WorldWideScience

Sample records for history philosophy anthropology

  1. Anthropology & Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The present book is no ordinary anthology, but rather a workroom in which anthropologists and philosophers initiate a dialogue on trust and hope, two important topics for both fields of study. The book combines work between scholars from different universities in the U.S. and Denmark. Thus, besid......, therefore, also inspire others to work in the productive intersection between anthropology and philosophy....

  2. PHILOSOPHY OF DESCARTES: BASIC INTENTION AND STATUS OF ANTHROPOLOGY ABSTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Malivskyi, Anatolii M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to emphasize the insufficiency of reductionist interpretation of Descartes’ heritage and to bring into focus the constitutive role of anthropology in Descartes authentic project. Scientific novelty. Substantiation of anthropology in Descartes’ philosophical structure is based upon recognition of key importance of anthropological intention in previous philosophy as well as anthropological one in philosopher’s own works. Therefore, the insufficiency of established ...

  3. A history of forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2018-04-01

    Forensic anthropology represents a dynamic and rapidly evolving complex discipline within anthropology and forensic science. Academic roots extend back to early European anatomists but development coalesced in the Americas through high-profile court testimony, assemblage of documented collections and focused research. Formation of the anthropology section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in 1972, the American Board of Forensic Anthropology in 1977/1978 and other organizational advances provided important stimuli for progress. While early pioneers concentrated on analysis of skeletonized human remains, applications today have expanded to include complex methods of search and recovery, the biomechanics of trauma interpretation, isotopic analysis related to diet and region of origin, age estimation of the living and issues related to humanitarian and human rights investigations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Social Anthropology and Social Science History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the 1970s, when the social science history movement emerged in the United States, leading to the founding of the Social Science History Association, a simultaneous movement arose in which historians looked to cultural anthropology for inspiration. Although both movements involved historians turning to social sciences for theory and method, they reflected very different views of the nature of the historical enterprise. Cultural anthropology, most notably as preached by Clifford Geertz, became a means by which historians could find a theoretical basis in the social sciences for rejecting a scientific paradigm. This article examines this development while also exploring the complex ways cultural anthropology has embraced—and shunned—history in recent years. PMID:26549914

  5. A Brief History of Media Anthropology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiselein, E. B.; Topper, Martin

    1976-01-01

    Media and anthropology have been inalienably linked since the beginning of anthropology. Anthropologists have experimented with a variety of media to communicate anthropology to new audiences. (Author)

  6. A history of erotic philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soble, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This essay historically explores philosophical views about the nature and significance of human sexuality, starting with the Ancient Greeks and ending with late 20th-century Western philosophy. Important figures from the history of philosophy (and theology) discussed include Sappho, Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, St. Jerome, the Pelagians, St. Thomas Aquinas, Michel de Montaigne, Rene Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Søren Kierkegaard, Arthur Schopenhauer, Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Sigmund Freud, Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Wilhelm Reich, and Herbert Marcuse. Contemporary philosophers whose recent work is discussed include Michel Foucault, Thomas Nagel, Roger Scruton, Karol Wojtyla (Pope John Paul II), Catharine MacKinnon, Richard Posner, and John Finnis. To show the unity of the humanities, the writings of various literary figures are incorporated into this history, including Mark Twain, Arthur Miller, James Thurber, E. B. White, Iris Murdoch, and Philip Roth.

  7. History and future of visual anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svilicić, Niksa

    2011-03-01

    Visual recording of communication processes between communities or individuals by means of filming of photographing is of significant importance in anthropology, as it documents on site the specific features of various social communities in their encounter with the researcher. In terms of film industry, it is a sort of ethno-documentary pursuing originality and objectivity in recording the given subject, thus fulfilling the research mission. However, the potential of visual anthropology significantly exceeds the mere audiovisual recording of ethnologic realities. Modern methods of analysing and evaluating the role of visual anthropology suggest that it is a technical research service aimed at documenting the status quo. If the direction of proactive approach were taken, then the term ,visual anthropology' could be changed to ,anthropology of the visual,. This apparently cosmetic change of name is actually significantly more accurate, suggesting the denoted proactive swift in perceiving visual anthropology, where visual methods are employed to ,provoke< the reaction of an individual or of the community. In this way the "anthropology of the visual, is promoted to a new scientific sub-anthropological discipline.

  8. History, applications, and philosophy in mathematics education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jankvist, Uffe Thomas

    2013-01-01

    on the observation that a use of history, applications, and philosophy as a 'goal' is best realized through a modules approach, the article goes on to discuss how to actually design such teaching modules. It is argued that a use of primary original sources through a so-called guided reading along with a use......The article first investigates the basis for designing teaching activities dealing with aspects of history, applications, and philosophy of mathematics in unison by discussing and analyzing the different 'whys' and 'hows' of including these three dimensions in mathematics education. Based...... of student essay assignments, which are suitable for bringing out relevant meta-issues of mathematics, is a sensible way of realizing a design encompassing the three dimensions. Two concrete teaching modules on aspects of the history, applications, and philosophy of mathematics-HAPh-modules-are outlined...

  9. Recent Periodicals: Local History, Family and Community History, Cultural Heritage, Folk Studies, Anthropology - A Review (2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vladova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An annual bibliography of papers in the field of local history, family and community history, cultural heritage, folk studies and anthropology, published in 2016, is collected. The inspected journals are: Bulgarian Journal of Science and Education Policy, Chemistry: Bulgarian Journal of Science Education, Current Anthropology, Family and Community History, Folklore, History and Memory, Journal of Family History, Journal of Folklore Research, Past & Present, Winterthur Portfolio. Many of those journals are available at us under subscription.

  10. The architecture of modern mathematics essays in history and philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreiros, J

    2006-01-01

    Aimed at both students and researchers in philosophy, mathematics and the history of science, this edited volume, authored by leading scholars, highlights foremost developments in both the philosophy and history of modern mathematics.

  11. The Role of History and Philosophy of in University Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Carter, Jessica M H Grund

    2014-01-01

    uses of history and the research direction in philosophy of mathematics denoted ‘Philosophy of Mathematical Practice’. We link history and philosophy of mathematical practices to recent ideas in mathematics education in order to identify different roles history and philosophy can play in the learning...... of mathematics at university level. We present, analyse and discuss different examples of inclusions of history and philosophy in university programmes in mathematics. These presentations are divided into courses in history and philosophy, respectively, since this is the main way they are organised...... at the universities. We shall see, however, that the history courses address philosophical questions and that the philosophy courses employ historical material. The chapter ends with comments on how mathematics educations at university level can benefit from history and philosophy of mathematics...

  12. History, research and practice of forensic anthropology in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traithepchanapai, Pongpon; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Kranioti, Elena F

    2016-04-01

    Forensic anthropology is an increasingly developing discipline born about a century ago in the United States with the objective to contribute the knowledge of bone biology and physical anthropology to the emerging needs of the court of law. The development of research in biological and forensic anthropology has made rapid progress worldwide in the past few years, however, in most countries--with the exception of the United States--forensic anthropology work is still considered within the duties of the forensic pathologist. This paper attempts to summarise the history and development of forensic anthropology in Thailand by providing information on past and current research and practice that can help forensic practitioners to apply existing methods in forensic cases and mass disasters. It is hoped that the lessons learned from the tsunami catastrophe and the emerging need for positive identification in medicolegal settings will lead to rapid advances in education, training and professional engagement of anthropologists from the forensic departments and the law enforcement agencies in Thailand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. All about science philosophy, history, sociology & communication

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Liu

    2014-01-01

    There is a lot of confusion and misconception concerning science. The nature and contents of science is an unsettled problem. For example, Thales of 2,600 years ago is recognized as the father of science but the word science was introduced only in the 14th century; the definition of science is often avoided in books about philosophy of science. This book aims to clear up all these confusions and present new developments in the philosophy, history, sociology and communication of science. It also aims to showcase the achievement of China's top scholars in these areas. The 18 chapters, divided into five parts, are written by prominent scholars including the Nobel laureate Robin Warren, sociologist Harry Collins, and physicist-turned-historian Dietrich Stauffer.

  14. What is human in humans? Responses from biology, anthropology, and philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibeau, Gilles

    2011-08-01

    Genomics has brought biology, medicine, agriculture, psychology, anthropology, and even philosophy to a new threshold. In this new context, the question about "what is human in humans" may end up being answered by geneticists, specialists of technoscience, and owners of biotech companies. The author defends, in this article, the idea that humanity is at risk in our age of genetic engineering, biotechnologies, and market-geared genetic research; he also argues that the values at the very core of our postgenomic era bring to its peak the science-based ideology that has developed since the time of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Harvey; finally, it shows that the bioindustry has invented a new genomythology that goes against the scientific evidence produced by the research in human sciences in which life is interpreted as a language.

  15. History, philosophy and science teaching new perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This anthology opens new perspectives in the domain of history, philosophy, and science teaching research. Its four sections are: first, science, culture and education; second, the teaching and learning of science; third, curriculum development and justification; and fourth, indoctrination. The first group of essays deal with the neglected topic of science education and the Enlightenment tradition. These essays show that many core commitments of modern science education have their roots in this tradition, and consequently all can benefit from a more informed awareness of its strengths and weaknesses. Other essays address research on leaning and teaching from the perspectives of social epistemology and educational psychology. Included here is the first ever English translation of Ernst Mach’s most influential 1890 paper on ‘The Psychological and Logical Moment in Natural Science Teaching’. This paper launched the influential Machian tradition in education. Other essays address concrete cases of the ...

  16. Kant on the history of nature: the ambiguous heritage of the critical philosophy for natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Phillip R

    2006-12-01

    This paper seeks to show Kant's importance for the formal distinction between descriptive natural history and a developmental history of nature that entered natural history discussions in the late eighteenth century. It is argued that he developed this distinction initially upon Buffon's distinctions of 'abstract' and 'physical' truths, and applied these initially in his distinction of 'varieties' from 'races' in anthropology. In the 1770s, Kant appears to have given theoretical preference to the 'history' of nature [Naturgeschichte] over 'description' of nature [Naturbeschreibung]. Following Kant's confrontations with Johann Herder and Georg Forster in the late 1780s, Kant weakened the epistemic status of the 'history of nature' and gave theoretical preference to 'description of nature'. As a result, Kant's successors, such as Goethe, could draw from Kant either a justification for a developmental history of nature, or, as this paper argues, a warrant from the critical philosophy for denying the validity of the developmental history of nature as anything more than a 'regulative' idea of reason.

  17. The history of the philosophy of management and corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, the history of philosophy of management is discussed with a focus on the search for legitimacy in the Judeo-Christian tradition. This is the basis for evaluating modern concepts of the economics of the philosophy of management and corporations. The chapter also presents the neoli...... the neoliberal paradigm of the philosophy of management and the attempt to search for another economy beyond rational individual utility maximization. Here we move toward business ethics, CSR, and corporate citizenship....

  18. At the Interface: Academic History, School History and the Philosophy of History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retz, Tyson

    2016-01-01

    How history is learnt and taught must to some extent be shaped by conceptions of what history is. Historians tend to conceptualize what something is by investigating what it has been and what it has meant in different contexts. This article explains how a debate in the philosophy of history between positivism and intentionalism provided the…

  19. Teaching the History and Philosophy of Science in Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Kenneth L.

    1980-01-01

    Lists educational objectives, course syllabus, audiovisual materials, and bibliography for a secondary school course on the history and philosophy of science. The class consists of discussions, lectures, use of film and filmstrips, and student research papers. (KC)

  20. A brief history of the philosophy of time

    CERN Document Server

    Bardon, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Adrian Bardon's A Brief History of the Philosophy of Time is a short introduction to the history, philosophy, and science of the study of time-from the pre-Socratic philosophers through Einstein and beyond. A Brief History of the Philosophy of Time covers subjects such as time and change, the experience of time, physical and metaphysical approaches to the nature of time, the direction of time, time travel, time and freedom of the will, and scientific and philosophical approaches to eternity and the beginning of time. Bardon employs helpful illustrations and keeps technical language to a minimum in bringing the resources of over 2500 years of philosophy and science to bear on some of humanity's most fundamental and enduring questions.

  1. History, philosophy, and science teaching: The present rapprochement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    1992-03-01

    This paper traces the use of, and arguments for, the history and philosophy of science in school science courses. Specific attention is paid to the British National Curriculum proposals and to the recommendations of the US Project 2061 curriculum guidelines. Some objections to the inclusion of historical material in science courses are outlined and answered. Mention is made of the Piagetian thesis that individual psychological development mirrors the development of concepts in the history of science. This introduces the topic of idealisation in science. Some significant instances are itemised where science education has, at its considerable cost, ignored work in philosophy of science. Arguments for the inclusion of the history and philosophy of science in science teacher education programmes are given. The paper finishes with a list of topical issues in present science education where collaboration between science teachers, historians, philosophers, and sociologists would be of considerable benefit.

  2. 'True Love' and Rousseau's Philosophy of History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armenteros, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Rousseau, a philosopher of history? The suggestion may startle those who know him as an enemy of history, the founder of Counter-Enlightenment who rejected his century's hope in progress and conjured quasi-utopias devoid of time. Alone, the political texts seem to justify this interpretation. Side

  3. Psychology and the Notion of the Spirit: Implications of Max Scheler's Anthropological Philosophy in Theory of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Olga V; Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2015-09-01

    After many decades with neglect Max Scheler and his anthropological contributions to the understanding of human existence, have gotten  more attention in psychology and other humanities. One factor is the actuality of his main project of revaluating the roles of values in philosophy and science. Yet another is the way individual scholars have applied Scheler's philosophy and terms on different fields and arenas. Viktor Frankl was one of these, and he brought Scheler's philosophical anthropology into psychotherapeutic practice, offering theoretical and empirical arguments for considering the notion of the spirit as an interdependent -yet separate- entity in regards to the psyche and the soma. During this commentary on Allyushin (Integrative Psychology Behaviour, 48, 503-523, 2014), we will discuss some general aspects of Scheler's contribution to phenomenology, but focus specifically on the implication of his notion of the spirit for psychological theory, acknowledging the work that has been done in the field for at least 60 years in logotherapy and existential analysis. With this purpose, we will highlight four other notions interrelated with the motivational quality of the notion of the spirit: resentment, axiology of values; self-detachment and self-transcendence.

  4. The Actuality of Gentile's Philosophy of History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This essay reconstructs Gentile's conception of history as the product of the eternal act of thinking. Peters charts the development of this distinctive position, presenting it as a sustained attempt to unite past and present, fact and value, thought and action within a single theory. He argues,

  5. The Actuality of Gentile's Philosophy of History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Richard; Haddock, Bruce; Wakefield, James

    2015-01-01

    This essay reconstructs Gentile's conception of history as the product of the eternal act of thinking. Peters charts the development of this distinctive position, presenting it as a sustained attempt to unite past and present, fact and value, thought and action within a single theory. He argues,

  6. Eric Davidson, his philosophy, and the history of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichmann, Ute

    2017-10-16

    Eric Davidson, a passionate molecular developmental biologist and intellectual, believed that conceptual advances in the sciences should be based on knowledge of conceptual history. Convinced of the superiority of a causal-analytical approach over other methods, he succeeded in successfully applying this approach to the complex feature of organismal development by introducing the far-reaching concept of developmental Gene Regulatory Networks. This essay reviews Davidson's philosophy, his support for the history of science, and some aspects of his scientific personality.

  7. The unborn child: history, philosophy and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucan Maria Casandra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available All throughout history the unborn, and implicitly its protection, have been subject for academics and practitioners of various areas. The problem of the origin of the soul and the exact determination of the moment when it is united with the body was crucial in enabling us to define the exact moment when the human life begins, and, consequently, for providing proper protection for the unborn child. In this context visions of the Greek philosophers like Plato, Aristotle, Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas, and of the Latin writer Tertullian, as well as Christian perspectives were analysed in order to identify the starting point of the human being to help determine the level of protection provided for the unborn in history. Finally, considering the fact that not even today has consensus been achieved concerning the beginning of human life, it was and still is difficult to provide proper legal protection for the unborn child, but in our opinion this is by far not impossible.

  8. Philosophical Anthropology, Ethics and Political Philosophy in an Age of Impending Catastrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arran Gare

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper it is argued that philosophical anthropology is central to ethics and politics. The denial of this has facilitated the triumph of debased notions of humans developed by Hobbes which has facilitated the enslavement of people to the logic of the global market, a logic which is now destroying the ecological conditions for civilization and most life on Earth. Reviving the classical understanding of the central place of philosophical anthropology to ethics and politics, the early work of Hegel and Marx is explicated, defended and further developed by interpreting this through developments in post-mechanistic science. Overcoming the opposition between the sciences and the humanities, it is suggested that the conception of humans developed in this way can orient people in their struggle for the liberty to avert a global ecological catastrophe.

  9. History, Philosophy and Science Teaching: Some Answers to ``How?''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa de Carvalho, Anna Maria; Infantosi Vannucchi, Andréa

    The study of the history and philosophy of science in school science courses is highly recommended. This paper deals with the methodological aspects derived from research in science education and how they have to be taken into account in order to generate effective classroom activities, so that history and philosophy are not relegated to the status of additional rhetoric of conclusions in an extensive curricula. This is illustrated with the analysis of episodes ___ transcribed from videotape records ___ which took place when such activity was introduced into high school physics classes. This analysis has shown that students, when working in cooperative groups over problematic historical episodes, may come to discuss essential features of science. This not only provides a more realistic view of science, but also enhances cognitive and argumentation skills, besides emphasizing the importance of teachers' guidance.

  10. Interacting with History: Reflections on Philosophy and the Pedagogy of Dance History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    Dance history is studied at all levels of the curriculum, whether as a named course or part of other domains of enquiry. Debates drawn from the philosophy of history and historiographic practice can impact on the teaching and learning of dance history in order to produce a more imaginative and personal engagement with the field. These debates are…

  11. The Beginnings of the History of Philosophy in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacija J. Fridl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Like many contemporary researchers into the ancient history of philosophy and into encyclopedic Hellenistic works (Mejer, Schoefield, Runia, Maasfeld ..., the author observes that a great deal of research into ancient doxography and Diogenes Laertius has focused on evaluation. Her own paper, on the other hand, turns to the question: What can Laertius’ attention to philosophers’ biographies in his Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers tell us about the Ancient Greek view of the philosophical thought from the past?  As noted by the author, the term ‘doxography’ itself, which bears the connotation of a less reliable source and is applied today to almost every ancient explanation of any philosophical doctrine, was established by Hermann Diels as late as the 19th century. Yet this view of earlier thought was in fact already developed by Aristotle. His treatise On the Soul defines the philosophical tenets of his precursors as ‘opinions’, which are then critically examined and rejected. This attitude to earlier philosophy informs all Aristotle’s writings and his methodology of philosophy in general, for his prima philosophia as a ‘science which considers the truth’ is founded precisely on the critique of earlier thought. He critically evaluates even the tenets of his teacher Plato, in order to surpass him with his own philosophy. Thus he lays the foundations of evolutionary historiography, which perceives history as a spiritual progress and has lasted through Hegel, Marx, and – with a negative historical connotation – Heidegger – to this day. Plato, by contrast, envisages, through the very form of the dialogue, the relation to earlier philosophy as a conversation, a constant interweaving and fertilisation of one’s own thought with the wisdom of one’s precursors. This perception is further reinforced by his doctrine of knowledge as a process of remembering, that is, of philosophy as a road to wisdom leading back

  12. ANTHROPOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION IN THE EARLY WORK OF NIKOLAY BERDYAEV (1900–1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Boldareva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the anthropological principles of the philosophy of religion which served as the basis of the early thought of N. A. Berdyaev. The author’s aim is to investigate this little known period in the work of Berdyaev during the decade from 1900 to 1910. Several problems are resolved through a study of the source material examined by the author of this article: 1 The principle phases of the evolution of Berdyaev’s thought are traced which brought the philosopher from Marxism to becoming a follower of Kant, and from idealistic metaphysics to religious philosophy; 2 This early period is examined to determine its importance in the formation of Berdyaev as an independent and original thinker; 3 The problem of the rapport between universality and individuality is studied in all of its aspects (both social and aesthetic in the early thought of Berdyaev as well as Berdyaev’s understanding of the chuvstvo lichnosti (sense of personality?. As a result we can demarcate several phases of the thought of Berdyaev during his early period which differ from one another in their thematic outlook: an enthusiasm for Marxism and later Neo-Kantism, a transition to spiritualism, a conversion to a new religious consciousness, and a finally a more moderate view of all these perceptions. The author concludes that it is necessary to question the accepted theses of the relevant literature which irrevocably claims that Berdyaev rejected Orthodox asceticism and was thus the creator of an anthropocentric and amoral philosophy

  13. Critical issues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of astrobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J

    2012-10-01

    Fifty years after serious scientific research began in the field of exobiology, and forty years after serious historical research began on the subject of extraterrestrial life, this paper identifies and examines some of the most important issues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of what is today known as astrobiology. As in the philosophy of science in general, and in the philosophies of particular sciences, critical issues in the philosophy and sociology of astrobiology are both stimulated and illuminated by history. Among those issues are (1) epistemological issues such as the status of astrobiology as a science, the problematic nature of evidence and inference, and the limits of science; (2) metaphysical/scientific issues, including the question of defining the fundamental concepts of life, mind, intelligence, and culture in a universal context; the role of contingency and necessity in the origin of these fundamental phenomena; and whether or not the universe is in some sense fine-tuned for life and perhaps biocentric; (3) societal issues such as the theological, ethical, and worldview impacts of the discovery of microbial or intelligent life; and the question of whether the search for extraterrestrial life should be pursued at all, and with what precautions; and (4) issues related to the sociology of scientific knowledge, including the diverse attitudes and assumptions of different scientific communities and different cultures to the problem of life beyond Earth, the public "will to believe," and the formation of the discipline of astrobiology. All these overlapping issues are framed by the concept of cosmic evolution-the 13.7 billion year Master Narrative of the Universe-which may result in a physical, biological, or postbiological universe and determine the long-term destiny of humanity.

  14. ‘Doxographical or Philosophical History of Philosophy: On Michael Frede’s Precepts for Writing the History of Philosophy’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2016-01-01

    In a series of articles from the 1980s and 1990s, Michael Frede analysed the history of histories of philosophy written over the last three hundred years. According to Frede, modern scholars have degenerated into what he calls a “doxographical” mode of writing the history of philosophy. Instead, he...... argued, these scholars should write what he called “philosophical” history of philosophy, first established in the last decades of the seventeenth century but since abandoned. In the present article it is argued that Frede’s reconstruction of the history of histories of philosophy is historically...

  15. DA Masolo A Short History of African Philosophy, a Review pp165-171

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DA Masolo

    Review of Barry Hallen's A Short History of African Philosophy, Second ... 2006, by African Philosophy: The Analytic Approach (Africa World Press). .... handling of culpability in witchcraft accusations as overlooking the obvious logical inference.

  16. Heart in anatomy history, radiology, anthropology and art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinković, S; Lazić, D; Kanjuh, V; Valjarević, S; Tomić, I; Aksić, M; Starčević, A

    2014-05-01

    Anthropologic, artistic and medical significance of heart inspired usto undertake this multidisciplinary study. Amongst the 24 obtained echocardiograms and phonograms, 1 was used for a Photoshop processing. In addition, over 20,000 art work reproductions were examined in this study. Artistic and symbolic presentation of heart started some 15,000 years ago. First heart models were made by the Egyptian and Olmec civilisations. Ancient cultures regarded heart as the seat of the soul, spirit and intelligence. First anatomical and artistic images of heart were created by Leonardo da Vinci in the15th century, and first wax models by the Italian anatomists in the 17th century. Mediaeval religious symbolism of heart was replaced in the Renaissance and later on mainly by its role in the romantic love. Anatomical heart art continued in the 18th and 19th centuries through the works of Sénac, Cloquet, Hirschfeldand Bourgery. Some modern artists, such as Dalí, Kahlo, Rivera, Warhol, Ivanjicki, Vital, Kober and Mastrlova, created the anatomical heart images or sculptures, whereas some others, such as Duchamp, Klee, Miró, Matisse and Dine, presented heart symbol in their artworks. New radiologic technologies produce fine images of heart, some of which are similar to the works of modern artists. Heart biology and symbolism have had a tremendous influence on our culture, including art and medical sciences. New radiologic techniques and computer technology have produced such images of heart, which substantially improved diagnosis, but also enhanced the heart aesthetics.

  17. The Nature of Philosophy of History | Eresia-Eke | AFRREV IJAH: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    articulated argument ensures concerning what philosophy of history is, and its ability to direct the course of history in the areas of historical evidence and the extent to which objectivity is possible. The paper argues that philosophy of history is a ...

  18. Rethinking Combined Departments: An Argument for History and Anthropology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluis, Ageeth; Edwards, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Many opportunities for more integrated teaching that better capture the interdisciplinary nature of contemporary scholars' work and better achieve the aims of liberal arts education still remain untapped, particularly at smaller schools where combined departments are often necessary. The disciplinary boundaries between history and sociocultural…

  19. Design Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Wendy

    Design anthropology is a call for a different way of involving anthropology and participatory observation within practices of designing technologies, services, policies and infrastructure that does not aim towards changing human behavior. Here design is considered the process and not the object...... of inquiry. The paper presents a short history of design anthropology, its theoretical underpinnings and methodologies. Theoretically, the emerging field is influenced by processual, critical and action orientated approaches in anthropology. I argue that by combining anthropological methodology and knowledge...... with the future orientated imaginative praxis of design skill and collaborative design processes, anthropology and design could learn from each other. I conclude by referring to what theories, methods, and approaches are in use by practitioners of design anthropology....

  20. From Philosophy of History to Philosophy of Historicities: Some Ideas on a Potential Future of Historical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berber Bevernage

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Berber Bevernage does not share the pessimistic view that the philosophy of history is in crisis or coming to an end: it can have a bright and fascinating future. However in order to remain relevant, he argues, philosophy of history should look beyond academic historiography and transform into a broad ‘philosophy of historicities’ that also pays attention to the wide variety of extra-academic ways of dealing with the past. In order to do this current philosophy of history has to overcome a number challenges. First, it has to recognise that academic historiography did not develop in an intellectual vacuum but is closely related to particular social, cultural and political presuppositions about time and historicity on which it is partly dependent but which it can also reinforce or contradict. Second, it should recognise that different approaches to time and historicity have different social, cultural and political functions and not restrict its focus to philosophy of science or epistemological/cognitive issues. Third, it should focus on the ethics of history.

  1. History of logic and ``university'' philosophy in Russia. The view from Kazan

    OpenAIRE

    Bazhanov, V. A.

    1994-01-01

    History of logic and "university" philosophy in Russia. The view from Kazan. On the basis of investigations of archival materials a picture is given of the conceptual and social history of "university" philosophy and logic in Russia (nineteenth to mid-twentieth centuries). Emphasis is placed on those features of Russian philosophy and logic which were characteristic of the thinkers - philosophers and logicians — of Kazan

  2. Is There a Future for History?: On the Need for a Philosophy of History and Historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Jansen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the philosophy of history the main focus has been on problems regarding the ideal typical division between the sciences and the humanities. However speculation on ideal forms risks neglecting the epistemic problems regarding historical research, writing history and education. Therefore the philosophy of history needs a new dimension by supplementing it with a line of thinking Harry Jansen would like to call the philosophy of history and historiography, in short phh. Very much like the painter Velazquez, who in his Las Meninas invites people to look into the mirror and see themselves as rulers, Harry Jansen wants to invite historians to look into the mirror of historiography and see themselves as users of epistemic tools. This requires the historian to view historical interpretations from a comparative perspective. Historical texts not only inform us about the past, they can also be seen as providing insights into the intellectual operation of historical production. These insights show not only the richness of historiography but above all they provide the historian with the theoretical tools with which that richness can be acquired.   

  3. Promotion of Cultural Content Knowledge through the Use of the History and Philosophy of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galili, Igal

    2012-01-01

    Historical excurse was suggested as a beneficial form of using the history and philosophy of science in the modules of learning materials developed within the History and Philosophy in Science Teaching project. The paper briefly describes the theoretical framework of the produced modules, addressing ontological and epistemological aspects of…

  4. Cutting Edge Discoveries for the 2015: Capsule of a History and Philosophy of Andragogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschke, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This 2015 updated capsule on a History and Philosophy of Andragogy includes nine new items and is mainly limited [with a few exceptions] to a chronological history and the accompanying philosophy of andragogy, in line with when the English language documents were published and personal descriptions of events were recorded. Some of these documents,…

  5. The Tsimane Health and Life History Project: Integrating anthropology and biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Trumble, Benjamin; Blackwell, Aaron D; Beheim, Bret; Davis, Helen; Hooper, Paul; Kaplan, Hillard

    2017-04-01

    The Tsimane Health and Life History Project, an integrated bio-behavioral study of the human life course, is designed to test competing hypotheses of human life-history evolution. One aim is to understand the bidirectional connections between life history and social behavior in a high-fertility, kin-based context lacking amenities of modern urban life (e.g. sanitation, banks, electricity). Another aim is to understand how a high pathogen burden influences health and well-being during development and adulthood. A third aim addresses how modernization shapes human life histories and sociality. Here we outline the project's goals, history, and main findings since its inception in 2002. We reflect on the implications of current findings and highlight the need for more coordinated ethnographic and biomedical study of contemporary nonindustrial populations to address broad questions that can situate evolutionary anthropology in a key position within the social and life sciences. © 2017 The Authors Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Compendium of quantum physics. Concepts, experiments, history and philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberger, Daniel; Hentschel, Klaus; Weinert, Friedel

    2009-01-01

    With contributions by many of today's leading quantum physicists, philosophers and historians, including three Nobel laureates, this comprehensive A to Z of quantum physics provides a lucid understanding of the key concepts of quantum theory and experiment. It covers technical and interpretational aspects alike, and includes both traditional topics and newer areas such as quantum information and its relatives. The central concepts that have shaped contemporary understanding of the quantum world are clearly defined, with illustrations where helpful, and discussed at a level suitable for undergraduate and graduate students of physics, history of science, and philosophy of physics. All articles share three main aims: (1) to provide a clear definition and understanding of the term concerned; (2) where possible, to trace the historical origins of the concept; and (3) to provide a small but optimal selection of references to the most relevant literature, including pertinent historical studies. Also discussed are the often contentious philosophical implications derived from quantum theory and its associated experimental findings. This compendium will be an indispensable resource for all those seeking concise up-to-date information about the many facets of quantum physics. (orig.)

  7. Recasting particle physics by entangling physics, history and philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertozzi, Eugenio; Levrini, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the design process we followed to recast particle physics so as to make it conceptually relevant for secondary school students. In this design process, the concept of symmetry was assumed as core-idea because of its structural and foundational role in particle physics, its crosscutting character and its epistemological and philosophical value. The first draft of the materials was tested in a pilot-study which involved 19 students of a regular class (grade 13) of an Italian school. The data analysis showed that the students were in their 'regime of competence' for grasping subtle nuances of the materials and for providing important hints for revising them. In particular, students’ reactions brought into light the need of clarifying the 'foundational' character that symmetry attained in twentieth-century physics. The delicate step of re-thinking the materials required the researchers to articulate the complex relationship between researches on physics teaching, history and philosophy of physics. This analytic phase resulted in a version of the materials which implies the students to be guided to grasp the meaning of symmetry as normative principle in twentieth-century physics, throughout the exploration of the different meanings assumed by symmetry over time. The whole process led also to the production of an essential, on-line version, of the materials targeted to a wider audience.

  8. [The function of philosophy of science in the teaching of medical history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaming

    2014-05-01

    The philosophy of science yields 3 important functions in the teaching of medical history. Firstly, by analyzing the development of medicine from the perspective of philosophy, we can integrate medical history into the history of human thought and clearly show the close connection between the development of humanity and the development of medical science. Secondly, philosophical analysis on the general rules of scientific discoveries involved in medical history can help medical students to understand the methodology in the research of sciences in history. Thirdly, philosophy of science offers new dimensions for understanding the relationship between medicine and the society. By making use of the relevant theory in scientific philosophy to explore the relationship between medicine and the society, the nature of medicine and the social nature and function of science can be further understood by medical students so as to exert an active role in the research and clinical work in the future.

  9. The history and philosophy of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogler, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Many interesting statements about inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and also Crohn's disease have been made in recent years in journals and scientific meetings. They have influenced our thinking and the perception of the diseases. Among these statements is the notion that IBDs are 'relatively new diseases', that 'IBD is rather a syndrome than a disease' or that with the new insights into pathophysiology, 'we will be able to discriminate many different Crohn's diseases based on genetic risk factors'. A look into history and philosophy may help to clarify misconceptions and prove that many of these statements are either wrong or misleading. People suffered from symptoms that are suggestive of Crohn's disease centuries before the disease concept evolved in the early 19th century and before Burrill B. Crohn could describe a complex of symptoms he suggested to be a so far non-identified disease. Early concepts on the pathophysiology of CD were not so different to present-time theories as it may be assumed. 'Pre-ideas' and basic concepts were leading the search for a cause of Crohn's disease and IBD. With respect to pathophysiology, we have to accept that most likely we will never come up with one unifying concept ('the cause of IBD') as different scientific schools and think-collectives exist. Therefore, the 'classical adaptive immunologists' and the 'innate immunologist' as well as scientists focused on barrier function or the microbiome will never completely understand each other and each other's concepts. As for many other diseases, several different pathophysiological concepts existed in parallel and will do so in the future as it is impossible to prove the exclusive 'truth' of one of the concepts for reasons that will be further discussed below. This means on the other hand that none of the concepts on pathophysiology of IBD we have at present will ever unequivocally be proven to be wrong.

  10. La persona e il sacro. Per un possibile punto d’incontro tra filosofia e antropologia - The person and the holy: a convergence between philosophy and anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I will examine how philosophy and social sciences conceptualise the term ‘person’. This is not a simple word. We all frequently use this term, but this is not at all a common concept. The word ‘person’, although ordinary, conveys a concept that is at the center of philosophical discussions. The Latin authors maintained that “Sumptum est nomen personae a personando eo quod in tragoediis et comediis recitatores sibi ponebant quandam larvam ad repraesentandum illum, cuius gesta narrabant decantando” (“The term person comes from personate because in the tragedies and comedies the actors used to wear a mask to represent the person whose deeds they were reporting”. How do we represent and interpret this fundamental concept? It is necessary to note the centrality of the human person in Christian anthropology. According to the theories of Possenti, Cassirer, Simone Weil and Max Scheler, a concrete idea of person can materialize. The ‘person’ will be a moral as well as an ontological subject and its sign will be the possible link between philosophy and anthropology, as far as spirituality is concerned.

  11. To Mould or to Bring Out? Human Nature, Anthropology and Educational Utopianism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastephanou, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    Against narrow understandings of educational research, this article defends the relevance of philosophical anthropology to ethico-political education and contests its lack of space in the philosophy of education. My approximation of this topic begins with comments on philosophical anthropology; proceeds with examples from the history of…

  12. A Teaching-Learning Sequence of Colour Informed by History and Philosophy of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurício, Paulo; Valente, Bianor; Chagas, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present a teaching-learning sequence on colour intended to a pre-service elementary teacher programme informed by History and Philosophy of Science. Working in a socio-constructivist framework, we made an excursion on the history of colour. Our excursion through history of colour, as well as the reported misconception on colour…

  13. A new world era in the history of philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Dussel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper supports the following theses: 1. It is necessary to affirm that all humanity has always expressed certain “core universal problems” that are present in all cultures. 2. The rational responses to these “core problems” first acquire the form of mythical narratives. 3. The formulation of categorical philosophical discourses is a subsequent development in human rationality that does not negate all mythical narratives. These philosophical discourses have arisen in all the great urban Neolithic cultures (even if only on a very beginning level. 4. Modern European philosophy confused its economic and political domination of culture and the crises derived from other regional philosophies with a Eurocentric pretention to universality, which must be questioned. 5. In any case, there are formal, universal aspects on which all regional philosophies can coincide and which respond to the “core problems” on an abstract level. 6. All of this impels us to enter a new age of inter-philosophical dialogue, respectful of differences and open to learning from the useful discoveries of other traditions. 7. A new philosophical project must be developed that, going beyond Eurocentric philosophical modernity, tries to shape a global, trans-modern pluriverse, drawing upon the development of its own resources of peripheral, subaltern, post-colonial philosophies that have been “discarded” by modernity.

  14. Why philosophy and history matter : A conversation with Ann Taves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Stuckrad, C.K.M.

    2010-01-01

    The article picks up some ideas that Ann Taves presents in her book Religious Experience Reconsidered, and looks at possible conversations that are not fleshed out in detail in Taves' book. In particular, it is argued that the disciplinary confrontation with philosophy and with historiography is of

  15. Philosophy, history and sociology of science: interdisciplinary relations and complex social identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, Hauke

    2014-12-01

    Sociology and philosophy of science have an uneasy relationship, while the marriage of history and philosophy of science has--on the surface at least--been more successful I will take a sociological look at the history of the relationships between philosophy and history as well as philosophy and sociology of science. Interdisciplinary relations between these disciplines will be analysed through social identity complexity theory in oider to draw out some conclusions on how the disciplines interact and how they might develop. I will use the relationships between the disciplines as a pointer for a more general social theory of interdisciplinarity which will then be used to sound a caution on how interdisciplinary relations between the three disciplines might be managed.

  16. Personal equations: reflections on the history of fieldwork, with special reference to sociocultural anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklick, Henrika

    2011-03-01

    In the latter part of the nineteenth century, diverse sciences grounded in natural history made a virtue of field research that somehow tested scientists' endurance; disciplinary change derived from the premise that witnesses were made reliable by character-molding trials. The turn to the field was a function of structural transformations in various quarters, including (but hardly limited to) global politics, communications systems, and scientific institutions, and it conduced to biogeographical explanations, taxonomic schemes that admitted of heterogeneity, and affective research styles. Sociocultural anthropology, which took specialized shape at the beginning of the twentieth century, shared many properties with other field sciences, but its method--participant observation-was distinctive. Critical to the method's definition were the efforts of the British experimental psychologist-anthropologist W. H. R. Rivers, who relied on notions then widespread in Europe and the United States. The discipline's future mythic hero, Bronislaw Malinowski, embraced Rivers's model. For both men, proper fieldwork meant using the researcher's body as an instrument and entailed understanding both the anthropologist's body and the research subject's body as energy systems; this symmetry facilitated a relativist perspective. Participant observation remains central to sociocultural anthropology, but the discipline's pedagogic habits contributed to loss of memory of its energetic conceptualization.

  17. Bochenski and Balance: System and History in Analytic Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    SIMONS, PETER

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED First published in Studies in East European Thought 55 (2003), 281-297. Sankt Augustin, Germany This paper praises, upholds and justifies the balance found in Bochenski's philosophical writings between a systematic interest in theoretical questions and a purely historical approach to philosophy. The drawbacks of the unbalanced positions are pointed out and the benefits of due balance illustrated from Bochenski's own work and from my own.

  18. Empiricism and rationalism in nineteenth-century histories of philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Vanzo, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This paper traces the ancestry of a familiar historiographical narrative, according to which early modern philosophy was marked by the development of empiricism, rationalism, and their synthesis by Immanuel Kant. It is often claimed that this narrative became standard in the nineteenth century, due to the influence of Thomas Reid, Kant and his disciples, or German Hegelians and British Idealists. The paper argues that the narrative became standard only at the turn of the twentieth century. Th...

  19. Between Anthropology and History: some theoretical and methodological assumptions in the study of Terena reliogisities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noêmia dos Santos Pereira Moura

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will outline the interdisciplinary theoretical-methodological path covered in the production resulting from the studies on Terena religiousness developed in recent years. For this, we will make some considerations about concepts and categories used throughout the text to support our arguments about the central hypothesis - the Terena, especially the religious leaders, appropriated and terenizaron the Christianity in the indigenous lands in Mato Grosso do Sul, the from the Taunay-Ipegue Indigenous Land. Among the several prominent approaches we selected as the central guideline the part of the abovementioned epigraph, which portrays the protagonism of these historical subjects Terena in reproducing as a society through non-indigenous religious and their Christian institutions, recruiting whites for their own continuity. Our trajectory, therefore, will be marked by the dialogues between Anthropology and History.

  20. Nursing history as philosophy-towards a critical history of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foth, Thomas; Lange, Jette; Smith, Kylie

    2018-07-01

    Mainstream nursing history often positions itself in opposition to philosophy and many nursing historians are reticent of theorizing. In the quest to illuminate the lives of nurses and women current historical approaches are driven by reformist aspirations but are based on the conception that nursing or caring is basically good and the timelessness of universal values. This has the effect of essentialising political categories of identity such as class, race and gender. This kind of history is about affirmation rather than friction and about the conservation of memory and musealization. In contrast, we will focus on how we imagine nursing history could be used as a philosophical, critical perspective to challenge the ongoing transformations of our societies. Existing reality must be confronted with strangeness and the historically different can assume the function of this counterpart, meaning present and past must continuously be set in relation to each other. Thus, critical history is always the history of the present but not merely the pre-history of the present - critique must rather present different realities and different certainties. In this paper, we use this approach to discuss the implementation of the nursing process (NP) in Germany. The nursing process appears to be a technology that helped to set up an infrastructure - or assemblage - to transform nursing interventions into a commodity exchangable between consumers and nurses in a free market. In our theoretical perspective, we argue that NP was a step in the realization of the German ordoliberal program, a specific variety of neoliberalism. In order to implement market-orientation in the healthcare system it was necessary to transform hospitals into calculable spaces and to make all performances in the hospital calculable. This radically transformed not just the systems, but the ways in which nurses and patients conveived of themselves. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The main features of the enlightened philosophy of history by A. R. Turgot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hussein

    2014-03-01

    The most important historical achievement A. R. Turgot in the development of philosophy of history was that he related a story of mental activity of man with a history of his employment, economic activity and the development of forms of social organization.

  2. History, Applications, and Philosophy in Mathematics Education: HAPh--A Use of Primary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankvist, Uffe Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The article first investigates the basis for designing teaching activities dealing with aspects of history, applications, and philosophy of mathematics in unison by discussing and analyzing the different "whys" and "hows" of including these three dimensions in mathematics education. Based on the observation that a use of history, applications, and…

  3. Empiricism and Rationalism in Nineteenth-Century Histories of Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzo, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This paper traces the ancestry of a familiar historiographical narrative, according to which early modern philosophy was marked by the development of empiricism, rationalism, and their synthesis by Kant. It is often claimed that this narrative became standard in the nineteenth century because of the influence of Thomas Reid, Kant and his disciples, or German and British idealists. I argue that the narrative became standard at the turn of the twentieth century. Among the factors that allowed it to become standard are its aptness to be adopted by philosophers of the most diverse persuasions, its simplicity and suitability for teaching.

  4. In the Shadow of the Decay. The Philosophy of History of Mencius and Xunzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid ROGACZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of my paper is to analyze the debate between Mencius and Xunzi from the perspective of their views on the nature of the historical process. The Mencian approach embraces not only elaboration on the doctrine of the Mandate of Heaven, resulting in a cyclical vision of history, but also strong idealization of the past. I will show that ren (benevolence, treated as a historical principle, could link two dimensions of his historical thinking: the moral and ontological. Xunzi rejected the possibility of the intervention of Heaven in history, however, his theory of rituals and belief in moral use of history made his philosophy of history much more conservative, embalming the idealization of the past. In short, I will look for the main common points and differences between these two major figures of Confucianism regarding their views on history, attempting to answer which beliefs could constitute a unique Confucian philosophy of history.

  5. History of plastic surgery: Art, philosophy, and rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macionis, Valdas

    2018-03-23

    The 200th anniversary of K. F. Graefe's "Rhinoplasty," E. Zeis' naming of the specialty of plastic surgery in 1838, and the continuing discussion on what is plastic surgery have prompted this historical-conceptual review with a semantic insight into the meaning of the word "plastic." A literature search has revealed that this term contains dual aspects: artistic and philosophical. The progressive development of these two connotations can be traced from their origin in the ceramics and the myths of ancient Greeks to their metamorphoses in fine arts, science, and philosophy of plasticity of the modern day. Although the names of plastic procedures and the title of the specialty carry both the artistic and philosophical features, the philosophical notion is less evident. This article underlines the importance of etymology in the interpretation of the concept of plastic surgery. Copyright © 2018 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Shaping biomedical objects across history and philosophy:a conversation with Hans-Jörg Rheinberger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sancho, Miguel; González-Silva, Matiana; Jesús Santesmases, María; Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Historical epistemology, according to the historian of science Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, is a space through which "to take experimental laboratory work into the realm of philosophy". This key concept, together with the crucial events and challenges of his career, were discussed in a public conversation which took place on the occasion of Rheinberger's retirement. By making sense of natural phenomena in the laboratory, the act of experimenting shapes the object; it is this shaping which became the core of Rheinberger's own research across biology and philosophy into history. For his intellectual agenda, a history of the life sciences so constructed became "epistemologically demanding".

  7. Dynamics of the concept “Man” in the history of philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpina Olena Serhiyivna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the development of the category “man” in the history of philosophy. The author focuses on such periods of the philosophical thought development as the Antiquity, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Modern history, the Age of the Enlightenment, German classical philosophy, and non-classical philosophy. The article analyses and compare philosophical views of such outstanding thinkers as Socrates, Aristotle, Epicurus, Titus Lucretius Carus, Thomas Aquinas, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Coluccio Salutati, Michel de Montaigne, Francis Bacon, John Locke, Benedict Spinoza, Blaise Pascal, Charles-Louis de Montesquieu, Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Immanuel Kant, Ludwig Feuerbach, Arthur Schopenhauer, Søren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche.

  8. Historical thinking in clinical medicine: lessons from R.G. Collingwood's philosophy of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin-Yee, Benjamin H; Upshur, Ross E G

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this article is to create a space for historical thinking in medical practice. To this end, we draw on the ideas of R.G. Collingwood (1889-1943), the renowned British philosopher of history, and explore the implications of his philosophy for clinical medicine. We show how Collingwood's philosophy provides a compelling argument for the re-centring of medical practice around the patient history as a means of restoring to the clinical encounter the human meaning that is too often lost in modern medicine. Furthermore, we examine how Collingwood's historical thinking offers a patient-centred epistemology and a more pluralistic concept of evidence that includes the qualitative, narrative evidence necessary for human understanding. We suggest that clinical medicine can benefit from Collingwood's historical thinking, and, more generally, illustrates how a philosophy of medicine that draws on diverse sources from the humanities offers a richer, more empathetic clinical practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Tannery and Duhem on the concept of a system in the history of philosophy and history of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2011-01-01

    historical disciplines, creating the impression that they were mutually independent. Modern commentators have tended to take these declarations at face value. This article argues that Tannery and Duhem, some of the first historians of science, transferred historiographical concepts from history of philosophy...

  10. Nonlinearity: The History and Philosophy of the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth M.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides for a concise history of nonlinearity from the context of the changing assumptions in science throughout the turn of the twentieth century. Concerned with the development of an ethics of technology in higher education, it establishes a background for ongoing research on quantitative methods in the social sciences. The history…

  11. Early Musical Training in Bel Canto Vocal Technique: A Brief History and Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Christine Wondolowski

    This paper offers a brief history and philosophy of the origins of bel canto vocal style and describes the pedagogical methods used to achieve bel canto ideals in singing. The document discusses the adoption and development of this technique and how it developed over long periods of preparation in the foregoing centuries before the Baroque era.…

  12. Introducing History (and Philosophy) of Science in the Classroom: A Field Research Experience in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibattista, Liborio; Morgese, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    For quite some time, many EU and Italian Ministry of Education official documents have warmly suggested the introduction of the history and the philosophy of science in the teaching of science disciplines at school. Accordingly, there is a shared agreement between pedagogists and science historians about the efficacy of this approach towards an…

  13. Physics Teachers' Challenges in Using History and Philosophy of Science in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Andreas; Höttecke, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of the history and philosophy of science (HPS) in science teaching is widely accepted, but the actual state of implementation in schools is still poor. This article investigates possible reasons for this discrepancy. The demands science teachers associate with HPS-based teaching play an important role, since these determine teachers'…

  14. Innovating Science Teacher Education: A History and Philosophy of Science Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2010-01-01

    How teachers view the nature of scientific knowledge is crucial to their understanding of science content and how it can be taught. This book presents an overview of the dynamics of scientific progress and its relationship to the history and philosophy of science, and then explores their methodological and educational implications and develops…

  15. The History and Philosophy of Science in Physics Teaching: A Research Synthesis of Didactic Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Elder Sales; Greca, Ileana Maria; Freire, Olival, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This work is a systematic review of studies that investigate teaching experiences applying History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) in physics classrooms, with the aim of obtaining critical and reliable information on this subject. After a careful process of selection and exclusion of studies compiled from a variety of databases, an in-depth review…

  16. Why Implementing History and Philosophy in School Science Education Is a Challenge: An Analysis of Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottecke, Dietmar; Silva, Cibelle Celestino

    2011-01-01

    Teaching and learning with history and philosophy of science (HPS) has been, and continues to be, supported by science educators. While science education standards documents in many countries also stress the importance of teaching and learning with HPS, the approach still suffers from ineffective implementation in school science teaching. In order…

  17. Is There a Future for Teacher Ed Curriculum? An Answer from History and Moral Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Null, J. Wesley

    2008-01-01

    Is there a future for teacher ed "curriculum"? The author contends that he is not sure if there is a future for teacher ed curriculum, but if such a future is to exist, the answer will come only from history and moral philosophy. In this article, the author opines that individuals cannot make good decisions about the future of teacher ed…

  18. History, Philosophy, and Science in a Social Perspective: A Pedagogical Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Andreia; Braga, Marco; Reis, Jose Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Various studies have promoted instruction in the history and philosophy of science (HPS) in science classes, but the best way of putting this perspective into practice remains undetermined. To contribute to this issue, we developed a pedagogical project in some high schools in Brazil that aimed to present science content using an…

  19. History and Philosophy of Science through Models: The Case of Chemical Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justi, Rosaria; Gilbert, John K.

    1999-01-01

    A greater role for the history and philosophy of science in science education can only be realized if it is based on both a credible analytical approach--such as that of Lakatos--and if the evolution of a sufficient number of major themes in science is known in suitable detail. Considers chemical kinetics as an example topic. Contains 62…

  20. Between art of movement and science of body: Short history of anthropology of dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njaradi Dunja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper charts the development of dance anthropology from the beginner’s fascination with body techniques through the first scientific explanations of dance. The paper highlights the fact that the development of this branch of anthropology has been burdened with epistemological uncertainties and dilemmas. Hence, we could hardly talk about a consistent sub-discipline when looking at the approaches to dance in anthropology, but we always talk about mushrooming and interconnected traditions. Finaly, the paper will introduce two current and conflicting approaches to dance, textual and kinaesthetic, which open up old questions and dilemmas but which offer fresh perspectives as well.

  1. Biohumanities: rethinking the relationship between biosciences, philosophy and history of science, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Karola; Griffiths, Paul E

    2008-03-01

    We argue that philosophical and historical research can constitute a "Biohumanities" that deepens our understanding of biology itself engages in constructive "science criticism," helps formulate new "visions of biology," and facilitates "critical science communication." We illustrate these ideas with two recent "experimental philosophy" studies of the concept of the gene and of the concept of innateness conducted by ourselves and collaborators. We conclude that the complex and often troubled relations between science and society are critical to both parties, and argue that the philosophy and history of science can help to make this relationship work.

  2. The life and work of Ksenija Atanasijević (1894-1981)--psychology and anthropology as the inevitability and necessity of philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanović, Aleksandar; Milovanović, Srdan; Jovanović, Aleksandar; Cvetić, Tijana; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava

    2014-06-01

    Ksenja Atanasijević (1894-1981) was the first woman in Serbia to obtain a Ph.D. in philosophy. Going through numerous psychological metamorphoses in her lifetime and confronted with numerous challenges, Ksenija Atanasijević developed a specific philosophical-psychological system of consolation prominently featuring the concepts of happiness, bliss, moderation, courage and wisdom. Modifying the original teachings of Democritus and Epicurus, Ksenija Atanasijević developed a distinctive anthropology based on confrontation with but equally the overcoming of obstacles, both internal (spiritual) as well as external ones. The philosopheress developed a reflexive and indeed metaphysical defensive psychotherapeutical skill at the root of which was cleansing the soul, as well as dedication to the realm of fancy, fantasy and imagination. Ksenija Atanasijević also had precious literary talent which was best expressed in her analyses of the poetry and prose of great Serbian writers (Pandurović, Njegos, Nastasijević, etc.). It is quite certain that this, with Anica Savić-Rebac, definitely greatest Serbian philosopheress, through personal suffering, creative solitude and shrouded desperation built an utterly authentic and harmonious system of philosophical comfort.

  3. 2016 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Society for History and Philosophy of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Schlimm, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains fourteen papers that were presented at the 2016 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Society for History and Philosophy of Mathematics/La Société Canadienne d’Histoire et de Philosophie des Mathématiques, held at the University of Calgary in Alberta, Canada. In addition to showcasing rigorously reviewed modern scholarship on an interesting variety of topics in the history and philosophy of mathematics, this meeting also honored the life and work of the logician and philosopher of mathematics Aldo Antonelli (1962-2015). The first four papers in this book are part of that remembrance and have a philosophical focus. Included in these are a discussion of Bolzano’s objections to Kant’s philosophy of mathematics and an examination of the influence of rhetorical and poetic aesthetics on the development of symbols in the 16th and 17thCenturies. The remaining papers deal with the history of mathematics and cover such subjects as Early schemes for polar ordinates in the work of L’Hôpital, bas...

  4. History of Philosophy in John Dewey’s discourse on morals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Aleixo da Cruz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article follows Chaïm Perelman and Stephen Toulmin’s theoretical and methodological guidelines which foundations are found in the contemporary revision movement of Aristotle’s philosophy. It aims at performing the rhetorical analysis of the essay “Intelligence and Morals” by John Dewey, published in 1908, in which the author advances the thesis that since Renaissance moral has become unrelated of  transcendental ends, being hence based on intelligence. The exam of the essay reveals the use of the discursive strategy called “recourse to origin”, which consists of elaborating a genealogical narrative about the history of philosophy in order to sustain the author’s thesis. This article suggests that this form of reasoning is frequently found in Dewey’s work: it can also be observed in the book Democracy and education, in which the philosopher discourses about history of philosophy to show that philosophical reflection on education emerges from social problems. Keywords: John Dewey. Rhetoric. Philosophy and Education.

  5. The Mediterranean: A Corrupting Sea? A Review-Essay on Ecology and History, Anthropology and Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Peter Fibiger

    2004-01-01

    Historie, Mediterranean pre-industrial history, The Mediterranean, Ecological History, Economic History, Pre-industrial History, Finley, Ancient trade, Mediterranean unity......Historie, Mediterranean pre-industrial history, The Mediterranean, Ecological History, Economic History, Pre-industrial History, Finley, Ancient trade, Mediterranean unity...

  6. 2015 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Society for History and Philosophy of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Landry, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains seventeen papers that were presented at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Society for History and Philosophy of Mathematics/La Société Canadienne d’Histoire et de Philosophie des Mathématiques, held in Washington, D.C. In addition to showcasing rigorously reviewed modern scholarship on an interesting variety of general topics in the history and philosophy of mathematics, this meeting also honored the memories of Jacqueline (Jackie) Stedall and Ivor Grattan-Guinness; celebrated the Centennial of the Mathematical Association of America; and considered the importance of mathematical communities in a special session. These themes and many others are explored in these collected papers, which cover subjects such as New evidence that the Latin translation of Euclid’s Elements was based on the Arabic version attributed to al-Ḥajjāj Work done on the arc rampant in the seventeenth century The history of numerical methods for finding roots of nonlinear equations An original play feat...

  7. Insights on the history of Anthropology: its emergence in the wider ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    previous and current problems specific to anthropology would help to ... Through this modern practice, Al-Biruni used the concepts of cross cultural .... give an intelligent relation between all universes and horizons and possibility of ... the prestige and hegemony of some editors and publishers in some powerful countries.

  8. 2014 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Society for History and Philosophy of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Landry, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains thirteen papers that were presented at the 2014 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Society for History and Philosophy of Mathematics/La Société Canadienne d’Histoire et de Philosophie des Mathématiques, held on the campus of Brock University in St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada. It contains rigorously reviewed modern scholarship on general topics in the history and philosophy of mathematics, as well as on the meeting’s special topic, Early Scientific Computation. These papers cover subjects such as •Physical tools used by mathematicians in the seventeenth century •The first historical appearance of the game-theoretical concept of mixed-strategy equilibrium •George Washington’s mathematical cyphering books •The development of the Venn diagram •The role of Euler and other mathematicians in the development of algebraic analysis •Arthur Cayley and Alfred Kempe’s influence on Charles Peirce's diagrammatic logic •The influence publishers had on the development of mathematical...

  9. “In my end is my beginning”. Una discussione sul caso trascurato dei Cambridge Ritualists fra antropologia comparativa, filosofia e pensiero scientifico - “In my end is my beginning”. An argument on the Cambridge Ritualists’ neglected case, on the wave of comparative anthropology, philosophy and scientific thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Cinellu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Somehow rounding off an intellectual season in which humanities strongly lament the loss of Darwinian incitements, while exploiting both Wilson’s biophilia hypothesis and Rappaport’s engaged anthropology as springboards, this article wants to cast light on how two anthropologically undervalued manifestos of the Cambridge School – Harrison’s Themis (1912 and Cornford’s From Religion to Philosophy (1912 – laid the foundation of post-modern science. It highlights, in other words, how within evolutionary anthropology, to which we owe the birth of the comparative study of religions, were surreptitiously raised significant issues against eco-systemic disfunctionalities due to the scientific pattern rooted in Atomism and modern Cartesianism itself. In order to counteract the conventional belief that evolutionary anthropology was entirely shaped by the kind of Positivism of Illuministic inspiration, the association between the “mystic” and the “savage” will be once more taken into consideration. In this regard, a quite unreleased focus on Lévi-Strauss’ paradigm “le totémism du dedans” is deemed also essential. As a consequence, the unfairly forgotten Cambridge Ritualists, Harrison and Cornford, will be especially rehearsed in the light of their adoption of the philosophical Bergsonian concept of durée as a means of probing into the monist vision enshrined in the mysteric religion of Ancient Greece. It is basically the special attention allotted to the mystic’s incorporation of a limitless cyclic time which helps us to detect the extent to which both Harrison and Cornford aimed at propounding an ethical anthropology eager to denounce the forward end because of the obdurate human projection outside the sphere of Life itself. What this essay thus propounds is not a rehearsal of the Cambridge School for the sake of it. While advocating cumulative knowledge around the very same foundation of the “scientific study of

  10. An Anthropology of Luminosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2007-01-01

    of luminosity in the practice of day-to-day activities. The article surveys an array of past conceptions of light within philosophy, natural science and more recent approaches to light in the fields of anthropology and material culture studies. A number of implications are discussed, and by way of three case...

  11. Relativism and anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Srđan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the impact of relativism within anthropology as a discipline. Relativistic conceptions, account for in this analysis, emerged both from philosophy (philosophy of science in particular and anthropology. These conceptions have influenced the discipline directly, through development of the concept of cultural relativism, and indirectly, through the relativists' approach to the concept of scientific research. The different sources of relativism have shaped several paradigms of culture research, most notably those which accept epistemological cultural relativism. However, normative relativism influenced the discipline more profoundly, and has been present in two separate forms: the first, being more or less consistent with the basic philosophical and anthropological relativistic theses, and the other, basically born out of the general relativistic scheme, implying and in some cases trying to conceptualize the existence of global cultural invariants or cultural universals.

  12. The changing role of continuity and discontinuity in the history of philosophy and mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danie F.M. Strauss

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to highlight the inevitability of employing discreteness and continuity as primitive (indefinable modes of explanation in the history of philosophy and mathematics. It embodies the general challenge to account for the coherence of what is unique. Gödel emphasises the coherence of ‘primitive concepts’. Greek philosophy already discovered the spatial whole and/or parts relation with its infinite divisibility. During and after the medieval era philosophers toggled between an atomistic appreciation of the continuum and its opposite, for example found in the thought of Leibniz who postulated his law of continuity (lex continui. The discovery of incommensurability (irrational numbers by the Greeks caused the first foundational crisis of mathematics, as well as its geometrisation. Leibniz and Newton did not resolve the problems surrounding the limit concept and soon it induced the third foundational crisis of mathematics. It caused Frege and the ‘continuum theoreticians’ to assign priority to the continuum – discreteness is a catastrophe. Recently Smooth Infinitesimal Analysis appreciated what is ‘continuous’ as constituting ‘an unbroken or uninterrupted whole’. Intuitionistic mathematics once more proceeded from an emphasis on the whole and/or parts relation. In spite of alternating attempts to understand continuity exclusively, either in arithmetical or in spatial terms, the history of philosophy and mathematics undeniably confirms that the co-conditioning role of these two modes of explanation remains a constant element in reflections on continuity and discontinuity. (The role of continuity and discontinuity within the disciplines of physics and biology will be discussed in a separate article.

  13. Al-Attas’ Philosophy of History on the Arrival and Proliferation of Islam in the Malay World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZMUL FAHIMI KAMARUZAMAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the philosophy of history of Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas on the theory of the arrival and spread of Islam in the Malay world, particularly in his work ‘Historical Facts and Fictions’. This philosophy of history is consequent to al-Attas' critical research contained in his previous works such as ‘Preliminary Statement on a General Theory of The Islamization of the Malay-Indonesian Archipelago’ (1969, ‘Islam in the Malay History and Culture’ (1972 and ‘The Correct Date of the Terengganu Inscription’ (1972. This study analyses these works and his other works to look into the aspects of history and historiography contained in the philosophy of history of al-Attas on the arrival and spread of Islam in the Malay world in terms of their scope, sources and history methods. This study found that in terms of epistemology al-Attas has contributed in creating a theoretical framework and a novel approach to the philosophy of history of the history of Islam in the Malay world.

  14. The principle of holism in post-neoclassical philosophy of history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Dobrolyubska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The principle of holism restores historical science tendency to grasp the past as a «whole matter» and raises the questions about the global synthesis, based on the integration of micro­ and makrohistory, narrative and metatheory. Post­neoclassical subsystem in the philosophy of history operates of the corresponding concept of truth. Scientific truth is always contextual. She stated subject to the methodological postulates, which designed a specific research situation. Historical studies of scientific search for truth is always associated with the study of specific historical events or historical building theories. Both approaches solve the problem of objectivity: a theoretical history try to discover the truth, liberated from specific features and history of events wishes to discover the truth, given in the particular nuances of the entire event. Based on the corresponding concept of truth post­neoclassical subsystem aims to reconstruct the historical reality in all its fullness, complexity and specificity. This subsystem comes to the fundamental principle of post­neoclassical philosophy of history – to the principle of holism. On the one hand this principle orients the historian to the need for a holistic study of the subject of research, on the other hand he directs the historian to the study of historical reality as a hierarchy of «integrality», which can not be reduced to the parts that make up. Also it is emphasized that the meaning of these parts must necessarily be present as a sense of the whole context.

  15. The Social Ontology of the Film "Avatar." Anthropological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Krstić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Review of a book by Nina Kulenović. The Social Ontology of the Film "Avatar." Anthropological Analysis. 2011. Belgrade: University of Belgrade - Faculty of Philosophy, Department of Ethnology and Anthropology

  16. Why Implementing History and Philosophy in School Science Education is a Challenge: An Analysis of Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höttecke, Dietmar; Silva, Cibelle Celestino

    2011-03-01

    Teaching and learning with history and philosophy of science (HPS) has been, and continues to be, supported by science educators. While science education standards documents in many countries also stress the importance of teaching and learning with HPS, the approach still suffers from ineffective implementation in school science teaching. In order to better understand this problem, an analysis of the obstacles of implementing HPS into classrooms was undertaken. The obstacles taken into account were structured in four groups: 1. culture of teaching physics, 2. teachers' skills, epistemological and didactical attitudes and beliefs, 3. institutional framework of science teaching, and 4. textbooks as fundamental didactical support. Implications for more effective implementation of HPS are presented, taking the social nature of educational systems into account.

  17. Teaching the gravitational redshift: lessons from the history and philosophy of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    The equivalence principle and the notion of an ideal clock running independently of acceleration suggest that clocks are unaffected by gravity. The apparent contradiction with the gravitational redshift points to a subtlety in general relativity theory. Indeed, early attempts for a clear derivation of the gravitational redshift were fraught with errors and ambiguities, and much confusion endured for the next two decades. This suggests that the subject should be treated carefully in introductory textbooks on relativity theory. I analyze the weaknesses of the presentation in five otherwise excellent modern introductory general relativity books (by Rindler, Schutz, Hobson et al., Weinberg, and Carroll). I also present some analysis from an history and philosophy of physics article, which proves to be a great resource to learn about, anticipate, and clarify problems in teaching the redshift. (paper)

  18. The re-emergence of hyphenated history-and-philosophy-of-science and the testing of theories of scientific change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudan, Larry; Laudan, Rachel

    2016-10-01

    A basic premise of hyphenated history-and-philosophy-of-science is that theories of scientific change have to be based on empirical evidence derived from carefully constructed historical case studies. This paper analyses one such systematic attempt to test philosophical claims, describing its historical context, rationale, execution, and limited impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anthropology and social theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that anthropology may represent untapped perspectives of relevance to social theory. The article starts by critically reviewing how anthropology has come to serve as the ‘Other’ in various branches of social theory, from Marx and Durkheim to Parsons to Habermas, engaged...... in a hopeless project of positing ‘primitive’ or ‘traditional’ society as the opposite of modernity. In contemporary debates, it is becoming increasingly recognized that social theory needs history, back to the axial age and beyond. The possible role of anthropology in theorizing modernity receives far less...

  20. Anthropology in cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrea; Hutchins, Edwin; Medin, Douglas

    2010-07-01

    This paper reviews the uneven history of the relationship between Anthropology and Cognitive Science over the past 30 years, from its promising beginnings, followed by a period of disaffection, on up to the current context, which may lay the groundwork for reconsidering what Anthropology and (the rest of) Cognitive Science have to offer each other. We think that this history has important lessons to teach and has implications for contemporary efforts to restore Anthropology to its proper place within Cognitive Science. The recent upsurge of interest in the ways that thought may shape and be shaped by action, gesture, cultural experience, and language sets the stage for, but so far has not fully accomplished, the inclusion of Anthropology as an equal partner. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Report on a Boston University Conference December 7-8, 2012 on "How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary US Science Teaching?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garik, Peter; Benétreau-Dupin, Yann

    2014-01-01

    This is an editorial report on the outcomes of an international conference sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) (REESE-1205273) to the School of Education at Boston University and the Center for Philosophy and History of Science at Boston University for a conference titled: "How Can the History and Philosophy of…

  2. A filosofia da história no Doutor Fausto The philosophy of history in Doctor Faust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Miskolci

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Há uma "filosofia da história" implícita na obra de Thomas Mann. Este artigo pretende fornecer elementos para compreender esta filosofia que tem raízes em Schopenhauer e Nietzsche, mas que também deve muito às descobertas da psicanálise e ao aprofundado conhecimento de mitologia do escritor alemão.There is a "philosophy of history" in Thomas Mann's works. This article intends to give elements to the comprehension of this philosophy linked, since the beggining, to Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, but also related to psychoanalysis' discoveries and to Mann's profound knowledge of mythology.

  3. Alchemy & algorithms: perspectives on the philosophy and history of open science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Lahti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the reader a chance to experience, or revisit, PHOS16: a conference on the History and Philosophy of Open Science. In the winter of 2016, we invited a varied international group to engage with these topics at the University of Helsinki, Finland. Our aim was a critical assessment of the defining features, underlying narratives, and overall objectives of the contemporary open science movement. The event brought together contemporary open science scholars, publishers, and advocates to discuss the philosophical foundations and historical roots of openness in academic research. The eight sessions combined historical views with more contemporary perspectives on topics such as transparency, reproducibility, collaboration, publishing, peer review, research ethics, as well as societal impact and engagement. We gathered together expert panelists and 15 invited speakers who have published extensively on these topics, which allowed us to engage in a thorough and multifaceted discussion. Together with our involved audience we charted the role and foundations of openness of research in our time, considered the accumulation and dissemination of scientific knowledge, and debated the various technical, legal, and ethical challenges of the past and present. In this article, we provide an overview of the topics covered at the conference as well as individual video interviews with each speaker. In addition to this, all the talks were recorded and they are offered here as an openly licensed community resource in both video and audio form.

  4. Quantum mechanics at the crossroads. New perspectives from history, philosophy and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.; Thorndike, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Quantum mechanics is a beautiful, strange and successful theory that originated in the 1920s. The theory, which Niels Bohr regarded as finished and complete, has in the last few decades rapidly developed in unexpected directions. An intense new focus on the stranger aspects of the theory, including entanglement and nonlocality, has resulted in new perceptions of the foundations of quantum mechanics, as well as surprising new exploitations of quantum phenomena. Historians and philosophers of science have also renewed their attention to quantum mechanics, opening up its human dimensions and asking searching questions about its meaning. This volume brings together new insights from different vantage points: Historians of physics, such as J. L. Heilbron; philosophers of science, such as Abner Shimony and Michel Bitbol; and quantum physicists, such as Wolfgang Ketterle and Roland Omncs, join forces to tackle essential questions in quantum mechanics and its interpretation. All the authors have written for a broad readership, and the resulting volume will appeal to everyone wishing to keep abreast of new developments in quantum mechanics, as well as its history and philosophy. (orig.)

  5. Systems of medicine and nationalist discourse in India: towards "new horizons" in medical anthropology and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shamshad

    2006-06-01

    While accepting medical "pluralism" as a historical reality, as an intrinsic value inherent in any medical system, and as an ideal or desired goal that any multicultural society ought to achieve, this paper argues the need to go beyond the liberal pluralist tendencies that have dominated the debate so far. It holds that while documenting or dealing with the "co-existence" of varied medical traditions and practices, we must not ignore or underplay issues of power, domination and hegemony and must locate our work in a larger historical, social and political context. With this perspective, and based essentially on Assembly proceedings, private papers, official documents and archival materials from the first half of the 20th-century, this paper identifies three major streams in the nationalist discourse in India: conformity, defiance and the quest for an alternative. It shows that while the elements of conformity to biomedicine and its dominance remained more pronounced and emphatic, those of defiance were conversely weak and at times even apologetic. The quest for alternatives, on the other hand, although powerful and able to build trenchant civilizational and institutional critique of modern science and medicine, could never find adequate space in the national agenda for social change. The paper further holds that although the "cultural authority" and hegemony of biomedicine over indigenous science and knowledge were initiated by the colonial state, they were extended by the mainstream national leaderships and national governments with far more extensive and profound implications and less resistance. In light of the growing global networking of "traditional", "complementary" and "alternative" health systems on the one hand and the hegemonic and homogenizing role and presence of multilateral organizations (such as the World Bank and IMF) in shaping national health policies on the other, such insights from history become extraordinarily important.

  6. Safety philosophies in the history of the West German nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radkau, J.

    1989-01-01

    The article discusses the term 'philosophy' within the framework of the safety debate, examines the philosophy of 'inherent safety' and that of 'power plant siting away from agglomerations', as well as other concepts and approaches in safety engineering, as e.g. the maximum credible accident, the MCA and probabilistic approach, the practice-oriented safety philosophy, and human factors. Participation of the public as a legal requirement is discussed as a means of balancing the interests of various groups of the society, taking into account the possibility of abandoning a technology altogether as an ultimate consequence of the principle of participation of the public. (HSCH) [de

  7. Architectural Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Architecture and anthropology have always had a common focus on dwelling, housing, urban life and spatial organisation. Current developments in both disciplines make it even more relevant to explore their boundaries and overlaps. Architects are inspired by anthropological insights and methods......, while recent material and spatial turns in anthropology have also brought an increasing interest in design, architecture and the built environment. Understanding the relationship between the social and the physical is at the heart of both disciplines, and they can obviously benefit from further...... collaboration: How can qualitative anthropological approaches contribute to contemporary architecture? And just as importantly: What can anthropologists learn from architects’ understanding of spatial and material surroundings? Recent theoretical developments in anthropology stress the role of materials...

  8. The Wilhelm Wundt Center and the first graduate program for the history and philosophy of psychology in Brazil: A brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Saulo de Freitas; Caropreso, Fátima Siqueira; Simanke, Richard Theisen; Castañon, Gustavo Arja

    2013-08-01

    The expansion of Brazilian universities since 2009 has promoted a general growth and incentive of scientific activities throughout the country, not only in the so-called hard sciences, but also in the human sciences. In this brief report, we announce the creation of two new institutional spaces dedicated to the history and philosophy of psychology at the Federal University of Juiz de Fora (UFJF) in Brazil: the Wilhelm Wundt Center for the History and Philosophy of Psychology (NUHFIP) and the Graduate Program in History and Philosophy of Psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Joint Attention and Anthropological Difference

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2014), s. 59-70 ISSN 1718-0198 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP401/10/1164 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : joint attention * anthropological difference * phenomenology * great apes * shared intentionality Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  10. ON THE USE AND ABUSE OF PHILOSOPHY FOR PSYCHIATRY (AND ON THE USE OF HISTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoma, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It looks very much like philosophy is going to save psychiatry or at least to rescue it from the quick sands of biological reductionism, in which it has been muddling for decades. Through a series of historical cases (Roland Kuhn, Viktor Frankl, Hemmo Müller‐ Suur this paper aims at showing that this situation is not new and that it would be naïve to take the salvific value of philosophy for granted. 

  11. History and Philosophy of Science as a Guide to Understanding Nature of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Niaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nature of science (NOS is considered to be a controversial topic by historians, philosophers of science and science educators. It is paradoxical that we all teach science and still have difficulties in understanding what science is and how it develops and progresses. A major obstacle in understanding NOS is that science is primarily ‘unnatural’, that is it cannot be learned by a simple observation of phenomena. In most parts of the world history and philosophy of science are ‘inside’ science content and as such can guide our understanding of NOS. However, some science educators consider the ‘historical turn’ as dated and hence neglect the historical approach and instead emphasize the model based naturalist view of science. The objective of this presentation is to show that the historical approach is very much a part of teaching science and actually complements naturalism. Understanding NOS generally requires two aspects of science: Domain general and domain specific. In the classroom this can be illustrated by discussing the atomic models developed in the early 20th century which constitute the domain specific aspect of NOS. This can then lead to an understanding of the tentative nature of science that is a domain general aspect of NOS. A review of the literature in science education reveals three views (among others of understanding NOS: a Consensus view: It attempts to include only those domain-general NOS aspects that are the least controversial (Lederman, Abd-El-Khalick; b Family resemblance view: Based on the ideas of Wittgenstein, this view promotes science as a cognitive system (Irzik, Nola; c Integrated view: this view postulates that both domain general and domain specific aspects of NOS are not dichotomous but rather need to be integrated and are essential if we want students to understand ‘science in the making’ (Niaz. The following framework helps to facilitate integration: i Elaboration of a theoretical framework

  12. Design Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This edited volume provides an introduction to the emerging field of design anthropology from the point of view of anthropologists engaging in its development. Contributors include young anthropologists with experience in the field and leading theoreticians, who combine to articulate the specific...... style of knowing involved in doing design anthropology. So far design anthropology has been developed mostly in the practice of industry and the public sector, in particular in Scandinavia and the US, and the sustained academic reflection to support this practice is still in its early stages. This book...... will contribute to this theoretical reflection and provide a reference for practitioners, teachers and students of anthropology, as well as design and innovation....

  13. [Forensic anthropology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2009-09-07

    Forensic anthropology is the application of biological or physical anthropology in the service of justice. One main area is the analysis of human remains. Such analyses involve person identification by assessment of age and sex of the deceased, and comparison with ante-mortem data. Another major area is the analysis of surveillance pictures and videos. Such analyses may comprise facial and bodily morphological comparisons, multi-angle photogrammetry and gait analysis. We also perform studies of human remains for archaeologists.

  14. iPod therefore I am: Using PC Videos to Aid the Teaching of the History of Political Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Woodcock, Pete; Duckworth, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines our experiences at the University of Huddersfield of\\ud (a) producing and using mini-lectures on the history of political philosophy\\ud that were available to students as MP4 and progressive download PC video\\ud files (and MP3 audio files), and (b) the student feedback on these files\\ud which will help future development. This article largely avoids pedagogical\\ud issues regarding the use of technology in teaching and focuses more on\\ud student feedback and use of these ...

  15. Just truth? Carefully applying history, philosophy and sociology of science to the forensic use of CCTV images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmond, Gary

    2013-03-01

    Using as a case study the forensic comparison of images for purposes of identification, this essay considers how the history, philosophy and sociology of science might help courts to improve their responses to scientific and technical forms of expert opinion evidence in ways that are more consistent with legal system goals and values. It places an emphasis on the need for more sophisticated models of science and expertise that are capable of helping judges to identify sufficiently reliable types of expert evidence and to reflexively incorporate the weakness of trial safeguards and personnel into their admissibility decision making. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Techno Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Elgaard

    2013-01-01

    Inaugural lecture, Ph.D Torben Elgaard Jensen, professor with special responsibilities in techno anthropology and science and technology studies. The lecture addresses three questions: First, what is the unique approach that STS developed in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s? Second, what is the s......Inaugural lecture, Ph.D Torben Elgaard Jensen, professor with special responsibilities in techno anthropology and science and technology studies. The lecture addresses three questions: First, what is the unique approach that STS developed in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s? Second, what...... is the significance of the enormous growth of STS scholarship that took place in the following 2-3 decades? And third, what are the challenges today for an STS field that has come of age? Finally, the lecture offers reflections on the promises of the new techno anthropology study programme....

  17. COGNITIVE ASPECTS OF MODERN PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORICAL KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spartak Sh. Aytov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this work is the intelligent reconstruction and the analysis of the various methodological approaches to cognitive areas of modern philosophy of history and determines their cognitive and academic relationships with conceptual terms of such branches of historical knowledge as historical anthropology. Methodology. Methodological tools of this work are such scientific approaches as methods of philosophy of science, interdisciplinary approach, methods of source and system analysis. Scientific novelty. Reproduced and analyzed was a number of methodological approaches inherent in the natural sciences and the social - the humanities. The latter, in accordance with the principles of interdisciplinary paradigm, is very widely applied by the modern philosophy of historical knowledge, in particular in the analysis of the historical process and its main elements: the mentality, attitudes and norms of socially significant and personal behavior of individuals and societies of the past. The influence of research on various historical and historical anthropological problems such concepts implanted in the methodology of modern philosophy of history scientific disciplines as chaos theory, synergetics, mathematical biology, ethnology, social psychology, etc. Focuses on intellectual connections are used in the philosophy of history, historical knowledge interdisciplinary methodology, theory and concepts of natural science and social - humanities. They are used to analyze and understand the complex and multifaceted historical events and processes. Conclusions. The result of the analysis of the cognitive dynamics applications in the philosophy of history of conceptual approaches of a very wide range of scientific disciplines has been the allocation of a number of phases of the mining process. Each of them has special logic - methodological and socio cultural characteristics ("Data". Internal, cognitive science dynamics of this unity was not the

  18. Cognitive Aspects of Modern Philosophy of Historical Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spartak Sh. Aytov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this work is the intelligent reconstruction and the analysis of the various methodological approaches to cognitive areas of modern philosophy of history and determines their cognitive and academic relationships with conceptual terms of such branches of historical knowledge as historical anthropology. Methodology. Methodological tools of this work are such scientific approaches as methods of philosophy of science, interdisciplinary approach, methods of source and system analysis. Scientific novelty. Reproduced and analyzed was a number of methodological approaches inherent in the natural sciences and the social - the humanities. The latter, in accordance with the principles of interdisciplinary paradigm, is very widely applied by the modern philosophy of historical knowledge, in particular in the analysis of the historical process and its main elements: the mentality, attitudes and norms of socially significant and personal behavior of individuals and societies of the past. The influence of research on various historical and historical anthropological problems such concepts implanted in the methodology of modern philosophy of history scientific disciplines as chaos theory, synergetics, mathematical biology, ethnology, social psychology, etc. Focuses on intellectual connections are used in the philosophy of history, historical knowledge interdisciplinary methodology, theory and concepts of natural science and social - humanities. They are used to analyze and understand the complex and multifaceted historical events and processes. Conclusions. The result of the analysis of the cognitive dynamics applications in the philosophy of history of conceptual approaches of a very wide range of scientific disciplines has been the allocation of a number of phases of the mining process. Each of them has special logic - methodological and socio cultural characteristics ("Data". Internal, cognitive science dynamics of this unity was not the

  19. Johns Hopkins's first professorship in philosophy: a critical pivot point in the history of American psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher D

    2007-01-01

    The first professorship in philosophy at Johns Hopkins University was contested in the early 1880s by two of the most prominent and influential scholars in America: Charles Sanders Peirce and George Sylvester Morris. A third figure also vied for the position, although he was much less well known at the time: Granville Stanley Hall. Through a series of unexpected circumstances, Hall ultimately won the professorship and then used it to leverage an extraordinary career that included his opening the first American research laboratory in psychology, establishing the American Journal of Psychology, becoming president of Clark University, founding the American Psychological Association, and profoundly affecting the character of developmental psychology in America.

  20. A Confucian philosophy of medicine and some implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ping-Cheung

    2010-08-01

    Two crucial topics in the philosophy of medicine are the philosophy of nature and philosophical anthropology. In this essay I engage the philosophy of nature by exploring Anne Fagot-Largeault's study of norms in nature as a way of articulating a Confucian philosophy of medicine. I defend the Confucian position as a moderate naturalism.

  1. Business Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Relations School at Harvard University), as well as in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, before turning to five areas of research and practice: academic ethnographies of business practices, regional studies, case studies developed by practitioners, theoretical applications, and methods. The essay then asks......; cross-cultural comparison of work cultures; attention to the materials, technologies, and goods with which business people engage and which afford their organizational forms; and explicit attention to cutting-edge fieldwork methods.......This essay outlines the overall scope and location of business anthropology within the overall field of the discipline. It outlines its foundations as an applied form of anthropology in early developments in the United States (in particular, in Western Electric’s Hawthorne Project and the Human...

  2. LOS ALUCINÓGENOS: SU HISTORIA, ANTROPOLOGÍA, QUÍMICA Y FARMACOLOGÍA - THE HALLUCINOGENS: THEIR HISTORY, ANTHROPOLOGY, CHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL MARTÍNEZ HERRERA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paperexposes hallucinogens from several points of view. These diverse lateralities indicate the basic lack of scientifici and antropological support for the psychogenic nature of a hallucinogen. This paper seeks to de-demonize that reputation and expose its history, anthropology, chemistry and pharmacology. It is possible that hallucinatory plants were amongst the first botanical specimens used by mankind in his religious ceremonies. Uses such as divination, weather prediction, contact with spirit and ancestral worlds, were among some of those shamanic functions. The study engages in chemical analysis of the different structures that appear principally responsible for hallucinatory experiences. The latter as respects LSD-25 as a special case. The pharmacology of hallucinogens is quite vast and the present paper discusses only some of the compounds. A three phase classification is also mentioned as an explanation of the hallucinatory experience itself.

  3. L'etat, c'est moi. Fifty years of history and philosophy of evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Michael

    2016-01-01

    I reflect on my fifty-year history as a philosopher of biology, showing how it has taken me from rather narrow analytic studies, through the history of ideas, and now on to issues to do with science and religion. I argue that moral concerns were and still are a major motivation behind what I do and write. Copyright: © 2016 by Fabrizio Serra editore, Pisa · Roma.

  4. Where History, Philosophy, and Psychology Meet: An Interview with Wayne Viney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    Wayne Viney is Professor of Psychology and University Distinguished Teaching Scholar at Colorado State University where he teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in the history of psychology. He is also inaugurating a new course, The Development of Scientific Thought, for the College of Natural Sciences at Colorado State. Earlier in his…

  5. A brief history of the Quality of Life: its use in medicine and in philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennacchini, M; Bertolaso, M; Elvira, M M; De Marinis, M G

    2011-01-01

    The term Quality of Life (QoL) has been increasingly used in medical and philosophical literatures for the past four decades. The purpose of this article is to analyze how QoL is being used in medicine and in philosophy to understand its current status. In the 1960s and 1970s new technologies raised new questions for clinicians, so they used QoL as a parameter for making decisions in health issues. Consequently, researchers focused their interest on the construction and testing of instruments designed to measure health and QoL. However, all these instruments showed some conceptual and methodological problems that made the use of QoL in medicine difficult. While some researchers considered QoL an "idiosyncratic mystery", others believed that QoL was useful in implementing the patient's point of view into clinical practice and they suggested improving QoL's definition and methodology. In the 1980s, some consequentialist philosophers used QoL to formulate moral judgment, in particular they justified infanticide for some severely handicapped infants, and both euthanasia and suspension of life-sustaining treatment using QoL. In the 1990s, welfarist philosophers opened a new debate about QoL and they associated it with health and happiness. These philosophers developed QoL and those other concepts as subjectivist notions; consequently their definition and their measurements pose challenges. Afterwards researchers' interest in theoretical issues regarding QoL has fallen; nevertheless, physicians have continued to use QoL in clinical practice.

  6. The Use of History and Philosophy of Science as a Core for a Socioconstructivist Teaching Approach of the Concept of Energy in Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizaki, Aikaterini; Kokkotas, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    The present study should be thought as a socioconstructivist teaching approach (a teaching model) for the concept of energy in primary education. It contains important and crucial aspects of the History and Philosophy of Natural Sciences, introduces the concept of energy using the macroscopic framework of thermodynamics, takes into consideration…

  7. Integrating History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences in Practice to Enhance Science Education: Swammerdam's "Historia Insectorum Generalis" and the Case of the Water Flea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendig, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Hasok Chang ("Sci Educ" 20:317-341, 2011) shows how the recovery of past experimental knowledge, the physical replication of historical experiments, and the extension of recovered knowledge can increase scientific understanding. These activities can also play an important role in both science and history and philosophy of science…

  8. A Reconstruction of Development of the Periodic Table Based on History and Philosophy of Science and Its Implications for General Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Angmary; Rodriguez, Maria A.; Niaz, Mansoor

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (a) elaboration of a history and philosophy of science (HPS) framework based on a reconstruction of the development of the periodic table; (b) formulation of seven criteria based on the framework; and (c) evaluation of 57 freshman college-level general chemistry textbooks with respect to the presentation of the…

  9. Changing Anthropology, Changing Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varughese, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years after the founding of the field of medical anthropology, the Society for Medical Anthropology of the American Anthropological Association held its first independent meeting on September 24-27, 2009, at Yale University. PMID:20027281

  10. Teaching anthropology in Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchowski, M.; Červinková, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2016), s. 47-51 E-ISSN 2239-625X Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : teaching anthropology * Poland * pedagogy * educational anthropology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology , Ethnology

  11. Postmodernism: Philosophy of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Bazaluk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is the philosophy of education and its reflection on the educational process. Based on the analysis of predecessors’ works the author presented the new structure of the philosophy of education which enriches the understanding of its subject, targets and methods of research. The author presented the philosophy of education as a pyramid, the base of which are generalizing the situation of man as a subject andobject of research accumulated in the philosophical anthropology. The first level of the pyramid takes psychology as a science which studies the origin, development and functioning of the psyche. Pedagogy crowns the “pyramid”. The author used the dialectical, system-structural, structural-functional method, as well as methods of comparison, analysis and synthesis. The main conclusion of the study is to prove that the philosophy of education in their new understanding is not only a theoretical understanding of basics and demonstrations of the educational process, but also a practice, the direct embodiment of the theoretical developments in the education in the everyday life. Using historical and philosophical analysis, the author shows that the philosophy of education does not just depend on the state of social philosophy (and philosophy in general, but also through its methodological apparatus it realizes the established philosophical (ideological paradigm in the different pedagogical practices.

  12. Virtual anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Gerhard W

    2015-02-01

    Comparative morphology, dealing with the diversity of form and shape, and functional morphology, the study of the relationship between the structure and the function of an organism's parts, are both important subdisciplines in biological research. Virtual anthropology (VA) contributes to comparative morphology by taking advantage of technological innovations, and it also offers new opportunities for functional analyses. It exploits digital technologies and pools experts from different domains such as anthropology, primatology, medicine, paleontology, mathematics, statistics, computer science, and engineering. VA as a technical term was coined in the late 1990s from the perspective of anthropologists with the intent of being mostly applied to biological questions concerning recent and fossil hominoids. More generally, however, there are advanced methods to study shape and size or to manipulate data digitally suitable for application to all kinds of primates, mammals, other vertebrates, and invertebrates or to issues regarding plants, tools, or other objects. In this sense, we could also call the field "virtual morphology." The approach yields permanently available virtual copies of specimens and data that comprehensively quantify geometry, including previously neglected anatomical regions. It applies advanced statistical methods, supports the reconstruction of specimens based on reproducible manipulations, and promotes the acquisition of larger samples by data sharing via electronic archives. Finally, it can help identify new, hidden traits, which is particularly important in paleoanthropology, where the scarcity of material demands extracting information from fragmentary remains. This contribution presents a current view of the six main work steps of VA: digitize, expose, compare, reconstruct, materialize, and share. The VA machinery has also been successfully used in biomechanical studies which simulate the stress and strains appearing in structures. Although

  13. Psychical research in the history and philosophy of science. An introduction and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    As a prelude to articles published in this special issue, I sketch changing historiographical conventions regarding the 'occult' in recent history of science and medicine scholarship. Next, a review of standard claims regarding psychical research and parapsychology in philosophical discussions of the demarcation problem reveals that these have tended to disregard basic primary sources and instead rely heavily on problematic popular accounts, simplistic notions of scientific practice, and outdated teleological historiographies of progress. I conclude by suggesting that rigorous and sensitively contextualized case studies of past elite heterodox scientists may be potentially useful to enrich historical and philosophical scholarship by highlighting epistemologies that have fallen through the crude meshes of triumphalist and postmodernist historiographical generalizations alike. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Color consilience: color through the lens of art practice, history, philosophy, and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Bevil R

    2012-03-01

    Paintings can be interpreted as the product of the complex neural machinery that translates physical light signals into behavior, experience, and emotion. The brain mechanisms responsible for vision and perception have been sculpted during evolution and further modified by cultural exposure and development. By closely examining artists' paintings and practices, we can discover hints to how the brain works, and achieve insight into the discoveries and inventions of artists and their impact on culture. Here, I focus on an integral aspect of color, color contrast, which poses a challenge for artists: a mark situated on an otherwise blank canvas will appear a different color in the context of the finished painting. How do artists account for this change in color during the production of a painting? In the broader context of neural and philosophical considerations of color, I discuss the practices of three modern masters, Henri Matisse, Paul Cézanne, and Claude Monet, and suggest that the strategies they developed not only capitalized on the neural mechanisms of color, but also influenced the trajectory of western art history. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Importance of philosophy of science to the history of medical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Z

    1999-03-01

    Popular approach to the history of medicine rests on naive assumptions that: 1) only the present state of medical knowledge can be counted as scientific and only those elements of the former knowledge and practice which fitted the body of contemporary science should be regarded by the historians of medicine (presentism); 2) medical sciences, like the other natural sciences, portray natural phenomena as they really are (naturalism); 3) progress in sciences consists of cumulative growth of information and explanation. The twentieth century philosophical critique of science revealed that none of these assumptions were true. Empirical facts, which are taken as a basis for any true knowledge, are dependent on the presumed theories; theories are intertwined into a broader socio-cultural context; theory-changing processes are caused by social factors rather than by the theoretical content. Therefore, it is a common task of historians of medicine and philosophers of science to reveal all theoretical and cultural premises on which our comprehension of the contemporary medicine is founded.

  16. Empirical philosophy of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenknecht, Susann; Nersessian, Nancy J.; Andersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of philosophers of science make use of qualitative empirical data, a development that may reconfigure the relations between philosophy and sociology of science and that is reminiscent of efforts to integrate history and philosophy of science. Therefore, the first part...... of this introduction to the volume Empirical Philosophy of Science outlines the history of relations between philosophy and sociology of science on the one hand, and philosophy and history of science on the other. The second part of this introduction offers an overview of the papers in the volume, each of which...... is giving its own answer to questions such as: Why does the use of qualitative empirical methods benefit philosophical accounts of science? And how should these methods be used by the philosopher?...

  17. A BRIEF HISTORY OF HUMAN POWERED FLIGHT: FROM PHYSIOLOGY TO PHILOSOPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Enrico di Prampero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a scientific theory (T can be separated into successive phases: i Fantasy, to conceive T ii Analysis to couch T into formal language iii Action, to apply in practice the predictions of T. The history of human powered flight, in which case the three phases are stretched over several thousand years, allow us to better appreciate their intrinsic characteristics. Fantasy, dating back to the myth of Ikarus, must be experimentally testable, as indeed were Daedalus’ wings. Analysis must state in quantitative terms the laws governing the matter at stake. Action, from Leonardo’s unsuccessful attempts to the crossings of the British Channel in 1979 and of the arm of the sea separating Crete from mainland Greece in 1988, has the aim of shaping the world according to our will. The kernel of any “proper” T is a formal system wherein a set of operational rules allows us to manipulate a set of symbols, representing the objects of T, on the bases of a limited number of axioms. In such formal systems, “theorem” is a string of symbols that can be arrived at in a finite number of steps from the axioms, applying the canonical operational rules. However, as Kurt Gödel showed in 1931, it is possible to demonstrate that, within a sufficiently powerful formal system, there exists demonstrably true strings of symbols that are not theorems. Thus, even in an ultra-powerful theory of everything, there will still be truths that can not be arrived at within the theory.

  18. Particle physics and philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Shoichi.

    1984-01-01

    The philosophy of dialectical materialism is applied to the history of the discovery of building blocks of matter. Engels' theory was adapted by Taketani to describe the cognizance of different levels of material structures. This philosophy was used to construct the composite Sakata model of hadrons in the early sixties. (D.Gy.)

  19. Particle physics and philosophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, S.

    1984-01-01

    The philosophy of dialectical materialism is applied to the history of the discovery of building blocks of matter. Engels' theory was adapted by Taketani to describe the cognizance of different levels of material structures. This philosophy was used to construct the composite Sakata model of hadrons in the early sixties.

  20. Report on a Boston University Conference December 7-8, 2012 on How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary US Science Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garik, Peter; Benétreau-Dupin, Yann

    2014-09-01

    This is an editorial report on the outcomes of an international conference sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) (REESE-1205273) to the School of Education at Boston University and the Center for Philosophy and History of Science at Boston University for a conference titled: How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary US Science Teaching? The presentations of the conference speakers and the reports of the working groups are reviewed. Multiple themes emerged for K-16 education from the perspective of the history and philosophy of science. Key ones were that: students need to understand that central to science is argumentation, criticism, and analysis; students should be educated to appreciate science as part of our culture; students should be educated to be science literate; what is meant by the nature of science as discussed in much of the science education literature must be broadened to accommodate a science literacy that includes preparation for socioscientific issues; teaching for science literacy requires the development of new assessment tools; and, it is difficult to change what science teachers do in their classrooms. The principal conclusions drawn by the editors are that: to prepare students to be citizens in a participatory democracy, science education must be embedded in a liberal arts education; science teachers alone cannot be expected to prepare students to be scientifically literate; and, to educate students for scientific literacy will require a new curriculum that is coordinated across the humanities, history/social studies, and science classrooms.

  1. String figures as mathematics? an anthropological approach to string figure-making in oral tradition societies

    CERN Document Server

    Vandendriessche, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the mathematical rationality contained in the making of string figures. It does so by using interdisciplinary methods borrowed from anthropology, mathematics, history and philosophy of mathematics. The practice of string figure-making has long been carried out in many societies, and particularly in those of oral tradition. It consists in applying a succession of operations to a string (knotted into a loop), mostly using the fingers and sometimes the feet, the wrists or the mouth. This succession of operations is intended to generate a final figure. The book explores differ

  2. Education science and biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    This contribution states deficits and makes proposals in order to overcome them. First there is the question as to why the Biological Anthropology--despite all its diversifications--hardly ever deals with educational aspects of its subject. Second it is the question as to why Educational Science neglects or even ignores data of Biological Anthropology which are recognizably important for its subject. It is postulated that the stated deficits are caused by several adverse influences such as, the individual identity of each of the involved single sciences; aspects of the recent history of the German Anthropology; a lack of conceptual understanding of each other; methodological differences and, last but not least, the structure of the universities. The necessity to remedy this situation was deduced from two groups of facts. First, more recent data of the Biological Anthropology (e.g. brain functions and learning, sex specificity and education) are of substantial relevance for the Educational Science. Second, the epistemological requirements of complex subjects like education need interdisciplinary approaches. Finally, a few suggestions of concrete topics are given which are related to both, Educational Science and Biological Anthropology.

  3. Anthropological Component of Descartes’ Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolii M. Malivskyi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to outline and comprehend the Descartes’ theory about anthropological component of ontology as the most important part of his philosophy. The accomplishment of this purpose covers the successive solution of the following tasks: 1 review of the research literature concerning the problem of human’s presence and the individual nature of truth; 2 emphasize the ambivalence of the basic intention of his legacy; 3 justify the thesis about constitutivity of human’s presence and comprehend passions as the form of disclosure of ontology’s anthropological component. Methodology. The use of the euristic potential of phenomenology, postpositivism and postmodernism makes it possible to emphasize the multiple-layer and multiple-meaning classical philosophy works, to comprehend the limitation and scarcity of the naïve-enlightening vision of human nature and to look for a new reception of European classics that provides the overcoming of established nihilism and pessimism concerning the interpretation of human nature. Scientific novelty. It is the first time that anthropological component of Descartes’ ontology became an object of particular attention. It previously lacked attention because of following main reasons: 1 traditional underestimating of the fact of Descartes’ legacy incompleteness as an unrealized anthropological project and 2 lack of proper attention to the individual nature of truth. The premise for its constructive overcoming is the attention to ambivalence of the basic intention and the significance of ethics in the philosopher’s legacy. His texts and research literature allow confirming the constitutive nature of human’s presence and passions as the key form of disclosure of the ontology anthropological component. Conclusions. The established tradition of interpretation the Descartes’ philosophizing nature as the filiation process of impersonal knowledge loses its cogency these days. The

  4. ANTHROPOLOGICAL COMPONENT OF DESCARTES’ ONTOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolii M. Malivskyi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to outline and comprehend the Descartes’ theory about anthropological component of ontology as the most important part of his philosophy. The accomplishment of this purpose covers the successive solution of the following tasks: 1 review of the research literature concerning the problem of human’s presence and the individual nature of truth; 2 emphasize the ambivalence of the basic intention of his legacy; 3 justify the thesis about constitutivity of human’s presence and comprehend passions as the form of disclosure of ontology’s anthropological component. Methodology. The use of the euristic potential of phenomenology, postpositivism and postmodernism makes it possible to emphasize the multiple-layer and multiple-meaning classical philosophy works, to comprehend the limitation and scarcity of the naïve-enlightening vision of human nature and to look for a new reception of European classics that provides the overcoming of established nihilism and pessimism concerning the interpretation of human nature. Scientific novelty. It is the first time that anthropological component of Descartes’ ontology became an object of particular attention. It previously lacked attention because of following main reasons: 1 traditional underestimating of the fact of Descartes’ legacy incompleteness as an unrealized anthropological project and 2 lack of proper attention to the individual nature of truth. The premise for its constructive overcoming is the attention to ambivalence of the basic intention and the significance of ethics in the philosopher’s legacy. His texts and research literature allow confirming the constitutive nature of human’s presence and passions as the key form of disclosure of the ontology anthropological component. Conclusions. The established tradition of interpretation the Descartes’ philosophizing nature as the filiation process of impersonal knowledge loses its cogency these days. The

  5. Religious architecture: anthropological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaaik, O.

    2013-01-01

    Religious Architecture: Anthropological Perspectives develops an anthropological perspective on modern religious architecture, including mosques, churches and synagogues. Borrowing from a range of theoretical perspectives on space-making and material religion, this volume looks at how religious

  6. Guide to Sources: American History, Anthropology, Folklore, Business Administration, Education, English, Food Science, French, German, Music, Philosophy, Political Science, Psychology, and Sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine Univ., Orono. Raymond H. Fogler Library.

    This group of 13 library guides, designed to introduce the student to some of the bibliographical tools available in various subject areas at Fogler Library, is not intended to be a complete listing, but rather a selective introduction to the many sources of information available to the beginning researcher. Information is provided on the use of…

  7. Organizational culture, Anthropology of

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause-Jensen, Jakob; Wright, Susan

    2015-01-01

    cultures’ into transnational corporations and organizations concerned with international governance. In such organizations, anthropology graduates are increasingly employed as ‘cultural experts.’ We track the anthropological research on organizational culture and argue that the sensibilities and analytical...... skills acquired and the concepts developed through the ethnographic encounter gives anthropology a unique voice in the study of cultural matters in organizations....

  8. ІСТОРІЯ ФІЛОСОФСЬКО-АНТРОПОЛОГІЧНОЇ ДУМКИ В УКРАЇНІ НА ПОЧАТКУ ХХІ СТОЛІТТЯ/ HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ігор СКАКУН

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Игорь Скакун, Иван Цуркан. История философско-антропологической мысли в Украине в начале ХХІ века. В статье анализируются особенности историко-философского анализа антропологического дискурса в Украине в начале ХХ века. Актуализируется роль исторических событий в формировании человекомерных философских ориентиров. История, философия, наука и культура тесно связаны в социокультурной среде. Формируются философско-антропологические особенности исторического процесса. В свою очередь, исторические реалии влияют на приоритеты развития гуманитарного компонента картины мира.Ihor Skakun, Ivan Tsurkan. History of Philosophical and anthropological thought in Ukraine at the beginning of the XXI century. Aim of investigation. This article analyzes the features of the cultural and historical processes in Ukraine of the ХХІ century. Updated role in shaping historical events and philosophical traditions. Philosophy and history are closely linked to the sociocultural environment. Forming process features of culturehistorical realities of the present. Philosophical and anthropological processes play an important role in the formation of Ukrainian 7 Agatstsi E. Chelovek kak predmet filosofii [Man as an object of philosophy]. Voprosy filosofii [Questions of Philosophy], 1989, Vol. 2, P, 24–35. 8 Marchuk M. Tsinnisni potentsiyi znannya [Valuable potentials of knowledge], Chernivtsi, 2001, 319 p. 9 Radzinyak T. “Vplуv protsesiv gumanizatsiyi ta gumanitarizatsiyi na

  9. Rorty, Pragmatism, and Analytic Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Misak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of Richard Rorty's legacies is to have put a Jamesian version of pragmatism on the contemporary philosophical map. Part of his argument has been that pragmatism and analytic philosophy are set against each other, with pragmatism almost having been killed off by the reigning analytic philosophy. The argument of this paper is that there is a better and more interesting reading of both the history of pragmatism and the history of analytic philosophy.

  10. The human being : when philosophy meets history. Miki Kiyoshi, Watsuji Tetsuro and their quest for a New Ningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brivio, Chiara

    2009-01-01

    This thesis analyses the concept of the 'human being' (ningen) in the philosophies of the two modern Japanese intellectuals Miki Kiyoshi and Watsuji Tetsuro. I demonstrate that their philosophical systems, based on the idea that the creation of a new Japanese human being should have coincided with

  11. History and Philosophy of Science: a Phylogenetic approach História e filosofia da ciência: uma abordagem filogenética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Lennox

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of Thomas Kuhn's The structure of scientific revolutions, there was a great deal of discussion about the relationship between the History of Science and the Philosophy of Science. A wider issue was at stake in these discussions: 'normativism' versus 'naturalism' in Epistemology. If the History of Science, at best, gives us reliable information about what actually occurred historically, how can it inform debates about such things as confirmation or explanation in Philosophy of Science? This essay makes a case for the centrality of historical investigation in the Philosophy of Science. I will defend what I term the 'Phylogenetic' approach to the Philosophy of Science. I will argue that since the foundations and dominant methods of a particular scientific field are shaped by its history, studying that History can give us considerable insight into conceptual and methodological problems in a particular Science. The case will be made both on general, philosophical grounds, and by compelling instantiation.A publicação de A estrutura das revoluções científicas de Thomas Khun resultou em uma grande discussão sobre a relação entre a história da ciência e a filosofia da ciência. Nessa discussão, o que estava em jogo era algo bem mais abrangente, isto é, o 'normativismo' versus o 'naturalismo' em epistemologia. Se a história da ciência, na melhor das hipóteses, nos dá informações confiáveis quanto ao que realmente ocorreu historicamente, como é que ela pode auxiliar os debates da filosofia da ciência sobre aspectos tais como confirmação e explicação? O presente artigo defende a centralização da investigação histórica para a filosofia da ciência. O autor defende o que ele chama de abordagem 'filogenética' à filosofia da ciência, argumentando que, uma vez que a as bases e métodos que prevalecem em uma área científica são moldados pela sua história, estudar esta história pode esclarecer

  12. Measuring philosophy: a philosophy index

    OpenAIRE

    Biggs, Lesley; Mierau, Dale; Hay, David

    2002-01-01

    Chiropractic philosophy which has been debated since the founding of chiropractic in 1895 has taken on new vigour over the past ten years. Despite a growing body of literature examining chiropractic philosophy, the chiropractic profession continues to be divided over this issue. To date, there has been little research examining the meaning of chiropractic philosophy to rank-and-file practitioners.

  13. Allostatic load and biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edes, Ashley N; Crews, Douglas E

    2017-01-01

    Multiple stressors affect developing and adult organisms, thereby partly structuring their phenotypes. Determining how stressors influence health, well-being, and longevity in human and nonhuman primate populations are major foci within biological anthropology. Although much effort has been devoted to examining responses to multiple environmental and sociocultural stressors, no holistic metric to measure stress-related physiological dysfunction has been widely applied within biological anthropology. Researchers from disciplines outside anthropology are using allostatic load indices (ALIs) to estimate such dysregulation and examine life-long outcomes of stressor exposures, including morbidity and mortality. Following allostasis theory, allostatic load represents accumulated physiological and somatic damage secondary to stressors and senescent processes experienced over the lifespan. ALIs estimate this wear-and-tear using a composite of biomarkers representing neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune systems. Across samples, ALIs are associated significantly with multiple individual characteristics (e.g., age, sex, education, DNA variation) of interest within biological anthropology. They also predict future outcomes, including aspects of life history variation (e.g., survival, lifespan), mental and physical health, morbidity and mortality, and likely health disparities between groups, by stressor exposures, ethnicity, occupations, and degree of departure from local indigenous life ways and integration into external and commodified ones. ALIs also may be applied to similar stress-related research areas among nonhuman primates. Given the reports from multiple research endeavors, here we propose ALIs may be useful for assessing stressors, stress responses, and stress-related dysfunction, current and long-term cognitive function, health and well-being, and risk of early mortality across many research programs within biological anthropology. © 2017 American

  14. The Concept "System of Philosophy"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2005-01-01

    of philosophy’ as a methodological tool in the history of philosophy. I shall argue that the interdisciplinary nature of much pre-modern philosophy makes Brucker’s methodological concept ‘system of philosophy’ inadequate, and that we may be better off leaving it behind in our future exploration of pre-modern......In this article I shall examine and discuss the concept ‘system of philosophy’ as a methodological tool in the history of philosophy. I shall do so in two moves. First I shall analyze the historical origin of the concept in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Thereafter I shall undertake...... a discussion of its methodological weaknesses — a discussion, which is not only relevant to the writing of history of philosophy in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but also to the writing of history of philosophy in our times, where the concept remains an important methodological tool. My first move...

  15. Methodological individualism as opposed to methodological holism. History, relevancy and the implications of the (insoluble? debate on the explanatory capacity and scientific status of sociocultural anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kulenović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of wider research into the status of explanation in the debate on the scientific status of anthropology – wherein one of the key assumptions is that there is a strong correlation between theoretical and methodological structures which would make them inseparable, and that explanation or explanatory potential, is the point of convergence which can be used to test for the possibility of separating theoretical and methodological structures in the first place. To test this idea, a line of debate between methodological holism and methodological individualism – one of the longest running and most complex debates in the social sciences and humanities – was considered. The historical background of the debate has been highlighted, and its relevancy and implications in the controversy about the explanatory capacity and scientific status of sociocultural anthropology.

  16. Advances in philosophy and environment in Iberoamerica. Meaningful link between philosophy and environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugallo, Alicia Irene

    2007-01-01

    The growing expansion of environmental conscience in the last thirty years of the X X century has influenced the field of philosophy, especially practical philosophy, through the questioning of beliefs, values and goals of industrial civilization. The emergence of the eco philosophy realm was accompanied by the incidence of different scientific disciplines as ecology, biology, economy, anthropology or sociology. But together with these influences, environmental philosophy remains forcefully normative, as a kind of sophia, wisdom. It implies prescriptions, not only scientific description and prediction. The consideration of the term biodiversity as a thick ethical concept shows this integration of descriptive and normative

  17. Problem-oriented approach to Ancient philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berstov, Igor

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Igor Berestov and Marina Wolf of the Institute of philosophy and law, Novosibirsk, discuss various methodological difficulties typical of studies in the history of Ancient Greek philosophy and try to develop their own problem-oriented approach.

  18. Features of formation of philosophy of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Baranov G. V.

    2016-01-01

    in article the main content of problems and achievements of philosophy of Russia on initial stage of its history is researched; urgent achievements of the Russian philosophy in their value for modern humanitarian culture are characterized.

  19. ІСТОРІЯ МЕДИЦИНИ В ФІЛОСОФСЬКО - АНТРОПОЛОГІЧНОМУ ВИМІРІ / HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN PHILOSOPHICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL DIMENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ігор СКАКУН

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Skakun I. History of medicine in philosophical and anthropological dimension. The article considers prerequisites of establishment, peculiarities of the content and methodological potential of concept of anthropocentrism in medical history. The author denotes the role of principle of anthropocentrism in terms of formation of world picture. The history of medicine and the history of philosophy are closely related to the philosophical and anthropological discourse. Forming epistemological and axiological factors medical history. Anthropological Science plays an important role in medicine. Medicine has its own specific historical development. Ancient philosophers Hippocrates, Galen launched philosophical and anthropological dimensions in the history of medicine. This period is characterized by the emergence of anthropological bases. Key words: philosophy, anthropocentrism, history of philosophy, medical history, human, worldview. Скакун Игорь. История медицины в философско- антропологическом измерении. В статье анализируются предпосылки становления, особенности утверждения, содержание и методологический потенциал концепции антропоцентризма в истории медицины. Актуализируется роль принципа антропоцентризма при формировании картины мира. История медицины и история философии тесно связаны в философско - антропологическом дискурсе. Формируются гносеологические и аксиологические факторы медицинской истории. Антропологические науки играют важную роль в медицине. Античные

  20. Ontological And Anthropological Aspects of the Concept of Human Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Asha Nimali Fernando

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropology is the study of the origin of the man. It is basically concern with the concept of Homo sapiens, and it is scientifically questioning what are human physical traits as well how do men behave and the variation among different groups of  human with his social and cultural dimensions. Ontology is a subfield in traditional philosophy which is mainly focuses on the nature of being, existence or reality as such. There are some similarities and differences among these two areas. However when we deeply study the philosophical basis of the anthropology it is proof that it was derived from ontology.Anthropology discusses the social and cultural world or the physical entity of human nature. Ontology focuses the invisible aspect of human nature along with the ultimate reality. Therefore, it has a metaphysical aspect of human being; this philosophical notion has in fact, contributed to the development of the subject of anthropology. The present modern day has given very little attention to this philosophical combination of  ontolog y to anthropology, rendering further investigation into the philosophical roots of anthropology.This research paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between ontology and anthropology by paying attention to the ontological arguments about the concept of man and human nature within Greek and modern western thoughts, in comparing with modern anthropological arguments.

  1. STRATEGY OF SOCIALLY-ANTHROPOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT IN IDEAS AND SYSTEM OF MODERN SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION: INTEGRATION OF MODEL OF THE INSTRUMENTALISM AND THE NEOPRAGMATISM WITH THE CONCEPT «NEW HUMANISM»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Zinchenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose. Explore the major ideological patterns of development of a socially philosophies of education in the context of the problems of institutionalization of knowledge about human and social development. To analyse system-integration aspect of social philosophy and education management in interaction of concepts of an instrumentalism of a pragmatism and a neopragmatism with model of «new humanism» in formation of socially valuable orientations. Methodology. Classification existing in the western philosophy of education and education of directions is spent, proceeding from basic principles of philosophical school or a current, first of all considering those the purpose and means which are really involved by them in process of education, social development and socially-moral education and being based on the basic installations, the purpose expressed by that or other direction, how its supporters imagine the person, its requirement, a social role, модус behaviour which the education system and education urged to form. Scientific novelty. In conditions when against crisis of an education system of the government of the USA and the leading countries of Europe are compelled to begin its long-term reform, its theorists substantially pay attention to democratic workings out of concepts of an instrumentalism of a pragmatism/neopragmatism in modern social philosophy of education, in particular on their aspiration to introduce in process of social development, education and education idea and practical model both educational, and a social equality. Considering growing requirement of a practical embodiment of ideas of freedom, justice, aspiration to realization of the human rights proclaimed a society, supporters of the concept of «new humanism» see the main objective in blocking a way to conformism, to a manipulation behaviour of the person and to create conditions for its free self-expression, for realization by the person of a fundamental

  2. Medical design anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ventura, Jonathan; Gunn, Wendy

    Barnard and Spencer define medical anthropology in the Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology as "Medical anthropology is, as the phrase implies, unavoidably concerned with the paradigm of modern Western medicine, whether implicitly or explicitly" (2002: 541). Recently there is a new...... focus in medical sociology and anthropology, which is patient's practices and influence on wider global health environment (see for example vol. 36(2) of Sociology of Health & Illness). While various social science theoreticians have written about agentic abilities of objects, there is a gap...... in literature concerning various levels of socio-cultural influence of the medical environment through medical products. In our research we have outlined the importance of medical design anthropology (MDA) to the practice and theory of design (Ventura and Gunn, 2016). In this paper, we study the ways in which...

  3. Cyber anthropology or anthropology in cyberspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svilicić, Niksa

    2012-03-01

    As a variety of anthropology, cyber anthropology is considered to be the fastest growing sub branch in the science. It is based on synergic effects of multimedia systems and hypermedia, using their comparative advantages. One of the least researched fields of cyber anthropology is the relationship of individuals and social groups with a multimedia document in terms of their perception of such subject. This is because the foundation of social-informatics perception in the society is created based on the evidence of a real life, whereas here the perception is established at the level of virtual, i.e. online life. The rhetorical question here is whether an identical content causes the same or different user reactions, depending on whether it was perceived offline or online, i.e. to what extend does the medium (and not the information content) dictate the user perception. In this respect the research titled "Perception of online museum content creators and actual habits of Croatian online museum visitors" can be a "case study" for the impact of "cyber potential" on the classic anthropological paradigm.

  4. Views about scientists and scientific work in the novel Deception Point by Dan Brown: possibilities to insert History and Philosophy of Science elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmo Ernesto Francisco Junior

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the influence of literature on people lives, this study investigates elements concerning views about scientists and scientific work presented in Deception Point, a novel by Dan Brown. Multiple aspects to represent the scientist figure, life and work, emerge from the novel and problematize characteristics that can be considered as a common sense view, or others perspectives based on more contemporaneous philosophical thoughts on science. Reading and analyzing this novel could be an interesting opportunity to insert elements of history and philosophy of science under different focus. This study discusses some elements, from excerpts of the novel, which may become possibilities for debates in Science classes at schools, and in teacher education.

  5. Experimental philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobe, Joshua; Buckwalter, Wesley; Nichols, Shaun; Robbins, Philip; Sarkissian, Hagop; Sommers, Tamler

    2012-01-01

    Experimental philosophy is a new interdisciplinary field that uses methods normally associated with psychology to investigate questions normally associated with philosophy. The present review focuses on research in experimental philosophy on four central questions. First, why is it that people's moral judgments appear to influence their intuitions about seemingly nonmoral questions? Second, do people think that moral questions have objective answers, or do they see morality as fundamentally relative? Third, do people believe in free will, and do they see free will as compatible with determinism? Fourth, how do people determine whether an entity is conscious?

  6. Can Anthropology Revolutionize Public School Curriculum? A Position Paper on the Emerging Role of Anthropology in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynneson, Thomas L.

    Anthropology has the potential to influence and change current patterns of curriculum organization in the public schools. Assuming that secondary schools isolate and compartmentalize knowledge, that history dominates the social studies/social sciences to the detriment of the field, that anthropology incorporates specialists from many disciplines…

  7. What is Business Anthropology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Larsen, Frederik; Sigurdarson, Hallur

    2013-01-01

    The anthropology of organizations is always political; it might take place over shorter, as well as longer, time spans and in singular, pluralistic, or even virtual, settings. This paper addresses such issues by describing and analyzing fieldwork experiences of an academic workshop, which took...... place at the Copenhagen Business School in 2012 under the title of ‘The Business of Ethnography’. The purpose of the workshop was to create a forum in which to discuss business anthropology as an emerging field or sub-discipline of anthropology. The paper considers three conditions (reflexivity...

  8. Berkeley's Philosophy of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Jesseph, Douglas M

    1993-01-01

    In this first modern, critical assessment of the place of mathematics in Berkeley's philosophy and Berkeley's place in the history of mathematics, Douglas M. Jesseph provides a bold reinterpretation of Berkeley's work. Jesseph challenges the prevailing view that Berkeley's mathematical writings are peripheral to his philosophy and argues that mathematics is in fact central to his thought, developing out of his critique of abstraction. Jesseph's argument situates Berkeley's ideas within the larger historical and intellectual context of the Scientific Revolution. Jesseph begins with Berkeley's r

  9. Social anthropology in INCAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard N

    2010-03-01

    Social anthropology at INCAP evolved through a series of stages. The initial work in the 1950s was concerned with finding ways to make INCAP nutritional research more effective. In a second phase, emerging in the 1960s, anthropology examined the nutrition process in the population, especially as it was manifested in child care and feeding, lactation, and population growth and in the relation of economic process to nutritional progress. In the 1970s, anthropology once more became an adjunct of nutritional research. Anthropological awareness was introduced into project planning, and field studies were undertaken by way of shaping the research process to work in accord with local realities. In the 1980s and 1990s, there was a shift away from more descriptive research to research directed to supporting and facilitating specific nutrition and health behavior change.

  10. On Teaching Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyer, Lin

    1983-01-01

    An anthropology professor discusses the three major educational objectives of her introductory college course. She wants her students to understand cultural relativism, the meaning of race, and the reality of evolution. (RM)

  11. Engaging the World of the Supernatural: Anthropology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is related to the issue of the role of scientific rationalism. This debate is indeed part of the history of anthropology and is as yet unresolved As such, the ideas of several earlier scholars will be referred to in an attempt to contextualise the arguments presented in this paper. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology, Volume 6, ...

  12. Religious Architecture : Anthropological Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Religious Architecture: Anthropological Perspectives develops an anthropological perspective on modern religious architecture, including mosques, churches and synagogues. Borrowing from a range of theoretical perspectives on space-making and material religion, this volume looks at how religious buildings take their place in opposition to the secular surroundings, how they, as evocations of the sublime, help believers to move beyond the boundaries of modern subjectivity, and how they, in their...

  13. The Anthropology of Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropological interest in football has been on the rise since the beginning of the century, which can be attested to by the rising number of studies, papers, collective publications and scientific conferences on the topic. Seeing as anthropology is no longer the study of the culturally bizarre and exotic, it is clear that the first anthropological studies of football as a cultural phenomenon are linked to those environments in which football figures as an important cultural trait, which is the reason why this sub discipline thrived in Europe or in places where football was treated as an esoteric phenomenon and where there as a longer tradition of anthropological study of native cultures. From the first analogies between the game of football and its rules with rituals of so called primitive cultures, the anthropological study of football developed into a relatively encompassing approach which includes interest in all the actors who establish the game as a public, cultural good – players, experts, supporters, journalists, organizers etc. – as well as its various cultural manifestations, in the form of a tool for the construction of identity and cultural symbol, a leisure activity with ties to economy, to a specific apotheosis of the concepts of globalization and commodification of culture. Anthropological studies of football are present in Serbia as well, and their subject matter corresponds to the role and position held by football, as a cultural artefact, in Serbian society and other countries in the region.

  14. New Perspectives from a Quasi-English Translation of Dusan Savicevic's 2000 Work on Roots in the Development of Andragogy: The 2016 Update of History and Philosophy of Andragogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschke, John A.

    2016-01-01

    This 2016 updated capsule on a History and Philosophy of Andragogy includes 196 concepts and 268 names from a quasi-English translation of Dusan Savicevic's 2000 work on roots in the world-wide development of Andragogy from ancient times. Ten new items were discovered and added to the list. Some of these documents, however, present aspects of the…

  15. Empirical Philosophy of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansnerus, Erika; Wagenknecht, Susann

    2015-01-01

    knowledge takes place through the integration of the empirical or historical research into the philosophical studies, as Chang, Nersessian, Thagard and Schickore argue in their work. Building upon their contributions we will develop a blueprint for an Empirical Philosophy of Science that draws upon...... qualitative methods from the social sciences in order to advance our philosophical understanding of science in practice. We will regard the relationship between philosophical conceptualization and empirical data as an iterative dialogue between theory and data, which is guided by a particular ‘feeling with......Empirical insights are proven fruitful for the advancement of Philosophy of Science, but the integration of philosophical concepts and empirical data poses considerable methodological challenges. Debates in Integrated History and Philosophy of Science suggest that the advancement of philosophical...

  16. Receptions of Human Dimension in the Context of Anthropological Discourse of Humanistic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Voronkova 

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research is the perception of human dimension as the anthropological aspect of humanistic management, based on the interrelations between man, government, society. The paper describes the evolution of views on man in the context of anthropological foundations of humanistic management;it is noted that the development trends of the philosophical and anthropological knowledge of humanistic management are based on human perception in the projection of anthropological dimensions of man, which is fundamental in European philosophy. The paper analyzes the essence of human dimension as anthropological paradigm of humanistic management, in which man is not only economic, or political, but also the spiritual and cultural member of society; gives the analysis of human dimension as anthropological paradigm of European philosophy that investigates the anthropological foundations of economic, political and social spheres, interprets conditions of creating a humane society, in which the imperatives of a just society should be implemented. Characteristics and features, as well as the conditions for achieving human dimension as the anthropological foundation of European humanistic management are disclosed. The acquired knowledge can be useful for solving anthropological problems of humanistic management.

  17. Historic perspectives from anthropology. Reflections proposed to Transcultural Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach Viadas, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    History brings together meanings related to earlier periods, being aware of the past as a panorama to reread the present. Madeleine Leininger presented in 1970 an implicit and respectful message to the Nursing Profession when introducing Nursing and Anthropology. Two Worlds to Blend. Implicitly: Nursing you disregard culture. This article shows the absence of the history of anthropology and of nursing within Transcultural Nursing and it includes how education has influenced theoretic, methodological, and comparative approaches giving researchers the responsibility to decide their fundamentals. Berthoud (2001) has inspired the anthropological and historic perspectives of the author, thus universalism, relativism, and comparison are presented.

  18. The Centrality of Philosophical Anthropology to (a Future) Environmental Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gare, Arran

    2016-01-01

    While environmental ethics has successfully established itself in philosophy, as presently conceived it is still largely irrelevant to grappling the global ecological crisis because, as Alasdair MacIntyre has argued, ethical philosophy itself is in grave disorder. MacIntyre's historically oriented recovery of virtue ethics is defended, but it is argued that even MacIntyre was too constrained by received assumptions to overcome this disorder. As he himself realized, his ideas need to be integrated and defended through philosophical anthropology. However, it is suggested that current defenders of philosophical anthropology have not done it justice. To appreciate its importance it is necessary accept that we are cultural beings in which the core of culture is the conception of what are humans. This is presupposed not only in thought but in social practices and forms of life. This was understood by Aristotle, but modernity has been straightjacketed by the Seventeenth Century scientific revolution and Hobbes' philosophical anthropology, identifying knowledge and with techno-science and eliminating any place for questioning this conception of humans. The only conception of humanity that could successfully challenge and replace Hobbes' philosophical anthropology, it is argued, is Hegel's philosophical anthropology reformulated and developed on naturalistic foundations. This involves subordinating science to a reconceived humanities with a fundamentally different role accorded to ethics, placing it at the center of social life, politics and economics and at the centre of the struggle to transform culture and society to create an ecologically sustainable civilization.

  19. Notes towards an Anthropology of Political Revolutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    apparatus and ethnographic efforts towards revolutionary events. This article advances a series of reasons why anthropology can enrich and supplement existing political science and history traditions in the study of political revolutions. Anthropology can do so via key concepts developed by Victor Turner......While resistance and rebellion have remained core themes in anthropology at least since the 1960s, anthropologists have paid much less attention to the study of political revolutions as real historical events. Yet there are compelling real-world reasons why they should orient their analytical......: “liminality,” “social drama,” “communitas,” “frame,” and “play.” Turner's ritual approach gains further relevance when linked to another series of concepts developed by Marcel Mauss, Gabriel Tarde, Georg Simmel, and Gregory Bateson, such as “imitation,” “trickster,” “schismogenesis,” and “crowd behavior...

  20. If only Derrida missed that flight... About the assessment of the "academic achievements" of the so-called "American Anthropology" by Belgrade Structural-semiotic School of Folklore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Milenković

    2016-02-01

    Leach, Needham, Schneider and representatives of ethnoscience and cognitive anthropology had already adapted Levi-Strauss’s ideas about mind and science to ethnographic phenomenology. Transformation of Levi-Strauss’s analysis and limited success of its adaptation to the analysis of phenomena that usually concern anthropology happened simultaneously with the development of the critique of structuralism as a theory of culture in the American academic scene. This proves a theory that there is at least one "Atlantic split", analogue to that in philosophy, more than it makes a relevant context for measuring of the comparative ’academic achievements’ of the specific and unconnected disciplinary traditions. Indirectly, this paper explains that Levi-Strauss’s work has contradictory functions in the history of ideas in anthropology, serving as a starting point for ‘postmodern’ neo-romantic and positivistic critique of imperial realism (in USA, as well as ‘enlightened’, realistic and anti-tribal critique of ethnology as positivistic, nationalistic and national science (in Serbia. In this paper, special emphasis is placed on the local context in which structuralism as a founding discourse of anthropology is opposed to ethnology as national prose. As such it had completely different role in comparison to structuralism in a the history of American anthropology and b in the history of interdisciplinary/ postmodern Theory.

  1. Molecular anthropology in the genomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Jobling, Mark A; Rocha, Jorge; Novembre, John; Richards, Martin B; Mulligan, Connie; Batini, Chiara; Manni, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Molecular Anthropology is a relatively young field of research. In fact, less than 50 years have passed since the symposium "Classification and Human Evolution" (1962, Burg Wartenstein, Austria), where the term was formally introduced by Emil Zuckerkandl. In this time, Molecular Anthropology has developed both methodologically and theoretically and extended its applications, so covering key aspects of human evolution such as the reconstruction of the history of human populations and peopling processes, the characterization of DNA in extinct humans and the role of adaptive processes in shaping the genetic diversity of our species. In the current scientific panorama, molecular anthropologists have to face a double challenge. As members of the anthropological community, we are strongly committed to the integration of biological findings and other lines of evidence (e.g. linguistic and archaeological), while keeping in line with methodological innovations which are moving the approach from the genetic to the genomic level. In this framework, the meeting "DNA Polymorphisms in Human Populations: Molecular Anthropology in the Genomic Era" (Rome, December 3-5, 2009) offered an opportunity for discussion among scholars from different disciplines, while paying attention to the impact of recent methodological innovations. Here we present an overview of the meeting and discuss perspectives and prospects of Molecular Anthropology in the genomic era.

  2. [Existence, Absence and Power of Madness: A Critical Review of Michel Foucault's Writings on the History and Philosophy of Madness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Burkhart; Iwer, Lukas; Thoma, Samuel

    2017-03-01

    This article discusses Michel Foucault's main writings on "madness and psychiatry" from his early works up to the 1970s. On the one hand, we reconstruct the overall theoretical and methodological development of his positions over the course of the different periods in his oeuvre. On the other hand, we also take a closer look at Foucault's philosophical considerations regarding the subjects of his investigations. After an initial introduction of our conceptual approach, we draw on the most recent research on Foucault to show to what extent the phenomenological description of the topic at hand and the historical-critical perspective that are reflected in his early writings of 1954 (the Introduction to Binswanger's Dream and Existence and Mental Illness and Personality) laid the ground for his later work. Moving on to Foucault's work during the 1960s, we look at the core features and methodological bases of his 1961 classic Folie et déraison (History of Madness). His propositions regarding the "absence of madness" in modernity are conceptualized as an inherently contradictory attempt to liberate the topic under study from the common assumptions at that time. We then situate his 1973/74 lectures on Psychiatric Power in the context of his shift towards analyzing the dynamics of power and highlight the renewed shift of focus in his statements on the "productivity" of madness as an effect of power. Finally, we sum up our critique by taking into account the history of the reception of Foucault's writings and ask about their potential significance for the contemporary philosophy and history of psychiatry.

  3. Philosophy, Philosophy of Education, and Economic Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John

    2013-01-01

    In 2009 Harvey Siegel edited "The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Education." This article develops a theme, prompted by reflection on several essays in that volume, about the nature of philosophy of education and its relation to philosophy. Siegel's view that philosophy of education is a "branch" of philosophy is put to…

  4. Prof. dr. Vesna Vucinic Neškovic - A New President of the World Council of Anthropological Association (WCAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Velimirović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vesna Vučinić Nešković PhD, professor at Department of Ethnology and Anthropology,Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade, became in the year 2014 a new President of the World Council of Anthropological Association (WCAA

  5. History, Philosophy and Sociology of Science in Science Education: Results from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsingchi A.; Sshmidt, William H.

    Throughout the history of enhancing the public scientific literacy, researchers have postulated that since every citizen is expected to have informal opinions on the relationships among government, education, and issues of scientific research and development, it is imperative that appreciation of the past complexities of science and society and the nature of scientific knowledge be a part of the education of both scientists and non-scientists. HPSS inclusion has been found to be an effective way to reach the goal of enhancing science literacy for all citizens. Although reports stated that HPSS inclusion is not a new educational practice in other part of the world, nevertheless, no large scale study has ever been attempted to report the HPSS educational conditions around the world. This study utilizes the rich data collected by TIMSS to unveil the current conditions of HPSS in the science education of about forty TIMSS countries. Based on the analysis results, recommendations to science educators of the world are provided.

  6. Arquivo de Antropologia Física do Museu Nacional: fontes para a história da eugenia no Brasil The National Museum's physical anthropology archive: sources on the history of eugenics in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei Sebastião de Souza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta um conjunto de fontes documentais que integram o Arquivo de Antropologia Física, de responsabilidade do Setor de Antropologia Biológica do Museu Nacional/UFRJ. O arquivo contém importante documentação sobre o Primeiro Congresso Brasileiro de Eugenia, realizado em 1929, no Rio de Janeiro, em comemoração ao centenário da Academia Nacional de Medicina. Além de originais dos trabalhos apresentados no evento - alguns inéditos -, constam também nesse arquivo documentos reunidos pela secretaria do Congresso, como convocações para a sua realização, ficha dos inscritos, correspondências, recortes de jornais e revistas com artigos sobre eugenia, bem como moções, relatórios e atas finais, constituindo acervo fundamental para a compreensão da história da eugenia no Brasil.The article presents a set of documental sources that are part of the physical anthropology archive administered by the National Museum's biological anthropology sector (UFRJ. The archive holds important documentation on the first Brazilian congress of eugenics, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1929, in celebration of the National Academy of Medicine centennial. In addition to the originals of papers presented at the event (some unpublished, the archive also contains a series of documents compiled by the congress organizers, including announcements of the event, attendee registrations, correspondence, newspaper and magazine clippings of articles on eugenics, as well as motions, reports, and final minutes, all of which makes this collection invaluable in understanding the history of eugenics in Brazil.

  7. Towards an Architectural Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Architecture and anthropology have always had overlapping interests regarding issues such as spatial organisation, forms of human dwellings, and the interplay between social life and physical surroundings. Recent developments in both disciplines make it even more relevant to explore and evolve...... their overlaps and collaboration. However, there are also challenging differences to take into account regarding disciplinary traditions of, for example, communication, temporality, and normativity. This article explores the potentials and challenges of architectural anthropology as a distinct sub......-discipline and outlines its possible theoretical, methodological, and applied contributions. It is proposed that the ambition to understand people in a different way than they understand themselves is key in both disciplines, and that architectural anthropology is consequently not only relevant in studies of vernacular...

  8. Anthropology that counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Nana Katrine

    and is expected to deliver “practice oriented” research, preferably evidence based and ready to “apply” - or sometimes even in the case of action research supposedly “applied in the process”. The development opens the question of where the borders are between anthropology and consulting business, whether...... professional practices in schools, hospitals, and other welfare institutions that has to “apply research”, or could it also be the political levels, that were subject to “applications”? In any case, anthropology becomes extremely political, and has to find a position between different ideological knowledge...

  9. Neuroanthropology or simply Anthropology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roepstorff, Andreas; Frith, Chris D

    2012-01-01

    Neuroanthropology is a new kid on the academic block. It seems to offer a methodological and conceptual synthesis, which bridges current fault lines within anthropology, both as discipline and as departments. We are not convinced that it will deliver on these grounds. However, it has the potential...... to open up novel ways to do and think ‘experimental anthropology’, as a method, as an object of study and as a research aesthetic. This approach, we argue, is probably not neuroanthropological – it may simply be anthropological....

  10. "Publish or Perish" as citation metrics used to analyze scientific output in the humanities: International case studies in economics, geography, social sciences, philosophy, and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneyx, Audrey

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, the most commonly used source of bibliometric data is the Thomson ISI Web of Knowledge, in particular the (Social) Science Citation Index and the Journal Citation Reports, which provide the yearly Journal Impact Factors. This database used for the evaluation of researchers is not advantageous in the humanities, mainly because books, conference papers, and non-English journals, which are an important part of scientific activity, are not (well) covered. This paper presents the use of an alternative source of data, Google Scholar, and its benefits in calculating citation metrics in the humanities. Because of its broader range of data sources, the use of Google Scholar generally results in more comprehensive citation coverage in the humanities. This presentation compares and analyzes some international case studies with ISI Web of Knowledge and Google Scholar. The fields of economics, geography, social sciences, philosophy, and history are focused on to illustrate the differences of results between these two databases. To search for relevant publications in the Google Scholar database, the use of "Publish or Perish" and of CleanPoP, which the author developed to clean the results, are compared.

  11. Teaching the Anthropology of Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graburn, Nelson H. H.

    1980-01-01

    Explains the organization and objectives of a college level anthropology course devoted to various aspects of tourism. Topics discussed include course content, graduate students and contemporary research on tourism, and the role of tourism in the anthropology curriculum. (DB)

  12. From the history of the recognitions of the remains to the reconstruction of the face of Dante Alighieri by means of techniques of virtual reality and forensic anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Benazzi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The work consists of the reconstruction of the face of the great poet called Dante Alighieri through a multidisciplinary approach that matches traditional techniques (manual ones, usually used in forensic anthropology, with digital methodologies that take advantage of technologies born in manufacturer-military fields but that are more and more often applied to the field of the cultural heritage. Unable to get the original skull of Dante, the work started from the data and the elements collected by Fabio Frassetto and Giuseppe Sergi, two important anthropologists, respectively at the University of Bologna and Rome, in an investigation carried out in 1921, sixth century anniversary of his death, on the remains of the poet collected in Ravenna. Thanks to this, we have a very accurate description of Dante’s bones, including 297 metric data inherent to the whole skeleton, some photographs in the scale of the skull, the various norms and many other bones, as well as a model of the skull subsequently realized by Frassetto. According to these information, a geometric reconstruction of Dante Alighieri skull including the jaw was carried out through the employment and integration of the instruments and technologies of the virtual reality, and from this the relative physical model through fast prototype was realized. An important aspect of the work regards in a particular manner the methodology of 3D modelling proposed for the new reconstruction of the jaw (not found in the course of the 1921 recognition, starting from a reference model. The model of the skull prototype is then useful as the basis for the successive stage of facial reconstruction through the traditional techniques of forensic art.

  13. Philosophy and Sociology Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kravchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy and Social science school of MGIMO has received both nationwide and international recognition. The traditions of the school were laid by two highly respected scientists and science managers, George P. Frantsev, who was the rector MGIMO during the crucial period of its early years, and Alexander F. Shishkin, who was the founder and head of the Department of Philosophy. The former belonged to one of the best schools of antic history studies of the Petersburg (Leningrad University. Frantsev made a great contribution to the restoration of Russian social and political science after World War II. After graduating from MGIMO, he worked at the Foreign Ministry of USSR, and then served as a rector of the Academy of Social Sciences and chief-editor of the journal "Problems of Peace and Socialism" in Prague. He consistently supported MGIMO scientists and recommended them as participants for international congresses and conferences. Shishkin was born in Vologda, and studied in Petrograd during 1920s. His research interests included history of education and morality. He was the author of the first textbook on ethics in the postwar USSR. Other works Shishkin, including monograph "XX century and the moral values of humanity", played a in reorienting national philosophy from class interests to universal moral principles. During thirty years of his leadership of the Department of Philosophy, Shishkin managed to prepare several generations of researchers and university professors. Scientists educated by Shishkin students consider themselves to be his "scientific grandchildren". The majority of MGIMO post-graduate students followed the footsteps of Frantsev in their research, but they also were guided by Shishkin's ideas on morality in human relations. Philosophy and Social science school of MGIMO played an important role in the revival of Soviet social and political science. Soviet Social Science Association (SSSA, established in 1958, elected Frantsev

  14. ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE PHILOSOPHICAL WORKS OF RUSSIAN SPIRITUAL ACADEMIES’ TEACHERS OF THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ershova

    2014-01-01

    knowledge necessary to base their intellectual efforts on the personal experience of the struggle against the passions; therefore, they see the new basis of theology in asceticism. Professor S. V. Troitsky considers marriage as the key problem for religion and philosophy of the early 20th century. Professor S. S. Glagolev sees the descent of a man as the crossing point of religion and science. The author mentions that despite some heterogeneity of the proposed concepts, there is an obvious General anthropological orientation that had an impact on the educational process changes in theological academies (seminaries. Scientific novelty. The author systemizes and sums up anthropologic views of the most recognizable ecclesiastical academics in the early 20th century. Representation and analysis of anthropologic problematics in philosophical and religious papers of the Russian ecclesiastical education stage of development signify essential agreement among Russian and Western sophists; they had been discussing the same problem – a human being. The author points out that their discussions were not absolutely the same, but it gives the reason to regard the anthropology of the early 20th century as modern Philosophy; and this difference allows academic anthropology to avoid classic and non-classic types of philosophy. Practical significance. The research outcomes can be used for further understanding development of the all European searching process of the early 20th century. Received by the author of the study findings provide its scientific innovation. The results of this study can be used in assessing the role of theological academies in European cultural processes and culture of the Russian society of the early 20th century; research findings can enrich the content of the lectures on the History of Philosophy, Russian History, European History, Cultural Studies and other Humanities (non-science disciplines.

  15. Media Anthropology: A Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiselein, E. B.; Topper, Martin

    1976-01-01

    Media anthropology, a diverse field, has involved nearly all the major subdisciplines of anthropology and most of the major media in five different areas of interaction: the study of media, reaching the public, gathering data, teaching with media, and applied media anthropology. (NQ)

  16. [A anthropological critique of the ethic of care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Aliénor

    2011-03-01

    This article is a critique of the anthropology of vulnerability and of the needs on which the ethics of care are based. Firstly, this critique confronts the universal postulate of the anthropology of vulnerability to the history of the anthropology of illness. The latter manages to build up a specific disciplinary field in refusing the supervision of the medical sciences and the implicit principle to consider illness as an universal fact. The paper refers to the anthropology of nature and Philippe Descola's work in order to develop a comparative study of the systems of representations, including the naturalism of biomedicine as a model among others. It then presents the descriptions of the representations of vulnerability and the needs which are linked to the four main ontologies defined by anthropology of nature, animism, totemism, analogy and naturalism, and gives a new light to the anthropology on which the ethics of care rest. That anthropology of vulnerability could be an involuntary factor in order to make societies conform to an hygienic constraint. The ethics of care would therefore benefit greatly in freeing themselves from anthropology of vulnerability and focus on their original contextualism; in particular, they would benefit of the knowledge of the limits of naturalism at their basis. It will also allow them to provide a new tool for engineering social transformations in a time, the beginning of XXI century, when cultures happen to mix.

  17. Participant observation, anthropology methodology and design anthropology research inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Wendy; Buch Løgstrup, Louise

    2014-01-01

    of practice. They do so by combining participant observation, anthropology methodology and design anthropology research inquiry engaging with practice based explorations to understand if methods and methodologies, understood as being central to anthropological inquiry, can be taught to interaction design...... engineering students studying in an engineering faculty and engineers working in an energy company. They ask how do you generate anthropological capacities with interaction design engineering students engaged in engineering design processes and employees of an energy company setting out to reframe...... their relation with the private end user? What kind of ways can engaging within collaborative processes of designing offer opportunities for both designing and anthropological research inquiry simultaneously?...

  18. Forensic anthropology and mortuary archaeology in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankauskas, Rimantas

    2009-12-01

    Forensic anthropology (in Lithuania, as everywhere in Eastern Europe, traditionally considered as a narrower field--forensic osteology) has a long history, experience being gained both during exhumations of mass killings during the Second World War and the subsequent totalitarian regime, investigations of historical mass graves, identification of historical personalities and routine forensic work. Experts of this field (usually a branch of forensic medicine) routinely are solving "technical" questions of crime investigation, particularly identification of (usually dead) individuals. Practical implementation of the mission of forensic anthropology is not an easy task due to interdisciplinary character of the field. On one hand, physical anthropology has in its disposition numerous scientifically tested methods, however, their practical value in particular legal processes is limited. Reasons for these discrepancies can be related both to insufficient understanding of possibilities and limitations of forensic anthropology and archaeology by officials representing legal institutions that perform investigations, and sometimes too "academic" research, that is conducted at anthropological laboratories, when methods developed are not completely relevant to practical needs. Besides of answering to direct questions (number of individuals, sex, age, stature, population affinity, individual traits, evidence of violence), important humanitarian aspects--the individual's right for identity, the right of the relatives to know the fate of their beloved ones--should not be neglected. Practical use of other identification methods faces difficulties of their own (e.g., odontology--lack of regular dental registration system and compatible database). Two examples of forensic anthropological work of mass graves, even when the results were much influenced by the questions raised by investigators, can serve as an illustration of the above-mentioned issues.

  19. The Anthropology of Nepotism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Simon Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    Nepotism is widespread in organizations in developing countries but has so far received scant attention in cross-cultural management research. The paper seeks to contribute to the underdeveloped research topic suggesting an anthropological explanation of nepotism. It is argued that nepotism...

  20. Bayes in biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konigsberg, Lyle W; Frankenberg, Susan R

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we both contend and illustrate that biological anthropologists, particularly in the Americas, often think like Bayesians but act like frequentists when it comes to analyzing a wide variety of data. In other words, while our research goals and perspectives are rooted in probabilistic thinking and rest on prior knowledge, we often proceed to use statistical hypothesis tests and confidence interval methods unrelated (or tenuously related) to the research questions of interest. We advocate for applying Bayesian analyses to a number of different bioanthropological questions, especially since many of the programming and computational challenges to doing so have been overcome in the past two decades. To facilitate such applications, this article explains Bayesian principles and concepts, and provides concrete examples of Bayesian computer simulations and statistics that address questions relevant to biological anthropology, focusing particularly on bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology. It also simultaneously reviews the use of Bayesian methods and inference within the discipline to date. This article is intended to act as primer to Bayesian methods and inference in biological anthropology, explaining the relationships of various methods to likelihoods or probabilities and to classical statistical models. Our contention is not that traditional frequentist statistics should be rejected outright, but that there are many situations where biological anthropology is better served by taking a Bayesian approach. To this end it is hoped that the examples provided in this article will assist researchers in choosing from among the broad array of statistical methods currently available. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Going beyond representational anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    Going beyond representational anthropology: Re-presenting bodily, emotional and virtual practices in everyday life. Separated youngsters and families in Greenland Greenland is a huge island, with a total of four high-schools. Many youngsters (age 16-18) move far away from home in order to get...

  2. Anthropology and nuclear information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Nuffelen, D.

    1994-01-01

    In this article is sketched a paradigm which permits to envisage nuclear information as an anthropologic problem. The author modelizes public information by a general theory of exchange. For him the most urgent problem is to refounding the circulation between the different components of social system. 3 figs,. 2 tabs,. 12 refs

  3. Applying evolutionary anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Applying Evolutionary Anthropology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution. PMID:25684561

  5. Applied Anthropology in Broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiselein, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Three different applied media anthropology projects are described. These projects stem from the broadcasters' legal need to know about the community (community ascertainment), the broadcasters' need to know about the station audience (audience profile), and the broadcasters' desire to change a community (action projects). (Author)

  6. Ethical, psychosocial and anthropological

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sample of the women (n=15) who were HIV-positive were interviewed and completed questionnaires on their ... He subscribed to the philosophy of freedom of choice and ... single-dose regimens may be worth considering because a 47%.

  7. Committed, engaged e applied anthropology - Committed, engaged and applied anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luigi Palmisano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthropology has become very popular over the past decades. We have witnessed a proliferation of anthropologists and anthropologies but the theoretical debate and the epistemological reflection of the discipline have come to a full stop. It seems that anthropology has reduced itself to a tekhne among many others, characterizing itself – according to the author – as «Atlantic anthropology», a protocolar anthropology in thrall to the dominating ideologies of the financial markets. The renewed discussion on the concepts of development and cooperation – concepts which have deeply marked the past three decades of social sciences and the current crystallization of anthropology – that is of contemporary economy, represents an opportunity to revivify and deepen the impact of anthropological theory. It is an epistemological and political impact with remarkable social and scientific consequences which is mostly detectable in one of the declinations of anthropology, i.e. applied anthropology, when and if intended as committed anthropology that founds its methodology and its way of being on fieldwork: a continuous dialogue with “alterity” in which the only thinkable “alienity” is represented by the tekhne and by the financial markets which support and promulgate it as omnipresent and almighty verbum.

  8. Philosophy of Science and Philosophy of Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Jaap van Brakel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I assess the relation between philosophy of chemistry and (general) philosophy of science, focusing on those themes in the philosophy of chemistry that may bring about major revisions or extensions of current philosophy of science. Three themes can claim to make a unique contribution to philosophy of science: first, the variety of materials in the (natural and artificial) world; second, extending the world by making new stuff; and, third, specific features of the relations betwe...

  9. Anthropological film: a scientific and humanistic resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soren, E R

    1974-12-20

    More than a scientific endeavor but not strictly one of the humanities either, anthropology stands between these basic kinds of intellectual pursuit, bridging and contributing to both. Not limited to natural history, anthropology touches art, historical process, and human values, drawing from the materials and approaches of both science and humanities. This professional interest in a broad understanding of the human condition has led anthropologists to adapt and use modern cameras and films to inquire further into the variety of ways of life of mankind and to develop method and theory to prepare anthropological film as a permanent scientific and humanistic resource. Until quite recently the evolution of human culture and organization has diverged in the hitherto isolated regions of the world. Now this divergence has virtually ceased; we are witnessing an unprecedented period in human history-one where cultural divergence has turned to cultural convergence and where the varieties of independently evolved expressions of basic human potential are giving way to a single system of modern communications, transport, commerce, and manufacturing technology. Before the varieties of ways of life of the world disappear, they can be preserved in facsimile in anthropological films. As primary, undifferentiated visual information, these films facilitate that early step in the creation of new knowledge which is sometimes called humanistic and without which scientific application lies dormant, lacking an idea to test. In keeping with the two scholarly faces of anthropology, humanistic and scientific, anthropological films may provide material permitting both humanistic insight and the more controlled formulations of science. The lightweight filming equipment recently developed has been adapted by anthropologists as a tool of scholarly visual inquiry; methods of retrieving visual data from changing and vanishing ways of life have been developed; and new ways to reveal human beings

  10. Immanent philosophy of X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Robin Findlay

    2016-02-01

    In this paper I examine the relationship between historians, philosophers and sociologists of science, and indeed scientists themselves. I argue that (i) they co-habit a shared intellectual territory (science and its past); and (ii) they should be able to do so peacefully, and with mutual respect, even if they disagree radically about how to describe the methods and results of science. I then go on to explore some of the challenges to mutually respectful cohabitation between history, philosophy and sociology of science. I conclude by identifying a familiar kind of project in the philosophy of science which seeks to explore the worldview of a particular scientific discipline, and argue that it too has a right to explore the shared territory even though some historians and sociologists may find it methodologically suspect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Virtual reality and anthropology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recheis, Wolfgang; Weber, Gerhard W.; Schaefer, Katrin; Knapp, Rudolf; Seidler, Horst; Zur Nedden, Dieter

    1999-01-01

    Since the discovery of the Tyrolean Iceman in 1991 advanced imaging and post processing techniques were successfully applied in anthropology. Specific techniques include spiral computed tomography and 3-dimensional reconstructions including stereolithographic and fused deposition modeling of volume data sets. The Iceman's skull was the first to be reproduced using stereolithography, before this method was successfully applied in preoperative planning. With the advent of high-end graphics workstations and biomedical image processing software packages, 3-dimensional reconstructions were established as a routine tool for analyzing volume data sets. These techniques opened totally new insights in the field of physical anthropology. Computed tomography became the ideal research tool to access the internal structures of various precious fossils without damaging or even touching them. Many of the most precious specimens from the species Autralopithecus (1.8-3.5 Myears), Homo heidelbergensis (200-600 kyears) or Homo neanderthalensis (40-100 kyears) were scanned during the last 5 years. Often the fossils are filled with a stone matrix or other materials. During the postprocessing routines highly advanced algorithms were used to remove virtually these incrustations. Thus it was possible to visualize the morphological structures that lie beneath the matrix. Some specimens were partially destroyed, so the missing parts were reconstructed on computer screen in order to get estimations of the brain volume and endocranial morphology, both major fields of interest in physical anthropology. Moreover the computerized form of the data allows new descriptions of morphologic structures by the means of 'geometric morphometrics'. Some of the results may change aspects and interpretations in human evolution. The introduction of new imaging and post processing techniques created a new field of research: Virtual Anthropology

  12. The significance of Calvin' s anthropology for preaching on ethical themes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O.K. Lategan

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author highlights Calvin's anthropology. A main feature of this anthropology is his dualistic view on man. Calvin was very much influenced by the ancient Greek philosophy, which argued that man had two parts: a superior soul and an inferior body. The author argues that this perception is at odds with a Biblical image of man. According to the Bible no part of man is inferior or superior to any other part of his personhood. The article indicates that a Biblical perspective on anthropology will draw different conclusions in ethics compared to a dualistic perception of the nature of man. A correct appreciation of the anthropology of man is therefore needed to guide decisions in ethics, where the focus is constantly anthropological.

  13. 110 Theory and Practice in Philosophy and Education: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-01-28

    Jan 28, 2013 ... philosophy of education in its content and method is theoretical but must ... Philosophy, like psychology, sociology and history is an abstract, .... tested through the use and application of dialectics, logic and statistics among.

  14. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching. 

  15. CLASSICAL AND NON-CLASSICAL PHILOSOPHICAL ANTHROPOLOGY: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kozlova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The goals and values of human life, the search for the meaning of human existence contain the potential for a meaningful, progressive development of philosophical and anthropological ideas at any time in history. One of the tasks of philosophical anthropology is the formation of the image of man, the choice of ways to achieve the ideal, the methods of comprehension and resolution of universal problems. The increasing processes of differentiation in science led to the formation of different views on the nature of man, to the distinction between classical and non-classical philosophical anthropology. А comparative analysis of these trends is given in this article.Materials and methods: The dialectical method is preferred in the question of research methodology, the hermeneutic and phenomenological approaches are used.Results: The development of philosophical anthropology correlates with the challenges of modernity. By tracking the trends of human change, philosophical anthropology changes the approach to the consideration of its main subject of research. The whole array of disciplines that study man comes to new discoveries, new theories, and philosophical anthropology changes its view of the vision, challenging the principles of classical philosophical anthropology.Classical philosophical anthropology elevates the biological nature of man to a pedestal, non-classical philosophical anthropology actualizes questions of language, culture, thinking, understanding, actualizes the hermeneutic and phenomenological approaches. The desire to understand a person in classical philosophical anthropology is based on the desire to fully reveal the biological mechanisms in a person. The perspective of treating a person in nonclassical philosophical anthropology is polyformen: man as a text, as a dreaming self, as an eternal transition. Non-classical philosophical anthropology, goes from the idea of identity to the idea of variability, from

  16. Annual Review of Anthropology, Volume 6, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Bernard J., Ed.; And Others

    The book contains 20 essays which provide an overview of the state of the art in various areas of anthropology, including applied anthropology, archaeology, physical anthropology, ethnology, linguistics, and social anthropology. Most of the authors are professors and researchers from departments of anthropology or linguistics in United States…

  17. What is anthropological about The Perfect Human?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Line Hassall

    2015-01-01

    Jørgen Leth has classified The Perfect Human as an anthropological film. But is the film anthropological at all? This article explores Leth’s connections with anthropology and finds that he is more inspired by anthropological framing than he is by anthropological research methods....

  18. A Role for Philosophy of Education in Intercultural Research: A Reexamination of the Relativism-Absolutism Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Walter

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses the author's attempt to understand some aspects of Japanese society and his reflections on the role that philosophy of education, anthropology, and other disciplines can play in grappling with issues of intercultural understanding. (IAH)

  19. Historical Trends in Graduate Research and Training of Diplomates of the American Board of Forensic Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethard, Jonathan D

    2017-01-01

    The history of forensic anthropology has been documented by numerous scholars. These contributions have described the work of early pioneers in the field and have described important milestones, such as the founding of the Physical Anthropology Section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) in 1972 and the American Board of Forensic Anthropology (ABFA) in 1977. This paper contributes to the growing literature on the history of forensic anthropology by documenting the academic training of all individuals who have been granted diplomate status by the ABFA (n = 115). Doctoral dissertation titles were queried to discern broad patterns of research foci. A total of 39 doctoral granting institutions have trained diplomates and 77.3% of board-certified forensic anthropologists wrote dissertations involving skeletal biology, bioarchaeology, or forensic anthropology. Board-certified forensic anthropologists are a broadly trained group of professionals with far-reaching anthropological interests and expertise. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. The anthropological demography of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Hutter

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a collection of related research studies on the anthropological demography of Europe. Anthropological demography is a specialty within demography that uses anthropological theory and methods to provide a better understanding of demographic phenomena in current and past populations. Its genesis and ongoing growth lies at the intersection of demography and socio-cultural anthropology and with their efforts to understand population processes: mainly fertility, migration, and mortality. Both disciplines share a common research subject, namely human populations, and they focus on mutually complementary aspects. The authors of this paper focus on the differences between the disciplines of anthropology and demography, the emergence of anthropological demography and its theoretical, methodological, and empirical aspects. In addition, they critically summarize the contributions that were presented in the first workshop of the Working Group on Anthropological Demography of Europe of the European Association for Population Studies, held in Rostock in Fall 2005 and reflect on how these papers add to the further development of anthropological demography in Europe, i.e. elaborating the epistemology of anthropological demography; applying additional theoretical perspectives to better understand demographic behaviour in Europe ; illustrating the way in which culture plays a role in case studies on European demographic behaviour; and emphasizing the need for a holistic approach to data collection and the added value of triangulating quantitative and qualitative analyses.

  1. CONTEMPORARY AFRICAN PHILOSOPHY, IDENTITY AND THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mycl

    histories of African philosophy taking full consideration of Ancient. Egyptian philosophy ... philosophers there were thinkers who made deep philosophical reflections. ... for his conviction that independent critical sages existed in Africa who were .... against the African cannot but leave a strong negative impact on his psyche.

  2. Anthropology of sexual exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Velibor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors observe sexual exploitation from an anthropological perspective. They analyze the rational, ethical, emotional and mythological dimensions of human sexuality. Consequently, after setting the phenomenon in a social and historical context, sexual exploitation is closely observed in the contemporary age. Based on thoughts of relevant thinkers, they make the conclusion that the elimination of sexual exploitation is not an utterly legal issue, but political and economical issues as well. Namely, legal norms are not sufficient to overcome sexual exploitation, but, political and economical relationships in contemporary societies, which will be based on sincere equal opportunities must be established.

  3. THE DEMAND FOR A NEW CONCEPT OF ANTHROPOLOGY IN THE EARLY MODERN AGE: THE DOCTRINE OF HUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Malivskyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the investigation is to outline the main points of Hume’s interpretation of the basic anthropological project of the era based on radical cultural transformations of the early modern age; to represent a modern vision of Hume's anthropology as a response to the demand of the era and necessity to complete its basic project. Methodology. The research was based on phenomenological and hermeneutic approaches. Originality. Contemporary understanding of the position of anthropological project in Hume's philosophy is regarded as unsatisfactory by the author. Development of the basic project as anthropological is rooted in scientific revolution and needs to be continued and completed. Contemporary prevalence of deanthropogical versions of Hume's philosophy is the result of underestimated significance of the concept of nature in the broad sense. According to the philosopher's texts, heuristic potential of Hume's position is emphasized by the author. The modern version of the basic project in the early modern age is criticized and demands significant changes to become anthropological. Findings. Modern perception of Hume’s philosophy as an anthropological project is unsatisfactory in terms of historical and philosophical science and needs detailed analysis. In order to understand the conditions of anthropological project significance, it is advisable to focus on: a scientific revolution and the necessity to complete it; b determine the role of the concept of nature in its broad sense. Nowadays the way of Hume's rethinking of the basic project of modern philosophy as insufficiently anthropological is quite heuristic. Empiricism, dogmatism, superstition and skepticism are the manifestations of the latter. For Hume, the era was as an incomplete anthropological project and its legacy as the most complete form of explication. Today the interest in the phenomenon of a human provides a reasonable basis to define that modern period is

  4. Early Chinese History: The Hundred Schools Period. China's Golden Age of Philosophy. A Unit of Study for Grades 9-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Lehn; Dube, Clayton

    In this unit students examine the four most influential Chinese philosophical traditions developed during the Zhou period (roughly 6th-3rd centuries B.C.E.). The four philosophies students study include: (1) Confucianism; (2) Mohism; (3) Daoism (Taoism); and (4) Legalism. In three lessons, students compare the ideas of these schools and explore…

  5. Anthropology and demography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an outline of the relationship between anthropology and demography, sometimes depicted as "long, tortured, often ambivalent, and sometimes passionate." Although early anthropologists (primarily British social anthropologists routinely made use of demographic data, especially in their studies of kinship, the two disciplines gradually drifted away from each other. The re-approachment took place from 1960s, and the last fifteen years saw more intensive cooperation and more insights about possible mutual benefits that could be achieved through combining of methodologies and revision of some theoretical assumptions, primarily through anthropological demography. As summarized by Laura Bernardi and Inge Hutter, "Anthropological demography is a specialty within demography that uses anthropological theory and methods to provide a better understanding of demographic phenomena in current and past populations. Its genesis and ongoing growth lies at the intersection of demography and socio-cultural anthropology and with their efforts to understand population processes: mainly fertility, migration, and mortality. Both disciplines share a common research subject, namely human populations, and they focus on mutually complementary aspects" (2007: 541. In the first part of the paper, the author presents some general considerations, like the one that "demography is one of the best understood and predictable parts of human behavior, even if demographers still find themselves unable to predict accurately when parameters will change in interesting ways, such as the ′the baby boom′ or the shift to later childbeanng in the 1970s and 1980s North America" (Howell, 1986: 219. Nancy Howell also noted the importance of demographic anthropology, because, in her words "if we knew, reliably, the birth and death probability schedules of particular populations, we would know a great deal about their size, age composition, growth rate. And with just a

  6. Introduction – an amphibious anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagné, Karine; Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2016-01-01

    between land and water. This constitutive relationality is the basis of what we call an amphibious anthropology. By foregrounding temporality, movement, and ways of knowing, we aim to grasp the experience of places at the confluence of land and water and to probe into the specificities of life...... in such landscapes or into various amphibious anthropologies....

  7. Beauty and health: anthropological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.

    2008-01-01

    This essay, written as a 'teaser' for an up-coming symposium, reflects on how human beauty can be understood from an anthropological and medical anthropological perspective. First, it considers how aesthetic and healing rationales can conflict or merge in a variety of medical technologies and health

  8. Ethnocentric ethics in anthropological research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, S.

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the application of ethnocentric ethical rules in anthropological research. The ethnocentrism lies in the fact that North American and European definitions of right and wrong are imposed on anthropological research everywhere in the world. Apparently - and ironically - some

  9. PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION AS AN ACCIDENTAL TRICKLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Terryl Cyber

    lecturer at of Philosophy of Education and History of Education at CUEA and. Spanish lecturer at .... linguistic analysis as their foundation, and yet we thought all along that ...... refer to the world of production and marketing goods and services.

  10. Educational Non-Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The final lines of Deleuze and Guattari's What is Philosophy? call for a non-philosophy to balance and act as a counterweight to the task of philosophy that had been described by them in terms of concept creation. In a footnote, Deleuze and Guattari mention François Laruelle's project of non-philosophy, but dispute its efficacy in terms of the…

  11. Philosophy Rediscovered: Exploring the Connections between Teaching Philosophies, Educational Philosophies, and Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Joy E.; Leigh, Jennifer S. A.; Dean, Kathy Lund

    2009-01-01

    Teaching philosophy statements reflect our personal values, connect us to those with shared values in the larger teaching community, and inform our classroom practices. In this article, we explore the often-overlooked foundations of teaching philosophies, specifically philosophy and historical educational philosophies. We review three elements of…

  12. The Birth of Philosophy and the Contempt for Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    The history of philosophy of food is an unhappy one. It seems that only by denying the relevance of food for a happy life, philosophy could establish itself as a serious branch of knowledge: this is what I call the philosopher's incoherence. First with the Greeks, philosophy want to get rid of the

  13. Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Filosofia Theoretica Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions, a publication of the Calabar School of Philosophy (CSP) is dedicated to the publication of astute academic research in African Philosophy, Culture, History, Art, Literature, Science, Education and Religions, etc. The articles submitted to Filosofia ...

  14. Nonsecular Medical Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmarsh, Ian; Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2016-01-01

    A nonsecular medical anthropology insists on the ways medicine and science have constituted 'the secular' itself through the 'secular self'-how medical knowing has been used to craft the secular political subject. As James Boon noted, too often in social theory, "religion gets safely tucked away-restricted theoretically to 'meaning' rather than power" (1998:245). The authors of the six articles in this special issue 'untuck' religiosity from within the norms and numbers of medicine itself, and examine how 'secular' medicine has relied on religious traditions to produce political secularity. These articles demonstrate that 'secular' medicine relies on religious others whose exclusion bespeaks latent religious commitments of citizenship in the modern political realm of health.

  15. Research Directions in Anthropological Pragmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr P. Chruszczewski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthropological linguistics, and by default also anthropological pragmatics, grew as sub-disciplines of both anthropology and linguistics. “The intellectual basis for anthropological linguistics in the United States derives from Boas ([1911] 1966, whose interests and concerns led to the anthropological view of language, which is that language is an integral part of culture (…” (Klein 2006: 296. Pragmatics enters the scene, telling the researcher how to analyse the aforementioned phenomena. Therefore, anthropological pragmatics would be responsible for equipping the researcher with tools, for it is language and language-oriented mechanisms of communication, the study of which provides a much clearer insight into cultural phenomena which often direct the use of language representing culture from both the synchronic and the diachronic point of view. “[O]ne approaches language from an anthropological view, which includes the uses of language and the uses of silence, as well as the cultural problems involved in silence and speech” (ibid..

  16. The anthropology of storytelling and the storytelling of anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Maggio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available These research notes concern what anthropologists currently do, and can do, with stories. Although pleas for narrative have become increasingly widespread in contemporary anthropology, an anthropologist of storytelling cannot but recognise that all anthropological production is to a certain extent a story. A question ensues: what kind of story is an ethnography? These research notes propose an answer by providing, first, a working definition of story tailored to this specific purpose. Secondly, they propound a brief illustration of the three main thematic interests of the anthropology of storytelling: the relational dynamics between the people involved in the storytelling situation; the content of the story, and the storytelling techniques. Thirdly, these aspects are examined in order to claim that an anthropology of storytelling among contemporary anthropologists is a necessary condition to respond concretely to the above-mentioned plea for narrative.

  17. Anthropology and the Theory of Drama

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    Radmila Nastić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an attempt at a systematic account of the history of influences between anthropology and the theory of drama in the twentieth century. The starting point is the definition of drama as a mimesis of the movement towards self-knowledge as rebirth. It is described as a variation of the original spring dance in honour of the regeneration of life represented in the figure of the twice-born Dionysus. Anthropologists whose contribution to the theory of drama has been acknowledged are Jane Harrison, Gilbert Murray, Arnold Van Genep, Joseph Campbell and Victor Turner.

  18. The anthropology of storytelling and the storytelling of anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Maggio

    2014-01-01

    These research notes concern what anthropologists currently do, and can do, with stories. Although pleas for narrative have become increasingly widespread in contemporary anthropology, an anthropologist of storytelling cannot but recognise that all anthropological production is to a certain extent a story. A question ensues: what kind of story is an ethnography? These research notes propose an answer by providing, first, a working definition of story tailored to this specific purpose. Secondl...

  19. Epistemological and Anthropological Thoughts About Neurophilosophy: An Initial Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia París Albert

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE At the dawn of the twenty-first century, neurophilosophy appears as a branch of neurosciences. The aim of this article is to review critically some of the epistemological and anthropological debates which neurophilosophy is putting on question again. In this sense the philosophical research conducted by the UNESCO Chair of Philosophy for Peace will be used as the main thread of the analysis. To accomplish this critical review, the article has been organized into two parts: the first is of epistemological nature, and the second has an anthropological perspective. This analysis will lead us to question the significance of the contributions of neurophilosophy to a better understanding of the human being.

  20. Anthropology in the context that produced it

    OpenAIRE

    Terence Rajivan Edward

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates a definition of anthropology at home formulated by Marilyn Strathern in her book contribution ‘The Limits of Auto-Anthropology’. According to the definition, anthropology at home is anthropology carried out in the social context that produced this discipline. I argue that this is not an adequate definition of anthropology at home.

  1. Anthropology in the context that produced it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Rajivan Edward

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates a definition of anthropology at home formulated by Marilyn Strathern in her book contribution ‘The Limits of Auto-Anthropology’. According to the definition, anthropology at home is anthropology carried out in the social context that produced this discipline. I argue that this is not an adequate definition of anthropology at home.

  2. Theory, Research, and Application in Educational Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Elizabeth M.

    1985-01-01

    Examines the historical development of educational anthropology in the context of the growth of professionalism and specialization of anthropology as a whole. Discusses several factors: 1954 Stanford Conference; organization of the Council on Anthropology and Education; changing economic support for anthropology; and modifications in…

  3. Second nature: on Gramsci's anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizza, Giovanni

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to convey the relevance of a Gramscian perspective in medical anthropology, stressing his anti-essentialist way of reasoning about 'nature'. The author claims that Gramsci's understandings of the bodily life of the state can deconstruct naturalized realities in ways that are helpful for the ethnographer engaged in the political anthropology of embodiment and the management of health, persons, and life itself. The paper is presented in three parts. An attempt is made, first, to frame the relevance of Gramsci for Italian medical anthropology and second, to explore the components of the Gramscian concept of 'second nature' within the perspective that he himself calls 'an anthropology'. Third, an example is given of how the proposed Gramscian insights could inform an ethnography on the biopolitical aspects for the early detection of Alzheimer's disease, which is currently being carried out in Perugia.

  4. Masses of Formal Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masses of Formal Philosophy is an outgrowth of Formal Philosophy. That book gathered the responses of some of the most prominent formal philosophers to five relatively open and broad questions initiating a discussion of metaphilosophical themes and problems surrounding the use of formal methods i...... in philosophy. Including contributions from a wide range of philosophers, Masses of Formal Philosophy contains important new responses to the original five questions.......Masses of Formal Philosophy is an outgrowth of Formal Philosophy. That book gathered the responses of some of the most prominent formal philosophers to five relatively open and broad questions initiating a discussion of metaphilosophical themes and problems surrounding the use of formal methods...

  5. Design Anthropology in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Kjærsgaard, Mette Gislev

    2015-01-01

    This focus section explores the opportunities of design anthropology in participatory design as an approach to research and design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in Participatory design to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways...... opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to addressing societal challenges and change, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in participatory research and design that extend beyond the empirical....

  6. Design Anthropology in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Gislev Kjærsgaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    In this workshop we explore the opportunities of ethnography and design anthropology in Participatory Design (PD) as an approach to design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in PD to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways...... opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to societal challenges, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in design that extends beyond the empirical....

  7. Organizational Culture In Perspective Anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Safriadi, Supriadi Hamdat, Munsi Lampe, Musran Munizu

    2016-01-01

    - This article describes the anthropological perspective in the study of the organization, particularly related to the culture of the organization. Organizational culture is a reflection of the organization itself. Anthropology as a science that covers the study of culture takes an important role in the development of cultural studies organization. An ethnographic approach that looks at the phenomenon based on what the owner or the perpetrator of culture will provide a positive contributio...

  8. Responsibility and the physical body. Paul Ricoeur on analytical philosophy of language, cognitive science, and the task of phenomenological hermeneutics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dierckxsens, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2017), s. 573-593 ISSN 0031-8256 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : analytical philosophy * body * cognitive science * hermeneutics * phenomenology * philosophy of language * Ricoeur Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology

  9. An introduction to the philosophy of science

    CERN Document Server

    Staley, Kent W

    2014-01-01

    This book guides readers by gradual steps through the central concepts and debates in the philosophy of science. Using concrete examples from the history of science, Kent W. Staley shows how seemingly abstract philosophical issues are relevant to important aspects of scientific practice. Structured in two parts, the book first tackles the central concepts of the philosophy of science, such as the problem of induction, falsificationism, and underdetermination, and important figures and movements, such as the logical empiricists, Thomas Kuhn, and Paul Feyerabend. The second part turns to contemporary debates in the philosophy of science, such as scientific realism, explanation, the role of values in science, the different views of scientific inference, and probability. This broad yet detailed overview will give readers a strong grounding whilst also providing opportunities for further exploration. It will be of particular interest to students of philosophy, the philosophy of science, and science. Read more at h...

  10. Philosophy, Neuroscience and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John

    2015-01-01

    This short note takes two quotations from Snooks' recent editorial on neuroeducation and teases out some further details on the philosophy of neuroscience and neurophilosophy along with consideration of the implications of both for philosophy of education.

  11. Teaching Philosophy Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the rationale for my teaching philosophy. Using a personal perspective, I explain my objectives, mission, and vision in writing my philosophy of teaching statements. This article also creates a road map and reference points for educators who want to write their own teaching philosophy statements to help them make informed…

  12. Philosophy of Education Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    In this review essay J.J. Chambliss assesses the current state of the field of philosophy of education through analysis of four recent edited compilations: Randall Curren's "A Companion to Philosophy of Education"; Nigel Blake, Paul Smeyers, Richard Smith, and Paul Standish's "The Blackwell Guide to Philosophy of Education"; Wilfred Carr's "The…

  13. Philosophy for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Rob; Onstenk, Jeroen; Veugelers, Wiel

    2016-01-01

    Philosophy for Democracy is a research project that aims to examine whether and how Philosophy with Children contributes to the development of democratic skills and attitudes. In the Netherlands, as in almost all Western countries, Philosophy with Children is linked with the movement for citizenship education. This article reports the research on…

  14. Antropologia urbana: interdisciplinaridade e fronteiras do conhecimento Urban anthropology: interdisciplinarity and the frontiers of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Velho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este texto lida com a complexidade e o desenvolvimento da Antropologia Urbana. É também um relato da carreira do autor e suas relações com os diferentes campos do conhecimento, não apenas de Ciências Sociais, num sentido mais restrito, como sociologia e ciência política, mas também literatura, filosofia, história e artes em geral. O texto enfatiza a importância do cruzamento de limites e fronteiras com o objetivo de enriquecer linhas de pesquisa e pensamento. Entre outros grupos, cita a Escola Sociológica de Chicago e a Antropologia Social Britânica como exemplos importantes de trabalho interdisciplinar. Chama a atenção para a complexidade e a heterogeneidade da sociedade moderno-contemporânea e para a importância de mobilizar diferentes tradições de trabalho e pesquisa, especialmente no que toca os estudos urbanos desenvolvidos nas grandes cidades e metrópoles.This text deals with the complexity and development of Urban Anthropology. It is also an account of the author's career and his relations with different fields of knowledge, not only Social Sciences like Sociology and Political Science, but also Literature, Philosophy, History and the Arts in general. The text emphasizes the importance of crossing borders and frontiers as a way of enriching different lines of research and thought. Among other groups he cites the Chicago School of Sociology and British Social Anthropology as important examples of interdisciplinary work. The author draws attention to the complexity and heterogeneity of modern contemporary society and to the importance of mobilizing different traditions of work and research, especially when dealing with urban studies centred on the big cities and metropolises.

  15. Political Anthropology and Anthropology of Politics: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Dhakal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this short review, I have tried to sketch an overview of historical development of political anthropology and its recent trends. I was enthused to prepare this review article as there does not exist any of such simplified introduction of one of the prominent sub-fields in cultural anthropology for the Nepalis readers, in particular. I believe this particular sub-field has to offer much to understand and explain the recent trends and current turmoil of the political transition in the country. Political anthropologists than any other could better explain how the politics is socially and culturally embedded and intertwined, therefore, separation of the two – politics from social and cultural processes – is not only impossible but methodologically wrong, too. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v5i0.6365 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 5, 2011: 217-34

  16. Why all anthropology should be called techno-anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This chapter argues that if we follow a pragmatist understanding of humans and technologies, there is no reason to keep these phenomena strongly separated. The suggestion that all anthropology should be called techno-anthropology might provoke some readers, but it is first and foremost intended...... of such efforts, namely Sherry Turkle’s recent work on care robots and other new technologies that mediate human relationships. I move on to suggest that with Latour’s notion of delegation, such mediation appears less alien. In order to develop further the consequences of Latour’s techno-anthropologist moves, I...

  17. Ontology and anthropology of interanimality: Merleau-Ponty from Tim ingold's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Ramírez Barreto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores Tim Ingold’s anthropological theory following his references to Merleau-Ponty and the concept of interanimality/interagentivity. It poses some ideas of Ingold’s “poetics of dwelling”, which he highlights from ethnographies of hunter-gatherer peoples, and how these ideas are linked to an ontological consideration which does not dissociate body and person, body and mind, nature and culture, animality and humanity. The paper reviews animal literature in Merleau-Ponty’s philosophy, and Ingold’s critique of “Anthropology of the senses”. It also gives critical clues for the ethical and political implications of this ontology.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL PHILOSOPHY AND ECOLOGICAL CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalimat M. Alilova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the research is to study environmental problems related to the decline of culture, the importance of philosophy in overcoming private and personal interests as well as the unilateral approach of man in his relationship to nature. The study shows how philosophy can participate in the formation of ecological culture, a new ecological consciousness in man, while ecological culture is called upon to resist technocratic stereotypes and the course of history was aimed at preventing the biosphere from becoming deserted. Discussion. On the basis of the analysis of literary sources, we used the method of socio-cultural and socio-natural approaches based on the possibility of philosophy to introduce a new life into culture, new ecological values and new ecological principles. To solve these problems, environmental philosophy develops new theories. Representatives of different cultures, ethnic groups, nations, religions must learn to coexist with each other. We consider philosophy as a means of teaching rapprochement between peoples and creating new opportunities for understanding and improving the environmental situation. Cultural development makes it possible to assess the level of a man’s knowledge of nature, himself and the world around him. Ecological culture is a way of connecting man with nature on the basis of deeper knowledge and understanding. Philosophy says that you cannot move away from nature and be lauded over it since this will destroy culture. Rational doctrines tend to put a person above other living beings so the synthesis of philosophy with culture can have a positive ecological meaning. Conclusion. The findings obtained can be recommended for practical use in schools, starting from primary school, as well as in secondary special educational institutions and universities. It is necessary to work on the motivation and values of people, develop a common and ecological culture. Only a cultured person can move from

  19. The Carl Popper's Philosophy and Some Implications for Hometown study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑朗翁姆; 姚佳

    2017-01-01

    Karl Popper explained the scientific knowledge heads from the problem, proposed criteria of demarcation of scientific knowledge is falsifiability and reveals the scientific knowledge growth from problem to problem. Hometown study is one of the characteristics of anthropology in China, its particularity brings certain advantages and disadvantages. In this study, first, try to explain of the two, then try to get some revelations from Popper's philosophy to hometown study.

  20. Anthropological Studies of Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Žikić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the questions raised at the symposium "Our World, Other Worlds. Anthropology, Science Fiction and Cultural Identity", held in Belgrade in December 2009, is how anthropology is to study contemporary art forms: how research issues are to be defined and approached; how research is to be organized in a specific semantic area, which cannot always and with absolute certainty be said not to be an anthropological construction; whether the subject of research can be said to have the shared nature of cultural communication; whether the anthropologist is to interpret the author/artist’s intention, or that which is produced as a result of that intention, etc. The aim of this paper is to suggest some answers to these questions, from the point of view of a researcher focused on cultural communication.

  1. IMPLICIT PHILOSOPHY OF LOVE IN THE ANTIQUITY: AN ATTEMPT TO RETHINK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turenko Vitali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It proved the position according to which, in the study of a particular “words of love” in Ancient Greek or Latin Dictionaries, it must indicate in what period, what form of cultural heritage (literature, geography, history, philosophy, etc. his used. This approach, in opinion of author, be able to give a more objective and complete picture of a particular understanding of the diversity of one or the other “word of love”. It was revealed that in the study of the philosophical understanding of love, amorousness, friendship is must not limited to the classical works of Plato (Symposium, Phaedrus, Lysis and Aristotle (ethical works of Stagirite in the context of these phenomenons. This methodological position will allow for the understanding of the evolution of the views of both the Titans of Greek philosophy, as well as avoiding any “prejudices” that the matter can be found in the pages of some of the scientific research. It is noted that among the philosophical heritage of ancient civilization on the phenomenon of love is not enough studied of fragments of the early Greek philosophers (notably anthropological aspect of love, the Sophists and the Socratic schools, as well as treatises of representatives schools of the Hellenistic period.

  2. The Partnership of Public Health and Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenc, Marjetka

    2016-06-01

    Public health focuses on health of the population and it is concerned with threats to health based on population health analysis. Anthropology covers most aspects that concern human beings. Both sciences converge on community and this fact represents a foundation for the partnership between public health and anthropology. Biological/medical anthropology is one of the highly developed fi elds of anthropology and the most important for public health.

  3. Business History as Cultural History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    The paper engages with the larger question of how cultural heritage becomes taken for granted and offers a complimentary view to the anthropological ʻCopenhagen School’ of business history, one that draws attention to the way corporate wealth directly and indirectly influences the culture available...

  4. Philosophy of physics quantum theory

    CERN Document Server

    Maudlin, Tim

    2019-01-01

    In this book, Tim Maudlin, one of the world’s leading philosophers of physics, offers a sophisticated, original introduction to the philosophy of quantum mechanics. The briefest, clearest, and most refined account of his influential approach to the subject, the book will be invaluable to all students of philosophy and physics. Quantum mechanics holds a unique place in the history of physics. It has produced the most accurate predictions of any scientific theory, but, more astonishing, there has never been any agreement about what the theory implies about physical reality. Maudlin argues that the very term “quantum theory” is a misnomer. A proper physical theory should clearly describe what is there and what it does—yet standard textbooks present quantum mechanics as a predictive recipe in search of a physical theory. In contrast, Maudlin explores three proper theories that recover the quantum predictions: the indeterministic wavefunction collapse theory of Ghirardi, Rimini, and Weber; the deterministic ...

  5. International Journal of Modern Anthropology: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, the persistence of some classic questionable considerations even in some recent publications would have somewhat restrained the progression of the anthropological science. Modern anthropology comes to head all anthropological specialties and to permit the confrontation of knowledge, which will stimulate ...

  6. Utopian Education and Anti-Utopian Anthropology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastephanou, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the connection of education, utopia and anthropology, aiming to tease out some educational implications of anti-utopian anthropological essentialism and to show why these should be staved off. It will be shown how an anthropology that tarnishes human nature operates and how it affects educational intervention in the shaping…

  7. Does a Course on the History and Philosophy of Chemistry Have Any Effect on Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Perceptions? The Case of Chemistry and the Chemist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendur, G.; Polat, M.; Kazanci, C.

    2017-01-01

    The creative comparisons prospective chemistry teachers make about "chemistry" and the "chemist" may reflect how they perceive these concepts. In this sense, it seems important to determine which creative comparisons prospective teachers make with respect to these and how these can change after the history of chemistry is…

  8. International Journal of Modern Anthropology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Some recent rigorous studies in anthropological research begin to provide new conclusions against some classic questionable considerations and /or show increasing tendency to do some syntheses of multidisciplinary data. The revelation of these two events marks the birth of a modern ...

  9. Anthropological reading of science fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the prevalence of the analysis of science fiction literature and science fiction in other segments of popular culture in Serbian anthropology. This overview is preceded by a consideration of science fiction as a genre while keeping in mind the fluidity of the genre and the interweaving of subgenres as well as the transformations which science fiction is undergoing in certain media (books, films, TV shows and video games. In Serbian anthropology research on science fiction is more prevalent than the study of other phenomena, as the number of anthropologists whose work is represented in the paper is fairly large compared to the size of the anthropological community as a whole. The causes for this can primarily be found in a collective focus on questions such as: who are we and who the others are, what the basis of creating and building identity is or what the role of context in recognition of species is. Anthropology gives answers to these questions through the interpretation, explanation and understanding of the world around us, while science fiction does it through the literary considerations of these same questions.

  10. The Intradisciplinary Affinities of Postmodern Anthropology Part I. The Consequences of Merging Ethics, Politics and Methodology in 1960s Critical Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Milenković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers an alternative interpretation of the genesis of the literary turn in anthropology, as an "interim solution" in the context of the ideological incorrectness of radical anti-colonial theories in a liberal democracy. Critical anthropology in the 1960s and 1970s drew considerable inspiration from reformational currents in neo-Marxist sociology and social philosophy, arousing ideological opposition among the numerous participants of methodological debates. This opposition would prove crucial for their subsequent modest development. This activistic ideological ballast actually slowed down the development of potent externalist analyses of the social determination of anthropology and academe in general, leaving room for studies of ethnographic writing. Anticipating, in terms of themes and trends, "nonmethodological" solutions to methodological problems, it had a direct effect on the substitution of poetics and contextual reflection for methodological regulation. Thus, paradoxically, extremely externalistically oriented analyses, which attempted to merge ethical, political and methodological debates, reduced the methodological focus of the disciplinary community from issues of research objectivity and the reliability of ethnographic records to issues concerning style and the writing of anthropology. In this context, debates on relativism, realism, representation, authority and reflexivity, typical of 1980s postmodern anthropology, have become a socially acceptable alternative to the critical and neo-Marxist anthropology of Afro-Americans, feminists or of the otherwise oppressed/studied when they in turn become nativistic anthropologists. The "literary turn" in postmodern anthropology is generally interpreted as an externalist critique of traditional ethnographic realism, offering an ethical and political interpretation of reflexivity as per se more correct than traditional positivist ethnography.

  11. Whither Anthropology without Nation-state? Interdisciplinarity, World Anthropologies and Commoditization of Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Pobłocki, Kacper

    2009-01-01

    Debates on `native anthropology', `anthropologies of the South', `peripheral anthropologies' and so forth have usually focused on colonialism as the main culprit of asymmetric relations between anthropological knowledges. By bringing the recent dispute between Western and `native' anthropologists of post-socialism into the `world anthropologies' debate, I seek to highlight those aspects of current epistemic inequalities that are not postcolonial in nature, but result from global commoditizati...

  12. Philosophy as Estrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe, Sverre

    interested in philosophy as a privileged object of investigation and investment ‐ an aim in itself. There are, however, moments and situations in my life where an interest in philosophy has appeared or is necessarily forced upon me; these are times when philosophy appears as a seemingly unavoidable...... and essential questioning of fundamentals,– as a ‘basic’ need. This being said, it can be annoying as well as cumbersome. Philosophy as a ‘basic’ need makes itself felt as an estrangement that has always already taken place. It takes the form of a “Schritt zurück” in which one pulls away from, problematizes...

  13. New perspectives in forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkmaat, Dennis C; Cabo, Luis L; Ousley, Stephen D; Symes, Steven A

    2008-01-01

    A critical review of the conceptual and practical evolution of forensic anthropology during the last two decades serves to identify two key external factors and four tightly inter-related internal methodological advances that have significantly affected the discipline. These key developments have not only altered the current practice of forensic anthropology, but also its goals, objectives, scope, and definition. The development of DNA analysis techniques served to undermine the classic role of forensic anthropology as a field almost exclusively focused on victim identification. The introduction of the Daubert criteria in the courtroom presentation of scientific testimony accompanied the development of new human comparative samples and tools for data analysis and sharing, resulting in a vastly enhanced role for quantitative methods in human skeletal analysis. Additionally, new questions asked of forensic anthropologists, beyond identity, required sound scientific bases and expanded the scope of the field. This environment favored the incipient development of the interrelated fields of forensic taphonomy, forensic archaeology, and forensic trauma analysis, fields concerned with the reconstruction of events surrounding death. Far from representing the mere addition of new methodological techniques, these disciplines (especially, forensic taphonomy) provide forensic anthropology with a new conceptual framework, which is broader, deeper, and more solidly entrenched in the natural sciences. It is argued that this new framework represents a true paradigm shift, as it modifies not only the way in which classic forensic anthropological questions are answered, but also the goals and tasks of forensic anthropologists, and their perception of what can be considered a legitimate question or problem to be answered within the field.

  14. The anatomic location of the soul from the heart, through the brain, to the whole body, and beyond: a journey through Western history, science, and philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Giuseppe; Wood, Mark D; Merlo, Lucia; Anastasi, Giuseppe Pio; Tomasello, Francesco; Germanò, Antonino

    2009-10-01

    To describe representative Western philosophical, theological, and scientific ideas regarding the nature and location of the soul from the Egyptians to the contemporary period; and to determine the principal themes that have structured the history of the development of the concept of the soul and the implications of the concept of the soul for medical theory and practice. We surveyed the ancient Egyptian, Greek, and Roman periods, the early, Medieval, and late Christian eras, as well as the Renaissance, Enlightenment, and Modern periods to determine the most salient ideas regarding the nature and location of the soul. In the history of Western theological, philosophical, and scientific/medical thought, there exist 2 dominant and, in many respects, incompatible concepts of the soul: one that understands the soul to be spiritual and immortal, and another that understands the soul to be material and mortal. In both cases, the soul has been described as being located in a specific organ or anatomic structure or as pan-corporeal, pervading the entire body, and, in some instances, trans-human and even pan-cosmological. Moreover, efforts to discern the nature and location of the soul have, throughout Western history, stimulated physiological exploration as well as theoretical understanding of human anatomy. The search for the soul has, in other words, led to a deepening of our scientific knowledge regarding the physiological and, in particular, cardiovascular and neurological nature of human beings. In addition, in virtually every period, the concept of the soul has shaped how societies thought about, evaluated, and understood the moral legitimacy of scientific and medical procedures: from performing abortions and autopsies to engaging in stem cell research and genetic engineering. Our work enriches our shared understanding of the soul by describing some of the key formulations regarding the nature and location of the soul by philosophers, theologians, and physicians. In

  15. Crisis and Environmental Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolsing

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental ethics began in the 1960s with a growing awareness of coming environmental problems such as pollution and the projected shortage of resources caused by an acceleration in human’s technically based exploitation of nature. In addition to becoming an issue in public debate and in politics since the 1970s, the environmental crisis, which can be laid at the door of industrialization, calls for a more basic consideration of man’s attitude to nature. In this paper I give a short presentation of the concept of crisis in a selection of the principal classical critical philosophies of history and suggest that they all connect crisis to the oppression of man’s inner nature. I go on to sketch the idea of environmental crisis as an oppression of outer nature (the natural environment suggesting that a new, more nuanced organic concept of nature is needed as a condition for ascribing value to life on earth as a whole, which is what most non-anthropocentric ethical theories to some extent do.

  16. Physics Needs Philosophy. Philosophy Needs Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2018-05-01

    Contrary to claims about the irrelevance of philosophy for science, I argue that philosophy has had, and still has, far more influence on physics than is commonly assumed. I maintain that the current anti-philosophical ideology has had damaging effects on the fertility of science. I also suggest that recent important empirical results, such as the detection of the Higgs particle and gravitational waves, and the failure to detect supersymmetry where many expected to find it, question the validity of certain philosophical assumptions common among theoretical physicists, inviting us to engage in a clearer philosophical reflection on scientific method.

  17. Depression, osteoporosis, serotonin and cell membrane viscosity between biology and philosophical anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Cocchi, Massimo; Tonello, Lucio; Gabrielli, Fabio; Pregnolato, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Due to the relationship between biology and culture, we believe that depression, understood as a cultural and existential phenomenon, has clear markers in molecular biology. We begin from an existential analysis of depression constituting the human condition and then shift to analysis of biological data confirming, according to our judgment, its original (ontological) structure. In this way philosophy is involved at the anthropological level, in as much as it detects the underlying m...

  18. John White on Philosophy of Education and Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    John White offers a provocative characterization of philosophy of education. In this brief reaction, I evaluate the characterization and urge the maintenance of a strong connection between philosophy of education and philosophy.

  19. Truth in Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor R. Machan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Can there be truth in philosophy? A problem: it is philosophy, its various schools, that advances what counts as true versus false, how to go about making the distinction. This is what I wish to focus on here and see if some coherent, sensible position could be reached on the topic.

  20. Philosophy of Data: Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furner, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Philosophy of data should not be dismissed as a cluster of scholastic puzzles whose solutions are of limited practical value. On the contrary, philosophy of data should be recognized as constituting the core of a field of data studies that is informed by, but far from equivalent to, statistics, computer science, and library and information studies.

  1. Philosophy with Guts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Western philosophy, from Plato on, has had the tendency to separate feeling and thought, affect and cognition. This article argues that a strong philosophy (metaphorically, with "guts") utilizes both in its work. In fact, a "complete act of thought" also will include action. Feeling motivates thought, which formulates ideas,…

  2. Why Philosophy Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The motives of philosophers tend to be personal. Philosophy has mattered politically as part of continuing political debates. Its effects on politics, religion and the development of the sciences have been evident. Philosophy has been supposed to have special educational value, from its contents or from the benefits of its methods and arguments.…

  3. Conversations in African Philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    Conversational philosophy is articulated by Jonathan O. Chimakonam as the new wave of philosophical practice both in “place” and in “space”. This journal adopts and promotes this approach to philosophizing for African philosophy. Readers are encouraged to submit their conversational piece (maximum of 2000 words) ...

  4. Trends in African philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    In the contention of Oladipo (2006), the debate on the idea of. African philosophy which has been divided into trends or schools, dates back to the 1960's and 70's, which constitute the modern epoch of African philosophy, when some African thinkers began to question the perspective that traditional African beliefs and.

  5. Counseling and Transcendental Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donceel, Joseph

    1971-01-01

    An acquaintance with the different philosophies of human nature is an invaluable asset for counseling. The author presents a modern Christian concept of man with emphasis on contributions of Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas and elements from modern philosophy. Its two main concerns are man's spirit and man's knowledge and will. (Author/CG)

  6. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  7. VOLTAIRE’S PHILOSOPHY: HUMAN NATURE AND INTERPRETATION OF RELIGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Zimaryova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to determine and reconsider Voltaire’s ideas concerning religion and human nature. In order to achieve this purpose it is necessary to complete the following tasks: to analyse academic literature on Voltaire’s interpretation of the phenomenon of religion; to expose Voltaire’s basic ideas about human nature; to substantiate the importance of anthropological approach to the phenomenon of religion with the ideas of Voltaire’s philosophical works. Methodology. The achievements of anthropocentric philosophical thought of the XIX century possess great potential in the process of constructive comprehension and theoretical reconstruction of the anthropological intention that accompanies the process of philosophising. The research extensively applies hermeneutical method for interpreting Voltaire’s philosophy. Scientific novelty. In academic literature on Voltaire’s works we have ascertained the basic anthropological component of his philosophy and reconsider Voltaire’s ideas about religion as something that is rooted in human nature. Conclusions. In academic literature the interpretation of the phenomenon of religion in Voltaire’s heritage is a rather controversial one. At the one hand, Voltaire criticizes religion for its superstitions and fanaticism. On the other hand, he recognises the existence of God. In our opinion, the phenomenon of religion should be examined in the context of human nature and basic problems related to it such as the problem of soul and the problem of free will. The anthropological approach to the phenomenon of religion allows to avoid the extremity of atheistic and metaphysical approaches and to enable its anthropological interpretation.

  8. Why did Kant reject physiological explanations in his anthropology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    One of Kant's central tenets concerning the human sciences is the claim that one need not, and should not, use a physiological vocabulary if one studies human cognitions, feelings, desires, and actions from the point of view of his 'pragmatic' anthropology. The claim is well known, but the arguments Kant advances for it have not been closely discussed. I argue against misguided interpretations of the claim, and I present his actual reasons in favor of it. Contemporary critics of a 'physiological anthropology' reject physiological explanations of mental states as more or less epistemologically dubious. Kant does not favor such ignorance claims--and this is for the good, since none of these claims was sufficiently justified at that time. Instead, he develops an original irrelevance thesis concerning the empirical knowledge of the physiological basis of the mind. His arguments for this claim derive from his original and, up to now, little understood criticism of a certain conception of pragmatic history, related to his anthropological insights concerning our ability to create new rules of action, the social dynamics of human action, and the relative inconstancy of human nature. The irrelevance thesis also changes his views of the goal and methodology of anthropology. Kant thereby argues for a distinctive approach in quest for a general 'science of man'.

  9. 1. Editorial: Philosophy and Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Albertone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After “Erasmian Science” and “Gastronomy and Revolution”, the Journal of Interdisciplinary History of Ideas has again issued a Call for Paper, for a special issue dedicated to the historical relations of Philosophy and Geography. It will be guest-edited by Ernesto Sferrazza Papa and Simone Mammola, and appear end 2017. In the Editorial we present the contents of the Call, that can also be found, together with practical information for submission, in the News of the JIHI.

  10. Human evolution across the disciplines: spotlights on American anthropology and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    When thinking about human evolution across the disciplines, terms such as "anthropological genetics" or "genetic anthropology" that brazenly defy the existence of the two-cultures divide seem to promise important insights. They refer to the application of genetic techniques to the past of humankind and human groups, a fact emphasized most strongly by the expression "genetic history." Such daring linguistic alliances have been forming since 1962 when the name "molecular anthropology" was introduced in the American context. This was an opportune moment for biochemists and physical chemists to enter anthropology, because in the U.S. a rapprochement between the fields was aimed for. However, a belief in and a discourse of a hierarchy of disciplines structured along the lines of methodology and epistemic object worked as an obstacle to the achievement of transdisciplinarity. Especially the DNA-sequence, initially approached through the proxy of the protein, was regarded as the most informative historical document due to its distance from the environment and its amenability to rigorous scientific techniques. These notions had a particular power at a time when anthropology was confronted with its legacy of race science. For some, the perceived objectivity of the new molecular approaches and the neutrality of molecules would render anthropology more natural-scientific and by inference less culturally contaminated. Others, to the contrary, believed that this legacy demanded a holistic and ethically reflexive anthropology. The different perceptions thus went along with different understandings of such crucial terms as "anthropology" and "history." In the paper, I revisit interfaces between different anthropological fields in the U.S. context and suggest that the beliefs in a hierarchy of approaches as well as in a nature free from culture embodied in the DNA-sequence has worked as one of the primary obstacles to an integration of these fields.

  11. Evidentiary standards for forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M

    2009-11-01

    As issues of professional standards and error rates continue to be addressed in the courts, forensic anthropologists should be proactive by developing and adhering to professional standards of best practice. There has been recent increased awareness and interest in critically assessing some of the techniques used by forensic anthropologists, but issues such as validation, error rates, and professional standards have seldom been addressed. Here we explore the legal impetus for this trend and identify areas where we can improve regarding these issues. We also discuss the recent formation of a Scientific Working Group for Forensic Anthropology (SWGANTH), which was created with the purposes of encouraging discourse among anthropologists and developing and disseminating consensus guidelines for the practice of forensic anthropology. We believe it is possible and advisable for anthropologists to seek and espouse research and methodological techniques that meet higher standards to ensure quality and consistency in our field.

  12. Anthropological aspects of health psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Shuvalov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a theoretical study carried out in the framework of the research project «Determinants of psychological health of the modern person». The issue of psychological health is considered in the context of the anthropological crisis that affects public body and causes a decrease in synergetic social life. On the level of specific manifestations, it is associated with damage to the spiritual and moral sphere, distortion of personal way of life and interpersonal relationships, which leads to a general decline in viability. A growing number of people, whose subjective state can be described as mentally fit, but personally sick is identified. Secondary symptoms of such conditions are depression, aggression, dependent behaviour. However, their essential characteristics are not captured by the existing social psychological, psychological pedagogical and medical psychological concepts and also do not fit the typical description of psychological emotional and/or behavioural disorders. The author adheres to the hypothesis that these states have specific spiritual and psychological conditions and symptoms that deserve scientific analysis and philosophical reflection. The leitmotif of the paper is the issue of mental health in its scientific and philosophical sense. Representation of health from the standpoint of modern humanitarian knowledge and traditional spiritual culture are generalized. The theory of general psychological health is developed. The main approaches to the problem of psychological health are presented. Comparative analysis of the humanistic and anthropological models of mental health is shown. Correspondence between the anthropological conditions and criteria of mental health concepts of the modern national educational ideal is presented. Educational activity is described as anthropological practice aimed at acquiring by a child the wide range of values as a person. As such, it is the most conducive to

  13. The predicament of heroic anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Doja , Albert

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Paradoxically at first sight, Derrida's grammatological project joined the same idea of thought-decentring that was already morally and epistemologically central to Lévi-Strauss. But recognizing that Lévi-Strauss's anthropology anticipated thinking on deconstruction and on decentration would contribute to grant it with the benefit of a gesture that Derrida would like to be restricted to his own approach. In this paper I argue that if we are to understand the modern con...

  14. Some anthropological aspects of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Jelena B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness about the role of anthropological perspective places each anthropological research within the context of globalization, pointing at the need for making the difference between concepts of globalization as the description and as the political project. This differentiation represents a frame of the research of globalization phenomena in order to understand their influence on concrete people in a concrete situation. The importance of the role of concepts in ubiquitous transformation of human lives is also confirmed in the paper. This is the way the influence of one culture unfolds through the dominant concepts, the culture which symbolically and normatively imposes itself as 'global' in spite of the fact that it is 'local' not only (and/or not any more in territorial sense but in its materialistic approach to the values. Hence, horizontal communication (globally available via the internet could serve to the communication of values as crucial spiritual points. It could contribute not only to the widening of cultural circles, but to the evolution of consciousness about the generalization of values up to the universal. This requires transcending of particular interests, which prevent effective conceptualization of the global anthropological meaning.

  15. New Technologies—Old Anthropologies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi Checketts

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Eighty years ago, Nicholas Berdyaev cautioned that new technological problems needed to be addressed with a new philosophical anthropology. Today, the transhumanist goal of mind uploading is perceived by many theologians and philosophers to be dangerous due to its violation of the human person. I contrast transhumanist “patternist” views of the person with Brent Waters’s Augustinian view of the technological pilgrim, Celia Deane-Drummond’s evolutionary Thomistic view of humanity, and Francis Fukuyama’s insistence on the inviolability of “Factor X”. These latter three thinkers all disagree with the patternist position, but their views are also discordant with each other. This disagreement constitutes a challenge for people of faith confronting transhumanism—which view is to be taken right? I contend that Science, Technology and Society (STS studies can enrich our understanding of the debates by highlighting the transmutation of philosophical view into scientific theory and the intermingled nature of our forms of knowledge. Furthermore, I contend that STS helps Christians understand the evolution of their own anthropologies and suggests some prospects for future theological anthropology.

  16. Elusive Rivalry? Conceptions of the Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John

    2010-01-01

    What is analytical philosophy of education (APE)? And what has been its place in the history of the subject over the past 50 years? In a recent essay in "Ethics and Education" (Vol. 2, No. 2, October 2007) on 'Rival conceptions of the philosophy of education', Paul Standish described a number of features of APE. Relying on both historical and…

  17. Philosophy as Pharmakon : Towards the hermeneutics of healing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of philosophy gives us an insight into what good life portends. Plato, Aristotle and other ancient classics developed guiding principles on the ethical basis for behavioural cognition and existential logic. Hence, the interest of philosophy in other disciplines such as medicine and psychology is well known.

  18. O ensino e a pesquisa em história da educação brasileira na cadeira de Filosofia e História da Educação (1933-1962 - The teaching and the research on the history of the brazilian education in the subjects of Philosophy and History of Education (1933-1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bontempi Júnior

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo apresenta a trajetória da cadeira de Filosofia e História da Educação, desde a sua constituição em 1933 até 1962, quando, na Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras da Universidade de São Paulo, o professor Laerte Ramos de Carvalho deu início às primeiras pesquisas acadêmicas em história da educação. Explora fatores "internos" e "externos" da história das disciplinas, tais como os perfis institucionais, as prescrições curriculares, as disputas ocorridas no mundo acadêmico e as relações entre as "disciplinas vizinhas", a fim de tecer uma rede de personagens e acontecimentos que confira à disciplina a sua "identidade histórica". Palavras-chave: história das disciplinas, filosofia e história da educação, Roldão Lopes de Barros, Laerte Ramos de Carvalho.   THE TEACHING AND THE RESEARCH ON THE HISTORY OF THE BRAZILIAN EDUCATION IN THE SUBJECTS OF PHILOSOPHY AND HISTORY OF EDUACTION (1933-1962 Abstract This article presents the trajectory of the Cathedra of Philosophy and History of Education, since its constitution in 1933, until 1962, when, at the College of Philosophy, Sciences and Literature of the University of São Paulo, the professor Laerte Ramos de Carvalho commenced the very first academic researches on history of education. The article explores both "internal" and "external" factors in the history of disciplines, such as institutional profiles, prescriptions of the curriculum, struggles occurred in the academic world, and relationships between "neighbouring disciplines", in order to weave a net, made by characters and facts, that gives to the discipline its "historical identity". Keywords: history of disciplines, Philosophy and History of Education, Roldão Lopes de Barros, Laerte Ramos de Carvalho.   LA ENSEÑANZA Y LA INVESTIGACIÓN EN HISTORIA DE LA EDUCACIÓN BRASILEÑA EN LA CÁTEDRA DE FILOSOFÍA Y HISTORIA DE LA EDUCACIÓN (1933- 1962 Resumen Este artículo presenta el camino de la c

  19. PHILOSOPHICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF AESTETICS IN POST-CLASSICAL EPOCH

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    Dariia M. Skalska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To understand the dynamics of aesthetic conception as representative of the main directions of philosophical anthropology, identifying their contribution to the development of aesthetics and expand its research field. The condition of the study of the problem is the evolutionary process of adequateness, authenticity and alternativeness in determination of both the phenomenon of "aesthetic" and its role in philosophical and anthropological  convention. Methodology. Both the measurements of aesthetic as a unique, peculiar, specific and aesthetic dimensions of philosophical anthropology /systems of philisophy/ have in sight  the necessity to solve the same problem - the identification of new methodological basis. Theoretical results. The experience of theoretical researches of contemporary domestic and foreign philosophical and aesthetic schools іs generalized. The content of phenomenological and existential breakthrough in  modern age  of aesthetics іs revealed. The essence of "anthropological turn" in European philosophy of 20th century  as philosophical paradigm of the modern age and its impact on development of aesthetic theories of post-classical period was investigated. Conclusion. Philosophical and anthropological studies have amounted the "methodological synthesis" that appeared as the theoretical principles of the understanding of aesthetics due to its polystylistics.

  20. Medical anthropology and the physician assistant profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lisa R

    2015-01-01

    Medical anthropology is a subfield of anthropology that investigates how culture influences people's ideas and behaviors regarding health and illness. Medical anthropology contributes to the understanding of how and why health systems operate the way they do, how different people understand and interact with these systems and cultural practices, and what assets people use and challenges they may encounter when constructing perceptions of their own health conditions. The goal of this article is to highlight the methodological tools and analytical insights that medical anthropology offers to the study of physician assistants (PAs). The article discusses the field of medical anthropology; the advantages of ethnographic and qualitative research; and how medical anthropology can explain how PAs fit into improved health delivery services by exploring three studies of PAs by medical anthropologists.

  1. Opening Philosophy to the World: Derrida and Education in Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burik, Steven

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Steven Burik discusses Jacques Derrida's position with regard to the place of education in philosophy within the university system, and then relates these thoughts to comparative philosophy. Philosophers find themselves constantly having to defend philosophy and the importance of teaching philosophy against pressure from the powers…

  2. Techno-Anthropological Sensibilities in Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    What kind of knowledges, skills and competences may be required by Techno-Anthropology engaging with health informatics? If we understand Techno-Anthropology to mean conducting anthropological analyses of the interwoven and mutually shaping relationship between organizing, technologies and actors...... professions and organizations; and skilled in generating analyses and proposing new solutions. Also, people with insight into how action, technologies and organizing are interwoven and redistribute competences, responsibilities and risks are invaluable: Look at from afar, technologies seem to cause...

  3. Philosophy of Money

    CERN Document Server

    Simmel, Georg; Frisby, David; Bottomore, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In The Philosophy of Money, Georg Simmel provides us with a now classic discussion of the social, psychological and philosophical aspects of the money economy, full of brilliant insights into the forms that social relationships take.

  4. Educational philosophy in China:a centennial retrospect and prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Youquan; CHI Yanjie

    2007-01-01

    Educational philosophy in China during the 20th century started with the introduction of John Dewey's educational philosophy thoughts,followed by the dissemination of Marxism thoughts of education,and initially established the framework of educational philosophy as an academic discipline.After the foundation of the People's Republic of China in 1949,especially during the 1980s,under the guidance of Marxism,the discipline of educational philosophy has been maturing.While exploring China's history of educational philosophy,this article also covers contemporary Western development.Future trends of this discipline include extending specific fields of research,increasing internationalization of research,enhancing the functions of both critique and guiding ideals of educational philosophy.

  5. The Humanist Bias in Western Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the bias in Western philosophy is tied to its humanist ideology that pictures itself as central to the natural history of humanity and is historically linked to the emergence of humanism as pedagogy.

  6. The future of philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, J R

    1999-12-29

    There is no sharp dividing line between science and philosophy, but philosophical problems tend to have three special features. First, they tend to concern large frameworks rather than specific questions within the framework. Second, they are questions for which there is no generally accepted method of solution. And third they tend to involve conceptual issues. For these reasons a philosophical problem such as the nature of life can become a scientific problem if it is put into a shape where it admits of scientific resolution. Philosophy in the 20th century was characterized by a concern with logic and language, which is markedly different from the concerns of earlier centuries of philosophy. However, it shared with the European philosophical tradition since the 17th century an excessive concern with issues in the theory of knowledge and with scepticism. As the century ends, we can see that scepticism no longer occupies centre stage, and this enables us to have a more constructive approach to philosophical problems than was possible for earlier generations. This situation is somewhat analogous to the shift from the sceptical concerns of Socrates and Plato to the constructive philosophical enterprise of Aristotle. With that in mind, we can discuss the prospects for the following six philosophical areas: (1) the traditional mind-body problem; (ii) the philosophy of mind and cognitive science; (iii) the philosophy of language; (iv) the philosophy of society; (v) ethics and practical reasons; (vi) the philosophy of science. The general theme of these investigations, I believe, is that the appraisal of the true significance of issues in the philosophy of knowledge enables us to have a more constructive account of various other philosophical problems than has typically been possible for the past three centuries.

  7. The future of philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, J R

    1999-01-01

    There is no sharp dividing line between science and philosophy, but philosophical problems tend to have three special features. First, they tend to concern large frameworks rather than specific questions within the framework. Second, they are questions for which there is no generally accepted method of solution. And third they tend to involve conceptual issues. For these reasons a philosophical problem such as the nature of life can become a scientific problem if it is put into a shape where it admits of scientific resolution. Philosophy in the 20th century was characterized by a concern with logic and language, which is markedly different from the concerns of earlier centuries of philosophy. However, it shared with the European philosophical tradition since the 17th century an excessive concern with issues in the theory of knowledge and with scepticism. As the century ends, we can see that scepticism no longer occupies centre stage, and this enables us to have a more constructive approach to philosophical problems than was possible for earlier generations. This situation is somewhat analogous to the shift from the sceptical concerns of Socrates and Plato to the constructive philosophical enterprise of Aristotle. With that in mind, we can discuss the prospects for the following six philosophical areas: (1) the traditional mind-body problem; (ii) the philosophy of mind and cognitive science; (iii) the philosophy of language; (iv) the philosophy of society; (v) ethics and practical reasons; (vi) the philosophy of science. The general theme of these investigations, I believe, is that the appraisal of the true significance of issues in the philosophy of knowledge enables us to have a more constructive account of various other philosophical problems than has typically been possible for the past three centuries. PMID:10670025

  8. Jazz-Philosophy Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Tartaglia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I describe and provide a justification for the fusion of jazz music and philosophy which I have developed; the justification is provided from the perspectives of both jazz and philosophy. I discuss two of my compositions, based on philosophical ideas presented by Schopenhauer and Derek Parfit respectively; links to sound files are provided. The justification emerging from this discussion is that philosophy produces ‘non-argumentative effects’ which provide suitable material for artistic expression and exploration. These effects – which are often emotional – are under-recognised in philosophy, but they do important philosophical work in demarcating the kinds of truths we want to discover, and in sustaining our search for them. Jazz-Philosophy Fusion can help to increase metaphilosophical self-consciousness about these effects, while also helping to counteract any undue persuasive force they may achieve. Jazz is a particularly suitable medium because it has independently developed a concern with philosophical ideas; because of strong parallels between jazz and philosophy which explain their mutual openness to fusions, and because improvisation very effectively facilitates the direct audience engagement essential to inducing these effects.

  9. The Concept "System of Philosophy":The Case of Jacob Brucker's Historiography of Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Catana, Leo

    2005-01-01

    In this article I shall examine and discuss the concept ‘system of philosophy’ as a methodological tool in the history of philosophy. I shall do so in two moves. First I shall analyze the historical origin of the concept in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Thereafter I shall undertake a discussion of its methodological weaknesses — a discussion, which is not only relevant to the writing of history of philosophy in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but also to the writing of h...

  10. Philosophy of the social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Kimelyev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy of social science is a branch of philosophy where relations between philosophy and social sciences are traced and investigated. The main functions of philosophy of social science are: to work out social ontology, methodology and metatheory of social science.

  11. ANTHROPOLOGICAL BASIS OF HUMAN DIMENSION IN SPORT AS THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A PERSON'S GENERIC ESSENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ye. Bilogur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to make the theoretical framework of a sportsman dimension concept as the realization of a person's generic essence that is a basis of a new scientific direction formation of sports anthropology and philosophy of sport. Methodology. The understanding of human nature problems, human existence in the form of sports activity, the potential of anthropological picture of the sporting world. In this case sport is considered as a culture which gives a chance to define it as an activity which involves positive results aimed at the realization of human essence as well as destructive ones that are aimed at the destruction of a sportsman personality. Scientific novelty is in the research of insufficiently studied theme of sportsman-dimension from the anthropological point of view. Practical value of the work is in elaborating the theme in context of scientific research performance at the department of theory and physical training methods and sports and the disciplines of Melitopol state pedagogical university named after Bogdan Khmelnitskiy. Philosophy of sport is a new subject and a new scientific direction, in the context of which the problems of sport, development of sporting values and outlook of the youth, their socialization in the sports activity are explored. Conclusions the introduction of the anthropological basis of sportsman-dimension essence in sport promotes the possibility to show entire human nature, its creativity in sporting life, therefore it leads an individual to a self-formation. The anthropological basis of the sportsman-dimension is aimed at the realization of a person's generic essence for increasing the human potential, physical health of young generation due to physical training and sports.

  12. Philosophy vs the common sense

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Chernyshov

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the antinomy of philosophy and the common sense. Philosophy emerges as a way of specifically human knowledge, which purposes analytics of the reality of subjective experience. The study reveals that in order to alienate philosophy from the common sense it was essential to revise the understanding of wisdom. The new, philosophical interpretation of wisdom – offered by Pythagoras – has laid the foundation of any future philosophy. Thus, philosophy emerges, alienating itself...

  13. The Unreasonable Destructiveness of Political Correctness in Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Doria

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available I submit that epistemic progress in key areas of contemporary academic philosophy has been compromised by politically correct (“PC” ideology. First, guided by an evolutionary account of ideology, results from social and cognitive psychology and formal philosophical methods, I expose evidence for political bias in contemporary Western academia and sketch a formalization for the contents of beliefs from the PC worldview taken to be of core importance, the theory of social oppression and the thesis of anthropological mental egalitarianism. Then, aided by discussions from contemporary epistemology on epistemic values, I model the problem of epistemic appraisal using the frameworks of multi-objective optimization theory and multi-criteria decision analysis and apply it to politically correct philosophy. I conclude that philosophy guided by politically correct values is bound to produce constructs that are less truth-conducive and that spurious values which are ideologically motivated should be abandoned. Objections to my framework stemming from contextual empiricism, the feminine voice in ethics and political philosophy are considered. I conclude by prescribing the epistemic value of epistemic adequacy, the contextual value of political diversity and the moral virtue of moral courage to reverse unwarranted trends in academic philosophy due to PC ideology.

  14. Engaged anthropology and corporate volunteering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Blahová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present engaged anthropology and its methodological tools with a specific perspective of the research field and the position of the researcher with regard to research subjects. The study focuses on corporate volunteering as one of the forms of collaboration between the non-profit and the private sectors seeking solutions to social problems and community development. Volunteering projects contribute to the interlinking of the knowledge, skills, experience and resources of corporate employees and the representatives of the non-profit or the public sector. It is a part of the philanthropic strategy of companies which are willing to present themselves as entities responsible towards the environment in which they run their business, and towards their employees, partners and customers. Engaged anthropology can bring, through its methodological tools, a new perspective of corporate volunteering. Community-based participatory research on the process of knowledge creation includes all partners on an equal basis and identifies their unique contribution to problem solution and community development.

  15. Reflections on the Future of Anthropology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Richard

    2009-01-01

    In his plenary session entitled Five Questions on the Future, Harvard anthropologist Arthur Kleinman capitalized on the 2009 Society for Medical Anthropology Conference’s theme of Medical Anthropology at the Intersections to speculate on the future of the discipline. PMID:20027285

  16. Doing and living medical anthropology: personal reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, R.; van der Geest, S.

    2010-01-01

    The essays in this volume consider what medical anthropology means in the academy and outside of it. Written by a diverse group of anthropologists, some of whom also work as doctors, public health workers, and NGO staff members, the essays share personal insights on how they used anthropology to

  17. Between Design and Anthropology: Improvising Embodied Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halse, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    ). It is only against this background that the complex anthropological dimension of Design Culture can be understood, extending far beyond the horizon of a design science concept of design, industry-near design thinking and marketing, or a product-oriented concept of manufacture. «Design Anthropology...

  18. Applied Anthropology and the Grade Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Nancie L.

    1973-01-01

    Three kinds of training experience for teaching Man: A Course of Study'' were tested: (1) a 3-week intensive anthropology workshop; (2) a 1-week intensive workshop in prepared materials use; and (3) a workshop in both anthropology and the use of prepared materials. (NQ)

  19. [The anatomy of a reduced skull model--visualisation of Leonardo da Vinci's anthropology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahner, E

    2008-04-02

    The article focuses on a rare example of a miniature skull of unknown origin. The profoundness of the anatomical details, conjoint with outstanding virtuosity, reminds of Leonardo da Vinci's anatomical skull studies and asks for additional interpretation beside the emblematic "memento mori"-character. Following the miscellaneous topics of his skull studies an anatomical-anthropological interpretation is proposed. For such a project the mergence of anthropology, history of medicine and history of art was mandatory. Concerning some discrepancies within the anatomical realism, the depiction of a pathology is discussed and beyond the visualisation of a historic concept of brain function.

  20. [Man's place and anthropology in bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar Romero, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    From the analysis of its epistemological status, the article focuses on the philosophical fundament of bioethics, stressing the need for an authentic anthropology as a reference or starting point. Being an applied ethics, the first fundament of bioethics is in ethics. It shows how only personalistic ethics, which takes as reference the nature or essence of man, can offer objective and universal criteria. Philosophical anthropology studies man as a whole, in an integral manner, from the perspective of its nature or fundamental aspects of his being. It analyzes the distinction and relationship between the philosophical anthropology and the positive anthropologies, as well as with the physical, human and social sciences. Finally, it reflects on the current anthropological crisis and its ethical consequences.

  1. The anthropology of film in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The term 'film' refers to feature length commercial movies both of foreign and domestic production. The phenomenon of film is approached as a form of popular culture which means that the emphasis is on its cultural-communicative traits. The paper aims to make visible the dynamic field of anthropology of film present in Serbian academia, as well as introduce readers to this subdiscipline and point them towards the relevant literature - both foreign and domestic - in the field. The paper has been envisioned as an introduction to the edited volume Anthropology of film - the first book in the new series of editions titled New Serbian anthropology. Six anthropological and two sociological papers which together make up the edited volume are presented here. The aim is to highlight the thematic breadth and wealth of research in this area of anthropology.

  2. Forensic archaeology and anthropology : An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Kate

    2005-09-01

    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science.

  3. The Historical-Conceptual Language of Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Mié

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In an essay devoted to the method of philosophy, Ernst Tugendhat (1989 warned about the scarcity of general methodological clarifications that this discipline offers for its own labor. Beyond the many ways there currently exist to make philosophy, and along its vast history, such lack of clarifications about the procedures can signal a lasting fault in the concept and scope of philosophy. Although Tugendhat is certainly right in his diagnosis, his proposal is quite incomplete and its formulation in the classical terms of the analytic tradition −according to which doing philosophy is a form of clarification in the use of linguistic expressions− must be completed with the historical feature which is peculiar to the discipline. However, in this paper I will not discuss this author’s thesis, but I will examine the methodological problem mapped out by him. The strategy is to start from what I consider a necessary previous step: to clarify the conceptual and historical dimensions of the philosophical vocabulary whereby this discipline handles its own topics. As a result, I will be able to derive some consequences vis-à-vis the method and goals of philosophy.

  4. Philosophy of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2017-10-01

    There are some physics controversies that no amount of physics research can answer. Why is doing string theory scientific despite its lack of empirical predictions? How should we interpret quantum mechanics? What is the nature of time and space? What constitutes fundamental physics? One can answer these questions dogmatically by appealing to textbooks or by making rough and ready pronouncements, but the issues behind them can often be significantly clarified by the sort of systematic, critical reflection that philosophy practices. Philosophy comes in several traditions. Three of these-known as 'analytic,' 'pragmatic' and 'continental'-have paid particular attention to physics. This ebook illustrates philosophy of physics in action, and how it can help physics, by using four examples from physics to exhibit the aims and value of these philosophical approaches.

  5. History and philosophy of modern epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of chronic diseases began around the mid-20th century. Contrary to the infectious disease epidemiology which had prevailed at the beginning of the 20th century and which had focused on single agents causing individual diseases, the chronic disease epidemiology which emerge...

  6. [Subject and pain: introduction to a philosophy of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Marc, Gonzalo

    2010-10-01

    Pain cannot be explained. It may only be understood from the most unpleasant of positions: suffering it. Thus, in the attempt to account for its multiple occurrences, meanings and mechanisms, developing a philosophy of pain appears to be essential. The approach to these issues by traditional occidental medicine has not considered the particular language in their background, which contains a double subjectivity: the subjectivity it represents itself, and that which frames the relationship between the agents where this language circulates. Articulating traditional scientific medicine with social, anthropological, and artistic disciplines would allow for a satisfactory response to this double subjectiveness, resulting in a deep change in current pain therapies.

  7. INFORMATIZATION: PHILOSOPHICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kosolapov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Computerization and informatization in recent decades gave the mankind automated electronic document management systems, automated process of production, Internet and network information resources WWW, expanded the communications capabilities and led to the globalization of the information society. At the same time gives rise to a number of processes of informatization philosophical and anthropological problems, that has become an existential character. It is necessary to identify and understanding of these issues on the basis of the gnoseological model of the evolution informatization paradigms and determine their main characteristics. Methodology. The system-activity approach was used; it allowed identifying and analyzing the impact of the main components of information and communication technologies (ICT for educational activities. And further to present them as a unified system of human activity in conditions computerization/informatization. The philosophical principles: a comprehensive review of the subject, the unity of the logical and historical, ascending from the abstract to the concrete was used. The general scientific principles: unity and development of the system, the decomposition hierarchy, individualization and cooperation, diversity and taxonomy were applied. Findings.The three-stage gnoseological model of the paradigms computerization/informatization evolution was proposed by the author. It is based on three information system characteristics: speed, interface and data access. The seven-bar anthrop-centric model, which is called the architecture of information systems (AIS, which describes the changes in their types of procuring, was proposed for each paradigm. The philosophical-anthropological problems that affect negatively its progress were formulated for each stage of modern information society transformation. Originality. The gnoseological model of development processes of informatization in the form of three

  8. The Philosophy of Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn W. Erickson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrac: In an extended discussion, within the context of a"philosophy offorestry", of the relationships of the concepts of truth and of tree some fundamental aspects of occidental metaphysics are examined from a Heideggerian perspective. But the paper tries to go beyond Heidegger's thematization of metaphysics in the context of pre-Socratic philosophy by establishing Indo-European etymology as a more inclusive horizon. In this manner, the transition from anti-metaphysics to post-metaphysics is anticipated.

  9. Safety philosophy in Plowshare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thalgott, R.H.

    1969-01-01

    A nuclear device can be detonated safely when it can ascertained that the detonation can be accomplished without injury to people, either directly or indirectly, and without unacceptable damage to the ecological system and natural or man made structures. This philosophy has its origin in the nuclear weapons testing program dating back to the first detonation in 1945 and applies without reservation to PIowshare projects. This paper therefore will outline the mechanics employed by government in implementing this safety philosophy. The talk will describe those type of actions taken by safety oriented organizations and committees to assure that necessary and desirable safety reviews are conducted. (author)

  10. Pragmatism and Existential Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Lipps

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hans Lipps compares pragmatism (William James and John Dewey existentialism (Friedrich Nietzsche, Soren Kierkegaard, and Martin Heidegger in this 1936 article translated from French.  He claims that they aim at the same goals, e.g., a return to lived experience and a rejection of the Cartesian legacy in philosophy.  While summarizing the commonalities of each, he engages in a polemic against philosophy then that remains relevant now into the next century.

  11. Safety philosophy in Plowshare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thalgott, R H [Nevada Operations Office, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (United States)

    1969-07-01

    A nuclear device can be detonated safely when it can ascertained that the detonation can be accomplished without injury to people, either directly or indirectly, and without unacceptable damage to the ecological system and natural or man made structures. This philosophy has its origin in the nuclear weapons testing program dating back to the first detonation in 1945 and applies without reservation to PIowshare projects. This paper therefore will outline the mechanics employed by government in implementing this safety philosophy. The talk will describe those type of actions taken by safety oriented organizations and committees to assure that necessary and desirable safety reviews are conducted. (author)

  12. Philosophy and mathematics: interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Roshdi

    From Plato to the beginnings of the last century, mathematics provided philosophers with methods of exposition, procedures of demonstration, and instruments of analysis. The unprecedented development of mathematics on the one hand, and the mathematicians' appropriation of Logic from the philosophers on the other hand, have given rise to two problems with which the philosophers have to contend: (1) Is there still a place for the philosophy of mathematics? and (2) To what extent is a philosophy of mathematics still possible? This article offers some reflections on these questions, which have preoccupied a good many philosophers and continue to do so.

  13. Philosophy of Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svanæs, Dag

    2011-01-01

    This is an encyclopedia entry for the Interaction-Design.org free IxD encyclopedia. The topic of the entry is the application of the philosophy of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty to a theory of interactivity. Comments by Don Norman and Eva Hornecker.......This is an encyclopedia entry for the Interaction-Design.org free IxD encyclopedia. The topic of the entry is the application of the philosophy of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty to a theory of interactivity. Comments by Don Norman and Eva Hornecker....

  14. [The anatomists who started anthropology in Turkey and their contributions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluçam, E; Gökçe, N; Başağaoğlu, J

    2002-01-01

    The Turkish Institute of Antropology was estabilished in 1925 as a unit of the Medical School of Istanbul University (Darülfünun), named the Antropology Research Center (Antropoloji Tetkikat Merkezi). It was a part of the medical faculty until 1932. After the university reform it was connected to the School of Science and in late 1935 it was transfered to the School of Languages History and Geography (Dil Tarih Coğrafya Fakültesi) in Ankara. The center started to publish "The Journal of Turkish Anthropology" with Dr. Nuretttin Ali Berkols researches in 1925. It was published in two languages, Turkish and French. The faculty members of the institute, Dr. Mouchet, Dr. Süreyya Ali and Dr. Ismail Hakki formed the editorial board of the journal. We see that from the first issue of the journal in 1925 until the special issue prepared for the XVIII. Anthropology and Prehistorical Archealogy Congress in 1939, Dr. Nurettin Ali Berkol and Dr. Mouchet were members of the administrative committee of the journal. In this article; we studied the contributions of the anatomists to the development of anthropology in Turkey.

  15. Anthropology for the nuclear age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelbaum, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    An anthropological approach to preparing for a turning point in the nuclear age as a result of a large-scale accident or act of terrorism suggests three areas for preliminary study: institutional changes that would reinforce international structures to be more effective in preserving the peace and would redirect military institutions toward that end; cultural changes that would deal with the fears and perceptions of citizens within each nation to find new ways of communication and conflict resolution, but keeping in mind the major class, religious, regional, and ethnic groupings; and global forces that would deal with population pressures. These preliminary studies would need revision after the nuclear event to incorporate the new circumstances. 15 references

  16. [Anthropology, gender, and contemporary nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo Crespo, Manuel

    2002-12-01

    We live in an age when decisive changes occur. Social changes in the field of Genre and Work Cultures will take on a crucial role regarding the development of Nursing. New technological advances, and a higher degree of specialization in the Nursing field, as well as the increase in the number of nursing professionals coming from the male genere, enter into conflict with traditional social structures and act as intellectual tools which are necessary to acquire a critical understanding of the times in which we live, where an anthropological evaluation of the Genre factor is essential as a beginning principle in order to explain the subordination of nursing professionals as this has existed up until our times.

  17. Contemporary anthropological trends in the united Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ks. Archimandryta Warsonofiusz (Doroszkiewicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The term “anthropology” is from the Greek (gr. aνθρωπος, “man”. It is the academic study of humanity. It deals with all that is characteristic of the human experience, from physiology and the evolutionary origins to the social and cultural organization of human societies as well as individual and collective forms of human experience. The idea of modernism concerns the phenomena which appeared in the European culture and thought in the end of XIX and beginning of XX century. In the end of XX century emerged idea of postmodernism which critizes and questions existence of the objective truth and doubts all the systems of values as being arbitral and restraining human freedom. According to the theory of postmodernism even the moral and ethical rules must be of human choice. The hypothesis of postmodern anthropology attained the dominant function in the united Europe. Likewise the notion of postmodernism contains in itself such popular undercurrents as popular culture, lifestyle, secularization, consumption, tolerance, marketing and laicizations. They all have found its place in the modern European society and in evident sense try to fulfill spiritual vacuum which appeared whilst modern European men questioned and rejected an idea of the objective Truth it means rejected Christian values and Christian tradition so much rooted in the European history.

  18. The contribution of I. I. Tegako to anthropology of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurbo Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available L.I. Tegako started her studies of anthropology in the middle of 1960s when she received her research degree. The scope of her scientific interest included odontology and dermatoglyphics. For more than 40 years L.I. Tegako was a permanent supervisor of the group and later of the Anthropology department. From the beginning of 1970s Belarusian anthropologists started conducting complex anthropologic studies of the adult population of the republic in various parts of the country (anthropometry, anthroposcopy, dermatoglyphics, blood group factor. Comprehensive approach became the basis for studies of anthropogenic variety of local population on the territory of Belarus. In 1998 the team of anthropologists supervised by L.I. Tegako won a State Prize of the Republic of Belarus for the scope of work on the topic 'Person and his biocultural adaptation'. In 2000s the scope of L.I. Tegako's scientific interest included the determination of intersystemic correlations between dermatoglyphical and psychosomatic characteristics. During her academic career, L.I. Tegako published 17 monographs, 6 study guides, 11 brochures and 209 research papers. Lidiya Ivanovna worked at leading universities in the country; she had 7 students who completed PhD thesis. Since 1999 she worked as a professor of biology. L.I. Tegako deserves a credit for the organization of anthropological conferences in Minsk. She devoted a lot of attention to the international cooperation. As a result, L.I. Tegako contributed to the establishment of stable scientific and friendly ties with Serbian colleagues: Institute of History of the NAS of Belarus and Matica Srpska made a partnership agreement. This includes exchange of experience, scientific works, and realization of joint projects.

  19. To naturalize or not to naturalize? An issue for cognitive science as well as anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenning, Keith

    2012-07-01

    Several of Beller, Bender, and Medin's (2012) issues are as relevant within cognitive science as between it and anthropology. Knowledge-rich human mental processes impose hermeneutic tasks, both on subjects and researchers. Psychology's current philosophy of science is ill suited to analyzing these: Its demand for ''stimulus control'' needs to give way to ''negotiation of mutual interpretation.'' Cognitive science has ways to address these issues, as does anthropology. An example from my own work is about how defeasible logics are mathematical models of some aspects of simple hermeneutic processes. They explain processing relative to databases of knowledge and belief-that is, content. A specific example is syllogistic reasoning, which raises issues of experimenters' interpretations of subjects' reasoning. Science, especially since the advent of understandings of computation, does not have to be reductive. How does this approach transfer onto anthropological topics? Recent cognitive science approaches to anthropological topics have taken a reductive stance in terms of modules. We end with some speculations about a different cognitive approach to, for example, religion. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. My Teaching Learning Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjani, Neelam Saleem

    2014-01-01

    The heart of teaching learning philosophy is the concept of nurturing students and teaching them in a way that creates passion and enthusiasm in them for a lifelong learning. According to Duke (1990) education is a practice of artful action where teaching learning process is considered as design and knowledge is considered as colours. Teaching…

  1. Technology and Teaching Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the challenges faced when integrating new technologies into the classroom. Viewing the experiences of teaching a first year learning community through the lens of the principles of the Reflective Teaching Portfolio, the author looks to answer the question: "How should Technology relate to our Teaching Philosophy?"…

  2. Operations and maintenance philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUNCAN, G.P.

    1999-01-01

    This Operations and Maintenance (O and M) Philosophy document is intended to establish a future O and M vision, with an increased focus on minimizing worker exposure, ensuring uninterrupted retrieval operations, and minimizing operation life-cycle cost. It is intended that this document would incorporate O and M lessons learned into on-going and future project upgrades

  3. Retooling Peace Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk; Hersh, Jacques; Petersen-Overton, Kristofer

    2010-01-01

    This book documents recent and historical events in the theoretically-based practice of peace development. Its diverse collection of essays describes different aspects of applied philosophy in peace action, commonly involving the contributors’ continual engagement in the field, while offering sup...

  4. Game theory in philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Game theory is the mathematical study of strategy and conflict. It has wide applications in economics, political science, sociology, and, to some extent, in philosophy. Where rational choice theory or decision theory is concerned with individual agents facing games against nature, game theory deals

  5. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  6. Performance and Philosophy Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasoula Kallenou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Was Plato the first philosophical dramatist to explore philosophical ideas through dramatic content, introducing dramatic structures currently in line with contemporary theatre? If Plato was an influential figure for philosophers as well as theatre-makers, it can arguably be said that he was a silent pioneer in creating the newly defined discipline of Performance Philosophy. There is an obvious polarity between performance and philosophy since both disciplines are on the quest of exploring and presenting what life is. At least this can be said of ancient Greek and Roman philosophy. Conceived as “biou techne” the art of living, Greek and Roman philosophers, especially the Epicureans, Stoics and Skeptics, saw philosophy as a way of conceiving what a good life is (a life worth living and pursuing its practical realization for the attainment of eudemonia. Plato was arguably the first significant philosopher to explore philosophical ideas through dramatic content, introducing dramatic structures currently in line with contemporary theatre views. As such, he can be seen as an influential figure for theatre makers as well as for philosophers. Plato’s artistic intention was to uncover the artist that lacked substance and support the knowledgeable creative philosophical mind that besides instant emotional pleasure has to contribute in social development.

  7. Investigating Talent Management Philosophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbancova Hana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study, motivated by the recognition that organizational performance and success always hinges on employee competencies and management’s skill in utilizing their potentials, focuses on one of the key factors in organizational efficiency: the possibilities of development of talented employees within Czech organizations. The data was collected via two quantitative studies. The first study involved 100 organizations from every economic sector with a main focus on the topic from the organization’s perspective. The second study explored the approach from employees’ perspective. Our analysis shows that different talent management philosophies are used in practice. Almost half of the sample use inclusive and stable philosophy, 11% inclusive and developable philosophy and almost 10% exclusive and developable philosophy. Employees are mostly developed in generally recommended areas without any consideration for the specific individual’s characteristics or related opportunities. It is a stable approach. Limitations of this study may be found in the focus on analysis outcomes - on practitioners in particular. The present findings provide a basis for future hypotheses and research in this area.

  8. 87 Philosophy and African Philosophy: A Conceptual Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    concepts of philosophy and then African philosophy. This is because the ... philosophy inter alia, as one's moral guide is only but the informal meaning ... reasons for all the assumptions entertained by any disciplines. .... quite unfortunate to state here that the earliest studies and .... functionality, rigour and coherence. And as ...

  9. Kierkegaard's Philosophy: Implications for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopson, Lorraine; Gade, Eldon

    1981-01-01

    Discusses how the philosophy of Soren Kierkegaard can provide useful guidelines for the study of the counseling process. Compares Kierkegaard's philosophy with selected contributions of Freud, Skinner, Rogers, and May and with four common themes of counseling and psychotherapy. (Author)

  10. Philosophy of Design: An Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2007-01-01

    The relatively young field of research known as ‘the philosophy of design’ is briefly presented, by asking on behalf of the reader what the philosophy of design is about, and what its use may be.......The relatively young field of research known as ‘the philosophy of design’ is briefly presented, by asking on behalf of the reader what the philosophy of design is about, and what its use may be....

  11. Digital-Visual-Sensory-Design Anthropology: Ethnography, Imagination and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    In this article I outline how a digital-visual-sensory approach to anthropological ethnography might participate in the making of relationship between design and anthropology. While design anthropology is itself coming of age, the potential of its relationship with applied visual anthropology methodology and theory has not been considered in the…

  12. Some Guidelines for the Development of Curriculum for Applied Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavner, Jerry

    Applied anthropology seeks to integrate anthropological values and knowledge with a rational approach to policy decision-making. This paper discusses some of the barriers faced by those who care about anthropology and are concerned with making a viable space for the discipline in the college curriculum. Anthropology teachers need to further refine…

  13. The Philosophy of University Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, James A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a stated philosophy of university housing and the philosophy's effect on the facilitation of the personal and intellectual growth of students residing in the residence halls and the development of a sense of community. This particular philosophy governs the housing operations at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.…

  14. Anthropology in public health emergencies: what is anthropology good for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellmach, Darryl; Beshar, Isabel; Bedford, Juliet; du Cros, Philipp; Stringer, Beverley

    2018-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of Ebola virus disease (2013-2016) and Zika virus (2015-2016) bring renewed recognition of the need to understand social pathways of disease transmission and barriers to care. Social scientists, anthropologists in particular, have been recognised as important players in disease outbreak response because of their ability to assess social, economic and political factors in local contexts. However, in emergency public health response, as with any interdisciplinary setting, different professions may disagree over methods, ethics and the nature of evidence itself. A disease outbreak is no place to begin to negotiate disciplinary differences. Given increasing demand for anthropologists to work alongside epidemiologists, clinicians and public health professionals in health crises, this paper gives a basic introduction to anthropological methods and seeks to bridge the gap in disciplinary expectations within emergencies. It asks: 'What can anthropologists do in a public health crisis and how do they do it?' It argues for an interdisciplinary conception of emergency and the recognition that social, psychological and institutional factors influence all aspects of care.

  15. The Societal Impact of Extraterrestrial Life: The Relevance of History and the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.

    This chapter reviews past studies on the societal impact of extraterrestrial life and offers four related ways in which history is relevant to the subject: the history of impact thus far, analogical reasoning, impact studies in other areas of science and technology, and studies on the nature of discovery and exploration. We focus particularly on the promise and peril of analogical arguments, since they are by necessity widespread in the field. This chapter also summarizes the relevance of the social sciences, particularly anthropology and sociology, and concludes by taking a closer look at the possible impact of the discovery of extraterrestrial life on theology and philosophy. In undertaking this study we emphasize three bedrock principles: (1) we cannot predict the future; (2) society is not monolithic, implying many impacts depending on religion, culture and worldview; (3) the impact of any discovery of extraterrestrial life is scenario-dependent.

  16. Architectural anthropology – potentials and pitfalls of mixing disciplines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    approaches to e.g. understand and involve users, clients and citizens. Several other disciplines currently also approach and embrace anthropological methods, and new sub-disciplines such as design anthropology, architectural anthropology, business anthropology and techno-anthropology have emerged...... these cross-disciplinary and applied settings, and how it may contribute to anthropology in general. Based on research and teaching in the field of architectural anthropology, the paper discuss the potentials and pitfalls of mixing approaches from the two disciplines using examples of architects’ approaches...

  17. Notes towards an anthropology of the internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Hart

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available What might an anthropology of the internet look like? It require a combination of introspection, personal judgment and world history to explore the universe of cyberspace. This world is not sufficient to itself, nor is it 'the world'. People bring their offline circumstances to behaviour online. The virtual and the real constitute a dialectic in which neither can be reduced to the other and 'virtual reality' is their temporary synthesis. Heidegger's metaphysics are drawn on to illuminate this dialectic. Before this, the internet is examines in the light of the history of communications, from speech and writing to books and the radio. The digital revolution of our time is marked by the convergence of telephones, television and computing. It is the third stage in a machine revolution lasting just 200 years. The paper analyses the political economy of the internet in terms of the original three classes controlling respectively increase in the environment (land, money (capital and human creativity (labour. It ends with a consideration of Kant's great example for a future anthropology capable of placing human subjectivity in world history.Como poderia ser uma antropologia da Internet? Uma tal antropologia exigiria uma combinação de introspecção, de opiniões pessoais e de história mundial para se explorar o universo do ciberespaço. Afinal, esse mundo não é um mundo auto-suficiente, nem mesmo esse é "um mundo". As pessoas carregam consigo suas circunstâncias off-line para junto do seu comportamento on-line. Constitui-se uma dialética do virtual e do real, na qual nenhuma das duas partes pode ser reduzida à outra e na qual a "realidade virtual" é a sua síntese temporária. A metafísica heideggeriana é aqui acionada para esclarecer melhor essa dialética. Antes disso, entretanto, a Internet é examinada sob a luz da história das comunicações, desde a fala e a escrita de livros até o rádio. A revolução digital de nosso tempo est

  18. PHILOSOPHY IN CONTEMPORARY TIME: RELEVANCE VS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    This proper training of the human mind with the tool of philosophy translates ... students of philosophy do not understand what philosophy students do in their philosophy classes. ..... communication as well as the analysis and synthesis thereof.

  19. [Contribution of Stein's Anthropology to Personalistic Bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles Morejón, Jeannette Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Juan Manuel Burgos proposes ″a challenge″ to whom aims to consolidate the dignity of the human person as the center of a thought structure. Burgos presents a well-founded trilogy, citing Wojtyla, Sgreccia and he himself, as a perfect combination to support personalist bioethics. However, the possibility of giving a solid anthropological support to this bioethics remains open provided that a substantial list of personalistic authors is revised. This research seeks to collate Stein's anthropological proposal to personalist bioethics needs expressed by Burgos. The study aims to prove how Stein's anthropology can be assembled to the characteristics of personalism, and thus infer that more specific levels of the personalist bioethics can be based on this anthropology.

  20. Should anthropology be part of cognitive science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Sieghard; Bender, Andrea; Medin, Douglas L

    2012-07-01

    Anthropology and the other cognitive science (CS) subdisciplines currently maintain a troubled relationship. With a debate in topiCS we aim at exploring the prospects for improving this relationship, and our introduction is intended as a catalyst for this debate. In order to encourage a frank sharing of perspectives, our comments will be deliberately provocative. Several challenges for a successful rapprochement are identified, encompassing the diverging paths that CS and anthropology have taken in the past, the degree of compatibility between (1) CS and (2) anthropology with regard to methodology and (3) research strategies, (4) the importance of anthropology for CS, and (5) the need for disciplinary diversity. Given this set of challenges, a reconciliation seems unlikely to follow on the heels of good intentions alone. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Engaging the World of the Supernatural: Anthropology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Anthropology, Phenomenology and the Limitations of Scientific Rationalism in the Study of the .... Religious or supernatural knowledge could fall into ... causal explanation and as free as possible ..... facts.” In Quantum Physics, the existence.

  2. Staging as a Methodological Tool for Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Urquijo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available My theatrical background has conditioned my approach to anthropology. This dramaturgical focus in the study of social life has encouraged the articulation of my theatrical and anthropological experience in staging. This paper explains how and why this is a valid tool for anthropology and for the performative study of the gender system, the assessment of the role of normativity and social structure in its representation. I have experimented with and expressed the process of constructing a dramaturgical and anthropological logic as an autobiographical exercise. The social theories which have influenced me include dynamic situationism, dynamic interactionism and constructivist theories which address the body as social fiction. With all of this, I have elaborated an interpretative strategy for the description, analysis and perception of reality. Publishing it means sharing it and submitting it to evaluation.

  3. Teaching Urban Anthropology: An Experiential Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miracle, Andrew W., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the curriculum design and instructional goals of an undergraduate urban anthropology service course with a heterogeneous student composition. Compares the pedagogical techniques used with Bruner's theory of instruction. (CJM)

  4. Generating Ethnographic Research Questions: An Anthropological Contribution to the Study of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    As part of recent complex transformations, it seems that higher educational organisations are being forced to reorganise, standardise and streamline in order to survive in the new political and economic context. How are ethnographers in general going to approach these contemporary phenomena? By drawing on the conceptual history of anthropology,…

  5. Danto, history, and the tragedy of human existence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankersmit, FR

    2003-01-01

    Philosophy of history is the Cinderella of contemporary philosophy. Philosophers rarely believe that the issues dealt with by philosophers of history are matters of any great theoretical interest or urgency. In their view philosophy of history rarely goes beyond the question of how results that have

  6. Anthropology and addiction: an historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Merrill

    2012-10-01

    This paper reviews the world anthropology of drugs and alcohol use literature, identifying key issues addressed by anthropologists, methods and theoretical models in use, trends in focus over time and future directions. Papers and books that comprise the literature were identified through computer search using the keywords: ethnography of drug use (and variants, e.g. drug ethnography, qualitative approaches in drug research), ethnography of drinking, anthropology and drug use, and anthropology and drinking. Search engines included Google Scholar, EBSCOHost, AnthroSource and PubMed. Identified sources were read and integrated into the review. The literature search identified a rich and growing literature on the anthropology of drinking and drug use. The research and published literature on the anthropology of drug use has grown and diversified since the 1970s, found acceptance in the wider multi-disciplinary domain of alcohol and drug studies and developed beyond the socio-cultural model to include life-style, critical medical anthropology and experiential explanatory models. Anthropological research has helped to shape the field of addiction science, e.g. ethnographic studies show that the lived worlds and self-identities of drug users have cultural order and socially constructed purpose and meaning, and experiential research shows that some addictions or aspects of addictions can be affirmative, creative and sustainable, at least at the individual level. The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome pandemic has significantly increased anthropological research on drug-related issues world-wide. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Italian Microhistory, anthropology and judicial archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Hernández Ciro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the interceptions between the Italian microhistory and anthropology, this article aims to provide a central debate of contemporary historiography account of popular culture and subaltern classes from the intensive and exhaustive judicial proceedings. To do this, some of the impacts of anthropology will be addressed in the historical work, as the appearance and questioning notion of popular culture, the ethnographic value of court files and finally, some possibilities in the case of Judicial Historical Archive of Medellin.

  8. A review of anthropological approaches to ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Kaczmarek, Maria; Szwed, Anita

    1997-01-01

    It is evident that the pattern of ageing among humans has a unique character. Therefore, when undertaking any research on human ageing one has to specify a proper methodology and methods which are available in the anthropological perspective. The paper is aimed at providing a review of anthropological approaches to the study of ageing. On the basis of the meaning and scope of the concept of ageing, its sources and causal factors are discussed. Further, functional, physiological an...

  9. R.G. Collingwood, Analytical Philosophy And Logical Positivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Connelly

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available R.G. Collingwood is not normally associated with analytic philosophy, neither negatively nor positively. He neither regarded himself, nor was regarded by his contemporaries and their successors, as an analytical philosopher. However, the story is more interestingly complex than this, both because Collingwood is one of the few pre-analytics in the UK who continues to be of interest to current analytical philosophers, especially in relation to the philosophy of art and history and his conception of metaphysics, and because he mounted a critique of analytical philosophy in the years of its emergence.

  10. HTGR safety philosophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joksimovic, V.; Fisher, C. R. [General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (USA)

    1981-01-15

    The accident at the Three Mile Island has focused public attention on reactor safety. Many public figures advocate a safer method of generating nuclear electricity for the second nuclear era in the U.S. The paper discusses the safety philosophy of a concept deemed suitable for this second nuclear era. The HTGR, in the course of its evolution, included safety as a significant determinant in design philosophy. This is particularly evident in the design features which provide inherent safety. Inherent features cause releases from a wide spectrum of accident conditions to be low. Engineered features supplement inherent features. The significance of HTGR safety features is quantified and order-of-magnitude type of comparisons are made with alternative ways of generating electricity.

  11. A Philosophy of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Horne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The survival of the homo sapiens sapiens species depends upon learning and passing on to future generations quality knowledge. Yet, we find to an increasing extent a corruption of the process, resulting in ignorance, environmental destruction, and breakdown of community. A fundamental shift in priorities is required to avert disaster. Articulating a solution depends upon a language, which, in turn, depends upon clarifying concepts. This paper identifies the dialectical (something existing because of what it is not interrelationship of episteme (theory and techné (practice within the framework of ethos, pathos, and logos. This structure and process as learning provides coherence in developing knowledge and can then be what in a generic sense is religion (to cohere, or bind. In a monk-like devotion to learning to generate quality knowledge humanity can appreciate its own meaning and make this world a better place in which to live. In this way religion becomes philosophy, and philosophy religion.

  12. A Philosophy of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Horne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The survival of the homo sapiens sapiens species depends upon learning and passing on to future generations quality knowledge. Yet, we find to an increasing extent a corruption of the process, resulting in ignorance, environmental destruction, and breakdown of community. A fundamental shift in priorities is required to avert disaster. Articulating a solution depends upon a language, which, in turn, depends upon clarifying concepts. This paper identifies the dialectical (something existing because of what it is not interrelationship of episteme (theory and techné (practice within the framework of ethos, pathos, and logos. This structure and process as learning provides coherence in developing knowledge and can then be what in a generic sense is religion (to cohere, or bind. In a monk-like devotion to learning to generate quality knowledge humanity can appreciate its own meaning and make this world a better place in which to live. In this way religion becomes philosophy, and philosophy religion.

  13. HTGR safety philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovic, V.; Fisher, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    The accident at the Three Mile Island has focused public attention on reactor safety. Many public figures advocate a safer method of generating nuclear electricity for the second nuclear era in the U.S. The paper discusses the safety philosophy of a concept deemed suitable for this second nuclear era. The HTGR, in the course of its evolution, included safety as a significant determinant in design philosophy. This is particularly evident in the design features which provide inherent safety. Inherent features cause releases from a wide spectrum of accident conditions to be low. Engineered features supplement inherent features. The significance of HTGR safety features is quantified and order-of-magnitude type of comparisons are made with alternative ways of generating electricity. (author)

  14. HTGR safety philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joskimovic, V.; Fisher, C.R.

    1980-08-01

    The accident at the Three Mile Island has focused public attention on reactor safety. Many public figures advocate a safer method of generating nuclear electricity for the second nuclear era in the US. The paper discusses the safety philosophy of a concept deemed suitable for this second nuclear era. The HTGR, in the course of its evolution, included safety as a significant determinant in design philosophy. This is particularly evident in the design features which provide inherent safety. Inherent features cause releases from a wide spectrum of accident conditions to be low. Engineered features supplement inherent features. The significance of HTGR safety features is quantified and order-of-magnitude type of comparisons are made with alternative ways of generating electricity

  15. The philosophy of cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joseph; Barrow, John D; Saunders, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Following a long-term international collaboration between leaders in cosmology and the philosophy of science, this volume addresses foundational questions at the limit of science across these disciplines, questions raised by observational and theoretical progress in modern cosmology. Space missions have mapped the Universe up to its early instants, opening up questions on what came before the Big Bang, the nature of space and time, and the quantum origin of the Universe. As the foundational volume of an emerging academic discipline, experts from relevant fields lay out the fundamental problems of contemporary cosmology and explore the routes toward finding possible solutions. Written for graduates and researchers in physics and philosophy, particular efforts are made to inform academics from other fields, as well as the educated public, who wish to understand our modern vision of the Universe, related philosophical questions, and the significant impacts on scientific methodology.

  16. Microbiology, philosophy and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Maureen A

    2016-09-01

    There are not only many links between microbiological and philosophical topics, but good educational reasons for microbiologists to explore the philosophical issues in their fields. I examine three broad issues of classification, causality and model systems, showing how these philosophical dimensions have practical implications. I conclude with a discussion of the educational benefits for recognising the philosophy in microbiology. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Radiation protection philosophy alters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firmin, G.

    1977-01-01

    Two significant events that have taken place this year in the field of radiation protection are reported. New SI units have been proposed (and effectively adopted), and the ICRP has revised its recommendations. Changes of emphasis in the latest recommendations (ICRP Publication 26) imply an altered radiation protection philosophy, in particular the relation of dose limits to estimates of average risk, an altered view of the critical organ approach and a new attitude to genetic dose to the population. (author)

  18. [Anthropology at the heart of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Laurent

    2008-10-01

    Anthropology and medicine share many concerns, but have had trouble collaborating in the past. The anthropologist has had to plead both with his colleagues and physicians to move beyond a vision that would confine him to the study of traditional or alternative medicines and representations of populations and the sick. The anthropologist's approach perceived as intrusive has also raised fears in the medical world. These reciprocal misunderstandings and stereotypes need to be overcome by an anthropology that studies the practices and knowledge of modern medicine as they are elaborated daily. Anthropology will dialogue with medicine without judging it. In its turn, medicine will open its sites of healing and teaching to the anthropologist. Anthropology at the heart of medicine is organized around the idea that the paths and expectations of health professionals reflect the specicifities of the local system of health. The individual dimensions of practices cannot be divorced from the functioning of structures of health and decision. Finally, like any other kind of anthropology, medical anthropology must scrutinize its own methods and ethics in a critical way.

  19. Deep Mapping and Spatial Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an introduction to the Humanities Special Issue on “Deep Mapping”. It sets out the rationale for the collection and explores the broad-ranging nature of perspectives and practices that fall within the “undisciplined” interdisciplinary domain of spatial humanities. Sketching a cross-current of ideas that have begun to coalesce around the concept of “deep mapping”, the paper argues that rather than attempting to outline a set of defining characteristics and “deep” cartographic features, a more instructive approach is to pay closer attention to the multivalent ways deep mapping is performatively put to work. Casting a critical and reflexive gaze over the developing discourse of deep mapping, it is argued that what deep mapping “is” cannot be reduced to the otherwise a-spatial and a-temporal fixity of the “deep map”. In this respect, as an undisciplined survey of this increasing expansive field of study and practice, the paper explores the ways in which deep mapping can engage broader discussion around questions of spatial anthropology.

  20. Philosophy in Seminaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Tarasiewicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author attempts to answer the question concerning whether or not philosophy is needed in seminaries. In light of his analysis, it can be concluded that philosophical studies for future priests are a serious alternative to the fideistic positions often adopted by Catholics. The presence of philosophy in the seminary curriculum is supported by: (1 the need for building intellectual foundations of the religious faith professed by a cleric; the faith which cannot do without reason and abstain from justifying the rationale of its content; (2 the need for introducing the alumnus to the mysteries of the classical philosophy of being which can equip him with a better understanding of human nature and the surrounding reality. In this way, the seminarian: (1 acquires a reasonable belief that the human mind is able to know the objective and universal truth, including the truth about God as the Ultimate Cause of all that exists; (2 is able to enter into an intelligent dialogue about the truth with an increasingly globalized world.

  1. Physics, philosophy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel Maya, Augusto

    2001-01-01

    Physics and philosophy has join developments since the Jonios. The present article tries to analyze some of the philosophical problems that arise of the classic and contemporary physics and that affect the environmental vision. In general, it can be said that the discoveries of the physics has meant a progressive desplatonization of the western world, including the remaining of Platon that is included in Aristoteles philosophy. From the analysis some problems arise that is worthwhile to emphasize. Above all the relationship between determinism and random theory, from the environmental perspective it is necessary to wonder if it is licit to apply these concepts to man. With it the problem of freedom arise, attacked by Spinoza, but carefully protected by Kant's philosophy. Their acceptance supposes, however, the division between man and the cultural schizophrenia. Is it possible to explain freedom from the physics, such as was pretended by Epicuro or Prigonine? Has nature a wide field of freedom as it is assumed in some of the currents of contemporary physics? All of them are questions that the environmental thought has to confront, although it cannot solve them

  2. Newton and scholastic philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Dmitri

    2016-03-01

    This article examines Isaac Newton's engagement with scholastic natural philosophy. In doing so, it makes two major historiographical interventions. First of all, the recent claim that Newton's use of the concepts of analysis and synthesis was derived from the Aristotelian regressus tradition is challenged on the basis of bibliographical, palaeographical and intellectual evidence. Consequently, a new, contextual explanation is offered for Newton's use of these concepts. Second, it will be shown that some of Newton's most famous pronouncements - from the General Scholium appended to the second edition of the Principia (1713) and from elsewhere - are simply incomprehensible without an understanding of specific scholastic terminology and its later reception, and that this impacts in quite significant ways on how we understand Newton's natural philosophy more generally. Contrary to the recent historiographical near-consensus, Newton did not hold an elaborate metaphysics, and his seemingly 'metaphysical' statements were in fact anti-scholastic polemical salvoes. The whole investigation will permit us a brief reconsideration of the relationship between the self-proclaimed 'new' natural philosophy and its scholastic predecessors.

  3. Safety philosophy of ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kazuaki

    1995-01-01

    Measures are important as the means to realize philosophy. Accordingly, it is meaningful to take measures as the object when the philosophy of ICRP is considered. As to controllable risk factors, restraint shall be done so as to make the risk being brought about as small as possible. When it is not necessary to limit restraining means, risk-free is ideal. Ionizing radiation is one of risk factors. The risk that ICRP speaks is the loss of the probability of maintaining life. The object of radiation protection is limited to the exposure to controllable radiation, and the aim of protection is to minimize risk under the condition of as low as reasonably achievable. The philosophy of ICRP and the problems in the measures are discussed. ICRP and ICRU must reconfirm the allotment of roles. Radiation protection system is composed of system of radiation dosimetry and system of dose limitation. The mission of ICRP is to recommend political decision, and it may make the political declaration 'The radiation below a certain amount may be regarded as safe'. It is better only to recommend the conversion relation of radiation dose and risk. The desire and demand to ICRP are mentioned. (K.I.)

  4. Philosophy of phenomenology: how understanding aids research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Mary

    2012-01-01

    To assist the researcher in understanding the similarities and differences between the Husserlian and Heideggerian philosophies of phenomenology, and how that philosophy can inform nursing research as a useful methodology. Nurse researchers using phenomenology as a methodology need to understand the philosophy of phenomenology to produce a research design that is philosophically congruent. However, phenomenology has a long and complex history of development, and may be difficult to understand and apply. The author draws from Heidegger (1962), Gadamer (2004), and nurse scholars and methodologists. To give the reader a sense of the development of the philosophy of phenomenology, the author briefly recounts its historical origins and interpretations, specifically related to Husserl, Heidegger and Gadamer. The author outlines the ontological and epistemological assumptions of Husserlian and Heideggerian phenomenology and guidance for methodology inspired by these philosophers. Difficulties with engaging in phenomenological research are addressed, especially the processes of phenomenological reduction and bracketing, and the lack of clarity about the methods of interpretation. Despite its complexity, phenomenology can provide the nurse researcher with indepth insight into nursing practice. An understanding of phenomenology can guide nurse researchers to produce results that have meaning in nursing patient care.

  5. Reassembling mathematical practices: a philosophical-anthropological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen François

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we first explore h ow Wittgenstein ’ s philosophy provides a conceptual tools to discuss the possibility of the simultaneous existence of culturally different mathematical practices. We will argue that Wittgenstein ’ s later work will be a fruitful framework to serve as a philosophical background to investigate ethnomathematics ( Wittgenstein 1973 . W e will give an overview of Wittgenstein’s later work which is referred to by many researchers in the field of ethnomathematics . The central philosophical investigation concerns Wittgenstein’s shift to abandon ing the essentialist concept of language and therefore deny ing the existence of a universal language. Languages — or ‘language games’ as Wittgenstein calls them — are immersed in a form of life, in a cultural or social formation and are embedded in the totality o f communal activities. This gives rise to the idea of rationality as an invention or as a construct that emerges in specific local contexts. In the second part of the paper we introduce, analyse and compare the mathematical aspects of two activities known as string figure - making and sand drawing, to illustrate Wittgenstein ’s ideas . Base d on an ethnomathematical comparative analysis , we will argue that there is evidence of invariant and distinguishing features of a mathematical rationality , as expressed in both string figure - making and sand drawing practices, from one society to another . Finally, w e suggest that a philosop hical - anthropological approach to mathematical practices may allow us to better understand the interrelations between mathematics and cul tures. Philoso phical investigations may help the reflection on the possibility of culturally determined ethnomathematics, while an anthropological approach, using ethnographical methods, may afford new materials for the analysis of ethnomathematics and its links to the cultural context. This combined approach will help us to better

  6. The role of forensic anthropology in Disaster Victim Identification (DVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Soren; Briggs, Christopher A

    2011-02-25

    This paper briefly describes Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) and reviews the history of the use of forensic anthropology in the identification process. The potential contributions made by forensic anthropology are illustrated through the presentation of a case study. In February 2009 the state of Victoria in south-eastern Australia experienced the most devastating bushfires in its history, resulting in catastrophic loss of life and public and private property. Within 48h of the disaster, forensic teams including pathologists, odontologists and anthropologists assembled at the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine in Melbourne to begin the task of identifying the deceased. This paper reviews the part played by forensic anthropologists in the identification process and outlines the important contribution anthropologists can make to DVI, especially at the scene, in the mortuary and in the reconciliation process. The anthropologist's experience with differentially preserved human remains meant they played an important role identifying and recovering heavily fragmentary human skeletal remains, differentiating human from non-human remains, establishing basic biological information such as the sex and age of the individuals and confirming or denying the possibility of re-associating body parts for release to families. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Taking Sides: Ethics, Politics and Fieldwork in Anthropology & All Tomorrow's Cultures: Anthropological Engagements with the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of the publications Taking Sides: Ethics, Politics and Fieldwork in Anthropology. Edited by Heidi Armbruster and Anna Lærke. New York, Oxford: Berghahn Books 2008, 258 pages; and Samuel Gerald Collins, All Tomorrow's Cultures: Anthropological Engagements with the Future. New York, Oxford: Berghahn Books 2008, 140 pages.

  8. Taking Sides: Ethics, Politics and Fieldwork in Anthropology & All Tomorrow's Cultures: Anthropological Engagements with the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Review of the publications Taking Sides: Ethics, Politics and Fieldwork in Anthropology. Edited by Heidi Armbruster and Anna Lærke. New York, Oxford: Berghahn Books 2008, 258 pages; and Samuel Gerald Collins, All Tomorrow's Cultures: Anthropological Engagements with the Future. New York, Oxford: Berghahn Books 2008, 140 pages.

  9. Specificity of Being and “Different Modernities” of a Person in the Contextual Range of Anthropological Conflict of Postmodernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Kostyuchkov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Specificity studies of human nature in the context of postmodern anthropological impacts on the necessity for use as philosophical and sociocultural approaches. By focusing on the fact that since the status of a person is the basis of modern system of social ideas and values of cultural space, there is a need to constantly update philosophical approaches to consideration of a person, adequate modern socio-cultural reality. The history of civilization is definitely proved, at least for Homo sapiens, the truth about what philosophy is a great teacher, giving invaluable lessons to the thinking of the individual life. It should be emphasized that the formation of new philosophical ideas in the study of a person is determined not only by local problems and contradictions, but also in a wider meaning by scale transformations in the cultural life of society, changes of its intellectual status, upgrading of social interaction models with regard to new civilizations requests. The author turns to the origins, nature and interpretation of the term “postmodern”, gives the classic definition of postmodern proposes results of one’s own thoughts. The author sees the output in developing models of social adaptation as the most constructive and effective means of application is being implicitly provides specificity of modern humans in the changing conditions of the world. Said specificity is that the subject of modern civilization is the history of much of the world’s population as solidarity, integrated and activated in the political, economic, spiritual, cultural and informational interaction subject.

  10. Food – The Story of Our Life: A Contribution to the Studies of Food and the Anthropology of Taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Đerić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available By approaching the phenomenon of food (consumption as an identity issue of the first order, as man’s alimentary, only true biography, and an authentic expression of self and experience, but also as a key phenomenon in the development of man and mankind, the author points toward the anthropologically relevant aspects of research pertaining to food (the mythological, cultural and historical, economic, aesthetic, linguistic, political. The development of the art and philosophy of food (consumption is considered in the context of history of the ideas of Epicureanism, empiricism and lametrism, as well as in the context of the end of the cult of culture” in its traditional meaning. Moving between issues of art theory and epistemology, the author pays special attention to the causes of the theoretical neglect of the senses of taste and smell, historical reasons of the second-rate position of gastronomy among the other sciences and arts, as well as changes taking place at the end of the “short 20th century” which enabled a revolution in aesthetics and social values – the expansion of food studies and the art of cookery. Thus the aim of the paper is twofold: on the one hand it is an attempt to shed some light on the history of this revolution in the context of the theoretical and aesthetic relationship toward food and the art of its preparation, and on the other, it should be an argument incentive to have the basic issue of food (consumption find its way onto our own academic menu.

  11. An Update on the Hazards and Risks of Forensic Anthropology, Part I: Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Dabbs, Gretchen R; Spencer, Jessica R

    2016-01-01

    This work reviews the hazards and risks of practicing forensic anthropology in North America, with a focus on pathogens encountered through contact with unpreserved human remains. Since the publication of Galloway and Snodgrass' seminal paper concerning the hazards of forensic anthropology, research has provided new information about known pathogen hazards, and regulating authorities have updated recommendations for the recognition and treatment of several infections. Additionally, forensic anthropology has gained popularity, exposing an increased number of students and practitioners to these hazards. Current data suggest many occupational exposures to blood or body fluids go unreported, especially among students, highlighting the need for this discussion. For each pathogen and associated disease, this work addresses important history, reviews routes of exposure, provides an overview of symptoms and treatments, lists decontamination procedures, and presents data on postmortem viability. Personal protection and laboratory guidelines should be established and enforced in conjunction with the consideration of these data. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Philosophy at Cambridge, Newsletter of the Faculty of Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Lecky-Thompson, Jenni

    2009-01-01

    Philosophy Newsletter. Articles by: Edward Craig - From the Chairman. Onora O'Neill - "It's the newspapers I can't stand. Serena Olsaretti - The 2004 Annual Royal Institute of Philosophy Conference. Mary Leng - Mathematical Knowledge Conference. Postgraduate Conference. Jane Heal - Facts, Fables and Funds. Hugh Mellor - Uses and Abuses of Probability. Amanda Boyle - Nobody Knows Anything: Philosophy, Film and Me. Jaime Whyte - Seven Years at Cambridge Alex Oliver...

  13. Forensic anthropology in Europe: an assessment of current status and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranioti, Elena; Paine, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Forensic anthropology is the discipline that traditionally deals with the examination of human remains for legal purposes and it derives from the fields of anatomy, physical anthropology and forensic medicine. For more than a century, forensic anthropologists in the United States have been offering their services in the court of law complementing the medico-legal investigation of other forensic professionals. The current status in European countries is presented here. The development of forensic anthropology varies significantly among the countries of Europe. Whereas some countries show a long history of research activity in the forensic sciences, including forensic anthropology (i.e. France, Germany and Spain), others are exhibiting a recent, rapid development (i.e. United Kingdom). In some cases, forensic anthropologists are employed within the academic realm (i.e. U.K., Denmark, Portugal, Turkey), forensic institutions (Netherlands) or government organizations (Spain, Hungary), although the vast majority of them remain limited to freelance activities on a sporadic basis. Often, European scientists that deal with skeletal remains come from nonphysical anthropology disciplines such as archaeology, forensic medicine and biology. In many cases they do not have adequate training equivalent to the forensic anthropologists in the USA. Naturally, without common training and a common legal system, an accreditation system for Europe will be difficult to implement.

  14. Shakespeare's Philosophy of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Sulka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Shakespeare is one of the most widely read figures in literature, but his use of music is not usually touched on in literary discussions of his works. In this paper, I discuss how Shakespeare portrays music within the context of his plays, through both dialogue and songs performed within each work. In Shakespeare’s time, Boethius’s philosophy of the Music of the Spheres was still highly popular. This was the idea that the arrangement of the cosmos mirrored musical proportions. As a result, every aspect of the universe was believed to be highly ordered, and this idea is prominent throughout Shakespeare’s works, from "Hamlet" to "A Midsummer Night’s Dream." To make this clear to the reader, I discuss dialogue symmetry weaved throughout "The Merchant of Venice," clear allusions to the music of the spheres in "Pericles," and the use of music as a signifier of the strange and mysterious – from madness to love – in numerous works, always relating these topics back to the philosophy of the music of the spheres. In order to compile this information and make it clear, I researched the philosophy of music during Shakespeare’s era. I also researched how he uses music thematically to emphasize different characters’ struggles as well as plot details. After examining his plays as well as the other sources available on the subject, it is clear that Shakespeare was highly influenced by the philosophical and practical ideas regarding music of his time, specifically the theory of the music of the spheres.

  15. The Philosophy of Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamcham, Khalil; Silk, Joseph; Barrow, John D.; Saunders, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Part I. Issues in the Philosophy of Cosmology: 1. Cosmology, cosmologia and the testing of cosmological theories George F. R. Ellis; 2. Black holes, cosmology and the passage of time: three problems at the limits of science Bernard Carr; 3. Moving boundaries? - comments on the relationship between philosophy and cosmology Claus Beisbart; 4. On the question why there exists something rather than nothing Roderich Tumulka; Part II. Structures in the Universe and the Structure of Modern Cosmology: 5. Some generalities about generality John D. Barrow; 6. Emergent structures of effective field theories Jean-Philippe Uzan; 7. Cosmological structure formation Joel R. Primack; 8. Formation of galaxies Joseph Silk; Part III. Foundations of Cosmology: Gravity and the Quantum: 9. The observer strikes back James Hartle and Thomas Hertog; 10. Testing inflation Chris Smeenk; 11. Why Boltzmann brains do not fluctuate into existence from the de Sitter vacuum Kimberly K. Boddy, Sean M. Carroll and Jason Pollack; 12. Holographic inflation revised Tom Banks; 13. Progress and gravity: overcoming divisions between general relativity and particle physics and between physics and HPS J. Brian Pitts; Part IV. Quantum Foundations and Quantum Gravity: 14. Is time's arrow perspectival? Carlo Rovelli; 15. Relational quantum cosmology Francesca Vidotto; 16. Cosmological ontology and epistemology Don N. Page; 17. Quantum origin of cosmological structure and dynamical reduction theories Daniel Sudarsky; 18. Towards a novel approach to semi-classical gravity Ward Struyve; Part V. Methodological and Philosophical Issues: 19. Limits of time in cosmology Svend E. Rugh and Henrik Zinkernagel; 20. Self-locating priors and cosmological measures Cian Dorr and Frank Arntzenius; 21. On probability and cosmology: inference beyond data? Martin Sahlén; 22. Testing the multiverse: Bayes, fine-tuning and typicality Luke A. Barnes; 23. A new perspective on Einstein's philosophy of cosmology Cormac O

  16. William Whewell's philosophy of architecture and the historicization of biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Aleta

    2016-10-01

    William Whewell's work on historical science has received some attention from historians and philosophers of science. Whewell's own work on the history of German Gothic church architecture has been touched on within the context of the history of architecture. To a large extent these discussions have been conducted separately. I argue that Whewell intended his work on Gothic architecture as an attempt to (help) found a science of historical architecture, as an exemplar of historical science. I proceed by analyzing the key features of Whewell's philosophy of historical science. I then show how his architectural history exemplifies this philosophy. Finally, I show how Whewell's philosophy of historical science matches some developments in a science (biological systematics) that, in the mid-to late-nineteenth century, came to be reinterpreted as a historical science. I comment briefly on Whewell as a potential influence on nineteenth century biology and in particular on Darwin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. French PWR safety philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, M.

    1986-05-01

    Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from starting and operating experience of French nuclear power plants, completed by the experience learned from the operation of foreign reactors, has contributed to the improvement of French PWR design and safety philosophy. Based on a deterministic approach, the French safety analysis was progressively completed by a probabilistic approach, each of them having possibilities and limits. As a consequence of the global risk objective set in 1977 for nuclear reactors, safety analysis was extended to the evaluation of events more complex than the conventional ones, and later to the evaluation of the feasibility of the offsite emergency plans in case of severe accidents

  18. A TQC philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sandrock

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a recent upsurge in the quest for world class manufacturing. Tremendous amounts of effort are being exerted to attain Total quality Control (TQC - so as to be able to produce "the best". The EEC has stated categorically that it will only support accredited suppliers, and this has been partly responsible for the recent fixation on techniques for excellence. These techniques often fail to produce results. This paper presents a systems based philosophy for working towards world class levels of manufacturing.

  19. Modern philosophy of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirillov N. P

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors suggest the concept of philosophy of education, which implies that education is focused on building the concept of a creative professional. The paper actualizes problems of methodology of scientific knowledge, ontological and gnoseological thinking alongside with their role in education. It is claimed that understanding of gnoseological thinking that captures the cognitive process as a whole, including methods, resources, procedures, approaches and ability to apply this method within the scope of science in any educational process, is a necessary condition in developing a creatively thinking professional. Thus, in order to implement this objective the paper covers the use of interdisciplinary and abovedisciplinary approaches in education.

  20. Poetry, philosophy, political

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pucheu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering how persistently a certain amount of specialized critics work to diminish contemporary Brazilian poetry, this essay seeks to conceive an articulation among poetry, philosophy and politics. We atempt to do that, on the one hand, through the philosophical concepts of aporia and wonder (thaumazein, and, on the another hand, by considering what Giorgio Agamben refers to as “an insurmontable disjunction between whatever singularity and the State organization”. Among the many poets that could be approached in this context, we chose to close the text with an interpretation some of Tarso de Melo's remarkably and explicitly political poems.

  1. Introducing philosophy of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Friend, Michele

    2014-01-01

    What is mathematics about? Does the subject-matter of mathematics exist independently of the mind or are they mental constructions? How do we know mathematics? Is mathematical knowledge logical knowledge? And how is mathematics applied to the material world? In this introduction to the philosophy of mathematics, Michele Friend examines these and other ontological and epistemological problems raised by the content and practice of mathematics. Aimed at a readership with limited proficiency in mathematics but with some experience of formal logic it seeks to strike a balance between conceptual acc

  2. Philosophy of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M; Woods, John

    2009-01-01

    One of the most striking features of mathematics is the fact that we are much more certain about the mathematical knowledge we have than about what mathematical knowledge is knowledge of. Are numbers, sets, functions and groups physical entities of some kind? Are they objectively existing objects in some non-physical, mathematical realm? Are they ideas that are present only in the mind? Or do mathematical truths not involve referents of any kind? It is these kinds of questions that have encouraged philosophers and mathematicians alike to focus their attention on issues in the philosophy of mat

  3. Philosophy of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amein, H.; Joyia, Y.; Qureshi, M.N.; Asif, M.

    1995-01-01

    In view of the huge power demand in future, the capital investment requirements for the development of power projects to meet the future energy requirements are so alarming that public sector alone cannot manage to raise funds and participation of the private sector in power generation development has become imperative. This paper discusses a power generation philosophy based on preference to the exploitation of indigenous resources and participation of private sector. In order to have diversification in generation resources, due consideration has been given to the development of nuclear power and even non-conventional but promising technologies of solar, wind, biomass and geothermal etc. (author)

  4. Contributions to a historical review of biological anthropology in Brazil from the second half of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verlan Valle Gaspar Neto

    Full Text Available Abstract This article provides a preliminary historical survey of Brazilian biological anthropology from the second half of the twentieth century. Even today, little historiographic information on the last 50 or 60 years is available and/or has been explored, while few allusions to bioanthropology can be found in existing works on the history and contemporary state of anthropology in Brazil; this article attempts to span this gap. The first section examines various aspects of the general development of biological anthropology as it radiated from the centers (Europe and the United States outward over time. This initial survey affords a clearer understanding of the Brazilian case, which is the topic of the second section. This is followed by a brief historical and bibliographic account of the most recent state of biological anthropology in the country, including a number of specialized areas of research. The article concludes with a short discussion of the material covered.

  5. ANTHROPOLOGICAL INTENTION OF PHILOSOPHIZING OF RENE DESCARTES AND ITS MANIFESTATION IN THE TEXT «THE RULES»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolii Malivskyi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Based on the understanding of The New Time philosophy as a response to the challenges of the era in relation to the construction of an objective picture of the world and the self-creation of man, to analyze the main options for evaluating the ambivalence of the basic intention of the philosophy of Descartes in the research literature and to clarify the nature of ambiguity. To justify the dominant nature of anthropological intention in the text of the «Rules for Guiding the Mind in Searching for the Truth». Novelty. The nature of the ambivalence of the basic intention of the text of the "Rules" is clarified as a form of two basic existences, opposite to the New Time, namely the query on the objectivity of scientific knowledge and inquiry in anthropology as a cornerstone of philosophy. The author of the article proves the domination of anthropological component of the text «The Rules» in front of scientific knowledge. Conclusions. The main manifestations of ambivalence of basic directivity of philosophizing of Rene Descartes to construction of an objective picture of the world and self-creation of person were described. The determining influence on the process of the establishment of basic intention of the specificity of the experience of mathematical knowledge and Plato’s and Aristotle’s tradition of philosophizing for the first, and of personal tradition of Christianity in the second place was emphasized. In the reference to the text «The Rules» of Descartes the ambiguity of the basic direction was argued, the nature and domination of the anthropological intention were justified.

  6. Philosophy as Inquiry Aimed at the Absolute Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Snarskaya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy as the absolute knowledge has been studied from two different but closely related approaches: historical and logical. The first approach exposes four main stages in the history of European metaphysics that marked out types of “philosophical absolutism”: the evolution of philosophy brought to light metaphysics of being, method, morals and logic. All of them are associated with the names of Aristotle, Bacon/Descartes, Kant and Hegel. Then these forms are considered in the second approach that defined them as subject-matter of philosophy as such. Due to their overall, comprehensive character, the focus of philosophy on them justifies its claim on absoluteness as far as philosophy is aimed at comprehension of the world’s unity regardless of the philosopher’s background, values and other preferences. And that is its prerogative since no other form of consciousness lays down this kind of aim. Thus, philosophy is defined as an everlasting attempt to succeed in conceiving the world in all its multifold manifestations. This article is to try to clarify the claim of philosophy on the absolute knowledge.

  7. Philosophy of Transdisciplinarу Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Kijaščenko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioethics originated as a specific collective response of representatives of biomedical sciences, humanities and the public to the complexity of moral, anthropological and ontological problems (often in situations bordering on life and death caused by constant development of biomedical technologies. These problems escape simple, universal (eternal solutions. This makes them “finite”, multiple, dependent on the “here and now” circumstances of the choise of cognitive and communicative transdisciplinary strategies.The word “transdisciplinary” means interdisciplinary biomedical practices where in order to achieve common solutions and understand their common problem as a whole, it is necessary to transcend the area of expert authority and move into the area of “life-world”. From the philosophical point of view the idea of complexity can be interpreted as a network of relationships between the ideas of multiplicity and unity. The problem is to bring out through communication a unity of different kinds of unities presented in philosophy, theology, science, humanities and public discourses. To some extent transdisciplinarity is experience of paradoxes. They escape final resolution and give rise to ever new interpretations, have a permanent tendency to reemerge in ever new situation. They operate like “causa sue” of transdisciplinary communications in bioethics. 

  8. French PWR Safety Philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    The first 900 MWe units, built under the American Westinghouse licence and with reference to the U. S. regulation, were followed by 28 standardized units, C P1 and C P2 series. Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from starting and operating experience of French nuclear power plants, completed by the experience learned from the operation of foreign reactors, has contributed to the improvement of French PWR design and safety philosophy. As early as 1976, this experience was taken into account by French Safety organisms to discuss, with Electricite de France, the safety options for the planned 1300 MWe units, P4 and P4 series. In 1983, the new reactor scheduled, Ni4 series 1400 MWe, is a totally French design which satisfies the French regulations and other French standards and codes. Based on a deterministic approach, the French safety analysis was progressively completed by a probabilistic approach each of them having possibilities and limits. Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from operating experience have contributed to the French safety philosophy improvement. The methodology now applied to safety evaluation develops a new facet of the in depth defense concept by taking highly unlikely events into consideration, by developing the search of safety consistency of the design, and by completing the deterministic approach by the probabilistic one

  9. The philosophy of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rickles, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Does the future exist already? What is space? Are time machines physically possible? What is quantum mechanical reality like? Are there many universes? Is there a 'true' geometry of the universe? Why does there appear to be an arrow of time? Do humans play a special role in the world? In this unique introductory book, Dean Rickles guides the reader through these and other core questions that keep philosophers of physics up at night. He discusses the three pillars of modern physics (quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, and the theories of relativity), in addition to more cutting-edge themes such as econophysics, quantum gravity, quantum computers, and gauge theories. The book's approach is based on the idea that philosophy of physics is a kind of 'interpretation game' in which we try to map physical theories onto our world. But the rules of this game often lead to a multiplicity of possible victors: rarely do we encounter a simple answer. The Philosophy of Physics offers a highly accessible introduction...

  10. The GenoChip: A New Tool for Genetic Anthropology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaik, Eran; Greenspan, Elliott; Staats, Sean; Krahn, Thomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Tofanelli, Sergio; Francalacci, Paolo; Cucca, Francesco; Pagani, Luca; Jin, Li; Li, Hui; Schurr, Theodore G.; Greenspan, Bennett; Spencer Wells, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Genographic Project is an international effort aimed at charting human migratory history. The project is nonprofit and nonmedical, and, through its Legacy Fund, supports locally led efforts to preserve indigenous and traditional cultures. Although the first phase of the project was focused on uniparentally inherited markers on the Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the current phase focuses on markers from across the entire genome to obtain a more complete understanding of human genetic variation. Although many commercial arrays exist for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping, they were designed for medical genetic studies and contain medically related markers that are inappropriate for global population genetic studies. GenoChip, the Genographic Project’s new genotyping array, was designed to resolve these issues and enable higher resolution research into outstanding questions in genetic anthropology. The GenoChip includes ancestry informative markers obtained for over 450 human populations, an ancient human (Saqqaq), and two archaic hominins (Neanderthal and Denisovan) and was designed to identify all known Y-chromosome and mtDNA haplogroups. The chip was carefully vetted to avoid inclusion of medically relevant markers. To demonstrate its capabilities, we compared the FST distributions of GenoChip SNPs to those of two commercial arrays. Although all arrays yielded similarly shaped (inverse J) FST distributions, the GenoChip autosomal and X-chromosomal distributions had the highest mean FST, attesting to its ability to discern subpopulations. The chip performances are illustrated in a principal component analysis for 14 worldwide populations. In summary, the GenoChip is a dedicated genotyping platform for genetic anthropology. With an unprecedented number of approximately 12,000 Y-chromosomal and approximately 3,300 mtDNA SNPs and over 130,000 autosomal and X-chromosomal SNPs without any known health, medical, or phenotypic

  11. The GenoChip: a new tool for genetic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaik, Eran; Greenspan, Elliott; Staats, Sean; Krahn, Thomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Tofanelli, Sergio; Francalacci, Paolo; Cucca, Francesco; Pagani, Luca; Jin, Li; Li, Hui; Schurr, Theodore G; Greenspan, Bennett; Spencer Wells, R

    2013-01-01

    The Genographic Project is an international effort aimed at charting human migratory history. The project is nonprofit and nonmedical, and, through its Legacy Fund, supports locally led efforts to preserve indigenous and traditional cultures. Although the first phase of the project was focused on uniparentally inherited markers on the Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the current phase focuses on markers from across the entire genome to obtain a more complete understanding of human genetic variation. Although many commercial arrays exist for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping, they were designed for medical genetic studies and contain medically related markers that are inappropriate for global population genetic studies. GenoChip, the Genographic Project's new genotyping array, was designed to resolve these issues and enable higher resolution research into outstanding questions in genetic anthropology. The GenoChip includes ancestry informative markers obtained for over 450 human populations, an ancient human (Saqqaq), and two archaic hominins (Neanderthal and Denisovan) and was designed to identify all known Y-chromosome and mtDNA haplogroups. The chip was carefully vetted to avoid inclusion of medically relevant markers. To demonstrate its capabilities, we compared the FST distributions of GenoChip SNPs to those of two commercial arrays. Although all arrays yielded similarly shaped (inverse J) FST distributions, the GenoChip autosomal and X-chromosomal distributions had the highest mean FST, attesting to its ability to discern subpopulations. The chip performances are illustrated in a principal component analysis for 14 worldwide populations. In summary, the GenoChip is a dedicated genotyping platform for genetic anthropology. With an unprecedented number of approximately 12,000 Y-chromosomal and approximately 3,300 mtDNA SNPs and over 130,000 autosomal and X-chromosomal SNPs without any known health, medical, or phenotypic

  12. AN ANTHROPOLOGY OF THINGS: ETHNOGRAPHY AND METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    messias basques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This bibliographic essay is based on the book that resulted from a series of discussions promoted by a group of doctoral students in the Department of Social Anthropology at Cambridge University in late 1990s. Despite the diversity of ethnographic contexts, all authors share the challenge of recasting the relationship between anthropological theory and ethnographic method in relation to the study of what is conventionally called material culture. Hence the title Thinking Through Things, besides denoting an anthropological question about what informants do, and how the authors could develop versions on the ways from which they perceive and conceive of things also includes the main character of the meetings that led to the writing of this book.

  13. Business Anthropology, Family Ideology and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Like those of business and management studies, methodological and theoretical contributions of anthropology to the study of family business cannot be ignored. This article elucidates three interconnected themes relating to the development and practices of business anthropology and family ideology...... in Japan. It also looks at how the family ideology in Japanese business first described and explained by anthropologists has been taken up by those with an interest in the Japanese industrial system, but working in field of management and business studies without any particular specialization in "things...... Japanese." Their research often relies on second than first-hand knowledge, and can therefore be misleading. The author points to the perceived connections between the traditional household system, not just family ideology, and modern economic relations. He reminds us that what distinguishes anthropology...

  14. Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, and Counseling Ethics: Not an Abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urofsky, Robert I.; Engels, Dennis W.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past several decades, increased attention has been given to ethics in the preparation of counselors and psychologists. With that increase comes a number of voices calling for exposure to and integration of not only moral philosophy but other areas of philosophy to enhance understanding and provide a foundation for counseling practice. The…

  15. OSL properties of anthropological bone and tooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meric, Niyazi; Kosal, Mehmet; Altay Atlihan, M.; Rabia Yuece, Ulkue

    2008-01-01

    The aim of present work was to investigate whether anthropological bone and teeth can be used in dosimetric and dating studies. The radiation dose responses of anthropological human bone and pig teeth were obtained and studied using infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). The radiation dose responses of these materials were found to be compatible with commonly used feldspar and quartz compounds. The IRSL signal was shown to be linear with a radiation dose until ∼200 Gy and stable at ambient temperature, which may allow the use of such materials for dating

  16. Short cuts: Anthropological study of contemporary comercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The anthropological study of commercials is based on the meaning of the entire content of the commercial, in order to contextualize the time and space in which the commercial is made and used. On the basis of this analytical step it can be determined which values the commercial contains and what its relationship to the value system in its surroundings is. The analytical steps of the semiology of commercials, as the most important methodological approach in the anthropological analysis of commercials, is generated from the general semiological approach but can also be “borrowed” from the semiology of visual images, especially the semiology of film.

  17. OSL properties of anthropological bone and tooth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meric, Niyazi [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: meric@ankara.edu.tr; Kosal, Mehmet [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: kosal@eng.ankara.edu.tr; Altay Atlihan, M. [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: atlihan@eng.ankara.edu.tr; Rabia Yuece, Ulkue [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ulku.yuce@taek.gov.tr

    2008-06-15

    The aim of present work was to investigate whether anthropological bone and teeth can be used in dosimetric and dating studies. The radiation dose responses of anthropological human bone and pig teeth were obtained and studied using infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). The radiation dose responses of these materials were found to be compatible with commonly used feldspar and quartz compounds. The IRSL signal was shown to be linear with a radiation dose until {approx}200 Gy and stable at ambient temperature, which may allow the use of such materials for dating.

  18. Poultry studies and anthropological research strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, M.

    2002-01-01

    Poultry are not simply birds; they are also a human creation, a social and cultural practice. The human element is the justification for an anthropology of poultry. Such an anthropology combines the objective research strategies familiar to the natural sciences with what is often called 'subjective' or qualitative research. In the study of poultry management, it is important that both research strategies focus on differences and variation. The subjective approach is particularly useful in identifying and understanding how the motivations and strategies of local actors are dependent on the social positions, which they occupy in their specific societies. (author)

  19. The anthropology of music: contemporary theoretical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The anthropological study of music focuses on meanings which music hah and produces in a specific sociocultural context. Preferences toward a certain genre of music are tightly linked to the preference of certain cultural values, so music represents an important factor of identification in everyday life. In Serbian ethnology and anthropology music was long viewed as part of Serbian traditional culture, so the interests of researchers focused on “traditional music”. In the 1980’s first papers analyzing music which went outside the traditional frameworks appeared (new folk music – turbofolk, and this tendency has increased in the last ten years.

  20. Techno-anthropology and the digital natives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The ethnographic field guide was a short-lived genre in the annals of anthropology. In this chapter I experimentally attempt to revive it. The original guides provided the ethnographer with a set of practical pointers on how to organise fieldwork, set up camp, maintain relations, and negotiate ac...... of digital natives, and that maintaining relations with these natives presents a challenge of its own. I argue that these challenges must be taken seriously, and that techno-anthropology could be ideally suited to do just that....

  1. Value Formation of Basic Anthropological Connectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    and their political value formations. In this regard, the interdisciplinary contribution of Psychology is to explore how humans as active participants can and will participate in handling such value tasks. The article presents a general, theoretical, political-psychological model, which unites precisely these two......Abstract. Human beings live and thrive in surroundings based on the human condition of certain basic anthropological connectivities. Amongst the vital political life tasks can be mentioned the ones of establishing, maintaining and critically/conformably developing these basic conditions...... aspects: The political value formations of the basic anthropological conditions in human life, and the capability and will to participate in solving the subsequent value tasks....

  2. Introduction: philosophy in and philosophy of cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Despite being there from the beginning, philosophical approaches have never had a settled place in cognitive research and few cognitive researchers not trained in philosophy have a clear sense of what its role has been or should be. We distinguish philosophy in cognitive research and philosophy of cognitive research. Concerning philosophy in cognitive research, after exploring some standard reactions to this work by nonphilosophers, we will pay particular attention to the methods that philosophers use. Being neither experimental nor computational, they can leave others bewildered. Thought experiments are the most striking example but not the only one. Concerning philosophy of cognitive research, we will pay particular attention to its power to generate and test normative claims, claims about what should and should not be done. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. Freud, Bion and Kant: Epistemology and anthropology in The Interpretation of Dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Stella

    2017-02-01

    This interdisciplinary article takes a philosophical approach to The Interpretation of Dreams, connecting Freud to one of the few philosophers with whom he sometimes identified - Immanuel Kant. It aims to show that Freud's theory of dreams has more in common with Bion's later thoughts on dreaming than is usually recognized. Distinguishing, via a discussion of Kant, between the conflicting 'epistemological' and 'anthropological' aspects of The Interpretation of Dreams, it shows that one specific contradiction in the book - concerning the relation between dream-work and waking thought - can be understood in terms of the tension between these conflicting aspects. Freud reaches the explicit conclusion that the dream-work and waking thought differ from each other absolutely; but the implicit conclusion of The Interpretation of Dreams is quite the opposite. This article argues that the explicit conclusion is the result of the epistemological aspects of the book; the implicit conclusion, which brings Freud much closer to Bion, the result of the anthropological approach. Bringing philosophy and psychoanalysis together this paper thus argues for an interpretation of The Interpretation of Dreams that is in some ways at odds with the standard view of the book, while also suggesting that aspects of Kant's 'anthropological' works might legitimately be seen as a precursor of psychoanalysis. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  4. Patristic anthropology opportunities to form new humanitarian approaches in scientific and educational environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Leonov, Fr.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The author notes the growing interest in patristic anthropology in recent decades, emphasizes its contact points with the secular humanities (especially with psychology, pedagogy and philosophy, lack of fundamental contradictions between them and relevance of their concepts, defines the basic coordinates of the problem field of its study and ways to overcome differences. For psychology and pedagogy, the Christian anthropology could become a new coordinate system, in space of which the spiritual content of already established scientific facts and theories will be revealed, the opportunities will occur for moral interpretations of the known phenomena in order to be used for specific real help. This approach allows us to speak about the prospects of the Orthodox psychology and Orthodox pedagogy. According to the author, the potential of Christian anthropology and its potential use in the scientific community are great, but for the development of this area not only intellectual effort of the research team is necessary, but a global rethinking of attitudes of modern society.

  5. Constructive philosophy of technology and responsible innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.; Franssen, M.; Vermaas, P.E.; Kroes, P.; Meijers, A.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    This essay argues for a new turn after the empirical turn in the philosophy of technology: the societal turn, which is the turn from reflective philosophy of technology (academic philosophy concerned with analysis and understanding) to constructive philosophy of technology (philosophy that is

  6. Medical anthropology as an antidote for ethnocentrism in Jesus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical anthropology as an antidote for ethnocentrism in Jesus research? ... for making sense of healing accounts whilst claiming to cross the cultural gap. Based on an analysis of the illness–disease distinction in medical anthropology and its ...

  7. Anthropological perspectives on democratic citizenship education and globalization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červinková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2013, č. 27 (2013), s. 253-262 ISSN 1233-6688 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : citizenship education * anthropology of education * action research * youth * participation * globalization Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  8. Revitalizing Anthropology in East Africa: The Birth of EAAA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First, anthropology as a discipline is another of the Western social science ... into the four fields of linguistic, cultural, physical, and archaeological anthropology. ... is in an archaeology unit that was structured to augment the work of historians.

  9. Anthropology and Epidemiology: learning epistemological lessons through a collaborative venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhague, Dominique Pareja; Gonçalves, Helen; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2009-01-01

    Collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology has a long and tumultuous history. Based on empirical examples, this paper describes a number of epistemological lessons we have learned through our experience of cross-disciplinary collaboration. Although critical of both mainstream epidemiology and medical anthropology, our analysis focuses on the implications of addressing each discipline’s main epistemological differences, while addressing the goal of adopting a broader social approach to health improvement. We believe it is important to push the boundaries of research collaborations from the more standard forms of “multidisciplinarity,” to the adoption of theoretically imbued “interdisciplinarity.” The more we challenge epistemological limitations and modify ways of knowing, the more we will be able to provide in-depth explanations for the emergence of disease-patterns and thus, to problem-solve. In our experience, both institutional support and the adoption of a relativistic attitude are necessary conditions for sustained theoretical interdisciplinarity. Until researchers acknowledge that methodology is merely a human-designed tool to interpret reality, unnecessary methodological hyper-specialization will continue to alienate one field of knowledge from the other. PMID:18833344

  10. Physics and philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Feyerabend, P K; Agassi, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This collection of the writings of Paul Feyerabend is focused on his philosophy of quantum physics, the hotbed of the key issues of his most debated ideas. Written between 1948 and 1970, these writings come from his first and most productive period. These early works are important for two main reasons. First, they document Feyerabend's deep concern with the philosophical implications of quantum physics and its interpretations. These ideas were paid less attention in the following two decades. Second, the writings provide the crucial background for Feyerabend's critiques of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn. Although rarely considered by scholars, Feyerabend's early work culminated in the first version of Against Method. These writings guided him on all the key issues of his most well-known and debated theses, such as the incommensurability thesis, the principles of proliferation and tenacity, and his particular version of relativism, and more specifically on quantum mechanics.

  11. Philosophy of ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Bryson; Peacock, Kent A

    2011-01-01

    The most pressing problems facing humanity today - over-population, energy shortages, climate change, soil erosion, species extinctions, the risk of epidemic disease, the threat of warfare that could destroy all the hard-won gains of civilization, and even the recent fibrillations of the stock market - are all ecological or have a large ecological component. in this volume philosophers turn their attention to understanding the science of ecology and its huge implications for the human project. To get the application of ecology to policy or other practical concerns right, humanity needs a clear and disinterested philosophical understanding of ecology which can help identify the practical lessons of science. Conversely, the urgent practical demands humanity faces today cannot help but direct scientific and philosophical investigation toward the basis of those ecological challenges that threaten human survival. This book will help to fuel the timely renaissance of interest in philosophy of ecology that is now oc...

  12. Philosophie en islam

    OpenAIRE

    Jambet, Christian

    2013-01-01

    I. L’héritage d’Avicenne au xviie siècle : le Commentaire de la Métaphysique du Shifā’ par Mullā Ṣadrā Les philosophes de l’Iran safavide ont une dette envers l’œuvre d’Avicenne, Abū ʽAlī ibn Sīnā (m. 428/1037). L’ouvrage synthétique et allusif d’Avicenne, al-Ishārāt wa l-tanbīhāt fut méthodiquement étudié par les savants imamites quand Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī en eut achevé son commentaire vers 664/1246. Les philosophes instruits de la théologie rationnelle imamite et de la philosophie « illumin...

  13. Legitimizing Blacks in Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameliah Shorter-Bourhanou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In its efforts toward improving diversity, the discipline of philosophy has tended to focus on increasing the number of black philosophers. One crucial issue that has received less attention is the extent to which black philosophers are delegitimized in the discipline because their philosophical contributions challenge the status quo. A systematic problem that bars black philosophers from equal and full participation, this delegitimization precludes the emergence of genuine diversity and reveals the importance of interrogating broader attitudes toward black philosophical contributions. In this essay, I argue for radical systematic changes to disciplinary hallmarks of professionalization such as pedagogy, mentoring, publishing, and hiring practices with the aim of legitimizing black philosophers and their contributions.

  14. Philosophy of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Forster, Malcolm R

    2011-01-01

    Statisticians and philosophers of science have many common interests but restricted communication with each other. This volume aims to remedy these shortcomings. It provides state-of-the-art research in the area of philosophy of statistics by encouraging numerous experts to communicate with one another without feeling "restricted” by their disciplines or thinking "piecemeal” in their treatment of issues. A second goal of this book is to present work in the field without bias toward any particular statistical paradigm. Broadly speaking, the essays in this Handbook are concerned with problems of induction, statistics and probability. For centuries, foundational problems like induction have been among philosophers' favorite topics; recently, however, non-philosophers have increasingly taken a keen interest in these issues. This volume accordingly contains papers by both philosophers and non-philosophers, including scholars from nine academic disciplines.

  15. Reflections concerning radiation protection philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seelentag, W.

    1981-01-01

    Critical philosophy also includes observations of the technical amplified senses make, i.e. the application of accessory instruments, measuring instruments and statistic methods. The application of this philosophy is, among other things, referred to when taking the linear dose response relationship for stochastic radiation effects as an example. (DG) [de

  16. Kaupapa Maori, Philosophy and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Georgina

    2014-01-01

    Goals for adding philosophy to the school curriculum centre on the perceived need to improve the general quality of critical thinking found in society. School philosophy also provides a means for asking questions of value and purpose about curriculum content across and between subjects, and, furthermore, it affirms the capability of children to…

  17. Odera Oruka's Contribution to Philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commentators on the four trends in contemporary African philosophy as enunciated by H. Odera Oruka frequently focus on the merits and demerits of each trend. However, many of them are obblivious to the way in which sagacity emancipates African philosophy by putting reason in its rightful pivotal position. This article ...

  18. Present Day Philosophies of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2006-01-01

    Presently, there are competing philosophies of education which need comparison. Two philosophies will be compared which are at opposite ends of the continuum. They are distinctly different. And yet, both schools of thought have their disciples. Each of the two will be discussed in terms of its essential features and then there will be selected…

  19. Elementary School Philosophy: A Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartenberg, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to criticism of my book "Big Ideas for Little Kids." The main topics addressed are: Who is the audience for the book? Can people without formal philosophical training can be good facilitators of elementary school philosophy discussions? Is it important to assess attempts to teach philosophy in elementary school? Should…

  20. Exploring Anthropology’s Value to Military Strategy Since 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    anthropological study of military culture, MA2 : anthropological study for the military, in endeavors such as the Human Terrain System concept, where teams of...Anthropology The AAA has judged MA2 as the least ethical category of military anthropology by means of its code of ethics, CEAUSSIC reports, and...open debates on its blog. The lighting rod system most associated with MA2 is the Human Terrain Team, (HTT) employed under the Human Terrain System

  1. Ethnographies of Education: anthropological knowledge production in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pradhan, Uma; Valentin, Karen

    2018-01-01

    This paper critically examines the situated nature of ethnography for anthropological knowledge production in education and to discuss complex educational processes and meanings within and beyond institutions of formal learning central to the field of educational anthropology. The paper extends...... ongoing debates in educational anthropology on the importance of a localized, comparative and historically grounded approach to ethnographic studies of education, thereby acknowledging the anthropology of education in plural. It adds an intersubjective dimension to this through the biographical...

  2. [Treatment goals in FACE philosophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Domingo; Maté, Amaia; Zabalegui, Paula; Valenzuela, Jaime

    2017-03-01

    The FACE philosophy is characterized by clearly defined treatment goals: facial esthetics, dental esthetics, periodontal health, functional occlusion, neuromuscular mechanism and joint function. The purpose is to establish ideal occlusion with good facial esthetics and an orthopedic stable joint position. The authors present all the concepts of FACE philosophy and illustrate them through one case report. Taking into account all the FACE philosophy concepts increases diagnostic ability and improves the quality and stability of treatment outcomes. The goal of this philosophy is to harmonize the facial profile, tooth alignment, periodontium, functional occlusion, neuromuscular mechanism and joint function. The evaluation and treatment approach to vertical problems are unique to the philosophy. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2017.

  3. The Philosophy of Mathematics Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    mathematics education, and the most relevant modern movements in the philosophy of mathematics. A case study is provided of an emerging research tradition in one country. This is the Hermeneutic strand of research in the philosophy of mathematics education in Brazil. This illustrates one orientation towards......This survey provides a brief and selective overview of research in the philosophy of mathematics education. It asks what makes up the philosophy of mathematics education, what it means, what questions it asks and answers, and what is its overall importance and use? It provides overviews of critical...... research inquiry in the philosophy of mathematics education. It is part of a broader practice of ‘philosophical archaeology’: the uncovering of hidden assumptions and buried ideologies within the concepts and methods of research and practice in mathematics education. An extensive bibliography is also...

  4. Frauen in Philosophie und Wissenschaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Harzer

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Der von Brigitte Doetsch herausgegebene Band präsentiert die aktuelle Feministische Philosophie und sammelt Beiträge, die Einblick geben in den gegenwärtigen Forschungsstand, wie ihn „Philosophinnen im dritten Jahrtausend“ erreicht haben. Insgesamt neun, zum Teil interdisziplinär ausgerichtete Arbeiten werden vorgestellt. Das Themenspektrum ist weit: Geschichte der Philosophie; Politische Philosophie und Naturphilosophie; Epistemologie; Biopolitik und Bioethik als Bereiche praktischer Philosophie; Forschung über Geschlechterverhältnisse. Alle Beiträge gehen zurück auf eine Vortragsreihe des Braunschweiger Zentrums für Gender Studies (www.genderzentrum.de. Leser/-innen erhalten einen guten Überblick über die aktuelle Frauenforschung aus der Sicht theoretischer und praktischer Philosophie.

  5. ASPECTS OF BIOLOGICAL NEWS IN ANTHROPOLOGY OF EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus-Peter Herm

    2012-01-01

    The 9th International Congress of the “Gesellschaft of Anthropology” (GfA) has been held in Gottorf during September 2011.The content of lectures and posters were Palaeoanthropology, Archaeology, Pre-historic Anthropology, Humanethology, Forensic Anthropology, Prevention and Clinical Anthropology, Gender studies, Ergonomics, Pedagogic, Mathematics and patent law.

  6. 77 FR 5837 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Denver Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Cultural Items: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO... Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined... Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology. DATES: Representatives of any Indian tribe that...

  7. Quantum philosophy understanding and interpreting contemporary science

    CERN Document Server

    Omnès, Roland

    2002-01-01

    In this magisterial work, Roland Omnès takes us from the academies of ancient Greece to the laboratories of modern science as he seeks to do no less than rebuild the foundations of the philosophy of knowledge. One of the world's leading quantum physicists, Omnès reviews the history and recent development of mathematics, logic, and the physical sciences to show that current work in quantum theory offers new answers to questions that have puzzled philosophers for centuries: Is the world ultimately intelligible? Are all events caused? Do objects have definitive locations? Omnès addresses these p

  8. International Journal of Modern Anthropology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Modern Anthropology: Submissions ... Original Synthesis Reports or Research Reports presenting new ... Thought Reports or Thought Short Reports, Editorials, Perspectives and Book Reviews are welcome ... licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-NoDerivative Works 4.0 ...

  9. An Anthropology of Learning in Epistemic Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    I connect Karin Knorr-Cetina's concept of ‘epistemic cultures’ with an anthropological conceptualization of practice-based learning. The theory of practice-based learning I explore departs from the cultural psychologist Lev Vygotsky’s notion of word-meaning which can be seen as a basic unit...

  10. Anthropological significance of dermatoglyphic trait variation: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory of Human Genetics and Anthropology, Faculty of Pharmacy, ... 7th and 21st week of gestation (Miliĉiċ et al., 2003) and are fully formed at about seven ... century. Berbers and Arabs accepted mixed marriages until became a ...

  11. Anthropology with Activism: Settling Its Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Glynda A.

    2014-01-01

    This response to Katherine Schultz's Presidential Address to the Council on Anthropology and Education explores the themes of temporality and reflexivity in activist scholarship, with Schultz's research as prime example. The need to take action to address a crisis, juxtaposed to the counter need to take time for scholarly reflection and…

  12. Cognitive anthropology is a cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boster, James S

    2012-07-01

    Cognitive anthropology contributes to cognitive science as a complement to cognitive psychology. The chief threat to its survival has not been rejection by other cognitive scientists but by other cultural anthropologists. It will remain a part of cognitive science as long as cognitive anthropologists research, teach, and publish. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. 'Anthropological mutilation' and the reordering of Cameroonian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I argue in this article that the postcolonial existential wound, otherwise referred to by Eboussi Boulaga as the anthropological mutilation, represents the intertextual nexus that bridges the generational gap in Francophone Cameroonian literature. The tragic malaise, rooted in absurdity and the dire state of the postcolonial ...

  14. Innovation and Diffusion--An Anthropological View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Brian M.

    This chapter presents the anthropological theory of innovation and diffusion, and applies it to the problem of implementing planned change within the instructional development process. The work of Barnett and others on culture and planned culture change is described and applied to the educational system and the classroom environment. Barnett's…

  15. International Journal of Modern Anthropology: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore this journal could represent a model of volunteering or rather of voluntarism. However, the 'Centre National Universitaire de Documentation Scientifique et Technique' in Tunisia, has just begun to plan to encourage international scientific journals developed in Tunisia. Tunisian Association of Anthropology.

  16. Between archaeology and anthropology: imagining Neolithic settlements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Květina, Petr; Hrnčíř, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2013), s. 323-347 ISSN 0323-1119. [Theory and method in the prehistoric archaeology of Central Europe. Mikulov, 24.10.2012-26.10.2012] R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF12P01OVV032 Keywords : Neolithic longhouse * ethnographic analogy * settlement patterns Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  17. Gender-Bending Anthropological Studies of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambach, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Outlines some future research directions in anthropology and education as they relate to gender issues. Studying how gender and education can be linked to more general values embedded in social organization seems an important area to explore. An example would be exploring how the teacher-student relationship reflects gendered relations of…

  18. Honors Anthropology and the Four Rs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrer, Claire R.

    1990-01-01

    Describes an honors introductory cultural anthropology course taught at California State University, Chico. Discusses the course design, how course information is made relevant and reinforced, and how students have partial responsibility for the course design. Discusses the use of science fiction books to make material relevant to students. (JS)

  19. The Teaching of Anthropology: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Jacques

    1984-01-01

    College-level anthropology teaching in various countries, including Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia, is compared. Terminology is examined and historical background is provided. Also discussed are educational crises, the organization of teaching, and teaching methods. (RM)

  20. Economic Systems: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module uses a systems approach to allow students to see the connections and similarities which most cultural groups share on the basis of the type of economic organization that they exhibit. The module begins with a general discussion of…

  1. The Stories We Need: Anthropology, Philosophy, Narrative and Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutt, Cecily; Hobson, Julia

    2013-01-01

    As higher education research is largely practised by those immersed within the university, the questions we ask, and the stories we tell, over time co-create the university itself. Using Bruner's concept of the "narrative mode," we argue for a revaluing of narrative and storytelling within higher education research. We ground our…

  2. The image of Thought. The aura of the figure between philosophy and anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lilliu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio svolge un’indagine sull’emergere delle prime forme di figurazione e sul legame che esse intrattengono con la nascita della concettualità umana. Tramite la storia della figura si presenta un grande bivio della storia delle civiltà, la biforcazione essenziale causata dai due grandi modi di mettere all’opera la figura: da una parte l’operazione occidentale del senso, enucleata dalle analisi di Carlo Sini, dall’altra l’espressione figurativa delle trasformazioni naturali colta dall’ideogramma orientale, che produce un alternativo universo di senso, illustrata brillantemente da Fenollosa e Jullien. Attraverso l’evocazione dell’aura dei due diversi universi figurativi si tenta di delineare un percorso genealogico che ricostruisca un’unica immagine di pensiero.

  3. A historical introduction to the philosophy of science

    CERN Document Server

    Losee, John

    1993-01-01

    This new edition brings up to date this accessible study of the philosophy of science. Since the time of Plato and Aristotle, scientists and philosophers have raised questions about the proper evaluation of scientific interpretations. A Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Science is an exposition of differing viewpoints on issues such as the distinction between scientific inquiry and other types of interpretation, the relationship between theories and observation reports; the evaluation of competing theories; and the nature of progress in science. The author makes accessible the philosophy of science to readers who may not have extensive knowledge of formal logic or the history of the several sciences. The third edition incorporates an extended discussion of recent developments. Historicist critics of Logical Empiricism have established that evaluative standards and cognitive aims have changed within the history of science. This edition examines these changes, the recent controversies over scientific...

  4. The Subject of Culture Within the Objective Scope of the Philosophy of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Cherepanova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is pointed out that European and worldwide integration processes, the informatization and the competitive character of all the spheres of social life require the overcoming of the tendency of “catching up” that is characteristic of Ukraine — in favour of leaving behind the transformation of the educational sphere, especially the pedagogical one. The attitude of a human being to the world contains theoretical (knowledge and ideas and practical aspects. Created in the process of social development new establishments, things, technologies have a human content; implement human subjectivity — knowledge, intellect, feelings, thinking, volition, convictions, objectives etc. Under discordant challenges of globalization, the philosophy of education can provide an adequate answer, approaches and objectives. The philosophy of education functions as a combination of world view theories (ideas, scientific, cultural, value, moral and ethical principles that predetermine not only the content of education but also a certain type of personality… This takes into account the peculiarities of technogenic (western and traditional (eastern cultures, that is the type of personality: individualistic (the West, collectivistic (the East. The methodological prospects are determined by the correlation of humanitarian, dialogical, synergetic paradigms, the philosophic anthropology and ontology with the accent on culture creation as overcoming the boundaries of the possible (cognition, activity creation of the being by means of culture. The humanitarian and culture creating strategies of the philosophy of education are grounded as conceptually reasonable: integrity and interaction of basic being and value concepts (man-science-culture-art-the style of thinking and objectives — the formation of a personality as a subject of culture. The formation of the subject of culture takes place in a certain social community, among moral rules, customs and

  5. Post-Empiricism and Philosophy of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Marsonet

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide some sketchy remarks on the post-empiricist phenomenon in philosophy of science, taking into account the themes of the relationships between language on the one side and reality on the other, and the parallel problem of the alleged elimination of metaphysics. Unlike the logical empiricists, Popper believes that a clear separation between (i analytic and synthetic sentences, and (ii between theory and observation, is an impossible task. According to his view, theory and observation are intimately linked to each other, and no pure observation is ever possible. A position very similar to Popper’s was endorsed by the American pragmatists in the last two centuries with Charles S. Peirce, William James and John Dewey. There also are important similarities between what Popper says and William James’ theses. It is clear that if we recognize that the theoretical dimension precedes observation, and if we claim furthermore that scientific theories have a creative character, then we may explain the “jumps” that often take place in the history of science. Later on Feyerabend and his followers have turned philosophy of science into something mysterious and not easily classifiable in philosophical or scientific terms. The anything goes undermines the meaning itself of the discipline. If science is equated to any other dimension of spirit - art, religion, or even witchcraft - the specific and cognitive character of scientific rationality is eliminated. It follows that philosophy of science loses any meaningful role within the field of human knowledge, while even philosophy as such becomes more similar to a joke than to a serious endeavor.

  6. Anthropology in the post-Euclidean State, or from textual to oral anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luigi Palmisano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The actual crisis of anthropology is examined in relation to its wide public success. Anthropology has prospered and the anthropologists have proliferated becoming more specific. But the theoretical debate has come to a halt over the last decades. The article suggests that both the methodology and the form of expression of the ethnographic report have developed and then become crystallized around actual protocols. A critique of the dichotomy Subject/Object, namely the key discussion about the notion of Otherness, is here reexamined as the testimony for an immanent “non-protocolar” character of anthropology. This critique together with the end of anthropology as tekhne, i.e. as protocolar activity, will allow anthropology to go on enhancing many other social and non social sciences. The article discusses the re-definition of anthropology in the context of Daseinanalysis and, therefore the changing relation between man and power, that is between the social actor and the post-Euclidean State in the era of the tekhne.

  7. Assessment of arsenic surface contamination in a museum anthropology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribovich, Andrey; Lacey, Steven; Franke, John; Hinkamp, David

    2013-02-01

    To assess potential arsenic (As) contamination of work surfaces to improve upon the control strategy at an anthropology department in a large natural history museum. Work practices were observed and control strategy reviewed to inform an occupational hygiene assessment strategy utilizing surface wipe sampling. A total of 35 sampling targets were identified, focusing on surfaces that receive high touch traffic, including workstations, artifact transport carts, and elevator buttons. Arsenic sampling and analysis were performed using reference method Occupational Safety and Health Administration ID-125G. Four of the sampling areas returned detectable levels of As, ranging from 0.052 to 0.350 μg/100 cm. Workplace observations and wipe sampling data enabled the development of recommendations to help to further reduce potential occupational exposure to As. Continuous reduction of surface contamination is prudent for known human carcinogens.

  8. Common sense in moral philosophy of the age of Enlightenment

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    E. V. Sokurenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Age of Enlightenment had a special meaning for the history of moral philosophy, because in this period the morality becomes a special subject of philosophic interest, philosophic concept of morality is formed. The problem of rational grounding of morality becomes a central one. The important role in this problem solving was the idea of common sense – one of the fundamental ideas of Scottish and French Enlightenment. In the Scottish philosophy concept of «common sense» was developed by representatives of ethical sentimentalism (A. Shaftesbury, F. Hutcheson and by the founder of the rationalist understanding of morality Th. Reid. In France, the idea of common sense was widely developed in the works of Enlightenment philosophers. Scottish enlighteners understood common sense as a kind of inherent, intuitive principle, put by God into human being. This paper analyzes the significance of the concept «common sense» and its features of interpretations by Scottish philosophers. The quintessence of philosophy of the Age of Enlightenment was practical philosophy of I. Kant, in formation of which the idea of common sense played the key role. German classic clearly defined field of application of common sense. He considered an appeal to common sense in matters of science and philosophy unacceptable, but claimed that it was common sense people must rely in everyday practice. Such an understanding of this idea has allowed Kant to justify main concept of his moral philosophy ­ concept of the autonomous subject.

  9. The concept of God in Christian philosophy | Anthony | Sophia: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The different stages of the evolution of human history have made enormous attempts at understanding the concept of God. Tracing this study through the historical evolution of philosophy: from the Ancient to the Contemporary era, one would say that it remained distorted during the Ancient era, beautifully synthesized during ...

  10. Gifted Sixth-Graders and Primary Source Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David A.; Schlaggar, Sheila

    1993-01-01

    A sixth-grade gifted class studied the history of philosophy, including selections from such philosophers as Plato, Confucius, Buddha, Marcus Aurelius, and Moses Maimonides. Readings drew on fundamental features of child experience, such as their sense of justice, concern for moral values, and questions about reality. The paper describes classroom…

  11. Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From 2018, the journal will begin to publish a third issue which will be a bi-lingual edition in both French and English languages. Filosofia Theoretica provides outlet for well researched and original papers in the following areas of African studies: philosophy, culture, religions, history and arts. It also publishes book reviews.

  12. Kant's Philosophy of Education: Between Relational and Systemic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ana Marta

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to view Kant's approach to education in the broader context of Kant's philosophy of culture and history as a process whose direction should be reflectively assumed by human freedom, in the light of man's moral vocation. In this context, some characteristic tensions of his enlightened approach to education appear. Thus,…

  13. Qualitative tools and experimental philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andow, James

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Experimental philosophy brings empirical methods to philosophy. These methods are used to probe how people think about philosophically interesting things such as knowledge, morality, and freedom. This paper explores the contribution that qualitative methods have to make in this enterprise. I argue that qualitative methods have the potential to make a much greater contribution than they have so far. Along the way, I acknowledge a few types of resistance that proponents of qualitative methods in experimental philosophy might encounter, and provide reasons to think they are ill-founded. PMID:28392629

  14. Neuroaesthetics and Philosophy

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    Jason Holt

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Some philosophers even recently have been skeptical about whether science can reveal anything significant about art. Although some scientists’ ventures into art theory have seemed to warrant such suspicions, including early speculative forays into neuroaesthetics, against such skepticism, the argument here is that neuroaesthetics is crucial for understanding aesthetic experience and ultimately art itself. Because certain core proposals of early versions of neuroaesthetics (e.g., the art-as-caricature thesis seem to justify this skepticism and yet, at the same time, prove more defensible than they might initially seem, they are ideal illustrations of how neuroaesthetics at a more abstract level dovetails with the philosophy of art, and so provides a complementary, not competing perspective that can help complete, verify, and defend such philosophical theories. In particular, it is proposed that aesthetic experience involves a distinctive corticolimbic response, that such experience is therefore testable and may be found even with so-called anti-art, and that its value consists in resolution of conflict between the higher cortex and limbic system generated by the evolution of the former.

  15. Cosmology and philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of establishing boundaries between cosmology and philosophy is discussed. It is stated that the theoretic knowledge and observation data do not contradict the selection of one of non-stationary homogenous and isotropic relativistic models, which are also called the Friedmann models. In this model (with a zero Λ - member) there is a critical value of the substance density which is 10 -29 g/cm 2 . The determination of the average density of the Universe substance relatively to this value enables to choose between a closed and an open Universe model. Nowadays, this problem is not yet solved. But some philosophic theses reject the closed cosmological model without any naturally scientific argumentation. Critical remarks about such an approach to the problem studied are presented. The conclusion is made that the problems of the Universe volume infinity of finity, laws of its evolution in time or the like are not philosophic and should be considered taking into account the data of astronomic observations and modern physics

  16. Philosophy vs the common sense

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    V. V. Chernyshov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the antinomy of philosophy and the common sense. Philosophy emerges as a way of specifically human knowledge, which purposes analytics of the reality of subjective experience. The study reveals that in order to alienate philosophy from the common sense it was essential to revise the understanding of wisdom. The new, philosophical interpretation of wisdom – offered by Pythagoras – has laid the foundation of any future philosophy. Thus, philosophy emerges, alienating itself from the common sense, which refers to the common or collective experience. Moreover, the study examines the role of emotions, conformity and conventionality which they play with respect to the common sense. Next the author focuses on the role of philosophical intuition, guided with principles of rationality, nonconformity and scepticism, which the author professes the foundation stones of any sound philosophy. The common sense, described as deeply routed in the world of human emotions, aims at empathy, as the purpose of philosophy is to provide the rational means of knowledge. Therefore, philosophy uses thinking, keeping the permanent efforts to check and recheck data of its own experience. Thus, the first task of philosophical thinking appears to overcome the suggestion of the common sense, which purposes the social empathy, as philosophical intuition aims at independent thinking, the analytics of subjective experience. The study describes the fundamental principles of the common sense, on the one hand, and those of philosophy, on the other. The author arrives to conclusion that the common sense is unable to exceed the limits of sensual experience. Even there, where it apparently rises to a form of any «spiritual unity», even there it cannot avoid referring to the data of commonly shared sensual experience; though, philosophy, meanwhile, goes beyond sensuality, creating a discourse that would be able to alienate from it, and to make its rational

  17. Historical an insight into the teaching of philosophy in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Lidia Beltrán-Marín; Greten Lauren Blanco-Montesino; Lesly León-Montesino

    2018-01-01

    The teaching of philosophy in Cuba has been related to events in economic and political life, which leads to the boundaries between the various stages of its teaching are linked to the transformations of its general historical evolution. This work aims to contribute to the training of educational professional’s specialties of history and marxism, and to expand cuban philosophical historiography. Among other methods, analysis and synthesis and logical history were used, complemented by an in-d...

  18. MYSTICAL ASPECT OF EDITH STEIN'S ANTHROPOLOGY: FROM PHENOMENOLOGY TO THOMISM

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    J. A. Shabanova

    2016-12-01

    -object opposition of transpersonal content and an intuition, as a movement inside the self, an ability to complete an integral image refusing the subjectivity and bringing back generic, spiritual subject, are considered to be key-constructs of the Edith Stein's evolutionary views development on her way to philosophical mystic. At the same time, mystical does not drop out of the phenomenological series but fills it with new existential meaning. The novelty of the study is in its showing up the productive meaning of philosophical mystics in the creativity of Edith Stein, who enriched contemporary anthropology by metahistorical content of moral and existential meaning on the basis of synthesis of philosophy of mind and Thomistic metaphysics.

  19. Discourse on the incomprehensible in philosophy

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    Petrović Aleksandar M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy has its roots in history as a thought and consideration about things of heaven and earth, about their interplay and sense, as their logos. The meaning of life still concerns human kind. Archaic thinking has been sharpened and perfected through time, while the development brought about deep rooted terminology, as well as the key concepts that reflect a specific and marked approach to thinking. Concepts that are expressed by words also belong to the realm of things; therefore, their correlation sets the history of the deliberation on the content of thinking. The expression of a mature thought implies that the obstacles have been removed from the path to wisdom which can often lead sideways. Hegel describes a sharpened critical thought, but also expresses the need for further development of philosophical thought. Misologic statements that are common even today use those sideways to show that philosophy is barren and unnecessary. However, can expression of things that concern us all ever be boring and superfluous? This can only be answered by a philosopher.

  20. Three concepts of history

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    Antonio Campillo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is twofold. On the one hand, I will outline the diverse usages that the concept of history has taken on throughout Western history. These different usages may be grouped together in three semantic fields (history as a way of knowing, as a way of being and as a way of doing, which correspond to three ways of understanding the Philosophy of History: as Epistemology of History, as Ontology of historicity and as ethical-political Critique of the present. On the other hand, I will show that these three concepts of history (and, accordingly, the three ways of understanding the Philosophy of History refer mutually to each other and, thus, are inseparable from each other.

  1. The Christian voice in philosophy

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    Stuart Fowler

    1982-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Rev. Stuart Fowler outlines a Christian voice in Philosophy and urges the Christian philosopher to investigate his position and his stance with integrity and honesty.

  2. Why still philosophy?: Once again

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    Krstić Predrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this paper is to revisit, once again the question asked by Adorno and Habermas and other contemporary thinkers under different headings few decades ago. The author is suggesting that nowadays philosophy requires a final departure from the idea of having single and perennial face, and that this would not only allow, but also enable philosophy to test its various faces freely, that is, without norm or limit set in advance. At the same time, by creating such ′liberal′ climate philosophy would no longer be frightened by the possible answer, and hence would no longer dramatize the very question of ′why still?′. Even if philosophy turns out to be far less than the mission it once bestowed upon itself.

  3. On the way to a philosophy of science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Roland M.

    This Thesis argues the case that a philosophy of science education is required for improving science education as a research field as well as curriculum and teacher pedagogy. It seeks to re-think science education as an educational endeavor by examining why past reform efforts have been only partially successful, including why the fundamental goal of achieving scientific literacy after several "reform waves" has proven to be so elusive. The identity of such a philosophy is first defined in relation to the fields of philosophy, philosophy of science, and philosophy of education. Considering science education as a research discipline it is emphasized a new field should be broached with the express purpose of developing a discipline-specific "philosophy of science education" (largely neglected since Dewey). A conceptual shift towards the philosophy of education. is needed, thereto, on developing and demarcating true educational theories which could in addition serve to reinforce science education's growing sense of academic autonomy and independence from socio-economic demands. Two educational metatheories are contrasted, those of Kieran Egan and the Northern European Bildung tradition, to illustrate the task of such a philosophy. Egan's cultural-linguistic metatheory is presented for two primary purposes: it is offered as a possible solution to the deadlock of the science literacy conceptions within the discipline; regarding practice, examples are provided how it can better guide the instructional practice of teachers, specifically how it reinforces the work of other researchers in the History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) reform movement who value narrative in learning science. Considering curriculum and instruction, a philosophy of science education is conceptualized as a "second order" reflective capacity of the teacher. This notion is aligned with Shulman's idea of Pedagogical Content Knowledge. It is argued that for educators the nature of science learning

  4. [Neurosciences and philosophy of mind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saal, Aarón

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we argue that the interaction between neurosciences and philosophy of the mind is on the way to understand consciousness, and to solve the mind-body or mind-brain problem. Naturalism is the view that mental processes are just brain processes and that consciousness is a natural phenomenon. It is possible to construct a theory about its nature by blending insights from neuroscience, philosophy of the mind, phenomenology, psychology and evolutionary biology.

  5. HOBBES’ POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY

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    MHAI NOVAC

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This is basically an attempt at an original conceptual reconstruction of Hobbes’ philosophy as set in Lehiathan, namely one in the view of which Hobbes was neither an atheist nor an absolutist, as the standard interpretation holds, but rather what we could call an agnostical pragmatist (fact which, quite surprisingly, places Hobbes in the company of Burke. More to the point, my basic claim within this paper is that Hobbes was not such an ‘enemy of individual freedom’ as we traditionally hold him to be and that his thought was just as attached to the notion of individual freedom as the later contractualist views. The difference however, arises from the fact that Hobbes, unlike Locke, Rousseau or Kant, was what we could call a voluntaristic determinist and consequently viewed human freedom not so much as ‘unhindered action derived from reflective choice’, but rather as what we could call ‘reasonable fulfillment of the basic human inclinations’ (self-interest. As such, I will analyze the three main focal points of Hobbes’ thought, namely (i human nature, (ii the principle of association and (iii the principle of authority. More specifically I will try to offer a perspective on the link between his voluntaristic determinism, his notion of legitimate absolute coercion (sovereignity and his political theology (the view that any form of political authority rests on a religious legitimacy in trying to demonstrate how all these were Hobbes’ specific way of seeking to find individual freedom a place under the sun.

  6. Science and philosophy in Deleuze

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    Krtolica Igor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deleuze will not wait until he had completed his works to frame and formulate a theory on the relation between philosophy and science. The first articulations of this question are already present as early as the 1950s and 1960s in the studies on Bergson and Nietzsche, and then in Difference and repetition as well as in The Logic of Sense. It is also true that this question will be specifically developed in 1991 in What Is Philosophy? But throughout his work, the main thrust would proceed. This issue, it seems, comprises three main aspects: in the first place, in a polemic against the neo-Kantian epistemological legacy, it primarily consists in denying the critical definition of philosophy as being a ‘reflection on scientific knowledge’ to replace it by a conception drawn from Bergson’s expressionist ontology that places science and philosophy on both sides of the being; secondly, in an attempt to restore the concept of dialectics, it consists in making the dialectics of ideas the communal sphere of both science and philosophy; thirdly, aiming to specify every form of thinking, it consists in shaping how each expresses its ideas or its problems with its own signs. These three aspects, it seems, can frame the overall conception Deleuze formed of the link between science and philosophy. We shall successively analyze them, exclusively considering the first period of Deleuze’s work, which is to say the pre-guattarian publications.

  7. Anthropology, knowledge-flows and global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feierman, S; Kleinman, A; Stewart, K; Farmer, D; Das, V

    2010-01-01

    Global health programmes are damaged by blockages in the upward flow of information from localities and regional centres about realities of professional practice and about patients' lives and conditions of treatment. Power differentials between local actors and national or international decision-makers present further obstacles to effective action. Anthropological research and action, in its most effective current forms, make important contributions to these issues. This research often continues over the long term, intensively. It can be multi-sited, studying actors at local, national and international levels simultaneously. It studies the relative knowledge and power of impoverished patients and global decision-makers, all within a single frame. By doing so, anthropological research is capable of providing new and important insights on the diverse meanings of patient decision-making, informed consent, non-compliance, public health reporting, the building of political coalitions for health and many other issues.

  8. [Care and anthropology: a thinking process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach Viadas, Cécilia

    2007-09-01

    Caring for human beings, calls for relating unity and diversity in order to respect the equality of cultures and to recognize their cultural differences. Cultural difference is, however, privileged by recent publications within the culture caring domain, based on cultural relativism and disregarding the unity of humanity, transcultu-ral nursing theory is the case. For this reason, some historical elements related to the two original anthropological theories are included in this text to understand the philosophical and ethical implications of transcultural nursing theory. The objective of this article is to analyse six recent publications within the caring and anthropology field, through a reflexive method identifying two different caring traditions and demonstrating their philosophical and ethical reach for caring practice.

  9. UTILITARIANISM AS A PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

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    Elena N. Yarkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The article is devoted to the representation of utilitarianism as the philosophy of education. The main problem is the relevance of utilitarian strategies for the present stage of development of education in Russia. Methods, results and scientific novelty. Utilitarianism is presented as an educational strategy, nominating at the forefront the principle of usefulness of education, positioning education as a means of achieving social and individual wellbeing. The author represents the basic principles of utilitarian philosophy, and also reveals how these principles have been refracted in the philosophy of education using the methods of value-semantic reduction and qualitative content analysis. The first part of the article is devoted to the history of utilitarianism as the philosophy of education in the Euro-American pedagogical culture, as well as the analysis of modern utilitarianism as widely existent in this culture of philosophy of education. In the second part of the article the author explicates the role of utilitarianism in the education strategies of the Russian pedagogical culture, past and present. The main idea of the article is the idea that we have two value-semantic forms of utilitarianism: narrowly understood (tactical utilitarianism and widespread (strategic utilitarianism. Within the tactical utilitarianism as socially and/or individually useful education is considered to be vocationalism, claimed the currently market education. This kind of education is characterized by its focus on learning/teaching applied science and recognition of the futility of Sciences fundamental and philosophical. Under the strategic utilitarianism individually and/or socially beneficial is considered: first, the versatile education characterized by its focus on learning/teaching not only applications, but also fundamental and philosophical disciplines, secondly, eclectic education aimed at obtaining different professional competences. Versatile

  10. Death: clinical and forensic anthropological perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Etty Indriati, Etty Indriati

    2015-01-01

    All biological living beings inevitably die, and the ways to die vary although in essence death is a manifestation of the absence of Oxygen in the brain. After death, biological remains undertake proteolysis and decomposition. The aim of this article is to discuss clinical death, cerebral or medicolegal death, social death, phases of cerebral death, and biological process after death—which is important for forensic medicine and forensic anthropology. How long a person die, if the time elaps...

  11. AIDS: Problems encountered in anthropological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Boulogne

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available Medical science has up to now not discovered a means to fight HIV and it is obvious that the epidemic can only be controlled by prevention. Those disciplines from the humanities that could make the most meaningful contribution in this regard would be those that study, or ought to study sexuality, namely, psychology, sociology and anthropology. The communication sciences and nursing belong here as well and ought to play a crucial role.

  12. Towards Gonzo Anthropology : Ethnography as Cultural Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorowicz Steven C

    2013-01-01

    This essay provides an" ethnography of ethnography" through investigating and advocating certain research methodologies referred to as "Gonzo Anthropology." Ethnography is viewed as a process entailing both actual research, especially participant observation, and discourse, i.e. some form of cultural representation. In this way the ethnographic process can be seen as a form of cultural performance; the ethnographer is an actor, director, recorder of events, writer, artist and audience all in ...

  13. Anthropology of music: Paradigms and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašić Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Music represents a relational category, in the sense that people write meaning into it, and later by the means of the same music they write the meaning into other people. Therefore, I regard music as a cultural construct. Music does not possess universal meanings, but it forms its numerous meanings in different cultural environments, as well as in different individual perceptions. In anthropology, music is not studied in relation to its musical characteristics or aesthetical values. Anthropologists study its role in a wider social system, and strive to understand, by analysing the role of music in a society, the social and cultural system it belongs to - musical structure is less important here. The goal of the paper is to give an overview of the paradigms in ethnology and anthropology which have been used in studying music. In addition, a hypothetical-theoretical framework for studying music in institutions is set. Although the theory of hubs, which is presented here as a potential framework for studying music in institutions, is exemplified by traditional music, it can be applied to any genre of music. The basic theoretical framework offered by the authors Nadia Kiwan and Hanna Mainhof has been supplemented by certain parts which the author thought appropriate for studying music in institutions, both in ethnological and anthropological discourse.

  14. Anthropology, tooth wear, and occlusion ab origine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, W G

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this essay is to emphasize that anthropology, the study of man in his environments, is a potent tool for scientific discovery and inspiration in dental science. It attempts to capture flashes of creative anthropological insight which have illuminated studies of tooth wear and occlusion in the past. While it documents contributions, understandings, and misunderstandings from Australian and New Zealand dentists, it is not a hagiography. The real saint of this essay is the Australian aborigine. For when men and women are understood in their environments, much is learned from them which challenges preconceptions of our dental science culture. The essay concludes that new, contemporary Australian culture needs to be studied by anthropological approaches if we are to understand how dental erosion is exacerbating tooth wear and damaging the occlusions of contemporary Australians. Much remains to be discovered about contemporary lifestyles, habits, and diets that lead to dental erosion, the principal cause of contemporary tooth wear in this part of the world.

  15. Integrating forensic anthropology into Disaster Victim Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundorff, Amy Z

    2012-06-01

    This paper will provide mass fatality emergency planners, police, medical examiners, coroners and other Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) personnel ways to integrate forensic anthropologists into DVI operations and demonstrate how anthropological contributions have improved DVI projects. In mass disaster situations, anthropologists have traditionally been limited to developing biological profiles from skeletal remains. Over the past decade, however, anthropologists' involvement in DVI has extended well beyond this traditional role as they have taken on increasingly diverse tasks and responsibilities. Anthropological involvement in DVI operations is often dictated by an incident's specific characteristics, particularly events involving extensive fragmentation, commingling, or other forms of compromised remains. This paper will provide examples from recent DVI incidents to illustrate the operational utility of anthropologists in the DVI context. The points where it is most beneficial to integrate anthropologists into the DVI process include: (1) during recovery at the disaster scene; (2) at the triage station as remains are brought into the mortuary; and (3) in conducting the reconciliation process. Particular attention will be paid to quality control and quality assurance measures anthropologists have developed and implemented for DVI projects. Overall, this paper will explain how anthropological expertise can be used to increase accuracy in DVI while reducing the project's cost and duration.

  16. Race and diversity in U.S. Biological Anthropology: A decade of AAPA initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, Susan C; Malhi, Ripan S; Fuentes, Agustín

    2018-01-01

    Biological Anthropology studies the variation and evolution of living humans, non-human primates, and extinct ancestors and for this reason the field should be in an ideal position to attract scientists from a variety of backgrounds who have different views and experiences. However, the origin and history of the discipline, anecdotal observations, self-reports, and recent surveys suggest the field has significant barriers to attracting scholars of color. For a variety of reasons, including quantitative research that demonstrates that diverse groups do better science, the discipline should strive to achieve a more diverse composition. Here we discuss the background and underpinnings of the current and historical dearth of diversity in Biological Anthropology in the U.S. specifically as it relates to representation of minority and underrepresented minority (URM) (or racialized minority) scholars. We trace this lack of diversity to underlying issues of recruitment and retention in the STEM sciences generally, to the history of Anthropology particularly around questions of race-science, and to the absence of Anthropology at many minority-serving institutions, especially HBCUs, a situation that forestalls pathways to the discipline for many minority students. The AAPA Committee on Diversity (COD) was conceived as a means of assessing and improving diversity within the discipline, and we detail the history of the COD since its inception in 2006. Prior to the COD there were no systematic AAPA efforts to consider ethnoracial diversity in our ranks and no programming around questions of diversity and inclusion. Departmental survey data collected by the COD indicate that undergraduate majors in Biological Anthropology are remarkably diverse, but that the discipline loses these scholars between undergraduate and graduate school and systematically up rank. Our analysis of recent membership demographic survey data (2014 and 2017) shows Biological Anthropology to have less

  17. Rethinking the “marginality” of medical anthropology in Italy. Politics of resistance for whole anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Zito

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the teaching and research experience of the author in the School of Medicine and Surgery of the University of Naples Federico II in Italy, and considering what is actually happening in Italian universities, the paper highlights the dangerous trend of a reduction of medical anthropology courses as important symptom of the widest and creeping impoverishment of whole anthropology, discipline so valuable and strategic for humanity. The aim is to draw the attention of the national and international academic and scientific communities on the need to develop adequate strategies of resistance to preserve, however, the epistemological wealth of anthropology, even surpassing, at this stage of criticality, some conflicts related to its various forms such as social, cultural, medical, applied and clinical ones, and to its different schools, in order to get public legitimacy in terms of a clear socio-political and institutional mandate, considering also the so-called “ontological turn” in human sciences.

  18. Historical an insight into the teaching of philosophy in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lidia Beltrán-Marín

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of philosophy in Cuba has been related to events in economic and political life, which leads to the boundaries between the various stages of its teaching are linked to the transformations of its general historical evolution. This work aims to contribute to the training of educational professional’s specialties of history and marxism, and to expand cuban philosophical historiography. Among other methods, analysis and synthesis and logical history were used, complemented by an in-depth document analysis. We present the results of a project of the University of Sancti Spiritus which has led to the present approach to the history of the teaching of philosophy in Cuba which runs through the synthesis stages of colonial, republic and revolution; As well as the predominant philosophical currents at each stage: scholasticism, reformism, modernity, positivism, electivism, existentialism, marxism.

  19. Critique and cure: a dream of uniting psychoanalysis and philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jamieson

    2013-06-01

    Critical theory, whose aim was to historicize philosophy through integrating it with the social sciences, turned to psychoanalysis to find its way through an accounting of philosophy after the Second World War. Over 50 years after this initial project, the rift between philosophy and psychoanalysis has never been greater. If Jacques Lacan could be considered one of the few psychoanalysts to maintain and foster links to philosophical thought in the latter half of the 20th century, his work has sadly remained marginal in the clinical field throughout America and Europe. Both critical theory and Lacan remain skeptical of the direction taken by psychoanalysis after Freud. Reflecting on the history of these two disciplines, as well as through an examination of Theodor Adorno's posthumously published dream journal, critique and cure emerge as two dialectically intertwined themes that gain momentum in the dream of the unification of the philosophical and psychoanalytic projects.

  20. Some Thoughts on the Nature of Business Anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Moeran, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This working paper, delivered at the ©reative Encounters workshop on the Business of Ethnography in June 2012, and in part (the sections on advertising and anthropology) at the American Anthropological Association’s annual meeting in San Francisco in November the same year, recounts the author’s personal experiences as a fieldworker to consider what it is that defines the newly emergent sub-discipline of business anthropology. The underlying argument is that all kinds of ethnographic research...