WorldWideScience

Sample records for history early modern 1451-1600

  1. Early modern natural history: Contributions from the Americas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Early modern natural history: Contributions from the Americas and India. Rajesh Kochhar. Perspectives Volume 37 Issue ... Keywords. India; medical botany; natural history; scientific botany; the Americas. Author Affiliations. Rajesh Kochhar1. Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali 140 306 Punjab, India ...

  2. The early history of modern ecological economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    is inspired by other studies of the emergence of new research areas done by sociologists and historians of science, and includes both cognitive and social aspects, macro trends and the role of individuals. The basis for the paper is a combination of literature studies and interviews with key researchers from...... were given modern formulations, but it took a long gestation period from the beginning of the 1970s to the end of the 1980s, before ecological economics took shape. During this gestation period the personal relationships between the actors were formed, and the meetings that were decisive for the formal...

  3. Assembling the dodo in early modern natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Natalie

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores the assimilation of the flightless dodo into early modern natural history. The dodo was first described by Dutch sailors landing on Mauritius in 1598, and became extinct in the 1680s or 1690s. Despite this brief period of encounter, the bird was a popular subject in natural-history works and a range of other genres. The dodo will be used here as a counterexample to the historical narratives of taxonomic crisis and abrupt shifts in natural history caused by exotic creatures coming to Europe. Though this bird had a bizarre form, early modern naturalists integrated the dodo and other flightless birds through several levels of conceptual categorization, including the geographical, morphological and symbolic. Naturalists such as Charles L'Ecluse produced a set of typical descriptive tropes that helped make up the European dodo. These long-lived images were used for a variety of symbolic purposes, demonstrated by the depiction of the Dutch East India enterprise in Willem Piso's 1658 publication. The case of the dodo shows that, far from there being a dramatic shift away from emblematics in the seventeenth century, the implicit symbolic roles attributed to exotic beasts by naturalists constructing them from scant information and specimens remained integral to natural history.

  4. Teaching the Past in the Early Modern Era: Two Different Ways to Make Use of History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruter, Annie

    2012-01-01

    Were teachers, of the early modern era not longing for the present? Most colleges of that time did not offer a history course. Still, they did teach a lot about the past since the teaching consisted in the reading of the works of ancient writers. This is because ancient science and literature were considered much more advanced than the science and…

  5. Approaches to the History of Patients: From the Ancient World to Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This chapter looks from an early modernist's perspective at some of the major questions and methodological issues that writing the history of patients in the ancient world shares with similar work on Patientengeschichte in medieval and early modern Europe. It addresses, in particular, the problem of finding adequate sources that give access to the patients' experience of illness and medicine and highlights the potential as well as the limitations of using physicians' case histories for that purpose. It discusses the doctor-patient relationship as it emerges from these sources, and the impact of the patient's point of view on learned medical theory and practice. In conclusion, it pleads for a cautious and nuanced approach to the controversial issue of retrospective diagnosis, recommending that historians consistently ask in which contexts and in what way the application of modern diagnostic labels to pre-modern accounts of illness can truly contribute to a better historical understanding rather than distort it.

  6. Earliest evidence of modern human life history in North African early Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tanya M; Tafforeau, Paul; Reid, Donald J; Grün, Rainer; Eggins, Stephen; Boutakiout, Mohamed; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2007-04-10

    Recent developmental studies demonstrate that early fossil hominins possessed shorter growth periods than living humans, implying disparate life histories. Analyses of incremental features in teeth provide an accurate means of assessing the age at death of developing dentitions, facilitating direct comparisons with fossil and modern humans. It is currently unknown when and where the prolonged modern human developmental condition originated. Here, an application of x-ray synchrotron microtomography reveals that an early Homo sapiens juvenile from Morocco dated at 160,000 years before present displays an equivalent degree of tooth development to modern European children at the same age. Crown formation times in the juvenile's macrodont dentition are higher than modern human mean values, whereas root development is accelerated relative to modern humans but is less than living apes and some fossil hominins. The juvenile from Jebel Irhoud is currently the oldest-known member of Homo with a developmental pattern (degree of eruption, developmental stage, and crown formation time) that is more similar to modern H. sapiens than to earlier members of Homo. This study also underscores the continuing importance of North Africa for understanding the origins of human anatomical and behavioral modernity. Corresponding biological and cultural changes may have appeared relatively late in the course of human evolution.

  7. (See symbol in text) in early modern discussions of the passions: Stoicism, Christianity and natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraye, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the reception of the Stoic theory of the passions in the early modern period, highlighting various differences between the way notions such as (see symbol in text) (complete freedom from passions) and(see symbol in text) (pre-passions) were handled and interpreted by Continental and English authors. Both groups were concerned about the compatibility of Stoicism with Christianity, but came to opposing conclusions; and while the Continental scholars drew primarily on ancient philosophical texts, the English ones relied, in addition, on experience and observation, developing a natural history of the passions.

  8. Francis Bacon's natural history and the Senecan natural histories of early modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalobeanu, Dana

    2012-01-01

    At various stages in his career, Francis Bacon claimed to have reformed and changed traditional natural history in such a way that his new "natural and experimental history" was unlike any of its ancient or humanist predecessors. Surprisingly, such claims have gone largely unquestioned in Baconian scholarship. Contextual readings of Bacon's natural history have compared it, so far, only with Plinian or humanist natural history. This paper investigates a different form of natural history, very popular among Bacon's contemporaries, but yet unexplored by contemporary students of Bacon's works. I have provisionally called this form of natural history'Senecan' natural history, partly because it took shape in the Neo-Stoic revival of the sixteenth-century, partly because it originates in a particular cosmographical reading of Seneca's Naturales quaestiones. I discuss in this paper two examples of Senecan natural history: the encyclopedic and cosmographical projects of Pierre de la Primaudaye (1546-1619) and Samuel Purchas (1577-1626). I highlight a number of similarities between these two projects and Francis Bacon's natural history, and argue that Senecan natural history forms an important aspect in the historical and philosophical background that needs to be taken into consideration if we want to understand the extent to which Bacon's project to reform natural history can be said to be new.

  9. Modern History of Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Authored by Xu Guangzhi, this book is a subsidiary project of Research Into Traditional Culture and History (of the PRC Ministry of Education) conducted by China Tibetology Research Institute of Tibet University. The book combines modern history of Tibet with modern history of China as a whole. It tells the close ties between various members of the Chinese nation.

  10. Formalization and Interaction: Toward a Comprehensive History of Technology-Related Knowledge in Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popplow, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    Recent critical approaches to what has conventionally been described as "scientific" and "technical" knowledge in early modern Europe have provided a wealth of new insights. So far, the various analytical concepts suggested by these studies have not yet been comprehensively discussed. The present essay argues that such comprehensive approaches might prove of special value for long-term and cross-cultural reflections on technology-related knowledge. As heuristic tools, the notions of "formalization" and "interaction" are proposed as part of alternative narratives to those highlighting the emergence of "science" as the most relevant development for technology-related knowledge in early modern Europe.

  11. Early modern mathematical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jim

    2011-12-01

    In considering the appropriate use of the terms "science" and "scientific instrument," tracing the history of "mathematical instruments" in the early modern period is offered as an illuminating alternative to the historian's natural instinct to follow the guiding lights of originality and innovation, even if the trail transgresses contemporary boundaries. The mathematical instrument was a well-defined category, shared across the academic, artisanal, and commercial aspects of instrumentation, and its narrative from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century was largely independent from other classes of device, in a period when a "scientific" instrument was unheard of.

  12. Early Modern Philosophical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Bunge (Wiep)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe occurrence of an entry on early modern philosophical systems in an encyclopaedia of Neo-Latin studies is fraught with complications, if only on account of the gradual disappearance during the early modern period of Latin as the main vehicle of philosophical communication. What

  13. Who says this is a modern disorder? The early history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Badía, Jose; Martinez-Raga, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex, heterogeneous and multifactorial neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Although the first clinical description of a constellation of symptoms highly resembling to what currently could be diagnosed as ADHD is generally attributed to George F Still in 1902, there are scattered but significant published historical medical, scientific and non-scientific reports, much prior to Still’s lectures, of what is currently conceptualized as ADHD. The present report aimed at exploring the early history of ADHD, prior to the 20th century in the medical literature and in other historical sources, to provide clinicians, researchers and other professionals with a better understanding of the roots and current conceptualization of this disorder. It is possible to find clues and highly suggestive descriptions of individuals presenting symptoms resembling what is currently defined as ADHD in the literature, in paintings or in the Bible. However, the earliest medical reports of individuals with abnormal degrees of inattention, distractibility and overactivity date from the last quarter of the 18th century, included in two of the first textbooks specifically on the subject of mental diseases, published by the German Melchior Adam Weikard and the Scottish Sir Alexander Crichton. During the 19th century some eminent physicians from Germany, France or Great Britain, such as Charles West, Thomas C Albutt, Thomas S Clouston, William W, Ireland, John Haslam, Heinrich Neumann, or Désiré-Magloire Bourneville, among others provided clinical depictions of patients that most likely presently would be diagnosed as having ADHD. Whilst some of the children described by Still and his predecessors may have suffered from a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, many of these patients showed clear symptoms of ADHD and may present with comorbid disorders, as

  14. Historical DNA reveals the demographic history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in medieval and early modern Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsdóttir, Guðbjörg Ásta; Westfall, Kristen M; Edvardsson, Ragnar; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2014-02-22

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) vertebrae from archaeological sites were used to study the history of the Icelandic Atlantic cod population in the time period of 1500-1990. Specifically, we used coalescence modelling to estimate population size and fluctuations from the sequence diversity at the cytochrome b (cytb) and Pantophysin I (PanI) loci. The models are consistent with an expanding population during the warm medieval period, large historical effective population size (NE), a marked bottleneck event at 1400-1500 and a decrease in NE in early modern times. The model results are corroborated by the reduction of haplotype and nucleotide variation over time and pairwise population distance as a significant portion of nucleotide variation partitioned across the 1550 time mark. The mean age of the historical fished stock is high in medieval times with a truncation in age in early modern times. The population size crash coincides with a period of known cooling in the North Atlantic, and we conclude that the collapse may be related to climate or climate-induced ecosystem change.

  15. Unity and Diversity as a Theme in Early Modern Dutch Religious History: an Interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    The Reformation in the Low Countries fascinates both church historians and general historians. Religious change and political revolution went hand in hand. The history of the Reformation is an integral part of the history of the birth of the Dutch nation. Although well-researched, its attraction is

  16. Building a Digital Bookwheel Together: Annotated Books Online and the History of Early Modern Reading Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.S.Q.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/120007657; Calis, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the history of reading has become an increasingly lively field of scholarship. Important case studies have documented the freedom that individual readers have enjoyed in handling their books. On a structural level, however, the scholarship has been hampered by limited

  17. Connecting the Indies: the hispano-asian Pacific world in early Modern Global History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Dominic Crewe

    Full Text Available Abstract This article reconsiders the place of colonial Latin America in global history by examining the Transpacific interactions, conflicts, and exchanges between Latin America and Asia in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Setting aside earlier imperial histories that present the Pacific as a 'Spanish Lake', I conceptualize a dynamic Hispano-Asian Pacific World that was forged by a myriad of actors in and around the Pacific basin. Instead of a Pacific dominated by far-off Spain, my research reveals a Transpacific world that in fact defied imperial efforts to claim, regulate, or convert it. I structure this study along three broad lines of inquiry: the economic ties that made the Asian-Latin American 'Rim', the consequences of human transits and cultural exchanges along new Transpacific conduits, and the barriers of distance and culture that limited both cosmopolitanism and imperialism. For societies in Latin America, this Hispano-Asian Pacific world provided them with greater autonomy than the Atlantic world. They shared, alongside diverse groups in this maritime world, a common story of circumvention, of freewheeling exchanges, and of checked powers, for no single shoreline, empire, or group predominated. Ultimately, by charting the currents of Hispano-Asian interactions in the Pacific world, I provide a riposte to theories in global historiography that have situated Latin America at the periphery of Western Europe.

  18. History of modern physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biezunski, M.

    1993-01-01

    This book presents an history of the principal concepts of contemporary physics and their genesis from the great cleavages of the beginning of the century with some incursions in a more far-away past. The essential concepts are replaced in their creation context, especially relativity, quantum mechanics and particles physics. (A.B.)

  19. History as Modernity. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Schiera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction starts from the exhaustion of modernity, drawing the fundamental lines of its development inside Western historical experience. The end of the political nexus between theology and politics, the evanescence of nation-state sovereignty, the check of great historical interpretations reveal the necessity of new categories and new organizational models, able to make us answer to the violence that the ongoing processes are liberating. Schiera underlines in particular the relevance of the administrative apparatus because of its capacity to link the global government with global organization, human rights and the commons.

  20. The Hidden History of a Famous Drug : Tracing the Medical and Public Acculturation of Peruvian Bark in Early Modern Western Europe (c. 1650-1720)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Wouter; Pieters, Toine

    2016-01-01

    The history of the introduction of exotic therapeutic drugs in early modern Europe is usually rife with legend and obscurity and Peruvian bark is a case in point. The famous antimalarial drug entered the European medical market around 1640, yet it took decades before the bark was firmly established

  1. New Plants at Prague Castle and Hradčany in the Early Modern Period. A History of Selected Species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, J.; Čulíková, Věra; Kosňovská, J.; Frolík, Jan; Matiášek, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2012), s. 103-114 ISSN 1804-848X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Prague Castle * Early Modern Period * archaeobotany Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://www.iansa.eu/papers/IANSA-2012-01-benes.pdf

  2. International Orders in the Early Modern World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book challenges the Eurocentric foundations of modern International Relations scholarship. Its primary empirical focus is the early modern era, when European primacy had yet to develop in many parts of the globe. It presents a series of regional case studies from experts on East Asia, the Mi...... and scholars of international relations, international relations theory, international history, early modern history and sociology.......This book challenges the Eurocentric foundations of modern International Relations scholarship. Its primary empirical focus is the early modern era, when European primacy had yet to develop in many parts of the globe. It presents a series of regional case studies from experts on East Asia......, the Middle East, Africa and Latin America, and Russia to explore patterns of cross-cultural exchange and civilizational encounters. The authors analyze a series of regional international orders which were primarily defined by local interests, agendas and institutions, with European interlopers often playing...

  3. A history of modern librarianship

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegand, Wayne; Richards, Pamela; Richards, Pamela; Wiegand, Wayne; Dalbello, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Previous histories of libraries in the Western world-the last of which was published nearly 20 years ago-concentrate on libraries and librarians. This book takes a different approach. It focuses on the practice of librarianship, showing you how that practice has contributed to constructing the heritage of cultures. To do so, this groundbreaking collection of essays presents the history of modern librarianship in the context of recent developments of the library institution, professionalization of librarianship, and innovation through information technology. Organized by region, the book a

  4. Bolatu's pharmacy theriac in early modern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Carla

    2009-01-01

    In early modem China, natural history and medicine were shifting along with the boundaries of the empire. Naturalists struggled to cope with a pharmacy's worth of new and unfamiliar substances, texts, and terms, as plants, animals, and the drugs made from them travelled into China across land and sea. One crucial aspect of this phenomenon was the early modern exchange between Islamic and Chinese medicine. The history of theriac illustrates the importance of the recipe for the naturalization of foreign objects in early modem Chinese medicine. Theriac was a widely sought-after and hotly debated product in early modern European pharmacology and arrived into the Chinese medical canon via Arabic and Persian texts. The dialogue between language and material objects was critical to the Silk Road drug trade, and transliteration was ultimately a crucial technology used to translate drugs and texts about them in the early modern world.

  5. Early-Modern Irreligion and Theological Analogy: A Response to Gavin Hyman’s A Short History of Atheism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Linford

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, many Christians have understood God’s transcendence to imply God’s properties categorically differ from any created properties. For multiple historical figures, a problem arose for religious language: how can one talk of God at all if none of our predicates apply to God? What are we to make of creeds and Biblical passages that seem to predicate creaturely properties, such as goodness and wisdom, of God? Thomas Aquinas offered a solution: God is to be spoken of only through analogy (the doctrine of analogy. Gavin Hyman argues Aquinas’s doctrine of analogy was neglected prior to the early-modern period and the neglect of analogy produced the conception of a god vulnerable to atheistic arguments. Contra Hyman, in this paper, I show early-modern atheism arose in a theological context in which there was an active debate concerning analogy. Peter Browne (1665–1735 and William King (1650–1729 offered two competing conceptions of analogical predication that were debated through the 19th century, with interlocutors such as the freethinker Anthony Collins (1676–1729, theologian/philosopher George Berkeley (1685–1753, and skeptic David Hume (1711–1776. Lastly, I discuss the 18th century debate over theological analogy as part of the background relevant to understanding Hume’s 'Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion'.

  6. Casebooks in Early Modern England:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    summary Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

  7. ["Lingue di seripi", "serpents' tongues" and "glossopetrae". Highlights from the history of popular "cult" medicine in early modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freller, T

    1997-01-01

    In the 16th, 17th and 18th century "Glossopetrae", popularly known as "Lingue di Serpi", found on the Mediterranean island of Malta, were extensively used for medical purposes as antidotes. These fossil teeth, including specimens of the "Carcharodon Megalodon" (an extinct variant of the great white shark), were ground to powder or used as amulet pendants and "credence" and exported to pharmacies and shops in various cities of Europe. In antiquity, authors like Plinius or Solinus, excluding any religious connotations, had regarded "Glossopetrae" as objects "fallen from heaven on dark moonless nights". However, from the beginning of the 16th century the miraculous antidotic power of the specimens found at Malta was very strongly connected with the Pauline cult there. This cult owed ist origin to the excerpt of the shipwreck of the Apostle of the Gentiles on this island, as recorded in the New Testament. As in so many cases found in medieval and early modern medicine and pharmacy, the renown, collection, distribution and use of the antidote "Glossopetrae" or "Lingue di Serpi" was never limited to its real chemical and pharmaceutical properties. In the period of enlightenment and secular thinking mythic medicine as "Glossopetrae" had lost ist "magical" power. Consequently, with beginning of the late 18th century also the Maltese "Glossopetrae" featured in literature merely as exotic objects of curiosity or symbols of an age bound to medical superstition.

  8. The Hidden History of a Famous Drug: Tracing the Medical and Public Acculturation of Peruvian Bark in Early Modern Western Europe (c. 1650-1720).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Wouter; Pieters, Toine

    2016-10-01

    The history of the introduction of exotic therapeutic drugs in early modern Europe is usually rife with legend and obscurity and Peruvian bark is a case in point. The famous antimalarial drug entered the European medical market around 1640, yet it took decades before the bark was firmly established in pharmaceutical practice. This article argues that the history of Peruvian bark can only be understood as the interplay of its trajectories in science, commerce, and society. Modern research has mostly focused on the first of these, largely due to the abundance of medico-historical data. While appreciating these findings, this article proposes to integrate the medical trajectory in a richer narrative, by drawing particular attention to the acculturation of the bark in commerce and society. Although the evidence we have for these two trajectories is still sketchy and disproportionate, it can nevertheless help us to make sense of sources that have not yet been an obvious focus of research. Starting from an apparently isolated occurrence of the drug in a letter, this article focuses on Paris as the location where medical and public appreciation of the bark took shape, by exploring several contexts of knowledge circulation and medical practice there. These contexts provide a new window on the early circulation of knowledge of the bark, at a time when its eventual acceptance was by no means certain. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Mercury's Early Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Klima, R. L.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, compositional information, and geochemical models are providing a better understanding of Mercury's early geologic history, and allow us to place it in the context of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

  10. 'GETTING' THE POX: Reflections by an Historian on How to Write the History of Early Modern Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Claudia

    This article reflects upon the recent return to linear history writing in medical history. It takes as its starting point a critique of the current return to constructivist ideas, suggesting the use of other methodological choices and interpretations to the surviving archival and textural sources of the sixteenth century pox. My investigation analyses the diagnostic act as an effort to bring together a study of medical semiotics. Medical semiotics considers how signs speak through the physical body, coached within a particular epistemology. There are no hidden meanings behind the visible sign or symptom - it is tranparent to the calculative and authoritative gaze and language of the doctor. It concerns how diseases came into being, the relationships they have constituted, the power they have secured and the actual knowledge/power they have eclipsed or are eclipsing. From such a perspective, "getting the pox" is not a bad thing. A methodological turn to medical semiotics reminds us that the history of disease should be an inquiry both into the grounds of our current knowledge and beliefs about disease and how they inspire our writing, as well as the analytical categories that establish their inevitability.

  11. ‘Getting’ the Pox: Reflections by an Historian on How to Write the History of Early Modern Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects upon the recent return to linear history writing in medical history. It takes as its starting point a critique of the current return to constructivist ideas, suggesting the use of other methodological choices and interpretations to the surviving archival and textural sources of the sixteenth century pox. My investigation analyses the diagnostic act as an effort to bring together a study of medical semiotics. Medical semiotics considers how signs speak through the physical body, coached within a particular epistemology. There are no hidden meanings behind the visible sign or symptom - it is tranparent to the calculative and authoritative gaze and language of the doctor. It concerns how diseases came into being, the relationships they have constituted, the power they have secured and the actual knowledge/power they have eclipsed or are eclipsing. From such a perspective, “getting the pox” is not a bad thing. A methodological turn to medical semiotics reminds us that the history of disease should be an inquiry both into the grounds of our current knowledge and beliefs about disease and how they inspire our writing, as well as the analytical categories that establish their inevitability.

  12. International Orders in the Early Modern World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    a secondary role. These perspectives emphasise the central role of non-European agency in shaping global history, and stand in stark contrast to conventional narratives revolving around the ‘Rise of the West’, which tend to be based upon a stylized contrast between a dynamic West and a passive and static East....... Focusing on a crucial period of global history that has been neglected in the field of International Relations, the book reveals profound differences between the early modern era and the more familiar colonial conquests of the second half of the nineteenth century. It will be interest to students...

  13. Introduction. History, Culture and Modernity in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotelind Müller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a short introduction to the main topics and aims of this thematic issue on history, culture and modernity in China. It outlines the multi-faceted approaches to a (or more than one modernity between and beyond Westernisation and Sinicisation as formulated in the twentieth century, be it in Republican China, Taiwan or the People's Republic, and how this is reflected in "Western" historiography on China. For China, (rearticulations of "alternatives" would open up the possibility for more than just one single, homogenising, culturalist-essentialist (and top-down defined "Chinese dream". Since discussions of modernity are always closely linked to the concerns of the present, shifts in global economy and politics might, in turn, also lead to new conceptions of what a "global modernity" (if such a single entity exists should mean and how the Chinese case might relate (or contribute to it.

  14. Trading Zones in Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Pamela O

    2015-12-01

    This essay adopts the concept of trading zones first developed for the history of science by Peter Galison and redefines it for the early modern period. The term "trading zones" is used to mean arenas in which substantive and reciprocal communication occurred between individuals who were artisanally trained and learned (university-trained) individuals. Such trading zones proliferated in the sixteenth century. They tended to arise in certain kinds of places and not in others, but their existence must be determined empirically. The author's work on trading zones differs from the ideas of Edgar Zilsel, who emphasized the influence of artisans on the scientific revolution. In contrast, in this essay, the mutual influence of artisans and the learned on each other is stressed, and translation is used as a modality that was important to communication within trading zones.

  15. Gardens, knowledge and the sciences in the early modern period

    CERN Document Server

    Remmert, Volker; Wolschke-Bulmahn, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    This volume focuses on the outstanding contributions made by botany and the mathematical sciences to the genesis and development of early modern garden art and garden culture. The many facets of the mathematical sciences and botany point to the increasingly “scientific” approach that was being adopted in and applied to garden art and garden culture in the early modern period. This development was deeply embedded in the philosophical, religious, political, cultural and social contexts, running parallel to the beginning of processes of scientization so characteristic for modern European history. This volume strikingly shows how these various developments are intertwined in gardens for various purposes.

  16. History of early atomic clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, N.F.

    2005-01-01

    This review of the history of early atomic clocks includes early atomic beam magnetic resonance, methods of separated and successive oscillatory fields, microwave absorption, optical pumping and atomic masers. (author)

  17. SOUTHEAST ASIA: HISTORY, MODERNITY, AND RELIGIOUS CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanto Al Qurtuby

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia, with more than six hundred million populations, is home to millions of Buddhists, Muslims, Confucians, Protestants, Catholics, and now Pentecostals, as well as many followers of local religions and spiritual beliefs. Notwithstanding its great historical, political, cultural legacies, however, the region has long been neglected as a site for religious studies in the Western academia. Aiming at filling the gap in Asian and religious studies as well as exploring the richness of Southeast Asian cultures, this article discusses the dynamics, diversity, and complexity of Southeast Asian societies in their response to the region’s richly political, cultural, and religious traditions spanning from pre-modern era to modern one. The article also examines the “integrative revolutions” that shaped and reshaped warfare, state organization and economics of Southeast Asia, particularly in the pre-European colonial era. In addition, the work discusses the wave of Islamization, particularly since the nineteenth century, as well as the upsurge of religious resurgence that shift the nature of religiosity and the formation of religious groupings in the area. The advent of Islam, with some interventions of political regimes, had been an important cause for the decline of Hindu-Buddhist traditions in some areas of Southeast Asia, especially Indonesia, the coming of Pentecostalism has challenged the well-established mainstream Protestantism and Catholicism, especially in Indonesia and the Philippines. Keywords: history, modernity, religious change, Southeast Asia

  18. Change and continuity in early modern cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Bonner, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Seen as a flash point of the Scientific Revolution, early modern astronomy witnessed an explosion of views about the function and structure of the world. This study explores these theories in a wide variety of settings, and challenges our view of modern science as the straightforward successor of Aristotelian natural philosophy.

  19. Focus: science, history, and modern India. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalkey, Jahnavi

    2013-06-01

    Histories of science in India are revisitations of the colonial question. Science is ideology to be unraveled and exposed--as modernity and progress making or violence and oppression making--depending on where you stand on the interpretive spectrum. It has been seen as ideologically driven practice, as a mode of knowledge production whose history is inseparable from the social and political uses to which it is tethered. In the colonial as well as the postcolonial context, science and technology have been seen as the "ideology of empire," "tools of empire," "tentacles of progress," and "reasons of state." Yet science and technology are practices and bodies of knowledge that inhabitants of the subcontinent have engaged with enthusiasm, that they have used to invent themselves in their global, national, and individual lives. We know remarkably little about the histories of these complex engagements. A departure from current historiographical preoccupations is called for to map and explain the lives, institutions, practices, and stories of science on the subcontinent as they connect with, and where they break away from, the world at large.

  20. Climate History and the Modern World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebsame, William E.

    H. H. Lamb's latest book on the earth's changing climate is a carefully crafted work covering four areas: the physical basis of climate and climate change, the methods of climate reconstruction, the history of climate since the height of the last glaciation, and the impact of climate on human affairs. The book will be of particular interest to three groups. Atmospheric scientists interested in the long history of climate behavior (but perhaps overwhelmed by Lamb's all-encompassing work on the topic, Climate: Past, Present and Future, vol. II, Methuen, New York), will find Climate History and the Modern World to be a good titration of the fuller work. Scientists in other fields, including social scientists grappling with issues of climate-society interaction, will find the book a good entree into the field. Finally, Lamb himself suggests that the book will be useful to resource managers and other decision makers trying to avoid negative climate impacts. With this last audience in mind, no doubt, Lamb has chosen a style that eschews extensive footnoting and references (though sufficient citations are included to lead to further information). This works quite well and seems reasonable in view of his carefully documented previous writings.

  1. Studying the early modern landscape in the Czech republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chodějovská, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2012), s. 63-98 ISSN 0323-0988 R&D Projects : GA ČR(CZ) GBP410/12/G113 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : historical landscape * early modern period * czech research Subject RIV: AB - History

  2. CERN's Early History Revisited

    CERN Multimedia

    Schopper, Herwig Franz; Krige, Gerhard John

    2005-01-01

    As a member of the group of historians charged to write the history of the founding of CERN, John Krige particularly underlines the important role I.I. Rabi played. The first author, former Director General of CERN add a few comments. S.A. Khan gives precisions about the role played by E. Amaldi and P. Auger; then J. Krige replies

  3. A History of Modern Serbia, 1804-1918. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovich, Michael B.

    This project report describes the historical research completed for the writing of one of the few single-volume books dealing with modern Serbian history that gives a complete and detailed analytical survey of the past history and its influence on present day Yugoslavia. The two-fold theme of modern Serbian history is: 1) the impact of…

  4. The architecture of modern mathematics essays in history and philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreiros, J

    2006-01-01

    Aimed at both students and researchers in philosophy, mathematics and the history of science, this edited volume, authored by leading scholars, highlights foremost developments in both the philosophy and history of modern mathematics.

  5. New directions in the history of modern science in China: global science and comparative history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Benjamin A

    2007-09-01

    These essays collectively present new perspectives on the history of modem science in China since 1900. Fa-ti Fan describes how science under the Republic of China after 1911 exhibited a complex local and international character that straddled both imperialism and colonialism. Danian Hu focuses on the fate of relativity in the physics community in China after 1917. Zuoyue Wang hopes that a less nationalist political atmosphere in China will stimulate more transnational studies of modern science, which will in turn reveal the underlying commonalities in different national contexts. Sigrid Schmalzer compares the socialist and the capitalist contexts for science in China and reopens the sensitive question of the "mass line" during the Cultural Revolution. Grace Shen describes the tensions early Chinese scientists felt when choosing between foreign models for modem geology and their own professional identities in China. Taken together, these accounts present us with a comparative history of modern science in China that is both globally and locally informed.

  6. History of modern physics; Histoire de la physique moderne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biezunski, M

    1994-12-31

    This book presents an history of the principal concepts of contemporary physics and their genesis from the great cleavages of the beginning of the century with some incursions in a more far-away past. The essential concepts are replaced in their creation context, especially relativity, quantum mechanics and particles physics. (A.B.).

  7. Den moderne idræts historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Per

    2009-01-01

    Historiedelen til grundbog til idræt på mellemniveau i gymnasiet og til idræt som tilvalgsfag på HF. Indeholder ud over metodeafsnit og afslutningsafsnit også hovedafsnittene: "Idræt og samfund ca. 1860-1920", "De moderne olympiske lege" og "Sportens århundrede"...

  8. Archives and the Boundaries of Early Modern Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    This contribution argues that the study of early modern archives suggests a new agenda for historians of early modern science. While in recent years historians of science have begun to direct increased attention toward the collections amassed by figures and institutions traditionally portrayed as proto-scientific, archives proliferated across early modern Europe, emerging as powerful tools for creating knowledge in politics, history, and law as well as natural philosophy, botany, and more. The essay investigates the methods of production, collection, organization, and manipulation used by English statesmen and Crown officers such as Keeper of the State Papers Thomas Wilson and Secretary of State Joseph Williamson to govern their disorderly collections. Their methods, it is shown, were shared with contemporaries seeking to generate and manage other troves of evidence and in fact reflect a complex ecosystem of imitation and exchange across fields of inquiry. These commonalities suggest that historians of science should look beyond the ancestors of modern scientific disciplines to examine how practices of producing knowledge emerged and migrated throughout cultures of learning in Europe and beyond. Creating such a map of knowledge production and exchange, the essay concludes, would provide a renewed and expansive ambition for the field.

  9. THE PHYSICS OF MELTING IN EARLY MODERN LOVE POETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brady

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Melting is a familiar trope in early modern erotic poetry, where it can signify the desire to transform the beloved from icy chastity through the warmth of the lover’s passion. However, this Petrarchan convention can be defamiliarised by thinking about the experiences of freezing and melting in this period. Examining melting in the discourses of early modern meteorology, medicine, proverb, scientific experiments, and preservative technologies, as well as weather of the Little Ice Age and the exploration of frozen hinterlands, this essay shows that our understanding of seeming constants – whether they be the physical properties of water or the passions of love – can be modulated through attention to the specific histories of cognition and of embodiment.

  10. A craniometric analysis of early modern Romania and Hungary: The roles of migration and conversion in shaping European Ottoman population history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kathryn Grow; von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen

    2017-11-01

    Debate persists regarding the biological makeup of European Ottoman communities settled during the expansion of the Ottoman Empire during the 16th and 17th centuries, and the roles of conversion and migration in shaping demography and population history. The aim of this study was to perform an assessment of the biological affinities of three European Ottoman series based on craniometric data. Craniometric data collected from three Ottoman series from Hungary and Romania were compared to European and Anatolian comparative series, selected to represent biological affinity representative of historically recorded migration and conversion influences. Sex-separated samples were analyzed using D 2 -matrices, along with principal coordinates and PERMANOVA analyses to investigate biological affinities. Discriminant function analysis was employed to assign Ottoman individuals to two potential classes: European or Anatolian. Affinity analyses show larger than expected biological differences between males and females within each of the Ottoman communities. Discriminant function analyses show that the majority of Ottoman individuals could be classified as either European or Anatolian with a high probability. Moreover, location within Europe proved influential, as the Ottomans from a location of more geopolitical importance (Budapest) diverged from more hinterland communities in terms of biological affinity patterns. The results suggest that male and female Ottomans may possess distinct population histories, with males and females divergent from each other in terms of their biological affinities. The Ottoman communities appear diverse in terms of constituting a mix of peoples from different biological backgrounds. The greater distances between sexes from the same community, and the differences between communities, may be evidence that the processes of migration and conversion impacted individual people and groups diversely. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Food Policing in Early Modern Danish Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Mührmann-Lund

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the efforts of early modern authorities to provide food security in three different Danish towns in order to understand the goals and methods of early modern food policing. As in other European countries, urban authorities were expected as part of the regulation called ‘the police’ to control the guilds and fix the prices on bread, meat, beer and other life necessities in order to avoid scarcity among the urban poor. In 1682–83 the Danish king established a police force in Copenhagen and the other market towns. The goal of the metropolitan police was to increase the population of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced as a means to avoid food riots at the end the 18th century. In a major provincial market town like Aalborg, the food trade was policed in a similar manner by the town council and the police, but especially the intermediate trade proved difficult to stop. In a tiny, agrarian market town like Sæby, food policing was more a question of feeding the poor with the town’s own products.

  12. Telling Modernization: Three Voices. Life History, Gender and the Discourse of Modernization. Roskilde University Life History Project Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Linda

    The relationship between life history, gender, and the discourse of modernization was examined from the perspective of a researcher with extensive experience performing evaluations about modernization within human services in Denmark. Three stories about site-based management in two human service institutionsa youth center and a boarding school…

  13. Security and Conspiracy in Modern History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwierlein, C.; de Graaf, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    »Sicherheit und Verschwörung in der Neuzeit«. Security History is a new field in historical research. Conspiracies and Conspiracy Theories have attracted since some years great attention, both in historical and in social research. A thorough study of those both opposed and mirroring key phenomena

  14. History of optics: a modern teaching tool

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Moliní, Daniel; González Cano, Agustín; Díaz Herrera, Natalia; Llombart, N.; Alda, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The history of optics is a very rich field of science and it is possible to find many simple and significant examples of the application and success of the experimental method and therefore is a very good tool to transmit to the student the way science proceeds and to introduce the right spirit of critical analysis, building and testing of models, etc. Optical phenomena are specially well suited for this because in fact optical observations and experiments have made science advance in a cruci...

  15. Modernizing Natural History: Berkeley's Museum of Vertebrate Zoology in Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the twentieth century calls to modernize natural history motivated a range of responses. It was unclear how research in natural history museums would participate in the significant technological and conceptual changes that were occurring in the life sciences. By the 1960s, the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at the University of California, Berkeley, was among the few university-based natural history museums that were able to maintain their specimen collections and support active research. The MVZ therefore provides a window to the modernization of natural history. This paper concentrates on the directorial transitions that occurred at the MVZ between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the MVZ had four directors: Alden H. Miller (Director 1940-1965), an ornithologist; Aldo Starker Leopold (Acting Director 1965-1966), a conservationist and wildlife biologist; Oliver P. Pearson (Director 1966-1971), a physiologist and mammalogist; and David B. Wake (Director 1971-1998), a morphologist, developmental biologist, and herpetologist. The paper explores how a diversity of overlapping modernization strategies, including hiring new faculty, building infrastructure to study live animals, establishing new kinds of collections, and building modern laboratories combined to maintain collections at the MVZ's core. The paper examines the tensions between the different modernization strategies to inform an analysis of how and why some changes were institutionalized while others were short-lived. By exploring the modernization of collections-based research, this paper emphasizes the importance of collections in the transformation of the life sciences.

  16. "Brought under the law of the land" : the history, demography and geography of crossculturalism in early modern Izmir, and the Köprülü Project of 1678

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olnon, Merlijn

    2014-01-01

    The port-city of Izmir (old Smyrna) plays a crucial role in modern world history. From the 1570s, that city became subjected to European mercantile interests and quickly developed into the main conductor of an irreversible European takeover of the Ottoman economy – the structural basis of a

  17. Guidelines for normalising Early Modern English corpora: Decisions and justifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archer Dawn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Corpora of Early Modern English have been collected and released for research for a number of years. With large scale digitisation activities gathering pace in the last decade, much more historical textual data is now available for research on numerous topics including historical linguistics and conceptual history. We summarise previous research which has shown that it is necessary to map historical spelling variants to modern equivalents in order to successfully apply natural language processing and corpus linguistics methods. Manual and semiautomatic methods have been devised to support this normalisation and standardisation process. We argue that it is important to develop a linguistically meaningful rationale to achieve good results from this process. In order to do so, we propose a number of guidelines for normalising corpora and show how these guidelines have been applied in the Corpus of English Dialogues.

  18. Merchants and marvels commerce, science, and art in early modern Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    The beginning of global commerce in the early modern period had an enormous impact on European culture, changing the very way people perceived the world around them. Merchants and Marvels assembles essays by leading scholars of cultural history, art history, and the history of science and technology to show how ideas about the representation of nature, in both art and science, underwent a profound transformation between the age of the Renaissance and the early 1700s.

  19. The early history of modern ecological economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a historical perspective for the discussion on ecological economics as a special field of research. By studying the historical background of ecological economics, the present discussions and tensions inside the field might become easier to understand and to relate to. The study...... is inspired by other studies of the emergence of new research areas done by sociologists and historians of science, and includes both cognitive and social aspects, macro trends and the role of individuals. The basis for the paper is a combination of literature studies and interviews with key researchers from...... the field. The story opens with the emergence of the new environmental agenda in the 1960s, which was influenced by the scientific development in biology and ecology. Then it is outlined how the environmental challenge was met by economics in the 1960s. Around 1970 the basic ideas of ecological economics...

  20. Stoicism and Civic Duty. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.1. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.1 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the causes and effects of the vast expansion and ultimate disintegration of the Roman Empire." One important legacy of ancient Rome is the foundation it set for the development of modern democracies. The Roman Stoics built upon the Greek Stoic model by…

  1. The Modern Value of Early Writings in Medicine and Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Sheldon

    2016-01-01

    This article illustrates three examples supporting the modern value of early writings in dentistry and medicine. First, by studying cases described in works published long before the era of genetic science, we are able to develop new hypotheses about familial conditions and their genetic roots. Tooth transposition is presented as an example. Second, old writings may lead us to valuable historical insights and perspectives in medicine that can be revealed only in retrospective analysis. An example of this kind of historical analysis uncovers why dentistry became unnaturally separated from mainstream medicine in the 19th century. Third, early writings become keys to unlocking forgotten knowledge that enriches our understanding of historically significant people and events. The discovery of Norman Kingsley's long forgotten pyrographic paintings after Rembrandt portraits is used as an example. Libraries, the traditional custodians of these valued old texts, must continue to be supported, and not undermined by the paperless digital revolution. Copyright American Academy of the History of Dentistry.

  2. Being Mad in Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar eDimitrijevic

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It has become almost a rule that the birth of scientific psychiatry and what we today term clinical psychology took place in the short period between the last decade of the XVIII century and the 1820s. Everything that happened before that period – every description, diagnosis, and therapy – has been considered ‘pre-scientific,’ outdated, in a way worthless.In this paper, however, I am providing the argument that, first, the roots of contemporary psychiatry reach at least to England of the early modern period, and that, second, it may still turn out that in the field of mental health care historical continuities are more numerous and persistent than discontinuities. Thus, I briefly review the most important surviving documents about the treatment of mental disorders in England of Elizabethan and Jacobian period, organizing the argument around the well-known markers: diagnostics and aetiology, therapy, organization of the asylum, the public image of the mentally ill…

  3. Letters and Letter Writing in Early Modern Culture: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Del Lungo Camiciotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The recently renewed scholarly interest in historical letters and letter writing has given rise to several studies which explore the culture of epistolarity from different perspectives. The article offers an introduction to recent scholarship on epistolary discourse and practices in early modern culture. Given the importance of letters as data for several types of diachronic investigation, the article focuses on three points that are crucial for an understanding of the relevance of epistolary discourse itself in early modern European culture. Firstly, letters are invaluable data for historical linguistics, to which they provide information for the history of languages, and sociohistorical and sociolinguistic research. A second recent field of investigation considers letters as documents and material items; the results of research in this area have contributed to the reconstruction of official relationships and information exchanges in past cultures and shed light on social interaction. A third, more traditional area of study, deals with the letter as a form that has given rise to many different genres across the centuries, both practical and literary.

  4. ACEH IN HISTORY: Preserving Traditions and Embracing Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Hadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to critically discuss on how the Acehnese in history, while trying to embrace the modern world, have made every effort at preserving their traditions. As an ethnic group which has a glorious past, Aceh has strongly been connected to “identity”; and this is expressed in various means, including “social memory.” For this very reason, “traditions”, including those of the past, are explored and preserved. Yet, the challenges of modernity are also apparent. It is in this context that the Acehnese are trapped at the crossroad. On the one hand, they tend to preserve their traditions, yet, on the other, they need to embrace modern lives. The Acehnese seem to have encountered considerable obstacles on this issue, for they tend to focus more on historical “romanticism” (nostalgia rather than historical “awareness” (consciousness. Eventually, the “spirit” of the past cannot be brought into light.

  5. AWQAF IN HISTORY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR MODERN ISLAMIC ECONOMIES

    OpenAIRE

    ÇIZAKÇA, MURAT

    1998-01-01

    This paper aims at analysing the relevance of the historical awqaf system for modern Islamic economies. The main argument focuses on the fact that the awqaf system has provided throughout Islamic history all the essential services at no cost to the state. Thus, a successful modernisation of the system implies a significant cut in government expenditure and all the associated benefits; including downsizing the state sector and a reduction and even an eventual elimination of riba. As far as the...

  6. Space, Geometry and the Imagination from Antiquity to the Early Modern Age

    CERN Document Server

    Mathematizing Space : The Objects of Geometry from Antiquity to the Early Modern Age

    2015-01-01

    This book brings together papers of the conference on 'Space, Geometry and the Imagination from Antiquity to the Modern Age' held in Berlin, Germany, 27-29 August 2012. Focusing on the interconnections between the history of geometry and the philosophy of space in the pre-Modern and Early Modern Age, the essays in this volume are particularly directed toward elucidating the complex epistemological revolution that transformed the classical geometry of figures into the modern geometry of space. Contributors: Graciela De Pierris Franco Farinelli Michael Friedman Daniel Garber Jeremy Gray Gary Hatfield Andrew Janiak Douglas Jesseph Alexander Jones Henry Mendell David Rabouin

  7. The Early History of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Fowler, C. M. R.

    2003-12-01

    ago, for the most part the planet was peaceful. Even the most active volcanoes are mostly quiet; meteorites large enough to extinguish all dinosaurs may have hit as often as every few thousand years, but this is not enough to be a nuisance to a bacterium (except when the impact boiled the ocean); while to the photosynthesizer long-term shifts in the solar spectrum may be less of a problem than cloudy hazy days. Though, admittedly, green is junk light to biology, the excretion from the photosynthetic antennae, nevertheless even a green sky would have had other wavelengths also in its spectrum.Most important of all, like all good houses, this planet had location: Earth was just in the right spot. Not too far from the faint young Sun (Sagan and Chyba, 1997), it was also far enough away still to be in the comfort zone ( Kasting et al., 1993) when the mature Sun brightened. As many have pointed out, when Goldilocks arrived, she found everything just right. But what is less obvious is that as she grew and changed, and the room changed too, she commenced to rearrange the furniture to make it ever righter for her. Thus far, the bears have not arrived, though they may have reclaimed Mars from Goldilocks's sister see ( Figure 1). (3K)Figure 1. The habitable zone (Kasting et al., 1993). Too close to the Sun, a planet's surface is too hot to be habitable; too far, it is too cold. Early in the history of the solar system, the Sun was faint and the habitable zone was relatively close; 4.5 Ga later, with a brighter Sun, planets formerly habitable are now too hot, and the habitable zone has shifted out. Note that boundaries can shift. By changing its albedo and by altering the greenhouse gas content of the air, the planet can significantly widen the bounds of the habitable zone (Lovelock, 1979, 1988).

  8. U.S. History and Modern World History Courses for English Speakers of Other Languages in Montgomery County Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huafang; Wade, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The Office of Shared Accountability (OSA) in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) examined academic performance of English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) students in U.S. History and Modern World History courses, as well as the course sequence in ESOL U.S. History and Modern World History. In MCPS, students who are not ESOL…

  9. Learning about human population history from ancient and modern genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneking, Mark; Krause, Johannes

    2011-08-18

    Genome-wide data, both from SNP arrays and from complete genome sequencing, are becoming increasingly abundant and are now even available from extinct hominins. These data are providing new insights into population history; in particular, when combined with model-based analytical approaches, genome-wide data allow direct testing of hypotheses about population history. For example, genome-wide data from both contemporary populations and extinct hominins strongly support a single dispersal of modern humans from Africa, followed by two archaic admixture events: one with Neanderthals somewhere outside Africa and a second with Denisovans that (so far) has only been detected in New Guinea. These new developments promise to reveal new stories about human population history, without having to resort to storytelling.

  10. INNOVATIVE METHODS OF TEACHING HISTORY AT MODERN UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Suslov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. As a discipline, History holds a specific place among disciplines of a humanitarian cycle of educational programs of higher education institutions regardless of university specialities. History plays an important role in the course of formation of a citizen and development of critical thinking of a personality as an element of a common culture. However, new federal standards require a drastic reduction of the classroom hours for studying a History course by students of non-humanitarian specialties, and, at the same time, enhancement of the contents of a discipline (its reorientation from History of Russia towards World History. Therefore, History programmes and courses demand up-to-date approaches, methods and didactic means to provide formation of holistic worldview of future experts.The aim of the article is to consider the features of innovative methods application in teaching history in high school taking into consideration modernization processes.Methodology and research methods. The research undertaken is based on activity and competence-based approaches. The methods of analysis and synthesis of the academic literature on the research topic were used; the methods of reflection and generalization of teaching activities of the Department of Humanitarian Disciplines of theKazanNationalResearchTechnologicalUniversity were applied as well.Results and scientific novelty. A modern view on historical education has been proposed as means of students’ systems thinking formation, designing the ideas about the world historical process among students, the mission ofRussia in this process, and evolution ofRussia as a part of the modern civilization. It is stated that History university course is designed not only to give the students strong subject knowledge, but also to create axiological orientations and abilities on the basis of the analysis of historical collisions, objective and subjective factors of society development. Moreover

  11. CYCLES AND CRISES: HISTORY AND MODERNITY (THE RESULTS OF THE INTERNATIONAL NOBEL ECONOMIC FORUM)

    OpenAIRE

    Borys I.KHOLOD; Anatoly O.ZADOYA

    2009-01-01

    The paper analysis the main features of crisis phenomena in the early 21st century taking into consideration the overlapping stages of different types of business cycle (short and medium terms). The authors evaluate different kinds of economic cycles from the viewpoint of both history and modernity on the basis of opinions formulated during the International Nobel Economic Forum ôWord Economy in the 21th Century: Cycles and Crisesö (held in September 2008 at Dnipropetrovsk, University of Econ...

  12. La Graeca fides e la falsità moscovitanel discorso polacco premoderno. Storia di un topos ["Graeca fides and the Perfidy of the Muscovites in the Polish Early Modern Discourse. History of a Topos "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Krzywy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available "The article discusses the usage of the classical topos Graeca fides to describe the citizens of the Grand Duchy of Moscow in early modern Polish literature (chronicles, diaries, journalistic writings, diplomatic reports etc.. This way of speaking was justified by the identification of the Eastern Orthodox Church with the Greek Byzantine Rite. The formula was used to deprecate Russians and became part of a negative stereotype. The author demonstrates, with diverse examples, how this formula became a constant topos in statements about a country considered hostile in Poland since the 16th century, and in which contexts it was developed."

  13. The Use of the Vernacular in Early Modern Philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Bunge (Wiep)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractFew modern philosophers have determined our understanding of early modern philosophy in the way Hegel has. More in particular, Hegel held highly influential views on the real significance of the language in which Philosophy came into its own after the Middle Ages. In his Lectures on the

  14. From Mystics to Modern Times: A History of Craniotomy & Religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, W Christopher; Chivukula, Srinivas; Grandhi, Ramesh

    2016-08-01

    Neurosurgical treatment of diseases dates back to prehistoric times and the trephination of skulls for various maladies. Throughout the evolution of trephination, surgery and religion have been intertwined to varying degrees, a relationship that has caused both stagnation and progress. From its mystical origins in prehistoric times to its scientific progress in ancient Egypt and its resurgence as a well-validated surgical technique in modern times, trephination has been a reflection of the cultural and religious times. Herein we present a brief history of trephination as it relates religion, culture, and the evolution of neurosurgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Modern history of meteorological services with pictures for a century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    This book deals with modern history of meteorological services with pictures for a century. It is divided into twelve chapters, which mention meteorological services before the Joseon Dynasty period, meteorological observation about surface weather observation, aero logical observation, meteorological satellite, seismometry, observation on yellow dust, and observation on the falling of thunderbolt, weather forecast, meteorological telecommunication, education for weather, research for weather, promotion on weather, international cooperation, main events, special aid on meteorological services, meteorological disaster and the list of the offices for meteorological services.

  16. Casebooks in early modern England: medicine, astrology, and written records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves.

  17. Early Childhood Education: History, Theory, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Harry

    2006-01-01

    In this book, the author covers the history, theory, and practices that influence early childhood education along with an emphasis on infant and toddler care and education. He also presents a comparison of the conflict between education planners who support early childhood studies and state school systems whose cost-saving measures are dismantling…

  18. Early history of military radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that soon after Roentgen's discovery, physicians in the armed services of the major powers grasped the importance of x-ray sin military surgery. By May of 1896, radiographic examinations were being performed on Italian soldiers returning from the ill-fated Ethiopian campaign. Initially, radiographs were used for foreign body localization and the detection of fractures; later, a full range of diagnostic services was offered. The early challenges of obtaining x-ray examinations in the field - fragility of tubes and plates, mobility of machines and patients, and unpredictability of radiation dosage - became the basis for innovations that would fundamentally alter the daily practice of radiology in civilian life

  19. Food Policing in Early Modern Danish Towns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mührmann-Lund, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced...

  20. Cabala Chymica or Chemia Cabalistica - Early Modern Alchemists and Cabala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forshaw, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    This essay investigates the relationships between early modern alchemy and the Jewish mystical tradition of Kabbalah, following its introduction to the Christian West by Giovanni Pico della Mirandola at the end of the fifteenth century, and its promulgation by Johannes Reuchlin in the early

  1. THE SECOND WORLD WAR AND UKRAINE: HISTORY AND MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVSEEVA G. P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. Despite the attempts of historians to objectively present the events of the prehistory and history of the war, the opening of new archives and the desire to get rid of ideological stereotypes, are driving the need to once again explore the role of Ukraine in world war II to prevent its recurrence. On the other hand, the deep understanding of the history of the previous generations will provide an opportunity to properly understand the events of today. The analysis of the research. During the years of independence in the national historiography it was a new understanding of the conceptual foundations of the study of war. Over the past decade it was written a large number of scientific studies in which the main direction of new concepts there was an increased attention to the person, separate social groups and society as a whole in situations of conflict and crises. The article aims to analyze the role and place of Ukraine in the events of the Second world war; identify "Ukrainian dimension" of war and its implications for the modern generation, especially the youth. Conclusion. The effects of war for decades identified the complex and contradictory political, economic and social processes in Ukrainian society, affected the moral and psychological qualities of post-war generations. The memory of war – spiritual-historical heritage of our nation, which lays the foundations for self-sufficiency and identity and integrates it seamlessly into a civilizational flow. The modern level of researches of the events of world war II pays special attention to humanitarian problems of the war. For the youth of Ukraine it is important to join the European perception of the war as tragedy, to understand the responsibility for the memory of the past, because it's a chance for the future.

  2. Early modern Goa: Indian trade, transcultural medicine, and the Inquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Malieckal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Portugal’s introduction of the Inquisition to India in 1560 placed the lives of Jews, New Christians, and selected others labelled ‘heretics’, in peril. Two such victims were Garcia da Orta, a Portuguese New Christian with a thriving medical practice in Goa, and Gabriel Dellon, a French merchant and physician. In scholarship, Garcia da Orta and Gabriel Dellon’s texts are often examined separately within the contexts of Portuguese and French literature respectively and in terms of medicine and religion in the early modern period. Despite the similarities of their training and experiences, da Orta and Dellon have not previously been studied jointly, as is attempted in this article, which expands upon da Orta and Dellon’s roles in Portuguese India’s international commerce, especially the trade in spices, and the collaborations between Indian and European physicians. Thus, the connection between religion and food is not limited to food’s religious and religio-cultural roles. Food in terms of spices has been at the foundations of power for ethno-religious groups in India, and when agents became detached from the spice trade, their downfalls were imminent, as seen in the histories of Garcia da Orta and Gabriel Dellon.

  3. Computing possible worlds in the history of modern astronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Pessoa Jr.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2016v20n1p117 As part of an ongoing study of causal models in the history of science, a counterfactual scenario in the history of modern astronomy is explored with the aid of computer simulations. After the definition of “linking advance”, a possible world involving technological antecedence is described, branching out in 1510, in which the telescope is invented 70 years before its actual construction, at the time in which Fracastoro actually built the first prototelescope. By using the principle of the closest possible world (PCP, we estimate that in this scenario the discovery of the elliptical orbit of Mars would by anticipated by only 28 years. The second part of the paper involves an estimate of the probability of the previous scenario, guided by the principle that the actual world is the mean (PAM and using computer simulations to create possible worlds in which the time spans between advances is varied according to a gamma distribution function. Taking into account the importance of the use of the diaphragm for the invention of the telescope, the probability that the telescope were built by 1538 for a branching time at 1510 is found to be smaller than 1%. The work shows that one of the important features of computational simulations in philosophy of science is to serve as a consistency check for the intuitions and speculations of the philosopher.

  4. Milestones of the history of modern Western theory of migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Adediran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the key stages in the development of modern theory of migration following the historical sequence and continuity of its basic conceptual constructs’ formation. Although the author refers to the twentieth century as a chronological framework of the text, the narrative begins from the works of E. Ravenstein published at the end of the XIX century, for they laid the foundation for future theoretical studies on migration issues. In particular, many well-known scientists still use concepts “laws of migration” and “attracting and push factors of migration” proposed by Ravenstein claiming their timeless validity or, on the contrary, criticizing them for the loss of relevance in the new social and cultural realities. The author considers as milestones of the modern theory of migration the works of the representatives of Chicago school of sociology that enriched the conceptual apparatus of the analysis of migration processes and the typology of driving causes of migration; the works of S. Stouffer, G. Zipf, E. Lee and W. Lewis, W. Zelinsky and D. Massey. Finally, the article summarizes the objective trends in today’s global development that force scientists to introduce new accents in the study of migration processes, although upon closer inspection it turns out that all “new” ideas had already been formulated in early migration studies and just got a new sound in another historical period.

  5. Politics, Society and Communication in the Constitution of Modern Society: Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devrim ÖZKAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The inception of Modern England comprises a hundred and fifty years between sixteenth and mid eighteenth centuries. The structural qualities of modern societies of this day occur in this era. The political and economic changes and transformations that England experienced in this period of time are in enormous scale. In this period all social structure and institutions experienced structural change in terms of cultural, economic and political processes. In addition to this in this period the framework of the international system regarding economy and politics is established too. Important qualities of current modern societies are the speed of communication and interaction between its elements, its transformational capacity and the extent of its scope. In this, it is possible to apprehend the basic cornerstones of today’s information and communication age by analyzing the early modern period of England

  6. History of development and modern condition of Chinese military psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr G. Karayani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Russian military psychology is actively analyzing the achievements gained over the years of its reform and with great interest turns to the military psychological experience of foreign armies. Acquaintance with this experience allows Russian military psychology to assess its place in the world military psychological science, to assess the dynamics and fidelity of the general direction of development. In this regard, it is quite interesting to get acquainted with the state, capabilities, and the most important guidelines for the development of the Chinese military psychology. Objective. The objective of this paper is to get acquainted with the invaluable experience of trial and error, ups and downs, stagnation and real breakthroughs, which can be learnt through getting acquainted with the history and modern functioning of the psychological structures of the Chinese army. Design. The paper considers the centuries-old history and a modern condition of military psychology in China. The methodological foundations of the Chinese military psychology are proved to be the philosophical ideas of Taoism, Confucianism and Buddhism. Theoretical sources Chinese military psychology is rooted in the writings of the great thinkers and generals of ancient China – Sun Tzu, Wu Tzu, Zhuge Liang. The two most vigorously developing areas of military psychology: the psychological selection of military personnel, theory and practice of psychological warfare. The historical analysis of traditions and technologies development for the period of four thousand years is given. The development of psychological selection in the army of China was affected by cooperation with the American psychologists during the Second World War. The overall state and program approach to perfect the system of selecting military men using the psychology methods is underlined. Historical development tendencies and the Chinese paradigm of the theory and practice of psychological war

  7. (Early Modern Literature: Crossing the Color-Line

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    David Sterling Brown

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the pedagogical implications of teaching about the past in a way that establishes continuity in relation to present and future moments. I describe and analyze how my Trinity College students navigated my course, “Crossing the Color-Line,” which aimed to eradicate boundaries and entangle the professional and personal, social and political, past and present, and black and white in an engaged manner. I argue that a radical course such as “Crossing the Color-Line” can showcase, through literature and other media, how fusing difference of all kinds—cultural, religious, literary, historical, gender—promotes rigorous student directed learning experiences that are inclusive. Because Shakespeare was not the sole authorial voice in the room, or the only early modern author in our syllabus, “Crossing the Color-Line” actively resisted the literary, racial, social, and cultural homogeneity that one can often find in an early modern classroom. By not being Shakespeare-centric, the course placed value on the female perspective and refrained from being androcentric in its authorial focus. Moreover, by positioning “the problem of the color-line” as relevant in the early modern period, the combined study of African-American and early modern English texts challenged critical race studies to include pre-nineteenth-century literature.

  8. The Corporeality of Learning: Confucian Education in Early Modern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The intellectual foundation of early modern Japan was provided by Confucianism--a system of knowledge set forth in Chinese classical writings. In order to gain access to this knowledge, the Japanese applied reading markers to modify the original Chinese to fit the peculiarities of Japanese grammar and pronunciation. Confucian education started by…

  9. Maps of Woe Narratives of Rape in Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Pallotti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available By considering a selection of texts, both fictional and non-fictional, this study ad- dresses different representations of rape in early modern English culture. Its aim is to highlight the interconnections between aspects of culture and the creative exchange, the confrontation and mutual assimilation between ‘high’ and ‘low’ cultural forms.

  10. Recording customs in early modern Antwerp, a commercial metropolis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hofstraeten, Bram

    2016-01-01

    This article questions whether early modern compilations of customary law retained their customary nature after being recorded in the Low Countries by learned jurists and within the framework of a procedure designed and controlled by a central authority. By means of a quantitative analysis of the

  11. Frontier and Border Regions in Early Modern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, R.M.; Ellis, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    That regional identities are constructed is now something of a truism in academic research. More recently regions have been conceptualized in the framework of Frontier and Border Studies, thus emphasizing their relationship to their neighbours in another state across a boundary line. In early modern

  12. 'ah famous citie' : women, writing, and early modern London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilcox - Boulton, Helen

    2010-01-01

    This article explores aspects of the textual relationship between women and early modern London by examining three verbal 'snapshots' of the city in works either written by women or focusing on women in their urban environment. The first text, Isabella Whitney's 'Wyll and Testament' (1573),

  13. "Old Poems Have Heart": Teenage Students Reading Early Modern Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The proposals for the revised National Curriculum in English suggest limiting the pre-twentieth century poetry that GCSE pupils read to "representative Romantic poetry" (Department for Education [DFE], 2013, p. 4). This paper argues that poetry of the early modern period is challenging and enriching study for adolescent pupils and that…

  14. Contradictory Interests: Work, parents, and offspring in early modern Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, M.P.C.

    2004-01-01

    The consistory notes of the Dutch Reformed Church (1573-1700) reveal conflicts over work between parents and children during the early modern period. Two issues that caused particular tension were the labor experience of future sons-in-law and the division of household tasks. Parents' concerns about

  15. Ribosomal history reveals origins of modern protein synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith Harish

    Full Text Available The origin and evolution of the ribosome is central to our understanding of the cellular world. Most hypotheses posit that the ribosome originated in the peptidyl transferase center of the large ribosomal subunit. However, these proposals do not link protein synthesis to RNA recognition and do not use a phylogenetic comparative framework to study ribosomal evolution. Here we infer evolution of the structural components of the ribosome. Phylogenetic methods widely used in morphometrics are applied directly to RNA structures of thousands of molecules and to a census of protein structures in hundreds of genomes. We find that components of the small subunit involved in ribosomal processivity evolved earlier than the catalytic peptidyl transferase center responsible for protein synthesis. Remarkably, subunit RNA and proteins coevolved, starting with interactions between the oldest proteins (S12 and S17 and the oldest substructure (the ribosomal ratchet in the small subunit and ending with the rise of a modern multi-subunit ribosome. Ancestral ribonucleoprotein components show similarities to in vitro evolved RNA replicase ribozymes and protein structures in extant replication machinery. Our study therefore provides important clues about the chicken-or-egg dilemma associated with the central dogma of molecular biology by showing that ribosomal history is driven by the gradual structural accretion of protein and RNA structures. Most importantly, results suggest that functionally important and conserved regions of the ribosome were recruited and could be relics of an ancient ribonucleoprotein world.

  16. Early history of physics with accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    The early history of physics at accelerators is reviewed, with emphasis on three experiments which have had a profound influence on our veiw of the structure of matter: The Franck and Hertz experiment opening practical ways of studying nuclear disintegration, and the discovery of the del ++ isobar of the proton by Fermi and collaborators, revealing structure in the nucleon. Fermi's work is illustrated by pages from his notebooks

  17. Hugh Grady (ed.), Shakespeare and Modernity : Early Modern to Millenium

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeyrol, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Shakespeare and Modernity : Early Modern to Millenium, publié au tournant du troisième millénaire est un recueil de neuf essais d’universitaires américains et britanniques, précédé d’une introduction de Hugh Grady, auteur par ailleurs de The Modernist Shakespeare (1991), Shakespeare’s Universal Wolf (1996) et plus récemment de Shakespeare and Impure Aesthetics (2009). Ce livre offre à l’étudiant, à l’enseignant et au chercheur un état des lieux stimulant de l’évolution des études shakespearie...

  18. Early history of IVF in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Janežič

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 1970s and 1980s represent the early era of in vitro fertilization (IVF research. This article is a concise review of the early history of IVF, focusing on the contributions made by Australian pioneers.Objectives: To research the history of the early days of IVF in Australia.Search Strategy: ‘IVF history’ was used as a search criteria in PubMed.Selection criteria: We selected articles that were dealing with Australian research on IVF in 1970–1980s and were also statistically sound where applicable.Data collection and analysis: We collected, processed, and analyzed the data, and summed up two decades of IVF research in Australia.Main results: The first ideas about introducing IVF research in Australia started in 1970. Years of trials and hard work bore success and the first baby was born in 1980. IVF procedures then spread quickly across Australia.Conclusions: Australia was a leading force in the early days of IVF and with many innovative approaches contributed greatly to the development of IVF as we know it today.

  19. Music as therapy in early history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaut, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The notion of music as therapy is based on ancient cross-cultural beliefs that music can have a "healing" effect on mind and body. Explanations for the therapeutic mechanisms in music have almost always included cultural and social science-based causalities about the uses and functions of music in society. However, it is also important to note that the view of music as "therapy" was also always strongly influenced by the view and understanding of the concepts and causes of disease. Magical/mystical concepts of illness and "rational" medicine probably lived side by side for thousands of years. Not until the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries were the scientific foundations of medicine established, which allowed the foundations of music in therapy to progress from no science to soft science and most recently to actual brain science. Evidence for "early music therapy" will be discussed in four broad historical-cultural divisions: preliterate cultures; early civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Israel; Greek Antiquity; Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Baroque. In reviewing "early music therapy" practice, from mostly unknown periods of early history (using preliterate cultures as a window) to increasingly better documented times, including preserved notation samples of actual "healing" music, five theories and applications of early music therapy can be differentiated. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. John Considine. Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe: Lexicography and the Making of Heritage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loránd-Levente Pálfi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dictionary history or history of lexicography does not belong to one of the most studied metalexicographic disciplines, although the International Society for Historical Lexicography and Lexicology regularly convenes conferences and publishes proceedings, and much literature (mainly in the Western world and mainly dealing with Western lexicography has been published during the last five decades. Furthermore most of the work done deals with the subject quite specifically. General or versatile monographs are rather rare. Because of this, John Considine's Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe is a long-awaited and long-overdue work.

  1. An early history of human breast cancer: West meets East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shou-He

    2013-09-01

    Cancer has been increasingly recognized as a global issue. This is especially true in countries like China, where cancer incidence has increased likely because of changes in environment and lifestyle. However, cancer is not a modern disease; early cases have been recorded in ancient medical books in the West and in China. Here, we provide a brief history of cancer, focusing on cancer of the breast, and review the etymology of ai, the Chinese character for cancer. Notable findings from both Western and Chinese traditional medicine are presented to give an overview of the most important, early contributors to our evolving understanding of human breast cancer. We also discuss the earliest historical documents to record patients with breast cancer.

  2. Lethal Surveillance: Drones and the Geo-History of Modern War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindervater, Katharine Hall

    Interdisciplinary both in scope and method, my dissertation, Lethal Surveillance: Drones and the Geo-History of Modern War, examines the history of drone technology from the start of the 20th century to the present in order to understand the significance of the increasing centrality of drones to current American military engagements and security practices more generally. Much of the scholarship on drones and many other contemporary military technologies tends to view the technology as radically new, missing both the historical development of these objects as well as the perspectives and rationalities that are embedded in their use. For this research, I focused on three main periods of drone research and development: the early years of World War I and II in the UK, the Cold War, and the 1990s. In studying this history of the drone, I found that two key trends emerge as significant: the increasing importance of information to warfare under the rubric of intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance; and a shift toward more dynamic, speedier, and individualized targeting practices. I argue that the widespread use of drones today thus represents the culmination of attempts in war to effectively link these two trends, creating a practice I call lethal surveillance -- with the armed Predator effectively closing the loop between identifying and killing targets. The concept of lethal surveillance, which in my dissertation I place squarely within the histories of modern scientific thinking and Western liberal governance, allows us to see how techniques of Western state power and knowledge production are merging with practices of killing and control in new ways, causing significant changes to both the operations of the state and to practices of war. Framing the drone through the lens of lethal surveillance, therefore, allows us to see the longer histories the drone is embedded in as well as other security practices it is connected to.

  3. Gendering Modernity: Korean Women Seen through the Early Missionary Gaze (1880s–1910s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heejeong Sohn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The early Protestant mission archives on Korea, especially those archives concerning the lives of native Korean women during a time of great social upheaval, are among the most eclectic sources in the modern world collected by a single entity. The allure of a new Western religion attracted many Korean women to Christian programs in churches, schools, and hospitals. The church built the first modern schools for girls and trained them to become Bible women, nurses, and teachers. Due to their widely acknowledged religious and Orientalist biases, however, the missionary documents have been used mostly to research topics including mission history and Western perceptions of non-European societies. Nevertheless, the mission archives offer intimate and unique accounts of native Koreans and local history, especially during the period between the 1880s and 1910s. This essay introduces a set of photographic images of Korean women collected and produced over three decades by the Protestant missions, mostly the Methodist Episcopal Church.

  4. Early modern human lithic technology from Jerimalai, East Timor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwick, Ben; Clarkson, Chris; O'Connor, Sue; Collins, Sophie

    2016-12-01

    Jerimalai is a rock shelter in East Timor with cultural remains dated to 42,000 years ago, making it one of the oldest known sites of modern human activity in island Southeast Asia. It has special global significance for its record of early pelagic fishing and ancient shell fish hooks. It is also of regional significance for its early occupation and comparatively large assemblage of Pleistocene stone artefacts. Three major findings arise from our study of the stone artefacts. First, there is little change in lithic technology over the 42,000 year sequence, with the most noticeable change being the addition of new artefact types and raw materials in the mid-Holocene. Second, the assemblage is dominated by small chert cores and implements rather than pebble tools and choppers, a pattern we argue pattern, we argue, that is common in island SE Asian sites as opposed to mainland SE Asian sites. Third, the Jerimalai assemblage bears a striking resemblance to the assemblage from Liang Bua, argued by the Liang Bua excavation team to be associated with Homo floresiensis. We argue that the near proximity of these two islands along the Indonesian island chain (c.100 km apart), the long antiquity of modern human occupation in the region (as documented at Jerimalai), and the strong resemblance of distinctive flake stone technologies seen at both sites, raises the intriguing possibility that both the Liang Bua and Jerimalai assemblages were created by modern humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Malocclusion in early anatomically modern human: a reflection on the etiology of modern dental misalignment.

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    Rachel Sarig

    Full Text Available Malocclusions are common in modern populations. Yet, as the study of occlusion requires an almost intact dentition in both the maxilla and mandible, searching for the ultimate cause of malocclusion is a challenge: relatively little ancient material is available for research on occlusal states. The Qafzeh 9 skull is unique, as its preserved dentition allowed us to investigate the presence and manifestations of malocclusion. The aim of this study was thus to examine the occlusal condition in the Qafzeh 9 specimen in light of modern knowledge regarding the etiology of malocclusion. We revealed a pathologic occlusion in the Qafzeh 9 skull that probably originated in the early developmental stage of the dentition, and was aggravated by forces applied by mastication. When arch continuity is interrupted due to misalignment of teeth as in this case, force transmission is not equal on both sides, causing intra-arch outcomes such as mesialization of the teeth, midline deviation, rotations and the aggravation of crowding. All are evident in the Qafzeh 9 skull: the midline deviates to the left; the incisors rotate mesio-buccally; the left segment is constricted; the left first molar is buccally positioned and the left premolars palatally tilted. The inter-arch evaluation revealed anterior cross bite with functional shift that might affect force transmission and bite force. In conclusion, the findings of the current study suggest that malocclusion of developmental origin was already present in early anatomically modern humans (AMH (the present case being the oldest known case, dated to ca. 100,000 years; that there is no basis to the notion that early AMH had a better adjustment between teeth and jaw size; and that jaw-teeth size discrepancy could be found in prehistoric populations and is not a recent phenomenon.

  6. Bergson and History : Transforming the Modern Regime of Historicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Schure, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-first-century societies are no longer oriented towards the future, but increasingly to the present moment. Bergson and History shows how Henri Bergson’s philosophy of time and life can help us to restore the relevance of history in our presentistic society and culture. Bergson allows us to

  7. Rules of use language and instruction in early modern England

    CERN Document Server

    Lamb, Julian

    2014-01-01

    We take it for granted that we can use words properly ? appropriately, meaningfully, even decorously. And yet it is very difficult to justify or explain what makes a particular use ""proper."" Given that properness is determined by the unpredictable vagaries of unrepeatable contexts, it is impossible to formulate an absolute rule which tells what is proper in every situation. In its four case studies of texts by Ascham, Puttenham, Mulcaster, and the first English dictionary writers, Rules of Use shows the way in which early modern pedagogues attempted to articulate such a rule whilst being min

  8. The Dichotomy of Insularity: Islands between Isolation and Connectivity in Medieval and Early Modern Europe, and Beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sicking, L.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of islands in maritime and global history is not yet understood in a comparative and long term perspective. This article aims to contribute to understanding the role of islands for the establishment, preservation and extension of maritime connections in medieval and early modern

  9. EARLY HISTORY OF GEOMETRIC PROBABILITY AND STEREOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Hykšová

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an account of the history of geometric probability and stereology from the time of Newton to the early 20th century. It depicts the development of two parallel ways: on one hand, the theory of geometric probability was formed with minor attention paid to other applications than those concerning spatial chance games. On the other hand, practical rules of the estimation of area or volume fraction and other characteristics, easily deducible from geometric probability theory, were proposed without the knowledge of this branch. A special attention is paid to the paper of J.-É. Barbier published in 1860, which contained the fundamental stereological formulas, but remained almost unnoticed both by mathematicians and practicians.

  10. Ancient genomes link early farmers from Atapuerca in Spain to modern-day Basques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Torsten; Valdiosera, Cristina; Malmström, Helena; Ureña, Irene; Rodriguez-Varela, Ricardo; Sverrisdóttir, Óddny Osk; Daskalaki, Evangelia A.; Skoglund, Pontus; Naidoo, Thijessen; Svensson, Emma M.; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald; Dunn, Michael; Storå, Jan; Iriarte, Eneko; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Carretero, José-Miguel; Götherström, Anders; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of the Neolithic transition in Europe—one of the most important cultural changes in human prehistory—is a subject of great interest. However, its effect on prehistoric and modern-day people in Iberia, the westernmost frontier of the European continent, remains unresolved. We present, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide sequence data from eight human remains, dated to between 5,500 and 3,500 years before present, excavated in the El Portalón cave at Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. We show that these individuals emerged from the same ancestral gene pool as early farmers in other parts of Europe, suggesting that migration was the dominant mode of transferring farming practices throughout western Eurasia. In contrast to central and northern early European farmers, the Chalcolithic El Portalón individuals additionally mixed with local southwestern hunter–gatherers. The proportion of hunter–gatherer-related admixture into early farmers also increased over the course of two millennia. The Chalcolithic El Portalón individuals showed greatest genetic affinity to modern-day Basques, who have long been considered linguistic and genetic isolates linked to the Mesolithic whereas all other European early farmers show greater genetic similarity to modern-day Sardinians. These genetic links suggest that Basques and their language may be linked with the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic. Furthermore, all modern-day Iberian groups except the Basques display distinct admixture with Caucasus/Central Asian and North African groups, possibly related to historical migration events. The El Portalón genomes uncover important pieces of the demographic history of Iberia and Europe and reveal how prehistoric groups relate to modern-day people. PMID:26351665

  11. Medical Connections and Exchanges in the Early Modern World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Naylor Pearson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For most of human history there have been extensive exchanges of medical information all over Eurasia. Some diseases were considered to be geographically determined, and hence had to be cured using local knowledge. Other ailments were found in many places, but cures could differ according to location. Most healers, whether book based or experiential, took a non-judgemental approach to different healing methods, as seen especially in India in the early colonial period.

  12. Military discipline: in the history and in modern Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Grigoryev O. V.

    2016-01-01

    the article deals with the problem of changing the approaches to military discipline. Analyzed and its inextricable link with the military law, the role and place of discipline in strengthening statehood and the suppression of the destructive manifestations. The analysis of the modern understanding of military discipline in passing of military service in the Russian Federation.

  13. Modern history of weather service for one hundred years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    This book describes meteorological history of Korea for a century. It consists of eleven chapters, which deals with the ancient history of meteorologic services, the beginning of modem history of meteorologic services from 1894 to 1910, meteorologic services in Japanese colonial era, meteorologic services in the U. S Military Government in Korea from 1945 to 1948, transition period from 1948 to 1950, Korean war period from 1950 to 1953, foundation construction period from 1953 to 1960, growth period in 1970s'. period of development in 1980s' foundation construction period for advanced technologies of meteorologic services in 1990s' and leaping period of meteorologic services in 2000s'.

  14. The international educational exchanges: history and modern value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L S Astafeva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In article the history, a current state and prospects of development of the international educational exchanges is considered. Influence world processes of globalisation and internationalisation on educational processes of multinational high schools is shown.

  15. Marginalia, commonplaces, and correspondence: scribal exchange in early modern science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yale, Elizabeth

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, historians of science have increasingly turned their attention to the "print culture" of early modern science. These studies have revealed that printing, as both a technology and a social and economic system, structured the forms and meanings of natural knowledge. Yet in early modern Europe, naturalists, including John Aubrey, John Evelyn, and John Ray, whose work is discussed in this paper, often shared and read scientific texts in manuscript either before or in lieu of printing. Scribal exchange, exemplified in the circulation of writings like commonplace books, marginalia, manuscript treatises, and correspondence, was the primary means by which communities of naturalists constructed scientific knowledge. Print and manuscript were necessary partners. Manuscript fostered close collaboration, and could be circulated relatively cheaply; but, unlike print, it could not reliably secure priority or survival for posterity. Naturalists approached scribal and print communication strategically, choosing the medium that best suited their goals at any given moment. As a result, print and scribal modes of disseminating information, constructing natural knowledge, and organizing communities developed in tandem. Practices typically associated with print culture manifested themselves in scribal texts and exchanges, and vice versa. "Print culture" cannot be hived off from "scribal culture." Rather, in their daily jottings and exchanges, naturalists inhabited, and produced, one common culture of communication. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Why was there no capitalism in early modern China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIAGO NASSER APPEL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this paper, we ask the following question: why couldn’t Early Modern China make the leap to capitalism, as we have come to know it in the West? We suggest that, even if China compared well with the West in key economic features - commercialization and commodification of goods, land, labor - up to the 18th century, it did not traverse the path to Capitalism because of the “fact of empire”. Lacking the scale of fiscal difficulties encountered in Early Modern Europe, Late Imperial China did not have to heavily tax merchants and notables; therefore, it did not have to negotiate rights and duties with the mercantile class. More innovatively, we also propose that the relative lack of fiscal difficulties meant that China failed to develop a “virtuous symbiosis” between taxing, monetization of the economy and public debt. This is because, essentially, it was the mobilization of society’s resources - primarily by way of public debt or taxes - towards the support of a military force that created the first real opportunities for merchants and bankers to amass immense and unprecedented wealth.

  17. Modern History and Problems of Physical Education in Japan.

    OpenAIRE

    片桐, 芳雄

    1993-01-01

    Japanese school is controlled under the strict rules, and student's individuality is often avoided. Going through this kind of schooling, character of most Japanese people devoting themselves to authority or total system has been build up. Physical education at Japanese school also has made one of the core of such education. That is essentially uniform and conservative. The physical education at school and sports in Japan were imported form the Western countries after modernization at the Mei...

  18. Learning History in Early Childhood: Teaching Methods and Children's Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjaeveland, Yngve

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the teaching of history in early childhood education and care centres and children's understanding of history. Based on interviews with eight Norwegian early childhood education and care teachers and on interpretative phenomenological analysis, the article shows how the early childhood education and care centres teach…

  19. Philosophy of experiment in early modern England: the case of Bacon, Boyle and Hooke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Serious philosophical reflection on the nature of experiment began in earnest in the seventeenth century. This paper expounds the most influential philosophy of experiment in seventeenth-century England, the Bacon-Boyle-Hooke view of experiment. It is argued that this can only be understood in the context of the new experimental philosophy practised according to the Baconian theory of natural history. The distinctive typology of experiments of this view is discussed, as well as its account of the relation between experiment and theory. This leads into an assessment of other recent discussions of early modern experiment, namely, those of David Gooding, Thomas Kuhn, J.E. Tiles and Peter Dear.

  20. Problematic Methods in teaching Modern History. An alternative or a necessity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohany Peralta Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the analysis from the study of the theoretical research on the use of problematic methods in Teaching Learning Process of Modern H istory course in Rafael Maria de Mendive University of Pinar del Rio. An anal ysis o f the use of problematic methods in the Process of Teaching Modern History course from the definition of method taking into account the theoretical assumptions of scholars of the subject matter and the advantages and disadvantages provided by the use of these methods in the Teaching Learning Process of Modern History course.

  1. "To Feel at Home in the Wonderful World of Modern Science": New Chinese Historiography and Qing Intellectual History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Ori

    2017-09-01

    Argument In recent decades a large body of scholarship on the first half of twentieth-century China has successfully shown the ways in which history and historiography had been constructed at the time, as well as the links between history, national identity, education, and politics that was forged during this period. In this paper, I examine Qing intellectual history, in particular that of the mid or "High Qing." I discuss the development of the historiography of this field in the early twentieth century by drawing on the larger developments in historiography; by demonstrating how these developments had shaped Qing intellectual history for later times; by focusing on the historical actors' sense of the importance of "science," being "scientific," and "modernization"; and, by unraveling the intimate connections to older historiographical narratives going back all the way to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

  2. Modernization and gender regimes, life histories of the wives of Turkish political leaders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yelsali Parmaksiz, Pinar Melis

    2009-01-01

    This work is a close look at the life histories of the top Turkish political leaders with the aim of analyzing changes in gender role and gender identity and tensions between the two in the history of Turkish modernization vis-à-vis with contemporaneous debates on gender. The main objective is to

  3. Transmission of learning in modern Ilorin : a history of islamic education 1897-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliyu, Sakariyau Alabi

    2015-01-01

    This work is a history of Islamic education in Ilorin from the colonial period to the first decade of the twenty-first century. It is a history of the adaptations of the ulama to the challenge of the modern period through three pedagogical schools Ilorin, namely: tolerant Adabiyyah School, the

  4. The early history of the placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jütte, Robert

    2013-04-01

    In the late 18th century the term "placebo" became part of medical jargon. In contrast to the prevailing opinion that it was the Scottish physician and pharmacologist William Cullen (1710-1790) who introduced this expression into medical language in 1772, the credit must be given to another English physician, Alexander Sutherland (born before 1730 - died after 1773). The main reason for administering placebos in late 18th-century medical practice was to satisfy the patient's demand and his expectations. Another reason was obstinancy of the patient: the motivation behind such prescriptions may be summarized as prescribing inert drugs for the satisfaction of the patient's mind, and not with the view of producing any direct remedial effect. In most cases these 18th century physicians did not administer "pure" placebos but resorted to any kind of medicine which they thought simple, feeble, or altogether powerless, non-perturbing medicines. Today we make the distinction between pure placebos (substances with no pharmacological effect, e.g. sugar pills) and impure placebos (substances with pharmacological effect but not on the condition being treated). In the 18th century those physicians who prescribed placebo usually thought of drugs which were considered not very effective in the particular case, e.g. a mild ointment. At the same time, only very few brilliant minds came up with the ingenious idea of using inert substances as placebo. An alternative to milk sugar used as placebo in homeopathy was breadpills. Recent research suggests that expectancy is an integral part of the placebo effect. As early as 1775 the English bishop John Douglas (1721-1807) anticipated the findings of modern research on the placebo effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Early Cretaceous climate change (Hauterivian - Early Aptian): Learning from the past to prevent modern reefs decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godet, Alexis; Bodin, Stéphane; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl B.

    2010-05-01

    In the last decades, the anthropogenic increase pCO2atm has been considered as one of the main contributors for the decline of modern coral reefs, and nearly 60% of these marine ecosystems are presently threatened (Bryant et al., 1998). Interactions between anthropogenic change and reef growth can, however, not be reduced to a single factor, and it is essential to look at the Earth's history to understand and counterbalance. During the Early Cretaceous, enhanced pCO2atm may have been responsible, at least in part, for the demise of the carbonate platform along the northern margin of the Tethys through climatic feedback mechanisms. From the Hauterivian to the Early Aptian, increased rainfalls are documented from the clay-mineral association, by a change from a smectite-dominated (most of the Hauterivian), to a kaolinite-dominated assemblage (latest Hauterivian up to the early Late Barremian). This switch is dated to the Pseudothurmannia ohmi ammonozone in the Vocontian Trough of southeastern France (Angles section, Godet et al., 2008). It is immediately followed in time by major nutrient input, as is illustrated by the substantial increase in phosphorus accumulation rates (PAR), not only in this section, but also in the Ultrahelvetic area of Switzerland and in the Umbria-Marche basin of Italy (Bodin et al., 2006). On the other hand, the remainder of the Hauterivian is characterized by PAR mean values characteristic of mesotrophic conditions, whereas the Late Barremian witnesses the return to oligotrophic environments (lower PAR values). Synchronously, these perturbations are mirrored on the platform by changes in the type of carbonate ecosystems. Indeed, a stronger continental runoff, and a subsequent input in the oceanic domain of nutrients (e.g., phosphorus) and clastic material modified marine palaeoenvironmental conditions and triggered changes in ecosystems. A unique archive of the Early Cretaceous carbonate platform is preserved in the Helvetic Alps, where the

  6. Sketching together the modern histories of science, technology, and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickstone, John V

    2011-03-01

    This essay explores ways to "write together" the awkwardly jointed histories of "science" and "me dicine"--but it also includes other "arts" (in the old sense) and technologies. It draws especially on the historiography of medicine, but I try to use terms that are applicable across all of science, technology, and medicine (STM). I stress the variety of knowledges and practices in play at any time and the ways in which the ensembles change. I focus on the various relations of "science" and "medicine," as they were understood for a succession of periods--from mainly agricultural societies, through industrial societies, to our biomedical present--trying to sketch a history that encompasses daily practices and understandings as well as major conceptual and technical innovations. The model is meant to facilitate inquiry across topics and across times, including those to come.

  7. Two-Person Control: A Brief History and Modern Industry Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Robert Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Physical asset protection is the principal objective of many security and safeguard measures. One well-known means of asset protection is two-person control. This paper reviews literature regarding two-person control to gain insight into its origin, first demonstrated uses, and its presence in several modern industries. This literature review of two-person control is intended to benefit people and organizations with a desire to understand its origins and how the practice has evolved over time, as well as give some insight into the flexibility of this safeguarding technique. The literature review is focused in four main sections: (1) defining two-person control, (2) early history, (3) two-person control in modern industry, and (4) a theory on how two- person control entered modern industry. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author would like to thank Jarret Lafleur and Scott Paap of Sandia National Laboratories, California's Systems Analysis & Engineering organization for the opportunity to work on this project. Jarret Lafleur provided very constructive and helpful feedback through all stages of the work. Amanda Thompson of the Sandia California Technical Library maintained a great spirit and always had a quick document turnaround that very much helped out this project's completion. Additionally, yet perhaps most importantly, the author would like to thank his wife and daughter, along with the rest of his family, for continued support over the years. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  8. “Africanizing” A Modern African Art History Curriculum from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Until recent, the lack of perception that dogged the early study of traitional art by members of Western culture seem to have reappeared in the study or (non study) of modern African art. Currently, modern African art is engaging the attention of western art historians' scholarly enquiry. However, there is a need for a well ...

  9. Hippocrates' complaint and the scientific ethos in early modern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Richard

    2018-04-01

    Among the elements of the modern scientific ethos, as identified by R.K. Merton and others, is the commitment of individual effort to a long-term inquiry that may not bring substantial results in a lifetime. The challenge this presents was encapsulated in the aphorism of the ancient Greek physician, Hippocrates of Kos: vita brevis, ars longa (life is short, art is long). This article explores how this complaint was answered in the early modern period by Francis Bacon's call for the inauguration of the sciences over several generations, thereby imagining a succession of lives added together over time. However, Bacon also explored another response to Hippocrates: the devotion of a 'whole life', whether brief or long, to science. The endorsement of long-term inquiry in combination with intensive lifetime involvement was embraced by some leading Fellows of the Royal Society, such as Robert Boyle and Robert Hooke. The problem for individuals, however, was to find satisfaction in science despite concerns, in some fields, that current observations and experiments would not yield material able to be extended by future investigations.

  10. On the Modern History of Passive Solar Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the paradox of passive solar architecture within the Nordic context of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Regulative developments to reduce space heating demand since the 1970s oil crisis are explored, highlighting architectural responses and the rise in prom-inence of passive solar...... design. An empirical study of passive solar housing schemes docu-ments architectural strategy, energy savings and extensive problems with overheating. A theo-retical study examines how passive solar was seen as advantageous when viewed with the 1985-2005 space heating paradigm, but actually resulted...... of Nordic modernism meant that passive solar architecture became the de-facto visual, aesthetic and functional expression of environmental design at that time. The article concludes by explor-ing the implications of the environmental paradigm for the architectural profession. By positing the architectural...

  11. Neutron activation analysis of medieval and early modern times ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kies, A.; Reitsamer, G.; Bauer, W.

    1985-01-01

    Provenience studies of medieval and early modern times ceramics from the Eastern Danube area of Austria have been performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. All sherds examined were selected from pottery which was specially charactrized by pottery marks ('Cross Potent', 'Crossmark within a circle', 'Latin Cross', 'Cross Paty'). With respect to the chemical composition five different pottery groups could be evaluated by cluster analysis. Archaeological results: The'Cross Patent' was used by different potter's workshops whereas the 'Crossmark within a circle' was more likely restricted to one manufacture entre. The distribution of the 'Latin Cross' and The 'Cross Paty' over all five clusters indicated the usage of clay from different deposits. The assignment of the 'Cross Paty' exclusively to the area of Passau could be disproved. (Author)

  12. Addressing the Addressee: Shakespeare and Early Modern Epistolary Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Gilbert-Cooke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the emergence of epistolary theory in mid-sixteenth-century England, its value and function, the article attempts to show how these theories helped to construct, in contemporary correspondence, the addressee’s identity. One of the most important precepts was, as Angel Day states in his manual The English Secretorie, that, when composing a letter, writers tailored their text to the addressee. Even invented letters in Shakespeare’s plays reveal that, while correctly addressing the addressee does not necessarily guarantee success, address was considered the most important tool at the writer’s disposal when attempting to secure the addressee’s good will. Importantly, the observance of this precept even in drama indicates that epistolary theory had a more pervasive influence in early modern England than previously thought.

  13. Promoting free flow in the networks: Reimagining the body in early modern Suzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Volker

    2017-06-01

    The history of Chinese medicine is still widely imagined in terms dictated by the discourse of modernity, that is as 'traditional' and 'Chinese.' And yet, so as to be intelligible to us moderns, it must simultaneously be framed through categories that make it comparable somehow to the 'West' and the 'modern' from which it is said to be essentially different. This is accomplished, for instance, by viewing Chinese medicine as fundamentally shaped by cosmological thinking, as focusing on process rather than matter, and as forever hampered by attachments to the past even when it tries to innovate. At the same time, it is described as pursuing its objectives in ways that make sense in 'our' terms, too, such as the goal of creating physiological homeostasis through methods of supplementation and drainage. In this paper, I seek to move beyond this kind of analysis through a two-pronged approach. First, by focusing on the concept of tong - a character that calls forth images of free flow, connectivity, relatedness and understanding - I foreground an important aspect of Chinese medical thinking and practice that has virtually been ignored by Western historians of medicine and science. Second, by exploring how the influential physician Ye Tianshi (1664-1746) employed tong to advance medical thinking and practice at a crucial moment of change in the history of Chinese medicine, I demonstrate that physicians in early modern China moved towards new understandings of the body readily intelligible by modern biomedical anatomy. I argue that this mode of analysis allows us to transcend the limitations inherent in the current historiography of Chinese medicine: because it allows for comparison to emerge from our subject matter rather than imposing our imaginaries onto it in advance.

  14. A modern history of psychiatric-mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Laura C; Scharer, Kathleen M

    2015-02-01

    This paper discusses the progression of developments in psychiatric-mental health nursing from the 1960s to the present. The 1960s were a time of shortage of psychiatric APRNs, with legislation expanding the availability of mental health services. We find ourselves in a similar time with 7 million new health insurance enrollees, because of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The expansion of health insurance coverage comes at a time when some colleges of nursing are closing master's programs in psychiatric-mental health, in lieu of the DNP mandate from the American Association of Colleges of Nursing. Is history repeating itself? Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Introduction to "Rethinking Business History in Modern China"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hsin Yeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this special issue of Cross-Currents, the contributing authors look at how business linked China and the world from the mid-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century, and how Chinese and foreign companies interacted with one another, as well as with political power, long before today. Some authors concentrate on material connections, including shipping, banking, the building of railroads, the spread of the motion picture industry, international treaties, and the formation of knowledge, while others investigate the role of business culture and how entrepreneurship and networks of trust crossed borders. Both of these aspects are set against the backdrop of simultaneous Chinese state-building efforts that became evident in the state creation of a national market and the formation of political borders. All of the authors collected here draw on case studies of individual entrepreneurs or companies, just as they draw on the new historical and theoretical scholarship summarized above to fill out the picture of China’s economic development within global processes. As the contributions to this issue demonstrate, rethinking Chinese business history also forces us to rethink Chinese urban history more generally... The new pictures of business practice presented here entail a remapping of the spatial dynamics of such activities and thereby a new understanding of the making of urban China...

  16. Contextualizing Female Infanticide: Ming China in Early Modern European Travelogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Sachdev

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential components of the early modern European response to China was an emphasis on the fabulous wealth and social organization of Chinese society. Despite their knowledge of the wide-scale abandonment and killing of newborns within the society, and despite the categorization of infanticide as a great moral sin by the early Christian church, the European travelers to China commented on infanticide dispassionately, without any moral revulsion, and continued to project an image of China as a virtual utopia for its residents. One reason for the detached descriptions of abandonment of children and infanticide in China might be the fact that conditions with regard to children in Europe were no superior to those in China and were probably far worse; the vast numbers of abandoned and dead children in Europe blunted the edge of criticism with regard to Chinese customs. Another might be that infanticide was practiced within Europe contemporaneously, even though the killing of newborn children there was practiced much more surreptitiously, and public opinion had firmed up connections among single women, illegitimacy, concealment, and murder. However, the dire social circumstances within their own countries had not prevented the Europeans from soundly criticizing and morally reproving cannibalism or infanticide in other cultures. In order to understand their acceptance of this “sinful” practice in China, we must look elsewhere.

  17. Gore vidal's early Hollywood: history, fiction and film Gore vidal's early Hollywood: history, fiction and film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas LaBorie Burns

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Although Gore Vidal has both worked as a Hollywood screenwriter and written criticism on Film—in this regard, he is perhaps best known for a sustained attack on the auteur theory of the magisterial director—I am concerned in this paper mainly with his fiction account of the early days of film-making in his novel Hollywood (1990 and the relation of film to national political life depicted therein. This novel is the sixth in a series that gives a more or less continuous historical picture of the social and political history of the US from colonial times to the present. “Political” for Vidal, however, means primarily the acts of statesmen, diplomats, and high-ranking military personnel, and the social history he presents is that of the upper-class which supplies their ranks, so that what Vidal is in fact offering in these six novels is what one might call the history of the American “movers-and-shakers”. Although Gore Vidal has both worked as a Hollywood screenwriter and written criticism on Film—in this regard, he is perhaps best known for a sustained attack on the auteur theory of the magisterial director—I am concerned in this paper mainly with his fiction account of the early days of film-making in his novel Hollywood (1990 and the relation of film to national political life depicted therein. This novel is the sixth in a series that gives a more or less continuous historical picture of the social and political history of the US from colonial times to the present. “Political” for Vidal, however, means primarily the acts of statesmen, diplomats, and high-ranking military personnel, and the social history he presents is that of the upper-class which supplies their ranks, so that what Vidal is in fact offering in these six novels is what one might call the history of the American “movers-and-shakers”.

  18. The Home Network: Identity and Materiality in Early Modern and Modern Ulster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Kathryn M.

    This dissertation looks at three categories of ceramics and the creation of a hybrid culture during the Early Modern and Modern period in Ireland. During these time periods Ireland was a part of the English global colonial enterprises, and was the site of many legal and cultural changes due to its subordinate position in the hierarchy of socio-political and economic phenomenon that characterize the pinnacle of British global power. This study looks to understand how these powers articulated with England's one European colony, Ireland, and if that articulation has similarities to other colonial cultures across time and space. To study the possibility of hybridity between the Irish and English inhabitants of Ireland during the Post-Medieval Period, three categories of ceramics have been analyzed. Fine earthenwares in the form of tablewares and tea sets were macroscopically analyzed for patterns, age, and place of origin. Coarse earthenwares were subjected to X-ray florescence to look for patterns in the spectral data to see if a point of origin could be ascribed to them. And lastly, white ball clay pipe fragments were both macroscopically analyzed for makers' marks and subjected to X-ray florescence to verify their point of origin. The relationship between where these artifacts come from- if they are local productions or imports- and where they were disposed of- either across the landscaper or only associated with households of particular ethnicities- says something about how people negotiate their ethnic identities in colonial settings. As people in Ireland adopt the English style of tea drinking and start to use English mass-produced fine earthenwares, it disrupts the local cottage industry of coarse earthenware manufacturing. What this study seeks to know is if there is a difference in the adoption of English tea drinking, and if the purchasing of certain types of ceramic vessels contributes to the performance of ethnic identity in a colonial setting.

  19. Making expert knowledge through the image: connections between antiquarian and early modern scientific illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Stephanie

    2014-03-01

    This essay examines drawings of antiquities in the context of the history of early modern scientific illustration. The role of illustrations in the establishment of archaeology as a discipline is assessed, and the emergence of a graphic style for representing artifacts is shown to be closely connected to the development of scientific illustration in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. The essay argues that the production of conventionalized drawings of antiquities during this period represents a fundamental shift in the approach to ancient material culture, signifying the recognition of objects as evidence. As has been demonstrated in other scientific fields, the creation of a visual system for recording objects was central to the acceptance of artifacts as "data" that could be organized into groups, classified as types, and analyzed to gain knowledge of the past.

  20. Traditional and Modern Biomedical Prospecting: Part I—the History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner E. G. Müller

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature, especially the marine environment, provides the most effective drugs used in human therapy. Among the metazoans, the marine sponges (phylum Porifera, which are sessile filter feeders, produce the most potent and highly selective bioactive secondary metabolites. These animals (or their associated symbiotic microorganisms synthesize secondary metabolites whose activity and selectivity has developed during their long evolutionary history (evochemistry. The exploitation of these resources has become possible due to the progress in molecular and cell biology. BIOTECmarin, the German Center of Excellence follows this rationale. In the past, these animals have been successfully and extensively utilized to isolate bioactive compounds and biomaterials for human benefit. Pharmaceuticals prepared from marine animals, primarily sponges, have been applied since ancient times (Hippocrates, Aristotle and later Plinius. It has been reported that extracts and/or components from sponges can be used for the treatment of specific diseases. For a systematic and applied-oriented exploitation, the successful development of effective compounds largely depends on quality of the institutional infrastructure of marine stations and more so on the biodiversity. The Center for Marine Research in Rovinj (Croatia fulfils these prerequisites. Founded in 1891, this institute has to its credit major discoveries related to exploitation of secondary metabolites/biomaterials from sponges for therapeutical application and to obtain biomaterials for general wellbeing.This is the first part of a review focusing on biomedical prospecting. Here, we have mainly described the historic background. The details of techniques, substances, approaches and outlooks will be discussed in the second part.

  1. Genealogical relationships between early medieval and modern inhabitants of Piedmont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vai, Stefania; Ghirotto, Silvia; Pilli, Elena; Tassi, Francesca; Lari, Martina; Rizzi, Ermanno; Matas-Lalueza, Laura; Ramirez, Oscar; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Torroni, Antonio; Lancioni, Hovirag; Giostra, Caterina; Bedini, Elena; Pejrani Baricco, Luisella; Matullo, Giuseppe; Di Gaetano, Cornelia; Piazza, Alberto; Veeramah, Krishna; Geary, Patrick; Caramelli, David; Barbujani, Guido

    2015-01-01

    In the period between 400 to 800 AD, also known as the period of the Barbarian invasions, intense migration is documented in the historical record of Europe. However, little is known about the demographic impact of these historical movements, potentially ranging from negligible to substantial. As a pilot study in a broader project on Medieval Europe, we sampled 102 specimens from 5 burial sites in Northwestern Italy, archaeologically classified as belonging to Lombards or Longobards, a Germanic people ruling over a vast section of the Italian peninsula from 568 to 774. We successfully amplified and typed the mitochondrial hypervariable region I (HVR-I) of 28 individuals. Comparisons of genetic diversity with other ancient populations and haplotype networks did not suggest that these samples are heterogeneous, and hence allowed us to jointly compare them with three isolated contemporary populations, and with a modern sample of a large city, representing a control for the effects of recent immigration. We then generated by serial coalescent simulations 16 millions of genealogies, contrasting a model of genealogical continuity with one in which the contemporary samples are genealogically independent from the medieval sample. Analyses by Approximate Bayesian Computation showed that the latter model fits the data in most cases, with one exception, Trino Vercellese, in which the evidence was compatible with persistence up to the present time of genetic features observed among this early medieval population. We conclude that it is possible, in general, to detect evidence of genealogical ties between medieval and specific modern populations. However, only seldom did mitochondrial DNA data allow us to reject with confidence either model tested, which indicates that broader analyses, based on larger assemblages of samples and genetic markers, are needed to understand in detail the effects of medieval migration.

  2. Genealogical relationships between early medieval and modern inhabitants of Piedmont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Vai

    Full Text Available In the period between 400 to 800 AD, also known as the period of the Barbarian invasions, intense migration is documented in the historical record of Europe. However, little is known about the demographic impact of these historical movements, potentially ranging from negligible to substantial. As a pilot study in a broader project on Medieval Europe, we sampled 102 specimens from 5 burial sites in Northwestern Italy, archaeologically classified as belonging to Lombards or Longobards, a Germanic people ruling over a vast section of the Italian peninsula from 568 to 774. We successfully amplified and typed the mitochondrial hypervariable region I (HVR-I of 28 individuals. Comparisons of genetic diversity with other ancient populations and haplotype networks did not suggest that these samples are heterogeneous, and hence allowed us to jointly compare them with three isolated contemporary populations, and with a modern sample of a large city, representing a control for the effects of recent immigration. We then generated by serial coalescent simulations 16 millions of genealogies, contrasting a model of genealogical continuity with one in which the contemporary samples are genealogically independent from the medieval sample. Analyses by Approximate Bayesian Computation showed that the latter model fits the data in most cases, with one exception, Trino Vercellese, in which the evidence was compatible with persistence up to the present time of genetic features observed among this early medieval population. We conclude that it is possible, in general, to detect evidence of genealogical ties between medieval and specific modern populations. However, only seldom did mitochondrial DNA data allow us to reject with confidence either model tested, which indicates that broader analyses, based on larger assemblages of samples and genetic markers, are needed to understand in detail the effects of medieval migration.

  3. An Anthropometric History of Early-Modern France

    OpenAIRE

    Komlos, John; Hau, Michel; Bourginat, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    The height of the French male population of the Ancien Régime is estimated, on the basis of military records, to have been about 162 cm in the 17th century. This extremely short stature implies that, “the crisis of the 17th century” had an immense impact on the human organism itself. The improvement in climatic conditions at the turn of the 18th century had an ameliorating effect on the human organism, increasing in size by nearly 4 cms within a span of 12 years. Improved weather had a benefi...

  4. History of US Presidential Assaults on Modern Environmental Health Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Leif; Sellers, Christopher; Dillon, Lindsey; Ohayon, Jennifer Liss; Shapiro, Nicholas; Sullivan, Marianne; Bocking, Stephen; Brown, Phil; de la Rosa, Vanessa; Harrison, Jill; Johns, Sara; Kulik, Katherine; Lave, Rebecca; Murphy, Michelle; Piper, Liza; Richter, Lauren; Wylie, Sara

    2018-04-01

    The Trump administration has undertaken an assault on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), an agency critical to environmental health. This assault has precedents in the administrations of Ronald Reagan and George W. Bush. The early Reagan administration (1981-1983) launched an overt attack on the EPA, combining deregulation with budget and staff cuts, whereas the George W. Bush administration (2001-2008) adopted a subtler approach, undermining science-based policy. The current administration combines both these strategies and operates in a political context more favorable to its designs on the EPA. The Republican Party has shifted right and now controls the executive branch and both chambers of Congress. Wealthy donors, think tanks, and fossil fuel and chemical industries have become more influential in pushing deregulation. Among the public, political polarization has increased, the environment has become a partisan issue, and science and the mainstream media are distrusted. For these reasons, the effects of today's ongoing regulatory delays, rollbacks, and staff cuts may well surpass those of the administrations of Reagan and Bush, whose impacts on environmental health were considerable.

  5. History of US Presidential Assaults on Modern Environmental Health Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Christopher; Dillon, Lindsey; Ohayon, Jennifer Liss; Shapiro, Nicholas; Sullivan, Marianne; Bocking, Stephen; Brown, Phil; de la Rosa, Vanessa; Harrison, Jill; Johns, Sara; Kulik, Katherine; Lave, Rebecca; Murphy, Michelle; Piper, Liza; Richter, Lauren; Wylie, Sara

    2018-01-01

    The Trump administration has undertaken an assault on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), an agency critical to environmental health. This assault has precedents in the administrations of Ronald Reagan and George W. Bush. The early Reagan administration (1981–1983) launched an overt attack on the EPA, combining deregulation with budget and staff cuts, whereas the George W. Bush administration (2001–2008) adopted a subtler approach, undermining science-based policy. The current administration combines both these strategies and operates in a political context more favorable to its designs on the EPA. The Republican Party has shifted right and now controls the executive branch and both chambers of Congress. Wealthy donors, think tanks, and fossil fuel and chemical industries have become more influential in pushing deregulation. Among the public, political polarization has increased, the environment has become a partisan issue, and science and the mainstream media are distrusted. For these reasons, the effects of today’s ongoing regulatory delays, rollbacks, and staff cuts may well surpass those of the administrations of Reagan and Bush, whose impacts on environmental health were considerable. PMID:29698097

  6. The Hanford Site: An anthology of early histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1993-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Memories of War: Pearl Harbor and the Genesis of the Hanford Site; safety has always been promoted at the Hanford Site; women have an important place in Hanford Site history; the boom and bust cycle: A 50-year historical overview of the economic impacts of Hanford Site Operations on the Tri-Cities, Washington; Hanford's early reactors were crucial to the sites's history; T-Plant made chemical engineering history; the UO 3 plant has a long history of service. PUREX Plant: the Hanford Site's Historic Workhorse. PUREX Plant Waste Management was a complex challenge; and early Hanford Site codes and jargon

  7. Writing Chinese art history in early twentieth-century China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Hui

    2010-01-01

    My dissertation argues that Chinese scholars of the 1920s and ’30s (re)interpreted the traditions of Chinese art in order to build a modern field of Chinese art history. These scholars faced with challenges such as China’s internal needs to develop, her indirect and direct encounters with

  8. Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsen, Silver

    2009-01-01

    My dissertation, "Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy" demonstrates how increased crown authority, and an expanded market combine with the mixed agency of the romantic comedy daughter to further encourage early modern economic growth. The triumph of rebelling daughter over blocking father has…

  9. Wild justice: The dynamics of gender and revenge in early modern English drama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergh, K.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation examines the role of the stage in cultural debate about revenge in early modern England. The theme of retribution was hugely popular in early modern drama, at a time when the emerging nation state sought to strengthen its sovereignty by monopolizing the right to punish. The stage's

  10. Service and Servants in Early Modern English Culture to 1660

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rivlin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review essay surveys the last ten years of literary scholarship on service and servants in early modern England, with a particular focus on Shakespeare, to offer an overview of approaches and a sense of new directions in the field. The essay examines how studies have often pivoted between considering the act (‘service’ and the person (‘servant’ who performs it. Definitional ambiguities seem permanently to hover around these key terms. But rather than portending incoherence, the continuing presence of multiple definitions signals that scholarship about service and servants has reached a certain maturity. In the period under review, the field has matured to the point that critics no longer need to prove that service deserves consideration as an object of study, with the result that they can pursue vigorously the ways in which service and servants are imbricated with larger ontological and phenomenological questions. Investigating recent criticism on service takes this essay into critical territory that encompasses not only social class, economics, occupational identity, and subjectivity, but also aesthetics, ethics, affect, gender and sexuality, politics, race and colonialism. One important conclusion is that a growing body of work, some of it tracing the development of inter-Atlantic slavery from paradigms of service, offers a material, historical perspective on the ways in which servants enable freedom for others without being enabled to experience it for themselves. Looking to the future, the author encourages Anglo-American critics to think more expansively and comparatively about service, so that new connections might be drawn between the supposedly vanished world of servants and service and the global service economy in which we all participate today.

  11. Early modern architecture : how to prolong a lifespan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de W.

    1993-01-01

    In Modern Movement architecture, the structural elements of a building - mostly concrete or steel frames - form an indissoluble part of the original design approach. Therefore, such elements are part of the historic value of these buildings. At the same time, modern architects strove after minimal

  12. Teaching issues of contemporary history using historical sources and modern teaching methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruber Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of history is becoming increasingly less interesting to students, despite the fact that the history teaching process has been continuously modernized during recent years. It is an observation which can be perceived even if we don`t make an elaborated research in the field. Some empirical data show us that students in secondary and High Schools are less interested in studying History than in studying Geography or other social sciences. The number of students who are determined to study History in universities has significantly dropped in recent years [1]. Of course, there are multiple causes and the factors behind this change are numerous and varied. In this paper we handle only some changes in teaching History in High Schools, as they are designed in History Curricula and in History textbooks. Therefore during the first sequence of this paper we shall analyze the History Curricula for High School, 11th and 12th grades, regarding their finalities (competencies, some relevant contents and the recommended pedagogical approaches about the teaching methods and the auxiliary material. In the second part of the paper we propose some teaching activities through which students would practice the specific competencies from their Curriculum for History. We aim at presenting attractive teaching material and learning methods and applying the methodological recommendations from the High school Curricula for History, 11th and 12th grades.

  13. Dinetah: An Early History of the Navajo People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Lawrence D.

    Originally written for Navajo elementary school students, this book chronicles the history of the Navajo people from prehistory to 1868. The book presents a sympathetic history of a people who depended on their tenacity and creative adaptability to survive troubled times. Chapters examine how Navajo culture changed from that of an early hunting…

  14. Early history of NMR at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.A.

    1985-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has developed into an important research tool in chemistry. More recently, NMR imaging and in vivo spectroscopy promise to produce a revolution in medicine and biochemistry. Early experiments at Los Alamos led to DOE programs involving stable isotopes of importance to biology and to medicine. These events are briefly recounted. 2 refs

  15. Early British synchrotrons, an informal history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.D.

    1997-02-01

    An historical account of the design and construction of early synchrotrons in the United Kingdom, based partly on personal reminiscences, is presented. Material is also drawn from archives at Birmingham and CERN. The document covers the period from plans for the world's first synchrotron at Malvern after the Second World War to work done at Harwell Laboratory for CERN in the period 1951-1953. (UK)

  16. Strong family history and early onset of schizophrenia: about 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychotic disorder and high genetic loading is associated with early onset of the disease. The outcome of schizophrenia has also been linked with the age of onset as well as the presence of family history of the disease. Therefore families with patients with early onset Schizophrenia are ...

  17. Early Childhood Education: History, Theory, and Practice. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Harry Morgan lays the foundations of what early childhood education is by integrating the history of the field with the philosophy and theories behind this discipline. From birth to age eight, when children become integrated into society through their education at school and at home, "Early Childhood Education" examines the education of this age…

  18. Birth and early history of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenton, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    The history of nuclear generation of electric power is traced from Sir Ernest Rutherford's first pessimistic assessment in 1933 to the present time, when 12% of U.S. electricity comes from nuclear plants. The U.S. Navy is credited with being the first to see the potential for nuclear power reactors for submarine propulsion. The author relates the story of the Manhattan Engineering District during World War II and traces the nuclear submarine development as it paralleled postwar civilian power programs from the first light water reactors to the present controversy over the breeder reactor. The momentum of technology development is seen to have slowed, possibly because the 1955 success of the USS Nautilus prompted world acceptance of the LWR as the dominant power reactor

  19. Book Review: Thanos Veremis, A Modern History of the Balkans: Nationalism and Identity in Southeast Europe, London and New York: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd, 2017.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J. Cuevas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Thanos Veremis, an Emeritus professor of Political History at the University of Athens, is a preeminent historian and prolific author. This book comparatively covers the political and military history of the Balkans with a special attention to the Balkan economies, militaries, and nationalist creeds as some of these modern issues still plague the region. In the first part of the book, Veremis provides a concise and fast-paced overview of almost two hundred years of Balkan history from the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the early nineteenth century to the 1995 NATO intervention in the region.

  20. Early modern human diversity suggests subdivided population structure and a complex out-of-Africa scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunz, Philipp; Bookstein, Fred L.; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Stadlmayr, Andrea; Seidler, Horst; Weber, Gerhard W.

    2009-01-01

    The interpretation of genetic evidence regarding modern human origins depends, among other things, on assessments of the structure and the variation of ancient populations. Because we lack genetic data from the time when the first anatomically modern humans appeared, between 200,000 and 60,000 years ago, instead we exploit the phenotype of neurocranial geometry to compare the variation in early modern human fossils with that in other groups of fossil Homo and recent modern humans. Variation is assessed as the mean-squared Procrustes distance from the group average shape in a representation based on several hundred neurocranial landmarks and semilandmarks. We find that the early modern group has more shape variation than any other group in our sample, which covers 1.8 million years, and that they are morphologically similar to recent modern humans of diverse geographically dispersed populations but not to archaic groups. Of the currently competing models of modern human origins, some are inconsistent with these findings. Rather than a single out-of-Africa dispersal scenario, we suggest that early modern humans were already divided into different populations in Pleistocene Africa, after which there followed a complex migration pattern. Our conclusions bear implications for the inference of ancient human demography from genetic models and emphasize the importance of focusing research on those early modern humans, in particular, in Africa. PMID:19307568

  1. Genome sequencing highlights the dynamic early history of dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam H Freedman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify genetic changes underlying dog domestication and reconstruct their early evolutionary history, we generated high-quality genome sequences from three gray wolves, one from each of the three putative centers of dog domestication, two basal dog lineages (Basenji and Dingo and a golden jackal as an outgroup. Analysis of these sequences supports a demographic model in which dogs and wolves diverged through a dynamic process involving population bottlenecks in both lineages and post-divergence gene flow. In dogs, the domestication bottleneck involved at least a 16-fold reduction in population size, a much more severe bottleneck than estimated previously. A sharp bottleneck in wolves occurred soon after their divergence from dogs, implying that the pool of diversity from which dogs arose was substantially larger than represented by modern wolf populations. We narrow the plausible range for the date of initial dog domestication to an interval spanning 11-16 thousand years ago, predating the rise of agriculture. In light of this finding, we expand upon previous work regarding the increase in copy number of the amylase gene (AMY2B in dogs, which is believed to have aided digestion of starch in agricultural refuse. We find standing variation for amylase copy number variation in wolves and little or no copy number increase in the Dingo and Husky lineages. In conjunction with the estimated timing of dog origins, these results provide additional support to archaeological finds, suggesting the earliest dogs arose alongside hunter-gathers rather than agriculturists. Regarding the geographic origin of dogs, we find that, surprisingly, none of the extant wolf lineages from putative domestication centers is more closely related to dogs, and, instead, the sampled wolves form a sister monophyletic clade. This result, in combination with dog-wolf admixture during the process of domestication, suggests that a re-evaluation of past hypotheses regarding dog

  2. Early history of the concept of autogynephilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray

    2005-08-01

    Since the beginning of the last century, clinical observers have described the propensity of certain males to be erotically aroused by the thought or image of themselves as women. Because there was no specific term to denote this phenomenon, clinicians' references to it were generally oblique or periphrastic. The closest available word was transvestism. The definition of transvestism accepted by the end of the twentieth century, however, did not just fail to capture the wide range of erotically arousing cross-gender behaviors and fantasies in which women's garments per seplay a small role or none at all; it actually directed attention away from them. The absence of an adequate terminology became acute in the writer's research on the taxonomy of gender identity disorders in biological males. This had suggested that heterosexual, asexual, and bisexual transsexuals are more similar to each other-and to transvestites-than any of them is to the homosexual type, and that the common feature in transvestites and the three types of non-homosexual transsexuals is a history of erotic arousal in association with the thought or image of themselves as women. At the same time, the writer was becoming aware of male patients who are sexually aroused only by the idea of having a woman's body and not at all by the idea of wearing women's clothes. To fill this terminological and conceptual gap, the writer introduced the term autogynephilia(love of oneself as a woman).

  3. YI Kwang Su's Love and history records of modern hospital under the japanese colonial period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung Hoon

    2016-12-01

    This article aims to evaluate and analyze the description of the modern hospital as history record, which appeared in YI Kwang Su's novel Love. This novel has mentioned in detail western style clinic, Bukgando Catholic hospital, tuberculosis sanitarium as its main space. Modern hospitals are depicted in the novel has a great significance in historical aspect as well as in literary aspect. The most data on modern hospital is laws, statistics and newspaper archives. These materials are a great help to understand the history and status of the modern hospital. Literary description here is important materials, that specific to reconstruct the appearance of the modern hospital at that time. Literary representations infuse life into the history record. In this regard, Love has special meaning in the history of Korean modern literature. Before anything else, doctor AN Bin's clinic as a first space of the novel vividly shows the reality of the Western style clinic and a general practitioner under the colonial period. The establishment of the hospital was based on 「Rules on private hospital」 declared by the Japanese Government General of Korea in 1919. According to this Rules, a private clinic's founder had to submit the documents to the director of police affairs, in which all the details were written. It included name of hospital, site location and size, floor plan of a nearby building, each size of patient's rooms, number of steps and emergency exit, bath, toilet, disinfecting room. AN Bin's clinic was a private hospital with the requirements in the rules. The descriptions of this clinic re-created real situation of private hospitals, specifically scale of hospital, interior space, conditions of patient's room at the time. The second modern hospital in the novel is Bukgando Catholic hospital. There is a lot more materials on medical activity and hospital of protestant churches than we thought. But we do not have a lot of information on catholic church's medical

  4. The problem of early learning of foreign languages in Germanspeaking countries in modern pedagogical science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Kohut

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the main aspects of early foreign language teaching in Germanspeakingcountries (Germany, Austria and Switzerland in modern Pedagogics. The meaningof the term “early teaching” is defined and the teaching of foreign languages for pre-schooland primary school children is analyzed.Key words: early teaching, foreign language education, primary school, system ofeducation, multicultural surrounding.

  5. The relevance of the early history of probability theory to current risk assessment practices in mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large, Matthew

    2013-12-01

    Probability theory is at the base of modern concepts of risk assessment in mental health. The aim of the current paper is to review the key developments in the early history of probability theory in order to enrich our understanding of current risk assessment practices.

  6. Science and society the history of modern physical science in the twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Gordin, Michael; Kaiser, David

    2001-01-01

    Modern science has changed every aspect of life in ways that cannot be compared to developments of previous eras. This four volume set presents key developments within modern physical science and the effects of these discoveries on modern global life. The first two volumes explore the history of the concept of relativity, the cultural roots of science, the concept of time and gravity before, during, and after Einstein's theory, and the cultural reception of relativity. Volume three explores the impact of modern science upon global politics and the creation of a new kind of war, and Volume four details the old and new efforts surrounding the elucidation of the quantum world, as well as the cultural impact of particle physics. The collection also presents the historical and cultural context that made these scientific innovations possible. The transformation of everyday concepts of time and space for the individual and for society, the conduct of warfare, and the modern sense of mastering nature are all issues d...

  7. The modern Chinese family in light of economic and legal history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Philip C C

    2011-01-01

    Most social science theory and the currently powerful Chinese ideology of modernizationism assume that, with modern development, family-based peasant farm production will disappear, to be replaced by individuated industrial workers and the three-generation family by the nuclear family. The actual record of China’s economic history, however, shows the powerful persistence of the small family farm, as well as of the three-generation family down to this day, even as China’s GDP becomes the second largest in the world. China’s legal system, similarly, encompasses a vast informal sphere, in which familial principles operate more than individualist ones. And, in between the informal-familial and the formal-individualist, there is an enormous intermediate sphere in which the two tendencies are engaged in a continual tug of war. The economic behavior of the Chinese family unit reveals great contrasts with what is assumed by conventional economics. It has a different attitude toward labor from that of both the individual worker and the capitalist firm. It also has a different structural composition, and a different attitude toward investment, children’s education, and marriage. Proper attention to how Chinese modernity differs socially, economically, and legally from the modern West points to the need for a different kind of social science; it also lends social–economic substance to claims for a modern Chinese culture different from the modern West’s.

  8. Episodes from the Early History of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaboe, Asger

    The author does not attempt to give a general survey of early astronomy; rather, he chooses to present a few "episodes" and treats them in detail. However, first he provides the necessary astronomical background in his descriptive account of what you can see when you look at the sky with the naked eye, unblinkered by received knowledge, but with curiosity and wit. Chapter 1 deals with the arithmetical astronomy of ancient Mesopotamia where astronomy first was made an exact science. Next are treated Greek geometrical models for planetary motion, culminating in Ptolemy's equant models in his Almagest. Ptolemy does not assign them absolute size in this work, but, as is shown here, if we scale the models properly, they will yield good values, not only of the directions to the planets, but of the distances to them, as well. Thus one can immediately find the dimensions of the Copernican System from parameters in the Almagest - we have evidence that Copernicus did just that. Further, Islamic astronomers' modifications of Ptolemy's models by devices using only uniform circular motion are discussed, as are Copernicus's adoption of some of them. finally, it is made precise which bothersome problem was resolved by the heliocentric hypothesis, as it was by the Tychonic arrangement. Next, the Ptolemaic System, the first cosmological scheme to incorporate quantitative models, is described as Ptolemy himself did it in a recenlty recovered passage from his Planetary Hypotheses. Here he does assign absolute size to his models in order to fit them into the snugly nested spherical shells that made up his universe. This much maligned system was, in fact, a harmonious construct that remained the basis for how educated people thought of their world for a millennium and a half. Finally, after a brief review of the geometry of the ellipse, the author gives an elementary derivation of Kepler's equation, and shows how Kepler solved it, and further proves that a planet moves very nearly

  9. The Hanford Site: An anthology of early histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1993-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Memories of War: Pearl Harbor and the Genesis of the Hanford Site; safety has always been promoted at the Hanford Site; women have an important place in Hanford Site history; the boom and bust cycle: A 50-year historical overview of the economic impacts of Hanford Site Operations on the Tri-Cities, Washington; Hanford`s early reactors were crucial to the sites`s history; T-Plant made chemical engineering history; the UO{sub 3} plant has a long history of service. PUREX Plant: the Hanford Site`s Historic Workhorse. PUREX Plant Waste Management was a complex challenge; and early Hanford Site codes and jargon.

  10. Taming the unknown a history of algebra from antiquity to the early twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Victor J

    2014-01-01

    What is algebra? For some, it is an abstract language of x's and y's. For mathematics majors and professional mathematicians, it is a world of axiomatically defined constructs like groups, rings, and fields. Taming the Unknown considers how these two seemingly different types of algebra evolved and how they relate. Victor Katz and Karen Parshall explore the history of algebra, from its roots in the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, China, and India, through its development in the medieval Islamic world and medieval and early modern Europe, to its modern form in the early twentieth century. Defining algebra originally as a collection of techniques for determining unknowns, the authors trace the development of these techniques from geometric beginnings in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia and classical Greece. They show how similar problems were tackled in Alexandrian Greece, in China, and in India, then look at how medieval Islamic scholars shifted to an algorithmic stage, which was further dev...

  11. The Vernacular Revolution: Reclaiming Early Modern Grammatical Traditions in the Ottoman Empire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leezenberg, M.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the remarkable shift toward new literate uses of vernacular languages in the early modern Ottoman empire. It argues that this vernacularization occurred independently of Western European (and, more specifically, German romantic) influences. It explores, first, how vernacular

  12. Review of Amanda E. Herbert, Female Alliances: Gender, Identity, and Friendship in Early Modern Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Rehbein

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of Amanda E. Herbert, Female Alliances: Gender, Identity, and Friendship in Early Modern Britain. New Haven: Yale UP, 2014. xi, 256 pages: illustrations; 24 cm. ISBN 978-0-300-17740-4.

  13. A Modern History of 'Imperial Medicine' Surrounding Hansen's Disease: Strategies to Manage Public Opinion in Modern Japanese Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Gijae

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the reality of imperial medicine by exploring the strategic attitude of the Japanese authority targeting the public who were not patients of Hansen's disease. For this purpose, this study examines the mass media data related to Hansen's disease published in Korea and Japan during the Japanese colonial rule. Research on Hansen's disease can be divided into medical, sociohistorical, social welfare, and human rights approach. There are medical studies and statistics on the dissemination of medical information about Hansen's disease and management measures, the history of the management of the disease, guarantee of the rights of the patients and the welfare environment, and studies on the autobiographical, literary writings and oral statements on the life and psychological conflicts of the patients. Among existing research, the topics of the study on Hansen's disease under the Japanese colonial rule include the history of the Sorokdo Island Sanatorium, investigation on the forced labor of the patients in the island, human rights violations against the patients, oral memoirs of the patients and doctors who practiced at that time. All of these studies are important achievements regarding the research on the patients. An important study of Hansen's disease in modern Japan is the work of Hujino Utaka, which introduces the isolation of and discrimination against the patients of Hansen's disease. Hujino Utaka's study examines the annihilation of people with infectious diseases in Japan and its colonies by the imperial government, which was the consequence of the imperial medical policies, and reports on the isolation of Hansen's disease patients during the war. Although these researches are important achievements in the study of Hansen's disease in modernity, their focus has mainly been on the history of isolation and exploitation in the Sorokdo Island Sanatorium and discrimination against the patients within the sanatorium, which

  14. The Early History of UC Santa Cruz's Farm and Garden

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Paul; Norris, Phyllis; Martin, Orin; Tamura, Dennis; Hagege, Maya; Jarrell, Randall; Regional History Project, UCSC Library

    2002-01-01

    The Early History of UCSC's Farm and Garden documents the emergence of the organic gardening and farming movement in Santa Cruz. It includes interviews with Paul Lee, Phyllis Norris, Orin Martin, and Dennis Tamura, who were involved in the early years of the Garden. Maya Hagege, a former Farm and Garden apprentice and UCSC alumna, conducted the interviews, which were edited by Jarrell. Established in 1967 by master gardener Alan Chadwick, the original site was a neglected 4-acre plot...

  15. Modern indoor climate research in Denmark from 1962 to the early 1990s: an eyewitness report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, I; Gyntelberg, F

    2011-06-01

    Modern, holistic indoor climate research started with the formation of an interdisciplinary 'Indoor Climate Research Group' in 1962 at the Institute of Hygiene, University of Aarhus, Denmark. After some years, other groups started similar research in Denmark and Sweden, and later - after the First International Indoor Air Symposium in Copenhagen 1978--this research spread to many countries and today it is carried out globally by probably 2000 scientists. This paper recounts the history of Danish indoor climate research, focusing on the three decades from the early 1960s to the founding of the Indoor Air journal in 1991. The aim of this paper is to summarize what was learned in those earlier years and to call to the attention of researchers in this area the need of multidisciplinary research, mingling epidemiological fact-finding field studies with climate chamber studies and laboratory investigations. The review may be of interest to indoor climate researchers who want to know more about the early development of research on this multidisciplinary subject, as it emerged in a small country that undertook pioneering studies. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. End-Devonian extinction and a bottleneck in the early evolution of modern jawed vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallan, Lauren Cole; Coates, Michael I

    2010-06-01

    The Devonian marks a critical stage in the early evolution of vertebrates: It opens with an unprecedented diversity of fishes and closes with the earliest evidence of limbed tetrapods. However, the latter part of the Devonian has also been characterized as a period of global biotic crisis marked by two large extinction pulses: a "Big Five" mass extinction event at the Frasnian-Famennian stage boundary (374 Ma) and the less well-documented Hangenberg event some 15 million years later at the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary (359 Ma). Here, we report the results of a wide-ranging analysis of the impact of these events on early vertebrate evolution, which was obtained from a database of vertebrate occurrences sampling over 1,250 taxa from 66 localities spanning Givetian to Serpukhovian stages (391 to 318 Ma). We show that major vertebrate clades suffered acute and systematic effects centered on the Hangenberg extinction involving long-term losses of over 50% of diversity and the restructuring of vertebrate ecosystems worldwide. Marine and nonmarine faunas were equally affected, precluding the existence of environmental refugia. The subsequent recovery of previously diverse groups (including placoderms, sarcopterygian fish, and acanthodians) was minimal. Tetrapods, actinopterygians, and chondrichthyans, all scarce within the Devonian, undergo large diversification events in the aftermath of the extinction, dominating all subsequent faunas. The Hangenberg event represents a previously unrecognized bottleneck in the evolutionary history of vertebrates as a whole and a historical contingency that shaped the roots of modern biodiversity.

  17. Early Modern “Citation Index”? Medical Authorities in Academic Treatises on Plague (1480–1725

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Černý

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of early modern scientific citations. It attempts to establish a measure of scientific popularity in a specific area of the academic medicine in a way which resembles a modern evaluation of scientific activity (citation index. For this purpose an analysis of a series of plague treatises written between 1480 and 1725 in Europe was conducted. Citations for various historical medical authorities (Hippocrates, Galen, etc. are given in Tables which reflect a long time development of popularity. The authorities from various groups (Ancient, Medieval, Arabic, Early Modern are linked together, and “generic authorities” are explained and discussed.

  18. No evidence of Neandertal mtDNA contribution to early modern humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Serre

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The retrieval of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences from four Neandertal fossils from Germany, Russia, and Croatia has demonstrated that these individuals carried closely related mtDNAs that are not found among current humans. However, these results do not definitively resolve the question of a possible Neandertal contribution to the gene pool of modern humans since such a contribution might have been erased by genetic drift or by the continuous influx of modern human DNA into the Neandertal gene pool. A further concern is that if some Neandertals carried mtDNA sequences similar to contemporaneous humans, such sequences may be erroneously regarded as modern contaminations when retrieved from fossils. Here we address these issues by the analysis of 24 Neandertal and 40 early modern human remains. The biomolecular preservation of four Neandertals and of five early modern humans was good enough to suggest the preservation of DNA. All four Neandertals yielded mtDNA sequences similar to those previously determined from Neandertal individuals, whereas none of the five early modern humans contained such mtDNA sequences. In combination with current mtDNA data, this excludes any large genetic contribution by Neandertals to early modern humans, but does not rule out the possibility of a smaller contribution.

  19. History of teaching anatomy in India: from ancient to modern times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Tony George

    2013-01-01

    Safe clinical practice is based on a sound knowledge of the structure and function of the human body. Thus, knowledge of anatomy has been an essential tool in the practice of healthcare throughout the ages. The history of anatomy in India traces from the Paleolithic Age to the Indus Valley Civilization, the Vedic Times, the Islamic Dynasties, the modern Colonial Period, and finally to Independent India. The course of the study of anatomy, despite accompanying controversies and periods of latencies, has been fascinating. This review takes the reader through various periods of Indian medicine and the role of anatomy in the field of medical practice. It also provides a peek into the modern system of pedagogy in anatomical sciences in India. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. To Place or Not to Place: Toward an Environmental History of Modern Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Reviewing recent, overlapping work by historians of medicine and health and of environmental history, this article proposes a further agenda upon which scholars in both fields may converge. Both environmental and medical historians can seek to understand the past two centuries of medical history in terms of a seesaw dialogue over the ways and means by which physicians and other health professionals did, and did not, consider the influence of place-airs and waters included-on disease. Modernizing and professionalizing as well as new styles of science nourished attendant aspirations for a clinical place neutrality, for a medicine in which patients' own places didn't matter to what doctors thought or did. The rise of place neutrality from the late nineteenth century onward also had close and enabling historical ties to the near-simultaneous formation of place-defined specialties-tropical medicine, bacteriological public health, and industrial medicine and hygiene.

  1. Early Period of Modern Architecture in Turkey - A Case Study of Eskisehir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasozen, Rana

    2017-10-01

    Modern architecture in the Western World bore fruit at the beginning of the 20th Century in consequence of the process of modernity and seeking of the proper architecture for it. It was formed firstly towards the end of the 1920s. The main reason of this nonsynchronous development was the inadequacy of enlightenment and industrial revolution during the Ottoman Empire and the lack of formation of an intellectual infrastructure which provides the basis of modernity. However, the Ottoman Westernization occurring in the 19th century constituted the foundations of the Republic modernity founded in 1923. The earliest modern architectural designs in Turkey were first practised by European architects after the foundation of the Republic and internalised and practised extensively by the native architects afterwards. The early modern architecture of Turkey, named as “1930s Modernism”, continued until the beginning of the World War II. This period was formed in between the periods of first and second nationalist architecture movements. The early modern architecture period of Turkey was a period which high-quality designs were made. It was practised and internalised not only in big cities such as Ankara and in Istanbul, but also in the medium and small cities of the country. This situation was not just about a formal exception but about the internalisation of modernity by the society. Eskisehir is one of the most important pioneering cities of the Republic period in terms of industrial and educational developments. The earliest modern buildings were built as the public buildings by the state and non-citizen architects in the inadequate conditions of the country in terms of economy and professional people. The earliest modern houses of the city designed by these architects were the prototypes for the later practices which offered the citizens a new lifestyle. The modern houses were the symbols of prestige and status for the owners and the dwellers. The features of early

  2. Modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Bagrov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of the most important problems of modern meteoric astronomy and briefly describes ways and methods of their solutions. Particular attention is paid to the construction and arrangement of meteoric video cameras intended for registration of the meteoric phenomena as the main method of obtaining reliable and objective observational data on the basis of which the solution of the described tasks is possible.

  3. Nature or Artifice? Grafting in Early Modern Surgery and Agronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    In 1597, Gaspare Tagliacozzi published a famous two-volume book on “plastic surgery.” The reconstructive technique he described was based on grafting skin taken from the arm onto the mutilated parts of the patient's damaged face – especially noses. This paper focuses on techniques of grafting, the “culture of grafting,” and the relationships between surgery and plant sciences in the sixteenth century. By describing the fascination with grafting in surgery, natural history, gardening, and agronomy the paper argues that grafting techniques were subject to delicate issues: to what extent it was morally acceptable to deceive the eye with artificial entities? and what was the status of the product of a surgical procedure that challenged the traditional natural/artificial distinction? Finally, this paper shows how in the seventeenth century grafting survived the crisis of Galenism by discussing the role it played in teratology and in controversies on the uses the new mechanistic anatomy.

  4. Genomic validation of the differential preservation of population history in modern human cranial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Centeno, Hugo; Ghirotto, Silvia; Harvati, Katerina

    2017-01-01

    In modern humans, the significant correlation between neutral genetic loci and cranial anatomy suggests that the cranium preserves a population history signature. However, there is disagreement on whether certain parts of the cranium preserve this signature to a greater degree than other parts. It is also unclear how different quantitative measures of phenotype affect the association of genetic variation and anatomy. Here, we revisit these matters by testing the correlation of genetic distances and various phenotypic distances for ten modern human populations. Geometric morphometric shape data from the crania of adult individuals (n = 224) are used to calculate phenotypic P ST , Procrustes, and Mahalanobis distances. We calculate their correlation to neutral genetic distances, F ST , derived from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We subset the cranial data into landmark configurations that include the neurocranium, the face, and the temporal bone in order to evaluate whether these cranial regions are differentially correlated to neutral genetic variation. Our results show that P ST , Mahalanobis, and Procrustes distances are correlated with F ST distances to varying degrees. They indicate that overall cranial shape is significantly correlated with neutral genetic variation. Of the component parts examined, P ST distances for both the temporal bone and the face have a stronger association with F ST distances than the neurocranium. When controlling for population divergence time, only the whole cranium and the temporal bone have a statistically significant association with F ST distances. Our results confirm that the cranium, as a whole, and the temporal bone can be used to reconstruct modern human population history. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Modern mammal origins: evolutionary grades in the Early Cretaceous of North America.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, L L; Winkler, D A; Murry, P A

    1989-01-01

    Major groups of modern mammals have their origins in the Mesozoic Era, yet the mammalian fossil record is generally poor for that time interval. Fundamental morphological changes that led to modern mammals are often represented by small samples of isolated teeth. Fortunately, functional wear facets on teeth allow prediction of the morphology of occluding teeth that may be unrepresented by fossils. A major step in mammalian evolution occurred in the Early Cretaceous with the evolution of tribo...

  6. [From influence to confluence : positioning the history of pre-modern Korean medicine in East Asia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Soyoung

    2010-12-31

    This article surveys studies focusing on pre-modern Korean medicine, which are both written in English and analyzed primary sources up to 1876. Overall, the history of pre-modern Korean medicine is an unknown filed in Anglophone academia. Yung Sik Kim's, James Palais's, and Carter Ecart's problematization of the nationalist framework of Korean scholarship partially explains the marginality of the field. Addressing these criticisms, this review argues that pre-modern Korean medicine's uneasy task lies in both elaborating Korea's own experience of medicine, while simultaneously avoiding making the "Korean" category itself essential. Korean narratives of premodern medicine need to go beyond the mere territorilalization of Korean medicine against its Chinese, Japanese, or Western counterparts, thereby to tackle the field's own boundary of research objects. The existing scholarship in English responds to this challenge by primarily examining the way in which Korea has shared textual tradition with China. Sirhak scholars' innovation in medicine, visual representation of Tongŭi bogam, Korean management of epidemics in the eleventh century, and Korean indexing of local botanicals, engages not only native achievements, but also the process of modifying medicine across geographical and political boundaries. More to the point, the emerging native narratives, although written in Korean, are implicitly resonant with those currently present in Anglophone academia. Taking "tension," "intertextuality," and "local traits" as a lens, this article assesses a series of current research in Korea. Aiming to go beyond appeals for a "distinctively" Korean experience of medicine, the future study of Korean pre-modern medicine will further elucidate confluences of different flows, such as "Chinese and Korean," "universal and local," "center and periphery," and "native and foreign," which will eventually articulate a range of Korean techniques of creating a bricolage in medicine.

  7. Zilsel's Thesis, Maritime Culture, and Iberian Science in Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Henrique; Sánchez, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Zilsel's thesis on the artisanal origins of modern science remains one of the most original proposals about the emergence of scientific modernity. We propose to inspect the scientific developments in Iberia in the early modern period using Zilsel's ideas as a guideline. Our purpose is to show that his ideas illuminate the situation in Iberia but also that the Iberian case is a remarkable illustration of Zilsel's thesis. Furthermore, we argue that Zilsel's thesis is essentially a sociological explanation that cannot be applied to isolated cases; its use implies global events that involve extended societies over large periods of time.

  8. Time Development in the Early History of Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Bearden, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the time development of empirical networks usually investigate late stages where lasting connections have already stabilized. Empirical data on early network history are rare but needed for a better understanding of how social network topology develops in real life. Studying students who...... are beginning their studies at a university with no or few prior connections to each other offers a unique opportunity to investigate the formation and early development of link patterns and community structure in social networks. During a nine week introductory physics course, first year physics students were...... asked to identify those with whom they communicated about problem solving in physics during the preceding week. We use these students' self reports to produce time dependent student interaction networks. We investigate these networks to elucidate possible effects of different student attributes in early...

  9. Mapping Queer Identities and Motives in Modern Art History in Serbia and Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Stojanović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with with the possibility of researching and mapping female painters’ self-portraits with the key of queer interpretation and with the accent on women’s and queer writings. The research of female selfportraits from this perspective addresses the new approach to modern art history, and the possibilities of construction/conceptualization/readings/reflection of gender identity of the artist herself as author and observer of the painting. Theoretical analysis of self-portraits and individual works from the opus of Nadežda Petrović, Danica Jovanović, Milena Pavlović Barili, Nasta Rojc, Beta Vukanović and Natalija Cvetković was conducted.

  10. Fathers and Sovereigns: The Uses of Paternal Authority in Early Modern Thought

    OpenAIRE

    Koganzon, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary liberal and democratic theorists argue that hierarchical institutions like the family and the school should be democratized to reflect the egalitarianism of the state and to allow children to rehearse their civic duties from as early as possible, but I show that this impulse towards “congruence” between the structures of authority in the family and the state is not historically liberal in origin, but rather arises out of the absolutist arguments of early modern sovereignty theori...

  11. Genre and text-type conventions in Early Modern Women´s recipe books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel de la Cruz Cabanillas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Early Modern recipe books map onto women’s roles in the period. Women were responsible for the health and care of all their household members. This explains the women´s interest in gathering information on the topic, usually put together in manuscripts which circulated in the women´s intellectual and domestic circles to serve this purpose. The manuscript is viewed as an artefact likely to be changed to meet the needs of its users. The article seeks to explore genre and text-type conventions in a corpus of medical and culinary recipes written or compiled by women in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries of Early Modern Britain. The recipes in this period show patterns of continuity from medieval times but also patterns of variation to foreshadow the shape of modern recipes.

  12. Trading secrets: Jews and the early modern quest for clandestine knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jütte, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    This essay explores the significance and function of secrecy and secret sciences in Jewish-Christian relations and in Jewish culture in the early modern period. It shows how the trade in clandestine knowledge and the practice of secret sciences became a complex, sometimes hazardous space for contact between Jews and Christians. By examining this trade, the essay clarifies the role of secrecy in the early modern marketplace of knowledge. The attribution of secretiveness to Jews was a widespread topos in early modern European thought. However, relatively little is known about the implications of such beliefs in science or in daily life. The essay pays special attention to the fact that trade in secret knowledge frequently offered Jews a path to the center of power, especially at court. Furthermore, it becomes clear that the practice of secret sciences, the trade in clandestine knowledge, and a mercantile agenda were often inextricably interwoven. Special attention is paid to the Italian-Jewish alchemist, engineer, and entrepreneur Abramo Colorni (ca. 1544-1599), whose career illustrates the opportunities provided by the marketplace of secrets at that time. Much scholarly (and less scholarly) attention has been devoted to whether and what Jews "contributed" to what is commonly called the "Scientific Revolution." This essay argues that the question is misdirected and that, instead, we should pay more attention to the distinctive opportunities offered by the early modern economy of secrecy.

  13. Cranial vault trauma and selective mortality in medieval to early modern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldsen, Jesper L; Milner, George R; Weise, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    to interpersonal violence in past populations. Three medieval to early modern Danish skeletal samples are used to estimate the effect of selective mortality on males with cranial vault injuries who survived long enough for bones to heal. The risk of dying for these men was 6.2 times higher than...

  14. The Critique of Scholastic Language in Renaissance Humanism and Early Modern Philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Lodi; Muratori, Cecilia; Paganini, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    This article studies some key moments in the long tradition of the critique of scholastic language, voiced by humanists and early-modern philosophers alike. It aims at showing how the humanist idiom of “linguistic usage,” “convention,” “custom,” “common” and “natural” language, and “everyday speech”

  15. The Republic of the Refugees : Early Modern Migrations and the Dutch Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.H.

    This essay surveys the wave of new literature on early modern migration and assesses its impact on the Dutch golden age. From the late sixteenth century, the Netherlands developed into an international hub of religious refugees, displaced minorities, and labour migrants. While migration to the Dutch

  16. Translation, Hybridization, and Modernization: John Dewey and Children's Literature in Early Twentieth Century China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines how John Dewey's child-centered educational philosophy was adopted and adapted in the early twentieth century in China to create a Chinese children's literature. Chinese intellectuals applied Dewey's educational philosophy, which values children's interests and needs, to formulate a new concept of modern childhood that…

  17. [Communication in the early modern Baltic Sea region = Kommunikatsioon varauusaegses Läänemereruumis] / Ulrike Plath

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Plath, Ulrike, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Communication in the early modern Baltic Sea region = Kommunikatsioon varauusaegses Läänemereruumis. Hrsg. von Enn Küng, Mati Laur, Kersti Lust. Ajalooline Ajakiri. The Estonian Historical Journal 2009. Nr. 3/4 (129/130). (Tartu 2010)

  18. The Rhetoric of Bonds, Alliances, and Identities: Interrogating Social Networks in Early Modern English Drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Christina J.

    2010-01-01

    The household and family have received considerable interest in studies of early modern English drama, but less attention has been paid to how writers represent intimate affective bonds on the stage. Emotion is intangible; yet many writers convincingly convey the intensity of emotional bonds through rhetoric. Rhetoric is a mainstay in…

  19. Public services in early modern European towns: An agenda for further research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davids, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Starting with a set of key questions formulated by Walter Prevenier in 1984, this article proposes an agenda for future research on urban public services in early modern European towns. The author suggests, first of all, a shift in research strategy toward a greater emphasis on actor-oriented

  20. A Fruitful Exchange/Conflict: Engineers and Mathematicians in Early Modern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffioli, Cesare S.

    2013-01-01

    Exchanges of learning and controversies between engineers and mathematicians were important factors in the development of early modern science. This theme is discussed by focusing, first, on architectural and mathematical dynamism in mid 16th-century Milan. While some engineers-architects referred to Euclid and Vitruvius for improving their…

  1. Between Charity and Education: Orphans and Orphanages in Early Modern Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    In early modern times orphans have been children who could not expect sufficient support from their family because of lack of at least one parent, in most cases the father. This article will clarify of whom we are talking if we talk about orphans and what have been the conditions of living in a society which was organised by a high variety of…

  2. Pre-mare cratering and early solar system history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherill, G.W.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the application of the high extra-lunar flux in pre-mare times to more general problems of early solar system history is attempted by combining the results of dynamic studies with lunar chronological data. Dynamical studies permit separate evaluation of the possible sources for both the normal flux during the first 600 m.y. years of lunar history as well as the peak which apparently occurred 4.0 b.y. ago. Dynamical studies have been carried out in order to determine the extent to which a heliocentric flux could be confined to the Moon (and Earth). A Monte Carlo method has been used to calculate the relative impact rates of planet-crossing bodies with the moon and the terrestrial planets. It is concluded that the time-variation of the flux on these planets is closely related to that on the moon

  3. Early History of Heavy Isotope Research at Berkeley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn T. Seaborg

    1976-06-01

    I have had the idea for some time that it would be interesting and worthwhile to put together an account of the early work on heavy isotopes at Berkeley. Of a special interest is the discovery of plutonium (atomic number 94) and the isotope U{sup 233}, and the demonstration of their fission with slow neutrons. This work served as a prelude to the subsequent Plutonium Project (Metallurgical Project) centered at the University of Chicago, in connection with which I have also had the idea of putting together a history of the work of my chemistry group. I have decided that it would be an interesting challenge to write this account on a day-to-day basis in a style that would be consistent with the entries having been written at the end of each day. The aim would be to make this history as accurate as possible by going back to the original records and using them with meticulous care.

  4. From Vienna to Frankfurt Inside Core-House Type 7: A History of Scarcity through the Modern Kitchen

    OpenAIRE

    Hochhaeusl, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    This paper traces a history of war-induced scarcity through the material and technological properties of household appliances and kitchens from 1914 to 1930. Investigating the Austrian settlement and allotment garden movement, it argues that the practices of users, self-help builders, and inhabitants who reacted to living with limited resources in the state of emergency found their way into the designs of modern homes, and into the works of canonical modern architecture, in particular the fam...

  5. Evolutionary history of Otophysi (Teleostei, a major clade of the modern freshwater fishes: Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saitoh Kenji

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Freshwater harbors approximately 12,000 fish species accounting for 43% of the diversity of all modern fish. A single ancestral lineage evolved into about two-thirds of this enormous biodiversity (≈ 7900 spp. and is currently distributed throughout the world's continents except Antarctica. Despite such remarkable species diversity and ubiquity, the evolutionary history of this major freshwater fish clade, Otophysi, remains largely unexplored. To gain insight into the history of otophysan diversification, we constructed a timetree based on whole mitogenome sequences across 110 species representing 55 of the 64 families. Results Partitioned maximum likelihood analysis based on unambiguously aligned sequences (9923 bp confidently recovered the monophyly of Otophysi and the two constituent subgroups (Cypriniformes and Characiphysi. The latter clade comprised three orders (Gymnotiformes, Characiformes, Siluriformes, and Gymnotiformes was sister to the latter two groups. One of the two suborders in Characiformes (Characoidei was more closely related to Siluriformes than to its own suborder (Citharinoidei, rendering the characiforms paraphyletic. Although this novel relationship did not receive strong statistical support, it was supported by analyzing independent nuclear markers. A relaxed molecular clock Bayesian analysis of the divergence times and reconstruction of ancestral habitats on the timetree suggest a Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation of otophysans. Conclusions The present timetree demonstrates that survival of the ancestral lineages through the two consecutive mass extinctions on Pangaea, and subsequent radiations during the Jurassic through early Cretaceous shaped the modern familial diversity of otophysans. This evolutionary scenario is consistent with recent arguments based on biogeographic inferences and molecular divergence time estimates. No fossil otophysan, however, has been recorded before the Albian, the

  6. Evolutionary history of Otophysi (Teleostei), a major clade of the modern freshwater fishes: Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Masanori; Miya, Masaki; Mabuchi, Kohji; Saitoh, Kenji; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2011-06-22

    Freshwater harbors approximately 12,000 fish species accounting for 43% of the diversity of all modern fish. A single ancestral lineage evolved into about two-thirds of this enormous biodiversity (≈ 7900 spp.) and is currently distributed throughout the world's continents except Antarctica. Despite such remarkable species diversity and ubiquity, the evolutionary history of this major freshwater fish clade, Otophysi, remains largely unexplored. To gain insight into the history of otophysan diversification, we constructed a timetree based on whole mitogenome sequences across 110 species representing 55 of the 64 families. Partitioned maximum likelihood analysis based on unambiguously aligned sequences (9923 bp) confidently recovered the monophyly of Otophysi and the two constituent subgroups (Cypriniformes and Characiphysi). The latter clade comprised three orders (Gymnotiformes, Characiformes, Siluriformes), and Gymnotiformes was sister to the latter two groups. One of the two suborders in Characiformes (Characoidei) was more closely related to Siluriformes than to its own suborder (Citharinoidei), rendering the characiforms paraphyletic. Although this novel relationship did not receive strong statistical support, it was supported by analyzing independent nuclear markers. A relaxed molecular clock Bayesian analysis of the divergence times and reconstruction of ancestral habitats on the timetree suggest a Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation of otophysans. The present timetree demonstrates that survival of the ancestral lineages through the two consecutive mass extinctions on Pangaea, and subsequent radiations during the Jurassic through early Cretaceous shaped the modern familial diversity of otophysans. This evolutionary scenario is consistent with recent arguments based on biogeographic inferences and molecular divergence time estimates. No fossil otophysan, however, has been recorded before the Albian, the early Cretaceous 100-112 Ma, creating an over 100

  7. [A brief history of resuscitation - the influence of previous experience on modern techniques and methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucmin, Tomasz; Płowaś-Goral, Małgorzata; Nogalski, Adam

    2015-02-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is relatively novel branch of medical science, however first descriptions of mouth-to-mouth ventilation are to be found in the Bible and literature is full of descriptions of different resuscitation methods - from flagellation and ventilation with bellows through hanging the victims upside down and compressing the chest in order to stimulate ventilation to rectal fumigation with tobacco smoke. The modern history of CPR starts with Kouwenhoven et al. who in 1960 published a paper regarding heart massage through chest compressions. Shortly after that in 1961Peter Safar presented a paradigm promoting opening the airway, performing rescue breaths and chest compressions. First CPR guidelines were published in 1966. Since that time guidelines were modified and improved numerously by two leading world expert organizations ERC (European Resuscitation Council) and AHA (American Heart Association) and published in a new version every 5 years. Currently 2010 guidelines should be obliged. In this paper authors made an attempt to present history of development of resuscitation techniques and methods and assess the influence of previous lifesaving methods on nowadays technologies, equipment and guidelines which allow to help those women and men whose life is in danger due to sudden cardiac arrest. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  8. Telomere biology in aging and cancer: early history and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Makoto T

    2018-01-20

    The ends of eukaryotic linear chromosomes are protected from undesired enzymatic activities by a nucleoprotein complex called the telomere. Expanding evidence indicates that telomeres have central functions in human aging and tumorigenesis. While it is undoubtedly important to follow current advances in telomere biology, it is also fruitful to be well informed in seminal historical studies for a comprehensive understanding of telomere biology, and for the anticipation of future directions. With this in mind, I here summarize the early history of telomere biology and current advances in the field, mostly focusing on mammalian studies relevant to aging and cancer.

  9. The quantum defect: Early history and recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, A.R.; Inokuti, M.

    1997-01-01

    The notion of the quantum defect is important in atomic and molecular spectroscopy and also in unifying spectroscopy with collision theory. In the latter context, the quantum defect may be viewed as an ancestor of the phase shift. However, the origin of the term open-quotes quantum defectclose quotes does not seem to be explained in standard textbooks. It occurred in a 1921 paper by Schroedinger, preceding quantum mechanics, yet giving the correct meaning as an index of the short-range interactions with the core of an atom. We present the early history of the quantum-defect idea, and sketch its recent developments. copyright 1997 American Association of Physics Teachers

  10. [The life of Dr. RO Kishun, a reflection of modern Korean medical history of the borders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young-Jeon; Park, Se-Hong

    2009-06-01

    borderlands or frontiers of Joseon Korea, China, and Japan, where the history of the three nations met and intermingled with one another. He was a biochemist and researcher, practicing physician and medical professor of the era under Japanese Rule and the one following it. In modern Korean medicine, his life is viewed as a history of the borders, or a transnational legacy going beyond individual history of Korea, China, and Japan.

  11. Modern history of surgical management of lung abscess: from Harold Neuhof to current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, Michael; Dubecz, Attila; Stadlhuber, Rudolf J; Stein, Hubert J

    2011-12-01

    Harold Neuhof was one of the pioneers of thoracic surgery in the early decades of the last century. Inspired by his preceptor Howard Lilienthal he proposed an entirely new concept for surgery on acute lung abscess. The aim of his one-stage procedure was adequate drainage of the abscess cavity. His approach proved to be the first major breakthrough in the treatment of acute lung abscess. Therapy of pulmonary abscess was again radically changed by the advent of antibiotics in the late 1940s. However, the basic principles of Neuhof's concept still influence modern-day management of putrid lung abscess. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. History of pancreaticoduodenectomy: early misconceptions, initial milestones and the pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are, Chandrakanth; Dhir, Mashaal; Ravipati, Lavanya

    2011-06-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy is one of the most challenging surgical procedures which requires the highest level of surgical expertise. This procedure has constantly evolved over the years through the meticulous efforts of a number of surgeons before reaching its current state. This review navigates through some of the early limitations and misconceptions and highlights the initial milestones which laid the foundation of this procedure. The current review also provides a few excerpts from the lives and illuminates on some of the seminal contributions of the three great surgeons: William Stewart Halsted, Walther Carl Eduard Kausch and Allen Oldfather Whipple. These surgeons pioneered the nascent stages of this procedure and paved the way for the modern day pancreaticoduodenectomy. © 2011 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  13. History, modernity, material and spiritual culture of Lemko, Boyko and Transcarpathian Rusyns in the problem field of interdisciplinary researches

    OpenAIRE

    Пронь, Тетяна Михайлівна

    2016-01-01

    The publication represents the interdisciplinary research professionals of social science and literature of Poland, Ukraine, Slovakia, the United States and Canada in history, modernity, material and spiritual culture Lemko, Boyko and Transcarpathian Rusyns disclose at the IV International scientific conference (23-24 September 2011 , Slupsk, Poland) and in the new collective proceedings of the Institute of Political Science Zelenogorsk University and the Institute of History Pomeranian Acade...

  14. The physics and early history of the intergalactic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkana, Rennan; Loeb, Abraham

    2007-01-01

    The intergalactic medium-the cosmic gas that fills the great spaces between the galaxies-is affected by processes ranging from quantum fluctuations in the very early Universe to radiative emission from newly formed stars. This gives the intergalactic medium a dual role as a powerful probe both of fundamental physics and of astrophysics. The heading of fundamental physics includes conditions in the very early Universe and cosmological parameters that determine the age of the Universe and its matter content. The astrophysics refers to chapters of the long cosmic history of stars and galaxies that are being revealed through the effects of stellar feedback on the cosmic gas. This review describes the physics of the intergalactic medium, focusing on recent theoretical and observational developments in understanding early cosmic history. In particular, the earliest generation of stars is thought to have transformed the Universe from darkness to light and to have had an enormous impact on the intergalactic medium. Half a million years after the Big Bang the Universe was filled with atomic hydrogen. As gravity pulled gas clouds together, the first stars ignited and their radiation turned the surrounding atoms back into free electrons and ions. From the observed spectral absorption signatures of the gas between us and distant sources, we know that the process of reionization pervaded most of space a billion years after the Big Bang, so that only a small fraction of the primordial hydrogen atoms remained between galaxies. Knowing exactly when and how the reionization process happened is a primary goal of cosmologists, because this would tell us when the early stars and black holes formed and in what kinds of galaxies. The distribution and clustering of these galaxies is particularly interesting since it is driven by primordial density fluctuations in the dark matter. Cosmic reionization is beginning to be understood with the help of theoretical models and computer

  15. The UK’s Modern Slavery Legislation: An Early Assessment of Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Craig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, the Westminster UK government introduced a Modern Slavery Act described by its proponents as ‘world-leading’. This description was challenged at the time both inside and outside the UK. Two years on, it is possible to make a preliminary assessment of  progress with the Act and its two counterparts in Scotland and Northern Ireland. This article reviews the origins of discussions about modern slavery in the UK, describes the process leading to the passage of the Modern Slavery Act(s and attempts an early evaluation of its effectiveness. It concludes that much remains to be done to ensure that they achieve their goal of abolishing slavery in the UK.

  16. Origin of clothing lice indicates early clothing use by anatomically modern humans in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toups, Melissa A; Kitchen, Andrew; Light, Jessica E; Reed, David L

    2011-01-01

    Clothing use is an important modern behavior that contributed to the successful expansion of humans into higher latitudes and cold climates. Previous research suggests that clothing use originated anywhere between 40,000 and 3 Ma, though there is little direct archaeological, fossil, or genetic evidence to support more specific estimates. Since clothing lice evolved from head louse ancestors once humans adopted clothing, dating the emergence of clothing lice may provide more specific estimates of the origin of clothing use. Here, we use a Bayesian coalescent modeling approach to estimate that clothing lice diverged from head louse ancestors at least by 83,000 and possibly as early as 170,000 years ago. Our analysis suggests that the use of clothing likely originated with anatomically modern humans in Africa and reinforces a broad trend of modern human developments in Africa during the Middle to Late Pleistocene.

  17. A brief history of partitions of numbers, partition functions and their modern applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2016-04-01

    'Number rules the universe.' The Pythagoras 'If you wish to forsee the future of mathematics our course is to study the history and present conditions of the science.' Henri Poincaré 'The primary source (Urqell) of all mathematics are integers.' Hermann Minkowski This paper is written to commemorate the centennial anniversary of the Mathematical Association of America. It deals with a short history of different kinds of natural numbers including triangular, square, pentagonal, hexagonal and k-gonal numbers, and their simple properties and their geometrical representations. Included are Euclid's and Pythagorean's main contributions to elementary number theory with the main contents of the Euclid Elements of the 13-volume masterpiece of mathematical work. This is followed by Euler's new discovery of the additive number theory based on partitions of numbers. Special attention is given to many examples, Euler's theorems on partitions of numbers with geometrical representations of Ferrers' graphs, Young's diagrams, Lagrange's four-square theorem and the celebrated Waring problem. Included are Euler's generating functions for the partitions of numbers, Euler's pentagonal number theorem, Gauss' triangular and square number theorems and the Jacobi triple product identity. Applications of the theory of partitions of numbers to different statistics such as the Bose- Einstein, Fermi- Dirac, Gentile, and Maxwell- Boltzmann statistics are briefly discussed. Special attention is given to pedagogical information through historical approach to number theory so that students and teachers at the school, college and university levels can become familiar with the basic concepts of partitions of numbers, partition functions and their modern applications, and can pursue advanced study and research in analytical and computational number theory.

  18. A Swiss Village in the Dutch Tropics: The Limitations of Empire-Centred Approaches to the Early Modern Atlantic World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karwan Fatah-Black

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers what the migration circuits to and from Suriname can tell us about Dutch early modern colonisation in the Atlantic world. Did the Dutch have an Atlantic empire that can be studied by treating it as an integrated space, as suggested by New Imperial Historians, or did colonisation rely on circuits outside Dutch control, stretching beyond its imperial space? An empire-centred approach has dominated the study of Suriname’s history and has largely glossed over the routes taken by European migrants to and from the colony. When the empirecentred perspective is transcended it becomes possible to see that colonists arrived in Suriname from a range of different places around the Atlantic and the European hinterland. The article takes an Atlantic or global perspective to demonstrate the choices available to colonists and the networks through which they moved.

  19. Ecuador's YasunI Biosphere Reserve: a brief modern history and conservation challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finer, Matt; Vijay, Varsha; Jenkins, Clinton N; Ponce, Fernando; Kahn, Ted R

    2009-01-01

    Ecuador's YasunI Man and the Biosphere Reserve-located at the intersection of the Amazon, the Andes mountains, and the equator-is home to extraordinary biodiversity and a recently contacted Amazonian indigenous group known as the Waorani (or Huaorani). Relatives of the Waorani, the Tagaeri and Taromenane, still live in voluntary isolation deep in the reserve, with no peaceful contact with the outside world. The YasunI Biosphere Reserve also sits atop large reserves of crude oil, Ecuador's chief export, and contains an abundance of valuable timber species. This volatile combination has led to intense conflicts, and subsequently, increased international interest and concern. To make the issues confronting YasunI more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties, we synthesized information on the biological, social, and political issues of the region, providing a concise overview of its modern history and conservation challenges. We constructed a chronology of key events in the YasunI region over the past century and a series of maps designed to guide readers to a better understanding of the area's complicated array of overlapping designations. Main topics of analysis and discussion include: the Waorani and their ancestors living in voluntary isolation, YasunI National Park, illegal logging, missionary impacts, oil-development-related impacts and conflicts, and the Ecuadorian government's innovative YasunI-ITT Initiative (ITT: Ishpingo-Tiputini-Tambococha).

  20. The history of modern spinal traction with particular reference to neural disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shterenshis, M V

    1997-03-01

    The last 200 years of the history of spinal traction is described in the present article. The study starts at the end of the 18th century with the works of JA Venel (1789) who tried to apply the Hippocratic idea to modern surgery. Orthopedic specialists of the last century were mostly preoccupied with corsets and the method gained broader popularity when neurologists paid attention to the similar method of suspension. The Russian neurologist Osip Mochutkovsky described suspension as a method for the treatment of tabes dorsalis in an article published in the Russian magazine 'Vratch' in 1883. His works became known in Europe when JM Charcot paid attention to it and published a special short monograph on this subject in 1889. This work was translated into English (1889) and Russian (1890) and the method became popular in the treatment of tabes dorsalis and other neurological diseases. The eminent Russian neurologist VM Bekhterev proposed the combination of body suspension with cervical traction (1893). Some years later Gilles de la Tourette promoted the use of spinal traction in his neurological clinic (1897). Unfortunately neurologists worked without the cooperation of orthopedic specialists. During the first decades of the 20th century suspension was also replaced by traction in neurology. This method was used by both neurologists and orthopedic specialists but in the last decades neurologists lost their interests in it and it found greater use in traumatology and in spinal surgery where it is still in use today.

  1. Ecuador's YasunI Biosphere Reserve: a brief modern history and conservation challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, Matt [Save America' s Forests, Washington, DC (United States); Vijay, Varsha; Jenkins, Clinton N [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Ponce, Fernando [Ciudadanos por la Democracia, Quito (Ecuador); Kahn, Ted R, E-mail: matt@saveamericasforests.or [Neotropical Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Ecuador's YasunI Man and the Biosphere Reserve-located at the intersection of the Amazon, the Andes mountains, and the equator-is home to extraordinary biodiversity and a recently contacted Amazonian indigenous group known as the Waorani (or Huaorani). Relatives of the Waorani, the Tagaeri and Taromenane, still live in voluntary isolation deep in the reserve, with no peaceful contact with the outside world. The YasunI Biosphere Reserve also sits atop large reserves of crude oil, Ecuador's chief export, and contains an abundance of valuable timber species. This volatile combination has led to intense conflicts, and subsequently, increased international interest and concern. To make the issues confronting YasunI more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties, we synthesized information on the biological, social, and political issues of the region, providing a concise overview of its modern history and conservation challenges. We constructed a chronology of key events in the YasunI region over the past century and a series of maps designed to guide readers to a better understanding of the area's complicated array of overlapping designations. Main topics of analysis and discussion include: the Waorani and their ancestors living in voluntary isolation, YasunI National Park, illegal logging, missionary impacts, oil-development-related impacts and conflicts, and the Ecuadorian government's innovative YasunI-ITT Initiative (ITT: Ishpingo-Tiputini-Tambococha).

  2. From Vienna to Frankfurt Inside Core-House Type 7: A History of Scarcity through the Modern Kitchen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Hochhaeusl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces a history of war-induced scarcity through the material and technological properties of household appliances and kitchens from 1914 to 1930. Investigating the Austrian settlement and allotment garden movement, it argues that the practices of users, self-help builders, and inhabitants who reacted to living with limited resources in the state of emergency found their way into the designs of modern homes, and into the works of canonical modern architecture, in particular the famous Frankfurt Kitchen. This paper thus investigates the design and production of the modern kitchen and its transformations, from Vienna to Frankfurt, moving from a cooperative vernacular building movement to one of the largest construction endeavors to standardize and prefabricate modern housing in Germany.

  3. Voluntarist theology and early-modern science: The matter of the divine power, absolute and ordained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Francis

    2018-03-01

    This paper is an intervention in the debate inaugurated by Peter Harrison in 2002 when he called into question the validity of what has come to be called 'the voluntarism and early-modern science thesis'. Though it subsequently drew support from such historians of science as J. E. McGuire, Margaret Osler, and Betty-Joe Teeter Dobbs, the origins of the thesis are usually traced back to articles published in 1934 and 1961 respectively by the philosopher Michael Foster and the historian of ideas Francis Oakley. Central to Harrison's critique of the thesis are claims he made about the meaning of the scholastic distinction between the potentia dei absoluta et ordinata and the role it played in the thinking of early-modern theologians and natural philosophers. This paper calls directly into question the accuracy of Harrison's claims on that very matter.

  4. Kant's disputation of 1770: the dissertation and the communication of knowledge in early modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kevin

    2007-06-01

    Kant's disputation of 1770 at his inauguration as the metaphysics professor at Königsberg is a good example of the nature of the early modern dissertation and its use as a means of communicating knowledge. The public disputation played an important part in the teaching, examination, publication and ceremonial life of the medieval university. Originally prepared as a text for the public disputation, the dissertation communicated the teachings of individual scholars and institutions and was used by eminent early modern scholars to introduce their ideas and findings. Kant's use of his 1770 disputation also reveals the different channels of communication, both private and public, that paid close attention to knowledge published in dissertations.

  5. To Converse with the Devil? Speech, Sexuality, and Witchcraft in Early Modern Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierra Rose Dye

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In early modern Scotland, thousands of people were accused and tried for the crime of witchcraft, many of whom were women. This paper examines the particular qualities associated with witches in Scottish belief – specifically speech and sexuality – in order to better understand how and why the witch hunts occurred. This research suggests that the growing emphasis on the words of witches during this period was a reflection of a mounting concern over the power and control of speech in early modern society. In looking at witchcraft as a speech crime, it is possible to explain not only why accused witches were more frequently women, but also how the persecution of individuals – both male and female – functioned to ensure that local and state authorities maintained a monopoly on powerful speech.

  6. Modern indoor climate research in Denmark from 1962 to the early 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, I; Gyntelberg, F

    2011-01-01

    Modern, holistic indoor climate research started with the formation of an interdisciplinary 'Indoor Climate Research Group' in 1962 at the Institute of Hygiene, University of Aarhus, Denmark. After some years, other groups started similar research in Denmark and Sweden, and later - after the Firs....... PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The review may be of interest to indoor climate researchers who want to know more about the early development of research on this multidisciplinary subject, as it emerged in a small country that undertook pioneering studies....

  7. Juan Ruiz De Alarcón: Impairment as Empowerment in Early Modern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gloria Bodtorf

    2016-01-01

    Juan Ruiz de Alarcón, a seventeenth-century writer and native of New Spain, so excelled at the craft of writing "comedias" that he is recognized as one of the great writers of early modern Spain. In his personal life Ruiz de Alarcón struggled with a significant bodily impairment, a large hump on both his back and front, which made him…

  8. Prayer and Performance in Early Modern English Literature: Gesture, Word and Devotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sterrett, Joseph William

    2018-01-01

    did the performance of prayer reflect shifts in social perspectives and customs? These questions are addressed in two ways, first by discussing prayer as a social act and second by exploring the representation of prayer on stage and in literature. Organised in this way, the book makes an explicit......”: invocation as prayer in Milton’s Poetic Imagination’ Chapter 16:Helen Wilcox, ‘ ‘Your suit is granted”: Performing Prayer in Early Modern English Poetry’...

  9. The Dilemma of Obedience: Persecution, Dissimulation, and Memory in Early Modern England, 1553-1603

    OpenAIRE

    Harkins, Robert Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the problem of religious and political obedience in early modern England. Drawing upon extensive manuscript research, it focuses on the reign of Mary I (1553-1558), when the official return to Roman Catholicism was accompanied by the prosecution of Protestants for heresy, and the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603), when the state religion again shifted to Protestantism. I argue that the cognitive dissonance created by these seesaw changes of official doctrine necessitated a ...

  10. The history of CERN during the early 1950s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaldi, E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper, written by CERN's first secretary general, looks at the history of CERN, the first example of an intergovernmental research laboratory created in Europe, which has now been operating successfully for more than thirty years. Three distinct periods of development are identified. Early initiatives sprang from a growing sense of European union, and a desire to gain the benefits of collaboration in scale, that United States examples such as Brookhaven National Laboratory had offered. The first big project was to build a 10GeV proton-synchrotron, at that time the largest in the world. The middle era corresponds to the establishment of the organization, with personnel assembling, and buildings and plant coming on line. In October 1954, with Felix Bloch as its director general, CERN entered its final permanent form. The synchrocyclotron operated in 1958 and a proton beam circulated in the proton-synchrotron in November 1959. (UK)

  11. The fascinating early history of optics! Archaeological optics 2009: our knowledge of the early history of lenses, mirrors, and artificial eyes!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Jay M.

    2009-08-01

    The early history of optics and vision science (older term: physiological optics) is indeed fascinating. The earliest known true lenses have been found in "eyes" of Egyptian statues which contain superb, complex, and well-polished eye-lens units. The oldest ones known are dated circa 2575 BCE = BC, Dynasty IV, Old Kingdom. These eye-lens units induce a fascinating and powerful visual illusion, but they are just too good to have been the first lenses, or even the first lenses of this design! So saying, no earlier dateable lenses have been found in Egypt or elsewhere. Recently, at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, the writer noted a previously undetected lens in this series (a first in the Western Hemisphere). Oddly, dateable simpler magnifying lenses and burning glasses seem to have appeared later in time (?)! Manufactured mirrors are quite a bit older, dating from circa 6000 BCE in atal Hyk, located in south-central modern-day Turkey. Using these ancient mirrors, the image quality obtained is remarkable! Recently discovered ancient artificial eyes, located, in situ, in exhumed corpses, have been dated circa 3000 BCE (one discovered in Iran) 5000 BCE (one found in Spain). On the 3000 BCE artificial eye, there are drawn light rays (the writer believes these to be the oldest known depiction of light rays!) spreading out from (or passing into) the iris/ pupil border! Added interesting aspects associated with the early development of light-rays are considered. Thus, early optics can be readily traced back to the Neolithic era (the new stone age), and in some cases before that time period. We have deep roots indeed!

  12. On the early history of the Finnish Meteorological Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevanlinna, H.

    2014-03-01

    This article is a review of the foundation (in 1838) and later developments of the Helsinki (Finland) magnetic and meteorological observatory, today the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The main focus of the study is in the early history of the FMI up to the beginning of the 20th century. The first director of the observatory was Physics Professor Johan Jakob Nervander (1805-1848). He was a famous person of the Finnish scientific, academic and cultural community in the early decades of the 19th century. Finland was an autonomously part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1917, but the observatory remained organizationally under the University of Helsinki, independent of Russian scientific institutions, and funded by the Finnish Government. Throughout the late-19th century the Meteorological Institute was responsible of nationwide meteorological, hydrological and marine observations and research. The observatory was transferred to the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters under the name the Central Meteorological Institute in 1881. The focus of the work carried out in the Institute was changed gradually towards meteorology. Magnetic measurements were still continued but in a lower level of importance. The culmination of Finnish geophysical achievements in the 19th century was the participation to the International Polar Year programme in 1882-1883 by setting up a full-scale meteorological and magnetic observatory in Sodankylä, Lapland.

  13. Early Sociology of the Business Enterprise: Max Weber's Theory of the Modern Business Enterprise in Economy and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    be explained as the unfolding of a sociological theory of the modern business enterprise. Some of the most important features of Weber’s theory of the modern business enterprise are presented. Weber points to the multidimensional institutional embeddedness of the modern business enterprise and to the crucial...... importance of ongoing tensions between formal and substantive rationality. Weber’s theory of the modern business enterprise in chapter 2 of Economy and Society may then be seen as an important but still unexplored early contribution to a sociological theory of the modern business enterprise....

  14. The early history of ideas on brief interventions for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCambridge, Jim; Cunningham, John A

    2014-04-01

    This study explores the early development of brief interventions for alcohol using a history of ideas approach with a particular focus on intervention content. The source publications of the key primary studies published from approximately 1962 to 1992 were examined, followed by a brief review of the earliest reviews in this field. These studies were placed in the context of developments in alcohol research and in public health. After early pioneering work on brief interventions, further advances were not made until thinking about alcohol problems and their treatment, most notably on controlled drinking, along with wider changes in public health, created new conditions for progress. There was then a golden era of rapid advance in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when preventing the development of problem drinking became important for public health reasons, in addition to helping already problematic drinkers. Many research challenges identified at that time remain to be met. The content of brief interventions changed over the period of study, although not in ways well informed by research advances, and there were also obvious continuities, with a renewed emphasis on the facilitation of self-change being one important consequence of the development of internet applications. Ideas about brief interventions have changed in important ways. Brief interventions have been studied with different populations of drinkers, with aims embracing both individual and population-level perspectives, and without well-specified contents. The brief intervention field is an appropriate target for further historical investigations, which may help thinking about addressing alcohol and other problems. © 2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Foreign trade Ukrainian provinces of the Russian empire (late 19th – early 20th cent.: modern national historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna M. Zhilenkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The state of scientific study of questions about foreign trade of the Ukraine of the late XIX century – early XX century by modern national historiographers analyzed. The main attention paid to finding out of their attitude towards the policy of the Russian Empire in the relevant sphere. Modern vision of noted problem found out in Ukrainian historical science of time of independence. The available scientific literature divided into thematic groups. Common and distinctive features of the estimations of foreign trade specificity of the mentioned period are determined, the influence of public policy to raise competitive capacity of the products in foreign markets. The dependence of authors’ position on their change of political course is established. Scientists are studying the works of predecessors and trying to answer the controversial issues about this economic problem. There systematized and described major groups’ historiographical sources on the history of foreign trade of the Ukraine issue is the period. Shown the negative influence of ideological and political dogmas and prejudices on the development objective knowledge of the problem.

  16. Using History to Inform the Modern Immigration Debate in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkle, William David

    2018-01-01

    The contentious modern immigration debate in the United States is often void of historical context and thus filled with fallacious narratives. To confront this trend, social studies educators should place the issues of modern immigration within their proper historical framework. This paper looks at three primary themes educators can explore: the…

  17. Between history, criticism, and wit: texts and images of English modern architecture (1933-36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Rosso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It has often been remarked that modern architecture in Britain began late and that its emergence largely depended on the contribution of a massive influx of European exiles seeking refuge from the political and racial persecution of totalitarian regimes. In the attempt to discard the tired narrative of Britain’s insular modernism as a mere echo of continental European achievements, an alternative historiography has recently directed attention to Britain’s own distinctive and original version of modern architecture in the 1930s. Through the examination of a small group of articles, books and pamphlets on English modern architecture written by English authors and published in the mid-1930s, this paper argues that the emergence of a distinctive version of architectural modernism in Britain was paralleled by the development of an equally original brand of architectural criticism and historiography.

  18. The Prince and the Hobby-Horse: Shakespeare and the Ambivalence of Early Modern Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Pikli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Shakespearean hobby-horse, mentioned emphatically in Hamlet, brings into focus a number of problems related to early modern popular culture. In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries the word was characterised by semantic ambivalence, with simultaneously valid meanings of a breed of horse, a morris character, a foolish person, and a wanton woman. The overlapping of these meanings in different cultural discourses of the age (playtexts, emblem books, popular verse, pictures exemplifies the interaction of different productions of early modern popular culture, from social humiliating practices to festivals and public playhouses. This attests to a complex circulation of cultural memory regarding symbols of popular culture, paradoxically both ‘forgotten’ and ‘remembered’ as a basically oral-ritual culture was transformed into written forms. In this context, the Hamletian passage gains new overtones, while the different versions of the playtext (Q1 & 2: 1603, 1604, F: 1623 also offer insights into the changing attitudes regarding popular culture, as it became gradually commercialised and politicised in the following decades. Finally, Shakespeare’s The Winter’s Tale and Jonson’s Bartholomew Fair solidify a critical and sceptical attitude, which seems to have signalled the end of ‘Merry Old England’ on-stage and off-stage as well.

  19. Modern mammal origins: evolutionary grades in the Early Cretaceous of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, L L; Winkler, D A; Murry, P A

    1989-07-01

    Major groups of modern mammals have their origins in the Mesozoic Era, yet the mammalian fossil record is generally poor for that time interval. Fundamental morphological changes that led to modern mammals are often represented by small samples of isolated teeth. Fortunately, functional wear facets on teeth allow prediction of the morphology of occluding teeth that may be unrepresented by fossils. A major step in mammalian evolution occurred in the Early Cretaceous with the evolution of tribosphenic molars, which characterize marsupials and placentals, the two most abundant and diverse extant groups of mammals. A tooth from the Early Cretaceous (110 million years before present) of Texas tests previous predictions (based on lower molars) of the morphology of upper molars in early tribosphenic dentitions. The lingual cusp (protocone) is primitively without shear facets, as expected, but the cheek side of the tooth is derived (advanced) in having distinctive cusps along the margin. The tooth, although distressingly inadequate to define many features of the organism, demonstrates unexpected morphological diversity at a strategic stage of mammalian evolution and falsifies previous claims of the earliest occurrence of true marsupials.

  20. At loggerheads or in dovetails? The individual and the State from early modern jurisprudence to contemporary international jurisprudence.

    OpenAIRE

    De Lucca, Jean-Paul; Works in Progress Seminars Series

    2012-01-01

    A Works in Progress Seminars Series lecture entitled: At Loggerheads or in dovetails? The individual and the State from early modern jurisprudence to contemporary international jurisprudence. This talk is delivered by Dr Jean Paul De Lucca.

  1. YI Kwang Su’s Love and history records of modern hospital under the japanese colonial period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Hoon LEE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to evaluate and analyze the description of the modern hospital as history record, which appeared in YI Kwang Su’s novel Love. This novel has mentioned in detail western style clinic, Bukgando Catholic hospital, tuberculosis sanitarium as its main space. Modern hospitals are depicted in the novel has a great significance in historical aspect as well as in literary aspect. The most data on modern hospital is laws, statistics and newspaper archives. These materials are a great help to understand the history and status of the modern hospital. Literary description here is important materials, that specific to reconstruct the appearance of the modern hospital at that time. Literary representations infuse life into the history record. In this regard, Love has special meaning in the history of Korean modern literature. Before anything else, doctor AN Bin’s clinic as a first space of the novel vividly shows the reality of the Western style clinic and a general practitioner under the colonial period. The establishment of the hospital was based on 「Rules on private hospital」 declared by the Japanese Government General of Korea in 1919. According to this Rules, a private clinic’s founder had to submit the documents to the director of police affairs, in which all the details were written. It included name of hospital, site location and size, floor plan of a nearby building, each size of patient’s rooms, number of steps and emergency exit, bath, toilet, disinfecting room. AN Bin’s clinic was a private hospital with the requirements in the rules. The descriptions of this clinic re-created real situation of private hospitals, specifically scale of hospital, interior space, conditions of patient’s room at the time. The second modern hospital in the novel is Bukgando Catholic hospital. There is a lot more materials on medical activity and hospital of protestant churches than we thought. But we do not have a lot of information on

  2. Medieval and early modern approaches to fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, S.

    2010-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of complex fractures of the proximal humerus have challenged surgical practitioners and medical writers since the earliest recorded surgical texts. Current knowledge of fractures of the proximal humerus has been obtained through pathoanatomical and biomechanical studies...... within the last two centuries. However, the historical preconditions for this development have not been studied. This paper reviews written sources from the fall of the Roman Empire to the late eighteenth century. Medieval and early modern writers mainly rely on the Hippocratic writings De Fracturis...

  3. Medieval and early modern approaches to fractures of the proximal humerus: an historical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, S.

    2010-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of complex fractures of the proximal humerus have challenged surgical practitioners and medical writers since the earliest recorded surgical texts. Current knowledge of fractures of the proximal humerus has been obtained through pathoanatomical and biomechanical studies...... within the last two centuries. However, the historical preconditions for this development have not been studied. This paper reviews written sources from the fall of the Roman Empire to the late eighteenth century. Medieval and early modern writers mainly rely on the Hippocratic writings De Fracturis...

  4. A nearly modern amphibious bird from the Early Cretaceous of northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Hai-Lu; Lamanna, Matthew C; Harris, Jerald D; Chiappe, Luis M; O'connor, Jingmai; Ji, Shu-An; Lü, Jun-Chang; Yuan, Chong-Xi; Li, Da-Qing; Zhang, Xing; Lacovara, Kenneth J; Dodson, Peter; Ji, Qiang

    2006-06-16

    Three-dimensional specimens of the volant fossil bird Gansus yumenensis from the Early Cretaceous Xiagou Formation of northwestern China demonstrate that this taxon possesses advanced anatomical features previously known only in Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic ornithuran birds. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Gansus within the Ornithurae, making it the oldest known member of the clade. The Xiagou Formation preserves the oldest known ornithuromorph-dominated avian assemblage. The anatomy of Gansus, like that of other non-neornithean (nonmodern) ornithuran birds, indicates specialization for an amphibious life-style, supporting the hypothesis that modern birds originated in aquatic or littoral niches.

  5. Early industrial stage of modernization pre-revolutionary Russia: sources, tendencies and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Михайловна Братченко

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the sources, occurrence and development of industrialization of pre-revolutionary Russia at its early stage are analyzed. The authors have shown the basic tendencies and directions of these processes. In the article the set of the reasons of industrialization of Russia is opened, among which not internal conditions, and external factors were basic. Is shown also, that the earli-industrial modernization in the liberal - conservative form has put a society in the extremely unstable, «transitive» condition, that was fraught with social shocks.

  6. Investigating early modern Ottoman consumer culture in the light of Bursa probate inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karababa, Eminegül

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the development of early modern Ottoman consumer culture. In particular, the democratization of consumption, which is a significant indicator of the development of western consumer cultures, is examined in relation to Ottoman society. Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century probate inventories of the town of Bursa combined with literary and official sources are used in order to identify democratization of consumption and the macro conditions shaping this development. Findings demonstrate that commercialization, international trade, urbanization which created a fluid social structure, and the ability of the state to negotiate with guilds were possible contextual specificities which encouraged the democratization of consumption in the Bursa context.

  7. A "Great Roads" Approach to Teaching Modern World History and Latin American Regional Survey Courses: A Veracruz to Mexico City Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Seay, Jr.; Sullivan-Gonzalez, Douglass

    2002-01-01

    Outlines an innovative way of teaching "World History Since 1500" at Samford University (Birmingham, Alabama) called the "great roads" approach, centered upon important roads in a country's history. Presents the "Veracruz to Mexico City corridor" case study used to teach a Latin American modern history course. (CMK)

  8. The influence of life history and sexual dimorphism on entheseal changes in modern humans and African great apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Milella

    Full Text Available Entheseal changes have been widely studied with regard to their correlation to biomechanical stress and their usefulness for biocultural reconstructions. However, anthropological and medical studies have demonstrated the marked influence of both age and sex on the development of these features. Studies of entheseal changes are mostly aimed in testing functional hypotheses and are mostly focused on modern humans, with few data available for non-human primates. The lack of comparative studies on the effect of age and sex on entheseal changes represent a gap in our understanding of the evolutionary basis of both development and degeneration of the human musculoskeletal system. The aim of the present work is to compare age trajectories and patterns of sexual dimorphism in entheseal changes between modern humans and African great apes. To this end we analyzed 23 postcranial entheses in a human contemporary identified skeletal collection (N = 484 and compared the results with those obtained from the analysis of Pan (N = 50 and Gorilla (N = 47 skeletal specimens. Results highlight taxon-specific age trajectories possibly linked to differences in life history schedules and phyletic relationships. Robusticity trajectories separate Pan and modern humans from Gorilla, whereas enthesopathic patterns are unique in modern humans and possibly linked to their extended potential lifespan. Comparisons between sexes evidence a decreasing dimorphism in robusticity from Gorilla, to modern humans to Pan, which is likely linked to the role played by size, lifespan and physical activity on robusticity development. The present study confirms previous hypotheses on the possible relevance of EC in the study of life history, pointing moreover to their usefulness in evolutionary studies.

  9. Household Scribes and the Production of Literary Manuscripts in Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy L. North

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In early modern English households, literate servants such as tutors, chaplains, stewards, secretaries, and ladies in waiting were well positioned to assist their employers in the assembly and copying of verse miscellanies, anthologies, and other literary manuscripts. Looking at several literary manuscripts, some with known servant contributions and others that suggest the participation of household retainers, the essay explores the likelihood that literate servants often performed scribal tasks above and beyond their formal job descriptions, even serving as scribe for their employers’ hobbies and leisure activities. Although copying was an arduous task, servants appear to have viewed these duties not simply as part of their job but also as gift exchanges, as appeals for promotion or patronage, and as a means by which they might gain access to manuscript literature and literary circles. Studies of early modern letter writing have called attention to many of the copy tasks of literate household servants, but the integral role of literate servants in the collection, copying, and preservation of literary manuscripts deserves much more attention.

  10. “De interpretatione recta...”: Early Modern Theories of Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharia Oana-Alis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Translation has been essential to the development of languages and cultures throughout the centuries, particularly in the early modern period when it became a cornerstone of the process of transition from Latin to vernacular productions, in such countries as France, Italy, England and Spain. This process was accompanied by a growing interest in defining the rules and features of the practice of translation. The present article aims to examine the principles that underlay the highly intertextual early modern translation theory by considering its classical sources and development. It focuses on subjects that were constantly reiterated in any discussion about translation: the debate concerning the best methods of translation, the sense-for-sense/ word-for-word dichotomy - a topos that can be traced to the discourse on translation initiated by Cicero and Horace and was further developed by the Church fathers, notably St. Jerome, and eventually inherited by both medieval and Renaissance translators. Furthermore, it looks at the differences and continuities that characterise the medieval and Renaissance discourses on translation with a focus on the transition from the medieval, free manner of translation to the humanist, philological one.

  11. Local adaptation in brown trout early life-history traits: implications for climate change adaptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.F.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Pertoldi, C.

    2008-01-01

    to adapt. Temperature-related adaptability in traits related to phenology and early life history are expected to be particularly important in salmonid fishes. We focused on the latter and investigated whether four populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) are locally adapted in early life-history traits...

  12. Family history of premature death and risk of early onset cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Oyen, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease.......The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease....

  13. A short history of wind power - from its early beginnings to today's installations and its business environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This article takes a look at how wind power has developed from its beginnings centuries ago with windmills over early installations in Denmark around 1900 through to the modern wind-parks providing many thousands of megawatts of wind power generated by 100-metre-high units with installed power ratings of up to 5 megawatts. The history of wind power is looked at from the simple windmill to the modern, industrially manufactured mass product. The expected growth of the wind-power market in the twenty-first century is discussed, as are the legal regulations governing their construction and use. Figures are also given on production capacities and installed power in various countries

  14. Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Li, Cai; Li, Bo

    2014-01-01

    To better determine the history of modern birds, we performed a genome-scale phylogenetic analysis of 48 species representing all orders of Neoaves using phylogenomic methods created to handle genome-scale data. We recovered a highly resolved tree that confirms previously controversial sister...... or close relationships. We identified the first divergence in Neoaves, two groups we named Passerea and Columbea, representing independent lineages of diverse and convergently evolved land and water bird species. Among Passerea, we infer the common ancestor of core landbirds to have been an apex predator...... and confirm independent gains of vocal learning. Among Columbea, we identify pigeons and flamingoes as belonging to sister clades. Even with whole genomes, some of the earliest branches in Neoaves proved challenging to resolve, which was best explained by massive protein-coding sequence convergence and high...

  15. Family History - An Early Warning for Your Child

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-14

    Collecting family history information could save your child's life. Listen to learn more about how knowing your family history information could benefit your entire family.  Created: 11/14/2007 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  16. Early-Type Galaxy Star Formation Histories in Different Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Patrick; Graves, G.

    2014-01-01

    We use very high-S/N stacked spectra of ˜29,000 nearby quiescent early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to investigate variations in their star formation histories (SFHs) with environment at fixed position along and perpendicular to the Fundamental Plane (FP). We separate galaxies in the three-dimensional FP space defined by galaxy effective radius Re, central stellar velocity dispersion σ, and surface brightness residual from the FP, ΔIe. We use the SDSS group catalogue of Yang et al. to further separate galaxies into three categories by their “identities” within their respective dark matter halos: central “Brightest Group Galaxies” (BGGs); Satellites; and Isolateds (those which are “most massive” in a dark matter halo with no Satellites). Within each category, we construct high-S/N mean stacked spectra to determine mean singleburst ages, [Fe/H], and [Mg/Fe] based on the stellar population synthesis models of R. Schiavon. This allows us to study variations in the stellar population properties (SPPs) with local group environment at fixed structure (i.e., fixed position in FP-space). We find that the SFHs of quiescent ETGs are almost entirely determined by their structural parameters σ and ΔIe. Any variation with local group environment at fixed structure is only slight: Satellites have the oldest stellar populations, 0.02 dex older than BGGs and 0.04 dex older than Isolateds; BGGs have the highest Fe-enrichments, 0.01 dex higher than Isolateds and 0.02 dex higher than Satellites; there are no differences in Mg-enhancement between BGGs, Isolateds, and Satellites. Our observation that, to zeroth-order, the SFHs of quiescent ETGs are fully captured by their structures places important qualitative constraints on the degree to which late-time evolutionary processes (those which occur after a galaxy’s initial formation and main star-forming lifetime) can alter their SFHs/structures.

  17. Cubism translated? The Western Canon of Modernism and Central/Eastern European Art History

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lahoda, Vojtěch

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2010), s. 223-238 ISSN 1756-1310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : painting * furniture * applied arts * Czech Cubism * Modernism * Riga Artists´group Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/berg/aitj/2010/00000002/00000002/art00007

  18. A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE INTRODUCTION OF MODERN SCIENCE TO PORTUGAL DURING THE 18th CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TERESA CASTELÃO-LAWLESS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the role played by members of the Society of Jesus, the Order of the Oratorians, and the Jewish community in the introduction of Modern science in Portugal during the 18th century. The record of their publications prove, contrary to common stereotypes on the permanent conflict between science and religion, that they all embraced Modern, anti-Aristotelian, natural philosophy fairly equally and unreservedly. The rhetoric they used in manuscript Dedications to prospective patrons also show that they were actively engaged in shifting Modern science from a context of private consumption to one of public circulation. I acknowledgethat the dissemination of Modern science in Portugal during the 1700’s was slow and protracted. This phenomenon, however, was not, as typically argued, caused by scientific conservatism on the part of the religious Orders, or the ill will of patrons of the sciences, but by the political motives of enlightened despots João V, José I and his Prime-Minister the Marquis of Pombal.

  19. Health, civilization, and the state: a history of public health from ancient to modern times

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Porter, Dorothy

    1999-01-01

    ... including: * * * * * * * pestilence, public order and morality in pre-modern times the Enlightenment and its effects public health and centralization in Victorian Britain localization of health care in the United States population issues and family welfare the rise of the classic welfare state and its health care policies attitudes towards public health in...

  20. Comics in Modern Physics: Learning Blackbody Radiation through Quasi-History of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ertugrul

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to create a short comic story about historical emergence of Planck's explanation of blackbody radiation and to investigate what students learn from it and what they think about the usage of comics in modern physics course. The participants are a small group of undergraduate students studying at department of science…

  1. Early Life Histories of Fishes: New Developmental, Ecological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ontogeny and life history models revisited' which is an unabridged .... Hamburg, Germany, in August 1984. The papers are ..... Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York and ... lessons to be learnt from the well-illustrated keys and for.

  2. Family history influences the early onset of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chung-Hwa Park; Seung-Hee Jeong; Hyeon-Woo Yim; Jin Dong Kim; Si Hyun Bae; Jong Young Choi; Seung Kew Yoon

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the relationship between a positive family history of primary liver cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in Korean HCC patients.METHODS:We studied a total of 2242 patients diagnosed with HCC between January 1990 and July 2008,whose family history of primary liver cancer was clearly described in the medical records.RESULTS:Of the 2242 patients,165 (7.4%) had a positive family history of HCC and 2077 (92.6%) did not.The male to female ratio was 3.6:1,and the major causes of HCC were chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in 75.1%,chronic hepatitis C virus infection in 13.2% and alcohol in 3.1%.The median ages at diagnosis in the positive-and negative-history groups were 52 years (range:29-79 years) and 57 years (range:18-89 years),respectively (P < 0.0001).Furthermore,among 1713 HCC patients with HBV infection,the number of patients under 45 years of age out of 136 patients with positive family history was 26 (19.1%),whereas those out of 1577 patients with negative family history was 197 (12.5%),suggesting that a positive family history may be associated with earlier development of HCC in the Korean population (P =0.0028).CONCLUSION:More intensive surveillance maybe recommended to those with a positive family history of HCC for earlier diagnosis and proper management especially when HBV infection is present.

  3. Early modern human dispersal from Africa: genomic evidence for multiple waves of migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, Francesca; Ghirotto, Silvia; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Vilaça, Sibelle Torres; De Santi, Lisa; Barbujani, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Anthropological and genetic data agree in indicating the African continent as the main place of origin for anatomically modern humans. However, it is unclear whether early modern humans left Africa through a single, major process, dispersing simultaneously over Asia and Europe, or in two main waves, first through the Arab Peninsula into southern Asia and Oceania, and later through a northern route crossing the Levant. Here, we show that accurate genomic estimates of the divergence times between European and African populations are more recent than those between Australo-Melanesia and Africa and incompatible with the effects of a single dispersal. This difference cannot possibly be accounted for by the effects of either hybridization with archaic human forms in Australo-Melanesia or back migration from Europe into Africa. Furthermore, in several populations of Asia we found evidence for relatively recent genetic admixture events, which could have obscured the signatures of the earliest processes. We conclude that the hypothesis of a single major human dispersal from Africa appears hardly compatible with the observed historical and geographical patterns of genome diversity and that Australo-Melanesian populations seem still to retain a genomic signature of a more ancient divergence from Africa.

  4. Modernization of the french early warning network in IRSN, experience feedback and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debayle, C.; Bardet, A.; Beguin-Leprieur, M.; Chevreuil, M.; Malfait, V.; Mechenet, V. [PRP-ENV/SESURE/LS2A (France)

    2014-07-01

    Developed few years after the Chernobyl accident in 1991, the French early warning network, Teleray, composed by 160 ambient dose equivalent rate probes, had operated for 15 years. It was decided in 2007 to modernize this facility in order to keep the infrastructure up-to-date. The sensors, the data transmission network and the supervising system were considered separately, but each development took care about the modularity of the final IT system. After a benchmarking period and technical choices, a five years project started with the aim to increase the number of probes to 420, especially around the French nuclear facilities, to change the technology and the IT system including a new data transmission network. The project kick-off was planned in june 2011, but due to the Fukushima accident, the French government asked IRSN to implement a probe on the roof of the French embassy in Tokyo on March 18, 2011. Results and feedback will be discussed, focusing on new approach about data analysis purpose. In 2014, the modernization of this network will be finished one year before it was expected and with significant cost savings. All the relevant phase of the project will be described, including time schedule and economical aspects, with the aim to describe how it is now considered fundamental to have complementary mobile systems in case of nuclear crisis. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  5. Early Pliocene onset of modern Nordic Seas circulation related to ocean gateway changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schepper, Stijn; Schreck, Michael; Beck, Kristina Marie; Matthiessen, Jens; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangerud, Gunn

    2015-10-28

    The globally warm climate of the early Pliocene gradually cooled from 4 million years ago, synchronous with decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In contrast, palaeoceanographic records indicate that the Nordic Seas cooled during the earliest Pliocene, before global cooling. However, a lack of knowledge regarding the precise timing of Nordic Seas cooling has limited our understanding of the governing mechanisms. Here, using marine palynology, we show that cooling in the Nordic Seas was coincident with the first trans-Arctic migration of cool-water Pacific mollusks around 4.5 million years ago, and followed by the development of a modern-like Nordic Seas surface circulation. Nordic Seas cooling precedes global cooling by 500,000 years; as such, we propose that reconfiguration of the Bering Strait and Central American Seaway triggered the development of a modern circulation in the Nordic Seas, which is essential for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and a precursor for more widespread Greenland glaciation in the late Pliocene.

  6. On the Representation of an Early Modern Dutch Storm in Two Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Pfeifer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available On 19th December 1660, a severe storm raged over the Dutch isle of Texel, causing severe damage. It proceeded to destroy parts of the city of Amsterdam. Both the sailor and merchant Gerrit Jansz Kooch and the priest Joannes Vollenhove wrote a poem about this natural disaster, presumably independently of each other. The poets perceived the storm differently: Kooch, an eyewitness of the storm, matter-of-factly portrays the calamity and details a feud between his son-in-law and a colleague to commemorate the day of the disaster. In contrast, Vollenhove personifies the winter storm and struggles to understand it. Their poems are valuable sources for a cultural historical analysis. After a brief review of historical severe storm research, I will analyse these poems from a cultural historical point of view. I will shed light on how this severe storm was represented poetically in the Early Modern Period.

  7. Training the intelligent eye: understanding illustrations in early modern astronomy texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Kathleen M; Barker, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Throughout the early modern period, the most widely read astronomical textbooks were Johannes de Sacrobosco's De sphaera and the Theorica planetarum, ultimately in the new form introduced by Georg Peurbach. This essay argues that the images in these texts were intended to develop an "intelligent eye." Students were trained to transform representations of specific heavenly phenomena into moving mental images of the structure of the cosmos. Only by learning the techniques of mental visualization and manipulation could the student "see" in the mind's eye the structure and motions of the cosmos. While anyone could look up at the heavens, only those who had acquired the intelligent eye could comprehend the divinely created order of the universe. Further, the essay demonstrates that the visual program of the Sphaera and Theorica texts played a significant and hitherto unrecognized role in later scientific work. Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler all utilized the same types of images in their own texts to explicate their ideas about the cosmos.

  8. Book review: Mapping gendered routes and spaces in the early modern world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2016-01-01

    This book encapsulates and extends many seminal ideas presented at the eighth “Attending to Early Modern Women” conference held at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee in June 2012. Merry Wiesner-Hanks has done a masterful job editing these papers within a central theme of the interaction of spatial domains with gender-based phenomena. The fifteen chapters of this book are organized into four sections: “Framework,” discussing theoretical concepts; “Embodied Environments,” focusing on physicality; “Communities and Networks” of social patterns; and “Exchanges” across geographic space. Together, a global society shaped by gender and sexuality and intersected by race and class emerges.

  9. Prophecy, patriarchy, and violence in the early modern household: the revelations of Anne Wentworth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Warren

    2009-10-01

    In 1676 the apostate Baptist prophet Anne Wentworth (1629/30-1693?) published "A True Account of Anne Wentworths Being Cruelly, Unjustly, and Unchristianly Dealt with by Some of Those People called Anabaptists," the first in a series of pamphlets that would continue to the end of the decade. Orignially a member of a London Baptist church, Wentworth left the congregation and eventually her own home after her husband used physical force to stop her writing and prophesying. Yet Wentworth persisted in her "revelations." These prophecies increasingly focused on her response to those who were trying to stop her efforts, especially within her own household. This article examines Wentworth's writings as an effort by an early modern woman, using arguments of spiritual agency, to assert ideas about proper gender roles and household responsibilities to denounce her husband and rebut those who criticized and attempted to suppress her.

  10. Demons, nature, or God? Witchcraft accusations and the French disease in early modern Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Laura J

    2006-01-01

    In early modern Venice, establishing the cause of a disease was critical to determining the appropriate cure: natural remedies for natural illnesses, spiritual solutions for supernatural or demonic ones. One common ailment was the French disease (syphilis), widely distributed throughout Venice's neighborhoods and social hierarchy, and evenly distributed between men and women. The disease was widely regarded as curable by the mid-sixteenth century, and cases that did not respond to natural remedies presented problems of interpretation to physicians and laypeople. Witchcraft was one possible explanation; using expert testimony from physicians, however, the Holy Office ruled out witchcraft as a cause of incurable cases and reinforced perceptions that the disease was of natural origin. Incurable cases were explained as the result of immoral behavior, thereby reinforcing the associated stigma. This article uses archival material from Venice's Inquisition records from 1580 to 1650, as well as mortality data.

  11. The Duke, the Soldier of Fortune, and a Rosicrucian Legacy: Exploring the Roles of Manuscripts in Early-Modern Alchemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Mike A

    2018-05-19

    By the time it was published in 1705, the Speculum Sapientiae claimed to have had a long history going back to 1672. However, the fact that exaggerated stories were commonplace in alchemical literature leads us to question its credibility. This paper explores the secret lives of this alchemical text prior to its print publication to clarify the roles of manuscripts in early-modern alchemy. Specifically, I argue that there were three aspects that could distinguish manuscript from print: provenance, materiality, and exclusivity. These can be seen at work in the fate of Johann Heinrich Vierordt, an itinerant alchemist and cavalry captain whose career is inextricably linked to the scribal dissemination of the Speculum Sapientiae. In addition to manuscript copies of that text at libraries across Europe, a significant cache of correspondence preserved in Gotha documents Vierordt's dealings with Duke Friedrich I of Saxe-Gotha. The verisimilitudinous provenance of Vierordt's alchemical secrets and tincture played a crucial role in allowing him to gain Friedrich's trust. Yet it was only after Vierordt presented him with a precious parchment manuscript of the Speculum Sapientiae that he truly succeeded in gaining the duke's patronage. Subsequently, reports of multiple conflicting copies surfacing in Amsterdam sealed Vierordt's fall from favour.

  12. History of a modern place: Clorindo Testa and the Santa Rosa Civic Center, La Pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Costa Cabral

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Santa Rosa, capital of the young province of La Pampa, was founded in 1892 at the end of the military campaigns that annihilated the indigenous people and ensured republican control over the Patagonia region. In 1955, the city held a design competition for the construction of its Civic Center. This was not a current infill operation intended to renew the core of the city, since it was not just a matter of raising a new facade along one of the four sides of the main square. The task implied designing, almost from scratch, a new part of city. Competitors were supposed to organize new buildings and public spaces within an area of nine hectares standing between the existing city and the surrounding pampas. Clorindo Testa won the competition by proposing that it be built as a piece of a modern city. Situated in the middle of Argentinean pampas, the Santa Rosa Civic Center has been less extensively discussed than other of Testa’s great contemporary works, such as the London Bank (1959 and the National Library (1962, both in Buenos Aires, even in the South American context. The Government Building, the Bus Station and the covered central space were built before 1963. Testa finished the Legislature Building in 1976, and even though in 2006 he was able to conclude the little Legislature Library, half of the Civic Center area still remains as open space. Nevertheless, as a living piece of the never-completed modern project installed in the far south, La Pampa’s case seems to pose relevant urban questions. This paper explores the case from two complementary perspectives. One focuses on the results of the first competition, recognizing an original contribution to the relationship between modernity, monument, and place. The second discusses the unfinished condition of the Civic Center as constitutive to modern tradition in the very modern sense of the city as a never-completed work.

  13. Routledge History of Women in Modern Europe, 1700 to the present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    scholars and rising stars of the discipline to provide a ground-breaking and unique contribution to the historical study of women. Chapters include:European Women's History at the Crossroads, Writing Women in(to) European History, At Home in the Family, Female Sexuality, Learning to be good girls and women......The Routledge History of Women in Europe since 1700 is a landmark publication that provides an over view of women's role and place in Western Europe, spanning three centuries. Drawing on new research and provoking valuable new insights, this comprehensive edited collection brings together renowned......, Women Workers, Working women, Women Religious and religious women, Women as citizens, Women in War and Peace, Home and Away, popular culture and Leisure, Mistresses of creation, women as producers and consumers of culture....

  14. “A most detestable crime”. Representations of Rape in the Popular Press of Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Pallotti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In early modern England the legal definition of rape underwent an important revision and gradually, from crime against property, rape became a crime against the person. While reflecting the classical, medieval and biblical assumptions, the period brought about new concerns. The purpose of this article is to explore representations of rape in a variety of popular texts of the English early modern period, by focussing attention on broadside ballads, cheap pamphlets as well as accounts of trials that took place at the Old Bailey. These texts constitute valuable sources of information about people’s attitudes and beliefs and help us construct the views of rape circulating in early modern English culture.

  15. A brief history of 'lone' atrial fibrillation: from 'a peculiar pulse irregularity' to a modern public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potpara, Tatjana S; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2015-01-01

    Ever since the original description of a 'peculiar pulse irregularity', atrial fibrillation (AF) has been studied extensively and has come a long journey from the recognition of its cardiac origins, to the modern concept of AF as a serious public health challenge with profound social and economic implications. This arrhythmia affects around 2% of adult population, and the most common underlying heart diseases accompanying AF in the modern era are hypertension, heart failure and coronary artery disease, as well as valvular heart diseases and numerous other cardiac as well as non-cardiac disorders which have been shown to predispose to AF. On occasions, AF occurs in young otherwise apparently healthy individuals (so called 'lone AF'). For a long time, 'lone' AF has been believed to bear a favourable prognosis as compared to AF with underlying structural heart disease, but increasing evidence suggests that 'lone' AF patients represent a rather heterogeneous cohort, with highly variable individual risk profiles due to the presence of various subclinical cardiovascular risk factors or genetically determined subtle alterations at the cellular or molecular level. For these reasons, the existence of truly 'lone' AF has recently been questioned. In this review article, we present a brief history of the recognition of the public health burden of AF. We discuss some of the misconceptions and breakthroughs on modern knowledge on AF, including the rise (and fall) of the 'lone' AF concept.

  16. The decline of uroscopy in early modern learned medicine (1500-1650).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, Michael

    2007-01-01

    From the early sixteenth century, uroscopy lost much of the great appeal it had possessed among medieval physicians. Once valued as an outstanding diagnostic tool which ensured authority and fame, it became an object of massive criticism if not derision. As this paper shows, growing awareness of theoretical inconsistencies, the new medical empiricism and humanistic opposition against Arabic and medieval predecessors can explain this drastic revaluation only in part. Uroscopy, it is argued here, came to be perceived above all as a threat to the physicians' professional authority. Faced with persistent demands that they diagnose diseases primarily if not exclusively from urine, they were left with an awkward choice. They risked making fools of themselves by blatant misdiagnosis, but if they rejected the patients' demands people would deem them incapable of a task which many of their less educated competitors were perfectly happy to perform. In the end, in spite of the physicians' massive campaign against it, uroscopy remained very much alive. On the highly competitive early modern medical market patient power had once more prevailed.

  17. Ritual Slaughter in the Modern Constitutional State: A Brief History of the European Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    in emphasis after mass Muslim immigration began in the 1960s. In this sense, the protection of animal welfare as a legitimate concern of the state can be placed in a wider context of secular concerns for vulnerable groups that violently clashes with pre-modern notions of religious or cultural autonomy....... Similar in nature if not necessarily in intensity to questions of forced and/or underage marriage, male circumcision and female genital mutilation, the commitment of the secular state to animal welfare cannot summarily be rejected by demands for religious freedom....

  18. Antara Makkah, Basrah dan Kemerdekaan Studi Konstruksi Historis Pendidikan Islam Era Klasik hingga Modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mujab

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Islamic Education at first period was showed its superiority. It was proved by the emergency of superior, dinamic and creative generation. The generation from companions of the prophet, tabi’in and tabi’it tabiin are a sturdy generation, have a high comitment for moral values of Islam. Whereas on the pre-modern, Islam was suffered a decrease. Its quite alarming setback. Its period of deteriorate. This periode was identified as time of the demise of the Islamic struggle. So, education was not incised achievement then previous generations.

  19. Contextualization of early modernism in Serbian music: Case studies of two works from 1912

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Biljana

    2006-01-01

    content. These were among the most important indications of the author's unrealistic estimation of potential public reception of his music. Modern works of large-scale genre had no prospects of continual survival on the concert repertoire in the period between the two World Wars, either. This testifies to long-standing problems of national musical tradition, especially in consequence of its discontinued and uneven development. This study of early modernism shows the value of researching Serbian music through different cultural models existing in the system of national art of this time. The network of political, economical and cultural institutions was imbued with modern bourgeois culture, but the struggle for its wider acceptance in the domains of everyday life, self-consciousness, and the mentality and taste of different social groups and individuals, was slow and long. Such attempts have not always and fully realized the particular burden of inheritance, reflected in recent times.

  20. Ji Zhaojin, A History of Modern Shanghai Banking. The Rise and Decline of China Finance Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Bergère, Marie-Claire

    2006-01-01

    To attempt a 260-page summary of the history of the Chinese and foreign banks in Shanghai over a whole century (1842-1952) is an extremely ambitious project. This was a historical epoch dominated by complex financial and monetary structures, and agitated by political developments—civil and foreign wars, imperialist penetration, nationalist reactions and revolutionary crises—, an epoch which appears as both a phase in China’s modernisation and an episode in the expansion of international capit...

  1. Ancient islands and modern invasions: disparate phylogeographic histories among Hispaniola's endemic birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sly, Nicholas D; Townsend, Andrea K; Rimmer, Christopher C; Townsend, Jason M; Latta, Steven C; Lovette, Irby J

    2011-12-01

    With its large size, complex topography and high number of avian endemics, Hispaniola appears to be a likely candidate for the in situ speciation of its avifauna, despite the worldwide rarity of avian speciation within single islands. We used multilocus comparative phylogeography techniques to examine the pattern and history of divergence in 11 endemic birds representing potential within-island speciation events. Haplotype and allele networks from mitochondrial ND2 and nuclear intron loci reveal a consistent pattern: phylogeographic divergence within or between closely related species is correlated with the likely distribution of ancient sea barriers that once divided Hispaniola into several smaller paleo-islands. Coalescent and mitochondrial clock dating of divergences indicate species-specific response to different geological events over the wide span of the island's history. We found no evidence that ecological or topographical complexity generated diversity, either by creating open niches or by restricting long-term gene flow. Thus, no true within-island speciation appears to have occurred among the species sampled on Hispaniola. Divergence events predating the merging of Hispaniola's paleo-island blocks cannot be considered in situ divergence, and postmerging divergence in response to episodic island segmentation by marine flooding probably represents in situ vicariance or interarchipelago speciation by dispersal. Our work highlights the necessity of considering island geologic history while investigating the speciation-area relationship in birds and other taxa. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Abraham Pais Prize Lecture: Shifting Problems and Boundaries in the History of Modern Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Mary-Jo

    A long established category of study in the history of science is the ``history of physical sciences.'' It is a category that immediately begs the question of disciplinary boundaries for the problems and subjects addressed in historical inquiry. As a historian of the physical sciences, I often have puzzled over disciplinary boundaries and the means used to create or justify them. Scientists most often have been professionally identified with specific institutionalized fields since the late 19th century, but the questions they ask and the problems they solve are not neatly carved up by disciplinary perimeters. Like institutional departments or professorships, the Nobel Prizes in the 20th century often have delineated the scope of ``Physics'' or ``Chemistry'' (and ``Physiology or Medicine''), but the Prizes do not reflect disciplinary rigidity, despite some standard core subjects. In this paper I examine trends in Nobel Prize awards that indicate shifts in problem solving and in boundaries in twentieth century physics, tying those developments to changing themes in the history of physics and physical science in recent decades.

  3. Learning Early Twentieth-Century History through First-Person Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    For many of the students in the author's American history class, early twentieth-century American history seems far removed from their daily lives. Being first and second-generation American citizens, many of the students do not have the luxury of hearing grandparents and great-grandparents telling stories about FDR and Henry Ford. More…

  4. Book Review: Thanos Veremis, A Modern History of the Balkans: Nationalism and Identity in Southeast Europe, London and New York: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd, 2017.

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron J. Cuevas

    2017-01-01

    Thanos Veremis, an Emeritus professor of Political History at the University of Athens, is a preeminent historian and prolific author. This book comparatively covers the political and military history of the Balkans with a special attention to the Balkan economies, militaries, and nationalist creeds as some of these modern issues still plague the region. In the first part of the book, Veremis provides a concise and fast-paced overview of almost two hundred years of Balkan history from the ...

  5. Tribulations and achievements: the early history of Olympism in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, C R

    2001-01-01

    By the end of the nineteenth century, modern sport had enchanted the people of Argentina. At that time the nation enjoyed a remarkable degree of economic prosperity and embarked on increasing political democratization. These circumstances, along with the fact that the nation was represented from the beginning, in 1894, on the International Olympic Committee seemed to favour Argentina as the spearhead of the diffusion of Olympism throughout South America. However, the country only enjoyed its first official Olympic participation in the Paris Games of 1924 - a few months after the establishment of the Argentine Olympic Committee. This essay explores the reception and diffusion of Olympism in Argentina. It reveals a process of gradual adoption including conflicting views on the relationship between the state and sport, several attempts at institutionalization, international misunderstandings and the role of politics and class.

  6. Early history of tree seedling nurseries in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett

    2013-01-01

    The forests in the South were devastated by aggressive harvesting that began following the Civil War. By the early in the 20th century, many millions of acres of land needed reforestation. Foresighted individuals began a committed effort to restore this land to a productive condition. This effort required dedication, innovation, cooperation, and leadership. The...

  7. Early Indian History and the Legacy of DD Kosambi1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that the beginnings of Hinduism lay in these ideas and practices. Religion was and .... ing from the extension of plough agriculture and the establishing of agrarian ..... tion of early historical urban centres in the Ganges plain and the north-west.

  8. The Rise of Auxiliary Sciences in Early Modern National Historiography: an ‘Interdisciplinary’ Answer to Historical Scepticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    In response to the rising popularity of empirical models of scholarship and an increasingly sharp sceptic criticism against historiography, early modern historiographers strived to place their reconstruction of the past on a more ‘scientific’ basis through a new approach to historical writing. Their

  9. Hidden library : Visualizing fragments of medieval manuscripts in early-modern bookbindings with mobile macro-XRF scanner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, Jorien R.; Käyhkö, Anna; Kwakkel, Erik; Dik, J.

    2017-01-01

    This experiment demonstrates the large potential of macro-XRF imaging for the visualization of fragments of medieval manuscripts hidden in early-modern bookbindings. The invention of the printing press in the fifteenth century made manuscripts obsolete and bookbinders started recycling their

  10. An early modern factory between state and market: labor and management at the Amsterdam naval shipyard (1660-1795)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandon, P.; de Jong, A.; Wubs, B.

    2012-01-01

    Naval shipyards were among the largest production facilities of the pre-industrial world. The Venetian Arsenal and the British Royal Dockyards therefore play a prominent role in the historiography of early modern labor relations. However, labor relations at the Dutch naval shipyards remain

  11. The organization of mercantile capitalism in the Low Countries: private partnerships in early modern Antwerp (1480-1620)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hofstraeten, Bram

    2016-01-01

    By means of an in-depth analysis of 132 partnership agreements, which had been notarized in the city of Antwerp between 1480 and 1620, the present article aspires to provide a substantiated narrative on the use as well as legal features of private partnerships in the early modern Low Countries. In

  12. Oral history of Florence Downs; the early years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairman, J; Mahon, M M

    2001-01-01

    Florence Downs is a well-recognized nursing leader, educator, editor, and scholar who helped shape nursing as an intellectual discipline, and wrote extensively about the importance of links between research and practice. Through the use of oral history data garnered over 15 hours of interviews, we constructed a narrative that describes some of Downs' formative experiences. Oral history is used to place the "stories" of an individual into a social and cultural context, in this case, the development of the profession of nursing. From the interviews, several strands emerged that defined Downs' extended career, including the importance of developing a community of scholars both in and outside of nursing, the dangers of parochialism, and the necessity of a perspective on life that melded a keen sense of humor. Factors that affected Downs' style and choice, especially her mother, and her educational experiences, were revealed. From the interviews we gained a sense of how Downs constructed her conceptual universe of nursing, as well as the language and political effectiveness to overcome barriers confronting the intellectual growth of nursing mounted by other nursing leaders as well as traditional academic disciplines.

  13. Social Confidence in Early Adulthood among Young People with and without a History of Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Toseeb, Umar; Botting, Nicola; Pickles, Andrew; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to test the predictions that lower self-esteem and higher shyness in individuals with a history of language impairment (LI) would continue from adolescence into early adulthood and that those with LI would have lower social self-efficacy in early adulthood. Method: Participants were young people with a…

  14. Demographic development of ukrainian rural area: lessons of history, modern socio-economic threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Melnychuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to urgent problems of demographic development of rural areas, their impact on socioeconomic processes at all levels of the national economic system. The content of demographic and economic antonyms of «demographic development» and «demographic catastrophe» has been characterized. The article analyzes the historical background of demographic change in rural areas, their socio-economic consequences. It’s reasonably concluded that the economic development of Ukraine requires urgent settlement of the negative socio-demographic trends that are characteristic for a Ukrainian village. Nowadays, these trends are of a destructive nature. They lead to a protracted crisis of agricultural production which is very difficult to overcome solely with the tools of technical and technological modernization. This will complicate the food security of the state for many years; lower the level and quality of life of the population, lead to greater territorial disparities and degradation of rural areas and the marginalization of residents of Ukrainian villages.

  15. Glocalization and the Marketing of Christianity in Early Modern Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Watson Andaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of European commercial interests into Southeast Asia during the early modern period was commonly justified by the biblical injunction to spread Christian teachings, and by the “civilizing” influences it was said to foster. In focusing on areas where Christianity gained a foothold or, in the Philippines and Timor Leste, became the dominant faith, this article invokes the marketing concept of “glocalization”, frequently applied to the sociology of religion. It argues that the historical beginnings of the processes associated with the global/local interface of Christianity are situated in the sixteenth century, when Europe, Asia and the Americas were finally linked through maritime connections. Christian missionizing was undertaken with the assumption that the European-based “brand” of beliefs and practices could be successfully transported to a very different environment. However, the application of these ideas was complicated by the goal of imposing European economic control, by the local resistance thus generated, and by competition with other religions and among Christians themselves. In this often antagonistic environment, the degree to which a global product could be “repackaged” and “glocalized” so that it was appealing to consumers in different cultural environments was always constrained, even among the most sympathetic purveyors. As a result, the glocalization of Christianity set up “power-laden tensions” which both global institutions and dispersed consumers continue to negotiate.

  16. The role of monastic embroidery workshops in the formation of the early modern Polish embroidery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Stanilewicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the state of research and the research problems concerning the early modern Polish embroidery and the role of the monastic workshops in its formation. Embroidery was one of the regular occupation in the female congregations. Nuns embroidered for their churches, as well as they took the orders from outside – from male congregations, the higher clergy and the secular customers. Their importance has increased in the 17th century, and in the 18th century nearly all convents dealt with this craft. The preserved embroideries reflect the general stylish trends prevailing in the handicrafts, but they are characterized by greater conservatism. Their level is very varied, from perfect works to very weak and inept ones. Nuns rarely prepared themselves patterns for embroideries, more often they used the services of craftsmen or they were repeating the proven solutions. They certainly used the embroidery pattern books. An important inspiration for them were also patterns of fabrics. While the floral motifs showed high proficiency, in less common figural presentations we often see much incompetence. Vestments decorated with the elaborate symbolic representations are distinguished among them. At this stage of research it seems that the monastic workshops have had a major impact on the prosperity of embroidery in the Republic of Poland and that along with the guilds they developed a certain style and taste. Preserved objects are waiting for being catalogued and for insightful research that let us connect more of them with definite workshops.

  17. In Search of the English Sabbat: Popular Conceptions of Witches’ Meetings in Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sharpe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the evidence for belief in the witches’ sabbat in early modern England. England is generally thought of as a country where the concept of the sabbat did not exist, and it was certainly largely absent from elite thinking on witchcraft, as displayed in the witchcraft statutes of 1563 and 1604 and Elizabethan and Jacobean demonological writings. But evidence entering the historical record mainly via deposi- tions taken by justices of the peace suggests that there was a widespread popular belief in the sabbat or in parallel forms of witches’ meetings, evidence that the concept of the sabbat existed in popular culture. In this, the English evidence seems to support Carlo Ginzburg’s model of the sabbat being essentially a popular construction in its origins. The article also examines a play based on one of the historical incidents analysed, Richard Brome and Thomas Heywood’s The Late Lancashire Witches (1634, and uses it as a starting point for a brief discussion of witchcraft motifs in contemporary drama, notably Shakespeare’s Macbeth.

  18. The early modern kidney--nephrology in and about the nineteenth century. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2013-01-01

    The 19th century was a period of momentous scientific discoveries, technological achievements, and societal changes. A beneficiary of these revolutionary upheavals was medical empiricism that supplanted the rationalism of the past giving rise to early modern scientific medicine. Continued reliance on sensory data now magnified by technical advances generated new medical information that could be quantified with increasing precision, verified by repeated experimentation, and validated by statistical analysis. The institutionalization and integration of these methodologies into medical education were a defining step that assured their progress and perpetuation. Major advances were made in the nosography of diseases of the kidney, notably that of the diagnosis of progressive kidney disease from the presence of albuminuria by Richard Bright (1789-1858); and of renal structure and function, notably the demonstration of the continuity of the glomerular capsule with the tubular basement membrane by William Bowman (1816-1892), and the arguments for hemodynamic physical forces mediated glomerular filtration by Carl Ludwig (1816-1895) and for active tubular transport by Rudolf Heidenhain (1834-1897). Improvements in microscopy and tissue processing were instrumental in describing the cellular ultrastructure of the glomerulus and tubular segments, but their integrated function remained to be elucidated. The kidney continued to be considered a tubular secretory organ and its pathology attributed to injury of the interstitium (interstitial nephritis) or tubules (parenchymatous nephritis). © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Thinking in early modernity and the separation process between philosophy and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2015-03-01

    One of the big questions in psychology is when and how psychology disentangled from philosophy. Usually it is referred to the laboratory Wundt established in Leipzig in 1879 as the birth for psychology as an independent science. However this separation process can also be traced in other ways, like by focusing on how the two sciences approach and understand thinking. Although thinking and language were not included in the research in this laboratory, Wundt (1897) regarded thinking as the core of psychology. As a commentary to Papanicolaou (Integr Psychol Behav Sci doi:10.1007/s12124-014-9273-3, 2014), this paper investigates the differences in how psychology and philosophy conceptualized thinking in early Western modernity. Thus one of the findings is that the separation process between the two was more or less initiated by Immanuel Kant. By defining thinking in terms of the pure reason he excluded the psychological understanding of thinking because psychology basically defined thinking in terms of ideas derived from qualia and sensation. Another finding is that psychology itself has not completely realized the differences between the philosophical and the psychological understanding of thinking by having been influenced by Kant's ideal of the pure reason. This may also explain some of the crises psychology went through during the twentieth century.

  20. The City, the Ghetto and Two Books. Venice and Jewish Early Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Facchini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1638 two books written by two Venitian rabbis were published in Venice. They were both destined successfully to reach wide circulation over the following decades. This article aims at exploring the intimate connection between Venice, a city which deeply influenced the imagination of European culture during the early modern period, and its Jewish ghetto, the first of its kind to be founded within Catholic lands.The author suggests that it was here in Venice, within the liminal space of the ghetto, that the theory of Jews as merchants, marked by undertones of utilitarianism was finally drafted. It also suggests that, in conjunction with this well-known theory, other theories based on religious tolerance were elaborated.The paper also invites the reader to view the ghetto as a space capable of enacting special religious encounters, mainly driven by an interest in religion and rituals. Therefore, the very specific local and tangible conditions of the urban environment – the city and the ghetto – performed a very important undertaking, for example, debates over the place and role of Jews in Christian society.

  1. Diversification rates indicate an early role of adaptive radiations at the origin of modern echinoid fauna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Boivin

    Full Text Available Evolutionary radiations are fascinating phenomena corresponding to a dramatic diversification of taxa and a burst of cladogenesis over short periods of time. Most evolutionary radiations have long been regarded as adaptive but this has seldom been demonstrated with large-scale comparative datasets including fossil data. Originating in the Early Jurassic, irregular echinoids are emblematic of the spectacular diversification of mobile marine faunas during the Mesozoic Marine Revolution. They diversified as they colonized various habitats, and now constitute the main component of echinoid fauna in modern seas. The evolutionary radiation of irregular echinoids has long been considered as adaptive but this hypothesis has never been tested. In the present work we analyze the evolution of echinoid species richness and morphological disparity over 37 million years based on an extensive fossil dataset. Our results demonstrate that morphological and functional diversifications in certain clades of irregular echinoids were exceptionally high compared to other clades and that they were associated with the evolution of new modes of life and so can be defined as adaptive radiations. The role played by ecological opportunities in the diversification of these clades was critical, with the evolution of the infaunal mode of life promoting the adaptive radiation of irregular echinoids.

  2. Landscape evolution in south-central Minnesota and the role of geomorphic history on modern erosional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, K.B.; Belmont, P.; Day, S.S.; Finnegan, N.; Jennings, C.; Lauer, J.W.; Wilcock, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    The Minnesota River Valley was carved during catastrophic drainage of glacial Lake Agassiz at the end of the late Pleistocene. The ensuing base-level drop on tributaries created knickpoints that excavated deep valleys as they migrated upstream. A sediment budget compiled in one of these tributaries, the Le Sueur River, shows that these deep valleys are now the primary source of sediment to the Minnesota River. To compare modern sediment loads with pre-European settlement erosion rates, we analyzed incision history using fluvial terrace ages to constrain a valley incision model. Results indicate that even thoughthe dominant sediment sources are derived from natural sources (bluffs, ravines, and streambanks), erosion rates have increased substantially, due in part to pervasive changes in watershed hydrology.

  3. A highly variable segment of human subterminal 16p reveals a history of population growth for modern humans outside Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Santos; Armour, John A. L.

    2001-01-01

    We have sequenced a highly polymorphic subterminal noncoding region from human chromosome 16p13.3, flanking the 5′ end of the hypervariable minisatellite MS205, in 100 chromosomes sampled from different African and Euroasiatic populations. Coalescence analysis indicates that the time to the most recent common ancestor (approximately 1 million years) predates the appearance of anatomically modern human forms. The root of the network describing this variability lies in Africa. African populations show a greater level of diversity and deeper branches. Most Euroasiatic variability seems to have been generated after a recent out-of-Africa range expansion. A history of population growth is the most likely scenario for the Euroasiatic populations. This pattern of nuclear variability can be reconciled with inferences based on mitochondrial DNA. PMID:11158547

  4. Banal art history. Baroque, modernization and official cinematography in Franco’s Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi de Haro García

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the newsreels made by Noticiarios y Documentales Cinematográficos (Cinematographic Newsreels and Documentaries, NO-DO, the official film production company created by Francoism, will be analyzed in order to shed light on the political, cultural and social role played by the presentation of art and art history to a wide public under Francoism. Special attention will be devoted to the role played by the imaginaries associated with the visual arts of the baroque and the Golden Age and to the ways in which they crossed paths with the construction of a national identity and the changes experimented by the dictatorship. This will show to what extent ‘banal art history’ can play a relevant role in ‘banal nationalism’ as defined by Michael Billig.

  5. Chew Bahir, southern Ethiopia: an archive of environmental history during the evolution and dispersal of anatomically modern humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaebitz, F.; Asrat, A.; Lamb, H. F.; Trauth, M. H.; Junginger, A.; Foerster, V. E.; Guenter, C.; Viehberg, F. A.; Just, J.; Roberts, H. M.; Chapot, M. S.; Leng, M. J.; Dean, J.; Cohen, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Chew Bahir is a tectonic basin in the southern Ethiopian Rift, close to the Lower Omo valley, site of earliest known fossil of anatomically modern humans. It was drilled in Nov-Dec 2014 as part of the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) and the Collaborative Research Center (CRC806) "Our Way to Europe". Two overlapping cores of mostly clayey silts, reaching a composite depths of 280m, were collected and may cover the last 500,000 years, thus providing a potential record of environmental history during the evolution and spread of anatomically modern humans. Here we present the lithology and stratigraphy of the composite core as well as results of high resolution MSCL and XRF scanning data. Initial sedimentological and geochemical results show that the Chew Bahir deposits are a sensitive record of changes in moisture, sediment influx, provenance, transport and diagenetic processes, evident from mineralogy, elemental concentration and physical properties. The potassium record is highly sensitive to changes in moisture balance (Foerster et al. 2015). XRF and XRD data suggest that the process linking climate with potassium concentrations is the diagenetic illitization of smectites during dry episodes with high alkalinity and salinity in the closed-basin lake. The core records will allow tests of the various hypotheses about the influence of environmental change on the evolution and dispersal of anatomically modern humans. Foerster, V., Vogelsang, R., Junginger, A., Asrat, A., Lamb, H.F., Schaebitz, F., Trauth, M.H. (2015): Environmental Change and Human Occupation of Southern Ethiopia and Northern Kenya during the last 20,000 years. Quaternary Science Reviews, 129: 333-340. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2015.10.026.

  6. From the early history of X-ray documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, A.

    1988-01-01

    By chance, eight X-ray plates dating from 1899 were found in 1986. Each of these glass plates shows the patient's name and the date of the examinations, which were performed in Vienna by Prof. Franz Exner, who was a friend of W.C. Roentgen. The glass plates are 25x13 cm and 10x18 cm in area and 3 mm thick. One side is coated with silver bromide. Probably these are some of the earliest X-ray records in the history of radiology. Their quality is comparable with the quality that can be achieved today, even though the materials and the imaging method used were somewhat unsophisticated. (orig.) [de

  7. Early History of BELL'S Theorem Theory and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauser, John F.

    Before 1980 it was unfashionable for a physicist to admit that he either did not understand and/or doubted the Truth and/or Orthodoxy of Quantum Mechanics (QM). Contemporary wisdom deemed it impossible that it may lead to incorrect predictions. Thus, it was foolish to suggest that it warranted further testing. Said wisdom proclaimed that nothing would ever be gained by any such pursuit. Bohr had won his debates with Einstein. Von Neumann had proven all other interpretations wrong. That was the end to it! Only an iconoclast dared think otherwise. Here I provide a brief history of some of my encounters with a few fellow iconoclasts, past denizens of a QM doubter's subculture.

  8. Highlights from the early (and pre-) history of reliability engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, J.H.; Marais, K.

    2006-01-01

    Reliability is a popular concept that has been celebrated for years as a commendable attribute of a person or an artifact. From its modest beginning in 1816-the word reliability was first coined by Samuel T. Coleridge-reliability grew into an omnipresent attribute with qualitative and quantitative connotations that pervades every aspect of our present day technologically intensive world. In this short communication, we highlight key events and the history of ideas that led to the birth of Reliability Engineering, and its development in the subsequent decades. We first argue that statistics and mass production were the enablers in the rise of this new discipline, and the catalyst that accelerated the coming of this new discipline was the (unreliability of the) vacuum tube. We highlight the foundational role of AGREE report in 1957 in the birth of reliability engineering, and discuss the consolidation of numerous efforts in the 1950s into a coherent new technical discipline. We show that an evolution took place in the discipline in the following two decades along two directions: first, there was an increased specialization in the discipline (increased sophistication of statistical techniques, and the rise of a new branch focused on the actual physics of failure of components, Reliability Physics); second, there occurred a shift in the emphasis of the discipline from a component-centric to an emphasis on system-level attributes (system reliability, availability, safety). Finally, in selecting the particular events and highlights in the history of ideas that led to the birth and subsequent development of reliability engineering, we acknowledge a subjective component in this work and make no claims to exhaustiveness

  9. YOU CAN TALK ABOUT HISTORY CRITICAL PEDAGOGY TO THINK EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Arce

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of the research work been carried on by the research group History of Education and Early Childhood Education at Federal University of São Carlos. The aim of this paper is to present possibilities and paths for the application of the principles of Pedagogia Histórico-Crítica for Early Childhood Education. Therefore we expect that this article generate discussions in order to improve methodologically and pedagogically our Early Childhood Education.

  10. Early history of the Cosmotron and AGS at Brookhaven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    Early work is described on the design and construction of the two Brookhaven particle accelerators of the 1950s, the Cosmotron and the AGS (alternating-gradient synchrotron). The Cosmotron, finished by the Spring of 1952, was the smaller machine reaching 3GeV and was the first to pass the billion electron volt mark. Suggested alterations to magnet orientations meant that the alternating gradients produced would stabilize the design. This ''strong-focusing'' idea was central to the second AGS machine, which also overcame the problems of resonances and transition energy, with the inclusion of an electron analog accelerator. (UK)

  11. Early history of neutron scattering at Oak Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, M.K.

    1985-07-01

    Most of the early development of neutron scattering techniques utilizing reactor neutrons occurred at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory during the years immediately following World War II. C.G. Shull, E.O. Wollan, and their associates systematically established neutron diffraction as a quantitative research tool and then applied this technique to important problems in nuclear physics, chemical crystallography, and magnetism. This article briefly summarizes the very important research at ORNL during this period, which laid the foundation for the establishment of neutron scattering programs throughout the world. 47 refs., 10 figs

  12. Exploring early modern chemistry: the first twenty-five years of the Society for the Study of Alchemy & Early Modern Chemistry 1935-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, W H

    2011-11-01

    The article uses the recently deposited archives of the Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry to explore the ideas, motives and disagreements of its founders and officers between 1935 and 1960. The origin of the title Ambix for the society's journal is also explained. An appendix identifies the initial membership of the society.

  13. THE DEMAND FOR A NEW CONCEPT OF ANTHROPOLOGY IN THE EARLY MODERN AGE: THE DOCTRINE OF HUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Malivskyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the investigation is to outline the main points of Hume’s interpretation of the basic anthropological project of the era based on radical cultural transformations of the early modern age; to represent a modern vision of Hume's anthropology as a response to the demand of the era and necessity to complete its basic project. Methodology. The research was based on phenomenological and hermeneutic approaches. Originality. Contemporary understanding of the position of anthropological project in Hume's philosophy is regarded as unsatisfactory by the author. Development of the basic project as anthropological is rooted in scientific revolution and needs to be continued and completed. Contemporary prevalence of deanthropogical versions of Hume's philosophy is the result of underestimated significance of the concept of nature in the broad sense. According to the philosopher's texts, heuristic potential of Hume's position is emphasized by the author. The modern version of the basic project in the early modern age is criticized and demands significant changes to become anthropological. Findings. Modern perception of Hume’s philosophy as an anthropological project is unsatisfactory in terms of historical and philosophical science and needs detailed analysis. In order to understand the conditions of anthropological project significance, it is advisable to focus on: a scientific revolution and the necessity to complete it; b determine the role of the concept of nature in its broad sense. Nowadays the way of Hume's rethinking of the basic project of modern philosophy as insufficiently anthropological is quite heuristic. Empiricism, dogmatism, superstition and skepticism are the manifestations of the latter. For Hume, the era was as an incomplete anthropological project and its legacy as the most complete form of explication. Today the interest in the phenomenon of a human provides a reasonable basis to define that modern period is

  14. The SSC dipole: Its conceptual origin and early design history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, P.F.

    1992-05-01

    The magnet system for the Superconducting Super Collider will likely remain the most ambitions-and challenging-application of superconducting technology for the foreseeable future. The centerpiece of the system is the behemoth collider dipole magnet. Its design, still evolving in its detailed features, dates from the mid-1980's when it emerged as the winter in an early technical showdown that occupied the fledgling SSC project. In the present report we chronicle the origins and chief milestones in the development of certain SSC dipole design concepts. Unfortunately, the chronicle must remain incomplete, with the design not yet frozen as we go to press and still subject to important modifications as the SSC Laboratory settles in near its future home in Ellis County, Texas, hard on the heels of a wide-ranging design review in the closing days of the SSC Central Design Group in (CDG) Berkeley. Be that as it may, in what follows we concentrate on the early years in an attempt to recapitulate the birth of the dipole, taking as our point of departure the SSC Reference Designs Study (RDS) of 1984. In Section 3 we touch on the background for the various RDS options, including ISABELLE/CBA and the Tevatron. In Section 4 the narrative focuses on the two final protagonists, a high-field cosine theta (cos θ) magnet and a low-field superferric magnet. Section 5 recounts the circumstances surrounding the selection of a particular magnet ''style'' for further development, and the ups and downs of the first model magnets. We conclude with a smattering of progress highlights in refining the design during the final push under the reign of the CDG. Beyond that, the ongoing chronicle must be left for others to amplify and complete

  15. The SSC dipole: Its conceptual origin and early design history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, P.F.

    1990-06-01

    The magnet system for the Superconducting Super Collider will likely remain the most ambitious -- and challenging -- application of superconducting technology for the foreseeable future. The centerpiece of the system is the behemoth collider dipole magnet. Its design, still evolving in its detailed features, dates from the mid-1980's when it emerged as the winner in an early technical showdown that occupied the fledgling SSC project. However, some of its gross features can be traced back to three path-breaking superconducting accelerator initiatives under way a decade earlier -- on the East Coast, on the West Coast, and in the Midwest. Other features have a still earlier legacy. In the present report we chronicle the origins and chief milestones in the development of certain SSC dipole design concepts. Unfortunately, the chronicle must remain incomplete, with the design not yet frozen as we go to press and still subject to important modifications as the SSC Laboratory settles in near its future home in Ellis County, Texas, hard on the heels of a wide-ranging design review in the closing days of the SSC Central Design Group in (CDG) Berkeley. Be that as it may, in what follows we concentrate on the early years in an attempt to recapitulate the birth of the dipole, taking as our point of departure the SSC Reference Designs Study (RDS) of 1984. In Section 3 we touch on the background for the various RDS options, including ISABELLE/CBA and the Tevatron. In Section 4 the narrative focuses on the two final protagonists, a high-field cosine theta (cos θ) magnet and a low-field superferric magnet. Section 5 recounts the circumstances surrounding the selection of a particular magnet ''style'' for further development, and the ups and downs of the first model magnets. We conclude with a smattering of progress highlights in refining the design during the final push under the reign of the CDG

  16. Max Weber e a história cultural da modernidade Max Weber and the cultural history of modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangolf Hübinger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo oferece um novo olhar sobre Weber como historiador. O fato de que a MWG reconstrói, de maneira bastante detalhada, o contexto histórico científico e intelectual torna mais evidente como os diferentes tópicos sobre os quais Weber trabalhou - a economia de mercado capitalista, as religiões do mundo ou o Estado moderno - foram abordados em última instância "do ponto de vista da história cultural". Diante desse quadro, meu artigo explora quatro aspectos principais: história econômica; ou mais precisamente o sentido cultural da ação econômica como ponto-chave para o pensamento histórico de Weber como um todo (I; a insistência de Weber na primazia de problemas analíticos e da escolha de perspectivas como pressupostos intelectuais do conhecimento histórico (II; a questão fundamental da história cultural em geral: como as ideias se atualizam em conflitos e constelações históricos e como a singularidade do desenvolvimento cultural europeu deve ser descrita em sua significação histórico-universal (III; a relevância da Primeira Guerra Mundial para os problemas e perspectivas de Weber: seu foco em uma teoria histórico-política do poder e da dominação e da gênese e estrutura do Estado moderno e da democracia (IV.This article takes a new look at Weber as a historian. The MWG's detailed reconstruction of the scientific and intellectual historical context provides a clear insight into how all the different topics on which Weber worked - the capitalist market economy, world religions, or the modern state - were ultimately treated "from the view-point of cultural history." In response the article examines four aspects: Economic history; or more precisely, the cultural meaning of economic action as a key to Weber's historical thinking as a whole (I; Weber's insistence on the primacy of analytical problems and of choices of perspectives as intellectual presuppositions of historical knowledge (II; the cardinal question of

  17. «Proceedings Of The Mining Institute»: history and modernization (to 110-th anniversary of first publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    И. Г. Ребещенкова

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to one of the oldest scientific and technical periodicals in Russia, scientific agent of the Saint-Petersburg Mining University – «Proceedings of the Mining Institute». In 2017 we shall celebrate the 110-th anniversary of the first issue of the magazine coming from the press. That event gains a particular meaning because  of the growing role of periodicals in operative gaining, storing, translating and practically applying scientific information. Modern society is duly called the information society, in which intense and efficient use of one of its main resources – knowledge – is the chief factor of successful development of all the spheres of the society. «Proceedings of the Mining Institute» – is an exceptionally important fragment of that resource, shaped by all of its history. The paper considers the pre-history and historical stages of establishment of the «Proceedings of the Mining Institute». It stresses the high authority of the majority of participants of that process: starting from the initiators of its publication (professors of the Mining Institute and all the way to its current authors – outstanding scientists of Russia, the near and the far abroad, as well as the well-known political and economic leaders of the country. Reconstruction of the past of the «Proceedings of the Mining Institute» demonstrates that the magazine has rich and valuable history. Being itself a necessary expression of tribute and gratitude to the magazine forerunners, the re- construction is not the only principal purpose of this study, that purpose consisting in identification and substantiation of ways and means of upgrading the magazine, to support its competitive edge in the extremely complex information space, both global and domestic, saturated with information as never before.

  18. History of Modern Earthquake Hazard Mapping and Assessment in California Using a Deterministic or Scenario Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mualchin, Lalliana

    2011-03-01

    Modern earthquake ground motion hazard mapping in California began following the 1971 San Fernando earthquake in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of southern California. Earthquake hazard assessment followed a traditional approach, later called Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis (DSHA) in order to distinguish it from the newer Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). In DSHA, seismic hazard in the event of the Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE) magnitude from each of the known seismogenic faults within and near the state are assessed. The likely occurrence of the MCE has been assumed qualitatively by using late Quaternary and younger faults that are presumed to be seismogenic, but not when or within what time intervals MCE may occur. MCE is the largest or upper-bound potential earthquake in moment magnitude, and it supersedes and automatically considers all other possible earthquakes on that fault. That moment magnitude is used for estimating ground motions by applying it to empirical attenuation relationships, and for calculating ground motions as in neo-DSHA (Z uccolo et al., 2008). The first deterministic California earthquake hazard map was published in 1974 by the California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) which has been called the California Geological Survey (CGS) since 2002, using the best available fault information and ground motion attenuation relationships at that time. The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) later assumed responsibility for printing the refined and updated peak acceleration contour maps which were heavily utilized by geologists, seismologists, and engineers for many years. Some engineers involved in the siting process of large important projects, for example, dams and nuclear power plants, continued to challenge the map(s). The second edition map was completed in 1985 incorporating more faults, improving MCE's estimation method, and using new ground motion attenuation relationships from the latest published

  19. Visible Women: Female Sodomy in the Late Medieval and Early Modern Southern Netherlands (1400-1550

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Roelens

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the number of prosecutions for male sodomy, few cases of same-sex acts between women are known in early modern Europe. In the Southern Netherlands however, no less than 25 women were charged with this crime between c. 1400 and 1550, which means that nearly one out of ten accused sodomites in the region was a woman. Moreover, female sodomites were punished in the same way as their male counterparts. This article argues that the exceptional repression of female same-sex acts was the result of the relatively high level of liberty and visibility women enjoyed in the Southern Netherlands, compared to other regions. The more visible women were in society, the more women attracted to people of their own sex were at risk of being discovered and penalised. Zichtbare vrouwen. Vrouwelijke sodomie in de laatmiddeleeuwse en vroegmoderne Zuidelijke Nederlanden (1400-1550In vergelijking met het aantal mannelijke sodomieprocessen dat in vroegmodern Europa gevoerd werd, zijn er amper zaken bekend waarin vrouwen betrokken waren. In de Zuidelijke Nederlanden daarentegen werden niet minder dan 25 vrouwelijke sodomieten vervolgd tussen ca. 1400 en 1550. Dit betekent dat bijna één op de tien beschuldigde sodomieten in de Zuidelijke Nederlanden vrouwen waren. Bovendienwerden vrouwelijke sodomieten op dezelfde manier bestraft als hun mannelijke tegenhangers. Dit artikel stelt dat de grote mate van vrijheid en zichtbaarheid die vrouwen in de Zuidelijke Nederlanden genoten de oorzaak is van de uitzonderlijk hoge vervolgingsgraad van vrouwelijke sodomie in de regio. Hoe zichtbaarder vrouwen waren in de maatschappij, hoe groter het risico voor vrouwen die zich aangetrokken voelden tot andere vrouwen om ontdekt en bestraft te worden.

  20. Jurisdictional conflict in the early modern Valencia. Conflicting instances and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa CANET APARISI

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} This work analyzes the different profiles of the jurisdictional conflict provoked inside the Kingdom of Valencia during the XVIth and XVIIth century. It establishes the reasons of the same ones and his protagonists and it also announces the institutional creations arisen to solve them. The obtained conclusions indicate the jurisdictional conflict (or of competitions as a very active element in the process of configuration of the administration of the early modern period; an effect obtained by the route of activating new forms of government across new institutions or changing the relation of hierarchy between the already existing.

  1. Modernity and Empire: A Modest Analysis of Early Colonial Writing Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaraj, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    During colonial times, various British Indian educational institutions and practices, including writing pedagogies at these institutions, introduced modernity to British India. This essay explains the manner in which some students internalized modernity and in their writings used modernist beliefs and premises to critique some precolonial Indian…

  2. The invention and early history of the CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, George E.

    2009-01-01

    As the first practical solid-state imaging device, the invention of the Charge Coupled Device has profoundly affected image sensing technology. They are used in a wide range of applications as both area and linear imaging devices starting with the replacement of imaging tubes used in commercial TV cameras and camcorders. The rapid increase of their use in digital cameras has initiated the demise of film photography and created vast new markets with great economic benefit for many. Other uses include a wide variety of scientific, surveillance and scanning applications. The inception of the device at Bell Labs by Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith in 1969 was strongly influenced by several unique factors existing both within Bell Labs and the current world state of technology. These factors and their relevance will be discussed along with the train of thought leading to the invention. Early experimental devices and their initial applications were vigorously pursued and will be described. Current applications will be mentioned.

  3. Ptychography: early history and 3D scattering effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The coherent diffractive imaging method of ptychography is first reviewed from a general historical perspective. Much more recent progress in extending the method to the 3D scattering geometry and the super-resolution configuration is also described. Ptychography was originally conceived by Walter Hoppe as a solution to the X-ray or electron crystallography phase problem. Although the existence of this type of phase information was clearly evident in the early 1970s, the technique was not implemented at atomic-scale wavelengths until the 1990s, and then only in a way that was computationally inefficient, especially in view of the limited size of computers at that time. Fast and efficient ptychographic algorithms were developed much later, in the mid-2000s. The extremes of crystallography ptychography, which only requires two diffraction patterns, and the Wigner Distribution Deconvolution (WDDC) method, which needs a diffraction pattern for every pixel of the final reconstruction, are described. Very recent work relating to the application of serial iterative to 3D inversion are also described.

  4. Astronomy in the ancient world early and modern views on celestial events

    CERN Document Server

    McLeod, Alexus

    2016-01-01

    Alexus McLeod explores every aspect of the lesser-known history of astronomy in the Americas (Mesoamerica and North America), China and India, each through the frame of a particular astronomical phenomena. Part One considers the development of astronomy in the Americas as a response, in part, to the Supernova of 1054, which may have led to a cultural renaissance in astronomy. He then goes on to explore the contemporary understanding of supernovae, contrasting it with that of the ancient Americas.  Part Two is framed through the appearances of great comets, which had major divinatory significance in early China. The author discusses the advancement of observational astronomy in China, its influence on politics and its role in the survival or failure of empires.  Furthermore, the contemporary understanding of comets is also discussed for comparison.  Part Three, on India, considers the magnificent observatories of the Rajput king Jai Singh II, and the question of their purpose. The origins of Indian ast...

  5. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Operator Performance Metrics for Control Room Modernization: A Practical Guide for Early Design Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Boring; Roger Lew; Thomas Ulrich; Jeffrey Joe

    2014-03-01

    As control rooms are modernized with new digital systems at nuclear power plants, it is necessary to evaluate the operator performance using these systems as part of a verification and validation process. There are no standard, predefined metrics available for assessing what is satisfactory operator interaction with new systems, especially during the early design stages of a new system. This report identifies the process and metrics for evaluating human system interfaces as part of control room modernization. The report includes background information on design and evaluation, a thorough discussion of human performance measures, and a practical example of how the process and metrics have been used as part of a turbine control system upgrade during the formative stages of design. The process and metrics are geared toward generalizability to other applications and serve as a template for utilities undertaking their own control room modernization activities.

  6. Modern electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, John B

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Materials focuses on the development of electronic components. The book first discusses the history of electronic components, including early developments up to 1900, developments up to World War II, post-war developments, and a comparison of present microelectric techniques. The text takes a look at resistive materials. Topics include resistor requirements, basic properties, evaporated film resistors, thick film resistors, and special resistors. The text examines dielectric materials. Considerations include basic properties, evaporated dielectric materials, ceramic dielectri

  7. Family history of premature death and risk of early onset cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Oyen, Nina; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Christiansen, Michael; McKenna, William J; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Boyd, Heather A

    2012-08-28

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease. Studies suggest that fatal cardiovascular events and less severe cardiovascular diseases may co-occur in families. Consequently, a family history of premature death may indicate a familial cardiac frailty that predisposes to early cardiovascular disease. We ascertained family history of premature death (age Denmark from 1950 to 2008 and followed this cohort for early cardiovascular disease (age history of premature cardiovascular death in first-degree relatives were 1.72 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.68 to 1.77), 2.21 (95% CI: 2.11 to 2.31), and 1.94 (95% CI: 1.70 to 2.20), respectively. With ≥2 cardiovascular deaths in a family, corresponding IRRs were 3.30 (95% CI: 2.77 to 3.94), 5.00 (95% CI: 3.87 to 6.45), and 6.18 (95% CI: 3.32 to 11.50). The IRR for any early cardiovascular disease given a family history of premature noncardiovascular death was significantly lower, 1.12 (95% CI: 1.10 to 1.14) (p(cardiac vs. noncardiac) history of premature cardiovascular death was consistently and significantly associated with a risk of early cardiovascular disease, suggesting an inherited cardiac vulnerability. These results should be kept in mind when assessing cardiovascular disease risk in persons with a family history of premature cardiovascular death. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Early history of experimental inertial confinement fusion and diagnostics in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuanke; Jiang Shao'en; Ding Yongkun

    2014-01-01

    The early history of China's research on experimental laser inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and diagnostics technology is reviewed. The long and difficult path started from scratch, from learning the basics, looking up the literature and copying experiments, to independent research and development of comprehensive experimental facilities. This article fills a gap in the history of China's ICF experimental and diagnostics research. (authors)

  9. Proposals for innovation in teaching of history in early childhood education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Miralles Martínez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors advocate the teaching of history at an early age, working about learning of time, (already observed in the current curriculum, and historical contents and procedures to historical research. And from experimental experience with positive results, they establish a series of innovative proposals for an appropriate inclusion of history in school with 3-6 years old pupils, with particular attention to working by projects in the classroom.

  10. Children's Physic: Medical Perceptions and Treatment of Sick Children in Early Modern England, c. 1580-1720.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Hannah

    2010-12-01

    Historians of medicine, childhood and paediatrics have often assumed that early modern doctors neither treated children, nor adapted their medicines to suit the peculiar temperaments of the young. Through an examination of medical textbooks and doctors' casebooks, this article refutes these assumptions. It argues that medical authors and practising doctors regularly treated children, and were careful to tailor their remedies to complement the distinctive constitutions of children. Thus, this article proposes that a concept of 'children's physic' existed in early modern England. This term refers to the notion that children were physiologically distinct, requiring special medical care. Children's physic was rooted in the ancient traditions of Hippocratic and Galenic medicine: it was the child's humoral make-up that underpinned all medical ideas about children's bodies, minds, diseases and treatments. Children abounded in the humour blood, which made them humid and weak, and in need of medicines of a particularly gentle nature.

  11. OH 83: A new early modern human fossil cranium from the Ndutu beds of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Whitney B; Masao, Fidelis; Sholts, Sabrina B; Songita, Agustino Venance; Stanistreet, Ian; Stollhofen, Harald; Taylor, R E; Hlusko, Leslea J

    2017-11-01

    Herein we introduce a newly recovered partial calvaria, OH 83, from the upper Ndutu Beds of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. We present the geological context of its discovery and a comparative analysis of its morphology, placing OH 83 within the context of our current understanding of the origins and evolution of Homo sapiens. We comparatively assessed the morphology of OH 83 using quantitative and qualitative data from penecontemporaneous fossils and the W.W. Howells modern human craniometric dataset. OH 83 is geologically dated to ca. 60-32 ka. Its morphology is indicative of an early modern human, falling at the low end of the range of variation for post-orbital cranial breadth, the high end of the range for bifrontal breadth, and near average in frontal length. There have been numerous attempts to use cranial anatomy to define the species Homo sapiens and identify it in the fossil record. These efforts have not met wide agreement by the scientific community due, in part, to the mosaic patterns of cranial variation represented by the fossils. The variable, mosaic pattern of trait expression in the crania of Middle and Late Pleistocene fossils implies that morphological modernity did not occur at once. However, OH 83 demonstrates that by ca. 60-32 ka modern humans in Africa included individuals that are at the fairly small and gracile range of modern human cranial variation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Ideas. A History: From Fire to Freud. 2. ed.; Ideen. Eine Kulturgeschichte von der Entdeckung des Feuers bis zur Moderne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, P.

    2005-07-01

    In this hugely ambitious and exciting book Peter Watson tells the history of ideas from prehistory to the present day, seeking a new way to tell the history of the world. The book begins over a million years ago with a discussion of how the earliest ideas might have originated. Looking at animal behaviour that appears to require some thought tool-making, territoriality, counting, language (or at least sounds), pairbonding Peter Watson moves on to the apeman and the development of simple ideas such as cooking, the earliest language, the emergence of family life. All the obvious areas will be tackled the Ancient Greeks, Christian theology, the ideas of Jesus, astrological thought, the soul, the self, beliefs about the heavens, the ideas of Islam, the Crusades, humanism, the Renaissance, Gutenberg and the book, the scientific revolution, the age of discovery, Shakespeare, the idea of Revolution, the Romantic imagination, Darwin, imperialism, modernism, Freud right up to the present day and the internet. (orig./GL) [German] Beginnt die Ideengeschichte der Menschheit, als die Fruehmenschen erstmals Feuer machen, vor ca. 1,8 Millionen Jahren? Oder schon mit dem ersten Faustkeil vor etwa 2,5 Millionen Jahren? Warum entwickelte sich vor 40 000 Jahren eine komplexe Sprache? Wie kamen das Minus- und das Plus-Zeichen in die Vorstellungswelt, und wie entstand das Bild vom Paradies? Peter Watson laedt ein zu einer Expedition durch die abenteuerliche Welt menschlicher Ideen. Vom ersten Feuer, dem ersten Werkzeug und den ersten Worten ueber die Geburt der Goetter, die ersten Gesetze und die Entwicklung grosser Zentren von Wissen und Weisheit bis hin zu den umwaelzenden Ideen der Moderne: das Groesste und das Kleinste, das Selbst-Bewusstsein des Individuums und die Entdeckung des Unbewussten. Dabei ordnet Watson die riesige Materialfuelle nach drei zentralen Ideen, die fuer ihn die Geschichte der Menschheit praegen: die Seele, mehr als die Idee von einem Gott, Europa, mehr als das

  13. Glacial history of a modern invader: phylogeography and species distribution modelling of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Porretta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is one of the 100 most invasive species in the world and a vector of human diseases. In the last 30 years, it has spread from its native range in East Asia to Africa, Europe, and the Americas. Although this modern invasion has been the focus of many studies, the history of the species' native populations remains poorly understood. Here, we aimed to assess the role of Pleistocene climatic changes in shaping the current distribution of the species in its native range. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the phylogeography, historical demography, and species distribution of Ae. albopictus native populations at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM. Individuals from 16 localities from East Asia were analyzed for sequence variation at two mitochondrial genes. No phylogeographic structure was observed across the study area. Demographic analyses showed a signature of population expansion that started roughly 70,000 years BP. The occurrence of a continuous and climatically suitable area comprising Southeast China, Indochinese Peninsula, and Sundaland during LGM was indicated by species distribution modelling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest an evolutionary scenario in which, during the last glacial phase, Ae. albopictus did not experience a fragmentation phase but rather persisted in interconnected populations and experienced demographic growth. The wide ecological flexibility of the species probably played a crucial role in its response to glacial-induced environmental changes. Currently, there is little information on the impact of Pleistocene climatic changes on animal species in East Asia. Most of the studies focused on forest-associated species and suggested cycles of glacial fragmentation and post-glacial expansion. The case of Ae. albopictus, which exhibits a pattern not previously observed in the study area, adds an important piece to our understanding of the Pleistocene history

  14. The Early Modern Land Reclamation, Protomodern Migration and Economic Development of the Feudal Estate of Vrana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Mlinarić

    2017-01-01

    geostrategic relevance of this particular feudal estate's borderland position on the edges of various states, economic systems and cultures was of the utmost importance. On the other hand, its liminal position as the Venetian overseas territory minimized the central state support and care in various kinds of perils. Hence, colonized immigration did not have ecological character although new settlers changed the landscape of Kotari. New and intensive agricultural (farmer exploitation failed to upgrade economy since the prevailing sheep-breeding in highly fertile land represented the economic irrational land use. Demographic and economic development reflected the devastating results of anti-Ottoman early modern wars, followed by the environmental requirements and pressure of the Venetians. Getting in between the environmental interventions aiming to reach higher economic standards, the feudal estate happened to be radically changed by the reclamation. It was, for the first time since the Roman era, an extraordinary intervention into natural balance of the lowland ecosystem. The results of these early modern collisions of economic and environmental interests in Vrana in the short period significantly differed in quality and direction of its development in comparison to the long-term perspective. On the one hand, especially in the middle and long-term perspective, it showed elements of economic and demographic success, with a reasonable potential to fully reshape the demographic potential of the area. Quite contrary, the short time scale was, if not a complete failure, then at least an uncertain and adventurous experiment. In spite of that qualification, Francesco Borelli’s reclamation of marshlands was a hydro-technical step forward, totally in accordance to similar European intellectual (physiocratic movements and projects, reflecting the spread of comparable ideas to the eastern corners of eastern Adriatic territories under European rulers. However, the Borelli family also

  15. The benefit of early treatment without rescreening in women with a history of gestational diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maher, Nicola

    2013-02-01

    In this center, women with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) are treated without rescreening from early pregnancy in any subsequent pregnancies, commencing with a low glycemic diet and insulin if and when indicated. The objective of this study was to see if this practice reduced the incidence of macrosomia compared with the index pregnancy.

  16. Building an Evidence-Based Mental Health Program for Children with History of Early Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroupina, Maria; Vermeulen, Marlous; Moberg, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Adoption is a major intervention in a child's life, however internationally adopted (IA) children remain at risk for long-term neurodevelopmental and mental health issues due to the fact that most of them have a history of early adversity prior to their adoption. In the last 20 years, extensive research with this population has increased the…

  17. Tensions in Constructions of Quality in Australian Early Childhood Education and Care Policy History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Helen

    2017-01-01

    In pronouncements of early childhood education and care (ECEC) policy the importance of quality appears as a seemingly irrefutable concept. Yet, attention to ECEC policy history reveals tensions between discourses that construct quality in ways that endure whereas other ways are ostensibly forgotten. Drawing on a Foucauldian-influenced…

  18. The Early History of the European Conferences on Science and Religion and of ESSSAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drees, W.B.

    The early history of the European Conferences on Science and Religion and ESSSAT, the European Society for the Study of Science And Theology, is documented and discussed. In Europe, there were, and still are, genuine differences in attitude towards methodology, ideas about the reach of knowledge,

  19. Charged particle counters in the pre-modern period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beringer, R.

    1979-01-01

    The history of nuclear particle and radiation counting techniques divides itself naturally into three epochs that may be labeled: Early, Pre-Modern, and Modern. The Pre-Modern era is designated as the period starting in the 1930's during which the several types of gas-ionization counters of the Early period were perfected and coupled to vacuum tube circuits and recording apparatus. These developments are briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  20. Modernity: Are Modern Times Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Hunt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Modernity” has recently been the subject of considerable discussion among historians. This article reviews some of the debates and argues that modernity is a problematic concept because it implies a complete rupture with “traditional” ways of life. Studies of key terms are undertaken with the aid of Google Ngrams. These show that “modernity,” “modern times,” and “traditional” —in English and other languages— have a history of their own. A brief analysis of the shift from a self oriented toward equilibrium to a self oriented toward stimulation demonstrates that modernity is not necessary to historical analysis.

  1. Early life history and habitat ecology of estuarine fishes: responses to natural and human induced change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Able

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the early life history of fishes and their habitats has proceeded from basic natural history to ecology, but we often need to return to natural history to address deficiencies in conceptual and quantitative models of ecosystems. This understanding is further limited by the complex life history of fishes and the lack of appreciation of shifting baselines in estuaries. These inadequacies are especially evident when we try to address the effects of human influences, e.g. fishing, urbanization, and climate change. Often our baselines are inadequate or inaccurate. Our work has detected these along the coasts of the U.S. in extensive time series of larval fish ingress into estuaries, studies of the effects of urbanization, and responses to catastrophes such as the BP oil spill. Long-term monitoring, especially, continues to provide critical insights

  2. The seeds and the worms: Ludwik Fleck and the early history of germ theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2006-01-01

    -scientific "proto-ideas." In 1935, Fleck proposed that the history of germ theories could be approached through his thesis on proto-ideas. His proposal, however, remained little more than a vague suggestion and was never developed in further detail. This paper introduces the concept of proto-ideas and discusses...... the central epistemological and historiographical implications of Fleck's thesis. The Fleckian approach offers an attractive alternative to positivist reconstructions of the early history of germ theories and provides a useful framework for a deeper understanding of the sociocultural background......The Polish microbiologist and philosopher of science, Ludwik Fleck (1896-1961), was a pioneer in constructivist history and philosophy of science. Based on studies in the history of syphilis, Fleck hypothesized that many established scientific facts are linked, in their development, to pre...

  3. Modern Microbial Ecosystems are a Key to Understanding Our Biosphere's Early Evolution and its Contributions To The Atmosphere and Rock Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The survival of our early biosphere depended upon efficient coordination anion- diverse microbial populations. Microbial mats exhibit a 3.46-billion-year fossil record, thus they are the oldest known ecosystems. Photosynthetic microbial mats were key because, today, sunlight powers more than 99 percent of global primary productivity. Thus photosynthetic ecosystems have affected the atmosphere profoundly and have created the most pervasive, easily-detected fossils. Photosynthetic biospheres elsewhere will be most detectible via telescopes or spacecraft. As a part of the Astrobiology Institute, our Ames Microbial Ecosystems group examines the roles played by ecological processes in the early evolution of our biosphere, as recorded in geologic fossils and in the macromolecules of living cells: (1) We are defining the microbial mat microenvironment, which was an important milieu for early evolution. (2) We are comparing mats in contrasting environments to discern strategies of adaptation and diversification, traits that were key for long-term survival. (3) We have selected sites that mimic key environmental attributes of early Earth and thereby focus upon evolutionary adaptations to long-term changes in the global environment. (4) Our studies of gas exchange contribute to better estimates of biogenic gases in Earth's early atmosphere. This group therefore directly addresses the question: How have the Earth and its biosphere influenced each other over time Our studies strengthen the systematics for interpreting the microbial fossil record and thereby enhance astrobiological studies of martian samples. Our models of biogenic gas emissions will enhance models of atmospheres that might be detected on inhabited extrasolar planets. This work therefore also addresses the question: How can other biospheres be recogniZed" Our choice of field sites helps us explore Earth's evolving early environment. For example, modern mats that occupy thermal springs and certain freshwater

  4. Early dispersal of modern humans in Europe and implications for Neanderthal behaviour

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benazzi, S.; Douka, K.; Fornai, C.; Bauer, C. C.; Kullmer, O.; Svoboda, Jiří; Pap, I.; Mallegni, F.; Bayle, P.; Coquerelle, M.; Condemi, S.; Ronchitelli, A.; Harvati, K.; Weber, G. W.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 479, č. 7374 (2011), s. 525-528 ISSN 0028-0836 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : modern humans * Neanderthals * behavior * Europe * Grotta del Cavallo * paleoanthropology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 36.280, year: 2011

  5. “For the Salvation of This Girl’s Soul”: Nuns as Converters of Jews in Early Modern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Herzig

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that converting Jewish girls and women constituted an important expression of Italian nuns’ religiosity throughout the age of Catholic Reform. Unlike their male counterparts, however, converting nuns rarely left behind accounts of their conversionary efforts. Moreover, since these endeavors were directed exclusively at female Jews they are often obscured in the historical record and in modern historiography. The article tackles the difficulties of recovering the voices of converting nuns and presents examples that suggest how they could be circumvented. Exploring the potential of drawing on previously understudied texts, such as nuns’ supplications, the article calls for the integration of this specific manifestation of female devotion into the scholarship and teaching on women’s religious life in the early modern era.

  6. Socio-cultural factors in dental diseases in the Medieval and early Modern Age of northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Belen; Pardiñas, Antonio F; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Dopico, Eduardo

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study is to present, discuss and compare the results of pathological conditions in teeth from skeletal remains found in the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) in four Medieval cemeteries (late 15th century) and three cemeteries from the Modern Age (late 18th century). The final objective was to evaluate the impact of socioeconomic and cultural changes that took place during the early Modern Age in Spain, on oral health. Dental caries and antemortem tooth loss were considered as indicators of dental disease. A significant increase of both dental caries and antemortem tooth loss occurred in Modern Age individuals when compared to Medieval values, as reported for other regions. Increased trade with other continents may explain this deterioration of dental health, as food exchanges (mainly with America) contributed to diet changes for the overall population, including higher carbohydrate consumption (introduction of potatoes) at the expense of other vegetables. A sex-specific increase of dental disease with age, and a significantly higher prevalence of carious lesions in Modern Age females than in males, were also found. These changes can be explained by women having had limited access to dental care after the Middle-Modern Age transition, as a consequence of socio-cultural and political changes. In these changes, an increasing influence of the Catholic Church in Spanish society has to be noted, as it can contribute to the explanation of the unequal dental health of men and women. Women were socially excluded from dental care by regulations inspired by religious precepts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. "Physics Stories": How the Early Technologies of High Voltage and High Vacuum Led to "Modern Physics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2018-05-01

    Some of you may remember the 1979 television series "Connections" that was written and narrated by James Burke, a British science writer. Burke's technique was to choose a number of seemingly unrelated ideas and show how they led to developments in science and technology. This is an enjoyable business, even if some of the connections seem to be stretched at times, and led to a book by Burke. In a number of talks that I have given over the years, I have made somewhat less fanciful connections that suggest how the technologies of high vacuum and high voltage led to what used to be called "modern physics." Today we might limit the "modern" era to the years from 1890 to 1920 that gave the first workable theories of small-scale physics.

  8. Church History and the Predicament of the Orthodox Hierarchy in the Russian Empire of the Early 1800s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene I. Lyutko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author tries to reflect the emergence of the intellectual concept of “Church History” through a number of theoretical frameworks, setting this discursive turn on the map of the epoch using several narratives. The first is the problem of the cultural gap arising during the 18th century between the intellectual elites of the nobility and clergy. Second, we examine the bureaucratization of the empire leading both to the convergence of parallel “ecclesiastical” and “civil” administrative structures and to the emergence of the bureaucratic layer between episcopate and the monarch, who was considered as the formal “head” of the earthly ecclesiastical structure. Third, we consider the establishment of the administrative bonds between governmental authorities and individuals, which were understood as being in competition for the “pastoral” power of the church hierarchy. We next examine the change in the mode of knowledge distribution, which took place within the emergence of the “public sphere” in the early 19th-century Russian Empire. Finally, we look at the problem of the national identity emerging in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which was centered around the concept of the ethnic community and political body (and its history rather than on the community of believers actualized in the discourse of the epoch as the concept of Church (and its history. All those narratives on social change strive to explain the global change in Orthodox theology, which became centered on ecclesiology. This change might be effectively problematized as a transition between first and second “orders of theology” within the framework proposed by G. Kaufman. This method of explanation may be especially productive when it comes to drawing an analogy between Russian and Western theology in the modern period.

  9. Recovering the geographic origin of early modern humans by realistic and spatially explicit simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Nicolas; Currat, Mathias; Berthier, Pierre; Excoffier, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    Most genetic and archeological evidence argue in favor of a recent and unique origin of modern humans in sub-Saharan Africa, but no attempt has ever been made at quantifying the likelihood of this model, relative to alternative hypotheses of human evolution. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using multilocus genetic data to correctly infer the geographic origin of humans, and to distinguish between a unique origin (UO) and a multiregional evolution (ME) model. We introduce here...

  10. Paternal effects on early life history traits in Northwest Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroll, M.-M.; Peck, M.A.; Butts, Ian A.E.

    2013-01-01

    It is important to understand parental effects on early life history of fish as manifested, for example, in individual fitness of offspring. Immediately after fertilization, parental contributions (both genetic and non-genetic) to embryos will affect larval ontogeny, physiology, morphology...... and survival. In marine fish, rates of natural mortality are highest during early life and are negatively correlated with rates of growth and body size. In these early life stages (eggs, larvae, young juveniles) subtle differences in mortality can cause large differences in recruitment and year-class success...... and can serve as important sources of variation during early life stages in fishes. Overall, these findings have implications for furthering the understanding of recruitment variability and can be used to optimize reproductive output for the aquaculture industry. In addition, the data suggests...

  11. A Third Note: Helmholtz, Palestrina, and the Early History of Musicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursell, Julia

    2015-06-01

    This contribution focuses on Hermann von Helmholtz's work on Renaissance composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. Helmholtz used his scientific concept of distortion to analyze this music and, reversely, to find corroboration for the concept in his musical analyses. In this, his work interlocked with nineteenth-century aesthetic and scholarly ideals. His eagerness to use the latest products of historical scholarship in early music reveals a specific view of music history. Historical documents of music provide the opportunity for the discovery of new experimental research topics and thereby also reveal insights into hearing under different conditions. The essay argues that this work occupies a peculiar position in the history of musicology; it falls under the header of "systematic musicology," which eventually emerged as a discipline of musicology at the end of the nineteenth century. That this discipline has a history at all is easily overlooked, as many of its contributors were scientists with an interest in music. A history of musicology therefore must consider at least the following two caveats: parts of it take place outside the institutionalized field of musicology, and any history of musicology must, in the last instance, be embedded in a history of music.

  12. Early Thermal History of Rhea: The Role of Serpentinization and Liquid State Convection

    OpenAIRE

    Czechowski Leszek; Łosiak Anna

    2016-01-01

    Early thermal history of Rhea is investigated. The role of the following parameters of the model is investigated: time of beginning of accretion, tini, duration of accretion, tac, viscosity of ice close to the melting point, η0, activation energy in the formula for viscosity, E, thermal conductivity of silicate component, ksil, ammonia content, XNH3, and energy of serpentinization, cserp. We found that tini and tac are crucial for evolution. All other parameters are also important, but no dra...

  13. Waiting for the Unicorn: Perception of Time and History in Early Chinese Writings

    OpenAIRE

    Gibas, Piotr Pawel

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation I examine temporality as conceived in early Chinese historiography, through a systematic examination of four key works: the Mozi, the Zuozhuan, the Rishu;, and the Chu Silk Manuscript, all of them written during 4th through 1st century BCE. Each presents from a different perspective ideas about the mechanism of time and history. While only the Zuozhuan is commonly categorized as historical narrative, all four of these texts depend on records of the past to convey their wo...

  14. Reconstruction of the early invasion history of the quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Heiler, Katharina; Vaate, Abraham bij de; Ekschmitt, Klemens; Oheimb, Parm von; Albrecht, Christian; Wilke, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The recent introduction of the quagga mussel into Western European freshwaters marked the beginning of one of the most successful biological invasions during the past years in this region. However, the spatial and temporal origin of the first invasive population(s) in Western Europe as well as subsequent spreading routes still remain under discussion. In this study, we therefore aim at reconstructing the early invasion history of the quagga mussel in Western Europe based on an age-corrected t...

  15. F.M. Glenn Willson: Early UCSC History and the Founding of Stevenson College

    OpenAIRE

    Willson, F.M. Glenn; Jarrell, Randall; Regional History Project, UCSC Library

    1989-01-01

    Glenn Willson addresses campus developments from January 1965, when he joined the early faculty, until his resignation in 1975, when he returned home to England. During this period he held a number of campus appointments, including the provostship at Stevenson College from 1967 to 1975, and service as the chair of the Academic Senate; as Vice-Chancellor, College and Student Affairs; and as acting chair of the Theater Arts Committee. Willson focuses on three aspects of UCSC history in...

  16. Virtual assessment of the endocranial morphology of the early modern European fossil calvaria from cioclovina, romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranioti, Elena F; Holloway, Ralph; Senck, Sascha; Ciprut, Tudor; Grigorescu, Dan; Harvati, Katerina

    2011-07-01

    Endocasts provide evidence on size and shape characteristics, blood supply trajectories, and neurological features of the brain, allowing comparative analyses of fossil hominins crucial to our understanding of human brain evolution. Here, we assess the morphological features of the virtual endocast of the Cioclovina Upper Paleolithic calvarium, one of the earliest reliably dated European modern human fossils. Our study was conducted on a computed tomography (CT) scan of the original specimen. The endocranial profile was approximated via a semiautomatic segmentation of the CT data. Virtual reconstructions of the endocast were used for assessing the morphological features of the endocranium and for the estimation of the endocranial volume. Cioclovina exhibits a clockwise torque with a small anterior extension of the left frontal lobe over the right one and a protrusion of the right occipital lobe over the left, most likely due to the superior sagittal sinus coursing over the occipital pole. There is an obvious right predominance of the posterior drainage system. Interestingly, the area of the frontal sinus is occupied by dense bony tissue with small air cells corresponding probably to a natural bony loss in the diploë and to vascular spaces. An estimated endocranial volume of 1498.53 cc was calculated. The convolutional details of the third inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's caps) are indistinguishable from those found in modern Homo sapiens, and the left occipital lobe appears wider than the right, a possible correlate of right-handedness. Our metric analysis of endocranial measurements also aligns Cioclovina with modern humans. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. An early modern mass medium : The adventures of Cartouche in Dutch penny prints (1700-1900)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salman, J.L.

    2018-01-01

    This article demonstrates the social and cultural significance of eighteenth and nineteenth century Dutch penny prints – one of the first mass media in European history. By using a combination of media and cultural historical approaches (Henry Jenkins, John Fiske) and an anthropological perspective

  18. Shakespeare and the Words of Early Modern Physic: Between Academic and Popular Medicine. A Lexicographical Approach to the Plays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Mullini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at showing how Shakespeare relied on the medical vocabulary shared by his coeval society, which had, for centuries, been witnessing the continuous process of vernacularization of ancient and medieval scientific texts. After outlining the state of early modern medicine, the author presents and discusses the results of her search for relevant medical terms in nine plays by Shakespeare. In order to do this, a wide range of medical treatises has been analysed (either directly or through specific corpora such as Medieval English Medical Texts, MEMT 2005, and Early Modern English Medical Texts, EMEMT 2010, so as to verify the ancestry or the novelty of Shakespearean medical words. In addition to this, the author has also built a corpus of word types derived from seventeenth-century quack doctors’ handbills, with the purpose of creating a word list of medical terms connected to popular rather than university medicine, comparable with the list drawn out of the Shakespearean plays. The results most stressed in the article concern Shakespeare’s use of medical terminology already well known to his contemporary society (thus confuting the Oxfordian thesis about the impossibility for William Shakespeare the actor to master so many medical words and the playwright’s skill in transforming – rather than inventing – old popular terms. The article is accompanied by five tables that collect the results of the various lexicographical searches.

  19. Between Authorship and Oral Transmission: Negotiating the Attribution of Authorial, Oral and Collective Style Markers in Early Modern Playtexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Buhl Petersen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of playtexts in early modern England falls between two categories of artistic provenance: textual production in quill and print and oral transmission of the text committed to paper. Both categories are rightly speaking processes, and may be repeated several times over within the lifespan of a play. The former is the domain of authors, scribes and printers, the latter the responsibility of actors using their memories to verbally transmit the play in performance. An early modern playtext may thus be (cowritten, probably performed and potentially printed, and possibly rewritten, reperformed and reprinted in almost any given combination. It is only to be expected that a number of stylistic ‘complications’ will ensue. The question remains how to determine which stylistic markers characterise which creative domain. This paper returns to the cross-roads between authorship attribution and the quantification of other (oral, collective style markers in an attempt to offer discussion and a better overview of appropriate methodologies for determining which features may feasibly be attributed to which source(s.

  20. Early parental loss and depression history: associations with recent life stress in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavich, George M; Monroe, Scott M; Gotlib, Ian H

    2011-09-01

    Although exposure to early adversity and prior experiences with depression have both been associated with lower levels of precipitating life stress in depression, it is unclear whether these stress sensitization effects are similar for all types of stress or whether they are specific to stressors that may be particularly depressogenic, such as those involving interpersonal loss. To investigate this issue, we administered structured, interview-based measures of early adversity, depression history, and recent life stress to one hundred adults who were diagnosed with major depressive disorder. As predicted, individuals who experienced early parental loss or prolonged separation (i.e., lasting one year or longer) and persons with more lifetime episodes of depression became depressed following lower levels of life stress occurring in the etiologically-central time period of three months prior to onset of depression. Importantly, however, additional analyses revealed that these effects were unique to stressors involving interpersonal loss. These data highlight potential stressor-specific effects in stress sensitization and demonstrate for the first time that individuals exposed to early parental loss or separation, and persons with greater histories of MDD, may be selectively sensitized to stressors involving interpersonal loss. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 'A WONDERFULL MONSTER BORNE IN GERMANY': HAIRY GIRLS IN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY MODERN GERMAN BOOK, COURT AND PERFORMANCE CULTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katritzky, M A

    2014-09-24

    Human hirsuteness, or pathological hair growth, can be symptomatic of various conditions, including genetic mutation or inheritance, and some cancers and hormonal disturbances. Modern investigations into hirsuteness were initiated by nineteenth-century German physicians. Most early modern European cases of hypertrichosis (genetically determined all-over body and facial hair) involve German-speaking parentage or patronage, and are documented in German print culture. Through the Wild Man tradition, modern historians routinely link early modern reception of historical hypertrichosis cases to issues of ethnicity without, however, recognising early modern awareness of links between temporary hirsuteness and the pathological nexus of starvation and anorexia. Here, four cases of hirsute females are reconsidered with reference to this medical perspective, and to texts and images uncovered by my current research at the Herzog August Library and German archives. One concerns an Italian girl taken to Prague in 1355 by the Holy Roman Empress, Anna von Schweidnitz. Another focuses on Madeleine and Antonietta Gonzalez, daughters of the 'Wild Man' of Tenerife, documented at German courts in the 1580s. The third and fourth cases consider the medieval bearded Sankt Kümmernis (also known as St Wilgefortis or St Uncumber), and the seventeenth-century Bavarian fairground performer Barbara Urslerin. Krankhafter menschlicher Hirsutismus kann aufgrund unterschiedlicher Ursachen auftreten, zu denen u.a. genetische Veländerungen und Vererbung, verschiedene Krebserkrankungen und hormonelle Störungen gehören. Die moderne Hirsutismus-Forschung ist im 19. Jh. von deutschen Forschern initiiert worden. Die meisten europäischen frühneuzeitlichen Erscheinungen von Hypertrichose (dem genetisch bedingten Haarwuchs am gesamten Körper und im Gesicht) gehen auf deutschsprachige Eltern oder Förderer zurück und sind in Deutschland in den Druck gelangt. Bei Untersuchungen des Motivs des Wilden

  2. The Origin of the Soul from Antiquity to the early Modern Period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, L.

    2014-01-01

    The origin of the soul became a systematic subject of speculation in Greek philosophy and medicine. In early Christian thought, three theories evolved: the soul was held to be either generated from the parents (traducianism) or it was believed to be formed by a special act of creation on God’s part

  3. Increased Pre- and Early-Adolescent Stress in Youth with a Family History of Substance Use Disorder and Early Substance Use Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Nora E; Mathias, Charles W; Acheson, Ashley; Bray, Bethany C; Ryan, Stacy R; Lake, Sarah L; Liang, Yuanyuan; Dougherty, Donald M

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with a family history of substance use disorders (Family History Positive) are more likely to have early-onset substance use (i.e., prior to age 15), which may contribute to their higher rates of substance use disorders. One factor that may differentiate Family History Positive youth who engage in early-onset substance use from other Family History Positive youth is exposure to stressors. The aim of this study was to quantify how exposure to stressors from age 11-15 varies as a function of family history of substance use disorders and early-onset substance use. Self-reported stressors were prospectively compared in a sample of predominately (78.9%) Hispanic youth that included 68 Family History Positive youth (50% female) who initiated substance use by age 15 and demographically matched non-users with (n = 136; 52.9% female) and without (n = 75; 54.7% female) family histories of substance use disorders. Stressors were assessed at 6-month intervals for up to 4 years. Both the severity of stressors and the degree to which stressors were caused by an individual's own behavior were evaluated. All three groups differed from one another in overall exposure to stressors and rates of increase in stressors over time, with Family History Positive youth who engaged in early-onset substance use reporting the greatest exposure to stressors. Group differences were more pronounced for stressors caused by the participants' behavior. Family History Positive users had higher cumulative severity of stressors of this type, both overall and across time. These results indicate greater exposure to stressors among Family History Positive youth with early-onset substance use, and suggest that higher rates of behavior-dependent stressors may be particularly related to early-onset use.

  4. From early farmers to Norman Borlaug - the making of modern wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergauwen, David; De Smet, Ive

    2017-09-11

    If we wander through the countryside, passing fields of wheat, it is apparent that this crop is reasonably short in stature and that the stems carry large ears. However, this was not always the case. If we take a look at depictions of wheat throughout history, we observe that wheat used to be fairly tall. It was not until the second half of the 20 th century that dwarf wheat varieties started to dominate the agricultural landscape. Underlying this short stature are the Reduced height (Rht) genes, which encode DELLA proteins and which formed the cornerstone of the Green Revolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Evaluation of quality of life in school children with a history of early severe malnutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grandis, E S; Armelini, P A; Cuestas, E

    2014-12-01

    Severe malnutrition in young children may lead to long-term complications, in particular learning and psychosocial disorders linked to health related quality of life (HRQOL). The aim of this study was to evaluate HRQOL in children whit a history of severe malnutrition before 2 years of life, expecting to find lower scores in these patients. A comparative study was performed on schoolchildren between 5 and 12 years with a history of early severe malnutrition, excluding those with chronic diseases. The Controls were healthy siblings of patients. The sample size was estimated as 26 subjects per group (Total=52). Sociodemographic variables were recorded and the HRQOL was assessed with PedsQL4.0. Chi square and Student t test were applied. Significance level: Psocial dimension: 88.80±3.05 vs 95.71±1.52 (P<.0001), and school dimension: 74.58±3.80 vs 85.00±3.51 (P<.0001). Patients with a history of early severe malnutrition, showed significantly lower HRQOL scores compared with controls. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Voice source comparison between modern singers of early music and opera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffern, Helena; Howard, David M

    2010-07-01

    An experiment was conducted comparing two subject groups, each comprised of eight professional singers specializing in a genre of classical music: early music or grand opera. Electroglottography was used to consider vocal characteristics idiomatic to each genre. Whilst there are clear differences in contact quotient between subjects, particularly when relationships between fundamental frequency (f0) and contact quotient (Qx) are considered, there is no apparent link between contact quotient behaviour and performance specialism based on the results of this sample.

  7. Early effects of modern electroconvulsive therapy on subjective memory in patients with mania or depression

    OpenAIRE

    Bag, Sevda; Canbek, Ozge; Atagun, Ilhan Murat; Kutlar, Tarik Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Context: Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered a very effective tool for the treatment of psychiatric diseases, memory disturbances are among the most important adverse effects. Aims: This study aimed to assess prospectively early subjective memory complaints in depressive and manic patients due to bilateral, brief-pulse ECT, at different stages of the treatment, compare the associations between psychiatric diagnosis, sociodemographic characteristics, and ECT characteristics....

  8. Variability in an early hominin percussive tradition: the Acheulean versus cultural variation in modern chimpanzee artefacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowlett, J A J

    2015-11-19

    Percussion makes a vital link between the activities of early human ancestors and other animals in tool-use and tool-making. Far more of the early human actions are preserved as archaeology, since the percussion was largely used for making hard tools of stone, rather than for direct access to food. Both primate tools and early hominin tools, however, offer a means to exploring variability in material culture, a strong focus of interest in recent primate studies. This paper charts such variability in the Acheulean, the longest-lasting tool tradition, extant form about 1.7 to about 0.1 Ma, and well known for its characteristic handaxes. The paper concentrates on the African record, although the Acheulean was also known in Europe and Asia. It uses principal components and discriminant analysis to examine the measurements from 66 assemblages (whole toolkits), and from 18 sets of handaxes. Its review of evidence confirms that there is deep-seated pattern in the variation, with variability within a site complex often matching or exceeding that between sites far distant in space and time. Current techniques of study allow comparisons of handaxes far more easily than for other components, stressing a need to develop common practice in measurement and analysis. The data suggest, however, that a higher proportion of traits recurs widely in Acheulean toolkits than in the chimpanzee record. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. A review of noble gas geochemistry in relation to early Earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    One of the most fundamental noble gas constraints on early Earth history is derived from isotopic differences in (129)Xe/(130)Xe between various terrestrial materials. The short half life (17 m.y.) of extinct (129I, parent of (129)Xe, means that these differences must have been produced within the first 100 m.y. after terrestrial accretion. The identification of large anomalies in (129)Xe/(130)Xe in mid ocean ridge basalts (MORB), with respect to atmospheric xenon, suggests that the atmosphere and upper mantle have remained separate since that time. This alone is a very strong argument for early catastrophic degassing, which would be consistent with an early fractionation resulting in core formation. However, noble gas isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts show that the mantle cannot necessarily be regarded as a homogeneous system, since there are significant variations in (3)He/(4)He, (40)Ar/(36)Ar, and (129)Xe/(130)Xe. Therefore, the early degassing cannot be considered to have acted on the whole mantle. The specific mechanisms of degassing, in particular the thickness and growth of the early crust, is an important variable in understanding present day noble gas inventories. Another constraint can be obtained from rocks that are thought to be derived from near the lithosphere asthenosphere boundary: ultramafic xenoliths.

  10. Visions of the Empire: religion, ontology and the 'international' in early modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas G. Freire

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relation between basic religious motifs of theoretical thought, general ontology and their specific use in 'international' political theory at the onset on the Modern Era. The analysis is based on Herman Dooyeweerd's reformational philosophy in identifying the basic assumptions on the origin of life, coherence and diversity of reality in several trends of thought. The Greek and Roman classical legacy, in combination with ancient Christian concepts, is emphasized, namely in terms of motifs such as Nature and Grace, guidelines of scholastic worldview, thus influencing its perspective of Christianity, of the Holy Roman Empire and of the Papacy. Reformed Protestantism adopted a more radically Biblical set of assumptions which culminated in a ontologically plural perspective of social authority and political community, as well as of the empire. Christian humanism, and some Protestant thinkers, was also heavily influenced by the motifs of Nature and Grace, but now with a strict separation between both 'logics'. The theorization of an 'internal logic' for each of these spheres gave origin to a reinterpretation of Nature in classical Humanism, according to a 'mechanistic' perspective of reality with its ideal of control. Another religious motif of this secularized form of humanism was the concept of Liberty and of personality. This geometrical theoretical mode influenced ideas on the social contract and its international analogy, leading theoricians to fiery debates on the classification of the Empire.

  11. Concatenated analysis sheds light on early metazoan evolution and fuels a modern "urmetazoon" hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Schierwater

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than a century, the origin of metazoan animals has been debated. One aspect of this debate has been centered on what the hypothetical "urmetazoon" bauplan might have been. The morphologically most simply organized metazoan animal, the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens, resembles an intriguing model for one of several "urmetazoon" hypotheses: the placula hypothesis. Clear support for a basal position of Placozoa would aid in resolving several key issues of metazoan-specific inventions (including, for example, head-foot axis, symmetry, and coelom and would determine a root for unraveling their evolution. Unfortunately, the phylogenetic relationships at the base of Metazoa have been controversial because of conflicting phylogenetic scenarios generated while addressing the question. Here, we analyze the sum of morphological evidence, the secondary structure of mitochondrial ribosomal genes, and molecular sequence data from mitochondrial and nuclear genes that amass over 9,400 phylogenetically informative characters from 24 to 73 taxa. Together with mitochondrial DNA genome structure and sequence analyses and Hox-like gene expression patterns, these data (1 provide evidence that Placozoa are basal relative to all other diploblast phyla and (2 spark a modernized "urmetazoon" hypothesis.

  12. Concatenated analysis sheds light on early metazoan evolution and fuels a modern "urmetazoon" hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierwater, Bernd; Eitel, Michael; Jakob, Wolfgang; Osigus, Hans-Jürgen; Hadrys, Heike; Dellaporta, Stephen L; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Desalle, Rob

    2009-01-27

    For more than a century, the origin of metazoan animals has been debated. One aspect of this debate has been centered on what the hypothetical "urmetazoon" bauplan might have been. The morphologically most simply organized metazoan animal, the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens, resembles an intriguing model for one of several "urmetazoon" hypotheses: the placula hypothesis. Clear support for a basal position of Placozoa would aid in resolving several key issues of metazoan-specific inventions (including, for example, head-foot axis, symmetry, and coelom) and would determine a root for unraveling their evolution. Unfortunately, the phylogenetic relationships at the base of Metazoa have been controversial because of conflicting phylogenetic scenarios generated while addressing the question. Here, we analyze the sum of morphological evidence, the secondary structure of mitochondrial ribosomal genes, and molecular sequence data from mitochondrial and nuclear genes that amass over 9,400 phylogenetically informative characters from 24 to 73 taxa. Together with mitochondrial DNA genome structure and sequence analyses and Hox-like gene expression patterns, these data (1) provide evidence that Placozoa are basal relative to all other diploblast phyla and (2) spark a modernized "urmetazoon" hypothesis.

  13. History of Science and History of Philologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daston, Lorraine; Most, Glenn W

    2015-06-01

    While both the sciences and the humanities, as currently defined, may be too heterogeneous to be encompassed within a unified historical framework, there is good reason to believe that the history of science and the history of philologies both have much to gain by joining forces. This collaboration has already yielded striking results in the case of the history of science and humanist learning in early modern Europe. This essay argues that first, philology and at least some of the sciences (e.g., astronomy) remained intertwined in consequential ways well into the modern period in Western cultures; and second, widening the scope of inquiry to include other philological traditions in non-Western cultures offers rich possibilities for a comparative history of learned practices. The focus on practices is key; by shifting the emphasis from what is studied to how it is studied, deep commonalities emerge among disciplines--and intellectual traditions--now classified as disparate.

  14. Highly resolved early Eocene food webs show development of modern trophic structure after the end-Cretaceous extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Jennifer A; Labandeira, Conrad C; Williams, Richard J

    2014-05-07

    Generalities of food web structure have been identified for extant ecosystems. However, the trophic organization of ancient ecosystems is unresolved, as prior studies of fossil webs have been limited by low-resolution, high-uncertainty data. We compiled highly resolved, well-documented feeding interaction data for 700 taxa from the 48 million-year-old latest early Eocene Messel Shale, which contains a species assemblage that developed after an interval of protracted environmental and biotal change during and following the end-Cretaceous extinction. We compared the network structure of Messel lake and forest food webs to extant webs using analyses that account for scale dependence of structure with diversity and complexity. The Messel lake web, with 94 taxa, displays unambiguous similarities in structure to extant webs. While the Messel forest web, with 630 taxa, displays differences compared to extant webs, they appear to result from high diversity and resolution of insect-plant interactions, rather than substantive differences in structure. The evidence presented here suggests that modern trophic organization developed along with the modern Messel biota during an 18 Myr interval of dramatic post-extinction change. Our study also has methodological implications, as the Messel forest web analysis highlights limitations of current food web data and models.

  15. Il Doge and Easter Processions at San Marco in Early Modern Venice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2010-01-01

    –1800. Traditional representational features – from the early Middle Ages – e.g. of the women at Christ’s grave had been incorporated into these ducal processions during the sixteenth century with special roles for the doge. The complex of solemn processions from the ducal palace around the San Marco piazza...... and into the basilica emphasizing political hierarchy on the one hand and combined with medieval representational liturgical traditions on the other provided a unique ceremonial which can be read as ritually manifesting several – intertwined yet different – kinds of sacrosanctity: sacred church spaces and objects...

  16. The absent body: representations of dying early modern women in a selection of seventeenth-century diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, L

    2001-01-01

    This article seeks to explore the absence of the body in the depiction of dying women in a selection of seventeenth-century diaries. It considers the cultural forces that made this absence inevitable, and the means by which the physical body was replaced in death by a spiritual presence. The elevation of a dying woman from physical carer to spiritual nurturer in the days before death ensured that gender codes were not broken. The centrality of the body of the dying woman, within a female circle of care and support, was paradoxically juxtaposed with an effacement of the body in descriptions of a good death. In death, a woman might achieve the stillness, silence and compliance so essential to perfect early modern womanhood, and retrospective diary entries can achieve this ideal by replacing the body with images that deflect from the essential physicality of the woman.

  17. The Virgin Mary in the Early Modern Italian Writings of Vittoria Colonna, Lucrezia Marinella, and Eleonora Montalvo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Haraguchi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Marian writings of the Roman poet Vittoria Colonna (1490/92–1547, the Venetian polemicist Lucrezia Marinella (1579–1653,1 and the Florentine educator Eleonora Montalvo (1602–1659 present an accessible model of the Virgin Mary in the early modern period that both lay and religious women could emulate in order to strengthen their individual spirituality. While the Catholic Church encouraged women to accept and imitate an ideal of the Virgin Mary’s character traits and behavior for the good of society, these three women writers constructed a more fruitful narrative of the Virgin’s life and experience that included elements and imagery that would empower women to enhance their personal practice of meditation.

  18. Understanding factors associated with early therapeutic alliance in PTSD treatment: adherence, childhood sexual abuse history, and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Stephanie M; Zoellner, Lori A; Feeny, Norah C

    2010-12-01

    Therapeutic alliance has been associated with better treatment engagement, better adherence, and less dropout across various treatments and disorders. In treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it may be particularly important to establish a strong early alliance to facilitate treatment adherence. However, factors such as childhood sexual abuse (CSA) history and poor social support may impede the development of early alliance in those receiving PTSD treatment. We sought to examine treatment adherence, CSA history, and social support as factors associated with early alliance in individuals with chronic PTSD who were receiving either prolonged exposure therapy (PE) or sertraline. At pretreatment, participants (76.6% female; 64.9% Caucasian; mean age = 37.1 years, SD = 11.3) completed measures of trauma history, general support (Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors), and trauma-related social support (Social Reactions Questionnaire). Over the course of 10 weeks of PE or sertraline, they completed early therapeutic alliance (Working Alliance Inventory) and treatment adherence measures. Early alliance was associated with PE adherence (r = .32, p history was not predictive of a lower early alliance. Given the associations with adherence, clinicians may find it useful to routinely assess alliance early in treatment. Positive trauma support, not CSA history, may be particularly important in the development of a strong early therapeutic alliance. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Thermal expansion and thermal stress in the moon and terrestrial planets - Clues to early thermal history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S. C.; Chaiken, J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses how features of the surface geology of the moon and also Mars and Mercury impose constraints on the volumetric expansion or contraction of a planet and consequently provide a test of thermal history models. The moon has changed very little in volume over the last 3.8 b.y. Thermal models satisfying this constraint involve early heating and perhaps melting of the outer 200 km of the moon and an initially cold interior. Mercury has contracted by about 2 km in radius since emplacement of its present surface, so core formation must predate that surface. A hot initial temperature distribution is implied.

  20. The ''Uranium Society''. Looking at the early history of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, G.

    2000-01-01

    The contribution initially looks at the early days of research activities conducted inter alia under an ''atomic research programme'' of the Third Reich, highlighting essential steps and experiments in the history, the foundation of the 'Uranverein' (uranium society) and the avtivities of the group of scientists around Heisenberg. The author presents information that answers the question of whether and how the scientists in those days have been thinking of adequate protection against harmful and toxic effects of the uranium material they were handling. The first instructions for on-the-job safety and protective measures recommended at the time are reported, and are also illustrated by some pictures. (orig./CB) [de

  1. A Didactic Approach between Music and History: Military Images in Early 19th-Century Concertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Aversano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the representation of military images in the violin and orchestra concerts of the early 19th century in a didactic perspective. It introduces a reflection on methodology that focuses on the way in which school teaching can connect the analysis of past musical forms with the history of European culture. At the same time, the essay provides an example for a possible didactic approach, conceived essentially for upper secondary schools, but also potentially useful for teachers at other school levels.

  2. Rethinking the early history of post-Vygotskian psychology: the case of the Kharkov school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasnitsky, Anton; Ferrari, Michel

    2008-05-01

    Between the death of Vygotsky in 1934 and the discovery of Vygotsky's work in the West in 1962, Vygotskian psychology was developed through research done by the first generation of Vygotsky's students and their followers, primarily associated with the Kharkov School. Surprisingly, these studies carried out in the 1930s, of great importance for the development of virtually all subsequent Vygotskian psychology, still remain largely unknown; this represents a significant gap in understanding the history of Vygotskian psychology as an empirical study of consciousness. This paper provides a systematic overview of the research agenda of the Kharkov group between 1931 and 1941 and provides new insights into the early development of Vygotskian psychology.

  3. Early history of Earth's crust-mantle system inferred from hafnium isotopes in chondrites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Haack, Henning; Rosing, M.

    2003-01-01

    for the chondrite-forming event. This ¿176 value indicates that Earth's oldest minerals were derived from melts of a mantle source with a time-integrated history of depletion rather than enrichment. The depletion event must have occurred no later than 320 Myr after planetary accretion, consistent with timing......The Lu to Hf decay series has been widely used to understand the nature of Earth's early crust-mantle system. The interpretation, however, of Lu-Hf isotope data requires accurate knowledge of the radioactive decay constant of Lu (¿176), as well as bulk-Earth reference parameters. A recent...

  4. Bichordites from the early Eocene of Cuba: significance in the evolutionary history of the spatangoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Martín, Jorge; Netto, Renata Guimarães

    2017-12-01

    The trace fossil Bichordites monastiriensis is found in early Eocene turbiditic sandstones of the upper-slope deposits from the Capdevila Formation in Los Palacios Basin, Pinar del Río region, western Cuba. The potential tracemakers of B. monastiriensis include fossil spatangoids from the family Eupatagidae. The record of Bichordites in the deposits from Cuba allows to suppose that Eupatagidae echinoids were the oldest potential tracemakers of Bichordites isp. and reinforce the hypothesis that the ichnological record are relevant in envisaging the evolutionary history of the spatangoids.

  5. [An early history of Japanese amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related diseases and the current development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Koji

    2018-03-28

    The present review focuses an early history of Japanese amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related diseases and the current development. In relation to foreign previous reports, five topics are introduced and discussed on ALS with dementia, ALS/Parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS/PDC), familial ALS (FALS), spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), and multisystem involvement especially in cerebellar system of ALS including ALS/SCA (spinocerebellar ataxia) crossroad mutation Asidan. This review found the great contribution of Japanese reports on the above five topics, and confirmed the great development of ALS-related diseases over the past 120 years.

  6. Early Experience with a Modern Generation Knee System: Average 2 Years’ Follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Paszicsnyek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arthritis in the knee is a leading cause of pain and disability with total knee arthroplasty (TKA often the treatment of choice after failure of more conservative treatments. TKA has been demonstrated to be one of the most successful procedures performed.  However, despite the good long-term survivorship rates, patient satisfaction is still an issue post TKA with over 20% of patients exhibiting patient dissatisfaction most commonly due to anterior knee pain (over 18-28% patients and mediolateral or varus-valgus instability.  Recent studies have demonstrated that collateral ligament strains are altered post TKA which may lead to laxity and/or tightness of the ligaments resulting in patient discomfort, pain, stiffness and/or instability post TKA.  As a result, it may be beneficial to ensure ligamentous strains after TKA are similar or close to the native situation.  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic results of the Unity Knee™ Total Knee System (Corin Ltd, Cirencester, UK, a modern generation, single-radius total knee replacement (TKR and its accompanying instrumentation which is designed to help maintain proper ligament balance and restore the medial jointline.  A total of 89 knees (89 patients were implanted with the device in a single surgeon series.  All patients were assessed using the American Knee Society Score (AKSS, the Oxford Knee Score (OKS, and radiographs.  There was 1 revision due to infection and Kaplan-Meier survivorship was 98.9% at 2 years.  The mean AKSS knee score for the total cohort was 87.1 ± 7.98 and the mean Oxford Knee score was 45.89 + 3.69. Radiographic review found no signs of radiographic failure in any of the knees. This study demonstrates good survivorship, clinical, and radiographic results at 2 years for this TKR.

  7. Mechanism of disease in early osteoarthritis: application of modern MR imaging techniques -- a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobke, Bjoern; Bolbos, Radu; Saadat, Ehsan; Cheng, Jonathan; Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2013-01-01

    The application of biomolecular magnetic resonance imaging becomes increasingly important in the context of early cartilage changes in degenerative and inflammatory joint disease before gross morphological changes become apparent. In this limited technical report, we investigate the correlation of MRI T1, T2 and T1ρ relaxation times with quantitative biochemical measurements of proteoglycan and collagen contents of cartilage in close synopsis with histologic morphology. A recently developed MRI sequence, T1ρ, was able to detect early intracartilaginous degeneration quantitatively and also qualitatively by color mapping demonstrating a higher sensitivity than standard T2-weighted sequences. The results correlated highly with reduced proteoglycan content and disrupted collagen architecture as measured by biochemistry and histology. The findings lend support to a clinical implementation that allows rapid visual capturing of pathology on a local, millimeter level. Further information about articular cartilage quality otherwise not detectable in vivo, via normal inspection, is needed for orthopedic treatment decisions in the present and future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of environmental change in the expansion of early modern humans in the Levant - what can we learn from mollusc shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prendergast, Amy; Bosch, Marjolein D.; Mannino, Marcello

    and Manot Cave in Israel. These highly resolved environmental records, coupled with well dated archaeological sequences provide a framework for assessing the complex interplay between early modern humans and their local environments. We found evidence for fluctuating temperature, rainfall and seasonality...... regimes, indicating that modern human populations were somewhat resilient to the resource uncertainty that would have accompanied these changing temperature and seasonality regimes. These paired cultural-environmental records have enabled an examination of hominin-environment interactions during critical...

  9. Early history of inflatable penile prosthesis surgery: a view from someone who was there

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F Mobley

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The publication of the use of an inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP in 1973 by Dr. FB Scott. changed the world of treatment options for erectile dysfunction (ED. Much has been written since then about techniques, improvements, management of difficult cases, complications and their management, and mechanical and device changes over time. Few reports, if any, are available in the medical literature regarding the early development, surgical techniques, and controversies surrounding its introduction to the world's urological community. This article is, for the most part, the observations of one who was "there" in the early and mid-1970's and was a witness to the history of this remarkable marvel of creativity, engineering, design, and to the personalities involved.

  10. Conquests of Memory: Franciscan Chronicles of the East Asian Church in the Early Modern Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Brockey, Liam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the ways in which Franciscan authors recounted the history of their missions in East Asia from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. Key differences between Franciscan authors and those of other orders are highlighted, with special emphasis placed on disputes over precedence in the Asian mission field, over privileges accorded by the papacy for missionary activity, and over the prestige secured by acts of pious heroism and appointments to high ecclesiastical offices. Chronicles served as important adjuncts to the face-toface rivalries of Catholic religious orders, with the Franciscans dueling their peers for pride of place in historical memory. The publication of Franciscan histories in Europe ensured that the conflicts between orders extended around the globe, while their original intention was to consolidate the memories of distant efforts to plant and grow the church.Este artículo examina el modo en el que los franciscanos narraron la historia de sus misiones en Asia oriental durante los siglos XVI a XVIII. Se pone de relieve algunas diferencias esenciales entre los autores franciscanos y los de otras órdenes, dando particular atención a los debates sobre precedencia en el campo misionero asiático, sobre los privilegios concedidos por el papa para la actividad misionera y sobre el prestigio que conllevaban los actos de heroísmo devoto y el nombramiento para desempeñar altas funciones eclesiásticas. Las crónicas sirvieron como importante complemento en las disputas entre las varias órdenes religiosas, donde los franciscanos se confrontaron con sus pares para ocupar un lugar de honra en la memoria histórica. La publicación de las historia franciscana en Europa permitió que los conflictos entre órdenes se extendiesen a todo el globo, aunque su intención original era la de preservar la memoria de los esfuerzos realizados para implantar y hacer crecer la Iglesia en espacios distantes.

  11. Modern optics in exceptionally preserved eyes of Early Cambrian arthropods from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael S. Y.; Jago, James B.; García-Bellido, Diego C.; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Gehling, James G.; Paterson, John R.

    2011-06-01

    Despite the status of the eye as an ``organ of extreme perfection'', theory suggests that complex eyes can evolve very rapidly. The fossil record has, until now, been inadequate in providing insight into the early evolution of eyes during the initial radiation of many animal groups known as the Cambrian explosion. This is surprising because Cambrian Burgess-Shale-type deposits are replete with exquisitely preserved animals, especially arthropods, that possess eyes. However, with the exception of biomineralized trilobite eyes, virtually nothing is known about the details of their optical design. Here we report exceptionally preserved fossil eyes from the Early Cambrian (~515 million years ago) Emu Bay Shale of South Australia, revealing that some of the earliest arthropods possessed highly advanced compound eyes, each with over 3,000 large ommatidial lenses and a specialized `bright zone'. These are the oldest non-biomineralized eyes known in such detail, with preservation quality exceeding that found in the Burgess Shale and Chengjiang deposits. Non-biomineralized eyes of similar complexity are otherwise unknown until about 85 million years later. The arrangement and size of the lenses indicate that these eyes belonged to an active predator that was capable of seeing in low light. The eyes are more complex than those known from contemporaneous trilobites and are as advanced as those of many living forms. They provide further evidence that the Cambrian explosion involved rapid innovation in fine-scale anatomy as well as gross morphology, and are consistent with the concept that the development of advanced vision helped to drive this great evolutionary event.

  12. "Soft-shelled" monothalamid foraminifers as a modern analogue of early life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazato, Hiroshi; Ohkawara, Nina; Gooday, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    According to the fossil record, the earliest undoubted foraminifers are found in the Early Cambrian, where they are represented by tubular agglutinated forms, thought to be the most primitive foraminiferal morphotypes. The numerous foraminifers with single-chambered, organic-walled tests (i.e. 'soft-shelled' monothalamids) exist in the deep sea and are difficult to preserve as fossils. Molecular phylogenetic data tell us that these 'primitive' taxa include the deepest foraminiferal clades, originating around 600 - 900 Ma. We found many soft-shelled monothalamids in sediment samples from deep trenches, including the Challenger Deep (Marianas Trench) and the Horizon Deep (Tonga Trench). Both deeps exceed 10,000 m water depth, well below the carbonate compensation depth, which represents an environmental barrier for calcareous foraminifera. The foraminifera at these extreme hadal sites include tubular and globular forms with organic walls, among which species of the genera Nodellum and Resigella are particularly abundant. Some forms selectively agglutinate minute flakes of clay minerals on the surface of the organic test. Many soft-shelled monothalamids, including most of those in deep tranches, contain stercomata, the function of which is currently unknown. Gromiids (a rhizarian group related to foraminifera) also accumulate stercomata in their sack-shaped tests. This suggests the possibility that the function of these waste particles is to add bulk, like the filling of soft bags or pillows. We suggest that the monothalamid foraminifera that dominate small-sized eukaryotes in extreme hadal settings may provide clues to understanding the biology and ecology of early life in Neoproterozoic sedimented habitats.

  13. Interlopers, Rogues, or Cosmopolitans? Wu Jianzhang and Early Modern Commercial Networks on the China Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Perdue

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available After the First Opium War (1839–1842, British and American merchants negotiated with Chinese officials in Shanghai to work out the framework of the new treaty port regime. One key player in these negotiations was Wu Jianzhang, a Cantonese merchant who became circuit intendant of the Shanghai region. Wu, however, also had links to Cantonese sailors and anti-Qing secret societies. When the Small Swords Society took Shanghai in 1853, he found himself entangled in conflicting responsibilities and networks. Foreign traders and Chinese officials regarded Wu, like other middlemen on the Chinese coast, with a mixture of respect and distrust. Wu’s situation, however, was not unique to the mid-nineteenth century. This article compares Wu to other intermediaries who played similar roles in the sixteenth and late nineteenth centuries, in order to show the ways in which Wu, his predecessors, and those who followed in his footsteps connected China to the wider world by navigating the treacherous waters of diplomacy, war, and commerce. The work of John K. Fairbank, who in the 1950s pioneered the study of such people as Wu Jianzhang, can find new meaning in the twenty-first century, enabling us to understand the transnational implications of China’s local social history.

  14. The politics of universalism. Strategic uses of human rights discourses in early modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen-Margrethe Simonsen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the political function of human rights in 16th-century Spain just after the conquest of America. It claims that the study of this period of early globalization is relevant for an understanding of the function of human rights discourses today, at the “end” of globalization. Historically speaking, human rights are closely connected with globalization, but at the same time, they raise the question about the foundation of globalization: is there a universal community or only economic and political power-relations? This article argues that the political use of human rights discourses is split down the middle: it serves both as a critique of power and as an extension of power, and the disclosure of this split helps us understand the inner politics of human rights. The article discusses the trial in Valladolid in 1550 when the rights of the barbarian Indians of America were put on trial. It focuses mainly on the arguments made by Bartolomé de las Casas and on the reasons why the King allowed las Casas’ fierce critique of the conquest to be published in a period of otherwise severe censorship. This article is inspired by Etienne Balibar's idea of “politics of universalism,” “political autonomy,” and “equaliberty.”.

  15. Thinking with the saint: the miracle of Saint Januarius of Naples and science in early modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ceglia, Francesco Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the way in which early modem science questioned and indirectly influenced (while being in its turn influenced by) the conceptualization of the liquefaction of the blood of Saint Januarius, a phenomenon that has been taking place at regular intervals in Naples since the late Middle Ages. In the seventeenth century, a debate arose that divided Europe between supporters of a theory of divine intervention and believers in the occult properties of the blood. These two theoretical options reflected two different perspectives on the relationship between the natural and the supernatural. While in the seventeenth century, the emphasis was placed on the predictable periodicity of the miraculous event of liquefaction as a manifestation of God in his role as a divine regulator, in the eighteenth century the event came to be described as capricious and unpredictable, in an attempt to differentiate miracles from the workings of nature, which were deemed to be normative. The miracle of the blood of Saint Januarius thus provides a window through which we can catch a glimpse of how the natural order was perceived in early modern Europe at a time when the Continent was culturally fragmented into north and south, Protestantism and Catholicism, learned and ignorant.

  16. Globalising Early Childhood Teacher Education: A Study of Student Life Histories and Course Experience in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farell, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Globalisation in early childhood teacher education is examined in light of a study of the life histories and course experience of students in early childhood teacher education in Queensland, Australia. Contemporary teacher education is embedded in global economies, new technologies and marketisation, which, in turn, may contribute to students…

  17. Early effects of modern electroconvulsive therapy on subjective memory in patients with mania or depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Sevda; Canbek, Ozge; Atagun, Ilhan Murat; Kutlar, Tarik Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Context: Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered a very effective tool for the treatment of psychiatric diseases, memory disturbances are among the most important adverse effects. Aims: This study aimed to assess prospectively early subjective memory complaints in depressive and manic patients due to bilateral, brief-pulse ECT, at different stages of the treatment, compare the associations between psychiatric diagnosis, sociodemographic characteristics, and ECT characteristics. Settings and Design: This prospective study was done with patients undergoing ECT between November 2008 and April 2009 at a tertiary care psychiatry hospital of 2000 beds. Materials and Methods: A total of 140 patients, scheduled for ECT with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (depressive or manic episode) or unipolar depression according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV diagnostic criteria, were included in the study and invited to complete the Squire Subjective Memory Questionnaire (SSMQ) before ECT, after the first and third sessions and end of ECT treatment. Statistical Analysis: Mean values were compared with the Kruskal–Wallis test and comparison of the longitudinal data was performed with a nonparametric longitudinal data analysis method, F1_LD_F1 design. Results: SSMQ scores of the patients before ECT were zero. SSMQ scores showed a decrease after the first and third ECT sessions and before discharge, showing a memory disturbance after ECT and were significantly less severe in patients with mania in comparison to those with depression. Conclusions: These findings suggest an increasing degree of subjective memory complaints with bilateral brief-pulse ECT parallel to the increasing number of ECT sessions. PMID:27385854

  18. The Survey on Network Resources for Korean Modern-Contemporary History%韩国(朝鲜)近现代史网络资源概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建宏

    2016-01-01

    以韩国境内的网络资源为对象,梳理了韩国国史编撰委员会韩国史数据库、国家记录馆等综合性数据库中收录的韩国(朝鲜)近现代史部分的资料。另外,还对分散在网络中有关韩国独立运动史、“慰安妇”问题、朝鲜战争、朝韩关系、中韩“领土纷争”等涉及到中国问题的资料做了整理和介绍。最后,对韩国国立图书馆、国会图书馆、首尔市立图书馆的电子资源特色以及“RISS”等学术期刊数据库的使用做了简要概括。%Since the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and South Korea 20 years ago, the domestic demand for South Korean academic resources has become increasing strong with the deepening of exchanges between the two countries. Tak-ing the network resources in South Korea as research objects, this article summarizes some materials in modern-contemporary his-tory of South Korea and some China-related material during certain modern-contemporary wars. In the end, it briefly introduces the features of some network resources in the Korea National Library, Library of Congress, Seoul City Library as well as RISS. The above research can not only contribute to the Korean history research, but also benefit the research on China-Korea Relations his-tory, Anti-Japanese War and Cold War International History.

  19. A gravid lizard from the Cretaceous of China and the early history of squamate viviparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Evans, Susan E.

    2011-09-01

    Although viviparity is most often associated with mammals, roughly one fifth of extant squamate reptiles give birth to live young. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the trait evolved more than 100 times within Squamata, a frequency greater than that of all other vertebrate clades combined. However, there is debate as to the antiquity of the trait and, until now, the only direct fossil evidence of squamate viviparity was in Late Cretaceous mosasauroids, specialised marine lizards without modern equivalents. Here, we document viviparity in a specimen of a more generalised lizard, Yabeinosaurus, from the Early Cretaceous of China. The gravid female contains more than 15 young at a level of skeletal development corresponding to that of late embryos of living viviparous lizards. This specimen documents the first occurrence of viviparity in a fossil reptile that was largely terrestrial in life, and extends the temporal distribution of the trait in squamates by at least 30 Ma. As Yabeinosaurus occupies a relatively basal position within crown-group squamates, it suggests that the anatomical and physiological preconditions for viviparity arose early within Squamata.

  20. New Insights into Amino Acid Preservation in the Early Oceans Using Modern Analytical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eric T.; Brinton, Karen L.; Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Protein- and non-protein-amino acids likely occupied the oceans at the time of the origin and evolution of life. Primordial soup-, hydrothermal vent-, and meteoritic-processes likely contributed to this early chemical inventory. Prebiotic synthesis and carbonaceous meteorite studies suggest that non-protein amino acids were likely more abundant than their protein-counterparts. Amino acid preservation before abiotic and biotic destruction is key to biomarker availability in paleoenvironments and remains an important uncertainty. To constrain primitive amino acid lifetimes, a 1992 archived seawater/beach sand mixture was spiked with D,L-alanine, D,L-valine (Val), alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), D,L-isovaline (Iva), and glycine (Gly). Analysis by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) showed that only D-Val and non-protein amino acids were abundant after 2250 days. The mixture was re-analyzed in 2012 using HPLC-FD and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QqQ-MS). The analytical results 20 years after the inception of the experiment were strikingly similar to those after 2250 days. To confirm that viable microorganisms were still present, the mixture was re-spiked with Gly in 2012. Aliquots were collected immediately after spiking, and at 5- and 9-month intervals thereafter. Final HPLC-FD/QqQ-MS analyses were performed in 2014. The 2014 analyses revealed that only alpha-AIB, D,L-Iva, and D-Val remained abundant. The disappearance of Gly indicated that microorganisms still lived in the mixture and were capable of consuming protein amino acids. These findings demonstrate that non-protein amino acids are minimally impacted by biological degradation and thus have very long lifetimes under these conditions. Primitive non-protein amino acids from terrestrial synthesis, or meteorite in-fall, likely experienced great-er preservation than protein amino acids in paleo-oceanic environments. Such robust molecules may have reached a

  1. Multiple modernities, modern subjectivities and social order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich; Sinclair, Kirstine

    2015-01-01

    to modern subjectivity formation. In combining conceptual tools from these strands of social theory, we argue that the emergence of multiple modernities should be understood as a historical result of idiosyncratic social constructions combining global social imaginaries with religious and other cultural......Taking its point of departure in the conceptual debate about modernities in the plural, this article presents a heuristic framework based on an interpretative approach to modernity. The article draws on theories of multiple modernities, successive modernities and poststructuralist approaches...... traditions. In the second part of the article we illustrate this argument with three short excursions into the history of Islamic reform in the 19th and 20th centuries. In this way we interpret the modern history of Muslim societies as based on cultural conflicts between different forms of social order...

  2. Variations in early life history traits of Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus in the Yangtze River Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunlong; Xian, Weiwei; Liu, Shude; Chen, Yifeng

    2018-01-01

    Resources of Japanese anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846) are undergoing dramatic recessions in China as the consequence of intensifying anthropogenic activities. Elucidating the influences of local-scale environmental factors on early life history traits is of great importance to design strategies conserving and restoring the declining anchovy resources. In this research, we studied hatching date and early growth of anchovy in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) using information obtained from otolith microstructure. Onset of hatching season and growth rates of anchovy was compared to populations in Japan and Taiwan. In YRE, the hatching date of anchovy ranged from February 26th to April 6th and mean growth rate ranged from 0.27 to 0.77 mm/d. Anchovies hatching later had higher growth rates than individuals hatching earlier before the 25th day. Among populations, hatching onsets of anchovy from the higher latitude were later than populations in the lower latitude, and growth rates of anchovy in YRE were much lower than populations in Japan and Taiwan. Variations in hatching onsets and early growth patterns of anchovy thus provide important knowledge on understanding the adaptation of anchovy in YRE and designing management strategies on conserving China's anchovy resources.

  3. Konrad Ottenheym and Krista De Jonge (eds., The Low Countries at the Crossroads. Netherlandish Architecture as an Export Product in Early Modern Europe (1480-1680

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Book review of: Konrad Ottenheym & Krista De Jonge (eds., The Low Countries at the Crossroads. Netherlandish Architecture as an Export Product in Early Modern Europe (1480-1680, (Architectura Moderna, vol. VIII. Turnhout, Brepols, 2013. 514 pp. ISBN 978-2-503-54333-8. € 130,00.

  4. The Religion of the Muslims of Medieval and Early Modern Castile : Interdisciplinary Research and Recent Studies on Mudejar Islam (2000-2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colominas Aparicio, M.; Wiegers, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    The present article examines recent contributions to the study of Islam and Muslim communities in Medieval and Early Modern Castile (2000-2014). Our aim is to identify the main areas of focus, the topics and the key issues addressed by scholars in the field; and to consider the significance of the

  5. Henry S. Turner, The English Renaissance Stage. Geometry, Poetics, and the Practical Spatial Arts 1580-1630 - Tim Fitzpatrick, Playwright, Space and Place in Early Modern Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Giuliani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Review of Henry S. Turner, The English Renaissance Stage. Geometry, Poetics, and the Practical Spatial Arts 1580-1630, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006, reimpr. 2010, 326 pp. ISBN: 978-0-19-959545-7 y Tim Fitzpatrick, Playwright, Space and Place in Early Modern Performance, Ashgate, Franham, 2011, 314 pp. ISBN: 978-1-4094-2827-5.

  6. Trommius’s travelogue, Early Modern Low Countries 1:1 51-70. : Learned memories of Erasmus and Scaliger and scholarly identity in the Republic of Letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Miert, D.K.W.

    On the basis of the autobiography of the orthodox Calvinist minister Abraham Trommius (1633-1719), this article argues that the Republic of Letters created its own cultures of memory. The very use of the word ‘Republic’ begs the question whether there was some kind of early modern ‘state building’

  7. Early Thermal History of Rhea: The Role of Serpentinization and Liquid State Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowski, Leszek; Łosiak, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Early thermal history of Rhea is investigated. The role of the following parameters of the model is investigated: time of beginning of accretion, tini, duration of accretion, tac, viscosity of ice close to the melting point, η0, activation energy in the formula for viscosity, E, thermal conductivity of silicate component, ksil, ammonia content, XNH3, and energy of serpentinization, cserp. We found that tini and tac are crucial for evolution. All other parameters are also important, but no dramatic differences are found for realistic values. The process of differentiation is also investigated. It is found that liquid state convection could delay the differentiation for hundreds of My. The results are confronted with observational data from Cassini spacecraft. It is possible that differentiation is fully completed but the density of formed core is close to the mean density. If this interpretation is correct, then Rhea could have accreted any time before 3-4 My after formation of CAI.

  8. Some consequences of a liquid water saturated regolith in early Martian history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, A. O.; Hargraves, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Flooding of low-lying areas of the Martian regolith may have occurred early in the planet's history when a comparatively dense primitive atmosphere existed. If this model is valid, the following are some pedogenic and mineralogical consequences to be expected. Fluctuation of the water table in response to any seasonal or longer term causes would have resulted in precipitation of ferric oxyhydroxides with the development of a vesicular duricrust (or hardpan). Disruption of such a crust by scarp undercutting or frost heaving accompanied by wind deflation of fines could account for the boulders visible on Utopia Planitia in the vicinity of the second Viking lander site. Laboratory and field evidence on earth suggests that under weakly oxidizing conditions lepidocrocite (rather than goethite) would have preferentially formed in the Martian regolith from the weathering of ferrous silicates, accompanied by montmorillonite, nontronite, and cronstedtite. Maghemite may have formed as a low-temperature dehydrate of lepidocrocite or directly from ferrous precursors.

  9. A history of the early days of personality testing in American industry: an obsession with adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibby, Robert E; Zickar, Michael J

    2008-08-01

    Objective personality testing began with Woodworth's Personal Data Sheet in 1917. That test was developed to identify soldiers prone to nervous breakdowns during enemy bombardment in World War I (WWI). Soon after, many competing personality tests were developed for use in industry. Many of these tests, like Woodworth's, focused on the construct of employee maladjustment and were deemed important in screening out applicants who would create workplace disturbances. In this article, the authors review the history of these early personality tests, especially the Bernreuter Personality Inventory and the Humm-Wadsworth Temperament Scale, and discuss the implications of personality testers' obsession with the construct of employee maladjustment. In addition, the authors discuss the industry's obsession with emotional maladjustment and how this obsession coincided with a cultural shift in norms relating to cultural expression.

  10. DNA fingerprinting on trial: the dramatic early history of a new forensic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jay D

    2005-09-01

    The early history of "DNA fingerprinting" in the UK might have been different were it not for the accounts of two dramatic courtroom trials, made by the participants and the media, in the mid-1980s. But these reports, which misrepresented the importance DNA evidence had in the trials, left a strong impression on the British public and on judges on both sides of the Atlantic. These trials, widely considered to be the first "victories" for DNA fingerprinting, have been frequently cited as proof of the utility and reliability of the technique, in both the UK and beyond. But in reality, it was the threat of DNA evidence being used rather than the integrity or validity of it that resolved these cases. At that time, DNA fingerprinting was still in its infancy, an untried and untested technology.

  11. Early tectonic history of the Marymia Inlier and correlation with the Archaean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagas, L.

    1999-01-01

    The Archaean granite-greenstone rocks of the Marymia Inlier outcrop within Proterozoic rocks forming the Capricorn Orogen. Five major deformation events are recognised in the rocks of the Plutonic Well and Baumgarten greenstone belts. The first two events were Late Archaean and synchronous with major epithermal gold mineralisation in the belts. Palaeoproterozoic extensional faulting was probably related to the early stages of the Capricorn Orogeny. The fourth event records a compressional phase of the Capricorn Orogeny associated with greenschist-facies metamorphism, whereas the last major event involved wrench faulting associated with minor folding. The Archaean tectonic history, rock types and timing of mineralisation strongly suggest that the Marymia Inlier is part of the Yilgarn Craton, and that each of the provinces in the craton experienced the same geological history since 2.72 Ga. The inlier is now interpreted to include two components, one is the eastern or northern extension of either the Narryer Terrane. Murchison Province or Southern Cross Province, and the other is the northwestern extension of the Eastern Goldfields Province. The Jenkin Fault, which was active in Proterozoic times, separates these two components. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  12. The Acapulco Parent Planetesimal: An Early Collisional History in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, K.; Kim, Y.

    2007-05-01

    The Acapulco, Mexico, meteorite was recovered in 1976 from a crater of approx. 30 cm diameter. An old crystallization age of 4.60 (error 0.03) Ga (Prinzhofer et al., 1992) establishes that its parent object is one of the oldest known planetesimals in the solar system, although not in a pristine form. Other dating systems indicated somewhat younger ages and isotopic variabilities in several elements documented a complex early history. The younger ages date the closure times in secondary minerals. The initial parent object was in a partially molten state when isotopically distinct foreign matter invaded the chondritic parent and some of the isotopic signatures survived. Nitrogen in the primitive achondrite Acapulco was found to have distinct isotopic signatures for the metal and silicate phases and also in different morphologies of graphites (El Goresy, 1995, 2005). The delayed collisional event probably disrupted the parent object, as Acapulco cooled very rapidly. Nitrogen in the injected metal and graphite did not isotopically exchange with the host silicates. We observed nitrogen isotopic signatures of several separated mineral phases which cover a range of delta 15N values from -150 permil to +13 permil. The lightest nitrogen signatures observed in metal separates are comparable to those in some morphologies of Acapulco graphites. The heavy N signatures observed in several silicate minerals are consistent with each other, while nitrogen in chromite is distinctly light (delta 15N of -80 permil), intermediate between those of metal and silicates. The incipient rapid cooling history is well documented down to approx. 120° C, as recorded by U/Th-4He ages in phosphates (Min et al., 2003). The history of the Acapulco parent object was uneventful after its early evolution in an environment where no perturbation by collisions occurred, until the meteorite's recent (6.0 Ma ago) injection into an earth-crossing orbit. References: El Goresy, A., Zinner, E., and Marti, K

  13. Early East Asian art history in Vienna and its trajectories: Josef Strzygowski, Karl With, Alfred Salmony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Orell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 Josef Strzygowski founded the ‘Section for East Asian Art History’ at the University of Vienna, which attracted many students who would continue their careers in museums and at universities and thus established East Asian art history as an academic field. This paper examines these early art historical engagements with East Asian art: First, I discuss the role of East Asian art in Strzygowski’s agenda of broadening art history’s geographical scope beyond Europe and in his argument about the dominance of ‘Nordic’ artistic traditions in Europe and in Asia. Secondly, I introduce the work of two early students at the ‘Section for East Asian Art History’ in Vienna, Karl With and Alfred Salmony. Their respective approaches to East Asian art exemplify a range of methodological concerns of their time, from stylistic narratives, the concept of ars una, comparative frameworks, to ideas about cultural or national ‘purity’ in the arts, and an interest in cross-cultural adaption and transformation of motifs and symbolism.

  14. REVERSAL OF FORTUNE: INCREASED STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCIES IN THE EARLY HISTORIES OF DWARF GALAXIES?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madau, Piero; Weisz, Daniel R.; Conroy, Charlie

    2014-01-01

    On dwarf galaxy scales, the different shapes of the galaxy stellar mass function and the dark halo mass function require a star-formation efficiency (SFE) in these systems that is currently more than 1 dex lower than that of Milky Way-size halos. Here, we argue that this trend may actually be reversed at high redshift. Specifically, by combining the resolved star-formation histories of nearby isolated dwarfs with the simulated mass-growth rates of dark matter halos, we show that the assembly of these systems occurs in two phases: (1) an early, fast halo accretion phase with a rapidly deepening potential well, characterized by a high SFE; and (2) a late, slow halo accretion phase where, perhaps as a consequence of reionization, the SFE is low. Nearby dwarfs have more old stars than predicted by assuming a constant or decreasing SFE with redshift, a behavior that appears to deviate qualitatively from the trends seen among more massive systems. Taken at face value, the data suggest that at sufficiently early epochs, dwarf galaxy halos above the atomic cooling mass limit can be among the most efficient sites of star formation in the universe

  15. Diagenetic history of late Oligocene-early Miocene carbonates in East Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal Abidin, N. S.; Raymond, R. R.; Bashah, N. S. I.

    2017-10-01

    Limestones are particularly susceptible to drastic early diagenesis modifications, mainly cementation and dissolution. During the early Miocene, a major tectonic deformation has caused a widespread of uplift in Sabah. This has resulted change in depositional environment from deep to shallow marine, which favours the deposition of Gomantong Limestone. This study aims to investigate the diagenetic history of Gomantong Limestone in East Sabah. Thorough understanding of the diagenetic processes may provide data to unravel the tectonic activities which affected the reservoir quality of the carbonates. Combining the data from comprehensive petrographic analysis, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of 30 samples, two main cements type were identified. These are microcrystalline cement and Mg-calcite cement of granular and blocky mosaics which are dominantly seen in all samples. The sequence of diagenesis events are determined as (1) micritization; (2) grain scale compaction; (3) cementation (pore-filling); (4) mechanical compaction and cementation infilling fractures and (5) chemical compaction. These diagenetic events are interpreted as reflection of changes in diagenetic environment from shallow marine to deep burial. The massive cementation in the Gomantong Limestone has resulted into a poor reservoir quality.

  16. Reversal of Fortune: Increased Star Formation Efficiencies in the Early Histories of Dwarf Galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madau, Piero; Weisz, Daniel R.; Conroy, Charlie

    2014-08-01

    On dwarf galaxy scales, the different shapes of the galaxy stellar mass function and the dark halo mass function require a star-formation efficiency (SFE) in these systems that is currently more than 1 dex lower than that of Milky Way-size halos. Here, we argue that this trend may actually be reversed at high redshift. Specifically, by combining the resolved star-formation histories of nearby isolated dwarfs with the simulated mass-growth rates of dark matter halos, we show that the assembly of these systems occurs in two phases: (1) an early, fast halo accretion phase with a rapidly deepening potential well, characterized by a high SFE; and (2) a late, slow halo accretion phase where, perhaps as a consequence of reionization, the SFE is low. Nearby dwarfs have more old stars than predicted by assuming a constant or decreasing SFE with redshift, a behavior that appears to deviate qualitatively from the trends seen among more massive systems. Taken at face value, the data suggest that at sufficiently early epochs, dwarf galaxy halos above the atomic cooling mass limit can be among the most efficient sites of star formation in the universe.

  17. Time development in the early history of social networks: link stabilization, group dynamics, and segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, Jesper; Bearden, Ian G

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the time development of empirical networks usually investigate late stages where lasting connections have already stabilized. Empirical data on early network history are rare but needed for a better understanding of how social network topology develops in real life. Studying students who are beginning their studies at a university with no or few prior connections to each other offers a unique opportunity to investigate the formation and early development of link patterns and community structure in social networks. During a nine week introductory physics course, first year physics students were asked to identify those with whom they communicated about problem solving in physics during the preceding week. We use these students' self reports to produce time dependent student interaction networks. We investigate these networks to elucidate possible effects of different student attributes in early network formation. Changes in the weekly number of links show that while roughly half of all links change from week to week, students also reestablish a growing number of links as they progress through their first weeks of study. Using the Infomap community detection algorithm, we show that the networks exhibit community structure, and we use non-network student attributes, such as gender and end-of-course grade to characterize communities during their formation. Specifically, we develop a segregation measure and show that students structure themselves according to gender and pre-organized sections (in which students engage in problem solving and laboratory work), but not according to end-of-coure grade. Alluvial diagrams of consecutive weeks' communities show that while student movement between groups are erratic in the beginning of their studies, they stabilize somewhat towards the end of the course. Taken together, the analyses imply that student interaction networks stabilize quickly and that students establish collaborations based on who is immediately

  18. Crustal growth history of the Korean Peninsula:Constraints from detrital zircon ages in modern river sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taejin Choi; Yong Il Lee; Yuji Orihashi

    2016-01-01

    U-Pb analyses were carried out on detrital zircon grains from major river-mouth sediments draining South Korea to infer provenance characteristics and the crustal growth history of the southern Korean Peninsula, using a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS). The Korean Peninsula is located in the East Asian continental margin and mainly comprises three Precambrian massifs and two metamorphic belts in between them. We obtained 515 concordant to slightly discordant zircon ages ranging from ca. 3566 to ca. 48 Ma. Regardless of river-mouth location, predominance of Mesozoic (249e79 Ma) and Paleoproterozoic (2491e1691 Ma) ages with subordinate Archean ages in-dicates that the zircon ages reflect present exposures of plutonic/metamorphic rocks in the drainage basins of the South Korean rivers and the crustal growth of the southern Korean Peninsula was focused in these two periods. Comparison of detrital zircon-age data between the North and South Korean river sediments reveals that the Paleoproterozoic zircon age distributions of both regions are nearly identical, while the NeoproterozoicePaleozoic ages exist and the Mesozoic ages are dominant in southern Korean Peninsula. This result suggests that Precambrian terrains in Korea record the similar pre-Mesozoic magmatic history and that the influence of Mesozoic magmatism was mainly focused in South Korea.

  19. Who are the early adopters of car sharing? A brief history and an analysis of the early adoption of car sharing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Norre, Lise

    1999-01-01

    After briefly outlining the context, focusing primarily on the economic conditions for car sharing and on the history of the first car sharing initiatives in Denmark, this paper presents results from a study of the early adopters of the car sharing idea in Denmark and some speculations about...... the future of car sharing in this country....

  20. On the Influence of the Industrialization Genesis on Modern Strategy of Industrial Policy in Russia: History and Economic Analisys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina G. Vaskina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine the industrialization process in Russia for more than a hundred years, the duration and quality parameters associated with its institutional features. The authors also focus on the relevance of the chosen theme because of the formation of new industrial policy institutions. The hypothesis of the study is based on identifying a set of basis factors of building effective institutions: system, decentralization mechanism, clustering, given a set of groups of interests of subjects of industrial policy implementation. Institutions of new industrial policy implementation in contemporary Russia are focused on achieving multifaceted tasks on a temporary basis, the level of implementation, the degree of relevance, therefore, the conclusion regarding the effective implementation of the strategy of economic development of modern Russia, which should include the following institutions: government programs, effective transparent public procurement, institutional design through the creation of specialized, diversified institutions of industrial-innovative development. Named structural elements must be systematically subordinated to the interests of macro-, meso- and micro levels of economic system. Special importance must have experience of building the institutional system of the new industrial policy, which gives effective results on the social-economic development.

  1. Mechanisms of Egg Yolk Formation and Implications on Early Life History of White Perch (Morone americana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Schilling

    late stage fish larvae prior to the onset of exogenous feeding and its composition in the egg yolk may relate to different early life histories among this diverse group of animals.

  2. Three days in October of 1630: detailed examination of mortality during an early modern plague epidemic in Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, S R

    1989-01-01

    The epidemiology of medieval and early modern European plague remains highly controversial. It now seems likely that the epidemiology was not uniform throughout either the geographic or temporal boundaries of the plague in Western Europe. The Venetian plague of 1630 was extensively documented; day-by-day records were kept, and each mortality in the city was recorded in a set format. The days 23-25 October 1630, representing a period when mortality was beginning to increase sharply, are examined. In all, 1,163 deaths were recorded. They show a large preponderance of women; a mean age of 28, but a majority of cases clumped between ages 0 and 25 years; and an unequal sex ratio among children. Further, there was an identifiable smallpox epidemic raging simultaneously with plague, and more than one-quarter of all the deaths in this period of high mortality were clearly due to nonplague causes. Deaths due to wounds and associated with violence were prominent in one parish, which suggests that in times of plague the breakdown in the normal machinery of government, in everyday patterns of life, and possibly of mental well being resulted in an even more exaggerated death toll. These factors--violence, accidents, and other epidemics--have never been so definitively tied to a European plague epidemic. In addition, there are hints that plague has a marked proclivity to kill pregnant women--their deaths far outnumber those anticipated--and that plague was very localized at a given moment within Venice itself, even during times of peak mortality.

  3. Pisolithus tinctorius, Fungal Extremophile and Modern Analog to an Early Earth Environment; An Unlikely Harbor for Deeply Diverging and Novel Chemoautrophic Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, K. C.; Lauzon, C.; Marinkovich, N.; Truong, T.

    2014-12-01

    Endosymbioses have given rise to some of the most important innovations in Earth's history. Indeed, ecological facilitation has been pivotal to the creation of higher order complexity, and in driving evolutionary transitions at every level of organization from cellular organelles to multicellularity. In this study we address a newly discovered endosymbiosis between prokaryotes and a eukaryote growing with no apparent external energy source in soils associated with acid-sulfate hydrothermal springs. Hydrothermal sites are relevant to origin of life because they provide a chemical and energetic environment that may have provided energy for pre-biotic synthesis in the absence of photosynthesis through chemoautotrophy. Pisolithus (genus, picture 1 below) is a terrestrial fungal extremophile that can grow in thermally altered soils of acid-thermal hot springs at extreme low pH and elevated temperature, thriving in conditions that are beyond the threshold of survivability for most other organisms. Fruiting bodies of this fungus accumulate elemental sulfur into the spore producing tissues (gleba) of the fruiting body. The gleba is encased in a thick peridium, or shell. Further, Pisolithus is capable of enzymatic conversion of elemental S to sulfate. The fruiting bodies are rich in hydrocarbons, contain water through much of their development and are also likely to contain CO2 from fungal cellular respiration. Further, our data indicate the presence of anaerobic zones within. Thus, the internal environment of Pisolithus contains many conditions relevant to early Earth environments in which life is thought to have originated. We used 16S rDNA sequences to test the hypothesis that Pisolithus individuals contain novel and/or ancient microbial lineages. Our data reveal lineages comprised of novel relatives of known aerobic and anaerobic chemoautrophic Bacteria (85-90% BLAST search matches), several deeply divergent and novel Bacterial lineages, and a newly discovered lineage

  4. CO2-level Dependent Effects of Ocean Acidification on Squid, Doryteuthis pealeii, Early Life History

    KAUST Repository

    Zakroff, Casey J.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean acidification is predicted to lead to global oceanic decreases in pH of up to 0.3 units within the next 100 years. However, those levels are already being reached currently in coastal regions due to natural CO2 variability. Squid are a vital component of the pelagic ecosystem, holding a unique niche as a highly active predatory invertebrate and major prey stock for upper trophic levels. This study examined the effects of a range of ocean acidification regimes on the early life history of a coastal squid species, the Atlantic longfin squid, Doryteuthis pealeii. Eggs were raised in a flow-through ocean acidification system at CO2 levels ranging from ambient (400ppm) to 2200ppm. Time to hatching, hatching efficiency, and hatchling mantle lengths, yolk sac sizes, and statoliths were all examined to elucidate stress effects. Delays in hatching time of at least a day were seen at exposures above 1300ppm in all trials under controlled conditions. Mantle lengths were significantly reduced at exposures above 1300 ppm. Yolk sac sizes varied between CO2 treatments, but no distinct pattern emerged. Statoliths were increasingly porous and malformed as CO2 exposures increased, and were significantly reduced in surface area at exposures above 1300ppm. Doryteuthis pealeii appears to be able to withstand acidosis stress without major effects up to 1300ppm, but is strongly impacted past that threshold. Since yolk consumption did not vary among treatments, it appears that during its early life stages, D. pealeii reallocates its available energy budget away from somatic growth and system development in order to mitigate the stress of acidosis.

  5. Sex-related risks of trauma in medieval to early modern Denmark, and its relationship to change in interpersonal violence over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, G R; Boldsen, J L; Weise, S; Lauritsen, J M; Freund, U H

    2015-06-01

    Skeletons from three Danish cemeteries, Sortebrødre, Tirup, and St. Mikkel, that collectively held 822 adults (>15 years) and spanned the medieval to early modern periods (ca. AD 1100-1610) show that men, in general, experienced more bone fractures than women. Men were three times more likely to have healed cranial vault and ulnar shaft fractures than women, with many of these bones presumably broken in interpersonal violence. More women, however, broke distal radii, presumably often the result of falls. Both sexes suffered more cranial fractures than modern Danes, with the proportional difference for men and women being about the same. The difference in cranial trauma frequencies between historic-period and modern Danes has implications for a decline over the past several centuries in interpersonal violence that scholars in other disciplines have inferred from historical sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. History of the virtue we seek: from aristotelism to modernity - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v34i1.15351

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannina Burlando

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the actual debate on citizenship within democracy, admitting a crisis in educational matters is highly relevant (NUSSBAUM, 2010; BERKOWITZ, 2001. Thus, if we want to understand why the ancient educational image is problematic and unsatisfying to the citizens of democratic governments, it is unavoidable, from the history of philosophy point of view, to quote the teaching of preeminent political theorists. Needless to say, the power of education in forming people’s character and opinions is widely recognized. Nonetheless, by looking at the history of the institution, it seems obvious that its purpose is not only to form habits but to circumscribe the knowledge of the persons in such a way as to make one set of opinions always inevitable (RUSSELL, 1961. Current paper reveals the theoretical presuppositions of the political and educational doctrines of two main figures of Ancient and Modern times, namely, Aristotle and Locke, respectively. Further considerations will ensue on whether the ancient image of virtue, or its antagonism and possible use in liberalism, has any power to represent the present conditions of equity and justice sought after in civil life within Latin American democracies. 

  7. The wondrous eyes of a new technology : A history of the early electroencephalography (EEG) of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirmann, Felix

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a history of the early electroencephalography (EEG) of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality in Great Britain and the United States in the 1940s and 1950s. Then, EEG was a novel research tool that promised ground-breaking insights in psychiatry and criminology. Experts

  8. Modernization Theory Revisited: Latin America, Europe, and the U.S. in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando López-Alves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theories of modernization, globalization, and dependency have assigned a clear role to Latin America: the region has been seen as dependent, exploited, and institutionally weak. In these theories, modernization and globalization are seen as forces generated elsewhere; the region, in these views, has merely tried to “adjust” and “respond” to these external influences. At best, it has imitated some of the political institutions of the core countries and, most of the times, unsuccessfully. While there is very good empirical evidence that supports these views, the essay argues that these theories need some correction. Latin America has been an innovator and a modernizer in its own right, especially in its cutting-edge design of the nation-state and in its modern conceptualization of the national community. Thus, the essay suggests that the region has not merely “adjusted” to modernization and globalization. Rather, the paper makes a case for a reinterpretation of the region’s role as a modernizer and an important contributor to the consolidation of the modern West.

  9. Early germs of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hund, F.

    1983-01-01

    The main concepts of quantum electrodynamics: duality of fields and particles, field quanta, antiparticles, creation and annihilation of particles, reactions based on a coupling, these concepts are common for all quantum field theory. Roots and germs of them we find already in the early history of quantum physics. Up to creation and physical understanding of quantum mechanics (1927) we can distinguish three steps. The first, ranging from black body radiation to specific heat (1900-1913) was essentially low temperature physics; h became the natural unity for counting cases in statistics. The second step was search for atomic mechanics (19131925): it was guided by a special law of atomic spectra, the combination principle ν=F (n,1...) - F (n',1'...); The third step (1923-1927), De Broglie's transfer of duality from light to matter, Schrodinger's equation, the concept of probability amplitudes, led to a general mathematical formalism and its physical understanding. During the first of these historical steps duality of light was detected and a sort of quantization of the light field took place; during the second step this duality remained in the background; during the third step duality of light and matter were seen as the center of quantum physics

  10. Evolutionary demography and the population history of the European early Neolithic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shennan, Stephen

    2009-04-01

    In this paper I propose that evolutionary demography and associated theory from human behavioral ecology provide a strong basis for explaining the available evidence for the patterns observed in the first agricultural settlement of Europe in the 7th-5th millennium cal. BC, linking together a variety of what have previously been disconnected observations and casting doubt on some long-standing existing models. An outline of relevant aspects of life history theory, which provides the foundation for understanding demography, is followed by a review of large-scale demographic patterns in the early Neolithic, which point to rapid population increase and a process of demic diffusion. More localized socioeconomic and demographic patterns suggesting rapid expansion to local carrying capacities and an associated growth of inequality in the earliest farming communities of central Europe (the Linear Pottery Culture, or LBK) are then outlined and shown to correspond to predictions of spatial population ecology and reproductive skew theory. Existing models of why it took so long for farming to spread to northern and northwest Europe, which explain the spread in terms of the gradual disruption of hunter-gatherer ways of life, are then questioned in light of evidence for population collapse at the end of the LBK. Finally, some broader implications of the study are presented, including the suggestion that the pattern of an initial agricultural boom followed by a bust may be relevant in other parts of the world.

  11. Cosmic reionization on computers. II. Reionization history and its back-reaction on early galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Kaurov, Alexander A., E-mail: gnedin@fnal.gov, E-mail: kaurov@uchicago.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    We compare the results from several sets of cosmological simulations of cosmic reionization, produced under the Cosmic Reionization On Computers project, with existing observational data on the high-redshift Lyα forest and the abundance of Lyα emitters. We find good consistency with the observational measurements and previous simulation work. By virtue of having several independent realizations for each set of numerical parameters, we are able to explore the effect of cosmic variance on observable quantities. One unexpected conclusion we are forced into is that cosmic variance is unusually large at z > 6, with both our simulations and, most likely, observational measurements still not fully converged for even such basic quantities as the average Gunn-Peterson optical depth or the volume-weighted neutral fraction. We also find that reionization has little effect on the early galaxies or on global cosmic star formation history, because galaxies whose gas content is affected by photoionization contain no molecular (i.e., star-forming) gas in the first place. In particular, measurements of the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function by the James Webb Space Telescope are unlikely to provide a useful constraint on reionization.

  12. Captive propagation, reproductive biology, and early life history of the Diamond Darter (Crystallaria cincotta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, Crystal L.; Rakes, Patrick L.; Shute, John R.; Welsh, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive biology and early life history data are critical for the conservation and management of rare fishes. During 2008–2012 a captive propagation study was conducted on the Diamond Darter, Crystallaria cincotta, a rare species with a single extant population in the lower Elk River, West Virginia. Water temperatures during spawning ranged from 11.1–23.3 C. Females and males spawned with quick vibrations, burying eggs in fine sand in relatively swift clean depositional areas. Egg size was 1.8–1.9 mm, and embryos developed within 7 to 11 d. Diamond Darters were 6.7–7.2 mm total length (TL) at hatch. Larvae ranged from 9.0–11.0 mm TL following a 5–10 d period of yolk sac absorption. Larvae had relatively large mouth gapes and teeth and were provided brine shrimp Artemia sp., Ceriodaphnia dubia neonates, marine Brachionus rotifers, and powdered foods (50–400 µm) but did not appear to feed in captivity, except for one observation of larval cannibalization. Larvae survived for a maximum of 10 d. To increase larval survival and reduce the possibility of cannibalism, other alternative food sources are needed during captive propagation.

  13. Constraints on early events in Martian history as derived from the cratering record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, N.G.

    1990-01-01

    The shapes and densities of crater size-frequency distribution curves are used to constrain two major events early in Martian history: termination of high obliteration rates and viability of the multiple impact origin of the crustal dichotomy. Distribution curves of fresh craters superposed on uplands, intercrater plains, and ridged plains display shapes and densities indicative of formation prior to the end of heavy bombardment. This observation correlates with other geologic evidence, suggesting a major change in the erosional regime following the last major basin size impact (i.e., Argrye). In addition, the multisloped nature of the curves supports the idea that the downturn in the crater size-frequency distribution curves reflects the size-frequency distribution of the impactors rather than being the result of erosion. The crustal dichotomy formed prior to the heavy bombardment intermediate epoch based on distribution curves of knobby terrain; if the dichotomy resulted from a single gigantic impact, this observation places constraints on when this event happened. An alternate theory for dichotomy formation, the multiple-impact basin idea, is questioned: since distribution curves of large basins as well as heavy bombardment era units are not represented by a -3 differential power law function, this study finds fewer basins missing on Mars compare to the Moon and Mercury than previously reported. The area covered by these missing basins is less than that covered the northern plains

  14. Effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of coral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, Andrew [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia)]. E-mail: a.negri@aims.gov.au; Vollhardt, Claudia [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia); Humphrey, Craig [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia); Heyward, Andrew [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia); Jones, Ross [Centre for Marine Studies, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Queensland Health Scientific Services, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains 4108 (Australia); Eaglesham, Geoff [Bermuda Biological Station for Research, Inc, Ferry Reach, St George' s GE 01 (Bermuda); Fabricius, Katharina [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    The effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of broadcast spawning and brooding corals were examined in laboratory experiments. Fertilisation of Acropora millepora and Montipora aequituberculata oocytes were not inhibited at diuron concentrations of up to 1000{mu}gl{sup -1}. Metamorphosis of symbiont-free A. millepora larvae was only significantly inhibited at 300{mu}gl{sup -1} diuron. Pocillopora damicornis larvae, which contain symbiotic dinoflagellates, were able to undergo metamorphosis after 24h exposure to diuron at 1000{mu}gl{sup -1}. Two-week old P. damicornis recruits on the other hand were as susceptible to diuron as adult colonies, with expulsion of symbiotic dinoflagellates (bleaching) evident at 10{mu}gl{sup -1} diuron after 96h exposure. Reversible metamorphosis was observed at high diuron concentrations, with fully bleached polyps escaping from their skeletons. Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence techniques demonstrated a reduction in photosynthetic efficiency ({delta}F/F{sub m}{sup '}) in illuminated P. damicornis recruits after a 2h exposure to 1{mu}gl{sup -1} diuron. The dark-adapted quantum yields (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) also declined, indicating chronic photoinhibition and damage to photosystem II.

  15. Effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of coral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negri, Andrew; Vollhardt, Claudia; Humphrey, Craig; Heyward, Andrew; Jones, Ross; Eaglesham, Geoff; Fabricius, Katharina

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of broadcast spawning and brooding corals were examined in laboratory experiments. Fertilisation of Acropora millepora and Montipora aequituberculata oocytes were not inhibited at diuron concentrations of up to 1000μgl -1 . Metamorphosis of symbiont-free A. millepora larvae was only significantly inhibited at 300μgl -1 diuron. Pocillopora damicornis larvae, which contain symbiotic dinoflagellates, were able to undergo metamorphosis after 24h exposure to diuron at 1000μgl -1 . Two-week old P. damicornis recruits on the other hand were as susceptible to diuron as adult colonies, with expulsion of symbiotic dinoflagellates (bleaching) evident at 10μgl -1 diuron after 96h exposure. Reversible metamorphosis was observed at high diuron concentrations, with fully bleached polyps escaping from their skeletons. Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence techniques demonstrated a reduction in photosynthetic efficiency (ΔF/F m ' ) in illuminated P. damicornis recruits after a 2h exposure to 1μgl -1 diuron. The dark-adapted quantum yields (F v /F m ) also declined, indicating chronic photoinhibition and damage to photosystem II

  16. Metamorphic history and geodynamic significance of the Early Cretaceous Sabzevar granulites (Sabzevar structural zone, NE Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nasrabady

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian ophiolites are part of the vast orogenic suture zones that mark the Alpine-Himalayan convergence zone. Few petrological and geochronological data are available from these ophiolitic domains, hampering a full assessment of the timing and regimes of subduction zone metamorphism and orogenic construction in the region. This paper describes texture, geochemistry, and the pressure-temperature path of the Early Cretaceous mafic granulites that occur within the Tertiary Sabzevar ophiolitic suture zone of NE Iran. Whole rock geochemistry indicates that the Sabzevar granulites are likely derived from a MORB-type precursor. They are thus considered as remnants of a dismembered dynamo-thermal sole formed during subduction of a back-arc basin (proto-Sabzevar Ocean formed in the upper-plate of the Neotethyan slab. The metamorphic history of the granulites suggests an anticlockwise pressure-temperature loop compatible with burial in a hot subduction zone, followed by cooling during exhumation. Transition from a nascent to a mature stage of oceanic subduction is the geodynamic scenario proposed to accomplish for the reconstructed thermobaric evolution. When framed with the regional scenario, results of this study point to diachronous and independent tectonic evolutions of the different ophiolitic domains of central Iran, for which a growing disparity in the timing of metamorphic equilibration and of pressure-temperature paths can be expected to emerge with further investigations.

  17. Early Depositional History of the Eocene Izu-Bonin Mariana Arc, Western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, R.; Marsaglia, K. M.; Tepley, F. J., III

    2015-12-01

    Expedition 351 of the International Ocean Discovery Program cored an Eocene section at Site U1438 in the Philippine Sea that provides insight into the early history of the Izu-Bonin arc. Subduction here is hypothesized to have initiated spontaneously, leaving a characteristic depositional sequence of post-subduction-initiation localized extension and volcanism. We conducted detailed macroscopic and microscopic study of the cores of the lowermost 100m of volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks (Unit IV) directly overlying subduction initiation igneous basement, to identify depositional facies and trends. We subdivided Unit IV into three subunits based on lithologic characteristics. Transitions between the subunits are relatively abrupt, occurring within the length of a single core. The lowermost subunit (IVA) consists of 4 meters of laminated pelagic claystone with thin beds of graded volcaniclastic siltstone, and fine-grained tuff laminae composed of plagioclase feldspar and green-brown amphibole. The middle subunit (IVB) comprises 51 meters of texturally variable, thick-bedded, coarse-grained gravity flow deposits. These are composed of volcaniclastic sandstone and conglomerate containing glassy and tachylitic volcanic grains as well as sedimentary lithic fragments, along with traces of shallow-water carbonate bioclasts. Subunit IVB sediments are poorer in feldspar than IVA and contain only trace amphibole. They show variable grain rounding and an upsection increase in vitric components. Tachylite grains range from sub-angular to well rounded throughout, and other volcanic grain types show upward increases in angularity and vesicularity. The abrupt transition from pelagic sediments in subunit IVA to shallow-water-sourced gravity flows in subunit IVB suggests a rapid emergence of shallow-water to subaerial volcanic center early in the arc's development. The upper part of subunit IVB also contains igneous intrusions, providing possible evidence for more proximal

  18. Informal adult education and museum andragogics in the context of the history of modern museums in Ukraine (review historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Kutsaeva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article set the goal to analyse the published academic/ scientific, popular scientific publications and the published results of Ukrainian museums’ practical developments for 1990-2010s, which in total can be described as a museum andragogics or informal adult education by museum means. Initially, it was found that despite the growing interest in these kinds of museum activities, the available research body is not systematized. It was found that brief reviews of the problem’s historiography are present mostly in preambles of museology, pedagogy, museums history articles. They are often related to the topic indirectly. Attempts to study purposefully the subject are now rare, although their aim is to summarize the existing Ukrainian experience. It was determined that, although it is impossible now to determine the museum andragogics as a separate sphere of knowledge on the basis of a small number of published investigations of Ukrainian specialists. These investigations are reflecting the national museums and available foreign publications’ experience in this sphere (translated into Ukrainian or published in Russian. But the formation of the andragogics in Ukraine is actual and necessary on the way towards the integration into the global cultural space. Summarizing the material the conclusion was made that the museum andragogics and non-formal adult education in museums are promising areas of scientific knowledge. A contribution of the museum’s and other Ukrainian connected sectors professionals in the process by years 2012-13 is notable both at the level of the foreign experience’s study and the reflection in practice, research, scientific and popular publications. However, until now there was no such activity surge, as it happened in the spheres of museum marketing or sociology. Such forms of activity as «Workshop», «Summer school», public lecture are not known and used enough by domestic museums, and therefore by

  19. Tracing the 5000-year recorded history of inorganic thin films from ˜3000 BC to the early 1900s AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Gold is very likely the first metal discovered by man, more than 11 000 years ago. However, unlike copper (˜9000 BC), bronze (˜3500 BC), and wrought iron (˜2500-3000 BC), gold is too soft for fabrication of tools and weapons. Instead, it was used for decoration, religious artifacts, and commerce. The earliest documented inorganic thin films were gold layers, some less than 3000 Å thick, produced chemi-mechanically by Egyptians approximately 5000 years ago. Examples, gilded on statues and artifacts (requiring interfacial adhesion layers), were found in early stone pyramids dating to ˜2650 BC in Saqqara, Egypt. Spectacular samples of embossed Au sheets date to at least 2600 BC. The Moche Indians of northern Peru developed electroless gold plating (an auto-catalytic reaction) in ˜100 BC and applied it to intricate Cu masks. The earliest published electroplating experiments were ˜1800 AD, immediately following the invention of the dc electrochemical battery by Volta. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of metal films was reported in 1649, atmospheric arc deposition of oxides (Priestley) in the mid-1760s, and atmospheric plasmas (Siemens) in 1857. Sols were produced in the mid-1850s (Faraday) and sol-gel films synthesized in 1885. Vapor phase film growth including sputter deposition (Grove, 1852), vacuum arc deposition ("deflagration," Faraday, 1857), plasma-enhanced CVD (Barthelot, 1869) and evaporation (Stefan, Hertz, and Knudsen, 1873-1915) all had to wait for the invention of vacuum pumps whose history ranges from ˜1650 for mechanical pumps, through ˜1865 for mercury pumps that produce ballistic pressures in small systems. The development of crystallography, beginning with Plato in 360 BC, Kepler in 1611, and leading to Miller indices (1839) for describing orientation and epitaxial relationships in modern thin film technology, was already well advanced by the 1780s (Haüy). The starting point for the development of heterogeneous thin film nucleation theory was

  20. Alternative Modernities for Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunyoung Park. The Proletarian Wave: Literature and Leftist Culture in Colonial Korea, 1910–1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 348 pp. $50 (cloth. Vladimir Tikhonov. Modern Korea and Its Others: Perceptions of the Neighbouring Countries and Korean Modernity. London: Routledge, 2016. 218 pp. $160 (cloth. It has become a global scholarly undertaking: how to rethink modernity so as to decouple it from Westernization (Chakrabarty 2000. Strategies have included foregrounding the plurality of history to disrupt linear progress; positing non-Western centers of modernity in, say, Moscow or Shanghai; and tracing anticolonial circuits connecting Asia to Africa to Latin America. The two recent books under review here add colonial-era Korea to such far-reaching discussions by situating the country across national boundaries. Interestingly, one connecting thread here is the alternative world system provided by the interwar, Soviet-oriented Left. The result is an unsettling of binaries that subsequently became entrenched during the Cold War: for example, north-south, socialist-nationalist, and, for literature, realist-modernist. But more broadly, pervading both books is the sense that history could have turned out differently—that revisiting northeast Asia’s porous borders in the early twentieth century reveals the Korean peninsula’s lost, internationalist potential...

  1. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens C Hegg

    Full Text Available Animal migrations provide important ecological functions and can allow for increased biodiversity through habitat and niche diversification. However, aquatic migrations in general, and those of the world's largest fish in particular, are imperiled worldwide and are often poorly understood. Several species of large Amazonian catfish carry out some of the longest freshwater fish migrations in the world, travelling from the Amazon River estuary to the Andes foothills. These species are important apex predators in the main stem rivers of the Amazon Basin and make up the region's largest fishery. They are also the only species to utilize the entire Amazon Basin to complete their life cycle. Studies indicate both that the fisheries may be declining due to overfishing, and that the proposed and completed dams in their upstream range threaten spawning migrations. Despite this, surprisingly little is known about the details of these species' migrations, or their life history. Otolith microchemistry has been an effective method for quantifying and reconstructing fish migrations worldwide across multiple spatial scales and may provide a powerful tool to understand the movements of Amazonian migratory catfish. Our objective was to describe the migratory behaviors of the three most populous and commercially important migratory catfish species, Dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, Piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii, and Piraíba (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum. We collected fish from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Central Amazon and used strontium isotope signatures ((87Sr/(86Sr recorded in their otoliths to determine the location of early rearing and subsequent. Fish location was determined through discriminant function classification, using water chemistry data from the literature as a training set. Where water chemistry data was unavailable, we successfully in predicted (87Sr/(86Sr isotope values using a regression-based approach that related

  2. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegg, Jens C; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Kennedy, Brian P

    2015-01-01

    Animal migrations provide important ecological functions and can allow for increased biodiversity through habitat and niche diversification. However, aquatic migrations in general, and those of the world's largest fish in particular, are imperiled worldwide and are often poorly understood. Several species of large Amazonian catfish carry out some of the longest freshwater fish migrations in the world, travelling from the Amazon River estuary to the Andes foothills. These species are important apex predators in the main stem rivers of the Amazon Basin and make up the region's largest fishery. They are also the only species to utilize the entire Amazon Basin to complete their life cycle. Studies indicate both that the fisheries may be declining due to overfishing, and that the proposed and completed dams in their upstream range threaten spawning migrations. Despite this, surprisingly little is known about the details of these species' migrations, or their life history. Otolith microchemistry has been an effective method for quantifying and reconstructing fish migrations worldwide across multiple spatial scales and may provide a powerful tool to understand the movements of Amazonian migratory catfish. Our objective was to describe the migratory behaviors of the three most populous and commercially important migratory catfish species, Dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii), Piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii), and Piraíba (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum). We collected fish from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Central Amazon and used strontium isotope signatures ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) recorded in their otoliths to determine the location of early rearing and subsequent. Fish location was determined through discriminant function classification, using water chemistry data from the literature as a training set. Where water chemistry data was unavailable, we successfully in predicted (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope values using a regression-based approach that related the geology

  3. Early Mongols – the Ethno-Political History to the 13th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Vidaković

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the etnogenesis of the Mongol tribes from the period of the Rouran and Shiwei tribal alliances to the unification in the early 13th century under Genghis Khan’s leadership. The initial period of the ethnogenesis of medieval Mongols’ ancestors is associated with Rouran and Shiwei tribal alliances while news about them are written in Chinese dynastic chronicles. Within the Shiwei association there was the Mengwu tribe that inhabited forest expanses of north-western Manchuria, and the Argun river basin is considered to be the original homeland of the Mongols. The directions and time of migration processes which played an important role in the transformation of part of Mongol tribes from forest hunters to steppe nomads have been further investigated. The ethnic history of the Mongol tribes is closely associated with the Turkic and Tungus-Manchurian tribes. The Turkic tribes, that inhabited the steppes of Mongolia today, had a crucial importance in the development of Mongol nomadic tribes, while the Tungus-Manchu and northern Mongol tribes shared forest expanses of Manchuria and Trans-Baikal. The following text describes the events in the Turkic khaganates and kingdoms in the north of China, which influenced the historical development of the Mongol tribes. The period of the Qidan Liao dynasty (10th ‒ 12th century is of great importance because the core of the Mongol nomadic tribes was formed at that time in the northeastern Mongolia, that were gradually spreading over the steps to the west. During the Jurchen Jin dynasty (12th ‒ 13th century the importance of the Mongol tribes in the steppe increased. The attempts of political unification of the Mongols appeared during that period – for the first time in the mid-12th century, during the reign of Khabul Khan. The final part of the paper describes the struggle of Temujin (Temüjin, the future Genghis Khan, for the unification of the Mongol-Turkic tribes. After victory over

  4. Early-Modern Irreligion and Theological Analogy: A Response to Gavin Hyman’s A Short History of Atheism

    OpenAIRE

    Linford, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Historically, many Christians have understood God’s transcendence to imply God’s properties categorically differ from any created properties. For multiple historical figures, a problem arose for religious language: how can one talk of God at all if none of our predicates apply to God? What are we to make of creeds and Biblical passages that seem to predicate creaturely properties, such as goodness and wisdom, of God? Thomas Aquinas offered a solution: God is to be spoken of only through analo...

  5. Using GRIDVIEW to Better Understand the Early Bombardment History of the Moon, Mars and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    ) on the Moon (Frey and Burgess, 2012, this meeting), with obvious implications for the early bombardment history of the Earth.

  6. Towards a Social History of Archaeology: The Case of the Excavators of Early Iron Age Burial Mounds in Southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Müller-Scheessel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available While the general history of archaeology has received a growing interest lately1, these efforts still lack a common research-guiding agenda. Furthermore, most of the studies still concentrate on biographies and event history. The embedding of archaeology in the structures and conditions of its time is still a kind of terra incognita. The few well known publications (e. g. Hudson 1981; Kristiansen 1981; Patterson 1986; 1995 emphasize the gap only more. The lack of a significant amount of literature especially on the social history of archaeology is all the more surprising as the early interest in archaeology shows a clear social bias: archaeology was (and still is? a recreational activity for the educated and the well-off. While Hudson’s book in particular is very readable, it is clearly meant to provide only a very broad picture. Along with the other publications mentioned above it is now somewhat dated; the lack of recent works on this topic thus highlight the lack of interest in the social history of archaeology even more.2 However, this essay does not deal with this deplorable fact, but seeks to present some ‘hard’ data on only one, albeit important activity of early archaeological excavations, particularly those of burial mounds. Its focus is on Southern Germany and on graves from the early Iron Age.3

  7. RECONSTRUCTING THE SOLAR WIND FROM ITS EARLY HISTORY TO CURRENT EPOCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, Vladimir S.; Usmanov, Arcadi V., E-mail: vladimir.airapetian@nasa.gov, E-mail: avusmanov@gmail.com [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Stellar winds from active solar-type stars can play a crucial role in removal of stellar angular momentum and erosion of planetary atmospheres. However, major wind properties except for mass-loss rates cannot be directly derived from observations. We employed a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic Alfvén wave driven solar wind model, ALF3D, to reconstruct the solar wind parameters including the mass-loss rate, terminal velocity, and wind temperature at 0.7, 2, and 4.65 Gyr. Our model treats the wind thermal electrons, protons, and pickup protons as separate fluids and incorporates turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating to properly describe proton and electron temperatures of the solar wind. To study the evolution of the solar wind, we specified three input model parameters, the plasma density, Alfvén wave amplitude, and the strength of the dipole magnetic field at the wind base for each of three solar wind evolution models that are consistent with observational constrains. Our model results show that the velocity of the paleo solar wind was twice as fast, ∼50 times denser and 2 times hotter at 1 AU in the Sun's early history at 0.7 Gyr. The theoretical calculations of mass-loss rate appear to be in agreement with the empirically derived values for stars of various ages. These results can provide realistic constraints for wind dynamic pressures on magnetospheres of (exo)planets around the young Sun and other active stars, which is crucial in realistic assessment of the Joule heating of their ionospheres and corresponding effects of atmospheric erosion.

  8. The early history of glaucoma: the glaucous eye (800 BC to 1050 AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leffler CT

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Christopher T Leffler,1 Stephen G Schwartz,2 Tamer M Hadi,3 Ali Salman,1 Vivek Vasuki1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA; 2Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Naples, FL, USA; 3Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville, TN, USA Abstract: To the ancient Greeks, glaukos occasionally described diseased eyes, but more typically described healthy irides, which were glaucous (light blue, gray, or green. During the Hippocratic period, a pathologic glaukos pupil indicated a media opacity that was not dark. Although not emphasized by present-day ophthalmologists, the pupil in acute angle closure may appear somewhat green, as the mid-dilated pupil exposes the cataractous lens. The ancient Greeks would probably have described a (normal green iris or (diseased green pupil as glaukos. During the early Common Era, eye pain, a glaucous hue, pupil irregularities, and absence of light perception indicated a poor prognosis with couching. Galen associated the glaucous hue with a large, anterior, or hard crystalline lens. Medieval Arabic authors translated glaukos as zarqaa, which also commonly described light irides. Ibn Sina (otherwise known as Avicenna wrote that the zarqaa hue could occur due to anterior prominence of the lens and could occur in an acquired manner. The disease defined by the glaucous pupil in antiquity is ultimately indeterminate, as the complete syndrome of acute angle closure was not described. Nonetheless, it is intriguing that the glaucous pupil connoted a poor prognosis, and came to be associated with a large, anterior, or hard crystalline lens. Keywords: glaucoma, history of ophthalmology, couching

  9. RECONSTRUCTING THE SOLAR WIND FROM ITS EARLY HISTORY TO CURRENT EPOCH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetian, Vladimir S.; Usmanov, Arcadi V.

    2016-01-01

    Stellar winds from active solar-type stars can play a crucial role in removal of stellar angular momentum and erosion of planetary atmospheres. However, major wind properties except for mass-loss rates cannot be directly derived from observations. We employed a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic Alfvén wave driven solar wind model, ALF3D, to reconstruct the solar wind parameters including the mass-loss rate, terminal velocity, and wind temperature at 0.7, 2, and 4.65 Gyr. Our model treats the wind thermal electrons, protons, and pickup protons as separate fluids and incorporates turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating to properly describe proton and electron temperatures of the solar wind. To study the evolution of the solar wind, we specified three input model parameters, the plasma density, Alfvén wave amplitude, and the strength of the dipole magnetic field at the wind base for each of three solar wind evolution models that are consistent with observational constrains. Our model results show that the velocity of the paleo solar wind was twice as fast, ∼50 times denser and 2 times hotter at 1 AU in the Sun's early history at 0.7 Gyr. The theoretical calculations of mass-loss rate appear to be in agreement with the empirically derived values for stars of various ages. These results can provide realistic constraints for wind dynamic pressures on magnetospheres of (exo)planets around the young Sun and other active stars, which is crucial in realistic assessment of the Joule heating of their ionospheres and corresponding effects of atmospheric erosion

  10. Sources for the study of the history of the dominican studium generale in Krakow in the modern era. The state of research and research perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Szymborski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of the essay under consideration was investigation and characterized most important source materials stocked at the Archive of the Cracow’s Dominican Province to present the history of their studium generale during the Modern period. Also, the current knowledge of a.m. period of studium generale was screened- out and some searching hypothesis were proposed concerning the history of the Cracow’s Dominican studium generale. The searching time frame have been limited to XVI up to XVII century. Taken into consideration, the current status of research works performed so far, one ought to stated that the Modern Epoch has not been searched out with the same consciousness compare to the Medieval one. As the most important printed source materials, one ought to account the documents issued by the general and provincial chapters of the Convent. The documents of the provincial chapters have been listed and screened by Father Fabian Madura, and were stocked as the typescript formats at the Cracow’s Dominican Convent Library. Based on the searched source materials of General Chapter of Dominican Convent at Cracow, it is possible to present the general overview of the convent education system and its changes in due time. Due to the records found it would be possible to identify – position and name – the Dominicans nominated to the Convent stadium generale. The most important manuscript stocked at the Cracow’s Dominican Convent Archive as the education system is concern, is so called Liber Studii Generalis cracoviensis (rkps 20. This manuscript covers the list of friars who have been nominated to work at stadium generale. A.m. document has to verify and compare with other sources. Taken into consideration above mention facts, it seems to be as most important searching activities to describe the convent society of the Cracow’s Dominicans. At the essay some detailed searching hypothesis were presented, such as searching and reviewing

  11. The complex early life history of a marine estuarine-opportunist fish species, Solea turbynei (Soleidae from temperate South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine A. Strydom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The early life history stages and ecology of Solea turbynei, a marine estuarine-opportunist species, is described from nursery areas in Algoa Bay, South Africa. Early life history stages were collected over multiple years from known nursery habitats using plankton, fyke and larval seine nets. The larvae are described using morphometric measurements, meristic counts and pigmentation based on 29 individuals. Solea turbynei is differentiated from other Soleidae by the small size at flexion (3-4 mm, low myomere count and presence of two characteristic blotches of pigment on the dorsal fin. This species has a unique early life history strategy in that the larvae progressively span nearshore, surf zone and estuarine habitats with ontogeny. Abundance of preflexion stages peaks in summer in nearshore waters, indicative of peak spawning period but preflexion larvae are present throughout the year, indicating protracted spawning by adults. At flexion stage, larvae utilize surf zones where metamorphosis and settlement takes place. Early juveniles migrate into the sandy lower reaches of estuaries, after which fish take up residency to adulthood. Warm water is important for larval growth and survival in the nearshore, while turbidity shows a positive relationship with recruitment into estuarine nurseries.

  12. Modern Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Yuan Zhong

    2002-01-01

    This book is one of a series in the areas of high-energy physics, cosmology and gravitation published by the Institute of Physics. It includes courses given at a doctoral school on 'Relativistic Cosmology: Theory and Observation' held in Spring 2000 at the Centre for Scientific Culture 'Alessandro Volta', Italy, sponsored by SIGRAV-Societa Italiana di Relativita e Gravitazione (Italian Society of Relativity and Gravitation) and the University of Insubria. This book collects 15 review reports given by a number of outstanding scientists. They touch upon the main aspects of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models, such as cosmological models, the early universe, dark matter and dark energy, modern observational cosmology, cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, and numerical simulations in cosmology. In particular, the introduction to the basics of cosmology includes the basic equations, covariant and tetrad descriptions, Friedmann models, observation and horizons, etc. The ...

  13. Cumulative Effects of Nutrient Enrichment and Elevated Temperature Compromise the Early Life History Stages of the Coral Acropora tenuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humanes, Adriana; Noonan, Sam H C; Willis, Bette L; Fabricius, Katharina E; Negri, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Inshore coral reefs are experiencing the combined pressures of excess nutrient availability associated with coastal activities and warming seawater temperatures. Both pressures are known to have detrimental effects on the early life history stages of hard corals, but studies of their combined effects on early demographic stages are lacking. We conducted a series of experiments to test the combined effects of nutrient enrichment (three levels) and elevated seawater temperature (up to five levels) on early life history stages of the inshore coral Acropora tenuis, a common species in the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea. Gamete fertilization, larval survivorship and larval settlement were all significantly reduced as temperature increased, but only fertilization was further affected by simultaneous nutrient enrichment. Combined high temperatures and nutrient enrichment affected fertilization in an additive manner, whereas embryo abnormalities increased synergistically. Higher than normal temperatures (32°C) increased coral juvenile growth rates 1.6-fold, but mortality also increased by 50%. The co-occurrence of nutrient enrichment with high temperatures reduced juvenile mortality to 36%, ameliorating temperature stress (antagonistic interaction). Overall, the types of effect (additive vs synergistic or antagonistic) and their magnitude varied among life stages. Gamete and embryo stages were more affected by temperature stress and, in some cases, also by nutrient enrichment than juveniles. The data suggest that coastal runoff events might exacerbate the impacts of warming temperatures on fertilization if these events co-occur during corals spawning. The cumulative impacts of simultaneous exposure to nutrient enrichment and elevated temperatures over all early life history stages increases the likelihood for failure of larval supply and recruitment for this coral species. Our results suggest that improving the water quality of river discharges into coastal areas might help to

  14. Cumulative Effects of Nutrient Enrichment and Elevated Temperature Compromise the Early Life History Stages of the Coral Acropora tenuis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Sam H. C.; Willis, Bette L.; Fabricius, Katharina E.; Negri, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Inshore coral reefs are experiencing the combined pressures of excess nutrient availability associated with coastal activities and warming seawater temperatures. Both pressures are known to have detrimental effects on the early life history stages of hard corals, but studies of their combined effects on early demographic stages are lacking. We conducted a series of experiments to test the combined effects of nutrient enrichment (three levels) and elevated seawater temperature (up to five levels) on early life history stages of the inshore coral Acropora tenuis, a common species in the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea. Gamete fertilization, larval survivorship and larval settlement were all significantly reduced as temperature increased, but only fertilization was further affected by simultaneous nutrient enrichment. Combined high temperatures and nutrient enrichment affected fertilization in an additive manner, whereas embryo abnormalities increased synergistically. Higher than normal temperatures (32°C) increased coral juvenile growth rates 1.6-fold, but mortality also increased by 50%. The co-occurrence of nutrient enrichment with high temperatures reduced juvenile mortality to 36%, ameliorating temperature stress (antagonistic interaction). Overall, the types of effect (additive vs synergistic or antagonistic) and their magnitude varied among life stages. Gamete and embryo stages were more affected by temperature stress and, in some cases, also by nutrient enrichment than juveniles. The data suggest that coastal runoff events might exacerbate the impacts of warming temperatures on fertilization if these events co-occur during corals spawning. The cumulative impacts of simultaneous exposure to nutrient enrichment and elevated temperatures over all early life history stages increases the likelihood for failure of larval supply and recruitment for this coral species. Our results suggest that improving the water quality of river discharges into coastal areas might help to

  15. [Physiology and cybernetics: the history of mutual penetration of ideas, modern state and perspectives. To a 60-th anniversary of a writing the book "Cybernetics"by N. Wiener].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V I

    2007-01-01

    Description of the history of cybernetics origin and physiology influence on it is given. Role of Russian and foreign physiologists in becoming and development of cybernetics and contribution of cybernetic theorists (N. Wiener and A.A. Lyapunov) to physiology are shown. Becoming and a modern state of various sections of cybernetic physiology and perspective of connection of cybernetics with integrative physiology are considered.

  16. Preventing Early Child Maltreatment: Implications from a Longitudinal Study of Maternal Abuse History, Substance Use Problems, and Offspring Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, Karen; Berlin, Lisa J.; Rosanbalm, Katherine D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention science, this longitudinal, community based study of 499 mothers and their infants tested the hypothesis that mothers’ childhood history of maltreatment would predict maternal substance use problems, which in turn would predict offspring victimization. Mothers (35% White/non-Latina, 34% Black/non-Latina, 23% Latina, 7% other) were recruited and interviewed during pregnancy, and child protective services records were reviewed for the presence of the participants’ target infants between birth and age 26 months. Mediating pathways were examined through structural equation modeling and tested using the products of the coefficients approach. The mediated pathway from maternal history of sexual abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization was significant (standardized mediated path [ab]=.07, 95% CI [.02, .14]; effect size=.26), as was the mediated pathway from maternal history of physical abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization (standardized mediated path [ab]=.05, 95% CI [.01, .11]; effect size =.19). There was no significant mediated pathway from maternal history of neglect. Findings are discussed in terms of specific implications for child maltreatment prevention, including the importance of assessment and early intervention for maternal history of maltreatment and substance use problems, targeting women with maltreatment histories for substance use services, and integrating child welfare and parenting programs with substance use treatment. PMID:21240556

  17. The discovery of radium 100 years ago and the impact on the early history of nuclear science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adloff, J.P. [University Louis Pasteur, 63 Rue Saint Urbain 67100 Strasbourg (France)

    1999-09-01

    One hundred years ago, Pierre and Marie Curie reawakened the topic of uranic rays and discovered two radioelements, polonium in July 1898 and radium in December. The circumstances of these events which announced the beginning of radiochemistry are reviewed at the light of the laboratory notebooks and the publications of the authors. The role of radium in the early history of radioactivity and nuclear sciences is emphasized. (author)

  18. The discovery of radium 100 years ago and the impact on the early history of nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adloff, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    One hundred years ago, Pierre and Marie Curie reawakened the topic of uranic rays and discovered two radioelements, polonium in July 1898 and radium in December. The circumstances of these events which announced the beginning of radiochemistry are reviewed at the light of the laboratory notebooks and the publications of the authors. The role of radium in the early history of radioactivity and nuclear sciences is emphasized. (author)

  19. History of the modern astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    The book treats the following topics: structure and motion of the sky - classical astronomy, origin of astrophysics, macrocosm - microcosm, and techniques and organization of research. 86 black-and-white and 15 color plates are included

  20. Political history of modern Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Islam Islami

    2016-07-01

    Gamal Abdel Nasser was the one who established the Republic of Egypt and ended the monarchy rule in Egypt following the Egyptian revolution in 1952. Egypt was ruled autocratically by three presidents over the following six decades, by Nasser from 1954 until his death in 1970, by Anwar Sadat from 1971 until his assassination 1981, and by Hosni Mubarak from 1981 until his resignation in the face of the 2011 Egyptian revolution.

  1. Max Planck and modern physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Max Planck (1858-1947) is according to the words of Max von Laue the ''father of quantum physics''. This characteristic has until today continuance, although Planck stood for long time sceptically in front of his quantum hypothesis and so became a revolutionary in spite of his wishes. Eclipted by this pioneer role of the scholar for the foundation of the quantum theory are the numerous further works of the scholer, by which he has in many other fields provided eminent things. Starting with his fundamental contribution to thermodynamics, which make him to an excellent researcher of the field, until the works in the early history of relativity theory and the promotion of the young Einstein, which let him become also to a pioneer of the second central pillar of modern physics. The present collection attempts to show the whole spectrum of the physical works of Max Planck and his role in the formation of modern physics. [de

  2. Associations of personal and family preeclampsia history with the risk of early-, intermediate- and late-onset preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Heather A; Tahir, Hassaan; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads

    2013-12-01

    Preeclampsia encompasses multiple conditions of varying severity. We examined the recurrence and familial aggregation of preeclampsia by timing of onset, which is a marker for severity. We ascertained personal and family histories of preeclampsia for women who delivered live singletons in Denmark in 1978-2008 (almost 1.4 million pregnancies). Using log-linear binomial regression, we estimated risk ratios for the associations between personal and family histories of preeclampsia and the risk of early-onset (before 34 weeks of gestation, which is typically the most severe), intermediate-onset (at 34-36 weeks of gestation), and late-onset (after 36 weeks of gestation) preeclampsia. Previous early-, intermediate-, or late-onset preeclampsia increased the risk of recurrent preeclampsia with the same timing of onset 25.2 times (95% confidence interval (CI): 21.8, 29.1), 19.7 times (95% CI: 17.0, 22.8), and 10.3 times (95% CI: 9.85, 10.9), respectively, compared with having no such history. Preeclampsia in a woman's family was associated with a 24%-163% increase in preeclampsia risk, with the strongest associations for early- and intermediate-onset preeclampsia in female relatives. Preeclampsia in the man's family did not affect a woman's risk of early-onset preeclampsia and was only weakly associated with her risks of intermediate- and late-onset preeclampsia. Early-onset preeclampsia appears to have the largest genetic component, whereas environmental factors likely contribute most to late-onset preeclampsia. The role of paternal genes in the etiology of preeclampsia appears to be limited.

  3. Early life history pelagic exposure profiles of selected commercially important fish species in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Miriam J.; Mier, Kathryn L.

    2016-10-01

    A synthesis of nearly four decades of ichthyoplankton survey data from the Gulf of Alaska was undertaken to provide the most comprehensive information available on the early life history ecology of five focal species: Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus), Walleye Pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus), Pacific Ocean Perch (Sebastes alutus), Sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria), and Arrowtooth Flounder (Atheresthes stomias). This analysis of historical data, along with information from published studies, is presented here in the form of ecological reviews of the species during their planktonic phase. The reviews include descriptions of temporal and spatial patterns of exposure to the environment, and interpretation regarding associated sensitivities to environmental forcing. On a temporal scale, patterns in abundance of eggs and larvae are synthesized that characterize seasonal exposure to the pelagic environment, and interannual variation that is presumed to incorporate responses to long-term environmental forcing. Spatial patterns are synthesized to identify horizontal and vertical extent of egg and larval distributions, delineate areas of primary larval habitat, and illuminate egg and larval drift pathways. The observed patterns are discussed with respect to characterizing species early life history strategies, identifying long-term adaptations to the Gulf of Alaska environment, and associated resilience and vulnerability factors that may modulate early life responses to environmental forcing in this region. For each species, gaps in knowledge are identified and are concerned primarily with the period of transition between the larval and juvenile stage, and feeding habits and ecology across seasons, habitats and sub-intervals of early ontogeny. These early life history reviews advance our ecological understanding of the pelagic phase, and fine-tune our focus for the investigation of potential response mechanisms to environmental forcing at appropriate, species-specific temporal

  4. Contesting modernities : projects of modernisation in Chile, 1964-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, Gerard van der

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, Chilean history has been characterised by the implementation of widely different political projects. Despite the ideological differences between them, these projects have shared a strong orientation towards modernity and odernisation. All of them have been focused on making

  5. Early thermal history of Rhea: the role of serpentinization and liquid state convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowski, Leszek; Losiak, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Intorduction: Thermal history of Rhea from the beginning of accretion is investigated. The numerical model of convection combined with the parameterized theory is developed. Melting of the satellite's matter, gravitational differentiation and serpentinization of silicates are included. The role of the following parameters of the model is investigated: time of beginning of accretion, duration of accretion, viscosity of ice close to the melting point, activation energy in the formula for viscosity E, thermal conductivity of silicate component, ammonia content X, and energy of serpentinization. 1. Numerical model: In our calculations we use numerical model developed by Czechowski (2012) (see e.g. description in [1]). The model is based on parameterized theory of convection combined with 1-dimensional equation of the heat transfer in spherical coordinates: δT(r,t)- ρcp δt = div(k(r,T ) gradT (r,t))+ Q(r,T), where r is the radial distance (spherical coordinate), ρ is the density [kg m-3], cp [J kg1 K-1 ] is the specific heat, Q [W kg-1] is the heating rate, and k[W m-1 K-1] is the thermal conductivity. Q(r,t) includes sources and sinks of the heat. The equation is solved in time dependent region [0, R(t)]. During accretion the radius R(t) increases in time according to formula: R(t) = atfor tini tac , i.e. after the accretion (see e.g. [2]), where tinidenotes beginning of accretion and tac denotes duration of this process. If the Rayleigh number in the considered layer exceeds its critical value Racr then convection starts. It leads to effective heat transfer. The full description of convection is given by a velocity field and temperature distribution. However, we are interested in convection as a process of heat transport only. For solid state convection (SSC) heat transport can be described by dimensionless Nusselt number Nu. We use the following definition of the Nu: Nu= (True total surface heat flow)/(Total heat flow without convection). The heat transport by

  6. THE HORSE-STEALING AS A SOCIAL PHENOMENON BY THE EXAMPLE OF BASHKIRIA: EXPERIENCE OF HISTORY IN THE CONTEXT OF MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Gabdulchaevna Galieva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is studying, by the example of Bashkiria, horse-stealing as social phenomenon that has a centuries-old history and is relevant in our days. The work has been prepared on the published historical and ethnographic works, documents of the National Archives of the Republic Bashkortostan, local press of past centuries, folklore, Internet sites and field materials of the author. Methodology. The basic of research is the comparative historical and problem-chronological methods. Results. It is shown that the thieves predecessors studies are characterized as criminals who cause irreparable damage to farms. Speaks thesis that in Bashkortostan related to horse thieves in different periods differed. In a developed cattle breeding horse thieves single admired due to the presence of talent to work on the animal, its ability to silently take away (the loss of a horse does not lead to the ruin of the economy. Horse stealing was developed in connection with the custom of nomadic barymta (seizure of cattle as a way to avenge the insult, or compensation for damages. After removal of the Bashkir land for factories, villages and farming settlers, the translation of the policy of settlement and Bashkirs to agriculture, pasture and a sharp decrease as a result of reducing the number of livestock, cattle-lifter Bashkirs also severely punished, as in the Russian and other peoples. This is evidenced by numerous court cases materials. Over time, horse stealing was just a way of gain. The main motive of modern criminals is to steal horses (including pure-bred with the further implementation of horse meat, sometimes for ransom (through placement on websites. “Epidemic” horse stealing in recent years in Bashkiria and other regions due to the presence of this natural landscape (forest steppe and socio-economic conditions (natural market, semi-underground cafes, high meat prices, the development of farms, promotion of the horse

  7. Modern Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuanzhong

    2002-06-21

    This book is one of a series in the areas of high-energy physics, cosmology and gravitation published by the Institute of Physics. It includes courses given at a doctoral school on 'Relativistic Cosmology: Theory and Observation' held in Spring 2000 at the Centre for Scientific Culture 'Alessandro Volta', Italy, sponsored by SIGRAV-Societa Italiana di Relativita e Gravitazione (Italian Society of Relativity and Gravitation) and the University of Insubria. This book collects 15 review reports given by a number of outstanding scientists. They touch upon the main aspects of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models, such as cosmological models, the early universe, dark matter and dark energy, modern observational cosmology, cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, and numerical simulations in cosmology. In particular, the introduction to the basics of cosmology includes the basic equations, covariant and tetrad descriptions, Friedmann models, observation and horizons, etc. The chapters on the early universe involve inflationary theories, particle physics in the early universe, and the creation of matter in the universe. The chapters on dark matter (DM) deal with experimental evidence of DM, neutrino oscillations, DM candidates in supersymmetry models and supergravity, structure formation in the universe, dark-matter search with innovative techniques, and dark energy (cosmological constant), etc. The chapters about structure in the universe consist of the basis for structure formation, quantifying large-scale structure, cosmic background fluctuation, galaxy space distribution, and the clustering of galaxies. In the field of modern observational cosmology, galaxy surveys and cluster surveys are given. The chapter on gravitational lensing describes the lens basics and models, galactic microlensing and galaxy clusters as lenses. The last chapter, 'Numerical simulations in cosmology', deals with spatial and

  8. Comment on "Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kieren J; Cooper, Alan; Phillips, Matthew J

    2015-09-25

    Jarvis et al. (Research Articles, 12 December 2014, p. 1320) presented molecular clock analyses that suggested that most modern bird orders diverged just after the mass extinction event at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (about 66 million years ago). We demonstrate that this conclusion results from the use of a single inappropriate maximum bound, which effectively precludes the Cretaceous diversification overwhelmingly supported by previous molecular studies. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Medieval Japan. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.5. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.5 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of medieval Japan." Seventh-grade students describe the significance of Japan's proximity to China and Korea and the influence of these countries on Japan; discuss the reign of…

  10. Medieval Europe. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.6. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.6 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe." Seventh-grade students study the geography of Europe and the Eurasian land mass; describe the spread of Christianity north of the Alps and…

  11. A New Model of the Early Paleozoic Tectonics and Evolutionary History in the Northern Qinling, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yunpeng; Zhang, Guowei; Yang, Zhao; Qu, Hongjun; Liu, Xiaoming

    2010-05-01

    The Qinling Orogenic Belt extends from the Qinling Mountains in the west to the Dabie Mountains in the east. It lies between the North China and South China Blocks, and is bounded on the north by the Lushan fault and on the south by the Mianlue-Bashan-Xiangguang fault (Zhang et al., 2000). The Qinling Orogenic Belt itself is divided into the North and South Qinling Terranes by the Shangdan suture zone. Although the Shangdan zone is thought to represent the major suture separating the two blocks, there still exists debate about the timing and mechanism of convergence between these two blocks. For instance, some authors suggested an Early Paleozoic collision between the North China Block and South China Block (Ren et al., 1991; Kroner et al., 1993; Zhai et al., 1998). Others postulated left-lateral strike-slip faulting along the Shangdan suture at ca. 315 Ma and inferred a pre-Devonian collision between the two blocks (Mattauer et al., 1985; Xu et al., 1988). Geochemistry of fine-grained sediments in the Qinling Mountains was used to argue for a Silurian-Devonian collision (Gao et al., 1995). A Late Triassic collision has also been proposed (Sengor, 1985; Hsu et al., 1987; Wang et al., 1989), based on the formation of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in the easternmost part of the Qinling Orogenic Belt at ~230 Ma (e.g., Li et al., 1993; Ames et al., 1996). Paleomagnetic data favor a Late Triassic-Middle Jurassic amalgamation of the North China and South China Blocks (Zhao and Coe, 1987; Enkin et al., 1992). It is clear that most authors thought that the Qinling Mountains are a collisional orogen, even they have different methods about the timing of the orogeny. Based on new detailed investigations, we propose a new model of the Early Paleozoic Tectonics and Evolutionary History between the North China and South China Blocks along the Shangdan Suture. The Shangdan suture is marked by a great number of ophiolites, island-arc volcanic rocks and other related rock

  12. From the Renaissance to the Modern World—Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Iver Kaufman

    2012-01-01

    On November 11 and 12, 2011, a symposium held at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill honored John M. Headley, Emeritus Professor of History. The organizers, Professor Melissa Bullard—Headley’s colleague in the department of history at that university—along with Professors Paul Grendler (University of Toronto) and James Weiss (Boston College), as well as Nancy Gray Schoonmaker, coordinator of the Program in Medieval and Early Modern Studies—assembled presenters, respondents, and do...

  13. Review of Periodical Literature on the History of Education Published in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Mark; Kirke, Alice

    2017-01-01

    This review considers the periodical literature on the history of education published in 2016. It discusses general long-term trends in the field, but focuses mainly on the key areas of research in 2016 itself. The review is divided into several sections: ancient, medieval and early modern history; schooling and education policy; the history of…

  14. Late-Modern Symbolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2015-01-01

    Through analysis of key texts, I seek to demonstrate the explanative potential of Durkheim’s sociology of religion in the present context. I critically readdress the idea, found in his early work, that modernity is characterized by a rupture with pre-modern forms of solidarity. First, I investigate...... the ways in which Durkheim sets up a stark distinction between the pre-modern and the modern in his early work, and how this distinction is further cemented by his orthodox critique of the modern economy and its negative effects on social life. Second, I show how another timeless and positive understanding...... of “mechanical” solidarity is to be found behind the “symbolist” template crystalizing in Durkheim’s late work. Third, I develop this template for a modern context by critically addressing and removing other obstacles and prejudices on Durkheim’s part....

  15. Influencing factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents in patients with stroke history following off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Jia, Ming; Jia, Shijie; Wan, Jiuhe; Zhou, Xiao; Luo, Zhimin; Zhou, Ye; Zhang, Jianqun

    2014-06-01

    To analyse risk factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents following off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) in patients with stroke history, and to propose preventive measures to reduce the incidence of these events. A total of 468 patients with a history of stroke underwent OPCAB surgery in Beijing Anzhen Hospital of China from January 2010 to September 2012. They were retrospectively divided into two groups according to the occurrence of early acute cerebrovascular accidents within 48 hours following OPCAB. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to find risk or protective factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents following the OPCAB. Fifty-two patients (11.1%) suffered from early acute cerebrovascular accidents in 468 patients, including 39 cases of cerebral infarction, two cases of cerebral haemorrhage, 11 cases of transient ischaemic attack (TIA). There were significant differences between the two groups in preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35%, severe bilateral carotid artery stenosis, poorly controlled hypertension, intraoperative application of Enclose® II proximal anastomotic device, postoperative acute myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, hypotension, ventilation time > 48h, ICU duration >48h and mortality. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative severe bilateral carotid stenosis (OR=6.378, 95%CI: 2.278-20.987) and preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35% (OR=2.737, 95%CI: 1.267-6.389), postoperative acute myocardial infarction (OR=3.644, 95%CI: 1.928-6.876), postoperative atrial fibrillation (OR=3.104, 95%CI:1.135∼8.016) and postoperative hypotension (OR=4.173, 95%CI: 1.836∼9.701) were independent risk factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents in patients with a history of stroke following OPCAB procedures, while intraoperative application of Enclose® II proximal anastomotic device was protective factor (OR=0.556, 95%CI: 0.337-0.925). This

  16. The Role of Residential Early Parenting Services in Increasing Parenting Confidence in Mothers with A History of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Lynette

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Mothers with a history of infertility may experience parenting difficulties and challenges. This study was conducted to investigate the role of residential early parenting services in increasing parenting confidence in mothers with a history of infertility. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective chart review study using the quantitative data from the clients attending the Karitane Residential Units and Parenting Services (known as Karitane RUs during 2013. Parenting confidence (using Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale-KPCS, depression, demographics, reproductive and medical history, as well as child’s information were assessed from a sample of 27 mothers who had a history of infertility and who attended the Karitane RUs for support and assistance. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 19. Results More than half of the women (59.3% reported a relatively low level of parenting confidence on the day of admission. The rate of low parenting confidence, however, dropped to 22.2% after receiving 4-5 days support and training in the Karitane RUs. The mean score of the KPCS increased from 36.9 ± 5.6 before the intervention to 41.1 ± 3.4 after the intervention, indicating an improvement in the parenting confidence of the mothers after attending the Karitane RUs (P<0.0001. No statistically significant association was found between maternal low parenting confidence with parental demographics (including age, country of birth, and employment status, a history of help-seeking, symptoms of depression, as well as child’s information [including gender, age, siblings, diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD and use of medication]. Conclusion Having a child after a period of infertility can be a stressful experience for some mothers. This can result in low parenting confidence and affect parent-child attachment. Our findings emphasized on the role of the residential early parenting services in promoting the level of

  17. Liquid Modernity & Late Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.

    In Liquid Modernity, Bauman portrays Adorno and the rest of the early Frankfurt School as sociologists and thinkers belonging to the ‘heavy’ phase of modernity. In other words, they are deemed irrelevant to the discussion of current sociological time diagnoses and the purpose of critique under co...

  18. The Sky in Early Modern English Literature A Study of Allusions to Celestial Events in Elizabethan and Jacobean Writing, 1572-1620

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, David H

    2011-01-01

    When a dissertation gets completed, the normal rule is that it is never read. By anyone.  David H. Levy’s dissertation - The Sky in Early Modern English Literature:  A Study of Allusions to Celestial Events in Elizabethan and Jacobean Writing, 1572-1620 - is different.  It opens a whole new interdisciplinary field, which involves the beautiful relationship between the night sky and the works of the early modern period of English Literature.  Although the sky enters into much of literature through the ages, the period involving William Shakespeare and his colleagues is particularly rich.               When Shakespeare was about 8 years old, his father probably took him outside his Stratford home into their northward-facing back yard.  There, father and son gazed upon the first great new star visible in the past 500 years, shining forth as brightly as Venus, and even visible in daylight.  This new star, which we now know as a supernova, completely unhinged old ideas about the cosmos.  Com...

  19. Life history plasticity of a tropical seabird in response to El Niño anomalies during early life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ancona

    Full Text Available Food shortage and other challenges associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO experienced early in life may have long-term impacts on life history traits, but these potential impacts remain virtually unexplored. By monitoring 2556 blue-footed boobies from 11 cohorts, we showed that birds facing warm water ENSO conditions (and probably low food availability in the natal year were underweight at fledging, recruited earlier and bred less frequently, but showed no deficit in longevity or breeding success over the first 10 years. Life history impacts of ENSO were substantial when experienced in the prenatal year, the natal year, or the second year of life, and absent when experienced in the third year of life, implying that harsh conditions have greater effects when experienced earlier in life. Sexual differences in impacts depended on the age when warm water conditions were experienced: pre-natal and natal experience, respectively, induced early recruitment and influenced the relationship between age and laying date only in females, whereas second year experience reduced total breeding success only of males. Most surprising were positive transgenerational impacts in females: daughters of females that experienced ENSO conditions in their natal year showed improved breeding success. Developmental plasticity of boobies thus enables them to largely neutralize potential long-term impacts of harsh climatic conditions experienced early in life.

  20. Life history plasticity of a tropical seabird in response to El Niño anomalies during early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, Sergio; Drummond, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Food shortage and other challenges associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) experienced early in life may have long-term impacts on life history traits, but these potential impacts remain virtually unexplored. By monitoring 2556 blue-footed boobies from 11 cohorts, we showed that birds facing warm water ENSO conditions (and probably low food availability) in the natal year were underweight at fledging, recruited earlier and bred less frequently, but showed no deficit in longevity or breeding success over the first 10 years. Life history impacts of ENSO were substantial when experienced in the prenatal year, the natal year, or the second year of life, and absent when experienced in the third year of life, implying that harsh conditions have greater effects when experienced earlier in life. Sexual differences in impacts depended on the age when warm water conditions were experienced: pre-natal and natal experience, respectively, induced early recruitment and influenced the relationship between age and laying date only in females, whereas second year experience reduced total breeding success only of males. Most surprising were positive transgenerational impacts in females: daughters of females that experienced ENSO conditions in their natal year showed improved breeding success. Developmental plasticity of boobies thus enables them to largely neutralize potential long-term impacts of harsh climatic conditions experienced early in life.

  1. 2013 Early Life History Experiment Data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  2. Efficacy of Early Diagnosis and Treatment in Women with a Family History of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Møller

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surveillance programmes for women at increased genetic risk of breast cancer are being established worldwide but little is known of their efficacy in early detection of cancers and hence reduction in mortality.

  3. 2012 Early Life History Experiment Data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  4. Energetic endpoints provide early indicators of life history effects in a freshwater gastropod exposed to the fungicide, pyraclostrobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidder, Bridgette N.; Reátegui-Zirena, Evelyn G.; Olson, Adric D.; Salice, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Organismal energetics provide important insights into the effects of environmental toxicants. We aimed to determine the effects of pyraclostrobin on Lymnaea stagnalis by examining energy allocation patterns and life history traits. Juvenile snails exposed to pyraclostrobin decreased feeding rate and increased apparent avoidance behaviors at environmentally relevant concentrations. In adults, we found that sublethal concentrations of pyraclostrobin did not affect reproductive output, however, there were significant effects on developmental endpoints with longer time to hatch and decreased hatching success in pyraclostrobin-exposed egg masses. Further, there were apparent differences in developmental effects depending on whether mothers were also exposed to pyraclostrobin suggesting this chemical can exert intergenerational effects. Pyraclostrobin also affected protein and carbohydrate content of eggs in mothers that were exposed to pyraclostrobin. Significant effects on macronutrient content of eggs occurred at lower concentrations than effects on gross endpoints such as hatching success and time to hatch suggesting potential value for these endpoints as early indicators of ecologically relevant stress. These results provide important insight into the effects of a common fungicide on important endpoints for organismal energetics and life history. - Highlights: • We exposed a freshwater snail to relevant concentrations of pyraclostrobin. • We monitored energetic and life history endpoints. • Pyraclostrobin affected feeding, hatching success and egg macronutrient content. • Energetic-based endpoints may provide valuable insight to toxic effects. - The fungicide pyraclostrobin at environmentally relevant concentrations effects a range of life history and energetic endpoints in the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis.

  5. Early Musical Training in Bel Canto Vocal Technique: A Brief History and Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Christine Wondolowski

    This paper offers a brief history and philosophy of the origins of bel canto vocal style and describes the pedagogical methods used to achieve bel canto ideals in singing. The document discusses the adoption and development of this technique and how it developed over long periods of preparation in the foregoing centuries before the Baroque era.…

  6. The Legacy of Early Insecurity Histories in Shaping Adolescent Adaptation to Interparental Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Patrick T.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Bascoe, Sonnette M.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether the mediational pathway involving interparental conflict, adolescent emotional insecurity, and their psychological problems was altered by their earlier childhood histories of insecurity. Participants included 230 families, with the first of the five measurement occasions occurring when children were in first grade…

  7. Early-Life Characteristics, Psychiatric History, and Cognition Trajectories in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Although considerable attention has been paid to the relationship between later-life depression and cognitive function, the relationship between a history of psychiatric problems and cognitive function is not very well documented. Few studies of relationships between childhood health, childhood disadvantage, and cognitive…

  8. Modernity after Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A strategy for the second modernization raises, beyond objectives, a series of epistemicresponsibilities. It is known that modernization stemming from the Enlightment had, among other things,the pretense that it is a project which is self-legitimating. Its profound rationales are the only justification.Referential self-centering proved to be the one that made possible a practice of the new. Modernizationhaving the function of renouncing myth – meaning an eliminatory formula for the past – and thefixation in the opportunity and potentiality of the present, seemed to close an insoluble but extremelyengrossing problem: that of a propensity towards utopia, of the risky escape towards the future. Thetraditionalization of the new constitutes a support for the daring to break out of the captivity of themoment.Modernization becomes the experience of combining the new which, thus, creates a succession ofpresent times. The future is no longer the result of fantasy, but a system’s direct expression to combine thenew. Therefore the future is an option for one or another model of the present, often tested previouslysomewhere else. In a non-metaphysical way, the future can be seen, touched, tried, lived by simplegeographical movement. The sense of evolution has de-temporalized taking the form of the concomitant,parallel, enclosed, neighboring space. We just have to be in the trend, to evolve in the context.Globalization defines the context and its conception – as a project of the second modernity – showsus the trends. The problem is how to understand the context in order to find the sense of the trend. Are wethe load the sense with the values of the first modernity or will we have to turn to the values of anothermodernity? Why do we have to move away from the significance of the processes which made up the firstmodernity? How do we relate to the content of the new context in which the structural trends of today’sworld are taking place? What is the

  9. Early life history and spatiotemporal changes in distribution of the rediscovered Suwannee moccasinshell Medionidus walkeri (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nathan A.; Mcleod, John; Holcomb, Jordan; Rowe, Matthew T.; Williams, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate distribution data are critical to the development of conservation and management strategies for imperiled species, particularly for narrow endemics with life history traits that make them vulnerable to extinction. Medionidus walkeri is a rare freshwater mussel endemic to the Suwannee River Basin in southeastern North America. This species was rediscovered in 2012 after a 16-year hiatus between collections and is currently proposed for listing under the Endangered Species Act. Our study fills knowledge gaps regarding changes in distribution and early life history requirements of M. walkeri. Spatiotemporal changes in M. walkeri distribution were displayed using a conservation status assessment map incorporating metadata from 98 historical (1916–1999) and 401 recent (2000–2015) site surveys from museums and field notes representing records for 312 specimens. Recent surveys detected M. walkeri only in the middle Suwannee subbasin (n = 86, 22 locations) and lower Santa Fe subbasin (n = 2, 2 locations), and it appears the species may be extirpated from 67% of historically occupied 10-digit HUCs. In our laboratory experiments, M. walkeri successfully metamorphosed on Percina nigrofasciata (56.2% ± 8.9) and Etheostoma edwini (16.1% ± 7.9) but not on Trinectes maculatus, Lepomis marginatus, Notropis texanus, Noturus leptacanthus, Etheostoma fusiforme, or Gambusia holbrooki. We characterize M. walkeri as a lure-displaying host fish specialist and a long-term brooder (bradytictic), gravid from fall to early summer of the following year. The early life history and distribution data presented here provide the baseline framework for listing decisions and future efforts to conserve and recover the species.

  10. Origins of modern data analysis linked to the beginnings and early development of computer science and information engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Murtagh, F.

    2008-01-01

    The history of data analysis that is addressed here is underpinned by two themes, -- those of tabular data analysis, and the analysis of collected heterogeneous data. "Exploratory data analysis" is taken as the heuristic approach that begins with data and information and seeks underlying explanation for what is observed or measured. I also cover some of the evolving context of research and applications, including scholarly publishing, technology transfer and the economic relationship of the u...

  11. by way of vs. by means of: On the Expression of Instrumentality in Middle English and Early Modern English

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Barranco, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Grammaticalization is defined as “a process whereby a lexical item, with full referential meaning, develops grammatical meaning” (Fischer and Rosenbach 2000: 2; see also Hopper 1991; Diewald and Wischer 2002). According to Rissanen, grammaticalization may occur both with native and borrowed items at any stage of the History of English, being developed from one single lexical item or a group of words (2000: 152). This is the case of by way of and by means of that, according to t...

  12. Beginnings and early history of the International Conferences on Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems: development of the basic ideas in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardetzky, Oleg

    2010-09-01

    The early history of the principal meeting in the field of biological NMR spectroscopy, the International Conference on Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems (ICMRBS), is presented from the perspective of one of the founders. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Connecting Amazonian, Cerrado, and Atlantic Forest histories: Paraphyly, old divergences, and modern population dynamics in tyrant-manakins (Neopelma/Tyranneutes, Aves: Pipridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurucho, João Marcos Guimarães; Ashley, Mary V; Ribas, Camila C; Bates, John M

    2018-06-11

    Several biogeographic hypotheses have been proposed to explain connections between Amazonian and Atlantic forest biotas. These hypotheses are related to the timing of the connections and their geographic patterns. We performed a phylogeographic investigation of Tyrant-manakins (Aves: Pipridae, Neopelma/Tyranneutes) which include species inhabiting the Amazon and Atlantic forests, as well as gallery forests of the Cerrado. Using DNA sequence data, we determined phylogenetic relationships, temporal and geographic patterns of diversification, and recent intraspecific population genetic patterns, relative to the history of these biomes. We found Neopelma to be a paraphyletic genus, as N. chrysolophum is sister to Neopelma + Tyranneutes, with an estimated divergence of approximately 18 Myrs BP, within the oldest estimated divergence times of other Amazonian and Atlantic forest avian taxa. Subsequent divergences in the group occurred from Mid Miocene to Early Pliocene and involved mainly the Amazonian species, with an expansion into and subsequent speciation in the Cerrado gallery forests by N. pallescens. We found additional structure within N. chrysocephalum and N. sulphureiventer. Analysis of recent population dynamics in N. chrysocephalum, N. sulphureiventer, and N. pallescens revealed recent demographic fluctuations and restrictions to gene flow related to environmental changes since the last glacial cycle. No genetic structure was detected across the Amazon River in N. pallescens. The tyrant-manakins represent an old historical connection between the Amazon and Atlantic Forest. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. ‘A Wonderfull Monster Borne in Germany’: Hairy Girls in Medieval and Early Modern German Book, Court and Performance Culture*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katritzky, MA

    2014-01-01

    Human hirsuteness, or pathological hair growth, can be symptomatic of various conditions, including genetic mutation or inheritance, and some cancers and hormonal disturbances. Modern investigations into hirsuteness were initiated by nineteenth-century German physicians. Most early modern European cases of hypertrichosis (genetically determined all-over body and facial hair) involve German-speaking parentage or patronage, and are documented in German print culture. Through the Wild Man tradition, modern historians routinely link early modern reception of historical hypertrichosis cases to issues of ethnicity without, however, recognising early modern awareness of links between temporary hirsuteness and the pathological nexus of starvation and anorexia. Here, four cases of hirsute females are reconsidered with reference to this medical perspective, and to texts and images uncovered by my current research at the Herzog August Library and German archives. One concerns an Italian girl taken to Prague in 1355 by the Holy Roman Empress, Anna von Schweidnitz. Another focuses on Madeleine and Antonietta Gonzalez, daughters of the ‘Wild Man’ of Tenerife, documented at German courts in the 1580s. The third and fourth cases consider the medieval bearded Sankt Kümmernis (also known as St Wilgefortis or St Uncumber), and the seventeenth-century Bavarian fairground performer Barbara Urslerin. Krankhafter menschlicher Hirsutismus kann aufgrund unterschiedlicher Ursachen auftreten, zu denen u.a. genetische Veränderungen und Vererbung, verschiedene Krebserkrankungen und hormonelle Störungen gehören. Die moderne Hirsutismus-Forschung ist im 19. Jh. von deutschen Forschern initiiert worden. Die meisten europäischen frühneuzeitlichen Erscheinungen von Hypertrichose (dem genetisch bedingten Haarwuchs am gesamten Körper und im Gesicht) gehen auf deutschsprachige Eltern oder Förderer zurück und sind in Deutschland in den Druck gelangt. Bei Untersuchungen des Motivs des

  15. Modern teaching for modern education

    OpenAIRE

    Mirascieva, Snezana

    2016-01-01

    Carrying the epithet of being contemporary education today means modern teaching. If modern education is a state in the field of education of all its elements, then teaching will also be a state with its own special features defining it as modern. The main issues of concern in this paper relate to what constitutes modern teaching, which features determine it as being modern, and how much is teaching today following the trend of modernization.

  16. The early history of research funding in South Africa: From the Research Grant Board to the FRD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndivhuwo M. Luruli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African government has a long tradition of supporting research at public higher education institutions. Such support commenced in the early 20th century, although the exact nature of the support at that time is poorly documented. The oldest research funding model in the country was agency funding, which started as early as 1911 through the Royal Society of South Africa. A few years later, in 1918, a more coordinated funding body called the Research Grant Board (RGB was established in the Union of South Africa. The RGB offered competitive funding to individual academics in the natural and physical sciences. The human sciences were only supported much later with the establishment of the Council for Educational and Social Research in 1929. Here we review the history of research funding in South Africa, with a special focus on the work of the RGB between 1918 and 1938.

  17. How Should Clinicians Counsel a Woman with a Strong Family History of Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease about Her Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapes, Marianna V; O'Brien, Barbara M; King, Louise P

    2017-07-01

    Counseling patients regarding the benefits, harms, and dilemmas of genetic testing is one of the greatest ethical challenges facing reproductive medicine today. With or without test results, clinicians grapple with how to communicate potential genetic risks as patients weigh their reproductive options. Here, we consider a case of a woman with a strong family history of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD). She is early in her pregnancy and unsure about learning her own genetic status. We address the ethical ramifications of each of her options, which include genetic testing, genetic counseling, and termination versus continuation of the pregnancy. Our analysis foregrounds clinicians' role in helping to ensure autonomous decision making as the patient reflects on these clinical options in light of her goals and values. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Dama roberti, a new species of deer from the early Middle Pleistocene of Europe, and the origins of modern fallow deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Marzia; Lister, Adrian M.

    2013-06-01

    The ancestry of the modern fallow deer, Dama dama, has been tentatively traced back to Pliocene/Early Pleistocene forms referred to 'Pseudodama', characterized by unpalmated three- or four-point antlers. By the late Middle Pleistocene, Dama with palmated antlers appears, as Dama dama clactoniana. However, fallow deer from the interim period, the early Middle Pleistocene, are poorly-known. A new specimen from Pakefield (Suffolk, UK), represented by a portion of cranium with a substantial part of both antlers plus a mandible and scapula, is the most complete medium-sized deer specimen from the British early Middle Pleistocene (ca 700 ka). The position and orientation of the basal tine, together with dental characters and mandibular morphology, are typical of fallow deer. The narrow palmation is reminiscent of D. dama clactoniana, but the lack of palmation tines is unique. Moreover, the lack of second (and third) tines in an adult specimen differs from both D. dama dama and D. d. clactoniana, being a primitive character shared with the last representatives of 'Pseudodama' which, on the other hand, has a circular beam lacking any palmation. This combination of features justifies the erection of a new species provisionally placed within the genus Dama, Dama roberti n. sp. Another specimen, from Soleilhac (Auvergne, France), represented by portions of the two antlers, a mandible and a tibia, shares antler morphology with the Pakefield specimen and can be ascribed to the same new species. Isolated antler and dental remains from coeval British sites are tentatively ascribed to D. roberti n. sp. The new species has implications for the ancestry of modern fallow deer.

  19. Effects of maternal history of depression and early life maltreatment on children's health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Katja; Fuchs, Anna; Bermpohl, Felix; Meyer, Justus; Führer, Daniel; Reichl, Corinna; Reck, Corinna; Kluczniok, Dorothea; Kaess, Michael; Hindi Attar, Catherine; Möhler, Eva; Bierbaum, Anna-Lena; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Jaite, Charlotte; Winter, Sibylle Maria; Herpertz, Sabine C; Brunner, Romuald; Bödeker, Katja; Resch, Franz

    2018-01-01

    There is a well-established link between maternal depression and child mental health. Similar effects have been found for maternal history of early life maltreatment (ELM). However, studies investigating the relationship of children's quality of life and maternal depression are scarce and none have been conducted for the association with maternal ELM. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal history of ELM and depression on children's health-related quality of life and to identify mediating factors accounting for these effects. Our study involved 194 mothers with and without history of depression and/or ELM and their children between five and 12 years. Children's health-related quality of life was assessed by maternal proxy- and child self-ratings using the KIDSCREEN. We considered maternal sensitivity and maternal parenting stress as potential mediators. We found an effect of maternal history of depression but not of maternal history of ELM on health-related quality of life. Maternal stress and sensitivity mediated the effects of maternal depression on child global health-related quality of life, as well as on the dimensions Autonomy & Parent Relation, School Environment (maternal and child rating), and Physical Wellbeing (child rating). Due to the cross-sectional design of the study, causal interpretations must be made with caution. Some scales yielded low internal consistency. Maternal impairments in areas of parenting which possibly developed during acute depression persist even after remission of acute affective symptoms. Interventions should target parenting stress and sensitivity in parents with prior depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Irish Corned Beef: A Culinary History

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Con Iomaire, Máirtín; Gallagher, Pádraic Óg

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes that a better knowledge of culinary history enriches all culinary stakeholders. The article will discuss the origins and history of corned beef in Irish cuisine and culture. It outlines how cattle have been central to the ancient Irish way of life for centuries, but were cherished more for their milk than their meat. In the early modern period, with the decline in the power of the Gaelic lords, cattle became and economic commodity that was exported to England. The Cattle...