical narrative has the potentiality to convey critical and normal political ideas in cinema. Exploring different types of representing the political thought in cinematic historical narratives, the present study attempts to identify cinema’s interdisciplinary potential as a conjuncture for the disciplines of history and political thought.

  1. The history of sociology as a field of research and some recent trends in Brazilian social thought.

    Maia, João Marcelo Ehlert


    The article lays the foundation for a dialog between scholars of Brazilian social thought and historians of sociology as a discipline. In order to achieve this objective, I analyze recent developments in the field of the history of sociology, highlighting the incorporation of historiographic methods and the emergence of a transnational approach, which points toward a global history of the discipline. I criticize the Eurocentric limits of this field and argue that recent research trends in the area of Brazilian social thought can help overcome this limitation. Finally, I briefly analyze the obstacles that impede this dialog and indicate possible strategies for overcoming them.

  2. Max Weber’s style. On his involvement in politics and on the scientific way of writing sociology

    Álvaro Morcillo Laiz


    Full Text Available During the last two and a half years of his life, Max Weber wrote letters that could be used to write a sociology of the Central European intelligentsia during the wars. Rather than discussing Weber’s encounters with the most renowned writers —Thomas Mann, Hugo von Hofmannsthal— and musicians —that of Richard Strauss, among several composers and conductors— of his time, this article discusses three more conventionally Weberian topics, which are nonetheless insufficiently understood: first Weber’s involvement, that and of some of his students, like Georgy Lukaçs, in politics at the end of World War I. Second, Weber’s writing style, which has been fre-quently decried, but that actually represents his attempt to overcome a challenge that had become important for his own project as a university professor. This is the third topic of the article: how Weber intended to found academic sociology as a disci-pline that should combine empirical facts, the historical past, and institutions, on theone hand, with the use of models, or ideal-types, as propounded by the Austrian School, on the other hand. To Weber’s short spell at the University of Vienna in 1918 corresponds an intellectual achievement as mediator between economy and sociology that has rested too long in oblivion.

  3. Roots of political corruption in ancient history

    Deretić Nataša Lj.


    Full Text Available Corruption has always been regarded as a special form of enrichment, based on prohibited and unethical grounds. Hence 'political corruption' could be defined as the immorality of the powerful; as the use of political power for the purpose of getting rich without any legal basis. Immorality of the powerful is the root of all the abuses that occur in the society. Those who are at the top of the pyramid of power have been particularly prominent in acquiring as large a fortune as possible. The phenomenon of 'political corruption' has been known in all societies, from the oldest to modern ones. In the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia, there was an established custom of reciprocity between deliberate gifts and requested services. This phenomenon could be observed with Pericles, who is, among other things, attributed the idea of compensation for participation in state affairs. The phenomenon of 'political corruption' is referred to in Cicero's Rome, where bribery as a form of wealth acquisition without legal basis was formally condemned, but also widespread. Even today we can see that there are powerful persons who persist in the violation or circumvention of rules which guide any structured society: their wealth originates from the enormous acquisition of material things, but also the acquisition of various privileges which they are not entitled to, such as titles, promotions, etc. They are the ones who have brought about the demise of the Latin sentence that the basis of any developed society is: 'To live an honest life, hurt no one, and grant everyone their due.'.

  4. Whose History and Who Is Denied? Politics and the History Curriculum in Lebanon and Australia

    Maadad, Nina; Rodwell, Grant


    This paper seeks to explain and develop a better understanding of the relationship between the History curriculum and the consequences of political motive. It compares the History curricula of Australia and Lebanon, and is relevant to understanding the purpose of the History curricula in the two countries as well as, more generally, other…

  5. Translations on Eastern Europe, Political, Sociological, and Military Affairs, Number 1567.


    confirmation of the Porter Snob abrid/ajanie en-’? oppression-—cor ".equeneer" of the political and militar-/- relatio^a eet~b- liehed in favor of the...bold defiance to fascism. In this regard, the RCP also addressed appeals many times to the most diverse parties and political groupings and obtained

  6. Piketty, economics and sociology: The analytical and political agenda on inequality

    Marko Grdešić


    Full Text Available This article considers the work of Thomas Piketty on inequality, with special emphasis on the reception of his ideas in the social sciences. First, a quantitative analysis of the works that cite Piketty’s most important publications examines the reception of Piketty in academic debates. Next, the critiques of Piketty from economics and sociology, two often opposed disciplines that have devoted the most attention to discussing Piketty, are considered. This article supplements existing critiques with additional suggestions that are relevant to both the scientific analysis of inequality and the process of imaging various reforms that could cope with the problem of inequality.

  7. Racism, empire and sociology

    Smith, Andrew


    Reviews of Gurminder K Bhambra, Connected Sociologies; Peo Hansen and Stefan Jonsson, Eurafrica: The Untold History of European Integration and Colonialism; Wulf D. Hund, Alana Lentin (eds) Racism and Sociology

  8. Piketty's challenge for sociology.

    Savage, Mike


    This paper argues that Piketty's book should not simply be seen as that of an economist, but that it contains significant resources for sociologists to draw upon. These are firstly, this approach to social science and his use of visualizations which chime closely with recent claims about the power of description. Secondly I consider his conceptualization of time and history - which in rebutting epochal arguments about the speed of contemporary change allows for a much better appreciation of the 'long durée'; and finally his conceptualization of social classes and privilege through his elaboration of a sociology of accumulation and inheritance. In all these ways, Piketty's work assists in developing an account of elites and wealth which should be highly productive for future sociology. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  9. A History of Experiences and Thinking Men. The History of Political Thought according to Michael Oakeshott

    Spartaco Pupo


    Full Text Available Michael Oakeshott conceives the history of European political thought as a structuring of ideas and arguments of the practical experience aimed to understanding political expressions in vogue in the culture of a people. It is not a continuous and cumulative history of abstract and disembodied ideas, as it is wrongly conceived, but of some men who thought politics in a certain way on the basis of the language and of the set of actions, moral beliefs and contingencies of the people which they belong to. The article highlights the comparison between Oakeshott, Quentin Skinner and Gianfranco Miglio on the search for the most appropriate method to be applied in the study of the history of political thought.

  10. The Sociology and Entrenchment. A Cystic Fibrosis Test for Everyone?

    Koch, Lene; Stemerding, Dirk


    Socialmedicine, genetic screening, cystic fibrosis, ethics, political regulation, sociology of technology......Socialmedicine, genetic screening, cystic fibrosis, ethics, political regulation, sociology of technology...

  11. Translations on Eastern Europe Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, Number 1608


    Schools Discussed (Laszlo Bodo; PEDAGOGIA SZEMLE, Sep 78) POLAND OHP Civil Defense, Political Training Increasing (Arkadiusz Myszkowski; ZOLNIERZ...OF PATRIOTIC-MILITARY EDUCATION AT SECONDARY SCHOOLS DISCUSSED Budapest PEDAGOGIA SZEMLE in Hungarian No 9, Sep 78 pp 799-807 [Article by Laszlo

  12. Translations on Eastern Europe, Political, Sociological, and Military Affairs. Number 1309


    Similarly, the shortcomings in the planning field, as, for instance, in the restricted use of the balancing method, in the failure to extend the...petit-bourgeois customs as egoism , political indifference and the pursuit of money. Whether or not we solve this task within the socialist brigade

  13. Transcending a Patriarchal Past: Teaching the History of Women in Sociology.

    Deegan, Mary Jo


    Contends that the ideas of early female sociologists are rarely documented in textbooks, classrooms, or historical accounts of the profession. Provides a guide to reference works, autobiographies, and biographies about 10 early female founders of American sociology. (Author/BSR)

  14. Syringe sociology.

    Vitellone, Nicole


    In this article I consider the impact of social epistemologies for understanding the object of the syringe. My aim is to examine the process through which the syringe transforms from an injecting device to a tool of social and political inquiry. Paying particular attention to the uses of Foucault, Becker, Bourdieu, Freud and Latour in empirical studies of injecting heroin use, I examine the sociology of the syringe through the lens of habit and habitus, discourse and deviance, mourning and melancholia, attachment and agencement. In pursuing the theory behind the object my goal is to address a sociological object in the making. In so doing I show how the syringe has been significant for social research, social theory, and sociology. It is the difference the object makes that this article seeks to describe. In tracing the epistemology of the syringe I show how the object is important not just for knowledge of addiction but sociology itself. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  15. Translations on Eastern Europe Political, Sociological, and Military Affairs, Number 1333


    socialist house more and more beauti- fully and comfortably. This embodies the most deeply liberal and humanist content of the class assign- ment of...or economico - military potential of any given nation. This being so, the right of a nation to its character, territorial integrity, political...decade as a result of the technico-scientific revolution, and of the social and national liberation processes, has introduced in the national life

  16. Translations on Eastern Europe Political, Sociological, and Military Affairs No. 1359.


    of the development of productive forces, science and technology and cannot ensure the right to work, an increase in the standard of living and the...winning of international peace and security. In this struggle the chief tool, in addition to political enlight - enment activity, is the organization...development of the trade exchange and to find and utilize new forms of cooperation in the economy, science, technology and culture. Mr Prime Minister

  17. Translations on Eastern Europe. Political, Sociological, and Military Affairs, Number 1461


    traditional and other social determinants. This at once amounts to a strict rejection of such theories as, for instance, advocated by Kelsen , in his "Pure...1975, pp 334 ff. 5. As to the pure law doctrine, H. Kelsen would like it understood as "a pure law theory, that is to say, cleansed of all political...ideology and all natural science elements" (cf. H. Kelsen , "Reine Rechtslehre," Vienna, 1960, preface). For a criticism of Kelsen’s legal positivism

  18. Translations on Eastern Europe, Political, Sociological, and Military Affairs, Number 1321


    greatness rather than belittles that individual by investing him with a personal power of initiative unique in world history. Proudhon , for his part...interpretation of the struc- tural revolution Steffen obviously falls prey to the error of the so-called objective historians, which also entrapped Proudhon . V.l

  19. The mechanism of influence of interest groups in the European Union: political and sociological analysis

    P. S. Kanevsky


    Full Text Available Interaction between interest groups and political institutions is one of the cornerstones of the European Union policy making process. Although majority of Russian and foreign works dedicated to lobbying and decision making in the EU, concentrate on a governmental stadial system and normative procedures that regulate interest groups access to policy making centers. Such institutional approach doesn’t clarify why the EU has concrete policies, why not all interest groups are able to win, who sets the agenda and in whose interests decisions are made. Current article, using contemporary theories and research, analyzes process of interaction between interest groups and governmental structures in the EU. It also proposes explanations of wins and losses in the policy making process, trying to answer how interest groups interacts with each other and what patterns can be identified in the process of interest aggregation by governmental structures.


    Yu. M. Bolshakova


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the phenomenon of lobbying as a form of communication of public authorities, business and socio-political actors. The article based on the evaluation results of a poll presents a generalized picture of the functioning of lobbyists on the political landscape, disclosed the specifics of the use of GR-tech lobbyists at national and supranational level in the European Union. Analyzed data from a sociological study of the impact of information on the effectiveness of management decision-making by lobbyists in Eastern Europe and the Baltic States, evaluate the effectiveness of various political aktor-lobbyists. The system of power in the EU multi-level, lobbying is carried out with a strong competition between different interest groups. By the way, the Russian business poorly informed about the possibilities and mechanisms to defend their interests at EU level and does not use this tool. Institutes of the EU authorities, is the center of the work of lobbyists are the European Council, the Council of Ministers, the European Parliament and the European Commission. With regard to professional lobbying transparency of the process, about one in four out of five respondents said that business, trade associations and professional organizations are transparent in their approach to the process of political and administrative lobbying, while only one in five said this factor in relation to companies. Respondents clearly express support for democratization and openness of the political process, which is transparent to the various representatives and interest groups, and the lobbyists are expected to be open about their interests represented. It is not clear defined interests or lack of transparency called the most negative aspect of lobbying. Thus, many experts noted that the successful lobbying can change the state of the social environment and the socio-political relations. When both unsuccessful lobbying ends

  1. Translations on Eastern Europe, Political, Sociological, and Military Affairs, Number 1375


    citizens may obtain a temporary residence in cities where the ordinance for the temporary restricting of new residents is in effect, and who permits...this? [Answer] Temporary residence according to the Ordinance Governing the Tem- porary Restriction of New Residents in Cities as approved by In the entire history of international relations, for millenia marked by egoism and coercion, there have never been such fraternal relations

  2. On the history of political diversity in social psychology.

    Binning, Kevin R; Sears, David O


    We argue that the history of political diversity in social psychology may be better characterized by stability than by a large shift toward liberalism. The branch of social psychology that focuses on political issues has defined social problems from a liberal perspective since at least the 1930s. Although a lack of ideological diversity within the discipline can pose many of the problems noted by Duarte et al., we suggest that these problems (a) are less apparent when the insights of social psychology are pitted against the insights from other social science disciplines, and (b) are less pressing than the need for other types of diversity in the field, especially ethnic and racial diversity.

  3. Regional Sociological Research Experience

    Mikhail Vladimirovich Morev


    Full Text Available The article presents the experience of the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of RAS in conducting sociological research on the territory of the Vologda Oblast and the Northwestern Federal District. It describes the historical aspects of formation of the system for public opinion monitoring and examines its theoretical and methodological foundations. The author of the article analyzes the structure of monitoring indicators and provides a brief interpretation of research findings that reflect social wellbeing and social perception trends. In addition, the paper analyzes people’s attitude toward the activities of federal and regional authorities, trends in social well-being, consumer sentiment and also the complex indicator – the index of public sentiment in the region – developed by ISEDT RAS researchers. The results of sociological studies carried out at ISEDT RAS correlate with the dynamics of the all-Russian public opinion polls conducted by the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VCIOM, Levada-Center, etc. They indicate that Russian society gradually adapts to new conditions of life after the collapse of the USSR. Besides, opinion polls show the most important features of the post-Soviet Russian history at its present stage; they are associated with the intensification of international political relations, the consequences of the “Crimean spring” and the new challenges Russia’s economy is facing now. The article concludes that as global community, of which Russian society is part, is evolving, sociological knowledge begins to play an increasingly important role in administration and national security; this is associated with the greater importance attached to intangible development factors. Therefore, a necessary prerequisite for administration effectiveness in all its stages is to implement the results of sociological research on social

  4. Local Environmental Grassroots Activism: Contributions from Environmental Psychology, Sociology and Politics

    Mihaylov, Nikolay L.; Perkins, Douglas D.


    Local environmental grassroots activism is robust and globally ubiquitous despite the ebbs and flows of the general environmental movement. In this review we synthesize social movement, environmental politics, and environmental psychology literatures to answer the following questions: How does the environment emerge as a topic for community action and how a particular environmental discourse (preservation, conservation, public health, Deep Ecology, justice, localism and other responses to modernization and development) becomes dominant? How does a community coalesce around the environmental issue and its particular framing? What is the relationship between local and supralocal (regional, national, global) activism? We contrast “Not in My Back Yard” (NIMBY) activism and environmental liberation and discuss the significance of local knowledge and scale, nature as an issue for activism, place attachment and its disruption, and place-based power inequalities. Environmental psychology contributions to established scholarship on environmental activism are proposed: the components of place attachment are conceptualized in novel ways and a continuous dweller and activist place attachment is elaborated. PMID:25806672

  5. Local environmental grassroots activism: contributions from environmental psychology, sociology and politics.

    Mihaylov, Nikolay L; Perkins, Douglas D


    Local environmental grassroots activism is robust and globally ubiquitous despite the ebbs and flows of the general environmental movement. In this review we synthesize social movement, environmental politics, and environmental psychology literatures to answer the following questions: How does the environment emerge as a topic for community action and how a particular environmental discourse (preservation, conservation, public health, Deep Ecology, justice, localism and other responses to modernization and development) becomes dominant? How does a community coalesce around the environmental issue and its particular framing? What is the relationship between local and supralocal (regional, national, global) activism? We contrast "Not in My Back Yard" (NIMBY) activism and environmental liberation and discuss the significance of local knowledge and scale, nature as an issue for activism, place attachment and its disruption, and place-based power inequalities. Environmental psychology contributions to established scholarship on environmental activism are proposed: the components of place attachment are conceptualized in novel ways and a continuous dweller and activist place attachment is elaborated.

  6. Just truth? Carefully applying history, philosophy and sociology of science to the forensic use of CCTV images.

    Edmond, Gary


    Using as a case study the forensic comparison of images for purposes of identification, this essay considers how the history, philosophy and sociology of science might help courts to improve their responses to scientific and technical forms of expert opinion evidence in ways that are more consistent with legal system goals and values. It places an emphasis on the need for more sophisticated models of science and expertise that are capable of helping judges to identify sufficiently reliable types of expert evidence and to reflexively incorporate the weakness of trial safeguards and personnel into their admissibility decision making. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Rereading "The Jack-Roller:" Hidden Histories in Sociology and Social Work

    Shaw, Ian


    I revisit one of the iconic Chicago School studies, Clifford Shaw's "The Jack-Roller". A naive reading of Shaw's book leaves the reader with a sense of having been inducted into a melange of what we now know as "sociology" and "social work," but which to Shaw seems a coherent stance. I suggest that this is close to the heart of how things were,…

  8. Translatio studii: The contribution of exiles to the establishment of Sociology and Art History in Britain, 1933-1960

    Burke, Peter


    Full Text Available This story is a small part of a larger one, the Great Diaspora of central and east European intellectuals in the 1930s, to Britain, USA, France, Latin America etc. Exile may be regarded as a school, a form of adult education, not only for the exiles themselves but also for some of the natives who came to know them. Focussing still more sharply, let us consider the intellectual consequences of the diaspora on an insular culture, with special reference to two relatively new and small disciplines. Both sociology and art history were more highly developed in central Europe in the 1930s than they were in Britain, allowing a few remarkable immigrants to make a contribution quite disproportionate to their numbers. How does one establish a new discipline? In short, what is offered here is a kind of social history or historical sociology of both art history and sociology itself, suggesting that the contribution of the exiles should be regarded not a simple import or transfer of knowledge but rather as a cultural encounter leading to changes on both sides, to a kind of cultural hybridization.Este ensayo es una pequeña parte de una historia más amplia, la gran diáspora de intelectuales del Centro y Este de Europa en los años treinta, hacia Gran Bretaña, EEUU, Francia, América latina, etc. El exilio puede ser observado como una escuela, una forma de educación de adultos, no sólo para los propios exiliados sino también para algunos de los nativos que llegaron a conocerlos. De forma más precisa, consideramos las consecuencias intelectuales de la diáspora en una cultura insular, con mención especial a dos disciplinas relativamente nuevas y pequeñas. La sociología y la historia del arte estaban en los años treinta mucho más desarrolladas en Europa central de lo que lo estaban en las islas Británicas, permitiendo a algunos destacados inmigrantes realizar una desproporcionada contribución si tenemos en cuenta su número. ¿Cómo se establece una

  9. Teaching Women's History.

    Fain, George


    Argues that women's history should stress the broad sociological view of women's roles not only in politics but in mundane, day-to-day life throughout all of history, rather that reducing women's history to a few token figures. Notes that many college and secondary texts and testing materials have recognized the trend toward the inclusion of…

  10. A political history of the Indian Health Service.

    Bergman, A B; Grossman, D C; Erdrich, A M; Todd, J G; Forquera, R


    One of the few bright spots to emerge from the history of relations between American Indians and the federal government is the remarkable record of the Indian Health Service (IHS). The IHS has raised the health status of Indians to approximate that of most other Americans, a striking achievement in the light of the poverty and stark living conditions experienced by this population. The gains occurred in spite of chronically low funding and can be attributed to the combination of vision, stubbornness, and political savvy of the agency's physician directors and the support of a handful of tribal leaders and powerful allies in the Congress and the White House. Despite the agency's imperfections and the sizeable health problems that still exist among American Indians and Alaskan Natives, the IHS is an example of one federal program that has worked.

  11. Review: Mohamed Saliou Camara, Political History of Guinea since World War Two (2014)

    Carole Ammann; University of Basel


    Review of the monograph:Mohamed Saliou Camara, Political History of Guinea since World War Two, New York: Peter Lang, 2014, ISBN 9781433122439, 531 pp. Besprechung der Monographie:Mohamed Saliou Camara, Political History of Guinea since World War Two, New York: Peter Lang, 2014, ISBN 9781433122439, 531 Seiten

  12. The Politics of "P" and "F": A Linguistic History of Nation-Building in the Philippines

    Tupas, Ruanni


    This paper maps out the linguistic history of nation-building in the Philippines through the politics of "p" and "f" in the country. This politics concerns the various strategic acts of naming the national language at different periods of the country's history that have shaped its fate as the most hegemonic indigenous…

  13. Sociological Perspectives.

    Townley, Charles; Middleton, Mike

    This monograph examines sociological perspectives and their applications. It is intended to help the college student coming to sociology for the first time to recognize that there are several perspectives within sociology and to disentangle the mass of terms associated with each. The first distinctive sociological perspective came from the work of…

  14. Identities of the political theory: among science, normativity and history

    Ricardo Silva


    Full Text Available This article aims to present a brief overview of the evolving debates on the problem of the identity of political theory, mainly in the Anglophone academic context since the end of the 1950’s. At least three ways of identifying the nature of political theory have shaped those de-bates: the scientistic, the normative and the historical.

  15. Public Sociology

    by the media? Does the choice of public sociology mean the relinquishment of scientific integrity and critical conviction? These questions will also be addressed in this book - together with a host of others related to the topic of public sociology.   The chapters included in this book are all manuscripts......What is the role of sociology in society? How can - and should - sociology contribute with insights relevant and useful to the outside world? Is sociology attuned to accommodate the demands of the wider public and of surrounding society? Who benefits from the knowledge produced and provided...... by sociology? What are the social implications and cultural effects of the knowledge sociology provides and creates? All of these questions, and many others, concern and centre on sociology's relationship to the surrounding society, in short to the ‘public'. All of these questions - and many others...

  16. the french nuclear bet: political history of the main decisions

    Taccoen, L.


    The double french nuclear bet was an ultimate political choice of an old nation which did not wanted to renounce its glamour. but the world had changed. Is it always possible to conceive a national energy policy, knowing that the french military nuclear strategy is opposed to the rules of the next International Penal Court? (A.L.B.)

  17. A Political History of the USA: One Nation Under God

    Kuklick, B.


    nhoud: Introduction -- pt. 1. Making a state. The European impact in America, 1494-1676 -- North American colonies, 1632-1732 -- The colonies in the Empire, 1651-1774 -- War and order, 1775-1787 -- pt. 2. Consolidating the power of the state. The culture of politics, 1788-1826 --- From coexistence

  18. History, origins, recovery : Michelangelo and the politics of art

    Keizer, Joost Pieter


    My dissertation considers the origins of High Renaissance art as a response to the volatile political and cultural change that marked the years around 1500 in Florence. It serves to bridge a diaspora that marks High Renaissance studies as a whole since the days of Heinrich Wölfflin, one that

  19. The Sociology of Zygmunt Bauman

    Jacobsen, Michael Hviid; Poder, Poul

    significant as well as some of the lesser known and overlooked contributions of Zygmunt Bauman to contemporary sociology - ethics, freedom, utopia, genocide, metaphors, ambivalence, politics, strangers, globalization, power and consumerism. In separate chapters Bauman inspired scholars from the United Kingdom...

  20. Modernization and gender regimes, life histories of the wives of Turkish political leaders

    Yelsali Parmaksiz, Pinar Melis


    This work is a close look at the life histories of the top Turkish political leaders with the aim of analyzing changes in gender role and gender identity and tensions between the two in the history of Turkish modernization vis-à-vis with contemporaneous debates on gender. The main objective is to

  1. An ethic for a politic of history in a democratic setting

    Warring, Anette Elisabeth


    The article argues that the point of departure for the societal role of historians and of the science of history should be an ethic for a politic of history in a democratic setting designed to increase the individual's autonomous power to take action. The article discusses what this implies...

  2. Sport Sociology: Contemporary Themes.

    Yiannakis, Andrew, Ed.; And Others

    Intended for beginning and intermediate level students of sport and society, this anthology of 43 articles is organized into twelve, self-contained teaching units with unit introductions and study questions. Topics addressed include: (1) the sociological study of sport; (2) sport and American society; (3) the interdependence of sport, politics,…

  3. Sociological investigation Students of Universities' Social-Political Trust in Iran: relying on secondary analysis of some national surveys

    Sayed Mahdi Etemadifard


    Full Text Available Social system based on mutual trust among members continues to exist. Social trust in modem era is more important than earlier periods. Subject of current report is focused on the trust of Iranian students in different aspects. Main question in this investigation is about social-political trust of these students (based on trust in Islamic Republic of Iran at the past and present. This matter explored by secondary analysis of data, Relying on secondary analysis of some national surveys. Based on data and consequences of other researches we are going to illustrate the objective aspects of student's trust in current decades. The main sources for data collection at this stage include: All the public surveys conducted in the past four decades, the general data about students and their related assays. Trust students were evaluated on the following dimensions: trust in trade unions and various groups, trust in the clergy, directors of public trust and confidence in judges. Furthermore, the level of political engagement and participation in elections, satisfaction with economic situation, political situation and level of satisfaction with confidence in radio and television news. Reduction of public trust leads to reduced maximum student trust especially in the social and political dimensions.

  4. Regarding Bioethics: A Sociology of Morality.

    De Vries, Raymond


    C. Wright Mills said that when done well, sociology illuminates the intersection of biography and history. This essay examines how the author's vocational choices and career path were shaped by historical circumstance, leading him to a degree in sociology and to participation in the odd and interesting interdiscipline of bioethics. Drawing on a distinction between sociology in bioethics and sociology of bioethics, the essay considers the value of sociology to the bioethical project.

  5. Alternative Forms of Energy Production and Political Reconfigurations: The Sociology of Alternative Energies as a Study of Collective Reorganization Potential

    Rumpala, Yannick


    Energy choices that are made in a society are also political choices. This article aims to study the extent to which these choices can be reoriented by technological developments related to renewable energies, thus contributing to a redistribution of possibilities and to social reorganization. Three steps are proposed to show that while the development of alternative energies depends on technological advances, it can, in this process, also reveal political potentials: 1) the first step clarifies the theoretical arguments that can be deployed in favour of an approach in terms of 'technological potentialism'; 2) the second step extends this approach by identifying a set of potentials linked to renewable energies and the model that could take shape through these alternative forms; 3) the third step examines how these potentials could find ways of being updated

  6. Windows on Empire: Perspectives from History, Culture and Political Economy (roundtable discussion

    Alex Colas


    Full Text Available At the start of the new century notions of Empire and imperialism had all but disappeared from the lexicon of western humanities. Washington’s ‘war on terror’ and the accompanying invasion ofAfghanistan and Iraq, coupled with the publishing sensation that was Hardt and Negri’s Empire suddenly reversed this neglect. Questions of political hierarchy, military competition and socioeconomicdomination which had apparently disappeared from the world stage with the end of the Cold War have returned with a vengeance. In recent years, the most innovative scholarship and trenchant political interventions in the humanities have arguably emerged from engagements with such questions, offering a fresh range of concepts, analyses and interpretations on the place of Empire and imperialism in our world today. Sanjay Seth is Professor in the department of politics at Goldsmiths, University of London. Leo Panitch is Distinguished Research Professor of Political Science at York University. Saskia Sassen is Professor of Sociology at Columbia University and the London School of Economics. She is also a member of the Committee on Global Thought. Christian Marazzi is Professor and Director of Socio-Economic Research at the Scuola Universitaria della Svizzera Italiana. The roundtable is chaired by Alex Colás, who is Senior Lecturer in International Relations at Birkbeck, University of London.

  7. History of UK contribution to astronautics: Politics and government

    Hicks CB, Colin


    In all developed countries, once it emerged from the amateur era, Space (and especially rocketry) moved on the public agenda because of its potential significance for both the civil and military policies of governments (coupled with its appetite for new money). In the UK the policy treatment of Space broadly paralleled that in other countries until the post-Empire trauma, the burn-out of the White-Hot Technological revolution of Harold Wilson, and the financial crises of the 1970s exhausted the public appetite for large scale publicly funded projects in high technology. The culmination for Space of these pressures came in 1986-1987 when the UK rejected the emerging international consensus and, almost alone, stayed outside the manned space commitments which developed into the International Space Station. In this paper, Colin Hicks will review the UK political developments which led up to the 1986-1987 decision and how the politics and organisation of UK space activity have developed since then to the point where in 2008 a major government review of the UK involvement in manned space was commissioned.

  8. From pesticides to genetically modified plants : history, economics and politics

    Zadoks, J.C.; Waibel, H.


    Two technologies of crop protection are compared, crop protection by pesticides and by Genetically Modified Plants (GMPs). The history of pesticides provides lessons relevant to the future of GMPs; (1) high pesticide usage is counter-productive, (2) the technology requires intensive regulation and

  9. The idea of philosophical sociology.

    Chernilo, Daniel


    This article introduces the idea of philosophical sociology as an enquiry into the relationships between implicit notions of human nature and explicit conceptualizations of social life within sociology. Philosophical sociology is also an invitation to reflect on the role of the normative in social life by looking at it sociologically and philosophically at the same: normative self-reflection is a fundamental aspect of sociology's scientific tasks because key sociological questions are, in the last instance, also philosophical ones. For the normative to emerge, we need to move away from the reductionism of hedonistic, essentialist or cynical conceptions of human nature and be able to grasp the conceptions of the good life, justice, democracy or freedom whose normative contents depend on more or less articulated conceptions of our shared humanity. The idea of philosophical sociology is then sustained on three main pillars and I use them to structure this article: (1) a revalorization of the relationships between sociology and philosophy; (2) a universalistic principle of humanity that works as a major regulative idea of sociological research, and; (3) an argument on the social (immanent) and pre-social (transcendental) sources of the normative in social life. As invitations to embrace posthuman cyborgs, non-human actants and material cultures proliferate, philosophical sociology offers the reminder that we still have to understand more fully who are the human beings that populate the social world. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  10. A Political and Social History of HIV in South Africa.

    Simelela, Nono; Venter, W D Francois; Pillay, Yogan; Barron, Peter


    For the past 25 years, South Africa has had to deal with the inexorable and monumental rise of HIV. From one or two isolated cases, in the late 1980s, South Africa now has an estimated 6.4 million people infected with HIV, with high rates of concomitant tuberculosis, which will profoundly affect the country for decades to come. For nearly 10 years, the South African government's response to the HIV epidemic was described as denialist, which was estimated to have resulted in the deaths of 330,000 people because lifesaving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was not provided (Chigwedere et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 49:410-15, 2008; Heywood 2004). However, the story of the HIV and AIDS response in South Africa over the past 5 years is one of great progress after almost a decade of complex and tragic denialism that united civil society in a way not seen since the opposition to apartheid. Today, South Africa can boast of close to 3 million people on ART, by far the largest number in the world. Prevention efforts appear to be yielding results but there continues to be large numbers of new infections, with a profound peak in incidence in young women aged 15 to 24 years. In addition, infections occur across the gender spectrum in older age groups. As a result of the massive increase in access to ART after 2004 and particularly after 2008 as political will towards the HIV ART programme improved, there has been a marked increase in life expectancy, from 56 to 61 years in the period 2009-2012 alone; the aggressive expansion of the prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) to HIV-positive pregnant women has been accompanied by dramatic decrease in HIV transmission to infants; and a 25 % decrease in child and infant mortality rates in the period 2009-2012. This progress in access is significantly due to a civil society movement that was prepared to pose a rights-based challenge to a governing party in denial and to brave health officials, politicians and clinicians

  11. Indiana Studies: Hoosier History, Government, and People. Unit III: From Sectional Division to Political Unity.

    Barger, Harry D.; And Others

    Unit 3 of a six-unit series on Indiana state history designed to be taught in Indiana secondary schools tells the story of Indiana from 1829 to 1908. Chapter 1 discusses national issues in an Indiana context. The effects of social movements such as Abolition, the underground railroad, and the Fugitive Slave Law on Indiana politics are examined.…

  12. Native Americans in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    Denson, Andrew


    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  13. Academic Politics and the History of Criminal Justice Education. Contributions in Criminology and Penology, No. 46.

    Morn, Frank

    This book reviews the history of academic criminal justice--the studying and teaching of crime, police, law and legal processes, and corrections--from 1870 to the present. The nine chapters have the following titles: (1) "Introduction: Academic Politics and Professionalism, 1870-1930"; (2) "Progressivism and Police Education,…

  14. Visual objects and universal meanings: AIDS posters and the politics of globalisation and history.

    Stein, Claudia; Cooter, Roger


    Drawing on recent visual and spatial turns in history writing, this paper considers AIDS posters from the perspective of their museum 'afterlife' as collected material objects. Museum spaces serve changing political and epistemological projects, and the visual objects they house are not immune from them. A recent globally themed exhibition of AIDS posters at an arts and crafts museum in Hamburg is cited in illustration. The exhibition also serves to draw attention to institutional continuities in collecting agendas. Revealed, contrary to postmodernist expectations, is how today's application of aesthetic display for the purpose of making 'global connections' does not radically break with the virtues and morals attached to the visual at the end of the nineteenth century. The historicisation of such objects needs to take into account this complicated mix of change and continuity in aesthetic concepts and political inscriptions. Otherwise, historians fall prey to seductive aesthetics without being aware of the politics of them. This article submits that aesthetics is politics.

  15. "The Private Is Becoming Political"—Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Autobiographical Writing in the Horizon of the Culture of Remembering and Contemporary History

    Carsten Heinze


    Full Text Available This essay focuses on autobiographical life-writing as a part of commemorative culture, i.e. in East and West Germany. It looks at the literary genre from a sociological point of view. Whereas in literature studies autobiography is seen as a blurred genre, it can be asserted that it functions in public discourse. Hence, autobiographies are an important medium in political and contemporary historical context and are seen to be effective within that context. This essay assumes that published autobiographies are an intentional form of social communication, within the context of and affected by the public culture of remembering. The autobiographies themselves influence these cultures of remembering from the subjective point of view. In this regard, life-writing is not an individual or autonomous act of narrating one's life but rather a social communicative act of writing and narrating life stories in public contexts. Therefore life-writing is a public form of self and contemporary history representation and is politically charged. In other words, "the private becomes political" by addressing it to the public. URN:

  16. The Politics of Rewriting History: New History Textbooks and Curriculum Materials in Russia

    Zajda, Joseph; Zajda, Rea


    The collapse of communism in Russia in 1991 necessitated, among other things, the rewriting of school history textbooks, which had been dominated by Marxist-Leninist interpretations of historical events. The aim of this article is to evaluate the new postcommunist history taught in upper secondary schools, giving particular attention to how the models for Russian identity presented in the new textbooks redefine legitimate culture for students. Attention will also be given to the multiple perspectives on history that textbooks and other curriculum materials emphasize; these new methods contrast with the grand narrative that dominated the study of history before 1991.

  17. School History as a Method of Formation of Political Consciousness in Contemporary France

    Nikolay V. Litvak


    Full Text Available The article discusses the attitude of the ruling elite in modern France to the school teaching of history, as the primary method of formation of political consciousness and outlook of the new generations. To achieve these purposes the complex of scientific and political methods is created. The programs are constantly changing, reflecting the general political struggle in French society, whose protagonists seek the arguments in support of their positions in history. In this context, the school programs are periodically in focus of urgent debates, and each their change is a compromise. The political approach is to form a state point of view of history, recorded in the programs required to study in schools. Those programs include a carefully selected set of topics, facts and personalities to be studied. In addition, the internal political struggle is coming not just about the form but the content too. In particular, for a number of years in the program a separate theme "Islam"is included, but not, for example, the theme "Christianity." However, supporters of the preservation of study of the Christian contribution to the history and the culture of France retain extensive relevant material included in a number of various subjects not directly devoted to Christianity. Informational approach to education is that the resources of the psyche and student's instructional time are very limited. The freedom of school teachers to refer to historical sources and even to interpret them within the broad framework is formally proclaimed. However, a program and a limited time to study it in conjunction with the responsibility of teachers for the results of their work, checked in exams, in fact does not leave them enough time to study an other point of view that goes beyond the official program.

  18. Another sociology

    Carleheden, Mikael


    contributing dianostics of the social pathologies of the modern state. Such an approach can find inspiration in classical sociology, but it is also important to realize that, today, we are living in another modernity. A liberation from social technology must thus include a liberation from objectivistic methods....

  19. Beyond identity politics: the making of an oral history of Hong Kong women who love women.

    Wong, Day


    Oral history has long been an important resource for lesbian and other underprivileged groups in advancing identity politics. While there is an increased awareness of social construction of identity and the impact of race and class on the experiences of sexual identities, oral historians have yet to rethink their task in view of poststructuralists' and queer theorists' critique of identity. This paper examines the "Oral History Project of Hong Kong Women Who Love Women" as an attempt to construct histories that respect difference and minimize normalization. It discusses the project's significance in terms of its subversion of the heterosexual/homosexual binary and its queering of the notions of identity, community and coming out. The critique unfolded is one of anti-assimilation and anti-minoritization. doi:10.1300/J155v10n03_03.

  20. Forming the Academic Profession in East Asia: A Comparative Analysis. East Asia: History, Politics, Sociology, Culture. A Routledge Series.

    Kim, Terri

    This book is a comparative examination of the formation of the academic profession in Korea and Malaya, and later, South Korea, Malaysia, and Singapore, from colonial times. The analysis takes into account the connections and disconnections between the colonial and postcolonial periods in shaping the academic profession. The chapters are: (1)…

  1. History of Slaves in Qatar: Social Reality and Contemporary Political Vision

    Mariam Ibrahim Al-Mulla


    Full Text Available Museums today play vital roles in the Arabian Peninsula in general and Qatar in particular. These functions vary between the social, economic and political. Recently, Qatar museums’ practices have focused on a political role. To highlight this role, I will take the recently opened slavery museum Bin Jelmood House (BJH as a case study in this article. This paper aims to discuss and analyse the use of BJH in a comprehensive ‘soft power’ strategy to deflect international criticism of Qatar following the decision to award the 2022 World Cup to the country. Analysing BJH’s narrative was problematic, as the museum chooses to display a particular history which has been politicized to fit directly into Qatar’s international politics. The central questions this paper focuses on are as follows: Why was this specific social history chosen? What purpose does BJH serve? Why is Qatar trying to portray itself as liberating and open? To find the answers, I first interviewed the museum’s researchers, who talked about the process of collecting that specific narrative of the museum and the audience’s reaction. Second, analysing the museum’s narrative shows that museum practice today creates a different starting point than it used to, such as new ideas, strategies and policies. That conveyance the museum’s desire to become more open and liberal compared to previous practices.

  2. Visual Objects and Universal Meanings: AIDS Posters and the Politics of Globalisation and History



    Drawing on recent visual and spatial turns in history writing, this paper considers AIDS posters from the perspective of their museum ‘afterlife’ as collected material objects. Museum spaces serve changing political and epistemological projects, and the visual objects they house are not immune from them. A recent globally themed exhibition of AIDS posters at an arts and crafts museum in Hamburg is cited in illustration. The exhibition also serves to draw attention to institutional continuities in collecting agendas. Revealed, contrary to postmodernist expectations, is how today’s application of aesthetic display for the purpose of making ‘global connections’ does not radically break with the virtues and morals attached to the visual at the end of the nineteenth century. The historicisation of such objects needs to take into account this complicated mix of change and continuity in aesthetic concepts and political inscriptions. Otherwise, historians fall prey to seductive aesthetics without being aware of the politics of them. This article submits that aesthetics is politics. PMID:23752866

  3. Y. Laberge on Raphael-Hernadez and Steen’s AfroAsian encounters: Culture, History, Politics.


    Full Text Available Heike Raphael-Hernadez and Shannon Steen,  Eds. AfroAsian encounters: Culture, History, Politics. New York: New York University Press, 2006.  xxiii + 342 p. An overlooked, interdisciplinary, often innovative book, Afroasian encounters: Culture, History, Politics offers a collection of seventeen new essays related to the African-Asian intersections, cosmopolitanism and cross-cultural theories. In terms of emerging disciplines, we already had Atlantic studies (or "Trans-Atlantic studies", an i...

  4. Acid rain science and politics in Japan: a history of knowledge and action toward sustainability

    Ken Wilkening


    This is a pioneering work in environmental and Asian history as well as an in-depth analysis of the influence of science on domestic and international environmental politics. The book is composed of the following chapters. Chapter 2 introduces the general set of concepts used to analyze the science-politics nexus. These concepts are employed in the remainder of the book to track and explain the relationship between science and policy related to the acid deposition problem in Japan. Chapter 3 discusses nature, culture, and the acid deposition problem in Japan. It begins with a brief introduction to the acid deposition problem in general. It continues with an overview of elements of Japan's natural environment and culture that are relevant to its acid deposition problems. This is followed by a quick sketch of the history of science in Japan, which in turn serves as a preamble for describing in the final section the environmental and acid deposition chronologies used to organize analysis of Japan's acid deposition history. The swath of history between 1868 and the present (circa 2000) is divided into five environmental eras and six acid deposition periods. Chapters 4-9 discuss in detail each of the six acid deposition periods. Chapter 10 synthesizes and summarizes what was learned in the process of analyzing Japan's acid deposition history, and draws lessons that might be applied to the challenge of creating sustainable societies in Japan, Asia, and the rest of the world. An appendix describes the present state of acid deposition science in Japan.

  5. Writers into Intellectuals, Culture into Politics: Grappling with History in the NRF, 1920-1940

    Martyn CORNICK


    Full Text Available It is now commonplace to view the end of the Great War in 1918 as representing the beginnings of a new world order. The human losses, the vanished empires, the Bolshevik revolution and its lasting consequences, the collapse of the intellectual certainties of the pre-war order, all ensured the irruption of History and Politics into cultural spaces within the European public sphere. The politicisation of cultural spaces was inevitable, given that purveyors of culture—writers and intellectuals—w...

  6. Goffman Meets Bauman at the Shopping Mall - en diakron konfrontation om selv, samfund og sociologi

    Jacobsen, Michael Hviid


      This article offers a diachronic confrontation between the sociological perspectives of Erving Goffman and Zygmunt Bauman respectively. Due to their different locations in the history of sociology as well as their diametrically opposed locations regarding substantial discussions within sociolog...

  7. Zamyšlení nad soudobou českou sociologií

    Musil, Jiri


    The following comments compare the present orientations of Czech sociology with recent developments in European sociology. The analysis of sociology in Europe shows that the attention of European sociologists has shifted to social theory & social philosophy, sociology of culture, media, gender & feminism, political sociology, nationalism, ethnicity, & racism. Czech sociology, in the opinion of the author, still does not pay sufficient attention to such pressing issues of Czech society as nati...

  8. The history of transdisciplinary race classification: methods, politics and institutions, 1840s-1940s.

    McMahon, Richard


    A recently blossoming historiographical literature recognizes that physical anthropologists allied with scholars of diverse aspects of society and history to racially classify European peoples over a period of about a hundred years. They created three successive race classification coalitions - ethnology, from around 1840; anthropology, from the 1850s; and interwar raciology - each of which successively disintegrated. The present genealogical study argues that representing these coalitions as 'transdisciplinary' can enrich our understanding of challenges to disciplinary specialization. This is especially the case for the less well-studied nineteenth century, when disciplines and challenges to disciplinary specialization were both gradually emerging. Like Marxism or structuralism, race classification was a holistic interpretive framework, which, at its most ambitious, aimed to structure the human sciences as a whole. It resisted the organization of academia and knowledge into disciplines with separate organizational institutions and research practices. However, the 'transdisciplinarity' of this nationalistic project also bridged emerging borderlines between science and politics. I ascribe race classification's simultaneous longevity and instability to its complex and intricately entwined processes of political and interdisciplinary coalition building. Race classification's politically useful conclusions helped secure public support for institutionalizing the coalition's component disciplines. Institutionalization in turn stimulated disciplines to professionalize. They emphasized disciplinary boundaries and insisted on apolitical science, thus ultimately undermining the 'transdisciplinary' project.

  9. Sex after Fascism. Sexualitätsgeschichte als Politikgeschichte? Sex after Fascism—The History of Sexuality as Political History?

    Pascal Eitler


    Full Text Available Dagmar Herzog bietet mit der vorliegenden Untersuchung einen ersten und in diesem Sinne beachtenswerten, körper- und geschlechtergeschichtlich aber grundsätzlich ergänzungsbedürftigen Überblick zur Geschichte der Sexualität in Deutschland im 20. Jahrhundert. Im Zentrum der Studie steht das sich wandelnde Verhältnis zwischen Sexualität und Vergangenheitspolitik in der Bundesrepublik, insbesondere die Politisierung der Sexualität um ‚1968‘. Eher rückblickend geraten die Adenauerära und der Nationalsozialismus in den Blick. Der Titel der amerikanischen Originalausgabe bringt diesen Themenschwerpunkt deutlich zum Ausdruck: Sex after Fascism.Dagmar Herzog’s study offers a first and therefore noteworthy overview of the history of sexuality in twentieth-century Germany from the perspective of the history of the body and gender, a study that, however, is in need of supplementation. The central focus of the study is the changing relationship between sexuality and the politics of confronting the past in the Federal Republic of Germany. The book pays particular attention to the politicization of sexuality around 1968. The Adenauer-Era and National Socialism are, for the most part, attended to merely in retrospective. The title of the American original edition expresses this focus clearly: Sex after Fascism.

  10. Revisiting the Political Economy of Communication

    Nicholas Garnham


    The task of the paper and the seminar was to revisit some of Nicholas Garnham’s ideas, writings and contributions to the study of the Political Economy of Communication and to reflect on the concepts, history, current status and perspectives of this field and the broader study of political economy today. The topics covered include Raymond Williams’ cultural materialism, Pierre Bourdieu’s sociology of culture, the debate between Political Economy and Cultural Studies, information society theory, Karl Marx’s theory and the critique of capitalism.

  11. Toward a sociology of the Brazilian Corporate Sustainability Index?

    Marina de Souza Sartore


    Full Text Available In order to collaborate with the academic debate about the social construction of economic tools, this article captures the social construction of the Corporate Sustainability Index (ISE of Bovespa. From an economic approach, the index is the numeric representation of financial profitability of sustainable enterprises, however, from that of sociology, the ISE is the window to apprehend the symbolic struggles that constitute the Brazilian market of Socially Responsible Investment (SRI. This idea is demonstrated by the recovery of the chronological history of the development of ISE which shows the elements of the arbitrary political process searching for its economic neutrality. This article emphasizes the need to explore sociologically the financial indexes as well as other classification tools of the economic world.

  12. History, Philosophy and Sociology of Science in Science Education: Results from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study

    Wang, Hsingchi A.; Sshmidt, William H.

    Throughout the history of enhancing the public scientific literacy, researchers have postulated that since every citizen is expected to have informal opinions on the relationships among government, education, and issues of scientific research and development, it is imperative that appreciation of the past complexities of science and society and the nature of scientific knowledge be a part of the education of both scientists and non-scientists. HPSS inclusion has been found to be an effective way to reach the goal of enhancing science literacy for all citizens. Although reports stated that HPSS inclusion is not a new educational practice in other part of the world, nevertheless, no large scale study has ever been attempted to report the HPSS educational conditions around the world. This study utilizes the rich data collected by TIMSS to unveil the current conditions of HPSS in the science education of about forty TIMSS countries. Based on the analysis results, recommendations to science educators of the world are provided.

  13. Sport and politics in Croatia - Athletes as National Icons in History Textbooks

    Ivan Hrstić


    Full Text Available Strong relationship between sport and politics in everyday life is evident. Research on this topic has usually been concentrated on the relation between sport and nations. Despite that, research on the process of national identity (reconstruction is still relatively rare. Therefore, as one aspect of that process, we have decided to do a research on the role of representation of sport in history textbooks. History textbooks represent an important tool in the construction and dissemination process of „official“ historical narratives in all states and societies, because the nation-states impose themselves as representatives of general public interest and they seek to retain control over school curriculum in order to validate the current system. When it comes to nation-states, one of the main goals of education is (reconstruction of national identity among the youngest members of society. That was one of our initial theses in our analysis of the representation of sport in Croatian history textbooks for the final grades of primary and secondary schools in the period from 1918 to 2014. Our aim was to define the role of athletes and sport in general – both in the process of (reconstruction of national identity and in the context of the process of modernization.

  14. A sociological dilemma: Race, segregation and US sociology


    US sociology has been historically segregated in that, at least until the 1960s, there were two distinct institutionally organized traditions of sociological thought – one black and one white. For the most part, however, dominant historiographies have been silent on that segregation and, at best, reproduce it when addressing the US sociological tradition. This is evident in the rarity with which scholars such as WEB Du Bois, E Franklin Frazier, Oliver Cromwell Cox, or other ‘African American Pioneers of Sociology’, as Saint-Arnaud calls them, are presented as core sociological voices within histories of the discipline. This article addresses the absence of African American sociologists from the US sociological canon and, further, discusses the implications of this absence for our understanding of core sociological concepts. With regard to the latter, the article focuses in particular on the debates around equality and emancipation and discusses the ways in which our understanding of these concepts could be extended by taking into account the work of African American sociologists and their different interpretations of core themes. PMID:25418995

  15. On sociological catastrophe analysis

    Clausen, L.


    The present paper deals with standard terms of sociological catastrophe theory hitherto existing, collective behaviour during the catastrophe, and consequences for the empiric catastrophe sociology. (RW) [de

  16. [Where are we in general sociology ?].

    Brian, Eric


    Over the last two decades, history and social sciences have experienced a kind of merging, and a vast number of specialized domains have emerged. Yet the durkheim - ian register of "general sociology" seems somehow neglected. Firstly, this article analyzes the reasons for this neglect, and secondly, it indicates how, through a long-term reflexivity, one can formulate a new agenda for general sociology.

  17. La sociología política de Émile Durkheim entre 1892 y 1897: el Estado como apéndice de la morfología social y la futilidad de la acción política The political sociology of Émile Durkheim between 1892 and 1897: the State like appendix of the social morphology and political action

    Graciela Inda


    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como objetivo investigar los aspectos propiamente políticos de la producción durkheimiana correspondiente al período 1892-1897. La concepción del Estado como órgano que traduce una solidaridad social automática, por entero preexistente a las relaciones políticas, la distinción del despotismo como un régimen que implica la absorción completa de los individuos por la máquina política, el problema de la creciente ampliación de la intervención estatal en la esfera privada de los individuos, la cuestión de la incapacidad de la acción política para transformar la morfología de la sociedad, son algunos de los hitos distintivos de la sociología política que habita entrelíneas en dicha producción.This paper has for objective to investigate strictly the political aspects of the durkheiminian production, corresponding to the period 1892-1897. The concept of State like an organ that automatically translates social solidarity, entirely preexisting political relations, the distinction of despotism like a regime that implies the complete absorption of the individuals by the political machine, the problem of the increasing extension of state intervention in the private sphere of individuals, the question of the incapacity for political action to transform societies morphology, are some of the distinguishing landmarks of the political theory that inhabits between the lines in this production.

  18. The Logical Structures of Comparison: Its Forms, Styles, Problems, and the Role of History in Social and Political Research

    Fabio de Nardis


    Full Text Available All political sciences share the same logic and methods as the empirical social sciences and therefore produce perceptive knowledge. Empirical knowledge is based on a specific kind of observation driven by a set of theoretically developed concepts related to clearly observable social phenomena. Not all the concepts, however, are readily amenable to observational terms. We usually need to proceed to their operationalization. The formulation and the operational definition of the empirical concepts does not exhaust the analytic process. It is also necessary to observe how the phenomenon occurs in the reality, proceeding to classification or typological constructions and, sometimes, to the production of multi-dimensional models. Only after this process will the formulation of hypotheses be possible. They will later be verified through the use of methods of empirical control. The most frequently used activity in political sociology is comparison, which is the main method of any social science according to most scholars. Comparison can be carried out both among a certain number of cases or within a single case by comparing it in its historical development. The temporal dimension becomes crucial when one wishes to produce historically rooted generalizations and theories, therefore confined to a spatial and temporal dimension. Before proceeding with the comparison we must make sure that the cases selected are actually comparable and that they possess at least one property in common. The objective of this paper is therefore to describe forms and styles of comparison within the logic of social and political sciences

  19. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell


    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  20. Holocaust Education in the "Black Hole of Europe": Slovakia's Identity Politics and History Textbooks Pre- and Post-1989

    Michaels, Deborah L.


    Holocaust education in Slovakia stands at the confluence of diverse discourses of state and supra-national legitimation. Principles of national self-determination, minority rights, and political ideologies inform and lend credence to how Slovaks' national and state identities are narrated in Slovak history textbooks. For small nation-states with…

  1. Dialogue, Eurocentrism, and Comparative Political Theory: A View from Cross-Cultural Intellectual History.

    Shogimen, Takashi


    Comparative political theory is an emerging sub-field of political theory; it is a response to the dissatisfaction with the prevalent Eurocentric mode of political theorizing in the age of globalization. A methodological characteristic of comparative political theory is cross-cultural engagement through dialogue with foreign political ideas. The present paper argues that the dialogical mode of cross-cultural engagement is distinctively European. While the dialogical engagement with foreign worldviews constitutes a mainstream of the European literary tradition, it is largely absent, for example, from the Japanese counterpart. Despite its anti-Eurocentric motivations, comparative political theory is methodologically rooted in the European tradition.

  2. Energy - politics - history. National and international energy politics since 1945; Energie - Politik - Geschichte. Nationale und internationle Energiepolitik seit 1945

    Hohensee, J. [ed.; Salewski, M. [ed.


    All articles focus on historical aspects of the development of energy politics in the Federal Republic of Germany (energy enconomy and industry, hard coal, nuclear energy). Some articles also look at international developments (oil boycott, Saudia Arabias`s oil policies, International Energy Agency). (UA) [Deutsch] Im Vordergrund der Beitraege stehen historische Aspekte der Entwicklung der Energiepolitik in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Energiewirtschaft, Steinkohle, Kernenergie), einige Arbeiten werfen auch einen Blick auf internationale Entwicklungen (Oelboykott, Erdoelpolitik Saudi-Arabiens, Internationale Energie-Agentur). (UA)

  3. History and structure of the constitution of cooperative enterprise. Political changes of a social relationship

    Devi Sacchetto


    Full Text Available In its long development the Italian cooperative movement went through slow and steady transformations, that have generally sheltered it from radical discontinuities. The different trends and political traditions that have become intertwined with the history of the cooperative movement highlight the flexibility of the cooperative principles which have been adapted on the basis of different situations, without being modified in their abstract outlines. In this paper we argue that the Italian cooperative movement on the one hand seems to have absorbed the principles of market economy through the adoption of organization of productions and functional structures similar to those of many capitalist companies. On the other hand Italian cooperative movement have developed a peculiar form of social action based on the institutionalization of postulates such as the mutual aid and solidarity.In short the cooperative form has historically constituted and continues to be shaped as a peculiar pattern in which undercapitalization requires a wider-ranging fluidity of the working relationships. These have been raised to the ranks of moral values in social action.

  4. John Foran’s sociology of revolution: From historical sociology to the sociological imagination

    D Yu Karasyev


    Full Text Available The article considers J. Foran’s sociology of revolution through the stages of evolution of his theoretical and methodological views and the works representing them. The trajectory of Foran’s sociology of revolution reflects in many respects the development of the contemporary comparative and historical sociology of revolution: from the fundamental historical research of a few classical cases to the quantitative study of an extremely wide range of examples and after that to the prediction of the ‘revolution-like’ events’ in future. According to Foran, there are three ways to consider the future of revolutions: 1 the analysis of the revolutions of the past, 2 the look into the future in terms of the existing theories, 3 the sources of sociological imagination. These three methods correspond to three stages in Foran’s sociology of revolution: after conducting the historical study of the situation and revolutions in Iran, the comparative analysis of 39 revolution events in the Third World countries and then an attempt to imagine patterns of future revolutions on the example of Zapatistas’ revolution in Mexico in 1994 and the struggle for global justice at the beginning of the XXI century. Despite the evolution of the subject and methodology of the theory, the concept ‘political culture of opposition’ remained the central category of Foran’s model. This complex notion describes such social process when under the influence of material and discursive elements the revolutionaries found out some common discourse that prescribed them to participate in collective actions to change their societies. Thus, Foran states that revolutions are the product of both structural conditions and human agency and the latter is due to both political-economic and cultural reasons. The cultural-structural character of Foran’s approach makes it relevant for the study of contemporary revolutionary events.

  5. What Does NCATE Have to Say to Future History Teachers?

    Wineburg, Sam


    According to current NCATE standards, social studies teachers must be well versed in economics, history, sociology, political science, psychology, anthropology, science and technology, and the arts. In short, they must know everything. In this article, the author dismisses these standards as totally unrealistic and argues that prospective social…

  6. Vietnam war literature: reflections of the sustained tension between politics, history, morality and the effect of war on human nature.


    Vietnam War literature is a reflection of a sustained tension between politics and history on the one hand and morality and the effect of the war on human nature on the other hand. Although the authors under discussion urge the reader to forget the political, moral and historical milieu of the Vietnam War, it is impossible to separate the war from those three factors and by extension, the literature that stems from it. I have chosen Philip Caputo’s A Rumor of War (1977) and Robert Mason’s Chi...

  7. Rescuing from oblivion: social characteristics and career destinations of early British 'sociology' graduates, 1907-39.

    Husbands, Christopher T


    Those students who were among the first sociology graduates in the UK barely feature in standard histories of the discipline, which all have an intellectual and institutional focus. This article remedies this neglect by researching the social backgrounds and later careers of sociology graduates from the London School of Economics and Political Science [LSE] and Bedford College for Women from the first such graduate in 1907 until those graduating in the 1930s. Data for this exercise were compiled from a variety of sources. The more important are: UK censuses, especially that of 1911; various civil registration records; archived student files; and, for the graduates who entered university teaching, issues of the Yearbook of the Universities of the Empire [later the Commonwealth Universities' Yearbook]. The dataset includes all identified graduates in the BSc(Econ), Special Subject Sociology, degree from 1907 to 1935 and all in the BA (Honours) in Sociology degree from 1925 to 1939. LSE sociology graduates tended to be older and to have more cosmopolitan backgrounds, with fathers more likely than for Bedford College graduates to come from commercial rather than professional backgrounds. Both institutions' graduates' careers tended to the Civil Service and local government. LSE graduates gravitated to education, especially to higher education if male, whilst those of Bedford College went into welfare work, countering a stereotype from some previous literature that especially women graduates were heavily constrained to follow careers in schoolteaching. The article also gives comparisons with the social-class profile and career destinations of several cohorts of postwar sociology graduates, noting a number of similarities. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  8. Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain: Humboldt and the history of Mexico

    Luiz Estevam O. Fernandes


    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we discuss how Alexander von Humboldt conceived a past to New Spain in his Political Essay on New Spain (1811 and how this text was, in turn, appropriated by the Mexican historiography during the 19th century. In order to do so, we analyze how the Prussian drew from American sources, particularly from the text of the Jesuit Francisco Javier Clavijero, written shortly before. We also study Humboldt’s conceptions of text and of history, highlighting the place of the indigenous in the composition of his reasoning. Finally, we give examples of how the Mexican nationalist historiography read and reinterpreted the Political Essay. Resumen En este artículo se discute cómo Alexander von Humboldt concibió un pasado a la Nueva España en su Ensayo político sobre el reino de la Nueva España (1811 y cómo este texto, a su vez, fue apropiado por la historiografía mexicana durante el siglo XIX. Para ello, se analiza cómo el prusiano se ha valido de fuentes americanas, sobre todo a partir del texto del jesuita Francisco Javier Clavijero, escrito poco antes. También estudiamos las concepciones de texto y de la historia de Humboldt, destacando el lugar de los indígenas en la composición de su razonamiento. Por último, damos ejemplos de cómo la historiografía nacionalista mexicana leyó y reinterpretó el Ensayo político. Résumé Cet article explique comment Alexander von Humboldt a conçu une passé pour la Nouvelle-Espagne dans son Essai politique sur le royaume de la Nouvelle-Espagne (1811 et la façon que ce texte, à son tour, a été approprié par l’historiographie mexicaine au cours du XIXe siècle. Ainsi, nous analysons comment le prussien a utilisé des sources américaines, en particulier le texte du jésuite Francisco Javier Clavijero, écrit un peu de temps avant. Nous étudions également les conceptions de texte et de l’histoire de Humboldt, en soulignant la place des indigènes dans la composition de son

  9. Science, society, and flagship species: social and political history as keys to conservation outcomes in the Gulf of California

    Andrés M. Cisneros-Montemayor


    Full Text Available Socio-political issues are important in environmental policy outcomes but are often overlooked in conservation planning. We analyze the effects of historical social, political, and ecological contexts on conservation policy outcomes as applied to the Upper Gulf of California and Colorado River Delta Biosphere Reserve. A rushed implementation, perhaps necessary for the protection of endangered totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi and vaquita (Phocoena sinus, occurred with little community consultation, resulting in enduring disgruntlement among stakeholders that undermined its effectiveness. Overfishing and habitat degradation continue both inside and outside the reserve, and totoaba and vaquita remain Critically Endangered, with the latter's population estimated at approximately 90 individuals. Marine reserves can be useful, but when top-down enforcement is unfeasible, effective environmental policy requires full recognition and integration of political history and social structures and needs, and open discussion on trade-offs when win-win situations are not possible.

  10. Introduktion til klassisk sociologi

    Dupont, Søren

    Papiret introducerer til en række klassiske sociologer: Comte, Spencer, Weber, Durkheim og Habermas......Papiret introducerer til en række klassiske sociologer: Comte, Spencer, Weber, Durkheim og Habermas...

  11. Early Mongols – the Ethno-Political History to the 13th Century

    Nenad Vidaković


    Full Text Available The paper examines the etnogenesis of the Mongol tribes from the period of the Rouran and Shiwei tribal alliances to the unification in the early 13th century under Genghis Khan’s leadership. The initial period of the ethnogenesis of medieval Mongols’ ancestors is associated with Rouran and Shiwei tribal alliances while news about them are written in Chinese dynastic chronicles. Within the Shiwei association there was the Mengwu tribe that inhabited forest expanses of north-western Manchuria, and the Argun river basin is considered to be the original homeland of the Mongols. The directions and time of migration processes which played an important role in the transformation of part of Mongol tribes from forest hunters to steppe nomads have been further investigated. The ethnic history of the Mongol tribes is closely associated with the Turkic and Tungus-Manchurian tribes. The Turkic tribes, that inhabited the steppes of Mongolia today, had a crucial importance in the development of Mongol nomadic tribes, while the Tungus-Manchu and northern Mongol tribes shared forest expanses of Manchuria and Trans-Baikal. The following text describes the events in the Turkic khaganates and kingdoms in the north of China, which influenced the historical development of the Mongol tribes. The period of the Qidan Liao dynasty (10th ‒ 12th century is of great importance because the core of the Mongol nomadic tribes was formed at that time in the northeastern Mongolia, that were gradually spreading over the steps to the west. During the Jurchen Jin dynasty (12th ‒ 13th century the importance of the Mongol tribes in the steppe increased. The attempts of political unification of the Mongols appeared during that period – for the first time in the mid-12th century, during the reign of Khabul Khan. The final part of the paper describes the struggle of Temujin (Temüjin, the future Genghis Khan, for the unification of the Mongol-Turkic tribes. After victory over

  12. The Structure of Sociology in the Educational Activities of Unesco

    Card, B. Y.


    An exploration of the structure of sociology in Unesco's educational activities during 1970-1971 reveals that Unesco has dual political and cultural bureaucratic structures that are complementary for contributions in sociology. Journal is available from Mouton & Co., 5 Herder Street, The Hague, Netherlands. (ND)

  13. Reflexive criteria of sociological research

    R T Ubaydullaeva


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the sociological criteria of explaining the way of thinking and actions of subjects, their spiritual and moral positions and intellectual forces that form the laws of social life. The author seeks to adapt such categories as ‘meaning of life’, ‘human dignity’, ‘rationality’ etc. for the purposes of sociological analysis by methodological construction of some real life dichotomies such as ‘subjective meaning and social function’, ‘the real and the ideal’, ‘the demanded and the excluded’. Thus, the author studies economic, political and technical processes in terms of both positivity and negativity of social interaction and states that given the increasing differentiation of the society and the contradictory trends of social development the reflexive criteria that take into account the socio-cultural nature of the man help to find one’s own model of development.

  14. Sociology as a Vocation.

    Lechner, Frank J.


    Examines the meaning of practicing sociology, claiming to "commit a social science" still makes sense. Accepts Max Weber's arguments that sociology clarifies human affairs and is oriented to certain virtues. Suggests, however, that sociology is a passion as well as a profession, something Weber recognized but did not elaborate. (NL)

  15. Language Politics in the Republic of Kazakhstan: History, Problems and Prospect

    Zhumanova, Aiman Z.; Dosova, Bibigul A.; Imanbetov, Amanbek N.; Zhumashev, Rymbek M.


    The research aims at global analysis of language politics in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Using comparative historical method and method of actualization, the authors examine achievements and shortcomings of the language politics of the Soviet state in order to understand the modern language situation in the Republic. The results show that one of…

  16. Reconstruction of Ethiopia's Collective Memory by Rewriting its History : The Politics of Islam

    Nega Angore, T.


    The dynamics of constructing collective memory in relation to the politics of Muslim identity form the subject matter of this research. It explores how the state and the Muslim activists agitate and reinforce a meta-political narrative among Ethiopian Muslim communities to harness collective memory.

  17. Wedding Pedagogy and Politics: Oral Histories of Black Women Teachers and the Struggle against Apartheid.

    Wieder, Alan


    Presents the stories of three black, female, activist teachers who combined teaching and politics to help fight South Africa's apartheid regime. They promoted alternative curricula and worked against apartheid oppression. Each believed in the struggle and, although they believed in nonracialism, they identified as black, a political construction…

  18. Has Political Science Ignored Religion?

    Kettell, Steven


    A common complaint from political scientists involved in the study of religion is that religious issues have been largely overlooked by political science. Through a content analysis of leading political science and sociology journals from 2000 to 2010, this article considers the extent of this claim. The results show that political science…

  19. Sociological analysis and comparative education

    Woock, Roger R.


    It is argued that comparative education is essentially a derivative field of study, in that it borrows theories and methods from academic disciplines. After a brief humanistic phase, in which history and philosophy were central for comparative education, sociology became an important source. In the mid-50's and 60's, sociology in the United States was characterised by Structural Functionalism as a theory, and Social Survey as a dominant methodology. Both were incorporated into the development of comparative education. Increasingly in the 70's, and certainly today, the new developments in sociology are characterised by an attack on Positivism, which is seen as the philosophical position underlying both functionalism and survey methods. New or re-discovered theories with their attendant methodologies included Marxism, Phenomenological Sociology, Critical Theory, and Historical Social Science. The current relationship between comparative education and social science is one of uncertainty, but since social science is seen to be returning to its European roots, the hope is held out for the development of an integrated social theory and method which will provide a much stronger basis for developments in comparative education.

  20. Sociology of Education: Outlines towards a Diagnosis and Thoughts on Some Major Challenges

    Baeck, Unn-Doris Karlsen


    Sociology of education in Norway has traditionally been preoccupied with the classic problems related to education and the reproduction of social inequality. As the general social scientific and political focus on inequality decreased, the sociology of education also became less visible. At the same time, the sociology of youth evolved, and…

  1. Perfiles Latinoamericanos: Regional sociology, connected sociologies

    Nelson Arteaga Botello


    Full Text Available The landscape of sociology published in the 48 numbers of the Perfiles Latinoamericanos magazineis analyzed. The diversity of topics, perspectives, and methodologies of the articles define aseries of fields of reflection around civil society, collective action, subjectivities and social identities,cities, media, violence, and theory. The essay suggests how the sociology that is producedin Latin America is not isolated but connected with international debates. It converges forms ofdoing theory and research with resonances on a global scale.

  2. Sociology and positivism in 19th-century France: the vicissitudes of the Société de sociologie (1872-4).

    Heilbron, Johan


    Little is known about the world's first sociological society, Emile Littré's Société de Sociologie (1872-4). This article, based on prosopographic research, offers an interpretation of the foundation, political-intellectual orientation and early demise of the society. As indicated by recruitment and texts by its founding members, the Société de Sociologie was in fact conceived more as a political club than a learned society. Guided in this by Littré's heterodox positivism and the redefinition of sociology he proposed around 1870, the Société de Sociologie was intended first and foremost to accompany intellectually the political changes that Littré considered imperative in the early years of the Third Republic (1870-1940). This expectation found little echo among the members of the society, and it seems possible that Littré himself and his closest associates were the ones to interrupt the society's meetings. Some of its members' general studies on the status of the social sciences and their main divisions were continued in the framework of the journal "La Philosophie positive" (1867-83), but the authors most committed to those studies were on the margins of the Littré network. Neither the dominant positivist republicanism, centered around Littré and Dubost, nor the general sociology of the more peripheral members of the network (Mesmer, Roberty, Vitry) represented an important intellectual contribution to the formation of academic sociology in France. Given that the Société de Sociologie did contribute to diffuse the project of a sociological science and developed forms of sociology coherent enough to be rejected by the pioneers of university sociology, the group constitutes a significant case of failure in the history of the discipline.

  3. Sociology of bodies/emotions

    Adrián Scribano


    Full Text Available This paper aims at pointing out that the division between a sociology of the bodies and the emotions is, to say the least, unnecessary. The basic idea that runs through this argument is very simple but needs to be justified: it is not possible to search and reflect on bodies/emotions separately, as if it were any chance of one not referring to the other and viceversa. The strategy of the exposition we have selected is as follows: 1 we outline in an introductory manner the existing approaches in the social studies on bodies and emotions, 2 we point out three kinds of reasons/motives to argue the inadequacy of the categorical/aporetic division of a sociology of the bodies and one of the emotions, 3 we put forward our perspective regarding a sociology of bodies/emotions, and 4 we analize the problem of hunger as an example of our viewpoint. Finally, we invite to reflect on the exposed as a means to open a possible discussion in methodological, theoretical, epistemological and political terms.

  4. Sociological theory and Jungian psychology.

    Walker, Gavin


    [[disenchantmentCarl JungpsychoanalysissociologyMax Weber ] In this article I seek to relate the psychology of Carl Jung to sociological theory, specifically Weber. I first present an outline of Jungian psychology. I then seek to relate this as psychology to Weber’s interpretivism. I point to basic methodological compatibilities within a Kantian frame, from which emerge central concerns with the factors limiting rationality. These generate the conceptual frameworks for parallel enquiries into the development and fate of rationality in cultural history. Religion is a major theme here: contrasts of eastern and western religion; the rise of prophetic religion and the disenchantment of modernity. Weber’s categories ‘ascetic’ and ‘mystic’ seem applicable to his own and Jung’s approaches and indeed temperaments, while a shared ironic view of rationality leads to similar visions of the disenchanted modern world. I conclude that Jung is sociologically coherent, but in an entirely different sense from Freud: rather than a constellation of family, socialization, ideology, social continuity, there is an analysis of cultural history against a background of adult normal psychology. I conclude that sociology should acknowledge Jung, but not in terms of over-arching theory. Rather Jungian insights might be used to orient new enquiries, and for reflexive analysis of sociology’s methodological debates.

  5. [The history of Chagas' disease in Argentina: conceptual, institutional, and political evolution].

    Zabala, Juan Pablo


    In the one hundred years since the identification of Chagas disease, major changes have occurred in its scientific conception, institutional recognition, and political weight. From a medical perspective, it was seen as the cause of goiter, next its acute effects were emphasized, and then its effects on cardiac health received greater attention. In similar fashion, sanitary policy first downplayed the disease's importance, then elevated it to the role of a national cause, and gradually relegated it to the bottom of the agenda. The article briefly presents the key points of this historical trajectory in Argentina, exploring the cognitive, political, and institutional underpinnings of the disease as both a social and biological fact.

  6. The sociology of innovation in modern astronomy

    Edge, D.


    This paper describes some of the main features of the development of astronomy since 1945, stressing sociological factors, and drawing examples mainly from the history of radio astronomy. Particular attention is given to aspects which appear to distinguish astronomy from other recently-studied sciences - notably, the prevalence of serendipitous discoveries, and the lack of any general resistance from the 'parent' discipline. The work of Kuhn and Hagstrom is used to illuminate these features, and also to indicate how a sociological analysis can be advanced of individual research decisions, and of the nature of disputes within science. Common misconceptions about the nature and scope of sociology are briefly discussed; in particular, it is emphasized that the kind of sociology of science under discussion cannot be normative. (author)

  7. Brazilian environmental sociology: a provisional review

    Ferreira Leila da Costa


    Full Text Available The article aims firstly at the reconstitution and analysis of history within the scope of international environmental sociology situated in the context of contemporary sociology. It also discusses - from the standpoint of literature (Buttel, Dunlap, Hanning, among others - its theoretical-methodological and institutional aspects as well in order to understand the obstacles encountered to legitimate and consolidate a set of problems which, until recently, were not dealt with by social sciences. Secondly, it analyses the Brazilian case. Environmental sociology in Brazil is strongly influenced by American empirical sociology, the precursor of the institutionalization process for the themes. On the other hand, further analysis of this case is relevant to understand the relationship between the scientific sphere, and the creation of environmental policies and social movements.

  8. iPod therefore I am: Using PC Videos to Aid the Teaching of the History of Political Philosophy

    Woodcock, Pete; Duckworth, Glenn


    This article outlines our experiences at the University of Huddersfield of\\ud (a) producing and using mini-lectures on the history of political philosophy\\ud that were available to students as MP4 and progressive download PC video\\ud files (and MP3 audio files), and (b) the student feedback on these files\\ud which will help future development. This article largely avoids pedagogical\\ud issues regarding the use of technology in teaching and focuses more on\\ud student feedback and use of these ...

  9. Political significance of the CTBT (History, status, relationship with the Pelindaba Treaty, etc.)

    Onanga-Anyanga, P.


    This presentation deals with historical overview, negotiations on CTBT and its adoption, status and verification system of the Treaty, political significance of CTBT and its significance for States signatories in Africa. Separate chapters are devoted to the African region, CTBT Pelindaba Treaty and cooperative prospects and relevance of the CTBT for Africa

  10. A History of Black and Brown: Chicana/o-African American Cultural and Political Relations

    Alvarez, Luis; Widener, Daniel


    Rather than assume that ethnicity or race necessarily marks the edges of one's culture or politics, the contributors to this dossier highlight the messy, blurry, and often contradictory relationships that arise when Chicana/os and African Americans engage one another. The essays explore the complicated mix of cooperation and conflict that…

  11. Patriotism, Multiculturalism and Belonging: Political Discourse and the Teaching of History

    Osler, Audrey


    This paper examines the British Labour government's developing political discourse on patriotism, citizenship and multiculturalism since 1997, particularly following the 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States and the 2005 London bombings. It focuses on the speeches of key government figures, notably Prime Ministers Tony Blair and Gordon…

  12. Political Imprisonment and Adult Functioning: A Life Event History Analysis of Palestinians.

    McNeely, Clea; Barber, Brian K; Spellings, Carolyn; Belli, Robert; Giacaman, Rita; Arafat, Cairo; Daher, Mahmoud; El Sarraj, Eyad; Mallouh, Mohammed Abu


    Political imprisonment is a traumatic event, often accompanied by torture and deprivation. This study explores the association of political imprisonment between 1987 and 2011 with political, economic, community, psychological, physical, and family functioning in a population-based sample of Palestinian men ages 32-43 years (N = 884) derived from a dataset collected in 2011. Twenty-six percent (n = 233) had been politically imprisoned. Men imprisoned between 1987 and 2005 reported functioning as well as never-imprisoned men in most domains, suggesting that men imprisoned as youth have moved forward with their lives in ways similar to their nonimprisoned counterparts. In an exception to this pattern, men imprisoned during the Oslo Accords period (1994-1999) reported higher levels of trauma-related stress (B = 0.24, p = .027) compared to never-imprisoned men. Men imprisoned since 2006 reported lower functioning in multiple domains: human insecurity (B = 0.33, p = .023), freedom of public expression (B = -0.48, p = .017), perceived government stability (B = -0.38, p = .009), feeling broken or destroyed (B = 0.59, p = .001), physical limitations (B = 0.55, p = .002), and community belonging (B = -0.33, p = .048). Findings pointed to the value of examining the effects of imprisonment on functioning in multiple domains. © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  13. Kichwa or Quichua? Competing Alphabets, Political Histories, and Complicated Reading in Indigenous Languages

    Limerick, Nicholas


    Over the past century, missionary educators, nation-state and academic planners, and literacy development workers have used alphabets for political ends for traditionally marginalized languages, and Native peoples have contested such planning with other alphabet proposals. Yet literacy work now often overlooks that there are multiple alphabets…

  14. Howard's End: A Narrative Memoir of Political Contrivance, Neoconservative Ideology and the Australian History Curriculum

    Taylor, Tony


    In August 2006, Australia's conservative prime minister John Howard convened a history summit in Canberra. The purported goal of the summit was the framing of a nationally-acceptable curriculum in Australian history. However, as this article suggests, Howard's hidden intention was to use the summit as a device for introducing a narrowly…

  15. History from the ground up: bugs, political economy, and God in Kirby and Spence's Introduction to Entomology (1815-1856).

    Clark, J F M


    William Kirby and William Spence's Introduction to Entomology is generally recognized as one of the founding texts of entomological science in English. This essay examines the ideological allegiances of the coauthors of the Introduction. In particular, it analyzes the ideological implications of their divergent opinions on animal instinct. Different vocational pursuits shaped each man's natural history. Spence, a political economist, pursued fact-based science that was shorn of references to religion. Kirby, a Tory High Churchman, placed revelation at the very heart of his natural history. His strong commitment to partisan sectarianism cautions against reference to a homogeneous "natural theology" that was an agent of mediation. Fissures in the "common intellectual context" reached beyond the clash between natural theologians and radical anatomists to render the intellectual edifice of natural theology structurally less sound for the future.

  16. Sultanov T.I. Historiography of the Ethnic and Political History of the Jochid and Chaghataid Uluses

    T.I. Sultanov


    Full Text Available Objective: The article is dedicated to basic stages of ethnic and political development of two heirs of the Mongol Empire – uluses of Jochi (Golden Horde and Chaghatai (in Central Asia and their own successors in the 13th–18th cc. Research materials: The sources mainly used in this study are historical works of contemporary Islamic authors: Jamal Qarshi, Rashid al-Din, Wassaf (turn of the 13th–14th cc., al-Omari and Hamdallah Qazwini (14th c., Mirza Muhammad Haydar, Seyfi Çelebi, Amin b. Ahmad Razi (16th c., Abu-l-Ghazi, Mahmud b. Wali, Hajji Khalifa (17th c. and others. Also opinions of leading Soviet and post-Soviet as well as foreign specialists on ethnical and political history of Central Asia (V. Barthold, A. Samoilovich, S. Ibragimov, A. Mokeev, B. Karmysheva, Sh. Ando, B.F. Manz, etc. have been taken into consideration in this study. Results and novelty of the research: The “reference point” of this article is epoch of Mongol invasions and establishment of the Mongol Empire. During this time earlier political and ethnical realities were crushed. Disintegration of the Empire and creation of independent Chinggisid states initiated new turn of ethno- and politogenesis continued until the fall of these states at the beginning of the 16th c. Thus, ethnical and political development of the Central Eurasia was a long-term process, and firstly the terms, which are used as ethnonyms today, reflected political and social but not a national characteristics of their holders. Only after disintegration of Chinggisid uluses of imperial type and appearance of new states (Kazakh khanate, Shibanid states on the territory of Chaghataid ulus, Moghulistan and Moghulia-Kashgaria in the Eastern Turkestan we could talk about formation of ethnical formations, which became a basis for the modern peoples of the Central Asia. Author pays attention to hypothetical nature of many conclusions of specialist in the ethnical history of Eurasia although they

  17. Fictional and real-world revolutionary heroes in the history of psychiatric politics.

    Zimmermann, Martina


    This article analyzes, firstly, how the representation of the psychiatric institution in Ken Kesey's One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest pioneered criticism regarding asylum politics during the 1950s and, secondly, how the reactions of R.D. Laing, an influential psychiatrist-critic of the time, impacted changes of asylum politics, as seen through his autobiographical considerations in Wisdom, Madness and Folly that were published in 1985. The key aim of this work is to compare the ability of a satirizing, fictional piece of writing and a medically focused, nonfictional work of criticism to influence a movement that extended during the 1960s and the 1970s, indeed shaping health care policies in the 1980s and the 1990s as well as our present-day view on institutional management.

  18. Sociology of Sport.

    Greendorfer, Susan L.


    The author describes the issues which created the schism between physical education and sociology. If the subdiscipline of sports sociology is to survive, these misunderstandings must be erased. Current investigations of relevant topics are of interest to both physical educators and coaches and could begin to bridge the gap. (MT)

  19. Sociology through Photography

    Hyde, Katherine


    This chapter describes how photography can inspire and cultivate sociological mindfulness. One set of assignments uses self-portraiture to highlight the complexity of visual representations of social identity. Another uses photography to guide sociological inquiry. Both sets of assignments draw on the Literacy Through Photography methodology,…

  20. Eating One’s Way Through History: Food and Politics in Manuka Wijesinghe’s Monsoons and Potholes

    Isabel Alonso Breto


    Full Text Available This paper consists of an analysis of Monsoons and Potholes (2006, the first novel by Sri Lankan playwright Manuka Wijesinghe. Attention is paid to the ways in which the text articulates relations between personal stories, food, history and politics. Food plays a central role in some novels published in the last years by Sri Lankan authors, as is the case, for instance, with Yasmine Gooneratne’s A Change of Skies (1984 and Mary Ann Mohanraj’s Bodies in Motion (2005. Both these works elaborate metaphors of identity through the dominant trope of food-encompassing cooking and the rituals of consumption. In Monsoons and Potholes, food accompanies and illustrates the autobiographical account of a Sri Lankan youngster born in the early 1960s, and revisits the first twenty years in her life together with the socio-political up and downs in her country. While it is a novel which to a great extent draws on metaphors of myth and history, scenes of food and eating appear consistently throughout the narration, which contribute in providing a down-to-earth (and highly satirical version of the life of the Sinhala upper-middle classes during the period. These images of food (and the sets of rituals, beliefs and constrictions around it are exploited by the author with the aim to explore, understand and denounce the historical process which precipitated Sri Lanka, at the beginning of the 1980s, “on the road to nowhere”.

  1. 500-year periodicity of political instability in the history of ancient Egypt and China. Androgens at work?

    Páles, Emil; Mikulecký, Miroslav


    DISCOVERY: A periodicity of 500 years has been discovered in the political history of ancient Egypt and documented by means of inferential statistics. Periods of chaos and waning of central power (some of them called "intermediate periods") recurred every 500 years. Input for the computation is the mean duration of ruling dynasties calculated per each half century. Fisher's periodogram analysis and Halberg's cosinor regression have been used. A highly significant (p god Nergal. The same periodicity has been described by the Chinese philosopher Mencius in the 3rd century B.C. and attributed to the will of tian (heaven). Egyptians elevated their war god Seth every 500 years and European kings assumed masculine nicknames. This recurring cultural pattern of aggressiveness and strife resembles overall traits of male psyche or mid-life crisis. We suggest to look for an unknown cosmophysical factor impacting the neuroendocrine system of man by raising the levels of androgens periodically. EXPLANATION HYPOTHESES: Sun impacts global weather on Earth, but there is no known significant periodicity of 500 years in solar activity. The Wheeler weather cycle almost fits the cycle of Egyptian political history. But his cold-dry periods seem to lag behind the periods of social destabilization and hence can not cause them. An alternative view (based on idealistic rather than materialistic presuppositions) is, that periodic long-term shifts of archetypes take place within the collective unconscious of mankind independently of external environment.

  2. A history of the science and politics of climate change: the role of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    Bolin, B. [University of Stockholm, Stockholm (Sweden)


    In response to growing concern about human-induced global climate change, the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was formed in 1988. Written by its first Chairman, this book is a unique overview of the history of the IPCC. It describes and evaluates the intricate interplay between key factors in the science and politics of climate change, the strategy that has been followed, and the regretfully slow pace in getting to grips with the uncertainties that have prevented earlier action being taken. The book also highlights the emerging conflict between establishing a sustainable global energy system and preventing a serious change in global climate. Contents are: Part I. The Early History of the Climate Change Issue: 1. Nineteenth century discoveries; 2. The natural carbon cycle and life on earth; 3. Global research initiatives in meteorology and climatology; 4. Early international assessments of climate change; Part II. The Climate Change Issue Becomes One of Global Concern: 5. Setting the stage; 6. The scientific basis for a climate convention; 7. Serving the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee; 8. The Second IPP Assessment Report; 9. In the aftermath of the IPCC Second Assessment; 10. The Kyoto Protocol is agreed and a third assessment begun; 11. A decade of hesitance and slow progress; Part III. A Turning Point in Addressing Climate Change?: 12. Key scientific finding of prime political relevance; 13. Climate change and the future global energy supply system; Concluding remarks. 9 figs.

  3. Shared Cultural History as a Predictor of Political and Economic Changes among Nation States.

    Luke J Matthews

    Full Text Available Political and economic risks arise from social phenomena that spread within and across countries. Regime changes, protest movements, and stock market and default shocks can have ramifications across the globe. Quantitative models have made great strides at predicting these events in recent decades but incorporate few explicitly measured cultural variables. However, in recent years cultural evolutionary theory has emerged as a major paradigm to understand the inheritance and diffusion of human cultural variation. Here, we combine these two strands of research by proposing that measures of socio-linguistic affiliation derived from language phylogenies track variation in cultural norms that influence how political and economic changes diffuse across the globe. First, we show that changes over time in a country's democratic or autocratic character correlate with simultaneous changes among their socio-linguistic affiliations more than with changes of spatially proximate countries. Second, we find that models of changes in sovereign default status favor including socio-linguistic affiliations in addition to spatial data. These findings suggest that better measurement of cultural networks could be profoundly useful to policy makers who wish to diversify commercial, social, and other forms of investment across political and economic risks on an international scale.

  4. Shared Cultural History as a Predictor of Political and Economic Changes among Nation States.

    Matthews, Luke J; Passmore, Sam; Richard, Paul M; Gray, Russell D; Atkinson, Quentin D


    Political and economic risks arise from social phenomena that spread within and across countries. Regime changes, protest movements, and stock market and default shocks can have ramifications across the globe. Quantitative models have made great strides at predicting these events in recent decades but incorporate few explicitly measured cultural variables. However, in recent years cultural evolutionary theory has emerged as a major paradigm to understand the inheritance and diffusion of human cultural variation. Here, we combine these two strands of research by proposing that measures of socio-linguistic affiliation derived from language phylogenies track variation in cultural norms that influence how political and economic changes diffuse across the globe. First, we show that changes over time in a country's democratic or autocratic character correlate with simultaneous changes among their socio-linguistic affiliations more than with changes of spatially proximate countries. Second, we find that models of changes in sovereign default status favor including socio-linguistic affiliations in addition to spatial data. These findings suggest that better measurement of cultural networks could be profoundly useful to policy makers who wish to diversify commercial, social, and other forms of investment across political and economic risks on an international scale.

  5. Practicing Sociological Imagination through Writing Sociological Autobiography

    Kebede, Alem


    Sociological imagination is a quality of mind that cannot be adopted by simply teaching students its discursive assumptions. Rather, it is a disposition, in competition with other forms of sensibility, which can be acquired only when it is practiced. Adhering to this important pedagogical assumption, students were assigned to write their…

  6. USSR Report, Political and Sociological Affairs.


    The stereotype which says that if I listen to the " Beatles " I am against Beethoven has not been completely eliminated. Except that today it is...reminiscent of the times of twist and shake and improvizations on the Beatles ’ themes, are noted to their show-biz talent. Both groups started their...from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports

  7. China Report: Political, Sociological and Military Affairs.


    Production Brigade of Guangbao Commune in raising chickens and rabbits in a big way. We must mobilize the commune member house- holds to utilize...The state and the commune, production brigades, and production teams operate fish farms, some of which raise fry . Why not go ahead with raising fish...Wei Xinyi, Huang Yu, Yang Jike, Guo Tixiang, Meng Fulin, Hu Tan, Zhu Nong, Fang Shiliang, Wang Zenong, Pan Ezhang, Liu Zhengwen, Chen Tianren, Ma

  8. CHINA Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs


    pumpkins and pumpkins as big as bath basins." However, the survey form, which children were not asked to sign, revealed that too much homework was a...sales. Regarding the Henry Liu murder case, it is, as Senator Thurmond’s assistant has noted, a purely judicial matter and should be left entirely to

  9. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs.


    developing weapons, and Jane ( Lauder ) [Luo-de-er 3157 1795 1422], former senior official of the National Security Council. Many U.S. scholars and...growth will lead to economic bankruptcy, disturbances, and war...So Reagan’s proposal is very important." From 1958 to 1980, the amount of money ... money and forgot the whole thing. Those people were afraid of disequilibrium and would rather let all of us remain in poverty. We can never complete

  10. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs


    the dual fermentation method, tech- nology to reclaim sugar residue, technology to make glucose from rice, fructose and dextrose syrup and other...Hu Wenjun [5170 2429 0689], Su Mingkun [5685 2494 0981], Wang Qian [3769 0241] and other conrades to suc- cessfully trial-produce an oral glucose, the comrades praise in unison his high sense of responsibility toward the enterprise and say that old friend Hong is now like a fish in water

  11. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs.


    attacked by hidden Vietnamese troops; a Chinese young man and a Chinese young woman were killed. Immediately afterward, the Vietnamese kid - napped...hours; streamlining course content; introducing heuristic pedagogical methods; strengthening laboratory work and training in engineering; placing

  12. USSR Report, Political and Sociological Affairs.


    realm. Here the rapidity of development in the area of welding, especially of plastics with the use of ultrasound , is notable. The current session...The Spartacus scored no goal by the last minute before the final whistle when Sochnov, who played in the second half, was knocked to the ground by his

  13. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs


    owe $300 billion in foreign debts and half of this amount was borrowed from American banks of all sizes. America has become the world’s biggest...paid to overcome the use of any adult model and formalism. The children and teenagers should not be subjected to passive restriction and bondage debt . The old people, because they lacked food and money to spend, had a bellyful of ideas. How to find a way out? From his own feelings and

  14. USSR Report, Political and Sociological Affairs


    Literature (Aboizhamil Nurpeyisov; QAZAQ ADEBIYETI, 19 Jul 85) 169 Kazakh-Language French Text Called First Step (Ghalymzhan Muganov; QAZAQ ADEBIYETI, a result of scientific advances. According to the French newspaper CROIS, 8.5 million people worldwide turn away from relxgxon each year! This...intended for lovers of Kazakh cuisine . When liquor was on the menu, there was no shortage of selection of national dishes. Today, to us was suggested

  15. USSR Report: Political and Sociological Affairs.


    percent; rubber articles, 55 percent; and mineral fertilizers,’ 50 percent. Naturally, this results in a reduction in the return on investments ...planned program will require the fundemental reorganization of all the work of the party’s oblast organization. And first of all — First Secretary of...fact that the plans for the 1980*s call for a relative reduction in the growth in capital investments in farming. In the opinion of the German

  16. The Political Sociology of Human Rights

    Nash, Kate


    The language of human rights is the most prominent 'people-centred' language of global justice today. This textbook looks at how human rights are constructed at local, national, international and transnational levels and considers commonalities and differences around the world. Through discussions of key debates in the interdisciplinary study of human rights, the book develops its themes by considering examples of human rights advocacy in international organisations, national states and local...

  17. A Political Sociology of Urban Riots

    Mucchielli, Laurent


    El fenómeno de las revueltas urbanas apareció en Francia a finales de los años 1970, se arraigó en la década de los 80s y experimentó en 2005 una generalización inédita. Se desarrolla localmente desde esta fecha. Con algunas excepciones, se desata en la mayoría de los casos por la muerte de jóvenes en relación con una operación de policía. Este artículo propone una síntesis de las investigaciones llevadas a cabo en Francia en los últimos años y trata de desglosar un marco de interpretación gl...

  18. History, Politics and Ideology in the Centennial Celebration of Mexico’s Independence

    Tomás Pérez Vejo


    Full Text Available In Mexico, the celebration of the independence’s hundredth anniversary was accompanied  by a complex historical-political-ideological  debate on the nature  of the nation,  the balance of a hundred years of independent life, and the problems and challenges for the future. This work analyzes, mainly through journalistic sources, this debate’s characteristics,  as well as its interpretative keys and its relevance within the process of Mexican national construction.

  19. The liabilities of amnesia: Why a course in the "History of political science"?

    Saxonhouse, Arlene


    Psychology departments seldom take their students back to the thicket of Freud’s Collected Works. Medical schools turn to Hippocrates mostly for his oath, not for his skills at analyzing the pathologies of female hysteria. Those learning to study the universe today do not work through the elliptical paths of the stars and planets that Ptolemy developed so that he might keep the earth at the center of things. So, why should the discipline of political science be any different? Why should we te...

  20. Political Perspectives in the Classroom. Results of Video Analyses in History and Civic Education

    Beatrice Buergler


    Full Text Available Civic education is not taught as a separate subject at Swiss schools. In this context, it is of great interest to look for specific characteristics of how civic education can be observed as a cross-disciplinary subject in schools through video recordings. The empirical analysis is based on classroom observation in ninth grade classes in various Swiss cantons (Aargau, Bern, and Zurich from 2003 to 2007. Criteria that allow the identification of elements of civic education in various school subjects are developed, the concept of “political perspective”. The analysis provides useful hints for planning and running classes where civic education is used as an overarching, cross-disciplinary approach. The concept of “political perspective” should not be taken as substitute for institutional knowledge. But the concept can rise above the function of an analytical tool and become a tool that serves the planning and designing of lessons. The perspective could as such be related to the postulate for epistemological knowledge.

  1. Sociological histories on epilepsy as "causes for disqualification" stipulated in the Japanese Road Traffic Act of 1960 and Revised Road Traffic Act of 2001.

    Imataka, G; Yoshihara, S


    In the wake of successive cases of fatal accidents caused by patients behind the wheel whose driving was likely to be hindered due to paroxysmal diseases, including epilepsy, there has been an outcry from victims demanding stricter criminal penalties against the perpetrators due to negligence. As a result of this action, a revised Road Traffic Act was put into effect in Japan on June 14, 2013. This act established new penal provisions against any person who provides false statements on his/her medical condition(s) when acquiring or renewing a driver's license. In this paper, the social circumstances will be introduced regarding road traffic in Japan when the Road Traffic Act, the origin of today's revised Road Traffic Act, was enacted in 1960. An overview of the reasons behind the enactment of the original act will be provided. Additionally, the handling of patients with "provisions for disqualification," whose driving is likely to be hindered due to paroxysmal diseases, including "epilepsy," will be reviewed. This handling attracted repeated controversy during the enactment of the original act and will also be reviewed. One significant change in wording from "absolute causes for disqualification" in the Road Traffic Act of 1960 to "relative causes for disqualification" in the Revised Road Traffic Act of 2001 also will be discussed from a medical sociology perspective. Finally, the social status and socio-economic position of drivers with paroxysmal diseases, as it pertains to influences on lawmakers, will be discussed.

  2. Postcolonial Feminisms and Introducing Sociology in the Imperium

    Jyoti Puri


    Full Text Available This article addresses the limits of teaching sociology as a Eurocentric modernist discipline in the context of the postcolonial present. Living in a transnational and globalized world makes the most basic and fundamental sociological concepts woefully delimiting, since they are ahistoricized and universalized terms rooted in a very specific modernist life-world. Words such as ‘individual,’ ‘self,’ ‘society,’ and ‘social’ are used routinely in everyday parlance as if their meanings are self-evident. This is not surprising given that scholarship and undergraduate teaching in the United States have also rendered them as generic, self-evident words without unraveling them reflectively as concepts, much like the ways in which ‘nation,’ ‘state,’ ‘gender,’ ‘race,’ ‘ethnicity,’ ‘sexuality,’ ‘citizen,’ ‘immigrant,’ ‘migrant,’ and ‘other,’ have been shown to reflect particular modern, liberal understandings. What scholarly, disciplinary and pedagogical challenges are faced when notions such as the ‘individual’ and ‘self’ are interrogated in the classroom from transnational and postcolonial perspectives? Writing from the standpoint of an immigrant feminist sociologist teaching in liberal arts colleges in northeast United States, I reflect on strategies that draw students toward a critical engagement with sociology while coming to grips with subject positions and political and cultural histories that shape such engagements.

  3. Incomplete Histories: Steve Biko, the Politics of Self-Writing and the ...

    That problematic, I argue, names the encounter between self-writing and an apparatus of reading. The paper stages the encounter as a way to make explicit the text's postcolonial interests and to mark the onset of an incomplete history. This, I argue incidentally, is where the postcolonial critic may set to work to finish the ...

  4. Ford: Not a Lincoln but a Hayes? A Lesson in History and Political Science

    Donnangelo, John A.


    History or social studies teachers are constantly striving to make the past come alive for their students and to help them see that not only does the past relate to the present, but it can also give insights into the future. The recent passing of former President Gerald R. Ford provides social studies teachers with just such an opportunity. Ford's…

  5. Reconfiguring the Shipping News: Maritime's Hidden Histories and the Politics of Gender Display

    Meecham, Pam


    This paper discusses the book "Hello Sailor! The Hidden History of Gay Life at Sea" published in 2003 by Paul Baker and Jo Stanley, re-interpreted as a landmark temporary exhibition "Hello Sailor! Gay Life on the Ocean Wave" at the Merseyside Maritime Museum, Liverpool from where it travelled in 2007 to other maritime museums. Based largely on…

  6. Teachers/Political Prisoners: Oral Histories from the Struggle against Apartheid.

    Wieder, Alan


    Tells the stories of two South African teachers who spent years in Robben Island prison because of their anti-apartheid work, offering a contextual history of apartheid in South Africa, describing education on Robben Island and the teachers' efforts at improvement through education, and reflecting on the meaning and value of such stories in…

  7. The sexual history of the global South: sexual politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America

    Wieringa, S.; Sívori, H.


    The Sexual History of the Global South explores the gap between sexuality studies and post-colonial cultural critique. Featuring twelve case studies, based on original historical and ethnographic research from countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, the book examines the sexual investments

  8. Mobile sociology. 2000.

    Urry, John


    This article seeks to develop a manifesto for a sociology concerned with the diverse mobilities of peoples, objects, images, information, and wastes; and of the complex interdependencies between, and social consequences of, such diverse mobilities. A number of key concepts relevant for such a sociology are elaborated: 'gamekeeping', networks, fluids, scapes, flows, complexity and iteration. The article concludes by suggesting that a 'global civil society' might constitute the social base of a sociology of mobilities as we move into the twenty-first century.

  9. Teaching the Vietnam War: A Sociological Approach.

    Starr, Jerold M.


    Maintains that, because of its importance in modern U.S. history, over 300 college courses are taught on the Vietnam War. Asserts that studying the war helps students develop critical thinking skills needed for citizenship. Describes the texts, formats, and assignments used in a college sociology course on the Vietnam War. (CFR)

  10. Adapting to social and political transitions - the influence of history on health policy formation in the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burma).

    Grundy, John; Annear, Peter; Ahmed, Shakil; Biggs, Beverley-Ann


    The Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burma) has a long and complex history characterized by internal conflict and tense international relations. Post-independence, the health sector has gradually evolved, but with health service development and indicators lagging well behind regional expectations. In recent years, the country has initiated political reforms and a reorientation of development policy towards social sector investment. In this study, from a systems and historical perspective, we used publicly available data sources and grey literature to describe and analyze links between health policy and history from the post-independence period up until 2012. Three major periods are discernable in post war health system development and political history in Myanmar. The first post-independence period was associated with the development of the primary health care system extending up to the 1988 political events. The second period is from 1988 to 2005, when the country launched a free market economic model and was arguably experiencing its highest levels of international isolation as well as very low levels of national health investment. The third period (2005-2012) represents the first attempts at health reform and recovery, linked to emerging trends in national political reform and international politics. Based on the most recent period of macro-political reform, the central state is set to transition from a direct implementer of a command and control management system, towards stewardship of a significantly more complex and decentralized administrative order. Historical analysis demonstrates the extent to which these periodic shifts in the macro-political and economic order acts to reset the parameters for health policy making. This case demonstrates important lessons for other countries in transition by highlighting the extent to which analysis of political history can be instructive for determination of more feasible boundaries for future health policy action

  11. What has become of critique? Reassembling sociology after Latour.

    Mills, Tom


    This paper offers a defence of sociology through an engagement with Actor Network Theory (ANT) and particularly the critique of 'critical' and politically engaged social science developed by Bruno Latour. It argues that ANT identifies some weaknesses in more conventional sociology and social theory, and suggests that 'critical' and 'public' orientated sociologists can learn from the analytical precision and ethnographic sensibilities that characterize ANT as a framework of analysis and a research programme. It argues, however, that Latour et al. have too hastily dispensed with 'critique' in favour of a value neutral descriptive sociology, and that the symmetrical and horizontalist approach adopted in ANT is particularly ill-suited to the development of scientific knowledge about social structures. It argues that a more straightforwardly realist sociology would share many of the strengths of ANT whilst being better able to interrogate, empirically and normatively, the centres of contemporary social power. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  12. The Integration of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning into the Discipline of Sociology

    McKinney, Kathleen


    Despite decades of sociology scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) research, integration of SoTL in sociology remains insufficient. First, some reasons for the insufficient integration of SoTL in the discipline are noted, and the foci of publications on the history and status of the SoTL in sociology are briefly summarized. Literature…

  13. The order of social sciences: sociology in dialogue with neighbouring disciplines

    Dieter Bögenhold


    Full Text Available Comparing sociology with economics, psychology or history shows that borderlines between disciplines have become fluent and always newly oscillating. Economists, especially prominent positions awarded with Nobel prizes, are increasingly discussing items as motivation, rationality, norms or culture which belong to the domain of sociology. Sociology should acknowledge this kind of ‘imperialism’ and claim own competencies.

  14. Windscale: a case history in the political art of muddling through

    Wynne, B.


    This chapter concentrates mainly upon those factors which preceded and eventually led to the Windscale Inquiry (into the BNFL proposal to construct a plant to reprocess spent nuclear fuel from reactors using oxide fuels). This will help to illustrate some of the many covert themes which permeated the Inquiry as an exercise in conflict-management, and hopefully should assist in the understanding of the limitations of this form of decision-making process. The chapter will conclude with a comment upon the role of the Inquiry in the wider political context of the British energy 'debate' and upon the likely implications of the Inquiry for future decision-making ventures on similar technological developments. (author)

  15. Byzantine history and the discourse of the Russian political/intellectual underground

    Dmitry Shlapentokh


    In the view of the producer, the Byzantine Empire was strong when it followed its autocratic tradition and was attached to Orthodoxy. The movie generated extensive discussions, including among those who belong to Russia's political and intellectual fringe. Quite a few of them were neo-pagans; for them, Christianity, including Orthodox Christianity, was Russia's curse. For them, it was an Asian creed foreign to Aryan Russians. The fact that it was accepted by Russians implied that Russians had been subjugated by an alien, Asiatic, force. Many of these neo-pagans were quite pessimistic in regard to the country's future; and, indeed, their response indicates the deep alienation of quite a few Russians, which hardly bodes well for the country's future.

  16. Sociology Back to the Publics

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.


    This article is a reading of the `new sociology' that is mainly identified with the works of C. Wright Mills and Alvin Gouldner. Its main argument is that during the past 40 years the new sociology gave back a public face to sociology. This distinguishes it from the `old sociology' that had not been

  17. Poison politics: a contentious history of consumer protection against dangerous household chemicals in the United States.

    Jones, Marian Moser; Benrubi, Isidore Daniel


    The history of consumer protection against household poisons presents a key case study of the uniquely American struggle to balance public health and safety with the interests of business. By the late 19th century, package designs, warning labels, and state statutes had formed an uneven patchwork of protective mechanisms against accidental poisonings. As household chemicals proliferated in the early 20th century, physicians concerned with childhood poisonings pressured the federal government to enact legislation mandating warning labels on packaging for these substances. Manufacturers of household chemicals agreed to labeling requirements for caustic poisons but resisted broader regulation. Accidental poisonings of children continued to increase until the enactment of broad labeling and packaging legislation in the 1960s and 1970s. This history suggests that voluntary agreements between government agencies and manufacturers are inadequate to protect consumers against household poisonings and that, in the United States, protective household chemical regulation proceeds in a reactive rather than a precautionary manner.

  18. Guide to Sources: American History, Anthropology, Folklore, Business Administration, Education, English, Food Science, French, German, Music, Philosophy, Political Science, Psychology, and Sociology.

    Maine Univ., Orono. Raymond H. Fogler Library.

    This group of 13 library guides, designed to introduce the student to some of the bibliographical tools available in various subject areas at Fogler Library, is not intended to be a complete listing, but rather a selective introduction to the many sources of information available to the beginning researcher. Information is provided on the use of…

  19. How the past weighs on the present: social representations of history and their role in identity politics.

    Liu, James H; Hilton, Denis J


    Socially shared representations of history have been important in creating, maintaining and changing a people's identity. Their management and negotiation are central to interethnic and international relations. We present a narrative framework to represent how collectively significant events become (selectively) incorporated in social representations that enable positioning of ethnic, national and supranational identities. This perspective creates diachronic (temporal) links between the functional (e.g. realistic conflict theory), social identity, and cognitive perspectives on intergroup relations. The charters embedded in these representations condition nations with similar interests to adopt different political stances in dealing with current events, and can influence the perceived stability and legitimacy of social orders. They are also instrumental in determining social identity strategies for reacting to negative social comparisons, and can influence the relationships between national and ethnic identities.

  20. Sociology of Discourse

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    Sociology of Discourse takes the perspective that collective actors like social movements are capable of creating social change from below by creating new institutions through alternative discourses. Institutionalization becomes a process of moving away from existing institutions towards creating...

  1. Medical sociology for whom?

    Chaska, N L


    This article defines the role of a medical sociologist in a medical institution concerned with health care delivery. The role in applied research and teaching is also discussed. The distinction is made between sociology in medicine and sociology of medicine. Five broad areas of research included under the category of sociology of medicine are the consumer of health care; the social, cultural, and economic enviroments as they relate to health and illness; health and illness behavior; patient education; and the evaluation of services provided to the consumer. Research methodologies utilized by sociologists are briefly presented, and research issues of concern in the sociology of medicine are outlined. The knowledge and information provided by a medical sociologist are supplemental to the physician's practice and are expressed ultimately as a benefit for the patient.

  2. The politics of reproductive hazards in the workplace: class, gender, and the history of occupational lead exposure.

    Morello-Frosch, R A


    Over the past two decades, several U.S. companies have sought to bar women from jobs that expose them to potential reproductive hazards, justifying these exclusionary policies by their professed concerns for the well-being of unborn children and potential liability. Although recent court cases have stimulated academic interest in this issue, a historical review of the public health and medical literature reveals that this debate is not new. To understand the logic behind the emergence of "fetal protection" policies, one must examine the scientific history of occupational teratogens and the socio-political and economic forces that have driven scientific research in this field. Using lead as an example, the author argues that research on the reproductive hazards of employment has historically emphasized the risks to women and downplayed the risks to men. This results in environmental health policies that do not uphold the ultimate goal of occupational safety for all workers, but rather reinforce the systemic segregation of men and women in the workplace. Although the political struggle over exclusionary policies has a feminist orientation, it also has important class dimensions and ultimately must be viewed within the broader context of American capitalist production.

  3. The Politics of Prevention: Lessons from the Neglected History of US HIV/AIDS Policy.

    Padamsee, Tasleem J


    The history of government action on HIV/AIDS has much to teach us about the dynamics and possibilities of US public health policy, but it has been insufficiently studied by social scientists of the epidemic. This article draws on a large set of original interviews with policy makers, thousands of news articles, and extensive documentation to reconstruct the history of three areas of debate and decision making about HIV prevention since 1990: needle exchange, HIV testing, and sex education for at-risk groups. These histories illuminate three key lessons. First, scientific evidence has less power to drive public health policy in the United States than in the United Kingdom, which is used as a comparison case to contextualize US choices within a broader range of options. Second, moral concerns weigh so heavily in the United States that a publicly articulated moral argument can countermand the dictates of solid scientific evidence, the voices of experts, and practical considerations to push public health policy in entirely oppositional directions. Third, having the ear of the presidential administration is usually a necessary-although not always sufficient-condition for the success of advocates trying to move US policy in the public health-indicated direction. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  4. Standardization in measurement philosophical, historical and sociological issues

    Schlaudt, Oliver


    The application of standard measurement is a cornerstone of modern science. In this collection of essays, standardization of procedure, units of measurement and the epistemology of standardization are addressed by specialists from sociology, history and the philosophy of science.

  5. Sociology of Drug Consumption


    In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption) are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual...

  6. A sociologia dos conceitos e a história dos conceitos: um diálogo entre Carl Schmitt e Reinhart Koselleck The sociology of concepts and the conceptual history: a dialog between Carl Schmitt and Reinhart Koselleck

    Pedro Hermílio Villas Bôas Castelo Branco


    Full Text Available Muitos trabalhos de Reinhart Koselleck teriam sido influenciados pelas idéias de Carl Schmitt. Tal influência poderia ser observada não apenas no teor de críticas, entre outras, à filosofia da história, à noção de progresso, ao liberalismo, mas, também, no plano metodológico. Este trabalho busca investigar em que medida é possível aproximar a metodologia desses autores, respectivamente, a da historia dos conceitos e a da sociologia dos conceitos. A análise das metodologias de Koselleck e Schmitt consiste numa chave para desvendar determinados pressupostos epistemológicos extraídos de uma dimensão existencial do homem, possivelmente compartilhada pelos autores.Many works from Reinhart Koselleck would have been influenced by Carl Schmitt's ideas. Such influences could be observed not only in critics to the philosophy of history, to the progress notion, to liberalism, but also in a methodological scope. This article searches to investigate in which way it is possible to approach the methodology of both authors, respectively, the conceptual history and the sociology of concepts. The methodological analysis could be a key to understand epistemological premises obtained from a existential dimension of man, probably shared by both authors.

  7. Gotelind Müller (ed.), Designing History in East Asian Textbooks: Identity politics and transnational aspirations

    Russell, Yves


    When the twentieth century dawned with the echoes of boots and guns, it became apparent that the national stories told in textbooks meant for innocent school children, with pronounced distinctions between indigenous “us” and foreign “them,” could further stoke unfolding conflicts. Very soon it was realised that school textbooks – especially of history and geography – could be the source of and subject to conflicts, on the one hand by presenting a Manichean vision of national “us” and foreign ...

  8. South-South cooperation in health: bringing in theory, politics, history, and social justice.

    Birn, Anne-Emanuelle; Muntaner, Carles; Afzal, Zabia


    Since the mid-2000s, the practice of South-South cooperation in health (SSC) has attracted growing attention among policymakers, health and foreign affairs ministries, global health agencies, and scholars from a range of fields. But the South-South label elucidates little about the actual content of the cooperation and conflates the "where" with the "who, what, how, and why". While there have been some attempts to theorize global health diplomacy and South-South cooperation generally, these efforts do not sufficiently distinguish among the different kinds of practices and political values that fall under the South-South rubric, ranging from economic and geopolitical interests to social justice forms of solidarity. In the spirit of deepening theoretical, historical, and social justice analyses of SSC, this article: (1) critically revisits international relations theories that seek to explain SSC, exploring Marxian and other heterodox theories ignored in the mainstream literature; (2) traces the historical provenance of a variety of forms of SSC; and (3) introduces the concept of social justice-oriented South-South.

  9. Woodland restoration in Scotland: ecology, history, culture, economics, politics and change.

    Hobbs, Richard


    In the latter half of the 20th century, native pine woodlands in Scotland were restricted to small remnant areas within which there was little regeneration. These woodlands are important from a conservation perspective and are habitat for numerous species of conservation concern. Recent developments have seen a large increase in interest in woodland restoration and a dramatic increase in regeneration and woodland spread. The proximate factor enabling this regeneration is a reduction in grazing pressure from sheep and, particularly, deer. However, this has only been possible as a result of a complex interplay between ecological, political and socio-economic factors. We are currently seeing the decline of land management practices instituted 150-200 years ago, changes in land ownership patterns, cultural revival, and changes in societal perceptions of the Scottish landscape. These all feed into the current move to return large areas of the Scottish Highlands to tree cover. I emphasize the need to consider restoration in a multidisciplinary framework which accounts not just for the ecology involved but also the historical and cultural context.

  10. Needham at the crossroads: history, politics and international science in wartime China (1942-1946).

    Mougey, Thomas


    In 1946, the British biochemist Joseph Needham returned from a four-year stay in China. Needham scholars have considered this visit as a revelatory period that paved the way for his famous book series Science and Civilization in China (SCC). Surprisingly, however, Needham's actual time in China has remained largely unstudied over the last seventy years. As director of the Sino-British Scientific Cooperation Office, Needham travelled throughout Free China to promote cooperation between British and Chinese scientists to contain the Japanese invasion during the Second World War. By rediscovering Needham's peregrinations, this paper re-examines the origins of his fascination for China. First, it contests the widely held idea that this Chinese episode is quite separate and different from Needham's first half-life as a leftist scientist. Second, it demonstrates how the political and philosophical commitments he inherited from the social relations of science movement, and his biochemical research, shaped his interest in China's past. Finally, this paper recounts these forgotten years to reveal their implications for his later pursuits as historian of science and as director of the natural-science division of UNESCO. It highlights how, while in China, Needham co-constituted the philosophical tenets of his scientific programme at UNESCO and the conceptual foundations of his SCC.

  11. Philosophy and Sociology Studies

    S. A. Kravchenko


    Full Text Available Philosophy and Social science school of MGIMO has received both nationwide and international recognition. The traditions of the school were laid by two highly respected scientists and science managers, George P. Frantsev, who was the rector MGIMO during the crucial period of its early years, and Alexander F. Shishkin, who was the founder and head of the Department of Philosophy. The former belonged to one of the best schools of antic history studies of the Petersburg (Leningrad University. Frantsev made a great contribution to the restoration of Russian social and political science after World War II. After graduating from MGIMO, he worked at the Foreign Ministry of USSR, and then served as a rector of the Academy of Social Sciences and chief-editor of the journal "Problems of Peace and Socialism" in Prague. He consistently supported MGIMO scientists and recommended them as participants for international congresses and conferences. Shishkin was born in Vologda, and studied in Petrograd during 1920s. His research interests included history of education and morality. He was the author of the first textbook on ethics in the postwar USSR. Other works Shishkin, including monograph "XX century and the moral values of humanity", played a in reorienting national philosophy from class interests to universal moral principles. During thirty years of his leadership of the Department of Philosophy, Shishkin managed to prepare several generations of researchers and university professors. Scientists educated by Shishkin students consider themselves to be his "scientific grandchildren". The majority of MGIMO post-graduate students followed the footsteps of Frantsev in their research, but they also were guided by Shishkin's ideas on morality in human relations. Philosophy and Social science school of MGIMO played an important role in the revival of Soviet social and political science. Soviet Social Science Association (SSSA, established in 1958, elected Frantsev

  12. Personal and political histories in the designing of health reform policy in Bolivia.

    Bernstein, Alissa


    While health policies are a major focus in disciplines such as public health and public policy, there is a dearth of work on the histories, social contexts, and personalities behind the development of these policies. This article takes an anthropological approach to the study of a health policy's origins, based on ethnographic research conducted in Bolivia between 2010 and 2012. Bolivia began a process of health care reform in 2006, following the election of Evo Morales Ayma, the country's first indigenous president, and leader of the Movement Toward Socialism (Movimiento al Socialism). Brought into power through the momentum of indigenous social movements, the MAS government platform addressed racism, colonialism, and human rights in a number of major reforms, with a focus on cultural identity and indigeneity. One of the MAS's projects was the design of a new national health policy in 2008 called The Family Community Intercultural Health Policy (Salud Familiar Comunitaria Intercultural). This policy aimed to address major health inequities through primary care in a country that is over 60% indigenous. Methods used were interviews with Bolivian policymakers and other stakeholders, participant observation at health policy conferences and in rural community health programs that served as models for aspects of the policy, and document analysis to identify core premises and ideological areas. I argue that health policies are historical both in their relationship to national contexts and events on a timeline, but also because of the ways they intertwine with participants' personal histories, theoretical frameworks, and reflections on national historical events. By studying the Bolivian policymaking process, and particularly those who helped design the policy, it is possible to understand how and why particular progressive ideas were able to translate into policy. More broadly, this work also suggests how a uniquely anthropological approach to the study of health policy

  13. Entre los Estudios sobre el Libro y la Edición: El “giro material” en la Historia intelectual y la Sociología = Among the Book and the Publishing Studies: The “material turn” in Intellectual History and Sociology

    Ezequiel Andrés Saferstein


    Full Text Available El siguiente trabajo presenta dos perspectivas que se relacionan con el estudio sobre el Libro y la Edición en su relación con la cuestión de los intelectuales, tanto en la Argentina como en Francia. Por un lado, se presentan los principales aportes de la Historia Cultural y por el otro lado se incorpora la perspectiva sociológica. Ambas pueden vincularse al estudio de los intelectuales desde una perspectiva material, en estrecha relación con Estudios sobre el Libro y la Edición. Se concibe al libro desde dos variables articuladas: por un lado, como mercancía; por el otro, por su significación en el seno del espacio social, que lo convierte en un bien simbólico, portador de ideas que necesitan del objeto libro para materializarse y circular. En este sentido, se presentan, analizan y discuten los antecedentes centrales de estas perspectivas, en pos de establecer una línea de trabajo común para afianzar este campo de estudios = This work presents two perspectives that are related to the Book and the Publishing studies in relation to the intellectuals issue, both in Argentina and internationally. Firstly, we present the main contributions of Cultural History and, secondly, we incorporate the sociological perspective. Both can be linked to the study of the intellectuals from a material perspective, in close connection with Book and Publishing studies. The Book is conceived here from two articulated variables: On one hand, as a commodity, and, on the other hand, according to its significance through the social space, which turns it into a symbolic good that carries the ideas that need to be materialized in books. In this way, we present, analyze and discuss the core history of these perspectives in order to establish a common line of work that can strengthen this field of study.

  14. Political History of the Ulus of Jochi in 1256–1263 »

    Zh.M. Sabitov


    Full Text Available The article examines a number of issues of the Golden Horde political development in 1256–1263. In particular, the author considers the circumstances of the Sartaq’s death and presents his own position regarding the death of Borakchin khatun. The author assumes the stance over the death of Ulagchi in the summer of 1259, around the same time as the death of kaghan Möngke. As a result, Berke came to power. On the kurultai, Berke was able to defeat Tuda-Mengu, a candidate supported by Borakchin khatun. The author presents his own identification of the “Tatar tsar Kutluby” mentioned in Russian chronicles in 1259–1262. The article contains a clarification of the chronology of the Berke’s coming to power in the Golden Horde. The author suggested that the two grandsons of Chagatai (Baiju and Suntay served Berke because of his confrontation with Algu. The author identifies four reasons that influenced the Hulagu’s decision to start a war against Berke. The first reason was the Kublai’s promise to convey all conquered lands to Hulagu and his offspring. The second reason was allied relations with Algu, the ruler of Chaghataid ulus, who was inclined to military action against Berke and Arik-Boke. The third reason was Berke’s requirements regarding his share in the conquered lands. The fourth reason was potential support of the Hulagu’s claims to the Golden Horde throne by the side of Borakchin. Hulagu started a war against Berke, but the war between Algu and Arik-Boke as well as exposure and punishment of Borakchin, led to the Hulagu’s defeat in the war. Starting with 1260, the Egyptian rulers tried to establish diplomatic relations with Berke, but Berke sent the first letter to the Egyptian authorities only in May 1263, 5 months after the victory over Hulagu. This was due to the Berke’s fear of remaining alone against the coalition of Mongol uluses. The author also proposes his own identitication of Berke’s associates

  15. Sociology of Hidden Curriculum

    Alireza Moradi


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the concept of hidden curriculum in the sociological theories and wants to explain sociological aspects of formation of hidden curriculum. The main question concentrates on the theoretical approaches in which hidden curriculum is explained sociologically.For this purpose it was applied qualitative research methodology. The relevant data include various sociological concepts and theories of hidden curriculum collected by the documentary method. The study showed a set of rules, procedures, relationships and social structure of education have decisive role in the formation of hidden curriculum. A hidden curriculum reinforces by existed inequalities among learners (based on their social classes or statues. There is, in fact, a balance between the learner's "knowledge receptions" with their "inequality proportion".The hidden curriculum studies from different major sociological theories such as Functionalism, Marxism and critical theory, Symbolic internationalism and Feminism. According to the functionalist perspective a hidden curriculum has a social function because it transmits social values. Marxists and critical thinkers correlate between hidden curriculum and the totality of social structure. They depicts that curriculum prepares learners for the exploitation in the work markets. Symbolic internationalism rejects absolute hegemony of hidden curriculum on education and looks to the socialization as a result of interaction between learner and instructor. Feminism theory also considers hidden curriculum as a vehicle which legitimates gender stereotypes.

  16. Review: Derek R. Peterson, Kodzo Gavua, and Ciraj Rassool (eds, The Politics of Heritage in Africa: Economies, Histories, and Infrastructures (2015

    Reinhart Kößler


    Full Text Available Review of the edited volume:Derek R. Peterson, Kodzo Gavua, and Ciraj Rassool (eds, The Politics of Heritage in Africa: Economies, Histories, and Infrastructures, London: International African Institute; New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2015, ISBN 9781107094857, 291 pages

  17. Physical Education, Sociology, and Sociology of Sport: Points of Intersection.

    Sage, George H.


    Examines the rise of sociology and physical education (PE), discussing linkages that initially existed and the separation that transpired between them. Also examines connections between social theory and PE before the sociology of sport was formally developed. Details the rise of sociology of sport, highlighting roles of physical educators. (SM)

  18. Power, Meaning, and Identity: Critical Sociology of Education in the United States.

    Apple, Michael W.


    Provides an overview of the main theories, developments, and literature of critically-oriented sociology. Pays particular attention to the politics of meaning including critical discourse analysis, identity politics, racial formation, and political economy and the labor process. Concludes with a discussion of the tensions between postmodern and…

  19. Incorporating nature in environmental sociology: a critique of Bhaskar and Latour, and a proposal

    Koppen, van C.S.A.


    There is a vital, but complex and controversial debate in environmental sociology regarding how to bring nature into sociological investigation. This article discusses two influential strands in this debate: Bhaskar’s critical realism and its elaboration by Carolan, and the ‘politics of nature’

  20. Economics and sociology: Between cooperation and intolerance

    Stojanović Božo


    Full Text Available In social sciences two opposing tendencies act simultaneously: the growth of specialization and the need for synthesis. Similar tendencies are noticeable when economics and sociology are in question. The need for these two sciences to cooperate was noticed a long time ago. However, an increasingly intensive exchange has been achieved only recently, particularly in the explanation of individual and group behavior. The works of Mancur Olson are a good example how the results of economics can be inspiring for the research in other sciences, particularly sociology and political science. Applying the results he got by analyzing the logic of collective action, Olson managed to attain significant insight concerning the functioning of economics and society as a whole.

  1. Reflection on Political Representation

    Kusche, Isabel


    This article compares how Members of Parliament in the United Kingdom and Ireland reflect on constituency service as an aspect of political representation. It differs from existing research on the constituency role of MPs in two regards. First, it approaches the question from a sociological viewp...

  2. The sociological imagination in a time of climate change

    Norgaard, Kari Marie


    Despite rising calls for social science knowledge in the face of climate change, too few sociologists have been engaged in the conversations about how we have arrived at such perilous climatic circumstances, or how society can change course. With its attention to the interactive dimensions of social order between individuals, social norms, cultural systems and political economy, the discipline of sociology is uniquely positioned to be an important leader in this conversation. In this paper I suggest that in order to understand and respond to climate change we need two kinds of imagination: 1) to see the relationships between human actions and their impacts on earth's biophysical system (ecological imagination) and 2) to see the relationships within society that make up this environmentally damaging social structure (sociological imagination). The scientific community has made good progress in developing our ecological imagination but still need to develop a sociological imagination. The application of a sociological imagination allows for a powerfully reframing of four key problems in the current interdisciplinary conversation on climate change: why climate change is happening, how we are being impacted, why we have failed to successfully respond so far, and how we might be able to effectively do so. I visit each of these four questions describing the current understanding and show the importance of the sociological imagination and other insights from the field of sociology. I close with reflections on current limitations in sociology's potential to engage climate change and the Anthropocene.

  3. Back to Hegel? On Gillian Rose's critique of sociological reason.

    Fuller, Brian W


    Thirty-five years ago, Gillian Rose articulated a significant critique of classical sociological reason, emphasizing its relationship to its philosophical forebears. In a series of works, but most significantly in her Hegel contra Sociology, Rose worked to specify the implications of sociology's failure, both in its critical Marxist and its 'scientific' forms, to move beyond Kant and to fully come to terms with the thought of Hegel. In this article, I unpack and explain the substance of her criticisms, developing the necessary Hegelian philosophical background on which she founded them. I argue that Rose's attempted recuperation of 'speculative reason' for social theory remains little understood, despite its continued relevance to contemporary debates concerning the nature and scope of sociological reason. As an illustration, I employ Rose to critique Chernilo's recent call for a more philosophically sophisticated sociology. From the vantage point of Rose, this particular account of a 'philosophical sociology' remains abstract and rooted in the neo-Kantian contradictions that continue to characterize sociology. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  4. [Political psychology].

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás


    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  5. Heuristic resources of the ‘classics’: Perspectives of sociological enlightenment

    D G Podvoyskiy


    Full Text Available The article discusses the methodological question traditional for the humanities and social sciences (and, above all, sociology, namely, the question about their world view status, functions and aims. According to the author, ‘sociological enlightenment’ provides a chance to justify the purport of scientific research on the theory and history of sociology (research that is culturally significant beyond the narrow professional frames of sociology. The most important component of this ‘enlightenment’ is the demonstration of ‘heuristic resources’ of classical and modern theoretical sociology as a means of scientific explanation and conceptualization of social problems at a level comprehensible to non-academic audiences.

  6. Counter-Memory, Heterochronia, and “History Painting” (After Géricault: Dierk Schmidt’s SIEV-X—On a Case of Intensified Refugee Politics

    Veronica Tello


    Full Text Available This essay examines the disruption of linear time in experimental forms of “history painting” as represented by Dierk Schmidt’s SIEV-X—On a Case of Intensified Refugee Politics (2001-2005. It analyses how the aesthetics of heterochronoia—multiple temporalities—play a crucial role in the development of a new understanding of the politics of “history painting.” As Schmidt’s work reveals, a radical conception of history exists outside the “singular moment,” and in dialogue with heterogenous visual cultures (news media, art history, advertising. In attempting to understand the import of Schmidt’s work, this essay considers his methodologies for creating a heterochronous mode of history painting, particularly his anachronistic engagement with the work of Theodore Géricault and the iconic history painting, The Raft of the Medusa. Unlike previous critical responses to Schmidt’s work, this paper argues that (after Géricault the artist’s use of investigative “journalistic” methodologies for SIEV-X—On a Case of Intensified Refugee Politics do not generate an aesthetics of exposé but rather an aesthetics of “fictionalization.” This aesthetic is defined by the recalibration of documentary and speculative data as a means to reconceive the landscape of the perceptual. The findings of this research demonstrate that the use of disparate fragments—or data—to visualize otherwise diminishing historical events underpins contemporary history painting’s capacity for advancing a distinct economy of affect that circumvents the limitations of the news media and its “monopoly on reality.”

  7. Toward Theory-Based Research in Political Communication.

    Simon, Adam F.; Iyengar, Shanto


    Praises the theoretical and methodological potential of the field of political communication. Calls for greater interaction and cross fertilization among the fields of political science, sociology, economics, and psychology. Briefly discusses relevant research methodologies. (MJP)


    Kuznetsov, Oleg


    The author traces the ethnogenesis of the Armenian people and analyzes its content to demonstrate how organized national and religious extremism, political terror, and terrorism affected the vector and intensity of social modernization of Armenian ethnicity between the last quarter of the nineteenth and the late twentieth century.

  9. Mapping the field of medical sociology: a comparative analysis of journals.

    Seale, Clive


    A comparative keyword analysis of the content of nine leading journals is used to suggest potential new directions for medical sociology. The major British and American journals in sociology and medical sociology tend to publish authors based in their own countries, contrasting with the internationalism of other social science disciplines relevant to health, although Sociology of Health and Illness is an exception to this. Medical sociology journals on both sides of the Atlantic focus on individual experience more than general sociology journals, which focus more on social systems levels of analysis. While journal contents reveal British medical sociology to be relatively atheoretical when compared with British general sociology journals, American medical sociology appears relatively apolitical on the same comparison with American general journals. American journals of sociology publish more quantitative studies than their British equivalents, more studies concerning race and other social divisions in American society, and less work drawing on social constructionist perspectives or that is engaged with social theory. Analysis of health and health care at societal and global levels and a deeper engagement with the political and public issues that concern non-sociologists represents a possible future for a medical sociology that is internationally relevant and outward looking.

  10. History and Historians in the Soviet Political and Ideological Structure in 1930s – early 1940s (case study: the Siberian Region

    Dmitry V. Khaminov


    Full Text Available In paper deals with the issues of a place and a role of historical knowledge and historians as a special professional community (university professors, researchers and students of the history departments in the political and ideological structure of the Soviet state in the 1930s – early 1940s. The article restores politics of Communist Party and Soviet government in relation to historians on the example of a unique Siberian small region. The Author made an attempt, on the basis of party and government documents as well as archive materials, some of which were for the first time introduced in scientific circles, give a balanced assessment of these processes in the conditions of the most tragic and controversial periods in the Russian history.

  11. 'Grounded' Politics

    Schmidt, Garbi


    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...... ethnic and religious diversity of the neighbourhood and, further, to frame what they see as the deterioration of genuine Danish identity....

  12. Did Harriet Martineau's sociological methods influence Emile Durkheim's sociological methods?

    Fritsch, Jon Eric


    Harriet Martineau (1802-1876) published How to Observe Morals and Manners in 1838. The book was perhaps the first sociological methodology text. Emile Durkheim (1855-1917) published The Rules of Sociological Method (1895) 57 years later. Durkheim's book has traditionally been labeled as the first sociological methodology text, while Martineau's book has been virtually forgotten by modern day sociologists. The author identifies significant similarities between the two tex...

  13. 2004 American Sociological Association Presidential address: for public sociology*.

    Burawoy, Michael


    Responding to the growing gap between the sociological ethos and the world we study, the challenge of public sociology is to engage multiple publics in multiple ways. These public sociologies should not be left out in the cold, but brought into the framework of our discipline. In this way we make public sociology a visible and legitimate enterprise, and, thereby, invigorate the discipline as a whole. Accordingly, if we map out the division of sociological labor, we discover antagonistic interdependence among four types of knowledge: professional, critical, policy, and public. In the best of all worlds the flourishing of each type of sociology is a condition for the flourishing of all, but they can just as easily assume pathological forms or become victims of exclusion and subordination. This field of power beckons us to explore the relations among the four types of sociology as they vary historically and nationally, and as they provide the template for divergent individual careers. Finally, comparing disciplines points to the umbilical chord that connects sociology to the world of publics, underlining sociology's particular investment in the defense of civil society, itself beleaguered by the encroachment of markets and states.

  14. Political psychology.

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse


    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. [Margot Jefferys: the British voice of medical sociology].

    Nunes, Everardo Duarte


    Margot Jefferys (1916-1999) was not only the person who introduced medical sociology into Great Britain, but also the researcher and professor who, during thirty years, exerted the most deep influence on the teaching of health social sciences either in undergraduate or especially graduate studies, since the beginning of her career, in 1953, at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. In addition to create a global panorama concerning the Jefferys' works, this study highlights two texts, which are situated into the field we are researching: the history of health sociology. The first one, published in 1991, discusses the relationships between epidemiology and sociology; and the second, published in 1996, discusses the field of medical sociology. Both texts are a series of considerations regarding the Jefferys' thought and the more recent questions of the field in Great Britain.


    Larisa Fedotova


    Full Text Available Abstract: Sociological forecasting of political processes arose as a powerful industry. Nevertheless, results of the polls conducted by the major agencies diverged significantly with the voting in 2011 State Duma elections. The article analyses major complications in forecasting results of elections using sociological data, including psychological factors, role of mass media and administrative resource. The author identifies strategies of the opposition, as well as proves predominant importance of Vladimir Putin for the electoral success of the ruling party on the basis of the polls.

  17. Pure Relationality as a Sociological Theory of Communication

    Sam Whimster


    Full Text Available In order to explain the success of populist politicians use of social media, we need to subtract the social from relationality and separate social relationships from network theory applications. A pure theory of relationality is suggested by Werner Heisenberg’s breakthrough in quantum mechanics. It is argued that sociology, to its detriment, has failed to incorporate a theory of communication, one adequate to the explosion of social media and the recent rise of populist politics, here instanced by Donald Trump. Realizing the underlying importance of communication technology in all social relationships, and treating these two aspects in a complementary fashion, is the purpose of this essay in sociological theory.

  18. In Praise of Sociology.

    Connell, Raewyn


    This reflection on the relevance of sociology starts with the different forms of social knowledge, and some autobiographical reflection on my engagement with the discipline. A research-based social science is made urgent by the prevalence of distortion and pseudoscience in the public realm. However, the research-based knowledge formation is embedded in a global economy of knowledge that centers on a privileged group of institutions and produces major imbalances on a world scale. Sociological data collection has important uses in policy and public discussion. But data need to be embedded in a larger project of understanding the world; this is what gives excitement to the work. Sociology has a potential future of marginality or triviality in the neoliberal economy and its university system. There are better trajectories into the future-but they have to be fought for. Cette réflexion sur l'utilité de la sociologie commence avec les différentes formes de savoir social, ainsi que quelques réflexions biographiques sur mon engagement avec la discipline. Le besoin d'une science sociale orientée vers la recherche est devenue nécessaire suite à la prédominance de la distorsion et de la pseudoscience dans la sphère publique. Par contre, ce savoir centré sur la recherche est lié à une économie globale de la connaissance qui est proche d'un groupe privilégié d'institutions et produit des déséquilibres majeurs au niveau mondial. La collecte de données sociologiques a une grande utilité en politique et dans les discussions publiques. Mais ces données doivent être liées à un projet plus large de compréhension du monde ; c'est ce qui rend ce travail excitant. La sociologie risque la marginalisation ou la trivialité dans une économie néo-libérale et son système universitaire. Il existe de meilleures trajectoires pour l'avenir - mais elles doivent être défendues. © 2017 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  19. Toward Publicly Responsive Sociology Curricula: The Role of Introductory Sociology

    Greenwood, Nancy A.


    Introductory sociology casts a wide net with regard to its audience and plays an important role in capturing the public eye as well as helping students to make more informed choices in their lives and communities. I ask six questions that help us as sociologists to think about how introductory sociology can better serve our discipline, our…

  20. Animal Sociology and a Natural Economy of the Body Politic, Part II: The Past Is the Contested Zone: Human Nature and Theories of Production and Reproduction in Primate Behavior Studies.

    Haraway, Donna


    Theories of animal and human society based on sex and reproduction have been powerful in legitimating beliefs in the natural necessity of aggression, competition, and hierarchy. Feminists attempting to answer this bias are caught in a political-scientific struggle to formulate and articulate adequate biosocial theories. (Author/KR)

  1. Sociology of Drug Consumption


    Full Text Available In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual social aims as well as competitive situations. Association of Differentiation Theory claims that drug use behavior is a learned behavior and the first learning occurs in a friendly small group (i.e. youngsters. Social Control theory believes that one can predict normal and abnormal behaviors through the rate of individuals' social commitments. Internal and external controls also determine commitment rate. Micro-cultural theory considers drug use as a compatibility with abnormal micro-culture rules. Symbolic Mutual Action Believes that the etiquettes which society attribute to individuals/behaviors determine their acquired social reactions rather than any inherited acquisition.

  2. Los medios de comunicación y el Arca de Noè: la sociología del futuro

    Fermín Bouza


    Full Text Available Construction of modernity brings a new individualism and a constant presence of the media. The new individuals are giving the construction of the public agenda to the media, who interpret the theory of ongoing economic crisis, which has forced us to rethink the economic and political order. The metaphor of Noah’s Ark is used to visualize a situation where we must seriously begin to choose what to keep of the current scrap. The sociology of the future, as the Ark, should evaluate this modern history and help build a possible plan for a livable future.

  3. Teaching Sociology through Student Portfolios

    Trepagnier, Barbara


    After several years of teaching Sociological Thought--an upper division course that focuses on classical, modern, and contemporary sociological theories--the author came across the idea of student portfolios. As a consequence, the course has undergone far-reaching changes. The content remains relatively intact; however, today the theory course…

  4. Do Underachievers Need Sociology?

    Aladin El-Mafaalani


    Full Text Available This paper presents a promising model for using sociological learning to support the education of young people who are socially disadvantaged or display behavioral problems. A great many of these students are trapped in patterns of negative behavior. The goal of the model is to enable these young people to think explicitly about the role they are playing and to encourage them to strike out in a new direction. To this end, Erving Goffman’s sociological insights are used to stage a theatrical performance about school. This approach is informed by the microsociological tradition of proceeding from the concrete to the abstract in order to facilitate inductive learning and self-reflection. Goffman’s theory of social action provides the social-theoretical background for the theatrical action, while also serving as a medium of contrast for the analysis of the individual, interaction, and institution in subsequent reflections about school. In this way, sociological theory not only serves as a theoretical foundation for the lesson, but is also explicitly its subject.Der Aufsatz zeigt eine erfolgversprechende Möglichkeit auf, soziologisches Lernen als Beitrag zur Förderung sozial benachteiligter und verhaltensauffälliger Jugendlicher in der Schule zu implementieren. Die meisten dieser Schüler sind in ihren Handlungsmustern gefangen. Ziel ist es, diesen Jugendlichen die Möglichkeit zu eröffnen, bewusst über ihre Rolle nachzudenken und einen anderen Weg einzuschlagen. Hierfür werden Erkenntnisse aus Erving Goffman‘s Soziologie für ein schulisches Schauspiel genutzt, um ganz im Sinne der mikrosoziologischen Tradition vom Konkreten auf das Abstrakte zu schließen und damit induktives Lernen sowie Selbstreflexion zu ermöglichen. Goffman‘s Theorie sozialen Handelns bildet für das szenische Spiel zunächst das sozialtheoretische Hintergrundrauschen, um schließlich in der Reflexion der sozialen Situation in der Schule als Kontrastmittel f

  5. Application of Sociology of Education on Early Childhood Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices in Hong Kong: Insight from David Riesman

    Lau, Grace; Ho, Kwok Keung


    This paper will present multiple themes that are intermingled with one another, aiming to bring an overview of sociology of education and its application in the Hong Kong situation. One of the themes concerns how sociology of education has intertwined with the socio-political aspect of Hong Kong before and after year 1997 resulting in different…

  6. Images of American Indians in Environmental Education: Anthropological Reflections on the Politics and History of Cultural Representation

    Willow, Anna J.


    For hundreds of years, North America's colonizers worked systematically to eradicate the indigenous cultural practices, religious beliefs, and autonomous political systems many venerate. This article illustrates that imperialist nostalgia underlies and directs portrayals of American Indians in environmental education today. Whether unconsciously…

  7. Remembering a sociology of Human Rights

    Levy, Daniel


    Full Text Available A sociology of human rights sounds almost like a contradiction in terms. Sociology is about social groups, about particular experiences, about how people, embedded in space and time, make sense of their lives and give meaning to their world. It deals with power and interest and the social bases of our experiences. On the other hand, human rights are about human beings in general, without temporal or spatial references, not about groups and their boundaries. Human rights are about humanity, located in the world and connected to an inviolable nature. Global media representations, among others, create new cosmopolitan memories, providing new epistemological vantage points and emerging moral-political interdependencies. As such, memories of the Holocaust contribute to the creation of a common European cultural memory based on the abstract notion of human rights. Sociologically, a theory of human rights has to show how universal and particular memories co-exist, are reconciled etc. and what it means for the recognition of the “other”, and the broadening of circles of solidarity.Una sociología de los derechos humans suena casi como un oxímoron. La sociología se fija en los grupos sociales, en las experiencias particulares, y en cómo las personas, marcadas por el espacio y el tiempo, dan sentido a sus vidas y atribuyen un significado al mundo. Trata del poder, el interés y la base social de nuestras experiencias. Contrariamente, los derechos humanos se refieren a humanos en general, sin referencias temporales ni espaciales, y no a grupos y sus límites. Los derechos humanos tratan de la humanidad, ubicado en el mundo y conectado con su naturaleza inviolable. Representaciones mediáticas globales, entre otras, crean memorias cosmopólitas nuevas, disponiendo nuevos puntos de vista epistemológicos y interdependencias morales-políticas emergentes. Así, las memorias del Holocausto contribuyen a la creación de una memoria cultural europea com

  8. Pedagogy, Politics and the Profession: A Practical Perusal of Past, Present and Future Developments in Teaching History in Australian Schools

    Burley, Stephanie


    History curriculum reform proposals and debates are a persistent feature of the contemporary educational landscape in England and, very probably, a "sign of the times" that can reveal a great deal about contemporary predicaments and concerns. History curriculum controversy is also a global phenomenon and one that can fruitfully--and,…

  9. The media of sociology: tight or loose translations?

    Guggenheim, Michael


    Sociologists have increasingly come to recognize that the discipline has unduly privileged textual representations, but efforts to incorporate visual and other media are still only in their beginning. This paper develops an analysis of the ways objects of knowledge are translated into other media, in order to understand the visual practices of sociology and to point out unused possibilities. I argue that the discourse on visual sociology, by assuming that photographs are less objective than text, is based on an asymmetric media-determinism and on a misleading notion of objectivity. Instead, I suggest to analyse media with the concept of translations. I introduce several kinds of translations, most centrally the distinction between tight and loose ones. I show that many sciences, such as biology, focus on tight translations, using a variety of media and manipulating both research objects and representations. Sociology, in contrast, uses both tight and loose translations, but uses the latter only for texts. For visuals, sociology restricts itself to what I call 'the documentary': focusing on mechanical recording technologies without manipulating either the object of research or the representation. I conclude by discussing three rare examples of what is largely excluded in sociology: visual loose translations, visual tight translations based on non-mechanical recording technologies, and visual tight translations based on mechanical recording technologies that include the manipulation of both object and representation. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  10. Political intersections between HIV/AIDS, sexuality and human rights: a history of resistance to the anti-sodomy law in India.

    Ramasubban, R


    The HIV/AIDS epidemic in India has posed unprecedented challenges to both state and society, to question prevailing constructions of patriarchal gender relations and heteronormativity. Response to the challenge has come not from the political and social mainstream but from the criminalised "margins": people of alternative sexualities, who have launched a struggle for reform of the anti-sodomy law, Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code. This article documents the history of this movement, and identifies the multiple national and global-level cultural, political, and economic strands, shaping it. The legal reform movement has been invaluable as a tool to mobilise disparate alternative sexualities groups around a common strategy, thereby forging them into a tenuous national-level "community". Going beyond legal reform in the direction of sexual rights, however, requires a broader coalition of groups, and a broad-based political agenda of sexual rights for all. This agenda must critique patriarchy, dominant masculinity, and sexual violence; forces that together govern both the subordination of women and repression of alternative sexualities.

  11. [Business, politics, science, and visa versa: an institutional history of Brazilian medical journalism between 1827 and 1843].

    Ferreira, Luiz Otávio


    This analysis of Brazil's first medical newspapers - Propagador das Ciências Médicas (1827-28); Semanário de Saúde Pública (1831-33); Diário de Saúde (1835-36); Revista Médica Fluminense (1835-41); Revista Médica Brasileira (1841-43) - shows how Rio de Janeiro's socio-cultural context made it possible for this type of publication to emerge within the city's dynamic, troubled environment of the 1820s and 30s. I argue that the distinguishing feature of Brazil's early medical journalism was a symbiosis between business (local publishing houses' commercial interests), politics (struggles for political hegemony during the consolidation of the Imperial State), and science (the movement to institutionalize medicine and affirm it as a science).

  12. The Revolutionary Movement in the Evaluation of F.M. Dostoevsky: To Understand Conservatism in the Political History of Russia

    Konstantin A. Lotarev


    Full Text Available The article attempts to show the features of the conservative worldview of F. M. Dostoevsky through the prism of his assessments of the revolutionary movement and socialist ideas in Russia. The main focus is on the analysis of artistic creativity, and journalism, especially "Diary of a Writer". This allowed us to identify the political views of F. M. Dostoevsky and the possibility of their practical implementation. It is concluded that the main cause of the political turmoil in the 1860s – early 1880s, the spread of revolutionary ideas the writer felt a deep moral crisis afflicting Russian society. Therefore, the cause of the crisis he saw not in reforming state institutions, and in fundamental moral renewal of Russian life on the basis of Christian Orthodox values.

  13. On the history of “Turkish Orthodox Church” appearing: a political project or luckless national autocephality

    Bochkov Pavel Vladimirovich


    Full Text Available The article covers a little-known story of non-canonic Orthodox jurisdiction called “Turkish Orthodox Church” that appeared in 1920s as a schismatic organisation with strongly pronounced Turkish nationalism and extreme intolerance to the canonic Constantinopolitan Orthodox Church. A historical link between the orthodox citizens of Turkey with Greece stirred up ill-feeling in pro-Turkish nationalists. That caused raft of attempts to capture church property from the canonic churches. Despite uproars and big words schismatic didn’t attract many orthodox and remained as uninteresting issue for Turkish politicians. Without any governmental support non-canonic “Turkish Orthodox Church” gradually turned into socio-political group of devoted nationalists that are mainly the relatives of priest Paul Karakissadiris, the founder of this religious organization. Today “Turkish Orthodox Church” being mostly a political project has liberal elements and denies canonic division of Orthodox Church of schismatic community.

  14. Sociological interpretation of social problems

    O. V. Katsora


    The article considers such sociological approaches to social problems as social pathology, social disorganization, functional and critical approaches, the approach of value conflict, constructionsite approach and the approach of «labelling». Each approach has its own peculiarities of consideration of social problems, that is related with the historical period in which it arose and settled down, and the views of members of a particular sociological approach to social problems. Also, the article discusses the main advantages and disadvantages of sociological approaches to dealing the social problems.

  15. Atomic complex. Political history of nuclear energy. Le complexe atomique. Histoire politique de l'energie nucleaire

    Goldschmidt, B


    The political aspects of the growth of the two facets of the atomic complex have been dealt with in a distinct manner. Hence, this treatise is divided into two parts -two historical accounts- the first 'The explosion' dealing with the arm and the second 'The combustion' linked to the first part and devoted to the production of recoverable energy. Each part seeks to give an overall view of the unfolding of this extraordinary adventure whilst reserving a special destiny to the French aspects.

  16. History and political cultures: the legal conceptions evoked by the military governments while score of getting legitimacy

    Márcia Pereira da Silva


    Full Text Available This article proposes to analyse the period of brazilian military governments (1964-1985 under the view of lawfulness culture. We intend to show how the take of political power in 1964, far of being considered just the invest of the force and of the will, it was based into a juridical effort engagement, made upon a determined theory of constitutional right with emphasis in the thought of Carl Schmitt and Hans Kelsen.

  17. A health economist on medical sociology: reflections by an unreconstructed reductionist.

    Culyer, A J


    Eleven papers in medical sociology, recommended as representative by the Medical Sociology Group of the British Sociology Association, are evaluated by a health economist using five criteria: appeal of intellectual content, insights into political philosophy, explanatory power, predictive power and opportunities for social improvements. The paper concludes that the medical sociology literature is quite weak when judged by these criteria, though stronger on some than others. Sociologists often seem to confuse issues that involve value judgements with ones that do not, and generally seem to display a disconcerting obsession with methodological issues of the most fundamental kind that has inhibited medical sociology from developing interesting analyses of many issues on which, in principle, it ought to have much to offer.

  18. The Politics of Identity: History, Nationalism, and the Prospect for Peace in Post-Cold War East Asia

    Jager, Sheila M


    ... of memory, identity, and nationalism. The potential for violent military clashes in the Taiwan Strait and the Korean peninsula largely involve disputes over history and territory, linked as they are to the unresolved legacies of the Cold War...

  19. Behind the Battle Lines of History as Politics: An International and Intergenerational Methodology for Testing the Social Identity Thesis of History Education

    Taylor, Tony; Collins, Sue


    This article critiques popular assumptions that underlie the ongoing politicisation of school history curriculum as an agent of social identity and behaviour. It raises some key research questions which need further investigation and suggests a potential methodology for establishing evidence-based understanding of the relationship between history…

  20. Seeking Relevance: American Political Science and America

    Maranto, Robert; Woessner, Matthew C.


    In this article, the authors talk about the relevance of American political science and America. Political science has enormous strengths in its highly talented practitioners and sophisticated methods. However, its disconnection from its host society, while not so severe as for fields like English and sociology, nonetheless poses an existential…

  1. Methodological pluralism and structure of sociological theory

    N. L. Polyakova


    Full Text Available In the paper the historical-sociological analysis is used as a means to show the differences between theoretical and empirical sociology. There exist several, basic traditions in theoretical sociology. The investigation of their competing theoretical and methodological principles carried out in the paper; identify some fundamental features of sociological theory as a whole.

  2. A Life with the Sociology of Education

    Whitty, Geoff


    In this article, the author talks about a life with the sociology of education. He begins by describing the "old" and "new" sociologies of education. Then, he discusses the sociology of education policy and the relevance of Basil Bernstein, who remained the dominant presence within the sociology of education in the UK until his…

  3. Følelser og sociologi

    Bo, Inger Glavind; Jacobsen, Michael Hviid


    En introduktion til bogen om følelsernes sociologi eller emotionssociologi - herunder om den ekspressive revolution og den affektive vending, om forskning i følelser og dens klassifikationer, tilgange, teorier og metoder....

  4. Towards a Sociology of the Mobile Phone

    Jim McGuigan


    Full Text Available Use of the mobile phone is an immensely significant social and cultural phenomenon. However, market hype and utopian dreams greatly exaggerate its importance. The fundamental issue for sociology is the process of change. Bound up with contemporary issues of change, the mobile phone is a prime object for sociological attention both at the macro and micro levels of analysis. This article considers the strengths and weaknesses of four methods for studying the sociality of the mobile phone (social demography; political economy; conversation, discourse and text analysis; and ethnography, the different kinds of knowledge they produce, and the interests they represent. Recent ethnographic research on the mobile phone, particularly motivated by issues around the uncertain transition from 2G to the 3G technology, has examined the actual experience of routine use. Interpretative research is now supplementing purely instrumental research, thereby giving a much more nuanced understanding of mobile communications. Critical research on the mobile phone, of which there is little, is beginning to ask skeptical questions that should be pursued further.

  5. Aesthetics and Political Culture in Modern Society

    Nielsen, Henrik Kaare

    Do aesthetic appeals to senses and emotions in political debate necessarily marginalise political reason and reduce citizens to consumers – thus dangerously undermining democracy? Or is sensuous-emotional engagement, on the contrary, a basic fact of the political process and a crucial precondition...... in the political process do not by definition undermine politics’ content of reason. Instead, a differentiation must be made between a multiplicity of aesthetic forms of intervention – some of which tend to weaken the political judgement of citizens while other forms tend to stimulate competent judgement....... This book will be of interest to scholars in the fields of political science, sociology, media studies, and cultural studies....

  6. Sport Sociology and the Discipline of Sociology: Present Status and Speculations about the Future.

    Snyder, Eldon E.; Spreitzer, Elmer

    The status of the sociology of sport within the discipline of sociology is explored. Review of the subfield since 1971 indicates an increase in the number of publications and communication relating to sport sociology topics. It is hypothesized, however, that sport sociology will not in the near future receive equal acceptance within sociology with…

  7. Phenomenon of political actionism in modern society

    V. M. Bavykina


    analyzed the basic mechanisms of action steps identified method of subversive affirmation, deconstruction, genealogical method, which uses aktsionist in their activities. The main task of political actionism as a sociocultural phenomenon, which exists at the intersection of the political and artistic spaces. Was concluded that the political actionism is an interdisciplinary phenomenon, which should be read yak sociocultural phenomenon and investigated at an angle different disciplines – art history, sociology and philosophy.

  8. Geographies of displacement: Latina/os, oral history, and the politics of gentrification in San Francisco's Mission District.

    Mirabal, Nancy Raquel


    During the 1990s and early 2000s, working-class and poor neighborhoods in San Francisco underwent dramatic economic and racial changes. One of the most heavily gentrified neighborhoods was the Mission District. As a result of local politics, housing and rental policies, real estate speculation, and development, thousands of Latina/o families were displaced. Using oral historical and ethnographic methodologies, print media, archival sources, and policy papers, this article traces the gentrification of the Mission District from the perspective of the Latina/o community. It also examines how gentrification was articulated as a positive turn within the larger public discourse on space and access.

  9. Sociological concept of morale

    Marjanović Miloš


    Full Text Available The author first discusses the overall unity of the total normative regulation, from which it is separated in the late Roman empire the right, but only in the new century and the morale. There are analyzed the relationship between the moral and ethical reflection and Weber's distinction between pure ethics will (Gesinnungsethik and ethics of responsibility (Verantwortungsethik. The morale is determined by the good as the highest value, as a specific form of social norms but also as a kind of human behavior. These three definitions can be combined in an integrative approach. There are examined the dimensions of moral statements, subjective and objective side of morality, as well as the difference between morale and morality. A general notion of morale can not be defined in substantive but only in formal way . The formal definition is a constituent of general as well as of sociological concept of morale and it is related to morality as a social phenomenon. Its essence is to define the morale by specific norms, the characteristics of the internal and external mandatory (with the pricks of conscience as the most distinctive moral sanction and control exercised by the formal not institutionalized or diffuse society , and in consideration of morality as a social process (actions of people associated moral norms . The basic types of social moral process - being, education, functioning and changing of morale are described. There are briefly analyzed the influence of society to the morale and social function of morale, with special emphasis on the relationship between law and morale.

  10. Sociological aspects of rhinoplasty.

    Babuccu, Orhan; Latifoğlu, Osman; Atabay, Kenan; Oral, Nursen; Coşan, Behçet


    Although the psychological aspect of the rhinoplasty operation has been a subject of interest for a long time, with the exception of a few studies, sociological factors have been almost totally ignored. In this prospective study the personality characteristics and socioeconomic backgrounds of 216 rhinoplasty patients were evaluated. Between 1994 and 2000, a questionnaire and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) were given preoperatively to 157 females and 59 males. The MMPI was also given to age-matched people as a control. Six months after surgery, patients were called on the telephone and asked to rate their satisfaction. According to questionnaire, a great majority of the rhinoplasty patients were young, unmarried women with high education levels. In the rhinoplasty group, one or more scales of the inventory were not in the normal ranges in 45% of the patients, whereas this proportion in the control group was 28% (p childish, highly active, impulsive, competitive, reactive, perfectionistic about themselves, talkative, and emotionally superficial. Male patients could be described as rigid, stubborn, over-sensitive, suspicious, perfectionistic, pessimistic, over-reactive, and having somatizations. Tension and anxiety with feelings of inferiority were found to be characteristics of the male patients. The satisfaction rate after six months was reported as 72%. There was no significant correlation between MMPI results and demographic variables, nor satisfaction rate. In conclusion, the rhinoplasty patients in our study are young people at the very beginning of their careers. It could be that their personalities and socioeconomic backgrounds combine to make aesthetic surgery rewarding enough, both socially and personally, to encourage them to follow through.

  11. The sociologist and the state. An assessment of Pierre Bourdieu's sociology.

    Schinkel, Willem


    This paper provides an assessment of Pierre Bourdieu's sociology based on a reading of his posthumously published lectures on the state in Sur l'État. It argues that the state was a foundational element in Bourdieu's rendition of the symbolic order of everyday life. As such, the state becomes equally pivotal in Bourdieu's sociology, the applicability of which rests on the existence of the state, which stabilizes the social fields and their symbolic action that constitute the object of sociology. The state, which Bourdieu considers a 'meta'-ordering principle in social life, ensures that sociology has a well-ordered object of study, vis-à-vis which it can posit itself as 'meta-meta'. The state thus functions as an epistemic guarantee in Bourdieu's sociology. A critical analysis of Bourdieu's sociology of the state offers the chance of a more fundamental overall assessment of Bourdieu's conception of sociology that has relevance for any critical sociological perspective that rests on the assumption of a meta-social entity, such as the state in Bourdieu's work, as a final ordering instance. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  12. The Politics of Identity: History, Nationalism, and the Prospect for Peace in Post-Cold War East Asia


    Gerow, “Fantasies of War and Nation in Recent Japanese Cinema ,” Japan Focus, accessed at products/details/1707J, p. 5. In his...about their country’s remarkable economic resurgence after the Korean War. President Bush was referring to the recent anti- Japanese protests in...interests, the emotional debates surrounding 3 the history of World War II and Japanese colonialism are treated as mere shibboleths of competing elites

  13. What is analytical sociology? Towards sociology as 'normal science'

    Dekić Milovan


    Full Text Available In this paper I analyze the basics of analytical sociology, relatively new and in our scientific community little known intellectual movement. In the introductory part I try to identify the general causes of its occurrence. In the second part I provide its preliminary definition. In the third part I reconstruct its prehistory. In the fourth and main part I discuss the basis of its scientific program. In the final part I try to establish implications of the adoption of this program as a guide for the sociological enterprise in the future.

  14. Reconstructing the political : a study on contemporary Alevi politics from a generative structuralist perspective

    Göker, Emrah


    Ankara : The Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Bilkent University, 1999. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1999. Includes bibliographical references. The thesis, fırstly, introduces and engages in a critica! relationship with the sociological theory (namely, generative structuralism) of Pierre Bourdieu, retbinking his understanding of politics as a "field". For this purpose, the theory of ageney within the paradigm of generative structuralism ...

  15. Sustainability through the Lens of Environmental Sociology: An Introduction

    Md Saidul Islam


    Full Text Available Our planet is undergoing radical environmental and social changes. Sustainability has now been put into question by, for example, our consumption patterns, loss of biodiversity, depletion of resources, and exploitative power relations. With apparent ecological and social limits to globalization and development, current levels of consumption are known to be unsustainable, inequitable, and inaccessible to the majority of humans. Understanding and achieving sustainability is a crucial matter at a time when our planet is in peril—environmentally, economically, socially, and politically. Since its official inception in the 1970s, environmental sociology has provided a powerful lens to understanding the challenges, possibilities, and modes of sustainability. This editorial, accompanying the Special Issue on “sustainability through the Lens of Environmental Sociology”, first highlights the evolution of environmental sociology as a distinct field of inquiry, focusing on how it addresses the environmental challenges of our time. It then adumbrates the rich theoretical traditions of environmental sociology, and finally examines sustainability through the lens of environmental sociology, referring to various case studies and empirical analyses.

  16. Nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region: the history of emergence and the political and economic features of its development

    Kretinin Gennady


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the development of peaceful nuclear power. The author draws attention to the fact that nuclear power is a rather young branch of national economy. However, over recent decades, it has already seen rises and falls, and a number of states have had tragic experiences of nuclear emergencies. Nevertheless, many countries — including the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania — express a strong interest in development, generation, and application of nuclear power. In the Baltic States, nuclear power dates back to the Soviet times, but its development was suspended pursuant to the EU regulations (the Ignalina NPP. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia have been striving for energy independence from Russia — the principal supplier of energy carriers to these countries. For a long time, the three Baltic States have been proclaiming their unanimity on the general European path of development. However, the reality proved to be different. The touchstone for achieving common goals was the idea of constructing a new NPP at the site of the closed Ignalina NPP. The author concludes that the joint construction of a new NPP is quite questionable. When it comes to politics, each of the three Baltic States is ready to build its own NPP. Thus, the development of nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region requires joint coordinated actions independent of any bloc-inspired interests of the states involved. Moreover, this success may prove sustainable if the actions are based on innovative decisions and modern technologies.

  17. Medical sociology as a vocation.

    Bosk, Charles L


    This article extends Weber's discussion of science as a vocation by applying it to medical sociology. Having used qualitative methods for nearly 40 years to interpret problems of meaning as they arise in the context of health care, I describe how ethnography, in particular, and qualitative inquiry, more generally, may be used as a tool for understanding fundamental questions close to the heart but far from the mind of medical sociology. Such questions overlap with major policy questions such as how do we achieve a higher standard for quality of care and assure the safety of patients. Using my own research, I show how this engagement takes the form of showing how simple narratives of policy change fail to address the complexities of the problems that they are designed to remedy. I also attempt to explain how I balance objectivity with a commitment to creating a more equitable framework for health care. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  18. Latin american sociology's contribution to sociological imagination: analysis, criticism, and social commitment

    José Vicente Tavares-dos-Santos


    Full Text Available This paper tackles the role played by sociology in the analysis of the transformation processes in the Latin American societies, in following the construction process of both State and Nation, and in questioning the social issues in Latin America. Six periods of sociology in Latin America and in the Caribbean Islands are analyzed: (i sociology's intellectual inheritance; (ii the authoritative-teaching sociology; (iii the "scientific sociology" period and the configuration of the "critical sociology"; (iv the institutional crisis, consolidation of the "critical sociology", and the diversification of sociology; (v the sociology of authoritarianism, of democracy, and of exclusion; and (vi the institutional consolidation and the worldization of sociology in Latin America (from the year 2000 on. It can be said that the distinctive features of the sociological knowledge in the continent have been: internationalism, hybridism, critical approach to the processes and conflicts in the Latin American societies, and social commitment on the part of the sociologist.

  19. Committing Canadian sociology: developing a Canadian sociology and a sociology of Canada.

    Matthews, Ralph


    This paper is a slightly revised version of the author's "Outstanding Career Award Lecture" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria, British Columbia on June 6, 2013. The paper distinguishes between Canadian Sociology and the Sociology of Canada. The former involves the explanatory stance that one takes to understanding Canada. The latter addresses the significant social dimensions that underlie Canadian social organization, culture, and behavior. I make a case for a Canadian Sociology that focuses on the unique features of Canadian society rather than adopting a comparative perspective. I also argue that there is a continuing need within the Sociology of Canada to address the issues of staples development. However, I argue that "new" staples analysis must have a directional change from that of the past, in that social processes now largely determine the pattern of staples development. Moreover, new staples analysis must include issues that were never part of earlier staples analysis, such as issues of environmental impacts and of staples depletion under conditions, such as climate change. The paper concludes by analyzing four factors that provide the dominant social contexts for analyzing modern staples development: (1) the rise of neoliberal government, (2) the implementation of globalization and its social consequences, (3) the assumption of aboriginal rights and entitlement, and (4) the rise of environmentalism. These factors were generally not considered in earlier staples approaches. They are critical to understanding the role of staples development and its impact on Canada in the present time.

  20. Introduction to a critique of modernity as a sociological concept

    João Feres Junior


    Full Text Available This article borrows the methodological framework from the conceptual history, as well as some of the substantive findings from the principal essay of conceptual history on the concept of modernity by Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, to criticize the present-day use of the concept of modernity by sociology, paying special attention to the sociology produced in Brazil. I demonstrate that two fundamental meanings historically associated with the concept of modernity are also present in the sociological material although in a rather non-reflexive manner. They are: modern as something opposed to traditional within a scheme of linear temporal evolution and modernity as a transitional period as opposed to that which is eternal and immutable. The lack of critical reflexivity on the concept combined with the plethora of meanings attributed to it lead to a situation entirely opposed to what one would expect from an analytical concept. Instead of clarity, we have confusion and the implicit importation and universalization of major ethnocentric European narratives, which sociology uses as a sort of measurement to evaluate non-European societies.

  1. Sociologické skúmanie individualizmu – problematickosť metodologického individualizmu (Sociological Exploring of Individualism—the Problematic of Methodological Individualism

    Mária Suríková


    Full Text Available The paper discusses sociological exploring of individualism. Although individualism is the topic, which accompany sociology since the beginning, until now there is not approved sociological theory of individualism. Even the voices of those, who question the existence of individualism, become stronger. As the main weaknesses of sociological exploring of individualism there are recorded normativeness (moral and religious, ideological and political, theoretical and attempts to build kind of “grand” theory. As the key failing of sociological exploring of individualism is considered there the scientific approach of methodological individualism, which makes individualism as social phenomenon sociologically invisible, confusing individualism with egoism. The aim of author is to suggest and give reasons for exploring individualism as a kind of social organization, using an approach of sociological realism.

  2. Sociology, Basis for the Secondary-School Subject of Social Sciences

    Lieke Meijs


    Full Text Available This paper reformulates the question of ‘sociology, who needs it’ in two ways, The first question we address is that of the reason why the educational system itself did not come to sociology for help in their long quest for a clear-cut content of the subject. The second question is why sociology did not adopt the orphaned subject of social studies back in 1960. The answer to the first question lies in the vulnerability of a subject that is dependent for its continued existence on the political leanings of the day. This led to a new goal for the subject almost every decade: from social education in the sixties and social and political education in the seventies, to a focus on citizenship education in the nineties. Although the objective was renamed on several occasions, the prescriptive viewpoint is recognizable in each. This perspective is difficult to reconcile with a social science content. The answer to the second questions points towards Dutch social scientists with a strong focus on academic sociology and not for critical, policy or public sociology. This choice was also made in order to win the competition with psychologists and for the discipline to get rid of the poor image it had acquired in the 1960s. The new subject social sciences, with a strong focus on science made it possible for sociology to become the pillar of this new subject.

  3. Teaching Sociology and Womens’ Critical Thinking

    Mohammad-Ali Zaki


    Introduction Sociology of Teaching sociology is seen as a fresh new place to explore the importance and role of critical thinking in the sociology of education has been one of the most important issues to consider.Principles of Sociology course ample opportunities for students to develop critical thinking skills and attitudes and serves as a missionary spirit, critical thinking has suggested an alternative,Areas has brought the development of critical thinking. Learn the basics of critical...

  4. Can sociology help to improve nursing practice?

    Matthews, David

    The first in a five-part series on sociology offers an overview of the debate about the relationship between sociology and nursing. Although sociological education is currently limited within nurse education, there is a long-held argument for its relevance. With a growing emphasis on preventative and public healthcare, sociology may yet prove its usefulness. Subsequent articles cover four of the key social factors affecting health.

  5. The Corpus Status of Literature in Teaching Sociology: Novels as "Sociological Reconstruction"

    Carlin, Andrew P.


    Using fiction in teaching sociology involves what Harvey Sacks calls "sociological reconstruction". Numerous comments on teaching sociology provide advice and suggestions on the use of literature and "what counts" as "sociological" literature, including specific titles. This paper goes further: while the use of literature is a routine feature of…

  6. Should We Talk about the Pain? Personalizing Sociology in the Medical Sociology Classroom

    Nowakowski, Alexandra C. H.; Sumerau, J. E.


    This article discusses the potential of personalizing sociology curriculum, specifically in Medical Sociology courses, to increase student engagement and sociological awareness. Based on our experiences offering separate Medical Sociology courses at a large public research university and a small private teaching university, respectively, we…

  7. [Psychological theory and implicit sociology.].

    Sévigny, R


    This text is based on the hypothesis that every theory on the psychology of personality must inevitably, in one manner or another, have a sociological referent, that is to say, it must refer to a body of knowledge which deals with a diversity of social contexts and their relations to individuals. According to this working hypothesis, such a sociology is implicit. This text then discusses a group of theoretical approaches in an effort to verify this hypothesis. This approach allows the extrication of diverse forms or diverse expressions of this implicit sociology within this context several currents are rapidly explored : psychoanalysis, behaviorism, gestalt, classical theory of needs. The author also comments on the approach, inspired by oriental techniques or philosophies, which employs the notion of myth to deepen self awareness. Finally, from the same perspective, he comments at greater length on the work of Carl Rogers, highlighting the diverse form of implicit sociology. In addition to Carl Rogers, this text refers to Freud, Jung, Adler, Reich, Perls, Goodman, Skinner as well as to Ginette Paris and various analysts of Taoism. In conclusion, the author indicates the significance of his analysis from double viewpoint of psychological theory and practice.

  8. Analytical Sociology: A Bungean Appreciation

    Wan, Poe Yu-ze


    Analytical sociology, an intellectual project that has garnered considerable attention across a variety of disciplines in recent years, aims to explain complex social processes by dissecting them, accentuating their most important constituent parts, and constructing appropriate models to understand the emergence of what is observed. To achieve this goal, analytical sociologists demonstrate an unequivocal focus on the mechanism-based explanation grounded in action theory. In this article I attempt a critical appreciation of analytical sociology from the perspective of Mario Bunge's philosophical system, which I characterize as emergentist systemism. I submit that while the principles of analytical sociology and those of Bunge's approach share a lot in common, the latter brings to the fore the ontological status and explanatory importance of supra-individual actors (as concrete systems endowed with emergent causal powers) and macro-social mechanisms (as processes unfolding in and among social systems), and therefore it does not stipulate that every causal explanation of social facts has to include explicit references to individual-level actors and mechanisms. In this sense, Bunge's approach provides a reasonable middle course between the Scylla of sociological reification and the Charybdis of ontological individualism, and thus serves as an antidote to the untenable "strong program of microfoundations" to which some analytical sociologists are committed.

  9. Political Anthropology and Anthropology of Politics: An Overview

    Suresh Dhakal


    Full Text Available In this short review, I have tried to sketch an overview of historical development of political anthropology and its recent trends. I was enthused to prepare this review article as there does not exist any of such simplified introduction of one of the prominent sub-fields in cultural anthropology for the Nepalis readers, in particular. I believe this particular sub-field has to offer much to understand and explain the recent trends and current turmoil of the political transition in the country. Political anthropologists than any other could better explain how the politics is socially and culturally embedded and intertwined, therefore, separation of the two – politics from social and cultural processes – is not only impossible but methodologically wrong, too. DOI: Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 5, 2011: 217-34

  10. The Sociological Imagination and Its Promise Fifty Years Later

    Carlos Frade


    Full Text Available This paper offers a restatement of Wright Mills’ The Sociological Imagination and tries to judge whether its promise can be credibly renewed today by addressing the question about the present and future possibilities of the social sciences as free forms of enquiry. Relying on Weber, Mills and other thinkers, the paper sustains that the possibilities for a truly free social science essentially depend on three major ‘conditions’: the subjective stance or vocation, the sociological imagination proper, and an independent social science politics, conditions whose apt names can also be ‘love’, ‘insight’ and ‘courage’. An analysis of the presence and strength of each of these conditions in contemporary social science and in academia shows the magnitude of the task faced for the existence of a free social science.

  11. Sociological theories of subjective well-being

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)


    textabstractSubjective well-being is no great issue in sociology; the subject is not mentioned in sociological textbooks (a notable exception is Nolan & Lenski, 2004) and is rarely discussed in sociological journals. This absence has many reasons: pragmatic, ideological, and theoretical. To begin

  12. Auguste Comte’s Critique of Political Economy

    Gustavo Biscaia


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present Auguste Comte’s critique of the Political Economy of his time as well as the proposals for social reform flowing from it. The methodological framework is built up on the categories proposed by the History of Ideas, in particular those of M. Bevir and Q. Skinner. What we can refer to as “Comtian economic theory” can be found in his “Social Statics”, in the sections dealing with property and the material elements of society, and in his “Social Dynamics”, where reference is made to the interrelationships between political, social and economic changes throughout history. This economic theory establishes dialogs both with liberals and “communists”, on the one hand defending the need for property and on the other, arguing for the subordination of property to social needs and providing a severe critique of individualism. The theory has both direct and indirect consequences: on the one hand, society cannot be reduced to the “market” and the State cannot neglect economic fluctuations; on the other hand, the most immediate conflicts of interest between proletarians and “patricians” cannot deny the social origin of wealth, requiring moral and legal measures for the regulation and resolution of these conflicts. In this regard, Comte may be seen as a precursor of the Welfare State, or at least a theoretician of social justice. Keywords: Auguste Comte, Positivism, Sociology, critique of Political Economy, holist methodology, social justice.

  13. Analysing Discourse. An Approach From the Sociology of Knowledge

    Reiner Keller


    Full Text Available The contribution outlines a research pro­gramme which I have coined the "sociology of knowledge approach to discourse" (Wissens­sozio­logische Diskursanalyse. This approach to dis­course integrates important insights of FOU­CAULT's theory of discourse into the interpretative paradigm in the social sciences, especially the "German" approach of hermeneutic sociology of knowledge (Hermeneutische Wissenssoziologie. Accordingly, in this approach discourses are con­sidered as "structured and structuring structures" which shape social practices of enunciation. Un­like some Foucauldian approaches, this form of discourse analysis recognises the importance of socially constituted actors in the social production and circulation of knowledge. Furthermore, it com­bines research questions related to the concept of "discourse" with the methodical toolbox of qual­itative social research. Going beyond ques­tions of language in use, "the sociology of knowl­edge ap­proach to discourse" (Wissenssozio­logi­sche Dis­kurs­analyse addresses sociological inter­ests, the analyses of social relations and politics of knowl­edge as well as the discursive construction of re­al­ity as an empirical ("material" process. For empiri­cal research on discourse the approach proposes the use of analytical concepts from the sociology of knowledge tradition, such as inter­pretative schemes or frames (Deutungsmuster, "clas­sifi­ca­tions", "phenomenal structure" (Phäno­men­struktur, "narrative structure", "dispositif" etc., and the use of the methodological strategies of "grounded theory". URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503327

  14. Reconceptualizing resistance: sociology and the affective dimension of resistance.

    Hynes, Maria


    This paper re-examines the sociological study of resistance in light of growing interest in the concept of affect. Recent claims that we are witness to an 'affective turn' and calls for a 'new sociological empiricism' sensitive to affect indicate an emerging paradigm shift in sociology. Yet, mainstream sociological study of resistance tends to have been largely unaffected by this shift. To this end, this paper presents a case for the significance of affect as a lens by which to approach the study of resistance. My claim is not simply that the forms of actions we would normally recognize as resistance have an affective dimension. Rather, it is that the theory of affect broadens 'resistance' beyond the purview of the two dominant modes of analysis in sociology; namely, the study of macropolitical forms, on the one hand, and the micropolitics of everyday resistance on the other. This broadened perspective challenges the persistent assumption that ideological forms of power and resistance are the most pertinent to the contemporary world, suggesting that much power and resistance today is of a more affective nature. In making this argument, it is a Deleuzian reading of affect that is pursued, which opens up to a level of analysis beyond the common understanding of affect as emotion. I argue that an affective approach to resistance would pay attention to those barely perceptible transitions in power and mobilizations of bodily potential that operate below the conscious perceptions and subjective emotions of social actors. These affective transitions constitute a new site at which both power and resistance operate. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  15. Alternative Constructions of Treason in the Angevin Political World: Traïson in the History of William Marshal

    Stephen D. WHITE


    Full Text Available After some nobles and other fighting men surrendered Rochester castle to King John in 1215, John wanted to hang the nobles but refrained from doing so on the advice of one of his military captains. Would hanging the nobles for making war on the king have been lawful? This question about the law of treason has provoked inconclusive debate among historians who have sought to determine whether, in this period, making war against the English king was legally classified as lèse-majesté (crimen laesae majestatis, proditio or infidelitas. This article, however, asks whether the nobles whom John wanted to hang were guilty of traïson, as this vernacular term was used in the History of William Marshal (c. 1230. On this basis, the paper concludes that in all probability, the nobles who held Rochester against the king would not have been condemned as traitors, at least by their aristocratic peers.Cuando en 1215 ciertos nobles y otros combatientes se rindieron y entregaron el castillo de Rochester al rey Juan éste quiso colgarles, pero el consejo de uno de sus nobles le hizo absternerse. ¿Habría sido legítimo condenar a la horca a los que habían guerreado contra el rey? Cuestiones relativas al derecho de traición al intentar determinar si la guerra contra el rey de Inglaterra fue considerada en la época un crimen laesae majestatis, proditio, o infidelitas, según la definición que dan a estos términos las fuentes latinas, han suscitado debates interminables entre los historiadores. Este artículo, por el contrario, se pregunta si los nobles que el rey Juan deseaba colgar eran o no culpables de traición, en el sentido vernáculo del término que es usado en L’histoire de Guillaume le Maréchal (hacia 1230. Sobre esta base, la conclusión del artículo es que los nobles que ocuparon el castillo de Rochester, casi con total seguridad, no habrían sido condenados como traidores, al menos por sus pares.

  16. Toward a Sociology of Oceans.

    Hannigan, John


    Despite covering around 70 percent of the earth's surface, the ocean has long been ignored by sociology or treated as merely an extension of land-based systems. Increasingly, however, oceans are assuming a higher profile, emerging both as a new resource frontier, a medium for geopolitical rivalry and conflict, and a unique and threatened ecological hot spot. In this article, I propose a new sociological specialty area, the "sociology of oceans" to be situated at the interface between environmental sociology and traditional maritime studies. After reviewing existing sociological research on maritime topics and the consideration of (or lack of consideration) the sea by classic sociological theorists, I briefly discuss several contemporary sociological approaches to the ocean that have attracted some notice. In the final section of the paper, I make the case for a distinct sociology of oceans and briefly sketch what this might look like. One possible trajectory for creating a shared vision or common paradigm, I argue, is to draw on Deleuze and Guattari's dialectical theory of the smooth and the striated. Même s'il couvre 70% de la surface de la Terre, l'océan a été longtemps ignoré en sociologie ou traité comme une extension des systèmes terrestres. De plus en plus, toutefois, l'océan retient l'attention, en étant vu comme une nouvelle frontière en termes de ressources, un médium pour les rivalités et les conflits géopolitiques, et un lieu écologique névralgique et unique. Dans cet article, je propose une nouvelle spécialisation sociologique, la 'sociologie des océans', se situant dans l'interface entre la sociologie environnementale et les études maritimes traditionnelles. Après une recension de la recherche sociologique existante sur les sujets maritimes et la prise en compte (ou l'absence de prise en compte) de l'océan par les théoriciens de la sociologie classique, je discute brièvement quelques approches sociologiques contemporaines de l

  17. Sociology, medicine and the construction of health-related sociology.

    Barros, Nelson Filice de; Nunes, Everardo Duarte


    Starting from a paper about closing the gap between sociology and medicine in Brazil and the United Kingdom that was published in 1971, a historical update was made with the aim of reflecting on the new shapes of health-related teaching and research within the social and human sciences, in these two countries. The methodology was qualitative and the study was developed using secondary data. The reflections were developed through the authors' immersion in Brazilian and British realities. It was concluded that the interface between sociology and health has expanded, although persistent old difficulties exist in relation to the structure and focus of the healthcare system, medical school power and medical student culture.

  18. Determinateness and Indeterminateness in Schumpeter's Economic Sociology: The Origin of Social Evolution

    Yagi, Kiichiro


    This article traces Schumpeter's texts that fit his definition of "economic sociology" given in the introductory chapter of History of Economic Analysis (1954). The findings are as follows: (1) Since his early years, Schumpeter had a vision of "socio–cultural development" that was characterized by a general interdependence and a distinction between statics and dynamics. (2) Schumpeter adopted the term "evolution" to describe the historical change in his economic sociology. Moreover, he would ...

  19. The Missing Piece: A Sociological Autopsy of Firearm Suicide in the United States

    Slater, Greta Yoder


    Social, economic, violence, political, and gun access predictors of suicide and gun suicide were examined via sociological autopsy. The model predicting suicide rates overall had the best results, X[superscript 2](9, N = 50) = 5.279 (CMIN, the goodness of fit statistic that represents the minimum discrepancy between the unrestricted sample…

  20. Use of New Approaches in Teaching Sociology (Application of a Technique for Producing Idea)

    Eraslan, Levent


    Society-based research subjects are the study of sociology which is an important branch of science in the field of social science. It is a branch of studying society, social values, social groups, social classes and economical, political, social, religious, lawful institutions, population, usage, custom, value, norm, beliefs and relations and…

  1. Sociology: a view from the diaspora.

    Rosenfeld, Richard


    From the vantage point of criminology, one of sociology's main export subject areas, the present and future of sociology appear a good deal more promising than John Holmwood's essay on the discipline's misfortune would suggest. Sociology remains in high demand by students and faculty hiring remains strong, even in its more critical sub-fields, such as race and ethnicity, sex and gender, and social inequality. Holmwood is correct that sociology is vulnerable to external pressures to demonstrate its relevance to social practice, but those pressures come from left-wing social movements as well as from centres of power. He is also correct that external pressures contribute to internal disagreement, but sociology has been at war with itself since the 1960s, with little evident decline in its academic standing or intellectual vitality. Those of us on the discipline's diaspora, who depend on sociology for both support and light, must remain hopeful about sociology's continued good fortune.

  2. Why research into the history of geosciences?

    Schröder, Wilfried

    Study of the history of various sciences is rather heterogeneous. Some disciplines, such as medicine, mathematics, and astronomy, have numerous noteworthy compendia and even specialized journals where papers on the history of these sciences can be published.The situation in geophysics, meteorology, and other subdivisions of the geosciences is far less favorable. This neglect is an outcome of a dogma of autonomy that is essentially oriented toward progress in understanding, without much reference to historical developments. But even the geoscientists cannot ignore that the phenomenon ‘science’ must be viewed in the context of sociological processes. In the initial stages, sociologists and some philosophers, in the context of the general theory of perception, began research into the development of scientific thought, but the geoscientists and other natural scientists contributed very little. It has since become clear that research on these topics requires historical assessment and more insight. The development of the ‘science of science’ is directed toward understanding and explanation of the complex human involvement in science, not only in the sense of theorizing about the scientific processes but also in sociological, political, and historical context [Kuhn, 1973; Burrichter, 1979; Sandkühler and Plath, 1979.

  3. A Material History of Electroshock Therapy : Electroshock Technology in Europe until 1945.

    Rzesnitzek, Lara; Lang, Sascha


    The article considers the history of electroshock therapy as a history of medical technology, professional cooperation and business competition. A variation of a history from below is intended; though not from the patients' perspective (Porter, Theory Soc 14:175-198, 1985), but with a focus on electrodes, circuitry and patents. Such a 'material history' of electroshock therapy reveals that the technical make-up of electroshock devices and what they were used for was relative to the changing interests of physicians, industrial companies and mental health politics; it makes an intriguing case for the Social Construction of Technology theory (Bijker et al., The social construction of technological systems: new directions in the sociology and history of technology. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1987).

  4. Perspectives of the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge and Science Education: a study of Education Journals

    Fernanda Aparecida Meglhioratti


    Full Text Available Despite the fact that Science Teaching emphasizes the importance of researches in Epistemology and History of Science and also covers social aspects of the scientific construction, there are still relatively very few studies which are systematically based on perspectives from the Sociology of Science or from the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge. In this article, it has been outlined a brief history of the sociological perspectives of scientific knowledge, characterizing them as differentiationist, antidifferentiationist and tranversalist. Then, a bibliographical study was developed in journals Qualis A1 and A2 in the area of “Teaching” of CAPES, with emphasis in Science Teaching, from 2007 to 2016, aiming to understand how the sociological perspectives are present in science education. The search for articles which articulate sociological aspects and Science Education was done through use of search engines emerging from the accomplished historic, among them: Sociology of Science, Sociology of Scientific Knowledge, Ethnography, Laboratory Studies, Strong Program, Scientific Fields, Scientific Ethos, Actor-Network Theory, Social and Technical Networks, Latour, Bloor, Merton and Bourdieu. Through this research, we have identified 46 articles which have approaches with the subject. The articles were investigated by Content Analysis and were organized in the units of analysis: 1 Foundations of the sociology of knowledge; 2 Scientific Ethos; 3 Science Working System; 4 Sociogenesis of knowledge; 5 Strong Program of Sociology of Knowledge; 6 Laboratory studies and scientific practice; 7 Actor-Network Theory; 8 Bourdieusian Rationale; 9 Non-Bourdieusian tranversalist approaches; 10 Notes regarding the Sociology of Science. The units of analysis with the greatest number of articles were "Laboratory Studies and Scientific Practice" and "Actor-Network Theory", both closer to an antidifferentiationist perspective of the sociology of science, in which

  5. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs.


    considered a symbolic "victory" for the educators: some schools have begun to install coin-operated vending machines for dispensing quick -lunches...and for radically limiting and reducing the arms race and for completely banning and eliminating nuclear weapons. CSO: 2700/2 10^ ROMAN...1964 of avant-garde theater in Belgrade and the last-minute banning of his play "Uvek Zeleno" which Ristic had directed and which "was, of course, one

  6. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 2161


    Military Affairs Chemistry Cybernetics, Computers and Automation Technology Earth Sciences Electronics and Electrical Engineering Engineering and...language "from which classical Latin developed."^ An army journal undertook the task to explain the etymological origin of the designation Walach

  7. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 431.


    feathers and unicorn horns." Another 42 Situation that also exists is that some comrades when they come across a variance of opinions, try to avoid...cadres to study theory, culture and various types of specialized knowledge. Consequently , many military commanders rapidly became talents for the cause...colleges are trying to keep up with the universities; and teacher colleges are trying to come close to comprehensive universities. Consequently , some

  8. East Europe Report: Political, Sociological and Military Affairs. No. 2149


    Hence also all actions of the authorities intended to curtail manifestations of social pathology , parasitism , speculation and the amassing of fortunes...him into the sea . This is not in accordance with the party line." When the party leadership became aware of this matter, Comrade Enver said: "Tell... lions . The newspaper NARODNA KULTURA might concern itself with the pressing problems of television criticism and arrange for public discussion of this

  9. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 2198


    confectionery and bakery industries. We have devoted much attention here to production because it is the topic of focus of the POP, which is natural, no...34Facing Worker Demands of Production, Pay, Market : Consultation"] [Text] The pay situation in light industry has for the longest time been a subject...Grzywa: The Monday resolution by the Council of Ministers on intensifica-: tion of market good production gives the minister of chemical and light

  10. The Politics and Sociology of Screening the Past

    Bondebjerg, Ib


    Heritage cinema and television is closely linked to our existence as members of a national community. Visualising and narrating the past is an important mental and symbolic part of creating that feeling of belonging to a nation. Through collective stories and images of the past such film....... In this article I will trace the development of EU cultural policy and the film and media policy. I will combine this with a focus on the development of film and media policy on a national level through a case study of Danish heritage television productions and the national and transnational dimensions...

  11. USSR Report, Political and Sociological Affairs, No. 1434


    author loves to make a splash by using slang expressions such as "neulyby" /"frowners^, "nudyagi" /"bores_| y , or "boyaguzy" /cowards/. And he couldn’t...small format. "In the past 5 years four books of large format have been published: selected works of R. Descarte and J.-J. Rousseau, ’The Republic...ligion and Science’ of B. Russell and ’Vocation of Man’ of J. G. Fichte. Books of M. Montaigne, Marcus Aurelius and Epictetus are being prepared for

  12. USSR Report: Political and Sociological Affairs. No. 1434.


    turned out to be something on the order of a historical-pedagogical essay . It is indeed hard to define the genre of the book. What is it? Memoirs of...fact that she directs a wedding with the idea of actively involving all the guests. She has prepared song lyrics , beautifully and brightly made up in

  13. Politics and Development: Down the Great Drains: A Sociological ...

    ... of the Entangle and Challenges of Corruption and Development in Nigeria. ... particularly in third World countries have remained an indelible enigma. ... of the North and recently, the Asian Tigers are rising geometrically while the per

  14. USSR Report: Political and Sociological Affairs, No. 1478.


    34 [indyuk], " whale " [Mt], "gooseberry" [kryzhovnik], "palm tree" [pal’ma], "lilac" [siren’], "battle" [srazheniye], and "navy" [flot]. You have to... addict , then on a swindling salesman, then on a degenerate priest who has just come from the bed of his lover. Adding that, "all of them are

  15. East Europe Report: Political, Sociological and Military Affairs.


    power headaches to Romania. One out of every five street lamps was lit on the squares and boule- vards, and the same in stores and hotel rooms, and...toes 4 to 8.... In the department stores the better shirts are 160 leus, a man’s suit 600 to 1,000, in the private boutiques the prices are twice as...goes to foreign markets. Certainly this is felt in the domestic butcher shops and menus, but not in the hotels . Present-day Romania’s principal motto

  16. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 2133.


    sanitary and hygienic conditions in hospitals to reduce nosocomial infections . Inspection should be made at least twice a year mainly healthy and sick infants; —observance by health care personnel of epidemic provincial principles and prophylaxis of nosocomial infections through...Referring to the terrible conditions in the maternity ward at Zermomski Hospital, she suggested that part of the new outpatient clinic in Plastow be

  17. USSR Report, Political and Sociological Affairs, No. 1438.


    organized manner in spite of a considerable increase in the volume of work. Animal productivity was increased. The plan for procurement of meat, milk ...possible to talk about evidence under conditions of blatant falsification of the facts—has been the culture, or more precisely, the literature, of Central

  18. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 2101.


    Sebastian Charlety: " Histoire du Saint-Simonisme (1825-1864)", Paris 1931, pp. 103-119. 40. Ibid., pp. 79-94. 41. Evidently Goethe had already planned...industrial and financial magnates? Indeed, they themselves, mired in the web of their own demagoguery, describe the efforts of the masses to live...In the brochure, Causes et consequences des evenements du mois du Juillet 1830 by Joseph Fievee, which Goethe reads on October 18 and 19, 1830,16

  19. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 2174.


    MIEDZYNARODOWE, 1976, No 12, p 7 ff.; J. Symonides: "The Fifth Session of the 3rd Conference on the Law of the Sea," TRANSPORT I GOSPODARKA MORSKA ...GOSPODARKA MORSKA , 1977, No 11, p 663 ff. 4 > u> 9. The convention permits the use of straight lines only in the case of an island state which, in

  20. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 2150


    Trup Voi Muntilor," Zoltan Jekely; "The Poet," Peter Zirkuli); I. Vinea—7 ("War," "A Remembrance," Janos Szasz ); I. Barbu—4 ("Miss Hus," Erno...Zoltan Jekely, Jozsef Meliusz, Kanyadi Sandor, Domokos Szilagyi, Janos Szasz and so forth. But, as any antholo- gy, it can be improved. First, by

  1. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs


    organizations in bringing up the main and basic features in assessing the situation and creating conditions and a mood for decisive changes in the work and...already adults , were working with passionate belief and determination day and night—perhaps applauding and chanting more than neces- sary—are not...Nagy’s handwriting . 1014 CS0: 2500/191 52 JPRS-EPS-85-035 19 March 1985 HUNGARY REPORTS ABOUT CHINESE REFORM Preliminary Discussions, Economic

  2. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 2185


    dazzling events in the struggles of many years waged by the Bulgarian people for liberation from the Ottoman bondage » In it the population of the County...a third of the funds in these accounts will have to go toward settling Solidarity’s debts . "We do not know on the other hand how much we will to extract from those owing debts to Solidarity on the evidence of receipts for loans and security benefits." P. Karpiuk then says that "it

  3. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 420


    from growing excessively through economic means (mainly taxation ) and to regulating the differences between wages in different enterprises. Control...and they are exempted from taxation on produce from this land. Through more than 10 years’ efforts, marked changes’ have occurred in Czechoslovakia’s...very happy to learn why they practised family planning. The wife, a worker of the Shanghai No 15 cotton mill, told the foreign guest that they

  4. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 465.


    us to be free from the boundary of the small sphere of vision and understanding that restricted our selection of cadres in the past. As a...34making oneself" and "training oneself into a man of talents." This is a kind of bourgeois individualist ideological trend centered on egoism

  5. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 464.


    Soviet Union and the United States. The inscription of the question was proposed by Malaysia and Antigua and Barbuda. Malaysian Representative Tan Sri...Last year the state set up a television university. Workers’ cultural palaces, youth palaces, children’s palace libraries, theaters, and cinemas

  6. USSR Report, Political and Sociological Affairs No. 1402.


    one rehabilitation therapy room. The doctor’s consultation takes places in crowded conditions. 62 But the insufficient numbers of...funds, for example, to reinforce the five horticultural associations that were recently created, to expand the fodder base for the subsidiary farms...for example, in polyclinics No. 2 and No. 4, there are no auxiliary services—no physical therapy rooms, no clinical labo- ratories

  7. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs No. 447


    a round of 20 currency devaluations to follow, and reductions in subsidies for wheat and gasoline. Since then, the inflation rate has clearing its debts. Nigeria , Venezuela, and Colombia will also be facing serious financial difficulties. In view of this situation some Western...that they did was to increase the IMF portion of special loan drawing rights from $61.6 billion to $90 billion (more accurately, to about $98.5

  8. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 2160.


    in the 18th century, during the gold- en age of French and German enlightment . if the pamphlet is the screenplay of indictment and accusation, the...responsibility of investors, designers, constructors and producers of machines, pieces of equipment and technological materials, so that we will build...year, before the beginning of the construction-assembly works. /II. For the study and design of the technology of machines, technological pieces of

  9. Politics and Development: Down the Great Drains: A Sociological ...

    Major causes of this development status are traced to the inability of the developing countries, particularly in Africa to insist on standards of authentic and knowledge leadership, problems of insecurity, fear of investment and dearth of enabling structures for development. Corruption has been seen to be at the centre of this ...

  10. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 2199.


    countries. Had the libel been true, these monarchs obviously would not have tolerated the Jesuits in their countries. In 1814, Pope Pius VII re- stored the...with Pope John Paul II during his first pilgrimage to Poland requires a separate discussion. The growth in this form of manifestation of the other side of the argument. It is true that in 1773 Pope Clement XIV dissolved the Jesuit Order, but he did so under pressure from the

  11. East Europe Report: Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 2193


    want to become "good" people, perform humanistic deeds, be useful, not senselessly vegetate. Values such as a sense of duty, a sense of honor, but...produc- tion, primarily in the production of vegetables, conservation of pastures, preservation of livestock, and broadly interpreted social- existential three fourths of the respondents to have self-government active in social- existential matters (an explanation to this might be, the lack of trade

  12. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 2151


    of the intelligentsia "has become estranged from classical- humanist culture, and for this reason it is with great difficulty or not at all able to...This comes from the socialist, humanistic ideas that guide our society and from the interests of our people. This is our major strength. Our most...and that is why the party can tolerate neither a two-faced attitude nor the so-called "force of persistence" as parti- cular attitudes of existential

  13. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 2167


    from a universal point of view of human morality, noble. What concerns us here is what the famous humanist , Professor A. Gregorczyk, has asked...thinking and action from the same system of values. What produces them is, on one hand, the objective existential conditions of a given group of people...partner relations with the humanist intelligentsia and the managerial production personnel; —thirdly, the sovereignty of the class rule of workers

  14. Translations on USSR Political and Sociological Affairs, Number 818.


    humanist nature of our society, where everything is arranged to serve man, for his good and on his behalf. The example of our republic is vivid evidence of...theories and concepts in the modern world—from existentialism to anarchism—the bourgeois scientists state that the borrowing of "elements of Marxism...Uprisings against violence and injustice, exploitation and poverty flared up everywhere. Even at this time bold speeches rang out about freedom, knowledge

  15. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 445.


    2052 0981], Chen Dingming [7115 7844 6900], Jin Xiulan [6855 4423 5695] (F, Mongolian), Zhao Nanqi [6392 0589 6386] Korean), Suo Jingxian [4792...Pen Center and the Guangzhou Pen Center will be headed by Chen Huangmei, another vice-president of the China center and a noted critic. The...1728 4426 6311], Zhang Tengxiao [1728 7506 7197], Chen Dingmou [7115 0002 5399], Chen Lunfen [7115 0243 5358] (F), Chen Xitong [7115 1585 0681

  16. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 446.


    Islamism , Catholicism, and Protestantism) and is an inherent and "locally born and bred" religion in China. Taoism is a religion which respects Lao Zi...XINHUA, 7 Jul 83) 80 Taoism Reported Reviving Throughout Country (Tian Di; ZH0NGGU0 XINWEN SHE, 11 Jul 83) 81 ZH0NGGU0 QINGNIAN BAO...disciplined transport army with ideals, morality and culture. The conference was held from 1 to 6 July. CSO: 4005/1008 80 NATIONAL AFFAIRS TAOISM

  17. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs


    Partial Contents: International Affairs, Radio, Birthday Celebration, School Anniversary, Cultural Agreement, Presidents, Trade Union Bureau, Education, Olympic Committee, Ambassador, Conference, Exhibition, Campaign...

  18. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 2079.


    graduates of the lycee or veterans on their instruments. In musical comedies , it seems that there are no types of distinctions made. In this area to entirely outgrow the romantic stage of its childhood. Henceforth its duty should be to seek only the truth in everything. A brilliant roster

  19. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs


    for manslaughter and East Berliners with a record for scuffles and in the porno trade. Official sources in the FRG have not yet indicated whether...amusement games, like pinball machines, video games, .calculations, and "other similar devices running on electricity," can no longer be put to

  20. Astronomy and Politics

    Steele, John M.

    The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

  1. The Sociology of Zygmunt Bauman

    Jacobsen, Michael Hviid; Poder, Poul

    Zygmunt Bauman is one of the most inspirational and controversial thinkers on the scene of contemporary sociology. For several decades he has provided compelling analyses and diagnoses of a vast variety of aspects of modern and liquid modern living. His work is increasingly popularized, appraised...... life and intellectual trajectory published here for the first time in English. In this postscript aptly entitled "Pro Domo Sua" ("About Myself"), he describes the pushes and pulls that throughout the years have shaped his thinking....

  2. [A sociological approach to vulnerability].

    Pelège, Patrick


    The term precarity covers many realities. It has become one of those "portmanteau words" which, as a resuIt of being constantly reassessed, is losing its meaning. In order to avoid an overly sectional approach to the mechanisms of social precarity, or exclusion, it is necessary to understand in more general terms the sociological processes around the concept of the social tie and its effects of rupture.

  3. Dementia: sociological and philosophical constructions.

    Davis, Daniel H J


    This analysis presents a challenge to the biomedical view of dementia as a disease. This view is critiqued from two perspectives: those of sociology and philosophy. Because these domains inform the creation of the medical discourse, their analysis provides an important refinement to the apprehension of the phenomenon of dementia. From the work of Foucault, and in particular his analysis of the historical origins of modern medicine, the sociological construction of dementia is considered. Following this, the philosophical question of Being is discussed, considering particularly the positions of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty. Lastly aspects of dementia nursing that are damaging to those relatives forced to take on the role of primary carer are isolated, in the context of Kitwood's view that it is possible to maintain personhood at the extremes of this condition. It is suggested that this critique of sociological and philosophical foundations of dementia might offer a way of approaching the dismantling of the self and revise current conceptions of dementia care for the better.

  4. The Politics of Physical Education

    Claxton, David


    This paper, which was given as the Dudley Allen Sargent lecture at the 2012 conference of the National Association for Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education, discusses the politics of physical education. It examines how both national politics and local/campus politics affect the discipline. Drawing from the history of national…

  5. Class, Culture and Politics

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer


    Even though contemporary discussions of class have moved forward towards recognizing a multidimensional concept of class, empirical analyses tend to focus on cultural practices in a rather narrow sense, that is, as practices of cultural consumption or practices of education. As a result......, discussions within political sociology have not yet utilized the merits of a multidimensional conception of class. In light of this, the article suggests a comprehensive Bourdieusian framework for class analysis, integrating culture as both a structural phenomenon co-constitutive of class and as symbolic...... practice. Further, the article explores this theoretical framework in a multiple correspondence analysis of a Danish survey, demonstrating how class and political practices are indeed homologous. However, the analysis also points at several elements of field autonomy, and the concluding discussion...

  6. Pure sociology and social geometry as an example of formal sociological theory

    Škorić Marko


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes pure sociology and social geometry of Donald Black as an example of formal sociological theory. Starting with the importance of formal and analytical theory in sociology, we present the bold theoretical strategy and/or the paradigm of the sociology of behavior of social life. The examples of pure sociology and social geometry concerning law, violence and homosexuality are presented as well. A review and critique of pure sociology as a scientific formal theory is offered in the end.

  7. Sociological and ethical issues in transplant commercialism.

    Epstein, Miran


    'Global transplant commercialism' (practices and policies involving international trade in organs from living vendors, e.g., 'transplant tourism') is currently subjected to unprecedented criticism. In parallel, the debate around 'local transplant commercialism' (practices and policies that confine trade in organs from living vendors to national markets or economic unions) is heating up. In an attempt to assess the potential outcomes of these trends, this article reviews and discusses some sociological and ethical issues, ending with a proposal for a reinvigorated anticommercialist strategy. The current international campaign against global transplant commercialism is conducted by an ad hoc alliance between strange bedfellows, proponents of local transplant commercialism on the one hand and opponents of any transplant commercialism on the other. Disparities in the rigor of the respective ethical discourses, the expanding list of precedents of legitimized commerce in the human body, and the political economy of transplantation, all suggest that the former have the upper hand. Recent achievements in the struggle against international organ trafficking may not herald the abolition of transplant commercialism but rather presage its reconfiguration in deglobalized forms. In light of such a prospect, those who wish to prevent the pervasive commodification of the human body from entering the gates of transplant medicine should consider devising a new, perhaps more radical, strategy.

  8. Nutrition and inequalities. A note on sociological approaches.

    Murcott, Anne


    This article provides an overview of three approaches taken to illuminate the sociological contribution to the field of nutrition and inequalities, in the hope of prompting future researchers to pursue the lines of enquiry suggested. Under the heading of inequalities in food use, the paper first exemplifies the utility of 'political arithmetic', possibly the sociological approach best known in public health. This includes socio-economic patterning in food purchases as well as disadvantage in access, where studies of poverty represent a longstanding focus. A rural/urban dimension has, however, been left dormant. A second approach is illustrated by work on public understandings of nutrition, encompassing primarily small-scale studies of beliefs about nutrition, which emphasise the plurality of lay definitions of diet and health. Lacking are studies which build on this work to uncover the relation to health inequalities. Third to be introduced is sociological work on the social distribution of taste, which illuminates the potential for examining enduring, shared ideas of styles in eating embedded in forms of the social organisation of the home that is associated with different socio-economic levels. The paper ends with comment on practical implications for public health practice and policy designed to reduce inequalities in nutrition.

  9. Critical Nexus or Pluralist Discipline? Institutional Ambivalence and the Future of Canadian Sociology.

    Puddephatt, Antony J; McLaughlin, Neil


    While some scholars believe in a transdisciplinary future for the social sciences and humanities, we argue that sociology would do well to maintain its disciplinary borders, while celebrating the plurality of its intellectual, social, and political content. Although a pluralist position can threaten disciplinary coherence and increase fragmentation, we argue the counterbalance ought to be convergence around shared institutional norms of knowledge production. Establishing these norms is not easy, since there is a great deal of institutional ambivalence at play in the field of sociology. As such, sociology is pushed and pulled between two poles of at least four major continuums of knowledge production, which include the following: (1) interdisciplinary versus discipline-based research; (2) political versus analytical scholarship; (3) professional versus public/policy sociology; and (4) local/national versus global audiences. Since both sides of these ideal-typical continuums contain their own pathologies, we propose adopting a balanced position to correct for the shortcomings of each. Rather than imposing one philosophical or theoretical paradigm for the field, we suggest that embracing the "chaos" of our diverse forms of knowledge and centralizing and integrating findings will serve to strengthen our collective efforts in the long term. © 2015 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  10. Historie sociologie a historie věd: Čekání na společný příběh?

    Maršálek, Jan


    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2012), s. 45-74 ISSN 1214-813X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/11/2338 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : history of sociology * history of science * R. K. Merton * history of sociology’s object * sociological texts' critique Subject RIV: AB - History

  11. Political history of modern Egypt

    MA. Islam Islami


    Gamal Abdel Nasser was the one who established the Republic of Egypt and ended the monarchy rule in Egypt following the Egyptian revolution in 1952. Egypt was ruled autocratically by three presidents over the following six decades, by Nasser from 1954 until his death in 1970, by Anwar Sadat from 1971 until his assassination 1981, and by Hosni Mubarak from 1981 until his resignation in the face of the 2011 Egyptian revolution.

  12. Love, from a sociological point of view

    Chiara Piazzesi


    Full Text Available What does it mean to examine erotic love and intimacy from a sociological point of view? Does this endeavour entail a definition of love, and, if so, is such a definition possible from a sociological perspective? This paper discusses the epistemological challenges implied by the task of constructing love as the object of sociological inquiry. We will start by giving a definition of the task itself and by detailing the peculiarities of a sociological inquiry on love. We will point out why it is imperative for such an inquiry to remain open to the historicity of love as an emotion and as a form of interaction. Finally we will explore love as the object of a sociological investigation in order to spell out what becomes visible to the sociological eye once the correct epistemological precautions are taken.

  13. Comparative education and the ?new? sociologies

    Trusz, Andrew R.; Parks-Trusz, Sandra L.


    The authors examine the impact of the `new' sociologies on comparative education by reviewing five comparative readers published during the past twenty years. While the `new' sociologies have had considerable impact within sociology and the sociology of education, minimal impact is found within comparative education. The authors further show that while critical new sociologies such as Marxism, neo-Marxism, and Critical theory have had some penetration into comparative education, use of the interpretative sociologies such as symbolic interactionism, ethnomethodology, and semiotics has generally been absent. The authors conclude by suggesting that a synthesis of the critical and interpretative modes would prove fruitful for further work in comparative education. The five texts are: Halsey, Floud and Anderson (eds.), Education, Economy and Society (1961); Eckstein and Noah (eds.), Scientific Investigations in Comparative Education (1969); Beck, Perspectives on World Education (1970); Karabel and Halsey (eds.), Power and Ideology in Education (1977); and Altbach and Kelly (eds.), Education and Colonialism (1978).

  14. Food safety and the reversed political consumer

    Christensen, Tove; Denver, Sigrid; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

    We address the question of whether people act as political consumers in relation to food safety. By linking evidence from economic valuation studies on consumers' willingness to pay with sociological studies on consumer behaviour and market studies, we find that food safety does not call...

  15. Thompson e Gramsci: história, política e processos de formação Thompson and Gramsci: history, politics and educational processes

    Carlos Eduardo Vieira


    Full Text Available Pretende-se apresentar e explorar as conexões entre as ideias de dois destacados pensadores sociais do século xx, o italiano Antonio Gramsci e o inglês Edward Thompson. O intuito é refletir sobre a centralidade conferida pelas obras desses intelectuais à política, à cultura e à formação humana. Considerando que uma das fontes do pensamento historiográfico de Thompson é a obra de Gramsci, pretendemos dimensionar os pontos de contato entre as duas obras com o fim de pensar nas possibilidades heurísticas que este diálogo poderá ensejar no campo educacional. Concluímos demonstrando que as reflexões de Thompson e de Gramsci convergem em três aspectos principais: a ênfase na história das classes subalternas, a opção pela abordagem historicista do conhecimento e a problematização das concepções de cultura e de formação.This paper investigates the connections between the ideas of two prominent twentieth century's social thinkers, the Italian Antonio Gramsci and the English Edward Thompson. It sets a discussion on the importance these intellectuals granted to politics, culture and human education to highlight similar aspects in both works yet considering that one of the main sources of Thompson's historiographic thought is Gramsci's work. It then reflects on the heuristic possibilities this dialogue may bring to the field of education. It concludes that Gramsci and Thompson's reflections converge on three main aspects: the emphasis on working class history, the option for a historical approach of knowledge and the discussion on the conceptions of culture and education.

  16. A mathematics course for political and social research

    Moore, Will H


    Political science and sociology increasingly rely on mathematical modeling and sophisticated data analysis, and many graduate programs in these fields now require students to take a ""math camp"" or a semester-long or yearlong course to acquire the necessary skills. Available textbooks are written for mathematics or economics majors, and fail to convey to students of political science and sociology the reasons for learning often-abstract mathematical concepts. A Mathematics Course for Political and Social Research fills this gap, providing both a primer for math novices in the social s

  17. Racial entanglements and sociological confusions: repudiating the rehabilitation of integration.

    Valluvan, Sivamohan


    In line with the broader nationalist advances currently remaking the Western political landscape, the concept of integration has witnessed a marked rehabilitation. Whilst many influential critiques of the sociology of integration are already available, this article contests the concept's renewed purchase through addressing its own internal incoherence. Based on research in Stockholm, this critique concerns the relationship between ethnic identity and cultural integration. It will be argued that integration and the production of difference are intertwined, entangled dualities, and far from being a benign entanglement, this duality is premised on the force and reach of everyday civic racisms. Of pivotal and unique analytical significance here is the observation that racism should not only be considered an exogenous process that impedes integration, but as a multifaceted phenomenon folded into integration. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  18. Sociology of Social Documentary Photography in Forming Social Movements and its Effect on Iran Islamic Revolution

    Saeedeh Rahman Setayesh


    Full Text Available Photography is taken as one of the modern disciplines of the art world. Social documentary photography, with its realistic, impartial and truthful nature, is aimed at keeping a record of social events. It is a document of an event happened in front of the camera which may symbolize history and identity of a society. As a science, sociology has emerged concurrently. Sociology of art is aimed at introducing the art or style of a given era which has been created by a given society. Reflection and formation are two significant approaches of sociology of art. It is aimed to highlight the effect of sociology of photography in forming social movements especially Iran Islamic revolution.

  19. Bruno Latour, actor-networks, and the critique of critical sociology

    Spasić Ivana


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the theoretical opus of Bruno Latour and his treatment of the concept of critique. In the first section "actor-network theory" is presented through its key notions (actant, network, translation, associations together with Latour’s theory of modernity. In the second section various aspects of the relation between Latour and critique are discussed - first his own criticism of others (standard sociology and especially "critical", i.e. Bourdieu’s sociology, then the criticisms aimed at his work, to conclude with the political ambivalences of Latour’s attempt to develop an "acritical" social theory. .

  20. Provoking misunderstanding: a comment on Black's defence of value-free sociology.

    Hammersley, Martyn


    This paper is a response to a recent article dealing with the concept of value-free sociology by Donald Black. It argues that while a defence of Weber's position on the role of values in sociological research is necessary and important, what is offered by Black is counter-productive in important respects. This is because it encourages some of the misunderstandings that it is aimed at remedying and, even more importantly, offers a simplistic discussion of what are complex issues. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  1. Audiological rehabilitation in sociological perspectives

    Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    , or they can relate to particular situations. On entering the hearing clinic for the first time, many patients express discomfort when confronted with becoming partners in decision-making concerning the choice of hearing aid type. In the fitting room, the audiologist operates within a dominant medical...... as the 'truth'. By building on a sociological approach to hearing impairment that reaches beyond the medical definition, we see another picture emerging. Some patients embark on the process of getting a hearing aid and come to the hearing aid fitting as a response to social pressure from relatives or colleagues...

  2. Sociologi

    Sandholm, Niels


    I kapitlet diskuteres ud fra et sociologisk perspektiv brug af et screeningsinstrumentet til opsporing af depression efter indlæggelse for hjertesygdom. HADS – Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Det er en udbredt praksis at screene udskrevne hjertepatienter for depression. Som screeningsinstru...

  3. Toward a Sociology of Environmental Flows: A New Agenda for Twenty-First-Century Environmental Sociology

    Mol, A.P.J.; Spaargaren, G.


    The emerging sociology of networks and flows, as it can be found in the works of Castells and Urry among others, offers promising perspectives for environmental sociology in rethinking its principle object of study: nature and environment. The sociology of flow perspective takes us beyond the

  4. The Fourth Sociology and Music Education: Towards a Sociology of Integration

    Wright, Ruth


    By identifying three main sociologies that characterise broad movements in the field since its inception, this paper provides a background to considerations of music education from the perspective of sociology. A fourth sociology is then proposed that may be useful to interrogate the complexities of the field of 21st century music education. This…

  5. A Sociology "of" or a Sociology "for" Education? The New Zealand Experience of the Dilemma

    Rata, Elizabeth


    The sociology of education in New Zealand, as in other countries, is affected by the dilemma inherent to the discipline, namely: is it a sociology "of" education or a sociology "for" education? In this article I analyse three factors in which the dilemma is played out: "cultural oppositionism" in the indigenous…

  6. Political Socialization as a Sphere of Being of Homo Politicus

    И А Щеглов


    Full Text Available Political socialization means something more than political context of socialization. Study in political socialization must be oriented on political socialization as special science category with own history, opening by the logic of Homo politicus being content of political socialization. Homo politicus, rationalized and ideologized in its version, means technological view on the problem of political socialization.

  7. Political Socialization as a Sphere of Being of Homo Politicus

    И А Щеглов


    Political socialization means something more than political context of socialization. Study in political socialization must be oriented on political socialization as special science category with own history, opening by the logic of Homo politicus being content of political socialization. Homo politicus, rationalized and ideologized in its version, means technological view on the problem of political socialization.

  8. Political electricity

    Price, Terence.


    This book is a non-technical exploration of the political and policy issues that have influenced the development of nuclear power. Part One describes the successes, failures, horse-trading, and infighting that make up nuclear power's history, taking nine counties as examples. Part Two reviews the main problems that now confront us, as seen in mid-June 1990; like all contemporary accounts, the book is unavoidably incomplete. However, by then it was possible to make provisional judgements about two very important recent influences: the political consequences of Chernobyl, and concerns about the greenhouse effect. The story that emerges is of a nuclear industry that has rarely been guilty of dereliction of duty, though it was undeniably complacent in not addressing sooner the causes of the public's entirely reasonable anxieties. The anti-nuclear lobby has been skilled in debate, and sometimes extraordinarily percipient; but less than fair in failing to acknowledge the industry's achievements and its willingness to learn from past mistakes. As for the politicians, the book contains many examples that show how the flames of controversy can be deliberately fanned when there are votes to be gained. The story has few heroes, but within the industry fewer villains than the public has been led to believe. (author)

  9. Street Politics

    Michael J. Shapiro


    Full Text Available I write from Prague, where, unlike in most urban formations, the main city street plays an iconic role; it references a history of political protest. However, before elaborating on the protest iconography of the Prague street, Vaclavske nam, I want to locate the ways in which the design of urban space is actualized in everyday life in the cities of the world. Three functions stand out; the first involves dwelling, the second seeing, and the third moving. With respect to the first function – dwelling – the design partitions and coordinates residential, commercial and leisure functions. At times these are organized to segregate different classes (Robert Moses’ redesign of much of New York stands out with respect to the segregation function. With respect to the second function – seeing – the design of urban space is allegiance-inspiring; it involves sight lines that afford urban dwellers and visitors views of iconic buildings and statues, which reference key founding moments in the past and/or authoritative political functions in the present (Here, L’Enfants design for Washington DC stands out as exemplary. Its manifest intention was to make the buildings housing executive, legislative and judicial functions visible from many vantage points. Rarely are the streets themselves iconic. Their dominant role is involved with the effectuation of movement. As for this third function: As Lewis Mumford famously points out, streets were once part of an asterisk design, radiating out from an exemplary, often spiritual center...

  10. Books and canon building in sociology: the case of Mind, Self, and Society

    Silva, Filipe Carreira da; Vieira, Mónica Brito


    This paper discusses the canonization process of George Herbert Mead (1863–1931) in sociology through a recounting of the history of the book Mind, Self, and Society (1934). The relation between Mead and this particular work has no parallel in the history of sociological theory. Although the book was not written by Mead, or even organized under his direction, it has been through it that generations of academics and students have come in contact with Mead’s ideas. There are two main goals behi...

  11. The triumph of politics over wilderness science

    Craig W. Allin


    The National Wilderness Preservation System reflects the triumph of politics over science. The history of wilderness allocation has reflected political rather than scientific sensibilities. The preeminence of politics over science extends to wilderness management as well and is illustrated here by representative examples from the modern history of Yellowstone National...

  12. Sociology: Shaping US climate opinion

    Brechin, Steven R.


    Exposure to scientific information cannot explain entirely the levels of public concern about global warming in the United States. Now research shows that US views on climate change are largely affected by the actions of political groups.

  13. Sociological theory and social reality

    J Díez Nicolás


    Full Text Available This paper pretends to demonstrate the complementary relations between three relatively recent sociological theories, each one of which explains a different aspect of the same social object: the origin, diffusion and change of social and cultural values, aiming at demonstrating that there is not such a thing as a sociological theory that explains all, but rather diverse theories that offer partial explanations of social reality. To that effect, and on the basis of the necessary relationship between theory and research, three different theories are evaluated separately: Hawley’s and Duncan’s theory of the social ecosystem, Galtung’s centre-periphery theory, and Inglehart’s theory of values’ change in modern-industrial societies, offering theoretical and empirical evidence of their complementary relations, based on Spanish and international data. Social ecosystem and centre-periphery theories show a high level of generalization (through space and time and a high level of abstraction, though both can easily operationalize their main concepts through valid and reliable indicators. The theory of values’ change, however, though showing a high level of generalization, is limited in time to the historical period after World War II, and also shows a high level of abstraction. Centre-periphery theory and values’ change theory use individual and collective units of analysis, but social ecosystem theory only uses collective units, by definition. The three theories lead to the conclusion that ‘security’ values will gain a growing importance in present societies.

  14. Toward a Global Sociology of Religion

    Parvez, Z. Fareen


    This article offers an example of a global approach to teaching the sociology of religion, a course that typically focuses on American religious phenomena. It builds on three interventions in the movement for a global sociology: connecting the local and global, moving beyond methodological nationalism, and developing an ethical orientation toward…

  15. Psychological and Sociological Determinants of Academic ...

    This study investigated the psychological and sociological determinants of academic achievement of school-going adolescents. Six self-report measures were administered randomly to 280 senior secondary III students in Ibadan. Results showed that the six psychological and sociological factors (motivation, anxiety, and ...

  16. One Hundred Years of Sociological Solitude?

    Rumbaut, Ruben G.


    This Cuban-born author presents a narrative on the social events in the United States that marked his life as he embarked on a career in the field of sociology in the 1960s and 70s. He advocates for sociologists' awareness of social realities and the evolution of sociological studies from a socially-conscious perspective.

  17. Sociology and Social Work in Nigeria: Characteristics ...

    This paper presents the evolution of sociology and social work in Nigeria and examines the current characteristics and areas of convergences and divergences in both fields. It was only in the 1960s that universities in Nigeria began to offer degree programmes in sociology with the. first sub-department and full department ...

  18. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    Jagd, Søren

    foundation of markets and of money may be an occasion for economic sociology to focus even more on elaborating on the institutional void created by traditional economic theory. A second point is that economic sociology could benefit from the perspective of a plurality of forms of coordination involved......The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...... closely into three recent texts from the economics of convention tradition discussing, in slightly different ways, differences and similarities between economics of convention and economic sociology. It is argued that André Orléan’s point that a common aim could be to ‘denaturalise’ the institutional...

  19. Economics of Convention and New Economic Sociology

    Jagd, Søren


    The aim of the article is to explore potential common themes in economic sociology and economics of conventions. The article explores two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be of particular importance to economic sociology. First, the explicit exploration of the consequences...... of a plurality of forms of justification, as elaborated in économie de la grandeur. This perspective was recently taken up in economic sociology by David Stark's introduction of the notion ‘sociology of worth'. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalize economic theory...... and economic action to demonstrate the social constructed nature of economic action. It is argued that these two issues demonstrate that a fruitful dialogue is indeed possible between economic sociology and economics of convention and should be encouraged....

  20. Sociology as Moral Philosophy (and Vice Versa).

    Vandenberghe, Frédéric


    In this article, I want to make an attempt to reconnect sociology to moral philosophy and moral philosophy to sociology. The thesis I want to defend is that sociology continues by other means the venerable tradition of practical and moral philosophy. Like its forebears, it stands and falls with a defense of "practical wisdom" (Aristotle) and "practical reason" (Kant). The development of a moral sociology presupposes, however, that one recognizes and rejects Max Weber's theory of axiological neutrality as an extremist position and that one carefully articulates prescriptive and descriptive, internal and external, as well as observer and actor positions. © 2017 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  1. Cultural Studies and Sociology of Culture in Germany: Relations and Interrelations

    Udo Göttlich


    Full Text Available Over the last three decades, attitudes towards cultural studies in Germany have developed within contexts of contact and conflict with a variety of disciplines, e.g. ethnology, anthropology, sociology, as well as the sociology of culture, liter-ary studies and Kulturwissenschaft(en. On the one hand there is a strong academ-ic interest in how cultural studies perceives and analyzes media culture, popular culture and everyday life. On the other hand boundaries with humanities and so-cial science remain, which leads to criticism and conflicts with cultural studies and its achievements.I will discuss some of the problems concerning the perception and reception of cultural studies among representatives of Kulturwissenschaft(en and sociology of culture. Furthermore I will draw on the role of cultural studies in thematizing cul-tural change and conflicts, and its ability to do so in a way that shows the im-portance of culture and politics.

  2. Integrating medical and environmental sociology with environmental health: crossing boundaries and building connections through advocacy.

    Brown, Phil


    This article reviews the personal and professional processes of developing an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complex issues of environmental health in their community, political-economic, social science, and scientific contexts. This interdisciplinary approach includes a synthesis of research, policy work, and advocacy. To examine multiple forms of interdisciplinarity, I examine pathways of integrating medical and environmental sociology via three challenges to the boundaries of traditional research: (1) crossing the boundaries of medical and environmental sociology, (2) linking social science and environmental health science, and (3) crossing the boundary of research and advocacy. These boundary crossings are discussed in light of conceptual and theoretical developments of popular epidemiology, contested illnesses, and health social movements. This interdisciplinary work offers a more comprehensive sociological lens for understanding complex problems and a practical ability to join with scientists, activists, and officials to meet public health needs for amelioration and prevention of environmental health threats.

  3. Cultures of choice: towards a sociology of choice as a cultural phenomenon.

    Schwarz, Ori


    The article explores different ways to conceptualize the relationship between choice and culture. These two notions are often constructed as opposites: while sociologies of modernization (such as Giddens') portray a shift from cultural traditions to culturally disembedded choice, dispositional sociologies (such as Bourdieu's) uncover cultural determination as the hidden truth behind apparent choice. However, choice may be real and cultural simultaneously. Culture moulds choice not only by inculcating dispositions or shaping repertoires of alternatives, but also by offering culturally specific choice practices, ways of choosing embedded in meaning, normativity, and materiality; and by shaping attributions of choice in everyday life. By bringing together insights from rival schools, I portray an outline for a comparative cultural sociology of choice, and demonstrate its purchase while discussing the digitalization of choice; and cultural logics that shape choice attribution in ways opposing neoliberal trends. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  4. Sociología de la salud en México Medical Sociology in Mexico

    Roberto Castro


    Full Text Available

    En este trabajo se realiza un análisis del campo de la sociología médica en México en los últimos 30 años. Se inicia con una descripción de las tres escuelas que fundaron el campo en este país: a la antropología médica, de larga tradición en este país, anclada en la Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia, el Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas (UNAM, y el Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social;b la medicina social, impulsada principalmente desde la Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, y que tuvo como punto de partida la creación de la Maestría en Medicina Social en 1975; y c la sociología de la salud pública, impulsada desde el Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública a partir de su fundación en 1987. Tras revisar los principales aportes de cada corriente, así como los debates más importantes que tuvieron lugar entre ellas –y que sirvieron para delimitar el espacio de acción e influencia de cada una– se describen los desarrollos más trascendentes en este campo, mismos que contribuyeron a desarrollar la “segunda generación” de la sociología médica mexicana. Dentro de esta segunda generación, se señalan las principales contribuciones de orden teórico, metodológico y sustantivo. Éstas últimas, a su vez, se dividen en áreas específicas: salud reproductiva, violencia contra las mujeres, subjetividad y salud, y políticas, práctica médica y utilización de servicios de salud.

    In this paper the field of medical sociology in México during the last 30 years is analyzed. First, a description is made of the three founding schools in this country: a the tradition of medical anthropology, based on the National School of Anthropology and History, the Institute of Anthropological Research (National Autonomous University of Mexico, and the Center of Research and Graduate Studies in Social Anthropology; b the tradition of social medicine, prompted by the

  5. Social Change and Sport: A Sociological Evaluation

    Yılmaz KAPLAN


    Full Text Available This study aims to discuss the relation between social change and sports from a sociological point of view. This study is descriptive in its aim, periodic (discussion in the length of time it covers and theoretical based on literature in its techniqu e. “Social change” is a value judgement - free concept which does not indicate a direction but determines the new situation, the difference occurring in the society compared to the former era or situation. Every society changes in time; however, it cou ld at times be „‟positive‟‟ (in the direction of development, progress, etc... and „‟negative‟‟ at other times (in the direction of regress, deconstruction, etc.... As a social institution, sport, while affecting some social institutions (family, edu cation, economics, politics, religion, communication, healthcare, law, is also affected by them. The process of social change has affected, moreover, has determined sports. As a social event, phenomenon, and institution, sports gains its meaning in the society that it takes place; and it both gets affected by the changes in the society and affects these changes there. It could be the „‟reason‟‟ and the „‟result‟‟ of social changes. Radical changes in the sports and even in the rules of branche s of sports are made depending on the changing social needs, preferences and expectations. Although there isn‟t an obligatory relation between „‟social progress‟‟ and „‟sports‟‟ theoretically, it can be said that the process of social progress contributes to sports and vice versa.

  6. Participation in voluntary associations : relations with resources, personality, and political values

    Bekkers, René


    Participation in voluntary associations is explained by different theories in sociology, psychology and political science. Sociologists have emphasized the effects of resources such as human and social capital. Psychologists have demonstrated the role of empathy and extraversion as aspects of

  7. Participation in voluntary associations : Relations with resources, personality, and political values

    Bekkers, René

    Participation in voluntary associations is explained by different theories in sociology, psychology, and political science. Sociologists have emphasized the effects of resources such as human and social capital. Psychologists have demonstrated the role of empathy and extraversion as aspects of

  8. Evidence and research designs in applied sociology and social work research

    Høgsbro, Kjeld


    it had to be repeated all over again. This article tries to answer this question by reviewing the considerations in the history of applied sociology and its relevance for recent social work research. The ambition of delivering a research that has an impact on social work practice is not unique, neither...... of applied sociology and discusses its contributions to understanding questions of validity, evidence, methodology, practical relevance of research and scientific legitimacy in the areas of research which aim at contributing to the practical development of social services for marginalized people. By doing...... this, hopefully the history of applied sociology may prevent deeper mistakes, illusions and misleading in the development of social work research today....

  9. The Body Politic in Pain.

    Linker, Beth


    In his 2015 book Pain: A Political History, Keith Wailoo demonstrates how a medicalized condition became central to defining party politics in the United States from World War II down to the present. Drawing on sources ranging from postwar Congressional hearings concerning the veteran welfare state to debates surrounding Rush Limbaugh's OxyContin addiction, Wailoo offers a fresh analysis of both U.S. political history and medical history, showing how today's highly polarized party system emerged in part from debates surrounding the existence and worth of pain, as well as its management.

  10. Innovation in science and organizational renewal historical and sociological perspectives

    Münch, Richard


    This book looks at the types of new research organizations that drive scientific innovation and how ground-breaking science transforms research fields and their organization. Based on historical case studies and comparative empirical data, the book presents new and thought-provoking evidence that improves our knowledge and understanding about how new research fields are formed and how research organizations adapt to breakthroughs in science. While the book is firmly based in science history, it discusses more general sociological and policy propositions regarding scientific innovations and organizational change. The volume brings together leading scholars both from the United States and Europe.

  11. In search of the kingdom: the social gospel, settlement sociology, and the science of reform in America's progressive era.

    Williams, Joyce E; Maclean, Vicky M


    This critical narrative history examines the development of sociology in the United States during what has come to be labeled as the Progressive Era, roughly the years from the 1890s to World War I. Despite the label, this era was defined as much by social problems associated with industrialization, urbanization, and immigration as by the growth of its cities and the wealth of its capitalists. We explore the roots of American sociology in the transition of protestant theology from Calvinism to its reformation in the social gospel, the simultaneous development of settlement houses, and the "creation" of sociology as the science of reform. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Principles of Sociology in Systems Engineering

    Watson, Michael D.; Andrews, James G.; Larsen, Jordan A.


    Systems engineering involves both the integration of the system and the integration of the disciplines which develop and operate the system. Integrating the disciplines is a sociological effort to bring together different groups, often with different terminology, to achieve a common goal, the system. The focus for the systems engineer is information flow through the organization, between the disciplines, to ensure the system is developed and operated with all relevant information informing system decisions. Robert K. Merton studied the sociological principles of the sciences and the sociological principles he developed apply to systems engineering. Concepts such as specification of ignorance, common terminology, opportunity structures, role-sets, and the reclama (reconsideration) process are all important sociological approaches that should be employed by the systems engineer. In bringing the disciplines together, the systems engineer must also be wary of social ambivalence, social anomie, social dysfunction, insider-outsider behavior, unintended consequences, and the self-fulfilling prophecy. These sociological principles provide the systems engineer with key approaches to manage the information flow through the organization as the disciplines are integrated and share their information. This also helps identify key sociological barriers to information flow through the organization. This paper will discuss this theoretical basis for the application of sociological principles to systems engineering.

  13. Metaphor of society (a sociological essay

    Gennadii Vasil’evich Osipov


    Full Text Available The essay by Academician G.V. Osipov, who is the patriarch of Russian sociology, is dedicated to one of the most cognitive topics of modern sociology – identification of sociological metaphor as such and its application in research projects. This topic is avant-garde for the world sociological thought, and in Russia such kind of research is making its first steps. However, its future importance is difficult to overestimate. Sociological metaphor, if a methodology for its application is developed, can provide scientists with qualitatively new synthetic research tools. It can also bring together scientific structures and artifacts on the space of interdisciplinary and inter-subject borderland and give them qualitatively new intellectual and sensuous (system and mental technological capabilities for learning the surrounding world. The advantage of the following essay can be found in the fact that it is based on the objective analysis of the real embodiment of social metaphor in the work of art – a pictorial triptych “The Mystery of the 21st Century”. This is the first such experience in domestic sociological and artistic-painting practice. The authors of the final product are a scientist of great scientific and life experience and a young artist, who received in-depth sociological training and defended his Ph.D. in Sociology dissertation. But the main result of their collaboration is a product that combines scientific (sociological knowledge and insight and intuitive-creative artistic perception in a qualitatively new perception of the world and world outlook

  14. Sociological, Postmodern, and New Realism Perspectives in Social Constructionism: Implications for Literacy Research.

    Hruby, George G.


    Offers an historical definition of social constructionism, a review of its conceptual bases, and an exploration of its epistemological implications. Describes a history comprised of three paradigmatically distinct waves: a sociological, a postmodern, and an emerging third wave grounded in new realism or neonaturalism. Suggests potential uses of…

  15. The opposition to nuclear energy: spychology, sociology, ethnology and psychoanalysis: four convergent approaches

    Timbal-Duclaux, Louis


    After tracing the psychological and social history of nuclear energy, the author analyzes the diverse approaches used by the social sciences to study the psychosocial repercussions of nuclear achievement. Psychology, sociology, ethnology and psychoanalysis, the four approaches cited, are complementary, not exclusive [fr

  16. The contributions of sociology and politology to energy practice; Der Beitrag der Soziologie und der Politologie fuer die Energiepraxis

    Gloor, D.; Meier, H. [cultur prospectiv, Zurich (Switzerland)


    In the present investigation, the position of research in the field of sociology and politology in the area of energy politics is presented and the additional research requirement is explained. In order to demonstrate the possible usefulness of the social science knowledge in the energy world, the report was also discussed at a workshop with scientists and energy experts. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  17. Political innovations

    Sørensen, Eva


    are mainly interested in assessing and promoting innovations in public service delivery, but have paid little or no attention to the need for innovations in polity, politics and policy. This article develops a research agenda for studying innovations in political institutions, in the political process...... and in policy outputs. It proposes a number of research themes related to political innovations that call for scholarly attention, and identifies push and pull factors influencing the likelihood that these themes will be addressed in future research....

  18. Moral politics

    Rapp, Carolin; Traunmüller, Richard; Freitag, Markus


    This article combines the research strands of moral politics and political behavior by focusing on the effect of individual and contextual religiosity on individual vote decisions in popular initiatives and public referenda concerning morally charged issues. We rely on a total of 13 surveys with 1...... American research on moral politics, direct democracies, and the public role of religion....

  19. Office Politics

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann


    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  20. First Contact: Teaching and Learning in Introductory Sociology

    Greenwood, Nancy A.


    The Introduction to Sociology course is usually the first contact that students have with the discipline of sociology. This course can determine whether students take other sociology courses or learn to use sociology in their lives as adults and citizens. "First Contact" identifies important issues facing instructors in introducing students to the…

  1. Social inequality: philosophical and sociological reflection

    A. Sh. Victorov


    Full Text Available Social inequality is the phenomena that is hypothetically the base for first human communities genesis. Modern model for capitalist society as market relations form fails to satisfy the needs of society’s social development, and strongly requires to create new social knowledge structure and new approach for inequality sociology theory development. Our study conceptual logic comprises routine, philosophic and ideological reflexions analysis to create new social inequality definition in the context of new sociologic knowledge structure. Social inequality is the one of key problems in global sociology; the need is obvious to extract social inequality into separate discipline. Inequality sociology target is the decision of theoretical and practical problems in the formation of comprehensive knowledge about inequality phenomena in modern community, and in the development of common and specialized theoretical-methodological base for inequality study.

  2. Economic Sociology and Economics of Convention

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper is part of a larger exploration of the French Economics of Convention tradition. The aim of the paper is to explore potential themes of common interest to economic sociology and Economics of Conventions. The paper is in two parts. First, I summarise the main theoretical features of EC...... the institutional framework of social action. Second, I explore two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be particularly important to consider for economic sociology. The first issue is the explicit exploration of the consequences of a plurality of forms of justification suggested by Luc Boltanski...... and Laurent Thévenot in ‘économie de la grandeur’. This perspective has already been taken up in economic sociology in David Stark’s notion of a ‘Sociology of Worth’. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalise economic theory and economic action to demonstrate the social...

  3. Sociological Discourse(s) on Freedom

    Bertilsson, Margareta

    The concept of freedom is often thought of as antithetical to sociology. The discipline is more prone to detect and unveil forms of unfreedom, as Zygmunt Bauman (1988) has pointed out. The question remains if any academic discipline, however, including sociology can do away with the concept...... of freedom al together! In matters of science, the problem of determinism vs. chance and spontaneity is essential. Hence, freedom, in one sense or the other, is necessarily at bottom also of sociological discourse. This text is an attempt to map the predominant forms of freedom found in sociological...... discourses. While starting out with the classic liberal concept informing theories of modernity followed by the various critiques directed against liberalism, not the least the most recently occurring (Lyotard, Agamben), the aim here is to spot possible trajectories in our comprehension of freedom, also...

  4. The Challenge of Training in Applied Sociology.

    Johnson, Doyle Paul; And Others


    Explores the challenge of expanding nonacademic employment opportunities for sociologists and training sociology students for such employment. Suggests several interrelated strategies for these students that address issues of marketing and public relations as well as curriculum revision. (Author/BSR)

  5. The Reflexive Principle of Sociological Theorization

    R T Ubaidullayeva


    Full Text Available The article attempts to describe the reflexive principle in theory-making, which integrates the basic modern methodological paradigms and lays the foundation for the development of sociology. On the basis of the theoretical ideas of P. Bourdieu, A. Giddens and P. Ricoeur the author defines the concept of social reflexion and reveals its peculiarities in sociology as compared to reflexion in philosophy. According to the author, the fulfillment of reflexive functions in sociology is connected with the task of analyzing the complex structure of the polysemantic object, considering the specific quality of the subjects and their various trends of development. The presence of the poles — objectivity-subjectivity, rationality-irrationality, consciousness-unconsciousness etc, requires a reproduction of the dichotomies engendering them in social life and development of cognitive methods for their study in sociology.

  6. EDITORIAL: | Oloyede | African Sociological Review / Revue ...

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 18, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Book Review | Oloyede | African Sociological Review / Revue ...

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Editorial | Oloyede | African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine ...

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Editorial | Oloyede | African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine ...

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Third Worldism | Nash | African Sociological Review / Revue ...

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 1 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Editorial | Oloyede | African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine ...

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Knowledge networking on Sociology: network analysis of blogs, YouTube videos and tweets about Sociology

    Julián Cárdenas


    Full Text Available While mainstream scientific knowledge production have been widely studied in recent years with the development of scientometrics and bibliometrics, an emergent number of studies have focused on alternative sources of production and dissemination of knowledge such as blogs, YouTube videos and comments on Twitter. These online sources of knowledge become relevant in fields such as Sociology, where some academics seek to bring the sociological knowledge to the general population. To explore which knowledge on Sociology is produced and disseminated, and how is organized in these online sources, we analyze the knowledge networking of blogs, YouTube videos and tweets on Twitter using network analysis approach. Specifically, the present research analyzes the hyperlink network of the main blogs on Sociology, the networks of tags used to classify videos on Sociology hosted on YouTube, and the network of hashtags linked to #sociología on Twitter. The main results point out the existence of a cohesive and strongly connected community of blogs on Sociology, the very low presence of YouTube videos on Sociology in Spanish, and Sociology on Twitter is linked to others social sciences, classical scholars and social media

  16. Beyond capital? The challenge for sociology in Britain.

    Holmwood, John


    This article offers a 'local', British, reading of Piketty's landmark book, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, suggesting that the challenge it offers to sociological approaches to inequality is more fundamental than hitherto recognized. The variations in 'national trajectories' exposed by Piketty reveal Britain to be anomalous in terms of standard approaches to the path dependencies embedded in different welfare regimes. Using the recent work of Monica Prasad on 'settler capitalism' in the USA and the tax and debt-finance regime associated with it, the article suggests that colonialism and empire and its postwar unravelling has had deep consequences for British social stratification, albeit largely neglected by British sociologists. Finally, it points to the fact that the form of tax and debt-finance regime that has become reinforced in Britain is at the heart of recent radical reforms to higher education. These are the currently unexplicated conditions of our future practice as sociologists and, therefore, an obstacle to building a critical sociology on the foundations laid out by Piketty. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  17. Sociological explanations of economic growth.

    Marsh, R M


    Even if questions of how resources are distributed within and between societies are the main concern, it is necessary to continue to grapple with the issue of the causes of economic growth since economic growth and level of development continue to be among the most important causes of inequality, poverty, unemployment, and the quality of life. This paper's dependent variable is the economic growth rate of 55 less developed countries (LDCs) over 2 time periods. 1970-78 and 1965-84. The causal model consists of control variables--level of development and domestic investment in 1965--and a variety of independent variables drawn from major sociological theories of economic growth published during the last 3 decades. Multiple regression analysis shows that, net of the effects of the 2 control variables, the variables which have the strongest effect on economic growth are: 1) direct foreign investment, which has a negative effect, 2) the proportion of the population in military service, and 3) the primary school enrollment ratio, both of which have positive effects on economic growth. On the other hand, variables drawn from some theories receive no empirical support. The mass media of communications, ethnolinguistic heterogeneity, democracy and human rights, income inequality, and state-centric theory's key variable, state strength, all fail to show any significant impact on economic growth rates when the control variables and the significant independent variables are held constant. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Towards a Sociological Model of Corporate Entrepreneurship

    Dingsdale, Simon


    The primary purpose of this study is to establish a sociological grounding for the field of Corporate Entrepreneurship (CE) through the development of an organic sociological model. I argue that there are four key problems underlying the CE literature 1) no unifying theoretical base 2) no multi-dimensional, organic model 3) no multi-dimensional analysis 3) no easily implementable model and 4) no identification of critical antecedents. Scholars have failed to understand that without a unifyin...

  19. Socialkonstruktivismer i klassisk og moderne sociologi

    Rasborg, Klaus


    En videnskabsteoretisk diskussion af socialkonstruktivismens genealogi, samt af en række fremtrædende socialkonstruktivistiske positioner i klassisk og moderne sociologi (Marx, Weber, Durkheim, Berger & Luckmann, Goffman og Bourdieu)......En videnskabsteoretisk diskussion af socialkonstruktivismens genealogi, samt af en række fremtrædende socialkonstruktivistiske positioner i klassisk og moderne sociologi (Marx, Weber, Durkheim, Berger & Luckmann, Goffman og Bourdieu)...

  20. Remembering a sociology of Human Rights

    Levy, Daniel; Sznaider, Natan


    A sociology of human rights sounds almost like a contradiction in terms. Sociology is about social groups, about particular experiences, about how people, embedded in space and time, make sense of their lives and give meaning to their world. It deals with power and interest and the social bases of our experiences. On the other hand, human rights are about human beings in general, without temporal or spatial references, not about groups and their boundaries. Human rights are about humanity, lo...

  1. The Impact of Feminism on Sociology

    Sylvia Walby


    The paper investigates the impact of feminism on British sociology over the last 60 years. It focuses on changes in the intellectual content of the discipline, including epistemology, methodology, theory, concepts and the fields of economy, polity, violence and civil society. It situates these changes in the context of changes in gendered organisation of sociology, the rise of women's/gender studies, the ecology of social sciences and societal changes, especially the transformation of the gen...

  2. [The origin, diffusion and development of healing doctrines in medical history--exemplified by homeopathy].

    Schmidt, Josef M


    As a paradigmatic case study of the origin, spread, and development of medical systems, this paper investigates the 200-years history of homeopathy from different perspectives of medical history. On the basis of new research on Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), first, a concise and critical overview on the principles, explanations, and implications of his doctrine is presented. The historical, conceptual, and social background of the founder of homeopathy is then elaborated in terms of history of medicine, science, philosophy, sociology, culture, and ideas, as well as theory of science, theory of communication, and sociology of science. The process of the world wide spread of homeopathy is examined from different points of view, ranging from history of heroes, institutions, professionalisation, politics, economics, religion, and organisations to history of patients, perception, and semiotics. Finally, a comparative approach to the different development and status of homeopathy in different countries results in the extraction of a set of crucial variables, such as charismatic personage, influential patronage, economic sponsorship, political protection, media support, and patients' demand, which might explane a major part of these differences. Eventually, the notorious splits of homeopathy's doctrine suggest the idea that--in analogy to theory of evolution--a variety of concurrent strains (rather than one monolithic block) of a doctrine may prove to be a kind of advantage for survival. In conclusion, acceptance and relevance of medical systems are determined by many factors. Since external ones are usually outweighing internal ones, medical history may offer a broader and more comprehensive understanding of the dynamics of their spread and development than clinical trials and scientific objection alone.

  3. Space, politics, and the political

    dikec , mustafa


    International audience; Introduction Geography and politics'', Gottmann wrote in 1980, ``have long been in search of each other'' (page 11). Debates in the literature suggest not only that they have found each other, but also that the encounter has instigated, notably in the last decade or so, a body of literature seeking to think space politically, and to think politics spatially. This is not to suggest that previous work on space was apolitical, nor to suggest that previous work on politics...

  4. De la sociología de la crisis a la crisis de la sociología. XVIII Conferencias Aranguren

    Sotelo, Ignacio


    Full Text Available Criticism and crisis are the key concepts in the emergence of sociology. The concept of crisis that shapes the beginning of sociology, when it fuses with philosophy of history, disappears during the reconstruction of sociology that takes place on the eve of World War One. It was the main purpose of Max Weber, its most outstanding representative, to overcome philosophy of history by removing any metaphysical residue in social science. The crisis of sociology is shown in its failure in attaining an identity that could be broadly shared by the scientific community of sociologists, despite last decades efforts. Sociologists are clearly divided between those who aim at a global vision of society and those who reject general approaches and try to integrate collected facts into middle range theories.

    Crítica y crisis son los dos conceptos claves en el emerger de la sociología. El concepto de crisis que informa a la sociología en su primera etapa, en la que ésta termina por fundirse con la filosofía de la historia, desaparece en la reconstitución de la sociología que se lleva a cabo en vísperas de la Primera Guerra Mundial y que tiene en Max Weber a su representante más conspicuo. El empeño principal de este autor es superar la filosofía de la historia, eliminando cualquier residuo metafísico en la ciencia social. La crisis de la sociología se evidencia en que, pese a los esfuerzos de los últimos decenios, no ha logrado una identidad ampliamente compartida por la comunidad científica de los que se llaman sociólogos, claramente divididos entre los que aspiran a una visión global de la sociedad y los que rechazan planteamientos generales y tratan de integrar los hechos recogidos en teorías de mediano alcance.

  5. The Institution of Sociological Theory in Canada.

    Guzman, Cinthya; Silver, Daniel


    Using theory syllabi and departmental data collected for three academic years, this paper investigates the institutional practice of theory in sociology departments across Canada. In particular, it examines the position of theory within the sociological curriculum, and how this varies among universities. Taken together, our analyses indicate that theory remains deeply institutionalized at the core of sociological education and Canadian sociologists' self-understanding; that theorists as a whole show some coherence in how they define themselves, but differ in various ways, especially along lines of region, intellectual background, and gender; that despite these differences, the classical versus contemporary heuristic largely cuts across these divides, as does the strongly ingrained position of a small group of European authors as classics of the discipline as a whole. Nevertheless, who is a classic remains an unsettled question, alternatives to the "classical versus contemporary" heuristic do exist, and theorists' syllabi reveal diverse "others" as potential candidates. Our findings show that the field of sociology is neither marked by universal agreement nor by absolute division when it comes to its theoretical underpinnings. To the extent that they reveal a unified field, the findings suggest that unity lies more in a distinctive form than in a distinctive content, which defines the space and structure of the field of sociology. © 2018 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  6. On the nature and sociology of bioethics.

    Sheehan, Mark; Dunn, Michael


    Much has been written in the last decade about how we should understand the value of the sociology of bioethics. Increasingly the value of the sociology of bioethics is interpreted by its advocates directly in terms of its relationship to bioethics. It is claimed that the sociology of bioethics (and related disciplinary approaches) should be seen as an important component of work in bioethics. In this paper we wish to examine whether, and how, the sociology of bioethics can be defended as a valid and justified research activity, in the context of debates about the nature of bioethics. We begin by presenting and arguing for an account of bioethics that does justice to the content of the field, the range of questions that belong within this field, and the justificatory standards (and methodological orientations) that can provide convincing answers to these questions. We then consider the role of sociology in bioethics and show how and under what conditions it can contribute to answering questions within bioethics. In the final section, we return to the sociology of bioethics to show that it can make only a limited contribution to the field.

  7. Practical Application of Sociology in Systems Engineering

    Watson, Michael D.; Andrews, James G.; Eckley, Jeri Cassel; Culver, Michael L.


    Systems engineering involves both the integration of the system and the integration of the disciplines which develop and operate the system. Integrating the disciplines is a sociological effort to bring together different groups, who often have different terminology, to achieve a common goal, the system. The focus for the systems engineer is information flow through the organization, between the disciplines, to ensure the system is developed and operated will all relevant information informing system decisions. The practical application of the sociology in systems engineering brings in various organizational development concepts including the principles of planned renegotiation and the application of principles to address information barriers created by organizational culture. Concepts such as specification of ignorance, consistent terminology, opportunity structures, role-sets, and the reclama (reconsideration) process are all important sociological approaches that help address the organizational social structure (culture). In bringing the disciplines together, the systems engineer must also be wary of social ambivalence, social anomie, social dysfunction, and insider-outsider behavior. Unintended consequences can result when these social issues are present. These issues can occur when localized subcultures shift from the overarching organizational culture, or when the organizational culture prevents achievement of system goals. These sociological principles provide the systems engineer with key approaches to manage the information flow through the organization as the disciplines are integrated and share their information and provides key sociological barriers to information flow through the organization. This paper will discuss the practical application of sociological principles to systems engineering.

  8. Performing Politics

    Troy R. E. Paddock


    Full Text Available Walter Benjamin’s observation that fascism turns politics into aesthetics is, by now, a well-worn idea. This article argues that Benjamin’s critique of politics can apply just as much to the modern democratic politics of the United States. Borrowing from Benjamin, Jürgen Habermas, and Carl Schmitt, this article suggests that modern political discourse in the United States does not follow the classical liberal ideal of rational discourse in the marketplace of ideas within the public sphere. Instead, contemporary politics has become spectacle where images and slogans replace thought and debate in a 24/7 news cycle and political infotainment programs. The result is that progressives and conservatives have their own political “ecospheres” which enable them to have their own perspective reinforced, and debate is replaced by straw man arguments and personal attacks.

  9. Documents and detachment in the figurational sociology of sport

    Paddy Dolan


    Full Text Available This article discusses the methodological implications of using a figurational approach to the study of Gaelic games (the Irish sports of hurling and Gaelic football and their organisation and governance from the late nineteenth century onwards. Following Norbert Elias, we argue that data generation guided by theories, and potentially modifying such theories, are essential components of research endeavours. The problem of generalisation or representativeness of historical documents can be addressed by treating documents as part of a fi guration of evidence, thereby constituting a mutually supporting network of data that serves as a scaffold or structure for theoretical and empirical findings. Based on the experience of using documents such as newspaper and referee reports of matches, and also organisational documents such as the minutes of meetings at various levels of governance, we contribute to the discussion concerning borders and boundary maintenance between history, sociology and historical sociology. While we elaborate on the Eliasian perspective on emotional detachment, and secondary involvement, when conducting research, we also note the dificulties in avoiding ‘preferred’ readings of national history given that Gaelic games have been intertwined with the narrative and project of national self-determination in Ireland. Researchers are compelled to recognise the theoretical significance of sports as a motor and symbol of emotional identifications, but must also create distance from their own national habitus in order to prioritise participation in intergenerational knowledge generation over further national myth-making.

  10. Facts, theories and ideologies: Viola Klein and Sociology of Scientific Knowledge

    Eulalia Pérez Sedeño


    Full Text Available Several studies on history, philosophy and sociology of science have demonstrated that science is not autonomous and value-neutral and its selfless search of truth is an ideal theoretical myth far from the real practice of science, which is an aggregate of social practices. Viola Klein was a pioneer in studying science using the same instruments and categories utilized in any other social practice. The aim of this work is to highlight her contributions to Sociology of Scientific Knowledge at a moment when this discipline was, at the most, incipient.

  11. Socio-political structure of Mersin at the basis of the results of the local elections

    D. Ali Arslan


    It was aimed to investigate the political structure of Mersin and its place in the general political structure of Turkey by using methods and techniques of political sociology. Structural-functionalist was used as the theoretical base. To achieve this goal, the results of the Turkish local elections in last 50 years (were examined. First of all, the formation of political power in Turkey and the overall operation and changing regularities at the bases of the local elections were evaluated. Se...

  12. Socio-political structure of Tokat at the bases of the local elections

    D. Ali Arslan; Mehmet Karataş; Sadettin Baştürk; Gülten Arslan


    The major ofjective of this study was to examine and discuss the political structure of Tokat and its place in the general political structure of Turkish society by using methods and techniques of political sociology. Structural-functionalist approach was used as the theoretical base. In the other words the formation of political power in Tokat and the overall operation and changing regularities were investigated. Both the province of Tokat and Tokat city center selected as the sampling group...

  13. By What Authority Are You Doing These Things? A Brief History of the Bible in English Political Discourse from Margaret Thatcher to Jeremy Corbyn

    Crossley, James


    This article looks at how the Bible has been understood and constructed in English political discourse over the past forty years. It looks at how emerging neoliberalism and the social changes of the 1960s contributed to Margaret Thatcher's influential construction of the Bible as a source of authority for her brand of economics. This laid the template for dominant understandings of the Bible which were aided (often unintentionally) through pop cultural trends. Tony Blair added social liberali...

  14. History of Great Ideas: An Honors Seminar.

    Terrill, Marty; And Others

    The History of Great Ideas is an interdisciplinary seminar course for sophomore honor students at North Arkansas Community Technical College that teaches the intellectual history of western civilization. Each semester, students study 14 ideas from science, philosophy, history, religion, sociology, and economics to discover how philosophical…

  15. Sociology of education, comparative education and social problems: A Polish comment

    Zelazkiewicz, Marek


    The interaction and co-operation between the sociology of education and comparative education may lead to the realisation of the three basic functions of science: descriptive, explanatory and operative. A presentation of these issues is difficult because of the blurring of lines of division between related scientific disciplines. In the past two decades, Polish sociology has developed without experiencing any serious inner conflicts. Two basic orientations — empirical and humanistic — have co-existed, and the Marxist approach has gradually become more firmly established. The sociological approach applied to the sciences can be viewed as first, the adoption of sociological concepts and theories; and secondly, the application of the methods and techniques used in sociological research. The history of the relationship between the sociology of education and comparative education goes back to the works of J. Chałasiński in the 'thirties: he approached the school as a social institution functioning in a system of social relations and social groups, such as classes, vocational groups, nations and states. The application and impact of the sociological approach is evident in the methodological foundations of pedagogy — as e.g., in the work of Muszyński in 1975 — and also in many specific fields of comparative education. The so-called humanistic orientation and the descriptive function have predominated over empirical studies and the explanatory function in these areas. The 1973 Report of the Committee of Experts, on the state of education in Poland, was the result of co-operation between sociologists end educationists. This enterprise brought about the actualisation of the operative function of both scientific disciplines. However, the situation in Poland today raises new questions needing to be answered.

  16. "The man who committed a hundred burglaries": Mark Benney's strange and eventful sociological career.

    Lee, Raymond M


    This article examines the life and career of the sociologist Mark Benney. It describes the processes, not all of them edifying, by which he made the transition from life as a career criminal, via literature, to become a sociologist first at the London School of Economics and then at the University of Chicago. Benney's career is then used to illuminate particular episodes in the history of sociology, including the attempt to introduce into British sociology in the period after the Second World War quantitative survey techniques of the kind that were then becoming more widely used in the United States, and his work with David Riesman on the Interview Project, Riesman's attempt to develop a empirically based sociology of the interview. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


    James Drane


    Full Text Available The basic philosophical vision and ethical principles of Catholic Natural Law claim universality. Natural Law thinking aspires to objectivity and universality and at the same time is open to the continuing influence from history and politics. The background principles of positive law historically go by the name of Natural Law. Suffering and injustice contribute to a vision both of the structure of human existence and of what we mean by humane law and ethics. When we confront a cultural crisis, Natural Law, looks not to the past but to the future. Few people today talk of the ethical dimensions of social realities in terms of Natural Law. This is true both in the Church and in the State. In bioethics, the principles rooted in the universal structure of human life have to provide direction and regulations on the playing field of contemporary life and medicine. A liberal Catholic perspective tries to keep in play the universal and the particular aspects of Natural Law reasoningLa visión filosófica básica y los principios éticos de la Ley Natural Católica demandan universalidad. El pensamiento de la Ley Natural aspira a la objetividad y universalidad y, al mismo tiempo, está abierto a la continua influencia de la historia y la política. Los principios que yacen en la base de la ley positiva históricamente reciben el nombre de Ley Natural. El sufrimiento y la injusticia contribuyen a una visión, tanto de la estructura de la existencia humana como de lo que entendemos por una ley y una ética humanas. Cuando enfrentamos una crisis cultural, la Ley Natural no mira hacia el pasado sino que hacia el futuro. Es poca la gente que hoy en día habla de las dimensiones éticas de las realidades sociales en términos de Ley Natural. Esto vale tanto para la Iglesia como para el Estado. En bioética, los principios enraizados en la estructura universal de la vida humana tienen que proporcionar dirección y regulación en el campo de juego de la vida y

  18. "It's Not Rocket Science!": High School Sociology Teachers' Conceptions of Sociology

    DeCesare, Michael


    Since academic sociology's birth in this country, sociologists have not been shy about publicly praising and ridiculing the discipline. Though sociologists have been the primary participants in the seemingly endless debates about sociology's proper subject matter, methods, and purpose, there is another group that has also struggled over the past…

  19. Sociology of the Prison Classroom: Marginalized Identities and Sociological Imaginations behind Bars

    Parrotta, Kylie L.; Thompson, Gretchen H.


    The authors use sociology of the college classroom to analyze their experiences as feminists teaching sociology courses in the "unconventional setting" of prison. Reflective writing was used to chronicle experiences in the classes. They apply the concepts of doing gender, interaction order, and emotion work to the prison classroom. Based on their…

  20. Why, Where, and How to Infuse the Atlanta Sociological Laboratory into the Sociology Curriculum

    Wright, Earl, II


    The Atlanta Sociological Laboratory is the moniker bestowed on scholars engaged in sociological research at Atlanta University between 1895 and 1924. Under the leadership of W. E. B. Du Bois, 1897-1914, this school made substantive yet marginalized contributions to the discipline. Its accomplishments include, but are not limited to, its…

  1. Dr. Anna G. Jonasdottir: Acceptance Speech for Honorary Doctorate from Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland. Given 18th of June, 2015

    Anna G. Jónasdóttir


    Full Text Available On June 18th the Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, celebrated 100 years of women’s‘ voting rights in Iceland with a special conference, Power and democracy 100 years later. In association with the conference Dr. Anna Guðrún Jónasdóttir, Professor emerita at the University of Örebro, Sweden, was awarded an honorary doctorate at the Faculty of Political Science. Anna Guðrún was the first Icelandic woman to complete a doctorate in political science, in 1991, and also the first to embark on an advanced academic career in political science and gender studies. It is therefore highly appropriate that Anna Guðrún should be awarded the first honorary doctorate at the Faculty of Political Science, where these disciplines are located. Her research covers a broad spectrum, including political science, sociology, economic history, psychology and gender studies. She was among the first to deal in a theoretical manner with gender, power and politics, which was considered rather provocative at the start of her academic career in the early 1970s. She is a pioneer in intertwining political research and gender studies and her most important research is in the field of power and personal gender relations. Anna Guðrún moved to Sweden at an early age but has kept in touch with the Icelandic research community. Below we publish her acceptance speech on the occasion when the honorary doctorate was awarded. It reflects clearly how her ideas have developed and her intimate sense for how personal and political factors bring politics and gender studies closer at the same time as she deepens and broadens both of their subjects.

  2. Political Campaigns

    Lilleker, Darren


    Political campaigns are orchestrated attempts by political organizations to garner public support through persuasive communication in order to influence public policy in their favor. This broad definition encapsulates all forms of campaigns from those of neighborhood organizations seeking to influence local politicians to the campaigns of political parties and candidates who seek election to office in order to shape policy themselves. In pluralist democracies, campaigns are crucial for repres...

  3. Political CSR

    Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette

    We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....

  4. [From sociology in medicine to the sociology of collective health: contributions toward a necessary reflexivity].

    Castro, Roberto


    This text looks at the difference between sociology in medicine (collaborator of health institutions) and the sociology of medicine (independent of health institutions). If consistent, sociology in medicine should become a sociology of medicine. As an example, it is shown how the study of the social determinants of health and illness begins by assuming non-problematically the ontological reality of health and illness, but ends up problematizing the very concept of health-disease, demonstrating that the study of health determinants also requires the study of the determinants of the social construction of disease. The urgent necessity of objectifying collective health itself is argued. By applying sociological tools we can examine the so-called objective factors in the determination of health and disease, the socially constructed nature of these categories of knowledge, and the struggles and power relations that determine whether or not such categories are viable.

  5. [Pierre Bourdieu: sociology as a "symbolic revolution"].

    Suaud, Charles


    The article combines two objectives: understand the genesis and development of the sociology of Bourdieu in connection with his social and intellectual positioning. The sociology of Bourdieu is a theory of Action which reconciles the double requirement of objectification and taking account of the practical logic bound by social agents. From the character both objective and subjective of social space, he analyzes how different institutions (firstly School) are doing that mental structures match the objective structures of society. By making acceptable reality and registering it in the body, these instances contribute to reproduce social divisions and participate in the work of domination. Gradually, Bourdieu develops a general theory about Power, which leads to a sociology of State. But he refuses any sociological fatalism. Because he perceived homologies between the sociologist and the artist facing the social order, each in their own way, he devoted two researches to Flaubert and Manet, seized in the same enterprise of aesthetic subversion he described as a 'symbolic revolution'. In many aspects, the sociology of Bourdieu opens ways of looking for an objectification of caregivers and their practices.

  6. Environmental sociology as the broadest framework for a research of the globalizing social reality

    Pušić Ljubinko


    Full Text Available The all-encompassing processes of globalization have contributed in a large measure to the confusion within scholarly attempts to decode its comprehensiveness, its causes, and its scope. The premise of this article is that the environment is a relevant sociological concept and a tool for the most complex and the most complete understanding of the impact that global processes have on social reality. We can also see that environmental sociology, as a distinct and very young - though well established - sub-discipline of sociology is a very suitable epistemological framework for testing the elements of globalization. This article considers the relationship between environmental sociology and the five common foundational sub-processes that define globalization and sustainable development. Those sub-processes are defined as political, economic, ecological, technological, and cultural. Furthermore, this article articulates the basis of the quest for the lowest common denominator within both theoretical and practical aspects of these sub-processes. In that sense, the question of the plausibility of the idea of sustainable development - as the intersection of the aforementioned sub-processes - is addressed.

  7. The sociological knowledge and problematic behaviors’ prevention

    Aida Serjanaj


    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the importance of sociology knowledge in students attending teaching Master Program, specialists in education, experienced teachers, as well as high school graduates who study sociology in high school. The issues discussed involve not only the role of teacher on recording and straightening such problematic behaviors but even the ways of changing the situation on the future. Phenomena such as: culture, subculture, ethnicity, religion, race and gender diversity, prejudices and discrimination which derive by these kinds of diversities; inequality of social strata, the understanding of social role, cultural norms practicing and their respecting are present in our schools environment. These are reasons why teachers and students must have information about above-mentioned phenomena. Ministry of Education and Sport must add Sociology as a subject of core curricula of high school and teachers programs’ studies.

  8. Introduction: why a Sociology of Pandemics?

    Dingwall, Robert; Hoffman, Lily M; Staniland, Karen


    Infectious disease has re-emerged as a public health threat in an increasingly globalised era, adding trans-national actors to traditional national and local government actors. This special issue showcases new sociological work in response to this challenge. The contributors have investigated the social construction of new and re-emerging diseases; the development of surveillance systems, public health governance; the impact of scientific/technical modalities on uncertainty and risk, the interplay of infectious disease, public health and national security concerns, and public and media responses. The case studies range broadly across North America, Europe and Asia and define new agendas for medical sociologists and public health policymakers. © 2012 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Desperately seeking sociology: nursing student perceptions of sociology on nursing courses.

    Edgley, Alison; Timmons, Stephen; Crosbie, Brian


    This paper will present the findings of a qualitative study exploring the perceptions of students confronted by a requirement to learn sociology within a nursing curriculum. Those teaching sociology have a variety of explanations (more or less desperate), seeking to justify its place on the nursing curriculum. While there may be no resolution to the debate, the dispute thus far, has largely been between sociology and nursing academics. Absent from this debate are the voices of students 'required' to learn both nursing and sociology. What do students make of this contested territory? When students are trying to learn their trade, and know how to practice safely and efficaciously what do they make of the sociological imagination? How realistic is it to expect students to grasp both the concrete and practical with the imaginative and critical? Findings from this qualitative, focus group study suggest that students do indeed find learning sociology within a nursing curriculum "unsettling". It would seem that students cope in a number of ways. They fragment and compartmentalise knowledge(s); they privilege the interception of experiential learning on the path between theory and practice; and yet they appear to employ sociological understanding to account for nursing's gendered and developing professional status.

  10. Sociology of Knowledge Perspective on Entrepreneurship

    Turcan, Romeo V.


    This chapter addresses one of the enduring questions in sociology of knowledge: how is it possible that subjective meanings become objective facticities? It adopts this question to understand the entrepreneurship phenomenon, and, more specifically, to understand how new business or venture ideas...... and new sectors or industries (as subjective meanings) are legitimated and institutionalized (become socially established as reality). Building on Berger and Luckmann’s Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge, the chapter suggests an alternative order objectivation of meaning to understand entrepreneurship...

  11. Does infant cognition research undermine sociological theory?

    Bjerre, Jørn


    This article discusses how the results of infant research challenge the assumptions of the classical sciences of social behaviour. According to A.J. Bergesen, the findings of infant research invalidate Durkheim's theory of mental categories, thus requiring a re-theorizing of sociology. This article...... argues that Bergesen's reading of Emile Durkheim is incorrect, and his review of the infant research in fact invalidates his argument. Reviewing the assumptions of sociology in the light of the findings of infant research, it is argued that the real challenge is to formulate a research strategy...

  12. The age of school shootings: a sociological interpretation on masculinity

    Celis, Jorge


    Full Text Available Over the past two decades there has been a growing interest in the study of the horrendous massacres perpetrated by students at school premises. These massacres, known as school shootings, haven been predominantly analyzed by employing psychological approaches. Despite the fact that empirical research clearly reveals that school shooters tend not to present life-long histories of mental illness, these approaches usually put a strong emphasis on the perpetrator’s individual pathologies, ignoring the influence that social values such as masculinity exert on perpetrators’ actions. Consequently, perpetrators are viewed as lone wolf shooters and school shootings as isolated cases. Based on data derived from scholarly works published mainly in peer-review journals and the sociological theory of P. Berger and T. Luckmann, the aim of this essay is to offer a sociological interpretation on school shootings by explaining why school shooters commit violent actions against teachers and classmates as a form of retrieving their masculinity. In this regard, the essay finds that male rather than female students commit school shootings. At the same time, the majority of perpetrators have had parents who were gun collectors. It is no coincide that shooters mostly use family guns to commit the massacres. Additionally, shooters see school as a social entity that has diminished their masculinity, and the way to reaffirm their masculinity is to attack randomly students and teachers in full view of the rest of school members during school hours.

  13. Sociological differences between women and men: implications for autoimmunity.

    Borchers, Andrea T; Gershwin, M Eric


    There are an enormous number of incorrect stereotypes that characterize the differences between women and men. Indeed, nearly all of these stereotypes are based on cultural inaccuracies and faulty data without consideration of biology and the distinct sociological differences between genders. Sociological differences are those that relate to the development, structure, interaction and behavior of organized groups of human beings, or societies, and their values and beliefs. Gender is a social construct referring "to the culturally and historically based differences in the roles, attitudes and behaviors of men and women" ([1], p.1) as shaped by norms and stereotypes. Sex, on the other hand, serves to classify living things according to their reproductive organs and functions assigned by chromosomal complement (according to the US Institute of Medicine) and the physical and biological characteristics arising from these organs and functions. The two terms are generally viewed as dichotomous; however, they are closely intertwined in as yet hardly understood ways, and it is frequently difficult to distinguish between them since gendered life experiences can have profound effects on body structure and function [2]. In this review, we will examine to what extent gender roles and stereotypes shape the daily lives of women in their roles as students, employees, wives, and mothers and their health. These data have implications for the etiology of autoimmunity and also for differences in the natural history of disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Played or Player: Education, Technologies and Organisational Politics

    Al Lily, Abdulrahman Essa


    This interdisciplinary work lies at the intersection of education, technology and political sociology. It is intended to contribute to the politicisation of educational technologies, something that so far seems not to have explicitly constituted a major component of the international contemporary theoretical literature. It addresses the research…

  15. Rational Choice Theory and the Politics of Education: Promise and Limitations.

    Boyd, William Lowe; And Others


    Rational choice theory and its three branches (game theory, collective choice theory, and organizational economics) has altered the face of political science, sociology, and organizational theory. This chapter reviews rational choice theory, examines a small body of work that relies on the rational choice paradigm to study educational politics,…

  16. Politics of Uranium



    Uranium is the most political of all the elements, the material for the production of both the large amounts of electricity and the most destructive weapons in the world. The problems that its dual potential creates are only now beginning to become evident. Author Norman Moss looks at this situation and sheds light on many of the questions that emerge. The nuclear issue always comes back to how much uranium there is, what can be done with it, and which countries have it. Starting with a concise history of uranium and explaining its technology in terms the nonspecialist can understand, The Politics of Uranium considers the political issues that technical arguments obscure. It tells the little-known story of the international uranium cartel, explains the entanglements of governments with the uranium trade, and describes the consequences of wrong decisions and blunders-especially the problems of nuclear waste. It also examines the intellectual and emotional roots of the anti-nuclear movement

  17. Politics, welfare regimes, and population health: controversies and evidence.

    Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo; Espelt, Albert; Rodriguez-Sanz, Maica; Benach, Joan; O'Campo, Patricia


    In recent years, a research area has emerged within social determinants of health that examines the role of politics, expressed as political traditions/parties and welfare state characteristics, on population health. To better understand and synthesise this growing body of evidence, the present literature review, informed by a political economy of health and welfare regimes framework, located 73 empirical and comparative studies on politics and health, meeting our inclusion criteria in three databases: PubMed (1948-), Sociological Abstracts (1953-), and ISI Web of Science (1900-). We identified two major research programmes, welfare regimes and democracy, and two emerging programmes, political tradition and globalisation. Primary findings include: (1) left and egalitarian political traditions on population health are the most salutary, consistent, and substantial; (2) the health impacts of advanced and liberal democracies are also positive and large; (3) welfare regime studies, primarily conducted among wealthy countries, find that social democratic regimes tend to fare best with absolute health outcomes yet consistently in terms of relative health inequalities; and (4) globalisation defined as dependency indicators such as trade, foreign investment, and national debt is negatively associated with population health. We end by discussing epistemological, theoretical, and methodological issues for consideration for future research. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. The aesthetic as a mediator of the moral and the politics in the history of reason: An approach to aesthetic theory of Friedrich Schiller

    Ricard Casadesús


    Full Text Available Historic and rationalistic methods are for Schiller the only valid to truly understand the humanbeing. The great merit of Schiller was to have broken the subjectivity and the abstract nature of kantian thought and to have dared, under them, trying to catch by the thought the unity and the conciliation as constituent elements of the truth, and trying to artistically accomplish this conception. Schiller well-combines these three faculties of the spirit and offers an image of the whole man. These faculties, in Schiller, are converted in dynamic dialectic entities, those finally are combined in a higher harmony. So with this maybe built a state. Schiller comes to the conclusion that to solve the political question is necessary to passimmediately by the universe of the art because the way of liberty passes through the beauty.

  19. Political News and Political Consciousness

    Schertges, Claudia


    This article deals with mass media in modern democratic societies, using the example of Israeli news reports in German television (TV) news. Central to this interest are processes of mediating politics: political socialisation and education; that is to say, empowering citizens via TV news to participate in democratic processes. The article…

  20. Theoretical and hypothetical framework for research on political socialization process in the family

    Čičkarić Lilijana


    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to sum up theoretical and hypothetical framework for empirical research of political socialization process in the family in Serbian society nowadays. The investigation focuses on two theoretical concepts, political socialization and generation as a sociological paradigm. Two methodological approaches are applied. First is interactive model of political socialization, based on analysis of relations between individual who is socialized, agents of political socialization, dominant political system and peripheral social sub-systems. The second one tests interactive relation of generation, lifecycle and effects of epoch. It is suitable for definition of certain historical periods with active role of political.

  1. The Representation of Women in Publication: An Analysis of "Political Communication" and the "International Journal of Press/Politics"

    Evans, Heather K.; Bucy, Erik P.


    Scholarly publication in peer-reviewed journals is widely regarded as the road to scholarly success. However, in a diversity of fields such as sociology, economics, and political science, it has been shown that the rate of publication is much lower for women than for men. The question of whether a systematic relationship exists between gender and…

  2. African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie: About ...

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie: About this journal. Journal Home > African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. The Correlation of Sociology, Historical and Dialectical Materialism - USSR



    .... 5, 1957, has brought many responses. This is because the article touched not only on the question of the correction of sociology and historical materialism, but inevitably raised the problem of the correction of sociology...

  4. The sociology of medical screening: past, present and future.

    Armstrong, Natalie; Eborall, Helen


    Medical screening raises fundamental issues for sociological inquiry, but at present a well-developed sociology of medical screening is lacking. This special issue on the sociology of screening brings together an exciting collection of new work that tackles medical screening from a variety of theoretical and methodological approaches. In this opening paper, we begin by explaining what we mean by screening, and why we believe screening merits sociological attention. Secondly, we reflect on the sociology of screening to date and provide an introduction for those new to this area. We then provide an overview of the papers in this collection, highlighting links and contrasts between papers. We conclude by reflecting on sociology's potential contribution to wider debates about screening, and propose future research directions. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. A sociological study of visions and reality constructions related to the uses of natural gas in Norway

    Gjoeen, Heidi


    The thesis has 8 chapters. Chapter 1 deals with the sociology of the energy society. In chapter 2 question for the following empirical chapters are developed. The presentation is divided in 2 parts. Firstly the vision concept as used in the scientific literature on business and technology is discussed. Secondly various controversy study treatments of the relationship between politics and science based knowledge are discussed. From these discussions problems for the study of visions where the relationship between knowledge and policy are derived and evaluated. In chapter 3 the use of a modified field method in the study of the visions for technology projects ''in the making'' is described. In chapter 4 a brief survey of the Norwegian gas history and previous visions for natural gas utilisation in Norway is presented. Central natural gas concepts and different ways natural gas may be used, how it may be distributed and which environmental arguments may be connected to the use in various sectors are surveyed. Finally some measures which the government used and may use in order to stimulate and set a framework for national gas activity are presented. Chapter 5 describes the demonstration project on natural gas busses in Trondheim in the period 1989 - 1994/95. Chapter 6 mainly surveys the story of how Gasnor ASA on Karmoey in Rogaland started the infrastructure project on delivery of natural gas to local industrial users in the period of 1989 - 194/95. Chapter 7 studies how the use of natural gas is dealt with politically in the period of 1993 - 1998. A brief account of further work after 1995 with distributing natural gas to the users in Mid-Norway and Rogaland is presented. In chapter 8 a brief abstract of the empirical accounts in chapters 5,6 and 7 is given. Furthermore the concept of visionary work as it is developed and presented in the thesis is discussed thus giving the concept a theoretical and analytical content

  6. História, arte e política: o muralismo do boliviano Miguel Alandia Pantoja History, art and politics: the muralism of the Bolivian Miguel Alandia Pantoja

    Everaldo de Oliveira Andrade


    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende avaliar em que medida arte e política se expressaram na criação e na ação do artista e militante político boliviano Miguel Alandia Pantoja, ativo participante de momentos centrais da História do seu país como a guerra do Chaco, a revolução de 1952 e a Comuna de La Paz de 1971. As influências do indigenismo andino e do muralismo mexicano parecem ter-se cruzado com as opções políticas de Alandia e com seu engajamento na proposta dos artistas ligados ao Manifesto por Uma Arte Revolucionária e Independente lançado por André Breton, Diego Rivera e Leon Trotski em 1936, permitindo o surgimento de uma obra original, polêmica e marcante para a História latino-americana.This article intends to evaluate how art and politics are expressed both in the creation and in the action of the Bolivian militant politician Miguel Alandia Pantoja, who was an active participant in decisive moments of his country's history, as the Chaco War, the 1952 Revolution and the Commune of La Paz in 1971. The Andean indigenismo and the Mexican muralist influences seemed to have crossed with Alandia political options and with his enrollment at the proposal made by artists related to the Manifesto for a Revolutionary and Independent Art launched by Andre Breton, Diego Rivera and Leon Trotski in 1936, allowing the uprising of an original and controversial artistic creation for Latin American history.

  7. Scientific Discovery in Deep Social Space: Sociology without Borders

    Joseph Michalski


    Globalization affords an excellent opportunity to develop a genuinely universal, scientific sociology. In recent decades the politicization of the discipline has undermined the central mission of sociology: scientific discovery and explanation. The paper identifies several intellectual shifts that will facilitate the expansion and communication of such a science in an emerging global village of sociological analysts: 1) breaking with classical sociology to build upon innovative theoretical id...

  8. Energy-political stagnation or innovation

    Kitschelt, H.


    The author discusses the enquete report 1980. He makes an inventory for a political and sociological interpretation of the interim report between meaningful innovation and political insignificance as well as intellectual stagnation. The report is considered as an indicator for the transformation of the energy-political arena in the Federal Republic of Germany over the last years. ''Stagnation'' or ''innovation'' of the argumentation patterns in the report of the enquete commission relate to the question whether the analyses in that document are rather a brake or a motor to a shift of political perspectives in energy policy. A progress can be seen in the report regarding political debate about energy-options in the semi-official political spectrum of the Federal Republic of Germany, in as far as differring options of energy-political development are being acknowledged for the first time. At the same time, debate inside the commission directs the attention to issues of institutional policy in the energy sector. Considering the fights within the commission before the report was agreed on, it seems doubtful if its proposals for compromise will prove a sound political basis. The tensions inside the commission are just a first sign of the power conflicts due above all if the recommendations for energy conservation are intransigently carried out. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. ‘Historiography and the retracing of Latin American art history’: The Academy of San Carlos and Mexican Art History by Ray Hernández-Durán, Politics, History, and Art in Nineteenth-Century Mexico, London and New York: Routledge, 2017

    Claudia Mattos Avolese


    Full Text Available The Academy of San Carlos and Mexican Art History presents an account of the cultural and political circumstances that led to the installation of the first gallery of colonial art at the Academy of San Carlos in mid-nineteenth century Mexico City, and to the associated publication of the first art historical account of colonial Mexico. The author proposes that these two endeavors relate closely to the ambitions of the Mexican conservative elite to create a Mexican corporate identity based on the colonial past. Ray Hernández-Durán also argues that the gallery and the associated book can be seen as the starting point for the construction of the field of Latin American art history as we know it today.

  10. The Continuation of the Dialectic in Sociology

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.


    A rapidly changing ‘society’ that requires ‘new units of analysis’, ‘new roles for sociology’, and new democratic commitment to ‘the publics’ has implications for the identity and calling of sociology. In this so-called ‘identity crisis’, some sociologists have introduced the so-called ‘after

  11. Time for creative integration in medical sociology.

    Levine, S


    The burgeoning of medical sociology has sometimes been accompanied by unfortunate parochialism and the presence of opposing intellectual camps that ignore and even impugn each other's work. We have lost opportunities to achieve creative discourse and integration of different perspectives, methods, and findings. At this stage we should consider how we can foster creative integration within our field.

  12. Sociology of religion in the Netherlands

    de Groot, Kees; Sengers, Erik; Blasi, Anthony J.; Giordan, Giuseppe

    In 1960, the Dutch journal of the Catholic Social-Ecclesial Institute (Kaski) Sociaal Kompas became Social Compass. This shift rounded off a period now considered as the heyday of Dutch sociology of religion. Ironically, in those years, Catholic sociologists in particular contested the legitimacy of

  13. New Biological Sciences, Sociology and Education

    Youdell, Deborah


    Since the Human Genome Project mapped the gene sequence, new biological sciences have been generating a raft of new knowledges about the mechanisms and functions of the molecular body. One area of work that has particular potential to speak to sociology of education, is the emerging field of epigenetics. Epigenetics moves away from the mapped…

  14. Human Right for Fair Wage: sociological aspect

    Ponomareva T. M.


    Full Text Available The article summarizes the results of sociological research devoted to the analysis of the fair wage problem. The authors analyze the dynamics of labor load and the level of wages in the economic market conditions taking as an example the Omsk Region

  15. The Sociology of Family Health. A Bibliography.

    Jumba-Masagazi, A. H. K., Comp.

    This unannotated bibliography is on man, his family, the society he makes and lives in, and his health. It is about man and his East African environment. It attempts to bring together both the applied and social sciences as they affect the family. Among the disciplines drawn from are: anthropology, sociology, medicine, religion, economics, labor…

  16. Teaching the Sociology of Gender and Work

    Giuffre, Patti; Anderson, Cynthia; Bird, Sharon


    This paper describes two teaching strategies from our workshop, "Teaching the Sociology of Gender and Work," that can help students understand the mechanisms and consequences of workplace gender inequality at the macro- and micro-levels. Cynthia Anderson's class project uses wage and sex composition data that allows students to learn actively how…

  17. introductory concepts on sociological jurisprudence: jhering ...


    sociological theory whose main and pervasive message is that “law is a social .... content of law is infinitely varied and relative to the different societies. There is thus ... All legal principles for Jhering can be reduced to the security of condition of.

  18. Sociology, environment and health: a materialist approach.

    Fox, N J; Alldred, P


    This paper reviews the sociology of environment and health and makes the case for a postanthropocentric approach based on new materialist theory. This perspective fully incorporates humans and their health into 'the environment', and in place of human-centred concerns considers the forces that constrain or enhance environmental capacities. This is not an empirical study. The paper uses a hypothetical vignette concerning child health and air pollution to explore the new materialist model advocated in the paper. This paper used sociological analysis. A new materialist and postanthropocentric sociology of environment and health are possible. This radically reconfigures both sociological theory and its application to research and associated policies on health and the environment. Theoretically, human health is rethought as one among a number of capacities emerging from humans interactions with the social and natural world. Practically, the focus of intervention and policy shifts towards fostering social and natural interactions that enhance environmental (and in the process, human) potentiality. This approach to research and policy development has relevance for public health practice and policy. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Regression Analysis and the Sociological Imagination

    De Maio, Fernando


    Regression analysis is an important aspect of most introductory statistics courses in sociology but is often presented in contexts divorced from the central concerns that bring students into the discipline. Consequently, we present five lesson ideas that emerge from a regression analysis of income inequality and mortality in the USA and Canada.

  20. On the New Approach in Sociological Education

    Russian Education and Society, 2012


    A roundtable was held in April 2010, by correspondence and with participants in attendance; it was organized by the editorial board of "Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniia" jointly with the faculty of sociology of the Russian State University of the Humanities [RGGU]. The focus of the proceedings was a discussion (taking account of…