WorldWideScience

Sample records for history modern implications

  1. AWQAF IN HISTORY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR MODERN ISLAMIC ECONOMIES

    OpenAIRE

    ÇIZAKÇA, MURAT

    1998-01-01

    This paper aims at analysing the relevance of the historical awqaf system for modern Islamic economies. The main argument focuses on the fact that the awqaf system has provided throughout Islamic history all the essential services at no cost to the state. Thus, a successful modernisation of the system implies a significant cut in government expenditure and all the associated benefits; including downsizing the state sector and a reduction and even an eventual elimination of riba. As far as the...

  2. Modern History of Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Authored by Xu Guangzhi, this book is a subsidiary project of Research Into Traditional Culture and History (of the PRC Ministry of Education) conducted by China Tibetology Research Institute of Tibet University. The book combines modern history of Tibet with modern history of China as a whole. It tells the close ties between various members of the Chinese nation.

  3. History of modern physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biezunski, M.

    1993-01-01

    This book presents an history of the principal concepts of contemporary physics and their genesis from the great cleavages of the beginning of the century with some incursions in a more far-away past. The essential concepts are replaced in their creation context, especially relativity, quantum mechanics and particles physics. (A.B.)

  4. History as Modernity. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Schiera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction starts from the exhaustion of modernity, drawing the fundamental lines of its development inside Western historical experience. The end of the political nexus between theology and politics, the evanescence of nation-state sovereignty, the check of great historical interpretations reveal the necessity of new categories and new organizational models, able to make us answer to the violence that the ongoing processes are liberating. Schiera underlines in particular the relevance of the administrative apparatus because of its capacity to link the global government with global organization, human rights and the commons.

  5. A history of modern librarianship

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegand, Wayne; Richards, Pamela; Richards, Pamela; Wiegand, Wayne; Dalbello, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Previous histories of libraries in the Western world-the last of which was published nearly 20 years ago-concentrate on libraries and librarians. This book takes a different approach. It focuses on the practice of librarianship, showing you how that practice has contributed to constructing the heritage of cultures. To do so, this groundbreaking collection of essays presents the history of modern librarianship in the context of recent developments of the library institution, professionalization of librarianship, and innovation through information technology. Organized by region, the book a

  6. Introduction. History, Culture and Modernity in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotelind Müller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a short introduction to the main topics and aims of this thematic issue on history, culture and modernity in China. It outlines the multi-faceted approaches to a (or more than one modernity between and beyond Westernisation and Sinicisation as formulated in the twentieth century, be it in Republican China, Taiwan or the People's Republic, and how this is reflected in "Western" historiography on China. For China, (rearticulations of "alternatives" would open up the possibility for more than just one single, homogenising, culturalist-essentialist (and top-down defined "Chinese dream". Since discussions of modernity are always closely linked to the concerns of the present, shifts in global economy and politics might, in turn, also lead to new conceptions of what a "global modernity" (if such a single entity exists should mean and how the Chinese case might relate (or contribute to it.

  7. Quantum histories and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, A.

    2000-01-01

    Classical mechanics and standard Copenhagen quantum mechanics respect subspace implications. For example, if a particle is confined in a particular region R of space, then in these theories we can deduce that it is confined in regions containing R. However, subspace implications are generally violated by versions of quantum theory that assign probabilities to histories, such as the consistent histories approach. I define here a new criterion, ordered consistency, which refines the criterion of consistency and has the property that inferences made by ordered consistent sets do not violate subspace relations. This raises the question: do the operators defining our observations form an ordered consistent history? If so, ordered consistency defines a version of quantum theory with greater predictive power than the consistent histories formalism. If not, and our observations are defined by a non-ordered consistent quantum history, then subspace implications are not generally valid. (orig.)

  8. SOUTHEAST ASIA: HISTORY, MODERNITY, AND RELIGIOUS CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanto Al Qurtuby

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia, with more than six hundred million populations, is home to millions of Buddhists, Muslims, Confucians, Protestants, Catholics, and now Pentecostals, as well as many followers of local religions and spiritual beliefs. Notwithstanding its great historical, political, cultural legacies, however, the region has long been neglected as a site for religious studies in the Western academia. Aiming at filling the gap in Asian and religious studies as well as exploring the richness of Southeast Asian cultures, this article discusses the dynamics, diversity, and complexity of Southeast Asian societies in their response to the region’s richly political, cultural, and religious traditions spanning from pre-modern era to modern one. The article also examines the “integrative revolutions” that shaped and reshaped warfare, state organization and economics of Southeast Asia, particularly in the pre-European colonial era. In addition, the work discusses the wave of Islamization, particularly since the nineteenth century, as well as the upsurge of religious resurgence that shift the nature of religiosity and the formation of religious groupings in the area. The advent of Islam, with some interventions of political regimes, had been an important cause for the decline of Hindu-Buddhist traditions in some areas of Southeast Asia, especially Indonesia, the coming of Pentecostalism has challenged the well-established mainstream Protestantism and Catholicism, especially in Indonesia and the Philippines. Keywords: history, modernity, religious change, Southeast Asia

  9. Focus: science, history, and modern India. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalkey, Jahnavi

    2013-06-01

    Histories of science in India are revisitations of the colonial question. Science is ideology to be unraveled and exposed--as modernity and progress making or violence and oppression making--depending on where you stand on the interpretive spectrum. It has been seen as ideologically driven practice, as a mode of knowledge production whose history is inseparable from the social and political uses to which it is tethered. In the colonial as well as the postcolonial context, science and technology have been seen as the "ideology of empire," "tools of empire," "tentacles of progress," and "reasons of state." Yet science and technology are practices and bodies of knowledge that inhabitants of the subcontinent have engaged with enthusiasm, that they have used to invent themselves in their global, national, and individual lives. We know remarkably little about the histories of these complex engagements. A departure from current historiographical preoccupations is called for to map and explain the lives, institutions, practices, and stories of science on the subcontinent as they connect with, and where they break away from, the world at large.

  10. Climate History and the Modern World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebsame, William E.

    H. H. Lamb's latest book on the earth's changing climate is a carefully crafted work covering four areas: the physical basis of climate and climate change, the methods of climate reconstruction, the history of climate since the height of the last glaciation, and the impact of climate on human affairs. The book will be of particular interest to three groups. Atmospheric scientists interested in the long history of climate behavior (but perhaps overwhelmed by Lamb's all-encompassing work on the topic, Climate: Past, Present and Future, vol. II, Methuen, New York), will find Climate History and the Modern World to be a good titration of the fuller work. Scientists in other fields, including social scientists grappling with issues of climate-society interaction, will find the book a good entree into the field. Finally, Lamb himself suggests that the book will be useful to resource managers and other decision makers trying to avoid negative climate impacts. With this last audience in mind, no doubt, Lamb has chosen a style that eschews extensive footnoting and references (though sufficient citations are included to lead to further information). This works quite well and seems reasonable in view of his carefully documented previous writings.

  11. A History of Modern Serbia, 1804-1918. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovich, Michael B.

    This project report describes the historical research completed for the writing of one of the few single-volume books dealing with modern Serbian history that gives a complete and detailed analytical survey of the past history and its influence on present day Yugoslavia. The two-fold theme of modern Serbian history is: 1) the impact of…

  12. The architecture of modern mathematics essays in history and philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreiros, J

    2006-01-01

    Aimed at both students and researchers in philosophy, mathematics and the history of science, this edited volume, authored by leading scholars, highlights foremost developments in both the philosophy and history of modern mathematics.

  13. History of modern physics; Histoire de la physique moderne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biezunski, M

    1994-12-31

    This book presents an history of the principal concepts of contemporary physics and their genesis from the great cleavages of the beginning of the century with some incursions in a more far-away past. The essential concepts are replaced in their creation context, especially relativity, quantum mechanics and particles physics. (A.B.).

  14. Den moderne idræts historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Per

    2009-01-01

    Historiedelen til grundbog til idræt på mellemniveau i gymnasiet og til idræt som tilvalgsfag på HF. Indeholder ud over metodeafsnit og afslutningsafsnit også hovedafsnittene: "Idræt og samfund ca. 1860-1920", "De moderne olympiske lege" og "Sportens århundrede"...

  15. THE SECOND WORLD WAR AND UKRAINE: HISTORY AND MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVSEEVA G. P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. Despite the attempts of historians to objectively present the events of the prehistory and history of the war, the opening of new archives and the desire to get rid of ideological stereotypes, are driving the need to once again explore the role of Ukraine in world war II to prevent its recurrence. On the other hand, the deep understanding of the history of the previous generations will provide an opportunity to properly understand the events of today. The analysis of the research. During the years of independence in the national historiography it was a new understanding of the conceptual foundations of the study of war. Over the past decade it was written a large number of scientific studies in which the main direction of new concepts there was an increased attention to the person, separate social groups and society as a whole in situations of conflict and crises. The article aims to analyze the role and place of Ukraine in the events of the Second world war; identify "Ukrainian dimension" of war and its implications for the modern generation, especially the youth. Conclusion. The effects of war for decades identified the complex and contradictory political, economic and social processes in Ukrainian society, affected the moral and psychological qualities of post-war generations. The memory of war – spiritual-historical heritage of our nation, which lays the foundations for self-sufficiency and identity and integrates it seamlessly into a civilizational flow. The modern level of researches of the events of world war II pays special attention to humanitarian problems of the war. For the youth of Ukraine it is important to join the European perception of the war as tragedy, to understand the responsibility for the memory of the past, because it's a chance for the future.

  16. Telling Modernization: Three Voices. Life History, Gender and the Discourse of Modernization. Roskilde University Life History Project Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Linda

    The relationship between life history, gender, and the discourse of modernization was examined from the perspective of a researcher with extensive experience performing evaluations about modernization within human services in Denmark. Three stories about site-based management in two human service institutionsa youth center and a boarding school…

  17. Security and Conspiracy in Modern History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwierlein, C.; de Graaf, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    »Sicherheit und Verschwörung in der Neuzeit«. Security History is a new field in historical research. Conspiracies and Conspiracy Theories have attracted since some years great attention, both in historical and in social research. A thorough study of those both opposed and mirroring key phenomena

  18. The early history of modern ecological economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    is inspired by other studies of the emergence of new research areas done by sociologists and historians of science, and includes both cognitive and social aspects, macro trends and the role of individuals. The basis for the paper is a combination of literature studies and interviews with key researchers from...... were given modern formulations, but it took a long gestation period from the beginning of the 1970s to the end of the 1980s, before ecological economics took shape. During this gestation period the personal relationships between the actors were formed, and the meetings that were decisive for the formal...

  19. Early modern natural history: Contributions from the Americas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Early modern natural history: Contributions from the Americas and India. Rajesh Kochhar. Perspectives Volume 37 Issue ... Keywords. India; medical botany; natural history; scientific botany; the Americas. Author Affiliations. Rajesh Kochhar1. Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali 140 306 Punjab, India ...

  20. History of optics: a modern teaching tool

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Moliní, Daniel; González Cano, Agustín; Díaz Herrera, Natalia; Llombart, N.; Alda, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The history of optics is a very rich field of science and it is possible to find many simple and significant examples of the application and success of the experimental method and therefore is a very good tool to transmit to the student the way science proceeds and to introduce the right spirit of critical analysis, building and testing of models, etc. Optical phenomena are specially well suited for this because in fact optical observations and experiments have made science advance in a cruci...

  1. Modernizing Natural History: Berkeley's Museum of Vertebrate Zoology in Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the twentieth century calls to modernize natural history motivated a range of responses. It was unclear how research in natural history museums would participate in the significant technological and conceptual changes that were occurring in the life sciences. By the 1960s, the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at the University of California, Berkeley, was among the few university-based natural history museums that were able to maintain their specimen collections and support active research. The MVZ therefore provides a window to the modernization of natural history. This paper concentrates on the directorial transitions that occurred at the MVZ between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the MVZ had four directors: Alden H. Miller (Director 1940-1965), an ornithologist; Aldo Starker Leopold (Acting Director 1965-1966), a conservationist and wildlife biologist; Oliver P. Pearson (Director 1966-1971), a physiologist and mammalogist; and David B. Wake (Director 1971-1998), a morphologist, developmental biologist, and herpetologist. The paper explores how a diversity of overlapping modernization strategies, including hiring new faculty, building infrastructure to study live animals, establishing new kinds of collections, and building modern laboratories combined to maintain collections at the MVZ's core. The paper examines the tensions between the different modernization strategies to inform an analysis of how and why some changes were institutionalized while others were short-lived. By exploring the modernization of collections-based research, this paper emphasizes the importance of collections in the transformation of the life sciences.

  2. ACEH IN HISTORY: Preserving Traditions and Embracing Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Hadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to critically discuss on how the Acehnese in history, while trying to embrace the modern world, have made every effort at preserving their traditions. As an ethnic group which has a glorious past, Aceh has strongly been connected to “identity”; and this is expressed in various means, including “social memory.” For this very reason, “traditions”, including those of the past, are explored and preserved. Yet, the challenges of modernity are also apparent. It is in this context that the Acehnese are trapped at the crossroad. On the one hand, they tend to preserve their traditions, yet, on the other, they need to embrace modern lives. The Acehnese seem to have encountered considerable obstacles on this issue, for they tend to focus more on historical “romanticism” (nostalgia rather than historical “awareness” (consciousness. Eventually, the “spirit” of the past cannot be brought into light.

  3. Assembling the dodo in early modern natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Natalie

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores the assimilation of the flightless dodo into early modern natural history. The dodo was first described by Dutch sailors landing on Mauritius in 1598, and became extinct in the 1680s or 1690s. Despite this brief period of encounter, the bird was a popular subject in natural-history works and a range of other genres. The dodo will be used here as a counterexample to the historical narratives of taxonomic crisis and abrupt shifts in natural history caused by exotic creatures coming to Europe. Though this bird had a bizarre form, early modern naturalists integrated the dodo and other flightless birds through several levels of conceptual categorization, including the geographical, morphological and symbolic. Naturalists such as Charles L'Ecluse produced a set of typical descriptive tropes that helped make up the European dodo. These long-lived images were used for a variety of symbolic purposes, demonstrated by the depiction of the Dutch East India enterprise in Willem Piso's 1658 publication. The case of the dodo shows that, far from there being a dramatic shift away from emblematics in the seventeenth century, the implicit symbolic roles attributed to exotic beasts by naturalists constructing them from scant information and specimens remained integral to natural history.

  4. U.S. History and Modern World History Courses for English Speakers of Other Languages in Montgomery County Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huafang; Wade, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The Office of Shared Accountability (OSA) in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) examined academic performance of English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) students in U.S. History and Modern World History courses, as well as the course sequence in ESOL U.S. History and Modern World History. In MCPS, students who are not ESOL…

  5. Learning about human population history from ancient and modern genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneking, Mark; Krause, Johannes

    2011-08-18

    Genome-wide data, both from SNP arrays and from complete genome sequencing, are becoming increasingly abundant and are now even available from extinct hominins. These data are providing new insights into population history; in particular, when combined with model-based analytical approaches, genome-wide data allow direct testing of hypotheses about population history. For example, genome-wide data from both contemporary populations and extinct hominins strongly support a single dispersal of modern humans from Africa, followed by two archaic admixture events: one with Neanderthals somewhere outside Africa and a second with Denisovans that (so far) has only been detected in New Guinea. These new developments promise to reveal new stories about human population history, without having to resort to storytelling.

  6. INNOVATIVE METHODS OF TEACHING HISTORY AT MODERN UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Suslov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. As a discipline, History holds a specific place among disciplines of a humanitarian cycle of educational programs of higher education institutions regardless of university specialities. History plays an important role in the course of formation of a citizen and development of critical thinking of a personality as an element of a common culture. However, new federal standards require a drastic reduction of the classroom hours for studying a History course by students of non-humanitarian specialties, and, at the same time, enhancement of the contents of a discipline (its reorientation from History of Russia towards World History. Therefore, History programmes and courses demand up-to-date approaches, methods and didactic means to provide formation of holistic worldview of future experts.The aim of the article is to consider the features of innovative methods application in teaching history in high school taking into consideration modernization processes.Methodology and research methods. The research undertaken is based on activity and competence-based approaches. The methods of analysis and synthesis of the academic literature on the research topic were used; the methods of reflection and generalization of teaching activities of the Department of Humanitarian Disciplines of theKazanNationalResearchTechnologicalUniversity were applied as well.Results and scientific novelty. A modern view on historical education has been proposed as means of students’ systems thinking formation, designing the ideas about the world historical process among students, the mission ofRussia in this process, and evolution ofRussia as a part of the modern civilization. It is stated that History university course is designed not only to give the students strong subject knowledge, but also to create axiological orientations and abilities on the basis of the analysis of historical collisions, objective and subjective factors of society development. Moreover

  7. From Mystics to Modern Times: A History of Craniotomy & Religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, W Christopher; Chivukula, Srinivas; Grandhi, Ramesh

    2016-08-01

    Neurosurgical treatment of diseases dates back to prehistoric times and the trephination of skulls for various maladies. Throughout the evolution of trephination, surgery and religion have been intertwined to varying degrees, a relationship that has caused both stagnation and progress. From its mystical origins in prehistoric times to its scientific progress in ancient Egypt and its resurgence as a well-validated surgical technique in modern times, trephination has been a reflection of the cultural and religious times. Herein we present a brief history of trephination as it relates religion, culture, and the evolution of neurosurgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Modern history of meteorological services with pictures for a century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    This book deals with modern history of meteorological services with pictures for a century. It is divided into twelve chapters, which mention meteorological services before the Joseon Dynasty period, meteorological observation about surface weather observation, aero logical observation, meteorological satellite, seismometry, observation on yellow dust, and observation on the falling of thunderbolt, weather forecast, meteorological telecommunication, education for weather, research for weather, promotion on weather, international cooperation, main events, special aid on meteorological services, meteorological disaster and the list of the offices for meteorological services.

  9. On the Modern History of Passive Solar Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the paradox of passive solar architecture within the Nordic context of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Regulative developments to reduce space heating demand since the 1970s oil crisis are explored, highlighting architectural responses and the rise in prom-inence of passive solar...... design. An empirical study of passive solar housing schemes docu-ments architectural strategy, energy savings and extensive problems with overheating. A theo-retical study examines how passive solar was seen as advantageous when viewed with the 1985-2005 space heating paradigm, but actually resulted...... of Nordic modernism meant that passive solar architecture became the de-facto visual, aesthetic and functional expression of environmental design at that time. The article concludes by explor-ing the implications of the environmental paradigm for the architectural profession. By positing the architectural...

  10. New directions in the history of modern science in China: global science and comparative history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Benjamin A

    2007-09-01

    These essays collectively present new perspectives on the history of modem science in China since 1900. Fa-ti Fan describes how science under the Republic of China after 1911 exhibited a complex local and international character that straddled both imperialism and colonialism. Danian Hu focuses on the fate of relativity in the physics community in China after 1917. Zuoyue Wang hopes that a less nationalist political atmosphere in China will stimulate more transnational studies of modern science, which will in turn reveal the underlying commonalities in different national contexts. Sigrid Schmalzer compares the socialist and the capitalist contexts for science in China and reopens the sensitive question of the "mass line" during the Cultural Revolution. Grace Shen describes the tensions early Chinese scientists felt when choosing between foreign models for modem geology and their own professional identities in China. Taken together, these accounts present us with a comparative history of modern science in China that is both globally and locally informed.

  11. Computing possible worlds in the history of modern astronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Pessoa Jr.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2016v20n1p117 As part of an ongoing study of causal models in the history of science, a counterfactual scenario in the history of modern astronomy is explored with the aid of computer simulations. After the definition of “linking advance”, a possible world involving technological antecedence is described, branching out in 1510, in which the telescope is invented 70 years before its actual construction, at the time in which Fracastoro actually built the first prototelescope. By using the principle of the closest possible world (PCP, we estimate that in this scenario the discovery of the elliptical orbit of Mars would by anticipated by only 28 years. The second part of the paper involves an estimate of the probability of the previous scenario, guided by the principle that the actual world is the mean (PAM and using computer simulations to create possible worlds in which the time spans between advances is varied according to a gamma distribution function. Taking into account the importance of the use of the diaphragm for the invention of the telescope, the probability that the telescope were built by 1538 for a branching time at 1510 is found to be smaller than 1%. The work shows that one of the important features of computational simulations in philosophy of science is to serve as a consistency check for the intuitions and speculations of the philosopher.

  12. History of development and modern condition of Chinese military psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr G. Karayani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Russian military psychology is actively analyzing the achievements gained over the years of its reform and with great interest turns to the military psychological experience of foreign armies. Acquaintance with this experience allows Russian military psychology to assess its place in the world military psychological science, to assess the dynamics and fidelity of the general direction of development. In this regard, it is quite interesting to get acquainted with the state, capabilities, and the most important guidelines for the development of the Chinese military psychology. Objective. The objective of this paper is to get acquainted with the invaluable experience of trial and error, ups and downs, stagnation and real breakthroughs, which can be learnt through getting acquainted with the history and modern functioning of the psychological structures of the Chinese army. Design. The paper considers the centuries-old history and a modern condition of military psychology in China. The methodological foundations of the Chinese military psychology are proved to be the philosophical ideas of Taoism, Confucianism and Buddhism. Theoretical sources Chinese military psychology is rooted in the writings of the great thinkers and generals of ancient China – Sun Tzu, Wu Tzu, Zhuge Liang. The two most vigorously developing areas of military psychology: the psychological selection of military personnel, theory and practice of psychological warfare. The historical analysis of traditions and technologies development for the period of four thousand years is given. The development of psychological selection in the army of China was affected by cooperation with the American psychologists during the Second World War. The overall state and program approach to perfect the system of selecting military men using the psychology methods is underlined. Historical development tendencies and the Chinese paradigm of the theory and practice of psychological war

  13. Ribosomal history reveals origins of modern protein synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith Harish

    Full Text Available The origin and evolution of the ribosome is central to our understanding of the cellular world. Most hypotheses posit that the ribosome originated in the peptidyl transferase center of the large ribosomal subunit. However, these proposals do not link protein synthesis to RNA recognition and do not use a phylogenetic comparative framework to study ribosomal evolution. Here we infer evolution of the structural components of the ribosome. Phylogenetic methods widely used in morphometrics are applied directly to RNA structures of thousands of molecules and to a census of protein structures in hundreds of genomes. We find that components of the small subunit involved in ribosomal processivity evolved earlier than the catalytic peptidyl transferase center responsible for protein synthesis. Remarkably, subunit RNA and proteins coevolved, starting with interactions between the oldest proteins (S12 and S17 and the oldest substructure (the ribosomal ratchet in the small subunit and ending with the rise of a modern multi-subunit ribosome. Ancestral ribonucleoprotein components show similarities to in vitro evolved RNA replicase ribozymes and protein structures in extant replication machinery. Our study therefore provides important clues about the chicken-or-egg dilemma associated with the central dogma of molecular biology by showing that ribosomal history is driven by the gradual structural accretion of protein and RNA structures. Most importantly, results suggest that functionally important and conserved regions of the ribosome were recruited and could be relics of an ancient ribonucleoprotein world.

  14. Implications of the behavioural immune system for social behaviour and human health in the modern world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Mark; Murray, Damian R; Bangerter, Adrian

    2015-05-26

    The 'behavioural immune system' is composed of mechanisms that evolved as a means of facilitating behaviours that minimized infection risk and enhanced fitness. Recent empirical research on human populations suggests that these mechanisms have unique consequences for many aspects of human sociality--including sexual attitudes, gregariousness, xenophobia, conformity to majority opinion and conservative sociopolitical attitudes. Throughout much of human evolutionary history, these consequences may have had beneficial health implications; but health implications in modern human societies remain unclear. This article summarizes pertinent ways in which modern human societies are similar to and different from the ecologies within which the behavioural immune system evolved. By attending to these similarities and differences, we identify a set of plausible implications-both positive and negative-that the behavioural immune system may have on health outcomes in contemporary human contexts. We discuss both individual-level infection risk and population-level epidemiological outcomes. We also discuss a variety of additional implications, including compliance with public health policies, the adoption of novel therapeutic interventions and actual immunological functioning. Research on the behavioural immune system, and its implications in contemporary human societies, can provide unique insights into relationships between fitness, sociality and health. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Bergson and History : Transforming the Modern Regime of Historicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Schure, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-first-century societies are no longer oriented towards the future, but increasingly to the present moment. Bergson and History shows how Henri Bergson’s philosophy of time and life can help us to restore the relevance of history in our presentistic society and culture. Bergson allows us to

  16. Military discipline: in the history and in modern Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Grigoryev O. V.

    2016-01-01

    the article deals with the problem of changing the approaches to military discipline. Analyzed and its inextricable link with the military law, the role and place of discipline in strengthening statehood and the suppression of the destructive manifestations. The analysis of the modern understanding of military discipline in passing of military service in the Russian Federation.

  17. Modern history of weather service for one hundred years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    This book describes meteorological history of Korea for a century. It consists of eleven chapters, which deals with the ancient history of meteorologic services, the beginning of modem history of meteorologic services from 1894 to 1910, meteorologic services in Japanese colonial era, meteorologic services in the U. S Military Government in Korea from 1945 to 1948, transition period from 1948 to 1950, Korean war period from 1950 to 1953, foundation construction period from 1953 to 1960, growth period in 1970s'. period of development in 1980s' foundation construction period for advanced technologies of meteorologic services in 1990s' and leaping period of meteorologic services in 2000s'.

  18. Military Health System Transformation Implications on Health Information Technology Modernization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saad

    2018-03-01

    With the recent passage of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017, Congress has triggered groundbreaking Military Health System organizational restructuring with the Defense Health Agency assuming responsibility for managing all hospitals and clinics owned by the Army, Navy, and Air Force. This is a major shift toward a modern value-based managed care system, which will require much greater military-civilian health care delivery integration to be in place by October 2018. Just before the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 passage, the Department of Defense had already begun a seismic shift and awarded a contract for the new Military Health System-wide electronic health record system. In this perspective, we discuss the implications of the intersection of two large-scope and large-scale initiatives, health system transformation, and information technology modernization, being rolled out in the largest and most complex federal agency and potential risk mitigating steps. The Military Health System will require an expanded unified clinical leadership to spearhead short-term transformation; furthermore, developing, organizing, and growing a cadre of informatics expertise to expand the use and diffusion of novel solutions such as health information exchanges, data analytics, and others to transcend organizational barriers are still needed to achieve the long-term aim of health system reform as envisioned by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017.

  19. The international educational exchanges: history and modern value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L S Astafeva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In article the history, a current state and prospects of development of the international educational exchanges is considered. Influence world processes of globalisation and internationalisation on educational processes of multinational high schools is shown.

  20. Modern History and Problems of Physical Education in Japan.

    OpenAIRE

    片桐, 芳雄

    1993-01-01

    Japanese school is controlled under the strict rules, and student's individuality is often avoided. Going through this kind of schooling, character of most Japanese people devoting themselves to authority or total system has been build up. Physical education at Japanese school also has made one of the core of such education. That is essentially uniform and conservative. The physical education at school and sports in Japan were imported form the Western countries after modernization at the Mei...

  1. Problematic Methods in teaching Modern History. An alternative or a necessity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohany Peralta Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the analysis from the study of the theoretical research on the use of problematic methods in Teaching Learning Process of Modern H istory course in Rafael Maria de Mendive University of Pinar del Rio. An anal ysis o f the use of problematic methods in the Process of Teaching Modern History course from the definition of method taking into account the theoretical assumptions of scholars of the subject matter and the advantages and disadvantages provided by the use of these methods in the Teaching Learning Process of Modern History course.

  2. Modernization and gender regimes, life histories of the wives of Turkish political leaders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yelsali Parmaksiz, Pinar Melis

    2009-01-01

    This work is a close look at the life histories of the top Turkish political leaders with the aim of analyzing changes in gender role and gender identity and tensions between the two in the history of Turkish modernization vis-à-vis with contemporaneous debates on gender. The main objective is to

  3. Transmission of learning in modern Ilorin : a history of islamic education 1897-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliyu, Sakariyau Alabi

    2015-01-01

    This work is a history of Islamic education in Ilorin from the colonial period to the first decade of the twenty-first century. It is a history of the adaptations of the ulama to the challenge of the modern period through three pedagogical schools Ilorin, namely: tolerant Adabiyyah School, the

  4. Milestones of the history of modern Western theory of migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Adediran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the key stages in the development of modern theory of migration following the historical sequence and continuity of its basic conceptual constructs’ formation. Although the author refers to the twentieth century as a chronological framework of the text, the narrative begins from the works of E. Ravenstein published at the end of the XIX century, for they laid the foundation for future theoretical studies on migration issues. In particular, many well-known scientists still use concepts “laws of migration” and “attracting and push factors of migration” proposed by Ravenstein claiming their timeless validity or, on the contrary, criticizing them for the loss of relevance in the new social and cultural realities. The author considers as milestones of the modern theory of migration the works of the representatives of Chicago school of sociology that enriched the conceptual apparatus of the analysis of migration processes and the typology of driving causes of migration; the works of S. Stouffer, G. Zipf, E. Lee and W. Lewis, W. Zelinsky and D. Massey. Finally, the article summarizes the objective trends in today’s global development that force scientists to introduce new accents in the study of migration processes, although upon closer inspection it turns out that all “new” ideas had already been formulated in early migration studies and just got a new sound in another historical period.

  5. Sketching together the modern histories of science, technology, and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickstone, John V

    2011-03-01

    This essay explores ways to "write together" the awkwardly jointed histories of "science" and "me dicine"--but it also includes other "arts" (in the old sense) and technologies. It draws especially on the historiography of medicine, but I try to use terms that are applicable across all of science, technology, and medicine (STM). I stress the variety of knowledges and practices in play at any time and the ways in which the ensembles change. I focus on the various relations of "science" and "medicine," as they were understood for a succession of periods--from mainly agricultural societies, through industrial societies, to our biomedical present--trying to sketch a history that encompasses daily practices and understandings as well as major conceptual and technical innovations. The model is meant to facilitate inquiry across topics and across times, including those to come.

  6. A modern history of psychiatric-mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Laura C; Scharer, Kathleen M

    2015-02-01

    This paper discusses the progression of developments in psychiatric-mental health nursing from the 1960s to the present. The 1960s were a time of shortage of psychiatric APRNs, with legislation expanding the availability of mental health services. We find ourselves in a similar time with 7 million new health insurance enrollees, because of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The expansion of health insurance coverage comes at a time when some colleges of nursing are closing master's programs in psychiatric-mental health, in lieu of the DNP mandate from the American Association of Colleges of Nursing. Is history repeating itself? Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Introduction to "Rethinking Business History in Modern China"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hsin Yeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this special issue of Cross-Currents, the contributing authors look at how business linked China and the world from the mid-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century, and how Chinese and foreign companies interacted with one another, as well as with political power, long before today. Some authors concentrate on material connections, including shipping, banking, the building of railroads, the spread of the motion picture industry, international treaties, and the formation of knowledge, while others investigate the role of business culture and how entrepreneurship and networks of trust crossed borders. Both of these aspects are set against the backdrop of simultaneous Chinese state-building efforts that became evident in the state creation of a national market and the formation of political borders. All of the authors collected here draw on case studies of individual entrepreneurs or companies, just as they draw on the new historical and theoretical scholarship summarized above to fill out the picture of China’s economic development within global processes. As the contributions to this issue demonstrate, rethinking Chinese business history also forces us to rethink Chinese urban history more generally... The new pictures of business practice presented here entail a remapping of the spatial dynamics of such activities and thereby a new understanding of the making of urban China...

  8. Traditional and Modern Biomedical Prospecting: Part I—the History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner E. G. Müller

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature, especially the marine environment, provides the most effective drugs used in human therapy. Among the metazoans, the marine sponges (phylum Porifera, which are sessile filter feeders, produce the most potent and highly selective bioactive secondary metabolites. These animals (or their associated symbiotic microorganisms synthesize secondary metabolites whose activity and selectivity has developed during their long evolutionary history (evochemistry. The exploitation of these resources has become possible due to the progress in molecular and cell biology. BIOTECmarin, the German Center of Excellence follows this rationale. In the past, these animals have been successfully and extensively utilized to isolate bioactive compounds and biomaterials for human benefit. Pharmaceuticals prepared from marine animals, primarily sponges, have been applied since ancient times (Hippocrates, Aristotle and later Plinius. It has been reported that extracts and/or components from sponges can be used for the treatment of specific diseases. For a systematic and applied-oriented exploitation, the successful development of effective compounds largely depends on quality of the institutional infrastructure of marine stations and more so on the biodiversity. The Center for Marine Research in Rovinj (Croatia fulfils these prerequisites. Founded in 1891, this institute has to its credit major discoveries related to exploitation of secondary metabolites/biomaterials from sponges for therapeutical application and to obtain biomaterials for general wellbeing.This is the first part of a review focusing on biomedical prospecting. Here, we have mainly described the historic background. The details of techniques, substances, approaches and outlooks will be discussed in the second part.

  9. Francis Bacon's natural history and the Senecan natural histories of early modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalobeanu, Dana

    2012-01-01

    At various stages in his career, Francis Bacon claimed to have reformed and changed traditional natural history in such a way that his new "natural and experimental history" was unlike any of its ancient or humanist predecessors. Surprisingly, such claims have gone largely unquestioned in Baconian scholarship. Contextual readings of Bacon's natural history have compared it, so far, only with Plinian or humanist natural history. This paper investigates a different form of natural history, very popular among Bacon's contemporaries, but yet unexplored by contemporary students of Bacon's works. I have provisionally called this form of natural history'Senecan' natural history, partly because it took shape in the Neo-Stoic revival of the sixteenth-century, partly because it originates in a particular cosmographical reading of Seneca's Naturales quaestiones. I discuss in this paper two examples of Senecan natural history: the encyclopedic and cosmographical projects of Pierre de la Primaudaye (1546-1619) and Samuel Purchas (1577-1626). I highlight a number of similarities between these two projects and Francis Bacon's natural history, and argue that Senecan natural history forms an important aspect in the historical and philosophical background that needs to be taken into consideration if we want to understand the extent to which Bacon's project to reform natural history can be said to be new.

  10. Teaching the Past in the Early Modern Era: Two Different Ways to Make Use of History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruter, Annie

    2012-01-01

    Were teachers, of the early modern era not longing for the present? Most colleges of that time did not offer a history course. Still, they did teach a lot about the past since the teaching consisted in the reading of the works of ancient writers. This is because ancient science and literature were considered much more advanced than the science and…

  11. Approaches to the History of Patients: From the Ancient World to Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This chapter looks from an early modernist's perspective at some of the major questions and methodological issues that writing the history of patients in the ancient world shares with similar work on Patientengeschichte in medieval and early modern Europe. It addresses, in particular, the problem of finding adequate sources that give access to the patients' experience of illness and medicine and highlights the potential as well as the limitations of using physicians' case histories for that purpose. It discusses the doctor-patient relationship as it emerges from these sources, and the impact of the patient's point of view on learned medical theory and practice. In conclusion, it pleads for a cautious and nuanced approach to the controversial issue of retrospective diagnosis, recommending that historians consistently ask in which contexts and in what way the application of modern diagnostic labels to pre-modern accounts of illness can truly contribute to a better historical understanding rather than distort it.

  12. Earliest evidence of modern human life history in North African early Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tanya M; Tafforeau, Paul; Reid, Donald J; Grün, Rainer; Eggins, Stephen; Boutakiout, Mohamed; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2007-04-10

    Recent developmental studies demonstrate that early fossil hominins possessed shorter growth periods than living humans, implying disparate life histories. Analyses of incremental features in teeth provide an accurate means of assessing the age at death of developing dentitions, facilitating direct comparisons with fossil and modern humans. It is currently unknown when and where the prolonged modern human developmental condition originated. Here, an application of x-ray synchrotron microtomography reveals that an early Homo sapiens juvenile from Morocco dated at 160,000 years before present displays an equivalent degree of tooth development to modern European children at the same age. Crown formation times in the juvenile's macrodont dentition are higher than modern human mean values, whereas root development is accelerated relative to modern humans but is less than living apes and some fossil hominins. The juvenile from Jebel Irhoud is currently the oldest-known member of Homo with a developmental pattern (degree of eruption, developmental stage, and crown formation time) that is more similar to modern H. sapiens than to earlier members of Homo. This study also underscores the continuing importance of North Africa for understanding the origins of human anatomical and behavioral modernity. Corresponding biological and cultural changes may have appeared relatively late in the course of human evolution.

  13. Teaching issues of contemporary history using historical sources and modern teaching methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruber Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of history is becoming increasingly less interesting to students, despite the fact that the history teaching process has been continuously modernized during recent years. It is an observation which can be perceived even if we don`t make an elaborated research in the field. Some empirical data show us that students in secondary and High Schools are less interested in studying History than in studying Geography or other social sciences. The number of students who are determined to study History in universities has significantly dropped in recent years [1]. Of course, there are multiple causes and the factors behind this change are numerous and varied. In this paper we handle only some changes in teaching History in High Schools, as they are designed in History Curricula and in History textbooks. Therefore during the first sequence of this paper we shall analyze the History Curricula for High School, 11th and 12th grades, regarding their finalities (competencies, some relevant contents and the recommended pedagogical approaches about the teaching methods and the auxiliary material. In the second part of the paper we propose some teaching activities through which students would practice the specific competencies from their Curriculum for History. We aim at presenting attractive teaching material and learning methods and applying the methodological recommendations from the High school Curricula for History, 11th and 12th grades.

  14. Oracle. Three Histories of the 1980's: Implications for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeber, James J.; And Others

    Three hypothetical scenarios for the 1980's are presented as tools for exploring the future of the Des Moines, Iowa, Independent Community School District. Each is written in the past tense as a "history" and is followed by a set of implications for education. The first scenario conveys an optimistic view of current trends, suggesting…

  15. A brief history of 'lone' atrial fibrillation: from 'a peculiar pulse irregularity' to a modern public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potpara, Tatjana S; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2015-01-01

    Ever since the original description of a 'peculiar pulse irregularity', atrial fibrillation (AF) has been studied extensively and has come a long journey from the recognition of its cardiac origins, to the modern concept of AF as a serious public health challenge with profound social and economic implications. This arrhythmia affects around 2% of adult population, and the most common underlying heart diseases accompanying AF in the modern era are hypertension, heart failure and coronary artery disease, as well as valvular heart diseases and numerous other cardiac as well as non-cardiac disorders which have been shown to predispose to AF. On occasions, AF occurs in young otherwise apparently healthy individuals (so called 'lone AF'). For a long time, 'lone' AF has been believed to bear a favourable prognosis as compared to AF with underlying structural heart disease, but increasing evidence suggests that 'lone' AF patients represent a rather heterogeneous cohort, with highly variable individual risk profiles due to the presence of various subclinical cardiovascular risk factors or genetically determined subtle alterations at the cellular or molecular level. For these reasons, the existence of truly 'lone' AF has recently been questioned. In this review article, we present a brief history of the recognition of the public health burden of AF. We discuss some of the misconceptions and breakthroughs on modern knowledge on AF, including the rise (and fall) of the 'lone' AF concept.

  16. CYCLES AND CRISES: HISTORY AND MODERNITY (THE RESULTS OF THE INTERNATIONAL NOBEL ECONOMIC FORUM)

    OpenAIRE

    Borys I.KHOLOD; Anatoly O.ZADOYA

    2009-01-01

    The paper analysis the main features of crisis phenomena in the early 21st century taking into consideration the overlapping stages of different types of business cycle (short and medium terms). The authors evaluate different kinds of economic cycles from the viewpoint of both history and modernity on the basis of opinions formulated during the International Nobel Economic Forum ôWord Economy in the 21th Century: Cycles and Crisesö (held in September 2008 at Dnipropetrovsk, University of Econ...

  17. YI Kwang Su's Love and history records of modern hospital under the japanese colonial period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung Hoon

    2016-12-01

    This article aims to evaluate and analyze the description of the modern hospital as history record, which appeared in YI Kwang Su's novel Love. This novel has mentioned in detail western style clinic, Bukgando Catholic hospital, tuberculosis sanitarium as its main space. Modern hospitals are depicted in the novel has a great significance in historical aspect as well as in literary aspect. The most data on modern hospital is laws, statistics and newspaper archives. These materials are a great help to understand the history and status of the modern hospital. Literary description here is important materials, that specific to reconstruct the appearance of the modern hospital at that time. Literary representations infuse life into the history record. In this regard, Love has special meaning in the history of Korean modern literature. Before anything else, doctor AN Bin's clinic as a first space of the novel vividly shows the reality of the Western style clinic and a general practitioner under the colonial period. The establishment of the hospital was based on 「Rules on private hospital」 declared by the Japanese Government General of Korea in 1919. According to this Rules, a private clinic's founder had to submit the documents to the director of police affairs, in which all the details were written. It included name of hospital, site location and size, floor plan of a nearby building, each size of patient's rooms, number of steps and emergency exit, bath, toilet, disinfecting room. AN Bin's clinic was a private hospital with the requirements in the rules. The descriptions of this clinic re-created real situation of private hospitals, specifically scale of hospital, interior space, conditions of patient's room at the time. The second modern hospital in the novel is Bukgando Catholic hospital. There is a lot more materials on medical activity and hospital of protestant churches than we thought. But we do not have a lot of information on catholic church's medical

  18. Surface history of Mercury - Implications for terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, B. C.; Strom, R. G.; Trask, N. J.; Gault, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    A plausible surface history of Mercury is presented which is suggested by Mariner 10 television pictures. Five periods are postulated which are delineated by successive variations in the modification of the surface by external and internal processes: accretion and differentiation, terminal heavy bombardment, formation of the Caloris basin, flooding of that basin and other areas, and light cratering accumulated on the smooth plains. Each period is described in detail; the overall history is compared with the surface histories of Venus, Mars, and the moon; and the implications of this history for earth are discussed. It is tentatively concluded that: Mercury is a differentiated planet most likely composed of a large iron core enclosed by a relatively thin silicate layer; heavy surface bombardment occurred about four billion years ago, which probably affected all the inner planets, and was followed by a period of volcanic activity; no surface modifications caused by tectonic, volcanic, or atmospheric processes took place after the volcanic period.

  19. Science and society the history of modern physical science in the twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Gordin, Michael; Kaiser, David

    2001-01-01

    Modern science has changed every aspect of life in ways that cannot be compared to developments of previous eras. This four volume set presents key developments within modern physical science and the effects of these discoveries on modern global life. The first two volumes explore the history of the concept of relativity, the cultural roots of science, the concept of time and gravity before, during, and after Einstein's theory, and the cultural reception of relativity. Volume three explores the impact of modern science upon global politics and the creation of a new kind of war, and Volume four details the old and new efforts surrounding the elucidation of the quantum world, as well as the cultural impact of particle physics. The collection also presents the historical and cultural context that made these scientific innovations possible. The transformation of everyday concepts of time and space for the individual and for society, the conduct of warfare, and the modern sense of mastering nature are all issues d...

  20. The modern Chinese family in light of economic and legal history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Philip C C

    2011-01-01

    Most social science theory and the currently powerful Chinese ideology of modernizationism assume that, with modern development, family-based peasant farm production will disappear, to be replaced by individuated industrial workers and the three-generation family by the nuclear family. The actual record of China’s economic history, however, shows the powerful persistence of the small family farm, as well as of the three-generation family down to this day, even as China’s GDP becomes the second largest in the world. China’s legal system, similarly, encompasses a vast informal sphere, in which familial principles operate more than individualist ones. And, in between the informal-familial and the formal-individualist, there is an enormous intermediate sphere in which the two tendencies are engaged in a continual tug of war. The economic behavior of the Chinese family unit reveals great contrasts with what is assumed by conventional economics. It has a different attitude toward labor from that of both the individual worker and the capitalist firm. It also has a different structural composition, and a different attitude toward investment, children’s education, and marriage. Proper attention to how Chinese modernity differs socially, economically, and legally from the modern West points to the need for a different kind of social science; it also lends social–economic substance to claims for a modern Chinese culture different from the modern West’s.

  1. Minamata as Negative Heritage in Modern Japan: Implications for Fukushima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoyama, Mami

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the industrial pollution that led to mercury poisoning around Minamata Bay in Kuma-moto Prefecture, Japan from the 1950s. It is argued that the social and political ‘lessons’ of Minamata constitute a type of ‘negative heritage’ that presents a microcosm of many of the problems associated with modernity in Japan. Similarities between Minamata and the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident are discussed and some reasons why the negative heritage of Minamata was ignored at Fukushima are briefly considered.

  2. A Modern History of 'Imperial Medicine' Surrounding Hansen's Disease: Strategies to Manage Public Opinion in Modern Japanese Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Gijae

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the reality of imperial medicine by exploring the strategic attitude of the Japanese authority targeting the public who were not patients of Hansen's disease. For this purpose, this study examines the mass media data related to Hansen's disease published in Korea and Japan during the Japanese colonial rule. Research on Hansen's disease can be divided into medical, sociohistorical, social welfare, and human rights approach. There are medical studies and statistics on the dissemination of medical information about Hansen's disease and management measures, the history of the management of the disease, guarantee of the rights of the patients and the welfare environment, and studies on the autobiographical, literary writings and oral statements on the life and psychological conflicts of the patients. Among existing research, the topics of the study on Hansen's disease under the Japanese colonial rule include the history of the Sorokdo Island Sanatorium, investigation on the forced labor of the patients in the island, human rights violations against the patients, oral memoirs of the patients and doctors who practiced at that time. All of these studies are important achievements regarding the research on the patients. An important study of Hansen's disease in modern Japan is the work of Hujino Utaka, which introduces the isolation of and discrimination against the patients of Hansen's disease. Hujino Utaka's study examines the annihilation of people with infectious diseases in Japan and its colonies by the imperial government, which was the consequence of the imperial medical policies, and reports on the isolation of Hansen's disease patients during the war. Although these researches are important achievements in the study of Hansen's disease in modernity, their focus has mainly been on the history of isolation and exploitation in the Sorokdo Island Sanatorium and discrimination against the patients within the sanatorium, which

  3. Lethal Surveillance: Drones and the Geo-History of Modern War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindervater, Katharine Hall

    Interdisciplinary both in scope and method, my dissertation, Lethal Surveillance: Drones and the Geo-History of Modern War, examines the history of drone technology from the start of the 20th century to the present in order to understand the significance of the increasing centrality of drones to current American military engagements and security practices more generally. Much of the scholarship on drones and many other contemporary military technologies tends to view the technology as radically new, missing both the historical development of these objects as well as the perspectives and rationalities that are embedded in their use. For this research, I focused on three main periods of drone research and development: the early years of World War I and II in the UK, the Cold War, and the 1990s. In studying this history of the drone, I found that two key trends emerge as significant: the increasing importance of information to warfare under the rubric of intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance; and a shift toward more dynamic, speedier, and individualized targeting practices. I argue that the widespread use of drones today thus represents the culmination of attempts in war to effectively link these two trends, creating a practice I call lethal surveillance -- with the armed Predator effectively closing the loop between identifying and killing targets. The concept of lethal surveillance, which in my dissertation I place squarely within the histories of modern scientific thinking and Western liberal governance, allows us to see how techniques of Western state power and knowledge production are merging with practices of killing and control in new ways, causing significant changes to both the operations of the state and to practices of war. Framing the drone through the lens of lethal surveillance, therefore, allows us to see the longer histories the drone is embedded in as well as other security practices it is connected to.

  4. History of teaching anatomy in India: from ancient to modern times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Tony George

    2013-01-01

    Safe clinical practice is based on a sound knowledge of the structure and function of the human body. Thus, knowledge of anatomy has been an essential tool in the practice of healthcare throughout the ages. The history of anatomy in India traces from the Paleolithic Age to the Indus Valley Civilization, the Vedic Times, the Islamic Dynasties, the modern Colonial Period, and finally to Independent India. The course of the study of anatomy, despite accompanying controversies and periods of latencies, has been fascinating. This review takes the reader through various periods of Indian medicine and the role of anatomy in the field of medical practice. It also provides a peek into the modern system of pedagogy in anatomical sciences in India. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Modern environmental ethics and the possible implications for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Lars

    1996-01-01

    Environmental ethics is concerned with the moral relations that hold between humans and the natural world. The ethical principles governing those relations determine our duties, obligations, and responsibilities with regard to the Earth's natural environment and the animals and plants that inhabit it. When a life-centered view is accepted as has been done by Taylor, the obligations and responsibilities we have with respect to the wild animals and plants of the Earth are seen to arise from certain moral relations between ourselves and the natural world itself. Considering the shift of ethical values that have occurred in the world, we may now be at a point in history when it is timely and when there also exist scientific reasons to set up a protection policy equivalent to the ICRP principles for protection of humans (justification, optimisation and dose limits) for the protection of environment (including animals) against the harmful effects of radiation

  6. (See symbol in text) in early modern discussions of the passions: Stoicism, Christianity and natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraye, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the reception of the Stoic theory of the passions in the early modern period, highlighting various differences between the way notions such as (see symbol in text) (complete freedom from passions) and(see symbol in text) (pre-passions) were handled and interpreted by Continental and English authors. Both groups were concerned about the compatibility of Stoicism with Christianity, but came to opposing conclusions; and while the Continental scholars drew primarily on ancient philosophical texts, the English ones relied, in addition, on experience and observation, developing a natural history of the passions.

  7. To Place or Not to Place: Toward an Environmental History of Modern Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Reviewing recent, overlapping work by historians of medicine and health and of environmental history, this article proposes a further agenda upon which scholars in both fields may converge. Both environmental and medical historians can seek to understand the past two centuries of medical history in terms of a seesaw dialogue over the ways and means by which physicians and other health professionals did, and did not, consider the influence of place-airs and waters included-on disease. Modernizing and professionalizing as well as new styles of science nourished attendant aspirations for a clinical place neutrality, for a medicine in which patients' own places didn't matter to what doctors thought or did. The rise of place neutrality from the late nineteenth century onward also had close and enabling historical ties to the near-simultaneous formation of place-defined specialties-tropical medicine, bacteriological public health, and industrial medicine and hygiene.

  8. Modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Bagrov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of the most important problems of modern meteoric astronomy and briefly describes ways and methods of their solutions. Particular attention is paid to the construction and arrangement of meteoric video cameras intended for registration of the meteoric phenomena as the main method of obtaining reliable and objective observational data on the basis of which the solution of the described tasks is possible.

  9. Genomic validation of the differential preservation of population history in modern human cranial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Centeno, Hugo; Ghirotto, Silvia; Harvati, Katerina

    2017-01-01

    In modern humans, the significant correlation between neutral genetic loci and cranial anatomy suggests that the cranium preserves a population history signature. However, there is disagreement on whether certain parts of the cranium preserve this signature to a greater degree than other parts. It is also unclear how different quantitative measures of phenotype affect the association of genetic variation and anatomy. Here, we revisit these matters by testing the correlation of genetic distances and various phenotypic distances for ten modern human populations. Geometric morphometric shape data from the crania of adult individuals (n = 224) are used to calculate phenotypic P ST , Procrustes, and Mahalanobis distances. We calculate their correlation to neutral genetic distances, F ST , derived from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We subset the cranial data into landmark configurations that include the neurocranium, the face, and the temporal bone in order to evaluate whether these cranial regions are differentially correlated to neutral genetic variation. Our results show that P ST , Mahalanobis, and Procrustes distances are correlated with F ST distances to varying degrees. They indicate that overall cranial shape is significantly correlated with neutral genetic variation. Of the component parts examined, P ST distances for both the temporal bone and the face have a stronger association with F ST distances than the neurocranium. When controlling for population divergence time, only the whole cranium and the temporal bone have a statistically significant association with F ST distances. Our results confirm that the cranium, as a whole, and the temporal bone can be used to reconstruct modern human population history. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [From influence to confluence : positioning the history of pre-modern Korean medicine in East Asia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Soyoung

    2010-12-31

    This article surveys studies focusing on pre-modern Korean medicine, which are both written in English and analyzed primary sources up to 1876. Overall, the history of pre-modern Korean medicine is an unknown filed in Anglophone academia. Yung Sik Kim's, James Palais's, and Carter Ecart's problematization of the nationalist framework of Korean scholarship partially explains the marginality of the field. Addressing these criticisms, this review argues that pre-modern Korean medicine's uneasy task lies in both elaborating Korea's own experience of medicine, while simultaneously avoiding making the "Korean" category itself essential. Korean narratives of premodern medicine need to go beyond the mere territorilalization of Korean medicine against its Chinese, Japanese, or Western counterparts, thereby to tackle the field's own boundary of research objects. The existing scholarship in English responds to this challenge by primarily examining the way in which Korea has shared textual tradition with China. Sirhak scholars' innovation in medicine, visual representation of Tongŭi bogam, Korean management of epidemics in the eleventh century, and Korean indexing of local botanicals, engages not only native achievements, but also the process of modifying medicine across geographical and political boundaries. More to the point, the emerging native narratives, although written in Korean, are implicitly resonant with those currently present in Anglophone academia. Taking "tension," "intertextuality," and "local traits" as a lens, this article assesses a series of current research in Korea. Aiming to go beyond appeals for a "distinctively" Korean experience of medicine, the future study of Korean pre-modern medicine will further elucidate confluences of different flows, such as "Chinese and Korean," "universal and local," "center and periphery," and "native and foreign," which will eventually articulate a range of Korean techniques of creating a bricolage in medicine.

  11. Testing the equivalence of modern human cranial covariance structure: Implications for bioarchaeological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen; Schroeder, Lauren

    2016-10-01

    Estimation of the variance-covariance (V/CV) structure of fragmentary bioarchaeological populations requires the use of proxy extant V/CV parameters. However, it is currently unclear whether extant human populations exhibit equivalent V/CV structures. Random skewers (RS) and hierarchical analyses of common principal components (CPC) were applied to a modern human cranial dataset. Cranial V/CV similarity was assessed globally for samples of individual populations (jackknifed method) and for pairwise population sample contrasts. The results were examined in light of potential explanatory factors for covariance difference, such as geographic region, among-group distance, and sample size. RS analyses showed that population samples exhibited highly correlated multivariate responses to selection, and that differences in RS results were primarily a consequence of differences in sample size. The CPC method yielded mixed results, depending upon the statistical criterion used to evaluate the hierarchy. The hypothesis-testing (step-up) approach was deemed problematic due to sensitivity to low statistical power and elevated Type I errors. In contrast, the model-fitting (lowest AIC) approach suggested that V/CV matrices were proportional and/or shared a large number of CPCs. Pairwise population sample CPC results were correlated with cranial distance, suggesting that population history explains some of the variability in V/CV structure among groups. The results indicate that patterns of covariance in human craniometric samples are broadly similar but not identical. These findings have important implications for choosing extant covariance matrices to use as proxy V/CV parameters in evolutionary analyses of past populations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Medical implication in the Bible and its relevance to modern medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun-Fang

    2013-11-01

    The Holy Bible, as the root of Western civilization, has imposed great influence in the fields far beyond religion. In this thesis, the author intended to reveal the medical implication in the Holy Bible and its relevance to the modern medical science by exploring the biblical medical information and comparing it with the current medical theory and practice. The conclusion of the exploration is surprising yet inspiring: the Holy Bible, as an ancient religious book, contains rich medical information around themes such as sexual relations, dietary guidelines, hygiene, etc., which is not at odds, but in harmony with the modern medicine.

  13. Mapping Queer Identities and Motives in Modern Art History in Serbia and Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Stojanović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with with the possibility of researching and mapping female painters’ self-portraits with the key of queer interpretation and with the accent on women’s and queer writings. The research of female selfportraits from this perspective addresses the new approach to modern art history, and the possibilities of construction/conceptualization/readings/reflection of gender identity of the artist herself as author and observer of the painting. Theoretical analysis of self-portraits and individual works from the opus of Nadežda Petrović, Danica Jovanović, Milena Pavlović Barili, Nasta Rojc, Beta Vukanović and Natalija Cvetković was conducted.

  14. Two-Person Control: A Brief History and Modern Industry Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Robert Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Physical asset protection is the principal objective of many security and safeguard measures. One well-known means of asset protection is two-person control. This paper reviews literature regarding two-person control to gain insight into its origin, first demonstrated uses, and its presence in several modern industries. This literature review of two-person control is intended to benefit people and organizations with a desire to understand its origins and how the practice has evolved over time, as well as give some insight into the flexibility of this safeguarding technique. The literature review is focused in four main sections: (1) defining two-person control, (2) early history, (3) two-person control in modern industry, and (4) a theory on how two- person control entered modern industry. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author would like to thank Jarret Lafleur and Scott Paap of Sandia National Laboratories, California's Systems Analysis & Engineering organization for the opportunity to work on this project. Jarret Lafleur provided very constructive and helpful feedback through all stages of the work. Amanda Thompson of the Sandia California Technical Library maintained a great spirit and always had a quick document turnaround that very much helped out this project's completion. Additionally, yet perhaps most importantly, the author would like to thank his wife and daughter, along with the rest of his family, for continued support over the years. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  15. From Vienna to Frankfurt Inside Core-House Type 7: A History of Scarcity through the Modern Kitchen

    OpenAIRE

    Hochhaeusl, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    This paper traces a history of war-induced scarcity through the material and technological properties of household appliances and kitchens from 1914 to 1930. Investigating the Austrian settlement and allotment garden movement, it argues that the practices of users, self-help builders, and inhabitants who reacted to living with limited resources in the state of emergency found their way into the designs of modern homes, and into the works of canonical modern architecture, in particular the fam...

  16. [A brief history of resuscitation - the influence of previous experience on modern techniques and methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucmin, Tomasz; Płowaś-Goral, Małgorzata; Nogalski, Adam

    2015-02-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is relatively novel branch of medical science, however first descriptions of mouth-to-mouth ventilation are to be found in the Bible and literature is full of descriptions of different resuscitation methods - from flagellation and ventilation with bellows through hanging the victims upside down and compressing the chest in order to stimulate ventilation to rectal fumigation with tobacco smoke. The modern history of CPR starts with Kouwenhoven et al. who in 1960 published a paper regarding heart massage through chest compressions. Shortly after that in 1961Peter Safar presented a paradigm promoting opening the airway, performing rescue breaths and chest compressions. First CPR guidelines were published in 1966. Since that time guidelines were modified and improved numerously by two leading world expert organizations ERC (European Resuscitation Council) and AHA (American Heart Association) and published in a new version every 5 years. Currently 2010 guidelines should be obliged. In this paper authors made an attempt to present history of development of resuscitation techniques and methods and assess the influence of previous lifesaving methods on nowadays technologies, equipment and guidelines which allow to help those women and men whose life is in danger due to sudden cardiac arrest. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  17. [The life of Dr. RO Kishun, a reflection of modern Korean medical history of the borders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young-Jeon; Park, Se-Hong

    2009-06-01

    borderlands or frontiers of Joseon Korea, China, and Japan, where the history of the three nations met and intermingled with one another. He was a biochemist and researcher, practicing physician and medical professor of the era under Japanese Rule and the one following it. In modern Korean medicine, his life is viewed as a history of the borders, or a transnational legacy going beyond individual history of Korea, China, and Japan.

  18. History, modernity, material and spiritual culture of Lemko, Boyko and Transcarpathian Rusyns in the problem field of interdisciplinary researches

    OpenAIRE

    Пронь, Тетяна Михайлівна

    2016-01-01

    The publication represents the interdisciplinary research professionals of social science and literature of Poland, Ukraine, Slovakia, the United States and Canada in history, modernity, material and spiritual culture Lemko, Boyko and Transcarpathian Rusyns disclose at the IV International scientific conference (23-24 September 2011 , Slupsk, Poland) and in the new collective proceedings of the Institute of Political Science Zelenogorsk University and the Institute of History Pomeranian Acade...

  19. A brief history of partitions of numbers, partition functions and their modern applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2016-04-01

    'Number rules the universe.' The Pythagoras 'If you wish to forsee the future of mathematics our course is to study the history and present conditions of the science.' Henri Poincaré 'The primary source (Urqell) of all mathematics are integers.' Hermann Minkowski This paper is written to commemorate the centennial anniversary of the Mathematical Association of America. It deals with a short history of different kinds of natural numbers including triangular, square, pentagonal, hexagonal and k-gonal numbers, and their simple properties and their geometrical representations. Included are Euclid's and Pythagorean's main contributions to elementary number theory with the main contents of the Euclid Elements of the 13-volume masterpiece of mathematical work. This is followed by Euler's new discovery of the additive number theory based on partitions of numbers. Special attention is given to many examples, Euler's theorems on partitions of numbers with geometrical representations of Ferrers' graphs, Young's diagrams, Lagrange's four-square theorem and the celebrated Waring problem. Included are Euler's generating functions for the partitions of numbers, Euler's pentagonal number theorem, Gauss' triangular and square number theorems and the Jacobi triple product identity. Applications of the theory of partitions of numbers to different statistics such as the Bose- Einstein, Fermi- Dirac, Gentile, and Maxwell- Boltzmann statistics are briefly discussed. Special attention is given to pedagogical information through historical approach to number theory so that students and teachers at the school, college and university levels can become familiar with the basic concepts of partitions of numbers, partition functions and their modern applications, and can pursue advanced study and research in analytical and computational number theory.

  20. Ecuador's YasunI Biosphere Reserve: a brief modern history and conservation challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finer, Matt; Vijay, Varsha; Jenkins, Clinton N; Ponce, Fernando; Kahn, Ted R

    2009-01-01

    Ecuador's YasunI Man and the Biosphere Reserve-located at the intersection of the Amazon, the Andes mountains, and the equator-is home to extraordinary biodiversity and a recently contacted Amazonian indigenous group known as the Waorani (or Huaorani). Relatives of the Waorani, the Tagaeri and Taromenane, still live in voluntary isolation deep in the reserve, with no peaceful contact with the outside world. The YasunI Biosphere Reserve also sits atop large reserves of crude oil, Ecuador's chief export, and contains an abundance of valuable timber species. This volatile combination has led to intense conflicts, and subsequently, increased international interest and concern. To make the issues confronting YasunI more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties, we synthesized information on the biological, social, and political issues of the region, providing a concise overview of its modern history and conservation challenges. We constructed a chronology of key events in the YasunI region over the past century and a series of maps designed to guide readers to a better understanding of the area's complicated array of overlapping designations. Main topics of analysis and discussion include: the Waorani and their ancestors living in voluntary isolation, YasunI National Park, illegal logging, missionary impacts, oil-development-related impacts and conflicts, and the Ecuadorian government's innovative YasunI-ITT Initiative (ITT: Ishpingo-Tiputini-Tambococha).

  1. The history of modern spinal traction with particular reference to neural disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shterenshis, M V

    1997-03-01

    The last 200 years of the history of spinal traction is described in the present article. The study starts at the end of the 18th century with the works of JA Venel (1789) who tried to apply the Hippocratic idea to modern surgery. Orthopedic specialists of the last century were mostly preoccupied with corsets and the method gained broader popularity when neurologists paid attention to the similar method of suspension. The Russian neurologist Osip Mochutkovsky described suspension as a method for the treatment of tabes dorsalis in an article published in the Russian magazine 'Vratch' in 1883. His works became known in Europe when JM Charcot paid attention to it and published a special short monograph on this subject in 1889. This work was translated into English (1889) and Russian (1890) and the method became popular in the treatment of tabes dorsalis and other neurological diseases. The eminent Russian neurologist VM Bekhterev proposed the combination of body suspension with cervical traction (1893). Some years later Gilles de la Tourette promoted the use of spinal traction in his neurological clinic (1897). Unfortunately neurologists worked without the cooperation of orthopedic specialists. During the first decades of the 20th century suspension was also replaced by traction in neurology. This method was used by both neurologists and orthopedic specialists but in the last decades neurologists lost their interests in it and it found greater use in traumatology and in spinal surgery where it is still in use today.

  2. Ecuador's YasunI Biosphere Reserve: a brief modern history and conservation challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, Matt [Save America' s Forests, Washington, DC (United States); Vijay, Varsha; Jenkins, Clinton N [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Ponce, Fernando [Ciudadanos por la Democracia, Quito (Ecuador); Kahn, Ted R, E-mail: matt@saveamericasforests.or [Neotropical Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Ecuador's YasunI Man and the Biosphere Reserve-located at the intersection of the Amazon, the Andes mountains, and the equator-is home to extraordinary biodiversity and a recently contacted Amazonian indigenous group known as the Waorani (or Huaorani). Relatives of the Waorani, the Tagaeri and Taromenane, still live in voluntary isolation deep in the reserve, with no peaceful contact with the outside world. The YasunI Biosphere Reserve also sits atop large reserves of crude oil, Ecuador's chief export, and contains an abundance of valuable timber species. This volatile combination has led to intense conflicts, and subsequently, increased international interest and concern. To make the issues confronting YasunI more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties, we synthesized information on the biological, social, and political issues of the region, providing a concise overview of its modern history and conservation challenges. We constructed a chronology of key events in the YasunI region over the past century and a series of maps designed to guide readers to a better understanding of the area's complicated array of overlapping designations. Main topics of analysis and discussion include: the Waorani and their ancestors living in voluntary isolation, YasunI National Park, illegal logging, missionary impacts, oil-development-related impacts and conflicts, and the Ecuadorian government's innovative YasunI-ITT Initiative (ITT: Ishpingo-Tiputini-Tambococha).

  3. From Vienna to Frankfurt Inside Core-House Type 7: A History of Scarcity through the Modern Kitchen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Hochhaeusl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces a history of war-induced scarcity through the material and technological properties of household appliances and kitchens from 1914 to 1930. Investigating the Austrian settlement and allotment garden movement, it argues that the practices of users, self-help builders, and inhabitants who reacted to living with limited resources in the state of emergency found their way into the designs of modern homes, and into the works of canonical modern architecture, in particular the famous Frankfurt Kitchen. This paper thus investigates the design and production of the modern kitchen and its transformations, from Vienna to Frankfurt, moving from a cooperative vernacular building movement to one of the largest construction endeavors to standardize and prefabricate modern housing in Germany.

  4. "To Feel at Home in the Wonderful World of Modern Science": New Chinese Historiography and Qing Intellectual History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Ori

    2017-09-01

    Argument In recent decades a large body of scholarship on the first half of twentieth-century China has successfully shown the ways in which history and historiography had been constructed at the time, as well as the links between history, national identity, education, and politics that was forged during this period. In this paper, I examine Qing intellectual history, in particular that of the mid or "High Qing." I discuss the development of the historiography of this field in the early twentieth century by drawing on the larger developments in historiography; by demonstrating how these developments had shaped Qing intellectual history for later times; by focusing on the historical actors' sense of the importance of "science," being "scientific," and "modernization"; and, by unraveling the intimate connections to older historiographical narratives going back all the way to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

  5. Using History to Inform the Modern Immigration Debate in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkle, William David

    2018-01-01

    The contentious modern immigration debate in the United States is often void of historical context and thus filled with fallacious narratives. To confront this trend, social studies educators should place the issues of modern immigration within their proper historical framework. This paper looks at three primary themes educators can explore: the…

  6. “Africanizing” A Modern African Art History Curriculum from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Until recent, the lack of perception that dogged the early study of traitional art by members of Western culture seem to have reappeared in the study or (non study) of modern African art. Currently, modern African art is engaging the attention of western art historians' scholarly enquiry. However, there is a need for a well ...

  7. Between history, criticism, and wit: texts and images of English modern architecture (1933-36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Rosso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It has often been remarked that modern architecture in Britain began late and that its emergence largely depended on the contribution of a massive influx of European exiles seeking refuge from the political and racial persecution of totalitarian regimes. In the attempt to discard the tired narrative of Britain’s insular modernism as a mere echo of continental European achievements, an alternative historiography has recently directed attention to Britain’s own distinctive and original version of modern architecture in the 1930s. Through the examination of a small group of articles, books and pamphlets on English modern architecture written by English authors and published in the mid-1930s, this paper argues that the emergence of a distinctive version of architectural modernism in Britain was paralleled by the development of an equally original brand of architectural criticism and historiography.

  8. YI Kwang Su’s Love and history records of modern hospital under the japanese colonial period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Hoon LEE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to evaluate and analyze the description of the modern hospital as history record, which appeared in YI Kwang Su’s novel Love. This novel has mentioned in detail western style clinic, Bukgando Catholic hospital, tuberculosis sanitarium as its main space. Modern hospitals are depicted in the novel has a great significance in historical aspect as well as in literary aspect. The most data on modern hospital is laws, statistics and newspaper archives. These materials are a great help to understand the history and status of the modern hospital. Literary description here is important materials, that specific to reconstruct the appearance of the modern hospital at that time. Literary representations infuse life into the history record. In this regard, Love has special meaning in the history of Korean modern literature. Before anything else, doctor AN Bin’s clinic as a first space of the novel vividly shows the reality of the Western style clinic and a general practitioner under the colonial period. The establishment of the hospital was based on 「Rules on private hospital」 declared by the Japanese Government General of Korea in 1919. According to this Rules, a private clinic’s founder had to submit the documents to the director of police affairs, in which all the details were written. It included name of hospital, site location and size, floor plan of a nearby building, each size of patient’s rooms, number of steps and emergency exit, bath, toilet, disinfecting room. AN Bin’s clinic was a private hospital with the requirements in the rules. The descriptions of this clinic re-created real situation of private hospitals, specifically scale of hospital, interior space, conditions of patient’s room at the time. The second modern hospital in the novel is Bukgando Catholic hospital. There is a lot more materials on medical activity and hospital of protestant churches than we thought. But we do not have a lot of information on

  9. Accuracy of family history of cancer : clinical genetic implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijmons, RH; Boonstra, AE; Reefhuis, J; Hordijk-Hos, JM; de Walle, HEK; Oosterwijk, JC; Cornel, MC

    Family medical history is the cornerstone of clinical genetic diagnosis and management in cases of familial cancer. The soundness of medical decisions can be compromised if reports by the family on affected relatives are inaccurate. Although very time consuming, family medical histories are

  10. A "Great Roads" Approach to Teaching Modern World History and Latin American Regional Survey Courses: A Veracruz to Mexico City Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Seay, Jr.; Sullivan-Gonzalez, Douglass

    2002-01-01

    Outlines an innovative way of teaching "World History Since 1500" at Samford University (Birmingham, Alabama) called the "great roads" approach, centered upon important roads in a country's history. Presents the "Veracruz to Mexico City corridor" case study used to teach a Latin American modern history course. (CMK)

  11. The influence of life history and sexual dimorphism on entheseal changes in modern humans and African great apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Milella

    Full Text Available Entheseal changes have been widely studied with regard to their correlation to biomechanical stress and their usefulness for biocultural reconstructions. However, anthropological and medical studies have demonstrated the marked influence of both age and sex on the development of these features. Studies of entheseal changes are mostly aimed in testing functional hypotheses and are mostly focused on modern humans, with few data available for non-human primates. The lack of comparative studies on the effect of age and sex on entheseal changes represent a gap in our understanding of the evolutionary basis of both development and degeneration of the human musculoskeletal system. The aim of the present work is to compare age trajectories and patterns of sexual dimorphism in entheseal changes between modern humans and African great apes. To this end we analyzed 23 postcranial entheses in a human contemporary identified skeletal collection (N = 484 and compared the results with those obtained from the analysis of Pan (N = 50 and Gorilla (N = 47 skeletal specimens. Results highlight taxon-specific age trajectories possibly linked to differences in life history schedules and phyletic relationships. Robusticity trajectories separate Pan and modern humans from Gorilla, whereas enthesopathic patterns are unique in modern humans and possibly linked to their extended potential lifespan. Comparisons between sexes evidence a decreasing dimorphism in robusticity from Gorilla, to modern humans to Pan, which is likely linked to the role played by size, lifespan and physical activity on robusticity development. The present study confirms previous hypotheses on the possible relevance of EC in the study of life history, pointing moreover to their usefulness in evolutionary studies.

  12. Unity and Diversity as a Theme in Early Modern Dutch Religious History: an Interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    The Reformation in the Low Countries fascinates both church historians and general historians. Religious change and political revolution went hand in hand. The history of the Reformation is an integral part of the history of the birth of the Dutch nation. Although well-researched, its attraction is

  13. Formalization and Interaction: Toward a Comprehensive History of Technology-Related Knowledge in Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popplow, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    Recent critical approaches to what has conventionally been described as "scientific" and "technical" knowledge in early modern Europe have provided a wealth of new insights. So far, the various analytical concepts suggested by these studies have not yet been comprehensively discussed. The present essay argues that such comprehensive approaches might prove of special value for long-term and cross-cultural reflections on technology-related knowledge. As heuristic tools, the notions of "formalization" and "interaction" are proposed as part of alternative narratives to those highlighting the emergence of "science" as the most relevant development for technology-related knowledge in early modern Europe.

  14. Translational implications: History and multilingualism in Henry V Translational implications: History and multilingualism in Henry VTranslational implications: History and multilingualism in Henry V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gomes da Torre

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available William Shakespeare used as subjects for some of his plays episodes of the political history of England which occurred, mainly, in the periods traditionally designed as the Hundred Years’ War (1337- 1453 and the Wars of the Two Roses (1455-85. The former was characterized by great oscillations between military success and failure and was caused by the desire of some English kings who wanted to occupy the French throne, but it was equally desired by the common English people themselves, who already had a developing sense of nationalism, but, in addition, considered the French wars good opportunities to reduce the hardships of their daily living through the products of plundering and ransom usually associated with such wars. The initially surprisingly successful English invasions of France and the resounding victories in the battles of Crécy (1346, Poitiers (1356 and Azincourt (1415 filled the collective English soul with pride and survived in the memory of the people throughout the centuries. When Shakespeare used such historical matters in his plays, he did not but give voice to that national pride and offer his countrymen the flavour of glorious past times. The Wars of the Two Roses, on the contrary, also survived in the people’s memory, but as tragic episodes of a civil war in which two families—the House of York (symbolized by the white rose and the House of Lancaster (symbolized by the red rose—involved themselves in bloody fights for the English throne. William Shakespeare used as subjects for some of his plays episodes of the political history of England which occurred, mainly, in the periods traditionally designed as the Hundred Years’ War (1337- 1453 and the Wars of the Two Roses (1455-85. The former was characterized by great oscillations between military success and failure and was caused by the desire of some English kings who wanted to occupy the French throne, but it was equally desired by the common English people

  15. Shrinking social space in the doctor-modern patient relationship: a review of forces for, and implications of, homologisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetow, Stephen; Jutel, Annemarie; Hoare, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Forces for modernisation appear to have led to role convergence and reduced social distances between doctors and modern patients. This review aims to document and understand this process in theory and practice, and to consider the implications for modern patients in particular but also non-modern patients and doctors. Narrative review of published and grey literature identified from sources including electronic databases, the Internet and reference lists of retrieved works. Forces for role convergence between doctors and modern patients include consumerism and increased patient literacy; socio-technological changes; values convergence; increased licence for doctors to use their emotions in patient care; and structural changes in the social organisation of health care. As a result, modern patients appear to have gained more in health care than they have lost and more than have the non-modern (or less modern) patients. Doctors have lost authority and autonomy in patient care. The net impulse toward role convergence is, on balance, a positive development. The differential uptake of modernisation by patients has increased health inequalities between modern and non-modern patients. The need of doctors to accommodate these changes has contributed to a form of reprofessonalisation. A key challenge is to make available the benefits of modernisation, for example through patient education, to as many patients as possible while minimising the risk of harm. It is important therefore to elucidate and be responsive to patient preferences for modernisation, for example by enlisting the support of the modern patients in overcoming barriers to the modernisation of non-modern patients. There is also a need to support doctors as they redefine their own professional role identity.

  16. Cubism translated? The Western Canon of Modernism and Central/Eastern European Art History

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lahoda, Vojtěch

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2010), s. 223-238 ISSN 1756-1310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : painting * furniture * applied arts * Czech Cubism * Modernism * Riga Artists´group Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/berg/aitj/2010/00000002/00000002/art00007

  17. A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE INTRODUCTION OF MODERN SCIENCE TO PORTUGAL DURING THE 18th CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TERESA CASTELÃO-LAWLESS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the role played by members of the Society of Jesus, the Order of the Oratorians, and the Jewish community in the introduction of Modern science in Portugal during the 18th century. The record of their publications prove, contrary to common stereotypes on the permanent conflict between science and religion, that they all embraced Modern, anti-Aristotelian, natural philosophy fairly equally and unreservedly. The rhetoric they used in manuscript Dedications to prospective patrons also show that they were actively engaged in shifting Modern science from a context of private consumption to one of public circulation. I acknowledgethat the dissemination of Modern science in Portugal during the 1700’s was slow and protracted. This phenomenon, however, was not, as typically argued, caused by scientific conservatism on the part of the religious Orders, or the ill will of patrons of the sciences, but by the political motives of enlightened despots João V, José I and his Prime-Minister the Marquis of Pombal.

  18. Health, civilization, and the state: a history of public health from ancient to modern times

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Porter, Dorothy

    1999-01-01

    ... including: * * * * * * * pestilence, public order and morality in pre-modern times the Enlightenment and its effects public health and centralization in Victorian Britain localization of health care in the United States population issues and family welfare the rise of the classic welfare state and its health care policies attitudes towards public health in...

  19. Comics in Modern Physics: Learning Blackbody Radiation through Quasi-History of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ertugrul

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to create a short comic story about historical emergence of Planck's explanation of blackbody radiation and to investigate what students learn from it and what they think about the usage of comics in modern physics course. The participants are a small group of undergraduate students studying at department of science…

  20. Implications of life-history strategies for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maner, Jon K; Dittmann, Andrea; Meltzer, Andrea L; McNulty, James K

    2017-08-08

    The association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity is well documented. In the current research, a life history theory (LHT) framework provided an explanation for this association. Derived from evolutionary behavioral science, LHT emphasizes how variability in exposure to unpredictability during childhood gives rise to individual differences in a range of social psychological processes across the life course. Consistent with previous LHT research, the current findings suggest that exposure to unpredictability during childhood (a characteristic common to low SES environments) is associated with the adoption of a fast life-history strategy, one marked by impulsivity and a focus on short-term goals. We demonstrate that a fast life-history strategy, in turn, was associated with dysregulated weight-management behaviors (i.e., eating even in the absence of hunger), which were predictive of having a high body mass index (BMI) and being obese. In both studies, findings held while controlling for participants' current socioeconomic status, suggesting that obesity is rooted in childhood experiences. A serial mediation model in study 2 confirmed that effects of childhood SES on adult BMI and obesity can be explained in part by exposure to unpredictability, the adoption of a fast life-history strategy, and dysregulated-eating behaviors. These findings suggest that weight problems in adulthood may be rooted partially in early childhood exposure to unpredictable events and environments. LHT provides a valuable explanatory framework for understanding the root causes of obesity.

  1. History of a modern place: Clorindo Testa and the Santa Rosa Civic Center, La Pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Costa Cabral

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Santa Rosa, capital of the young province of La Pampa, was founded in 1892 at the end of the military campaigns that annihilated the indigenous people and ensured republican control over the Patagonia region. In 1955, the city held a design competition for the construction of its Civic Center. This was not a current infill operation intended to renew the core of the city, since it was not just a matter of raising a new facade along one of the four sides of the main square. The task implied designing, almost from scratch, a new part of city. Competitors were supposed to organize new buildings and public spaces within an area of nine hectares standing between the existing city and the surrounding pampas. Clorindo Testa won the competition by proposing that it be built as a piece of a modern city. Situated in the middle of Argentinean pampas, the Santa Rosa Civic Center has been less extensively discussed than other of Testa’s great contemporary works, such as the London Bank (1959 and the National Library (1962, both in Buenos Aires, even in the South American context. The Government Building, the Bus Station and the covered central space were built before 1963. Testa finished the Legislature Building in 1976, and even though in 2006 he was able to conclude the little Legislature Library, half of the Civic Center area still remains as open space. Nevertheless, as a living piece of the never-completed modern project installed in the far south, La Pampa’s case seems to pose relevant urban questions. This paper explores the case from two complementary perspectives. One focuses on the results of the first competition, recognizing an original contribution to the relationship between modernity, monument, and place. The second discusses the unfinished condition of the Civic Center as constitutive to modern tradition in the very modern sense of the city as a never-completed work.

  2. Routledge History of Women in Modern Europe, 1700 to the present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    scholars and rising stars of the discipline to provide a ground-breaking and unique contribution to the historical study of women. Chapters include:European Women's History at the Crossroads, Writing Women in(to) European History, At Home in the Family, Female Sexuality, Learning to be good girls and women......The Routledge History of Women in Europe since 1700 is a landmark publication that provides an over view of women's role and place in Western Europe, spanning three centuries. Drawing on new research and provoking valuable new insights, this comprehensive edited collection brings together renowned......, Women Workers, Working women, Women Religious and religious women, Women as citizens, Women in War and Peace, Home and Away, popular culture and Leisure, Mistresses of creation, women as producers and consumers of culture....

  3. Natural History of Rotator Cuff Disease and Implications on Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative rotator cuff disease is commonly associated with ageing and is often asymptomatic. The factors related to tear progression and pain development are just now being defined through longitudinal natural history studies. The majority of studies that follow conservatively treated painful cuff tears or asymptomatic tears that are monitored at regular intervals show slow progression of tear enlargement and muscle degeneration over time. These studies have highlighted greater risks for disease progression for certain variables, such as the presence of a full-thickness tear and involvement of the anterior aspect supraspinatus tendon. Coupling the knowledge of the natural history of degenerative cuff tear progression with variables associated with greater likelihood of successful tendon healing following surgery will allow better refinement of surgical indications for rotator cuff disease. In addition, natural history studies may better define the risks of nonoperative treatment over time. This article will review pertinent literature regarding degenerative rotator cuff disease with emphasis on variables important to defining appropriate initial treatments and refining surgical indications. PMID:26726288

  4. The Molecular Mechanisms of Thalidomide Teratogenicity and Implications for Modern Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, J; Jungck, D; Koch, A

    2017-01-01

    Thalidomide is a teratogen that affects many organs but primarily induces limb truncations like phocomelia. Rodents are thalidomide resistant. In the 1950s, this has led to misinterpretations of animal tests and to the fatal assumption that the drug was safe for pregnant women to use against morning sickness. The result was one of the biggest scandals in medical history: 10.000 and more infants with birth defects in Europe. Nonetheless, thalidomide still has its place in modern medicine as it has strong therapeutic potential: it has been approved by the FDA for multiple myeloma and erythema nodosum leprosum, and its anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiangiogenic activities are considered in many other refractory diseases. The aim is to develop derivatives that are not teratogenic but maintain the therapeutic potential. This requires detailed knowledge about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Much progress has been made in deciphering the teratogenic mechanisms in the last decade. Here, we summarize these mechanisms, explain thalidomide resistance of rodents, and discuss possible mechanisms that could explain why the drug primarily targets the developing limb in the embryo. We also summarize the most important therapeutic mechanisms. Finally, we discuss which therapeutic and teratogenic mechanisms do and do not overlap, and if there is a chance for the development of non-teratogenic thalidomide derivatives with therapeutic potential. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Building a Digital Bookwheel Together: Annotated Books Online and the History of Early Modern Reading Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.S.Q.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/120007657; Calis, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the history of reading has become an increasingly lively field of scholarship. Important case studies have documented the freedom that individual readers have enjoyed in handling their books. On a structural level, however, the scholarship has been hampered by limited

  6. Ritual Slaughter in the Modern Constitutional State: A Brief History of the European Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    in emphasis after mass Muslim immigration began in the 1960s. In this sense, the protection of animal welfare as a legitimate concern of the state can be placed in a wider context of secular concerns for vulnerable groups that violently clashes with pre-modern notions of religious or cultural autonomy....... Similar in nature if not necessarily in intensity to questions of forced and/or underage marriage, male circumcision and female genital mutilation, the commitment of the secular state to animal welfare cannot summarily be rejected by demands for religious freedom....

  7. Antara Makkah, Basrah dan Kemerdekaan Studi Konstruksi Historis Pendidikan Islam Era Klasik hingga Modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mujab

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Islamic Education at first period was showed its superiority. It was proved by the emergency of superior, dinamic and creative generation. The generation from companions of the prophet, tabi’in and tabi’it tabiin are a sturdy generation, have a high comitment for moral values of Islam. Whereas on the pre-modern, Islam was suffered a decrease. Its quite alarming setback. Its period of deteriorate. This periode was identified as time of the demise of the Islamic struggle. So, education was not incised achievement then previous generations.

  8. Ji Zhaojin, A History of Modern Shanghai Banking. The Rise and Decline of China Finance Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Bergère, Marie-Claire

    2006-01-01

    To attempt a 260-page summary of the history of the Chinese and foreign banks in Shanghai over a whole century (1842-1952) is an extremely ambitious project. This was a historical epoch dominated by complex financial and monetary structures, and agitated by political developments—civil and foreign wars, imperialist penetration, nationalist reactions and revolutionary crises—, an epoch which appears as both a phase in China’s modernisation and an episode in the expansion of international capit...

  9. Ancient islands and modern invasions: disparate phylogeographic histories among Hispaniola's endemic birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sly, Nicholas D; Townsend, Andrea K; Rimmer, Christopher C; Townsend, Jason M; Latta, Steven C; Lovette, Irby J

    2011-12-01

    With its large size, complex topography and high number of avian endemics, Hispaniola appears to be a likely candidate for the in situ speciation of its avifauna, despite the worldwide rarity of avian speciation within single islands. We used multilocus comparative phylogeography techniques to examine the pattern and history of divergence in 11 endemic birds representing potential within-island speciation events. Haplotype and allele networks from mitochondrial ND2 and nuclear intron loci reveal a consistent pattern: phylogeographic divergence within or between closely related species is correlated with the likely distribution of ancient sea barriers that once divided Hispaniola into several smaller paleo-islands. Coalescent and mitochondrial clock dating of divergences indicate species-specific response to different geological events over the wide span of the island's history. We found no evidence that ecological or topographical complexity generated diversity, either by creating open niches or by restricting long-term gene flow. Thus, no true within-island speciation appears to have occurred among the species sampled on Hispaniola. Divergence events predating the merging of Hispaniola's paleo-island blocks cannot be considered in situ divergence, and postmerging divergence in response to episodic island segmentation by marine flooding probably represents in situ vicariance or interarchipelago speciation by dispersal. Our work highlights the necessity of considering island geologic history while investigating the speciation-area relationship in birds and other taxa. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Abraham Pais Prize Lecture: Shifting Problems and Boundaries in the History of Modern Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Mary-Jo

    A long established category of study in the history of science is the ``history of physical sciences.'' It is a category that immediately begs the question of disciplinary boundaries for the problems and subjects addressed in historical inquiry. As a historian of the physical sciences, I often have puzzled over disciplinary boundaries and the means used to create or justify them. Scientists most often have been professionally identified with specific institutionalized fields since the late 19th century, but the questions they ask and the problems they solve are not neatly carved up by disciplinary perimeters. Like institutional departments or professorships, the Nobel Prizes in the 20th century often have delineated the scope of ``Physics'' or ``Chemistry'' (and ``Physiology or Medicine''), but the Prizes do not reflect disciplinary rigidity, despite some standard core subjects. In this paper I examine trends in Nobel Prize awards that indicate shifts in problem solving and in boundaries in twentieth century physics, tying those developments to changing themes in the history of physics and physical science in recent decades.

  11. Book Review: Thanos Veremis, A Modern History of the Balkans: Nationalism and Identity in Southeast Europe, London and New York: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd, 2017.

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron J. Cuevas

    2017-01-01

    Thanos Veremis, an Emeritus professor of Political History at the University of Athens, is a preeminent historian and prolific author. This book comparatively covers the political and military history of the Balkans with a special attention to the Balkan economies, militaries, and nationalist creeds as some of these modern issues still plague the region. In the first part of the book, Veremis provides a concise and fast-paced overview of almost two hundred years of Balkan history from the ...

  12. Modern history of surgical management of lung abscess: from Harold Neuhof to current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, Michael; Dubecz, Attila; Stadlhuber, Rudolf J; Stein, Hubert J

    2011-12-01

    Harold Neuhof was one of the pioneers of thoracic surgery in the early decades of the last century. Inspired by his preceptor Howard Lilienthal he proposed an entirely new concept for surgery on acute lung abscess. The aim of his one-stage procedure was adequate drainage of the abscess cavity. His approach proved to be the first major breakthrough in the treatment of acute lung abscess. Therapy of pulmonary abscess was again radically changed by the advent of antibiotics in the late 1940s. However, the basic principles of Neuhof's concept still influence modern-day management of putrid lung abscess. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Health politics meets post-modernism: its meaning and implications for community health organizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenau, P V

    1994-01-01

    In this article, post-modern theory is described and applied to health politics with examples from community health organizing, social movements, and health promotion. Post-modernism questions conventional assumptions about concepts such as representation, participation, empowerment, community, identity, causality, accountability, responsibility, authority, and roles in community health promotion (those of expert, leader, and organizer). I compare post-modern social movements with their modern counterparts: the organizational forms, leadership styles, and substantive intellectual orientations of the two differ. I explain the social planning, community development, and social action models of community health organizing, comparing them with the priorities of post-modern social movements, and show the similarities and differences between them as to structural preferences, process, and strategies. Finally, and most importantly, I present the implicit lessons that post-modernism offers to health politics and outline the strengths and weaknesses of this approach to health politics.

  14. Connecting the Indies: the hispano-asian Pacific world in early Modern Global History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Dominic Crewe

    Full Text Available Abstract This article reconsiders the place of colonial Latin America in global history by examining the Transpacific interactions, conflicts, and exchanges between Latin America and Asia in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Setting aside earlier imperial histories that present the Pacific as a 'Spanish Lake', I conceptualize a dynamic Hispano-Asian Pacific World that was forged by a myriad of actors in and around the Pacific basin. Instead of a Pacific dominated by far-off Spain, my research reveals a Transpacific world that in fact defied imperial efforts to claim, regulate, or convert it. I structure this study along three broad lines of inquiry: the economic ties that made the Asian-Latin American 'Rim', the consequences of human transits and cultural exchanges along new Transpacific conduits, and the barriers of distance and culture that limited both cosmopolitanism and imperialism. For societies in Latin America, this Hispano-Asian Pacific world provided them with greater autonomy than the Atlantic world. They shared, alongside diverse groups in this maritime world, a common story of circumvention, of freewheeling exchanges, and of checked powers, for no single shoreline, empire, or group predominated. Ultimately, by charting the currents of Hispano-Asian interactions in the Pacific world, I provide a riposte to theories in global historiography that have situated Latin America at the periphery of Western Europe.

  15. Demographic development of ukrainian rural area: lessons of history, modern socio-economic threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Melnychuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to urgent problems of demographic development of rural areas, their impact on socioeconomic processes at all levels of the national economic system. The content of demographic and economic antonyms of «demographic development» and «demographic catastrophe» has been characterized. The article analyzes the historical background of demographic change in rural areas, their socio-economic consequences. It’s reasonably concluded that the economic development of Ukraine requires urgent settlement of the negative socio-demographic trends that are characteristic for a Ukrainian village. Nowadays, these trends are of a destructive nature. They lead to a protracted crisis of agricultural production which is very difficult to overcome solely with the tools of technical and technological modernization. This will complicate the food security of the state for many years; lower the level and quality of life of the population, lead to greater territorial disparities and degradation of rural areas and the marginalization of residents of Ukrainian villages.

  16. Landscape evolution in south-central Minnesota and the role of geomorphic history on modern erosional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, K.B.; Belmont, P.; Day, S.S.; Finnegan, N.; Jennings, C.; Lauer, J.W.; Wilcock, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    The Minnesota River Valley was carved during catastrophic drainage of glacial Lake Agassiz at the end of the late Pleistocene. The ensuing base-level drop on tributaries created knickpoints that excavated deep valleys as they migrated upstream. A sediment budget compiled in one of these tributaries, the Le Sueur River, shows that these deep valleys are now the primary source of sediment to the Minnesota River. To compare modern sediment loads with pre-European settlement erosion rates, we analyzed incision history using fluvial terrace ages to constrain a valley incision model. Results indicate that even thoughthe dominant sediment sources are derived from natural sources (bluffs, ravines, and streambanks), erosion rates have increased substantially, due in part to pervasive changes in watershed hydrology.

  17. A highly variable segment of human subterminal 16p reveals a history of population growth for modern humans outside Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Santos; Armour, John A. L.

    2001-01-01

    We have sequenced a highly polymorphic subterminal noncoding region from human chromosome 16p13.3, flanking the 5′ end of the hypervariable minisatellite MS205, in 100 chromosomes sampled from different African and Euroasiatic populations. Coalescence analysis indicates that the time to the most recent common ancestor (approximately 1 million years) predates the appearance of anatomically modern human forms. The root of the network describing this variability lies in Africa. African populations show a greater level of diversity and deeper branches. Most Euroasiatic variability seems to have been generated after a recent out-of-Africa range expansion. A history of population growth is the most likely scenario for the Euroasiatic populations. This pattern of nuclear variability can be reconciled with inferences based on mitochondrial DNA. PMID:11158547

  18. Banal art history. Baroque, modernization and official cinematography in Franco’s Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi de Haro García

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the newsreels made by Noticiarios y Documentales Cinematográficos (Cinematographic Newsreels and Documentaries, NO-DO, the official film production company created by Francoism, will be analyzed in order to shed light on the political, cultural and social role played by the presentation of art and art history to a wide public under Francoism. Special attention will be devoted to the role played by the imaginaries associated with the visual arts of the baroque and the Golden Age and to the ways in which they crossed paths with the construction of a national identity and the changes experimented by the dictatorship. This will show to what extent ‘banal art history’ can play a relevant role in ‘banal nationalism’ as defined by Michael Billig.

  19. Chew Bahir, southern Ethiopia: an archive of environmental history during the evolution and dispersal of anatomically modern humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaebitz, F.; Asrat, A.; Lamb, H. F.; Trauth, M. H.; Junginger, A.; Foerster, V. E.; Guenter, C.; Viehberg, F. A.; Just, J.; Roberts, H. M.; Chapot, M. S.; Leng, M. J.; Dean, J.; Cohen, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Chew Bahir is a tectonic basin in the southern Ethiopian Rift, close to the Lower Omo valley, site of earliest known fossil of anatomically modern humans. It was drilled in Nov-Dec 2014 as part of the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) and the Collaborative Research Center (CRC806) "Our Way to Europe". Two overlapping cores of mostly clayey silts, reaching a composite depths of 280m, were collected and may cover the last 500,000 years, thus providing a potential record of environmental history during the evolution and spread of anatomically modern humans. Here we present the lithology and stratigraphy of the composite core as well as results of high resolution MSCL and XRF scanning data. Initial sedimentological and geochemical results show that the Chew Bahir deposits are a sensitive record of changes in moisture, sediment influx, provenance, transport and diagenetic processes, evident from mineralogy, elemental concentration and physical properties. The potassium record is highly sensitive to changes in moisture balance (Foerster et al. 2015). XRF and XRD data suggest that the process linking climate with potassium concentrations is the diagenetic illitization of smectites during dry episodes with high alkalinity and salinity in the closed-basin lake. The core records will allow tests of the various hypotheses about the influence of environmental change on the evolution and dispersal of anatomically modern humans. Foerster, V., Vogelsang, R., Junginger, A., Asrat, A., Lamb, H.F., Schaebitz, F., Trauth, M.H. (2015): Environmental Change and Human Occupation of Southern Ethiopia and Northern Kenya during the last 20,000 years. Quaternary Science Reviews, 129: 333-340. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2015.10.026.

  20. Historical DNA reveals the demographic history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in medieval and early modern Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsdóttir, Guðbjörg Ásta; Westfall, Kristen M; Edvardsson, Ragnar; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2014-02-22

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) vertebrae from archaeological sites were used to study the history of the Icelandic Atlantic cod population in the time period of 1500-1990. Specifically, we used coalescence modelling to estimate population size and fluctuations from the sequence diversity at the cytochrome b (cytb) and Pantophysin I (PanI) loci. The models are consistent with an expanding population during the warm medieval period, large historical effective population size (NE), a marked bottleneck event at 1400-1500 and a decrease in NE in early modern times. The model results are corroborated by the reduction of haplotype and nucleotide variation over time and pairwise population distance as a significant portion of nucleotide variation partitioned across the 1550 time mark. The mean age of the historical fished stock is high in medieval times with a truncation in age in early modern times. The population size crash coincides with a period of known cooling in the North Atlantic, and we conclude that the collapse may be related to climate or climate-induced ecosystem change.

  1. History of optical theory of reflecting telescopes and implications for future projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Raymond N.

    1997-03-01

    This contribution, The History of Optical Theory of Reflecting Telescopes and Implications for Future Projects, is a shortened form of the Karl Schwarzschild lecture given in Bochum in September 1993. Some material has been added from an invited paper given in Padua in December 1992. For a full account, with figures and tables, the reader is referred to these two papers.

  2. Veterinary Homeopathy: The Implications of Its History for Unorthodox Veterinary Concepts and Veterinary Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Dwight B.

    1979-01-01

    The history of veterinary homeopathy, its future and implications are discussed. The need for investigation into the validity of both allopathic and homeopathic claims is stressed and it is suggested that maintenance of quality is the key factor in any approach. (BH)

  3. Max Weber e a história cultural da modernidade Max Weber and the cultural history of modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangolf Hübinger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo oferece um novo olhar sobre Weber como historiador. O fato de que a MWG reconstrói, de maneira bastante detalhada, o contexto histórico científico e intelectual torna mais evidente como os diferentes tópicos sobre os quais Weber trabalhou - a economia de mercado capitalista, as religiões do mundo ou o Estado moderno - foram abordados em última instância "do ponto de vista da história cultural". Diante desse quadro, meu artigo explora quatro aspectos principais: história econômica; ou mais precisamente o sentido cultural da ação econômica como ponto-chave para o pensamento histórico de Weber como um todo (I; a insistência de Weber na primazia de problemas analíticos e da escolha de perspectivas como pressupostos intelectuais do conhecimento histórico (II; a questão fundamental da história cultural em geral: como as ideias se atualizam em conflitos e constelações históricos e como a singularidade do desenvolvimento cultural europeu deve ser descrita em sua significação histórico-universal (III; a relevância da Primeira Guerra Mundial para os problemas e perspectivas de Weber: seu foco em uma teoria histórico-política do poder e da dominação e da gênese e estrutura do Estado moderno e da democracia (IV.This article takes a new look at Weber as a historian. The MWG's detailed reconstruction of the scientific and intellectual historical context provides a clear insight into how all the different topics on which Weber worked - the capitalist market economy, world religions, or the modern state - were ultimately treated "from the view-point of cultural history." In response the article examines four aspects: Economic history; or more precisely, the cultural meaning of economic action as a key to Weber's historical thinking as a whole (I; Weber's insistence on the primacy of analytical problems and of choices of perspectives as intellectual presuppositions of historical knowledge (II; the cardinal question of

  4. Who says this is a modern disorder? The early history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Badía, Jose; Martinez-Raga, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex, heterogeneous and multifactorial neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Although the first clinical description of a constellation of symptoms highly resembling to what currently could be diagnosed as ADHD is generally attributed to George F Still in 1902, there are scattered but significant published historical medical, scientific and non-scientific reports, much prior to Still’s lectures, of what is currently conceptualized as ADHD. The present report aimed at exploring the early history of ADHD, prior to the 20th century in the medical literature and in other historical sources, to provide clinicians, researchers and other professionals with a better understanding of the roots and current conceptualization of this disorder. It is possible to find clues and highly suggestive descriptions of individuals presenting symptoms resembling what is currently defined as ADHD in the literature, in paintings or in the Bible. However, the earliest medical reports of individuals with abnormal degrees of inattention, distractibility and overactivity date from the last quarter of the 18th century, included in two of the first textbooks specifically on the subject of mental diseases, published by the German Melchior Adam Weikard and the Scottish Sir Alexander Crichton. During the 19th century some eminent physicians from Germany, France or Great Britain, such as Charles West, Thomas C Albutt, Thomas S Clouston, William W, Ireland, John Haslam, Heinrich Neumann, or Désiré-Magloire Bourneville, among others provided clinical depictions of patients that most likely presently would be diagnosed as having ADHD. Whilst some of the children described by Still and his predecessors may have suffered from a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, many of these patients showed clear symptoms of ADHD and may present with comorbid disorders, as

  5. «Proceedings Of The Mining Institute»: history and modernization (to 110-th anniversary of first publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    И. Г. Ребещенкова

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to one of the oldest scientific and technical periodicals in Russia, scientific agent of the Saint-Petersburg Mining University – «Proceedings of the Mining Institute». In 2017 we shall celebrate the 110-th anniversary of the first issue of the magazine coming from the press. That event gains a particular meaning because  of the growing role of periodicals in operative gaining, storing, translating and practically applying scientific information. Modern society is duly called the information society, in which intense and efficient use of one of its main resources – knowledge – is the chief factor of successful development of all the spheres of the society. «Proceedings of the Mining Institute» – is an exceptionally important fragment of that resource, shaped by all of its history. The paper considers the pre-history and historical stages of establishment of the «Proceedings of the Mining Institute». It stresses the high authority of the majority of participants of that process: starting from the initiators of its publication (professors of the Mining Institute and all the way to its current authors – outstanding scientists of Russia, the near and the far abroad, as well as the well-known political and economic leaders of the country. Reconstruction of the past of the «Proceedings of the Mining Institute» demonstrates that the magazine has rich and valuable history. Being itself a necessary expression of tribute and gratitude to the magazine forerunners, the re- construction is not the only principal purpose of this study, that purpose consisting in identification and substantiation of ways and means of upgrading the magazine, to support its competitive edge in the extremely complex information space, both global and domestic, saturated with information as never before.

  6. History of Modern Earthquake Hazard Mapping and Assessment in California Using a Deterministic or Scenario Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mualchin, Lalliana

    2011-03-01

    Modern earthquake ground motion hazard mapping in California began following the 1971 San Fernando earthquake in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of southern California. Earthquake hazard assessment followed a traditional approach, later called Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis (DSHA) in order to distinguish it from the newer Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). In DSHA, seismic hazard in the event of the Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE) magnitude from each of the known seismogenic faults within and near the state are assessed. The likely occurrence of the MCE has been assumed qualitatively by using late Quaternary and younger faults that are presumed to be seismogenic, but not when or within what time intervals MCE may occur. MCE is the largest or upper-bound potential earthquake in moment magnitude, and it supersedes and automatically considers all other possible earthquakes on that fault. That moment magnitude is used for estimating ground motions by applying it to empirical attenuation relationships, and for calculating ground motions as in neo-DSHA (Z uccolo et al., 2008). The first deterministic California earthquake hazard map was published in 1974 by the California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) which has been called the California Geological Survey (CGS) since 2002, using the best available fault information and ground motion attenuation relationships at that time. The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) later assumed responsibility for printing the refined and updated peak acceleration contour maps which were heavily utilized by geologists, seismologists, and engineers for many years. Some engineers involved in the siting process of large important projects, for example, dams and nuclear power plants, continued to challenge the map(s). The second edition map was completed in 1985 incorporating more faults, improving MCE's estimation method, and using new ground motion attenuation relationships from the latest published

  7. Modernization of the Indian Air Force: Security Implications for South Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the Indian Air Force's (IAF) robust modernization campaign and explores why the IAF is on the path to transforming itself from an air force dedicated to air defense to one capable of global force projection...

  8. Rethinking critical reflection on care: late modern uncertainty and the implications for care ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosman, Frans; Niemeijer, Alistair

    2017-12-01

    Care ethics as initiated by Gilligan, Held, Tronto and others (in the nineteen eighties and nineties) has from its onset been critical towards ethical concepts established in modernity, like 'autonomy', alternatively proposing to think from within relationships and to pay attention to power. In this article the question is raised whether renewal in this same critical vein is necessary and possible as late modern circumstances require rethinking the care ethical inquiry. Two late modern realities that invite to rethink care ethics are complexity and precariousness. Late modern organizations, like the general hospital, codetermined by various (control-, information-, safety-, accountability-) systems are characterized by complexity and the need for complexity reduction, both permeating care practices. By means of a heuristic use of the concept of precariousness, taken as the installment of uncertainty, it is shown that relations and power in late modern care organizations have changed, precluding the use of a straightforward domination idea of power. In the final section a proposition is made how to rethink the care ethical inquiry in order to take late modern circumstances into account: inquiry should always be related to the concerns of people and practitioners from within care practices.

  9. Cross-cultural Comparison of Learning in Human Hunting : Implications for Life History Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Katharine

    2007-12-01

    This paper is a cross-cultural examination of the development of hunting skills and the implications for the debate on the role of learning in the evolution of human life history patterns. While life history theory has proven to be a powerful tool for understanding the evolution of the human life course, other schools, such as cultural transmission and social learning theory, also provide theoretical insights. These disparate theories are reviewed, and alternative and exclusive predictions are identified. This study of cross-cultural regularities in how children learn hunting skills, based on the ethnographic literature on traditional hunters, complements existing empirical work and highlights future areas for investigation.

  10. Evolutionary history of Otophysi (Teleostei, a major clade of the modern freshwater fishes: Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saitoh Kenji

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Freshwater harbors approximately 12,000 fish species accounting for 43% of the diversity of all modern fish. A single ancestral lineage evolved into about two-thirds of this enormous biodiversity (≈ 7900 spp. and is currently distributed throughout the world's continents except Antarctica. Despite such remarkable species diversity and ubiquity, the evolutionary history of this major freshwater fish clade, Otophysi, remains largely unexplored. To gain insight into the history of otophysan diversification, we constructed a timetree based on whole mitogenome sequences across 110 species representing 55 of the 64 families. Results Partitioned maximum likelihood analysis based on unambiguously aligned sequences (9923 bp confidently recovered the monophyly of Otophysi and the two constituent subgroups (Cypriniformes and Characiphysi. The latter clade comprised three orders (Gymnotiformes, Characiformes, Siluriformes, and Gymnotiformes was sister to the latter two groups. One of the two suborders in Characiformes (Characoidei was more closely related to Siluriformes than to its own suborder (Citharinoidei, rendering the characiforms paraphyletic. Although this novel relationship did not receive strong statistical support, it was supported by analyzing independent nuclear markers. A relaxed molecular clock Bayesian analysis of the divergence times and reconstruction of ancestral habitats on the timetree suggest a Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation of otophysans. Conclusions The present timetree demonstrates that survival of the ancestral lineages through the two consecutive mass extinctions on Pangaea, and subsequent radiations during the Jurassic through early Cretaceous shaped the modern familial diversity of otophysans. This evolutionary scenario is consistent with recent arguments based on biogeographic inferences and molecular divergence time estimates. No fossil otophysan, however, has been recorded before the Albian, the

  11. Evolutionary history of Otophysi (Teleostei), a major clade of the modern freshwater fishes: Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Masanori; Miya, Masaki; Mabuchi, Kohji; Saitoh, Kenji; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2011-06-22

    Freshwater harbors approximately 12,000 fish species accounting for 43% of the diversity of all modern fish. A single ancestral lineage evolved into about two-thirds of this enormous biodiversity (≈ 7900 spp.) and is currently distributed throughout the world's continents except Antarctica. Despite such remarkable species diversity and ubiquity, the evolutionary history of this major freshwater fish clade, Otophysi, remains largely unexplored. To gain insight into the history of otophysan diversification, we constructed a timetree based on whole mitogenome sequences across 110 species representing 55 of the 64 families. Partitioned maximum likelihood analysis based on unambiguously aligned sequences (9923 bp) confidently recovered the monophyly of Otophysi and the two constituent subgroups (Cypriniformes and Characiphysi). The latter clade comprised three orders (Gymnotiformes, Characiformes, Siluriformes), and Gymnotiformes was sister to the latter two groups. One of the two suborders in Characiformes (Characoidei) was more closely related to Siluriformes than to its own suborder (Citharinoidei), rendering the characiforms paraphyletic. Although this novel relationship did not receive strong statistical support, it was supported by analyzing independent nuclear markers. A relaxed molecular clock Bayesian analysis of the divergence times and reconstruction of ancestral habitats on the timetree suggest a Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation of otophysans. The present timetree demonstrates that survival of the ancestral lineages through the two consecutive mass extinctions on Pangaea, and subsequent radiations during the Jurassic through early Cretaceous shaped the modern familial diversity of otophysans. This evolutionary scenario is consistent with recent arguments based on biogeographic inferences and molecular divergence time estimates. No fossil otophysan, however, has been recorded before the Albian, the early Cretaceous 100-112 Ma, creating an over 100

  12. Ideas. A History: From Fire to Freud. 2. ed.; Ideen. Eine Kulturgeschichte von der Entdeckung des Feuers bis zur Moderne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, P.

    2005-07-01

    In this hugely ambitious and exciting book Peter Watson tells the history of ideas from prehistory to the present day, seeking a new way to tell the history of the world. The book begins over a million years ago with a discussion of how the earliest ideas might have originated. Looking at animal behaviour that appears to require some thought tool-making, territoriality, counting, language (or at least sounds), pairbonding Peter Watson moves on to the apeman and the development of simple ideas such as cooking, the earliest language, the emergence of family life. All the obvious areas will be tackled the Ancient Greeks, Christian theology, the ideas of Jesus, astrological thought, the soul, the self, beliefs about the heavens, the ideas of Islam, the Crusades, humanism, the Renaissance, Gutenberg and the book, the scientific revolution, the age of discovery, Shakespeare, the idea of Revolution, the Romantic imagination, Darwin, imperialism, modernism, Freud right up to the present day and the internet. (orig./GL) [German] Beginnt die Ideengeschichte der Menschheit, als die Fruehmenschen erstmals Feuer machen, vor ca. 1,8 Millionen Jahren? Oder schon mit dem ersten Faustkeil vor etwa 2,5 Millionen Jahren? Warum entwickelte sich vor 40 000 Jahren eine komplexe Sprache? Wie kamen das Minus- und das Plus-Zeichen in die Vorstellungswelt, und wie entstand das Bild vom Paradies? Peter Watson laedt ein zu einer Expedition durch die abenteuerliche Welt menschlicher Ideen. Vom ersten Feuer, dem ersten Werkzeug und den ersten Worten ueber die Geburt der Goetter, die ersten Gesetze und die Entwicklung grosser Zentren von Wissen und Weisheit bis hin zu den umwaelzenden Ideen der Moderne: das Groesste und das Kleinste, das Selbst-Bewusstsein des Individuums und die Entdeckung des Unbewussten. Dabei ordnet Watson die riesige Materialfuelle nach drei zentralen Ideen, die fuer ihn die Geschichte der Menschheit praegen: die Seele, mehr als die Idee von einem Gott, Europa, mehr als das

  13. Glacial history of a modern invader: phylogeography and species distribution modelling of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Porretta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is one of the 100 most invasive species in the world and a vector of human diseases. In the last 30 years, it has spread from its native range in East Asia to Africa, Europe, and the Americas. Although this modern invasion has been the focus of many studies, the history of the species' native populations remains poorly understood. Here, we aimed to assess the role of Pleistocene climatic changes in shaping the current distribution of the species in its native range. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the phylogeography, historical demography, and species distribution of Ae. albopictus native populations at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM. Individuals from 16 localities from East Asia were analyzed for sequence variation at two mitochondrial genes. No phylogeographic structure was observed across the study area. Demographic analyses showed a signature of population expansion that started roughly 70,000 years BP. The occurrence of a continuous and climatically suitable area comprising Southeast China, Indochinese Peninsula, and Sundaland during LGM was indicated by species distribution modelling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest an evolutionary scenario in which, during the last glacial phase, Ae. albopictus did not experience a fragmentation phase but rather persisted in interconnected populations and experienced demographic growth. The wide ecological flexibility of the species probably played a crucial role in its response to glacial-induced environmental changes. Currently, there is little information on the impact of Pleistocene climatic changes on animal species in East Asia. Most of the studies focused on forest-associated species and suggested cycles of glacial fragmentation and post-glacial expansion. The case of Ae. albopictus, which exhibits a pattern not previously observed in the study area, adds an important piece to our understanding of the Pleistocene history

  14. The Hidden History of a Famous Drug : Tracing the Medical and Public Acculturation of Peruvian Bark in Early Modern Western Europe (c. 1650-1720)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Wouter; Pieters, Toine

    2016-01-01

    The history of the introduction of exotic therapeutic drugs in early modern Europe is usually rife with legend and obscurity and Peruvian bark is a case in point. The famous antimalarial drug entered the European medical market around 1640, yet it took decades before the bark was firmly established

  15. Book Review: Thanos Veremis, A Modern History of the Balkans: Nationalism and Identity in Southeast Europe, London and New York: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd, 2017.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J. Cuevas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Thanos Veremis, an Emeritus professor of Political History at the University of Athens, is a preeminent historian and prolific author. This book comparatively covers the political and military history of the Balkans with a special attention to the Balkan economies, militaries, and nationalist creeds as some of these modern issues still plague the region. In the first part of the book, Veremis provides a concise and fast-paced overview of almost two hundred years of Balkan history from the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the early nineteenth century to the 1995 NATO intervention in the region.

  16. Historia and materia: the philosophical implications of Francis Bacon's natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglioni, Guido

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the philosophical implications underlying Bacon's views on historical knowledge, paying special attention to that variety of historical knowledge described by Bacon as "natural." More specifically, this article explores the interplay of history (historia) and fable (fabula). In the sphere of thought, fabula is the equivalent to materia in nature. Both are described by Bacon as being "versatile" and "pliant." In Bacon's system of knowledge, philosophy, as the domain of reason, starts from historiae and fabulae, once memory and the imagination have fulfilled their cognitive tasks. This means that, for Bacon, there is no such thing as a pure use of reason. He advocates a kind of reason that, precisely because it is involved with matter's inner motions (its "appetites," in Bacon's characteristic language), is constitutively 'impure'. The article shows how the terms historia and fabula cover key semantic areas in defining Bacon's philosophy: historia may mean "history" as well as "story,"fabula "myth" as well "story". In both cases, we can see significant oscillations from a stronger meaning (close to those of matter and nature) to a weaker one (connected to wit and imagination), as if the power of nature decreases moving from histories and myths to stories. On the other hand, there are cases in which Bacon seems to stick to a diachronic view of the meaning of fables and histories, such that the transition from myths to history, especially natural history, is described as a collective effort towards reality and enlightenment.

  17. Clinical and functional implications of a history of childhood ADHD in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Aldanie; Traicu, Alexandru; Lepage, Martin; Iyer, Srividya N; Malla, Ashok; Joober, Ridha

    2015-07-01

    There is mounting evidence indicating that a childhood history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with an increased risk for psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. However, the implications of such a history on the symptomatic and functional outcomes of patients with psychotic disorders are still not well documented. This study examined the prevalence of childhood ADHD in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) consecutively admitted to a specialized early intervention clinic covering a well-defined catchment area, and compared patients with and without a history of childhood ADHD on socio-demographic, clinical, and functional outcomes over a six to twelve months period. Out of 179 patients with FEP, 27 (15%) were treated for ADHD during childhood, consistent with previous literature indicating an association between childhood ADHD and psychosis. FEP patients with childhood history of ADHD had lower academic achievement, earlier onset of psychosis, and higher rates of childhood conduct and learning disorder. While the two groups had similar scores on psychopathology and functioning at baseline, patients with childhood ADHD showed significantly less improvement in positive and negative symptoms, as well as social and occupational functioning. These results strongly indicate that a history of childhood ADHD in FEP is more frequent than that reported in the general population and predictive of poorer clinical response to treatment. This emphasizes the need for actively screening for a history of ADHD in FEP patients and for treatments that are tailored for these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Late Quaternary climate-change velocity: Implications for modern distributions and communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandel, Brody Steven; Dalsgaard, Bo; Arge, Lars Allan

    a global map of climate-change velocity since the Last Glacial Maximum and used this measure of climate instability to address a number of classic hypotheses. Results/Conclusions We show that historical climate-change velocity is related to a wide range of characteristics of modern distributions...

  19. Traditional Occupations in a Modern World: Implications for Career Guidance and Livelihood Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, Anita

    2011-01-01

    This article is an attempt to examine the place and significance of traditional occupations as careers in today's world. The areas of tension and compatibility between ideas and values that signify modernity and the practice of traditional occupations are reviewed. The meaning of "traditional occupations" is unravelled, the potential that…

  20. Early dispersal of modern humans in Europe and implications for Neanderthal behaviour

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benazzi, S.; Douka, K.; Fornai, C.; Bauer, C. C.; Kullmer, O.; Svoboda, Jiří; Pap, I.; Mallegni, F.; Bayle, P.; Coquerelle, M.; Condemi, S.; Ronchitelli, A.; Harvati, K.; Weber, G. W.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 479, č. 7374 (2011), s. 525-528 ISSN 0028-0836 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : modern humans * Neanderthals * behavior * Europe * Grotta del Cavallo * paleoanthropology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 36.280, year: 2011

  1. The Chinese Family in Transition: Implications for Education and Society in Modern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas C.

    This paper investigates the challenges facing the modern Chinese family in Taiwan. An understanding of how culture and family life interact in other cultures may be useful in helping to understand such interactions in one's own society. Confucianism and family stability have been two enduring features of the protracted civilizations of China. In…

  2. Calcaneus length determines running economy: implications for endurance running performance in modern humans and Neandertals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichlen, David A; Armstrong, Hunter; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2011-03-01

    The endurance running (ER) hypothesis suggests that distance running played an important role in the evolution of the genus Homo. Most researchers have focused on ER performance in modern humans, or on reconstructing ER performance in Homo erectus, however, few studies have examined ER capabilities in other members of the genus Homo. Here, we examine skeletal correlates of ER performance in modern humans in order to evaluate the energetics of running in Neandertals and early Homo sapiens. Recent research suggests that running economy (the energy cost of running at a given speed) is strongly related to the length of the Achilles tendon moment arm. Shorter moment arms allow for greater storage and release of elastic strain energy, reducing energy costs. Here, we show that a skeletal correlate of Achilles tendon moment arm length, the length of the calcaneal tuber, does not correlate with walking economy, but correlates significantly with running economy and explains a high proportion of the variance (80%) in cost between individuals. Neandertals had relatively longer calcaneal tubers than modern humans, which would have increased their energy costs of running. Calcaneal tuber lengths in early H. sapiens do not significantly differ from those of extant modern humans, suggesting Neandertal ER economy was reduced relative to contemporaneous anatomically modern humans. Endurance running is generally thought to be beneficial for gaining access to meat in hot environments, where hominins could have used pursuit hunting to run prey taxa into hyperthermia. We hypothesize that ER performance may have been reduced in Neandertals because they lived in cold climates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 10,000 Years of explosive eruptions of Merapi Volcano, Central Java: archaeological and modern implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhall, C.G.; Bronto, S.; Alloway, B.; Banks, N.G.; Bahar, I.; Del Marmol, M.A.; Hadisantono, R.D.; Holcomb, R.T.; McGeehin, J.; Miksic, J.N.; Rubin, M.; Sayudi, S.D.; Sukhyar, R.; Andreastuti, Supriyati; Tilling, R.I.; Torley, R.; Trimble, D.; Wirakusumah, A.D.

    2000-01-01

    larger than any of this century have occurred many times during Merapi's history, most recently during the 19th century. Are the relatively small eruptions of the 20th century a new style of open-vent, less hazardous activity that will persist for the foreseeable future? Or, alternatively, are they merely low-level "background" activity that could be interrupted upon relatively short notice by much larger explosive eruptions? The geologic record suggests the latter, which would place several hundred thousand people at risk. We know of no reliable method to forecast when an explosive eruption will interrupt the present interval of low-level activity. This conclusion has important implications for hazard evaluation.

  4. Modernity: Are Modern Times Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Hunt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Modernity” has recently been the subject of considerable discussion among historians. This article reviews some of the debates and argues that modernity is a problematic concept because it implies a complete rupture with “traditional” ways of life. Studies of key terms are undertaken with the aid of Google Ngrams. These show that “modernity,” “modern times,” and “traditional” —in English and other languages— have a history of their own. A brief analysis of the shift from a self oriented toward equilibrium to a self oriented toward stimulation demonstrates that modernity is not necessary to historical analysis.

  5. THE HORSE-STEALING AS A SOCIAL PHENOMENON BY THE EXAMPLE OF BASHKIRIA: EXPERIENCE OF HISTORY IN THE CONTEXT OF MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Gabdulchaevna Galieva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is studying, by the example of Bashkiria, horse-stealing as social phenomenon that has a centuries-old history and is relevant in our days. The work has been prepared on the published historical and ethnographic works, documents of the National Archives of the Republic Bashkortostan, local press of past centuries, folklore, Internet sites and field materials of the author. Methodology. The basic of research is the comparative historical and problem-chronological methods. Results. It is shown that the thieves predecessors studies are characterized as criminals who cause irreparable damage to farms. Speaks thesis that in Bashkortostan related to horse thieves in different periods differed. In a developed cattle breeding horse thieves single admired due to the presence of talent to work on the animal, its ability to silently take away (the loss of a horse does not lead to the ruin of the economy. Horse stealing was developed in connection with the custom of nomadic barymta (seizure of cattle as a way to avenge the insult, or compensation for damages. After removal of the Bashkir land for factories, villages and farming settlers, the translation of the policy of settlement and Bashkirs to agriculture, pasture and a sharp decrease as a result of reducing the number of livestock, cattle-lifter Bashkirs also severely punished, as in the Russian and other peoples. This is evidenced by numerous court cases materials. Over time, horse stealing was just a way of gain. The main motive of modern criminals is to steal horses (including pure-bred with the further implementation of horse meat, sometimes for ransom (through placement on websites. “Epidemic” horse stealing in recent years in Bashkiria and other regions due to the presence of this natural landscape (forest steppe and socio-economic conditions (natural market, semi-underground cafes, high meat prices, the development of farms, promotion of the horse

  6. Discounted Cash Flow and Modern Asset Pricing Methods - Project Selection and Policy Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emhjellen, Magne; Alaouze, Chris M.

    2002-07-01

    We examine the differences in the net present values (NPV's) of North Sea oil projects obtained using the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) and a Modern Asset Pricing (MAP) method which involves the separate discounting of project cash flow components. NPV differences of more than $1 Om were found for some oil projects. Thus, the choice of valuation method will affect the development decisions of oil companies. The results of the MAP method are very sensitive to the choice of parameter values for the stochastic process used to model oil prices. Further research is recommended before the MAP method is used as the sole valuation model. (author)

  7. Discounted Cash Flow and Modern Asset Pricing Methods - Project Selection and Policy Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emhjellen, Magne; Alaouze, Chris M.

    2002-01-01

    We examine the differences in the net present values (NPV's) of North Sea oil projects obtained using the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) and a Modern Asset Pricing (MAP) method which involves the separate discounting of project cash flow components. NPV differences of more than $1 Om were found for some oil projects. Thus, the choice of valuation method will affect the development decisions of oil companies. The results of the MAP method are very sensitive to the choice of parameter values for the stochastic process used to model oil prices. Further research is recommended before the MAP method is used as the sole valuation model. (author)

  8. Discounted Cash Flow and Modern Asset Pricing Methods - Project Selection and Policy Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emhjellen, Magne; Alaouze, Chris M

    2002-07-01

    We examine the differences in the net present values (NPV's) of North Sea oil projects obtained using the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) and a Modern Asset Pricing (MAP) method which involves the separate discounting of project cash flow components. NPV differences of more than $1 Om were found for some oil projects. Thus, the choice of valuation method will affect the development decisions of oil companies. The results of the MAP method are very sensitive to the choice of parameter values for the stochastic process used to model oil prices. Further research is recommended before the MAP method is used as the sole valuation model. (author)

  9. Chronology of Ksar Akil (Lebanon) and Implications for the Colonization of Europe by Anatomically Modern Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douka, Katerina; Bergman, Christopher A.; Hedges, Robert E. M.; Wesselingh, Frank P.; Higham, Thomas F. G.

    2013-01-01

    The Out-of-Africa model holds that anatomically modern humans (AMH) evolved and dispersed from Africa into Asia, and later Europe. Palaeoanthropological evidence from the Near East assumes great importance, but AMH remains from the region are extremely scarce. ‘Egbert’, a now-lost AMH fossil from the key site of Ksar Akil (Lebanon) and ‘Ethelruda’, a recently re-discovered fragmentary maxilla from the same site, are two rare examples where human fossils are directly linked with early Upper Palaeolithic archaeological assemblages. Here we radiocarbon date the contexts from which Egbert and Ethelruda were recovered, as well as the levels above and below the findspots. In the absence of well-preserved organic materials, we primarily used marine shell beads, often regarded as indicative of behavioural modernity. Bayesian modelling allows for the construction of a chronostratigraphic framework for Ksar Akil, which supports several conclusions. The model-generated age estimates place Egbert between 40.8–39.2 ka cal BP (68.2% prob.) and Ethelruda between 42.4–41.7 ka cal BP (68.2% prob.). This indicates that Egbert is of an age comparable to that of the oldest directly-dated European AMH (Peştera cu Oase). Ethelruda is older, but on current estimates not older than the modern human teeth from Cavallo in Italy. The dating of the so-called “transitional” or Initial Upper Palaeolithic layers of the site may indicate that the passage from the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic at Ksar Akil, and possibly in the wider northern Levant, occurred later than previously estimated, casting some doubts on the assumed singular role of the region as a locus for human dispersals into Europe. Finally, tentative interpretations of the fossil's taxonomy, combined with the chronometric dating of Ethelruda's context, provides evidence that the transitional/IUP industries of Europe and the Levant, or at least some of them, may be the result of early modern human migration(s). PMID

  10. A comparison of discounted cashflow and modern asset pricing methods - project selection and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emhjellen, Magne; Alaouze, Chris M.

    2003-01-01

    We examine the differences in the net present values (NPVs) of North Sea oil projects obtained using the weighted average cost of capital and a modern asset pricing (MAP) method which involves the separate discounting of project cashflow components. NPV differences of more than $10 million were found for some oil projects. Thus, the choice of valuation method will affect the development decisions of oil companies and could influence tax policy. The results of the MAP method are very sensitive to the choice of parameter values for the stochastic process used to model oil prices. Further research is recommended before the MAP method is used as the sole valuation model

  11. The Biomechanics of the Modern Golf Swing: Implications for Lower Back Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael H; Grimshaw, Paul N

    2016-03-01

    The modern golf swing is a complex and asymmetrical movement that places an emphasis on restricting pelvic turn while increasing thorax rotation during the backswing to generate higher clubhead speeds at impact. Increasing thorax rotation relative to pelvic rotation preloads the trunk muscles by accentuating their length and allowing them to use the energy stored in their elastic elements to produce more power. As the thorax and pelvis turn back towards the ball during the downswing, more skilled golfers are known to laterally slide their pelvis toward the target, which further contributes to final clubhead speed. However, despite the apparent performance benefits associated with these sequences, it has been argued that the lumbar spine is incapable of safely accommodating the forces they produce. This notion supports a link between the repeated performance of the golf swing and the development of golf-related low back injuries. Of the complaints reported by golfers, low back injuries continue to be the most prevalent, but the mechanism of these injuries is still poorly understood. This review highlights that there is a paucity of research directly evaluating the apparent link between the modern golf swing and golf-related low back pain. Furthermore, there has been a general lack of consensus within the literature with respect to the methods used to objectively assess the golf swing and the methods used to derived common outcome measures. Future research would benefit from a clear set of guidelines to help reduce the variability between studies.

  12. Leaf wax n-alkane distributions in and across modern plants: Implications for paleoecology and chemotaxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Rosemary T.; McInerney, Francesca A.

    2013-09-01

    Long chain (C21 to C37) n-alkanes are among the most long-lived and widely utilized terrestrial plant biomarkers. Dozens of studies have examined the range and variation of n-alkane chain-length abundances in modern plants from around the world, and n-alkane distributions have been used for a variety of purposes in paleoclimatology and paleoecology as well as chemotaxonomy. However, most of the paleoecological applications of n-alkane distributions have been based on a narrow set of modern data that cannot address intra- and inter-plant variability. Here, we present the results of a study using trees from near Chicago, IL, USA, as well as a meta-analysis of published data on modern plant n-alkane distributions. First, we test the conformity of n-alkane distributions in mature leaves across the canopy of 38 individual plants from 24 species as well as across a single growing season and find no significant differences for either canopy position or time of leaf collection. Second, we compile 2093 observations from 86 sources, including the new data here, to examine the generalities of n-alkane parameters such as carbon preference index (CPI), average chain length (ACL), and chain-length ratios for different plant groups. We show that angiosperms generally produce more n-alkanes than do gymnosperms, supporting previous observations, and furthermore that CPI values show such variation in modern plants that it is prudent to discard the use of CPI as a quantitative indicator of n-alkane degradation in sediments. We also test the hypotheses that certain n-alkane chain lengths predominate in and therefore can be representative of particular plant groups, namely, C23 and C25 in Sphagnum mosses, C27 and C29 in woody plants, and C31 in graminoids (grasses). We find that chain-length distributions are highly variable within plant groups, such that chemotaxonomic distinctions between grasses and woody plants are difficult to make based on n-alkane abundances. In contrast

  13. Is the modern koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus) a derived dwarf of a Pleistocene giant? Implications for testing megafauna extinction hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gilbert J.

    2008-12-01

    The modern Australian koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus) is commonly regarded as a dwarf descendent of a Late Pleistocene giant koala ( Ph. stirtoni). The implication of that hypothesis is that the giant koala survived the Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinction "event", albeit as a smaller body-sized form. It is important to be able to constrain rates of Late Pleistocene faunal turnover, an aspect reliant on having accurate taxonomic information of extinct species. The koala dwarfing hypothesis is tested here by using a temporally-constrained biogeographical record of fossil koalas, and a morphological character analysis. The contemporary occurrence of both taxa in pre-Late Pleistocene deposits and significant differences in dental morphologies between those forms suggests that the modern koala is not a derived dwarf of the Pleistocene giant koala. Thus, the giant-form was among a number of other giant mammals, lizards and birds that suffered extinction sometime during the Late Pleistocene. The potential phenomenon of dwarfing of other Late Pleistocene and Recent faunas, such as grey kangaroos, is commonly used as a test for or against various megafaunal extinction hypotheses. However, the results of this study also demonstrate that the dwarfing hypothesis has not been adequately tested for a suite of other taxa. Thus, until the dwarfing hypothesis can be more fully tested, a clear understanding of the fate of Late Pleistocene faunas that apparently survived the extinction "event", and the origins of many extant forms will remain elusive.

  14. ‘Bound Coolies’ and Other Indentured Workers in the Caribbean: Implications for debates about human trafficking and modern slavery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Kempadoo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Under systems of indenture in the Caribbean, Europeans such as Irish, Scots and Portuguese, as well as Asians, primarily Indians, Chinese and Indonesians, were recruited, often under false pretences, and transported to the ‘New World’, where they were bound to an employer and the plantation in a state of ‘interlocking incarceration’. Indentureship not only preceded, co-existed with, and survived slavery in the Caribbean, but was distinct in law and in practice from slavery. This article argues that the conditions of Caribbean indenture can be seen to be much more analogous to those represented in contemporary discussions about human trafficking and ‘modern slavery’ than those of slavery. Caribbean histories of indenture, it is proposed, can provide more appropriate conceptual tools for thinking about unfree labour today—whether state or privately sponsored—than the concept of slavery, given the parallels between this past migrant labour system in the Caribbean and those we witness and identify today as ‘modern slavery’ or human trafficking. This article thus urges a move away from the conflation of slavery and human trafficking with all forced, bonded and migrant labour, as is commonly the case, and for greater attention for historical evidence.

  15. Oxygen Isotope Records in Modern Oyster Shells from Chi Ku, Tainan and Their Implication of Seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. C.; Mii, H. S.; Li, K. T.

    2015-12-01

    To exam whether oxygen isotope records of Crassostrea gigasoysters can be used as proxies of environment, 133 cultivated oysters and 21 water samples were collected from Chi Ku area, Tainan City, southern Taiwan in December of 2012, and from March, 2013 to July, 2014. Instrumental air and water temperatures and precipitation records were obtained from a nearest Central Weather Bureau (CWB) station roughly 16 km north of Chi Ku. The oxygen and carbon isotope values of the ligamental area of the modern oyster shells are from -6.92‰ to -0.08‰ (-3.05 ± 1.17‰, N = 2280; 1σ; VPDB) and from -5.57‰ to 0.63‰ (-1.88 ± 0.81‰), respectively. Oxygen isotope values of the water samples are mainly between -0.28‰ and 0.74‰ (0.18 ± 0.29‰, N = 20; 1σ; VSMOW). However, water oxygen isotope value of -2.75‰ was observed for the water sample collected immediately after a typhoon heavy rainfall. Seasonal temperature fluctuation pattern of estimated oxygen isotope temperatures from modern shells is similar to that of CWB instrumental records. However, the oxygen isotope temperatures are respectively about 3 °C and 10°C higher than those of instrumental records for winter and summer. Higher estimated oxygen isotope temperatures are most likely caused by underestimated fraction of freshwater. We analyzed 5 archaeological oyster shells of Siraya culture (500~250B.P.) collected from Wu Chien Tuso North (WCTN) archaeological site of Tainan branch of Southern Taiwan Science Park to infer the harvest season of mollusks. Oxygen isotope values of the ligamental area of the archaeological oyster shells are between -5.98‰ and -1.26‰ (-3.34 ± 1.37‰, N = 60; 1σ), and carbon isotope values are between -3.21‰ and 0.60‰ (-2.04‰ ± 0.55‰). The oxygen isotope records of archaeological oyster shells also showed clear seasonality. Most of the oysters were collected in autumn and winter. Oxygen isotope values of archaeological oyster shells was 1‰ greater than that

  16. Modern Social Support Structures: Online Social Networks and their Implications for Social Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kala Chakradhar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mapping and assessing social networks and the quality of their social support is a valuable intervention strategy for social workers. These networks have now spread onto the digital realm in the form of Online Social Networks (OSNs. This study investigated the nature of social support provided by such networks to their users in a rural mid-South University (USA and explored parallels with the current understanding of social support in conventional social networks. A web-based survey administered to college students revealed that users of these online networks were predominantly undergraduate first year students, female, single, unemployed and from a variety of academic disciplines. The examination of the components of OSNs appears to mirror those of offline networks. They also seem to complement the effects of each other while contributing to an individual's support system. The paper concludes with critical implications of such online social networking for University students and social workers in practice and education.

  17. A critical review of the implication of nanotechnology in modern dental practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Prabhat, K. C.; Goyal, Lata; Rani, Manita; Jain, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Curiosity has its own reason for existing. For thousands of years, mankind has been harnessing its curiosity into inquiry and the process of scientific methodology. If we consider technology as an engine, then science is its fuel. Science of miniaturization (nanotechnology) is manipulating matter at nanometer level and the application of the same to medicine is called nanomedicine. Nanotechnology holds promise for advanced diagnostics, targeted drug delivery, and biosensors. When we gain access to hold the nanorobots, we will be able to treat very rapidly a number of diseases that are a continuous threat for mankind today. The present article aims to provide an early glimpse on the impact and future implication of nanotechnology in dentistry, especially in oral surgery and orthodontics. PMID:22442549

  18. Thinking like Leonardo da Vinci and its implications for the modern doctor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Most people when asked to name the most creative, innovative, and multidimensional people in history would agree that Leonardo da Vinci is either at the top or very close to the number one position on that list. Wouldn't it be nice to think like da Vinci? This article shares the seven unique principles of thinking that da Vinci used that enabled him to be the greatest painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer of his (if not of all) time. This article will take you deep into the notebooks and codices of da Vinci, and suggest ways his ideas can be used by anyone in the healthcare profession to make them a better healthcare provider.

  19. The cooperative economy of food: Implications for human life history and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Karen L

    2018-04-06

    The human diet has undergone substantial modifications since the emergence of modern humans and varies considerably in today's traditional societies. Despite these changes and cross-cultural differences, the human diet can be characterized by several common elements. These include diverse, high quality foods, technological complexity to acquire and process food, and the establishment of home bases for storage, processing and consumption. Together these aspects of the human diet challenge any one individual to independently meet all of his or her daily caloric needs. Humans solve this challenge through food sharing, labor exchange and the division of labor. The cooperative nature of the human diet is associated with many downstream effects on our life history and physiology. This paper overviews the constellation of traits that likely led to a cooperative economy of food, and draws on ethnographic examples to illustrate its effects on human life history and physiology. Two detailed examples using body composition, time allocation and food acquisition data show how cooperation among Savanna Pumé hunter-gatherers affects activity levels, sexual dimorphism in body fat, maturational pace and age at first birth. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. On the uses of history in psychiatry: diagnostic implications for anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, Tilmann

    2005-09-01

    The current study demonstrates that recent attempts to equate anorexia nervosa with any form of voluntary self-starvation are not justified. Three arguments are critically reconsidered: That weight phobia was not part of early case reports on anorexia nervosa, that weight phobia should be eliminated from the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa, and that there is a continuity of forms of extreme fasting since the late Middle Ages. A critical approach to the history of eating disorders by interpreting historical sources makes the emergence of anorexia with weight phobia in the middle of the 19th century probable. The criteria for establishing psychiatric diagnoses and the differences between historical types of extreme fasting also support the historical novelty of anorexia nervosa. The etiologic implications of the historical specificity of anorexia nervosa are limited. Research should be directed to better understand self-starvation without weight phobia. 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. New Plants at Prague Castle and Hradčany in the Early Modern Period. A History of Selected Species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, J.; Čulíková, Věra; Kosňovská, J.; Frolík, Jan; Matiášek, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2012), s. 103-114 ISSN 1804-848X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Prague Castle * Early Modern Period * archaeobotany Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://www.iansa.eu/papers/IANSA-2012-01-benes.pdf

  2. Modern and last glacial maximum snowline in Peru and Bolivia: implications for regional climatic change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available LIMITES DES NEIGES ACTUELLE ET DURANT LE DERNIER MAXIMUM GLACIAIRE AU PÉROU ET EN BOLIVIE : IMPLICATIONS EN TERMES DE CHANGEMENTS CLIMATIQUES RÉGIONAUX. Dans les Andes centrales (5°-23°S, le front actuel des neiges éternelles et celui datant du dernier maximum glaciaire (DMG ou LMG ont été cartographiés par télédétection et par un système utilisant une technologie basée sur des informations géographiques. La configuration générale du front des neiges éternelles du DMG est semblable à la configuration actuelle. Ce front s’élève d’est en ouest suivant des précipitations décroissantes. La limite des neiges éternelles du DMG dans la région s’écarte considérablement des 1 000 m souvent rencontrés dans les zones de basse latitude. Un modèle décrivant l’abaissement du front des neiges éternelles (Kuhn, 1989 a été utilisé afin de déterminer les changements de températures et de précipitations responsables de l’abaissement du front des neiges DMG. L’abaissement du front des neiges éternelles à 800-1 200 m dans la cordillère occidentale durant le DMG s’explique en partie par une augmentation des précipitations. Sur les flancs de la cordillère orientale, l’abaissement du front neigeux supérieur à 1 200 m est ce qui révèle le mieux le refroidissement subi par la région pendant le DMG. Il correspond à une baisse d’environ 5 à 7,5 °C. LÍMITES DE NIEVE ACTUAL Y DURANTE EL ÚLTIMO MÁXIMO GLACIAL EN PERÚ Y EN BOLIVIA: IMPLICACIONES EN TÉRMINOS CLIMÁTICOS REGIONALES. El límite de nieve perenne actual y la correspondiente a la de la última máxima glaciación (UMG de los Andes Centrales (5°-23° S han sido mapeadas utilizando técnicas de sensores remotos y sistema de información geográfica. La configuración general del límite de nieve perenne durante la UMG era similar a la actual, elevándose de este a oeste en respuesta a la disminución de las precipitaciones. La depresión del límite de

  3. The Survey on Network Resources for Korean Modern-Contemporary History%韩国(朝鲜)近现代史网络资源概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建宏

    2016-01-01

    以韩国境内的网络资源为对象,梳理了韩国国史编撰委员会韩国史数据库、国家记录馆等综合性数据库中收录的韩国(朝鲜)近现代史部分的资料。另外,还对分散在网络中有关韩国独立运动史、“慰安妇”问题、朝鲜战争、朝韩关系、中韩“领土纷争”等涉及到中国问题的资料做了整理和介绍。最后,对韩国国立图书馆、国会图书馆、首尔市立图书馆的电子资源特色以及“RISS”等学术期刊数据库的使用做了简要概括。%Since the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and South Korea 20 years ago, the domestic demand for South Korean academic resources has become increasing strong with the deepening of exchanges between the two countries. Tak-ing the network resources in South Korea as research objects, this article summarizes some materials in modern-contemporary his-tory of South Korea and some China-related material during certain modern-contemporary wars. In the end, it briefly introduces the features of some network resources in the Korea National Library, Library of Congress, Seoul City Library as well as RISS. The above research can not only contribute to the Korean history research, but also benefit the research on China-Korea Relations his-tory, Anti-Japanese War and Cold War International History.

  4. Multiple modernities, modern subjectivities and social order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich; Sinclair, Kirstine

    2015-01-01

    to modern subjectivity formation. In combining conceptual tools from these strands of social theory, we argue that the emergence of multiple modernities should be understood as a historical result of idiosyncratic social constructions combining global social imaginaries with religious and other cultural......Taking its point of departure in the conceptual debate about modernities in the plural, this article presents a heuristic framework based on an interpretative approach to modernity. The article draws on theories of multiple modernities, successive modernities and poststructuralist approaches...... traditions. In the second part of the article we illustrate this argument with three short excursions into the history of Islamic reform in the 19th and 20th centuries. In this way we interpret the modern history of Muslim societies as based on cultural conflicts between different forms of social order...

  5. The Hidden History of a Famous Drug: Tracing the Medical and Public Acculturation of Peruvian Bark in Early Modern Western Europe (c. 1650-1720).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Wouter; Pieters, Toine

    2016-10-01

    The history of the introduction of exotic therapeutic drugs in early modern Europe is usually rife with legend and obscurity and Peruvian bark is a case in point. The famous antimalarial drug entered the European medical market around 1640, yet it took decades before the bark was firmly established in pharmaceutical practice. This article argues that the history of Peruvian bark can only be understood as the interplay of its trajectories in science, commerce, and society. Modern research has mostly focused on the first of these, largely due to the abundance of medico-historical data. While appreciating these findings, this article proposes to integrate the medical trajectory in a richer narrative, by drawing particular attention to the acculturation of the bark in commerce and society. Although the evidence we have for these two trajectories is still sketchy and disproportionate, it can nevertheless help us to make sense of sources that have not yet been an obvious focus of research. Starting from an apparently isolated occurrence of the drug in a letter, this article focuses on Paris as the location where medical and public appreciation of the bark took shape, by exploring several contexts of knowledge circulation and medical practice there. These contexts provide a new window on the early circulation of knowledge of the bark, at a time when its eventual acceptance was by no means certain. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The Sedimentary History of Southern Central Crete: Implications for Neogene Uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, K.; Brachert, T. C.; Reuter, M.

    2003-04-01

    1000m since the Early Pliocene. At the Central Iraklion Ridge that separates the Messara and Iraclion Basins a similar history is indicated for the Psiloritis Mountains by fault movements within Neogene near shore sediments and their subsequent drowning. A structural model of the Neogene evolution of Crete therefore has to explain successive phases of uplift and subsidence in an over all extensional setting only slightly oblique to the modern direction of convergence between Africa and the Aegean microplate.

  7. Early-Modern Irreligion and Theological Analogy: A Response to Gavin Hyman’s A Short History of Atheism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Linford

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, many Christians have understood God’s transcendence to imply God’s properties categorically differ from any created properties. For multiple historical figures, a problem arose for religious language: how can one talk of God at all if none of our predicates apply to God? What are we to make of creeds and Biblical passages that seem to predicate creaturely properties, such as goodness and wisdom, of God? Thomas Aquinas offered a solution: God is to be spoken of only through analogy (the doctrine of analogy. Gavin Hyman argues Aquinas’s doctrine of analogy was neglected prior to the early-modern period and the neglect of analogy produced the conception of a god vulnerable to atheistic arguments. Contra Hyman, in this paper, I show early-modern atheism arose in a theological context in which there was an active debate concerning analogy. Peter Browne (1665–1735 and William King (1650–1729 offered two competing conceptions of analogical predication that were debated through the 19th century, with interlocutors such as the freethinker Anthony Collins (1676–1729, theologian/philosopher George Berkeley (1685–1753, and skeptic David Hume (1711–1776. Lastly, I discuss the 18th century debate over theological analogy as part of the background relevant to understanding Hume’s 'Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion'.

  8. 'GETTING' THE POX: Reflections by an Historian on How to Write the History of Early Modern Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Claudia

    This article reflects upon the recent return to linear history writing in medical history. It takes as its starting point a critique of the current return to constructivist ideas, suggesting the use of other methodological choices and interpretations to the surviving archival and textural sources of the sixteenth century pox. My investigation analyses the diagnostic act as an effort to bring together a study of medical semiotics. Medical semiotics considers how signs speak through the physical body, coached within a particular epistemology. There are no hidden meanings behind the visible sign or symptom - it is tranparent to the calculative and authoritative gaze and language of the doctor. It concerns how diseases came into being, the relationships they have constituted, the power they have secured and the actual knowledge/power they have eclipsed or are eclipsing. From such a perspective, "getting the pox" is not a bad thing. A methodological turn to medical semiotics reminds us that the history of disease should be an inquiry both into the grounds of our current knowledge and beliefs about disease and how they inspire our writing, as well as the analytical categories that establish their inevitability.

  9. ‘Getting’ the Pox: Reflections by an Historian on How to Write the History of Early Modern Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects upon the recent return to linear history writing in medical history. It takes as its starting point a critique of the current return to constructivist ideas, suggesting the use of other methodological choices and interpretations to the surviving archival and textural sources of the sixteenth century pox. My investigation analyses the diagnostic act as an effort to bring together a study of medical semiotics. Medical semiotics considers how signs speak through the physical body, coached within a particular epistemology. There are no hidden meanings behind the visible sign or symptom - it is tranparent to the calculative and authoritative gaze and language of the doctor. It concerns how diseases came into being, the relationships they have constituted, the power they have secured and the actual knowledge/power they have eclipsed or are eclipsing. From such a perspective, “getting the pox” is not a bad thing. A methodological turn to medical semiotics reminds us that the history of disease should be an inquiry both into the grounds of our current knowledge and beliefs about disease and how they inspire our writing, as well as the analytical categories that establish their inevitability.

  10. Estimating past hepatitis C infection risk from reported risk factor histories: implications for imputing age of infection and modeling fibrosis progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busch Michael P

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is prevalent and often causes hepatic fibrosis, which can progress to cirrhosis and cause liver cancer or liver failure. Study of fibrosis progression often relies on imputing the time of infection, often as the reported age of first injection drug use. We sought to examine the accuracy of such imputation and implications for modeling factors that influence progression rates. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data on hepatitis C antibody status and reported risk factor histories from two large studies, the Women's Interagency HIV Study and the Urban Health Study, using modern survival analysis methods for current status data to model past infection risk year by year. We compared fitted distributions of past infection risk to reported age of first injection drug use. Results Although injection drug use appeared to be a very strong risk factor, models for both studies showed that many subjects had considerable probability of having been infected substantially before or after their reported age of first injection drug use. Persons reporting younger age of first injection drug use were more likely to have been infected after, and persons reporting older age of first injection drug use were more likely to have been infected before. Conclusion In cross-sectional studies of fibrosis progression where date of HCV infection is estimated from risk factor histories, modern methods such as multiple imputation should be used to account for the substantial uncertainty about when infection occurred. The models presented here can provide the inputs needed by such methods. Using reported age of first injection drug use as the time of infection in studies of fibrosis progression is likely to produce a spuriously strong association of younger age of infection with slower rate of progression.

  11. Crustal growth history of the Korean Peninsula:Constraints from detrital zircon ages in modern river sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taejin Choi; Yong Il Lee; Yuji Orihashi

    2016-01-01

    U-Pb analyses were carried out on detrital zircon grains from major river-mouth sediments draining South Korea to infer provenance characteristics and the crustal growth history of the southern Korean Peninsula, using a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS). The Korean Peninsula is located in the East Asian continental margin and mainly comprises three Precambrian massifs and two metamorphic belts in between them. We obtained 515 concordant to slightly discordant zircon ages ranging from ca. 3566 to ca. 48 Ma. Regardless of river-mouth location, predominance of Mesozoic (249e79 Ma) and Paleoproterozoic (2491e1691 Ma) ages with subordinate Archean ages in-dicates that the zircon ages reflect present exposures of plutonic/metamorphic rocks in the drainage basins of the South Korean rivers and the crustal growth of the southern Korean Peninsula was focused in these two periods. Comparison of detrital zircon-age data between the North and South Korean river sediments reveals that the Paleoproterozoic zircon age distributions of both regions are nearly identical, while the NeoproterozoicePaleozoic ages exist and the Mesozoic ages are dominant in southern Korean Peninsula. This result suggests that Precambrian terrains in Korea record the similar pre-Mesozoic magmatic history and that the influence of Mesozoic magmatism was mainly focused in South Korea.

  12. ["Lingue di seripi", "serpents' tongues" and "glossopetrae". Highlights from the history of popular "cult" medicine in early modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freller, T

    1997-01-01

    In the 16th, 17th and 18th century "Glossopetrae", popularly known as "Lingue di Serpi", found on the Mediterranean island of Malta, were extensively used for medical purposes as antidotes. These fossil teeth, including specimens of the "Carcharodon Megalodon" (an extinct variant of the great white shark), were ground to powder or used as amulet pendants and "credence" and exported to pharmacies and shops in various cities of Europe. In antiquity, authors like Plinius or Solinus, excluding any religious connotations, had regarded "Glossopetrae" as objects "fallen from heaven on dark moonless nights". However, from the beginning of the 16th century the miraculous antidotic power of the specimens found at Malta was very strongly connected with the Pauline cult there. This cult owed ist origin to the excerpt of the shipwreck of the Apostle of the Gentiles on this island, as recorded in the New Testament. As in so many cases found in medieval and early modern medicine and pharmacy, the renown, collection, distribution and use of the antidote "Glossopetrae" or "Lingue di Serpi" was never limited to its real chemical and pharmaceutical properties. In the period of enlightenment and secular thinking mythic medicine as "Glossopetrae" had lost ist "magical" power. Consequently, with beginning of the late 18th century also the Maltese "Glossopetrae" featured in literature merely as exotic objects of curiosity or symbols of an age bound to medical superstition.

  13. On the Influence of the Industrialization Genesis on Modern Strategy of Industrial Policy in Russia: History and Economic Analisys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina G. Vaskina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine the industrialization process in Russia for more than a hundred years, the duration and quality parameters associated with its institutional features. The authors also focus on the relevance of the chosen theme because of the formation of new industrial policy institutions. The hypothesis of the study is based on identifying a set of basis factors of building effective institutions: system, decentralization mechanism, clustering, given a set of groups of interests of subjects of industrial policy implementation. Institutions of new industrial policy implementation in contemporary Russia are focused on achieving multifaceted tasks on a temporary basis, the level of implementation, the degree of relevance, therefore, the conclusion regarding the effective implementation of the strategy of economic development of modern Russia, which should include the following institutions: government programs, effective transparent public procurement, institutional design through the creation of specialized, diversified institutions of industrial-innovative development. Named structural elements must be systematically subordinated to the interests of macro-, meso- and micro levels of economic system. Special importance must have experience of building the institutional system of the new industrial policy, which gives effective results on the social-economic development.

  14. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens C Hegg

    the geology of the upstream watershed to the Sr isotope ratio. Our results provide the first reported otolith microchemical reconstruction of Brachyplatystoma migratory movements in the Amazon Basin. Our results indicate that juveniles exhibit diverse rearing strategies, rearing in both upstream and estuary environments. This contrasts with the prevailing understanding that juveniles rear in the estuary before migrating upstream; however, it is supported by some fisheries data that has indicated the presence of alternate spawning and rearing life-histories. The presence of alternate juvenile rearing strategies may have important implications for conservation and management of the fisheries in the region.

  15. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegg, Jens C; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Kennedy, Brian P

    2015-01-01

    of the upstream watershed to the Sr isotope ratio. Our results provide the first reported otolith microchemical reconstruction of Brachyplatystoma migratory movements in the Amazon Basin. Our results indicate that juveniles exhibit diverse rearing strategies, rearing in both upstream and estuary environments. This contrasts with the prevailing understanding that juveniles rear in the estuary before migrating upstream; however, it is supported by some fisheries data that has indicated the presence of alternate spawning and rearing life-histories. The presence of alternate juvenile rearing strategies may have important implications for conservation and management of the fisheries in the region.

  16. Organic geochemistry of resins from modern Agathis australis and Eocene resins from New Zealand: Diagenetic and taxonomic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Mastalerz, Maria; Orem, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    A maturation series of resins and fossil resins from New Zealand, ranging in age from Modern to Eocene and ranging from uncoalified to high volatile C bituminous coal, were analyzed by elemental, pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC), Fourier Transform infrared (FTir), and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) techniques. For comparison, four resin samples from the Latrobe Valley, Australia, were analyzed. All of the resins and fossil resins of this study show very high H/C atomic ratios, and are characterized by dominant peaks in the 10-60??ppm range of solid-state 13C NMR spectra and prominent bands in the aliphatic stretching region (2800-3000??cm- 1) of FTir spectra, all indicating a highly aliphatic molecular structure. The 13C NMR and FTir data indicate a diterpenoid structure for these resins. There is an abrupt loss of oxygen that occurs at the Lignite A/Subbituminous C stage, which is attributed to a dramatic loss of carboxyl (COOH) from the diterpenoid molecule. This is a new finding in the diagenesis of resins. This important loss in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to a maturation change. Also, there is a progressive loss of exomethylene (CH2) groups with increasing degree of maturation, as shown by both 13C NMR and FTir data. This change has been noted by previous investigators. Exomethylene is absent in the fossil resins from the Eocene high volatile C bituminous coals. This progressive loss is characteristic of Class I resinites. FTir data indicate that the oxygenated functional groups are strong in all the resin samples except the fossil resin from high volatile C bituminous coal. This important change in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to maturation changes. The 13C NMR and FTir data indicate there are minor changes in the Agathis australis resin from the living tree and soil, which suggests that alteration of A. australis resins begins shortly after deposition in the soil for as little as 1000??years. The Morwell

  17. Organic geochemistry of resins from modern Agathis australis and Eocene resins from New Zealand: Diagenetic and taxonomic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, Paul C. [Lyons and Associates Consultants, 206 Amber Road, Middleboro, MA 02346 (United States); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, 611 North Walnut Grove, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Orem, William H. [U.S. Geological Survey, MS 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States)

    2009-10-01

    A maturation series of resins and fossil resins from New Zealand, ranging in age from Modern to Eocene and ranging from uncoalified to high volatile C bituminous coal, were analyzed by elemental, pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC), Fourier Transform infrared (FTir), and solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 13}C NMR) techniques. For comparison, four resin samples from the Latrobe Valley, Australia, were analyzed. All of the resins and fossil resins of this study show very high H/C atomic ratios, and are characterized by dominant peaks in the 10-60 ppm range of solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectra and prominent bands in the aliphatic stretching region (2800-3000 cm{sup -} {sup 1}) of FTir spectra, all indicating a highly aliphatic molecular structure. The {sup 13}C NMR and FTir data indicate a diterpenoid structure for these resins. There is an abrupt loss of oxygen that occurs at the Lignite A/Subbituminous C stage, which is attributed to a dramatic loss of carboxyl (COOH) from the diterpenoid molecule. This is a new finding in the diagenesis of resins. This important loss in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to a maturation change. Also, there is a progressive loss of exomethylene (CH{sub 2}) groups with increasing degree of maturation, as shown by both {sup 13}C NMR and FTir data. This change has been noted by previous investigators. Exomethylene is absent in the fossil resins from the Eocene high volatile C bituminous coals. This progressive loss is characteristic of Class I resinites. FTir data indicate that the oxygenated functional groups are strong in all the resin samples except the fossil resin from high volatile C bituminous coal. This important change in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to maturation changes. The {sup 13}C NMR and FTir data indicate there are minor changes in the Agathis australis resin from the living tree and soil, which suggests that alteration of A. australis resins begins shortly after deposition

  18. JM Maweu Indigenous Ecological Knowledge and Modern Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JM Maweu

    Indigenous knowledge is often dismissed as 'traditional and outdated', and hence irrelevant to ... What is more, there has been a consistent bias towards modern .... practices and representations that are developed and maintained by peoples with long histories of ..... “Indigenous Technical Knowledge: Analysis, Implications.

  19. History of the virtue we seek: from aristotelism to modernity - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v34i1.15351

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannina Burlando

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the actual debate on citizenship within democracy, admitting a crisis in educational matters is highly relevant (NUSSBAUM, 2010; BERKOWITZ, 2001. Thus, if we want to understand why the ancient educational image is problematic and unsatisfying to the citizens of democratic governments, it is unavoidable, from the history of philosophy point of view, to quote the teaching of preeminent political theorists. Needless to say, the power of education in forming people’s character and opinions is widely recognized. Nonetheless, by looking at the history of the institution, it seems obvious that its purpose is not only to form habits but to circumscribe the knowledge of the persons in such a way as to make one set of opinions always inevitable (RUSSELL, 1961. Current paper reveals the theoretical presuppositions of the political and educational doctrines of two main figures of Ancient and Modern times, namely, Aristotle and Locke, respectively. Further considerations will ensue on whether the ancient image of virtue, or its antagonism and possible use in liberalism, has any power to represent the present conditions of equity and justice sought after in civil life within Latin American democracies. 

  20. Preventing Early Child Maltreatment: Implications from a Longitudinal Study of Maternal Abuse History, Substance Use Problems, and Offspring Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, Karen; Berlin, Lisa J.; Rosanbalm, Katherine D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention science, this longitudinal, community based study of 499 mothers and their infants tested the hypothesis that mothers’ childhood history of maltreatment would predict maternal substance use problems, which in turn would predict offspring victimization. Mothers (35% White/non-Latina, 34% Black/non-Latina, 23% Latina, 7% other) were recruited and interviewed during pregnancy, and child protective services records were reviewed for the presence of the participants’ target infants between birth and age 26 months. Mediating pathways were examined through structural equation modeling and tested using the products of the coefficients approach. The mediated pathway from maternal history of sexual abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization was significant (standardized mediated path [ab]=.07, 95% CI [.02, .14]; effect size=.26), as was the mediated pathway from maternal history of physical abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization (standardized mediated path [ab]=.05, 95% CI [.01, .11]; effect size =.19). There was no significant mediated pathway from maternal history of neglect. Findings are discussed in terms of specific implications for child maltreatment prevention, including the importance of assessment and early intervention for maternal history of maltreatment and substance use problems, targeting women with maltreatment histories for substance use services, and integrating child welfare and parenting programs with substance use treatment. PMID:21240556

  1. Informal adult education and museum andragogics in the context of the history of modern museums in Ukraine (review historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Kutsaeva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article set the goal to analyse the published academic/ scientific, popular scientific publications and the published results of Ukrainian museums’ practical developments for 1990-2010s, which in total can be described as a museum andragogics or informal adult education by museum means. Initially, it was found that despite the growing interest in these kinds of museum activities, the available research body is not systematized. It was found that brief reviews of the problem’s historiography are present mostly in preambles of museology, pedagogy, museums history articles. They are often related to the topic indirectly. Attempts to study purposefully the subject are now rare, although their aim is to summarize the existing Ukrainian experience. It was determined that, although it is impossible now to determine the museum andragogics as a separate sphere of knowledge on the basis of a small number of published investigations of Ukrainian specialists. These investigations are reflecting the national museums and available foreign publications’ experience in this sphere (translated into Ukrainian or published in Russian. But the formation of the andragogics in Ukraine is actual and necessary on the way towards the integration into the global cultural space. Summarizing the material the conclusion was made that the museum andragogics and non-formal adult education in museums are promising areas of scientific knowledge. A contribution of the museum’s and other Ukrainian connected sectors professionals in the process by years 2012-13 is notable both at the level of the foreign experience’s study and the reflection in practice, research, scientific and popular publications. However, until now there was no such activity surge, as it happened in the spheres of museum marketing or sociology. Such forms of activity as «Workshop», «Summer school», public lecture are not known and used enough by domestic museums, and therefore by

  2. Local adaptation in brown trout early life-history traits: implications for climate change adaptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.F.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Pertoldi, C.

    2008-01-01

    to adapt. Temperature-related adaptability in traits related to phenology and early life history are expected to be particularly important in salmonid fishes. We focused on the latter and investigated whether four populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) are locally adapted in early life-history traits...

  3. History of Mathematics in Korean Mathematics Textbooks: Implication for Using Ethnomathematics in Culturally Diverse School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Mi-Kyung; Moon, Jong-Eun; Song, Ryoon-Jin

    2016-01-01

    From a multicultural perspective, this research investigated to what extent Korean mathematics textbooks use history of mathematics. The results show even though educational use of history presented in Korean mathematics textbooks may provide a rich outlook, it does not encourage a fundamental change in the educational practice of school…

  4. Sources for the study of the history of the dominican studium generale in Krakow in the modern era. The state of research and research perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Szymborski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of the essay under consideration was investigation and characterized most important source materials stocked at the Archive of the Cracow’s Dominican Province to present the history of their studium generale during the Modern period. Also, the current knowledge of a.m. period of studium generale was screened- out and some searching hypothesis were proposed concerning the history of the Cracow’s Dominican studium generale. The searching time frame have been limited to XVI up to XVII century. Taken into consideration, the current status of research works performed so far, one ought to stated that the Modern Epoch has not been searched out with the same consciousness compare to the Medieval one. As the most important printed source materials, one ought to account the documents issued by the general and provincial chapters of the Convent. The documents of the provincial chapters have been listed and screened by Father Fabian Madura, and were stocked as the typescript formats at the Cracow’s Dominican Convent Library. Based on the searched source materials of General Chapter of Dominican Convent at Cracow, it is possible to present the general overview of the convent education system and its changes in due time. Due to the records found it would be possible to identify – position and name – the Dominicans nominated to the Convent stadium generale. The most important manuscript stocked at the Cracow’s Dominican Convent Archive as the education system is concern, is so called Liber Studii Generalis cracoviensis (rkps 20. This manuscript covers the list of friars who have been nominated to work at stadium generale. A.m. document has to verify and compare with other sources. Taken into consideration above mention facts, it seems to be as most important searching activities to describe the convent society of the Cracow’s Dominicans. At the essay some detailed searching hypothesis were presented, such as searching and reviewing

  5. Modern pollen–climate relationships in north Xinjiang, northwestern China : Implications for pollen-based reconstruction of Holocene climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Furong; Zhao, Yan; Gaillard, Marie José; Li, Huan; Sun, Jinghui; Xu, Qinghai

    2017-01-01

    Fossil pollen records are widely used to reconstruct past climate. Such reconstructions require that the relationships between pollen assemblages, vegetation, and climate are well understood. These can be studied in present circumstances given we assume that modern vegetation and climate are

  6. A Comparison between African Traditional and Modern Child Rearing Practice: With Implication to Youth Guidance and Counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumuti, Sammy

    In the traditional African society (TAS), the child is allowed to interact with learning materials and situations. Consequently, learning becomes relevant, meaningful, and purposeful in relation to the individual and the society. In the modern African society (MAS), education has been at best an experiment that is marked with inconsistencies in…

  7. Modern Languages and Specific Learning Difficulties (SpLD): Implications of Teaching Adult Learners with Dyslexia in Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Matilde; Heiser, Sarah; Arias McLaughlin, Ximena

    2015-01-01

    In modern language (ML) distance learning programmes, teachers and students use online tools to facilitate, reinforce and support independent learning. This makes it essential for teachers to develop pedagogical expertise in using online communication tools to perform their role. Teachers frequently raise questions of how best to support the needs…

  8. [Physiology and cybernetics: the history of mutual penetration of ideas, modern state and perspectives. To a 60-th anniversary of a writing the book "Cybernetics"by N. Wiener].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V I

    2007-01-01

    Description of the history of cybernetics origin and physiology influence on it is given. Role of Russian and foreign physiologists in becoming and development of cybernetics and contribution of cybernetic theorists (N. Wiener and A.A. Lyapunov) to physiology are shown. Becoming and a modern state of various sections of cybernetic physiology and perspective of connection of cybernetics with integrative physiology are considered.

  9. "Brought under the law of the land" : the history, demography and geography of crossculturalism in early modern Izmir, and the Köprülü Project of 1678

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olnon, Merlijn

    2014-01-01

    The port-city of Izmir (old Smyrna) plays a crucial role in modern world history. From the 1570s, that city became subjected to European mercantile interests and quickly developed into the main conductor of an irreversible European takeover of the Ottoman economy – the structural basis of a

  10. Life history variation in Barents Sea fish: implications for sensitivity to fishing in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmann, Magnus A; Primicerio, Raul; Dolgov, Andrey; Ottesen, Camilla A M; Aschan, Michaela

    2014-09-01

    Under exploitation and environmental change, it is essential to assess the sensitivity and vulnerability of marine ecosystems to such stress. A species' response to stress depends on its life history. Sensitivity to harvesting is related to the life history "fast-slow" continuum, where "slow" species (i.e., large, long lived, and late maturing) are expected to be more sensitive to fishing than "fast" ones. We analyze life history traits variation for all common fish species in the Barents Sea and rank fishes along fast-slow gradients obtained by ordination analyses. In addition, we integrate species' fast-slow ranks with ecosystem survey data for the period 2004-2009, to assess life history variation at the community level in space and time. Arctic fishes were smaller, had shorter life spans, earlier maturation, larger offspring, and lower fecundity than boreal ones. Arctic fishes could thus be considered faster than the boreal species, even when body size was corrected for. Phylogenetically related species possessed similar life histories. Early in the study period, we found a strong spatial gradient, where members of fish assemblages in the southwestern Barents Sea displayed slower life histories than in the northeast. However, in later, warmer years, the gradient weakened caused by a northward movement of boreal species. As a consequence, the northeast experienced increasing proportions of slower fish species. This study is a step toward integrating life history traits in ecosystem-based areal management. On the basis of life history traits, we assess the fish sensitivity to fishing, at the species and community level. We show that climate warming promotes a borealization of fish assemblages in the northeast, associated with slower life histories in that area. The biology of Arctic species is still poorly known, and boreal species that now establish in the Arctic are fishery sensitive, which calls for cautious ecosystem management of these areas.

  11. Medicinal Cannabis: History, Pharmacology, And Implications for the Acute Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Mary Barna; Abazia, Daniel T

    2017-03-01

    The authors review the historical use of medicinal cannabis and discuss the agent's pharmacology and pharmacokinetics, select evidence on medicinal uses, and the implications of evolving regulations on the acute care hospital setting.

  12. Medicinal Cannabis: History, Pharmacology, And Implications for the Acute Care Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Bridgeman, Mary Barna; Abazia, Daniel T.

    2017-01-01

    The authors review the historical use of medicinal cannabis and discuss the agent?s pharmacology and pharmacokinetics, select evidence on medicinal uses, and the implications of evolving regulations on the acute care hospital setting.

  13. Molybdenum isotopes in modern marine hydrothermal Fe/Mn deposits: Implications for Archean and Paleoproterozoic Mo cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, K. T.; Hein, J. R.; Shimoda, G.; Aoki, S.; Ishikawa, A.; Suzuki, K.; Gordon, G. W.; Anbar, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    Molybdenum isotope (δ98/95Mo) variations recorded in Archean and Paleoproterozoic Fe/Mn-rich sediments have been used to constrain ocean redox conditions at the time of deposition (Canfield et al., 2013 PNAS; Planavsky et al., 2014 Nat. Geo.; Kurzweil et al., 2015 GCA). However, except for hydrogenous Fe-Mn crusts (Siebert et al., 2003), δ98/95Mo variation of modern Fe and Mn oxide deposits has been poorly investigated. Marine hydrothermal systems are thought to be the major source of Fe and Mn in Archean and Paleoproterozoic Fe- and Mn-rich sediments. Hence, to accurately interpret Mo isotope data of those ancient sedimentary rocks, it is important to evaluate the possible influence of hydrothermally derived Mo on δ98/95Mo of modern Fe- and Mn-rich sediments. In this study, we analyzed Mo isotopic compositions of one hydrothermal Fe oxide and 15 Mn oxides from five different hydrothermal systems in the modern ocean. The Fe oxide is composed mainly of goethite, and has a δ98/95Mo of 0.7‰, which is 1.4‰ lighter than that of present-day seawater. The observed offset is similar to isotope fractionation observed during adsorption experiments of Mo on goethite (Δ98/95Mogoethite-solution = -1.4 ± 0.5%; Goldberg et al., 2009 GCA). The 15 hydrothermal Mn oxides show large variations in δ98/95Mo ranging from -1.7 to 0.5‰. However, most of the values are similar to those of modern hydrogenous Fe-Mn crusts (Siebert et al., 2003 EPSL), and fall within the range of estimated δ98/95Mo of Mn oxides precipitated from present-day seawater using the isotope offset reported from adsorption experiments (Δ98/95Mo = -2.7 ± 0.3‰; Wasylenki et al., 2008 GCA). These findings indicate that seawater is the dominant source of Mo for modern hydrothermal Fe and Mn deposits. However, the observed large variation indicates that the contribution Mo from local hydrothermal systems is not negligible. The oceanic Mo inventory during the Archean and Paleoproterozoic is thought to be

  14. Otolith microchemistry of modern versus well-dated ancient naked carp Gymnocypris przewalskii: Implication for water evolution of Lake Qinghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling; Jin, Zhangdong; Wang, Chia-Hui; Li, Fuchun; Wang, Yujiao; Wang, Xulong; Zhang, Fei; Chen, Liumei; Du, Jinhua

    2015-06-01

    There is ongoing debate over how the water level and composition of the water in Lake Qinghai changed in the past and might change in future. This study of the microchemistry of otoliths from ancient naked carp explores the chemistry of a relict lake isolated from Lake Qinghai during the Little Ice Age (LIA). A close correlation between the ages measured on fish bone and otoliths by AMS-14C, and by optically stimulated luminescence on overlying sediments, confirms a high water level in Lake Qinghai before 680-300 years ago. The contrasting compositions of the ancient otoliths relative to modern otoliths and waters indicate that the relict lake became enriched in 18O, Mg, Li, B and to a lesser extent Ba, but depleted in 13C, owing to strong evaporation, authigenic carbonates precipitation, (micro-)organism activity, and less fresh water input after it was isolated. If there were long-term fresh water input, however, a reverse trend might occur. The most important observation is that, because the waters have been supersaturated with respect to carbonates, authigenic carbonate precipitation would result in low but consistent Sr/Ca ratios in the lakes, as recorded by both the ancient and modern otoliths. The geochemical records of ancient versus modern biogenic carbonates provide insights into the long-term hydroclimatic evolution processes of an inland water body.

  15. History of the modern astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    The book treats the following topics: structure and motion of the sky - classical astronomy, origin of astrophysics, macrocosm - microcosm, and techniques and organization of research. 86 black-and-white and 15 color plates are included

  16. Political history of modern Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Islam Islami

    2016-07-01

    Gamal Abdel Nasser was the one who established the Republic of Egypt and ended the monarchy rule in Egypt following the Egyptian revolution in 1952. Egypt was ruled autocratically by three presidents over the following six decades, by Nasser from 1954 until his death in 1970, by Anwar Sadat from 1971 until his assassination 1981, and by Hosni Mubarak from 1981 until his resignation in the face of the 2011 Egyptian revolution.

  17. The influence of family history on prostate cancer risk : implications for clinical management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madersbacher, Stephan; Alcaraz, Antonio; Emberton, Mark; Hammerer, Peter; Ponholzer, Anton; Schroeder, Fritz H.; Tubaro, Andrea

    A family history of prostate cancer has long been identified as an important risk factor for developing the disease. This risk factor can be easily assessed in clinical practice and current guidelines recommend to initiate prostate cancer early detection 5 years earlier (i.e. around the age of 40

  18. Lead mobility within the xylem of red spruce seedlings: Implications for the development of pollution histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Donnelly; John B. Shane; Paul G. Schaberg

    1990-01-01

    Development of Pb pollution histories using tree ring analyses has been troubled by possible mobility of Pb within stem xylem. In a 2-yr study, we exposed red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) seedlings to Pb during one growing season, with Pb excluded in either the previous or following growing season. Lead levels within xylem rings and bark were...

  19. Fire history and fire management implications in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. A. Drury; P. J. Grissom

    2008-01-01

    We conducted this investigation in response to criticisms that the current Alaska Interagency Fire Management Plans are allowing too much of the landscape in interior Alaska to burn annually. To address this issue, we analyzed fire history patterns within the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, interior Alaska. We dated 40 fires on 27 landscape points within the...

  20. Family history of cancer predicts endometrial cancer risk independently of Lynch Syndrome: Implications for genetic counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnatty, Sharon E; Tan, Yen Y; Buchanan, Daniel D; Bowman, Michael; Walters, Rhiannon J; Obermair, Andreas; Quinn, Michael A; Blomfield, Penelope B; Brand, Alison; Leung, Yee; Oehler, Martin K; Kirk, Judy A; O'Mara, Tracy A; Webb, Penelope M; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2017-11-01

    To determine endometrial cancer (EC) risk according to family cancer history, including assessment by degree of relatedness, type of and age at cancer diagnosis of relatives. Self-reported family cancer history was available for 1353 EC patients and 628 controls. Logistic regression was used to quantify the association between EC and cancer diagnosis in ≥1 first or second degree relative, and to assess whether level of risk differed by degree of relationship and/or relative's age at diagnosis. Risk was also evaluated for family history of up to three cancers from known familial syndromes (Lynch, Cowden, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer) overall, by histological subtype and, for a subset of 678 patients, by EC tumor mismatch repair (MMR) gene expression. Report of EC in ≥1 first- or second-degree relative was associated with significantly increased risk of EC (P=3.8×10 -7 ), independent of lifestyle risk factors. There was a trend in increasing EC risk with closer relatedness and younger age at EC diagnosis in relatives (P Trend =4.43×10 -6 ), and with increasing numbers of Lynch cancers in relatives (P Trend ≤0.0001). EC risk associated with family history did not differ by proband tumor MMR status, or histological subtype. Reported EC in first- or second-degree relatives remained associated with EC risk after conservative correction for potential misreported family history (OR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.24-3.37, P=0.004). The strongest predictor of EC risk was closer relatedness and younger EC diagnosis age in ≥1 relative. Associations remained significant irrespective of proband MMR status, and after excluding MMR pathogenic variant carriers, indicating that Lynch syndrome genes do not fully explain familial EC risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Didactic implications of the history of science in Physics Education: a literature review through discursive textual analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Rodrigues Junior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a literature review of the educational implications of the history of science in the teaching of Physics in the period 2010 to 2014. The technique used to analyze the data was the discursive textual analysis with the categories defined a priori. These categories include different teaching strategies for the teaching of history of science in Physics classes such as the use of primary or original sources, historical case studies, science through drama activities, historical experiments, biographies and /or autobiographies of scientists and the content analysis of the history of science present in textbooks. The result showed that 36 articles of 1659 available in journals use these teaching strategies. The results of the interpretative step consisted in the production of six metatexts in which two learning objectives were identified: the first one is related to physical concepts and the second one in aspects related to understanding the Nature of Science. The evaluation tools used by the authors to assess the students’ knowledge were identified in our corpus too.

  2. Reconstruction of caribou evolutionary history in Western North America and its implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckworth, Byron V; Musiani, Marco; McDevitt, Allan D; Hebblewhite, Mark; Mariani, Stefano

    2012-07-01

    The role of Beringia as a refugium and route for trans-continental exchange of fauna during glacial cycles of the past 2million years are well documented; less apparent is its contribution as a significant reservoir of genetic diversity. Using mitochondrial DNA sequences and 14 microsatellite loci, we investigate the phylogeographic history of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in western North America. Patterns of genetic diversity reveal two distinct groups of caribou. Caribou classified as a Northern group, of Beringian origin, exhibited greater number and variability in mtDNA haplotypes compared to a Southern group originating from refugia south of glacial ice. Results indicate that subspecies R. t. granti of Alaska and R. t. groenlandicus of northern Canada do not constitute distinguishable units at mtDNA or microsatellites, belying their current status as separate subspecies. Additionally, the Northern Mountain ecotype of woodland caribou (presently R. t. caribou) has closer kinship to caribou classified as granti or groenlandicus. Comparisons of mtDNA and microsatellite data suggest that behavioural and ecological specialization is a more recently derived life history characteristic. Notably, microsatellite differentiation among Southern herds is significantly greater, most likely as a result of human-induced landscape fragmentation and genetic drift due to smaller population sizes. These results not only provide important insight into the evolutionary history of northern species such as caribou, but also are important indicators for managers evaluating conservation measures for this threatened species. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Stress history influence on sedimentary rock porosity estimates: Implications for geological CO2 storage in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jie Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We established a stress-history-dependent porosity model of potential target rocks for CO2 geosequestration based on rock sample porosity measurements under various effective stresses (5 - 120 MPa. The measured samples were collected from shallow boreholes (< 300 m depth drilled at the frontal fold in northern Taiwan. The lithology, density, and the stress-history-dependent porosity derived from shallow boreholes enabled us to predict the porosity-depth relationship of given rock formations at (burial depths of approximately 3170 - 3470 m potential sites for CO2 geosequestration located near the Taoyuan Tableland coastline. Our results indicate that the porosity of samples derived from laboratory tests under atmospheric pressure is significantly greater than the porosity measured under stress caused by sediment burial. It is therefore strongly recommended that CO2 storage capacity assessment not be estimated from the porosity measured under atmospheric pressure. Neglecting the stress history effect on the porosity of compacted and uplifted rocks may induce a percentage error of 7.7% at a depth of approximately 1000 m, where the thickness of the eroded, formerly overlying formation is 2.5 km in a synthetic case. The CO2 injection pressure effect on the porosity was also evaluated using the stress-history-dependent porosity model. As expected, the pore pressure buildup during CO2 injection will induce an increase in the rock porosity. For example, a large injection pressure of 13 MPa at a depth of approximately 1000 m will increase the rock porosity by a percentage error of 6.7%. Our results have implications for CO2 storage capacity injection pressure estimates.

  4. Testing survey-based methods for rapid monitoring of child mortality, with implications for summary birth history data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Eoghan; Hill, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Under-five mortality estimates are increasingly used in low and middle income countries to target interventions and measure performance against global development goals. Two new methods to rapidly estimate under-5 mortality based on Summary Birth Histories (SBH) were described in a previous paper and tested with data available. This analysis tests the methods using data appropriate to each method from 5 countries that lack vital registration systems. SBH data are collected across many countries through censuses and surveys, and indirect methods often rely upon their quality to estimate mortality rates. The Birth History Imputation method imputes data from a recent Full Birth History (FBH) onto the birth, death and age distribution of the SBH to produce estimates based on the resulting distribution of child mortality. DHS FBHs and MICS SBHs are used for all five countries. In the implementation, 43 of 70 estimates are within 20% of validation estimates (61%). Mean Absolute Relative Error is 17.7.%. 1 of 7 countries produces acceptable estimates. The Cohort Change method considers the differences in births and deaths between repeated Summary Birth Histories at 1 or 2-year intervals to estimate the mortality rate in that period. SBHs are taken from Brazil's PNAD Surveys 2004-2011 and validated against IGME estimates. 2 of 10 estimates are within 10% of validation estimates. Mean absolute relative error is greater than 100%. Appropriate testing of these new methods demonstrates that they do not produce sufficiently good estimates based on the data available. We conclude this is due to the poor quality of most SBH data included in the study. This has wider implications for the next round of censuses and future household surveys across many low- and middle- income countries.

  5. Modernity after Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A strategy for the second modernization raises, beyond objectives, a series of epistemicresponsibilities. It is known that modernization stemming from the Enlightment had, among other things,the pretense that it is a project which is self-legitimating. Its profound rationales are the only justification.Referential self-centering proved to be the one that made possible a practice of the new. Modernizationhaving the function of renouncing myth – meaning an eliminatory formula for the past – and thefixation in the opportunity and potentiality of the present, seemed to close an insoluble but extremelyengrossing problem: that of a propensity towards utopia, of the risky escape towards the future. Thetraditionalization of the new constitutes a support for the daring to break out of the captivity of themoment.Modernization becomes the experience of combining the new which, thus, creates a succession ofpresent times. The future is no longer the result of fantasy, but a system’s direct expression to combine thenew. Therefore the future is an option for one or another model of the present, often tested previouslysomewhere else. In a non-metaphysical way, the future can be seen, touched, tried, lived by simplegeographical movement. The sense of evolution has de-temporalized taking the form of the concomitant,parallel, enclosed, neighboring space. We just have to be in the trend, to evolve in the context.Globalization defines the context and its conception – as a project of the second modernity – showsus the trends. The problem is how to understand the context in order to find the sense of the trend. Are wethe load the sense with the values of the first modernity or will we have to turn to the values of anothermodernity? Why do we have to move away from the significance of the processes which made up the firstmodernity? How do we relate to the content of the new context in which the structural trends of today’sworld are taking place? What is the

  6. Implications of neuroscience Psychoactive drugs and identity: between history and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Feito Grande

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscientifical advances open the possibility to modify capacities in human beings, aimed to enhance them. An example is neurodrugs. Altering memory, attention or mood can make a difference in personal identity. This question about identity is analyzed and its implications on modification of human nature. This raises again the nature/culture debate, also from the contemporary neuroscience. The conclusion is that dynamism in human narrative identity is the result of an interaction between nature and culture.

  7. Modern teaching for modern education

    OpenAIRE

    Mirascieva, Snezana

    2016-01-01

    Carrying the epithet of being contemporary education today means modern teaching. If modern education is a state in the field of education of all its elements, then teaching will also be a state with its own special features defining it as modern. The main issues of concern in this paper relate to what constitutes modern teaching, which features determine it as being modern, and how much is teaching today following the trend of modernization.

  8. Shift of large-scale atmospheric systems over Europe during late MIS 3 and implications for Modern Human dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreht, Igor; Hambach, Ulrich; Veres, Daniel; Zeeden, Christian; Bösken, Janina; Stevens, Thomas; Marković, Slobodan B; Klasen, Nicole; Brill, Dominik; Burow, Christoph; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2017-07-19

    Understanding the past dynamics of large-scale atmospheric systems is crucial for our knowledge of the palaeoclimate conditions in Europe. Southeastern Europe currently lies at the border between Atlantic, Mediterranean, and continental climate zones. Past changes in the relative influence of associated atmospheric systems must have been recorded in the region's palaeoarchives. By comparing high-resolution grain-size, environmental magnetic and geochemical data from two loess-palaeosol sequences in the Lower Danube Basin with other Eurasian palaeorecords, we reconstructed past climatic patterns over Southeastern Europe and the related interaction of the prevailing large-scale circulation modes over Europe, especially during late Marine Isotope Stage 3 (40,000-27,000 years ago). We demonstrate that during this time interval, the intensification of the Siberian High had a crucial influence on European climate causing the more continental conditions over major parts of Europe, and a southwards shift of the Westerlies. Such a climatic and environmental change, combined with the Campanian Ignimbrite/Y-5 volcanic eruption, may have driven the Anatomically Modern Human dispersal towards Central and Western Europe, pointing to a corridor over the Eastern European Plain as an important pathway in their dispersal.

  9. Palaeoenvironmental and biostratigraphic implications of microbial mat-related structures: Examples from the modern Gulf of Cambay and the Precambrian Vindhyan Basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Banerjee

    2014-04-01

    abundant in both parts. The lower part of the intertidal segment of the Chorhat Sandstone is thus analogous to the upper intertidal zone of the modern Gulf of Cambay environment, while the upper part of the Chorhat intertidal segment reflects prolonged exposure close to the high tide line. The bottom-most part of the intertidal segment of the Chorhat Sandstone with fewer MRS corresponds to the lower intertidal zone at Cambay. Inferred disc-shaped microbial fossils within Vindhyan sandstones are analogous to the DMC found in the modern environment and these features do not have any biostratigraphic implication.

  10. Empowerment and Social Support: Implications for Practice and Programming among Minority Women with Substance Abuse and Criminal Justice Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Alexandra; Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Salina, Doreen; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Programs for women with substance abuse and criminal justice histories often incorporate empowerment and social support into service delivery systems. Women’s empowerment research has focused on the relationship between women’s personal identities and the larger sociopolitical context, with an emphasis on how community based resources are critical for promoting well-being. Social support often protects against negative outcomes for individuals who live with chronic stress. However, few studies have evaluated community resource knowledge and empowerment among marginalized women or how social support might strengthen or weaken this relationship. This study investigated resource knowledge, social support and empowerment among 200 minority women in substance abuse recovery who had recent criminal justice involvement. Results indicated that resource knowledge was related to empowerment and belonging social support marginally moderated this relationship. In addition, education level increased and current involvement in the criminal justice system decreased empowerment. Implications for research, practice and policy are discussed. PMID:27084362

  11. Evolutionary history of Leishmania killicki (synonymous Leishmania tropica) and taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaara, Dhekra; Ravel, Christophe; Bañuls, Anne- Laure; Haouas, Najoua; Lami, Patrick; Talignani, Loïc; El Baidouri, Fouad; Jaouadi, Kaouther; Harrat, Zoubir; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Babba, Hamouda; Pratlong, Francine

    2015-04-01

    The taxonomic status of Leishmania (L.) killicki, a parasite that causes chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis, is not well defined yet. Indeed, some researchers suggested that this taxon could be included in the L. tropica complex, whereas others considered it as a distinct phylogenetic complex. To try to solve this taxonomic issue we carried out a detailed study on the evolutionary history of L. killicki relative to L. tropica. Thirty-five L. killicki and 25 L. tropica strains isolated from humans and originating from several countries were characterized using the MultiLocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE) and the MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST) approaches. The results of the genetic and phylogenetic analyses strongly support the hypothesis that L. killicki belongs to the L. tropica complex. Our data suggest that L. killicki emerged from a single founder event and that it evolved independently from L. tropica. However, they do not validate the hypothesis that L. killicki is a distinct complex. Therefore, we suggest naming this taxon L. killicki (synonymous L. tropica) until further epidemiological and phylogenetic studies justify the L. killicki denomination. This study provides taxonomic and phylogenetic information on L. killicki and improves our knowledge on the evolutionary history of this taxon.

  12. Life History theory hypotheses on child growth: Potential implications for short and long-term child growth, development and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2018-01-01

    Life history theory integrates ecological, physiological, and molecular layers within an evolutionary framework to understand organisms' strategies to optimize survival and reproduction. Two life history hypotheses and their implications for child growth, development, and health (illustrated in the South African context) are reviewed here. One hypothesis suggests that there is an energy trade-off between linear growth and brain growth. Undernutrition in infancy and childhood may trigger adaptive physiological mechanisms prioritizing the brain at the expense of body growth. Another hypothesis is that the period from conception to infancy is a critical window of developmental plasticity of linear growth, the duration of which may vary between and within populations. The transition from infancy to childhood may mark the end of a critical window of opportunity for improving child growth. Both hypotheses emphasize the developmental plasticity of linear growth and the potential determinants of growth variability (including the role of parent-offspring conflict in maternal resources allocation). Implications of these hypotheses in populations with high burdens of undernutrition and infections are discussed. In South Africa, HIV/AIDS during pregnancy (associated with adverse birth outcomes, short duration of breastfeeding, and social consequences) may lead to a shortened window of developmental plasticity of growth. Furthermore, undernutrition and infectious diseases in children living in South Africa, a country undergoing a rapid nutrition transition, may have adverse consequences on individuals' cognitive abilities and risks of cardio-metabolic diseases. Studies are needed to identify physiological mechanisms underlying energy allocation between biological functions and their potential impacts on health. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Historia de la virtud que buscamos: del aristotelismo a la modernidad = History of the virtue we seek: from aristotelism to modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannina Burlando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En la discusión actual sobre la ciudanía en democracia es central admitir una crisis en la educación (NUSSBAUM, 2010; BERKOWITZ, 2001. Resulta inevitable, así, desde una perspectiva de la historia de la filosofía, citar lo enseñado por máximos teóricos políticos, si queremos comprender por qué la imagen educativa antigua resulta problemática y no del todo satisfactoria para los estados democráticos de hoy. Sin duda la educación ha sido responsable de la formación del carácter y de la opinión de las personas. Pero al observar la historia de la institución, parece claro que se propone no solo formar los hábitos de las personas, sino acotar sus conocimientos de tal modo que prevalezcan un conjunto de opiniones por sobre otras (RUSSELL, 1961. Nuestro propósito es develar los supuestos teóricos de las doctrinas políticas de dos figuras representativas de la antigüedad y modernidad: Aristóteles y Locke, respectivamente. Nuestro alcance ulterior será abrir la reflexión acerca de si la imagen antigua de la virtud, o su antagonismo o posible uso en el liberalismo tiene algún poder representacional para reflejar las condiciones actuales de equidad y justicia buscadas en la vida ciudadana en democracias estables de Latino América.Within the actual debate on citizenship within democracy, admitting a crisis in educational matters is highly relevant (NUSSBAUM, 2010; BERKOWITZ, 2001. Thus, if we want to understand why the ancient educational image is problematic and unsatisfying to the citizens of democratic governments, it is unavoidable, from the history of philosophy point of view, to quote the teaching of preeminent political theorists. Needless to say, the power of education in forming people’s character and opinions is widely recognized. Nonetheless, by looking at the history of the institution, it seems obvious that its purpose is not only to form habits but to circumscribe the knowledge of the persons in such a way as to

  14. Volcanic styles at Alba Patera, Mars: implications of lava flow morphology to the volcanic history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneeberger, D.M.; Pieri, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    Alba Patera presents styles of volcanism that are unique to Mars. Its very low profile, large areal extent, unusually long and voluminous lava flows, and circumferential graben make it among Mars' most interesting volcanic features. Clues to Alba's volcanic history are preserved in its morphology and stratigraphy. Understanding the relationship of lava flow morphology to emplacement processes should enable estimates of viscosity, effusion rate, and gross composition to be made. Lava flows, with dimensions considered enormous by terrestrial standards, account for a major portion of the exposed surface of Alba Patera. These flows exhibit a range of morphologies. While most previous works have focused on the planimetric characteristics, attention was drawn to the important morphological attributes, paying particular attention to what the features suggest about the emplacement process

  15. Multisystem dating of modern river detritus from Tajikistan and China: Implications for crustal evolution and exhumation of the Pamir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Carappa,; Mustapha, F.S.; Cosca, Michael A.; Gehrels, George E.; Schoenbhohm, L; Sobel, E.; DeCelles.P.,; Russell, Joellen; Goodman, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The Pamir is the western continuation of Tibet and the site of some of the highest mountains on Earth, yet comparatively little is known about its crustal and tectonic evolution and erosional history. Both Tibet and the Pamir are characterized by similar terranes and sutures that can be correlated along strike, although the details of such correlations remain controversial. The erosional history of the Pamir with respect to Tibet is significantly different as well: Most of Tibet has been characterized by internal drainage and low erosion rates since the early Cenozoic; in contrast, the Pamir is externally drained and topographically more rugged, and it has a strongly asymmetric drainage pattern. Here, we report 700 new U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope determinations and >300 40Ar/39Ar ages from detrital minerals derived from rivers in China draining the northeastern Pamir and >1000 apatite fission-track (AFT) ages from 12 rivers in Tajikistan and China draining the northeastern, central, and southern Pamir. U-Pb ages from rivers draining the northeastern Pamir are Mesozoic to Proterozoic and show affinity with the Songpan-Ganzi terrane of northern Tibet, whereas rivers draining the central and southern Pamir are mainly Mesozoic and show some affinity with the Qiangtang terrane of central Tibet. The εHf values are juvenile, between 15 and −5, for the northeastern Pamir and juvenile to moderately evolved, between 10 and −40, for the central and southern Pamir. Detrital mica 40Ar/39Ar ages for the northeastern Pamir (eastern drainages) are generally older than ages from the central and southern Pamir (western drainages), indicating younger or lower-magnitude exhumation of the northeastern Pamir compared to the central and southern Pamir. AFT data show strong Miocene–Pliocene signals at the orogen scale, indicating rapid erosion at the regional scale. Despite localized exhumation of the Mustagh-Ata and Kongur-Shan domes, average erosion rates for the northeastern Pamir

  16. Disequilibrium biosignatures over Earth history and implications for detecting exoplanet life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krissansen-Totton, Joshua; Olson, Stephanie; Catling, David C

    2018-01-01

    Chemical disequilibrium in planetary atmospheres has been proposed as a generalized method for detecting life on exoplanets through remote spectroscopy. Among solar system planets with substantial atmospheres, the modern Earth has the largest thermodynamic chemical disequilibrium due to the presence of life. However, how this disequilibrium changed over time and, in particular, the biogenic disequilibria maintained in the anoxic Archean or less oxic Proterozoic eons are unknown. We calculate the atmosphere-ocean disequilibrium in the Precambrian using conservative proxy- and model-based estimates of early atmospheric and oceanic compositions. We omit crustal solids because subsurface composition is not detectable on exoplanets, unlike above-surface volatiles. We find that (i) disequilibrium increased through time in step with the rise of oxygen; (ii) both the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic may have had remotely detectable biogenic disequilibria due to the coexistence of O 2 , N 2 , and liquid water; and (iii) the Archean had a biogenic disequilibrium caused by the coexistence of N 2 , CH 4 , CO 2 , and liquid water, which, for an exoplanet twin, may be remotely detectable. On the basis of this disequilibrium, we argue that the simultaneous detection of abundant CH 4 and CO 2 in a habitable exoplanet's atmosphere is a potential biosignature. Specifically, we show that methane mixing ratios greater than 10 -3 are potentially biogenic, whereas those exceeding 10 -2 are likely biogenic due to the difficulty in maintaining large abiotic methane fluxes to support high methane levels in anoxic atmospheres. Biogenicity would be strengthened by the absence of abundant CO, which should not coexist in a biological scenario.

  17. Disequilibrium biosignatures over Earth history and implications for detecting exoplanet life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krissansen-Totton, Joshua; Olson, Stephanie; Catling, David C.

    2018-01-01

    Chemical disequilibrium in planetary atmospheres has been proposed as a generalized method for detecting life on exoplanets through remote spectroscopy. Among solar system planets with substantial atmospheres, the modern Earth has the largest thermodynamic chemical disequilibrium due to the presence of life. However, how this disequilibrium changed over time and, in particular, the biogenic disequilibria maintained in the anoxic Archean or less oxic Proterozoic eons are unknown. We calculate the atmosphere-ocean disequilibrium in the Precambrian using conservative proxy- and model-based estimates of early atmospheric and oceanic compositions. We omit crustal solids because subsurface composition is not detectable on exoplanets, unlike above-surface volatiles. We find that (i) disequilibrium increased through time in step with the rise of oxygen; (ii) both the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic may have had remotely detectable biogenic disequilibria due to the coexistence of O2, N2, and liquid water; and (iii) the Archean had a biogenic disequilibrium caused by the coexistence of N2, CH4, CO2, and liquid water, which, for an exoplanet twin, may be remotely detectable. On the basis of this disequilibrium, we argue that the simultaneous detection of abundant CH4 and CO2 in a habitable exoplanet’s atmosphere is a potential biosignature. Specifically, we show that methane mixing ratios greater than 10−3 are potentially biogenic, whereas those exceeding 10−2 are likely biogenic due to the difficulty in maintaining large abiotic methane fluxes to support high methane levels in anoxic atmospheres. Biogenicity would be strengthened by the absence of abundant CO, which should not coexist in a biological scenario. PMID:29387792

  18. Mitochondrial DNA haplotype distribution patterns in Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae): range-wide evolutionary history and implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Kevin M; Hipkins, Valerie D; Mahalovich, Mary F; Means, Robert E

    2013-08-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. Lawson & C. Lawson) exhibits complicated patterns of morphological and genetic variation across its range in western North America. This study aims to clarify P. ponderosa evolutionary history and phylogeography using a highly polymorphic mitochondrial DNA marker, with results offering insights into how geographical and climatological processes drove the modern evolutionary structure of tree species in the region. We amplified the mtDNA nad1 second intron minisatellite region for 3,100 trees representing 104 populations, and sequenced all length variants. We estimated population-level haplotypic diversity and determined diversity partitioning among varieties, races and populations. After aligning sequences of minisatellite repeat motifs, we evaluated evolutionary relationships among haplotypes. The geographical structuring of the 10 haplotypes corresponded with division between Pacific and Rocky Mountain varieties. Pacific haplotypes clustered with high bootstrap support, and appear to have descended from Rocky Mountain haplotypes. A greater proportion of diversity was partitioned between Rocky Mountain races than between Pacific races. Areas of highest haplotypic diversity were the southern Sierra Nevada mountain range in California, northwestern California, and southern Nevada. Pinus ponderosa haplotype distribution patterns suggest a complex phylogeographic history not revealed by other genetic and morphological data, or by the sparse paleoecological record. The results appear consistent with long-term divergence between the Pacific and Rocky Mountain varieties, along with more recent divergences not well-associated with race. Pleistocene refugia may have existed in areas of high haplotypic diversity, as well as the Great Basin, Southwestern United States/northern Mexico, and the High Plains.

  19. Challenges Associated with the Content of the Art History Component in the General Knowledge in Art Subject: Implications for Art History Education in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adom, Dickson; Kquofi, Steve; Agyem, Joe Adu

    2016-01-01

    The content of the Art History component in the General Knowledge in Art subject studied by various Senior High Schools in West Africa is largely of foreign art histories at the expense of the histories of African indigenous arts which are shallowly presented in the teaching syllabus to be taught students. This makes the students appreciate more…

  20. Breast Cancer Laterality Does Not Influence Survival in a Large Modern Cohort: Implications for Radiation-Related Cardiac Mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutter, Charles E., E-mail: charles.rutter@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Chagpar, Anees B. [Department of Surgery, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy and Effectiveness Research Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Evans, Suzanne B. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy and Effectiveness Research Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Objectives: Radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer has been associated with an elevated risk of cardiac mortality, based on studies predating treatment planning based on computed tomography. This study assessed the impact of tumor laterality on overall survival (OS) in a large cohort treated with modern techniques, to indirectly determine whether left-sided treatment remains associated with increased cardiac mortality. Methods and Materials: Patients treated for breast cancer with breast conserving surgery and adjuvant external beam radiation therapy were identified in the National Cancer Database, and OS was compared based on tumor laterality using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Separate analyses were performed for noninvasive and invasive carcinoma and for breast-only and breast plus regional nodal radiation therapy. Multivariate regression analysis of OS was performed with demographic, pathologic, and treatment variables as covariates to adjust for factors associated with breast cancer–specific survival. Results: We identified 344,831 patients whose cancer was diagnosed from 1998 to 2006 with a median follow-up time of 6.04 years (range, 0-14.17 years). Clinical, tumor, and treatment characteristics were similar between laterality groups. Regional nodal radiation was used in 14.2% of invasive cancers. No OS difference was noted based on tumor laterality for patients treated with breast-only (hazard ratio [HR] 0.984, P=.132) and breast plus regional nodal radiation therapy (HR 1.001, P=.957). In multivariate analysis including potential confounders, OS was identical between left and right sided cancers (HR 1.002, P=.874). No significant OS difference by laterality was observed when analyses were restricted to patients with at least 10 years of follow-up (n=27,725), both in patients treated with breast-only (HR 0.955, P=.368) and breast plus regional nodal radiation therapy (HR 0.859, P=.155). Conclusions: Radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer does

  1. Rectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease: natural history and implications for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Sheryl; Stock, Richard; Greenstein, Adrian

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSES/OBJECTIVE: There exists little information concerning the natural history of rectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, the tolerance of pelvic irradiation in these patients is unknown. We analyzed the largest series of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and rectal cancer in order to determine the natural history of the disease as well as the effect and tolerance of pelvic irradiation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 47 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and rectal cancer treated over a 34 year period (1960-1994) was performed. Thirty five patients had Ulcerative Colitis and 12 patients had Crohn's Disease. There were 31 male patients and 16 female patients. The stage (AJC) distribution was as follows: stage 0 in 5 patients, stage I in 13 patients, stage II in 7 patients, stage III in 13 patients and stage IV in 9 patients. Surgical resection was performed in 44 patients. In 2 of these patients, preoperative pelvic irradiation was given followed by surgery. Twenty of these patients underwent post-operative adjuvant therapy (12 were treated with chemotherapy and pelvic irradiation and 8 with chemotherapy alone). Three patients were found to have unresectable disease and were treated with chemotherapy alone (2 patients) or chemotherapy and radiation therapy (1 patient). Radiation complications were graded using the RTOG acute and late effects scoring criteria. Follow up ranged from 4 to 250 months (median - 24 months). RESULTS: The 5 year actuarial results revealed an overall survival (OS) of 42%, a disease free survival (DFS) of 43%, a pelvic control rate (PC) of 67% and a freedom from distant failure (FFDF) of 47%. DFS decreased with increasing T stage with a 5 year rate of 86% for patients with Tis - T2 disease compared to 10% for patients with T3-T4 disease (p ) were noted in 3 patients (20%) receiving radiation therapy and these included two cases of grade 3 skin reactions and one case of grade

  2. Prominent Human Health Impacts from Several Marine Microbes: History, Ecology, and Public Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Bienfang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper overviews several examples of important public health impacts by marine microbes and directs readers to the extensive literature germane to these maladies. These examples include three types of dinoflagellates (Gambierdiscus spp., Karenia brevis, and Alexandrium fundyense, BMAA-producing cyanobacteria, and infectious microbes. The dinoflagellates are responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, and paralytic shellfish poisoning, respectively, that have plagued coastal populations over time. Research interest on the potential for marine cyanobacteria to contribute BMAA into human food supplies has been derived by BMAA's discovery in cycad seeds and subsequent implication as the putative cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex among the Chamorro people of Guam. Recent UPLC/MS analyses indicate that recent reports that BMAA is prolifically distributed among marine cyanobacteria at high concentrations may be due to analyte misidentification in the analytical protocols being applied for BMAA. Common infectious microbes (including enterovirus, norovirus, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia cause gastrointestinal and skin-related illness. These microbes can be introduced from external human and animal sources, or they can be indigenous to the marine environment.

  3. Some geomorphological features of the Orhaneli Pluton: Implications for denudation history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Evren ERGİNAL

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The granitic intrusions of the variable age of cooling, size and mineral composition are widely exposed in the northwest Anatolia, Turkey. The nearly circular Orhaneli Pluton emplaced during the Early Eocene with some 15 km in diameter, is one of such plutonic bodies. Geomorphological features of the pluton are discussed here with special emphasis given on the denudation history. To this end, evidence from two isolated Inselberglike hills as remnants of roof rocks in the centre of the pluton and episodically emergence of granite landforms of etch origin after unroofing process were investigated. Field data reveal the absence of granodiorite clasts within Early to Middle Miocene lacustrine deposits in the north of the pluton, implying that the pluton might not have been exposure prior to Upper Miocene as a whole. After the first exposure, the granite landforms, such as boulders, corestones and tors constituting sound evidence of an etch origin, became exposure by continual removing of regolith cover by surficial runoff. These forms of various scale were formed at first by subsurface weathering and shaped by surficial weathering processes after any stages of removal of the regolith cover. Drainage segments accounted for removal of regolith is mostly structurally controlled defined by NW-SE, NE-SW and N-S-aligned fracture systems.

  4. Long bone histology and growth patterns in ankylosaurs: implications for life history and evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Stein

    Full Text Available The ankylosaurs are one of the major dinosaur groups and are characterized by unique body armor. Previous studies on other dinosaur taxa have revealed growth patterns, life history and evolutionary mechanisms based on their long bone histology. However, to date nothing is known about long bone histology in the Ankylosauria. This study is the first description of ankylosaurian long bone histology based on several limb elements, which were sampled from different individuals from the Ankylosauridae and Nodosauridae. The histology is compared to that of other dinosaur groups, including other Thyreophora and Sauropodomorpha. Ankylosaur long bone histology is characterized by a fibrolamellar bone architecture. The bone matrix type in ankylosaurs is closest to that of Stegosaurus. A distinctive mixture of woven and parallel-fibered bone together with overall poor vascularization indicates slow growth rates compared to other dinosaurian taxa. Another peculiar characteristic of ankylosaur bone histology is the extensive remodeling in derived North American taxa. In contrast to other taxa, ankylosaurs substitute large amounts of their primary tissue early in ontogeny. This anomaly may be linked to the late ossification of the ankylosaurian body armor. Metabolically driven remodeling processes must have liberated calcium to ossify the protective osteodermal structures in juveniles to subadult stages, which led to further remodeling due to increased mechanical loading. Abundant structural fibers observed in the primary bone and even in remodeled bone may have improved the mechanical properties of the Haversian bone.

  5. Thermal history and polymer electrolyte structure: implications for solid-state battery design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neat, R.; Glasse, M.; Linford, R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on PEO/LiCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ polymeric electrolytes using polarising microscopy, SEM/EDX, DSC and complex plane analysis show that thin electrolyte films prepared by slow evaporation from CH/sub 3/CN solution are spherulitic in nature. More than one type of spherulite is present across the composition range and each spherulite type contains both amorphous and crystalline regions. The structural behaviour on heating and cooling is discussed with particular reference to electrolyte films of overall composition PEO/sub 20/:LiCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/. For these high ratio triflate films, in contrast to similar PEO/LiClO/sub 4/ films, high melting salt-rich regions are unexpectedly present in conjunction with low melting, low salt spherulites. No evidence is found for the presence of pure PEO spherulites, but the low melting spherulites may have a crystalline skeleton of pure PEO. Evidence is presented for the dependence of conductivity on thermal history.

  6. Thermal history of the Kunlun batholith, N. Tibet, and implications for uplift of the Tibetan plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary Rb-Sr and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar biotite ages combined with zircon and apatite fission track dates from the Hunlun batholith in northern Tibet allow for comparison with the previously established uplift history of southern Tibet, and inferences to be made about uplift of the plateau as a whole. Across a major divide at the Golmud Fault, apatite ages decrease from 100 Ma in the north to 20 Ma in the south. This is believed to be as a result of a thrusting event at 120 Ma which uplifted the Northern block and overthrust the Southern block to the south. Subsequent to this event, surface approach rates of less than 70 m Ma -1 from biotite closure at 120 Ma to apatite cooling at 20 Ma in the Southern block, indicate a long uninterrupted period of thermal equilibration in an essentially static continental block. Mean confined track lengths of 12.5-13.5 μm in apatites suggest that samples exposed at the surface today resided in the fission track partial annealing zone prior to the onset of uplift which must have occurred subsequent to 20 Ma. This indicates that at least 3-4 km have been uplifted since this time and that the onset of this phase could have been as recent as 8 Ma. (author)

  7. Asymmetry in family history implicates nonstandard genetic mechanisms: application to the genetics of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice R Weinberg

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies typically target inherited autosomal variants, but less studied genetic mechanisms can play a role in complex disease. Sex-linked variants aside, three genetic phenomena can induce differential risk in maternal versus paternal lineages of affected individuals: 1. maternal effects, reflecting the maternal genome's influence on prenatal development; 2. mitochondrial variants, which are inherited maternally; 3. autosomal genes, whose effects depend on parent of origin. We algebraically show that small asymmetries in family histories of affected individuals may reflect much larger genetic risks acting via those mechanisms. We apply these ideas to a study of sisters of women with breast cancer. Among 5,091 distinct families of women reporting that exactly one grandmother had breast cancer, risk was skewed toward maternal grandmothers (p<0.0001, especially if the granddaughter was diagnosed between age 45 and 54. Maternal genetic effects, mitochondrial variants, or variant genes with parent-of-origin effects may influence risk of perimenopausal breast cancer.

  8. Exhumation history of the western Kyrgyz Tien Shan: Implications for intramontane basin formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bande, Alejandro; Sobel, Edward R.; Mikolaichuk, Alexander; Schmidt, Alexander; Stockli, Daniel F.

    2017-01-01

    The dextral Talas-Fergana Fault separates the western from the central Tien Shan. Recent work has shed light on the Cenozoic evolution of the eastern and central Tien Shan; much less attention has been paid to the western Tien Shan. In this contribution we present new thermochronological ages for the Fergana and Alai ranges that, combined with the available data set, constrain the Cenozoic exhumation history of the western Tien Shan. Following a tectonically quiet early Cenozoic period, we suggest an onset of exhumation at 25 Ma. This early onset was followed by a period of slower exhumation and in some areas minor reheating. A final, strong late Miocene rapid cooling event is well represented in the western Tien Shan as in other sectors of the range. The early onset of uplift of the western Tien Shan dissected the previously continuous westernmost Parathethyan Sea, progressively isolating basins (e.g., Fergana, Tarim, and Alai basins) in the central Asian hinterland. Moreover, the coeval timing of late Miocene uplift along the length of entire Tien Shan implies that neither the Pamir nor Tarim can be the sole driver for exhumation of the entire range.

  9. Determining individual variation in growth and its implication for life-history and population processes using the empirical Bayes method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Vincenzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The differences in demographic and life-history processes between organisms living in the same population have important consequences for ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Modern statistical and computational methods allow the investigation of individual and shared (among homogeneous groups determinants of the observed variation in growth. We use an Empirical Bayes approach to estimate individual and shared variation in somatic growth using a von Bertalanffy growth model with random effects. To illustrate the power and generality of the method, we consider two populations of marble trout Salmo marmoratus living in Slovenian streams, where individually tagged fish have been sampled for more than 15 years. We use year-of-birth cohort, population density during the first year of life, and individual random effects as potential predictors of the von Bertalanffy growth function's parameters k (rate of growth and L∞ (asymptotic size. Our results showed that size ranks were largely maintained throughout marble trout lifetime in both populations. According to the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC, the best models showed different growth patterns for year-of-birth cohorts as well as the existence of substantial individual variation in growth trajectories after accounting for the cohort effect. For both populations, models including density during the first year of life showed that growth tended to decrease with increasing population density early in life. Model validation showed that predictions of individual growth trajectories using the random-effects model were more accurate than predictions based on mean size-at-age of fish.

  10. Determining individual variation in growth and its implication for life-history and population processes using the empirical Bayes method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenzi, Simone; Mangel, Marc; Crivelli, Alain J; Munch, Stephan; Skaug, Hans J

    2014-09-01

    The differences in demographic and life-history processes between organisms living in the same population have important consequences for ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Modern statistical and computational methods allow the investigation of individual and shared (among homogeneous groups) determinants of the observed variation in growth. We use an Empirical Bayes approach to estimate individual and shared variation in somatic growth using a von Bertalanffy growth model with random effects. To illustrate the power and generality of the method, we consider two populations of marble trout Salmo marmoratus living in Slovenian streams, where individually tagged fish have been sampled for more than 15 years. We use year-of-birth cohort, population density during the first year of life, and individual random effects as potential predictors of the von Bertalanffy growth function's parameters k (rate of growth) and L∞ (asymptotic size). Our results showed that size ranks were largely maintained throughout marble trout lifetime in both populations. According to the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), the best models showed different growth patterns for year-of-birth cohorts as well as the existence of substantial individual variation in growth trajectories after accounting for the cohort effect. For both populations, models including density during the first year of life showed that growth tended to decrease with increasing population density early in life. Model validation showed that predictions of individual growth trajectories using the random-effects model were more accurate than predictions based on mean size-at-age of fish.

  11. Rectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease: natural history and implications for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Sheryl; Stock, Richard; Greenstein, Adrian

    1995-07-01

    PURPOSES/OBJECTIVE: There exists little information concerning the natural history of rectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, the tolerance of pelvic irradiation in these patients is unknown. We analyzed the largest series of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and rectal cancer in order to determine the natural history of the disease as well as the effect and tolerance of pelvic irradiation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 47 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and rectal cancer treated over a 34 year period (1960-1994) was performed. Thirty five patients had Ulcerative Colitis and 12 patients had Crohn's Disease. There were 31 male patients and 16 female patients. The stage (AJC) distribution was as follows: stage 0 in 5 patients, stage I in 13 patients, stage II in 7 patients, stage III in 13 patients and stage IV in 9 patients. Surgical resection was performed in 44 patients. In 2 of these patients, preoperative pelvic irradiation was given followed by surgery. Twenty of these patients underwent post-operative adjuvant therapy (12 were treated with chemotherapy and pelvic irradiation and 8 with chemotherapy alone). Three patients were found to have unresectable disease and were treated with chemotherapy alone (2 patients) or chemotherapy and radiation therapy (1 patient). Radiation complications were graded using the RTOG acute and late effects scoring criteria. Follow up ranged from 4 to 250 months (median - 24 months). RESULTS: The 5 year actuarial results revealed an overall survival (OS) of 42%, a disease free survival (DFS) of 43%, a pelvic control rate (PC) of 67% and a freedom from distant failure (FFDF) of 47%. DFS decreased with increasing T stage with a 5 year rate of 86% for patients with Tis - T2 disease compared to 10% for patients with T3-T4 disease (p < 0.0001). The presence of lymph node metastases also resulted in a decrease in DFS with a 5 year rate of 67% for patients with N0 disease

  12. Chemical zoning and homogenization of olivines in ordinary chondrites and implications for thermal histories of chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Masamichi; Mckay, David S.; Mckay, Gordon A.; Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The extent and degree of homogenization of chemical zoning of olivines in type 3 ordinary chondrites is studied in order to obtain some constraints on cooling histories of chondrites. Based on Mg-Fe and CaO zoning, olivines in type 3 chondrites are classified into four types. A single chondrule usually contains olivines with the same type of zoning. Microporphyritic olivines show all four zoning types. Barred olivines usually show almost homogenized chemical zoning. The cooling rates or burial depths needed to homogenize the chemical zoning are calculated by solving the diffusion equation, using the zoning profiles as an initial condition. Mg-Fe zoning of olivine may be altered during initial cooling, whereas CaO zoning is hardly changed. Barred olivines may be homogenized during initial cooling because their size is relatively small. To simulated microporphyritic olivine chondrules, cooling from just below the liquidus at moderately high rates is preferable to cooling from above the liquidus at low rates. For postaccumulation metamorphism of type 3 chondrites to keep Mg-Fe zoning unaltered, the maximum metamorphic temperature must be less than about 400 C if cooling rates based on Fe-Ni data are assumed. Calculated cooling rates for both Fa and CaO homogenization are consistent with those by Fe-Ni data for type 4 chondrites. A hot ejecta blanket several tens of meters thick on the surface of a parent body is sufficient to homogenize Mg-Fe zoning if the temperature of the blanket is 600-700 C. Burial depths for petrologic types of ordinary chondrites in a parent body heated by Al-26 are broadly consistent with those previously proposed.

  13. Application of the Korean revolutionary activities in the"Outline of Chinese modern history"%论朝鲜族革命活动在《中国近现代史纲要》中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡成健; 邵帅

    2014-01-01

    The Korean Chinese plays an irreplaceable role in modern Chinese resistance against foreign invasion, fight for the independence of the revolutionary activities. May contact the Chinese Korean revolution historical facts to explain in the"Outline Chinese modern history"teaching in universities and colleges for nationalities, to highlight the"Outline of modern Chinese history"course of regional characteristics and advantages, to help minority students to establish a scientific view of the motherland, historical view, national view.%中国朝鲜族在近代中华民族抵抗外辱,争取独立的革命活动中起到了不可替代的作用。在《中国近代史纲要》课教学中可联系中国朝鲜族革命活动史实进行讲解,更好地突出民族院校对《中国近代史纲要》课的区域特色和优势,有利于帮助少数民族大学生树立科学的祖国观、历史观、民族观。

  14. Mechanisms of Egg Yolk Formation and Implications on Early Life History of White Perch (Morone americana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Schilling

    late stage fish larvae prior to the onset of exogenous feeding and its composition in the egg yolk may relate to different early life histories among this diverse group of animals.

  15. Modern African, Asian, Latin American, and Middle Eastern Military History: A Bibliography of English-Language Books and Articles Published From 1960-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    in Sub-Saharan Africa: Some Evidence for 1967-85.” Journal of Peace Research XXXII 3 (August 1995): 331-343. Echenberg, Myron. “’Morts Pour la...Political Reform.” The Journal of Modern African Studies XXXII 1 (March 1994): 29-51. Howe, John. “Western Sahara: A War Zone.” Review of...Neglected Tragedy: The Return to War in Angola, 1992-3.” The Journal of Modern African Studies XXXII 1 (March 1994): 1-28. Phillips, Earl. “The Egba at

  16. Spatially-resolved star formation histories of CALIFA galaxies. Implications for galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Delgado, R. M.; Pérez, E.; Cid Fernandes, R.; García-Benito, R.; López Fernández, R.; Vale Asari, N.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; de Amorim, A. L.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; Sánchez, S. F.; Lehnert, M. D.; Walcher, C. J.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the spatially resolved star formation history (SFH) of nearby galaxies with the aim of furthering our understanding of the different processes involved in the formation and evolution of galaxies. To this end, we apply the fossil record method of stellar population synthesis to a rich and diverse data set of 436 galaxies observed with integral field spectroscopy in the CALIFA survey. The sample covers a wide range of Hubble types, with stellar masses ranging from M⋆ 109 to 7 × 1011 M⊙. Spectral synthesis techniques are applied to the datacubes to retrieve the spatially resolved time evolution of the star formation rate (SFR), its intensity (ΣSFR), and other descriptors of the 2D SFH in seven bins of galaxy morphology (E, S0, Sa, Sb, Sbc, Sc, and Sd) and five bins of stellar mass. Our main results are that (a) galaxies form very fast independently of their current stellar mass, with the peak of star formation at high redshift (z > 2). Subsequent star formation is driven by M⋆ and morphology, with less massive and later type spirals showing more prolonged periods of star formation. (b) At any epoch in the past, the SFR is proportional to M⋆, with most massive galaxies having the highest absolute (but lowest specific) SFRs. (c) While today, the ΣSFR is similar for all spirals and significantly lower in early-type galaxies (ETG), in the past, the ΣSFR scales well with morphology. The central regions of today's ETGs are where the ΣSFR reached the highest values (> 103 M⊙ Gyr-1 pc-2), similar to those measured in high-redshift star-forming galaxies. (d) The evolution of ΣSFR in Sbc systems matches that of models for Milky Way-like galaxies, suggesting that the formation of a thick disk may be a common phase in spirals at early epochs. (e) The SFR and ΣSFR in outer regions of E and S0 galaxies show that they have undergone an extended phase of growth in mass between z = 2 and 0.4. The mass assembled in this phase is in agreement with

  17. Preservation of NOM-metal complexes in a modern hyperalkaline stalagmite: Implications for speleothem trace element geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartland, Adam; Fairchild, Ian J.; Müller, Wolfgang; Dominguez-Villar, David

    2014-03-01

    true partition coefficient (Kd actual) is significantly higher. Importantly, the Kd of NOM-metal complexes [organic carbon-metal ratio) approaches 1 for the most stable aqueous complexes, as is shown here for Co, but has values of 24-150 for V, Ni and Cu. This implies that ternary surface complexation (metal-ligand co-adsorption) can occur (as for NOM-Co), but is the exception rather than the rule. We also demonstrate the potential for trace metals to record information on NOM composition as expressed through changing NOM-metal complexation patterns in dripwaters. Therefore, a suite of trace metals in stalagmites show variations clearly attributable to changes in organic ligand concentration and composition, and which potentially reflect the state of overlying surface ecosystems. The heterogeneous speciation and size distribution of aqueous NOM and metals (Lead and Wilkinson, 2006; Aiken et al., 2011). The variability in NOM-metal transport in caves that arises from the interaction between infiltration, flow routing, and the hydrodynamic properties of the fine colloids and particulates (Hartland et al., 2012). Variable dissociation kinetics through time as a function of (a) (Hartland et al., 2011). The surface charge of calcite and the availability of CaCO3 lattice sites as well as increased incidence of crystallographic defects with implications for incorporation of a range of trace species (Fairchild and Treble, 2009; Fairchild and Hartland, 2010). Thus, incorporation in speleothem calcite with consistent surface site properties will be determined by: The size and composition (i.e. hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity) of the NOM ligand, affecting adsorption and stability at the calcite surface. The lability (i.e. exchangeability) of the complexed metal and its binding affinity for the calcite surface. The concentration of aqueous complexes. Given the complexities, a partitioning approach to the problem is appropriate as a first approximation rather than a precise

  18. Ildens historier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Henrik Roesgaard

    have been written by Andersen. In several chapters the curiously forgotten history of fire-lighting technology is outlined, and it is demonstrated that "Tællelyset" is written by a person with a modern perspective on how to light a candle - among other things. The central argument in the book springs...... from a point-by-point tracing of 'the origins and history' of Hans Christian Andersen's famous fairy tales. Where did the come from? How did they become the iconic texts that we know today? On this background it becomes quite clear that "Tællelyset" is a modern pastiche and not a genuine Hans Christian...

  19. Rewrite history, make history. Woman as subject in Christine de Pizan and Margaret Cavendish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rudan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In The City of Ladies and Bell in Campo, Christine de Pizan and Margaret Cavendish imagine women’s participation to war as a metaphor of the sexual conflict that they must fight in order to conquer their visibility in history. While Pizan rewrites history from women’s stand point and acknowledges the universal value of sexual difference for the plan of salvation, Cavendish moves within a modern frame and thinks history as the result of human action. In both cases, the tale of women’s participation to war allows criticizing the moral and normative implications of «nature».

  20. From the Age of Revolution to the Empire of identity: Interpreting Modernity in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Gallucci

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The issue of modernity has held a central place in Latin America's history and, for that reason, it has been the object of numerous reflections from a wide variety of disciplines and theoretical perspectives. However, most of these reflections have maintained a canonical definition of modernity, which conceives it as a linear and accumulative rationalization process. This vision has had important implications for Latin American societies. Thus, a critical revision of the very idea of modernity and the ways in which it has been perceived in Latin America could result in new keys for interpreting the historical trajectories of our societies.

  1. Landau and modern physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrovsky, Valery L

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the history of the creation and further development of Landau's famous works on phase transitions, diamagnetism of electron gas (Landau levels), and quantum transitions at a level crossing (the Landau-Zener phenomenon), and its role in modern physics. (methodological notes)

  2. Meta Modernism: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The author introduces Hegel. From the triad (Hegelian Dialect), he briefly gives an overview of the history of philosophy. In true Hegelian form, it is now time to reform "Postmodernism" and replace it with "Meta modernism." Postmodern had a short life from 1950 to now and has left few adherents. It is confusing and…

  3. Stoicism and Civic Duty. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.1. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.1 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the causes and effects of the vast expansion and ultimate disintegration of the Roman Empire." One important legacy of ancient Rome is the foundation it set for the development of modern democracies. The Roman Stoics built upon the Greek Stoic model by…

  4. BASES OF CONSTRUCTIVITY OF MODERN PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Petrovna Shatalova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Formation of bases of constructibility is important process at this stage of de-velopment of our state. Personality of modern type must be capable to self-determination, competent adoption of constructive decisions and manifestation of a personal responsibility for the constructive election, personality of modern type must be capable for self-determination, competent adoption of constructive decisions and manifestation to a personal responsibility for the constructive choice. Formation of bases of constructibility in the course of education is caused by use of constructive tasks and the constructive educational environment which define innovative recep-tions and skills of influence as methods of pedagogical influence taking into account constantly changing circumstances. Extent of mastering each member of society bases of constructibility defines a spiritual condition of society, of the present and the future of our country, development of economy and culture in general.Purpose: consideration of question about development of constructive thinking and constructive skills of personality in modern constructive educational environ-ment.Methodology: formal pedagogical method, the theoretical modeling, the meth-od of participant observation.Results. In the article is give the short analysis of problem of development of personality in modern society, opened the concept of constructibility of the personali-ty and her basic components, classification constructive tasks investigated, specified preparatory steps for organization of the conditions of development of a constructibil-ity and gives a brief description of their. Article has the scientific value as contains au-thor's generalizations possessing scientific novelty and the conclusions directed on disclosure of problems of formation and development of the modern personality, considered from the point of view of the theory of democratic constructivism in edu-cation.Practical implications: pedagogical

  5. Mendel in the Modern Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mike U.; Gericke, Niklas M.

    2015-01-01

    Mendel is an icon in the history of genetics and part of our common culture and modern biology instruction. The aim of this paper is to summarize the place of Mendel in the modern biology classroom. In the present article we will identify key issues that make Mendel relevant in the classroom today. First, we recount some of the historical…

  6. Teaching Introductory Quantum Physics and Chemistry: Caveats from the History of Science and Science Teaching to the Training of Modern Chemists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greca, Ileana M.; Freire, Olival, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Finding the best ways to introduce quantum physics to undergraduate students in all scientific areas, in particular for chemistry students, is a pressing, but hardly a simple task. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of taking into account lessons from the history of the discipline and the ongoing controversy over its interpretations and…

  7. How to Modernize the Academic Museum. Exhibition Activity of the Museum Group the ARAS as a Pilot Project of the Museum of History of Russian Academy of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korneva-Chaeva Irina A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article on the example of the Museum group of Archives of Russian Academy of Science is demonstrating new possibilities of representation of archival documents in the museum space. The authors focused on the potential exposure of the museum based on the principle of visualization. They explain the special role of representing scientific knowledge for education of youth. They offer a new form of interactive communication with the museum’s scientific heritage, based on the method of comprehending the reality as a “co-experience” and “re-discovery” that leads to the attainment the new generation to the new intellectual and spiritual experience. The experiment, the research paper, the science, the war, and even the modern art are the main themes of our exhibitions. The authors use the special new methods of exhibition to create the intriguing image of scientist. They use light boxes and interactive demonstrations. The main aim of the exposition is to show the documents of Archives of Russian Academy of Science, so we rely on the following materials: personal fond of academicians A.N. Nesmeyanov, V.L. Komarov, M.V. Keldysh, I.V. Kurchatov and others. Authors successfully solve the problems of the development of new theoretical principles exposing archival documents by modern methods.

  8. The Imaginary Significations of Modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carleheden, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the concept of modernity upon which one of the most interesting contemporary theories about modern social change is based - Peter Wagner's theory of successive modernities. Wagner understands modernity as a double imaginary signification which entails a basic tension between...... liberty and discipline. This conception is almost directly taken from Cornelius Castoriadis. I argue that this tension exists in two versions in Castoriadis' philosophy and that the two versions are incompatible. It is further claimed that the two versions reappear in Wagner's theory, which makes his...... theory of successive modernities partly inconsistent. A stance is taken for one of these versions and it is argued that the theory of successive modernities should appropriate that version as its point of departure in order to grasp the history of modernity in a consistent way. Keywords: Cornelius...

  9. Modern cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, Y.B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper fives a general review of modern cosmology. The following subjects are discussed: hot big bang and periodization of the evolution; Hubble expansion; the structure of the universe (pancake theory); baryon asymmetry; inflatory universe. (Auth.)

  10. ‘The Cracow school of modern art history: the creation of a method and an institution 1850-1880’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Muthesius

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the origins of the ‘Cracow School of Art History.’ It argues that the title is well deserved, denoting a specific intellectual tradition that was tied to the milieu of the city. Its beginnings lay in the 1860s to 1880s, when Cracow fulfilled a role as the unofficial cultural capital of the divided Polish lands. Saturated with monuments of the past, it called for thorough art historical research. Until the 1860s this was supplied mainly under the auspices of the new specialist Austrian heritage organisation. Soon, however, scholars in Cracow organised their own institutions devoted to pure research, notably the Akademia in 1872. Subsequently the University installed its new department of art history. The teachers in the latter institution in particular generated an unusual degree of intellectual continuity and coherence. The new model of scientific kind of research was introduced by Władysław Łuszczkiewicz (1828-1900 in his trenchant analyses of Polish Cistercian monasteries, combining empirical investigation with rationalist architectural maxims. Since then the belief in, and the rhetoric of an incorruptible academic-scientific search for art-historical truth has provided the principal tie for this group.

  11. Niche partitioning in sympatric Gorilla and Pan from Cameroon: implications for life history strategies and for reconstructing the evolution of hominin life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Gabriele A; Lee-Thorp, Julia A

    2014-01-01

    Factors influencing the hominoid life histories are poorly understood, and little is known about how ecological conditions modulate the pace of their development. Yet our limited understanding of these interactions underpins life history interpretations in extinct hominins. Here we determined the synchronisation of dental mineralization/eruption with brain size in a 20th century museum collection of sympatric Gorilla gorilla and Pan troglodytes from Central Cameroon. Using δ13C and δ15N of individuals' hair, we assessed whether and how differences in diet and habitat use may have impacted on ape development. The results show that, overall, gorilla hair δ13C and δ15N values are more variable than those of chimpanzees, and that gorillas are consistently lower in δ13C and δ15N compared to chimpanzees. Within a restricted, isotopically-constrained area, gorilla brain development appears delayed relative to dental mineralization/eruption [or dental development is accelerated relative to brains]: only about 87.8% of adult brain size is attained by the time first permanent molars come into occlusion, whereas it is 92.3% in chimpanzees. Even when M1s are already in full functional occlusion, gorilla brains lag behind those of chimpanzee (91% versus 96.4%), relative to tooth development. Both bootstrap analyses and stable isotope results confirm that these results are unlikely due to sampling error. Rather, δ15N values imply that gorillas are not fully weaned (physiologically mature) until well after M1 are in full functional occlusion. In chimpanzees the transition from infant to adult feeding appears (a) more gradual and (b) earlier relative to somatic development. Taken together, the findings are consistent with life history theory that predicts delayed development when non-density dependent mortality is low, i.e. in closed habitats, and with the "risk aversion" hypothesis for frugivorous species as a means to avert starvation. Furthermore, the results highlight

  12. "Modern medical science and the divine providence of god": rethinking the place of religion in postwar U.S. medical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Janet; Abel, Emily K

    2014-10-01

    Drawing on a large cache of letters to John and Frances Gunther after the death of their son as well as memoirs and fiction by bereaved parents, this essay challenges the assumptions of secularization that infuse histories of twentieth-century American medicine. Many parents who experienced the death of children during the postwar period relied heavily on religion to help make sense of the tragedies medicine could not prevent. Parental accounts included expression of belief in divine intervention and the power of prayer, gratitude for God's role in minimizing suffering, confidence in the existence of an afterlife, and acceptance of the will of God. Historians seeking to understand how parents and families understood both the delivery of medical care and the cultural authority of medical science must integrate an understanding of religious experiences and faith into their work. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Modern electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, John B

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Materials focuses on the development of electronic components. The book first discusses the history of electronic components, including early developments up to 1900, developments up to World War II, post-war developments, and a comparison of present microelectric techniques. The text takes a look at resistive materials. Topics include resistor requirements, basic properties, evaporated film resistors, thick film resistors, and special resistors. The text examines dielectric materials. Considerations include basic properties, evaporated dielectric materials, ceramic dielectri

  14. Book Review: The Modern School Movement: Anarchism and Education in the United States, by Paul Avrich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenow, Ronald K.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the Modern School Movement, a history of the modern school movement that examines the Modern School Association, the Modern School at Shelton, New Jersey, its literary and educational journal, and the role of anarchism and radicalism in education. (APM)

  15. A craniometric analysis of early modern Romania and Hungary: The roles of migration and conversion in shaping European Ottoman population history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kathryn Grow; von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen

    2017-11-01

    Debate persists regarding the biological makeup of European Ottoman communities settled during the expansion of the Ottoman Empire during the 16th and 17th centuries, and the roles of conversion and migration in shaping demography and population history. The aim of this study was to perform an assessment of the biological affinities of three European Ottoman series based on craniometric data. Craniometric data collected from three Ottoman series from Hungary and Romania were compared to European and Anatolian comparative series, selected to represent biological affinity representative of historically recorded migration and conversion influences. Sex-separated samples were analyzed using D 2 -matrices, along with principal coordinates and PERMANOVA analyses to investigate biological affinities. Discriminant function analysis was employed to assign Ottoman individuals to two potential classes: European or Anatolian. Affinity analyses show larger than expected biological differences between males and females within each of the Ottoman communities. Discriminant function analyses show that the majority of Ottoman individuals could be classified as either European or Anatolian with a high probability. Moreover, location within Europe proved influential, as the Ottomans from a location of more geopolitical importance (Budapest) diverged from more hinterland communities in terms of biological affinity patterns. The results suggest that male and female Ottomans may possess distinct population histories, with males and females divergent from each other in terms of their biological affinities. The Ottoman communities appear diverse in terms of constituting a mix of peoples from different biological backgrounds. The greater distances between sexes from the same community, and the differences between communities, may be evidence that the processes of migration and conversion impacted individual people and groups diversely. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The pre-history of soil science: Jethro Tull, the invention of the seed drill, and the foundations of modern agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Laura B.

    Eighteenth-century British gentleman farmer Jethro Tull (1674-1741) is popularly regarded as the inventor of the seed drill, widely cited by agricultural historians, soil scientists and school history textbooks alike. Whether Tull was in fact the first to experiment with a mechanical seed drill and the horse-drawn cultivators drilling made possible is doubtful, but he did do much to make their acceptance in the long run more widespread. What is less well known is that Tull’s mechanical innovations were accompanied by a theory of plant nutrition-and a social agenda-that were equally important to the adoption of the new machines. Although he came to be celebrated by later generations, Tull’s work attracted fierce critics in his own day and immediately after, not least because he categorically rejected the value of manures in maintaining soil fertility. Instead, he proposed a mechanistic theory of plant nutrition in which the stirring of the soil with the cultivator could substitute for the processes of decomposition thought to be contributed by manures, with less labor and expense. For Tull, the drill was part of an explicit strategy to minimize reliance on an unruly labor force. He also directly challenged the idea that Virgil and other classical authorities could be of any practical use in farm management. In other words, Tull was an anti-georgic improver, and could only be reinserted into the canon of agricultural history through the efforts of later agriculturists to gloss over the objectionable parts of his work. This paper explores how, a century before Liebig, Tull’s Horse-Hoeing Husbandry ( 1731 and later editions) sparked heated debates over a constellation of issues that are still with us today: no-till vs. tillage, net profits vs. gross yields, soil biology vs. soil chemistry, yield per acre vs. yield per unit of labor, rotation costs vs. input costs.

  17. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-yok Ip

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of modern China to rethink the place of tradition in the course of modernity. Thematically we show the expansionist impulse of Chinese Buddhism: In addition to envisioning the geographical expansion of their religion, Chinese Buddhists have endeavored to enhance the significance of Buddhism in various dimensions of Chinese society in particular and human life in general.

  18. Soviet histories of love on the American line-up: the phenomenon to the repair-man in modern cinema aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Diomina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The post­Soviet culture is characterized by a deep nostalgia for the Soviet era. The manifestation of that nostalgia is a constant circulation of the Soviet themes in the post­Soviet media space. Classic Soviet romantic comedies are traditionally being showing on the national television during national holidays year by year. There are a lot of remakes of the cult Soviet films released in post­Soviet times. The movie “Office Romance. Modern Time”(2011 is an adaptation of the classic love story of Soviet film “Office Romance”(1977 to the realities of contemporary culture. Remakes adapt Soviet stable movie­plots for contemporary post­Soviet generation. Remake has an interpretive nature. Remake of “Office Romance” had the impact of the Hollywood genre conventions on cinema representation narrative and life style of the characters. Two versions of the same stories that belong to two cultural epochs, show the gradual assimilation of Soviet and post­Soviet cinema of Hollywood genre and mental patterns of American culture. The Soviet “Office Romance” (1977 genre conventions of romantic comedies were adapted to Soviet realities at the semantic level. The heroes of post­Soviet version of “Office Romance” (2011 have incorporated the mental patterns of American culture. The main heroes belief that identity and its representation in the society are not stable and established. On the representation of society and we must take care to design it so that it was clear to people around. This model has been played on the material of (PostSoviet culture in the analyzed films and effectiveness of the model is shown by the happy­ending.

  19. Availability and quality of coronary heart disease family history in primary care medical records: implications for cardiovascular risk assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Dhiman

    Full Text Available The potential to use data on family history of premature disease to assess disease risk is increasingly recognised, particularly in scoring risk for coronary heart disease (CHD. However the quality of family health information in primary care records is unclear.To assess the availability and quality of family history of CHD documented in electronic primary care records.Cross-sectional study.537 UK family practices contributing to The Health Improvement Network database.Data were obtained from patients aged 20 years or more, registered with their current practice between 1(st January 1998 and 31(st December 2008, for at least one year. The availability and quality of recorded CHD family history was assessed using multilevel logistic and ordinal logistic regression respectively.In a cross-section of 1,504,535 patients, 19% had a positive or negative family history of CHD recorded. Multilevel logistic regression showed patients aged 50-59 had higher odds of having their family history recorded compared to those aged 20-29 (OR:1.23 (1.21 to 1.25, however most deprived patients had lower odds compared to those least deprived (OR: 0.86 (0.85 to 0.88. Of the 140,058 patients with a positive family history recorded (9% of total cohort, age of onset was available in 45%; with data specifying both age of onset and relative affected available in only 11% of records. Multilevel ordinal logistic regression confirmed no statistical association between the quality of family history recording and age, gender, deprivation and year of registration.Family history of CHD is documented in a small proportion of primary care records; and where positive family history is documented the details are insufficient to assess familial risk or populate cardiovascular risk assessment tools. Data capture needs to be improved particularly for more disadvantaged patients who may be most likely to benefit from CHD risk assessment.

  20. Availability and quality of coronary heart disease family history in primary care medical records: implications for cardiovascular risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Paula; Kai, Joe; Horsfall, Laura; Walters, Kate; Qureshi, Nadeem

    2014-01-01

    The potential to use data on family history of premature disease to assess disease risk is increasingly recognised, particularly in scoring risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). However the quality of family health information in primary care records is unclear. To assess the availability and quality of family history of CHD documented in electronic primary care records. Cross-sectional study. 537 UK family practices contributing to The Health Improvement Network database. Data were obtained from patients aged 20 years or more, registered with their current practice between 1(st) January 1998 and 31(st) December 2008, for at least one year. The availability and quality of recorded CHD family history was assessed using multilevel logistic and ordinal logistic regression respectively. In a cross-section of 1,504,535 patients, 19% had a positive or negative family history of CHD recorded. Multilevel logistic regression showed patients aged 50-59 had higher odds of having their family history recorded compared to those aged 20-29 (OR:1.23 (1.21 to 1.25)), however most deprived patients had lower odds compared to those least deprived (OR: 0.86 (0.85 to 0.88)). Of the 140,058 patients with a positive family history recorded (9% of total cohort), age of onset was available in 45%; with data specifying both age of onset and relative affected available in only 11% of records. Multilevel ordinal logistic regression confirmed no statistical association between the quality of family history recording and age, gender, deprivation and year of registration. Family history of CHD is documented in a small proportion of primary care records; and where positive family history is documented the details are insufficient to assess familial risk or populate cardiovascular risk assessment tools. Data capture needs to be improved particularly for more disadvantaged patients who may be most likely to benefit from CHD risk assessment.

  1. Niche partitioning in sympatric Gorilla and Pan from Cameroon: implications for life history strategies and for reconstructing the evolution of hominin life history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele A Macho

    Full Text Available Factors influencing the hominoid life histories are poorly understood, and little is known about how ecological conditions modulate the pace of their development. Yet our limited understanding of these interactions underpins life history interpretations in extinct hominins. Here we determined the synchronisation of dental mineralization/eruption with brain size in a 20th century museum collection of sympatric Gorilla gorilla and Pan troglodytes from Central Cameroon. Using δ13C and δ15N of individuals' hair, we assessed whether and how differences in diet and habitat use may have impacted on ape development. The results show that, overall, gorilla hair δ13C and δ15N values are more variable than those of chimpanzees, and that gorillas are consistently lower in δ13C and δ15N compared to chimpanzees. Within a restricted, isotopically-constrained area, gorilla brain development appears delayed relative to dental mineralization/eruption [or dental development is accelerated relative to brains]: only about 87.8% of adult brain size is attained by the time first permanent molars come into occlusion, whereas it is 92.3% in chimpanzees. Even when M1s are already in full functional occlusion, gorilla brains lag behind those of chimpanzee (91% versus 96.4%, relative to tooth development. Both bootstrap analyses and stable isotope results confirm that these results are unlikely due to sampling error. Rather, δ15N values imply that gorillas are not fully weaned (physiologically mature until well after M1 are in full functional occlusion. In chimpanzees the transition from infant to adult feeding appears (a more gradual and (b earlier relative to somatic development. Taken together, the findings are consistent with life history theory that predicts delayed development when non-density dependent mortality is low, i.e. in closed habitats, and with the "risk aversion" hypothesis for frugivorous species as a means to avert starvation. Furthermore, the

  2. History of Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    back to history page Back Particle Physics Timeline For over two thousand years people have thought the Standard Model. We invite you to explore this history of particle physics with a focus on the : Quantum Theory 1964 - Present: The Modern View (the Standard Model) back to history page Back Sections of

  3. Comparative phylogeography and demographic history of the wood lemming (Myopus schisticolor): implications for late Quaternary history of the taiga species in Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V B; Goropashnaya, A V; Boeskorov, G G; Cook, J A

    2008-01-01

    The association between demographic history, genealogy and geographical distribution of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b haplotypes was studied in the wood lemming (Myopus schisticolor), a species that is closely associated with the boreal forest of the Eurasian taiga zone from Scandinavia to the Pacific coast. Except for a major phylogeographic discontinuity (0.9% nucleotide divergence) in southeastern Siberia, only shallow regional genetic structure was detected across northern Eurasia. Genetic signs of demographic expansions imply that successive range contractions and expansions on different spatial scales represented the primary historical events that shaped geographical patterns of genetic variation. Comparison of phylogeographic structure across a taxonomically diverse array of other species that are ecologically associated with the taiga forest revealed similar patterns and identified two general aspects. First, the major south-north phylogeographic discontinuity observed in five out of six species studied in southeastern Siberia and the Far East implies vicariant separation in two different refugial areas. The limited distribution range of the southeastern lineages provides no evidence of the importance of the putative southeastern refugial area for postglacial colonization of northern Eurasia by boreal forest species. Second, the lack of phylogeographic structure associated with significant reciprocal monophyly and genetic signatures of demographic expansion in all nine boreal forest animal species studied to date across most of northern Eurasia imply contraction of each species to a single refugial area during the late Pleistocene followed by range expansion on a continental scale. Similar phylogeographic patterns observed in this taxonomically diverse set of organisms with different life histories and dispersal potentials reflect the historical dynamics of their shared environment, the taiga forest in northern Eurasia.

  4. The tale of a modern animal plague: Tracing the evolutionary history and determining the time-scale for foot and mouth disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tully, Damien C.; Fares, Mario A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant advances made in the understanding of its epidemiology, foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is among the most unexpected agricultural devastating plagues. While the disease manifests itself as seven immunologically distinct strains their origin, population dynamics, migration patterns and divergence times remain unknown. Herein we have assembled a comprehensive data set of gene sequences representing the global diversity of the disease and inferred the time-scale and evolutionary history for FMDV. Serotype-specific rates of evolution and divergence times were estimated using a Bayesian coalescent framework. We report that an ancient precursor FMDV gave rise to two major diversification events spanning a relatively short interval of time. This radiation event is estimated to have taken place towards the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century giving us the present circulating Euro-Asiatic and South African viral strains. Furthermore our results hint that Europe acted as a possible hub for the disease from where it successfully dispersed elsewhere via exploration and trading routes

  5. A Pequena história da literatura Brasileira: provocação ao modernismo The Small history of Brazilian literature: provoking modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Botelho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available O texto analisa a Pequena história da literatura brasileira, de Ronald de Carvalho, procurando explicitar seu contexto intelectual: de um lado, a tradição da historiografia literária que lhe lega as principais referências e convenções; de outro, a conjuntura crítica de reflexão sobre o sentido que a cultura e a sociedade brasileira estavam tomando, na qual se nutriram a sensibilidade e a imaginação modernistas. Esse recurso metodológico permite discutir como, a partir da defesa da "simplicidade" da linguagem literária - cujo sentido particular também é qualificado neste artigo -, o livrocontribuiu para a rotinização de uma agenda de renovação estética e culturalThe text analyzes the Small history of Brazilian literature, by Ronald de Carvalho, looking to explicate its intellectual context: on one hand, the tradition of literary historiography from which the book inherits its main references and conventions; on the other, the contemporary critical reflection on the direction in which Brazilian culture and society were heading and on which the modernist sensibility and imagination fed. This methodological strategy enables a discussion in how, based on the defence of the "simplicity" of literary language - whose particular meaning is also described in this article - the book contributed to making an agenda of aesthetic and cultural renewal routine

  6. Connecting Amazonian, Cerrado, and Atlantic Forest histories: Paraphyly, old divergences, and modern population dynamics in tyrant-manakins (Neopelma/Tyranneutes, Aves: Pipridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurucho, João Marcos Guimarães; Ashley, Mary V; Ribas, Camila C; Bates, John M

    2018-06-11

    Several biogeographic hypotheses have been proposed to explain connections between Amazonian and Atlantic forest biotas. These hypotheses are related to the timing of the connections and their geographic patterns. We performed a phylogeographic investigation of Tyrant-manakins (Aves: Pipridae, Neopelma/Tyranneutes) which include species inhabiting the Amazon and Atlantic forests, as well as gallery forests of the Cerrado. Using DNA sequence data, we determined phylogenetic relationships, temporal and geographic patterns of diversification, and recent intraspecific population genetic patterns, relative to the history of these biomes. We found Neopelma to be a paraphyletic genus, as N. chrysolophum is sister to Neopelma + Tyranneutes, with an estimated divergence of approximately 18 Myrs BP, within the oldest estimated divergence times of other Amazonian and Atlantic forest avian taxa. Subsequent divergences in the group occurred from Mid Miocene to Early Pliocene and involved mainly the Amazonian species, with an expansion into and subsequent speciation in the Cerrado gallery forests by N. pallescens. We found additional structure within N. chrysocephalum and N. sulphureiventer. Analysis of recent population dynamics in N. chrysocephalum, N. sulphureiventer, and N. pallescens revealed recent demographic fluctuations and restrictions to gene flow related to environmental changes since the last glacial cycle. No genetic structure was detected across the Amazon River in N. pallescens. The tyrant-manakins represent an old historical connection between the Amazon and Atlantic Forest. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Italian Modernities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    assumptions that have substituted for thought and that have perpetuated prejudices both within and outside Italy’s borders. Grounded in meticulous historical and ethnological research, Italian Modernities deserves as wide an audience as its scholarship is deep.” (Michael Herzfeld, Ernest E. Monrad Professor...

  8. Montreal Modern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    , and the space age modernism of the 1960s following the Expo 67 and Quebec’s Quiet Revolution. This is reflected in the city’s thriving retro culture through the study of two groups of retro shops. In circulating specific memories and objects in a specific context, retro is an important negotiation of the past...

  9. Ancient and modern sites of natural CO2 leakage: Geochemistry and geochronology of Quaternary and modern travertine deposits on the Colorado Plateau, USA, and implications for CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priewisch, A.; Crossey, L. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; McPherson, B. J.; Mozley, P.

    2013-12-01

    Travertine-precipitating springs and travertine deposits of the Colorado Plateau serve as natural analogues for evaluating potential leakage associated with geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). Extensive Quaternary and modern travertine deposits occur along the Jemez lineament and Rio Grande rift in New Mexico and Arizona, and in the Paradox Basin in Utah, along the Little Grand Wash Fault and the Salt Wash Graben. These groundwater discharge deposits are interpreted to be sites of persistent and significant CO2 degassing along faults and above magmatic systems. Analysis of the geochemical and isotopic composition of U-series dated travertine deposits and modern travertine-precipitating waters allows evaluation of the flow paths of CO2-charged waters. Initial results from New Mexico and Arizona travertine deposits show characteristic rare earth element (REE) signatures for individual travertine deposits and yet generally overlap in concentrations of other trace elements such as Al, As, B, Ba, K, and Si. We report stable oxygen and carbon isotopes of the travertines in New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah. Different travertine deposits have different carbon-oxygen isotope variation patterns suggesting that these stable isotopes are tracers that have the ability to identify distinctive groundwater sources within and between spring groups based on the travertine record. Stable isotope analyses of travertine deposits in New Mexico and Arizona overlap substantially between deposits and cluster around -10‰ to -6‰ for δ18O and around 3.5‰ to 6.5‰ for δ13C. Travertine deposits in Utah show a distinctly different range of stable isotope values: δ18O values cluster around -14‰ to -10.5‰ and δ13C around 4.5‰ to 6.5‰. U-series dating of travertine deposits shows episodic travertine formation in New Mexico and Arizona over the last 700,000 years, and travertine accumulation over the last 400,000 years in Utah. We use U-series dating and volumetric

  10. Abnormalities in Functional Connectivity in Collegiate Football Athletes with and without a Concussion History: Implications and Role of Neuroactive Kynurenine Pathway Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Timothy B; Lancaster, Melissa A; Mayer, Andrew R; Teague, T Kent; Savitz, Jonathan

    2017-02-15

    There is a great need to identify potential long-term consequences of contact sport exposure and to identify molecular pathways that may be associated with these changes. We tested the hypothesis that football players with (Ath-mTBI) (n = 25) and without a concussion history (Ath) (n = 24) have altered resting state functional connectivity in regions with previously documented structural changes relative to healthy controls without football or concussion history (HC) (n = 27). As a secondary aim, we tested the hypothesis that group differences in functional connectivity are moderated by the relative ratio of neuroprotective to neurotoxic metabolites of the kynurenine pathway. Ath-mTBI had significantly increased connectivity of motor cortex to the supplementary motor area relative to Ath and HC. In contrast, both Ath-mTBI and Ath had increased connectivity between the left orbital frontal cortex and the right lateral frontal cortex, and between the left cornu ammonis areas 2 and 3/dentate gyrus (CA2-3/DG) of the hippocampus and the middle and posterior cingulate cortices, relative to HC. The relationship between the ratio of plasma concentrations of kynurenic acid to quinolinic acid (KYNA/QUIN) and left pregenual anterior cingulate cortex connectivity to multiple regions as well as KYNA/QUIN and right CA2-3/DG connectivity to multiple regions differed significantly according to football and concussion history. The results suggest that football exposure with and without concussion history can have a significant effect on intrinsic brain connectivity and implicate the kynurenine metabolic pathway as one potential moderator of functional connectivity dependent on football exposure and concussion history.

  11. Modern Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Yuan Zhong

    2002-01-01

    This book is one of a series in the areas of high-energy physics, cosmology and gravitation published by the Institute of Physics. It includes courses given at a doctoral school on 'Relativistic Cosmology: Theory and Observation' held in Spring 2000 at the Centre for Scientific Culture 'Alessandro Volta', Italy, sponsored by SIGRAV-Societa Italiana di Relativita e Gravitazione (Italian Society of Relativity and Gravitation) and the University of Insubria. This book collects 15 review reports given by a number of outstanding scientists. They touch upon the main aspects of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models, such as cosmological models, the early universe, dark matter and dark energy, modern observational cosmology, cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, and numerical simulations in cosmology. In particular, the introduction to the basics of cosmology includes the basic equations, covariant and tetrad descriptions, Friedmann models, observation and horizons, etc. The ...

  12. Modern bureaucracy

    OpenAIRE

    Toye, John

    2006-01-01

    Max Weber believed that bureaucracy could be understood by analysing its ideal-typical characteristics, and that these characteristics would become more pervasive as the modern age advanced. Weber’s horizontal account of bureaucracy can be criticised on various grounds, including its unrealistic notion of bureaucratic rationality. An alternative view is proposed, namely, that the development of state bureaucracies is driven by the trajectory of the highpower politics in which they are nested....

  13. Modern Biology

    OpenAIRE

    ALEKSIC, Branko

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this course is to learn the philosophy, principles, and techniques of modern biology. The course is particularly designed for those who have not learned biology previously or whose major is other than biology, and who may think that they do not need to know any biology at all. The topics are covered in a rather general, overview manner, but certain level of diligence in grasping concepts and memorizing the terminology is expected.

  14. Modern maths

    CERN Multimedia

    Thom,R

    1974-01-01

    Le Prof. R. Thom expose ses vues sur l'enseignement des mathématiques modernes et des mathémathiques de toujours. Il est un grand mathématicien et était professeur à Strasbourg; maintenant il est professeur de hautes études scientifiques et était invité par le Prof. Piaget à Genève

  15. Genetic diversity, evolutionary history and implications for conservation of the lion (Panthera leo) in West and Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertola, L.D.; Hooft, van W.F.; Vrieling, K.; Weerd, de D.R.U.; York, D.S.; Bauer, H.; Prins, H.H.T.; Funston, P.J.; Haes, de H.A.U.; Leirs, H.; Haeringen, van W.A.; Sogbohossou, E.; Tumenta, P.N.; Iongh, de H.H.

    2011-01-01

    Aim In recent decades there has been a marked decline in the numbers of African lions (Panthera leo), especially in West Africa where the species is regionally endangered. Based on the climatological history of western Africa, we hypothesize that West and Central African lions have a unique

  16. The age distributions of clusters and field stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud — implications for star formation histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijssen, J.M.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325799911; Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072834870

    2008-01-01

    Differences between the inferred star formation histories (SFHs) of star clusters and field stars seem to suggest distinct star formation processes for the two. The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is an example of a galaxy where such a discrepancy is observed. We model the observed age distributions of

  17. Maori tribal organisations in New Zealand history: From neglect to recognition, and the implications for the assimilation policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, A.H.M. van

    2003-01-01

    In New Zealand there has been a remarkable shift in government policy towards Maori tribes since the mid-1980s. Although the colonial history of the country is characterized by a consistent neglect of the tribal principle of Maori socio-political organisation, recently the government has gradually

  18. Complex weathering in drylands: Implications of ‘stress’ history for rock debris breakdown and sediment release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warke, P. A.

    2007-03-01

    Weathering studies have often sought to explain features in terms of a prevailing set of environmental conditions. However, it is clear that in most present-day hot desert regions, the surface rock debris has been exposed to a range of weathering environments and processes. These different weathering conditions can arise in two ways, either from the effects of long-term climate change acting on debris that remains relatively static within the landscape or through the spatial relocation of debris from high to low altitude. Consequently, each fragment of rock may contain a unique weathering-related legacy of damage and alteration — a legacy that may greatly influence its response to present-day weathering activity. Experiments are described in which blocks of limestone, sandstone, granite and basalt are given 'stress histories' by subjecting them to varying numbers of heating and freezing cycles as a form of pre-treatment. These imposed stress histories act as proxies for a weathering history. Some blocks were used in a laboratory salt weathering simulation study while others underwent a 2 year field exposure trial at high, mid and low altitude sites in Death Valley, California. Weight loss and ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements suggest that blocks with stress histories deteriorate more rapidly than unstressed samples of the same rock type exposed to the same environmental conditions. Laboratory data also indicate that the result of imposing a known 'weathering history' on samples by pre-stressing them is an increase in the amount of fine sediment released during salt weathering over a given period of time in comparison to unstressed samples.

  19. Understanding World Economic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaples, Robert

    2013-01-01

    One joy of studying history is discovering people living meaningful lives and behaving in unusual ways that are startling to the modern reader--young or old. Why did pre-modern people living hundreds or even thousands of years ago do things so differently than we do? Robert Whaples states that Economic historians conclude that the key difference…

  20. Modernization mixed with nationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikiforov Konstantin V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay reflects on a particular manner in which modernisation have taken place in the Balkans in modern history, from the 1878 Berlin Congress onwards. The Balkan countries faced twofold difficulties in their development: they had to overcome their backwardness stemming from the centuries of the Ottoman yoke and catch up with modern Western Europe, and resolve their numerous mutual territorial and political disputes. The latter task was especially difficult due to the constant interference in Balkan affairs on the part of Great Powers. This interference further aggravated nationalistic tensions between the Balkan states. The peculiar mixture of modernisation efforts and nationalism remains to this day when the entire region strives to join the European Union.

  1. A shell-derived time history of bomb 14C on Georges Bank and its Labrador Sea implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidman, C.R.; Jones, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Bomb-produced radiocarbon has been used in the past as an important tracer of ocean circulation and as a valuable tool for calculating CO 2 air-sea exchange. However, previous studies of the ocean's time-varying bomb 14 C record have been confined exclusively to analyzing banded corals, and thus their application has been limited to the lower latitudes. The first time history of bomb 14 C from the high-latitude North Atlantic Ocean is obtained from a 54-year-old mollusc specimen, (Bivalvia) Arctica islandica, which was collected live from Georges Bank (41 degrees N) in 1990. The annual growth bands of its shell were analyzed for Δ 14 C using accelerator mass spectrometry, producing a Δ 14 C time history from 1939 to 1990. The depleted condition of the Georges Bank bomb 14 C signal relative to two coral-derived North Atlantic Δ 14 C time histories suggests a significant deepwater source for the waters on Georges Bank. Supported by previous work linking the origin of waters on Georges Bank to the Labrador Sea, the Δ 14 C budget on Georges Bank is modeled as Labrador Sea water, which largely becomes confined to the shelf and partially equilibrates with the atmosphere during a 1-year transit time from the Labrador Sea to Georges Bank. This model is also used to estimate a time history of bomb 14 C for the Labrador Sea. Prebomb Δ 14 C values calculated for the surface Labrador Sea suggest that a greater inventory of bomb 14 C has accumulated here than has previously been reported. Deduced variations in the ventilation and/or 14 CO 2 uptake rates in the Labrador Sea correspond with observed changes in surface salinity of the Labrador Sea, suggesting a reduction in deepwater formation during the late 1960s and 1970s. 59 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Dialogues on modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sachs, Mendel

    1998-01-01

    In this book, important conceptual developments of the two major revolutions of modern physics - the quantum and relativity theories - are presented in a nonmathematical, dialectical form of dialogue. The implications of conflicting philosophical attitudes of these revolutions in physics and applications to topics such as cosmology/astrophysics and high energy physics are emphasized. It is argued that for any substantial progress in our understanding of 21st century physics, it will be necessary to resolve these 20th century conflicts. These richly rewarding dialogues provide a starting point

  3. Modern Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuanzhong

    2002-06-21

    This book is one of a series in the areas of high-energy physics, cosmology and gravitation published by the Institute of Physics. It includes courses given at a doctoral school on 'Relativistic Cosmology: Theory and Observation' held in Spring 2000 at the Centre for Scientific Culture 'Alessandro Volta', Italy, sponsored by SIGRAV-Societa Italiana di Relativita e Gravitazione (Italian Society of Relativity and Gravitation) and the University of Insubria. This book collects 15 review reports given by a number of outstanding scientists. They touch upon the main aspects of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models, such as cosmological models, the early universe, dark matter and dark energy, modern observational cosmology, cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, and numerical simulations in cosmology. In particular, the introduction to the basics of cosmology includes the basic equations, covariant and tetrad descriptions, Friedmann models, observation and horizons, etc. The chapters on the early universe involve inflationary theories, particle physics in the early universe, and the creation of matter in the universe. The chapters on dark matter (DM) deal with experimental evidence of DM, neutrino oscillations, DM candidates in supersymmetry models and supergravity, structure formation in the universe, dark-matter search with innovative techniques, and dark energy (cosmological constant), etc. The chapters about structure in the universe consist of the basis for structure formation, quantifying large-scale structure, cosmic background fluctuation, galaxy space distribution, and the clustering of galaxies. In the field of modern observational cosmology, galaxy surveys and cluster surveys are given. The chapter on gravitational lensing describes the lens basics and models, galactic microlensing and galaxy clusters as lenses. The last chapter, 'Numerical simulations in cosmology', deals with spatial and

  4. Modern plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Maradudin, Alexei A; Barnes, William L

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonics is entering the curriculum of many universities, either as a stand alone subject, or as part of some course or courses. Nanotechnology institutes have been, and are being, established in universities, in which plasmonics is a significant topic of research. Modern Plasmonics book offers a comprehensive presentation of the properties of surface plasmon polaritons, in systems of different structures and various natures, e.g. active, nonlinear, graded, theoretical/computational and experimental techniques for studying them, and their use in a variety of applications. Contains materia

  5. Modern spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hollas, J Michael

    2013-01-01

    The latest edition of this highly acclaimed title introduces the reader to a wide range of spectroscopies, and includes both the background theory and applications to structure determination and chemical analysis.  It covers rotational, vibrational, electronic, photoelectron and Auger spectroscopy, as well as EXAFs and the theory of lasers and laser spectroscopy. A  revised and updated edition of a successful, clearly written book Includes the latest developments in modern laser techniques, such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy and femtosecond lasers Provides numerous worked examples, calculations and questions at the end of chapters.

  6. What Makes Difficult History Difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Magdalena H.; Terra, Luke

    2018-01-01

    All modern nation-states have periods of difficult history that teachers fail to address or address inadequately. The authors present a framework for defining difficult histories and understanding what makes them difficult. These events 1) are central to a nation's history, 2) contradict accepted histories or values, 3) connect with present…

  7. Modern gear production

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, H J

    1970-01-01

    Modern Gear Production focuses on the processes and methods in gear making. The book first gives information on the history of gear making and types of gears. Topics such as the classification of gears based on the disposition of their shafts; shafts lying in the same plane with axes intersecting; and shafts lying in parallel planes but with axes inclined to one another are then discussed. The text describes gear groups, tooth forms, and gear materials. Heat treatment of steels, casehardening, nitriding, induction hardening, sulfinuzing, and flame hardening are explained. The book takes a look

  8. Liminality and the Modern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    This book provides the history and genealogy of an increasingly important subject: liminality. Coming to the fore in recent years in social and political theory and extending beyond is original use as developed within anthropology, liminality has come to denote spaces and moments in which the taken...... of the liquid structures of modern society. Shedding new light on a concept central to social thought, as well as its capacity for pushing social and political theory in new directions, this book will be of interest to scholars across the social sciences and philosophy working in fields such as social...

  9. Early modern mathematical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jim

    2011-12-01

    In considering the appropriate use of the terms "science" and "scientific instrument," tracing the history of "mathematical instruments" in the early modern period is offered as an illuminating alternative to the historian's natural instinct to follow the guiding lights of originality and innovation, even if the trail transgresses contemporary boundaries. The mathematical instrument was a well-defined category, shared across the academic, artisanal, and commercial aspects of instrumentation, and its narrative from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century was largely independent from other classes of device, in a period when a "scientific" instrument was unheard of.

  10. History and philosophy of modern epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of chronic diseases began around the mid-20th century. Contrary to the infectious disease epidemiology which had prevailed at the beginning of the 20th century and which had focused on single agents causing individual diseases, the chronic disease epidemiology which emerge...

  11. The early history of modern ecological economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a historical perspective for the discussion on ecological economics as a special field of research. By studying the historical background of ecological economics, the present discussions and tensions inside the field might become easier to understand and to relate to. The study...... is inspired by other studies of the emergence of new research areas done by sociologists and historians of science, and includes both cognitive and social aspects, macro trends and the role of individuals. The basis for the paper is a combination of literature studies and interviews with key researchers from...... the field. The story opens with the emergence of the new environmental agenda in the 1960s, which was influenced by the scientific development in biology and ecology. Then it is outlined how the environmental challenge was met by economics in the 1960s. Around 1970 the basic ideas of ecological economics...

  12. Аdvertising: history and MODERNITI

    OpenAIRE

    Snopok, E.

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses the advantages and disadvantages of different advertising media. Presents the evolution, discussed the purpose and object of advertising. Conclusions are made about possible directions of further improvement and development of advertising.

  13. The History of Modern Chinese Grammar Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peverelli, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses the way Chinese scholars developed a national grammar. Chinese didnt develop grammar until Chinas contact with Western grammar books in the 19th Century. The first indigenous grammar was published in 1889. It included some traditional notions, but mainly imitated European

  14. Gellnerovo pojetí modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Musil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Gellner’s theory of modernity is a complex structure, it matured several decades and during this process he modified some of its elements. The following interpretation of his theory is based on the analysis of three pillars of his thought, first on his epistemological axioms, second on his concept of philosophy of human history and third on his conception of social theory. Gellner’s theory of knowledge is a cluster composed of classical empiricism, kantian rationalism, enriched by weberian understanding of historical modifications of rationalism in modern times. Gellner adds to these two pillars his concept of cultural perspectivism and his interpretation of evolutionism, so called truncated evolutionism that concentrates on the emergence of modernity. Gellner’s philosophy of history is based on his analysis of interaction between three basic functional entities of all human societies: economy, power, knowledge. Gellner rather carefully analyzed as well the relationship between the role of material and ideational factors in human history, and between sociological analyses based on causal. In his view sociology has to use both approaches. Gellner is stressing the fact that to the most important elements of modernity belongs science, but at the same time he is fully aware of the fact that science can not tell us “what to do”. Here he follows Max Weber’s thesis on the disenchantment as an element of modernity.

  15. The Modern Programme and the Linear City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The Modern Programme and the linear City If a single argument were to be provided for a current review of architecture, modernism and Le Corbusier, it would have to be the concept of sustainable development. Today, there is broad consensus that sustainable development will set the agenda for the 21......st century, and architecture will play a decisive role in this development. The question of sustainability adds modernism to the agenda anew, especially heroic modernism, the circle of CIAM and Le Corbusier, whom from the beginning placed the dwelling and the city in a sustainable framework – a pact...... an unfinished and dynamic project. Modernism is history – and present. We have not yet seen modernism's successor, but note that the question of sustainability contains the potential for the next paradigm shift, the next architectural revolution – with modernism and the modern programme as a good foundation...

  16. Transition from the Lactational Amenorrhea Method to other modern family planning methods in rural Bangladesh: barrier analysis and implications for behavior change communication program intervention design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyaté, Robin Anthony; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Haver, Jaime; McKaig, Catharine; Akter, Nargis; Nash-Mercado, Angela; Baqui, Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    The timely transition from Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM)(2) to another modern family planning method contributes to healthy spacing of pregnancies by increasing the adoption of family planning during the first year postpartum. Yet, literature suggests challenges in completing a timely LAM transition. To guide program implementation in Bangladesh, this study identified factors influencing women's transition decisions. Eighty postpartum women, comprising 40 who transitioned from LAM(3) and 40 who did not,(4) participated. Half of each group participated in in-depth interviews to explore the decision-making process. All participants responded to a "Barrier Analysis" questionnaire to identify differences in eight behavioral determinants. More than half of transitioners switched to another modern method before or within the same month that LAM ended. Of the 18 transitioners who delayed,(5) 15 waited for menses to return. For non-transitioners, key barriers included waiting for menses to return, misconceptions on return to fertility, and perceived lack of familial support. The LAM transition can help women prevent unintended pregnancy during the first year postpartum. Increased emphasis on counseling women about the risk of pregnancy, and misconceptions about personal fertility patterns are critical for facilitating the transition. Strategies should also include interventions that train health workers and improve social support. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Analysis of the modern distribution of South African Gerbilliscus (Rodentia: Gerbillinae with implications for Plio-Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin K. Williams

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are four extant species of Gerbilliscus, formally classified as Tatera, native to the southern African subregion, each exhibiting varying degrees of environmental tolerance. These species are also routinely reported from many of the palaeontological and archaeological sites in the region. We used a geographic information systems analysis to examine the distribution of modern Gerbilliscus by georeferencing museum specimens. The distribution of Gerbilliscus was then compared to the latest treatment of the vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland in order to quantify the genus’s environmental tolerances and propose a new niche model for this taxon. Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions are made possible by defining the tolerance limits of modern taxa that have persisted relatively unchanged throughout the Plio-Pleistocene. Tolerance limits can then be applied to fossil-bearing localities where these taxa are known to have occurred in the past. Results from our analysis indicated that Gerbilliscus exhibits a wide range of environmental tolerances that must be considered when reconstructing palaeoenvironments.

  18. Behind an ambitious megaproject in Asia: The history and implications of the Bakun hydroelectric dam in Borneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.sg [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Bulan, L.C. [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2011-09-15

    Using a case-study, inductive, narrative approach, this article explores the history, drivers, benefits, and barriers to the Bakun Hydroelectric Project in East Malaysia. Situated on the island of Borneo, Bakun Dam is a 204 m high concrete face, rock filled dam on the Balui River in the Upper Rajang Basin in the rainforests of Sarawak. Bakun Dam and its affiliated infrastructure could be the single largest and most expensive energy project ever undertaken in Southeast Asia. Based on data collected through site visits, original field research in Sarawak, and more than 80 research interviews, the article begins by teasing out the complex history and drivers behind the Bakun project before identifying a set of potential social, political, and economic benefits the project could deliver. It then delves into six sets of barriers in the technical, economic, political, legal and regulatory, social, and environmental realms. We find that Bakun illustrates how centralized energy megaprojects, while ostensibly championed for reasons of economies of scale and the ability to bring about transformational change in the shortest period of time, often fail to address broader development goals such as fighting energy poverty and improving the livelihoods of the local communities they are supposed to serve. - Highlights: > Bakun Dam is concrete face, rock filled dam on the Balui River in the Upper Rajang Basin in the rainforests of Sarawak. > The project faces technical, economic, political, legal and regulatory, social, and environmental barriers. > We conclude the project will fail to fight energy poverty or improve the livelihoods of local populations.

  19. Post-Modern Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    The history of software development includes elements of art, science, engineering, and fashion(though very little manufacturing). In all domains, old ideas give way or evolve to new ones: in the fine arts, the baroque gave way to rococo, romanticism, modernism, postmodernism, and so forth. What is the postmodern programming equivalent? That is, what comes after object orientation?

  20. Late Pleistocene Age Model for Site U1460, Perth Basin, SW Australian Shelf: Implications for Leeuwin Current History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, B. A.; Takayanagi, H.; Petrick, B.; Ishiwa, T.; Henderiks, J.; Groeneveld, J.; Mamo, B. L.; De Vleeschouwer, D.; Auer, G.; Deik, H.; Fulthorpe, C.; Gallagher, S. J.; McHugh, C.; Reuning, L.; Yokoyama, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Leeuwin Current (LC) exerts an important control on modern Australian climate, but its onset is not well defined. The LC is the only southward flowing eastern boundary current. Driven by a pressure gradient set up in the Indonesian Throughflow, its warm waters support reefs to 29°S. It is seasonally controlled south of the Western Cape. Determination of the onset of the LC was a major objective of IODP Expedition 356. Expedition 356 drilling on the western Australian margin provides an opportunity to explore depositional patterns and timing in the region influenced by the current. Site U1460 was drilled in 214.5 m w.d. (Gallagher et al., 2017). Integrated calcareous nannofossil and planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy places the upper 86.5 m firmly within the late Pleistocene. However, the glacial- interglacial stratigraphy is uncertain because of the complexity of this shelfal depositional environment. Here we present a likely late Pleistocene stratigraphy based on integrated geochemical and paleontological datasets. A benthic foraminifer (Uvigerina peregrina) stable isotope record provides the foundation for the age model and the data are supported by SST estimates based on Tex86 and alkenones. Our age model places MIS 16 between 104 and 99 m-CSF-A, followed by an expanded MIS 15 section (99 - 50 m-CSF-A). We correlate the interval from 50 - 5 m-CSF-A with MIS 14 to MIS 8, with the largest magnitude glacial events (MIS 12, MIS 6) either condensed or represented as depositional hiatuses. A Recent 14C date at 0.34 mbsf constrains the interval from 2 - 0.5 m-CSF-A to MIS 4-3, which is in good agreement with the base of common Emiliania huxleyi (0.09 Ma) at 2.13 m-CSF-A. Thus MIS 5 is equivalent to the interval from 5 to 2 m-CSF-A. The expanded MIS 15 section follows a geometric change from slope to prograding shelf. It is associated with a shift to infaunal benthic foraminiferal assemblages, abundant sponge spicules, and a reduction in CaCO3%, suggesting

  1. Modern thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    2017-01-01

    This textbook introduces thermodynamics with a modern approach, starting from four fundamental physical facts (the atomic nature of matter, the indistinguishability of atoms and molecules of the same species, the uncertainty principle, and the existence of equilibrium states) and analyzing the behavior of complex systems with the tools of information theory, in particular with Shannon's measure of information (or SMI), which can be defined on any probability distribution. SMI is defined and its properties and time evolution are illustrated, and it is shown that the entropy is a particular type of SMI, i.e. the SMI related to the phase-space distribution for a macroscopic system at equilibrium. The connection to SMI allows the reader to understand what entropy is and why isolated systems follow the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The Second Llaw is also formulated for other systems, not thermally isolated and even open with respect to the transfer of particles. All the fundamental aspects of thermodynamics are d...

  2. Modern electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zangwill, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    An engaging writing style and a strong focus on the physics make this comprehensive, graduate-level textbook unique among existing classical electromagnetism textbooks. Charged particles in vacuum and the electrodynamics of continuous media are given equal attention in discussions of electrostatics, magnetostatics, quasistatics, conservation laws, wave propagation, radiation, scattering, special relativity and field theory. Extensive use of qualitative arguments similar to those used by working physicists makes Modern Electrodynamics a must-have for every student of this subject. In 24 chapters, the textbook covers many more topics than can be presented in a typical two-semester course, making it easy for instructors to tailor courses to their specific needs. Close to 120 worked examples and 80 applications boxes help the reader build physical intuition and develop technical skill. Nearly 600 end-of-chapter homework problems encourage students to engage actively with the material. A solutions manual is availa...

  3. Ichnologic evidence of a Cambrian age in the southern Amazon Craton: Implications for the onset of the Western Gondwana history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hudson P.; Mángano, M. Gabriela; Soares, Joelson L.; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Bandeira, José; Rudnitzki, Isaac D.

    2017-07-01

    Colonization of the infaunal ecospace by burrowing bilaterians is one of the most important behavioral innovations during the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition. The establishment of vertical burrows by suspension feeders in high-energy nearshore settings during Cambrian Age 2 is reflected by the appearance of the Skolithos Ichnofacies. For the first time, unquestionable vertical burrows typical of the Skolithos Ichnofacies, such as Skolithos linearis, Diplocraterion parallelum and Arenicolites isp., are recorded from nearshore siliciclastic deposits of the Raizama Formation, southeastern Amazon Craton, Brazil. Integration of ichnologic and sedimentologic datasets suggests that these trace fossils record colonization of high-energy and well-oxygenated nearshore sandy environments. Chronostratigraphically, the presence of these vertical burrows indicates an age not older than early Cambrian for the Raizama Formation, which traditionally has been regarded as Ediacaran. Therefore, the Raizama ichnofauna illustrates the advent of modern Phanerozoic ecology marked by the Agronomic Revolution. The discovery of the Skolithos Ichnofacies in these shallow-marine strata suggests possible connections between some central Western Gondwana basins.

  4. Chemical composition of modern and fossil hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation - Part 2: Alkaline earth elements as tracers of watershed hydrochemistry and provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Kullmer, O.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2012-11-01

    This study demonstrates that alkaline earth elements in enamel of hippopotamids, in particular Ba and Sr, are tracers for water provenance and hydrochemistry in terrestrial settings. The studied specimens are permanent premolar and molar teeth found in modern and fossil lacustrine sediments of the Western Branch of the East African Rift system (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and from modern fluvial environments of the Nile River. Concentrations in enamel vary by two orders of magnitude for Ba (120-9336 μg g-1) as well as for Sr (9-2150 μg g-1). The variations are partially induced during post-mortem alteration and during amelogenesis, but the major contribution originates ultimately from the variable water chemistry in the habitats of the hippopotamids which is controlled by the lithologies and weathering processes in the watershed areas. Amelogenesis causes a distinct distribution of MgO, Ba and Sr in modern and fossil enamel, in that element concentrations increase along profiles from the outer rim towards the enamel-dentin junction by a factor of 1.3-1.9. These elements are well correlated in single specimens, thus suggesting that their distribution is determined by a common, single process, which can be described by closed system Rayleigh crystallization of bioapatite in vivo. Enamel from most hippopotamid specimens has Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca which are typical for herbivores. However, Ba/Sr ranges from 0.1 to 3 and varies on spatial and temporal scales. Thus, Sr concentrations and Ba/Sr in enamel differentiate between habitats having basaltic mantle rocks or Archean crustal rocks as the ultimate sources of Sr and Ba. This provenance signal is modulated by climate change. In Miocene to Pleistocene enamel from the Lake Albert region, Ba/Sr decreases systematically with time from 2 to 0.5. This trend can be correlated with changes in climate from humid to arid, in vegetation from C3 to C4 biomass as well as with increasing evaporation of the lake water

  5. Geochemical interpretation of the Precambrian basement and overlying Cambrian sandstone on Bornholm, Denmark: Implications for the weathering history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Yang, Tian

    2017-01-01

    show a depletion of major elements in the following order: Na N Ca N Mg N Si; Al and Ti are immobile and stay constant; K shows sample dependent enrichment or depletion; Fe is slightly enriched. The Cambrian sandstone overlying the basement in the Borggård borehole, assigned to the Gadeby Member...... but lost most of the plagioclase. The LSF has a comparable weathering history (CIA = 63–73), but the plagioclase is better preserved (PIA = 65–78). The significant variation of weathering rates of plagioclase and K-feldspar in the basement granite and the provenance of sandstone from the Borggård borehole...... are likely due to the different permeability developed within the internal crystal structures, a Ca- rich plagioclase original composition of the plagioclase, and the occurrence of weathering in a very humid climate. K metasomatism occurred in the basement granite and sandstone in both the Borggård and the G...

  6. Rare earth elements in minerals of the ALHA77005 shergottite and implications for its parent magma and crystallization history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Laura L.; Crozaz, Ghislaine; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Analyses of mineral REE and selected minor and trace elements were carried out on individual grains of pyroxenes, whitlockite, maskelynite, and olivine of the Antarctic shergottite ALHA77005, and the results are used to interpret its parent magma and crystallization history. The results of mineral compositions and textural observations suggest that ALHA77005 is a cumulate with about half cumulus material (olivine + chromite) and half postcumulus phases. Most of the REEs in ALHA77005 reside in whitlockite whose modal concentration is about 1 percent. Mineral REE data support previous suggestions that plagioclase and whitlockite crystallized late, and that low-Ca pyroxene initiated crystallization before high-Ca pyroxene. The REE patterns for the intercumulus liquid, calculated from distribution coefficients for ALHA77005 pyroxene, plagioclase, and whitlockite, are in very good agreement and are similar to that of Shergotty.

  7. Thermal history of Hawaiian pāhoehoe lava crusts at the glass transition: implications for flow rheology and emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottsmann, Joachim; Harris, Andrew J. L.; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2004-12-01

    We have investigated the thermal history of glassy pāhoehoe crusts across their glass transition. Ten different samples obtained between 1993 and 2003 from the active flow field of the Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption on Hawaii (USA) have been analysed using relaxation geospeedometry. This method employs differential scanning calorimetry to quantify the enthalpic relaxation of the glass to monitor the natural time-temperature (t-T) path followed by the melt during cooling across its glass transition. Cooling rates across the glass transition interval (at 1000- 900 K) have been found to vary between 8 and 140 K/min. The associated glass transition temperatures are up to 400 K, lower than previously anticipated by others. Melt viscosities at the glass transition for these crusts range from 10 9.4 to 10 10.7 Pa s. We have compared the t-T paths quantified via relaxation geospeedometry with those obtained from direct measurements on the active flow field. The calorimetrically determined cooling rates are consistent with either simple cooling from eruption temperatures to temperatures below the glass transition or more complex cooling paths, including periods of reheating and short-term annealing within the glass transition interval. By quantifying the relaxation times associated with these contrasting cooling histories, we show that secondary vesiculation of pāhoehoe flow crusts may be favoured by complex, nonlinear t-T paths within the glass transition. These constraints also allow us to evaluate the time scales associated with the crystallisation and inflation of flow lobes at the glass transition for different pāhoehoe lava flow types. Our results provide important quantifications of rheological parameters at the lower temperature range of viscoelastic deformation in basaltic lava flows. As such, the results may be helpful in refining models for the generation of continental flood basalt flows, as well as models of basaltic lava flow propagation for hazard

  8. Depositional History of the Western Amundsen Basin, Arctic Ocean, and Implications for Neogene Climate and Oceanographic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, J. R.; Castro, C. F.; Knutz, P. C.; Funck, T.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic reflection data collected in the western Amundsen Basin as part of the Law of the Sea program for the Kingdom of Denmark show a uniform and continuous cover of sediments over oceanic basement. An interpretation of seismic facies units shows that the depositional history of the basin reflects changing tectonic, climatic, and oceanographic conditions throughout the Cenozoic. In this contribution, the Miocene to present history is summarized. Two distinct changes in the depositional environment are proposed, first in response to the development of a deep water connection between the Arctic and North Atlantic, and the second in response to the onset of perennial sea ice cover in the Arctic. In the early to mid-Miocene, a buildup of contourite deposits indicates a distinct change in sedimentation that is particularly well developed near the flank of the Lomonosov Ridge. It is suggested that this is a response to the opening of the Fram Strait and the establishment of geostrophic bottom currents that flowed from the Laptev Sea towards Greenland. These deposits are overlain by a seismic facies unit characterized by buried channels and erosional features. These include prominent basinward levee systems that suggest a channel morphology maintained by overbank deposition of muddy sediments carried by suspension currents periodically spilling over the channel pathway. These deposits indicate a change to a much higher energy environment that is proposed to be a response to brine formation associated with the onset of perennial sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean. This interpretation implies that the development of extensive sea ice cover results in a significant change in the energy environment of the ocean that is reflected in the depositional and erosional patterns observed. The lack of similar high energy erosional features and the presence of contourite deposits throughout most of the Miocene may indicate the Arctic Ocean was relatively ice-free until the very latest

  9. Behind an ambitious megaproject in Asia: The history and implications of the Bakun hydroelectric dam in Borneo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Bulan, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Using a case-study, inductive, narrative approach, this article explores the history, drivers, benefits, and barriers to the Bakun Hydroelectric Project in East Malaysia. Situated on the island of Borneo, Bakun Dam is a 204 m high concrete face, rock filled dam on the Balui River in the Upper Rajang Basin in the rainforests of Sarawak. Bakun Dam and its affiliated infrastructure could be the single largest and most expensive energy project ever undertaken in Southeast Asia. Based on data collected through site visits, original field research in Sarawak, and more than 80 research interviews, the article begins by teasing out the complex history and drivers behind the Bakun project before identifying a set of potential social, political, and economic benefits the project could deliver. It then delves into six sets of barriers in the technical, economic, political, legal and regulatory, social, and environmental realms. We find that Bakun illustrates how centralized energy megaprojects, while ostensibly championed for reasons of economies of scale and the ability to bring about transformational change in the shortest period of time, often fail to address broader development goals such as fighting energy poverty and improving the livelihoods of the local communities they are supposed to serve. - Highlights: → Bakun Dam is concrete face, rock filled dam on the Balui River in the Upper Rajang Basin in the rainforests of Sarawak. → The project faces technical, economic, political, legal and regulatory, social, and environmental barriers. → We conclude the project will fail to fight energy poverty or improve the livelihoods of local populations.

  10. Late Quaternary vegetation, biodiversity and fire dynamics on the southern Brazilian highland and their implication for conservation and management of modern Araucaria forest and grassland ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, Hermann; Pillar, Valério DePatta

    2007-02-28

    Palaeoecological background information is needed for management and conservation of the highly diverse mosaic of Araucaria forest and Campos (grassland) in southern Brazil. Questions on the origin of Araucaria forest and grasslands; its development, dynamic and stability; its response to environmental change such as climate; and the role of human impact are essential. Further questions on its natural stage of vegetation or its alteration by pre- and post-Columbian anthropogenic activity are also important. To answer these questions, palaeoecological and palaeoenvironmental data based on pollen, charcoal and multivariate data analysis of radiocarbon dated sedimentary archives from southern Brazil are used to provide an insight into past vegetation changes, which allows us to improve our understanding of the modern vegetation and to develop conservation and management strategies for the strongly affected ecosystems in southern Brazil.

  11. Classification of Modern and Old Río Tinto Sedimentary Deposits Through the Biomolecular Record Using a Life Marker Biochip: Implications for Detecting Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parro, Victor; Fernández-Remolar, David; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José A.; Cruz-Gil, Patricia; Rivas, Luis A.; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Gómez-Ortiz, David; Blanco-López, Yolanda; Menor-Salván, César; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Gómez-Elvira, Javier

    2011-01-01

    The particular mineralogy formed in the acidic conditions of the Río Tinto has proven to be a first-order analogue for the acid-sulfate aqueous environments of Mars. Therefore, studies about the formation and preservation of biosignatures in the Río Tinto will provide insights into equivalent processes on Mars. We characterized the biomolecular patterns recorded in samples of modern and old fluvial sediments along a segment of the river by means of an antibody microarray containing more than 200 antibodies (LDCHIP200, for Life Detector Chip) against whole microorganisms, universal biomolecules, or environmental extracts. Samples containing 0.3-0.5g of solid material were automatically analyzed in situ by the Signs Of LIfe Detector instrument (SOLID2), and the results were corroborated by extensive analysis in the laboratory. Positive antigen-antibody reactions indicated the presence of microbial strains or high-molecular-weight biopolymers that originated from them. The LDCHIP200 results were quantified and subjected to a multivariate analysis for immunoprofiling. We associated similar immunopatterns, and biomolecular markers, to samples with similar sedimentary age. Phyllosilicate-rich samples from modern fluvial sediments gave strong positive reactions with antibodies against bacteria of the genus Acidithiobacillus and against biochemical extracts from Río Tinto sediments and biofilms. These samples contained high amounts of sugars (mostly polysaccharides) with monosaccharides like glucose, rhamnose, fucose, and so on. By contrast, the older deposits, which are a mix of clastic sands and evaporites, showed only a few positives with LDCHIP200, consistent with lower protein and sugar content. We conclude that LDCHIP200 results can establish a correlation between microenvironments, diagenetic stages, and age with the biomarker profile associated with a sample. Our results would help in the search for putative martian biomarkers in acidic deposits with similar

  12. Classification of modern and old Río Tinto sedimentary deposits through the biomolecular record using a life marker biochip: implications for detecting life on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parro, Victor; Fernández-Remolar, David; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José A; Cruz-Gil, Patricia; Rivas, Luis A; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Gómez-Ortiz, David; Blanco-López, Yolanda; Menor-Salván, César; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Gómez-Elvira, Javier

    2011-01-01

    The particular mineralogy formed in the acidic conditions of the Río Tinto has proven to be a first-order analogue for the acid-sulfate aqueous environments of Mars. Therefore, studies about the formation and preservation of biosignatures in the Río Tinto will provide insights into equivalent processes on Mars. We characterized the biomolecular patterns recorded in samples of modern and old fluvial sediments along a segment of the river by means of an antibody microarray containing more than 200 antibodies (LDCHIP200, for Life Detector Chip) against whole microorganisms, universal biomolecules, or environmental extracts. Samples containing 0.3-0.5 g of solid material were automatically analyzed in situ by the Signs Of LIfe Detector instrument (SOLID2), and the results were corroborated by extensive analysis in the laboratory. Positive antigen-antibody reactions indicated the presence of microbial strains or high-molecular-weight biopolymers that originated from them. The LDCHIP200 results were quantified and subjected to a multivariate analysis for immunoprofiling. We associated similar immunopatterns, and biomolecular markers, to samples with similar sedimentary age. Phyllosilicate-rich samples from modern fluvial sediments gave strong positive reactions with antibodies against bacteria of the genus Acidithiobacillus and against biochemical extracts from Río Tinto sediments and biofilms. These samples contained high amounts of sugars (mostly polysaccharides) with monosaccharides like glucose, rhamnose, fucose, and so on. By contrast, the older deposits, which are a mix of clastic sands and evaporites, showed only a few positives with LDCHIP200, consistent with lower protein and sugar content. We conclude that LDCHIP200 results can establish a correlation between microenvironments, diagenetic stages, and age with the biomarker profile associated with a sample. Our results would help in the search for putative martian biomarkers in acidic deposits with similar

  13. TEORI - TEORI DALAM DUNIA PENDIDIKAN MODERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Temon Astawa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The theories in education are reflections of both the Renaissance and modern era. In the history of science the discrepancy between the epistemology of the Rationalism, Empiricism, Positivism, and Saintism have become the major interest. The first theory of modern education is the Humanismand the post classical ones which include Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Humanismand Cybernetics.

  14. The modern alchemy: The chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia Giraldo, Asdrubal

    2002-01-01

    A brief history is presented on the development of chemistry from the antiquity, through alchemy, iatrochemistry, electrochemistry, atomic theory and the XVII, XVIII, XIX and X X centuries discoveries up to modern chemistry, fine chemistry, chemical engineering and the modern chemical industry with all of its consequences

  15. Paleaostress/strain study and its implications for the geodynamic history of the Jabal Akhdar Dome (Oman)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Andreas; Amrouch, Khalid; Mattern, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Field observations, including oolite-, styolite, fracture analyses combined with laboratory measurements using calcite twin analysis show a ductile-to-brittle multiple-phase deformation history of the Arabian carbonate platform, ranging from Late Cretaceous to Neogene times. The Arabian carbonate platform, belonging to a passive continental margin since the Late Permian, was the site of the obduction of Tethyan oceanic lithosphere (Semail Ophiolite) during the Late Cretaceous, caused by the northward drift of Africa (Hanna, 1995). After or during the obduction, large parts of the entire nape pile composed of the Arabian platform and the Hawasina/Semail nappes, where folded and exhumed. This led to the exhumation of the Jabal Akhdar Dome. Our oolite samples from the Jabal Akhdar Dome and from below the ophiolite thrust reveal the strain ellipsoid related to the obduction. This strain ellipsoid shows components of pure and simple shear. In the latter case the longest axes of the strain ellipsoid are parallelly oriented to the direction of obduction (NE to SW), which is in good agreement with the direction of obduction as depicted by Hacker et al. (1996) for the study area. The pure-shear component (flattening) is interpreted to be a result of the overburden of the up to 7 km thick oceanic lithosphere. The oolites that are located approximately 200 m below the ophiolite thrust contact provide evidence for ductile deformation during the Late Cretaceous. These results are compared with strain and stress tensors obtained from styolites, calcite twins and fracture analyses, derived from the uppermost part of the Arabian platform of the Jabal Akhdar Dome. Our results show a complex and detailed structural deformation of the post-obduction history of the Jabal Akhdar Dome, including its folding and exhumation. Hanna, S. (1995) Field guide to the Geology of Oman. Ruwi (Historical Association of Oman. 178 pp. Hacker, B.R., Mosenfelder, J.L. & Gnos, E. (1996) Rapid emplacement

  16. History of Science and History of Philologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daston, Lorraine; Most, Glenn W

    2015-06-01

    While both the sciences and the humanities, as currently defined, may be too heterogeneous to be encompassed within a unified historical framework, there is good reason to believe that the history of science and the history of philologies both have much to gain by joining forces. This collaboration has already yielded striking results in the case of the history of science and humanist learning in early modern Europe. This essay argues that first, philology and at least some of the sciences (e.g., astronomy) remained intertwined in consequential ways well into the modern period in Western cultures; and second, widening the scope of inquiry to include other philological traditions in non-Western cultures offers rich possibilities for a comparative history of learned practices. The focus on practices is key; by shifting the emphasis from what is studied to how it is studied, deep commonalities emerge among disciplines--and intellectual traditions--now classified as disparate.

  17. The oldest Stone Age occupation of coastal West Africa and its implications for modern human dispersals: New insight from Tiémassas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, Khady; Blinkhorn, James; Ndiaye, Matar

    2018-05-01

    Examinations of modern human dispersals are typically focused on expansions from South, East or North Africa into Eurasia, with more limited attention paid to dispersals within Africa. The paucity of the West African fossil record means it has typically been overlooked in appraisals of human expansions in the Late Pleistocene, yet regions such as Senegal occur in key biogeographic transitional zones that may offer significant corridors for human occupation and expansion. Here, we report the first evidence for Middle Stone Age occupation of the West African littoral from Tiémassas, dating to ∼44 thousand years ago, coinciding with a period of enhanced humidity across the region. Prehistoric populations mainly procured raw material from exposed Ypresian limestone horizons with Levallois, discoidal and informal reduction sequences producing flake blanks for retouched tools. We discuss this mid-Marine Isotope Stage 3 occupation in the context of the site's unique, ecotonal position amongst Middle Stone Age sites across West Africa, and its significance for Later Stone Age colonization of near coastal forests in the region. The results also support previous suggestions for connections between Middle Stone Age populations in West Africa and the Maghreb, for which the coastline may also have played a significant role.

  18. Analysis of a Modern Hybrid and an Ancient Sugarcane Implicates a Complex Interplay of Factors in Affecting Recalcitrance to Cellulosic Ethanol Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Guzzo de Carli Poelking

    Full Text Available Abundant evidence exists to support a role for lignin as an important element in biomass recalcitrance. However, several independent studies have also shown that factors apart from lignin are also relevant and overall, the relative importance of different recalcitrance traits remains in dispute. In this study we used two genetically distant sugarcane genotypes, and performed a correlational study with the variation in anatomical parameters, cell wall composition, and recalcitrance factors between these genotypes. In addition we also tracked alterations in these characteristics in internodes at different stages of development. Significant differences in the development of the culm between the genotypes were associated with clear differential distributions of lignin content and composition that were not correlated with saccharification and fermentation yield. Given the strong influence of the environment on lignin content and composition, we hypothesized that sampling within a single plant could allow us to more easily interpret recalcitrance and changes in lignin biosynthesis than analysing variations between different genotypes with extensive changes in plant morphology and culm anatomy. The syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G ratio was higher in the oldest internode of the modern genotype, but S/G ratio was not correlated with enzymatic hydrolysis yield nor fermentation efficiency. Curiously we observed a strong positive correlation between ferulate ester level and cellulose conversion efficiency. Together, these data support the hypothesis that biomass enzymatic hydrolysis recalcitrance is governed by a quantitative heritage rather than a single trait.

  19. Segregation, Jim Crow, Racism, Embodied History & the People’s Health: Implications for Cancer Registries, Research & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Nancy Krieger is Professor of Social Epidemiology, in the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and Director of the HSPH Interdisciplinary Concentration on Women, Gender, and Health.  She is an internationally recognized social epidemiologist, with a background in biochemistry, philosophy of science, and the history of public health, combined with over 30 years of activism linking issues involving social justice, science, and health.  In 2004, she became an ISI highly cited scientist (reaffirmed: 2015 ISI update), a group comprising “less than one-half of one percent of all publishing researchers,” and in 2013 was the recipient of the Wade Hampton Frost Award from the Epidemiology Section of the American Public Health Association; in 2015, she was awarded the American Cancer Society Clinical Research Professorship. Dr. Krieger’s work addresses three topics: (1) conceptual frameworks to understand, analyze, and improve the people’s health, including the ecosocial theory of disease distribution she has been developing since 1994 and its focus on embodiment and equity; (2) etiologic research on societal determinants of population health and health inequities; and (3) methodologic research on improving monitoring of health inequities.  She is author of Epidemiology and The People’s Health: Theory and Context (Oxford University Press, 2011), editor of Embodying Inequality: Epidemiologic Perspectives (Baywood Press, 2004) and co-editor, with Glen Margo, of AIDS: The Politics of Survival (Baywood Publishers, 1994), and, with Elizabeth Fee, of Women’s Health, Politics, and Power:  Essays on Sex/Gender, Medicine, and Public Health (Baywood Publishers, 1994).  In 1994, she co-founded, and still chairs, the Spirit of 1848 Caucus of the American Public Health Association, which is concerned with the links between social justice and public health.  Dr. Krieger received her PhD in Epidemiology from the

  20. Glacial History of Southernmost South America and Implications for Movement of the Westerlies and Antarctic Frontal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M. R.; Fogwill, C. J.; Hulton, N. R.; Sugden, D. E.; Peter, K. W.

    2004-12-01

    The ~1 Myr glacial geologic record in southern South American is one of the few available terrestrial paleoclimate proxies at orbital and suborbital time scales in the middle latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Presently, southernmost Patagonia lies about 3\\deg north of the Antarctic frontal zone and within the middle latitude westerlies and the climate is controlled by the surrounding maritime conditions. Thus, the long-term glacial record provides insight into the history of climatic boundaries over the middle and high latitude southern ocean, including the upwind SE Pacific Ocean, tectonic-glacial evolution of the Andes, and global climate. To date, cosmogenic nuclide and 14C dating have focused on glacial fluctuations between 51 and 53\\deg S (Torres del Paine to northern Tierra del Fuego) during the last glacial cycle, including the late glacial period. At least 4 advances occurred between ca. 25 and 17 ka, with the maximum expansion of ice ca. 25-24 ka. Major deglaciation commenced after ca. 17.5 ka, which was interrupted by a major glacial-climate event ca. 14-12 ka. Modelling experiments suggest that the ice mass needed to form the glacial maximum moraines required about a 6\\deg cooling and a slight drying relative to the present. Such a fundamental temperature reduction, despite high summer isolation, strongly suggests northward movement of the westerlies and the polar front on millennial timescales. The Patagonian record also indicates that on orbital timescales equatorward movement of climate boundaries and glacial growth was in phase with major Northern Hemisphere ice volume change, despite high local summer insolation. At suborbital timescales, the picture is more complex. While major facets of the last glacial maximum appear to be in phase between the hemispheres, at least some late glacial events may be in step with Antarctic climate change. Present and future research will further constrain the timing of glacial events over the last 1 Myr and

  1. The Impact of Star Formation Histories on Stellar Mass Estimation: Implications from the Local Group Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Xin; Puzia, Thomas H.; Weisz, Daniel R.

    2017-11-01

    Building on the relatively accurate star formation histories (SFHs) and metallicity evolution of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies derived from resolved color-magnitude diagram modeling, we carried out a comprehensive study of the influence of SFHs, metallicity evolution, and dust extinction on the UV-to-near-IR color-mass-to-light ratio (color-{log}{{{\\Upsilon }}}\\star (λ)) distributions and M ⋆ estimation of local universe galaxies. We find that (1) the LG galaxies follow color-{log}{{{\\Upsilon }}}\\star (λ) relations that fall in between the ones calibrated by previous studies; (2) optical color-{log}{{{\\Upsilon }}}\\star (λ) relations at higher [M/H] are generally broader and steeper; (3) the SFH “concentration” does not significantly affect the color-{log}{{{\\Upsilon }}}\\star (λ) relations; (4) light-weighted ages }λ and metallicities }λ together constrain {log}{{{\\Upsilon }}}\\star (λ) with uncertainties ranging from ≲0.1 dex for the near-IR up to 0.2 dex for the optical passbands; (5) metallicity evolution induces significant uncertainties to the optical but not near-IR {{{\\Upsilon }}}\\star (λ) at a given }λ and }λ ; (6) the V band is the ideal luminance passband for estimating {{{\\Upsilon }}}\\star (λ) from single colors, because the combinations of {{{\\Upsilon }}}\\star (V) and optical colors such as B - V and g - r exhibit the weakest systematic dependences on SFHs, metallicities, and dust extinction; and (7) without any prior assumption on SFHs, M ⋆ is constrained with biases ≲0.3 dex by the optical-to-near-IR SED fitting. Optical passbands alone constrain M ⋆ with biases ≲0.4 dex (or ≲0.6 dex) when dust extinction is fixed (or variable) in SED fitting. SED fitting with monometallic SFH models tends to underestimate M ⋆ of real galaxies. M ⋆ tends to be overestimated (or underestimated) at the youngest (or oldest) }{mass}.

  2. Late Holocene vegetation dynamics and deforestation in Rano Aroi: Implications for Easter Island's ecological and cultural history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rull, Valentí; Cañellas-Boltà, Núria; Margalef, Olga; Sáez, Alberto; Pla-Rabes, Sergi; Giralt, Santiago

    2015-10-01

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) has been considered an example of how societies can cause their own destruction through the overexploitation of natural resources. The flagship of this ecocidal paradigm is the supposed abrupt, island-wide deforestation that occurred about one millennium ago, a few centuries after the arrival of Polynesian settlers to the island. Other hypotheses attribute the forest demise to different causes such as fruit consumption by rats or aridity but the occurrence of an abrupt, island-wide deforestation during the last millennium has become paradigmatic in Rapa Nui. We argue that such a view can be questioned, as it is based on the palynological study of incomplete records, owing to the existence of major sedimentary gaps. Here, we present a multiproxy (pollen, charcoal and geochemistry) study of the Aroi core, the first gap-free sedimentary sequence of the last millennia obtained to date in the island. Our results show changing vegetation patterns under the action of either climatic or anthropogenic drivers, or both, depending on the time interval considered. Palm forests were present in Aroi until the 16th century, when deforestation started, coinciding with fire exacerbation -likely of human origin- and a dry climate. This is the latest deforestation event recorded so far in the island and took place roughly a century before European contact. In comparison to other Easter Island records, this record shows that deforestation was neither simultaneous nor proceeded at the same pace over the whole island. These findings suggest that Easter Island's deforestation was a heterogeneous process in space and time, and highlights the relevance of local catchment traits in the island's environmental and land management history.

  3. Application of the resources of local history and culture in"the outline of Chinese modern history"teaching--Taking Yanbian Korean history and culture as an example%浅析地方历史文化资源在“中国近现代史纲要”课教学中的运用--以延边朝鲜族历史文化为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭怀彬

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly combines the Korean historical and cultural resources in Yanbian area, to discuss the role of local historical and cultural resources in the teaching of"outline of Chinese modern history", methods and ways of developing local history teaching, in order to enhance the"Outline"course of theory teaching and practice teaching, realize the depth of teaching objectives.%本文主要结合延边地区的朝鲜族历史文化资源,就地方历史文化资源在《中国近现代史纲要》教学中的作用、开展地方史教学的方法和途径等问题试作探讨,以期能够增强《纲要》课的理论教学和实践教学的实效性,实现《纲要》课的深度教学目标。

  4. Special issue introduction: Ecological modernization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massa, Ilmo; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2000-01-01

    The contributions to this special issue of the Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning stem from an international conference on ecological modernization that took place at the Department of Social Policy of the University of Helsinki, Finland, in late 1998. They have been selected, among other...... reasons, for their possible contribution to conceptual understanding and clarification. While recent publications have explored the implications of ecological modernization in different settings (Mol & Sonnenfeld, 2000), here we try to put the concept under the microscope again, in the hope of clarifying...

  5. Life-history and ecological distribution of chameleons (Reptilia, Chamaeleonidae from the rain forests of Nigeria: conservation implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akani, G. C.

    2001-12-01

    similar in three contrasted habitat types, but lizards were more abundant in the mature secondary forest. When greatly altered by massive logging activity, the overall abundance of chameleons in the mature secondary forest habitat declined only slightly, whereas the species diversity declined drastically. This was an effect of (i the simultaneous extinction of three of the four species originally present in the forest plot, and of (ii the rapid increase in abundance of a single species (C. gracilis as a response to habitat alteration. The conservation implications of all these data are also discussed.

  6. Decoding mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes in modern atmosphere using cosmogenic 35S: A five-isotope approach and possible implications for Archean sulfur isotope records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M.; Thiemens, M. H.; Shen, Y.; Zhang, X.; Huang, X.; Chen, K.; Zhang, Z.; Tao, J.

    2017-12-01

    The signature of sulfur isotopic mass-independent fractionation (S-MIF) observed in Archean sediments have been interpreted as a proxy of the origins and evolution of atmospheric oxygen and early life on Earth [1]. Photochemistry of SOx in the short (negative Δ36S. After eliminating combustion impacts, the obtained Δ36S/Δ33S slope of -4.0 in the modern atmosphere is close to the Δ36S/Δ33S slope (-3.6) in some records from Paleoarchean [4], an era probably with active volcanism [5]. The significant role of volcanic OCS in the Archean atmosphere has been called for in terms of its ability to provide a continual SO2 high altitude source for photolysis [2]. The strong but previously underappreciated stratospheric signature of S-MIF in tropospheric sulfates suggests that a more careful investigation of wavelength-dependent sulfur isotopic fractionation at different altitudes are required. The combustion-induced negative Δ36S may be linked to recombination reactions of elemental sulfur [6], and relevant experiments are being conducted to test the isotope effect. Although combustion is unlikely in Archean, recombination reactions may occur in other previously unappreciated processes such as volcanism and may contribute in part to the heavily depleted 36S in some Paleoarchean records [5,7]. The roles of both photochemical and non-photochemical reactions in the variability of Archean S-MIF records require further analysis in the future. Refs: [1] Farquhar et al., Science 2000; [2] Shaheen et al., PNAS 2014; [3] Lin et al., PNAS 2016; [4] Wacey et al., Precambrian Res 2015; [5] Muller et al., PNAS 2016; [6] Babikov, PNAS 2017; [7] Shen et al., EPSL, 2009.

  7. The onset of modern-like Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at the Eocene-Oligocene transition: Evidence, causes, and possible implications for global cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Meir; Erez, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    A compilation of benthic δ18O from the whole Atlantic and the Southern Ocean (Atlantic sector) shows two major jumps in the interbasinal gradient of δ18O (Δδ18O) during the Eocene and the Oligocene: one at ˜40 Ma and the second concomitant with the isotopic event of the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), ˜33.7 Ma ago. From previously published circulation models and proxies, we show that the first Δδ18O jump reflects the thermal isolation of Antarctica associated with the proto-Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC). The second marks the onset of interhemispheric northern-sourced circulation cell, similar to the modern Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). The onset of AMOC-like circulation slightly preceded (100-300 kyr) the EOT, as we show by the high-resolution profiles of δ18O and δ13C previously published from DSDP/ODP sites in the Southern Ocean and South Atlantic. These events coincide with the onset of antiestuarine circulation between the Nordic seas and the North Atlantic which started around the EOT and may be connected to the deepening of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. We suggest that while the shallow proto-ACC supplied the energy for deep ocean convection in the Southern Hemisphere, the onset of the interhemispheric northern circulation cell was due to the significant EOT intensification of deepwater formation in the North Atlantic driven by the Nordic antiestuarine circulation. This onset of the interhemispheric northern-sourced circulation cell could have prompted the EOT global cooling.Plain Language SummaryThe Eocene-Oligocene transition is the major abrupt climatic event during the Cenozoic, which marks the major step to the icehouse world. We show that this transition is a shift to a world with Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and slightly preceded this transition. Thus, possibly was a major factor in this climatic shift.

  8. Discrete or continuous? the quest for fundamental length in modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hagar, Amit

    2014-01-01

    The idea of infinity plays a crucial role in our understanding of the universe, with the infinite spacetime continuum perhaps the best-known example - but is spacetime really continuous? Throughout the history of science, many have felt that the continuum model is an unphysical idealization, and that spacetime should be thought of as 'quantized' at the smallest of scales. Combining novel conceptual analysis, a fresh historical perspective, and concrete physical examples, this unique book tells the story of the search for the fundamental unit of length in modern physics, from early classical electrodynamics to current approaches to quantum gravity. Novel philosophical theses, with direct implications for theoretical physics research, are presented and defended in an accessible format that avoids complex mathematics. Blending history, philosophy, and theoretical physics, this refreshing outlook on the nature of spacetime sheds light on one of the most thought-provoking topics in modern physics.

  9. Modern Supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulish, Petr P

    2006-01-01

    We have spent more than twenty years applying supersymmetry (SUSY) to elementary particle physics and attempting to find an experimental manifestation of this symmetry. Terning's monograph demonstrates the strong influence of SUSY on theoretical elaborations in the field of elementary particles. It gives both an overview of modern supersymmetry in elementary particle physics and calculation techniques. The author, trying to be closer to applications of SUSY in the real world of elementary particles, is also anticipating the importance of supersymmetry for rigorous study of nonperturbative phenomena in quantum field theory. In particular, he presents the 'exact' SUSY β function using instanton methods, phenomena of anomalies and dualities. Supersymmetry algebra is introduced by adding two anticommuting spinor generators to Poincare algebra and by presenting massive and massless supermultiplets of its representations. The author prefers to use mostly the component description of field contents of the theories in question rather than the superfield formalism. Such a style makes the account closer to physical characteristics. Relations required by SUSY among β functions of the gauge, Yukawa and quartic interactions are checked by direct calculations as well as to all orders in perturbation theory, thus demonstrating that SUSY survives quantization. A discussion is included of the hierarchy problem of different scales of weak and strong interactions and its possible solution by the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Different SUSY breaking mechanisms are presented corresponding to a realistic phenomenology. The monograph can also be considered as a guide to 'duality' relations connecting different SUSY gauge theories, supergravities and superstrings. This is demonstrated referring to the particular properties and characteristics of these theories (field contents, scaling dimensions of appropriate operators etc). In particular, the last chapter deals with the Ad

  10. Geochemical interpretation of the Precambrian basement and overlying Cambrian sandstone on Bornholm, Denmark: Implications for the weathering history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Yang, Tian; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj

    2017-08-01

    Borggård borehole (CIA = 52-69, PIA = 56-99) and an outcrop in Nexø, eastern Bornholm (CIA = 52-66, PIA = 61-96), have endured similar degrees of weak to moderate weathering but lost most of the plagioclase. The LSF has a comparable weathering history (CIA = 63-73), but the plagioclase is better preserved (PIA = 65-78). The significant variation of weathering rates of plagioclase and K-feldspar in the basement granite and the provenance of sandstone from the Borggård borehole are likely due to the different permeability developed within the internal crystal structures, a Ca- rich plagioclase original composition of the plagioclase, and the occurrence of weathering in a very humid climate. ​K metasomatism occurred in the basement granite and sandstone in both the Borggård and the G14-1 boreholes, mainly through the conversion of aluminous clay minerals (e.g. kaolinite) to illite, with transformation of plagioclase to K-feldspar occurring locally. This my have taken place during deep burial in the Caledonian foreland basin.

  11. Stable carbon isotope variability of bone collagen and hair within a modern population of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) in south western Queensland: some implications for palaeoecological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, G.B.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Before any palaeo-reconstruction work can be attempted using stable isotope analysis of macropod remains it will be necessary to determine the nature of natural variability within contemporary populations. This research indicates that δ 13 C of bone collagen is strongly related to age. Furthermore, bone collagen δ 13 C not at equilibrium with dietary δ 13 C, as indicated by analysis of hair, until animals are several years old. These preliminary data suggest that in younger macropods most carbon in bone collagen has been derived via the mother's milk which may have undergone fractionation. These findings have significant implications for any palaeoecological research using bone or tooth. Teeth of macropods erupt from the rear of the jaw and move forward in molar progression. Since the rate of eruption is variable, and many of the forward molars are well formed while the joey is still at the pouch, teeth formed early in the life of a macropod may be isotopically distinct from those that develop later. This hypothesis is currently under investigation

  12. Carl Ludwig's (1847) and Pavel Petrovich Einbrodt's (1860) physiological research and its implications for modern cardiovascular science: translator's notes relating to the English translation of two seminal papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Jochen; Lohff, Brigitte; Dittmer, Janke Jörn

    2014-08-01

    Respiratory interactions with the heart have remained a challenging physiological phenomenon since their discovery more than two hundred and fifty years ago. In the course of translating the seminal publications of Carl Ludwig and his disciple Pavel Petrovich Einbrodt into English, we became aware of some under-appreciated aspects of their work that contain useful insights into the history of the phenomenon now called respiratory arrhythmia. Ludwig observed arrhythmic effects of respiratory movements in experiments on dogs and horses and published his findings in 1847. He subsequently undertook further work on this problem, together with Einbrodt. Already in 1847 Ludwig had mentioned an exciting observation on the possible role of mechanical factors of the respiratory movements on the action of the heart in a dog in whom he had artificially induced bouts of coughing. Einbrodt decided to systematically develop methods to increase or decrease the pressure of the air the animal had to breathe. He observed that this procedure led to a greater or lesser degree of compression or decompression of all the organs in the thoracic cavity without apparently causing harmful consequences during the time of its application. How the mechanical influence of breathing affects cardiac activity during respiratory arrhythmia has been the subject of scientific discussions and controversies over a period of more than 150 years and is still unresolved. Recent publications suggest that cardiac mechano-electrical coupling plays an important role in the emergence of cardio-respiratory interdependence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrologic models of modern and fossil geothermal systems in the Great Basin: Genetic implications for epithermal Au-Ag and Carlin-type gold deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, M.; Banerjee, A.; Hofstra, A.; Sweetkind, D.; Gao, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The Great Basin region in the western United States contains active geothermal systems, large epithermal Au-Ag deposits, and world-class Carlin-type gold deposits. Temperature profiles, fluid inclusion studies, and isotopic evidence suggest that modern and fossil hydrothermal systems associated with gold mineralization share many common features, including the absence of a clear magmatic fluid source, discharge areas restricted to fault zones, and remarkably high temperatures (>200 ??C) at shallow depths (200-1500 m). While the plumbing of these systems varies, geochemical and isotopic data collected at the Dixie Valley and Beowawe geothermal systems suggest that fluid circulation along fault zones was relatively deep (>5 km) and comprised of relatively unexchanged Pleistocene meteoric water with small (horizons. Those with minimal fluid ?? 18O shifts are restricted to high-permeability fault zones and relatively small-scale (???5 km), single-pass flow systems (e.g., Beowawe). Those with intermediate to large isotopic shifts (e.g., epithermal and Carlin-type Au) had larger-scale (???15 km) loop convection cells with a greater component of flow through marine sedimentary rocks at lower water/rock ratios and greater endowments of gold. Enthalpy calculations constrain the duration of Carlin-type gold systems to probably account for the amount of silica in the sinter deposits. In the Carlin trend, fluid circulation extended down into Paleozoic siliciclastic rocks, which afforded more mixing with isotopically enriched higher enthalpy fluids. Computed fission track ages along the Carlin trend included the convective effects, and ranged between 91.6 and 35.3 Ma. Older fission track ages occurred in zones of groundwater recharge, and the younger ages occurred in discharge areas. This is largely consistent with fission track ages reported in recent studies. We found that either an amagmatic system with more permeable faults (10-11 m2) or a magmatic system with less

  14. International Orders in the Early Modern World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book challenges the Eurocentric foundations of modern International Relations scholarship. Its primary empirical focus is the early modern era, when European primacy had yet to develop in many parts of the globe. It presents a series of regional case studies from experts on East Asia, the Mi...... and scholars of international relations, international relations theory, international history, early modern history and sociology.......This book challenges the Eurocentric foundations of modern International Relations scholarship. Its primary empirical focus is the early modern era, when European primacy had yet to develop in many parts of the globe. It presents a series of regional case studies from experts on East Asia......, the Middle East, Africa and Latin America, and Russia to explore patterns of cross-cultural exchange and civilizational encounters. The authors analyze a series of regional international orders which were primarily defined by local interests, agendas and institutions, with European interlopers often playing...

  15. Making medieval art modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth den Hartog

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Janet T. Marquardt’s book ‘Zodiaque. Making medieval art modern’ discusses the historical context, history and impact of the Zodiaque publications issued by the monks from the abbey of Ste-Marie de la Pierre-qui-Vire in Burgundy between 1951 and 2001 and links the striking photogravures, the core business of these books, to the modern movement. Although Marquardt’s view that the Zodiaque series made a great impact on the study of Romanesque sculpture is somewhat overrated, her claim that the photogravures should be seen as avant-garde works of art and the books as a “museum without walls” is entirely convincing.

  16. Exploring climate niches of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) haplotypes in the western United States: Implications for evolutionary history and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas; Means, Robert E.; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa) and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum) varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM), ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated with

  17. Exploring Climate Niches of Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) Haplotypes in the Western United States: Implications for Evolutionary History and Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas J; Means, Robert E; Potter, Kevin M; Hipkins, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa) and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum) varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM), ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated with discrete

  18. Exploring Climate Niches of Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson Haplotypes in the Western United States: Implications for Evolutionary History and Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J Shinneman

    Full Text Available Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM, ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated

  19. Investigation of a Modern Incipient Stromatolite from Obsidian Pool Prime, Yellowstone National Park: Implications for Early Lithification in the Formation of Light-Dark Stromatolite Laminae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsetti, F. A.; Berelson, W.; Pepe-Ranney, C. P.; Mata, S. A.; Spear, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Stromatolites have been defined multiple ways, but the presence of lamination is common to all definitions. Despite this commonality, the origin of the lamination in many ancient stromatolites remains vague. Lamination styles vary, but sub-mm light-dark couplets are common in many ancient stromatolites. Here, we investigate an actively forming incipient stromatolite from Obsidian Pool Prime (OPP), a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, to better understand the formation of light-dark couplets similar to many ancient stromatolites in texture and structure. In the OPP stromatolites, a dense network of layer-parallel bundles of cyanobacterial filaments (a dark layer) is followed by an open network of layer-perpendicular or random filaments (a light layer) that reflect a diurnal cycle in the leading edge of the microbial mat that coats the stromatolite's surface. Silica crust encases the cyanobacterial filaments maintaining the integrity of the lamination. Bubbles formed via oxygenic photosynthesis are commonly trapped within the light layers, indicating that lithification occurs rapidly before the bubbles can collapse. The filamentous, non-heterocystous stromatoite-building cyanobacterium from OPP is most closely related to a stromatolite-building cyanobacterium from a hot spring in Japan. Once built, "tenants" from multiple microbial phyla move into the structure, mixing and mingling to produce a complicated integrated biogeochemical signal that may be difficult to untangle in ancient examples. While the cyanobacterial response to the diurnal cycle has been previously implicated in the formation of light-dark couplets, the OPP example highlights the importance of early lithification in maintaining the fabric. Thus, the presence of light-dark couplets and bubble structures may indicate very early lithification and therefore a certain degree of mineral saturation in the ancient ocean or other aquatic system, and that bubble structures, if present, may be evidence

  20. Alternative Modernities for Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunyoung Park. The Proletarian Wave: Literature and Leftist Culture in Colonial Korea, 1910–1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 348 pp. $50 (cloth. Vladimir Tikhonov. Modern Korea and Its Others: Perceptions of the Neighbouring Countries and Korean Modernity. London: Routledge, 2016. 218 pp. $160 (cloth. It has become a global scholarly undertaking: how to rethink modernity so as to decouple it from Westernization (Chakrabarty 2000. Strategies have included foregrounding the plurality of history to disrupt linear progress; positing non-Western centers of modernity in, say, Moscow or Shanghai; and tracing anticolonial circuits connecting Asia to Africa to Latin America. The two recent books under review here add colonial-era Korea to such far-reaching discussions by situating the country across national boundaries. Interestingly, one connecting thread here is the alternative world system provided by the interwar, Soviet-oriented Left. The result is an unsettling of binaries that subsequently became entrenched during the Cold War: for example, north-south, socialist-nationalist, and, for literature, realist-modernist. But more broadly, pervading both books is the sense that history could have turned out differently—that revisiting northeast Asia’s porous borders in the early twentieth century reveals the Korean peninsula’s lost, internationalist potential...

  1. History of mathematics and history of science reunited?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jeremy

    2011-09-01

    For some years now, the history of modern mathematics and the history of modern science have developed independently. A step toward a reunification that would benefit both disciplines could come about through a revived appreciation of mathematical practice. Detailed studies of what mathematicians actually do, whether local or broadly based, have often led in recent work to examinations of the social, cultural, and national contexts, and more can be done. Another recent approach toward a historical understanding of the abstractness of modern mathematics has been to see it as a species of modernism, and this thesis will be tested by the raft of works on the history of modern applied mathematics currently under way.

  2. Traditionalism and modern subjectivity: Enlightenment and conservatism of Edmund Burke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitović Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of traditionalism versus modern subjectivism in the light of the conflict of Edmund Burke`s conservatism with the Enlightenment as the ideological basis of the French revolution was not discussed or studied sufficiently in our political and philosophical theory. In this paper we are reconsidering a theoretical debate between arising modern rationalism of Enlightenment and European traditionalism. The text further explains on the reasons for choosing this subject and course the research will take subsequently. An overview is provided of the most important topics as well as a preliminary conception of the problem structure in this research. Considering the importance and overwhelming influence exhorted by French revolution it is only logical that the event of such magnitude met not only with approvals but with challenges and disputes as well, and all of it contributed to the theoretical considerations of the historical sense and purpose of this event. The aim of the project is to provide explanations and evaluations of the origins Enlightenment on one hand side and theoretically reconsidered traditionalism on the other. Looking at the dawn of modern era and evaluating these events would cast sharper light on the spirit of times of this crucial moment of history, and it would provide new basis for reconsideration of the achievements and implications of the fundamental ideas of Moderna.

  3. Child Labor in America's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  4. Building the image of modern art : the rhetoric of two museums and the representation and canonization of modern art (1935-1975) : the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam and the Museum of Modern Art in New York

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leigh, Nana

    2008-01-01

    The Rhetoric of Two Museums and the Representation and Canonization of Modern Art (1935-1975): The Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam and the Museum of Modern Art in New York Museums of modern art have determined the course of modern art history. Their contributions to the representation and

  5. Permafrost thaw and fire history: implications of boreal tree cover changes on land surface properties and turbulent energy fluxes in the Taiga Plains, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Oliver; Helbig, Manuel; Payette, Fanny; Wischnewski, Karoline; Kljun, Natascha; Chasmer, Laura; Pappas, Christoforos; Detto, Matteo; Baltzer, Jennifer; Quinton, William; Marsh, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Given their large areal coverage, high carbon densities, and unique land surface properties and disturbance regimes (e.g., wildfires), the world's boreal forests are integral components of the global and regional climate systems. A large portion of boreal forests contain permafrost, i.e., perennially cryotic ground. In the Taiga Plains ecozone in northwestern Canada, the northernmost boreal forests grow on cold (100 m) continuous permafrost (>90 % in areal extent). More southerly boreal forests occur in areas with discontinuous (>50 - 90 % in areal extent), sporadic (>10 - 50 % in areal extent) and isolated permafrost (<10 % in areal extent). Using annual MODIS Percent Tree Cover (PTC) data from the MOD44B product in combination with spatial information on fire history, and permafrost and drainage characteristics, we show that in low-lying, poorly-drained areas along the southern fringe of permafrost, thawing induces widespread decreases in PTC and dominates over PTC increases due to post-fire regrowth. In contrast, PTC appears to be slightly increasing in the central and northern Taiga Plains with more stable discontinuous and continuous permafrost, respectively. While these increases are partly explained by post-fire regrowth, more favourable growing conditions may also contribute to increasing PTC. To better understand the implications of permafrost thaw on land surface properties (e.g., aerodynamic conductance for heat [ga] and surface conductance for water vapour [gs]), and the turbulent fluxes of latent (LE) and sensible heat (H) along the southern fringe of permafrost, we examined nested eddy covariance flux measurements made at two nearby locations at Scotty Creek (61°18' N; 121°18' W) starting May 2013. The low-lying, poorly-drained southern portion of this 152 km2-watershed contains rapidly thawing sporadic permafrost resulting in a highly dynamic mosaic dominated by decreasing forested permafrost peat plateaus, and increasing permafrost-free wetlands

  6. Genetic structure and demographic history of the endangered tree species Dysoxylum malabaricum (Meliaceae) in Western Ghats, India: implications for conservation in a biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodare, Sofia; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Ravikanth, Gudasalamani; Uma Shaanker, Ramanan; Lascoux, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The impact of fragmentation by human activities on genetic diversity of forest trees is an important concern in forest conservation, especially in tropical forests. Dysoxylum malabaricum (white cedar) is an economically important tree species, endemic to the Western Ghats, India, one of the world's eight most important biodiversity hotspots. As D. malabaricum is under pressure of disturbance and fragmentation together with overharvesting, conservation efforts are required in this species. In this study, range-wide genetic structure of twelve D. malabaricum populations was evaluated to assess the impact of human activities on genetic diversity and infer the species' evolutionary history, using both nuclear and chloroplast (cp) DNA simple sequence repeats (SSR). As genetic diversity and population structure did not differ among seedling, juvenile and adult age classes, reproductive success among the old-growth trees and long distance seed dispersal by hornbills were suggested to contribute to maintain genetic diversity. The fixation index (F IS) was significantly correlated with latitude, with a higher level of inbreeding in the northern populations, possibly reflecting a more severe ecosystem disturbance in those populations. Both nuclear and cpSSRs revealed northern and southern genetic groups with some discordance of their distributions; however, they did not correlate with any of the two geographic gaps known as genetic barriers to animals. Approximate Bayesian computation-based inference from nuclear SSRs suggested that population divergence occurred before the last glacial maximum. Finally we discussed the implications of these results, in particular the presence of a clear pattern of historical genetic subdivision, on conservation policies.

  7. Genetic structure and demographic history of the endangered tree species Dysoxylum malabaricum (Meliaceae) in Western Ghats, India: implications for conservation in a biodiversity hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodare, Sofia; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Ravikanth, Gudasalamani; Uma Shaanker, Ramanan; Lascoux, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The impact of fragmentation by human activities on genetic diversity of forest trees is an important concern in forest conservation, especially in tropical forests. Dysoxylum malabaricum (white cedar) is an economically important tree species, endemic to the Western Ghats, India, one of the world's eight most important biodiversity hotspots. As D. malabaricum is under pressure of disturbance and fragmentation together with overharvesting, conservation efforts are required in this species. In this study, range-wide genetic structure of twelve D. malabaricum populations was evaluated to assess the impact of human activities on genetic diversity and infer the species’ evolutionary history, using both nuclear and chloroplast (cp) DNA simple sequence repeats (SSR). As genetic diversity and population structure did not differ among seedling, juvenile and adult age classes, reproductive success among the old-growth trees and long distance seed dispersal by hornbills were suggested to contribute to maintain genetic diversity. The fixation index (FIS) was significantly correlated with latitude, with a higher level of inbreeding in the northern populations, possibly reflecting a more severe ecosystem disturbance in those populations. Both nuclear and cpSSRs revealed northern and southern genetic groups with some discordance of their distributions; however, they did not correlate with any of the two geographic gaps known as genetic barriers to animals. Approximate Bayesian computation-based inference from nuclear SSRs suggested that population divergence occurred before the last glacial maximum. Finally we discussed the implications of these results, in particular the presence of a clear pattern of historical genetic subdivision, on conservation policies. PMID:24223264

  8. The transition to modernity and chronic disease: mismatch and natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Stephen; Courtiol, Alexandre; Lummaa, Virpi; Moorad, Jacob; Stearns, Stephen

    2018-05-09

    The Industrial Revolution and the accompanying nutritional, epidemiological and demographic transitions have profoundly changed human ecology and biology, leading to major shifts in life history traits, which include age and size at maturity, age-specific fertility and lifespan. Mismatch between past adaptations and the current environment means that gene variants linked to higher fitness in the past may now, through antagonistic pleiotropic effects, predispose post-transition populations to non-communicable diseases, such as Alzheimer disease, cancer and coronary artery disease. Increasing evidence suggests that the transition to modernity has also altered the direction and intensity of natural selection acting on many traits, with important implications for public and global health.

  9. War in European history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, M.

    1981-01-01

    War history as a modern historic discipline is by far no longer a mere history of arms technique or a chronicle of battles. It deals with the change of warfare, shows how the wars of the various ages had determined society, and vice versay investigates the influence of social, economic, and -concerning mentality-historical changes on war. With this survey, which covers the period between the Middle Ages and the recent past, the author has presented a small masterpiece of the history of war. A book like this is particularly important and instructive in a time when all depends on the preventing of wars. (orig.) [de

  10. Language, art, and the (social body in modern and postmodern aestheticism: A comparison of Wilde and Nabokov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Predrag S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author argues for a theoretical difference between the modern and postmodern aestheticism and considers their political implications arguing that modern aestheticism carried progressive or radical political impulse; whereas, under postmodernism, its character shifted into a reactionary politics. The specific political implications that are derived from these two kinds of aestheticism concern the attitude towards human nature, different kinds of narcissistic tendencies and divergent attitudes towards art/culture. Next, the author uses the examples of Oscar Wilde's Picture of Dorian Gray and Nabokov's Lolita to demonstrate how these differences manifest themselves in the works of these two prominent, if not pivotal, artists related to the aesthetic movement in the history of literature. It is concluded that the politics of Oscar Wilde and Vladimir Nabokov differ radically and these differences stem from the fact that their works embody divergent conceptions of aestheticism.

  11. True recurrence vs. new primary ipsilateral breast tumor relapse: An analysis of clinical and pathologic differences and their implications in natural history, prognoses, and therapeutic management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Tanya E.; Lee, Daesung; Turner, Bruce C.; Carter, Darryl; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2000-01-01

    had a significantly lower S phase fraction (NP 13.1 vs. TR 22.0, p < 0.05). The overall survival following breast relapse was 64% at 10 years and 49% at 15 years. With a mean follow-up of 10.4 years following breast relapse, patients with NP had better 10-year overall survival (TR 55% vs. NP 75%, p < 0.0001), distant disease-free survival (TR 41% vs. NP 85%, p < 0.0001), and cause-specific survival (TR 55% vs. NP 90%, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: It appears that a significant portion of patients who experience ipsilateral breast tumor relapse following conservative surgery and radiation therapy have new primary tumors as opposed to true local recurrences. True recurrence and new primary tumor ipsilateral breast tumor relapses have different natural histories, different prognoses, and, in turn, different implications for therapeutic management.

  12. Importance of disturbance history on net primary productivity in the world's most productive forests and implications for the global carbon cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Liubov; Roxburgh, Stephen H; Weston, Christopher J; Benyon, Richard G; Sullivan, Andrew L; Polglase, Philip J

    2018-05-14

    Analysis of growth and biomass turnover in natural forests of Eucalyptus regnans, the world's tallest angiosperm, reveals it is also the world's most productive forest type, with fire disturbance an important mediator of net primary productivity (NPP). A comprehensive empirical database was used to calculate the averaged temporal pattern of NPP from regeneration to 250 years age. NPP peaks at 23.1 ± 3.8 (95% interquantile range) Mg C ha -1  year -1 at age 14 years, and declines gradually to about 9.2 ± 0.8 Mg C ha -1  year -1 at 130 years, with an average NPP over 250 years of 11.4 ± 1.1 Mg C ha -1  year -1 , a value similar to the most productive temperate and tropical forests around the world. We then applied the age-class distribution of E. regnans resulting from relatively recent historical fires to estimate current NPP for the forest estate. Values of NPP were 40% higher (13 Mg C ha -1  year -1 ) than if forests were assumed to be at maturity (9.2 Mg C ha -1  year -1 ). The empirically derived NPP time series for the E. regnans estate was then compared against predictions from 21 global circulation models, showing that none of them had the capacity to simulate a post-disturbance peak in NPP, as found in E. regnans. The potential importance of disturbance impacts on NPP was further tested by applying a similar approach to the temperate forests of conterminous United States and of China. Allowing for the effects of disturbance, NPP summed across both regions was on average 11% (or 194 Tg C/year) greater than if all forests were assumed to be in a mature state. The results illustrate the importance of accounting for past disturbance history and growth stage when estimating forest primary productivity, with implications for carbon balance modelling at local to global scales. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Recent Compositional Trends within the Murray Formation, Gale Crater, Mars, as seen by APXS: Implications for Sedimentary, Diagenetic and Alteration History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L. M.; Yen, A.; Spray, J. G.; Johnson, J. R.; Fraeman, A. A.; Berger, J. A.; Gellert, R.; Boyd, N.; Desouza, E.; O'Connell-Cooper, C.; VanBommel, S.

    2017-12-01

    The >230 m thick Murray Formation is the lower-most unit of the Mount Sharp Group, and interpreted as primarily lacustrine. Representative mudstone, siltstone and fine sandstone targets, encountered above -4330 m elevation, trend to lower Si, Al, Ti, Cr and Ca, and higher Fe, Mn, Zn, P and Mg than the Murray below. Less common, distinctive, coarser grained sandstone lenses tend to exhibit slightly different compositions to the more typical Murray but, overall, show similar elemental trends with elevation, albeit exaggerated. This suggests that the variations observed with elevation in Al, Ti, Cr, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and P within both the coarser sandstones and finer grained Murray are the result of diagenetic and/or alteration processes rather than provenance or physical sedimentary processes such as sorting. This is supported by the chemistry of obvious diagenetic, dark grey nodules, and other potential diagenetic/alteration features within this section, which show variations in the same element concentrations (i.e., P, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca and S), distinct from diagenetic features lower down in the stratigraphy, indicating mobility of these elements within this section and changing fluid chemistry. Trends in FeO/MnO generally mimic the presence of ferric absorption features observed in visible/near infrared passive spectra from the ChemCam instrument and from CRISM orbital data, which may be consistent with changes in redox conditions as we climb up section towards Vera Rubin Ridge (Hematite Ridge). Layer-parallel CaSO4 is also common, and not observed below -4330 m. This may represent syndepositional evaporite layers, or late bedding/laminae parallel veins emplaced after lithification, in conjunction with cross-cutting veins. The overall differences in composition between the sandstone targets and finer grained Murray are attributed to distinct provenances and/or sorting during transport. We will discuss the implications of the trends and composition of the Murray above

  14. The International Big History Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil

    2013-01-01

    IBHA, the International Big History Association, was organized in 2010 and "promotes the unified, interdisciplinary study and teaching of history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity." This is the vision that Montessori embraced long before the discoveries of modern science fleshed out the story of the evolving universe. "Big…

  15. Max Planck and modern physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Max Planck (1858-1947) is according to the words of Max von Laue the ''father of quantum physics''. This characteristic has until today continuance, although Planck stood for long time sceptically in front of his quantum hypothesis and so became a revolutionary in spite of his wishes. Eclipted by this pioneer role of the scholar for the foundation of the quantum theory are the numerous further works of the scholer, by which he has in many other fields provided eminent things. Starting with his fundamental contribution to thermodynamics, which make him to an excellent researcher of the field, until the works in the early history of relativity theory and the promotion of the young Einstein, which let him become also to a pioneer of the second central pillar of modern physics. The present collection attempts to show the whole spectrum of the physical works of Max Planck and his role in the formation of modern physics. [de

  16. METODE MUHADDITSIN DI ERA MODERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriansyah Adriansyah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available After the era of tadwin, almost all disciplines of knowledge in the Islamic world, including the study of hadith, was considered “running on the spot.” Yet, attention and maintenance of the hadith was still favored by intellectuals. Similarly, in the modern era, the hadith remains the object of criticism by not only Muslim intellectuals but also outsiders, such as the West. Western imperialism against the Islamic world in the past was now the beginning of the history of how Muslims are only able to “survive” rather than “attack.” The emergence of defensive and reactive works against trends of the West in criticizing and blasphemed the hadith, then, such works became trends and supporting methodologies among Muslim observers of the hadith in today’s modern era

  17. Tectono-Thermal History Modeling and Reservoir Simulation Study of the Nenana Basin, Central Alaska: Implications for Regional Tectonics and Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Nilesh C.

    Central Interior Alaska is an active tectonic deformation zone highlighted by the complex interactions of active strike-slip fault systems with thrust faults and folds of the Alaska Range fold-and-thrust belt. This region includes the Nenana basin and the adjacent Tanana basin, both of which have significant Tertiary coal-bearing formations and are also promising areas (particularly the Nenana basin) with respect to hydrocarbon exploration and geologic carbon sequestration. I investigate the modern-day crustal architecture of the Nenana and Tanana basins using seismic reflection, aeromagnetic and gravity anomaly data and demonstrate that the basement of both basins shows strong crustal heterogeneity. The Nenana basin is a deep (up to 8 km), narrow transtensional pull-apart basin that is deforming along the left-lateral Minto Flats fault zone. The Tanana basin has a fundamentally different geometry and is a relatively shallow (up to 2 km) asymmetrical foreland basin with its southern, deeper side controlled by the northern foothills of the central Alaska Range. NE-trending strike-slip faults within the Tanana basin are interpreted as a zone of clockwise crustal block rotation. Seismic refection data, well data, fracture data and apatite fission track data further constrain the tectonic evolution and thermal history of the Nenana basin. The Nenana basin experienced four distinct tectonic phases since Late Paleocene time. The basin initiated as a narrow half-graben structure in Late Paleocene with accumulation of greater than 6000 feet of sediments. The basin was then uplifted, resulting in the removal of up to 5000 feet of Late Paleocene sediments in Eocene to Oligocene time. During Middle to Late Miocene time, left lateral strike-slip faulting was superimposed on the existing half-graben system. Transtensional deformation of the basin began in the Pliocene. At present, Miocene and older strata are exposed to temperatures > 60°C in the deeper parts of the Nenana

  18. A primitive of Scandinavian Modern?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2018-01-01

    In the web of publications, exhibitions etc. that outlines a Danish design history, Knud V. Engelhardt (1882-1931) takes up a paradoxical position: proclaimed a pioneer, who turned aside historicism and partly the national romanticism of ‘Skønvirke’, his work is said to inhabit a simplicity...... on the Cultural Canon; in this politically initiated context his “tight functionality and soft humanism” was regarded as “characteristic of Scandinavian Modern, the style that Denmark would later become so famous for”. Further, the sparse records and modest research carried out on Engelhardt’s work, are often...

  19. Freiluftschulen: Eine Historisch-Padagogische Randerscheinung als Reflex Sozial-Historischer Modernisierungsprozesse? Das Beispiel Belgiens (Open-Air Schools: A Marginal Appearance in Pedagogical History as a Reflection of Socio-Historical Processes of Modernization? The Example of Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaepe, Marc; Simon, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the history of open-air schools using an evaluation of Belgian schools. Expounds on the complex relationship between educational space and the educational act, and between traditional and progressive education. Demonstrates that open-air schools provided the same education as traditional schools and were not a real alternative for…

  20. La Graeca fides e la falsità moscovitanel discorso polacco premoderno. Storia di un topos ["Graeca fides and the Perfidy of the Muscovites in the Polish Early Modern Discourse. History of a Topos "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Krzywy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available "The article discusses the usage of the classical topos Graeca fides to describe the citizens of the Grand Duchy of Moscow in early modern Polish literature (chronicles, diaries, journalistic writings, diplomatic reports etc.. This way of speaking was justified by the identification of the Eastern Orthodox Church with the Greek Byzantine Rite. The formula was used to deprecate Russians and became part of a negative stereotype. The author demonstrates, with diverse examples, how this formula became a constant topos in statements about a country considered hostile in Poland since the 16th century, and in which contexts it was developed."

  1. Variations in the stable carbon isotope compositions of individual lipids from the leaves of modern angiosperms: implications for the study of higher land plant-derived sedimentary organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockheart, M.J.; Bergen, P.F. van; Evershed, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal changes in δ 13 C values for individual lipids from the leaves of several species of tree have been studied in order to provide essential background information for use in future investigations of the isotopic signatures of terrigenous sedimentary organic matter. The n-alkanes of Betula ermanii, Quercus castaneifolia and Fagus japonica revealed increased δ 13 C in autumn leaves compared with leaves sampled at the start of the growing season. Samples taken from Q. castaneifolia and F. sylvatica at monthly intervals showed gradual depletion of 13 C in bulk tissues and n-alkanes through the growing season. This may be a consequence of either recycling of depleted internal carbon in order to replace weathered waxes, or increased fractionation against 13 C by the enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in response to increasing summer temperatures. Sitosterol exhibited similar isotopic trends as the n-alkanes in F. sylvatica, but showed the opposite behaviour in Q. castaneifolia. The effect of sunlight intensity on δ 13 C was investigated in foliage sampled at different compass positions around two trees, Q. robur and F. sylvatica. Bulk tissue and lipids from inner shade leaves were consistently more depleted in 13 C than those from the corresponding sun leaf. The leaves receiving the highest sunlight irradiance on average, i.e. southern foliage, exhibited the lowest δ 13 C in lipids and bulk tissues. The variability of δ 13 C values with irradiance level may be due to changes in photosynthetic assimilation rates and the adaptation of the leaf epidermis and stomata in response to its light environment. Lipids and bulk tissues from leaves of Quercus species were found to possess slightly more depleted δ 13 C values than those in Fagus species, although interspecies variability was quite large. This study has important implications for the study of terrestrially derived organic matter preserved in ancient sediments. The results demonstrate the

  2. Modern problems of deep processing of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismagilov, Z.R.

    2013-01-01

    Present article is devoted to modern problems of deep processing of coal. The history and development of new Institute of Coal Chemistry and Material Sciences of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science was described. The aims and purposes of new institute were discussed.

  3. Bolatu's pharmacy theriac in early modern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Carla

    2009-01-01

    In early modem China, natural history and medicine were shifting along with the boundaries of the empire. Naturalists struggled to cope with a pharmacy's worth of new and unfamiliar substances, texts, and terms, as plants, animals, and the drugs made from them travelled into China across land and sea. One crucial aspect of this phenomenon was the early modern exchange between Islamic and Chinese medicine. The history of theriac illustrates the importance of the recipe for the naturalization of foreign objects in early modem Chinese medicine. Theriac was a widely sought-after and hotly debated product in early modern European pharmacology and arrived into the Chinese medical canon via Arabic and Persian texts. The dialogue between language and material objects was critical to the Silk Road drug trade, and transliteration was ultimately a crucial technology used to translate drugs and texts about them in the early modern world.

  4. Establishment of Modern Universities in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Kyu Lee

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the historical factors which affected the rise of modern higher education during the late Choson period (1880-1910, and to analyze the implications of these historical factors on educational policies in contemporary higher education in Korea. The rise of modern higher education in Korea can be viewed as occurring in three principal phases: Confucian Choson Royal Government, Western Christian missionaries, and patriotic nationalists. The author points out that the major historical factors influencing the development of modern higher education were Confucianism, Christianity, and Korean nationalism. In particular, Confucianism and Christianity have had substantial impacts on the planning of educational policies in contemporary Korean higher education; the former is viewed as an original source of educational enthusiasm which has expanded Korean higher education, and the latter a matrix of modern Korean higher education which has embodied educational enthusiasm.

  5. Er Rousseau moderne?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Søren

    1985-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer på hvilken måde Rousseau kan siges at være moderne, og den diskuterer på hvilken måde Rouseau har været medvirkende til at opbygge den moderne civilisation, og på hvilken måde han var kritisk i forhold til den gryende og moderne kapitalisme.......Artiklen analyserer på hvilken måde Rousseau kan siges at være moderne, og den diskuterer på hvilken måde Rouseau har været medvirkende til at opbygge den moderne civilisation, og på hvilken måde han var kritisk i forhold til den gryende og moderne kapitalisme....

  6. Late-Modern Symbolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2015-01-01

    Through analysis of key texts, I seek to demonstrate the explanative potential of Durkheim’s sociology of religion in the present context. I critically readdress the idea, found in his early work, that modernity is characterized by a rupture with pre-modern forms of solidarity. First, I investigate...... the ways in which Durkheim sets up a stark distinction between the pre-modern and the modern in his early work, and how this distinction is further cemented by his orthodox critique of the modern economy and its negative effects on social life. Second, I show how another timeless and positive understanding...... of “mechanical” solidarity is to be found behind the “symbolist” template crystalizing in Durkheim’s late work. Third, I develop this template for a modern context by critically addressing and removing other obstacles and prejudices on Durkheim’s part....

  7. Isotope geochemistry of fluid inclusions in Permian halite with implications for the isotopic history of ocean water and the origin of saline formation waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauth, L.P.; Beeunas, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    deltaD and delta 18 O values have been determined for fluid inclusions in 45 samples of Permian halite. The inclusions are enriched in 18 O relative to the meteoric water line but are depleted in D relative to ocean water. Inclusions with the more positive delta-values coincide with the isotopic compositions expected for evaporating sea water which follows a hooked trajectory on a deltaD-delta 18 O diagram. Inclusions with more negative delta-values may represent more highly evaporated sea water but probably reflect synsedimentary or diagenetic mixing to those of a modern evaporite pan to indicate that Permian sea water was isotopically similar to modern sea water. Connate evaporite brines can have negative delta-values because of the probable hooked isotope trajectory of evaporating sea water and/or synsedimentary mixing of evaporite brines with meteoric waters. (author)

  8. Impact of early personal-history characteristics on the Pace of Aging: implications for clinical trials of therapies to slow aging and extend healthspan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Cohen, Harvey J; Kraus, William E; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2017-08-01

    Therapies to extend healthspan are poised to move from laboratory animal models to human clinical trials. Translation from mouse to human will entail challenges, among them the multifactorial heterogeneity of human aging. To inform clinical trials about this heterogeneity, we report how humans' pace of biological aging relates to personal-history characteristics. Because geroprotective therapies must be delivered by midlife to prevent age-related disease onset, we studied young-adult members of the Dunedin Study 1972-73 birth cohort (n = 954). Cohort members' Pace of Aging was measured as coordinated decline in the integrity of multiple organ systems, by quantifying rate of decline across repeated measurements of 18 biomarkers assayed when cohort members were ages 26, 32, and 38 years. The childhood personal-history characteristics studied were known predictors of age-related disease and mortality, and were measured prospectively during childhood. Personal-history characteristics of familial longevity, childhood social class, adverse childhood experiences, and childhood health, intelligence, and self-control all predicted differences in cohort members' adulthood Pace of Aging. Accumulation of more personal-history risks predicted faster Pace of Aging. Because trials of anti-aging therapies will need to ascertain personal histories retrospectively, we replicated results using cohort members' retrospective personal-history reports made in adulthood. Because many trials recruit participants from clinical settings, we replicated results in the cohort subset who had recent health system contact according to electronic medical records. Quick, inexpensive measures of trial participants' early personal histories can enable clinical trials to study who volunteers for trials, who adheres to treatment, and who responds to anti-aging therapies. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Indonesia - Procurement Modernization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation seeks to establish evidence on the possible effects of an intervention designed to modernize public procurement: effects on cost savings, performance...

  10. Annals of Modern Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Annals of Modern Education will be considered for publication publishes regular papers reporting ... Curriculum and Teaching, Students' Perspectives on Learning Environments, Environmental Education, ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  11. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, Hans M. [Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  12. Implications for cancer genetics practice of pro-actively assessing family history in a General Practice cohort in North West London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohut, Kelly; D'Mello, Lucia; Bancroft, Elizabeth K; Thomas, Sarah; Young, Mary-Anne; Myhill, Kathryn; Shanley, Susan; Briggs, Brian H J; Newman, Michelle; Saraf, Ifthikhar M; Cox, Penny; Scambler, Sarah; Wagman, Lyndon; Wyndham, Michael T; Eeles, Rosalind A; Ferris, Michelle

    2012-03-01

    At present cancer genetics referrals are reactive to individuals asking for a referral and providing a family history thereafter. A previous pilot study in a single General Practice (GP) catchment area in North London showed a 1.5-fold increase in breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazi Jewish population compared with the non-Ashkenazi mixed population. The breast cancer incidence was equal in the Ashkenazim in both pre- and postmenopausal groups. We wanted to investigate the effect of proactively seeking family history data from the entire female population of the practice to determine the effect on cancer genetics referral. Objectives To determine the need for cancer genetics intervention for women in a single GP catchment area. (1) to determine the incidence and strength of family history of cancer in women aged over 18 in the practice, (2) to offer cancer genetics advice and determine the uptake of counselling in those with a positive family history, (3) to identify potential BRCA1/BRCA2 gene mutation carriers who can be offered clinical follow up with appropriate translational research studies. Design Population-based cohort study of one General Practice female population. Participants Three hundred and eighty-three women over the age of 18 from one General Practice who responded to a questionnaire about family history of cancer. The whole female adult GP population was the target and the total number sampled was 3,820. Results 10% of patients completed the questionnaire (n = 383). A family history of cancer was present in 338 cases, 95 went on to have genetic counselling or had previously had counselling and 47 were genetically tested. We identified three carriers of an Ashkenazi Jewish founder mutation in BRCA1. Conclusions Response rate to a family history questionnaire such as that used in genetics centres was low (10%) and other approaches will be needed to proactively assess family history. Although the Ashkenazim are present in 39% of the GP catchment

  13. Using Rock Music To Teach History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul Dennis

    1985-01-01

    A secondary history teacher describes how he uses rock and roll music to help students study and interpret modern American history. Besides being a lot of fun to teach, a rock unit makes students realize that even contemporary music has a place in history. (RM)

  14. Charged particle counters in the pre-modern period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beringer, R.

    1979-01-01

    The history of nuclear particle and radiation counting techniques divides itself naturally into three epochs that may be labeled: Early, Pre-Modern, and Modern. The Pre-Modern era is designated as the period starting in the 1930's during which the several types of gas-ionization counters of the Early period were perfected and coupled to vacuum tube circuits and recording apparatus. These developments are briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  15. Feet, Footwork, Footwear, and "Being Alive" in the Modern School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    This article considers the theoretical argument of anthropologist Tim Ingold, that the denial and subsequent encasement of bare feet in footwear was a critical characteristic of the development of modern societies, in exploring three aspects of feet, footwork, and footwear in the history of the modern school. First, the material conditions of feet…

  16. Tunnel - history of

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    This book introduces history of tunnel in ancient times, the middle ages and modern times, survey of tunnel and classification of bedrock like environment survey of position, survey of the ground, design of tunnel on basic thing of the design, and design of tunnel of bedrock, analysis of stability of tunnel and application of the data, construction of tunnel like lattice girder and steel fiber reinforced shot crete, and maintenance control and repair of tunnel.

  17. Reviews Book: SEP Communications: Transmitting and Receiving Signals Book: Gliding for Gold Book: Radioactivity: A History of a Mysterious Science Book: The New Quantum Age Books: The Art of Science and The Oxford Book of Modern Science Writing Equipment: SEP Analogue/digital transmission unit Equipment: SEP Optical signal transmission set Book: Stars and their Spectra Book: Voicebox: The Physics and Evolution of Speech Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    WE RECOMMEND Transmitting and Receiving Signals SEP booklet transmits knowledge The New Quantum Age Understanding modern quantum theory The Art of Science and The Oxford Book of Modern Science Writing Anthologies bring science to life SEP Analogue/digital transmission unit Kit transmits signal between two points SEP Optical signal transmission set Optical kit shows light transmission Stars and their Spectra New book for teaching astrophysics WORTH A LOOK Gliding for Gold Take a journey through the physics of winter sports Radioactivity: A History of a Mysterious Science Book looks at history of radioactivity Voicebox: The Physics and Evolution of Speech TExploring the evolution of the voice WEB WATCH An interactive program with promise?

  18. Beautiful Science: The Public and Private History of Astronomy at the Huntington Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    The history of astronomy has a long tradition within research libraries. The rare collections at the Huntington Library (encompassing American and British history from around 1000 CE to the present, in many different subject areas) are among the most heavily-used in the United States, The history of astronomy holdings are a cornerstone within the library's history of science holdings. This talk will present the two faces of the history of astronomy holdings at the Huntington Library. The first of these is the research end of operations: what the collections consist of, how the scholarly public uses the collections, and what the implications are for modern astronomical practice. The second element concerns the public exhibit face of the history of astronomy holdings at The Huntington. Of the 600,000 people who visit the Huntington each year, the majority visit public displays and rare book and manuscript exhibits. "Beautiful Science: Ideas That Changed the World” is a new permanent history of science exhibit. One quarter of the exhibit relates to the history of astronomy. Public exhibits require a particular kind of planning and bring a specific set of values to the history of astronomy. Public exhibits also have their own concerns, and this talk will cover a number of those issues as well as the research issues.

  19. The limits of historical sociology: Temporal borders and the reproduction of the 'modern' political present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundborg, Tom

    2016-03-01

    This article develops a poststructuralist critique of the historical sociology of International Relations project. While the historical sociology of International Relations project claims to offer a more nuanced understanding of the state and the international, this article argues that it lacks critical reflection on the notion of a common ground on which 'history' and 'sociology' can successfully be combined. In order to problematize this 'ground', the article turns to Jacques Derrida's critique of attempts to solve the history-structure dichotomy by finding a perfect combination of historicist and structuralist modes of explanation. Exploring the implications of Derrida's critique, the article considers how the combination of 'history' and 'sociology' can be linked to a sovereign politics of time, which reaffirms rather than challenges the limits of the 'modern' political present and its relationship to the past, as well as the future. In response, it is suggested that a more radical critique is needed, one that seeks to disrupt the 'modern' political present and the contingent ground on which it rests.

  20. On modern needs in nuclear physics and nuclear safety education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tom Loennroth

    2005-01-01

    The teaching of nuclear physics has a long history, particularly after the second world war, and the present author has 20 years of experience of teaching in that field. The research in nuclear physics has made major advances over the years, and the experiments become increasingly sophisticated. However, very often the university literature lags the development, as is, indeed, the case in all physics education. As a remedy of to-day, the didactic aspects are emphasized, especially at a basic level, while the curriculum content is. still left without upgrade. A standard textbook in basic nuclear physics is, while represent more modern theoretical treatises. The latter two, as their headings indicate, do not treat experimental methods, whereas has a presentation that illustrates methods and results with figures and references. However, they are from the 60 s and 70 s, they are old, and therefore cannot attract modern students of today. Consequently, one has the inevitable feeling that modern university teaching in nuclear physics, and the related area of nuclear safety, must be upgraded. A recent report in Finland, concluded that there is not sufficient nuclear safety education, but that on the other hand, it does not necessarily have to be connected with nuclear physics education, although this is recommendable. Further, the present Finnish university law states that 'The mission of the university shall be to promote free research and scientific and artistic education, to provide higher education based on research, and. to educate students to serve their country and humanity. In carrying out their mission, the universities shall interact with the surrounding society and promote the societal impact o research finding and artistic activities'. This mismatch between the curricula and the required 'societal impact' will be discussed, and examples of implications, usually not implemented, will be given. For nuclear physics specifically, the (lack of) connection between

  1. Making history critical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, Mark

    2017-08-21

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore a possible discursive history of National Health Service (NHS) "management" (with management, for reasons that will become evident, very much in scare quotes). Such a history is offered as a complement, as well as a counterpoint, to the more traditional approaches that have already been taken to the history of the issue. Design/methodology/approach Document analysis and interviews with UK NHS trust chief executives. Findings After explicating the assumptions of the method it suggests, through a range of empirical sources that the NHS has undergone an era of administration, an era of management and an era of leadership. Research limitations/implications The paper enables a recasting of the history of the NHS; in particular, the potential for such a discursive history to highlight the interests supported and denied by different representational practices. Practical implications Today's so-called leaders are leaders because of conventional representational practices - not because of some essence about what they really are. Social implications New ideas about the nature of management. Originality/value The value of thinking in terms of what language does - rather than what it might represent.

  2. Modern examples of extinctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lövei, Gabor L

    2013-01-01

    No species lives forever, and extinction is the ultimate fate of all living species. The fossil record indicates that a recent extinction wave affecting terrestrial vertebrates was parallel with the arrival of modern humans to areas formerly uninhabited by them. These modern instances of extinction...

  3. Adult learning in modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the conditions for the growth of adult education in modern societies. It is argued that in modern adult life individual biographical reflection plays an increasing role, not only for educational and occupational choice but also in the process of identity formation and emotional...

  4. Liquid Modernity & Late Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.

    In Liquid Modernity, Bauman portrays Adorno and the rest of the early Frankfurt School as sociologists and thinkers belonging to the ‘heavy’ phase of modernity. In other words, they are deemed irrelevant to the discussion of current sociological time diagnoses and the purpose of critique under co...

  5. Understanding modern transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/172436729

    2009-01-01

    Proponents and opponents fiercely debate whether computer-mediated transparency has a positive effect on trust in the public sector. This article enhances our understanding of transparency by presenting three perspectives: a premodern, modern and post-modern perspective, and analyzing the basic

  6. Early Modern Philosophical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Bunge (Wiep)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe occurrence of an entry on early modern philosophical systems in an encyclopaedia of Neo-Latin studies is fraught with complications, if only on account of the gradual disappearance during the early modern period of Latin as the main vehicle of philosophical communication. What

  7. Mod den moderne skole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindum, Kjeld; Birk Morgen, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    Gennemgang af fem skoler som eksemplificerer væsentlige udviklingstrin i overgangen fra det sene 1800 tals etageskolebygninger til det moderne skolebyggeris gennemsalg i 1930erne.......Gennemgang af fem skoler som eksemplificerer væsentlige udviklingstrin i overgangen fra det sene 1800 tals etageskolebygninger til det moderne skolebyggeris gennemsalg i 1930erne....

  8. Spotting modern Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Hans; Bøgelund, Helle; Darger, Birgitte

    2002-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i Københavns Rådhus og området omkring Banegårdspladsen analyseres Københavns indtræden i det moderne......Med udgangspunkt i Københavns Rådhus og området omkring Banegårdspladsen analyseres Københavns indtræden i det moderne...

  9. Productions, modern (Scandinavia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2017-01-01

    Greek comedy has never been as popular on the modern Scandinavian scene as Greek tragedy, but one play stands out among them all as a modern classic, Aristophanes’ Lysistrata, which has inspired many adaptations not only on the stage, but also in radio and cinema....

  10. A Reconstruction of Development of the Periodic Table Based on History and Philosophy of Science and Its Implications for General Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Angmary; Rodriguez, Maria A.; Niaz, Mansoor

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (a) elaboration of a history and philosophy of science (HPS) framework based on a reconstruction of the development of the periodic table; (b) formulation of seven criteria based on the framework; and (c) evaluation of 57 freshman college-level general chemistry textbooks with respect to the presentation of the…

  11. Global Distribution of On-Set Diameters of Rampart Ejecta Craters on Mars: Their Implication to the History of Martian Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Joseph M.; Roddy, David J.; Soderblom, Lawrence A.; Hare, Trent

    2000-01-01

    A global map is presented of on-set diameters of rampart craters. These craters are proposed to result from impact into wet targets. This map shows both global latitudinal and regional trends that are consistent with the climate and geologic history of Mars.

  12. [Study on the history of exchange in pharmaceutical science between Japan and Korea after the Modern period: focus on Korean students sent to Japan with expenses funded by the Japanese government].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Chang-Koo; Son, Il-Sun; Choi, Eung-Chil; Nam, Young-Hee; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Tsutani, Kiichiro

    2009-01-01

    According to an old historical text, Nihonshoki [Chinese and Korean characters: see text]), there are records of medical doctors ([Chinese and Korean characters: see text]) and herbal pharmacists ([Chinese and Korean characters: see text]) being dispatched to Japan as early as 554 A.D. ([Chinese and Korean characters: see text]). More recently, a clinic ([Chinese and Korean characters: see text]) for Japanese residents in Pusan was established in 1877. Advanced modern pharmacy from Japan began to be introduced to Korea after 1909. Based on an agreement between the Korean and Japanese governments, Korean students sent to Japan with expenses funded by the Japanese government became a systematic program after 1965. As a result, Koreans who earned Ph.D.s from Japanese universities became a majority in the faculties of Korean schools of pharmacy. However, this trend drastically shifted in the years after 1990, at which time the primary nation for earning Ph.D.s became the United States; the number of students studying in Japan has become very low recently. In this study, six ex-students who studied in Japan were interviewed and the results were analyzed. Furthermore, the past, present and future perspectives of Korean students in Japan were discussed while focusing on the system of Korean students being sent to Japan with expenses funded by the Japanese government.

  13. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    O. F. Vynakov; E. V. Savolova; A. I. Skrynnyk

    2016-01-01

    This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья) describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical ...

  14. [History and psychoanalysis: the stakes of history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, L; Stengers, I

    1993-01-01

    Freud's definition of the relationship between hypnosis and psychoanalysis is a political one that even then pointed to the paradigmatical sciences as defined by Kuhn. Nevertheless, the historian who applies to psychoanalysis the technique of symetry elaborated for such sciences, runs up against a set of singularities that risk bringing him to a position of denouncer of a "fake science". We emphasize that, if the historian does not limit himself to the positivist position or to the history of ideas, he will inevitably find himself engaged in the history that he is analyzing, but with the responsibility of his mode of engagement. We propose to define hypnosis and psychoanalysis as fields inhabited by the question of science in the modern sense of the term, and raising the issue of pertinence, as far as they are concerned, of the theoretical experimental model that guided them.

  15. Multi Data Reservoir History Matching using the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-01-01

    Reservoir history matching is becoming increasingly important with the growing demand for higher quality formation characterization and forecasting and the increased complexity and expenses for modern hydrocarbon exploration projects. History

  16. A comparison of symptoms and family history in schizophrenia with and without prior cannabis use: implications for the concept of cannabis psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, J; Dean, K; Dutta, R; Giouroukou, E; Fearon, P; Murray, R

    2007-07-01

    There is considerable interest in cannabis use in psychosis. It has been suggested that the chronic psychosis associated with cannabis use, is symptomatically distinct from idiopathic schizophrenia. Several studies have reported differences in psychopathology and family history in people with schizophrenia according to whether or not they were cannabis users. We set out to test the hypotheses arising from these studies that cannabis use is associated with more bizarre behaviour, more thought disorder, fewer negative symptoms including blunted affect, more delusions of reference, more paranoid delusions and a stronger family history of schizophrenia. We used a case register that contained 757 cases of first onset schizophrenia, 182 (24%) of whom had used cannabis in the year prior to first presentation, 552 (73%) had not and 3% had missing data. We completed the OPCRIT checklist on all patients and investigated differences in the proportion of people with distractibility, bizarre behaviour, positive formal thought disorder, delusions of reference, well organised delusions, any first rank symptom, persecutory delusions, abusive/accusatory hallucinations, blunted affect, negative thought disorder, any negative symptoms (catatonia, blunted affect, negative thought disorder, or deterioration), lack of insight, suicidal ideation and a positive family history of schizophrenia, using chi square tests. Logistic regression modelling was then used to determine whether prior cannabis use affected the presence of the characteristics after controlling for age, sex and ethnicity. There was no statistically significant effect of cannabis use on the presence of any of the above. There remained however a non-significant trend towards more insight (OR 0.65 p=0.055 for "loss of insight") and a finding of fewer abusive or accusatory hallucinations (OR 0.65 p=0.049) of borderline significance amongst the cannabis users. These were in the hypothesised direction. There was no evidence of

  17. Perspectives in Quantum Physics: Epistemological, Ontological and Pedagogical--An Investigation into Student and Expert Perspectives on the Physical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, with Implications for Modern Physics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baily, Charles Raymond

    2011-01-01

    A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our studies suggest this notoriously difficult task may be frustrated by the intuitively "realist" perspectives of introductory…

  18. Modernism in Theory and Praxis. The Example of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Dipper

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from a reconstruction of the origins of the concept of “modernity” in the late Nineteenth century and of the different interpretations of it in the context of the German social sciences, the essay articulates its radical ambivalences. After establishing that modernity cannot be measured on a scale of progress, neither can it be identified with a specific value, Christof Dipper suggests that there are many conceptions of modernity as there are societies, and that these are not necessarily following a common path. The concept of modernity, that includes anti-modernity as well, embraces therefore actors, representations, and constellations, offering an overall reading of history.

  19. Political elites and China's search of modernity in twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lemus Delgado

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between the foundation, consolidation and reinvention of the political elite in the People's Republic of China and the search to modernization from an historical perspective. To do this, this article proposes that modernity is a political project that has been an important ideological justification. This justification allowed that Chinese Communist Party took the political power. Also, the project of modernization has favored the reinvention of the political elite. The contribution of this paper is to present this process and the particular characteristics of Chinese history. In conclusion, this paper suggests that the search to modernization has been a constitutive element with deep historical roots.

  20. To betray art history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Emerling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The work of Donald Preziosi represents one of the most sustained and often brilliant attempts to betray the modern discipline of art history by exposing its skillful shell game: precisely how and why it substitutes artifice, poetry, and representational schemes for putative facticity and objectivity (that desirous and yet ever elusive Kunstwissenschaft that art historians prattle on about. This attempt is inseparable from a sinuous, witty, involutive writing style that meanders between steely insight and coy suggestions of how art history could be performed otherwise. Preziosi’s writes art history. In doing so he betrays its disciplinary desires. It is this event of betrayal that has made his work so exciting to some, so troubling to others.

  1. Modern technologies in Endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Iandolo

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The positive results highlighted by these clinical cases demonstrate how the use of modern technologies are essential to avoid iatrogenic injury, and guarantee, on the other hand, safe and reproducible results.

  2. Etymology and Modern Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkiel, Yakov

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the estrangement between etymology and modern linguistics, and concludes that a reconciliation between spatio-temporal linguistics and etymology must occur, because without it, both disciplines are doomed to inanition. (Author/AM)

  3. INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS: MODERN COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Vinogradova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the characteristic features of the modern course of infective endocarditis. Unresolved questions of classification of diseaseand drug therapy are discussed. Clearly defined indications for surgical treatment of endocarditis.

  4. Anthropology and Multiple Modernities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    “modernities” over the last 10 years, this paper wishes to address the analytical usefulness of this conceptual development. What is it about these concepts that make them useful as we try to capture the World today? Rather than providing any substantial definitions as to what those modernities are about (or...... what they are not about), anthropologists have used ethnographies to demonstrate how modernities are lived and constructed differently in different cultural contexts. To a very large extent, anthropologists intend these multiple modernities to refer to the interplay between local and global...... configurations. However, if the current pluralizing of modernity ultimately serves to describe the variety of cultural forms that co-exist in the World today, the analytical value of the concept risks being watered down, and little is gained in perspective. Arguably, other concepts would have served the purpose...

  5. Genealogies of Modern Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Does modern technology differ from ancient technology and does it have a unique essence? This twofold question opens one of Martin Heidegger's most influential philosophical inquiries, The Question Concerning Technology. The answer Heidegger offers has inspired various critiques and appraisals from...... a vast number of contemporary scholars of technology.1 Heidegger's answer is traditionally thought to suggest a great difference between ancient and modern technology. However, by re-examining Heidegger's text, it is possible to discover previously ignored or misunderstood lines of thoughts that affirm...... a multi-stable interpretation of the origin of modern technology. In what follows, we shall see how The Question Concerning Technology in fact supports three different genealogies of modern technology...

  6. Modern optimization with R

    CERN Document Server

    Cortez, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this book is to gather in a single document the most relevant concepts related to modern optimization methods, showing how such concepts and methods can be addressed using the open source, multi-platform R tool. Modern optimization methods, also known as metaheuristics, are particularly useful for solving complex problems for which no specialized optimization algorithm has been developed. These methods often yield high quality solutions with a more reasonable use of computational resources (e.g. memory and processing effort). Examples of popular modern methods discussed in this book are: simulated annealing; tabu search; genetic algorithms; differential evolution; and particle swarm optimization. This book is suitable for undergraduate and graduate students in Computer Science, Information Technology, and related areas, as well as data analysts interested in exploring modern optimization methods using R.

  7. Modernizing Electricity Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Explains how modern grid, or smart grid, investments can enable grid operators to respond faster to changes in grid conditions and allow for two-way communication between utilities and electricity end-users.

  8. Bushido dalam Masyarakat Jepang Modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wibawarta

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Bushido is most often translated as the way of the warrior caste in Japan. Bushirefers to warriors in feudal Japan while do means several things including: the correct way,the path, or the road. Another interpretation of Bushido could be the way of preserving peacethrough the use of force. Bushido comes out of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Shintoism. Thecombination of these schools of thought and religions has formed the code of warrior valuesknown as Bushido. A key to our understanding of how the concepts of Bushido fit into Japanesemodern lives is to understand the historical and societal aspects of Bushido. Today, this meaningcan be modernized to include minimizing violent conflict. The code of Bushido, the Samurai'scode of honor, upholds loyalty, discipline, total dedication, honor and valor, and numerousexamples of these elements can be witnessed today or in recent history.

  9. Concepts in modern parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The main focus of my dissertation represents changes in parenthood, which are a consequence of a wider specter of social changes. Besides, I am interested in modern trends of educational strategies and how parents deal with the demands of society and those of professional public for nothing less than a perfect parenthood. Theoretical cognitions are divided into three parts: in the first one, new forms of family and social changes which affected the development of the modern family are describ...

  10. Turbine maintenance and modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unga, E. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The disturbance-free operation of the turbine plant plays an important role in reaching good production results. In the turbine maintenance of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant the lifetime and efficiency of turbine components and the lifetime costs are taken into account in determining the turbine maintenance and modernization/improvement program. The turbine maintenance program and improvement/modernization measures taken in the plant units are described in this presentation. (orig.)

  11. Badges of modern slavery

    OpenAIRE

    Paz-Fuchs, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Notwithstanding the 19th century formal abolition of slavery as legal ownership of people, modern slavery and forced labour have not been consigned to the past. In fact, their existence is more widespread, and made more difficult to tackle due to the lack of formal, legal criteria. This article suggests that reference to the past, historical institutions reveals seven ‘badges of slavery’ that are helpful in identifying occurrences of modern slavery and forced labour. These are: humiliation, o...

  12. Turbine maintenance and modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unga, E [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    The disturbance-free operation of the turbine plant plays an important role in reaching good production results. In the turbine maintenance of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant the lifetime and efficiency of turbine components and the lifetime costs are taken into account in determining the turbine maintenance and modernization/improvement program. The turbine maintenance program and improvement/modernization measures taken in the plant units are described in this presentation. (orig.)

  13. A Modern Education

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2015-01-01

    What is western modernity and how did education help to shape that modernity? Through an examination of schooling in elite British institutions, Alan Macfarlane tries to answer these question, particularly to explain the choices facing China and other emerging superpowers. One section looks at his English education; society and power, play and performance, head and heart, spirit and character. Another looks at education more widely: how it shaped the English world, English and Continental Eur...

  14. Modern mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Modern Mathematics: Made Simple presents topics in modern mathematics, from elementary mathematical logic and switching circuits to multibase arithmetic and finite systems. Sets and relations, vectors and matrices, tesselations, and linear programming are also discussed.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to sets and basic operations on sets, as well as solving problems with Venn diagrams. The discussion then turns to elementary mathematical logic, with emphasis on inductive and deductive reasoning; conjunctions and disjunctions; compound statements and conditional

  15. Bohmian histories and decoherent histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, James B.

    2004-01-01

    The predictions of the Bohmian and the decoherent (or consistent) histories formulations of the quantum mechanics of a closed system are compared for histories--sequences of alternatives at a series of times. For certain kinds of histories, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories may both be formulated in the same mathematical framework within which they can be compared. In that framework, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories represent a given history by different operators. Their predictions for the probabilities of histories of a closed system therefore generally differ. However, in an idealized model of measurement, the predictions of Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories coincide for the probabilities of records of measurement outcomes. The formulations are thus difficult to distinguish experimentally. They may differ in their accounts of the past history of the Universe in quantum cosmology

  16. Modernization of credit relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Volosovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is essential to modernize credit relations in the conditions of global economy transformations. This is due to the influence of integration processes on credit relations and transformation of the risks inherent in the credit field. The purpose of this article is to develop measures that help to improve the efficiency of interaction of credit relations’ participants. Modernization of credit relations is based on the interaction of its main and indirect subjects who belong to the subsystems of loans granting, deposits attraction and provision of related services. Its goal is to pass from extensive to intensive model of interaction between the subjects of credit relations. Components of the credit relations modernization are the following: institutional modernization, which is based on the interaction of credit relations’ subjects, and ensures the development of competition in all credit market’s segments, the creation of its corresponding infrastructure, qualitative change in the approaches of regulation and supervision; technological modernization, which involves the formation of joint products on the credit market and the formation of an integrated informational and analytical system. In the result of the credit relations’ modernization it is expected to achieve synergies between the subjects of credit relations, that will lead to changes in the business architecture of the financial market.

  17. Border mythology: Turner and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Brenna B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Modernity has been creating spaces, new boundaries and borders, as metaphysical, mythological and symbolic marks of physical and imaginary territories. Modern space and its borders are metaphors, boundaries that are created, walls that rise to identify with some and categorize others. In this short paper we want to approach the problem of the transformation of the idea of border (geographical, cultural, symbolic, etc., for a reflection on the transformations of that civilized obsession called border. The border has always been a reference in facing the identities, names, symbols, different imaginary: it is more confrontational line between two otherness. From the previous framework, we reflect on Turnerian mythology, as we believe that behind the creation of the imagination of the northern border is the mythical vision of the American frontier as ideological canon that explains and confirms the presence of the white race in a border re–made in the image and likeness of the “American Dream”. Frederick Turner’s reflection on the role of the frontier in American history is not only the study of the importance of progress towards the West but –even more so, is the analysis of meaning that had the American frontier as a historical process that ended in 1893, as Turner said, but rather extended into the twentieth century and continues to constantly shaping the process of territorialization of the border.

  18. Politics of modern muslim subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich; Petersen, Marie Juul; Sparre, Sara Lei

    Examining modern Muslim identity constructions, the authors introduce a novel analytical framework to Islamic Studies, drawing on theories of successive modernities, sociology of religion, and poststructuralist approaches to modern subjectivity, as well as the results of extensive fieldwork...

  19. International Orders in the Early Modern World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    a secondary role. These perspectives emphasise the central role of non-European agency in shaping global history, and stand in stark contrast to conventional narratives revolving around the ‘Rise of the West’, which tend to be based upon a stylized contrast between a dynamic West and a passive and static East....... Focusing on a crucial period of global history that has been neglected in the field of International Relations, the book reveals profound differences between the early modern era and the more familiar colonial conquests of the second half of the nineteenth century. It will be interest to students...

  20. The Tsimane Health and Life History Project: Integrating anthropology and biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Trumble, Benjamin; Blackwell, Aaron D; Beheim, Bret; Davis, Helen; Hooper, Paul; Kaplan, Hillard

    2017-04-01

    The Tsimane Health and Life History Project, an integrated bio-behavioral study of the human life course, is designed to test competing hypotheses of human life-history evolution. One aim is to understand the bidirectional connections between life history and social behavior in a high-fertility, kin-based context lacking amenities of modern urban life (e.g. sanitation, banks, electricity). Another aim is to understand how a high pathogen burden influences health and well-being during development and adulthood. A third aim addresses how modernization shapes human life histories and sociality. Here we outline the project's goals, history, and main findings since its inception in 2002. We reflect on the implications of current findings and highlight the need for more coordinated ethnographic and biomedical study of contemporary nonindustrial populations to address broad questions that can situate evolutionary anthropology in a key position within the social and life sciences. © 2017 The Authors Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Origins of the historiography of modern Greek science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiniotis, Manolis

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to examine how Greek historians account for the presence of modern scientific ideas in the intellectual environment of eighteenth-century Greek-speaking society. It will also discuss the function of the history of modern Greek science in the context of Greek national historiography. As will be shown, the history of modem Greek science spent most of its life under the shadow of the history of ideas. Despite its seemingly secondary role, however, it occupied a distinctive place within national historiography because it formed the ground upon which different perceptions of the country's European identity converged. In this respect, one of the main goals of this paper is to outline the particular ideological presumptions, which shaped the historiography of modern Greek science under different historical circumstances. At the end an attempt will be made to articulate a viewpoint more in tandem with the recent methodological developments in the history of science.

  2. History Matters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2017-01-01

    In 2002, she began working as alecturer at Minzu University of China.Now, she teaches English, historicalliterature, ancient Chinese history,historical theory and method, ancientsocial history of China, ancient palacepolitical history of China and the historyof the Sui and Tang dynasties and thePeriod of Five Dynasties.

  3. Book Review: Russia-Germany. Milestones of the Joint History in the Collective Memory. 20th Century / ed. by H. Muller, A. O. Chubaryan ; by the Decision of the Joint Commission on Studying the Modern History of the Russian-German Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vashkau Nina Emilyevna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of a Russian-German textbook that describes the events of the 20th century. The book has been created by the Common Board for Research on the History of the Russian-German Relationships and can be used as learning material in schools and universities of both countries.

  4. Travels in Architectural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Deriu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Travel is a powerful force in shaping the perception of the modern world and plays an ever-growing role within architectural and urban cultures. Inextricably linked to political and ideological issues, travel redefines places and landscapes through new transport infrastructures and buildings. Architecture, in turn, is reconstructed through visual and textual narratives produced by scores of modern travellers — including writers and artists along with architects themselves. In the age of the camera, travel is bound up with new kinds of imaginaries; private records and recollections often mingle with official, stereotyped views, as the value of architectural heritage increasingly rests on the mechanical reproduction of its images. Whilst students often learn about architectural history through image collections, the place of the journey in the formation of the architect itself shifts. No longer a lone and passionate antiquarian or an itinerant designer, the modern architect eagerly hops on buses, trains, and planes in pursuit of personal as well as professional interests. Increasingly built on a presumption of mobility, architectural culture integrates travel into cultural debates and design experiments. By addressing such issues from a variety of perspectives, this collection, a special 'Architectural Histories' issue on travel, prompts us to rethink the mobile conditions in which architecture has historically been produced and received.

  5. Implications of the fluvial history of the Wacheqsa River for hydrologic engineering and water use at Chavín de Húntar, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Daniel A.; Keefer, David K.

    2009-01-01

    Channeling of water through a variety of architectural features represents a significant engineering investment at the first millennium B.C. ceremonial center of Chavín de Huántar in the Peruvian Central Andes. The site contains extensive evidence of the manipulation of water, apparently for diverse purposes. The present configuration of the two local rivers, however, keeps available water approximately 9m below the highest level of water-bearing infrastructure in the site. Geomorphic and archaeological investigation of the fluvial history of the Wacheqsa River has revealed evidence that the Chavín-era configuration of the Wacheqsa River was different. A substantially higher water level, likely the result of a local impoundment of river water caused by a landslide dam, made the provision of water for the hydrologic system within the site a more readily practical possibility. We review what is known of that system and argue that the fluvial history of the Wacheqsa River is critical to understanding this aspect of hydrologic engineering and ritual practice at Chavín. This study demonstrates the relative rapidity and archaeological relevance of landscape change in a dynamic environment.

  6. Political mechanisms of democratization in modern Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tsurkanova

    2014-07-01

    Today, the political situation in Ukraine, strongly suggests that Ukrainian society is still prevalent understanding of the revolutionary democracy as freedom­destroying. However, in assessing the possible existence of democracy in modern conditions of development of Ukraine, among other principles, it is necessary to consider that in any case it should seek fundamental values and ideals not overseas ­ for the dales, and the private Ukrainian political history and culture.

  7. The Actual Problems of Modern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya E. Anikeeva

    2014-01-01

    The important aim of national and Spanish historiography and political science is to study history and foreign policy of modern Spain. The author studied articles and monographies of spanish politicians and researchers ( M. Rahoy, I. Aries, A. Rubalcaba, I. Molina) for the preparation of this article during the scientific trip to Madrid (Complutense University, Faculty of Political Science and Sociology), which was held in the framework of cooperation between the Bank Santander and MGIMO (Uni...

  8. Histories electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Aidan

    2004-01-01

    Working within the HPO (History Projection Operator) Consistent Histories formalism, we follow the work of Savvidou on (scalar) field theory [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] and that of Savvidou and Anastopoulos on (first-class) constrained systems [Class. Quantum Gravt. 17, 2463 (2000)] to write a histories theory (both classical and quantum) of Electromagnetism. We focus particularly on the foliation-dependence of the histories phase space/Hilbert space and the action thereon of the two Poincare groups that arise in histories field theory. We quantize in the spirit of the Dirac scheme for constrained systems

  9. Why Teach Physical Education History?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The physical education discipline has had a long development, incorporating concepts learned and appreciated from ancient and modern Olympics, exercise and training, physical activity and sport, and the history of physical education itself. Nevertheless, it continues to evolve as educators improve their instructional methods, medical experts…

  10. Methodological individualism as opposed to methodological holism. History, relevancy and the implications of the (insoluble? debate on the explanatory capacity and scientific status of sociocultural anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kulenović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of wider research into the status of explanation in the debate on the scientific status of anthropology – wherein one of the key assumptions is that there is a strong correlation between theoretical and methodological structures which would make them inseparable, and that explanation or explanatory potential, is the point of convergence which can be used to test for the possibility of separating theoretical and methodological structures in the first place. To test this idea, a line of debate between methodological holism and methodological individualism – one of the longest running and most complex debates in the social sciences and humanities – was considered. The historical background of the debate has been highlighted, and its relevancy and implications in the controversy about the explanatory capacity and scientific status of sociocultural anthropology.

  11. Casebooks in Early Modern England:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    summary Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

  12. Maternal invasion history of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus into the Isthmus of Panama: Implications for the control of emergent viral disease agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, Gilberto A.; Rovira, Jose R.; Smith, Octavio; Miller, Matthew J.; Bennett, Kelly L.; McMillan, W. Owen

    2018-01-01

    Despite an increase in dengue outbreaks and the arrival of chikungunya and Zika disease in Panama, studies on the demographic history of the invasive Aedes mosquitoes that are the principle vectors of these diseases are still lacking in this region. Here, we assess the genetic diversity of these mosquitoes in order to decipher their invasion histories into the Isthmus of Panama. DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase I gene obtained from 30 localities in 10 provinces confirmed the presence of more than one mitochondrial haplogroup (i.e., maternal lineage) in each species. The invasion of Aedes albopictus was likely from temperate European countries, as the most frequent and widespread haplogroup in Panama harbored variants that are uncommon elsewhere in the Americas. Two infrequent and geographically restricted Ae. albopictus haplotypes appear to have subsequently invaded Panama from neighboring Costa Rica and the USA, respectively. In addition, we recovered two deeply divergent mitochondrial clades in Panamanian Aedes aegypti. The geographic origins of these clades is unknown, given that divergence in the mitochondrial genome is probably due to ancient population processes within the native range of Ae. aegypti, rather than due to its global expansion out of Africa. However, Panamanian Ae. aegypti mitochondrial sequences within the first clade were closely related to others from Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, Mexico and the USA, suggesting two separate invasions from Western Hemisphere source populations. The pattern of increased genetic diversity in Aedes mosquitoes in Panama is likely facilitated by the numerous land and water inter-connections across the country, which allows them to enter via sea- and land-transportation from Europe, North, Central and South America. Our results here should be considered in disease mitigation programs if emergent arboviruses are to be effectively diminished in Panama through vector suppression. PMID:29579112

  13. An Analysis of the History of Taiwanese Character and Moral Education (1949-2014 and Its Implications for the 12-Year Basic Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hua Fang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to analyze the history of character and moral education (CME during the past 65 years in Taiwan to form a complete image of CME and provide suggestions for the formulation and implementation of the 12-Year Basic Education Curriculum Guidelines. Concretely, the researchers reviewed the documents and literature of CME and divided the history from 1949 to 2014 into three phases - the Martial Law Phase, the Post-Martial Law Phase, and the 9-Year Curriculum Phase. During the Martial Law Phase, although CME was taught as a stand-alone subject, it played a role in transmitting political ideology. During the Post-Martial Law Phase, the goal was to implement a student-centered curriculum, but the period was too short to achieve total transformation. During the 9-Year Curriculum Phase, CME was omitted from the Curriculum Guidelines and replaced by the ‘Character and Moral Education Improving Project’ proclaimed by the Ministry of Education. As a result, CME was passively infused into the curriculum during this phase. Finally, the researchers proposed several suggestions as follows: The centrality of CME should be emphasized in the National Curriculum Guidelines to correspond to the public’s expectations and current international trends. Concrete contents of CME should be actively incorporated into the Curriculum Guidelines of each learning area in order to ensure effective integration and applicable transformation. Also, CME should be fully implemented in the 12-Year Basic Education Plan and include values of social justice and multiple developmental strategies.

  14. Impostor Syndrome, a Reparative History

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, D

    2016-01-01

    This is an attempt to insert the stories we tell about fear and shame into a history of twentieth-century psychology and its obsession with achievement and modernization. It is an attempt to write an affective history of achievement at the turn of the millennium - and to make this feeling history. Impostor Syndrome is a pop-psychological diagnosis, employed to explain the low presence of women in STEM fields, business and academic administration and ’thought leadership’ in the pubic sphere. T...

  15. Requirements of modernization strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinbuch, R.

    1997-01-01

    Instrumentation and control contributed a major share to the current level of safety, economic efficiency, and availability of the German nuclear power plants. German NPPs occupy a top position in this respect at international level, but novel instrumentation and digital control technology alone will not guarantee further enhancements. Therefore, the owner/operators established carefully devised maintenance and modernization strategies in order to safeguard their NPPs top position in the long run. The German NPPs are the most thoroughly automated plants of the world. In addition to the sweeping modernization strategies recommended by the plant manufacturers, based on computer-supported control, alternative modernization strategies have been considered in the evaluation process. This approach provides for room for maneuvre, for manufacturers as well as managers responsible for risk and cost optimization, which is a major task in view of the changing regulatory framework in the electricity market. (orig./CB) [de

  16. Brain, calvarium, cladistics: A new approach to an old question, who are modern humans and Neandertals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier, Aurélien; Balzeau, Antoine; Caparros, Miguel; Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    The evolutionary history of the genus Homo is the focus of major research efforts in palaeoanthropology. However, the use of palaeoneurology to infer phylogenies of our genus is rare. Here we use cladistics to test the importance of the brain in differentiating and defining Neandertals and modern humans. The analysis is based on morphological data from the calvarium and endocast of Pleistocene fossils and results in a single most parsimonious cladogram. We demonstrate that the joint use of endocranial and calvarial features with cladistics provides a unique means to understand the evolution of the genus Homo. The main results of this study indicate that: (i) the endocranial features are more phylogenetically informative than the characters from the calvarium; (ii) the specific differentiation of Neandertals and modern humans is mostly supported by well-known calvarial autapomorphies; (iii) the endocranial anatomy of modern humans and Neandertals show strong similarities, which appeared in the fossil record with the last common ancestor of both species; and (iv) apart from encephalisation, human endocranial anatomy changed tremendously during the end of the Middle Pleistocene. This may be linked to major cultural and technological novelties that had happened by the end of the Middle Pleistocene (e.g., expansion of the Middle Stone Age (MSA) in Africa and Mousterian in Europe). The combined study of endocranial and exocranial anatomy offers opportunities to further understand human evolution and the implication for the phylogeny of our genus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Liminality and the Modern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    of the liquid structures of modern society. Shedding new light on a concept central to social thought, as well as its capacity for pushing social and political theory in new directions, this book will be of interest to scholars across the social sciences and philosophy working in fields such as social......-for-granted order of the world ceases to exist and novel forms emerge, often in unpredictable ways. Liminality and the Modern offers a comprehensive introduction to this concept, discussing its development and laying out a conceptual and experiential framework for thinking about change in terms of liminality...

  18. Introduction to modern physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeffer, J.; Nir, S.

    1993-01-01

    The modern physics and its uses changed our world of concepts and ways of life. This book explains the basics of modern physics in a simple and extensive form. The main subjects included in the book are: The relativistic theory, quantum theory, the structure of the atom, the interaction of radiation with matter and nuclear physics. The book elaborates on some advanced subjects: The laser, Moessbauer effect, Nuclear magnetic Resonance and solids electric conductivity. The book is for natural sciences students, whose main subject is not physics. The book can be used also in high schools. (authors)

  19. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  20. Det sentimentalt moderne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thule Kristensen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Romantikken er blevet afskrevet som en mørk epoke, hvor en hang til mystik og tvetydighed ikke passer til det moderne oplysningsprojekts mål om klarhed og orden. Afhendlingen viser imidlertid, hvordan dele af arkitekturen i det 20. århundrede er fyldt med romantisk tankegods, og hvordan romantisk...... nøglemotiver som f.eks. fragment, arabesk, krystal, symbol eller poesi kan bruges i en analyse - også af moderne arkitektur. det ses i bogens nyfortolkninger af værker og teorier hos arkitekterne Erik Gunnar Asplund, Josef Frank, Rudolf Schwarz, Aldo Rossi og Daniel Libeskind...

  1. Modern recording techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, David Miles

    2013-01-01

    As the most popular and authoritative guide to recording Modern Recording Techniques provides everything you need to master the tools and day to day practice of music recording and production. From room acoustics and running a session to mic placement and designing a studio Modern Recording Techniques will give you a really good grounding in the theory and industry practice. Expanded to include the latest digital audio technology the 7th edition now includes sections on podcasting, new surround sound formats and HD and audio.If you are just starting out or looking for a step up

  2. BARCELONA: URBANSCAPES OF MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Remesar

    2015-04-01

    The Do.Co.Mo.Mo’s. database, referring to Barcelona, lists 34 buildings that could be classified as rationalists and / or modern. According to other sources, we could reach fifty constructed buildings between the late 1920s and the end of the war in Spain. The article presents the results of a field work that, using different sources, has tried to to order and record the architectural production that can be considered modern / rationalist in Barcelona in the 1920s and 1930s

  3. Modern physics for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Jasprit

    1999-01-01

    Linking physics fundamentals to modern technology-a highly applied primer for students and engineersReminding us that modern inventions-new materials, information technologies, medical technological breakthroughs-are based on well-established fundamental principles of physics, Jasprit Singh integrates important topics from quantum mechanics, statistical thermodynamics, and materials science, as well as the special theory of relativity. He then goes a step farther and applies these fundamentals to the workings of electronic devices-an essential leap for anyone interested in developing n

  4. Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events in southern Iberian Peninsula: Implications for the evolutionary history of freshwater fish of the genus Squalius (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Silvia; Cobo-Simon, Marta; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    Southern Iberian freshwater ecosystems located at the border between the European and African plates represent a tectonically complex region spanning several geological ages, from the uplifting of the Betic Mountains in the Serravalian-Tortonian periods to the present. This area has also been subjected to the influence of changing climate conditions since the Middle-Upper Pliocene when seasonal weather patterns were established. Consequently, the ichthyofauna of southern Iberia is an interesting model system for analyzing the influence of Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events on its evolutionary history. The cyprinids Squalius malacitanus and Squalius pyrenaicus are allopatrically distributed in southern Iberia and their evolutionary history may have been defined by Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events. We analyzed MT-CYB (510 specimens) and RAG1 (140 specimens) genes of both species to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and to estimate divergence times and ancestral distribution ranges of the species and their populations. We also assessed their levels of genetic structure and diversity as well as the amount of gene flow between populations. To investigate recent paleogeographical and climatic factors in southern Iberia, we modeled changes-through-time in sea level from the LGM to the present. Phylogenetic, geographic and population structure analyses revealed two well-supported species (S. malacitanus and S. pyrenaicus) in southern Iberia and two subclades (Atlantic and Mediterranean) within S. malacitanus. The origin of S. malacitanus and the separation of its Atlantic and Mediterranean populations occurred during the Serravalian-Tortonian and Miocene-Pliocene periods, respectively. These divergence events occurred in the Middle Pliocene and Pleistocene in S. pyrenaicus. In both species, Atlantic basins possessed populations with higher genetic diversity than Mediterranean, which may be explained by the Janda Lagoon. The isolation of S. malacitanus was

  5. Embryonic and post-embryonic development of the polyclad flatworm Maritigrella crozieri; implications for the evolution of spiralian life history traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Planktonic life history stages of spiralians share some muscular, nervous and ciliary system characters in common. The distribution of these characters is patchy and can be interpreted either as the result of convergent evolution, or as the retention of primitive spiralian larval features. To understand the evolution of these characters adequate taxon sampling across the Spiralia is necessary. Polyclad flatworms are the only free-living Platyhelminthes that exhibit a continuum of developmental modes, with direct development at one extreme, and indirect development via a trochophore-like larval stage at the other. Here I present embryological and larval anatomical data from the indirect developing polyclad Maritrigrella crozieri, and consider these data within a comparative spiralian context. Results After 196 h hours of embryonic development, M. crozieri hatches as a swimming, planktotrophic larva. Larval myoanatomy consists of an orthogonal grid of circular and longitudinal body wall muscles plus parenchymal muscles. Diagonal body wall muscles develop over the planktonic period. Larval neuroanatomy consists of an apical plate, neuropile, paired nerve cords, a peri-oral nerve ring, a medial nerve, a ciliary band nerve net and putative ciliary photoreceptors. Apical neural elements develop first followed by posterior perikarya and later pharyngeal neural elements. The ciliated larva is encircled by a continuous, pre-oral band of longer cilia, which follows the distal margins of the lobes; it also possesses distinct apical and caudal cilia. Conclusions Within polyclads heterochronic shifts in the development of diagonal bodywall and pharyngeal muscles are correlated with life history strategies and feeding requirements. In contrast to many spiralians, M. crozieri hatch with well developed nervous and muscular systems. Comparisons of the ciliary bands and apical organs amongst spiralian planktonic life-stages reveal differences; M. crozieri lack a distinct

  6. The Earth Through Time: Implications for Searching for Habitability and Life on Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    The Earth has been both a habitable and inhabited planet for around 4 billion years, yet distant observers studying Earth at different epochs in our history would have detected substantially different and probably varying conditions. Understanding Earth's history thus has much to tell us about how to interpret observations of potentially habitable exoplanets. In this talk I will review the history of life on Earth, from the earliest microbial biosphere living under a relatively methane-rich atmosphere to the modern world of animals, plants, and atmospheric oxygen, with a focus on how observable conditions on Earth changed as the planet and its biosphere evolved. I'll discuss the implications of this history for assessing the habitability of-or presence of life on-planets around other stars.

  7. U-Pb geochronology of modern river sands from the flat-slab segment of the southern central Andes, Argentina, 29-31°S: Implications for Neogene foreland and hinterland basin evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldi, T.; Horton, B. K.; McKenzie, R.; Stockli, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates how Andean river sediments in the flat-slab segment of western Argentina record active mixing of lithologically and geochemically distinct source regions comprising the Principal Cordillera, Frontal Cordillera, Precordillera fold-thrust belt, Sierras Pampeanas basement uplifts, and recycled Neogene basin fill. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological results for modern river sands discriminate variations from hinterland source regions, through river tributaries and main trunks of the Bermejo, Jachal, San Juan, and Mendoza rivers, and their respective fluvial megafans within the active foreland basin. Proportions of proximal zircon populations in the hinterland trunk rivers (with extensive Permian-Triassic and Cenozoic igneous exposures) diminish downstream with progressive contributions from the frontal Precordillera fold-thrust belt (dominantly Paleozoic sedimentary rocks) and Pampean basement uplifts. However, this systematic downstream dilution is perturbed in several catchments by significant recycling of older foreland basin fill. The degree of recycling depends on the position and extent of Oligocene-Pliocene exposures within the catchments. To discern the effects of the variable detrital zircon sources, multiple statistical methods are utilized. Quantitative comparisons suggest that variations in detrital zircon age distributions among the modern sands, and with older foreland basin fill and exposed bedrock, are dependent on spatial and temporal variations in exhumation and drainage network evolution within their respective Andean catchments. The present surface area of competing source regions and the configuration of hinterland tributary rivers largely dictate the degree of downstream dilution and/or recycling. This study provides a modern analogue and baseline for reconstructing Neogene shifts in foreland basin provenance, depositional systems, and drainage configurations during a critical transition to flat-slab subduction.

  8. Sex differences in motor and cognitive abilities predicted from human evolutionary history with some implications for models of the visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This article expands the knowledge base available to sex researchers by reviewing recent evidence for sex differences in coincidence-anticipation timing (CAT), motor control with the hand and arm, and visual processing of stimuli in near and far space. In CAT, the differences are between sex and, therefore, typical of other widely reported sex differences. Men perform CAT tasks with greater accuracy and precision than women, who tend to underestimate time to arrival. Null findings arise because significant sex differences are found with easy but not with difficult tasks. The differences in motor control and visual processing are within sex, and they underlie reciprocal patterns of performance in women and men. Motor control is exerted better by women with the hand than the arm. In contrast, men showed the reverse pattern. Visual processing is performed better by women with stimuli within hand reach (near space) as opposed to beyond hand reach (far space); men showed the reverse pattern. The sex differences seen in each of these three abilities are consistent with the evolutionary selection of men for hunting-related skills and women for gathering-related skills. The implications of the sex differences in visual processing for two visual system models of human vision are discussed.

  9. Zircon-scale insights into the history of a Supervolcano, Bishop Tuff, Long Valley, California, with implications for the Ti-in-zircon geothermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M.R.; Vazquez, J.A.; Schmitt, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Zircon has the outstanding capacity to record chronological, thermal, and chemical information, including the storage history of zoned silicic magma reservoirs like the one responsible for the Bishop Tuff of eastern California, USA. Our novel ion microprobe approach reveals that Bishop zircon rims with diverse chemical characteristics surround intermediate domains with broadly similar compositions. The highest Y, REE, U, and Th concentrations tend to accompany the largest excesses in Y + REE3+:P beyond what can be explained by xenotime substitution in zircon. Apparent Ti-in-zircon temperatures of Ti-in-zircon temperatures are probably better explained by sources of inaccuracy in the temperature estimates. After apparently nucleating from different melts, zircons from across the Bishop Tuff compositional spectrum may have evolved to broadly similar chemical and thermal conditions and therefore it is possible that there was no significant thermal gradient in the magma reservoir at some stage in its evolution. There is also no compelling evidence for punctuated heat ?? chemical influxes during the intermediate stages of zircon growth. Judging by the zircon record, the main volume of the erupted magma evolved normally by secular cooling but the latest erupted portion is characterized by a reversal in chemistry that appears to indicate perfusion of the magma reservoir by-or zircon entrainment in-a less evolved melt from the one in which the zircons had previously resided. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Specificity of unenhanced CT for non-invasive diagnosis of hepatic steatosis: implications for the investigation of the natural history of incidental steatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickhardt, Perry J.; Hahn, Luke [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Park, Seong Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung-Gyu [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Division of Hepatobiliary Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Department of Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Kyongtae T. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Yu, Eun Sil [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    To determine a highly specific liver attenuation threshold at unenhanced CT for biopsy-proven moderate to severe hepatic steatosis ({>=}30% at histology). 315 asymptomatic adults (mean age {+-} SD, 31.5 {+-} 10.1 years; 207 men, 108 women) underwent same-day unenhanced liver CT and ultrasound-guided liver biopsy. Blinded to biopsy results, CT liver attenuation was measured using standard region-of-interest methodology. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the relationship of CT liver attenuation with patient age, gender, BMI, CT system, and hepatic fat and iron content. Thirty-nine subjects had moderate to severe steatosis and 276 had mild or no steatosis. A liver attenuation threshold of 48 HU was 100% specific (276/276) for moderate to severe steatosis, with no false-positives. Sensitivity, PPV and NPV at this HU threshold was 53.8%, 100% and 93.9%. Hepatic fat content was the overwhelming determinant of liver attenuation values, but CT system (P < 0.001), and hepatic iron (P = 0.035) also had a statistically significant independent association. Unenhanced CT liver attenuation alone is highly specific for moderate to severe hepatic steatosis, allowing for confident non-invasive identification of large retrospective/prospective cohorts for natural history evaluation of incidental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Low sensitivity, however, precludes effective population screening at this threshold. (orig.)

  11. Specificity of unenhanced CT for non-invasive diagnosis of hepatic steatosis: implications for the investigation of the natural history of incidental steatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickhardt, Perry J.; Hahn, Luke; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Yu, Eun Sil

    2012-01-01

    To determine a highly specific liver attenuation threshold at unenhanced CT for biopsy-proven moderate to severe hepatic steatosis (≥30% at histology). 315 asymptomatic adults (mean age ± SD, 31.5 ± 10.1 years; 207 men, 108 women) underwent same-day unenhanced liver CT and ultrasound-guided liver biopsy. Blinded to biopsy results, CT liver attenuation was measured using standard region-of-interest methodology. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the relationship of CT liver attenuation with patient age, gender, BMI, CT system, and hepatic fat and iron content. Thirty-nine subjects had moderate to severe steatosis and 276 had mild or no steatosis. A liver attenuation threshold of 48 HU was 100% specific (276/276) for moderate to severe steatosis, with no false-positives. Sensitivity, PPV and NPV at this HU threshold was 53.8%, 100% and 93.9%. Hepatic fat content was the overwhelming determinant of liver attenuation values, but CT system (P < 0.001), and hepatic iron (P = 0.035) also had a statistically significant independent association. Unenhanced CT liver attenuation alone is highly specific for moderate to severe hepatic steatosis, allowing for confident non-invasive identification of large retrospective/prospective cohorts for natural history evaluation of incidental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Low sensitivity, however, precludes effective population screening at this threshold. (orig.)

  12. Implications of Eocene-age Philippine Sea and forearc basalts for initiation and early history of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogodzinski, Gene M.; Bizimis, Michael; Hickey-Vargas, Rosemary; McCarthy, Anders; Hocking, Benjamin D.; Savov, Ivan P.; Ishizuka, Osamu; Arculus, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Whole-rock isotope ratio (Hf, Nd, Pb, Sr) and trace element data for basement rocks at ocean drilling Sites U1438, 1201 and 447 immediately west of the KPR (Kyushu-Palau Ridge) are compared to those of FAB (forearc basalts) previously interpreted to be the initial products of IBM subduction volcanism. West-of-KPR basement basalts (drill sites U1438, 1201, 447) and FAB occupy the same Hf-Nd and Pb-Pb isotopic space and share distinctive source characteristics with εHf mostly > 16.5 and up to εHf = 19.8, which is more radiogenic than most Indian mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). Lead isotopic ratios are depleted, with 206Pb/204Pb = 17.8-18.8 accompanying relatively high 208Pb/204Pb, indicating an Indian-MORB source unlike that of West Philippine Basin plume basalts. Some Sr isotopes show affects of seawater alteration, but samples with 87Sr/86Sr 8.0 appear to preserve magmatic compositions and also indicate a common source for west-of-KPR basement and FAB. Trace element ratios resistant to seawater alteration (La/Yb, Lu/Hf, Zr/Nb, Sm/Nd) in west-of-KPR basement are generally more depleted than normal MORB and so also appear similar to FAB. At Site U1438, only andesite sills intruding sedimentary rocks overlying the basement have subduction-influenced geochemical characteristics (εNd ∼ 6.6, εHf ∼ 13.8, La/Yb > 2.5, Nd/Hf ∼ 9). The key characteristic that unites drill site basement rocks west of KPR and FAB is the nature of their source, which is more depleted in lithophile trace elements than average MORB but with Hf, Nd, and Pb isotope ratios that are common in MORB. The lithophile element-depleted nature of FAB has been linked to initiation of IBM subduction in the Eocene, but Sm-Nd model ages and errorchron relationships in Site U1438 basement indicate that the depleted character of the rocks is a regional characteristic that was produced well prior to the time of subduction initiation and persists today in the source of modern IBM arc volcanic rocks with

  13. Entangled histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotler, Jordan; Wilczek, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We introduce quantum history states and their mathematical framework, thereby reinterpreting and extending the consistent histories approach to quantum theory. Through thought experiments, we demonstrate that our formalism allows us to analyze a quantum version of history in which we reconstruct the past by observations. In particular, we can pass from measurements to inferences about ‘what happened’ in a way that is sensible and free of paradox. Our framework allows for a richer understanding of the temporal structure of quantum theory, and we construct history states that embody peculiar, non-classical correlations in time. (paper)

  14. WATER AND THE HISTORY OF MAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of water is presented from a myriad of aspects including its creation in cosmic history; its importance in the texts of ancient history; references within various religious writings; and significance with respect to modern science, art, music, transportation, archi...

  15. The history of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Peter N

    2012-01-01

    In the 18th century, the Enlightenment ushered in the notion that happiness was the attainment of a worthy life. Since then the pursuit of happiness has spread to every aspect of behavior, from religion and politics to work and parenting. Today the happiness imperative creates pressures that, paradoxically, can make us miserable. Sadness is often mistaken for a pathology. Understanding the cultural commitment to good cheer as an artifact of modern history, not as an inherent feature of the human condition, opens new opportunities for understanding key facets of our social and personal experience.

  16. Critical Zen art history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P. A. Levin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay sketches a history of the study of Zen art from the late nineteenth century to post-war reconsiderations, leading towards what I term “critical Zen art studies.” The latter, I suggest, has been undertaken by historians of art and others to challenge normative definitions of Zen art based on modern constructs, revise understanding of the types and functions of visual art important to Chan/Sŏn/Zen Buddhist monasteries, and study iconographies and forms not as a transparent aesthetic indices to Zen Mind or No Mind but as rhetorically, ritually, and socially complex, even unruly, events of representation.

  17. Modern Fortran in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markus, A.

    2012-01-01

    From its earliest days, the Fortran programming language has been designed with computing efficiency in mind. The latest standard, Fortran 2008, incorporates a host of modern features, including object-orientation, array operations, user-defined types, and provisions for parallel computing. This

  18. Modern Versus Traditional Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of different secondary school mathematics syllabi on first-year performance in college-level mathematics was studied in an attempt to evaluate the syllabus change. Students with a modern mathematics background performed sigficantly better on most first-year units. A topic-by-topic analysis of results is included. (DT)

  19. Late-modern hipsters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the cultural significance of a new figure in late-modern Western culture: the hipster. The current hipster culture, so I argue, can be used as a magnifying glass that makes impending changes to our conception of culture and of cultural development visible. It ushers...

  20. Dimensions of Modern Federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Encapsulates a series of brief essays exploring different aspects of modern federalism. Issues include further protection of individual rights extended through state constitutions and federalism and the world economy. Authors include Robert F. Williams, Earl H. Fry, and Daniel J. Elazar. (MJP)

  1. Modern vs. Traditional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenhui, Rao

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses traditional methods, such as the grammar-translation, and modern methods, the communicative approach, for teaching English-as-a-foreign-language in China. The relationship between linguistic accuracy and communicative competence, student-centered orientation, and the role of the teacher are highlighted. (Author/VWL)

  2. Den moderne bevidstheds katedral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostenfeld Pedersen, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Interview med idéhistorikeren Dorthe Jørgensen der under overskriften ”Den moderne bevidstheds katedral” blotlægger hendes mangeårige arbejde med Hegel, og hvor hun giver en række relevante bud på en aktualiserende Hegel-læsning centreret omkring felter som metafysik, historiefilosofi og æstetik....

  3. Euripides in Modern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Boer, P.

    2010-01-01

    Euripides is considered the most human, modern and existentialist of the famous Greek tragedians. Extremely popular after his death, he continued to be staged, read and much recited in Hellenistic and Roman times. As the Greek-speaking elite of the Roman Empire disappeared, the popularity of the

  4. A Modern Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  5. Modern Reduction Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Pher G

    2008-01-01

    With its comprehensive overview of modern reduction methods, this book features high quality contributions allowing readers to find reliable solutions quickly and easily. The monograph treats the reduction of carbonyles, alkenes, imines and alkynes, as well as reductive aminations and cross and heck couplings, before finishing off with sections on kinetic resolutions and hydrogenolysis. An indispensable lab companion for every chemist.

  6. Modern programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  7. The history of African trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steverding Dietmar

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatment and methods for control of the disease. From the recent history of sleeping sickness we can learn that the disease can be controlled but probably not be eradicated. Current history of human African trypanosomiasis has shown that the production of anti-sleeping sickness drugs is not always guaranteed, and therefore, new, better and cheaper drugs are urgently required.

  8. The relationship between the ratio of strontium to calcium and sea-surface temperature in a modern Porites astreoides coral: Implications for using P. astreoides as a paleoclimate archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tess E. Busch,; Flannery, Jennifer A.; Richey, Julie N.; Stathakopoulos, Anastasios

    2015-11-13

    An inverse relationship has been demonstrated between water temperature and the ratio of strontium to calcium (Sr/Ca) in coral aragonite for a number of Pacific species of the genus Porites. This empirically determined relationship has been used to reconstruct past sea-surface temperature (SST) from modern and Holocene age coral archives. A study was conducted to investigate this relationship for Porites astreoides to determine the potential for using these corals as a paleotemperature archive in the Caribbean and western tropical Atlantic Ocean. Skeletal aragonite from a P. astreoides colony growing offshore of the southeast coast of Florida was subsampled with a mean temporal resolution of 14 samples per year and analyzed for Sr/Ca. The resulting Sr/Ca time series yielded well-defined annual cycles that correspond to annual growth bands in the coral. Sr/Ca was regressed against a monthly SST record from C-MAN buoy station FWYF1 (located at Fowey Rocks, Florida), resulting in the following Sr/Ca-SST relationship: Sr/Ca = –0.040*SST + 10.128 (R = –0.77). A 10-year time series of Sr/Ca-derived SST yields annual cycles with a 10–12 degree Celsius seasonal amplitude, consistent with available local instrumental records. We conclude that Sr/Ca in Porites astreoides from the Caribbean/Atlantic region has high potential for developing subannually resolved modern and recent Holocene SST records.

  9. The Challenges for Us Psychologized Moderns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill G. Morawski

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In a reparative history Dana Simmons boldly faces self feelings of imposture and guilt and engages them to consider how science studies can move beyond critical appraisals to undertake the greater, more important task of reassembling the self and studies of the self. For readers who are aware of their psychologized self-conceptions, her history promises opportunities for re-appraisal and re-assemblage. This commentary appreciates Simmons’ illumination of the race, class, and gender constituents of the psychologies of achievement which, among their products, have yielded the very idea of Impostor Syndrome. Further development of the kind of reparative histories advocated by Simmons demands attention to the enormity of our psychologized modernity and the complexities of reflexive psychology.

  10. Genome wide linkage disequilibrium in Chinese asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm: implications for domestication history and genome wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P; Wu, X; Wang, B; Luo, J; Liu, Y; Ehlers, J D; Close, T J; Roberts, P A; Lu, Z; Wang, S; Li, G

    2012-07-01

    Association mapping of important traits of crop plants relies on first understanding the extent and patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the particular germplasm being investigated. We characterize here the genetic diversity, population structure and genome wide LD patterns in a set of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm from China. A diverse collection of 99 asparagus bean and normal cowpea accessions were genotyped with 1127 expressed sequence tag-derived single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs). The proportion of polymorphic SNPs across the collection was relatively low (39%), with an average number of SNPs per locus of 1.33. Bayesian population structure analysis indicated two subdivisions within the collection sampled that generally represented the 'standard vegetable' type (subgroup SV) and the 'non-standard vegetable' type (subgroup NSV), respectively. Level of LD (r(2)) was higher and extent of LD persisted longer in subgroup SV than in subgroup NSV, whereas LD decayed rapidly (0-2 cM) in both subgroups. LD decay distance varied among chromosomes, with the longest (≈ 5 cM) five times longer than the shortest (≈ 1 cM). Partitioning of LD variance into within- and between-subgroup components coupled with comparative LD decay analysis suggested that linkage group 5, 7 and 10 may have undergone the most intensive epistatic selection toward traits favorable for vegetable use. This work provides a first population genetic insight into domestication history of asparagus bean and demonstrates the feasibility of mapping complex traits by genome wide association study in asparagus bean using a currently available cowpea SNPs marker platform.

  11. A digital Jewish history?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiatacz Carmen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available How can we teach Jewish history in a modern and effective way? In Hamburg, Germany, a school project called Geschichtomat tries to find an answer to that question. With the help of digital media, students explore their Jewish neighbourhood. This one-of-a-kind German program permits students to experience the Jewish past and present life in their hometown. During the project, students explore their neighbourhood to understand its historical figures, places, and events. This way they engage with Jewish life. Under the supervision of experts in the disciplines of history and media education, the students will: research, perform interviews with cultural authorities and contemporary witnesses, visit museums and archives, shoot and cut films, edit photos and write accompanying texts. Finally, their contributions are uploaded to the geschichtomat.de website. Little by little a digital map of Jewish life from the perspective of teenagers will take shape.

  12. Sea-level history during the Last Interglacial complex on San Nicolas Island, California: implications for glacial isostatic adjustment processes, paleozoogeography and tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Schumann, R. Randall; Groves, Lindsey T.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Laurel, Deanna

    2012-01-01

    San Nicolas Island, California has one of the best records of fossiliferous Quaternary marine terraces in North America, with at least fourteen terraces rising to an elevation of ~270 m above present-day sea level. In our studies of the lowest terraces, we identified platforms at 38-36 m (terrace 2a), 33-28 m (terrace 2b), and 13-8 m (terrace 1). Uranium-series dating of solitary corals from these terraces yields three clusters of ages: ~120 ka on terrace 2a (marine isotope stage [MIS] 5.5), ~120 and ~100 ka on terrace 2b (MIS 5.5 and 5.3), and ~80 ka (MIS 5.1) on terrace 1. We conclude that corals on terrace 2b that date to ~120 ka were reworked from a formerly broader terrace 2a during the ~100 ka sea stand. Fossil faunas differ on the three terraces. Isolated fragments of terrace 2a have a fauna similar to that of modern waters surrounding San Nicolas Island. A mix of extralimital southern and extralimital northern species is found on terrace 2b, and extralimital northern species are on terrace 1. On terrace 2b, with its mixed faunas, extralimital southern species, indicating warmer than present waters, are interpreted to be from the ~120 ka high sea stand, reworked from terrace 2a. The extralimital northern species on terrace 2b, indicating cooler than present waters, are interpreted to be from the ~100 ka sea stand. The abundant extralimital northern species on terrace 1 indicate cooler than present waters at ~80 ka. Using the highest elevations of the ~120 ka platform of terrace 2a, and assuming a paleo-sea level of +6 m based on previous studies, San Nicolas Island has experienced late Quaternary uplift rates of ~0.25-0.27 m/ka. These uplift rates, along with shoreline angle elevations and ages of terrace 2b (~100 ka) and terrace 1 (~80 ka) yield relative (local) paleo-sea level elevations of +2 to +6 m for the ~100 ka sea stand and -11 to -12 m for the ~80 ka sea stand. These estimates are significantly higher than those reported for the ~100 ka and ~80 ka

  13. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  14. THE LAWYER`S OPINION IN MODERN CIVIL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Evgenyevna Dubovaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose to define value of freedom and fight of opinions, views and lawyer’s positions in development of science of civil law.Methodology theoretical analysis, inductive and deductive methods.Results It is established that fight of opinions, collision of various positions allows to understand more deeply the discussed problem, to come nearer to truth. So, free expression of opinions is the engine of development of civil law.Practical implications introduction in educational process on disciplines of civil jurisprudence, further research of fight of opinions in civil law.Tendencies of the present stage of development of legal system are characterized by aspiration to fix in the Russian legal system of the beginning of private law, where at the head of a corner – people as a legal entity. Opinions of lawyers on various legal problems, and the attitudes towards these opinions are subject to considerable dynamics. The centuries-old history of development of the right showed that fight of opinions, collision of various positions allows to understand more deeply the discussed problem, to come nearer to truth. The modern civil law widely uses a method of comparative jurisprudence, studying experience of the civilized countries which promoted in development of the civil legislation.

  15. (Contemporary Art: Aesthetic Practices of Modernism and Their Theoretical Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D G Podvoysky

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of the special features of modernist art as a complex sociocultural phenomenon. Aesthetic practices, characteristic for this period in art history, would be examined within the broad context of impacts and tendencies that constitute originality of Modernity and its social structures. The midpoints of conceptions of Modern Art by Clement Greenberg, Theodor W. Adorno and Umberto Eco are highlighted and analyzed.

  16. Ion microprobe (SHRIMP) dating of detrital zircon grains from quartzites of the Eckergneiss Complex, Harz Mountains (Germany): implications for the provenance and the geological history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Thorsten; Vinx, Roland; Martin-Gombojav, Nergui; Pidgeon, Robert T.

    2005-07-01

    terranes with different P T t histories as a result of postaccretion intraplate deformation, the EGC could also represent a fault-bounded complex with an origin located far east or south east of the present location.

  17. Chemical composition of modern and fossil hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation – Part 2: Alkaline earth elements as tracers of watershed hydrochemistry and provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ssemmanda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates that alkaline earth elements in enamel of hippopotamids, in particular Ba and Sr, are tracers for water provenance and hydrochemistry in terrestrial settings. The studied specimens are permanent premolar and molar teeth found in modern and fossil lacustrine sediments of the Western Branch of the East African Rift system (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi and from modern fluvial environments of the Nile River. Concentrations in enamel vary by two orders of magnitude for Ba (120–9336 μg g−1 as well as for Sr (9–2150 μg g−1. The variations are partially induced during post-mortem alteration and during amelogenesis, but the major contribution originates ultimately from the variable water chemistry in the habitats of the hippopotamids which is controlled by the lithologies and weathering processes in the watershed areas. Amelogenesis causes a distinct distribution of MgO, Ba and Sr in modern and fossil enamel, in that element concentrations increase along profiles from the outer rim towards the enamel–dentin junction by a factor of 1.3–1.9. These elements are well correlated in single specimens, thus suggesting that their distribution is determined by a common, single process, which can be described by closed system Rayleigh crystallization of bioapatite in vivo. Enamel from most hippopotamid specimens has Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca which are typical for herbivores. However, Ba/Sr ranges from 0.1 to 3 and varies on spatial and temporal scales. Thus, Sr concentrations and Ba/Sr in enamel differentiate between habitats having basaltic mantle rocks or Archean crustal rocks as the ultimate sources of Sr and Ba. This provenance signal is modulated by climate change. In Miocene to Pleistocene enamel from the Lake Albert region, Ba/Sr decreases systematically with time from 2 to 0.5. This trend can be correlated with changes in climate from humid to arid, in vegetation from C3 to C4 biomass as well as with increasing

  18. Defective modernization and health in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli, J M

    1987-01-01

    This paper uses data gathered in a semi-arid, mountain region of the border state of Sonora, Mexico to illustrate that modernization and the importation of urban ideas and values can influence health status in unexpected ways. It traces the historic process of modernization in a rural municipio, relating this to social promises and economic cycles in Mexico. Modernization is seen to encompass life standard improvements and access to medical care; extension of road and transportation systems; and the widespread availability of information and education, as well as lifestyle changes required to incorporate these 'urban' influences. Reviewing the link between climate and health in arid lands, the paper notes that such modernization can be a well-meaning intrusion upon a set of cultural and social practices which had proved adaptive in dealing with climatic extremes. Initial modernization produces impressive declines in mortality and morbidity, as illustrated in an analysis of mortality figures and causes in relation to age cohorts and decades for the years 1955-1984. However, reductions in epidermic-related infant mortality are shown to be offset by increases in deaths due to trauma, chronic conditions and endemic disease. An analysis of morbidity for the year 1983-84 indicates that continuing high rates of infectious disease are related to conditions which result from increasingly defective modernization. To maintain technology, including water, electrical, and sewage systems, continual capital expenditure on both the public and private level is required. The economic crisis in Mexico is reducing available funds at a time when the community has adjusted its traditional lifestyle to incorporate technological improvements. In light of this, it is likely that inroads against infectious disease will not just continue to be stalemated, but could actually be reversed. This finding has implications for towns and villages on both sides of the Mexican-American border.

  19. Challenges of Judiciary Modernization in an Open Government Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Jiménez Gómez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the modernization of public administrations, we are witnessing a phase of changes in an Open Government context. In any process of judiciary modernization, context is of great importance. The modernization of justice today requires major changes. This also implicates important challenges in the pursuit of judicial efficiency. Based on recent research on justice and ict´s, we find it necessary to talk about the modernization of administrations and the adoption of ict´s. In addition to this, we also discuss judicial efficiency. Furthermore, we take a step ahead to properly approach the modernization of the administration of justice to address challenges such as training, Big Data and the electronic judicial process, and finally the re-design, opening and innovation in the justice system.

  20. Perspective and Spatiality in the Modern Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Fraisopi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available the domain of Art critique and becoming a philosophical argument. How can we think of Perspective as symbolic Form? Is Perspective really a symbolic form? Why is Perspective so important? Because at the beginning of the Modern Age, Perspective as spiritual figure grounds many symbolic or even many scientific constructions. We could we say that perspective open the foundation of modern science as such. The “Geometrization” of Vision, beginning with perspective, will be for us the interpretative key in order to understand the Modern Age as a whole.  This understanding will allow us to understand the anthropologic dimension arising from the Modern Age, called „Perspectivism“. Assuming that perspective was neither only an invention of painting nor of geometry nor of philosophy, taken as singular fields of human inquiry, we will try to sketch the genesis of “perspective” from an interdisciplinary point of view. By doing so, we will also try to fix its deep significance for the anthropology of the Modern Age. Living and feeling in a perspectival world is the real invention of the Modern Age, one that overcame the closed Cosmos of the Middle Ages in order to reveal to mankind its own potential. Our interdisciplinary approach will proceed from many points of view (history of art, science, theology, anthropology and converge on the idea of a new kind of human experience. Such an interdisciplinary approach will open new questions about our present time. Are we justified in thinking of our experience today as perspectival? What does it mean today to think from perspectives in the manifold dimensions of our living and to face to the complexity of our times?

  1. History of US Presidential Assaults on Modern Environmental Health Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Leif; Sellers, Christopher; Dillon, Lindsey; Ohayon, Jennifer Liss; Shapiro, Nicholas; Sullivan, Marianne; Bocking, Stephen; Brown, Phil; de la Rosa, Vanessa; Harrison, Jill; Johns, Sara; Kulik, Katherine; Lave, Rebecca; Murphy, Michelle; Piper, Liza; Richter, Lauren; Wylie, Sara

    2018-04-01

    The Trump administration has undertaken an assault on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), an agency critical to environmental health. This assault has precedents in the administrations of Ronald Reagan and George W. Bush. The early Reagan administration (1981-1983) launched an overt attack on the EPA, combining deregulation with budget and staff cuts, whereas the George W. Bush administration (2001-2008) adopted a subtler approach, undermining science-based policy. The current administration combines both these strategies and operates in a political context more favorable to its designs on the EPA. The Republican Party has shifted right and now controls the executive branch and both chambers of Congress. Wealthy donors, think tanks, and fossil fuel and chemical industries have become more influential in pushing deregulation. Among the public, political polarization has increased, the environment has become a partisan issue, and science and the mainstream media are distrusted. For these reasons, the effects of today's ongoing regulatory delays, rollbacks, and staff cuts may well surpass those of the administrations of Reagan and Bush, whose impacts on environmental health were considerable.

  2. An Anthropometric History of Early-Modern France

    OpenAIRE

    Komlos, John; Hau, Michel; Bourginat, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    The height of the French male population of the Ancien Régime is estimated, on the basis of military records, to have been about 162 cm in the 17th century. This extremely short stature implies that, “the crisis of the 17th century” had an immense impact on the human organism itself. The improvement in climatic conditions at the turn of the 18th century had an ameliorating effect on the human organism, increasing in size by nearly 4 cms within a span of 12 years. Improved weather had a benefi...

  3. Using Multimedia for Teaching Analysis in History of Modern Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Garry

    This paper presents a case for the development and support of a computer-based interactive multimedia program for teaching analysis in community college architecture design programs. Analysis in architecture design is an extremely important strategy for the teaching of higher-order thinking skills, which senior schools of architecture look for in…

  4. Acupuncture: History from the Yellow Emperor to Modern Anesthesia Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faircloth, Amanda

    2015-08-01

    Acupuncture and acupressure are components of Oriental medicine that have been in existence for thousands of years. These practices have transcended from Asia into Western culture. In the context of anesthesia practice, acupuncture and acupressure have demonstrated clinical usefulness in the perioperative setting. Acupuncture and acupressure can successfully decrease preoperative anxiety, decrease intraoperative anesthetic requirements, assuage postoperative pain, decrease the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, and support chronic pain management.

  5. Moments in the Modern History of the Language Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swales, John M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the beginning of the ascendancy of the language sciences in the past 50 years to become the "queen" of social studies. Focuses on contributions by Mikhail Bakhtin, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Noam Chomsky, Erving Goffman, and Michael Halliday. (SC)

  6. History of US Presidential Assaults on Modern Environmental Health Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Christopher; Dillon, Lindsey; Ohayon, Jennifer Liss; Shapiro, Nicholas; Sullivan, Marianne; Bocking, Stephen; Brown, Phil; de la Rosa, Vanessa; Harrison, Jill; Johns, Sara; Kulik, Katherine; Lave, Rebecca; Murphy, Michelle; Piper, Liza; Richter, Lauren; Wylie, Sara

    2018-01-01

    The Trump administration has undertaken an assault on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), an agency critical to environmental health. This assault has precedents in the administrations of Ronald Reagan and George W. Bush. The early Reagan administration (1981–1983) launched an overt attack on the EPA, combining deregulation with budget and staff cuts, whereas the George W. Bush administration (2001–2008) adopted a subtler approach, undermining science-based policy. The current administration combines both these strategies and operates in a political context more favorable to its designs on the EPA. The Republican Party has shifted right and now controls the executive branch and both chambers of Congress. Wealthy donors, think tanks, and fossil fuel and chemical industries have become more influential in pushing deregulation. Among the public, political polarization has increased, the environment has become a partisan issue, and science and the mainstream media are distrusted. For these reasons, the effects of today’s ongoing regulatory delays, rollbacks, and staff cuts may well surpass those of the administrations of Reagan and Bush, whose impacts on environmental health were considerable. PMID:29698097

  7. The pre-history of modern ecological economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    This paper provides a historical perspective for the discussion on ecological economics as a special field of research. By studying the historical background of ecological economics, the present discussions and tensions inside the field might become easier to understand and to relate to. The stud...

  8. Phase transitions modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gitterman, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.

  9. Methods in Modern Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Nölting, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    Incorporating recent dramatic advances, this textbook presents a fresh and timely introduction to modern biophysical methods. An array of new, faster and higher-power biophysical methods now enables scientists to examine the mysteries of life at a molecular level. This innovative text surveys and explains the ten key biophysical methods, including those related to biophysical nanotechnology, scanning probe microscopy, X-ray crystallography, ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectrometry, proteomics, and protein folding and structure. Incorporating much information previously unavailable in tutorial form, Nölting employs worked examples and 267 illustrations to fully detail the techniques and their underlying mechanisms. Methods in Modern Biophysics is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, researchers, lecturers and professors in biophysics, biochemistry and related fields. Special features in the 2nd edition: • Illustrates the high-resolution methods for ultrashort-living protei...

  10. Methods in Modern Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Nölting, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    Incorporating recent dramatic advances, this textbook presents a fresh and timely introduction to modern biophysical methods. An array of new, faster and higher-power biophysical methods now enables scientists to examine the mysteries of life at a molecular level. This innovative text surveys and explains the ten key biophysical methods, including those related to biophysical nanotechnology, scanning probe microscopy, X-ray crystallography, ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectrometry, proteomics, and protein folding and structure. Incorporating much information previously unavailable in tutorial form, Nölting employs worked examples and about 270 illustrations to fully detail the techniques and their underlying mechanisms. Methods in Modern Biophysics is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, researchers, lecturers, and professors in biophysics, biochemistry and related fields. Special features in the 3rd edition: Introduces rapid partial protein ladder sequencing - an important...

  11. Modern real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ziemer, William P

    2017-01-01

    This first year graduate text is a comprehensive resource in real analysis based on a modern treatment of measure and integration. Presented in a definitive and self-contained manner, it features a natural progression of concepts from simple to difficult. Several innovative topics are featured, including differentiation of measures, elements of Functional Analysis, the Riesz Representation Theorem, Schwartz distributions, the area formula, Sobolev functions and applications to harmonic functions. Together, the selection of topics forms a sound foundation in real analysis that is particularly suited to students going on to further study in partial differential equations. This second edition of Modern Real Analysis contains many substantial improvements, including the addition of problems for practicing techniques, and an entirely new section devoted to the relationship between Lebesgue and improper integrals. Aimed at graduate students with an understanding of advanced calculus, the text will also appeal to mo...

  12. Relativity in modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Deruelle, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook on relativity integrates Newtonian physics, special relativity and general relativity into a single book that emphasizes the deep underlying principles common to them all, yet explains how they are applied in different ways in these three contexts. Newton's ideas about how to represent space and time, his laws of dynamics, and his theory of gravitation established the conceptual foundation from which modern physics developed. Book I in this volume offers undergraduates a modern view of Newtonian theory, emphasizing those aspects needed for understanding quantum and relativistic contemporary physics. In 1905, Albert Einstein proposed a novel representation of space and time, special relativity. Book II presents relativistic dynamics in inertial and accelerated frames, as well as a detailed overview of Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism. This provides undergraduate and graduate students with the background necessary for studying particle and accelerator physics, astrophysics and ...

  13. Modern particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079874

    2013-01-01

    Unique in its coverage of all aspects of modern particle physics, this textbook provides a clear connection between the theory and recent experimental results, including the discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN. It provides a comprehensive and self-contained description of the Standard Model of particle physics suitable for upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students studying experimental particle physics. Physical theory is introduced in a straightforward manner with full mathematical derivations throughout. Fully-worked examples enable students to link the mathematical theory to results from modern particle physics experiments. End-of-chapter exercises, graded by difficulty, provide students with a deeper understanding of the subject. Online resources available at www.cambridge.org/MPP feature password-protected fully-worked solutions to problems for instructors, numerical solutions and hints to the problems for students and PowerPoint slides and JPEGs of figures from the book

  14. Modern operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tanenbaum, Andrew S

    2015-01-01

    Modern Operating Systems, Fourth Edition, is intended for introductory courses in Operating Systems in Computer Science, Computer Engineering, and Electrical Engineering programs. It also serves as a useful reference for OS professionals ' The widely anticipated revision of this worldwide best-seller incorporates the latest developments in operating systems (OS) technologies. The Fourth Edition includes up-to-date materials on relevant'OS. Tanenbaum also provides information on current research based on his experience as an operating systems researcher. ' Modern Operating Systems, Third Editionwas the recipient of the 2010 McGuffey Longevity Award. The McGuffey Longevity Award recognizes textbooks whose excellence has been demonstrated over time.'http://taaonline.net/index.html " Teaching and Learning Experience This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience-for you and your students. It will help: ' *Provide Practical Detail on the Big Picture Concepts: A clear and entertaining writing s...

  15. Modern water resources engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chih

    2014-01-01

    The Handbook of Environmental Engineering series is an incredible collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. This exciting new addition to the series, Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering , has been designed to serve as a water resources engineering reference book as well as a supplemental textbook. We hope and expect it will prove of equal high value to advanced undergraduate and graduate students, to designers of water resources systems, and to scientists and researchers. A critical volume in the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series, chapters employ methods of practical design and calculation illustrated by numerical examples, include pertinent cost data whenever possible, and explore in great detail the fundamental principles of the field. Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering, provides information on some of the most innovative and ground-breaking advances in the field today from a panel of esteemed...

  16. Colony size-frequency distributions among different populations of the scleractinan coral Siderastrea stellata in Southwestern Atlantic: implications for life history patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Moraes Lins de Barros

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Colony size-frequency distributions of reef corals may be used to infer growth potential and population responses upon environmental changes. The present paper compares the size structure of colonies of Siderastrea stellata Verrill, 1868,among 11 sites, six of them distributed along a gradient of sediment deposition in Abrolhos, Bahia, Brazil (18º S. Results indicated that the population structure is likely to be influenced by local conditions, rather than large scale factors, such as latitude. The 11 distributions, however, showed higher frequencies of small size classes. Class 1 (up to 2.5 cm diameter was always present and the frequency of colonies from size class 3 (10 cm diameter tended to decrease in all sites. Comparison among the six Abrolhos sites showed that S. stellata has advantages at sites with intermediate sedimentation, where colonies attain larger sizes, probably, reflecting a higher survivorship over time. The present study showed that, despite the influence of environmental conditions on parameters of the populations such as size of colony, the life history strategy of S. stellata reflects a local adaptation that allows its development and survivorship in shallow waters and horizontal substrates, sites characterized by high mortality rates.Distribuições de freqüências de classes de tamanho de colônias de corais recifais, associadas a dados de fecundidade e crescimento, podem ser utilizadas para inferir o potencial de crescimento e respostas da população frente às variações ambientais. Apresentamos análise da estrutura de tamanho de colônias do coral Siderastrea stellata Verrill, 1868, em 11 locais, seis desses distribuídos ao longo de um gradiente de sedimentação em Abrolhos, Bahia, Brasil (18ºS. Os resultados demonstraram ausência de um padrão latitudinal, indicando maior influência de fatores locais. Em Abrolhos, locais com taxas de deposição de sedimento intermediárias apresentaram os maiores

  17. Ancient humans and the origin of modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Janet; Prüfer, Kay

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in sequencing technologies and molecular methods have facilitated the sequencing of DNA from ancient human remains which has, in turn, provided unprecedented insight into human history. Within the past 4 years the genomes of Neandertals and Denisovans, as well as the genomes of at least two early modern humans, have been sequenced. These sequences showed that there have been several episodes of admixture between modern and archaic groups; including admixture from Neandertals into modern human populations outside of Africa, and admixture from Denisovans into modern human populations in Oceania. Recent results indicate that some of these introgressed regions may have been advantageous for modern humans as they expanded into new regions outside of Africa. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Cobol software modernization

    CERN Document Server

    Barbier, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, billions of lines of code are in the COBOL programming language. This book is an analysis, a diagnosis, a strategy, a MDD method and a tool to transform legacy COBOL into modernized applications that comply with Internet computing, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and the Cloud.  It serves as a blueprint for those in charge of finding solutions to this considerable challenge.

  19. Modern optical science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This book deals with modern optical science, which gives description of properties of light and transmission, ray tracing like Gaussian image, ray tracing and optical system, properties about light wave, a vector properties of light, interference and an interferometer, transform and application of interferometer, diffraction, application on diffraction, solid optical science, measurement of light and laser such as basic principle of laser, kinds of laser, pulse laser, resonator and single mode and multimode.

  20. Designing Modern Equity Portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Jean Degen

    2011-01-01

    This aim of this paper is to describe possible ways of investing in equity; choosing the right stocks(among small-cap, large-cap, value, growth, and foreign) using fundamental analysis, defining their appropriate mix in the portfolios according to the desired return-risk profiles based on Markowitz?s modern portfolio theory, and using technical analysis to buy and sell them.