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Sample records for historical fortymile river

  1. Regional baseline geochemistry and environmental effects of gold placer mining operations on the Fortymile River, eastern Alaska: A section in Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanty, Richard B.; Wang, Bronwen; Vohden, Jim; Briggs, Paul H.; Meier, Allen L.

    2000-01-01

    A systematic water-quality study of the Fortymile River and many of its major tributaries in eastern Alaska was conducted in June of 1997 and 1998. Surface-water samples were collected for chemical analyses to establish regional baseline geochemistry values and to evaluate the possible environmental effects of suction-dredge placer gold mining and bulldozer-operated placer gold mining (commonly referred to as “cat mining”). In general, the water quality of the Fortymile River is very good, with low total dissolved solids and only two cases in which the concentration of any element exceeded primary or secondary drinking-water quality standards. In both cases, iron exceeded secondary drinking-water limits. At the time this work was conducted, only a handful of suction dredges were operating on the lower Fortymile River, and cat mining was being conducted along Uhler Creek and Canyon Creek, two major tributaries to the river. Based on the water-quality and turbidity data, the suction dredges have no apparent impact on the Fortymile River system, although possible effects on biota have not been evaluated in this study. In contrast, the cat-mining operations in Canyon Creek appear to have a dramatic impact on water quality and stream-bed morphology, based on the field water-quality and turbidity measurements, on comparisons to adjacent unmined drainages, and on field observations of stream-bed morphology. The cat mining in Uhler Creek appears to have had less impact, perhaps because the main stream channel was not as heavily disrupted by the bulldozers, and the stability of the channel was mostly preserved.

  2. Results of elemental and stable isotopic measurements, and dietary composition of Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) collected in 2000 and 2001 from the Fortymile River Watershed, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crock, J.G.; Seal, R.R.; Gough, L.P.; Weber-Scannell, P.

    2003-01-01

    We report the results of the elemental and stable isotopic analyses, as well as the composition of stomach contents, of Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus), an ecologically important resident freshwater sport and subsistence fish in the Fortymile River Mining District of the Interior Highlands Ecoregion in eastern Alaska. These data are presented here as a data compilation with minimal interpretation or discussion. Further analyses of the data will be presented elsewhere. The study area has been mined for placer gold for over a century and is currently experiencing renewed mineral exploration activity. The results for the analysis of 40 inorganic elements are reported for grayling muscle (fillet) tissue, liver tissue, and stomach contents from 34 individuals caught at 11 sites within the watershed. The 11 sites were classified as occurring within the following lithologies: metavolcanic (7 sites), metasedimentary (3 sites), and granitic intrusion (1 site). This information (along with fish tissue stable isotope data) is critical in the assessment of the influence of regional lithology on the fish chemical composition, especially the trace metal content. We report the nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur stable isotope composition of muscle samples. Nitrogen isotopes appear homogeneous (d15N = 7.6 to 9.7 permil) whereas carbon and sulfur isotope compositions of the same samples span a range from d 13C = ?33.1 to ?25.8 permil, and d 34S = ?8.4 to 8.2 permil. Stomach content material was examined for the occurrence and frequency of macroinvertebrate composition and diversity in three individual fish. Results showed a high degree of diversity with 9 to 15 invertebrate taxa; both aquatic and terrestrial forms were represented.

  3. Estimated ground-water recharge from streamflow in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savard, C.S.

    1998-10-01

    The two purposes of this report are to qualitatively document ground-water recharge from stream-flow in Fortymile Wash during the period 1969--95 from previously unpublished ground-water levels in boreholes in Fortymile Canyon during 1982--91 and 1995, and to quantitatively estimate the long-term ground-water recharge rate from streamflow in Fortymile Wash for four reaches of Fortymile Wash (Fortymile Canyon, upper Jackass Flats, lower Jackass Flats, and Amargosa Desert). The long-term groundwater recharge rate was estimated from estimates of the volume of water available for infiltration, the volume of infiltration losses from streamflow, the ground-water recharge volume from infiltration losses, and an analysis of the different periods of data availability. The volume of water available for infiltration and ground-water recharge in the four reaches was estimated from known streamflow in ephemeral Fortymile Wash, which was measured at several gaging station locations. The volume of infiltration losses from streamflow for the four reaches was estimated from a streamflow volume loss factor applied to the estimated streamflows. the ground-water recharge volume was estimated from a linear relation between infiltration loss volume and ground-water recharge volume for each of the four reaches. Ground-water recharge rates were estimated for three different periods of data availability (1969--95, 1983--95, and 1992--95) and a long-term ground-water recharge rate estimated for each of the four reaches.

  4. River archaeology - a new tool for historical hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, Attila J [National Office of Cultural Heritage, Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: attila.toth@koh.hu

    2008-11-01

    River archaeology consists of underwater research on the rivers themselves. It is also concerned with the archaeology of the valleys/floodplains with special attention to human-environmental interactions (reconstructing landscape, the environment, economy and society from material culture and traces of human impact on their surroundings). As historical hydrology is concerned with similar questions, from the hydrologist's point of view, the combination of different approaches offers the possibilities for fruitful cooperation for both disciplines. The intent of this paper is to present the type, nature and limitations of this part of the archaeological record through recent work in the Drava River basin.

  5. Compromised Rivers: Understanding Historical Human Impacts on Rivers in the Context of Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Wohl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A river that preserves a simplified and attractive form may nevertheless have lost function. Loss of function in these rivers can occur because hydrologic and geomorphic processes no longer create and maintain the habitat and natural disturbance regimes necessary for ecosystem integrity. Recognition of compromised river function is particularly important in the context of river restoration, in which the public perception of a river's condition often drives the decision to undertake restoration as well as the decision about what type of restoration should be attempted. Determining the degree to which a river has been altered from its reference condition requires a knowledge of historical land use and the associated effects on rivers. Rivers of the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains in the United States are used to illustrate how historical land uses such as beaver trapping, placer mining, tie drives, flow regulation, and the construction of transportation corridors continue to affect contemporary river characteristics. Ignorance of regional land use and river history can lead to restoration that sets unrealistic goals because it is based on incorrect assumptions about a river's reference condition or about the influence of persistent land-use effects.

  6. Gravity and magnetic data of Fortymile Wash, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponce, D.A.; Kohrn, S.B. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Waddell, S. [Fenix and Scisson, Inc., Mercury, NV (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Gravity and ground magnetic data collected along six traverses across Fortymile Wash, in the southwest quadrant of the Nevada Test Site suggest that there are no significant vertical offsets below Fortymile Wash. The largest gravity and magnetic anomaly, in the vicinity of Fortymile Wash, is produced by the Paintbrush fault, on the west flank of Fran Ridge. Inferred vertical offset is about 250 {+-} 60 m (800 {+-} 200 ft). Geophysical data indicate that the fault is about 300 m (1,000 ft) east of its mapped, but concealed location. North of Busted Butte, near Fran Ridge, geophysical data do not preclude the existence of small vertical offsets bounding Fortymile Wash. However, gravity and magnetic profiles south of Busted Butte show little correlation to those to the north and suggest that vertical offsets, comparable in size to the Paintbrush fault, are not present. Density profiling, a technique used to determine the average density of small topographic features, suggests that the density of near-surface material in the vicinity of Fortymile Wash is 1.80 to 2.00 g/cm{sup 3}.

  7. The Fortymile caribou herd: novel proposed management and relevant biology, 1992-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney D. Boertje

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A diverse, international Fortymile Planning Team wrote a novel Fortymile caribou herd {Rangifer tarandus granti Management Plan in 1995 (Boertje & Gardner, 1996: 56-77. The primary goal of this plan is to begin restoring the Fortymile herd to its former range; >70% of the herd's former range was abandoned as herd size declined. Specific objectives call for increasing the Fortymile herd by at least 5-10% annually from 1998-2002. We describe demographics of the herd, factors limiting the herd, and condition of the herd and range during 1992-1997. These data were useful in proposing management actions for the herd and should be instrumental in future evaluations of the plan's actions. The following points summarize herd biology relevant to management proposed by the Fortymile Planning Team: 1. Herd numbers remained relatively stable during 1990-1995 (about 22 000-23 000 caribou. On 21 June 1996 we counted about 900 additional caribou in the herd, probably a result of increased pregnancy rates in 1996. On 26 June 1997 we counted about 2500 additional caribou in the herd, probably a result of recruitment of the abundant 1996 calves and excellent early survival of the 1997 calves. The Team deemed that implementing management actions during a period of natural growth would be opportune. 2. Wolf (Canis lupus and grizzly bear (Ursus arctos predation were the most important sources of mortality, despite over a decade of the most liberal regulations in the state for harvesting of wolves and grizzly bears. Wolves were the most important predator. Wolves killed between 2000 and 3000 caribou calves annually during this study and between 1000 and 2300 older caribou; 1200-1900 calves were killed from May through September. No significant differences in annual wolf predation rates on calves or adults were observed between 1994 and early winter 1997. Reducing wolf predation was judged by the Team to be the most manageable way to help hasten or stimulate

  8. Historical Maps Potential on the Assessment of the Hydromorphological Changes in Large Rivers: Towards Sustainable Rivers Management under Altered Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriqi, Alban; Rosário Fernandes, M.; Santos, Artur; Ferreira, M. Teresa

    2017-04-01

    Hydromorphological patterns changes in large rivers, result from a long history of human interventions. In this study, we evaluate the causes and effects of hydromorphological alterations in the Iberian Minho River using a planform change analysis. We performed a temporal comparison using historical maps (nineteen century) and contemporaneous maps. The studied river was divided in 2.5 km long river stretches in a total of 25 sampling units. The historical maps were initially georeferenced for the WGS84 coordinate system. We used Geographic Information System (GIS) to extract the hydromorphological features and to store and organised the spatial data. The hydromorphological features (sinuosity index, braiding intensity, river corridor and active channel width, lotic and lentic habitats) were mapped by visual interpretation of the historical and the contemporaneous maps on a scale 1:2500 by applying the same methodology. Also, we analysed certain Indicators of Hydrological Alteration (IHA) based on pre- and post-dam daily streamflow data obtained from the Spanish Water Information System (SIA). The results revealed a significant reduction in the active channel width and all sinuosity indexes representing an overall degradation of river conditions. We also noticed a drastic diminution in the number and total area of lentic habitats causing fish habitat shifts. Changes were less evident in upstream sampling units due to diverse Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) changes combine with some geological constraints. These responses were consistent with reductions in mean annual discharge, flood disturbance decrease and minimum flow increase during the summer season. This work allows to understand the evolutionary trajectory of large fluvial system over more than 100 years and to implement concrete measures for sustainable river management. Keywords: historical maps, large rivers, flow alteration, sinuosity index, lotic and lentic habitats, regulated rivers, river restoration.

  9. Historical pan evaporation changes in Qiantang River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. P.; Pan, S.; Fu, G.

    2015-12-01

    Pan evaporation has been decreasing in many regions of the world in the past decades. Analysis of the changes in pan evaporation helps to understand the variation of vapor in the hydrological cycle and the impact of climate change. This study aims to investigate the spatial and temporal trends in pan evaporation and analyze the causes of its variation in Qiantang River Basin, East China. A self-organizing map neural network is first applied to classify the 40 hydrological stations. Based on the clustering results, a trend-free pre-whitening Mann-Kendall test is used to investigate the historical trends based on more than 50 years of observations. Finally, global sensitivity analysis is conducted for evaluating the relationship between evaporation and five climate variables and for investigating the causes of changes. It is found that the hydrological stations can be classified into six sub-areas and the evaporation trends vary substantially at different sub-areas. Generally, there is a decreasing trend in a majority of months and the most significant decreases occur in summer. The results of sensitivity analysis reveal that pan evaporation is more sensitive to solar radiation, followed by minimum air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and maximum air temperature. The contribution of interaction effects between different climate variables to the variation of pan evaporation cannot be ignored in some specific stations. Overall, the change is mainly due to the decrease of solar radiation. This study provides an in-depth understanding of the causes of pan evaporation variation and valuable information for sustainable water and crop management in this region.

  10. A historical perspective of river basin management in the Pearl River Delta of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Qihao

    2007-12-01

    Three innovations in water and soil conservancy technology in the Pearl River Delta of South China, i.e., dike building, land reclamation, and dike-pond systems, were examined from a historical perspective. They were found to best reflect local farmers' efforts to cope with the challenges of various water disasters and to build a harmonious relationship with the changed environment. These technologies were critical to the agricultural success and sustainability over the past 2000 years, and reflected local farmers' wisdom in balancing land use and environmental conservation. Imprudent use of a new agricultural technology could damage the environment, and could disturb the human-environment relationship, as evidenced by the more frequent flooding that followed inappropriate dike building and premature reclamation. It is suggested that as the urbanization and industrialization process in the delta region continues, the kind of thinking that made the water and soil conservancy sustainable needs to be incorporated into the design of similar technologies for water use and river basin management today.

  11. Historic and Present Distribution of Chinook Salmon and Steelhead in the Calaveras River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Marsh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest is great in projects that would restore Central Valley steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss and Central Valley Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to California drainages where they have historically existed and where there is good quality habitat upstream of instream barriers. The Calaveras River has garnered renewed attention for its potential to support these anadromous fish. I evaluated migration opportunity in the Calaveras River, and whether these salmonids could have been present in the river historically, by comparing historical anecdotal and documented observations of Chinook salmon and steelhead to recorded flows in the river and Mormon Slough, the primary migration corridors. Collected data show that these fish used the river before New Hogan Dam was constructed in 1964. Three different Central Valley Chinook salmon runs, including fall-, late-fall- and spring-run salmon, and steelhead may have used the river before the construction of New Hogan Dam. Fall and possibly winter run and steelhead used the river after dam construction. The timing and amount of flows in the Calaveras River, both before and after the construction of New Hogan Dam, provided ample opportunity for salmonids to migrate up the river in the fall, winter, and spring seasons when they were observed. Flows less than 2.8 m3/s (100 ft3/s can attract fish into the lower river channel and this was likely the case in the past, as well. Even in dry years of the past, flows in the river exceeded 5.6 m3/s (200 ft3/s, enough for fish to migrate and spawn. Today, instream barriers and river regulation, which reduced the number of high flow events, has led to fewer opportunities for salmon to enter the river and move upstream to spawning areas even though upstream spawning conditions are still adequate. Improving migration conditions would allow salmonids to utilize upstream spawning areas once again.

  12. A Historical Perspective of Teacher Education in Rivers State of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teacher education is an essential component of the educational system because teachers, among others, help to develop human capacity and implement educational policies for the realization of the nation's objectives and goals. The development of teacher education in Rivers State, a chip of the then Eastern Nigeria that ...

  13. A Historical Perspective of Teacher Education in Rivers State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ETIWISTIC

    2013-04-29

    Apr 29, 2013 ... One remarkable function of the staff committee of the S.M.B. was to advise the Board on a dynamic staff ..... Others included individual self-esteem and self- actualization motivational needs, the removal of ... A ―Kernel of Truth‖ Approach to the Evaluation of the. NCE Primary Programme in Rivers State ...

  14. Shifts in historical streamflow extremes in the Colorado River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt C. Solander; Katrina E. Bennett; Richard S. Middleton

    2017-01-01

    The global phenomenon of climate change-induced shifts in precipitation leading to “wet regions getting wetter” and “dry regions getting drier” has been widely studied. However, the propagation of these changes in atmospheric moisture within stream channels is not a direct relationship due to differences in the timing of how changing precipitation patterns interact with various land surfaces. Streamflow is of particular interest in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) due to the region’s rapidly gr...

  15. Current and Historical Sediment Loads in the Lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    address this, it is recommended that further investigations be undertaken using the sediment records from Natchez and Arkansas City. Variability and...material quantities required to begin restoration are shown 139 Table 4.2 Listing of existing Mississippi River diversions below Natchez (from Andrus...Thebes, IL 43.8* Memphis, TN 735 Arkansas City, AK 554 Lake Providence 487 Vicksburg, MS 436 Natchez , MS 363 Coochie, LA 317 Tarbert Landing, LA

  16. Hypothesis of historical effects from selenium on endangered fish in the Colorado River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Anthropogenic selenium contamination of aquatic ecosystems was first associated with cooling reservoirs of coal-fired power plants in the late 1970s, and later with drainage water from agricultural irrigation activities in the 1980s. In the 1990s, selenium contamination has been raised as a concern in the recovery of currently endangered fish in the Colorado River system. Widespread contamination from seleniferous drain waters from agriculture has been documented in the upper and lower Colorado River basins. Historically, irrigation started in the upper Colorado River basin in the late 1880s. In the 1930s, selenium concentrations in various drains, tributaries, and major rivers in the upper and lower Colorado River basins were in the 100 s and 1000 s of µg/L. Native fish inhabiting large rivers such as the Colorado pikeminnow and razorback sucker were abundant before 1890, but became rare after 1910 to 1920, before the influence of mainstem reservoirs in the upper and lower Colorado River. A hypothesis is presented that selenium contamination of the tributaries and major rivers of the Colorado River basin in the 1890 to 1910 period caused the decline of the endangered fish and continues to inhibit their recovery.

  17. Morphodynamics of River Lowlands and Deltas: Combining Historical Maps with Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvitski, J. P.; Hannon, M.; Kettner, A. J.; Jenkins, C. J.; Hutton, E. W.

    2007-12-01

    Cartographers have for centuries documented the courses of rivers and their delta's distributary channels. Yet these valuable historical maps have not often been placed into a Global Information System, and verified for their cartographic accuracy. We have obtained between 6 and 15 historical maps (17th - 20th century) for a set of global deltas (Indus, Ganges, Godavari, Krishna, Mahanadi, Brahmani, Yellow, Vistula Danube, Po, Rhone, Niger, Nile, Orinoco, Magdalena, Amazon, and Mississippi). The maps were examined for their registration accuracy, using the location of between 8 and 15 cities or towns. Those maps with RMS errors of less than 5 km had shape files established for the pathways of their rivers and distributary channels. Geolocated Space Shuttle Radar data were binned into 1 m topographic units (? 90 m horizontal footprint) for each river-delta system and used in combination with LANDSAT ETM+ (15-30 m horizontal footprint), as an underlay to each of the historical maps. The satellite data proved useful in verifying the historical courses of these channels, many of which are no longer active. Together the data provide valuable insight to the time dependent dynamics of distributary channel switching and migration, before the heavy anthropogenic footprint of the 20th century (river diversions through barrages, upstream damming of the sediment supply, mitigation of the seasonal flood wave, levee development and stabilization, human-affected delta subsidence, and agricultural infrastructure).

  18. Atoms in Appalachia. Historical report on the Clinch River Breeder Reactor site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffer, D

    1982-01-01

    The background information concerning the acquisition of the land for siting the Clinch River Breeder Reactor is presented. Historical information is also presented concerning the land acquisition for the Oak Ridge facilities known as the Manhattan Project during World War II.

  19. Remote sensing for wetland mapping and historical change detection at the Nisqually River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballanti, Laurel; Byrd, Kristin B.; Woo, Isa; Ellings, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Coastal wetlands are important ecosystems for carbon storage and coastal resilience to climate change and sea-level rise. As such, changes in wetland habitat types can also impact ecosystem functions. Our goal was to quantify historical vegetation change within the Nisqually River watershed relevant to carbon storage, wildlife habitat, and wetland sustainability, and identify watershed-scale anthropogenic and hydrodynamic drivers of these changes. To achieve this, we produced time-series classifications of habitat, photosynthetic pathway functional types and species in the Nisqually River Delta for the years 1957, 1980, and 2015. Using an object-oriented approach, we performed a hierarchical classification on historical and current imagery to identify change within the watershed and wetland ecosystems. We found a 188.4 ha (79%) increase in emergent marsh wetland within the Nisqually River Delta between 1957 and 2015 as a result of restoration efforts that occurred in several phases through 2009. Despite these wetland gains, a total of 83.1 ha (35%) of marsh was lost between 1957 and 2015, particularly in areas near the Nisqually River mouth due to erosion and shifting river channels, resulting in a net wetland gain of 105.4 ha (44%). We found the trajectory of wetland recovery coincided with previous studies, demonstrating the role of remote sensing for historical wetland change detection as well as future coastal wetland monitoring.

  20. Deliberate River Crossings: Historic Examples versus Current Doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    or the commander. ([his is not mentioned in the FL. o Development of the enemy order of battle by the u-2 prior to a river crossinq. o the division o...achievinq Lirpri 1 se by maneiiver. Iwo ’i the more famnus- e’-i , p o, this are Alexander crossino the Hydaspes ano Napoleon crossing the Po. (1) However...rrsive thr,dtLgh the Ardennes (" Battle of the Bulge’) (December 1944) and then reorganize and prepare to r, ke the tinai Jeq of the drive to the Rhine

  1. The environmental and geomorphological impacts of historical gold mining in the Ohinemuri and Waihou river catchments, Coromandel, New Zealand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alastair, J. H. C.; Nováková, Tereza; Hudson-Edwards, K. A.; Fuller, I. C.; Macklin, M. G.; Fox, E. G.; Zapico, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 295, OCT 15 2017 (2017), s. 159-175 ISSN 0169-555X Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : mining-contaminated river * floodplain sedimentation * mine tailing discharge * historical gold mining * Ohinemuri River * Waihou River Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.958, year: 2016

  2. Selected hydrologic data from Fortymile Wash in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, water years 1993--94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savard, C.S.

    1996-09-01

    The Yucca Mountain area is being evaluated by the US Department of Energy for its suitability to store high-level nuclear waste in a mined, underground repository. Hydrologic data are being collected by the US Geological Survey throughout a 150 Km{sup 2} study area about 15- Km northwest of Las Vegas in southern Nevada for site characterization studies. Ongoing hydrologic studies are investigating atmospheric precipitation, stream-flow, movement of water through the unsaturated zone, movement of water through the saturated zone, and paleohydrology. This study at Fortymile Wash involves some components of each of these studies. Fortymile Wash is an ephemeral stream near Yucca Mountain with tributaries draining the east side of Yucca Mountain and then forming a distributary system in the Amargosa Desert. An objective of the study is to determine the amount of recharge from Fortymile Wash to the ground-water flow system that has been proposed. Understanding the ground-water flow system is important because it is a possible mechanism for radionuclide migration from the repository to the accessible environment. An adequate understanding of the ground-water flow system is necessary for an evaluation of the safety issues involved in siting the potential repository.

  3. An exploratory historical analysis of biogeomorphological changes in a channelized regulated river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serlet, Alyssa; Gurnell, Angela; Zolezzi, Guido; Jourdain, Camille; Belleudy, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Many recent studies have analysed historical information sources to explore the impact of human activities on river morphology and vegetation, but investigations of channelized rivers have been relatively rare. We address this research gap by investigating the historical evolution of morphology and vegetation within a 33 km straightened and embanked reach of the River Isère, a tributary of the Rhône in southeast France. The goal of this study is to establish the trajectory of biogemorphological development of the 33 km reach since the beginning of the 20th century in response to changing human pressures and interventions. Achieving this goal should lead to an improved understanding of how mainly woody vegetation and fluvial processes interact in a heavily human-impacted setting, which in turn should lead to the development of better informed management strategies. The study reach was braided prior to channelisation in 1858, when the river was confined to a single straight channel between embankments. Since the mid 20th century, the river's flow and sediment transport regimes have become increasingly influenced by hydropower development as well as by sediment mining within the studied reach between 1948 and 1973. By extracting information from the historical sources across a range of space and time scales, we identify temporal trajectories of morphological and vegetation development in response to these human interventions. In particular, we identify a progressive development of alternate bars that become vegetated and also enlarge and coalesce through the study period. These processes are evident throughout the study reach but they follow different temporal trajectories within different parts of the reach. We propose tentative links between these biogeomorphic trajectories and human causal factors while at the same time emphasising some limiting aspects of the analysis of such historical data sets.

  4. Historical and current perspectives on fish assemblages of the Snake River, Idaho and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, T.R.; Mebane, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Snake River is the tenth longest river in the United States, extending 1,667 km from its origin in Yellowstone National Park in western Wyoming to its union with the Columbia River at Pasco, Washington. Historically, the main-stem Snake River upstream from the Hells Canyon Complex supported at least 26 native fish species, including anadromous stocks of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead O. mykiss, Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata, and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. Of these anadromous species, only the white sturgeon remains in the Snake River between the Hells Canyon Complex and Shoshone Falls. Today, much of the Snake River has been transformed into a river with numerous impoundments and flow diversions, increased pollutant loads, and elevated water temperatures. Current (1993-2002) fish assemblage collections from 15 sites along the Snake River and Henrys Fork contained 35 fish species, including 16 alien species. Many of these alien species such as catfish (Ictaluridae), carp (Cyprinidae), and sunfish (Centrarchidae) are adapted for warmwater impounded habitats. Currently, the Snake River supports 19 native species. An index of biotic integrity (IBI), developed to evaluate large rivers in the Northwest, was used to evaluate recent (1993-2002) fish collections from the Snake River and Henrys Fork in southern Idaho and western Wyoming. Index of biotic integrity site scores and component metrics revealed a decline in biotic integrity from upstream to downstream in both the Snake River and Henrys Fork. Two distinct groups of sites were evident that correspond to a range of IBI scores-an upper Snake River and Henrys Fork group with relatively high biotic integrity (mean IBI scores of 46-84) and a lower Snake River group with low biotic integrity (mean IBI scores of 10-29). Sites located in the lower Snake River exhibited fish assemblages that reflect poor-quality habitat where coldwater and sensitive species are rare or absent, and

  5. Linking the historic 2011 Mississippi River flood to coastal wetland sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcini, Federico; Khan, Nicole S.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Horton, Benjamin P.; Lutken, Carol B.; McKee, Karen L.; Santoleri, Rosalia; Colella, Simone; Li, Chunyan; Volpe, Gianluca; D’Emidio, Marco; Salusti, Alessandro; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands in the Mississippi River deltaic plain are deteriorating in part because levees and control structures starve them of sediment. In Spring of 2011 a record-breaking flood brought discharge on the lower Mississippi River to dangerous levels, forcing managers to divert up to 3500 m3/s-1 of water to the Atchafalaya River Basin. Here we quantify differences between the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River inundation and sediment-plume patterns using field-calibrated satellite data, and assess the impact these outflows had on wetland sedimentation. We characterize hydrodynamics and suspended sediment patterns of the Mississippi River plume using in-situ data collected during the historic flood. We show that the focused, high-momentum jet from the leveed Mississippi delivered sediment far offshore. In contrast, the plume from the Atchafalaya was more diffuse; diverted water inundated a large area; and sediment was trapped within the coastal current. Maximum sedimentation (up to several centimetres) occurred in the Atchafalaya Basin despite the larger sediment load carried by the Mississippi. Minimum accumulation occurred along the shoreline between these river sources. Our findings provide a mechanistic link between river-mouth dynamics and wetland sedimentation patterns that is relevant for plans to restore deltaic wetlands using artificial diversions.

  6. Typology of historical sources and the reconstruction of long-term historical changes of riverine fish: a case study of the Austrian Danube and northern Russian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidvogl, Gertrud; Lajus, Dmitry; Pont, Didier; Schmid, Martin; Jungwirth, Mathias; Lajus, Julia

    2014-10-01

    Historical data are widely used in river ecology to define reference conditions or to investigate the evolution of aquatic systems. Most studies rely on printed documents from the 19th century, thus missing pre-industrial states and human impacts. This article discusses historical sources that can be used to reconstruct the development of riverine fish communities from the Late Middle Ages until the mid-20th century. Based on the studies of the Austrian Danube and northern Russian rivers, we propose a classification scheme of printed and archival sources and describe their fish ecological contents. Five types of sources were identified using the origin of sources as the first criterion: (i) early scientific surveys, (ii) fishery sources, (iii) fish trading sources, (iv) fish consumption sources and (v) cultural representations of fish. Except for early scientific surveys, all these sources were produced within economic and administrative contexts. They did not aim to report about historical fish communities, but do contain information about commercial fish and their exploitation. All historical data need further analysis for a fish ecological interpretation. Three case studies from the investigated Austrian and Russian rivers demonstrate the use of different source types and underline the necessity for a combination of different sources and a methodology combining different disciplinary approaches. Using a large variety of historical sources to reconstruct the development of past fish ecological conditions can support future river management by going beyond the usual approach of static historical reference conditions.

  7. Historic (1940 to present) changes in Lillooet River planform (BC, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zei, Caterina

    2017-04-01

    Historic (1940 to present) changes in Lillooet River planform (BC, Canada) Zei C.*, Giardino M.*, Perotti L.*, Roberti G.***, **Ward B.C.**, Clague J.J.** *Department of Earth Sciences, Geositlab, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italia; **Department of Earth Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada ***Université Blaise Pascal - Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans Clermont-Ferrand, France We conducted a geomorphological study of changes in the planform of Lillooet River (Coast Mountain, British Columbia, Canada) over the past 75 years. The study involved identification and interpretations of channel changes in the reach of the river between Mount Meager (the source of the landslide) and Pemberton Meadows. Lillooet River flows about 95 km southeast from its headwaters at Lillooet Glacier to Lillooet Lake near Pemberton, the largest community in the valley. Between the mouth of Meager Creek and Pemberton Meadows, the river is unregulated and has a braided planform resulting from the very high delivery of sediment due to frequent landslides and debris flows sourced on the Mount Meager volcanic complex. Below Pemberton Meadows, the river occupies a single channel confined between dikes. A rich archive of historical vertical aerial photographs exists for the study area, In addition, a high-resolution digital elevation model was produced from LiDAR data acquired in 2015. We processed each set of photos dating back to 1940 with the software Agisoft Photoscan to produce high resolution orthophotos. Analysis of these datasets, complemented with field investigation, showed that the river channel in the braided reach shifted laterally up to 550 m between 1981 and 2010; likely caused in part by five floods with peak discharges of more than 800 m^3/s and four landslides on the flanks of Mount Meager massif with volumes up to 13 x 106 m^3. Channel avulsions were probably triggered by accumulation of in-channel rafts of coarse woody debris and are

  8. Historical patterns of river stage and fish communities as criteria for operations of dams on the Illinois river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koel, Todd M.; Sparks, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    The hydrologic regime of the Illinois River has been altered over the past 100 years. Locks and dams regulate water surface elevations and flow, enabling commercial navigation to continue year round. This study relates changes in water surface elevation to fish abundance in the river, and establishes target criteria for operating locks and dams. Using long-term records of daily river stage, we identified ecologically meaningful hydrological parameters for eight gage locations along the Illinois River. Inter-annual variability of a long-term fisheries dataset beginning in 1957 was related to variability in stage, flood and recession duration, frequency, timing, and rate of change of water levels. Reversals in water surface elevation, maximum stage levels, and length of the spring flood were the most important parameters influencing abundance of age-zero fishes in annual collections. Smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunneins), and white bass (Morone chrysops) were most abundant in samples during years that approximated the natural water level regime. Of the 33 hydrologic parameters evaluated for the entire water year from an Illinois River gage site on La Grange Reach, all except average stage in January and Julian date (JD) of maximum stage had moderate or high hydrologic alteration based on the historical range of variation (RVA). The highest degree of hydrologic alteration was for minimum stage levels (1-day, 3-day, and 7-day), rate-of-rise, and rate-of-fall. Other parameters that have been severely altered were 30-day minimum stage, 90-day maximum stage, and the annual number of water level reversals. Operations of the La Grange and Peoria locks and dams could be modified so water level variability would approximate that of the late 1800s, when fish and wildlife resources were abundant. The water regime could be regulated to maintain navigation and improve conditions for native plants and

  9. Mapping Prehistoric, Historic, and Channel Sediment Distribution, South Fork Noyo River: A Tool For Understanding Sources, Storage, and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich D. Koehler; Keith I. Kelson; Graham Matthews; K.H. Kang; Andrew D. Barron

    2007-01-01

    The South Fork Noyo River (SFNR) watershed in coastal northern California contains large volumes of historic sediment that were delivered to channels in response to past logging operations. This sediment presently is stored beneath historic terraces and in present-day channels. We conducted geomorphic mapping on the SFNR valley floor to assess the volume and location...

  10. Characterisation of sand transport in gravel-bed rivers using iron slag dated by historical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbrechts, G.; Levecq, Y.; Petit, F.

    2012-04-01

    Considerable quantities of iron-smelting slag are present in the bed of the Ardennian rivers. These waste products come from hundreds of ironworks (mainly blast furnaces and finery forges) built close to different-sized rivers between the 14th and the 19th centuries. In general, slag was crushed by hammers, sorted and piled up in heaps around the furnaces, generally onto the floodplains. Furthermore, some archives mention that they were sometimes thrown out directly into the rivers. This means that for centuries, slag elements have been swept away by floods, mixed with the sediment and spread out along river courses. Due to their distinctive appearance, slag particles are easily recognizable among the natural elements. Thanks to many historical studies conducted on the early iron industry, we are able to date quite precisely the inception and the periods of activity of the different sites established in the catchments. These data are indispensable in order to use slag as a tracer to quantify the particles' velocity in rivers. Downstream of ironworks, samples of sand have been collected in the surface layer of many gravel-bed rivers. Then, the slag concentration of each sample has been measured in the coarse sand fraction. The representation of the longitudinal evolution of slag concentration in these rivers permits the dispersion of slag to be analysed, the relative bed-material discharges at confluences to be quantified and the velocity of coarse sand to be determined. A survey of the bedload discharge in the Ardennian rivers established that more than 90 % of the bedload transport consists of coarse sand grains that are transported on the bottom of the bed. However, in the literature, this grain-size fraction is generally not considered in bedload discharge estimations because the sandy particles are very difficult to tag and to recover. Consequently, the huge amounts of slag injected in rivers several centuries ago can be considered as a very useful opportunity

  11. Historical accumulation of Trace elements in sediment cores from Tiete river, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, S.; Rocha, F.; Baumgardt, D.; Martins, L.; Silva, P.; Favaro, D. [IPEN-CNEN (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Tiete River, with 1100 km of extension, is one of the most economically important river of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil and throughout its length can be found reservoirs formed by damming its waters. This river is considered one of the most polluted rivers in the world, especially when it passes through the city of Sao Paulo. As a result of pollution observed since the 1950's, a project was established with the aim of evaluating the historic concentration of the trace elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn (mg.kg{sup -1}), in sediment cores dated by {sup 210}Pb method, sampled is several points of the river, since its source in Salesopolis up the mouth, on the Parana River. This work presents the results obtained by the trace elements above determined in two sediment cores collected in reservoirs in the city of Salesopolis and Pirapora do Bom Jesus. The analytical techniques used for the analysis were instrumental neutron activation analysis and gross beta measurement, respectively. The results obtained for the elements Br, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Nd, Sb, Sm, Th and U are higher than the values of Upper Continental Crust and the sedimentation rate obtained for the reservoir in Salesopolis, 1.53 cm.y{sup -1}, suggest silting processes. The enrichment factor and the geo-accumulation index were used to assess the presence of anthropogenic sources of pollution. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  12. HISTORICAL FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT: SPATIAL EXPANSION OF GHERGHIȚA VILLAGE (LOWER PRAHOVA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA-TOROIMAC GABRIELA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses settlements expansion in flood zones during historical time. We focused on the example of Gherghiţa village on Lower Prahova River by using a diachronic study in GIS. It revealed three major periods of extension of Gherghița village and flood risk management: (1 from Middle Age to the end of the 19th century – prevention against floods by expansion outside the flood-prone area; (2 during the major part of the 20th – flood negligence by expansion inside the flood-prone area; (3 at the end of the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21th century – protection against floods by extension inside the flood-prone area with structural measures (i.e. levees. As a consequence, human pressure on Lower Prahova River grew since the beginning of the 20th century, especially for agricultural purposes.

  13. Selected hydrologic data from Fortymile Wash in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, water year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savard, C.S.

    1995-02-01

    Precipitation totals of 245 and 210 mm were measured at UE-29 UZN {number_sign}91 and UE-29 UZN {number_sign}92 respectively, during the 1992 water year, October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. Approximately ninety percent of the precipitation fell during the period December 27 to April 2. Localized streamflow was generated in the Fortymile Wash drainage basin during the February 12-15, 1992 and March 31, 1992 precipitation, and infiltrated into the streambed materials. The streamflow went across the UE-29 UZN {number_sign}91 neutron-access borehole location and within several meters of the UE-29 UZN {number_sign}92 location. Neutron logging in these boreholes showed increases in the volumetric water content of the unsaturated alluvium and indicated streamflow infiltrated to a depth of approximately 5 meters. The volumetric water content in the upper 5 meters then gradually decreased during the remaining part of the water year. Ground-water levels rose over one meter in wells UE-29 a{number_sign}1 and UE-29 a{number_sign}2, and one-half meter in neutron-access borehole LJE-29 UZN {number_sign}91 following the streamflows. Water level declines of 0.5 meter in UE-29 a{number_sign}1 and rises of 0.2 meter in UE-29 a{number_sign}2 and 0.1 meter in UE-29 UZN {number_sign}91 coincided with a June 29, 1992 earthquake at the Little Skull Mountain, located approximately 27 kilometers southeast of the wells.

  14. Volumetric measurement of river bank erosion from sequential historical aerial photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiekermann, Raphael; Betts, Harley; Dymond, John; Basher, Les

    2017-11-01

    Understanding of the relative contribution of bank erosion to sediment budgets in New Zealand is limited. Few measurements of bank erosion rates exist, and this is a major limitation to the development of a locally calibrated model of bank erosion. The New Zealand sediment budget model, SedNetNZ, predicts bank erosion based on preliminary data, and this study aims to underpin the development of an improved model for bank erosion. Photogrammetric techniques and LiDAR were used to collect data on bank erosion rates for five different river reaches, ranging from 3 to 14 km in length, in the Kaipara Catchment, Northland, New Zealand. Changing river channel planform between the 1950s and 2015 was assessed using four to five well-spaced dates of historical aerial photographs. Changes in planform were combined with bank height, to calculate erosion and accretion volumes which were compared with SedNetNZ modelled estimates. Erosion and accretion is relatively evenly balanced in the study sites. The largest difference in terms of relative proportions of erosion and accretion are found along the Tangowahine River (13.4 km reach length), where 492,000 m3 of sediment eroded between 1956 and 2015 compared to 364,000 m3 of accretion. Lateral migration rates (erosion) for the five river reaches range between 0.14 m yr- 1 and 0.21 m yr- 1 and are comparable with those measured by previous assessments in New Zealand. The migration rates in channel widths per year for the three larger rivers (stream order 5-6) range between 0.4% and 0.8% of channel width per year. In contrast, the smaller streams (stream order 3-4) are retreating more rapidly, with width-averaged rates of 1.7% and 3.0%. Current SedNetNZ modelling tends to underestimate the bank height and greatly overestimates the migration rate.

  15. Population Structure and Historical Demography of the Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense is a non-obligatory amphidromous prawn, and it has a wide distribution covering almost the entire Taiwan. Mitochondrial DNA fragment sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI and 16S rRNA were combined and used to elucidate the population structure and historical demography of oriental river prawn in Taiwan. A total of 202 individuals from six reservoirs and three estuaries were separately collected. Nucleotide diversity (π of all populations was 0.01217, with values ranging from 0.00188 (Shihmen Reservoir, SMR, northern Taiwan to 0.01425 (Mingte Reservoir, MTR, west-central Taiwan. All 76 haplotypes were divided into 2 lineages: lineage A included individuals from all sampling areas except SMR, and lineage B included specimens from all sampling locations except Chengching Lake Reservoir (CLR and Liyu Lake Reservoir (LLR. All FST values among nine populations were significantly different except the one between Jhonggang River Estuary (JGE, west-central Taiwan and Kaoping River Estuary (KPE, southern Taiwan. UPGMA tree of nine populations showed two main groups: the first group included the SMR and Tamsui River Estuary (TSE (both located northern Taiwan, and the second one included the other seven populations (west-central, southern and eastern Taiwan. Demographic analyses implied a population expansion occurred during the recent history of the species. The dispersal route of this species might be from China to west-central and west-southern Taiwan, and then the part individuals belonging to lineage A and B dispersed southerly and northerly, respectively. And then part individuals in west-central Taiwan fell back to and stay at estuaries as the sea level rose about 18,000 years ago.

  16. Historical evolution of slope instability in the Calore River Basin, Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diodato, Nazzareno; Soriano, Marcella; Bellocchi, Gianni; Fiorillo, Francesco; Cevasco, Andrea; Revellino, Paola; Guadagno, Francesco Maria

    2017-04-01

    There is interest in knowing historical spatio-temporal patterns of landslide activity. However, this is challenging to reconstruct because it is difficult to obtain detailed records for past landslide activity. Here, we deal with hydro-geomorphological signatures, such as storms, downpours, floods, snowmelt and mass movement, to detect annual slope instability events (ASIEs) over historical times. In order to obtain ASIEs for each year, a monthly Instability Density Index (IDI) was used and then monthly values were summed up to obtain a yearly value. Classes of monthly IDI varying between 0 (no instability) and 4 (highest instability) were determined from historical documents. We present an application for the Calore River Basin, Southern Italy, using data from a 313-year long series (1701-2013 CE). After 1880 CE the information becomes more valuable with directly observed landslide frequency. By this cataloguing, 129 ASIEs were obtained. Their evolution shows slight instability during the 18th century. Uneven and greater slope instability occurred instead across the 19th century, when an important phase of deforestation coincided with intensification of agricultural activities. Slope instability events continued during the 20th century but their causes are mainly related to anthropisation and the effects of recent climate change. It was determined that stormy autumns until the 19th century and successive winter-times with enhanced snowmelt, may have driven the reactivation of widespread instability events. We also found that mountainous and hilly terrains have an acute sensitivity to climate change.

  17. Historical Channel Adjustment and Estimates of Selected Hydraulic Values in the Lower Sabine River and Lower Brazos River Basins, Texas and Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Greene, Lauren E.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, evaluated historical channel adjustment and estimated selected hydraulic values at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in the lower Sabine River Basin in Texas and Louisiana and lower Brazos River Basin in Texas to support geomorphic assessments of the Texas Instream Flow Program. Channel attributes including cross-section geometry, slope, and planform change were evaluated to learn how each river's morphology changed over the years in response to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Historical and contemporary cross-sectional channel geometries at several gaging stations on each river were compared, planform changes were assessed, and hydraulic values were estimated including mean flow velocity, bed shear stress, Froude numbers, and hydraulic depth. The primary sources of historical channel morphology information were U.S. Geological Survey hard-copy discharge-measurement field notes. Additional analyses were done using computations of selected flow hydraulics, comparisons of historical and contemporary aerial photographs, comparisons of historical and contemporary ground photographs, evaluations of how frequently stage-discharge rating curves were updated, reviews of stage-discharge relations for field measurements, and considerations of bridge and reservoir construction activities. Based on historical cross sections at three gaging stations downstream from Toledo Bend Reservoir, the lower Sabine River is relatively stable, but is subject to substantial temporary scour-and-fill processes during floods. Exceptions to this characterization of relative stability include an episode of channel aggradation at the Sabine River near Bon Wier, Texas, during the 1930s, and about 2 to 3 feet of channel incision at the Sabine River near Burkeville, Texas, since the late 1950s. The Brazos River, at gaging stations downstream from Waco, Texas, has adjusted to a combination of

  18. Decommissioning an Active Historical Reactor Facility at the Savannah River Site - 13453

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergren, Christopher L.; Long, J. Tony; Blankenship, John K. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Bldg. 730-4B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Adams, Karen M. [United States Department of Energy, Bldg. 730-B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is an 802 square-kilometer United States Department of Energy (US DOE) nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina, where Management and Operations are performed by Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS). In 2004, DOE recognized SRS as structure within the Cold War Historic District of national, state and local significance composed of the first generation of facilities constructed and operated from 1950 through 1989 to produce plutonium and tritium for our nation's defense. DOE agreed to manage the SRS 105-C Reactor Facility as a potentially historic property due to its significance in supporting the U.S. Cold War Mission and for potential for future interpretation. This reactor has five primary areas within it, including a Disassembly Basin (DB) that received irradiated materials from the reactor, cooled them and prepared the components for loading and transport to a Separation Canyon for processing. The 6,317 square meter area was divided into numerous work/storage areas. The walls between the individual basin compartments have narrow vertical openings called 'slots' that permit the transfer of material from one section to another. Data indicated there was over 830 curies of radioactivity associated with the basin sediments and approximately 9.1 M liters of contaminated water, not including a large quantity of activated reactor equipment, scrap metal, and debris on the basin floor. The need for an action was identified in 2010 to reduce risks to personnel in the facility and to eliminate the possible release of contaminants into the environment. The release of DB water could potentially migrate to the aquifer and contaminate groundwater. DOE, its regulators [U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)-Region 4 and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC)] and the SC Historical Preservation Office (SHPO) agreed/concurred to perform a non

  19. Which lesson can be learnt from a historical contamination analysis of the most polluted river in Europe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lofrano, Giusy, E-mail: glofrano@unisa.it [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II, 132-84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, National Research Council (CNR IMA), C. da S. Loja Z.I. Tito Scalo, I-85050 Potenza (Italy); Department of Environmental and Civil Engineering, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Claudio, 21, 80127 Naples (Italy); Libralato, Giovanni [Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, University Cà Foscari Venice, Campo della Celestia, 2737/B-30122 Venice (Italy); Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council (CNR ISMAR), Arsenale Tesa 104, Castello 2737/F-30122, Venice (Italy); Acanfora, Floriana Giuseppina [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II, 132-84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Pucci, Luca [Legambiente Campania, Piazza Cavour, 168-80137 Naples (Italy); Carotenuto, Maurizio [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II, 132-84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    The Sarno River trend analysis during the last 60 years was traced focusing on the socio-economic and environmental issues. The river, originally worshiped as a god by Romans, is affected by an extreme level of environmental degradation, being sadly reputed as the most polluted river in Europe. This is the “not to be followed” example of the worst way a European river can be managed. Data about water, sediment, soil, biota and air contamination were collected from scientific papers, monitoring surveys, and technical reports depicting a sick river. Originally, the river was reputed as a source of livelihood, now it is considered a direct threat for human health. Wastewater can still flow through the river partially or completely untreated, waste production associated with the manufacture of metal products and leather tanning continues to suffer from the historical inadequacy of regional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), associated with the partial or no reuse of effluents. All efforts should be devoted to solving the lack of wastewater and waste management, the gap in land planning, improving the capacity of existing WWTPs also via the construction of new sewer sections, restoring Sarno River minimum vital-flow, keeping to a minimum uncontrolled discharges as well as supporting river contracts. The 2015 goal stated by the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) is still far to be reached. The lesson has not been learnt yet. - Highlights: • Sarno River is far from reaching the 2015 goal of Water Framework Directive. • A full knowledge of the health status of Sarno River was provided. • Poor wastewater management and agricultural pressures as main weaknesses • Restoration of vital flow and river contracts as immediate and low cost solutions.

  20. Legacy Morphologies: Channel Avulsions and Historical Engineering Structures Drive Form and Process in the Lower Yuba and Feather Rivers, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, L. A.; Singer, M. B.; Aalto, R.

    2008-12-01

    Geomorphic changes in the lower Yuba and Feather Rivers due to hydraulic mining provide a chance to study centennial-scale processes. Channel changes over 150 years were determined using channel-bank stratigraphy, geochemical signatures (total Hg, grain-size distributions, bulk geochemistry, fallout radionuclides, and Sr/Nd isotopes), and spatial analyses of high-resolution topographic data, historical maps, and aerial photos. Repeated avulsions and broad erosion/deposition patterns are shown, including a downstream shift in activity through time. In the 20th century, both rivers experienced deep main-channel incision and floodplain alluviation of natural levees and abandoned channels. Buried trees rooted in pre- mining soils indicate the Feather has not returned to pre-mining base levels below the Yuba confluence. Early engineering works controlled channel responses and recovery. For example, the Feather River avulsed into a channel dredged through Shanghai Bend (c.1907) so it now crosses resistant Quaternary alluvium over a 3-m knickpoint bench that could soon be breached. Moreover, levees and channelization near the Yuba-Feather confluence at Marysville (c.1905) narrowed and deepened flows, encouraging the bed incision noted by Gilbert. Effects of legacy sediment on channel processes are well known. Here, channel recovery was also constrained by channel morphologies engineered with boulder wing dams and revetment in the Yuba and channelization and levees in the Feather. The resulting bed incision reduces lateral connectivity between channels and floodplains and increases sediment conveyance. Historical and anthropogenic perspectives are essential to explaining channel dynamics at these scales. Unless models of channel and floodplain evolution recognize historical changes and engineering works, they may miss crucial components of geomorphic change and potential impacts downstream. In such systems, the historical dimension is essential to river management, water

  1. The Forgotten Legacy: Sediment From Historical Gold Mining Greatly Exceeds all Other Anthropogenic Sources in SE Australian Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherfurd, I.; Davies, P.; Macklin, M. G.; Grove, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Coarse and fine sediment has been a major pollutant of Australian rivers and receiving waters since European settlement in 1788. Anthropogenic sediment budget models demonstrate that catchment and channel erosion has increased background sediment delivery by 10 to 20 times across SE Australia, but these estimates ignore the contribution of historical gold mining. Detailed historical records allow us to reconstruct the delivery of coarse and fine sediment (including contaminated sediment) to the fluvial system. Between 1851 and 1900 alluvial gold mining in the state of Victoria liberated between 1.2 billion and 1.4 billion m3 of coarse and fine sediment into streams. Catchment scale modelling demonstrates that this volume is at least twice the volume of all anthropogenic (post-European) erosion from hillslopes, river banks, and gullies. We map the deposition and remobilization of these contaminated legacy mining sediments down selected valleys, and find that many contemporary floodplains are blanketed with mining sediments (although mercury contamination is present but low), and discrete sediment-slugs can be recognized migrating down river beds. Overall, the impact of gold mining is one of the strongest indicators of the Anthropocene in the Australian landscape, and the level of impact on rivers is substantially greater than recognized in the past. Perhaps of most interest is the rapid recovery of many river systems from the substantial impacts of gold mining. The result is that these major changes to the landscape are largely forgotten.

  2. Historical eutrophication in a river-estuary complex in mid-coast Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Dörte; Lichter, John; Lea, Peter D; Nurse, Andrea

    2007-04-01

    , relative to today. Further recovery may require more stringent regulation of nutrient inputs from industrial and municipal point sources. This historical study can contribute to public debate about the environmental management of this unusual river-estuary complex by describing its long-term natural baseline, thereby illustrating the upper limit of its potential for recovery.

  3. Historical trends of hypoxia in Changjiang River estuary: Applications of chemical biomarkers and microfossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Bianchi, T.S.; Yang, Z.; Osterman, L.E.; Allison, M.A.; DiMarco, Steven F.; Yang, G.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades China has become the largest global consumer of fertilizers, which has enhanced river nutrient fluxes and caused eutrophication and hypoxia in the Yangtze (Changjiang) large river delta-front estuary (LDE). In this study, we utilized plant pigments, lignin-phenols, stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) and foraminiferal microfossils in 210Pb dated cores to examine the history of hypoxia in the Changjiang LDE. Two sediment cores were collected onboard R/V Dong Fang Hong 2 using a stainless-steel box-corer; one at a water depth of 24.7 m on Jun. 15, 2006 and the other at 52 m on Nov. 20, 2007, both in the hypoxic region off the Changjiang LDE. There has been a significant increase in the abundance of plant pigments after 1979 that are indicators of enhanced diatom and cyanobacterial abundance, which agrees with post-1980 record of increasing nutrient loads in the Changjiang River. The increased inputs of terrestrially derived materials to the LDE are largely woody plant sources and most likely due to deforestation that began in the early 1950s. However, post-1960 lignin data did not reflect enhanced loading of woody materials despite continued deforestation possibly due to increased trapping from greater dam construction, a reduction of deforestation in the drainage basin since the last 1990s, and soil conservation practices. The lack of linkages between bulk indices (stable isotopes, % OC, molar C/N ratios) and microfossil/chemical biomarkers may reflect relative differences in the amount of carbon tracked by these different proxies. Although NO3− is likely responsible for most of the changes in phytoplankton production (post 1970s), historical changes in N loading from the watershed and hypoxia on the LDE shelf may not be as well linked in East China Sea (ECS) sediments due to possible denitrification/ammonification processes; finally, increases in low-oxygen tolerant foraminiferal microfossils indicate there has been an increase in the

  4. Historical record of mercury contamination in sediments from the Babeni Reservoir in the Olt River, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Andrea Garcia; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Ancey, Lydie; Ungureanu, Viorel Gheorghe; Dominik, Janusz

    2009-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a ubiquitous and hazardous contaminant in the aquatic environment showing a strong biomagnification effect along the food chain. The most common transfer path of Hg to humans is contaminated fish consumption. In severely exposed humans, Hg poisoning may lead to damage in the central nervous system. Thus, it is important to examine current and past contamination levels of Hg in aquatic milieu. The Olt River is the largest Romanian tributary of the Danube River. The use of Hg as an electrode in a chlor-alkali plant contributed to the contamination of the aquatic environment in the Rm Valcea region. The purpose of this study was to compare the current state of Hg contamination with the past contamination using a historical record obtained from a dated sediment core from one of the Olt River reservoirs (Babeni) located downstream from the chlor-alkali plant. To our knowledge, no published data on Hg contamination in this region are available. The Babeni Reservoir was selected for this study because it is situated downstream from the chlor-alkali plant, whilst the other reservoirs only retain the pollutants coming from the upstream part of the watershed. Preliminary analyses (unpublished) showed high Hg concentrations in the surface sediment of the Babeni Reservoir. One core was taken in the upstream Valcea Reservoir to provide a local background level of Hg concentrations in sediments. Sediment texture was uniform in the cores from both reservoirs. Laminated sediment structure, without any obvious discontinuities, was observed. Hg concentrations in the sediment core from the Valcea Reservoir were low and constant (0.01-0.08 mg/kg). In Babeni Reservoir sediments, Hg concentrations were very high in the deeper core section (up to 45 mg/kg in the longest core) and decreased to lower concentrations toward the top of the cores (1.3-2.4 mg/kg). This decrease probably reflects technological progress in control of emissions from the Hg-cell-based chlor

  5. Bathymetry 2M Grid of NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Reserve, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 2 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the a portion of the NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and...

  6. Characterizing Sediment Flux Using Reconstructed Topography and Bathymetry from Historical Aerial Imagery on the Willamette River, OR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, T.; Fonstad, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Willamette is a gravel-bed river that drains ~28,800 km^2 between the Coast Range and Cascade Range in northwestern Oregon before entering the Columbia River near Portland. In the last 150 years, natural and anthropogenic drivers have altered the sediment transport regime, drastically reducing the geomorphic complexity of the river. Previously dynamic multi-threaded reaches have transformed into stable single channels to the detriment of ecosystem diversity and productivity. Flow regulation by flood-control dams, bank revetments, and conversion of riparian forests to agriculture have been key drivers of channel change. To date, little has been done to quantitatively describe temporal and spatial trends of sediment transport in the Willamette. This knowledge is critical for understanding how modern processes shape landforms and habitats. The goal of this study is to describe large-scale temporal and spatial trends in the sediment budget by reconstructing historical topography and bathymetry from aerial imagery. The area of interest for this project is a reach of the Willamette stretching from the confluence of the McKenzie River to the town of Peoria. While this reach remains one of the most dynamic sections of the river, it has exhibited a great loss in geomorphic complexity. Aerial imagery for this section of the river is available from USDA and USACE projects dating back to the 1930's. Above water surface elevations are extracted using the Imagine Photogrammetry package in ERDAS. Bathymetry is estimated using a method known as Hydraulic Assisted Bathymetry in which hydraulic parameters are used to develop a regression between water depth and pixel values. From this, pixel values are converted to depth below the water surface. Merged together, topography and bathymetry produce a spatially continuous digital elevation model of the geomorphic floodplain. Volumetric changes in sediment stored along the study reach are then estimated for different historic periods

  7. Burden and Historical Trend of Buruli Ulcer Prevalence in Selected Communities along the Offin River of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampah, Kobina Assan; Asare, Prince; Binnah, Daniel De-Graft; Maccaulley, Samuel; Opare, William; Röltgen, Katharina; Pluschke, Gerd; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a neglected tropical skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans with more than two thirds of the global cases reported in West Africa. A nationwide active BU case search conducted in 1999 identified two health districts along the Offin River as two of the three most endemic districts in Ghana. Based on recent anecdotal accounts that transmission is unstable along the Offin River, we conducted from March to June 2013 an exhaustive household survey and active case search in 13 selected communities within a five-kilometer radius along the Offin River. The overall prevalence of BU was 2.3% among the surveyed population of 20,390 inhabitants and 477 of the total 480 cases detected (99.4%) were historical (healed) cases. By estimating the year of occurrence for each case per community and taking into account available passive surveillance records of health facilities and the District Health Directorate, we observed a general trend of continuous emergence of cases in communities located midstream the Offin River whereas downstream communities showed more sporadic patterns. We monitored the incidence of cases after the survey and recorded a cumulative incidence rate of 0.04% for the 13 communities over a 17-month active surveillance period from August 2013 to December 2014. Our data reveal an overall decline in BU incidence along the Offin River similar to the general decline in BU incidence in recent years reported by the World Health Organization for West Africa. PMID:27078028

  8. High-resolution digital elevation model and historical topographic maps of the Tisza River floodplain, the Great Hungarian Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timár, G.; Mészáros, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Great Hungarian Plain (GHP), the central part of the Pannonian Basin, is one of the world’s most developed flatlands. The relief differences remain under 20 meters in the central area of the plain, especially in the wide floodplain of the Tisza River. After the flood control measurements of the river (1846-1930), newly built dykes cut the wider floodplain from the actual narrow floodway. Common knowledge of the historical inundation patterns has been almost lost. To obtain pieces of information about the possible flood extents, usage of high-resolution elevation models is a valuable option, as well as application of rectified historical topographic maps. The best available elevation model of the GHP is based on the vectorized 1:10,000 scale topographic maps of the Institute of Geodesy, Cartography and Remote Sensing of Hungary (FÃ-MI). The base contour interval is 1 meter but according to the very flat characteristics of the area, halving contours are commonly used. This contour density is definitely needed to get better elevaition models than the one of the SRTM, which shows only the general features of the flatland with remarkable errors at the forests. Historical topographic datasets, such as the ones compiled directly for the water control measures (triangulation: 1833-34; mapping until 1842 by Sámuel Lányi), as well as the First (1783-86) and Second (1857-61) Military Surveys can be rectified easiliy after understanding their geodetic basis. They show in surprising precisity the fine vertical structure of the river terraces and the historical inundation levels. These cartographic elements are of great value also for the necessary re-assessment of the flood control system.

  9. New insights on historic droughts in the UK: Analysis of 200 river flow reconstructions for 1890-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Simon; Barker, Lucy; Hannaford, Jamie; Prudhomme, Christel; Smith, Katie; Svensson, Cecilia; Tanguy, Maliko

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological droughts of the last 50 years in the UK have been well characterised owing to a relatively dense hydrometric network. Prior to this, observed river flow data were generally limited in their spatial coverage and often subject to considerable uncertainty. Whilst qualitative records indicate the occurrence of severe droughts in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including scenarios which may cause substantial impacts to contemporary water supply systems, existing observations are not sufficient to describe their spatio-temporal characteristics. As such, insights on drought in the UK are constrained and a range of stakeholders including water companies and regulators would benefit from a more thorough assessment of historic drought characteristics and their variability. The multi-disciplinary Historic Droughts project aims to rigorously characterise droughts in the UK to inform improved drought management and communication. Driven by rainfall and potential evapotranspiration data that have been extended using recovered records, lumped catchment hydrological models are used to reconstruct daily river flows from 1890 to 2015 for more than 200 catchments across the UK. The reconstructions are derived within a state-of-the-art modelling framework which allows a comprehensive assessment of model, structure and parameter uncertainty. Standardised and threshold-based indicators are applied to the river flow reconstructions to identify and characterise hydrological drought events. The reconstructions are most beneficial in comprehensively describing well known but poorly quantified late 19th and early 20th century droughts, placing the spatial and temporal footprint of these often extreme events within the context of modern episodes for the first time. Oscillations between drought-rich and drought-poor periods are shown not to be limited to the recent observational past, providing an increased sample size of events against which to test a range of airflow and

  10. Phylogeography of Bivalve Cyclina sinensis: Testing the Historical Glaciations and Changjiang River Outflow Hypotheses in Northwestern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Gang; Li, Qi; Kong, Lingfeng; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Background The marginal seas of northwestern Pacific are characterized by unique topography and intricate hydrology. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain genetic patterns of marine species inhabiting the region: the historical glaciations hypothesis suggests population genetic divergence between sea basins, whereas the Changjiang River outflow hypothesis suggests genetic break in line with the Changjiang Estuary. Here the phylogeography of bivalve Cyclina sinensis was investigated to test the validity of these two hypotheses for intertidal species in three marginal seas—the East China Sea (ECS), the South China Sea (SCS), and the Japan Sea (JPS). Methodology/Principal Findings Fragments of two markers (mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS-1) were sequenced for 335 individuals collected from 21 populations. Significant pairwise ΦST were observed between different marginal sea populations. Network analyses illustrated restricted distribution of haplogroups/sub-haplogroups to sea basins, with a narrow secondary contact zone between the ECS and SCS. Demographic expansion was inferred for ECS and SCS lineages using mismatch distributions, neutral tests, and extended Bayesian Skyline Plots. Based on a molecular clock method, the divergence times among COI lineages were estimated dating from the Pleistocene. Conclusions The phylogeographical break revealed for C. sinensis populations is congruent with the historical isolation of sea basins rather than the putative Changjiang River outflow barrier. The large land bridges extending between seas during glaciation allowed accumulation of mutations and subsequently gave rise to deep divergent lineages. The low-dispersal capacity of the clam and coastal oceanography may facilitate the maintenance of the historical patterns as barriers shift. Our study supports the historical glaciations hypothesis for interpreting present-day phylogeographical patterns of C. sinensis, and highlights the importance of historical

  11. Phylogeography of bivalve Cyclina sinensis: testing the historical glaciations and Changjiang River outflow hypotheses in northwestern Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Ni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The marginal seas of northwestern Pacific are characterized by unique topography and intricate hydrology. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain genetic patterns of marine species inhabiting the region: the historical glaciations hypothesis suggests population genetic divergence between sea basins, whereas the Changjiang River outflow hypothesis suggests genetic break in line with the Changjiang Estuary. Here the phylogeography of bivalve Cyclina sinensis was investigated to test the validity of these two hypotheses for intertidal species in three marginal seas-the East China Sea (ECS, the South China Sea (SCS, and the Japan Sea (JPS. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fragments of two markers (mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS-1 were sequenced for 335 individuals collected from 21 populations. Significant pairwise Φ(ST were observed between different marginal sea populations. Network analyses illustrated restricted distribution of haplogroups/sub-haplogroups to sea basins, with a narrow secondary contact zone between the ECS and SCS. Demographic expansion was inferred for ECS and SCS lineages using mismatch distributions, neutral tests, and extended Bayesian Skyline Plots. Based on a molecular clock method, the divergence times among COI lineages were estimated dating from the Pleistocene. CONCLUSIONS: The phylogeographical break revealed for C. sinensis populations is congruent with the historical isolation of sea basins rather than the putative Changjiang River outflow barrier. The large land bridges extending between seas during glaciation allowed accumulation of mutations and subsequently gave rise to deep divergent lineages. The low-dispersal capacity of the clam and coastal oceanography may facilitate the maintenance of the historical patterns as barriers shift. Our study supports the historical glaciations hypothesis for interpreting present-day phylogeographical patterns of C. sinensis, and highlights the importance of

  12. Occurrence, spatial distribution, historical trend and ecological risk of phthalate esters in the Jiulong River, Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongli; Liang, Jing; Gong, Zhenbin; Zhang, Ningning; Duan, Hualing

    2017-02-15

    The occurrence and spatial distribution of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the Jiulong River of southeast China were investigated in water and sediment samples collected from 35 stations along the river in Mar. 2014. The historical trend of the past 26years was reconstructed with a sediment core collected in Dec. 2012 via a (210)Pb dating technique. The potential ecological risk of PAEs was assessed using the risk quotient (RQ) method. Of the 16 PAE congeners analyzed, only 6 PAEs, including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DINP), were identified and quantified; the remaining 10 PAEs were below their respective limits of quantification (LOQs) for the analytical methods used here. The cumulative concentration of 6 PAEs (∑6PAEs) found in the samples spanned a range of 3.48-17.7μg/L in water and 0.046-1.65mg/kg in sediment. The most abundant PAEs in the water-phase were DEHP and DIBP, together accounting for 84.9% of ∑6PAEs in the North River, 82.8% of ∑6PAEs in the West River and 91.6% of ∑6PAEs in the estuary. DEHP and DINP were the richest congeners in the sediment-phase, with proportions of 84.9% in the North River, 81.0% in the West River and 65.4% in the estuary. The spatial distribution of ∑6PAEs in water and sediment phases showed that the riverside environment had influence on the distribution pattern. The reconstruction profile of the PAE congeners and the ∑6PAEs vs the depth of the sediment core indicated that PAEs became increasingly present pollutants around 2006 in the Jiulong River. The results of the potential ecological risk assessment of the RQ method revealed that DIBP and DEHP posed a high risk because of their relatively higher concentrations, while DBP and DINP posed a medium risk to the aquatic system. The baseline data of PAEs in this river will be benefits to the regulatory attention and future

  13. The changing geomorphology of the Atchafalaya River, Louisiana: A historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossa, Joann

    2016-01-01

    The Atchafalaya River in south-central Louisiana is of geomorphic interest because of the large volumes of flow and sediment transported and its role as a major floodway for the lower Mississippi River, notwithstanding its potential to become an avulsion pathway at Old River. Since its origin in the sixteenth century, it has undergone many transformations and currently receives flow from the Red River and partial flow of the Mississippi River through multiple pathways. Flow increased progressively beginning in the mid-1800s and continued until concerns of diversion spurred placement of engineering structures to regulate flows at the juncture between the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers in 1963. Prior studies, that looked at reaches or six to seven rangelines or cross sections on hydrographic surveys document areal, width, and depth increases in the uppermost 80 km (50 mi) of the Atchafalaya River from 1880 to 1974. This study assesses how channel geometry of the Atchafalaya River has changed with flow variations since the 1880s by evaluating instantaneous discharge measurements that document change at superior temporal resolution and differences in thalweg values from coupled modern hydrographic surveys which document change at better spatial resolution than prior works. While structures have regulated and limited flow into the Atchafalaya since 1963, the highest values of discharge, cross-sectional area, and width at Simmesport (upstream) follow river regulation. Associated geometry data at Simmesport and Morgan City (downstream) document that mean bed and thalweg elevations have risen. Comparison of thalweg elevations on hydrographic surveys from 1963 and 2006 show pronounced local variability in bed elevation change but also reaches dominated by degradation (including the Red River and uppermost section of the Atchafalaya) near the Old River diversion. Aggradation occurs in the lower Atchafalaya, a zone where along-channel lakes are filling, flow and sediment

  14. Benthic and Landcover Characterization of Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Branch, for Salt River Bay...

  15. Archaeology, Geomorphology and Historic Surveys in Pools 13-14, Upper Mississippi River. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    employees at the Rock Island office. Many individuals opened their artifact collections for study and provided essential help in locating sites. We...mile 493.3), a distance of 63.4 river miles (Fig. 1.2). In this reach the Mississippi Valley forms a broad arch open to the west. The shape of the...glacier retreated. These valleys incl.ude the Andalusia Gorge, Lower Rock River Valley, Pleasant Valley, Meridosia and Cattail Channels, and the Port

  16. Tide-surge historical assessment of extreme water levels for the St. Johns River: 1928-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacopoulos, Peter

    2017-10-01

    An historical storm population is developed for the St. Johns River, located in northeast Florida-US east coast, via extreme value assessment of an 89-year-long record of hourly water-level data. Storm surge extrema and the corresponding (independent) storm systems are extracted from the historical record as well as the linear and nonlinear trends of mean sea level. Peaks-over-threshold analysis reveals the top 16 most-impactful (storm surge) systems in the general return-period range of 1-100 years. Hurricane Matthew (2016) broke the record with a new absolute maximum water level of 1.56 m, although the peak surge occurred during slack tide level (0.00 m). Hurricanes and tropical systems contribute to return periods of 10-100 years with water levels in the approximate range of 1.3-1.55 m. Extratropical systems and nor'easters contribute to the historical storm population (in the general return-period range of 1-10 years) and are capable of producing extreme storm surges (in the approximate range of 1.15-1.3 m) on par with those generated by hurricanes and tropical systems. The highest astronomical tide is 1.02 m, which by evaluation of the historical record can contribute as much as 94% to the total storm-tide water level. Statically, a hypothetical scenario of Hurricane Matthew's peak surge coinciding with the highest astronomical tide would yield an overall storm-tide water level of 2.58 m, corresponding to an approximate 1000-year return period by historical comparison. Sea-level trends (linear and nonlinear) impact water-level return periods and constitute additional risk hazard for coastal engineering designs.

  17. Ecology, Planning, and River Management in the United States: Some Historical Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reuss

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available River ecologists are also river-basin planners. However, their role in planning has developed slowly over the decades since the beginning of the 20th century. Three major factors explain this phenomenon. First, ecologists focused on plant and animal communities rather than on broader policy issues related to land settlement and water development. Second, the federal government, and most state and local governments as well, used mainly economic criteria to justify projects. Intangible benefits, including the value of species or an aesthetically pleasing landscape, drew relatively little attention. Third, the public generally favored development, especially during the Great Depression of the 1930s. Only after World War II did the public's position shift in favor of more preservation, as ecologists developed the concept of the ecosystem, large dam projects forced basin inhabitants from their homes, and chemical and nuclear pollutants threatened the environment. Also, urbanization increased support for the preservation of recreation sites and of streams undisturbed by human intervention. Meanwhile, partly through important advances in geomorphology and hydrology, ecologists acquired new tools to understand the land-water relationship within river basins. Neverthless, benefit-cost analysis continued to dominate federal water-resources planning, and organizational culture and competing or overlapping bureaucracies hampered rational water resources administration. Environmental groups and physical, natural, and even social scientists began to promote alternative ways to develop rivers. Today, the ideas of integrated water resources management, sustainable development, and comprehensive river-basin management dominate much of the thinking about the future course of river planning in the United States. Any future planning must include ecologists who can help their planning colleagues choose from among rational choices that balance ecological and human

  18. Historic Habitat Opportunities and Food-Web Linkages of Juvenile Salmon in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report of Research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottom, Daniel L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; Campbell, Lance [Northwest Fisheries Science Center

    2009-05-15

    In 2002 with support from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), an interagency research team began investigating salmon life histories and habitat use in the lower Columbia River estuary to fill significant data gaps about the estuary's potential role in salmon decline and recovery . The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provided additional funding in 2004 to reconstruct historical changes in estuarine habitat opportunities and food web linkages of Columbia River salmon (Onchorhynchus spp.). Together these studies constitute the estuary's first comprehensive investigation of shallow-water habitats, including selected emergent, forested, and scrub-shrub wetlands. Among other findings, this research documented the importance of wetlands as nursery areas for juvenile salmon; quantified historical changes in the amounts and distributions of diverse habitat types in the lower estuary; documented estuarine residence times, ranging from weeks to months for many juvenile Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha); and provided new evidence that contemporary salmonid food webs are supported disproportionately by wetland-derived prey resources. The results of these lower-estuary investigations also raised many new questions about habitat functions, historical habitat distributions, and salmon life histories in other areas of the Columbia River estuary that have not been adequately investigated. For example, quantitative estimates of historical habitat changes are available only for the lower 75 km of the estuary, although tidal influence extends 217 km upriver to Bonneville Dam. Because the otolith techniques used to reconstruct salmon life histories rely on detection of a chemical signature (strontium) for salt water, the estuarine residency information we have collected to date applies only to the lower 30 or 35 km of the estuary, where fish first encounter ocean water. We lack information about salmon habitat use, life histories, and growth within the long tidal

  19. Reconstructing the Historical Series of Plant Functional Types in the Three-River Headwaters Region in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X.; Li, T.

    2016-12-01

    This study uses a physiological biome model to reconstruct the 5910 years historical plant functional type series based on the mechanisms about how environmental constraints affect plant growths. The study area is the Three-Rivers Source Headwaters Region (TRHR) in the south of Qinghai Province of China, which is the source area of the Yangtse River, Yellow River, and Lantsang River, with mean altitude above 4000 meters. The environmental constraints we use are temperature and precipitation. Our results demonstrate that there are only three kinds of biomes existing in this area in the history: the Cool Grass/Shrub, Tundra, and Semidesert. The evolutions of biomes are ruled by two basic patterns. The first is the precipitation driving interconversion of the Semidesert and Tundra and the conversion from the Cool Grass/Shrub to the Semidesert. The second is the temperature driving interconversion of the Tundra and Cool Grass/Shrub. The conversion from the Semidesert to the Cool Grass/Shrub can be generated by the permutations of the first process and the second process. The frequency of the first mode is far higher than the second one, which means that precipitation plays a more active role in the biome evolutions while the temperature makes a long and stable influence on these processes. In the spatial and temporal plant type series generated above, we find that the proportion of the area covered by high quality plants (the Cool Grass/Shrub and Tundra) in around 600 AD is higher than most of other periods in the history, which may led to the rise of the Tibetan Empire. The proportion above, however, decreased sharply in around 1600 AD, which was caused by the Little Ice Age. From this research, we can find the influences of major climatic events on the plant distribution, and understand the interaction or co-evolution of climates and plants more clearly. This study will help us protect our environment more scientifically and with a clearer direction.

  20. Literature, Archival, and Historic Review Submerged Cultural Resources Lower Pascagoula and Escatawpa Rivers, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-15

    fairly consistent names in the Pascagoula area, as the Pascagoula River is documented as being named " Punto de Arricifos" (Winsor 1886 (II): 404...Shomette, Donald G . 1973 Shipwrecks of the Civil War. Doric Ltd. Washington, D.C. Swanton, John R. 1946 The Indians of the Southeastern United States

  1. Historical landscape identity and river management in the Biesbosch, a Dutch coastal wetland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkx, G.H.P.

    2003-01-01

    For the Biesbosch the Delta Plan (to protect the western part of the Netherlands against the sea) might result in the digging of new canals, removal of obstructing landscape elements and even withdrawal of polder dikes. A research project was started to make an inventory of historical landscape

  2. Fuzzifying historical peak water levels: case study of the river Rhine at Basel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jose Luis; Kiss, Andrea; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological information comes from a variety of sources, which in some cases might be non-precise. In particular, this is an important issue for the available information on water stages during historical floods. An accurate estimation of the water level profile, together with an elevation model of the riverbed and floodplain areas is fundamental for the hydraulic reconstruction of historical flood events, allowing the back calculation of flood peak discharges, velocity and erosion fields, damages, among others. For the greatest floods during the last 1700 years, Wetter et al. (2011) reconstructed the water levels and historical discharges at different locations in the old city centre from a variety of historical sources (stone marks, official documents, paintings, etc). This work presents a model for the inherent unpreciseness of these historical water levels. This is, with the arithmetics of fuzzy numbers, described by their membership functions, in a similar fashion as the probability density function describes the uncertainty of a random variable. Additional to the in-site collected water stages from floodmarks and other documentary evidence (e.g. preserved in narratives and newspaper flood reports) are prone to be modeled in a fuzzy way. This study presents the use of fuzzy logic to transform historical information from different sources, in this case of flood water stages, into membership functions. This values might then introduced in the mathematical framework of Fuzzy Bayesian Inference to perform the statistical analyses with the rules of fuzzy numbers algebra. The results of this flood frequency analysis, as in the traditional non-fuzzy way, link discharges with exceedance probabilities or return periods. The main difference is, that the modeled discharge quantiles are not precise values, but fuzzy numbers instead, represented by their membership functions explicitly including the unpreciseness of the historical information used. Wetter, O., Pfister, C

  3. Historic Resources Assessment, Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway Wildlife Mitigation Project, Mobile and Tensaw River Deltas, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    I Osborne, A.J. 1977 Strandloopers, Mermaids, and Other Fairy Tales : Ecologi- cal Determinants of Marine Resource Utilization. In For Theory Building...96.1 87.1: 90.0: TOTAL 46 14 77 85 40 262 17.6 5.3 29.4 32.4 15.3 100.0 CHI SQUARE = 4.25 with DF= 4 p value = 0.374 *l=Historic; 2=Protohistoric; 3

  4. Urban metabolism and river systems: an historical perspective – Paris and the Seine, 1790–1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barles

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse metabolic interaction between Paris and the Seine during the industrial era, 1790–1970, a period marked by strong population growth, technological changes, and the absence of specific legislation on environmental issues. The viewpoint focuses on exchanges of waters and wastes between city and river, quantifying them and tracing their evolution in the light of the strategies implemented by the stakeholders in charge. The study combines industrial ecology, local history and the history of technology. From 1790 to 1850, waste matters, and especially excreta, were considered as raw materials, not refuse: they generated real profits. The removal of human excreta aimed not only at improving urban hygiene, but at producing the fertilizers needed in rural areas. Discharging them into the river was out of the question. But after the 1860s, several factors upset this exploitation, notably domestic water supply: night soil became more and more liquid, difficult to handle and to turn into fertilizer; once utilised, the water had to be removed from the house; at the same time, the sewerage system developed and had negative impacts on the river. Even so, Parisian engineers continued to process sewage using techniques that would not only ensure hygiene but also conciliate economic and agricultural interests: combined sewerage system and sewage farms. Both of these early periods are thus noteworthy for a relative limitation of the river's deterioration by urban wastes. Not until the 1920s, when domestic water supply had become the standard and excreta came to be considered as worthless waste, was the principle of valorisation abandoned. This led to important and long-lasting pollution of the Seine (despite the construction of a treatment plant, aggravating the industrial pollution that had been in evidence since the 1840s. Analysing the priorities that led to the adoption of one principle or another in matters of urban

  5. Urban metabolism and river systems: an historical perspective - Paris and the Seine, 1790-1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barles, S.

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse metabolic interaction between Paris and the Seine during the industrial era, 1790-1970, a period marked by strong population growth, technological changes, and the absence of specific legislation on environmental issues. The viewpoint focuses on exchanges of waters and wastes between city and river, quantifying them and tracing their evolution in the light of the strategies implemented by the stakeholders in charge. The study combines industrial ecology, local history and the history of technology. From 1790 to 1850, waste matters, and especially excreta, were considered as raw materials, not refuse: they generated real profits. The removal of human excreta aimed not only at improving urban hygiene, but at producing the fertilizers needed in rural areas. Discharging them into the river was out of the question. But after the 1860s, several factors upset this exploitation, notably domestic water supply: night soil became more and more liquid, difficult to handle and to turn into fertilizer; once utilised, the water had to be removed from the house; at the same time, the sewerage system developed and had negative impacts on the river. Even so, Parisian engineers continued to process sewage using techniques that would not only ensure hygiene but also conciliate economic and agricultural interests: combined sewerage system and sewage farms. Both of these early periods are thus noteworthy for a relative limitation of the river's deterioration by urban wastes. Not until the 1920s, when domestic water supply had become the standard and excreta came to be considered as worthless waste, was the principle of valorisation abandoned. This led to important and long-lasting pollution of the Seine (despite the construction of a treatment plant), aggravating the industrial pollution that had been in evidence since the 1840s. Analysing the priorities that led to the adoption of one principle or another in matters of urban hygiene and techniques

  6. The Historical Flood Of July 2008 From Vaser River Basin, Romania. Causes, Effects And Flood Control Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Andrei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Floods is an experience perceived by society as unexpected, unexplainable and traumatizing and nowadays a threat to humanity more than ever. Among the natural phenomena which negatively affect human activities, floods are the ones which usually have the most significant consequences. The research, evaluations and statistics related to these phenomena do not reveal the drama and serious consequences that come with floods. It was proven that the increase of these extreme hydrological phenomena it is closely related to the anthropic activities from the area. Vaser basin is the most significant sub-basin of Vișeu river basin, contributing with 28% from the total flow of Vișeu river. Having a strong touristic and economic potential, the basin is often threatened by flash floods which usually have devastating effects. During July 2008 there was recorded the most significant flood from the history of hydrometric activity that led to substantial damage and death among locals. The present paper aims to analyze this historical flood, identifying the causes, effects, as well as the methods to control this extreme hydric phenomenon.

  7. Quantifying process-based mitigation strategies in historical context: separating multiple cumulative effects on river meander migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander K Fremier

    Full Text Available Environmental legislation in the US (i.e. NEPA requires defining baseline conditions on current rather than historical ecosystem conditions. For ecosystems with long histories of multiple environmental impacts, this baseline method can subsequently lead to a significantly altered environment; this has been termed a 'sliding baseline'. In river systems, cumulative effects caused by flow regulation, channel revetment and riparian vegetation removal significantly impact floodplain ecosystems by altering channel dynamics and precluding subsequent ecosystem processes, such as primary succession. To quantify these impacts on floodplain development processes, we used a model of river channel meander migration to illustrate the degree to which flow regulation and riprap impact migration rates, independently and synergistically, on the Sacramento River in California, USA. From pre-dam conditions, the cumulative effect of flow regulation alone on channel migration is a reduction by 38%, and 42-44% with four proposed water diversion project scenarios. In terms of depositional area, the proposed water project would reduce channel migration 51-71 ha in 130 years without current riprap in place, and 17-25 ha with riprap. Our results illustrate the utility of a modeling approach for quantifying cumulative impacts. Model-based quantification of environmental impacts allow scientists to separate cumulative and synergistic effects to analytically define mitigation measures. Additionally, by selecting an ecosystem process that is affected by multiple impacts, it is possible to consider process-based mitigation scenarios, such as the removal of riprap, to allow meander migration and create new floodplains and allow for riparian vegetation recruitment.

  8. Utilization of Historical Maps in the Land Use Change Impact Studies: A Case Study from Myjava River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, P.; Rončák, P.; Maliariková, M.; Behan, Š.

    2016-12-01

    The way land is used has a significant impact on many hydrological processes that determine the generation of flood runoff or soil erosion. Advancements in remote sensing which took place in the second half of the 20th century have led to the rise of a new research area focused on analyses of land use changes and their impact on hydrological processes. This study deals with an analysis of the changes in land use over a period of almost three centuries in the Myjava River catchment, which has an outlet at Šaštín-Stráže. In order to obtain information about the way the land was used in the past, three historical mappings representing various periods were used: the first (1st) military mapping (1764-1787), second (2nd) military mapping (1807-1869), and a military topographic mapping (1953-1957). The historical mappings have been manually vectorised in an ArcGIS environment to identify various land use categories. The historical evolution of land use was further compared with a concurrent land use mapping, which was undertaken in 2010 and exploited remote sensing techniques. The study also quantifies the impact of these changes on the long-term catchment runoff as well as their impact on flows induced by extreme precipitation events. This analysis was performed using the WetSpa distributed hydrological model, which enables the simulation of catchment runoff in a daily time step. The analysis showed that the selected catchment has undergone significant changes in land use, mainly characterized by massive deforestation at the end of the 18th century and land consolidation in the middle of the 20th century induced by communist collectivisation. The hydrological simulations demonstrated that the highest and lowest mean annual runoffs were simulated in the first (1st military mapping) and the last (concurrent land use monitoring) time intervals respectively with the smallest and largest percentages of forested areas.

  9. Utilization of Historical Maps in the Land Use Change Impact Studies: A Case Study from Myjava River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valent P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The way land is used has a significant impact on many hydrological processes that determine the generation of flood runoff or soil erosion. Advancements in remote sensing which took place in the second half of the 20th century have led to the rise of a new research area focused on analyses of land use changes and their impact on hydrological processes. This study deals with an analysis of the changes in land use over a period of almost three centuries in the Myjava River catchment, which has an outlet at Šaštín-Stráže. In order to obtain information about the way the land was used in the past, three historical mappings representing various periods were used: the first (1st military mapping (1764-1787, second (2nd military mapping (1807-1869, and a military topographic mapping (1953-1957. The historical mappings have been manually vectorised in an ArcGIS environment to identify various land use categories. The historical evolution of land use was further compared with a concurrent land use mapping, which was undertaken in 2010 and exploited remote sensing techniques. The study also quantifies the impact of these changes on the long-term catchment runoff as well as their impact on flows induced by extreme precipitation events. This analysis was performed using the WetSpa distributed hydrological model, which enables the simulation of catchment runoff in a daily time step. The analysis showed that the selected catchment has undergone significant changes in land use, mainly characterized by massive deforestation at the end of the 18th century and land consolidation in the middle of the 20th century induced by communist collectivisation. The hydrological simulations demonstrated that the highest and lowest mean annual runoffs were simulated in the first (1st military mapping and the last (concurrent land use monitoring time intervals respectively with the smallest and largest percentages of forested areas.

  10. Historical trends in precipitation and stream discharge at the Skjern River catchment, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Ida Bjørnholt; Sonnenborg, Torben Obel; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2014-01-01

    for undercatch. The degree of change in the climatic variables is examined using the non-parametric Mann–Kendall test. During the last 133 yr the area has experienced a significant change in precipitation of 26% and a temperature change of 1.4°C, leading to increases in river discharge of 52% and groundwater...... recharge of 86%. A lumped conceptual hydrological model, NAM, was calibrated on the period 1951–1980 and showed generally an excellent match between simulated and observed discharge. The capability of the hydrological model to predict climate change impact was investigated by looking at performances...

  11. Atmospheric Rivers and Historic California Floods: A Look in the Past and a Peek in the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershunov, A.; Shulgina, T.; Ralph, F. M.; Polade, S. D.; Chellappan, S.

    2016-12-01

    The extent to which Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) have been responsible for historic floods in California is examined using a new catalog of ARs that made landfall at the west coast of North America during 1851-2012. This catalog based on the NOAA 20th Century Reanalysis V2c (SIO-N2) provides a large array of variables that can be used to examine AR cases and their climate-scale variability in exceptional detail. The new record of AR activity provides a perspective on the seasonal - inter-decadal variability of AR activity affecting the hydroclimate of the North American West. AR links to extreme precipitation and flooding are demonstrated using high-resolution observational precipitation data and an extensive record of historic floods compiled by the California Department of Water Resources and the US Army Corps of Engineers. We will discuss the climatic links of AR activity and flooding as well as the detailed role of ARs in driving specific historical floods. Peeking into the future, we apply our automated AR Detection Scheme to choice CMIP5 GCMs and study modeled ARs in conjunction with statistically downscaled precipitation, we validate AR activity diagnosed in GCMs against that derived from Reanalyses as follows. We assess the realism of the seasonal march of AR landfalls from the Gulf of Alaska coastline in late summer-early fall to California by the late fall-early winter as well as the contribution of AR-related precipitation to seasonal totals and especially extremes. We also validate linkages between seasonal AR activity and climate variability expressed in Pacific sea surface temperatures. Using the most successful GCMs, we will assess projected trends in land-falling AR behavior along with their contribution to projected extreme precipitation trends over California. In California's Mediterranean climate, the precipitation regime is projected to progressively favor extreme precipitation events at the expense of the moderate events. Meanwhile, the atmospheric

  12. Assessment of channel changes, model of historical floods, and effects of backwater on flood stage, and flood mitigation alternatives for the Wichita River at Wichita Falls, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Karl E.; Baldys, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    In cooperation with the City of Wichita Falls, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel changes on the Wichita River at Wichita Falls, Texas, and modeled historical floods to investigate possible causes and potential mitigation alternatives to higher flood stages in recent (2007 and 2008) floods. Extreme flooding occurred on the Wichita River on June 30, 2007, inundating 167 homes in Wichita Falls. Although a record flood stage was reached in June 2007, the peak discharge was much less than some historical floods at Wichita Falls. Streamflow and stage data from two gages on the Wichita River and one on Holliday Creek were used to assess the interaction of the two streams. Changes in the Wichita River channel were evaluated using historical aerial and ground photography, comparison of recent and historical cross sections, and comparison of channel roughness coefficients with those from earlier studies. The floods of 2007 and 2008 were modeled using a one-dimensional step-backwater model. Calibrated channel roughness was larger for the 2007 flood compared to the 2008 flood, and the 2007 flood peaked about 4 feet higher than the 2008 flood. Calibration of the 1941 flood yielded a channel roughness coefficient (Manning's n) of 0.030, which represents a fairly clean natural channel. The step-backwater model was also used to evaluate the following potential mitigation alternatives: (1) increasing the capacity of the bypass channel near River Road in Wichita Falls, Texas; (2) removal of obstructions near the Scott Avenue and Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard bridges in Wichita Falls, Texas; (3) widening of aggraded channel banks in the reach between Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard and River Road; and (4) reducing channel bank and overbank roughness. Reductions in water-surface elevations ranged from 0.1 foot to as much as 3.0 feet for the different mitigation alternatives. The effects of implementing a combination of different flood-mitigation alternatives were

  13. Mercury Contamination and Bioaccumulation Associated with Historical Gold Mining in the Bear and Yuba River Watersheds, Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, C. N.; Hunerlach, M. P.; Hothem, R. L.; May, J. T.; Taylor, H. E.; DeWild, J. F.; Olson, M. L.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M.

    2001-12-01

    Extensive use of mercury in the mining and recovery of gold during the late 19th and early 20th centuries has led to widespread mercury contamination of water, sediment, and biota in the Sierra Nevada foothills of California. The watersheds of the Bear and Yuba Rivers were selected for study by the U.S. Geological Survey and other federal, state, and local agencies on the basis of (1) results of previous studies of bioaccumulation, (2) observations of visible elemental mercury at numerous mine sites and in river sediments, and (3) extensive historical mining on federal lands and adjacent private lands. Of 53 unfiltered water samples analyzed for total recoverable mercury (Hg-T), 17 samples (32 percent) had concentrations in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) aquatic-life criterion of 50 nanograms per liter (ng/L). Water flowing from two separate tunnels in one mining district had Hg-T concentrations greater than 100,000 ng/L, exceeding the EPA drinking-water standard of 2,000 ng/L. Monthly sampling of the Bear River near its mouth revealed monomethylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in unfiltered water samples greater than 0.4 ng/L during July-August 1999 and January 2000. Game fish were collected from 5 reservoirs and 14 stream sites during 1999 to assess the distribution of mercury in the food chain and to examine the potential risk for humans and wildlife. Of 141 fish fillet samples of black basses (Micropterus spp.), sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus and Lepomis cyanellus), black crappie (Poxomis nigromaculatus), channel catfish (Ictularus punctatus), brown trout (Salmo trutta), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) analyzed for Hg-T, 52 percent exceeded the EPA criterion of 0.3 parts per million (ppm), wet basis. Eighty-nine percent of the bass had Hg-T greater than 0.3 ppm total mercury. Based on these data, three counties issued a public health notification recommending limited consumption of game fish from the Bear and Yuba watersheds

  14. n-Alkanes in sediments from the Yellow River Estuary, China: Occurrence, sources and historical sedimentary record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Liu, Guijian; Yuan, Zijiao; Da, Chunnian

    2018-04-15

    A total of 21 surface sediments from the Yellow River Estuary (YRE) and a sediment core from the abandoned Old Yellow River Estuary (OYRE) were analyzed for n-alkanes using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). n-Alkanes in the range C12-C33 and C13-C34 were identified in the surface sediments and the core, respectively. The homologous series were mainly bimodal distribution pattern without odd/even predominance in the YRE and OYRE. The total n-alkanes concentrations in the surface sediments ranged from 0.356 to 0.572mg/kg, with a mean of 0.434mg/kg on dry wt. Evaluation of n-alkanes proxies indicated that the aliphatic hydrocarbons in the surface sediments were derived mainly from a petrogenic source with a relatively low contribution of submerged/floating macrophytes, terrestrial and emergent plants. The dated core covered the time period 1925-2012 and the mean sedimentation rate was ca. 0.5cm/yr. The total n-alkanes concentrations in the core ranged from 0.0394 to 0.941mg/kg, with a mean of 0.180mg/kg. The temporal evolution of n-alkanes reflected the historical input of aliphatic hydrocarbons and was consistent with local and regional anthropogenic activity. In general, the investigation on the sediment core revealed a trend of regional environmental change and the role of anthropogenic activity in environmental change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Classification and plausibility assessment of historical and future weather and climate anomalies (application for the Wupper River Basin, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibel, Marc; Lorza, Paula

    2017-04-01

    In the frame of the Horizon 2020 project BINGO (Bringing INnovation to onGOing water management), the effects of climate change scenarios on the water cycle in the Wupper River Basin are being currently investigated. The Wupper catchment area is prone to flash floods in summer, winter floods as well as dry periods. The occurrence of these events has increased in the last decades together with the shifting of the rainy season. BINGO approach focuses on, among others: a) identifying past weather extremes and anomalies due to climate change; and b) gaining deeper knowledge on the effects of soil moisture on water balance and runoff generation processes for reservoir management and enhancement of Wupper Association's flood early warning system. Historical hydro-meteorological extreme events are assessed based on daily records of long-term precipitation time series (ca. 80 years) as well as precipitation time series from downscaled reanalysis products (i.e., ERA-Interim). The determination of representative indices, e.g., Weather Extremity Index (WEI) or the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) serves to compensate for uncertainties in spatial and temporal recording of the parameters of individual processes. The WEI establishes the highest rainfall amount per station and its rarity, the extent of the affected area, and the event duration. For the evaluation of historical climate signals in the reference period and for the assessment of future scenarios, deviation of the mean monthly observed precipitation from the long-term mean value is determined as a first approach for several stations along the catchment area for individual months and different time scales. As a second approach, different indices such as SPI and SPEI (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index) are calculated for different time scales in order to determine whether they were anomalously dry or wet. SPEI is more suitable for climate change analysis than SPI since the former considers not

  16. The source of natural and anthropogenic heavy metals in the sediments of the Minjiang River Estuary (SE China): implications for historical pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yonghang; Sun, Qinqin; Yi, Liang; Yin, Xijie; Wang, Aijun; Li, Yunhai; Chen, Jian

    2014-09-15

    Two sedimentary cores in the Minjiang River estuary (SE China) are documented for grain size, clay minerals, heavy metals, magnetic parameters and Pb isotopes to investigate the source and historical variation of heavy metals. The MJK9 core was collected outside of the Minjiang River estuary, and the core is composed of mixed sediments, of which ~70% from the Yangtze River and 30% from the Minjiang River. It is thus difficult to be used for tracing the human activity along the Minjiang River. In contrast, the sediments of MJK16 core which was collected in a nearshore area are primarily from the Minjiang River. The enrichment factors of the sediments were pollution. The results indicate that the sediments of the MJK16 core have Cu and Pb concentrations increasing since 1980, associated with the increase of magnetic mineral concentration and (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (206)Pb/(208)Pb of the sediments. We compared the Pb isotopic compositions between our results and those for the deposit mining in the Minjiang River basin, and aerosols and coal dust in south China, and considered that Pb in the sediments of the MJK16 core was derived primarily from weathered rocks as well as industrial emission (e.g. coal combustion). The sediments have anthropogenic Pb concentrations ranging from 6% in 1950 to 23.7% in 2010, consistent with the impact of rapid urban and industrial development in China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Rectification of historical topographic maps: a tool revealing the course changes and dynamics of Lower Gaula River, South Trondelag, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timár, Gábor; Baranya, Sándor; Rüther, Nils; Kvarteig, Sidsel; Galambos, Csilla; Biszak, Előd; Nagy, Diána

    2017-04-01

    The 1:50,000 and 1:100,000 scale historical sheets of the Norwegian topographic 'Rektangelkart' map series were georeferenced, in order to obtain the original hydrography of the Gaula River, at a ca 50 kilometer long section between Støren and the estuary to the Gulosen Bay. The 1:50,000 scale sheets are the earliest systematic topographic works of the area, surveyed in 1866-9, while the smaller scale sheets were surveyed forty years later, in 1906-8. Both series represent a river status before the extensive control works. Thus, together with the modern, present-day cartographic and GIS products, these two 'snapshots' from 100 and 150 years ago show not only the original, uncontrolled status of the river but also some elements of the natural changes of the course/thalweg. To make the georeference, instead of using terrain points, the geodetic parameters of the Norwegian 'Rektangelkart' series were defined in GIS environment. The Cassini map projection was defined with a projection center in the fortress of Kongsvinger, Eastern Norway, some 350 kilometers from the study area. Knowing the sheet labeling system and the terrain position of the sheets in this Cassini projection, only their four corner points were defined in all sheets. The accuracy of the horizontal control of georeferenced was less than half map millimeter (25/50 meters). The sheets show an interesting meander cutoff process between Ler and Kvål. In 1869, the meander curve is still active and fully operating. A cutoff channel is clearly mapped in 1906, together with the old one. Nowadays, almost no map signs show the old channel course, however in the field, it is still traceable. Another interesting map element shows the complete bar structure in the channel. These gravel bars showed a different pattern in the old maps, as there were more gravel sediments in the time before the building of upspring reservoirs. Gravel bars are important in some environmental processes, eg. as salmon habitats, This

  18. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish in a region affected by historic gold mining; the South Yuba River, Deer Creek, and Bear River watersheds, California, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Jason T.; Hothem, Roger L.; Alpers, Charles N.; Law, Matthew A.

    2000-01-01

    Mercury that was used historically for gold recovery in mining areas of the Sierra Nevada continues to enter local and downstream water bodies, including the Sacramento Delta and the San Francisco Bay of northern California. Methylmercury is of particular concern because it is the most prevalent form of mercury in fish and is a potent neurotoxin that bioaccumulates at successive trophic levels within food webs. In April 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with several other agencies the Forest Service (U.S. Department of Agriculture), the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the California State Water Resources Control Board, and the Nevada County Resource Conservation District began a pilot investigation to characterize the occurrence and distribution of mercury in water, sediment, and biota in the South Yuba River, Deer Creek, and Bear River watersheds of California. Biological samples consisted of semi-aquatic and aquatic insects, amphibians, bird eggs, and fish. Fish were collected from 5 reservoirs and 14 stream sites during August through October 1999 to assess the distribution of mercury in these watersheds. Fish that were collected from reservoirs included top trophic level predators (black basses, Micropterus spp.) intermediate trophic level predators [sunfish (blue gill, Lepomis macrochirus; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; and black crappie, Poxomis nigromaculatus)] and benthic omnivores (channel catfish, Ictularus punctatus). At stream sites, the species collected were upper trophic level salmonids (brown trout, Salmo trutta) and upper-to-intermediate trophic level salmonids (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). Boneless and skinless fillet portions from 161 fish were analyzed for total mercury; 131 samples were individual fish, and the remaining 30 fish were combined into 10 composite samples of three fish each of the same species and size class. Mercury concentrations in samples of black basses

  19. Historical summer base flow and stormflow trends for New England rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Dudley, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    River base flow is important to aquatic ecosystems, particularly because of its influence on summer water temperatures. Summer (June through September) daily mean streamflows were separated into base flow and stormflow components by use of an automated method at 25 stations in the New England region of the United States that drain predominantly natural basins. Summer monthly mean base flows increased from 1950-2006 at most stations in western New England with many large increases (>20%) and some very large increases (>50%) in and near New Hampshire and Vermont. The same was true for increases in summer 7 day low base flows in and near New Hampshire and Vermont during this same period; in contrast, there were small and large decreases in 7 day low base flows in northern and coastal areas of Maine. Summer stormflows increased from 1950-2006 by more than 50% at many stations in New England, particularly in and near New Hampshire and Vermont. The increases in base flows and stormflows at many stations in and near New Hampshire and Vermont were likely driven by the large increases in summer precipitation recorded at weather stations in this area. Summer rainfall increased at most weather stations in New England from 1950-2006 with many increases of more than 20% in western New England. Summer air temperature increased on average by 1.1??C from 1950-2006 in New England and may have played a role in the decreased base flows in northern and coastal Maine through increased evapotranspiration. Many variables increased less from 1930-2006 than from 1950-2006. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. THE ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF THE URBANISTIC PROCESS IN THE PEARL RIVER DELTA: The management system of the Urban Historic Conservation Area in the megalopolis.

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Haohao

    2010-01-01

    The thesis THE ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF THE URBANISTIC PROCESS IN THE PEARL RIVER DELTA: The management system of the Urban Historic Conservation Area in the megalopolis is based on the background of urbanistic development in Southern China in the last 30 years. China experiences reform and open policy since the beginning of 1980, comprehensive urbanization in the 1990s and the great change of the dualistic mechanism after 2000. It is the greatest urbanization proces...

  1. An Analysis of Historical Impacts of Water Resources Development on Water Levels of the Mekong River (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, T. A.; Arias, M. E.; Piman, T.

    2013-12-01

    The rapid rate of water resources development in the Mekong basin of Southeast Asia is a cause for concern due to potential impacts on highly valued fisheries and natural ecosystems. Historical water levels of the Mekong were analyzed by comparing pre and post 1991 daily data of 6 stations along the mainstream from Chiang Sean, in northern Lao PDR and Thailand, to Stung Treng, in Cambodia, and the Pre Kdam station near the Tonle Sap Lake in the lower Mekong floodplain using the Indicators of Hydrological Alteration (IHA) software. The year 1991 marks a turning point in the rate of development in the basin, with the start of development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong and accelerated hydropower and irrigation development in key tributaries. Observed changes in water level patterns along the Mekong were linked to temporal and spatial water resources development from 1960 to 2010. Variations in climate were accounted for and are important, but they were not observed to be the main causes of changes in key hydrological indicators related to ecosystem productivity. The development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong basin in the post 1991 period resulted in a significant change of seasonal water levels, raise rates, fall rates, and the number of water level fluctuations at Chiang Sean. This effect diminishes downstream until it becomes negligible at the Mukdahan monitoring station in Thailand, which represents a drainage area of over 50% of the total Mekong Basin. Further downstream at Pakse station in Southern Lao PDR, changes in hydrological indicators post 1991 were observed to be significant again, which can be directly attributed to water resource development in the Chi and Mun River basins in Northeastern Thailand. A reduction of 23% and 11% in water level raising rates and fall rates, respectively at Prek Kdam, provides clear evidence of a diminished flood pulse of the Tonle Sap Lake in the post 1991 period. Given the observed water level alterations

  2. NOAA ESRI Geotiff- 2m Multibeam Bathymetry of NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Reserve, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83 (NCEI Accession 0131860)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Geotiff with 2 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the a portion of the NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and...

  3. NOAA ESRI Geotiff- 2m Multibeam Bathymetry of NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Reserve, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Geotiff with 2 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the a portion of the NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and...

  4. Sediment Quality and Comparison to Historical Water Quality, Little Arkansas River Basin, South-Central Kansas, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.

    2008-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variability in streambed-sediment quality and its relation to historical water quality was assessed to provide guidance for the development of total maximum daily loads and the implementation of best-management practices in the Little Arkansas River Basin, south-central Kansas. Streambed-sediment samples were collected at 26 sites in 2007, sieved to isolate the less than 63-micron fraction (that is, the silt and clay), and analyzed for selected nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus), organic and total carbon, 25 trace elements, and the radionuclides beryllium-7, cesium-137, lead-210, and radium-226. At eight sites, streambed-sediment samples also were collected and analyzed for bacteria. Particulate nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon concentrations in the streambed sediment varied substantially spatially and temporally, and positive correlations among the three constituents were statistically significant. Along the main-stem Little Arkansas River, streambed-sediment concentrations of particulate nitrogen and phosphorus generally were larger at and downstream from Alta Mills, Kansas. The largest particulate nitrogen concentrations were measured in samples collected in the Emma Creek subbasin and may be related to livestock and poultry production. The largest particulate phosphorus concentrations in the basin were measured in samples collected along the main-stem Little Arkansas River downstream from Alta Mills, Kansas. Particulate nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon content in the water and streambed-sediment samples typically decreased as streamflow increased. This inverse relation may be caused by an increased contribution of sediment from channel-bank sources during high flows and (or) increased particle sizes transported by the high flows. Trace element concentrations in the streambed sediment varied from site to site and typically were less than threshold-effects guidelines for possible adverse biological effects

  5. Technogenic magnetic particles in soils as evidence of historical mining and smelting activity: A case of the Brynica River Valley, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiera, Tadeusz; Mendakiewicz, Maria; Szuszkiewicz, Marcin; Jabłońska, Mariola; Chróst, Leszek

    2016-10-01

    In the area of Brynica River basin (Upper Silesia, southern Poland) the exploitation and smelting of iron, silver and lead ores was historically documented since early Middle Ages. First investigations showed that metallurgy industry had a large impact from 9th century (AD) until the Second World War. The aim of the study was to use magnetic prospection to detect traces of past mining and ore smelting in Brynica River Valley located in Upper Silesia (southern Poland). The field screening was performed by measurement magnetic susceptibility (κ) on surface and in vertical profiles and was supported locally by gradiometric measurements. Vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility values was closely associated with the type of soil use. Historical technogenic magnetic particles resulting from exploitation, processing, and smelting of iron, silver, and lead ores were accumulated in the soil layer at the depth 10 to 25cm. They were represented by sharp-edged particles of slag, coke, as well as various mineralogical forms of iron minerals and aggregates composed of carbon particles, aluminosilicate glass, and single particles of metallic iron. The additional geochemical study in adjacent peat bog supported by radiocarbon dating was also performed. The application of integrated geochemical-magnetic methods to reconstruct the historical accumulation of pollutants in the studied peat bog was effective. The magnetic peak, which was pointed out by magnetic analyses, is consistent with the presence of charcoal and pollution from heavy metals, such as Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, or Sn. The results of this work will be helpful for the further study of human's impact on the environment related to the historical and even pre-historical ore exploitation and smelting and also used for better targeting the archeological excavations on such areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Historic Habitat Opportunities and Food-Web Linkages of Juvenile Salmon in the Columbia River Estuary and Their Implications for Managing River Flows and Restoring Estuarine Habitat, Physical Sciences Component, Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay, David A. [Portland State University

    2009-08-03

    Long-term changes and fluctuations in river flow, water properties, tides, and sediment transport in the Columbia River and its estuary have had a profound effect on Columbia River salmonids and their habitat. Understanding the river-flow, temperature, tidal, and sediment-supply regimes of the Lower Columbia River (LCR) and how they interact with habitat is, therefore, critical to development of system management and restoration strategies. It is also useful to separate management and climate impacts on hydrologic properties and habitat. This contract, part of a larger project led by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), consists of three work elements, one with five tasks. The first work element relates to reconstruction of historic conditions in a broad sense. The second and third elements consist, respectively, of participation in project-wide integration efforts, and reporting. This report focuses on the five tasks within the historic reconstruction work element. It in part satisfies the reporting requirement, and it forms the basis for our participation in the project integration effort. The first task consists of several topics related to historic changes in river stage and tide. Within this task, the chart datum levels of 14 historic bathymetric surveys completed before definition of Columbia River Datum (CRD) were related to CRD, to enable analysis of these surveys by other project scientists. We have also modeled tidal datums and properties (lower low water or LLW, higher high water or HHW, mean water level or MWL, and greater diurnal tidal range or GDTR) as a function of river flow and tidal range at Astoria. These calculations have been carried for 10 year intervals (1940-date) for 21 stations, though most stations have data for only a few time intervals. Longer-term analyses involve the records at Astoria (1925-date) and Vancouver (1902-date). Water levels for any given river flow have decreased substantially (0.3-1.8 m, depending

  7. Mercury Bioaccumulation in Fish in a Region Affected by Historic Gold Morning: The South Yuba River, Deer Creek, and Bear River Watersheds, California, 1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    May, Jason T; Hothem, Roger L; Alpers, Charles N; Law, Matthew A

    2000-01-01

    Mercury that was used historically for gold recovery in mining areas of the Sierra Nevada continues to enter local and downstream water bodies, including the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the San...

  8. Assessing the evolution of oases in arid regions by reconstructing their historic spatio-temporal distribution: a case study of the Heihe River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yaowen; Wang, Guisheng; Wang, Xueqiang; Fan, Peilei

    2017-12-01

    Oasis evolution, one of the most obvious surface processes in arid regions, affects various aspects of the regional environment, such as hydrological processes, ecological conditions, and microclimates. In this paper, the historical spatio-temporal evolution of the cultivated oases in the Heihe River Basin, the second largest inland watershed in the northwest of China, was assessed using multidisciplinary methods and data from multiple sources, including historical literature, ancient sites, maps and remotely sensed images. The findings show that cultivated oases were first developed on a large scale during the Han Dynasty (121 BC-220) and then gradually decreased in extent from the Six Dynasties period (220-581) to the Sui-Tang period (581-907), reaching a minimum in the Song-Yuan period (960-1368). An abrupt revival occurred during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) and continued through the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), and during the period of the Republic of China (1912-1949), oasis development reached its greatest peak of the entire historical period. The oasis areas during seven major historical periods, i.e., Han, Six Dynasties, Sui-Tang, Song-Yuan, Ming, Qing, and Republic of China, are estimated to have been 1703 km2, 1115 km2, 629 km2, 614 km2, 964 km2, 1205 km2, and 1917 km2, respectively. The spatial distribution generally exhibited a continuous sprawl process, with the center of the oases moving gradually from the downstream region to the middle and even upstream regions. The oases along the main river remained stable during most periods, whereas those close to the terminal reaches were subject to frequent variations and even abandonment. Socio-economic factors were the main forces driving the evolution of cultivated oases in the area; among them, political and societal stability, national defense, agricultural policy, population, and technological progress were the most important.

  9. Mesozoic Magmatism and Base-Metal Mineralization in the Fortymile Mining District, Eastern Alaska - Initial Results of Petrographic, Geochemical, and Isotopic Studies in the Mount Veta Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Slack, John F.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Mortensen, James K.

    2009-01-01

    We present here the initial results of a petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic study of Mesozoic intrusive rocks and spatially associated Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu-Au prospects in the Fortymile mining district in the southern Eagle quadrangle, Alaska. Analyzed samples include mineralized and unmineralized drill core from 2006 and 2007 exploration by Full Metal Minerals, USA, Inc., at the Little Whiteman (LWM) and Fish prospects, and other mineralized and plutonic samples collected within the mining district is part of the USGS study. Three new ion microprobe U-Pb zircon ages are: 210 +- 3 Ma for quartz diorite from LWM, 187 +- 3 Ma for quartz monzonite from Fish, and 70.5 +- 1.1 Ma for altered rhyolite porphyry from Fish. We also present 11 published and unpublished Mesozoic thermal ionization mass spectrometric U-Pb zircon and titanite ages and whole-rock geochemical data for the Mesozoic plutonic rocks. Late Triassic and Early Jurassic plutons generally have intermediate compositions and are slightly foliated, consistent with synkinematic intrusion. Several Early Jurassic plutons contain magmatic epidote, indicating emplacement of the host plutons at mesozonal crustal depths of greater than 15 km. Trace-element geochemical data indicate an arc origin for the granitoids, with an increase in the crustal component with time. Preliminary study of drill core from the LWM Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag prospect supports a carbonate-replacement model of mineralization. LWM massive sulfides consist of sphalerite, galena, and minor pyrite and chalcopyrite, in a gangue of calcite and lesser quartz; silver resides in Sb-As-Ag sulfosalts and pyrargyrite, and probably in submicroscopic inclusions within galena. Whole-rock analyses of LWM drill cores also show elevated In, an important metal in high-technology products. Hypogene mineralized rocks at Fish, below the secondary Zn-rich zone, are associated with a carbonate host and also may be of replacement origin, or alternatively, may be a magnetite

  10. Technogenic magnetic particles in soils as evidence of historical mining and smelting activity: A case of the Brynica River Valley, Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magiera, Tadeusz, E-mail: tadeusz.magiera@ipis.zabrze.pl [Institute of Environmental Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Skłodowskiej-Curie 34, Zabrze (Poland); Mendakiewicz, Maria; Szuszkiewicz, Marcin [Institute of Environmental Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Skłodowskiej-Curie 34, Zabrze (Poland); Jabłońska, Mariola [Department of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland); Chróst, Leszek [Laboratory for Ecological Research, Ekopomiar, Gliwice (Poland)

    2016-10-01

    In the area of Brynica River basin (Upper Silesia, southern Poland) the exploitation and smelting of iron, silver and lead ores was historically documented since early Middle Ages. First investigations showed that metallurgy industry had a large impact from 9th century (AD) until the Second World War. The aim of the study was to use magnetic prospection to detect traces of past mining and ore smelting in Brynica River Valley located in Upper Silesia (southern Poland). The field screening was performed by measurement magnetic susceptibility (κ) on surface and in vertical profiles and was supported locally by gradiometric measurements. Vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility values was closely associated with the type of soil use. Historical technogenic magnetic particles resulting from exploitation, processing, and smelting of iron, silver, and lead ores were accumulated in the soil layer at the depth 10 to 25 cm. They were represented by sharp-edged particles of slag, coke, as well as various mineralogical forms of iron minerals and aggregates composed of carbon particles, aluminosilicate glass, and single particles of metallic iron. The additional geochemical study in adjacent peat bog supported by radiocarbon dating was also performed. The application of integrated geochemical-magnetic methods to reconstruct the historical accumulation of pollutants in the studied peat bog was effective. The magnetic peak, which was pointed out by magnetic analyses, is consistent with the presence of charcoal and pollution from heavy metals, such as Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, or Sn. The results of this work will be helpful for the further study of human's impact on the environment related to the historical and even pre-historical ore exploitation and smelting and also used for better targeting the archeological excavations on such areas. - Highlights: • Due to ferrimagnetic properties of historical slags magnetic prospection is an efficient tool for they localization.

  11. 1992 Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve, St Croix, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Program, for Salt River Bay...

  12. 2000 Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve, St. Croix, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Program, for Salt River Bay...

  13. 1988 Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve, St. Croix, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Program, for Salt River Bay...

  14. 1970's Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Branch, for Salt River Bay...

  15. 2000 Benthic and Landcover Characterization of Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve, St Coix, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Program, for Salt River Bay...

  16. Analysis of snow-glacial historical and projected flows in Olivares river basin. Comparison between DHSVM and WEAP models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Javier; Vargas, Ximena

    2017-04-01

    In the Andes Mountains, in central Chile, glaciers are a key element to both environment and economy, since they contribute highly to streamflow during the summer season. Many studies have been performed in order to understand the actual contribution of glacial-based streamflow and the expected response of glaciers to climatological alterations such as climate change. This work studies and analyses the historical and future streamflow on the Olivares river basin, located close to Chile's capital city, Santiago, under climatic change scenario RCP8.5. For this, we use two hydrological models with different topology, to have more consistency in the results, and analysing the differences because of the conceptualization of the processes and its spatial scale. DHSVM is a distributed, physically based model, while WEAP is a semi-distributed model that represents some processes conceptually and others physically based. Both models are calibrated considering streamflow and snow cover data from the period 2001-2012 at a daily scale. Additionally, comparisons between the modelled glacier area variations and LANDSAT images are performed to strengthen the calibration process. Climate change projections are obtained from five Global Circulation Models (GCM) under RCP8.5 scenario. Changes in glacier area, volume and glacial streamflow contribution to basin discharge are analysed, comparing two future time lapses, near-future period (2015-2044) and far-future (2045-2074), to a baseline period (1985-2004). The basin has an area of 543 km2, with elevations ranging from 1,528 to 6,024 m.a.s.l. and an important glacier presence. According to the National Glacier Cadastre developed by Chile Water Authority (DGA) in 2012, there are 80 uncovered glaciers within the basin, the most important being Juncal Sur, Olivares Alfa, Beta and Gamma. Glacier area represented 17% of the basin in 1985, while they made up only to 11% in 2015.The glaciers are located at altitudes ranging from 3,500 to

  17. Historic mills and mill tailings as potential sources of contamination in and near the Humboldt River basin, northern Nevada. Chapter D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. Thomas; Stillings, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    Reconnaissance field studies of 40 mining districts in and near the Humboldt River basin have identified 83 mills and associated tailings impoundments and several other kinds of mineral-processing facilities (smelters, mercury retorts, heap-leach pads) related to historic mining. The majority of the mills and tailings sites are not recorded in the literature. All tailings impoundments show evidence of substantial amounts of erosion. At least 11 tailings dams were breached by flood waters, carrying fluvial tailings 1 to 15 km down canyons and across alluvial fans. Most of the tailings sites are dry most of the year, but some are near streams. Tailings that are wet for part of the year do not appear to be reacting significantly with those waters because physical factors such as clay layers and hard-pan cement appear to limit permeability and release of metals to surface waters. The major impact of mill tailings on surface- water quality may be brief flushes of runoff during storm events that carry acid and metals released from soluble mineral crusts. Small ephemeral ponds and puddles that tend to collect in trenches and low areas on tailings impoundments tend to be acidic and extremely enriched in metals, in part through cycles of evaporation. Ponded water that is rich in salts and metals could be acutely toxic to unsuspecting animals. Rare extreme storms have the potential to cause catastrophic failure of tailings impoundments, carry away metals in stormwaters, and transport tailings as debris flows for 1 to 15 km. In most situations these stormwaters and transported tailings could impact wildlife but probably would impact few or no people or domes-tic water wells. Because all identified historic tailings sites are several kilometers or more from the Humboldt River and major tributaries, tailings probably have no measurable impact on water quality in the main stem of the Humboldt River.

  18. The potential impact of green agendas on historic river landscapes: Numerical modelling of multiple weir removal in the Derwent Valley Mills world heritage site, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A. J.; Coulthard, T. J.; Knight, D.

    2017-09-01

    The exploitation of river systems for power and navigation has commonly been achieved through the installation of a variety of in-channel obstacles of which weirs in Britain are amongst the most common. In the UK, the historic value of many of these features is recognised by planning designations and protection more commonly associated with historic buildings and other major monuments. Their construction, particularly in the north and west of Britain, has often been associated with industries such as textiles, chemicals, and mining, which have polluted waterways with heavy metals and other contaminants. The construction of weirs altered local channel gradients resulting in sedimentation upstream with the potential as well for elevated levels of contamination in sediments deposited there. For centuries these weirs have remained largely undisturbed, but as a result of the growth in hydropower and the drive to improve water quality under the European Union's Water Framework Directive, these structures are under increasing pressure to be modified or removed altogether. At present, weir modifications appear to be considered largely on an individual basis, with little focus on the wider impacts this might have on valley floor environments. Using a numerical modelling approach, this paper simulates the removal of major weirs along a 24-km stretch of the river Derwent, Derbyshire, UK, designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The results suggest that although removal would not result in significant changes to the valley morphology, localised erosion would occur upstream of structures as the river readjusts its base level to new boundary conditions. Modelling indicates that sediment would also be evacuated away from the study area. In the context of the Derwent valley, this raises the potential for the remobilisation of contaminants (legacy sediments) within the wider floodplain system, which could have detrimental, long-term health and environmental implications for the

  19. Influences of historical and projected changes in climate and land management practices on nutrient fluxes in the Mississippi River Basin, 1948-2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spak, S.; Ward, A. S.; Li, Y.; Dalrymple, K. E.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen fertilization is central to contemporary row crop production in the U.S., but resultant nitrate transport leads to eutrophication, hypoxia, and algal blooms throughout the Mississippi River Basin and in coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Effective basin-scale nutrient management requires a comprehensive understanding of the dynamics of nitrate transport in this large river catchment and the roles of individual management practices, that must then be operationalized to optimize management for both local geophysical and agricultural conditions and in response to decadal and inter-annual variations in local and regional climate. Here, we apply ensemble simulations with Agro-IBIS and THMB using spatially and temporally specific land cover, soil, agricultural, topographic, and climate data to simulate the individual and combined effects of land management and climate on historical (1948-2007) nitrate concentrations and transport in the Mississippi River Basin. We further identify sensitivities of in-stream nitrate dynamics to local and regional applications of Best Management Practices. The ensemble resolves the effects of techniques recommended in the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy, including crop rotations, fertilizer management, tillage and residue management, and cover crops. Analysis of the nitrate transport response surfaces identifies non-linear effects of combined nutrient management tactics, and quantifies the stationarity of the relative and absolute influences of land management and climate during the 60-year study period.

  20. Tracking sedimentation from the historic A.D. 2011 Mississippi River flood in the deltaic wetlands of Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nicole S.; Horton, Benjamin P.; McKee, Karen L.; Jerolmack, Douglas; Falcini, Federico; Enache, Mihaela D.; Vane, Christopher H.

    2013-01-01

    Management and restoration of the Mississippi River deltaic plain (southern United States) and associated wetlands require a quantitative understanding of sediment delivery during large flood events, past and present. Here, we investigate the sedimentary fingerprint of the 2011 Mississippi River flood across the Louisiana coast (Atchafalaya Delta, Terrebonne, Barataria, and Mississippi River Delta basins) to assess spatial patterns of sedimentation and to identify key indicators of sediment provenance. The sediment deposited in wetlands during the 2011 flood was distinguished from earlier deposits based on biological characteristics, primarily absence of plant roots and increased presence of centric (planktonic) diatoms indicative of riverine origin. By comparison, the lithological (bulk density, organic matter content, and grain size) and chemical (stable carbon isotopes of bulk organic matter) properties of flood sediments were nearly identical to the underlying deposit. Flood sediment deposition was greatest in wetlands near the Atchafalaya and Mississippi Rivers and accounted for a substantial portion (37% to 85%) of the annual accretion measured at nearby monitoring stations. The amount of sediment delivered to those basins (1.1–1.6 g cm−2) was comparable to that reported previously for hurricane sedimentation along the Louisiana coast (0.8–2.1 g cm−2). Our findings not only provide insight into how large-scale river floods influence wetland sedimentation, they lay the groundwork for identifying previous flood events in the stratigraphic record.

  1. Geomorphic record of historical ferrous metallurgy in Mała Panew and Czarna River valleys (Poland) - Analysis of DEM from airborne LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkiewicz, Paweł; Malik, Ireneusz; Gawior, Daniel; Woskowicz-Ślezak, Beata; Kryszczuk, Paweł

    2017-11-01

    Ferrous metallurgy, through the centuries of its activity contributed the transformation of the natural landscape. We can find information on the time of functioning of iron works in historical sources. Among historians, there is an opinion that the traces of iron works activity are not visible in the field, but using GIS methods we can identify different types of objects related to ferrous metallurgy like dams, canals, smelter ponds and charcoal kilns. The aim of the study was to identify imprints of ferrous metallurgy in relief of two valleys in Southern Poland. The study was conducted in Mała Panew and Czarna River valleys where ferrous metallurgy, based on historical sources, has started in the 14th century and declined in the end of the 19th century. The tools used for identification objects related to ferrous metallurgy were standard shaded relief visualization techniques. We created models of terrain elevation with hillshading and spatial density of 0.2 m. During the analysis of DEM images we detected objects interpreted as traces of smelter ponds with accompanying dams and canals, and oval objects recognized as remnants of charcoal kilns. Large number and vast distribution of relief features related to ferrous metallurgy, charcoal kilns in particular, clearly indicate that the historical smelting and ironwork activity natural environment of studied areas was transformed. Relief of valley floors, in particular, was a subject of change.

  2. Dynamics of Plains Cottonwood ( Populus deltoides) Forests and Historical Landscape Change along Unchannelized Segments of the Missouri River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark D.; Johnson, W. Carter; Scott, Michael L.; Bowen, Daniel E.; Rabbe, Lisa A.

    2012-05-01

    Construction of six large dams and reservoirs on the Missouri River over the last 50-75 years has resulted in major landscape changes and alterations in flow patterns, with implications for riparian forests dominated by plains cottonwood ( Populus deltoides). We quantified changes in land cover from 1892-1950s and the 1950s-2006 and the current extent and age structure of cottonwood forests on seven segments (two reservoir and five remnant floodplain) comprising 1127 km (53 %) of the unchannelized upper two-thirds of the Missouri River. Riparian forest area declined by 49 %; grassland 61 %; shrubland 52 %; and sandbar habitat 96 %; while agricultural cropland increased six-fold and river/reservoir surface area doubled from 1892 to 2006. Net rates of erosion and accretion declined between the 1892-1950s and 1950s-2006 periods. Accretion exceeded erosion on remnant floodplain segments, resulting in declines in active channel width, particularly in 1950s-2006. Across all study segments in 2006, most cottonwood stands (67 %) were >50 years old, 22 % were 25-50 years old, and only 10 % were <25 years old. Among stands <50 years old, the higher proportion of 25-50 year old stands represents recruitment that accompanied initial post-dam channel narrowing; while declines in sandbar and shrubland area and the low proportion of stands <25 years old suggest declines in geomorphic dynamism and limited recruitment under recent river management. Future conservation and restoration efforts should focus both on limiting further loss of remnant cottonwood stands and developing approaches to restore river dynamics and cottonwood recruitment processes.

  3. Caring for Cultural Landscapes: How a Blackstone River Valley Town Preserved Its Historic Mill Village and Boosted Its Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowin, Peter C.

    1994-01-01

    Case study of redevelopment of the village of Farnumville in Grafton, Massachusetts, illustrates the potential of historic preservation and heritage tourism as a tool for economic development. Describes the mill village cultural landscape and the importance of citizen and business participation to the process. Presents building and streetscape…

  4. Rivers through time: historical changes in the riparian vegetation of the semi-arid, winter rainfall region of South Africa in response to climate and land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M Timm; Rohde, Richard Frederick

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how the riparian vegetation of perennial and ephemeral rivers systems in the semi-arid, winter rainfall region of South Africa has changed over time. Using an environmental history approach we assess the extent of change in plant cover at 32 sites using repeat photographs that cover a time span of 36-113 years. The results indicate that in the majority of sites there has been a significant increase in cover of riparian vegetation in both the channel beds and adjacent floodplain environments. The most important species to have increased in cover across the region is Acacia karroo. We interpret the findings in the context of historical changes in climate and land use practices. Damage to riparian vegetation caused by mega-herbivores probably ceased sometime during the early 19th century as did scouring events related to large floods that occurred at regular intervals from the 15th to early 20th centuries. Extensive cutting of riparian vegetation for charcoal and firewood has also declined over the last 150 years. Changes in the grazing history as well as increased abstraction and dam building along perennial rivers in the region also account for some of the changes observed in riparian vegetation during the second half of the 20th century. Predictions of climate change related to global warming anticipate increased drought events with the subsequent loss of species and habitats in the study area. The evidence presented here suggests that an awareness of the region's historical ecology should be considered more carefully in the modelling and formulation of future climate change predictions as well as in the understanding of climate change impacts over time frames of decades and centuries.

  5. Long-term trends of surface-water mercury and methylmercury concentrations downstream of historic mining within the Carson River watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morway, Eric D; Thodal, Carl E; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark

    2017-10-01

    The Carson River is a vital water resource for local municipalities and migratory birds travelling the Pacific Flyway. Historic mining practices that used mercury (Hg) to extract gold from Comstock Lode ore has left much of the river system heavily contaminated with Hg, a practice that continues in many parts of the world today. Between 1998 and 2013, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) collected and analyzed Carson River water for Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations resulting in a sixteen year record of unfiltered total mercury (uf.THg), filtered (dissolved) Hg (f.THg), total methylmercury (uf.MeHg), filtered MeHg (f.MeHg), and particulate-bound THg (p.THg) and MeHg (p.MeHg) concentrations. This represents one of the longest continuous records of Hg speciation data for any riverine system, thereby providing a unique opportunity to evaluate long-term trends in concentrations and annual loads. During the period of analysis, uf.THg concentration and load trended downward at rates of -0.85% and -1.8% per year, respectively. Conversely, the f.THg concentration increased at a rate of 1.7% per year between 1998 and 2005, and 4.9% per year between 2005 and 2013. Trends in flow-normalized partition coefficients for both Hg and MeHg suggest a statistically significant shift from the particulate to the filtered phase. The upwardly accelerating f.THg concentration and observed shift from the solid phase to the aqueous phase among the pools of Hg and MeHg within the river water column signals an increased risk of deteriorating ecological conditions in the lower basin with respect to Hg contamination. More broadly, the 16-year trend analysis, completed 140 years after the commencement of major Hg releases to the Carson River, provides a poignant example of the ongoing legacy left behind by gold and silver mining techniques that relied on Hg amalgamation, and a cautionary tale for regions still pursuing the practice in other countries. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Long-term trends of surface-water mercury and methylmercury concentrations downstream of historic mining within the Carson River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morway, Eric; Thodal, Carl E.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.

    2017-01-01

    The Carson River is a vital water resource for local municipalities and migratory birds travelling the Pacific Flyway. Historic mining practices that used mercury (Hg) to extract gold from Comstock Lode ore has left much of the river system heavily contaminated with Hg, a practice that continues in many parts of the world today. Between 1998 and 2013, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) collected and analyzed Carson River water for Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations resulting in a sixteen year record of unfiltered total mercury (uf.THg), filtered (dissolved) Hg (f.THg), total methylmercury (uf.MeHg), filtered MeHg (f.MeHg), and particulate-bound THg (p.THg) and MeHg (p.MeHg) concentrations. This represents one of the longest continuous records of Hg speciation data for any riverine system, thereby providing a unique opportunity to evaluate long-term trends in concentrations and annual loads. During the period of analysis, uf.THg concentration and load trended downward at rates of −0.85% and −1.8% per year, respectively. Conversely, the f.THg concentration increased at a rate of 1.7% per year between 1998 and 2005, and 4.9% per year between 2005 and 2013. Trends in flow-normalized partition coefficients for both Hg and MeHg suggest a statistically significant shift from the particulate to the filtered phase. The upwardly accelerating f.THg concentration and observed shift from the solid phase to the aqueous phase among the pools of Hg and MeHg within the river water column signals an increased risk of deteriorating ecological conditions in the lower basin with respect to Hg contamination. More broadly, the 16-year trend analysis, completed 140 years after the commencement of major Hg releases to the Carson River, provides a poignant example of the ongoing legacy left behind by gold and silver mining techniques that relied on Hg amalgamation, and a cautionary tale for regions still pursuing the practice in other countries.

  7. Geology of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park and Potomac River Corridor, District of Columbia, Maryland, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, Scott; Brezinski, David K.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Repetski, John E.; Denenny, Danielle M.

    2008-01-01

    The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park is 184.5 mi long and extends from Washington, D.C., to Cumberland, Md. The canal passes through three physiographic provinces including the Piedmont, Valley and Ridge, and the Blue Ridge; the map area also includes rocks of the Coastal Plain and Appalachian Plateaus provinces. Each province contains unique packages of rocks that influenced the character of the canal and towpath. The ages of the bedrock encountered along the length of the park range from Mesoproterozoic to Jurassic and represent a variety of tectonic and depositional environments. The different rock types and surficial deposits dictated the various construction methods for the canal, which was excavated in Quaternary flood-plain deposits as well as through bedrock. The ancient course of the Potomac River and the deposits it left behind also influenced the location of the canal and towpath. The engineers made good use of the many rock types to construct the locks, dams, aqueducts, and culverts that guided water from the Potomac River into the canal and maintained the water level as canal boats traveled between higher elevations in western Maryland to sea level in Washington, D.C. The canal and towpath provide a unique transect across the central Appalachian region for examining the rich geologic diversity and history.

  8. Analysing the historical trends of water resources and land cover in the headwaters of the Llobregat and Ter river basins (Catalonia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallart, Francesc; Llorens, Pilar; Marcé, Rafael; Delgado, Juliana; Beatson, Shawn J. V.; Posner, Hannah

    2010-05-01

    The Llobregat and Ter rivers have their headwaters in the South-Eastern Pyrenees and are the main sources for the water resources of eastern Catalonia and particularly for the metropolitan areas of Barcelona and Girona. The historical discharge records of the headwater basins of these rivers have been analysed in relation with the land cover changes occurred in the territory. Flow records showed high interannual variability, with a succession of decadal wet and dry spells that make difficult the detection of long-term trends in most of the gauging stations. The comparison of the measured flows with those simulated with rainfall-runoff models showed some clear divergences. Most of the trends of the measured flows were significantly more negative than those explained by the climate forcing. Differences found between observed and simulated flows were attributed to land use changes. Indeed, middle mountains in the studied catchments suffered an important increase of forest cover between 1957 and 1980, with a more moderate increase afterwards. This change in land cover was caused by the change of land use from agriculture to pasture and forestry, as well as land abandonment. The foreseeable effect of this land cover change is an increase of land evaporation caused by the increase in forest cover, not taken into account by the models used. The results show that the assessment of future water resources in this region must take into account not only the climate scenarios, but also the land cover scenarios, driven by both climate and economical factors.

  9. Description of a new catfish genus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Tocantins River basin in central Brazil, with comments on the historical zoogeography of the new taxon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Roxo, Fábio F.; Ochoa, Luz E.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study presents the description of a new genus of the catfish subfamily Neoplecostominae from the Tocantins River basin. It can be distinguished from other neoplecostomine genera by the presence of (1) three hypertrophied bicuspid odontodes on the lateral portion of the body (character apparently present in mature males); (2) a large area without odontodes around the snout; (3) a post-dorsal ridge on the caudal peduncle; (4) a straight tooth series in the dentary and premaxillary rows; (5) the absence of abdominal plates; (6) a conspicuous series of enlarged papillae just posterior to the dentary teeth; and (7) caudal peduncle ellipsoid in cross section. We used maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods to estimate a time-calibrated tree with the published data on 116 loricariid species using one nuclear and three mitochondrial genes, and we used parametric biogeographic analyses (DEC and DECj models) to estimate ancestral geographic ranges and to infer the colonization routes of the new genus and the other neoplecostomines in the Tocantins River and the hydrographic systems of southeastern Brazil. Our phylogenetic results indicate that the new genus and species is a sister taxon of all the other members of the Neoplecostominae, originating during the Eocene at 47.5 Mya (32.7–64.5 Mya 95% HPD). The present distribution of the new genus and other neoplecostomines may be the result of a historical connection between the drainage basins of the Paraguay and Paraná rivers and the Amazon basin, mainly through headwater captures. PMID:27408594

  10. The environmental and geomorphological impacts of historical gold mining in the Ohinemuri and Waihou river catchments, Coromandel, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Alastair J. H.; Nováková, Tereza; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A.; Fuller, Ian C.; Macklin, Mark G.; Fox, Elizabeth G.; Zapico, Ignacio

    2017-10-01

    Between 1875 and 1955 approximately 250,000 Mg yr- 1 of mercury-, arsenic-, and cyanide-contaminated mine tailings were discharged directly into the Ohinemuri River and its tributaries, in the Coromandel Region, North Island, New Zealand. A devastating flood on 14 January 1907 deposited large amounts of mine waste across the floodplain of the Ohinemuri and Waihou rivers in the vicinity of the township of Paeroa. The 1907 mine-waste flood deposit was located as a dirty yellow silt in cores and floodplain profiles, with a thickness ranging from 0.15-0.50 m. Geochemical analysis of the mine waste shows elevated concentrations of Pb ( 200-570 mg kg- 1) and As ( 30-80 mg kg- 1), compared to early Holocene background concentrations (Pb < 30 mg kg- 1; As < 17 mg kg- 1). Bulk sediment samples recovered from the river channel and overbank deposits also show elevated concentrations of Pb ( 110 mg kg- 1), Zn ( 140-320 mg kg- 1), Ag ( 3 mg kg- 1), and Hg ( 0.4 mg kg- 1). Using the mine-waste deposit as a chronological marker shows that sedimentation rates increased from 0.2 mm yr- 1 in the early Holocene, to 5.5-26.8 mm yr- 1 following the 1907 flood. Downstream trends in the thickness of the flood deposit show that local-scale geomorphic factors are a significant influence on the deposition of mine waste in such events. Storage of mine waste is greatest in the upstream reaches of the floodplain. The volume of mine waste estimated to be stored in the Ohinemuri floodplain is 1.13 M m3, an order of magnitude larger than recent well-publicised tailings-dam failures, such as the 1996 South America Porco, 2000 Romanian Baia Mare and Baia Borsa accidents, and constituted, and was recognised at the time, a significant geomorphological and environmental event. The mine-waste material remains in the floodplain today, representing a sizable legacy store of contaminant metals and metalloids that pose a long-term risk to the Ohinemuri and Waihou ecosystems.

  11. River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The OECD report “Boosting Resilience through Innovative Risk Governance” examines the efforts of OECD countries to prevent or reduce future disaster impacts, and highlights several key areas where improvements can be made. International collaboration is insufficiently utilised to address shocks that have increasingly global consequences. Institutional design plays a significant role in facilitating or hampering the engagement and investments of governmental and non-governmental stakeholders in disaster risk prevention and mitigation. To inform the design of “better” institutions, the OECD proposes the application of a diagnostic framework that helps governments identify institutional shortcomings and take actions to improve them. The goal of the case study on the Rhone River is to conduct an analysis of the progress, achievements and existing challenges in designing and implementing disaster risk reduction strategies through the Rhone Plan from a comparative perspective across a set of selected countries of this study, like Austria and Switzerland, will inform how to improve institutional frameworks governing risk prevention and mitigation. The case study will be used to identify examples of successful practice taking into account their specific country contexts, and analyse their potential for policy transfer.

  12. Mesozoic magmatism and timing of epigenetic Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization in the western Fortymile mining district, east-central Alaska: Zircon U-Pb geochronology, whole-rock geochemistry, and Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Aleinkoff, J.N.; Day, W.C.; Mortensen, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    The Mesozoic magmatic history of the North American margin records the evolution from a more segmented assemblage of parautochthonous and allochthonous terranes to the more cohesive northern Cordilleran orogenic belt. We characterize the setting of magmatism, tectonism, and epigenetic mineralization in the western Fortymile mining district, east-central Alaska, where parautochthonous and allochthonous Paleozoic tectonic assemblages are juxtaposed, using sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon geochronology, whole-rock geochemistry, and feldspar Pb isotopes of Mesozoic intrusions and spatially associated mineral prospects. New SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages and published U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate four episodes of plutonism in the western Fortymile district: Late Triassic (216-208 Ma), Early Jurassic (199-181 Ma), mid-Cretaceous (112-94 Ma), and Late Cretaceous (70-66 Ma). All age groups have calc-alkalic arc compositions that became more evolved through time. Pb isotope compositions of feldspars from Late Triassic, Early Jurassic, and Late Cretaceous igneous rocks similarly became more radiogenic with time and are consistent with the magmas being mantle derived but extensively contaminated by upper crustal components with evolving Pb isotopic compositions. Feldspar Pb isotopes from mid-Cretaceous rocks have isotopic ratios that indicate magma derivation from upper crustal sources, probably thickened mid-Paleozoic basement. The origin of the mantle component in Late Cretaceous granitoids suggested by Pb isotopic ratios is uncertain, but we propose that it reflects asthenospheric upwelling following slab breakoff and sinking of an inactive inner subduction zone that delivered the previously accreted Wrangellia composite terrane to the North American continental margin, after the outer Farallon subduction zone was established.

  13. The Performance of Underground Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks at the Savannah River Site: A 60-Year Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Bruce J.

    2014-03-01

    The Savannah River Site produced weapons-grade materials for nearly 35 years between 1953 and 1988. The legacy of this production is nearly 37 million gallons of radioactive waste. Since the 1950s, the liquid waste has been stored in large, underground carbon steel waste tanks. During the past 20 years, the site has begun to process the waste so that it may be stored in vitrified and grout forms, which are more suitable for long-term storage. Over the history of the site, some tanks have experienced leakage of the waste to the secondary containment. This article is a review of the instances of leakage and corrosion degradation that the tanks and associated equipment have experienced since the first tanks were built. Furthermore, the activities that the site has taken to mitigate the degradation and manage the service life of the tank for its anticipated lifetime are reviewed.

  14. Historical photogrammetry: Bird's Paluxy River dinosaur chase sequence digitally reconstructed as it was prior to excavation 70 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkingham, Peter L; Bates, Karl T; Farlow, James O

    2014-01-01

    It is inevitable that some important specimens will become lost or damaged over time, conservation is therefore of vital importance. The Paluxy River dinosaur tracksite is among the most famous in the world. In 1940, Roland T. Bird described and excavated a portion of the site containing associated theropod and sauropod trackways. This excavated trackway was split up and housed in different institutions, and during the process a portion was lost or destroyed. We applied photogrammetric techniques to photographs taken by Bird over 70 years ago, before the trackway was removed, to digitally reconstruct the site as it was prior to excavation. The 3D digital model offers the opportunity to corroborate maps drawn by R.T. Bird when the tracksite was first described. More broadly, this work demonstrates the exciting potential for digitally recreating palaeontological, geological, or archaeological specimens that have been lost to science, but for which photographic documentation exists.

  15. Tree-ring records of the historic pollution along Novăţ river, Maramureş Mountains, (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai HOTEA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mining activities cause heavy metal pollution of the water, the soil and the air in the affected areas. Metal toxicity, acidic pH and changes in soil structure are supposed to induce a stress on the riparian forest. Coniferous trees affected by this type of human-induced environmental stress react by producing different anatomical changes, commonly the abrupt radial growth decrease and traumatic resin duct production. By analysing growth anomalies formed in tree-rings, it is therefore possible to reconstruct retrospectively the dynamics of forest under environmental polluted, conditions.On the 10th of March 2000 an ecological disaster occurred in Maramureş Mountains, Romania. A tailing pond of the Baia Borşa mines (district Maramures burst after heavy precipitations and thawing. About 20 000 t of heavy metal contaminated sludge flooded along Novăţ and Vaser Valleys and then reached the rivers Vişeu and Tisa.The 2000 event severely pollutes with heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn etc. the soil and ground water in the riparian forest areas. Moreover, these trees were buried under toxic sediments left after the passage of the flood. Riparian forest stands along Novăţ river are mainly composed by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L Karst. trees. This tree species is known to have a high susceptibility to soil pollution, because of the shallow growing roots within the upper part of the soil profile. It has therefore a high potential for dendrochronological studies. In this mining area, so far relations between pollution events and the growth response of Norway spruce have not been tested. 

  16. Hydraulic and Geomorphic Assessment of the Merced River and Historic Bridges in Eastern Yosemite Valley, Yosemite National Park, California: Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minear, J. Toby; Wright, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    The Merced River in the popular and picturesque eastern-most part of Yosemite Valley in Yosemite National Park, California, USA, has been extensively altered since the park was first conceived in 1864. Historical human trampling of streambanks has been suggested as the cause of substantial increases in stream width, and the construction of undersized stone bridges in the 1920s has been suggested as the major factor leading to an increase in overbank flooding due to deposition of bars and islands between the bridges. In response, the National Park Service at Yosemite National Park (YNP) requested a study of the hydraulic and geomorphic conditions affecting the most-heavily influenced part of the river, a 2.4-km reach in eastern Yosemite Valley extending from above the Tenaya Creek and Merced River confluence to below Housekeeping Bridge. As part of the study, present-day conditions were compared to historical conditions and several possible planning scenarios were investigated, including the removal of an elevated road berm and the removal of three undersized historic stone bridges identified by YNP as potential problems: Sugar Pine, Ahwahnee and Stoneman Bridges. This Open-File Report will be superseded at a later date by a Scientific Investigations Report. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model, the USGS FaSTMECH (Flow and Sediment Transport with Morphological Evolution of Channels) model, within the USGS International River Interface Cooperative (iRIC) model framework, was used to compare the scenarios over a range of discharges with annual exceedance probabilities of 50-, 20-, 10-, and 5- percent. A variety of topographic and hydraulic data sources were used to create the input conditions to the hydrodynamic model, including aerial LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging), ground-based LiDAR, total station survey data, and grain size data from pebble counts. A digitized version of a historical topographic map created by the USGS in 1919, combined with estimates of

  17. Analysing the effect of global change on the historical trends of water resources in the headwaters of the Llobregat and Ter river basins (Catalonia, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallart, F.; Delgado, J.; Beatson, S. J. V.; Posner, H.; Llorens, P.; Marcé, R.

    The headwaters of the Llobregat and Ter Rivers are the main sources of water resources for the metropolitan areas of Barcelona and Girona. The historical discharge records of the headwater basins of these rivers during the period 1940-2000 have been analysed in relation with the changes in climate forcing and land cover occurring in these South Eastern Pyrenees catchments. Flow records showed high inter-annual variability, with a succession of decadal wet and dry spells, which made the detection of long-term trends in most of the gauging stations difficult. A comparison of the measured flows with those simulated by two rainfall-runoff models from climatic records showed some clear divergences. The trends of the measured flows for the study periods were negative whereas those explained by climate forcing had practically no trend. Analyses of other data periods may show negative and positive trends. Differences found between observed and simulated flows showed negative trends that were attributed to land use changes. Indeed, middle mountains in the study catchments have undergone an important increase of forest cover in the last decades. The main change observed in the area was an improvement of forest from sparse to dense coverage, and secondarily the change of land use from agriculture to pasture and forestry. The foreseeable effect of this land cover change is an increase of land evaporation caused by the increase in forest cover, not taken into account by the models used. The conclusion is that, although stream flows showed great decadal variability and significant trends driven by climate during some decadal-scale periods, water resources modelled from climate data for the whole period 1940-2000 did not show significant trends. In contrast, actual water resources experienced an annual decrease of about 0.25% of the mean annual resources during the same time span, due to an increase in forest cover in the headwaters.

  18. Organic carbon in floodplain alluvium: Signature of historic variations in erosion processes associated with deforestation, Waipaoa River basin, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Basil; Brackley, Hannah L.; Hicks, D. Murray; Neff, Hector; Rogers, Karyne M.

    2004-12-01

    We use C-org and δ13C to trace the origin of the alluvium deposited on the Waipaoa River floodplain at McPhail's Bend between 1853 and 2002. The overbank deposits exhibit a more positive range of δ13C values (-26.3 ± 0.6) than contemporary suspended sediment in transport at intermediate flows (-27.8 ± 0.2) when gully erosion releases most material to stream channels, reflecting the greater contribution made by shallow landsliding in the headwaters during large precipitation events. Overbank sediment associated with recent floods contains a higher (˜50%) amount of organic carbon than alluvium deposited by pre-1927 floods, which was derived from outcrops of weathered bedrock on steep, riparian hillslopes that were the primary sediment source before the soil-mantled hillslopes elsewhere in the headwaters of the basin were destabilized by deforestation. The recent alluvium resembles the Bw horizon of soils present on these hillslopes. Sediment deposited during floods generated by localized storms and an overbank event that did not feature widespread shallow landsliding also has a distinctive signature that provides an indication of its provenance. The organic carbon associated with the alluvium appears to be old (4031 ± 40 B.P., in the case of the carbon associated with sediment deposited in 2002) and to be derived from weathered Cretaceous and Tertiary sedimentary rocks.

  19. Historical Storminess and Hydro-Geological Hazard Temporal Evolution in the Solofrana River Basin—Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Longobardi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation extremes have always been part of the Earth’s climate system and associated multiple damaging hydrological events (MDHEs, the simultaneous triggering of different types of phenomena (landslides and floods, affect an always-increasing portion of human settlement areas. This paper aims to investigate the relationship between the temporal evolution of severe geomorphological events and combined precipitation indices as a tool to improve understanding the hydro-geological hazard at the catchment scale. The case study is the Solofrana river basin, Southern Italy, and the focus is on four of main municipalities severely affected by natural disasters. Data for about 45 MDH events, spanning 1951–2014, have been collected and analyzed for this purpose. A preliminary monthly scale analysis of event occurrences highlights a pronounced seasonal characterization of the phenomenon, as about 60% of the total number of reported events take place during the period from September to November. Following, a statistical analysis clearly indicates a significant increase in the frequency of occurrences of MDHEs during the last decades. Such an increase appears to be related to non-stationary features of an average catchment scale rainfall-runoff erosivity index, which combines maximum monthly, maximum daily, and a proxy of maximum hourly precipitation data.

  20. Effects of historical lead–zinc mining on riffle-dwelling benthic fish and crayfish in the Big River of southeastern Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allert, A.L.; DiStefano, R.J.; Fairchild, J.F.; Schmitt, C.J.; McKee, M.J.; Girondo, J.A.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2013-01-01

    The Big River (BGR) drains much of the Old Lead Belt mining district (OLB) in southeastern Missouri, USA, which was historically among the largest producers of lead–zinc (Pb–Zn) ore in the world. We sampled benthic fish and crayfish in riffle habitats at eight sites in the BGR and conducted 56-day in situ exposures to the woodland crayfish (Orconectes hylas) and golden crayfish (Orconectes luteus) in cages at four sites affected to differing degrees by mining. Densities of fish and crayfish, physical habitat and water quality, and the survival and growth of caged crayfish were examined at sites with no known upstream mining activities (i.e., reference sites) and at sites downstream of mining areas (i.e., mining and downstream sites). Lead, zinc, and cadmium were analyzed in surface and pore water, sediment, detritus, fish, crayfish, and other benthic macro-invertebrates. Metals concentrations in all materials analyzed were greater at mining and downstream sites than at reference sites. Ten species of fish and four species of crayfish were collected. Fish and crayfish densities were significantly greater at reference than mining or downstream sites, and densities were greater at downstream than mining sites. Survival of caged crayfish was significantly lower at mining sites than reference sites; downstream sites were not tested. Chronic toxic-unit scores and sediment probable effects quotients indicated significant risk of toxicity to fish and crayfish, and metals concentrations in crayfish were sufficiently high to represent a risk to wildlife at mining and downstream sites. Collectively, the results provided direct evidence that metals associated with historical mining activities in the OLB continue to affect aquatic life in the BGR.

  1. Assessment of boreal forest historical C dynamics in Yukon River Basin: relative roles of warming and fire regime change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Fengming [ORNL; Yi, Shuhua [Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS; McGuire, A. David [University of Alaska; Johnson, Kristopher D [University of Alaska, Fairbanks; Liang, Jingjing [University of Alaska, Fairbanks; Harden, Jennifer [USGS, Menlo Park, CA; Kasischke, Eric S. [University of Maryland, College Park; Kurz, Werner [Canadian Forest Service

    2012-01-01

    Carbon (C) dynamics of boreal forest ecosystems have substantial implications for efforts to mitigate the rise of atmospheric CO2 and may be substantially influenced by warming and changing wildfire regimes. In this study we applied a large-scale ecosystem model that included dynamics of organic soil horizons and soil organic matter characteristics of multiple pools to assess forest C stock changes of the Yukon River Basin (YRB) in Alaska, USA, and Canada from 1960 through 2006, a period characterized by substantial climate warming and increases in wildfire. The model was calibrated for major forests with data from long-term research sites and evaluated using a forest inventory database. The regional assessment indicates that forest vegetation C storage increased by 46 Tg C, but that total soil C storage did not change appreciably during this period. However, further analysis suggests that C has been continuously lost from the mineral soil horizon since warming began in the 1970s, but has increased in the amorphous organic soil horizon. Based on a factorial experiment, soil C stocks would have increased by 158 Tg C if the YRB had not undergone warming and changes in fire regime. The analysis also identified that warming and changes in fire regime were approximately equivalent in their effects on soil C storage, and interactions between these two suggests that the loss of organic horizon thickness associated with increases in wildfire made deeper soil C stocks more vulnerable to loss via decomposition. Subbasin analyses indicate that C stock changes were primarily sensitive to the fraction of burned forest area within each subbasin and that boreal forest ecosystems in the YRB are currently transitioning from being sinks to sources at ;0.7% annual area burned. We conclude that it is important for international mitigation efforts focused on controlling atmospheric CO2 to consider how climate warming and changes in fire regime may concurrently affect the CO2 sink

  2. Assessment of boreal forest historical C dynamics in the Yukon River Basin: relative roles of warming and fire regime change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, F.M.; Yi, S.H.; McGuire, A.D.; Johnson, K.D.; Liang, J.; Harden, J.W.; Kasischke, E.S.; Kurz, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon (C) dynamics of boreal forest ecosystems have substantial implications for efforts to mitigate the rise of atmospheric CO2 and may be substantially influenced by warming and changing wildfire regimes. In this study we applied a large-scale ecosystem model that included dynamics of organic soil horizons and soil organic matter characteristics of multiple pools to assess forest C stock changes of the Yukon River Basin (YRB) in Alaska, USA, and Canada from 1960 through 2006, a period characterized by substantial climate warming and increases in wildfire. The model was calibrated for major forests with data from long-term research sites and evaluated using a forest inventory database. The regional assessment indicates that forest vegetation C storage increased by 46 Tg C, but that total soil C storage did not change appreciably during this period. However, further analysis suggests that C has been continuously lost from the mineral soil horizon since warming began in the 1970s, but has increased in the amorphous organic soil horizon. Based on a factorial experiment, soil C stocks would have increased by 158 Tg C if the YRB had not undergone warming and changes in fire regime. The analysis also identified that warming and changes in fire regime were approximately equivalent in their effects on soil C storage, and interactions between these two suggests that the loss of organic horizon thickness associated with increases in wildfire made deeper soil C stocks more vulnerable to loss via decomposition. Subbasin analyses indicate that C stock changes were primarily sensitive to the fraction of burned forest area within each subbasin and that boreal forest ecosystems in the YRB are currently transitioning from being sinks to sources at ∼0.7% annual area burned. We conclude that it is important for international mitigation efforts focused on controlling atmospheric CO2 to consider how climate warming and changes in fire regime may concurrently affect the CO2 sink

  3. Assessment of boreal forest historical C dynamics in the Yukon River Basin: relative roles of warming and fire regime change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, F M; Yi, S H; McGuire, A D; Johnson, K D; Liang, J; Harden, J W; Kasischke, E S; Kurz, W A

    2012-12-01

    Carbon (C) dynamics of boreal forest ecosystems have substantial implications for efforts to mitigate the rise of atmospheric CO2 and may be substantially influenced by warming and changing wildfire regimes. In this study we applied a large-scale ecosystem model that included dynamics of organic soil horizons and soil organic matter characteristics of multiple pools to assess forest C stock changes of the Yukon River Basin (YRB) in Alaska, USA, and Canada from 1960 through 2006, a period characterized by substantial climate warming and increases in wildfire. The model was calibrated for major forests with data from long-term research sites and evaluated using a forest inventory database. The regional assessment indicates that forest vegetation C storage increased by 46 Tg C, but that total soil C storage did not change appreciably during this period. However, further analysis suggests that C has been continuously lost from the mineral soil horizon since warming began in the 1970s, but has increased in the amorphous organic soil horizon. Based on a factorial experiment, soil C stocks would have increased by 158 Tg C if the YRB had not undergone warming and changes in fire regime. The analysis also identified that warming and changes in fire regime were approximately equivalent in their effects on soil C storage, and interactions between these two suggests that the loss of organic horizon thickness associated with increases in wildfire made deeper soil C stocks more vulnerable to loss via decomposition. Subbasin analyses indicate that C stock changes were primarily sensitive to the fraction of burned forest area within each subbasin and that boreal forest ecosystems in the YRB are currently transitioning from being sinks to sources at -0.7% annual area burned. We conclude that it is important for international mitigation efforts focused on controlling atmospheric CO2 to consider how climate warming and changes in fire regime may concurrently affect the CO2 sink

  4. Tracking historical mobility behavior and sources of lead in the 59-year sediment core from the Huaihe River using lead isotopic compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Liu, Guijian; Liu, Houqi; Lam, Paul K S

    2017-10-01

    A historical perspective of past 59 years (1955-2014) for contamination and isotopic composition of Pb in sediment core system of the Huaihe River, Huainan City, Anhui Province of China is presented. Detailed investigation regarding changes in Pb sources, enrichment factor, sequential extraction and isotopic analysis revealed that high Pb concentrations were detected along the core, especially during the first two decades (1955-1974). Large variations in Pb isotopic compositions were observed, with 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb values ranging from 1.1504-1.1694, and 2.0817-2.1380, respectively. Diverse Pb sources were identified for sediment contamination over the time. Among anthropogenic sources, metallurgic dust and leaded petrol were on top during 1955-1974, especially when the Great Leap Forward Movement (1958-1960) was in progress in China, the time numerous small industries were established without wastewater treatment facility. However, coal and coal combustion were recognized as the primary sources of Pb emissions for the recent four decades (1974-2014) due to tremendous increase of coal consumption for power and heat generation. Unleaded vehicle exhaust, waste incineration and industrial emission were also sources of Pb during the years 1974-2014. Our estimates based on geochemical and lead isotopic approaches have shown that anthropogenic Pb contributions varied from 4.35 to 92.01%, and 13.28-99.06%, respectively. Assessment of lead speciation indicated an overwhelming presence of reducible fraction (Fe-Mn hydro-(oxides)) in the sediment core, except during 1995-1997, which was thought to be affected by water pollution accidents caused by heavy rainfall. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Summary of Geophysical Field Investigations to Constrain the Geologic Structure and Hydrologic Characteristics of Fortymile Wash Essential for Assessing the Performance of the Proposed High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, D. A.; La Femina, P.; Winterle, J.; Hill, M.; Sims, D.; Smith, M.; Green, R.; Illman, W.; Sandberg, S.; Rogers, N.

    2001-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently evaluating Yucca Mountain, located in southwestern Nevada, as a possible geologic high-level nuclear waste repository with a performance period of 10,000 years. Groundwater flow and possible radionuclide transport from Yucca Mountain within the saturated zone will be influenced by the geologic structure and the hydrogeologic characteristics of the subsurface in the vicinity of the site. An understanding of these characteristics is essential to evaluating the performance of the repository. South of Yucca Mountain, along the anticipated radionuclide transport pathway, uncertainties in structural geology, hydrogeologic models, and supporting data (for example, the location of the watertable transition from tuff to valley-fill, and the architecture of the basin) impact site performance assessment calculations. Some of these uncertainties will be reduced by the point information provided by the well drilling program currently being carried out by Nye County, Nevada. However, geologic and hydrologic uncertainties remain within inter-well regions which extend over several tens of square kilometers. In recognition of the uncertainties inherent in analyses based upon relatively sparse point data available for Fortymile Wash, the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have developed a surface geophysics program that targets the inter-well regions utilizing gravity, magnetic, electrical resistivity, and electromagnetic measurements to support confirmatory analyses and performance assessment calculations. This presentation describes various aspects of these surveys and their results. In particular, the presentation presents new models for the structure of the Fortymile Wash (including an improved mapping of the tuff valley-fill interface) based on the integrated geophysical approach and provides an independent basis for the watertable configuration over the region. By combining the

  6. Flood-hydrology data for the Potomac River and selected tributaries in the vicinity of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, Maryland, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doheny, Edward J.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents flood-hydrology data for the Potomac River and selected tributaries in the vicinity of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Park (C & O Canal NHP). Data were compiled for the floods of (1) March 17-19, 1936; (2) June 22-24, 1972; (3) November 4-7, 1985; (4) January 19-21, 1996; (5) September 6-8, 1996; and (6) the peak of record for 6 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations on the Potomac River and 10 streamflow-gaging stations on selected tributaries to the Potomac River. Peak discharge, peak gage height, the date and time of the peak, and approximate recurrence interval are presented for each flood event at these streamflow-gaging stations.Data compiled from selected high-flow discharge measurements on the six Potomac River streamflow- gaging stations are presented. The gage height, top width, cross-sectional area, mean velocity, maximum velocity, and discharge are presented for each selected discharge measurement. Any corresponding discharge on the C & O Canal that was measured or estimated for these dischrge measurements is presented. Ranges of Manning's roughness coefficient were computed for the range of selected discharge measurements, based on estimates of water-surface slope or the channel-bed slope. These data will be used for subsequent hydraulic studies by engineers for maintenance, protection, or restoration of the C & O Canal. An inventory of selected references, flood studies, and additional USGS data along the Potomac River and the C & O Canal NHP also are presented. Included are (1) a listing of selected flood studies and reports, and (2) a listing of USGS indirect flood-discharge measurements that have been made at the six Potomac River streamflow-gaging stations in the vicinity of the C & O Canal NHP. Information on historical streamflow-gaging station records and discharge measurements on the C & O Canal also is presented.

  7. Understanding the past to interpret the future: comparison of simulated groundwater recharge in the upper Colorado River basin (USA) using observed and general-circulation-model historical climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D.; Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; Pruitt, Tom

    2017-03-01

    In evaluating potential impacts of climate change on water resources, water managers seek to understand how future conditions may differ from the recent past. Studies of climate impacts on groundwater recharge often compare simulated recharge from future and historical time periods on an average monthly or overall average annual basis, or compare average recharge from future decades to that from a single recent decade. Baseline historical recharge estimates, which are compared with future conditions, are often from simulations using observed historical climate data. Comparison of average monthly results, average annual results, or even averaging over selected historical decades, may mask the true variability in historical results and lead to misinterpretation of future conditions. Comparison of future recharge results simulated using general circulation model (GCM) climate data to recharge results simulated using actual historical climate data may also result in an incomplete understanding of the likelihood of future changes. In this study, groundwater recharge is estimated in the upper Colorado River basin, USA, using a distributed-parameter soil-water balance groundwater recharge model for the period 1951-2010. Recharge simulations are performed using precipitation, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature data from observed climate data and from 97 CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5) projections. Results indicate that average monthly and average annual simulated recharge are similar using observed and GCM climate data. However, 10-year moving-average recharge results show substantial differences between observed and simulated climate data, particularly during period 1970-2000, with much greater variability seen for results using observed climate data.

  8. Communities of gastrointestinal helminths of fish in historically connected habitats: habitat fragmentation effect in a carnivorous catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco from seven lakes in flood plain of the Yangtze River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wei J

    2009-04-01

    similarity in the helminth communities of this fish in the flood-plain lakes may be attributed to the historical connection of these habitats and to the completion of the life-cycles of this fish as well as the helminth species within the investigated habitats. The diversity and the digenean majority in the helminth communities can be related to the diet of this fish, and to the lacustrine and macrophytic characters of the habitats. The lake isolation from the river had little detectable effect on the helminth communities of the catfish in flood-plain lakes of the Yangtze River. The low similarities in helminth communities between the Dongting Lake and others may just be a reflection of its unique water environment and anthropogenic alterations or fragmentation in this lake.

  9. Communities of gastrointestinal helminths of fish in historically connected habitats: habitat fragmentation effect in a carnivorous catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco from seven lakes in flood plain of the Yangtze River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen X; Nie, Pin; Wang, Gui T; Yao, Wei J

    2009-04-27

    -plain lakes may be attributed to the historical connection of these habitats and to the completion of the life-cycles of this fish as well as the helminth species within the investigated habitats. The diversity and the digenean majority in the helminth communities can be related to the diet of this fish, and to the lacustrine and macrophytic characters of the habitats. The lake isolation from the river had little detectable effect on the helminth communities of the catfish in flood-plain lakes of the Yangtze River. The low similarities in helminth communities between the Dongting Lake and others may just be a reflection of its unique water environment and anthropogenic alterations or fragmentation in this lake.

  10. Is nitrogen loading in wastewater more important than phosphorus? A historic review of the relationship between algae and macrophyte biomass and wastewater nutrient loading in the Bow River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, Nadine; He, Jianxun; Ryan, Cathy; Valeo, Caterina

    2014-05-01

    The role of nutrient loading on biomass growth in wastewater-impacted rivers is important in understanding how to most effectively optimize wastewater treatment to avoid excessive biomass growth in the receiving water body. Nutrient loading is also affected by the nature of the effluent mixing in the river. This paper relates ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3) and total phosphorus (TP) from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to epilithic algae and macrophyte biomass for determination of impacts of the WWTP on the Bow River ecosystem in Calgary, Alberta. Annual macrophyte biomass data and WWTP effluent nutrient data was analyzed for the years from 1981 - 2011. Locally Weighted Scatterplot Smoothing (LOWESS) was used to remove the influence of the river discharge from the biomass. The LOWESS method indicates that macrophytes do not grow beyond a maximum annual discharge of 300m3s-1. Algae biomass was most significantly correlated to daily mean discharge on sampling date and the LOWESS method indicates that they do not grow well beyond a daily mean discharge of 100m3s-1. Correlation analysis suggests that biomass in the Bow River is nitrogen limited. Epilithic algae are significantly correlated (p

  11. Transformations of Urbanising Delta Landscape. An Historic Examination of Dealing with the Impacts of Climate Change for the Kaoping River Delta in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Kun Chung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation argues that the floods following extreme precipitation result not
only from very heavy rainfall but also from the significant impact of human activities on natural water systems. While most literature emphasises that the increasing magnitude of storm rainfall extends beyond the original protection standards of hydrologic facilities in highly populated delta cities. Based on the knowledge of urban morphology, this study analyses how human systems have affected the transformation of natural water processes in the Kaoping River Delta. The relationship between human environments and natural landscape is illustrated via a 3-layer analytical framework which consists of a natural landscape layer, an infrastructure layer and an occupation layer. This layer-based approach views landscapes as a whole system in which each element interacts with the others. In order to transcend the limitations of traditional urban morphology and the overlay-mapping method, this research initiates an analysis framework with the delta scale from a deductive perspective. Furthermore,
it argues that the significant progress of infrastructure technology is the crucial factor to dominate the transformation of modern urban pattern. This influence could be identified by the analytic process of the 3-layer approach from the perspective of the delta or regional scale. This new starting point of a theoretical framework for analysing urban forms has been proved in the Kaoping Delta case. Furthermore, it could be a new and valid theoretical background to extend the knowledge of urban morphology.The formal transformation of the Kaoping Delta is divided into four main periods, which reveals human activities have affected the operation of natural systems since a century ago. From a delta scale perspective, those effects interacting between different layers can be identified in six different topographies (in italics of the whole river catchment area.A. The dike

  12. Transformations of Urbanising Delta Landscape. An Historic Examination of Dealing with the Impacts of Climate Change for the Kaoping River Delta in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Kun Chung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation argues that the floods following extreme precipitation result not
only from very heavy rainfall but also from the significant impact of human activities on natural water systems. While most literature emphasises that the increasing magnitude of storm rainfall extends beyond the original protection standards of hydrologic facilities in highly populated delta cities. Based on the knowledge of urban morphology, this study analyses how human systems have affected the transformation of natural water processes in the Kaoping River Delta. The relationship between human environments and natural landscape is illustrated via a 3-layer analytical framework which consists of a natural landscape layer, an infrastructure layer and an occupation layer. This layer-based approach views landscapes as a whole system in which each element interacts with the others. In order to transcend the limitations of traditional urban morphology and the overlay-mapping method, this research initiates an analysis framework with the delta scale from a deductive perspective. Furthermore,
it argues that the significant progress of infrastructure technology is the crucial factor to dominate the transformation of modern urban pattern. This influence could be identified by the analytic process of the 3-layer approach from the perspective of the delta or regional scale. This new starting point of a theoretical framework for analysing urban forms has been proved in the Kaoping Delta case. Furthermore, it could be a new and valid theoretical background to extend the knowledge of urban morphology. The formal transformation of the Kaoping Delta is divided into four main periods, which reveals human activities have affected the operation of natural systems since a century ago. From a delta scale perspective, those effects interacting between different layers can be identified in six different topographies (in italics of the whole river catchment area. A. The dike

  13. The Carmans River Story

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this study, undertaken as an independent project at Bellport High School, the authors have attempted to provide a historical description of the Carmans River area...

  14. Sharpley’s Bottom Historic Sites Interdisciplinary Investigations, Tombigbee River Multi-Resource District, Alabama and Mississippi. Phase II. Archeological Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    patterns of concoidal fracture and also 125 lk tend to grade into and include the so-called hotel china wares which exhibit a semivitreous or porcelaneous...Tombigbee River systems.) 22M0997 ,4 FlA Cattle 1 pc. 106.Og (Butchered right innominate. The series of saw- cut margins about the acetabulum

  15. Mercury speciation in the Valdeazogues River-La Serena Reservoir system: influence of Almadén (Spain) historic mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzas Nevado, Juan J; Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, Rosa C; Moreno, María Jiménez

    2009-03-15

    Mercury (Hg) speciation and partitioning have been investigated in a river-reservoir system impacted by the Almadén mining activities, the world's largest Hg district. This study is the first to simultaneously investigate Hg dynamics from above the mining district and into the La Serena Reservoir (3219 Hm(3)), being the third largest reservoir in Europe and the largest in Spain. Water, sediment and biota were sampled at different seasons during a 2-year study from the Valdeazogues River, which flows east-west from the mining District, to La Serena Reservoir. Simultaneously, a comprehensive study was undertaken to determine the influence of some major physico-chemical parameters that potentially influence the fate of Hg within the watershed. Concentrations of dissolved Hg in water were below 0.14 microg/L, whereas particulate Hg ranged from 0.1 to 87 microg/g, with significant seasonal variation. Total Hg concentrations varied from 7 to 74 microg/g in sediment from the Valdeazogues River, while in sediments from La Serena Reservoir were below 2 microg/g. On the other hand, methyl-Hg reached concentrations up to 0.3 ng/L in water and 6 ng/g in sediment from La Serena Reservoir, whereas maximum concentrations in Valdeazogues River were 5 ng/L and 880 ng/g in water and sediment, respectively. The distribution of Hg species in the Valdeazogues River-La Serena Reservoir system indicated a source of Hg from the mine waste distributed along the river. Total Hg in water was strongly correlated with total dissolved solids and chlorophyll a concentrations, whereas organic carbon and Fe concentrations seem to play a role in methylation of inorganic Hg in sediment. Total Hg concentrations were low in fish from Valdeazogues River (0.8-8.6 ng/g, wet weight) and bivalves from La Serena Reservoir (10-110 ng/g, wet weight), but most was present as methyl-Hg.

  16. 76 FR 12992 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... Historic Places, National Park Service, 1201 Eye St., NW., 8th floor, Washington DC 20005; or by fax, 202..., Missouri River, River Mi 129.4- 131.1 W side of river, Cow Island Vicinity, 11000093 NEBRASKA Cass County...

  17. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the Inmachuk, Kugruk, Kiwalik, and Koyuk River drainages, Granite Mountain, and the northern Darby Mountains, Bendeleben, Candle, Kotzebue, and Solomon quadrangles, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential. The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska. For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 653 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from an area covering portions of the Inmachuk, Kugruk, Kiwalik, and Koyuk river drainages, Granite Mountain, and the northern Darby Mountains, located in the Bendeleben, Candle, Kotzebue, and Solomon quadrangles of eastern Seward Peninsula, Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical analyses obtained through the USGS contract

  18. Adjusted Streamflow and Storage 1928-1989 : with Listings of Historical Streamflow, Summation of Storage Change and Adjusted Streamflow : Columbia River and Coastal Basins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.G. Crook Company

    1993-04-01

    The development of irrigation projects since the 1830's and the construction of major dams and reservoirs since the early 1900's have altered substantially the natural streamflow regimen of the Columbia River and its tributaries. As development expanded a multipurpose approach to streamflow regulation evolved to provide flood control, irrigation, hydropower generation, navigation, recreation, water quality enhancement, fish and wildlife, and instream flow maintenance. The responsible agencies use computer programs to determine the effects of various alternative system regulations. This report describes the development of the streamflow data that these computer programs use.

  19. A historical case in the Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline: slope on the Curriola River; Caso historico no Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil: encosta no Rio Curriola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Hudson Regis; Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline has 2.593 kilometers since Rio Grande City in Bolivia until Canoas City, in south Brazil. The pipeline crosses a lot of types of geological fields and difficult topography. The south spread of the gas pipeline is the most interesting because of its hard topography combined with the variety of geological materials, such as, colluvium deposits and debris flow areas. Curriola River is located at the kilometer 408, north part of Parana State. In this area, the pipeline crosses slopes of 45 degrees of inclination. The down part of Curriola's slope is composed by a non-resistance material (clay and little rock blocks) with a high porosity. Every year, during the rainy seasons, tension cracks are observed evidencing the earth movement. The slope stability is above the minimum expected for pipeline operation. The aim of this paper is to present the site characterization of the Curriola River Slope, together with all the investigation made in order to supply the studies with condensed information for the slope stabilization. (author)

  20. An examination of historic inorganic sedimentation and organic matter accumulation in several marsh types within the Mobile Bay and and Mobile-Tensaw River Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher G.; Osterman, Lisa E.; Poore, Richard Z.

    2013-01-01

    Mass accumulation rates (MAR; g cm-2 y-1), linear sedimentation rates (LSR; cm y-1), and core geochronology derived from excess lead-210 (210Pb) profiles and inventories measured in six sediment cores collected from marsh sites from the MobileTensaw River Delta and Mobile Bay region record the importance of both continuous and event-driven inorganic sedimentation over the last 120 years. MAR in freshwater marshes varied considerably between sites and through time (0.24 and 1.31 g cm-2 y-1). The highest MARs occurred in the 1950s and 1960s and correspond to record discharge events along the Mobile and Tensaw Rivers. In comparison, MAR at salt marsh sites increased almost threefold over the last 120 years (0.05 to 0.18 g cm-2 y-1 or 0.23 to 0.48 cm y-1). From 1880 to 1960, organic accumulation remained fairly constant (20%), while intermittent pulses of high inorganic sedimentation were observed following 1960. The pulses in inorganic sedimentation coincide with several major hurricanes (e.g., Hurricanes Camille, Fredric, Georges, and Ivan). The nearly threefold increase in MAR in salt marshes during the last 120 years would thus appear to be partially dependent on inorganic sedimentation from storm events. This study shows that while hurricanes, floods, and other natural hazards are well-known threats to human infrastructure and coastal ecosystems, these events also transport sediment to marshes that help abate other pressures such as sea-level rise (SLR) and subsidence.

  1. Area-based historical modeling of the effects of the river bank regulation on the potential abundance of eleven mosquito species in the River Danube between Hungary and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Trájer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction of reservoirs and hydropower plants was accelerated in the past century due to the increasing aridity in many parts of the world. The effect of water regulations on the abundance of mosquito vectors is controversial. In this paper, the habitat preference of mosquitoes was investigated based on a 30-years long collection of the mosquito data in Hungary and military maps and satellite images. Three time phases of the analyzed section in the Danube River were analyzed in order to characterize the impact of human influence on mosquito habitats: the semi-natural phase, the post channelization phase and the post hydropower dam state. Geographical data referring to the years 1790, 1820, 1830, 1870, 1946 and 1955 were based on military maps, whereas the years 2004 and 2013 were analyzed by satellite imagery. The Amoros-like eupotamon A - plesiopotamon line represents an increasing gradient of habitat-suitability for mosquitoes. The habitat-preference of different mosquitoes to the Amoros-classified water habitats was based on a monographic collection data. This dataset contains the collecting and trapping results from the 1960s to the early 2000s in Hungary. We found that human-induced changes had prolonged impact on mosquito-suitable habitats, although the effect can be different for diverse mosquito species. The increase of the evenness of the mosquito fauna was seen since the mid-20th century, after the primary river regulation. The increasing areal extension of relatively warm and nutrient-rich water habitats had positive effects on the more rare members of the mosquito fauna, such as the potential malaria vector mosquito Anopheles algeriensis according to the model results. Summarizing, we found a strong, positive link between anthropogenic interventions and the mosquito diversity in water ecosystems.

  2. ALWAYS A RIVER - SUPPLEMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM ON THE OHIO RIVER AND WATER GRADES K - 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    This curriculum was developed as a significant component of the project, Always a River: The Ohio River and the American Experience, a six-state collaboration devoted to exploring the historical and cultural development of the Ohio River. The Always a River project is being joint...

  3. A GIS-based model for the hydrological and hydraulic reconstruction of historical flash-floods in urban areas. The case of the river Turia in Valencia (1957)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugués Mollá, Iván; Felici, Xavier Bonache i.; Mateu Bellés, Joan F.; Segura, Juan B. Marco

    2015-04-01

    Flash-floods are recurrent events in the Mediterranean arch, mostly derived from cold air pool phenomena triggering hydro-geomorphic high-intensity processes, combining high discharge and low frequency. In urban environments the complexity of the processes become higher due to the existence of very fast-response basins and quick-response runoff. However, immediate activities of cleaning up and restoration delete the urban marks. After a short time both significance and dimension of the hydro-geomorphic event become completely unrecognizable. Nevertheless, these episodes generate extensive administrative documentation which is testimony of the processes in almost real time. Exploiting this source typology in order to reconstruct events far in time within urban areas, which may lack database sufficiently rich, is necessary to understand the hydrological and hydraulic derived processes. This is particularly the case of the Valencia flash-flood (1957), located in the lower Turia River basin (6.400 km2). Within a short interval (15 hours) there were registered two flood peaks (estimated at that time at 2.500 and 3.700 m3/s). The double overflowing inundated a large proportion of the urban area. The flash-flood activated fast processes with high energy that left numerous hydro-geomorphic marks. Although those tracks were deleted in a short while after the flood, it remains a legacy that had not yet been exploited, consisting of immediate aerial and oblique high resolution photography, pictures at street level, water level record and administrative records, such as claim files for compensation. Paradoxically, despite the event is considered as a milestone on metropolitan territorial planning and it was decided to divert the river Turia definitely through a major project (12 km of channeling, known as South Solution), being the scenario notably altered, the analysis of the hydrological and hydraulic process has never been reviewed. Undoubtedly, a modern study would ensure

  4. Current levels and composition profiles of PBDEs and alternative flame retardants in surface sediments from the Pearl River Delta, southern China: Comparison with historical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, She-Jun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Feng, An-Hong; He, Ming-Jing; Chen, Man-Ying [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo, Xiao-Jun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Mai, Bi-Xian, E-mail: nancymai@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2013-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative flame retardants were measured in surface sediments collected during 2009–2010 from the Pearl River Delta, southern China (a large manufacturing base for electronics/electrical products), to evaluate the influence of China's RoHS directive (adopted in 2006) on their environmental occurrence. The concentrations in sediments from different water systems ranged from 3.67 to 2520 ng/g (average of 17.1–588 ng/g) for PBDEs and from 0.22 to 5270 ng/g (average of 11.3–454 ng/g) for the alternative retardants. Although the PBDE levels have decreased significantly compared with those in sediments collected in 2002 in this region, the levels of alternative decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) have exceeded those of BDE209 (two predominant halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) in China) in the majority of sediments. This finding suggests a different contaminant pattern of HFRs in current sediments due to the replacement of the deca-BDE mixture with DBDPE in this region. In addition, sediment concentrations of discontinued PBDEs in the rural area are clearly elevated due to e-waste dismantling. The congener profiles of PBDEs in the current sediments (with more abundant lower-brominated congeners) differed substantially from those in 2002 and from the technical products, suggesting that biological or photolytic debromination of PBDEs may have occurred in the environment. - Highlights: ► PBDE levels in sediments have decreased substantially since China's RoHS directive. ► Contamination of novel DBDPE has exceeded that of deca-BDE in the PRD sediments. ► The congener profiles of PBDEs in the sediments have changed significantly. ► Significant biological or photolytic degradation of PBDEs may occur in the environment.

  5. Phylogeography, historical demography and habitat suitability modelling of freshwater fishes inhabiting seasonally fluctuating Mediterranean river systems: a case study using the Iberian cyprinid Squalius valentinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, S; Doadrio, I

    2015-07-01

    preservation of freshwater species inhabiting seasonally fluctuating river systems. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Phylogeography, historical demography and distribution modelling of freshwater fishes inhabiting seasonally fluctuating Mediterranean river systems: a case study using the Iberian cyprinid Squalius valentinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Perea

    2015-12-01

    freshwater species inhabiting seasonally fluctuating river systems.

  7. The historical demography and genetic variation of the endangered Cycas multipinnata (Cycadaceae in the red river region, examined by chloroplast DNA sequences and microsatellite markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Qing Gong

    Full Text Available Cycas multipinnata C.J. Chen & S.Y. Yang is a cycad endemic to the Red River drainage region that occurs under evergreen forest on steep limestone slopes in Southwest China and northern Vietnam. It is listed as endangered due to habitat loss and over-collecting for the ornamental plant trade, and only several populations remain. In this study, we assess the genetic variation, population structure, and phylogeography of C. multipinnata populations to help develop strategies for the conservation of the species. 60 individuals from six populations were used for chloroplast DNA (cpDNA sequencing and 100 individuals from five populations were genotyped using 17 nuclear microsatellites. High genetic differentiation among populations was detected, suggesting that pollen or seed dispersal was restricted within populations. Two main genetic clusters were observed in both the cpDNA and microsatellite loci, corresponding to Yunnan China and northern Vietnam. These clusters indicated low levels of gene flow between the regions since their divergence in the late Pleistocene, which was inferred from both Bayesian and coalescent analysis. In addition, the result of a Bayesian skyline plot based on cpDNA portrayed a long history of constant population size followed by a decline in the last 50,000 years of C. multipinnata that was perhaps affected by the Quaternary glaciations, a finding that was also supported by the Garza-Williamson index calculated from the microsatellite data. The genetic consequences produced by climatic oscillations and anthropogenic disturbances are considered key pressures on C. multipinnata. To establish a conservation management plan, each population of C. multipinnata should be recognized as a Management Unit (MU. In situ and ex situ actions, such as controlling overexploitation and creating a germplasm bank with high genetic diversity, should be urgently implemented to preserve this species.

  8. Historical trend of nitrogen and phosphorus loads from the upper Yangtze River basin and their responses to the Three Gorges Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengchun; Shen, Zhenyao; Liu, Ruimin; Xiong, Ming; Ma, Fangbing; Zhang, Ouyang; Li, Yangyang; Chen, Lei

    2013-12-01

    Excessive inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus (N and P) degrade surface water quality worldwide. Impoundment of reservoirs alters the N and P balance of a basin. In this study, riverine nutrient loads from the upper Yangtze River basin (YRB) at the Yichang station were estimated using Load Estimator (LOADEST). Long-term load trends and monthly variabilities during three sub-periods based on the construction phases of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) were analyzed statistically. The dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) loads from the upper YRB for the period from 1990 to 2009 ranged from 30.47 × 10(4) to 78.14 × 10(4) t, while the total phosphorus (TP) loads ranged from 2.54 × 10(4) to 7.85 × 10(4) t. DIN increased rapidly from 1995 to 2002 mainly as a result of increased fertilizer use. Statistics of fertilizer use in the upper YRB agreed on this point. However, the trend of the TP loads reflected the combined effect of removal by sedimentation in reservoirs and increased anthropogenic inputs. After the TGD impoundment in 2003, decreasing trends in both DIN and TP loads were found. The reduction in DIN was mainly caused by ammonium consumption and transference. From an analysis of monthly loads, it was found that DIN had a high correlation to discharges. For TP loads, an average decrease of 4.91 % in October was found when the TGD impoundment occurred, but an increase of 4.23 % also occurred in July, corresponding to the washout from sediment deposited in the reservoir before July. Results of this study revealed the TGD had affected nutrient loads in the basin, and it had played a role in nutrient reduction after its operation.

  9. Historic case: analysis and mediation of mechanical stresses according to ASTM 837 in GASBOL pipelines in Curriola River; Caso historico: analise e medicao de tensao mecanica conforme ASTM 837 no gasoduto GASBOL no Rio Curriola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Joao C. [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Filippin, Carlo G.; Kapp, Walter A.; Horbatiuk, Borys D. [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline with 2,600 kilometers of extension from Rio Grande City in Bolivia down to Canoas City, in Brazil s south. The pipeline crosses quite a few types of geological fields and topography. The pipeline's south section is quite interesting due of its bumpy topography combined with a variety of geological materials, such as, colluviums deposits and landslide areas. Curriola River at kilometer 408 of the pipeline, east region of Parana's State, crosses inclination slopes as steeply as 40 degrees. A superficial drainage system was built in order to prevent soil's motions. Every year, during the rainy season, that system was incapable of a properly drainage, generating tension cracks mainly because the embankment is more than 6 meters high. This paper's goal is to present a historical case including some site characterization, with all the mechanical investigation made, including mechanical stresses status, residual stresses assessment and a total combined stress decompose attempt into its components and how they were used to support the studies for the slope stabilization and gas pipeline integrity. (author)

  10. Species delimitation, genetic diversity and population historical dynamics of Cycas diannanensis (Cycadaceae) occurring sympatrically in the Red River region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Zhou, Wei; Gong, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Delimitating species boundaries could be of critical importance when evaluating the species' evolving process and providing guidelines for conservation genetics. Here, species delimitation was carried out on three endemic and endangered Cycas species with resembling morphology and overlapped distribution range along the Red River (Yuanjiang) in China: Cycas diananensis Z. T. Guan et G. D. Tao, Cycas parvula S. L. Yang and Cycas multiovula D. Y. Wang. A total of 137 individuals from 15 populations were genotyped by using three chloroplastic (psbA-trnH, atpI-atpH, and trnL-rps4) and two single copy nuclear (RPB1 and SmHP) DNA sequences. Basing on the carefully morphological comparison and cladistic haplotype aggregation (CHA) analysis, we propose all the populations as one species, with the rest two incorporated into C. diannanensis. Genetic diversity and structure analysis of the conflated C. diannanensis revealed this species possessed a relative lower genetic diversity than estimates of other Cycas species. The higher genetic diversity among populations and relative lower genetic diversity within populations, as well as obvious genetic differentiation among populations inferred from chloroplastic DNA (cpDNA) suggested a recent genetic loss within this protected species. Additionally, a clear genetic structure of C. diannanensis corresponding with geography was detected based on cpDNA, dividing its population ranges into "Yuanjiang-Nanhun" basin and "Ejia-Jiepai" basin groups. Demographical history analyses based on combined cpDNA and one nuclear DNA (nDNA) SmHP both showed the population size of C. diannanensis began to decrease in Quaternary glaciation with no subsequent expansion, while another nDNA RPB1 revealed a more recent sudden expansion after long-term population size contraction, suggesting its probable bottleneck events in history. Our findings offer grounded views for clarifying species boundaries of C. diannanensis when determining the conservation

  11. Historically Black

    OpenAIRE

    Pennington, Whitney

    2012-01-01

    Historically Black is a short documentary that looks at recruitment of non-black students at Texas Southern University, one of the nation’s largest Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). By chronicling Texas Southern’s efforts to diversify and its impact on the campus community, the film explores the changing role of HBCUs in post-segregated America and addresses what this might mean for the future of these deep-rooted institutions. 

  12. Historical Paper

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 23; Issue 1. Historical Paper: On Simple Gas Reactions by H Eyring and M Polanyi. Classics Volume 23 Issue 1 January 2018 pp 103-128. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/023/01/0103-0128 ...

  13. Historical record of trace elements (1983-2007) in scales from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Study of past metal contamination from a copper mine (Ulla River, NW Iberian Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobelo-García, Antonio; Morán, Paloma; Almécija, Clara; Caballero, Pablo

    2017-12-01

    The chemical composition of fish scales has been reported to reflect the composition of the waters in which fish have been resident, therefore having the potential for the assessment of temporal trends in watershed water quality. Here we studied the historical (1983-2007) metal contamination in the Ulla river (NW Iberian Peninsula) watershed - impacted by a Cu mine that was in operation from 1973 until 1988 - by means of the analysis of major and trace elements in salmon scales. Results indicate the presence of a significant contamination for several metals (especially Cu, Au, Ag, Sb, Zn) during the 1980's. Concentrations of Cu in salmon scales during the influence of the mine (1983-1990) were 20 ± 5 μg/g, exceeding the values for the recent years (1995-2007): 1.8 ± 0.4 μg/g. Concentrations for Au in these two periods were 31 ± 12 and 2.1 ± 1.2 ng/g; for Ag: 21 ± 4 and 4 ± 2 ng/g; for Sb: 48 ± 21 and 15 ± 4 ng/g; and for Zn: 133 ± 16 and 93 ± 10 μg/g. The estimated concentrations of dissolved copper during the operation of the mine indicate a scenario of toxic effects due to sensory impairments in the salmon, and a reduction in scales calcification. The results presented here demonstrate that the analysis of trace elements in archived fish scales is a suitable tool for the reconstruction of the past contamination in aquatic systems, and it can be also used as a non-lethal approach for biomonitoring purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Geomorphic classification of rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Buffington; D. R. Montgomery

    2013-01-01

    Over the last several decades, environmental legislation and a growing awareness of historical human disturbance to rivers worldwide (Schumm, 1977; Collins et al., 2003; Surian and Rinaldi, 2003; Nilsson et al., 2005; Chin, 2006; Walter and Merritts, 2008) have fostered unprecedented collaboration among scientists, land managers, and stakeholders to better understand,...

  15. Geomorphic changes caused by the 2011 flood at selected sites along the lower Missouri River and comparison to historical floods: Chapter H in 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of recent and historical U.S. Geological Survey streamgage information was used to assess geomorphic changes caused by the 2011 flood, in comparison to selected historical floods, at three streamgage sites along the lower Missouri River—Sioux City, Iowa; Omaha, Nebraska; and Kansas City, Missouri. Channel-width change was not evident at the three streamgage sites following the 2011 flood and likely was inhibited by bank stabilization. Pronounced changes in channel-bed elevation were indicated. At Sioux City and Omaha, the geomorphic effects of the 2011 flood were similar in terms of the magnitude of channelbed scour and recovery. At both sites, the 2011 flood caused pronounced scour (about 3 feet) of the channel bed; however, at Omaha, most of the channel-bed scour occurred after the flood had receded. More than 1 year after the flood, the channel bed had only partially recovered (about 1 foot) at both sites. Pronounced scour (about 3 feet at Sioux City and about 1.5 feet at Omaha) also was caused by the 1952 flood, which had a substantially larger peak discharge but was much shorter in duration at both sites. Again, at Omaha, most of the channel- bed scour occurred after the flood had receded. At Sioux City, substantial recovery of the channel bed (about 2.5 feet) was documented 1 year after the 1952 flood. Recovery to the pre-flood elevation was complete by April 1954. The greater recovery following the 1952 flood, compared to the 2011 flood, likely was related to a more abundant sediment supply because the flood predated the completion of most of the main-stem dam, channelization, and bank stabilization projects. At Omaha, following the 1952 flood, the channel bed never fully recovered to its pre-flood elevation. The geomorphic effect of the 2011 flood at Kansas City was fill (about 1 foot) on the channel bed followed by relative stability. The 1952 flood, which had a substantially larger peak discharge but was much shorter in duration, caused

  16. Historical somersaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R

    1993-01-01

    The author and his youngest sister attended a mass at the Mission San Diego in California where the Monsignor discussed the life of Father Serra who founded the Mission in 1769. A letter to Father Serra from another priest showed the priest's distress over an abortion done to an Indian woman living at the Mission. Recollecting this historical letter was used to express the Monsignor's views on abortion today. He then reminded the congregation of the upcoming presidential election. He claimed that either Indians or people claiming to be Indians are trying to prevent the canonization of Father Serra without explaining why these people objected. He argued that the secular world cannot judge this man by contemporary standards. Yet, he had earlier implored the congregants to make secular political choices based on the absolute standards of the church. The objections to Father Serra by various secular people where he had been a member of the Spanish Inquisition and the missions he established served as forced confinement for the Indians. Supposedly, Father Serra and other priests kept Indian women in the missions to protect them from the brutality of Spanish soldiers. In fact, the pregnant Indian mentioned in the Monsignor's sermon was most likely raped by a Spaniard. Women in the missions were forced to stay in the missions while men could at least go to the fields. Unsanitary conditions were very unhealthy for the women, leading to considerable mortality. The child mortality rate was higher than 20%. Women who tried to control their fertility were harshly punished. The Catholic Church would do better if it canonized Father de las Casas who defended the autonomy and intellectual credibility of Indian culture. The author concludes that it is indeed unfair to judge Father Serra by contemporary standards, just as it is unfair and unreasonable to force Catholic standards on others.

  17. NOAA ESRI Geotiff- 2m Multibeam Backscatter of NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Reserve, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83 (NCEI Accession 0131860)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 2 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the north shore (Salt River) of St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography...

  18. NOAA ESRI Geotiff- 2m Multibeam Backscatter of NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Reserve, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 2 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the north shore (Salt River) of St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography...

  19. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  20. Collection Methods and Quality Assessment for Escherichia coli, Water Quality, and Microbial Source Tracking Data within Tumacácori National Historical Park and the Upper Santa Cruz River, Arizona, 2015-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paretti, Nicholas; Coes, Alissa L.; Kephart, Christopher M.; Mayo, Justine

    2018-03-05

    Tumacácori National Historical Park protects the culturally important Mission, San José de Tumacácori, while also managing a portion of the ecologically diverse riparian corridor of the Santa Cruz River. This report describes the methods and quality assurance procedures used in the collection of water samples for the analysis of Escherichia coli (E. coli), microbial source tracking markers, suspended sediment, water-quality parameters, turbidity, and the data collection for discharge and stage; the process for data review and approval is also described. Finally, this report provides a quantitative assessment of the quality of the E. coli, microbial source tracking, and suspended sediment data.The data-quality assessment revealed that bias attributed to field and laboratory contamination was minimal, with E. coli detections in only 3 out of 33 field blank samples analyzed. Concentrations in the field blanks were several orders of magnitude lower than environmental concentrations. The microbial source tracking (MST) field blank was below the detection limit for all MST markers analyzed. Laboratory blanks for E. coli at the USGS Arizona Water Science Center and laboratory blanks for MST markers at the USGS Ohio Water Microbiology Laboratory were all below the detection limit. Irreplicate data for E. coli and suspended sediment indicated that bias was not introduced to the data by combining samples collected using discrete sampling methods with samples collected using automatic sampling methods.The split and sequential E. coli replicate data showed consistent analytical variability and a single equation was developed to explain the variability of E. coli concentrations. An additional analysis of analytical variability for E. coli indicated analytical variability around 18 percent relative standard deviation and no trend was observed in the concentration during the processing and analysis of multiple split-replicates. Two replicate samples were

  1. River-corridor habitat dynamics, Lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Intensive management of the Missouri River for navigation, flood control, and power generation has resulted in substantial physical changes to the river corridor. Historically, the Missouri River was characterized by a shifting, multithread channel and abundant unvegetated sandbars. The shifting channel provided a wide variety of hydraulic environments and large areas of connected and unconnected off-channel water bodies.Beginning in the early 1800s and continuing to the present, the channel of the Lower Missouri River (downstream from Sioux City, Iowa) has been trained into a fast, deep, single-thread channel to stabilize banks and maintain commercial navigation. Wing dikes now concentrate the flow, and revetments and levees keep the channel in place and disconnect it from the flood plain. In addition, reservoir regulation of the Missouri River upstream of Yankton, South Dakota, has substantially changed the annual hydrograph, sediment loads, temperature regime, and nutrient budgets.While changes to the Missouri River have resulted in broad social and economic benefits, they have also been associated with loss of river-corridor habitats and diminished populations of native fish and wildlife species. Today, Missouri River stakeholders are seeking ways to restore some natural ecosystem benefits of the Lower Missouri River without compromising traditional economic uses of the river and flood plain.

  2. Hydrographic and suspended sediment measurements of the Mississippi River plume during the historic 2011 flood: a coupled satellite analysis and boat survey approach to determine an efficiency factor for sediment trapping in the nearshore zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcini, F.; Li, C.; D'Emidio, M.; Lutken, C.; Macelloni, L.; Salusti, A.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    During the 2011 Mississippi River (MR) flood, sediment carried to sea by the River had the potential to combat wetland loss in some areas. The movement and fate of river sediments is determined by a combination of river plume momentum, and coastal and offshore currents [Walker, 1996; Walker et al., 2005; Rego et al., 2010]. We therefore used a coupled satellite analysis and boat survey approach in order to track mixing and transport of MR plume sediments during one of the largest recorded floods in history. During the flood crest in June of 2010, MR discharge was held at a constant and large value for several weeks, providing a unique experiment that allowed us to study plume structure under steady flow conditions. Sea surface temperature, height, and color data from satellites were employed in order to quantify river plume dispersion, surface sediment concentration [Peckham, 2008; Shi and Wang, 2009] and sediment migration pathways in the nearshore zone for the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, for the duration of the flood. The boat survey measured current velocity, salinity, temperature and sediment concentration of the MR plume, during the peak of the flood. Although plumes emanating from the MR Delta should contribute significant sediment to the coastal zone [cf. Wright and Nittrouer, 1995; D'Sa and Ho, 2008], our investigation shows that the focused jet of the MR during the flood penetrated the coastal current and contributed little to the coastal sediment budget. Collected data allowed calculation of the hydrodynamic structure of the plume and thus its Potential Vorticity. We show that a novel PV, recently described by Falcini and Jerolmack [2010], works as an efficiency factor: the fraction of sediment emitted from each river plume that is trapped in the nearshore zone (and on marshes) is directly related to the PV of each river effluent. This relation may help to better understand and predict how future floods, or human-constructed river diversions, will

  3. Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    of Dissonance in Nature Restoration’, Journal of Landscape Architecture 2/2014: 58-67. Danish Nature Agency (2005), Skjern Å: Ådalens historie. De store projekter. Det nye landskab og naturen. På tur i ådalen [The Skjern River: The History of the River Delta. The Big Projects. The New Landscape and Nature......In 2003 the Skjern River Restoration Project in Denmark was awarded the prestigious Europa Nostra Prize for ‘conserving the European cultural heritage’ (Danish Nature Agency 2005). In this case, however, it seems that the conservation of one cultural heritage came at the expense of another cultural...... history and more openness towards constant change. In this approach the idea of palimpsest as metaphor for the cultural landscape plays an important role. Rather than being an obstacle for the restoration of nature, the historical layer following the comprehensive cultivation project from the 1960s...

  4. Historical geomorphic analysis (1932-2011) of a by-passed river reach in process-based restoration perspectives: The Old Rhine downstream of the Kembs diversion dam (France, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, F.; Piégay, H.; Schmitt, L.; Rollet, A. J.; Ferrier, V.; Béal, D.

    2015-05-01

    The Old Rhine downstream of the Kembs diversion dam is one of the largest by-passed river reaches in the world (50 km). It offers a unique opportunity to study the morphological effects of by-passing and address physical and ecological restoration approaches in regulated rivers. We conduct a space-time analysis of channel adjustment over a period of 80 years (1932 to 2011). We examine planform changes (from aerial photographs), erosional and depositional patterns (from vertical profiles), sediment sizes within the active channel and the new established floodplain, and we date riparian vegetation encroachment. Results show that the Old Rhine exhibited rapid response to the completion of the by-passing scheme in the 1950s, with a 26% narrowing in median active channel width between 1956 and 2008, from vegetation encroachment on dewatered channel margins (mostly groyne fields). The narrowing was accompanied by overbank fine sediment deposition (~ 1.5 cm y- 1 aggradation since 1950) as well as slight bed degradation (~ 0.7 cm y- 1 since 1950). We found no downstream propagation of active channel narrowing over time, nor propagation of bed degradation. The channel was already significantly adjusted prior to the diversion scheme, following the nineteenth century river straightening and groyne construction. By-passing (dewatering) mainly provided new pioneer habitat for synchronous vegetation establishment and promoted channel stability by decreasing sediment transport owing to peak flow reduction. The morphological budget calculated over the past 20 years estimated a downstream output for coarse sediments at 16,000 m3 y- 1, with 80% originating from bed degradation and 20% from bank erosion, without significant inputs from upstream. The present-day morphodynamics remain sensitive to changes because of dynamic bed armouring (< 2.1). This retrospective analysis permits us to discuss management strategies for altered rivers. Recommended activities are gravel reintroduction

  5. Quantitative historical hydrology in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, G.; Brázdil, R.; Herget, J.; Machado, M. J.

    2015-08-01

    In recent decades, the quantification of flood hydrological characteristics (peak discharge, hydrograph shape, and runoff volume) from documentary evidence has gained scientific recognition as a method to lengthen flood records of rare and extreme events. This paper describes the methodological evolution of quantitative historical hydrology under the influence of developments in hydraulics and statistics. In the 19th century, discharge calculations based on flood marks were the only source of hydrological data for engineering design, but were later left aside in favour of systematic gauge records and conventional hydrological procedures. In the last two decades, there has been growing scientific and public interest in understanding long-term patterns of rare floods, in maintaining the flood heritage and memory of extremes, and developing methods for deterministic and statistical application to different scientific and engineering problems. A compilation of 46 case studies across Europe with reconstructed discharges demonstrates that (1) in most cases present flood magnitudes are not unusual within the context of the last millennium, although recent floods may exceed past floods in some temperate European rivers (e.g. the Vltava and Po rivers); (2) the frequency of extreme floods has decreased since the 1950s, although some rivers (e.g. the Gardon and Ouse rivers) show a reactivation of rare events over the last two decades. There is a great potential for gaining understanding of individual extreme events based on a combined multiproxy approach (palaeoflood and documentary records) providing high-resolution time flood series and their environmental and climatic changes; and for developing non-systematic and non-stationary statistical models based on relations of past floods with external and internal covariates under natural low-frequency climate variability.

  6. Historical Arctic Rawinsonde Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Note: This data set is now on FTP so references to CD-ROM are historic and no longer applicable. The Historical Arctic Rawinsonde Archive is on FTP, and it contains...

  7. Exploring Historical Illiteracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furr, L. Allen

    1992-01-01

    Finds that powerlessness, social isolation, dogmatic nationalism, age, and gender significantly predict historical illiteracy (unfamiliarity with historical facts) and that a completed college history course reduced the effects of the predicting factors. (SR)

  8. VT Historic Preservation Grant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The State-funded Historic Preservation Grant Program helps municipalities and non-profit organizations rehabilitate the historic buildings that are a vital part of...

  9. A Historical Perspective on Light Infantry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    for reinforcements, a shelter for recuperating• columns, and a collection point for casualties. Theme strongholds, islands in a sea of Jung ~le, are... Douglas MacArthur, pushed confidently through the mountains of North Korea toward the Yalu River and the Manchurian border, Composed in almost equal...Operations in Korea, 1950-1953, vol. 3, The Chosin Reservoir Campaign (Wi~shington, DC: Historical Branch, G-3, U.S. Marine Corps, 1957; St. Clair

  10. Democracy and Historical Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we try to clarify the relationship between democracy and historical writing. The strategy is first exploring the general relationship between democracy and historical awareness, and then, studying the relationship between democracy and historical writing itself to find out whether

  11. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVI : Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.

    2007-12-07

    In 2005, the University of Washington developed a new statistical model to analyze the combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged salmon migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine), has been used to estimate survival and transportation effects on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged hatchery spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin from 1996 to 2003. Those results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on both a systemwide basis, incorporating all transport dams analyzed, and a dam-specific basis. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 5,000 tagged smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few tagged hatchery steelhead were transported in these years, no transportation effects are estimated for steelhead. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Annual estimates of SAR from Lower Granite back to Lower Granite averaged 0.71% with a standard error (SE) of 0.18% for spring Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin for tagged groups released from 1996 through 2003, omitting age-1-ocean (jack) returns. For summer Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin, the estimates of annual SAR averaged 1.15% (SE=0.31%). Only for the release years 1999 and 2000 did the Chinook SAR approach the target value of 2%, identified by the NPCC as the minimum SAR necessary for recovery. Annual estimates of SAR for hatchery steelhead from the

  12. Developing Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhik Chakraborty

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the reasons behind the continuation of contentious dam projects in Japanese river basins. Though the River Law of the country was reformed in 1997, and subsequent sociopolitical developments raised hopes that river governance would progress toward a more environment-oriented and bottom-up model, basin governance in Japan remains primarily based on a utilitarian vision that sees rivers as waterways. This article reviews the Achilles heel of the 1997 River Law by examining some most contentious river valley projects, and concludes that a myth of vulnerability to flooding, short-sightedness of river engineers, and bureaucratic inertia combine to place basin governance in a time warp: as projects planned during postwar reconstruction and economic growth continue to be top priorities in policymaking circles while concerns over environment remain largely unaddressed.

  13. The potential of historical hydrology in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    Historical hydrology is based on data derived from historical written, pictorial and epigraphic documentary sources. It lies at the interface between hydrology and environmental history, using methodologies from both disciplines basically with the goal of significantly extending the instrumental measurement period with experience from the pre-instrumental past. Recently this field of research has gained increased recognition as a tool to improve current flood risk estimations when EU guidelines regulated by law the quantitative consideration of previous floods.1 Awareness to consider pre-instrumental experience in flood risk analysis seems to have risen at the level of local and federal authorities in Switzerland as well. The 2011 Fukushima catastrophe probably fostered this rethinking process, when pressure from the media, society and politics as well as the regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) forced the authorities to reassess the current flood risk analysis for Swiss nuclear power plants. In 2015 a historical hydrological study was commissioned by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) to assess the magnitudes of pre-instrumental Aare River flood discharges, including the most important tributaries (the Saane, Emme, Reuss and Limmat rivers). The results of the historical hydrological study serve now as the basis for the main study, EXAR (commissioned under the lead of FOEN in cooperation with the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI), the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), the Federal Office for Civil Protection (FOCP), and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss)), which combines historical and climatological analysis with statistical approaches and mathematical models with the goal of better understanding the hazards and possible interactions that can be caused by extreme flood events. In a second phase the catchment of the River Rhine will be targeted as well. More recently several local historical

  14. The potential of historical hydrology in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Wetter

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Historical hydrology is based on data derived from historical written, pictorial and epigraphic documentary sources. It lies at the interface between hydrology and environmental history, using methodologies from both disciplines basically with the goal of significantly extending the instrumental measurement period with experience from the pre-instrumental past. Recently this field of research has gained increased recognition as a tool to improve current flood risk estimations when EU guidelines regulated by law the quantitative consideration of previous floods.1 Awareness to consider pre-instrumental experience in flood risk analysis seems to have risen at the level of local and federal authorities in Switzerland as well. The 2011 Fukushima catastrophe probably fostered this rethinking process, when pressure from the media, society and politics as well as the regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA forced the authorities to reassess the current flood risk analysis for Swiss nuclear power plants. In 2015 a historical hydrological study was commissioned by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN to assess the magnitudes of pre-instrumental Aare River flood discharges, including the most important tributaries (the Saane, Emme, Reuss and Limmat rivers. The results of the historical hydrological study serve now as the basis for the main study, EXAR (commissioned under the lead of FOEN in cooperation with the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI, the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE, the Federal Office for Civil Protection (FOCP, and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss, which combines historical and climatological analysis with statistical approaches and mathematical models with the goal of better understanding the hazards and possible interactions that can be caused by extreme flood events. In a second phase the catchment of the River Rhine will be targeted as well. More recently several local

  15. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    River nomads is a movie about people on the move. The documentary film explores the lifestyle of a group of nomadic fishermen whose mobility has been the recipe of success and troubles. Engaged in trade and travel, twice a year the river nomads form impressive convoys of majestic pirogues and set...... and liberated lifestyle and the breath-taking landscapes and vistas offered by the Niger River. River Nomads is also a personal account of the Kebbawa’s way of life and their current struggles as nomadic folk living in a world divided by borders and ruled by bureaucrats....

  16. Study on the historical distribution of metals in aquatic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Wagner Jose; Ishikawa, Dilson Norio; Nicolau, Andressa Clara; Magalhaes, Evandro Domingues; Inoue, Fabiana; Santos Nora, Paulo dos; Funfas, Rodolfo; Barreto, Sonia Regina Giancoli [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Parana (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    In this study, the historical distribution of metals, phosphorous, and sulfur at four different depths in the sediments of different lakes formed in the course of an urban river (in Londrina, Parana State, Brazil) were determined. The transport of metals along the course of the river was observed mainly for Mn, Cr, and Zn. High concentrations of Pb in the Capivara Bay and Cr in the river were attributed to contamination from a battery plant and a tannery, respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals in the deepest layers of the sediments remain high several years after deposition. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Hunting Management Plan for Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan outlines the goals, objectives, rules, costs, potential conflicts, and historical perspective of hunting at the Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge. It...

  18. Historical Dictionaries and Historical Dictionary Research: Papers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    The papers collected in this volume were originally presented at an Interna- tional Conference on Historical Lexicography and Lexicology organized by. Julie Coleman, and meant to fill the gap created by the two International. Round Table Conferences in Florence and Leyden in 1971 and 1977 respec- tively. The purpose ...

  19. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Asiatic Soc. o/Bengal., 55:322-343.1886. C F Oldham. The Saraswati and the lost river of the Indian desertJ. R. Asiatic. Soc., 34:49-76. 1893. S C Sharma. The description of rivers in the Rigveda, The Geographical. Observer, 10:79-85. 1974.

  20. Lagos Historical Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lagos Historical Review is an international and interdisciplinary journal publishing papers with a historical focus. The journal generates and participates in debates to advance the discipline of history and promote its relevance to development. The journal aims to serve the academic community with a bias towards ...

  1. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  2. Long-term evolution of fish communities in European mountainous rivers: past log driving effects, river management and species introduction (Salzach River, Danube).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidvogl, Gertrud; Pont, Didier; Dolak, Horst; Hohensinner, Severin

    Using historical sources from the turn of the 19th to the 20th century, we investigated the long-term evolution of the fish community in a mountainous river network and the influence of different human uses and management measures. Within the alpine Salzach catchment, historical presence was reconstructed for 26 fish species, abundance classes for 19 species. Due to channelization, flood protection and dam erections, the spatial distribution of fish species was reduced during the 20th century. Many rheophilic and eurytopic fish species historically inhabited river reaches along a wide longitudinal profile and were present in more upstream river reaches than nowadays. The decrease of species diversity in the headwater sections is a consequence of lost lateral connectivity. Strongest effects are reported for sensitive species requiring different habitat types during their life cycles (especially pike, nase, Danube salmon). One of the most important shifts from the historical fish community to the present one reflects the deliberate introduction of fish species for fisheries. Rainbow trout and brook trout, absent from the historical fish assemblage, today represent up to 29 % of the total number of fish occurrences. In contrast, log driving, one of the most common historical pressures in European mountainous rivers, did not show significant negative effects on the past fish ecological situation. This result strongly differs from the impacts of log driving and deforestation demonstrated for recent times, and could be related to the change in log driving practices during the 20th century and to the high societal value of fish before the industrialization period along with other historical pressures affecting fish in rivers without log driving. In general, our results can be valid for a large number of European mountainous rivers. They highlight the usefulness of such detailed historical studies for our understanding of the long-term evolution of fish communities and

  3. Historical analysis indicates seepage control on initiation of meandering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhout, J.P.C.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Makaske, B.

    2013-01-01

    In analytical and numerical models of river meandering, initiation of meandering typically occurs uniformly along the streamwise coordinate in the channel. Based on a historical analysis of the Nierskanaal, here we show how and under which circumstances meandering has initiated in isolated sections

  4. Antiquarian books as source of environment historical water data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Jürgen; Schneider, Mario; Horst, Rasmus; Thieme, Hagen

    2009-05-01

    Historical environment considerations are inevitable also for modern environmental analysis. They alone allow evaluation of anthropogenic impact into the environment. To receive information about the historical environment situation in inhabited regions, we approached this task by examining historical well dated and locatable products of the Homo faber. The work introduced here uses books as a source of environment historical data specially for the environmental compartment of water. The paper of historical books, dated by their printing and allocated by their watermark(1) (Wasserzeichensammlung Piccard, Piccard online, Hauptstaatsarchiv Stuttgart, ) is a trap for traces of heavy metals contaminating their production water in historical times. Great amounts of water were brought into contact with the paper pulp in the historical paper mill process. The cellulose of the pulp acts as an ion exchange material for heavy metals, forming a dynamic equilibrium. A well defined pulp production process, starting with used clothes, allows estimation of the concentration of historical heavy metals (Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+)) in the production water (river water). Ancient papers from well dated books are eluted without destruction of their paper and the resulting solution is analysed by ETAAS and inverse stripping voltammetry to determine the historical impact of metals. Afterwards in a flow system the eluted paper spot is equilibrated with different concentrations of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+)) to plot the adsorption isotherm of that very spot. Both data together allows a calculation of the heavy metal content of the historical river. For different waters of Germany and the Netherlands of the 16th-18th Century the heavy metal load could be estimated. The resulting concentrations were mostly similar to the level of modern surface waters, but in the case of the Dutch waters of the 17th Century, they were e.g. for Pb(2+) significantly higher than modern

  5. 75 FR 8398 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    .... ALASKA Dillingham Borough-Census Area Brooks Camp Boat House, (Tourism and Early Park Development Resources of Katmai National Park and Preserve) Shore of Naknek Lake, just N. of the Brooks River Mouth in Katmai National Park and Preserve, King Salmon, 10000071 Brooks River Historic Ranger Station, (Tourism...

  6. Geomorphology and flood-plain vegetation of the Sprague and lower Sycan Rivers, Klamath Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, James E.; McDowell, Patricia F.; Lind, Pollyanna; Rasmussen, Christine G.; Keith, Mackenzie K.

    2015-01-01

    This study provides information on channel and flood-plain processes and historical trends to guide effective restoration and monitoring strategies for the Sprague River Basin, a primary tributary (via the lower Williamson River) of Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. The study area covered the lower, alluvial segments of the Sprague River system, including the lower parts of the Sycan River, North Fork Sprague River, South Fork Sprague River, and the entire main-stem Sprague River between the confluence of the North Fork Sprague and the South Fork Sprague Rivers and its confluence with the Williamson River at Chiloquin, Oregon. The study included mapping and stratigraphic analysis of flood-plain deposits and flanking features; evaluation of historical records, maps and photographs; mapping and analysis of flood-plain and channel characteristics (including morphologic and vegetation conditions); and a 2006 survey of depositional features left by high flows during the winter and spring of 2005–06.

  7. History of Historical Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Schuyler

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available On Sunday April 19, 1998 Jean Carl Harrington (known to the profession as J.C. or "Pinky" Harrington passed away at his home in Richmond, Virginia. At 96 Harrington's life almost spanned the 20th century and did encompass the rise and establishment of professional Historical Archaeology in North America. Many consider Harrington to be the founder or "father" of Americanist Historical Archaeology. In 1936 he took over the newly created NPS-CCC project at Jamestown, Virginia and that event is arguably the inception of Historical Archaeology as an organized, scholarly discipline.

  8. The historical supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, David H

    1977-01-01

    The Historical Supernovae is an interdisciplinary study of the historical records of supernova. This book is composed of 12 chapters that particularly highlight the history of the Far East. The opening chapter briefly describes the features of nova and supernova, stars which spontaneously explode with a spectacular and rapid increase in brightness. The succeeding chapter deals with the search for the historical records of supernova from Medieval European monastic chronicles, Arabic chronicles, astrological works etc., post renaissance European scientific writings, and Far Eastern histories and

  9. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R

    2005-04-30

    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 The past and future implications for salmon habitat.

  10. Preserving the Dnipro River: Harmony, History, and Rehabilitation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Dnipro River is Europe's second longest river and flows through the heartland of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. For many centuries, it has played a vital role in the historical, cultural, religious and economic development of this vast region. Indeed, it is true to say that nobody can understand this vast region of the world ...

  11. Historical floods in the Dutch Rhine Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Glaser

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical records provide direct information about the climatic impact on society. Especially great natural disasters such as river floods have been for long attracting the attention of humankind. Time series for flood development on the Rhine branches Waal, Nederrijn/Lek and IJssel in the Dutch Rhine Delta are presented in this paper. In the case of the Waal it is even possible to compare historical flood frequencies based on documentary data with the recent development reconstructed from standardized instrumental measurements. In brief, we will also discuss various parameters concerning the structure of the flood series and the "human dimension" of natural disaster, i.e. the vulnerability of society when facing natural disasters.

  12. Historical Climatology Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Historical Climatology Series (HCS) is a set of climate-related publications published by NOAA's National Climatic Data Center beginning in 1978. HCS is...

  13. Iowa Historic Cemeteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file represents Iowa Historic Cemeteries. Originally it was based on an Iowa DNR point file marking cemetery locations as found on 7.5 min. USGS quad...

  14. Premier Hospital Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To provide a historical overview of the participating hospitals, before the first project report, Premier Healthcare Informatics has used data already available for...

  15. VT Roadside Historic Markers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Roadside Historic Site Marker program has proven an effective way to commemorate Vermont’s many people, events, and places of regional, statewide, or national...

  16. Historical Survey Data Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To preserve NEFSC historical data, images of biological and oceanographic data sheets (1948-1975) were scanned to digital format and can be queried through a portal...

  17. Historically defined autobiographical periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Norman R.; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Lee, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    over time and theoretical implications are discussed, notably by introducing a new approach to autobiographical memory, Transition Theory, which assumes that autobiographical memory is organized by transitional events that can be selfinitiated or externally imposed - historically defined...

  18. Historic center of Oporto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Gómez-Ferrer

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available At the last General Assembly of the World Heritage Committee, held in Mérida, Mexico, the Historic Centre of Porto was included in the list of World Heritage ensembles. The architect Álvaro Gómez-Ferrer, who presented the report submitted by Porto Municipal Corporation, makes some points about its historic, patrimonial and urbanistic value, putting special emphasis on the legal protection and management of the rehabilitation works

  19. Historic center of Oporto

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro Gómez-Ferrer

    1997-01-01

    At the last General Assembly of the World Heritage Committee, held in Mérida, Mexico, the Historic Centre of Porto was included in the list of World Heritage ensembles. The architect Álvaro Gómez-Ferrer, who presented the report submitted by Porto Municipal Corporation, makes some points about its historic, patrimonial and urbanistic value, putting special emphasis on the legal protection and management of the rehabilitation works

  20. Historical Documents Modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Miguel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Historical documents are mostly accessible to scholars specialized in the period in which the document originated. In order to increase their accessibility to a broader audience and help in the preservation of the cultural heritage, we propose a method to modernized these documents. This method is based in statistical machine translation, and aims at translating historical documents into a modern version of their original language. We tested this method in two different scenarios, obtaining very encouraging results.

  1. Investigation of regional trends and seasonal shifts in the river flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The historical trend and variability of river is investigated in 502 river flow gauging in 9 countries of the Southern African region with a view to document the special variability of the river flow regimes. The study identifies regions with strong evidence of declining or increasing trend in annual runoff and those with strong ...

  2. Mayan Historical drought trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Hererra, V.; Mendoza, B. E.; García-Acosta, V.

    2007-05-01

    In this work we present a more objective and general cycle-length determination of catalogues of past drought data for the Yucatan Peninsula between 1502 and 1900 coming from historical written documentation. We use the wavelet transformation based on the Morlet wavelet, and found that the most prominent frequencies of the historical drought series are ~ 3,4, 7, 12, 20, 43 and 70 years. We studied the relation between historical droughts and several large-scale climate phenomena represented by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). Our results indicate that historical droughts and the cold phase of the AMO coincide, while the influence of the SOI is less clear. The strongest coincidences between historical droughts and AMO occurred around periodicities of 40 yrs. A further study of wavelet coherence shows that there are also common signal along time between droughts and various solar activity phenomena, in particular Be10, a proxy of cosmic rays. Comparing natural terrestrial and solar phenomena, we realize that the most sustained and strongest modulation of historical drought occurrence is at ~ 60-64 yrs and is between droughts and the solar proxy Be10.

  3. Climatology of the interior Columbia River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue A. Ferguson

    1999-01-01

    This work describes climate means and trends in each of three major ecological zones and 13 ecological reporting units in the interior Columbia River basin. Widely differing climates help define each major zone and reporting unit, the pattern of which is controlled by three competing air masses: marine, continental, and arctic. Paleoclimatic evidence and historical...

  4. Contested Rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    explores translocal connections through ethnographic fieldwork at a global water conference and preliminary fieldwork at chosen locations on China's Nu River. The Nu River is one of the last undammed rivers in Asia and runs through China close to the Chinese-Burmese border, then flows into the Andaman Sea...... policy making, decision drivers and framing of large hydropower projects in China. Hydropower is a complex and interesting field to explore as the consequences go beyond the immediate locality and interacts with local as well as the global contexts. Inspired by Tsing (2003) and Zhan (2008) the paper...... and natural scientists and Chinese hydropower companies (to name a few). The paper maps different actors’ framing of the issue to gain a deeper understanding of the complexities of hydropower policymaking in China, as well as map the local consequences of global policymaking about large hydropower...

  5. Biblical Interpretation Beyond Historicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biblical Interpretation beyond Historicity evaluates the new perspectives that have emerged since the crisis over historicity in the 1970s and 80s in the field of biblical scholarship. Several new studies in the field, as well as the ‘deconstructive’ side of literary criticism that emerged from...... East leads to the need for an evidence-based history of Palestine. This volume analyses the consequences of the question: “If the Bible is not history, what is it then?” The editors, Hjelm and Thompson are members of the Copenhagen School, which was formed in the light of this question...

  6. Inferring contemporary and historical genetic connectivity from juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feutry, Pierre; Berry, Oliver; Kyne, Peter M; Pillans, Richard D; Hillary, Richard M; Grewe, Peter M; Marthick, James R; Johnson, Grant; Gunasekera, Rasanthi M; Bax, Nicholas J; Bravington, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Measuring population connectivity is a critical task in conservation biology. While genetic markers can provide reliable long-term historical estimates of population connectivity, scientists are still limited in their ability to determine contemporary patterns of gene flow, the most practical time frame for management. Here, we tackled this issue by developing a new approach that only requires juvenile sampling at a single time period. To demonstrate the usefulness of our method, we used the Speartooth shark (Glyphis glyphis), a critically endangered species of river shark found only in tropical northern Australia and southern Papua New Guinea. Contemporary adult and juvenile shark movements, estimated with the spatial distribution of kin pairs across and within three river systems, was contrasted with historical long-term connectivity patterns, estimated from mitogenomes and genome-wide SNP data. We found strong support for river fidelity in juveniles with the within-cohort relationship analysis. Male breeding movements were highlighted with the cross-cohort relationship analysis, and female reproductive philopatry to the river systems was revealed by the mitogenomic analysis. We show that accounting for juvenile river fidelity and female philopatry is important in population structure analysis and that targeted sampling in nurseries and juvenile aggregations should be included in the genomic toolbox of threatened species management. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Historical centres: changing definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lazzarotti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Second World War, the architectural and planning culture has been showing a fluctuating attention to the theme of historical centres and their enhancement. First of all this uneven progress explains the difficulty to reach a homogeneous definition and this is still lacking. During a long phase of this period, the historical parts of the town were considered as objects to be preserved in an integral way, as urban monuments. This is mostly due to the high symbolic value of these settlements, that represent fundamental landmarks. Identity building and empowerment of local communities are indispensable conditions for any development programme, especially in the case of centres or other historic environments at risk of abandonment. The progressive evolution of this concept brings awareness of the impossibility of separating – either in analytical or in planning terms ­ historical centres from their urban and territorial contexts, which are linked by mutual, deep relationships. This article attempts to retrace the steps signaled by the publication of international documents and conventions, from the Charter of Gubbio (1960 to the Charter of Krakow and the European Landscape Convention (2000; they obviously represent particular points of view, not exhaustive of the richness of the positions in the debate, but extremely significant in terms of diffusion and consensus.

  8. Historicity in development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyra, Maria C. D. P.; Valsiner, Jaan

    2011-01-01

    Human development entails the establishment, widening, and abbreviation of new behavioural and psychological phenomena. This leads to the central role of historicity in developmental science—a look at presently happening events in terms of their constructive borrowing from the past and anticipati...

  9. Fort Monroe Historic Viewsheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    chives in Philadelphia, PA. During these visits, researchers collected ar- chival information such as historic photographs, art work, maps, and ar...John Johns of the Diocese of the Protestant Episcopal Church of Virginia in 1858. The Chapel (Building 166) is a Carpenter Gothic structure expanded

  10. Why Digitise Historical Television?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, John

    2012-01-01

    abstractDigitisation of historic TV material is driven by the widespread perception that archival material should be made available to diverse users. Yet digitisation alters the material, taking away any lingering sense of presence. Digitisation and online access, however, offer startling new

  11. Historical dictionary of librarianship

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, Mary Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Dictionary of Librarianship focuses on librarianship as a modern, organized profession, emphasizing the period beginning in the mid-nineteenth century. Author Mary Ellen Quinn relates the history of this profession through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography.

  12. Lagos Historical Review: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Submissions can be made by sending a word processing computer file in MS Word format by e-mail to sarlek@yahoo.com, or by mailing three paper copies to the Editorial Office. Authors should keep a computer file version of their manuscript, as Lagos Historical Review will require a disk version upon acceptance for ...

  13. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 5. River Piracy Saraswati that Disappeared. K S Valdiya. General Article Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 19-28. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/05/0019-0028. Author Affiliations.

  14. Flood tracking chart, Amite River Basin, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Lawrence E.; McCallum, Brian E.; Brazelton, Sebastian R.; Anderson, Mary L.; Ensminger, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    The Amite River Basin flood tracking chart is designed to assist emergency response officials and the local public in making informed decisions about the safety of life and property during floods along the Amite and Comite Rivers and Bayou Manchac in southeastern Louisiana. This chart is similar in concept to the charts used to track hurricanes; the user can record the latest river stage information at selected gaging stations and the latest flood crest predictions. The latest stage data can be compared to historical flood peaks as well as to the slab or pier elevation of a threatened property. The chart also discusses how to acquire the latest river stage data from the Internet and a recorded voice message.

  15. Hydrological River Drought Analysis (Case Study: Lake Urmia Basin Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nazeri Tahrudi

    2017-02-01

    to investigatethe accuracy of this method, 3 methods (moment, maximum likelihood and Logarithm of applied moment observations were used and 4 mentioned methods for all of rivers were calculated. The most river drought relating to Gadar-Chai river with 1742 million cubic meters low volume and the lowest of it relating to Mardoq-Chai river with 68 million cubic meters low volume in 10000 year return period. After Gadar-Chai river the most low volume of discharge relating the Zarineh-rood river. Two Zarineh-rood and Gadar-Chai rivers among other rivers have a higher average discharge. Log Normal III, Gamma, Wikeby and GEV distributions have a good fitting on river flows data and no difference in investigation models that corresponded with Mosaedi et al (13 and NazeriTahroudi et al (15. The results of Grifits (7 also introduced the Wikeby distribution has a better than Beta distribution. Lee (12 also with evaluation the rainfall frequency in the study the rainfall concentration properties in Chia-Nan (Taiwan introduced the Log Pearson type III as the best distribution function between the common distribution function. Results of Chi-Squared test in methods of parameter estimation showed that all methods are acceptable. Conclusion: Drought occurrence can be estimated bythe analysis of historical data for different regions and using the results of predicting problems can be reduced. In this research daily river flow of Lake Urmia basin applied to calculate drought volume of rivers. Log Pearson III distribution selected among current hydrological distribution functions for fitting drought volume of rivers. Using selected distribution function and Sundry Average Moment method for estimating parameters return period of drought from 2 to 10000 years extracted. Results showed that volume of drought for Shahar-chai , Barandoz-chai, Nazlu-Chai, Mahabad-Chai, Rozeh-Chai, Gadar-chai, Simineh-rood, Zola-chai, Aji-chai, Sofi-chai, Leilan-chai and Mardoq-chay rivers in the return

  16. A Historical Perspective of Teacher Education in Rivers State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ETIWISTIC

    2013-04-29

    Apr 29, 2013 ... Sandwich programmes in Tertiary Institutions within the State and satellite campus of C.O.E., Ikere Ekiti as well as N.T.I. provided avenues for teacher education development. The State encouraged this development to cope with the demands at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of education. At a.

  17. ICT and historical skills

    OpenAIRE

    De Keyser, Raphael; Rogiers, Kathleen; Truyen, Fred

    2008-01-01

    The rapidly changing present-day information society creates new needs and opportunities for the history teacher. He can help young people to develop the skills necessary for life-long learning. The heuristic methods and the critical analyses of texts (written texts but also images, moving pictures etc.) characteristic for the historical discipline are easy transferable to other domains of knowledge acquisition. The use of information and communication technology in history instruction can he...

  18. Why Digitise Historical Television?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Digitisation of historic TV material is driven by the widespread perception that archival material should be made available to diverse users. Yet digitisation alters the material, taking away any lingering sense of presence. Digitisation and online access, however, offer startling new possibilities. The article offers three: use of material in language teaching and learning; use in dementia therapy; and applications as data in medical research. All depend on ordinary TV for their effectivity.

  19. Historical Variable Star Catalogs

    OpenAIRE

    Pagnotta, Ashley; Graur, Or; Murray, Zachary; Kruk, Julia; Christie-Dervaux, Lucien; Chen, Dong Yi

    2015-01-01

    Slides from my talk during one of the Historical Astronomy Division sessions at AAS 225 in Seattle, WA (January 2015). A brief history of the variable star catalogs Henrietta Swan Leavitt and Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin assembled at Harvard, and the update to them that some of our students at AMNH have done.(Figshare only previews the first few slides. Download the PDF to see all of them!)

  20. The Historical Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Green, D.A.; F. R. Stephenson

    2003-01-01

    The available historical records of supernovae occurring in our own Galaxy over the past two thousand years are reviewed. These accounts include the well-recorded supernovae of AD 1604 (Kepler's SN), 1572 (Tycho's SN), 1181, 1054 (which produced the Crab Nebula) and 1006, together with less certain events dating back to AD 185. In the case of the supernovae of AD 1604 and 1572 it is European records that provide the most accurate information available, whereas for earlier supernovae records a...

  1. Particle-bound metal transport after removal of a small dam in the Pawtuxet River, Rhode Island, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pawtuxet River in Rhode Island, USA, has a long history of industrial activity and pollutant discharges. Metal contamination of the river sediments is well documented and historically exceeded toxicity thresholds for a variety of organisms. The Pawtuxet River dam, a low-head ...

  2. Contaminant variability in a sedimentation area of the river Rhine = Variabiliteit van verontreinigingen in een sedimentatiegebied van de Rijn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    Aquatic sediments in sedimentation zones of major rivers are in general sinks for pollutants. The sedimentation zone Ketelmeer/IJsselmeer is an important sink for contaminants of the river Rhine (i.e. river IJssel). Recent and historical pollution interact here. Redistribution of suspended

  3. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    far north of the high NandaDevi (7,817 m) - Api Nampa. (7,132 m) range of the Himadri. The Sindhu flows northwestwards, the Satluj goes west, the Karnali takes the southerly course and the Tsangpo flows east. These rivers flow through their pristine channels, carved out at the very outset about 50 to 55 m.y (million years) ...

  4. APFO Historical Availability of Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The APFO Historical Availability ArcGIS Online web map provides an easy to use reference of what historical imagery is available by county from the Aerial...

  5. Colorado statewide historic bridge inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of the Colorado statewide historic bridge inventory was to document and evaluate the National : Register of Historic Places eligibility all on-system highway bridges and grade separation structures built in : Colorado between 1959 and 196...

  6. Phenomena and characteristics of barrier river reaches in the middle and lower Yangtze River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xingying; Tang, Jinwu

    2017-06-01

    Alluvial river self-adjustment describes the mechanism whereby a river that was originally in an equilibrium state of sediment transport encounters some disturbance that destroys the balance and results in responses such as riverbed deformation. A systematic study of historical and recent aerial photographs and topographic maps in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River (MLYR) shows that river self-adjustment has the distinguishing feature of transferring from upstream to downstream, which may affect flood safety, waterway morphology, bank stability, and aquatic environmental safety over relatively long reaches downstream. As a result, it is necessary to take measures to control or block this transfer. Using the relationship of the occurrence time of channel adjustments between the upstream and downstream, 34 single-thread river reaches in the MLYR were classified into four types: corresponding, basically corresponding, basically not corresponding, not corresponding. The latter two types, because of their ability to prevent upstream channel adjustment from transferring downstream, are called barrier river reaches in this study. Statistics indicate that barrier river reaches are generally single thread and slightly curved, with a narrow and deep cross-sectional morphology, and without flow deflecting nodes in the upper and middle parts of reaches. Moreover, in the MLYR, barrier river reaches have a hydrogeometric coefficient of {}1.2‱, a silty clay content of the concave bank {>}{9.5}%, and a median diameter of the bed sediment {>}{0.158} mm. The barrier river reach mechanism lies in that can effectively centralise the planimetric position of the main stream from different upstream directions, meaning that no matter how the upper channel adjusts, the main stream shows little change, providing relatively stable inflow conditions for the lower reaches. Regarding river regulation, it is necessary to optimise the benefits of barrier river reaches; long river

  7. Factors influencing bank geomorphology and erosion of the Haw River, a high order river in North Carolina, since European settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfall, Janet; Robinette, Paul; Welch, David

    2014-01-01

    The Haw River, a high order river in the southeastern United States, is characterized by severe bank erosion and geomorphic change from historical conditions of clear waters and connected floodplains. In 2014 it was named one of the 10 most threatened rivers in the United States by American Rivers. Like many developed areas, the region has a history of disturbance including extensive upland soil loss from agriculture, dams, and upstream urbanization. The primary objective of this study was to identify the mechanisms controlling channel form and erosion of the Haw River. Field measurements including bank height, bankfull height, bank angle, root depth and density, riparian land cover and slope, surface protection, river width, and bank retreat were collected at 87 sites along 43.5 km of river. A Bank Erosion Hazard Index (BEHI) was calculated for each study site. Mean bank height was 11.8 m, mean width was 84.3 m, and bank retreat for 2005/2007-2011/2013 was 2.3 m. The greatest bank heights, BEHI values, and bank retreat were adjacent to riparian areas with low slope (<2). This is in contrast to previous studies which identify high slope as a risk factor for erosion. Most of the soils in low slope riparian areas were alluvial, suggesting sediment deposition from upland row crop agriculture and/or flooding. Bank retreat was not correlated to bank heights or BEHI values. Historical dams (1.2-3 m height) were not a significant factor. Erosion of the Haw River in the study section of the river (25% of the river length) contributed 205,320 m3 of sediment and 3759 kg of P annually. Concentration of suspended solids in the river increased with discharge. In conclusion, the Haw River is an unstable system, with river bank erosion and geomodification potential influenced by riparian slope and varied flows.

  8. Factors Influencing Bank Geomorphology and Erosion of the Haw River, a High Order River in North Carolina, since European Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfall, Janet; Robinette, Paul; Welch, David

    2014-01-01

    The Haw River, a high order river in the southeastern United States, is characterized by severe bank erosion and geomorphic change from historical conditions of clear waters and connected floodplains. In 2014 it was named one of the 10 most threatened rivers in the United States by American Rivers. Like many developed areas, the region has a history of disturbance including extensive upland soil loss from agriculture, dams, and upstream urbanization. The primary objective of this study was to identify the mechanisms controlling channel form and erosion of the Haw River. Field measurements including bank height, bankfull height, bank angle, root depth and density, riparian land cover and slope, surface protection, river width, and bank retreat were collected at 87 sites along 43.5 km of river. A Bank Erosion Hazard Index (BEHI) was calculated for each study site. Mean bank height was 11.8 m, mean width was 84.3 m, and bank retreat for 2005/2007-2011/2013 was 2.3 m. The greatest bank heights, BEHI values, and bank retreat were adjacent to riparian areas with low slope (sediment deposition from upland row crop agriculture and/or flooding. Bank retreat was not correlated to bank heights or BEHI values. Historical dams (1.2–3 m height) were not a significant factor. Erosion of the Haw River in the study section of the river (25% of the river length) contributed 205,320 m3 of sediment and 3759 kg of P annually. Concentration of suspended solids in the river increased with discharge. In conclusion, the Haw River is an unstable system, with river bank erosion and geomodification potential influenced by riparian slope and varied flows. PMID:25302956

  9. Historical and current forest landscapes of eastern Oregon and Washington Part I: Vegetation pattern and insect and disease hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.F. Lehmkuhl; P.F. Hessburg; R.L. Everett; M.H. Huff; R.D. Ottmar

    1994-01-01

    We analyzed historical and current vegetation composition and structure in 49 sample watersheds, primarily on National Forests, within six river basins in eastern Oregon and Washington. Vegetation patterns were mapped from aerial photographs taken from 1932 to 1959, and from 1985 to 1992. We described vegetation attributes, landscape patterns, the range of historical...

  10. The Historical Justification of Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Matti

    2008-01-01

    The article deals with various aspects of justifying music historically. In Matti Huttunen's opinion Western music culture has been strongly historical since the nineteenth century. The article attempts to elucidate the historical nature of music, as well as the canon of music, the selective nature of music history, and the influence of aesthetic…

  11. The historical distribution of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Clait E.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Nehring, Jennifer A.; Commons, Michelle L.; Young, Jessica R.; Potter, Kim M.

    2014-01-01

    The historical distribution of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) in Colorado is described based on published literature, observations, museum specimens, and the known distribution of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.). Historically, Gunnison Sage-Grouse were widely but patchily distributed in up to 22 counties in south-central and southwestern Colorado. The historical distribution of this species was south of the Colorado-Eagle river drainages primarily west of the Continental Divide. Potential contact areas with Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus) were along the Colorado-Eagle river system in Mesa, Garfield, and Eagle counties, west of the Continental Divide. Gunnison Sage-Grouse historically occupied habitats that were naturally highly fragmented by forested mountains and plateaus/mesas, intermountain basins without robust species of sagebrush, and river systems. This species adapted to use areas with more deciduous shrubs (i.e., Quercus spp., Amelanchier spp., Prunus spp.) in conjunction with sagebrush. Most areas historically occupied were small, linear, and patchily distributed within the overall landscape matrix. The exception was the large intermountain basin in Gunnison, Hinsdale, and Saguache counties. The documented distribution east of the Continental Divide within the large expanse of the San Luis Valley (Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande counties) was minimal and mostly on the eastern, northern, and southern fringes. Many formerly occupied habitat patches were vacant by the mid 1940s with extirpations continuing to the late 1990s. Counties from which populations were recently extirpated include Archuleta and Pitkin (1960s), and Eagle, Garfield, Montezuma, and Ouray (1990s).

  12. River Corridor Easements

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — A River Corridor Easement (RCE) is an area of conserved land adjacent to a river or stream that was conserved to permanently protect the lateral area the river needs...

  13. Geomorphic and vegetation changes in a meandering dryland river regulated by a large dam, Sauce Grande River, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Ana; Peiry, Jean-Luc; Campo, Alicia M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates post-dam geomorphic and vegetation changes in the Sauce Grande River, a meandering dryland river impounded by a large water-conservation dam. As the dam impounds a river section with scarce influence of tributaries, sources for fresh water and sediment downstream are limited. Changes were inspected based on (i) analysis of historical photographs/imagery spanning pre- (1961) and post-dam (1981, 2004) channel conditions for two river segments located above and below the dam, and (ii) field survey of present channel conditions for a set of eight reference reaches along the river segments. Whilst the unregulated river exhibited active lateral migration with consequent adjustments of the channel shape and size, the river section below the dam was characterized by (i) marked planform stability (93 to 97%), and by (ii) vegetation encroachment leading to alternating yet localized contraction of the channel width (up to 30%). The present river displays a moribund, stable channel where (i) redistribution of sediment along the river course no longer occurs and (ii) channel forms constitute a remnant of a fluvial environment created before closing the dam, under conditions of higher energy. In addition to providing new information on the complex geomorphic response of dryland rivers to impoundment, this paper represents the very first geomorphic assessment of the regulated Sauce Grande and therefore provides an important platform to underpin further research assessing the geomorphic state of this highly regulated dryland river.

  14. Applied Historical Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, F. Richard

    2014-01-01

    F. Richard Stephenson has spent most of his research career -- spanning more than 45 years -- studying various aspects of Applied Historical Astronomy. The aim of this interdisciplinary subject is the application of historical astronomical records to the investigation of problems in modern astronomy and geophysics. Stephenson has almost exclusively concentrated on pre-telescopic records, especially those preserved from ancient and medieval times -- the earliest reliable observations dating from around 700 BC. The records which have mainly interested him are of eclipses (both solar and lunar), supernovae, sunspots and aurorae, and Halley's Comet. The main sources of early astronomical data are fourfold: records from ancient and medieval East Asia (China, together with Korea and Japan); ancient Babylon; ancient and medieval Europe; and the medieval Arab world. A feature of Stephenson's research is the direct consultation of early astronomical texts in their original language -- either working unaided or with the help of colleagues. He has also developed a variety of techniques to help interpret the various observations. Most pre-telescopic observations are very crude by present-day standards. In addition, early motives for skywatching were more often astrological rather than scientific. Despite these drawbacks, ancient and medieval astronomical records have two remarkable advantages over modern data. Firstly, they can enable the investigation of long-term trends (e.g. in the terrestrial rate of rotation), which in the relatively short period covered by telescopic observations are obscured by short-term fluctuations. Secondly, over the lengthy time-scale which they cover, significant numbers of very rare events (such as Galactic supernovae) were reported, which have few -- if any-- counterparts in the telescopic record. In his various researches, Stephenson has mainly focused his attention on two specific topics. These are: (i) long-term changes in the Earth's rate of

  15. Retrieving Historical Electrorefining Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Meagan Daniella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-18

    Pyrochemical Operations began at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during 1962 (1). Electrorefining (ER) has been implemented as a routine process since the 1980’s. The process data that went through the ER operation was recorded but had never been logged in an online database. Without a database new staff members are hindered in their work by the lack of information. To combat the issue a database in Access was created to collect the historical data. The years from 2000 onward were entered and queries were created to analyze trends. These trends will aid engineering and operations staff to reach optimal performance for the startup of the new lines.

  16. Expiration of Historical Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David

    2001-01-01

    We present a technique for automatic expiration of data in a historical data warehouse that preserves answers to a known and fixed set of first-order queries. In addition, we show that for queries with output size bounded by a function of the active data domain size (the number of values that have...... ever appeared in the warehouse), the size of the portion of the data warehouse history needed to answer the queries is also bounded by a function of the active data do-main size and therefore does not depend on the age of the warehouse (the length of the history)....

  17. Einstein: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos-Buchwald, Diana

    2015-04-01

    In late 1915, Albert Einstein (1879-1955) completed as series of papers on a generalized theory of gravitation that were to constitute a major conceptual change in the history of modern physics and the crowning achievement of his scientific career. But this accomplishment came after a decade of intense intellectual struggle and was received with muted enthusiasm. Einstein's previously unpublished writings and massive correspondence, edited by the Einstein Papers Project, provide vivid insights into the historical, personal, and scientific context of the formulation, completion, and reception of GR during the first decades of the 20th century.

  18. Historical Image Registration and Land-Use Land-Cover Change Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Ju Jao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical aerial images are important to retain past ground surface information. The land-use land-cover change in the past can be identified using historical aerial images. Automatic historical image registration and stitching is essential because the historical image pose information was usually lost. In this study, the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT algorithm was used for feature extraction. Subsequently, the present study used the automatic affine transformation algorithm for historical image registration, based on SIFT features and control points. This study automatically determined image affine parameters and simultaneously transformed from an image coordinate system to a ground coordinate system. After historical aerial image registration, the land-use land-cover change was analyzed between two different years (1947 and 1975 at the Tseng Wen River estuary. Results show that sandbars and water zones were transformed into a large number of fish ponds between 1947 and 1975.

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for regional and state parks, historic sites, marine sanctuaries, and other managed areas for the Hudson River....

  20. Short-term stream flow forecasting at Australian river sites using data-driven regression techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, Melise

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a computationally efficient solution to stream flow forecasting for river basins where historical time series data are available. Two data-driven modeling techniques are investigated, namely support vector regression...

  1. Historical contingency in fluviokarst landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan D.

    2018-02-01

    Lateral and vertical erosion at meander bends in the Kentucky River gorge area has created a series of strath terraces on the interior of incised meander bends. These represent a chronosequence of fluviokarst landscape evolution from the youngest valley side transition zone near the valley bottom to the oldest upland surface. This five-part chronosequence (not including the active river channel and floodplain) was analyzed in terms of the landforms that occur at each stage or surface. These include dolines, uvalas, karst valleys, pocket valleys, unincised channels, incised channels, and cliffs (smaller features such as swallets and shafts also occur). Landform coincidence analysis shows higher coincidence indices (CI) than would be expected based on an idealized chronosequence. CI values indicate genetic relationships (common causality) among some landforms and unexpected persistence of some features on older surfaces. The idealized and two observed chronosequences were also represented as graphs and analyzed using algebraic graph theory. The two field sites yielded graphs more complex and with less historical contingency than the idealized sequence. Indeed, some of the spectral graph measures for the field sites more closely approximate a purely hypothetical no-historical-contingency benchmark graph. The deviations of observations from the idealized expectations, and the high levels of graph complexity both point to potential transitions among landform types as being the dominant phenomenon, rather than canalization along a particular evolutionary pathway. As the base level of both the fluvial and karst landforms is lowered as the meanders expand, both fluvial and karst denudation are rejuvenated, and landform transitions remain active.

  2. The memory remains: application of historical DNA for scaling biodiversity loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Bekkevold, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    in the Columbia River, but also underpins the general significance of shifting baselines in conservation biology, and how to assess loss of genetic biodiversity. The results clearly illustrate the huge and versatile potential of using historical DNA in population and conservation genetics. Because...... now, no ‘smoking gun’ in terms of direct genetic evidence of the loss of a salmon ESU has been produced. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Iwamoto et al. (2012) use microsatellite analysis of historical scale samples of Columbia River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) from 1924 (Fig. 1) to ask...

  3. Lehigh River Basin, Hydropower Study. Stage 1. Reconnaissance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Bethlehem Old Waterworks Bethlehem Tannery , The, Laston i.ehigh Canal: Eastern Section Glendon and Abbott Street Industrial Sites, Easton Nicholas...Employment by Major Industry Division 30 in Pennsylvania, by County: Ist Quarter, 1976 10 Total Civilian Labor Force, Employment, 31 Unemployment, and...Earnings By Industry 1975, for Counties 33 in the Lehigh River Basin Area 13 Pennsylvania Inventory of Historic 35-36 Places Lehigh River Basin 14 Proposed

  4. Historical Slovenian Language Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Erjavec

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The paper presents three language resources enabling better full-text access to digitised printed historical Slovenian texts: a hand-annotated corpus, a hand-annotated lexicon of historical words and a collection of transcribed texts. The aim of the resources is twofold: on one hand they support empirical linguistic research (corpus, collection and represent a reference tool for the research of historical Slovenian (lexicon while on the other hand they may serve as training data for the development of Human Language Technologies enabling better full-text search in digital libraries containing Slovenian written cultural heritage, modernisation of historical texts, and the development of better technological solutions for text recognition and scanning. The hand annotated corpus of historical Slovenian contains the text from 1,000 pages sampled from the years 1750 to 1900, two texts date to the end of the 16th or 17th century. The corpus contains a little more than 250,000 word tokens; each of them being annotated with hand validated linguistic features: modernised form, lemma or base form, and morhpo-syntactic description. Thus the word token »ajfram« is annotated with the normalised form »ajfrom«, by the lemma »ajfer« and morphosyntactic description »Som« or »Samostalnik« (noun, »občni« (common, »moški« (masculine and a modernised form »gorečnost« (fervour. At first the corpus was annotated automatically and then manually verified and corrected. The lexicon was created automatically from the hand-annotated corpus. It contains only attested word-forms and examples of use. The word-forms are ordered under their modern equivalents. All the modern forms of a particular word constitute a dictionary entry, defined by its lemma with conjoint information i.e. the morpho-syntactic description and the closest contemporary synonyms. Thus the entry »ajfrer/Som/gorečnost« is annotated by two modernised words »ajfra

  5. Tucannon River Temperature Study, Prepared for : Watershed Resource Inventory Area (WRIA) 35.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HDR Engineering.

    2006-06-30

    This report presents the results of a temperature analysis of the Tucannon River completed for the WRIA 35 Planning Unit. The Tucannon River is located in southeastern Washington and flows approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles) from the Blue Mountains to the Snake River. High water temperature in the Tucannon River has been identified as a limiting factor for salmonid fish habitat (Columbia Conservation District, 2004). Several segments of the Tucannon River are included on Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) 303(d) list of impaired waterbodies due to temperature. Ecology is currently conducting scoping for a temperature Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) study of the Tucannon River. The WRIA 35 Planning Unit retained HDR Engineering to evaluate water temperature in the Tucannon River. The project objectives are: (1) Review recent and historic data and studies to characterize temperature conditions in the river; (2) Perform field studies and analyses to identify and quantify heating and cooling processes in the river; (3) Develop and calibrate a computer temperature model to determine the sources of heat to the Tucannon River and to predict the temperature of the river that would occur with increased natural riparian shading assuming the current river morphology; (4) Evaluate differences in river temperatures between current and improved riparian shading during the 'critical' period - low river flows and high temperatures; and (5) Determine the potential benefits of riparian shading as a mechanism to decrease river temperature.

  6. Distribution and Abundance of the Interior Population of the Least Tern (Sternula Antillarum), 2005; A Review of the First Complete Range-Wide Survey in the Context of Historic and Ongoing Monitoring Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Arkan - sas; David Oliver of the Corps’ Vicksburg District and Hubert Hervey for the “Lower” Red River in Arkansas and Louisiana downstream of Index...same year (see the methods section for how survey data were treated for this report’s presentation of historic data). Historic data from the Arkan - sas...at minimum, the full 308 river miles of the Arkansas River in Arkan - sas is covered by annual surveys. Long-term data from Corps monitoring programs

  7. Critique of historical reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Richardson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El enfoque aquí desarrollado presupone una nueva visión del mundo civilizado (Weltanschauungen. La idea del historiador de los hechos históricos presupone una visión global del mundo, a excepción de las sociedades que carecen de un lenguaje escrito. Por eso, la razón histórica discutida aquí se limita al tipo de historia que trata de civilizaciones más elevadas. El análisis de visiones del mundo aquí utilizado presupone que los símbolos son muy importantes y que pierden su poder simbólico si se cristalizan en un único sentido. Como en la teoría de Jung, un símbolo tiene la capacidad de estar activo en la mente como un transformador de la conciencia, libre de asociarse con nuevas experiencias y pensamientos. Esta teoría presta especial atención al problema de Dilthey: es decir, el problema de la calidad racional de los hechos históricos. Las visiones del mundo, que dan un significado profundo a muchos hechos históricos, se componen de símbolos y metáforas, incluyendo ideas, imágenes, valores y emociones. Estos tipos de visiones son casi todos instintivos. Es cierto que los historiadores pueden haber formulado, consciente definiciones de estos tipos de visiones del mundo así como ocurrió por las civilizaciones griega y china. Dado que la actual Weltbilt es mucho más compleja e inconsciente, se necesita algo más que una definición lógica para entenderla. Este artículo indica la forma en que puede ser alcanzada una comprensión racional de estas visiones del mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The approach here entertained presupposes a fresh theory of world pictures (Weltanschauungen of higher civilizations. For the historian's idea of historical facts presupposes a world picture, except for societies which lack a written language. That is why the historical reason discussed here is limited to the kind of history which deals with higher civilizations. The analysis of world pictures used here itself presupposes that symbols are

  8. Migration of radionuclides through a river system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    Migration behavior of several atmospherically-derived radionuclides in a river watershed was studied. A main interest was in their relocation from the ground soil of the watershed to a downstream region through a river. Studied radionuclides are: {sup 137}Cs generated by weapon tests in the atmosphere; {sup 210}Pb and {sup 7}Be of naturally occurring radionuclides; {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am released by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Dominance of the form in suspended solid in river water (particulate form) was qualified for the radionuclides in the Kuji river watershed. An importance of discharge in flooding was also confirmed. A historical budget analysis for weapon test derived {sup 137}Cs was presented for the Hi-i river watershed and its accompanied lake sediment (Lake Shinji). The work afforded a scheme of a fate of {sup 137}Cs after falling on the ground soil and on the lake surface. Several controlling factors, which can influence on the chemical form of radionuclides discharged to a river, were also investigated in the vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. A special attention was paid on the association of the radionuclides with dissolved species in water. Preferential association of Pu and Am isotopes to a large molecular size of dissolved matrices, probably of humic substances, was suggested. (author)

  9. Basavarajeeyam: A historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishteswar, K

    2011-10-01

    Basavarajeeyam is an important handbook for an Ayurvedic physician of Andhra region. It is a bilingual work and the content was presented in Sanskrit and Telugu languages. With regard to the place and date of Basavarajeeyam there is no common opinion among the present day scholars. Pt Govardhana Sharma Changani in his introduction to the Sanskrit version of Basavarajeeyam exposed a historical profile of Basavrajeeyam picturising him as Basava who was a staunch follower of Veerashaivism and a contemporary of king Bijjala (end of 12(th) cent. AD). The same statement is carried out in the works of Ayurvedic Itihasa written by Atredeva Vidyawalkan and Acharya Priyavrata Sharma. It appears that the historical evidence shown by these scholars is one sided and cannot stand any reason. Basavraju stated that he had started writing this work after a thorough study of many works such as Charaka, Nithyanatheeyam (1360 AD), Revenakalpam, Pujyapadiyam, Bahatam, Kashikhandam (1435 AD) etc. Basavraju has faithfully reproduced certain chapter of Vaidyachintamani, which is considered to be a work of 15(th) century. Basavraju not only mentioned Phirangiroga in the index of diseases described by him at the end of the book, but also indicated Phirangichekka (Madhusnuhi) in the management of Meharoga and Granthi. By this evidence Basavarajiyam should be considered as the work of post Bhavaprakasha period. Basavraju indicates in the Gulmaroga Chikitsa that Sankhadravaka should be administered in the dose of 'Ekanni'. The name Ekanni was given for a copper coin which came in to circulation of money during British India produced from Madras mint (1794 AD). Based on these internal evidences, it can be safely concluded that Basavraju belong to 18(th)century.

  10. Historic Preservation Information CFM Website

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA Historic Preservation Office keeps information about VA's programs to comply with Federal preservation requirements, and also interesting information about VA...

  11. Mussels: the forgotten fauna of regulated rivers: a case study of the Caney Fork River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layzer, James B.; Gordon, Mark E.; Anderson, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    During the past century freshwater mussel populations have declined precipitously throughout North America. Much of this loss has resulted from the construction of dams. In the Cumberland River system, 23% (22 species) of the historic mussel fauna is extinct or listed as endangered. Several additional species have either been extirpated from the Cumberland River or exist only in small, non-reproducing populations. Mussels of headwater streams have been severely affected by coal mining and poor land use practices. An intensive survey was conducted in the Caney Fork River, a major tributary to the Cumberland River, to determine the historic and extant mussel fauna. The results indicate that at least 37 species of mussels have been extirpated from the Caney Fork River, mainly as a result of the construction and operation of the Center Hill Dam. Among the species extirpated, two are now extinct, five are endangered and five are candidates for listing as threatened or endangered. Effects associated with this dam include the inundation of 102 km of riverine habitat, the discharge of hypolimnetic water (which limits mussel reproduction) and an alternating pattern of stream bed scouring and dewatering. The recognition of mussel life history requirements during preconstruction could have reduced many of these effects.

  12. Historicity and theology, and the quest for historical Jesus1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Geyser

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of history and historicity is reviewed in this article. The efforts of New Historicism is brought to bear on this question in an effort to find a way out of the impasse created by the modernist demand for objectivity and the postmodern resignation to radical relativism. The possibility of historiography is explored in conjunction with the pragmatic approach and leads to the conclusion that a kind of historical knowledge is attainable which can be described as useful even if not perfect. The author concurs with Crossan and his working definition of history as the past reconstructed interactively by the present through argued evidence in public discourse. The intersubjective nature of any historical enterprise leads the author to the conclusion that the search for the historical Jesus can only be done in the dialectical approach of a both ... and: both the historical Jesus and the kerygmatic Christ

  13. 33 CFR 162.90 - White River, Arkansas Post Canal, Arkansas River, and Verdigris River between Mississippi River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false White River, Arkansas Post Canal... White River, Arkansas Post Canal, Arkansas River, and Verdigris River between Mississippi River, Ark... apply to: (1) Waterways. White River between Mississippi River and Arkansas Post Canal, Ark.; Arkansas...

  14. A numerical study of the ex-ROFI of the Colorado River

    OpenAIRE

    Carbajal, Noel; Souza, Alejandro; Durazo, Reginaldo

    1997-01-01

    The freshwater discharge of the Colorado River into the Gulf of California has been reduced to negligible quantities since the construction of the Hoover Dam in 1935. These radical anthropogenic changes in the hydrography of the Colorado River Delta had striking repercussions on both physical and biological processes. Using historical river discharge data, the changes in the flow dynamics and hydrographic patterns before and after the drastic freshwater reduction are studied numerically, usin...

  15. Socio-economic Impacts on Flooding: A 4000-Year History of the Yellow River, China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yunzhen; Syvitski, James P.M.; Gao, Shu; Overeem, Irina; Kettner, Albert J.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze 4000-year flood history of the lower Yellow River and the history of agricultural development in the middle river by investigating historical writings and quantitative time series data of environmental changes in the river basin. Flood dynamics are characterized by positive feedback loops, critical thresholds of natural processes, and abrupt transitions caused by socio-economic factors. Technological and organizational innovations were dominant driving forces of the flood history. ...

  16. A Model of Historical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Peter

    2017-01-01

    "Historical thinking" has a central role in the theory and practice of history education. At a minimum, history educators must work with a model of historical thinking if they are to formulate potential progression in students' advance through a school history curriculum, test that progression empirically, and shape instructional…

  17. What is Linked Historical Data?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, A.; Hoekstra, R.; Janowicz, K.; Schlobach, S.; Lambrix, P.; Hyvönen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Datasets that represent historical sources are relative newcomers in the Linked Open Data (LOD) cloud. Following the standard LOD practices for publishing historical sources raises several questions: how can we distinguish between RDF graphs of primary and secondary sources? Should we treat archived

  18. What Is Linked Historical Data?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Hoekstra, Rinke; Janowicz, Krzysztof; Schlobach, Stefan; Lambrix, Patrick; Hyvönen, Eero

    2014-01-01

    Datasets that represent historical sources are relative new- comers in the Linked Open Data (LOD) cloud. Following the standard LOD practices for publishing historical sources raises several questions: how can we distinguish between RDF graphs of primary and secondary sources? Should we treat

  19. The Return of Historical Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycik, Mary Taylor; Rosler, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Recently, historical fiction has begun to dominate major children's book awards. This article describes the values of using high-quality historical fiction in the classroom and presents different ways to respond to this genre including using modern technology. Two tables, one of picture books and one of novels, with paired nonfiction texts, are…

  20. Lagos Historical Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lagos Historical Review is an international and interdisciplinary journal publishing papers with a historical focus. The journal generates and participates in debates to advance the discipline of history and promote its relevance to development. The journal aims to serve the academic community with a bias towards ...

  1. READING THE PSALMS HISTORICALLY. ANTIOCHENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HISTORICALLY. ANTIOCHENE. EXEGESIS AND A HISTORICAL. READING Of PSALM 46. ABSTRACT. The Antiochene exegetes, most notably Diodore of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia read the ..... tation is often informed by the heading. In 2001 .... that it was given to them for meditation and performance. As Hill ...

  2. HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF PHALLOPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Kyzlasov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of the penis in transgender operations, amputation of the penis, congenital deformities and anomalies of the penis was and remains today an important issue in plastic surgery of the urogenital region. The only method to restore the penis is phalloplasty. In general, over the past decades, generations of clinicians have different ways and flaps for total fallouretheral reconstruction. Thus was formulated the characteristics of an ideal flap for the formation of neophallos, which should be safe, sensitive, without hair, and with long leg. However, despite the fact that the characteristics of a perfect flap, nowadays there is no “gold standard” in the formation of neophallos, as phalloplasty is a fairly complicated surgery, and the choice of method depends on many factors. The choice of methodology is determined by the plastics surgeon and to each patient is individual, depends on the etiology of the disease and the possibility of choosing the form of the donor’s transplant. This article presents a literature review devoted to the historical aspects of phalloplasty. In the article, in chronological order reflected the evolution of the different forming methods neofallos, phallourethrоplasty, describes their advantages and disadvantages.

  3. Scientific and historical archive

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    : International Archives Day, 9 June, is an opportunity to discover a little-known CERN resource. Unlike libraries, archives tend to be hidden away. You can’t browse among the shelves, or borrow files to use in the workplace, but sometimes they contain just the information you need. CERN’s rich heritage has many parts: its scientific data, the black and white photos recently put online by the Library, the audio-visual collection, currently being digitized by the IT department, historic objects in the care of the IR-ECO group, and much more - not least the memory of its people. The CERN Archive exists in the background, supporting other endeavours and preserving our documentary heritage for future generations. About 1000 shelf metres of files filled with letters, notes, reports, rough drafts, memos such as this report, by Miss Steel, are preserved. You can browse more examples on our timeline. It is a place for information on all aspects of CERN’s history. Sometimes documents pro

  4. Sandy River Delta Habitat Restoration Project, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Virginia; Dobson, Robin L.

    2002-11-01

    The Sandy River Delta is located at the confluence of the Sandy and Columbia Rivers, just east of Troutdale, Oregon. It comprises about 1,400 land acres north of Interstate 84, managed by the USDA Forest Service, and associated river banks managed by the Oregon Division of State Lands. Three islands, Gary, Flag and Catham, managed by Metro Greenspaces and the State of Oregon lie to the east, the Columbia River lies to the north and east, and the urbanized Portland metropolitan area lies to the west across the Sandy River. Sandy River Delta was historically a wooded, riparian wetland with components of ponds, sloughs, bottomland woodland, oak woodland, prairie, and low and high elevation floodplain. It has been greatly altered by past agricultural practices and the Columbia River hydropower system. Restoration of historic landscape components is a primary goal for this land. The Forest Service is currently focusing on restoration of riparian forest and wetlands. Restoration of open upland areas (meadow/prairie) would follow substantial completion of the riparian and wetland restoration. The Sandy River Delta is a former pasture infested with reed canary grass, blackberry and thistle. The limited over story is native riparian species such as cottonwood and ash. The shrub and herbaceous layers are almost entirely non-native, invasive species. Native species have a difficult time naturally regenerating in the thick, competing reed canary grass, Himalayan blackberry and thistle. A system of drainage ditches installed by past owners drains water from historic wetlands. The original channel of the Sandy River was diked in the 1930's, and the river diverted into the ''Little Sandy River''. The original Sandy River channel has subsequently filled in and largely become a slough. The FS acquired approximately 1,400 acres Sandy River Delta (SRD) in 1991 from Reynolds Aluminum (via the Trust for Public Lands). The Delta had been grazed for many years

  5. Fish and fisheries in the Lower Rhine 1550-1950: A historical-ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, H J Rob

    2017-11-01

    Regulation and intensive use of most of the world's large rivers, has led to dramatic decline and even to extinction of riverine fish populations like salmon and sturgeon in the river Rhine. In general this decline is considered an unwelcome side-effect of the Industrial Revolution and large-scale river regulation (c. 1800), but the deterioration of stocks of some species may have started well before the 19th century. For the river Rhine, data on fish landings as proxies of abundance in the period 1550-1950 can be derived from historical market prices, fisheries taxation and fishery and fish auctions statistics, especially for commercially interesting species like Atlantic salmon, sturgeon, Allis shad and Twaite shad. Most data from which abundance of these species can be derived, however, appear to be missing in historical sources until decline of the investigated species sets in and the species become economically scarce goods. Atlantic salmon in the Rhine catchment appears to be already in decline during Early Modern Times (post 1500 AD) after which time river regulation, pollution and intensified fisheries finished off the remaining stocks in the 20th century. Salmon decline caused a cascade in the River Rhine ecosystem as fisheries shifted to, especially, Allis shad and Twaite shad, followed by (near-)extinction of these species. Dropping yields of salmon fishery did not lead to increased sturgeon fishery, although numbers of sturgeon also dwindled to extinction in the river Rhine. The onset of sturgeon decline appears to coincide with the period of the first large regulation works. It is shown that historical-ecological data on fish abundance can quantitatively underpin detrimental long-term processes in river ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Aesthetic impact of a proposed power plant on an historic wilderness landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Petrich

    1979-01-01

    In this assessment of the aesthetic impact of a proposed nuclear power plant, the historic foundation of American concepts of scenic beauty played a major role. The plant is planned to he located on the Hudson River at the foot of the Catskill Mountains, an area that was also the geographical center of and inspiration for the country's nineteenth century romantic...

  7. Health monitoring of an Oregon historical bridge with fiber grating strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, John M.; Udd, Eric; Schulz, Whitten L.; Laylor, Harold M.

    1999-05-01

    Twenty-eight fiber-grating sensors were used to instrument two reinforced concrete beams that were externally strengthened with composites on the historic Horsetail Falls Bridge in the Columbia River Gorge. Sensor assemblies were placed in the beams and mounted on the outside of the composite to provide performance data.

  8. 76 FR 35468 - Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... National Park Service Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail Advisory Council AGENCY: National Park..., the National Park Service (NPS) is hereby giving notice that the Advisory Committee on the Star... Patapsco River, and Baltimore, Maryland, commemorating the Chesapeake Campaign of the War of 1812...

  9. Biological surveys on the Savannah River in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant (1951-1976)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    In 1951, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia was contracted by the Savannah River Plant to initiate a long-term monitoring program in the Savannah River. The purpose of this program was to determine the effect of the Savannah River Plant on the Savannah River aquatic ecosystem. The data from this monitoring program have been computerized by the Savannah River Laboratory, and are summarized in this report. During the period from 1951-1976, 16 major surveys were conducted by the Academy in the Savannah River. Water chemistry analyses were made, and all major biological communities were sampled qualitatively during the spring and fall of each survey year. In addition, quantitative diatom data have been collected quarterly since 1953. Major changes in the Savannah River basin, in the Savannah River Plant's activities, and in the Academy sampling patterns are discussed to provide a historical overview of the biomonitoring program. Appendices include a complete taxonomic listing of species collected from the Savannah River, and summaries of the entire biological and physicochemical data base.

  10. Sediment regime constraints on river restoration - An example from the lower Missouri river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R.B.; Blevins, D.W.; Bitner, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Dammed rivers are subject to changes in their flow, water-quality, and sediment regimes. Each of these changes may contribute to diminished aquatic habitat quality and quantity. Of the three factors, an altered sediment regime is a particularly unyielding challenge on many dammed rivers. The magnitude of the challenge is illustrated on the Lower Missouri River, where the largest water storage system in North America has decreased the downriver suspended-sediment load to 0.2%–17% of pre-dam loads. In response to the altered sediment regime, the Lower Missouri River channel has incised as much as 3.5 m just downstream of Gavins Point Dam, although the bed has been stable to slightly aggrading at other locations farther downstream. Effects of channel engineering and commercial dredging are superimposed on the broad-scale adjustments to the altered sediment regime.The altered sediment regime and geomorphic adjustments constrain restoration and management opportunities. Incision and aggradation limit some objectives of flow-regime management: In incising river segments, ecologically desirable reconnection of the floodplain requires discharges that are beyond operational limits, whereas in aggrading river segments, small spring pulses may inundate or saturate low-lying farmlands. Lack of sediment in the incising river segment downstream of Gavins Point Dam also limits sustainable restoration of sand-bar habitat for bird species listed under the Endangered Species Act. Creation of new shallow-water habitat for native fishes involves taking sediment out of floodplain storage and reintroducing most or all of it to the river, raising concerns about increased sediment, nutrient, and contaminant loads. Calculations indicate that effects of individual restoration projects are small relative to background loads, but cumulative effects may depend on sequence and locations of projects. An understanding of current and historical sediment fluxes, and how they vary along the river

  11. Quantitative historical hydrology in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benito, J.; Brázdil, Rudolf; Herget, J.; Machado, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 8 (2015), s. 3517-3539 ISSN 1027-5606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19831S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : flood frequency-analysis * ne iberian peninsula * reconstructing peak discharges * extreme floods * climate-change * ardeche river * catastrophic floods * documentary sources * paleoflood record * spanish rivers Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 3.990, year: 2015

  12. Historical and current forest landscapes in eastern Oregon and Washington Part II: Linking vegetation characteristics to potential fire behavior and related smoke production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark H. Huff; Roger D. Ottmar; Ernesto Alvarado; Robert E. Vihnanek; John F. Lehmkuhl; Paul F. Hessburg; Richard L. Everett

    1995-01-01

    We compared the potential fire behavior and smoke production of historical and current time periods based on vegetative conditions in forty-nine 5100- to 13 5OO-hectare watersheds in six river basins in eastern Oregon and Washington. Vegetation composition, structure, and patterns were attributed and mapped from aerial photographs taken from 1932 to 1959 (historical)...

  13. River and Reservoir Operations Model, Truckee River basin, California and Nevada, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berris, Steven N.; Hess, Glen W.; Bohman, Larry R.

    2001-01-01

    / reservoir and river operations including diversion of Truckee River water to the Truckee Canal for transport to the Carson River Basin. In addition to the operations and streamflow-routing modules, the modeling system is structured to allow integration of other modules, such as water-quality and precipitation-runoff modules. The USGS Truckee River Basin operations model was designed to provide simulations that allow comparison of the effects of alternative management practices or allocations on streamflow or reservoir storages in the Truckee River Basin over long periods of time. Because the model was not intended to reproduce historical streamflow or reservoir storage values, a traditional calibration that includes statistical comparisons of observed and simulated values would be problematic with this model and database. This report describes a chronology and background of decrees, agreements, and laws that affect Truckee River operational practices; the construction of the Truckee River daily operations model; the simulation of Truckee River Basin operations, both current and proposed under the draft TROA and WQSA; and suggested model improvements and limitations. The daily operations model uses Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) to simulate flow-routing and reservoir and river operations. The operations model simulates reservoir and river operations that govern streamflow in the Truckee River from Lake Tahoe to Pyramid Lake, including diversions through the Truckee Canal to Lahontan Reservoir in the Carson River Basin. A general overview is provided of daily operations and their simulation. Supplemental information that documents the extremely complex operating rules simulated by the model is available.

  14. River pollution control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stiff, M.J

    1980-01-01

    Readers will gain an insight into the problems of other countries, particularly those with trans-frontier rivers, the measures adopted to improve river quality, and how the World Health Organization...

  15. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  16. Illinois River NWFR HMP

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Illinois River National Wildlife and Fish Refuges Complex stretches along 124 miles of the Illinois River in west central Illinois. The Complex includes three...

  17. Iowa's Sovereign Meandered Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This data set depicts Iowa's Meandered Rivers. These rivers are deemed sovereign land & therefore require any person wishing to conduct construction activities...

  18. FEMA Historical Disaster Declarations - shp

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Historical Disaster Declarations provides geospatial view to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (referred to as the Stafford Act...

  19. Historical and Documentary Data Sets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past climate and environment from historical references and documentary evidence such as church records, harvest dates, and diaries. Parameter keywords...

  20. GDOT historic landscape mitigation evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-29

    Historic Landscapes are our nations finger prints of the past. They provide us a glimpse into the way people worked, lived, and admired : the land. As the earths population continues to grow, so does the need for infrastructure improvements suc...

  1. Historical sources and watershed evolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanley W. Trimble

    2012-01-01

    Historical data, including structures, documents, photographs and eyewitness reports, allow changes in some drainage basins to be documented in fine detail over time periods ranging from a few days to several decades...

  2. 2nd Historic Mortars Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, John; Groot, Caspar; Historic Mortars : Characterisation, Assessment and Repair

    2012-01-01

    This volume focuses on research and practical issues connected with mortars on historic structures. The book is divided into four sections: Characterisation of Historic Mortars, Repair Mortars and Design Issues, Experimental Research into Properties of Repair Mortars, and Assessment and Testing. The papers present the latest work of researchers in their field. The individual contributions were selected from the contributions to the 2nd Historic Mortars Conference, which took place in Prague, September, 22-24, 2010. All papers were reviewed and improved as necessary before publication. This peer review process by the editors resulted in the 34 individual contributions included in here. One extra paper reviewing and summarising State-of-the-Art knowledge covered by this publication was added as a starting and navigational point for the reader. The editors believe that having these papers in print is important and they hope that it will stimulate further research into historic mortars and related subjects. 

  3. Developing a Stochastic Streamflow Generation Model Based on an Extensive Historical Record in an Altered Fluvial System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, M.; Dunne, T.

    2001-12-01

    An empirical-stochastic streamflow simulation model was developed to predict tributary inflow to a large river from a network of gauging stations. The model mines historical streamflow records at all gauges in the network to preserve spatial and temporal patterns in flood events. It incorporates seasonality and correlation in flood events between gauges to represent rainstorm magnitude, timing, and trajectory and tributary basin characteristics. The model generates a random selection of floods and interstorm periods for each simulation. We incorporated streamflow from 10 tributary gauges to predict hydrographs at mainstem gauging points on the Sacramento River in California. The model was validated by comparing flood frequency between: 1) an additive series of tributary inflow and historical data at a gauge just downstream; and 2) tributary inflow routed through the main channel via a flood routing model and historical data at the basin outlet. The model is discussed in terms of its potential application to flood control planning and river restoration.

  4. Feminism and nursing: historical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, S; Campbell, J C

    1990-07-01

    Feminists have often criticized nursing for lack of commitment to women's movements. This article addresses the contradictions and conflicts in the relationship of feminism and nursing from a historical perspective. Different feminist epistemologies, those of enlightened liberal, cultural, and radical feminism, are examined historically and their relevance to nursing is discussed. A reflexive theory, proposed by Harding, is used to conceptualize the differing responses, feminist and nonfeminist, of women and nurses, as alternative reactions to the many types of patriarchy they have encountered.

  5. Measuring River Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyavoo, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    The Don River watershed is located within Canada's most highly urbanized area--metropolitan Toronto. Many residential and commercial uses, including alterations to the river's course with bridges, have had a significant impact on the Don's fauna and flora. Pollutants have degraded the river's water quality, a situation exacerbated by the…

  6. Sediment cores as archives of historical changes in floodplain lake hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintern, Anna; Leahy, Paul J; Zawadzki, Atun; Gadd, Patricia; Heijnis, Henk; Jacobsen, Geraldine; Connor, Simon; Deletic, Ana; McCarthy, David T

    2016-02-15

    Anthropogenic activities are contributing to the changing hydrology of rivers, often resulting in their degradation. Understanding the drivers and nature of these changes is critical for the design and implementation of effective mitigation strategies for these systems. However, this can be hindered by gaps in historical measured flow data. This study therefore aims to use sediment cores to identify historical hydrological changes within a river catchment. Sediment cores from two floodplain lakes (billabongs) in the urbanised Yarra River catchment (Melbourne, South-East Australia) were collected and high resolution images, trends in magnetic susceptibility and trends in elemental composition through the sedimentary records were obtained. These were used to infer historical changes in river hydrology to determine both average trends in hydrology (i.e., coarse temporal resolution) as well as discrete flood layers in the sediment cores (i.e., fine temporal resolution). Through the 20th century, both billabongs became increasingly disconnected from the river, as demonstrated by the decreasing trends in magnetic susceptibility, particle size and inorganic matter in the cores. Additionally the number of discrete flood layers decreased up the cores. These reconstructed trends correlate with measured flow records of the river through the 20th century, which validates the methodology that has been used in this study. Not only does this study provide evidence on how natural catchments can be affected by land-use intensification and urbanisation, but it also introduces a general analytical framework that could be applied to other river systems to assist in the design of hydrological management strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterizing Sources of Recharge and Groundwater Quality in Sacramento Aquifers Following California's Historic Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, C. A.; Paukert Vankeuren, A. N.; Wagner, A. J.; Blackburn, C.; Druecker, D.

    2016-12-01

    Characterizing recharge will be critical for sustainable groundwater use, particularly following California's historic five-year drought . Groundwater is of great importance to Sacramento, which is a high priority basin as determined by the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act of 2014. The California State University, Sacramento (CSUS) campus has 18 monitoring wells, making it an ideal laboratory for examination of recharge sources and water quality in confined and unconfined aquifers in the Central Valley aquifer system. Historically, CSUS aquifers appear to have been recharged by water from the Western Sierra Nevada. The campus is bounded by the Lower American River, and some of its wells are in hydraulic connection with the river1. Lower than average river stage during the drought may have affected recharge to the aquifers from the river. Additionally, low impact development (LID) stormwater-management ponds have recently been installed on campus in an effort to increase infiltration and to help mitigate contamination of the aquifers and American River from campus runoff. The recently installed LID ponds on campus may have increased infiltration of local precipitation into the unconfined aquifer. Data collected from the monitoring wells allow for the examination of differences between the confined and unconfined aquifer systems in the Central Valley. To identify recharge sources, stable isotope and major ion analyses for samples collected from both campus aquifers are compared to samples from local precipitation and rivers in the Western Sierra Nevada feeding the American River. These results are used to assess current water quality and compared to historic datasets collected by the USGS to reveal changes that have occurred as a result of the recent drought. These data are the first in a dataset developed by CSUS Geology students for long-term monitoring of local groundwater quality. 1Moran et al., 2004. LLNL, UCR-203258.

  8. River predisposition to ice jams: a simplified geospatial model

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Munck, Stéphane; Gauthier, Yves; Bernier, Monique; Chokmani, Karem; Légaré, Serge

    2017-07-01

    Floods resulting from river ice jams pose a great risk to many riverside municipalities in Canada. The location of an ice jam is mainly influenced by channel morphology. The goal of this work was therefore to develop a simplified geospatial model to estimate the predisposition of a river channel to ice jams. Rather than predicting the timing of river ice breakup, the main question here was to predict where the broken ice is susceptible to jam based on the river's geomorphological characteristics. Thus, six parameters referred to potential causes for ice jams in the literature were initially selected: presence of an island, narrowing of the channel, high sinuosity, presence of a bridge, confluence of rivers, and slope break. A GIS-based tool was used to generate the aforementioned factors over regular-spaced segments along the entire channel using available geospatial data. An ice jam predisposition index (IJPI) was calculated by combining the weighted optimal factors. Three Canadian rivers (province of Québec) were chosen as test sites. The resulting maps were assessed from historical observations and local knowledge. Results show that 77 % of the observed ice jam sites on record occurred in river sections that the model considered as having high or medium predisposition. This leaves 23 % of false negative errors (missed occurrence). Between 7 and 11 % of the highly predisposed river sections did not have an ice jam on record (false-positive cases). Results, limitations, and potential improvements are discussed.

  9. Diazotrophy in alluvial meadows of subarctic river systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Thomas H; Zackrisson, Olle; Bergman, Ingela; Díez, Beatriz; Bergman, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    There is currently limited understanding of the contribution of biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy) to the N budget of large river systems. This natural source of N in boreal river systems may partially explain the sustained productivity of river floodplains in Northern Europe where winter fodder was harvested for centuries without fertilizer amendments. In much of the world, anthropogenic pollution and river regulation have nearly eliminated opportunities to study natural processes that shaped early nutrient dynamics of large river systems; however, pristine conditions in northern Fennoscandia allow for the retrospective evaluation of key biochemical processes of historical significance. We investigated biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy) as a potential source of nitrogen fertility at 71 independent floodplain sites along 10 rivers and conducted seasonal and intensive analyses at a subset of these sites. Biological N2 fixation occurred in all floodplains, averaged 24.5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) and was down regulated from over 60 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) to 0 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) by river N pollution. A diversity of N2-fixing cyanobacteria was found to colonize surface detritus in the floodplains. The data provide evidence for N2 fixation to be a fundamental source of new N that may have sustained fertility at alluvial sites along subarctic rivers. Such data may have implications for the interpretation of ancient agricultural development and the design of contemporary low-input agroecosystems.

  10. Diazotrophy in alluvial meadows of subarctic river systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H DeLuca

    Full Text Available There is currently limited understanding of the contribution of biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy to the N budget of large river systems. This natural source of N in boreal river systems may partially explain the sustained productivity of river floodplains in Northern Europe where winter fodder was harvested for centuries without fertilizer amendments. In much of the world, anthropogenic pollution and river regulation have nearly eliminated opportunities to study natural processes that shaped early nutrient dynamics of large river systems; however, pristine conditions in northern Fennoscandia allow for the retrospective evaluation of key biochemical processes of historical significance. We investigated biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy as a potential source of nitrogen fertility at 71 independent floodplain sites along 10 rivers and conducted seasonal and intensive analyses at a subset of these sites. Biological N2 fixation occurred in all floodplains, averaged 24.5 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 and was down regulated from over 60 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 to 0 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 by river N pollution. A diversity of N2-fixing cyanobacteria was found to colonize surface detritus in the floodplains. The data provide evidence for N2 fixation to be a fundamental source of new N that may have sustained fertility at alluvial sites along subarctic rivers. Such data may have implications for the interpretation of ancient agricultural development and the design of contemporary low-input agroecosystems.

  11. River predisposition to ice jams: a simplified geospatial model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. De Munck

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Floods resulting from river ice jams pose a great risk to many riverside municipalities in Canada. The location of an ice jam is mainly influenced by channel morphology. The goal of this work was therefore to develop a simplified geospatial model to estimate the predisposition of a river channel to ice jams. Rather than predicting the timing of river ice breakup, the main question here was to predict where the broken ice is susceptible to jam based on the river's geomorphological characteristics. Thus, six parameters referred to potential causes for ice jams in the literature were initially selected: presence of an island, narrowing of the channel, high sinuosity, presence of a bridge, confluence of rivers, and slope break. A GIS-based tool was used to generate the aforementioned factors over regular-spaced segments along the entire channel using available geospatial data. An ice jam predisposition index (IJPI was calculated by combining the weighted optimal factors. Three Canadian rivers (province of Québec were chosen as test sites. The resulting maps were assessed from historical observations and local knowledge. Results show that 77 % of the observed ice jam sites on record occurred in river sections that the model considered as having high or medium predisposition. This leaves 23 % of false negative errors (missed occurrence. Between 7 and 11 % of the highly predisposed river sections did not have an ice jam on record (false-positive cases. Results, limitations, and potential improvements are discussed.

  12. A fuzzy Bayesian approach to flood frequency estimation with imprecise historical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, José Luis; Kiss, Andrea; Viglione, Alberto; Viertl, Reinhard; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a novel framework that links imprecision (through a fuzzy approach) and stochastic uncertainty (through a Bayesian approach) in estimating flood probabilities from historical flood information and systematic flood discharge data. The method exploits the linguistic characteristics of historical source material to construct membership functions, which may be wider or narrower, depending on the vagueness of the statements. The membership functions are either included in the prior distribution or the likelihood function to obtain a fuzzy version of the flood frequency curve. The viability of the approach is demonstrated by three case studies that differ in terms of their hydromorphological conditions (from an Alpine river with bedrock profile to a flat lowland river with extensive flood plains) and historical source material (including narratives, town and county meeting protocols, flood marks and damage accounts). The case studies are presented in order of increasing fuzziness (the Rhine at Basel, Switzerland; the Werra at Meiningen, Germany; and the Tisza at Szeged, Hungary). Incorporating imprecise historical information is found to reduce the range between the 5% and 95% Bayesian credibility bounds of the 100 year floods by 45% and 61% for the Rhine and Werra case studies, respectively. The strengths and limitations of the framework are discussed relative to alternative (non-fuzzy) methods. The fuzzy Bayesian inference framework provides a flexible methodology that fits the imprecise nature of linguistic information on historical floods as available in historical written documentation.

  13. A fuzzy Bayesian approach to flood frequency estimation with imprecise historical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Andrea; Viglione, Alberto; Viertl, Reinhard; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents a novel framework that links imprecision (through a fuzzy approach) and stochastic uncertainty (through a Bayesian approach) in estimating flood probabilities from historical flood information and systematic flood discharge data. The method exploits the linguistic characteristics of historical source material to construct membership functions, which may be wider or narrower, depending on the vagueness of the statements. The membership functions are either included in the prior distribution or the likelihood function to obtain a fuzzy version of the flood frequency curve. The viability of the approach is demonstrated by three case studies that differ in terms of their hydromorphological conditions (from an Alpine river with bedrock profile to a flat lowland river with extensive flood plains) and historical source material (including narratives, town and county meeting protocols, flood marks and damage accounts). The case studies are presented in order of increasing fuzziness (the Rhine at Basel, Switzerland; the Werra at Meiningen, Germany; and the Tisza at Szeged, Hungary). Incorporating imprecise historical information is found to reduce the range between the 5% and 95% Bayesian credibility bounds of the 100 year floods by 45% and 61% for the Rhine and Werra case studies, respectively. The strengths and limitations of the framework are discussed relative to alternative (non‐fuzzy) methods. The fuzzy Bayesian inference framework provides a flexible methodology that fits the imprecise nature of linguistic information on historical floods as available in historical written documentation. PMID:27840456

  14. A fuzzy Bayesian approach to flood frequency estimation with imprecise historical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, José Luis; Kiss, Andrea; Viglione, Alberto; Viertl, Reinhard; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a novel framework that links imprecision (through a fuzzy approach) and stochastic uncertainty (through a Bayesian approach) in estimating flood probabilities from historical flood information and systematic flood discharge data. The method exploits the linguistic characteristics of historical source material to construct membership functions, which may be wider or narrower, depending on the vagueness of the statements. The membership functions are either included in the prior distribution or the likelihood function to obtain a fuzzy version of the flood frequency curve. The viability of the approach is demonstrated by three case studies that differ in terms of their hydromorphological conditions (from an Alpine river with bedrock profile to a flat lowland river with extensive flood plains) and historical source material (including narratives, town and county meeting protocols, flood marks and damage accounts). The case studies are presented in order of increasing fuzziness (the Rhine at Basel, Switzerland; the Werra at Meiningen, Germany; and the Tisza at Szeged, Hungary). Incorporating imprecise historical information is found to reduce the range between the 5% and 95% Bayesian credibility bounds of the 100 year floods by 45% and 61% for the Rhine and Werra case studies, respectively. The strengths and limitations of the framework are discussed relative to alternative (non-fuzzy) methods. The fuzzy Bayesian inference framework provides a flexible methodology that fits the imprecise nature of linguistic information on historical floods as available in historical written documentation.

  15. River basin administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  16. A numerical study of the ex-ROFI of the Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal, N.; Souza, A.; Durazo, R.

    1997-08-01

    The freshwater discharge of the Colorado River into the Gulf of California has been reduced to negligible quantities since the construction of the Hoover Dam in 1935. These radical anthropogenic changes in the hydrography of the Colorado River Delta had striking repercussions on both physical and biological processes. Using historical river discharge data, the changes in the flow dynamics and hydrographic patterns before and after the drastic freshwater reduction are studied numerically, using a three-dimensional nonlinear shelf model. The results are applied to assess the environmental impact of the reduction of river discharge on the area. Satellite imagery is also used to compare our results with observed fronts.

  17. Techniques for validating historical hydrometric data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennis, S. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Kang, N. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The aim of this research was to develop an automated methodology for validating natural historical flows. Since the calculation of natural inflows is directly linked to the measurement of reservoir levels, it was this measurement that was the object of the validation. Two different approaches were used to validate and correct the reservoir level time series, depending on the number of level gauges installed. The most favorable case is the one where there are several level-gauging stations on the same reservoir. In this case, a multivariate filtering technique is used to validate the time series of levels recorded at each of the stations. The least favorable case is the one where there is only one station on the reservoir. Here, a univariate filtering method is used. In the research reported here, the Fraser filter was selected, which, to our knowledge, has never been used in hydrology before. All the techniques developed have been incorporated in a software program called ValiDeb, which has been successfully tested on-site on the Gatineau River in Quebec.

  18. Environmental flow assessment for river Trebizat, BiH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolar-Zvanut, N.; Kupusovic, E.; Vucijak, B.; Mijatovic, A.; Grizelj, Z.; Antonelli, F.

    2009-04-01

    The alteration of the water flow downstream of dams is one of the most stressful factors influencing the aquatic and riverine ecosystem. The environmental flow assessment is a tool for finding the balance between water use by humans and nature and ensuring a long-term and good quality water supply both for human purposes and for ecosystems. In 2007/08 WWF has implemented a project in the Neretva basin (Bosnia and Herzegovina) with a focus on environmental flow evaluation for the river Trebizat, located in the western region of Herzegovina. The water regime of the Trebizat river is affected by the abstraction of its water for hydropower plants, irrigation and fish farming not to mention pollution problems. The Trebizat river flows through an area of remarkable ecological value hosting also protected areas (the travertine-formation around Kravice waterfall). The main aim of this paper is to present the results of the application of a methodology for environmental flow assessment, namely the GEP methodology (guaranteed ecological flow). It belongs to the category of hydrological environmental flow assessment methods and the test was done to assess the environmental flow in the river Trebizat. Using existing hydrological data as well as samples specifically collected on the field, the environmental flow was assessed applying the GEP methodology. Additionally, instream ecological values and critical parameters for environmental flow assessment were evaluated. The area was assessed in terms of its geography, climate conditions, historic heritage of the river, demography, geology of the river and its tributaries, river hydrology and morphology, ecological characteristics, river pollution, river use and river management. At five selected sampling sites along the Trebizat river, additional data on macrophytes, phytobenthos and physico-chemical parameters were collected and analysed. Although there have been many negative impacts in recent years on the Trebizat river, the

  19. Spatio-temporal patterns of the decline of fresh water mussels in the Little South Fork Cumberland River,USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin L. Warren; Wendell R. Haag

    2005-01-01

    The Little South Fork Cumberland River, Kentucky and Tennessee, USA, was a globally important conservation refugium for freshwater mussels (Mollusca:Unionidae) because it supported an intact example (26 species) of the unique Cumberland River mussel fauna including imperiled species. We used previous surveys and our 1997–1998 survey to reconstruct the historical fauna...

  20. Mortality, movement and behaviour of native mussels during a planned water-level drawdown in the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Teresa J.; Zigler, Steven J.; Gray, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Managers in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) are using reductions in the River's water levels during summer to mimic historical water regimes and rehabilitate habitats for vegetation and other species. Concerns for the unintended effects of these actions on mussel populations threatened to halt these projects.

  1. Historical earthquake research in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, Christa

    2017-12-01

    Austria has a moderate seismicity, and on average the population feels 40 earthquakes per year or approximately three earthquakes per month. A severe earthquake with light building damage is expected roughly every 2 to 3 years in Austria. Severe damage to buildings ( I 0 > 8° EMS) occurs significantly less frequently, the average period of recurrence is about 75 years. For this reason the historical earthquake research has been of special importance in Austria. The interest in historical earthquakes in the past in the Austro-Hungarian Empire is outlined, beginning with an initiative of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the development of historical earthquake research as an independent research field after the 1978 "Zwentendorf plebiscite" on whether the nuclear power plant will start up. The applied methods are introduced briefly along with the most important studies and last but not least as an example of a recently carried out case study, one of the strongest past earthquakes in Austria, the earthquake of 17 July 1670, is presented. The research into historical earthquakes in Austria concentrates on seismic events of the pre-instrumental period. The investigations are not only of historical interest, but also contribute to the completeness and correctness of the Austrian earthquake catalogue, which is the basis for seismic hazard analysis and as such benefits the public, communities, civil engineers, architects, civil protection, and many others.

  2. Historical earthquake investigations in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Makropoulos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The active tectonics of the area of Greece and its seismic activity have always been present in the country?s history. Many researchers, tempted to work on Greek historical earthquakes, have realized that this is a task not easily fulfilled. The existing catalogues of strong historical earthquakes are useful tools to perform general SHA studies. However, a variety of supporting datasets, non-uniformly distributed in space and time, need to be further investigated. In the present paper, a review of historical earthquake studies in Greece is attempted. The seismic history of the country is divided into four main periods. In each one of them, characteristic examples, studies and approaches are presented.

  3. Systematic musicology meets historical musicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.

    , however, a post-hoc hypothesis (VanHandel, 2005), and since we cannot perform controlled experiments on historical data, replication with more sensitive methods and new repertoires is required. Turning to French music, we hypothesise both an initial increase and a subsequent decrease in nPVI, based......PVI while stress-timed languages like German have higher nPVI. Recent analyses of historical developments have ascribed linearly increasing nPVI in Austro-German, but not Italian music to waning Italian and increasing German influence on Austro-German music after the Baroque (Daniele & Patel, 2013). This is...... and investigating the advantage of more sophisticated analytical strategies to detect non-linear historical developments. Methods. Mean nPVIs were computed for 34 French composers (midpoint years: 1700-1941); previous data (Daniele & Patel, 2013) were available for 21 Austro-German (1672-1929) and 15 Italian...

  4. A geomorphological approach to the management of rivers contaminated by metal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, M. G.; Brewer, P. A.; Hudson-Edwards, K. A.; Bird, G.; Coulthard, T. J.; Dennis, I. A.; Lechler, P. J.; Miller, J. R.; Turner, J. N.

    2006-09-01

    As the result of current and historical metal mining, river channels and floodplains in many parts of the world have become contaminated by metal-rich waste in concentrations that may pose a hazard to human livelihoods and sustainable development. Environmental and human health impacts commonly arise because of the prolonged residence time of heavy metals in river sediments and alluvial soils and their bioaccumulatory nature in plants and animals. This paper considers how an understanding of the processes of sediment-associated metal dispersion in rivers, and the space and timescales over which they operate, can be used in a practical way to help river basin managers more effectively control and remediate catchments affected by current and historical metal mining. A geomorphological approach to the management of rivers contaminated by metals is outlined and four emerging research themes are highlighted and critically reviewed. These are: (1) response and recovery of river systems following the failures of major tailings dams; (2) effects of flooding on river contamination and the sustainable use of floodplains; (3) new developments in isotopic fingerprinting, remote sensing and numerical modelling for identifying the sources of contaminant metals and for mapping the spatial distribution of contaminants in river channels and floodplains; and (4) current approaches to the remediation of river basins affected by mining, appraised in light of the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). Future opportunities for geomorphologically-based assessments of mining-affected catchments are also identified.

  5. Updating river basin models with radar altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.

    of historical discharge data. For the few VS where in-situ data was available for comparison, the discharge estimates were found to be within 4.1 to 13.8% of mean annual gauged amplitude. One of the main obstacles to the use of RA in hydrological applications is the low temporal resolution of the data which has...... suited for use in data assimilation frameworks which combine the information content from models and current observations to produce improved forecasts and reduce prediction uncertainty. The focus of the second and third papers of this thesis was therefore the use of radar altimetry as update data...... studies: the Brahmaputra and Zambezi River basins. In the Brahmaputra, data from 6 Envisat VS located along the main reach was assimilated. The assimilation improved model performance with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency increasing from 0.78 to 0.84 at the outlet of the basin. In the Zambezi River basin...

  6. A Literature Review, Bibliographic Listing, and Organization of Selected References Relative to Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and Abiotic and Biotic Attributes of the Columbia River Estuary and Adjacent Marine and Riverine Environs for Various Historical Periods : Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program : Report 4 of 4, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, Ronald J.

    1996-05-01

    This report contains the results of a literature review on the carrying capacity of Pacific salmon in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of the review was to find the information gaps relative to the determinants of salmon carrying capacity in the Columbia River Basin. The review was one activity designed to answer questions asked in Measure 7.1A of the Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. Based, in part, on the information learned during the literature review and the other work accomplished during this study the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) state concluded that the approach inherent in 7.1A will not increase understanding of ecology, carrying capacity, or limiting factors that influence salmon under current conditions. To increase understanding of ecology, carring capacity, and limiting factors, it is necessary to deal with the complexity of the sustained performance of salmon in the Columbia River Basin. The PNNL team suggests that the regions evaluated carrying capacity from more than one view point. The PNNL team recommends that the region use the contextualistic view for evaluating capacity.

  7. River Platform for Monitoring Erosion (RIPLE) in mountainous rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielin, Yoann; Nord, Guillaume; Esteves, Michel; Geay, Thomas; Hauet, Alexandre

    2017-04-01

    The RIPLE platform has been developed to allow a continuous monitoring at high temporal frequency ( 10 min) of water and solid fluxes in mountainous rivers. The scientific context of this development is defined as follows: (i) the simultaneous measurements of water discharge, bedload, suspension load and river bed topography contribute to the establishment of comprehensive mass balance at the catchment scale; (ii) measurements of the physical properties of fine sediments (size, shape, composition) provide information on the spatial origin of sediments within the catchment, the conditions for erosion and sedimentation processes within the river and the potential to transport other substances such as nutrients, metals, microorganisms. For the design of the platform, priority has been given to non-intrusive instruments due to their robustness. The basic prototype of the platform integrates the following instruments: water level and surface velocity radars, turbidimeters, conductivity probe, hydrophone, cameras, automatic water sampler and depth sounder. Other instruments are progressively integrated, such as the SCAF (system characterizing the sediment's settling velocity), an acoustic Doppler profiler and a spectrophotometer. A wireless telecommunication has been set up to allow remote interactions with the platform and data transmission. The RIPLE platform has been designed to facilitate its use and maintenance: user interface allowing data monitoring and remote configuration, sending alerts (SMS, mail) according to programmed conditions, flexibility of on-site installation and energy autonomy allowing to easily move the platform from one site to another site. In September 2016, the RIPLE platform was installed on a bridge across the Romanche river at Bourg d'Oisans (45.1159 °N, 6.0135 °E) for a testing period. After a presentation of the architecture of the platform, the first results derived from in situ measurements are discussed: the intercomparison of surface

  8. Real Analysis A Historical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Stahl, Saul

    2011-01-01

    A provocative look at the tools and history of real analysis This new edition of Real Analysis: A Historical Approach continues to serve as an interesting read for students of analysis. Combining historical coverage with a superb introductory treatment, this book helps readers easily make the transition from concrete to abstract ideas. The book begins with an exciting sampling of classic and famous problems first posed by some of the greatest mathematicians of all time. Archimedes, Fermat, Newton, and Euler are each summoned in turn, illuminating the utility of infinite, power, and trigonome

  9. The memory remains: application of historical DNA for scaling biodiversity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Einar E; Bekkevold, Dorte

    2012-04-01

    Few species worldwide have attracted as much attention in relation to conservation and sustainable management as Pacific salmon. Most populations have suffered significant reductions, many have disappeared, and even entire evolutionary significant units (ESUs) are believed to have been lost. Until now, no 'smoking gun' in terms of direct genetic evidence of the loss of a salmon ESU has been produced. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Iwamoto et al. (2012) use microsatellite analysis of historical scale samples of Columbia River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) from 1924 (Fig. 1) to ask the pertinent question: Do the historical samples contain salmon from extirpated populations or ESUs? They identified four genetic groups in the historical samples of which two were almost genetically identical to contemporary ESUs in the river, one showed genetic relationship with a third ESU, but one group was not related to any of the contemporary populations. In association with ecological data, the genetic results suggest that an early migrating Columbia River headwater sockeye salmon ESU has been extirpated. The study has significant importance for conservation and reestablishment of sockeye populations in the Columbia River, but also underpins the general significance of shifting baselines in conservation biology, and how to assess loss of genetic biodiversity. The results clearly illustrate the huge and versatile potential of using historical DNA in population and conservation genetics. Because of the extraordinarily plentiful historical samples and rapid advances in fish genomics, fishes are likely to spearhead future studies of temporal ecological and population genomics in non-model organisms. [Figure: see text]. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. FEH Local: Improving flood estimates using historical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosdocimi Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional approach to design flood estimation (for example, to derive the 100-year flood is to apply a statistical model to time series of peak river flow measured by gauging stations. Such records are typically not very long, for example in the UK only about 10% of the stations have records that are more than 50 years in length. Along-explored way to augment the data available from a gauging station is to derive information about historical flood events and paleo-floods, which can be obtained from careful exploration of archives, old newspapers, flood marks or other signs of past flooding that are still discernible in the catchment, and the history of settlements. The inclusion of historical data in flood frequency estimation has been shown to substantially reduce the uncertainty around the estimated design events and is likely to provide insight into the rarest events which might have pre-dated the relatively short systematic records. Among other things, the FEH Local project funded by the Environment Agency aims to develop methods to easily incorporate historical information into the standard method of statistical flood frequency estimation in the UK. Different statistical estimation procedures are explored, namely maximum likelihood and partial probability weighted moments, and the strengths and weaknesses of each method are investigated. The project assesses the usefulness of historical data and aims to provide practitioners with useful guidelines to indicate in what circumstances the inclusion of historical data is likely to be beneficial in terms of reducing both the bias and the variability of the estimated flood frequency curves. The guidelines are based on the results of a large Monte Carlo simulation study, in which different estimation procedures and different data availability scenarios are studied. The study provides some indication of the situations under which different estimation procedures might give a better performance.

  11. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.W.; Karapatakis, L.K.; Mamatey, A.R.; Todd, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes environmental activities conducted on and in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, S.C., from Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1991, with an update on compliance activities through April 1, 1992. The report is a single volume with a separate summary pamphlet highlighting the major findings for 1991. The report is divided into an executive summary and 14 chapters containing information on environmental compliance issues, environmental monitoring methods and programs, and environmental research activities for 1991, as well as historical data from previous years. Analytical results, figures, charts, and data tables relevant to the environmental monitoring program for 1991 at SRS are included.

  12. Multiple stressors in the Sacramento River watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, D E

    1998-01-01

    Aquatic biota in the Sacramento River watershed are stressed by diversion of river flows, by historical mining resulting in cadmium, copper, zinc, and mercury, and, more recently, contamination by agricultural and urban chemical runoff. In addition, the proposed redirection of drainage of saline waters--containing selenium--from the western slope of the San Joaquin River into the Delta formed by the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers could add to the stress on resident organisms. These combined stressors have led to deterioration in surface water quality and the aquatic habitat. The potential interaction of these stressors, coupled with invasions of foreign species and the export of juvenile fish into aqueducts, has driven several species of fish to near extinction in the system. Effects of historical contamination by heavy metals are potentially exacerbated by presence of organophosphate pesticides, at concentrations exceeding National Academy of Sciences recommendations, throughout the lower watershed and the San Francisco Bay. The Asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis, an introduced non-indigenous species has apparently become a preferred food item of the sturgeon, Accipenser transmontanus, an important sport and aquaculture species. Since this introduction, sturgeon body burdens for selenium have increased dramatically and analytical chemistry of P. amurensis indicates that these organisms are effective bioaccumulators of selenium. This review examines potential ecotoxicity associated with multiple stressors in the watershed. Data from field monitoring, laboratory toxicity assays with ambient water, and ecotoxicologic investigations are reviewed. Potential designs for multiple stressor investigations are discussed. The information presented on this watershed illustrates the challenge to investigators seeking to evaluate multiple stressor effects on riverine and estuarine organisms.

  13. Deschutes River Spawning Gravel Study, Volume I, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, Charles W.

    1985-09-01

    Spawning habitat in the Deschutes River was inventoried, gravel permeability and composition were sampled at selected gravel bars, historical flow records for the Deschutes were analyzed, salmon and trout utilization of spawning habitat was examined, and potential methods of enhancing spawning habitat in the river were explored. Some changes in river conditions since the mid-1960's were identified, including a reduction in spawning habitat immediately downstream from the hydroelectric complex. The 1964 flood was identified as a factor which profoundly affected spawning habitat in the river, and which greatly complicated efforts to identify recent changes which could be attributed to the hydrocomplex. A baseline on present gravel quality at both chinook and steelhead spawning areas in the river was established using a freeze-core methodology. Recommendations are made for enhancing spawning habitat in the Deschutes River, if it is independently determined that spawning habitat is presently limiting populations of summer steelhead or fall chinook in the river. 53 refs., 40 figs., 21 tabs.

  14. Identification of contaminants of concern Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Batishko, N.C.; Heise-Craff, D.A.; Jarvis, M.F.; Snyder, S.F.

    1995-01-01

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA) Project at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating the current human and ecological risks from contaminants in the Columbia River. The risks to be studied are those attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is located in southcentral Washington State near the town of Richland. Human risk from exposure to radioactive and hazardous materials will be addressed for a range of river use options. Ecological risk will be evaluated relative to the health of the current river ecosystem. The overall purpose of the project is to determine if enough contamination exists in the Columbia River to warrant cleanup actions under applicable environmental regulations. This report documents an initial review, from a risk perspective, of the wealth of historical data concerning current or potential contamination in the Columbia River. Sampling data were examined for over 600 contaminants. A screening analysis was performed to identify those substances present in such quantities that they may pose a significant human or ecological risk. These substances will require a more detailed analysis to assess their impact on humans or the river ecosystem.

  15. Vesicoureteral reflux: A historical perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K.N. DeCotiis

    2016-12-28

    Dec 28, 2016 ... Vesicoureteral reflux: A historical perspective. K.N. DeCotiisa,∗. , F.J. Pennab, M.A. Koylec, A.A. Caldamonea a The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, 2 Dudley Street, Suite 174, Providence, RI 02905, USA b Dartmouth | Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, ...

  16. Collaborative Action Research: Historical Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulyan, Lisa

    This paper presents a historical overview of the use of action research in education and describes the basic assumptions and expectations that continue to characterize collaborative research projects today. Action research was initiated in the 1930's by Kurt Lewin and adapted by educators in the 1940's. Interest in action research declined between…

  17. Fort Monroe Historic Image Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Figure 308: Mural in Coast Artillery Board Building, 1940 (NARA RG 111-SC Box 9 117168). .......................... 157 Figure 309: Mural in Coast...Artillery Board Building, 1940 (NARA RG 111-SC Box 9 117167). .......................... 158 Figure 310: Mural in Coast Artillery Board Building, 1940...Archives in Philadelphia, PA. During these visits researchers collected archival information such as historic photo- graphs, art work, maps, and

  18. Rivers: Nature's Wondrous Waterways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, David L.

    Rivers play a vital role in the life of the planet. They provide water for wildlife, plant life, and people, and they help to fertilize fields where corn and other crops grow. But how were these rivers made? This children's book takes readers/students on a journey down a river from its source at the top of a mountain to its mouth where it meets…

  19. Evolution of river dolphins.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, H.; Caballero, S.; Collins, A. G.; Brownell, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    The world's river dolphins (Inia, Pontoporia, Lipotes and Platanista) are among the least known and most endangered of all cetaceans. The four extant genera inhabit geographically disjunct river systems and exhibit highly modified morphologies, leading many cetologists to regard river dolphins as an unnatural group. Numerous arrangements have been proposed for their phylogenetic relationships to one another and to other odontocete cetaceans. These alternative views strongly affect the biogeog...

  20. Down to the River

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    Currently there is no coherent or sustainable water cooperation among the five states—Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestinian territories and Syria—that share the Jordan River. Why do people not cooperate on sustainable river basin management, even if it seems the most rational course from...... to illustrate hydropolitics in praxis, because the political future of this particular area in many respects affects the sustainable future of the Jordan River Basin and the entire Levant....

  1. Mesozoic thermal history and timing of structural events for the Yukon-Tanana Upland, east-central Alaska: 40Ar/39Ar data from metamorphic and plutonic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; Lanphere, M.A.; Sharp, W.D.; Layer, P.W.; Hansen, V.L.

    2002-01-01

    We present new 40Ar/39Ar ages for hornblende, muscovite, and biotite from metamorphic and plutonic rocks from the Yukon-Tanana Upland, Alaska. Integration of our data with published 40Ar/39Ar, kinematic, and metamorphic pressure (P) and temperature (T) data confirms and refines the complex interaction of metamorphism and tectonism proposed for the region. The oldest metamorphic episode(s) postdates Middle Permian magmatism and predates the intrusion of Late Triassic (215-212 Ma) granitoids into the Fortymile River assemblage (Taylor Mountain assemblage of previous papers). In the eastern Eagle quadrangle, rapid and widespread Early Jurassic cooling is indicated by ???188-186 Ma 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages for hornblende from plutons that intrude the Fortymile River assemblage, and for metamorphic minerals from the Fortymile River assemblage and the structurally underlying Nasina assemblage. We interpret these Early Jurassic ages to represent cooling resulting from northwest-directed contraction that emplaced the Fortymile River assemblage onto the Nasina assemblage to the north as well as the Lake George assemblage to the south. This cooling was the final stage of a continuum of subduction-related contraction that produced crustal thickening, intermediate- to high-P metamorphism within both the Fortymile River assemblage and the structurally underlying Lake George assemblage, and Late Triassic and Early Jurassic plutonism in the Fortymile River and Nasina assemblages. Although a few metamorphic samples from the Lake George assemblage yield Jurassic 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages, most yield Early Cretaceous 40Ar/39Ar ages: hornblende ???135-115 Ma, and muscovite and biotite ???110-108 Ma. We interpret the Early Cretaceous metamorphic cooling, in most areas, to have resulted from regional extension and exhumation of the lower plate, previously tectonically thickened during Early Jurassic and older convergence.

  2. [Historic malignant tumour: 27 observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparsa, A; Doffoel-Hantz, V; Durox, H; Gaston, J; Delage-Core, M; Bédane, C; Labrousse, F; Sannajust, J P; Bonnetblanc, J-M

    2012-03-01

    When used in the French medical literature to describe a pathological state, the word "historic" normally refers to tumours of startling appearance because of their size. It is difficult to understand how a patient can allow such tumours to continue to grow. We attempt to define this concept. Two dermatologists carried out a retrospective, independent and comparative selection of photographs taken between 1978 and 2008 of malignant cutaneous tumours of unusual size given the histological diagnosis. Socio-professional, demographic, clinical, histological psychological data, and details of treatment history and progress were collected. Twenty-seven patients (11 M, 16 F) of mean age 74 years (34-99 years) presented a "historic" tumour. Twelve patients lived in rural regions. Five patients were company executives. The average duration of development of the "historic" tumours was 4.5 years (6-420 months). The tumours were classed histologically as epidermoid carcinomas (nine) and melanomas (seven). The mean size was 13 cm (6-30 cm). Psychiatric problems, membership of sects or dementia were noted for 13 patients. Treatment consisted of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or, less frequently, surgery. Eighteen patients died on average 13 months after diagnosis. "Historic" malignant tumour (also described in the literature as "giant" tumour) is a real-life fact. No studies have been made of a series of such patients. Despite histological diagnosis, the size was associated with slow tumoral progress and/or late treatment, chiefly accounted for by psychiatric disorders. Socio-professional data indicate that "historic" tumours are equally common in urban and rural areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of periodic autoregressive moving average models and their application to the modeling of river flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Yonas Gebeyehu; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Anderson, Paul L.

    2006-01-01

    The generation of synthetic river flow samples that can reproduce the essential statistical features of historical river flows is useful for the planning, design, and operation of water resource systems. Most river flow series are periodically stationary; that is, their mean and covariance functions are periodic with respect to time. This article develops model identification and simulation techniques based on a periodic autoregressive moving average (PARMA) model to capture the seasonal variations in river flow statistics. The innovations algorithm is used to obtain parameter estimates. An application to monthly flow data for the Fraser River in British Columbia is included. A careful statistical analysis of the PARMA model residuals, including a truncated Pareto model for the extreme tails, produces a realistic simulation of these river flows.

  4. It takes more than water: Restoring the Colorado River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Jennifer; Kendy, Eloise; Schlatter, Karen; Hinojosa-Huertaf, Osvel; Flessa, Karl W.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Ramirez-Hernandez, Jorge; Nagler, Pamela L.; Glenn, Edward P.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental flows have become important tools for restoring rivers and associated riparian ecosystems (Arthington, 2012; Glenn et al., 2017). In March 2014, the United States and Mexico initiated a bold effort in restoration, delivering from Morelos Dam a “pulse flow” of water into the Colorado River in its delta for the purpose of learning about its environmental effects (Flessa et al., 2013; Bark et al., 2016). Specifically, scientists evaluated whether the pulse flow, albeit miniscule compared to historical floods, could provide the ecological functions needed to establish native, flood-dependent vegetation to restore natural habitat along the riparian corridor.

  5. A Study to Understand the Potential Vulnerabilities to the Foundations of Historic Structures in Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C. L.; Curran, B.; Jefferson, M.; Routhier, M.; Mulukutla, G. K.

    2011-12-01

    Sea level rise, one of the most important manifestations of climate change is expected to result in increased coastal erosion and storm surge flooding. This work reports on a project undertaken to assess the vulnerability of foundations of historic structures in coastal areas to the potential consequences from climate change resulting from increased storm surge flooding. Foundations of historic buildings are especially vulnerable to the seepage and ground water intrusion. Many historic structures themselves are used to house valuable historic collections making it all the important to preserve and protect these structures. Data collected from a field subsurface geophysical survey, geospatial field survey, and a simulation to understand the hydrological conditions of the site useful to build an understanding of threats to foundations of historic structures located on the coast. The study site chosen for this project is the Strawbery Banke Living History Museum, in Portsmouth, NH. Located very close to the banks of the Piscataqua River at its meeting point with the Atlantic Ocean, it consists of many buildings of historical importance dating as far back as 1690. Upstream of the river is the tidal estuary system, the Great Bay which itself is formed by a confluence of seven major rivers, making it a highly dynamic, tide-dominated body of fresh and saltwater. Strawbery Banke is representative of historic structures, located on the Northeastern coast of the US, that will likely be impacted by climate change. The primary threat to the sub-structures for the site is Puddle Dock; a tidal inlet , that lies at the heart of the facility, that once provided direct river access to Strawbery Banke (and since filled around 1900). Results from the long term deployment of in -situ water level loggers in test wells, temperature and relative humidity sensors, and a ground penetration radar survey of the Puddle Dock, along with the detailed fine-scale elevation survey of the site

  6. Pattern-oriented memory interpolation of sparse historical rainfall records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, J. P.; Cohen Liechti, T.; Portela, M. M.; Schleiss, A. J.

    2014-03-01

    The pattern-oriented memory (POM) is a novel historical rainfall interpolation method that explicitly takes into account the time dimension in order to interpolate areal rainfall maps. The method is based on the idea that rainfall patterns exist and can be identified over a certain area by means of non-linear regressions. Having been previously benchmarked with a vast array of interpolation methods using proxy satellite data under different time and space availabilities, in the scope of the present contribution POM is applied to rain gauge data in order to produce areal rainfall maps. Tested over the Zambezi River Basin for the period from 1979 to 1997 (accurate satellite rainfall estimates based on spaceborne instruments are not available for dates prior to 1998), the novel pattern-oriented memory historical interpolation method has revealed itself as a better alternative than Kriging or Inverse Distance Weighing in the light of a Monte Carlo cross-validation procedure. Superior in most metrics to the other tested interpolation methods, in terms of the Pearson correlation coefficient and bias the accuracy of POM's historical interpolation results are even comparable with that of recent satellite rainfall products. The new method holds the possibility of calculating detailed and performing daily areal rainfall estimates, even in the case of sparse rain gauging grids. Besides their performance, the similarity to satellite rainfall estimates inherent to POM interpolations can contribute to substantially extend the length of the rainfall series used in hydrological models and water availability studies in remote areas.

  7. River Corridors (Jan 2, 2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — River corridors are delineated to provide for the least erosive meandering and floodplain geometry toward which a river will evolve over time. River corridor maps...

  8. Information field for historical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sviatets, Yu. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main information collision of historical knowledge, which consists in physical inaccessibility of events and phenomena of the past as an object of historical science for a historian as an investigator. The aim of the research is to formulate and discuss a working hypothesis about the information field of historical science. The article provides an analytical background on the main ideas and approaches in the field of modern information field theory. The author carries out the projection of the main provisions of the information field theory on historical research. It is shown that the information field is a really existing information carrier that provides its acquisition, transportation, storage and visualization, as well as provides information and knowledge recorded in various forms, realizes cultural communications. One of the manifestations of such a culture is the sign systems, which determine certain contexts. Signs are characterized by polysemy. Despite artificial origin, semiotic reality is objective. Simultaneously, signs provide intellectual activity of people. Mental signs in the historical process of use by society acquire additional meanings, generating new symbols. Polysemy shapes the problem of epistemological uncertainty of two stages – identifying the problem and solving it. Historians as researchers resort to cognitive models, which, thanks to the translational function, ensure the transfer of information from the known to the unknown. One of the explanations of polysemy is the theory of conceptual integration, according to which the structures of the original mental spaces are projected onto a new, constructed, mental space – blend. This is the result of a personʼs intellectual ability to create new meanings on the basis of the available ones. Since signs and symbols are multi-valued, they form a multiplicity of retrospective scenarios of historical research at the stage of problem formulation

  9. Human impacts on river ice regime in the Carpathian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Katalin; Nagy, Balázs; Kern, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    River ice is a very important component of the cryosphere, and is especially sensitive to climatic variability. Historical records of appearance or disappearance and timing of ice phenomena are useful indicators for past climatic variations (Williams, 1970). Long-term observations of river ice freeze-up and break-up dates are available for many rivers in the temperate or cold region to detect and analyze the effects of climate change on river ice regime. The ice regime of natural rivers is influenced by climatic, hydrological and morphological factors. Regular ice phenomena observation mostly dates back to the 19th century. During this long-term observation period, the human interventions affecting the hydrological and morphological factors have become more and more intensive (Beltaos and Prowse, 2009). The anthropogenic effects, such as river regulation, hydropower use or water pollution causes different changes in river ice regime (Ashton, 1986). To decrease the occurrence of floods and control the water discharge, nowadays most of the rivers are regulated. River regulation changes the morphological parameters of the river bed: the aim is to create solid and equable bed size and stream gradient to prevent river ice congestion. For the satisfaction of increasing water demands hydropower is also used. River damming results a condition like a lake upstream to the barrage; the flow velocity and the turbulence are low, so this might be favourable for river ice appearance and freeze-up (Starosolsky, 1990). Water pollution affects ice regime in two ways; certain water contaminants change the physical characteristics of the water, e.g. lessens the freezing point of the water. Moreover the thermal stress effect of industrial cooling water and communal wastewater is also important; in winter these water sources are usually warmer, than the water body of the river. These interventions result different changes in the characteristic features of river ice regime. Selected

  10. Shoals and valley plugs in the Hatchie River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Timothy H.

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural land use and gully erosion have historically contributed more sediment to the streams of the Hatchie River watershed than those streams can carry. In 1970, the main sedimentation problem in the watershed occurred in the tributary flood plains. This problem motivated channelization projects (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1970). By the mid-1980's, concern had shifted to sedimentation in the Hatchie River itself where channelized tributaries were understood to contribute much of the sediment. The Soil Conservation Service [Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) since 1996] estimated that 640,000 tons of bedload (sand) accumulates in the Hatchie River each year and identified roughly the eastern two-thirds of the watershed, where loess is thin or absent, as the main source of sand (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1986a). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the West Tennessee River Basin Authority (WTRBA), conducted a study of sediment accumulation in the Hatchie River and its tributaries. This report identifies the types of tributaries and evaluates sediment, shoal formation, and valley-plug problems. The results presented here may contribute to a better understanding of similar problems in West Tennessee and the rest of the southeastern coastal plain. This information also will help the WTRBA manage sedimentation and erosion problems in the Hatchie River watershed.The source of the Mississippi section of the Hatchie River is in the sand hills southwest of Corinth, Mississippi (fig. 1). This section of the Hatchie River flows northward in an artificial drainage canal, gathering water from tributary streams that also are channelized. The drainage canal ends 2 miles south of the Tennessee State line. The Tennessee section of the Hatchie River winds north and west in a meandering natural channel to the Mississippi River. Although most of the Hatchie River tributaries are also drainage canals, the river's main stem has kept most of

  11. Modelling river dune development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paarlberg, Andries; Weerts, H.J.T.; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Ritsema, I.L; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; van Os, A.G.; Termes, A.P.P.

    2005-01-01

    Since river dunes influence flow resistance, predictions of dune dimensions are required to make accurate water level predictions. A model approach to simulate developing river dunes is presented. The model is set-up to be appropriate, i.e. as simple as possible, but with sufficient accuracy for

  12. Evolution of river dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, H; Caballero, S; Collins, A G; Brownell, R L

    2001-03-07

    The world's river dolphins (Inia, Pontoporia, Lipotes and Platanista) are among the least known and most endangered of all cetaceans. The four extant genera inhabit geographically disjunct river systems and exhibit highly modified morphologies, leading many cetologists to regard river dolphins as an unnatural group. Numerous arrangements have been proposed for their phylogenetic relationships to one another and to other odontocete cetaceans. These alternative views strongly affect the biogeographical and evolutionary implications raised by the important, although limited, fossil record of river dolphins. We present a hypothesis of river dolphin relationships based on phylogenetic analysis of three mitochondrial genes for 29 cetacean species, concluding that the four genera represent three separate, ancient branches in odontocete evolution. Our molecular phylogeny corresponds well with the first fossil appearances of the primary lineages of modern odontocetes. Integrating relevant events in Tertiary palaeoceanography, we develop a scenario for river dolphin evolution during the globally high sea levels of the Middle Miocene. We suggest that ancestors of the four extant river dolphin lineages colonized the shallow epicontintental seas that inundated the Amazon, Paraná, Yangtze and Indo-Gangetic river basins, subsequently remaining in these extensive waterways during their transition to freshwater with the Late Neogene trend of sea-level lowering.

  13. River morphodynamics from space: the Landsat frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Jon; Khandelwal, Ankush; Fratkin, Mulu; Kumar, Vipin; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2017-04-01

    NASA's Landsat family of satellites have been observing the entire globe since 1984, providing over 30 years of snapshots with an 18 day frequency and 30 meter resolution. These publicly-available Landsat data are particularly exciting to researchers interested in river morphodynamics, who are often limited to use of historical maps, aerial photography, and field surveys with poor and irregular time resolutions and limited spatial extents. Landsat archives show potential for overcoming these limitations, but techniques and tools for accurately and efficiently mining the vault of scenes must first be developed. In this PICO presentation, we detail the problems we encountered while mapping and quantifying planform dynamics of over 1,300 km of the actively-migrating, meandering Ucayali River in Peru from Landsat imagery. We also present methods to overcome these obstacles and introduce the Matlab-based RivMAP (River Morphodynamics from Analysis of Planforms) toolbox that we developed to extract banklines and centerlines, compute widths, curvatures, and angles, identify cutoffs, and quantify planform changes via centerline migration and erosion/accretion over large spatial domains with high temporal resolution. Measurement uncertainties were estimated by analyzing immobile, abandoned oxbow lakes. Our results identify hotspots of planform changes, and combined with limited precipitation, stage, and topography data, we parse three simultaneous controls on river migration: climate, sediment, and meander cutoff. Overall, this study demonstrates the vast potential locked within Landsat archives to identify multi-scale controls on river migration, observe the co-evolution of width, curvature, discharge, and migration, and discover and develop new geomorphic insights.

  14. Historical Tensions in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Heymann, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Ever since institutions for educating engineers first began to be ­established in Europe, there have been a number of fundamental tensions as to how that ­educating should best be conducted, what it should consist of, and who should do the educating. These tensions are based on different styles...... or approaches to ­engineering education that have developed historically in different parts of Europe and which have led to what we characterize as “theory-driven,” “practice-driven,” and “technology-driven” approaches. This chapter explores some of the historical roots of these tensions in medieval Europe...... and briefly traces their developmental trajectories through the subsequent formation of institutions of engineering ­education. It has been written as part of PROCEED (Program of Research on Opportunities and Challenges in Engineering Education in Denmark)....

  15. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments of its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant; still within the broad studies in the subject it is not yet recognised, in particular within the seismic area, a unitary approach to deal with Masonry structures. This successful book contributes to clarify the issues with a rigorous approach offering a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. This third edition has been driven by some recent developments of the research in the field, and it gives the fundamentals of Statics with an original and rigorous mathematical formulation, further in-depth inquired in this new version. With many refinements and improvements, the book investigates the static behaviour of many historic monuments, such as the Gothic Cathedrals, the Mycenaean Tholoi, the Pantheon, the Colosseum, the dome...

  16. Statics of Historic Masonry Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of much of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. This book aims to help fill this demand presenting a comprehensive new statics of masonry constructions. The book, result of thirty years of research and professional experience, gives the fundamentals of statics of the masonry solid, then applied to the study of statics of arches, piers and vaults. Further, combining engineering and architecture and through an interdisciplinary approach, the book investigates the statical behaviour of many historic monuments, as the Pantheon, the Colosseum,  the domes of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence and of St. Peter in Rome, the Tower of Pisa, the Gothic Cathedrals and the Masonry Buildings under seismic actions.

  17. Nipigon River landslide, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishna, H.S.; Lau, K.C.

    1992-11-24

    On April 23, 1990, a landslide occurred on the east bank of the Nipigon River in Ontario, 8 km downstream from the Alexander Generating Station. A study was initiated to assess the impact of river level fluctuations caused by the hydropower plant operation on the downstream banks of the river. A detailed geotechnical investigation and field study of river drawdown effects on the riverbank slopes were performed. A final analysis of the failure is presented which shows that the high groundwater conditions and soft soils present in the area led to the massive landslide. The impact of the river level fluctuations on the slope stability was found to be minor compared to that of the high groundwater conditions that were produced by the rapid thaw of snow and infiltration in the recharge area. 15 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Historical Development of Origins Research

    OpenAIRE

    Lazcano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Following the publication of the Origin of Species in 1859, many naturalists adopted the idea that living organisms were the historical outcome of gradual transformation of lifeless matter. These views soon merged with the developments of biochemistry and cell biology and led to proposals in which the origin of protoplasm was equated with the origin of life. The heterotrophic origin of life proposed by Oparin and Haldane in the 1920s was part of this tradition, which Oparin enriched by transf...

  19. Psychoanalytic Schools in Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes the historical evolution of major psychoanalytic schools. Because Sigmund Freud founded psychoanalysis, we start with the description of the Freudian model. Freud proposed his libido theory as an answer to the fundamental question in psychology, i.e. "What drives the human mind?" Many of the psychoanalytic schools came into existence from criticism of Freud's libido theory. Although they all disagree with the libido theory in one way or another, each school formulated a ...

  20. Japan 2006 in historical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Tanaka Nishishima

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Readings of the current Japanese politics with the historic and social insight through analysis of four facts registered in 2006: the visit of the prime minister Koizumi to the Yasukuni shrine; the election of Abe Shinzo as the president of Liberal Democratic Party and the formation of Abe cabinet; the Atomic bomb experimentation by the North Corea; the publication of the book of feminist counteroffensive against the numerous rightist conservative harassment.

  1. Historical Medical Value of Donguibogam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Keun Song

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Oriental medicine, since its origin in China, has had a long history extending over 2000 years. Today, it comprises several types of medicine predominately practiced in East Asia, including traditional Chinese, traditional Korean, and Kampo medicine. The distinctive medical system of traditional Korean medicine was established shortly after the publication of Donguibogam by Dr. Heo Jun in 1613. Donguibogam is highly acclaimed across East Asia; in 2009, in light of its historical medical value, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization registered the book on its cultural heritage list. Here, we review the historical medical value of Donguibogam. The findings confirm that Donguibogam developed a unique and independent form of traditional Korean medicine and innovatively reformed the disease classification system. Moreover, Donguibogam emphasized the importance of disease prevention and medical pragmatism. This book also accelerated the development of folk medicine. Owing to its historical medical value, Donguibogam is now considered the 'bible' of Oriental medicine. Its wide acceptance has contributed to the expansion of Korean medicine utilization among the general public. Donguibogam has also played an important role in the establishment of traditional Korean medicine as a universally valid and original form of medicine, independent of traditional Chinese medicine.

  2. Historical Medical Value of Donguibogam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bong-Keun; Won, Jin-Hee; Kim, Sungchul

    2016-03-01

    Oriental medicine, since its origin in China, has had a long history extending over 2000 years. Today, it comprises several types of medicine predominately practiced in East Asia, including traditional Chinese, traditional Korean, and Kampo medicine. The distinctive medical system of traditional Korean medicine was established shortly after the publication of Donguibogam by Dr. Heo Jun in 1613. Donguibogam is highly acclaimed across East Asia; in 2009, in light of its historical medical value, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization registered the book on its cultural heritage list. Here, we review the historical medical value of Donguibogam. The findings confirm that Donguibogam developed a unique and independent form of traditional Korean medicine and innovatively reformed the disease classification system. Moreover, Donguibogam emphasized the importance of disease prevention and medical pragmatism. This book also accelerated the development of folk medicine. Owing to its historical medical value, Donguibogam is now considered the 'bible' of Oriental medicine. Its wide acceptance has contributed to the expansion of Korean medicine utilization among the general public. Donguibogam has also played an important role in the establishment of traditional Korean medicine as a universally valid and original form of medicine, independent of traditional Chinese medicine.

  3. Historical Analyses of Disordered Handwriting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiegg, Markus; Thorpe, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Handwritten texts carry significant information, extending beyond the meaning of their words. Modern neurology, for example, benefits from the interpretation of the graphic features of writing and drawing for the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases and disorders. This article examines how handwriting analysis can be used, and has been used historically, as a methodological tool for the assessment of medical conditions and how this enhances our understanding of historical contexts of writing. We analyze handwritten material, writing tests and letters, from patients in an early 20th-century psychiatric hospital in southern Germany (Irsee/Kaufbeuren). In this institution, early psychiatrists assessed handwriting features, providing us novel insights into the earliest practices of psychiatric handwriting analysis, which can be connected to Berkenkotter’s research on medical admission records. We finally consider the degree to which historical handwriting bears semiotic potential to explain the psychological state and personality of a writer, and how future research in written communication should approach these sources. PMID:28408774

  4. Anesthesiology — Reanimatology: Historical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Editorial Board of the journal «Obshchaya Reanimatologiya» intends to publish a series of papers dedicated to the history of the science «Anesthesiology and Reanimatology». In the first paper, the authors attempted to gather historical facts concerning the development of anesthesia. This makes it possible to analyze the course of development of the thought of scientists and physicians, the time of striking discoveries in our specialty, to reflect the most important points that impulses the expansion and optimization of methods of anesthesia and resuscitation. The authors understand clearly that they have no sufficient number of factors associated with the history of anesthesiology and reanimatology and they will be grateful in receiving any comments and additional information on historical aspects, specialized sections of the science, bibliographic data of Russian and foreign sciences dealing with this specialty. The to offer apologies for possible inaccuracies since controversial questions occasionally arise as to authorship and priority of ideas and usage of any methods in practice. There are not sometimes coincidences in the dates of the same events in different references used by us. The authors believe that the proposed historical analysis will generally provide a keen insight into the overall picture of development of world anesthesiology and reanimatology.

  5. RESEARCH OF FLORISTIC AND PHYTOCOENOTICAL DIVERSITY IN THE FORESTS OF SEVERTSKIY DONETS RIVER VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarotskaia М. А.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We highlighted and analyzed the main reasearch stages and research trends of floristicand phytocoenotic diversity of forests in Severskiy Donets river valley from XIX up to now.We determined some three historical periods and characterized three lines of research: floristic, geobotanic and phytosociological. The urgent tasks of further studies of the flora and vegetation of forest valley of Severskiy Donets river were suggested with special attention to their dynamics and human health.

  6. The Archaeological Potential of Pool Number 10, Upper Mississippi River: A Geomorphological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-15

    Guttenberg , Iowa, was conducted to identifI potential locations of pre- historic cultural resources. The geomorphic maps delineate areas of high and low...Lock and Dam No. 9, about 3 miles south of Lynxville, Wisconsin, to Lock and Dam No. 10 at Guttenberg , Iowa. The following interpretation of tu.e...CO. (WYALUSING MISSISSIPPI RIVER 11 FLOODPLAIN ( BGLEY OLAYTON’ WISCONSIN UPPER MISSISSIPPI . RIVER VALLEY: oGLEN HAVEN POOL NO. 10 GUTTENBERG LOCK

  7. Post conflict water management: learning from the past for recovery planning in the Orontes River basin

    OpenAIRE

    Saadé-Sbeih, Myriam; Zwahlen, François; Haj Asaad, Ahmed; Gonzalez, Raoul; Jaubert, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Water management is a fundamental issue in post-conflict planning in Syria. Based on historical water balance assessment, this study identifies the drivers of the profound changes that took place in the Lebanese and Syrian parts of the Orontes River basin since the 1930s. Both drastic effects of the conflict on the hydro-system and the strong uncontrolled anthropization of the river basin prior to the crisis have to be considered in the design of recovery interventions.

  8. Post conflict water management: learning from the past for recovery planning in the Orontes River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saadé-Sbeih

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water management is a fundamental issue in post-conflict planning in Syria. Based on historical water balance assessment, this study identifies the drivers of the profound changes that took place in the Lebanese and Syrian parts of the Orontes River basin since the 1930s. Both drastic effects of the conflict on the hydro-system and the strong uncontrolled anthropization of the river basin prior to the crisis have to be considered in the design of recovery interventions.

  9. Post conflict water management: learning from the past for recovery planning in the Orontes River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadé-Sbeih, Myriam; Zwahlen, François; Haj Asaad, Ahmed; Gonzalez, Raoul; Jaubert, Ronald

    2016-10-01

    Water management is a fundamental issue in post-conflict planning in Syria. Based on historical water balance assessment, this study identifies the drivers of the profound changes that took place in the Lebanese and Syrian parts of the Orontes River basin since the 1930s. Both drastic effects of the conflict on the hydro-system and the strong uncontrolled anthropization of the river basin prior to the crisis have to be considered in the design of recovery interventions.

  10. Zoogeography, taxonomy, and conservation of West Virginia’s Ohio River floodplain crayfishes (Decapoda, Cambaridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Loughman,Zachary; Simon,Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The crayfish fauna of West Virginia consists of 23 species and several undescribed taxa. Most survey efforts documenting this fauna have been conducted in lotic waterways throughout the Appalachian plateau, Allegheny Mountains, and Ridge and Valley physiographic provinces. Bottomland forests, swamps, and marshes associated with large river floodplain such as the Ohio River floodplain historically have been under-surveyed in the state. These habitats harbor the richest primary burrowi...

  11. International Polar Year Historical Data and Literature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The International Polar Year Historical Data and Literature collection (formerly known as the Discovery and Access of Historic Literature from the IPYs (DAHLI)...

  12. River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Michailovsky

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. The objective of this study is the assessment of the potential for river monitoring from radar altimetry in terms of water level and discharge in the Zambezi River basin. Retracked Envisat altimetry data were extracted over the Zambezi River basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements to be obtained for rivers down to 80 m wide with an RMSE relative to in situ levels of 0.32 to 0.72 m at different locations. The altimetric levels were then converted to discharge using three different methods adapted to different data-availability scenarios: first with an in situ rating curve available, secondly with one simultaneous field measurement of cross-section and discharge, and finally with only historical discharge data available. For the two locations at which all three methods could be applied, the accuracies of the different methods were found to be comparable, with RMSE values ranging from 4.1 to 6.5% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 6.9 to 13.8% for the second and third methods. The precision obtained with the different methods was analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations and also showed comparable values for the three approaches with standard deviations found between 5.7 and 7.2% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 8.7 to 13.0% for the second and third methods.

  13. River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailovsky, C. I.; McEnnis, S.; Berry, P. A. M.; Smith, R.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.

    2012-07-01

    Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. The objective of this study is the assessment of the potential for river monitoring from radar altimetry in terms of water level and discharge in the Zambezi River basin. Retracked Envisat altimetry data were extracted over the Zambezi River basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements to be obtained for rivers down to 80 m wide with an RMSE relative to in situ levels of 0.32 to 0.72 m at different locations. The altimetric levels were then converted to discharge using three different methods adapted to different data-availability scenarios: first with an in situ rating curve available, secondly with one simultaneous field measurement of cross-section and discharge, and finally with only historical discharge data available. For the two locations at which all three methods could be applied, the accuracies of the different methods were found to be comparable, with RMSE values ranging from 4.1 to 6.5% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 6.9 to 13.8% for the second and third methods. The precision obtained with the different methods was analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations and also showed comparable values for the three approaches with standard deviations found between 5.7 and 7.2% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 8.7 to 13.0% for the second and third methods.

  14. Numerical modelling of river processes: flow and river bed deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tassi, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    The morphology of alluvial river channels is a consequence of complex interaction among a number of constituent physical processes, such as flow, sediment transport and river bed deformation. This is, an alluvial river channel is formed from its own sediment. From time to time, alluvial river

  15. Large dams and alluvial rivers in the Anthropocene: The impacts of the Garrison and Oahe Dams on the Upper Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, Katherine; Benthem, Adam J.; Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Galloway, Joel M.; Nustad, Rochelle A.; Wiche, Gregg J.

    2013-01-01

    The Missouri River has had a long history of anthropogenic modification with considerable impacts on river and riparian ecology, form, and function. During the 20th century, several large dam-building efforts in the basin served the needs for irrigation, flood control, navigation, and the generation of hydroelectric power. The managed flow provided a range of uses, including recreation, fisheries, and habitat. Fifteen dams impound the main stem of the river, with hundreds more on tributaries. Though the effects of dams and reservoirs are well-documented, their impacts have been studied individually, with relatively little attention paid to their interaction along a river corridor. We examine the morphological and sedimentological changes in the Upper Missouri River between the Garrison Dam in ND (operational in 1953) and Oahe Dam in SD (operational in 1959). Through historical aerial photography, stream gage data, and cross sectional surveys, we demonstrate that the influence of the upstream dam is still a major control of river dynamics when the backwater effects of the downstream reservoir begin. In the “Anthropocene”, dams are ubiquitous on large rivers and often occur in series, similar to the Garrison Dam Segment. We propose a conceptual model of how interacting dams might affect river geomorphology, resulting in distinct and recognizable morphologic sequences that we term “Inter-Dam sequence” characteristic of major rivers in the US.

  16. Record Rainfall and Flooding in Texas and Oklahoma, May 2015; Extent and Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Heavy rains began in Texas and Oklahoma in early May 2015 and continued through the end of the month. Both states set all-time records for mean statewide precipitation; Texas - 227mm (8.93 in), Oklahoma - 357mm (14.06 in) -- for the period of record (1895-2015). These new statewide records were set despite the fact that the western portions of both Texas and Oklahoma received only modest rainfall. Parameters used in this study to evaluate the magnitude and historical perspective of the May 2015 rainfall included daily and total storm precipitation, stream flow, changes in the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), and changes in reservoir water levels. Although the Dallas-Fort Worth area and the cities of Austin, Houston and Oklahoma City sustained the most serious flood events, more than 100 localities in the two states reported some flooding. The region with the largest amounts of precipitation extended from north-central Texas northeastward into eastern Oklahoma. Cumulative May rainfall in this region exceeded 508 mm (20 in). Provisional stream flow data for the river basins most affected -- Red River, Brazos, Colorado, and Trinity rivers -- reveal significant peaks, but the peaks generally are within the ranges of the historical record. With the exception of the Red River the most significant flooding relative to historic flood peaks, occurred on tributaries to the major rivers. Comparison of the PDSI for the months of April and June reveals the dramatic impact of the precipitation during May. By the first week of June both states are classified as moderately moist - with the exception of the extreme northeastern corner of Oklahoma. Changes in Reservoir levels (as a percent of capacity) between April and June was greatest for the Rolling Plains region (+ 15.5%), with lesser, but significant gains in South and Central Texas and the Central Oklahoma region.

  17. Identification of Sediment Sources to Calumet River through Geochemical Fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    historic geochemical fingerprint for sediments within this reach of the river. Geochemical measurements and advanced multivariate statistics were...depositional fluxes of stable Pb, 210Pb, and 7Be into Chesapeake Bay. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 36(1):65–79. Kirchner, G. 2011. 210Pb as a tool for...Jackson, M. Roy-Barman, S. Schmidt, and M. Elskens. 2006. 234Th sorption and export models in the water column: A review. Marine Chemistry 100(3– 4

  18. Andries van Aarde as historical Jesus scholar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2010-08-12

    Aug 12, 2010 ... This article focuses on Andries van Aarde's work on the historical Jesus and especially his book, Fatherless in Galilee, which made an important contribution to historical Jesus study in. South Africa. In the first part of the article Van Aarde's historical and social approaches are highlighted, his ongoing ...

  19. Principles Of Researching In The Historical Places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatmusaev Tokhir Shaydulovich

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to researches of historical places also are seen the special phrases used in town planning and architecture component of historical cities historical framework linear system and the significance of centers in the development of cities also researches of dwellings which are the basic component of cities.

  20. Issues in Designing Assessments of Historical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercikan, Kadriye; Seixas, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Similar to educators in mathematics, science, and reading, history educators around the world have mobilized curricular reform movements toward including complex thinking in history education, advancing historical thinking, developing historical consciousness, and teaching competence in historical sense making. These reform movements, including…

  1. Historical Studies of Social Mobility and Stratification

    OpenAIRE

    Leeuwen, Marco H.D. van; Maas, Ineke

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses historical studies of social mobility and stratification. The focus is on changes in social inequality and mobility in past societies and their determinants. It discusses major historical sources, approaches, and results in the fields of social stratification (ranks and classes in the past), marriage patterns by social class or social endogamy, intergenerational social mobility, and historical studies of the career.

  2. Assessing geomorphic sensitivity in relation to river capacity for adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, H. E.; Brierley, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    River sensitivity describes the nature and rate of channel adjustments. An approach to analysis of geomorphic river sensitivity outlined in this paper relates potential sensitivity based on the expected capacity of adjustment for a river type to the recent history of channel adjustment. This approach was trialled to assess low, moderate and high geomorphic sensitivity for four different types of river (10 reaches in total) along the Lower Tongariro River, North Island, New Zealand. Building upon the River Styles framework, river types were differentiated based upon valley setting (width and confinement), channel planform, geomorphic unit assemblages and bed material size. From this, the behavioural regime and potential for adjustment (type and extent) were determined. Historical maps and aerial photographs were geo-rectified and the channel planform digitised to assess channel adjustments for each reach from 1928 to 2007. Floodplain width controlled by terraces, exerted a strong influence upon reach scale sensitivity for the partly-confined, wandering, cobble-bed river. Although forced boundaries occur infrequently, the width of the active channel zone is constrained. An unconfined braided river reach directly downstream of the terrace-confined section was the most geomorphically sensitive reach. The channel in this reach adjusted recurrently to sediment inputs that were flushed through more confined, better connected upstream reaches. A meandering, sand-bed river in downstream reaches has exhibited negligible rates of channel migration. However, channel narrowing in this reach and the associated delta indicate that the system is approaching a threshold condition, beyond which channel avulsion is likely to occur. As this would trigger more rapid migration, this reach is considered to be more geomorphically sensitive than analysis of its low migration rate alone would indicate. This demonstrates how sensitivity is fashioned both by the behavioural regime of a reach

  3. Kootenai River Biological Baseline Status Report : Annual Report, 1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Diana [Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, Bonners Ferry, ID (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The Kootenai River ecosystem in Idaho, Montana and British Columbia (B.C.) Canada has been severely degraded during the past 50 years. This aquatic ecosystem has changed from one that was culturally eutrophic, to one that is oligotrophic due to channelization, diking, impoundment (construction and operation of Libby Dam), and pollution abatement measures in the watershed. As a result of these influences, flow regimes, temperature patterns, and water quality were altered, resulting in changes in primary production and aquatic insect and fish populations. Construction of Libby Dam (creation of Lake Koocanusa) and closure of Cominco`s fertilizer plant resulted in decreased phosphorus load to the Kootenai River to below historical levels. Dissolved orthophosphorus concentrations averaged 0.383 mg/L in 1970 as compared to 0.039 mg/L in 1979. Total phosphorus concentrations followed a similar pattern. Both total phosphorus and soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations remained below 0.05 mg/L from 1976 to 1994, characterizing the river as oligotrophic. Post Libby Dam primary productivity levels in the river represent an ultra-oligotrophic to mesotrophic system. Since the construction and operation of Libby Dam, invertebrate densities immediately downstream from the dam increased, but species diversity decreased. Insect diversity increased with increasing distance from the dam, but overall species diversity was lower than would be expected in a free-flowing river. Fish species composition and abundance has also changed as a result of the changes in the river and its watershed.

  4. A toy model for monthly river flow forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xubin; Kiviat, Kira L.; Sakaguchi, Koichi; Mahmoud, Alaa M. A.

    2012-07-01

    SummaryRiver flow forecasting depends on land-atmosphere coupled processes, and is relevant to hydrological applications and land-ocean coupling. A toy model is developed here for monthly river flow forecasting using the river flow and river basin averaged precipitation in prior month. Model coefficients are calibrated for each month using historical data. The toy model is based on water balance, easy to use and reproduce, and robust to calibrate with a short period of data. For five major rivers in the world, its results agree with observations very well. Its prediction uncertainty can be quantified using the model's error statistics or using a dynamic approach, but not by the dispersion of 10,000 ensemble members with different sets of coefficients in the model. Its results are much better than those from a physically based land model even after the mean bias correction. The toy model and a standard neural network available from the MATLAB give similar results, but the latter is more sensitive to the length of calibration period. For the monthly prediction of river flow with a strong seasonal cycle, a modified Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency is introduced and is found to be more reliable in model evaluations than the original coefficient of efficiency or the correlation coefficient.

  5. Record of recent river channel instability, Cheakamus Valley, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, John J.; Turner, Robert J. W.; Reyes, Alberto V.

    2003-07-01

    Rivers flowing from glacier-clad Quaternary volcanoes in southwestern British Columbia have high sediment loads and anabranching and braided planforms. Their floodplains aggrade in response to recurrent large landslides on the volcanoes and to advance of glaciers during periods of climate cooling. In this paper, we document channel instability and aggradation during the last 200 years in lower Cheakamus River valley. Cheakamus River derives much of its flow and nearly all of its sediment from the Mount Garibaldi massif, which includes a number of volcanic centres dominated by Mount Garibaldi volcano. Stratigraphic analysis and radiocarbon and dendrochronological dating of recent floodplain sediments at North Vancouver Outdoor School in Cheakamus Valley show that Cheakamus River aggraded its floodplain about 1-2 m and buried a valley-floor forest in the early or mid 1800s. The aggradation was probably caused by a large (ca. 15-25×10 6 m 3) landslide from the flank of Mount Garibaldi, 15 km north of our study site, in 1855 or 1856. Examination of historical aerial photographs dating back to 1947 indicates that channel instability triggered by this event persisted until the river was dyked in the late 1950s. Our observations are consistent with data from many other mountain areas that suggest rivers with large, but highly variable sediment loads may rapidly aggrade their floodplains following a large spike in sediment supply. Channel instability may persist for decades to centuries after the triggering event.

  6. Legacy Sediments and Channel Morphology in the Feather and Yuba Rivers, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, A.; Ghoshal, S.; Megison, M. E.; Singer, M. B.; Aalto, R.

    2007-12-01

    Channel aggradation and morphologic change following 19th century hydraulic gold-mining in the Sierra Nevada, California, differed substantially between the lower Feather and Yuba Rivers. These differences can be explained in part by topographic position in the Sacramento Valley but also by differences in early 20th century engineering structures and management policies. Both rivers experienced extreme aggradation by mining sediment and substantial avulsions but the timing and mechanics of channel adjustments were dissimilar, in part due to varying strategies in river-training and flood control. River engineering and management in the late 19th century identified the lower Yuba River as a repository zone where mining sediment could be sequestered to reduce deliveries to navigable rivers downstream. Levees were set back up to 4 km allowing formation of a multi-thread channel system across a broad floodplain that is now deeply buried by mining sediment. In contrast, levees along the lower Feather were given narrow spacings to encourage self-scouring of channels and promote navigability of channels. The lower Feather River drains a larger basin and has a lower gradient than the Yuba River. Construction of Fremont Weir across the mouth of the Yolo Basin raised flood levels in the lower Feather River and may have reduced transport of bed sediment. This could explain the persistence of large sand sheets at and below the Bear River confluence. Data from historical maps, topographic surveys, aerial photographs, and 1999 LiDAR swath mapping are used to document and contrast channel changes and floodplain evolution between these two rivers. Topographic changes derived by differencing detailed 1906-1909 topographic maps and 1999 LiDAR data indicate substantial channel morphologic changes including channel filling, lateral migration, and evolution towards single-thread channel systems. Modern streambank stratigraphy reflects the differences in channel responses. Sites where

  7. Exploring pre-channelization bar and planform dynamics of a large regulated Alpine River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, Simone; Zolezzi, Guido; Scorpio, Vittoria; Mastronunzio, Marco; Bertoldi, Walter; Comiti, Francesco; Daiprà, Elena

    2017-04-01

    As a consequence of heavy channelization mostly carried out in the 1800s, the planform and bars morphodynamics of many large European rivers is hardly detectable even from aerial images dating back several decades, because of the marked reduction of the channel width and of the related morphological complexity. However, when available, historical maps can provide quantitative information on the morphology that characterized these rivers before massive human intervention occurred. In this work we focus on a 100 km reach of the Adige - Etsch River, NE, Italy, with the aim of exploring the short-term (some decades) morphological dynamics that might have characterized the pre-channelized river bed and planform in its single-thread reaches before heavy human intervention. To this aim we integrate the application of a morphodynamic analytical model for meandering rivers with irregularly varying curvature and channel width with the multi-temporal analysis of pre-channelization historical maps. The work focuses on the sinuous and meandering reaches once characterized by spatially varying channel width, and presence of alternate, point and mid-channel bars. Challenges in such kind of integrated analysis are posed by the reconstruction of channel - forming streamflow values and of sediment size that may have characterized the river reaches up to nearly three centuries ago prior to heavy regulation. Formative discharge ranges have been obtained as those generating the best geometrical fit between the modeled river bed morphology and the one observed from the maps. Once calibrated by this procedure, the model was fed through the estimated discharge value to compute the longitudinal variability of the outer-bank shear stress, as a proxy for the locations potentially affected by fluvial bank erosion. The historical maps reveal that during the 17th and 18th century, before the massive channelization, the river morphodynamics was already far from being "natural", especially

  8. Historical ecology: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Péter

    2015-11-01

    The term 'historical ecology' has been used with various meanings since the first half of the 20th century. Studies labelled as historical ecology have been produced in at least four academic disciplines: history, ecology, geography and anthropology. Although all those involved seem to agree that historical ecology concerns the historical interconnectedness of nature and human culture, this field of study has no unified methodology, specialized institutional background and common publication forums. Knowledge of the development of historical ecology is also limited. As a result, the current multitude of definitions of historical ecology is accompanied by divergent opinions as to where the origins of the field are to be sought. In this review, I follow the development of historical ecology from the 18th century to the present. In the first part, I briefly describe some early examples of historical ecological investigations, followed by a description of the various scientific strands in the 20th century that contributed to the formation of historical ecology. In the second part, I discuss the past five decades of historical ecological investigations in more detail, focusing mostly (but not exclusively) on works that their respective authors identified as historical ecology. I also examine the appearance and interconnectedness of the two main trends (ecological and anthropological) in historical ecological research. In the last part, I attempt to outline the future of historical ecology based on common features in existing research. It appears that at present historical ecology is at a crossroads. With rapidly growing interest in historical ecological research, it may move towards institutionalization or remain an umbrella term. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  9. Historical ecology: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Péter

    2017-01-01

    The term ‘historical ecology’ has been used with various meanings since the first half of the 20th century. Studies labelled as historical ecology have been produced in at least four academic disciplines: history, ecology, geography and anthropology. Although all those involved seem to agree that historical ecology concerns the historical interconnectedness of nature and human culture, this field of study has no unified methodology, specialized institutional background and common publication forums. Knowledge of the development of historical ecology is also limited. As a result, the current multitude of definitions of historical ecology is accompanied by divergent opinions as to where the origins of the field are to be sought. In this review, I follow the development of historical ecology from the 18th century to the present. In the first part, I briefly describe some early examples of historical ecological investigations, followed by a description of the various scientific strands in the 20th century that contributed to the formation of historical ecology. In the second part, I discuss the past five decades of historical ecological investigations in more detail, focusing mostly (but not exclusively) on works that their respective authors identified as historical ecology. I also examine the appearance and interconnectedness of the two main trends (ecological and anthropological) in historical ecological research. In the last part, I attempt to outline the future of historical ecology based on common features in existing research. It appears that at present historical ecology is at the crossroads. With rapidly growing interest in historical ecological research, it may move towards institutionalization or remain an umbrella term. PMID:25174685

  10. Spatial and temporal trends of freshwater mussel assemblages in the Meramec River Basin, Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; McMurray, Stephen E.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Barnhart, M. Christopher; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Wang, Ning; Augspurger, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The Meramec River basin in east-central Missouri has one of the most diverse unionoid mussel faunas in the central United States with >40 species identified. Data were analyzed from historical surveys to test whether diversity and abundance of mussels in the Meramec River basin (Big, Bourbeuse, and Meramec rivers, representing >400 river miles) decreased between 1978 and 1997. We found that over 20y, species richness and diversity decreased significantly in the Bourbeuse and Meramec rivers but not in the Big River. Most species were found at fewer sites and in lower numbers in 1997 than in 1978. Federally endangered species and Missouri Species of Conservation Concern with the most severe temporal declines were Alasmidonta viridis, Arcidens confragosus, Elliptio crassidens, Epioblasma triquetra, Fusconaia ebena, Lampsilis abrupta, Lampsilis brittsi, and Simpsonaias ambigua. Averaged across all species, mussels were generally being extirpated from historical sampling sites more rapidly than colonization was occurring. An exception was one reach of the Meramec River between river miles 28.4 and 59.5, where mussel abundance and diversity were greater than in other reaches and where colonization of Margaritiferidae, Lampsilini, and Quadrulini exceeded extirpation. The exact reasons mussel diversity and abundance have remained robust in this 30- mile reach is uncertain, but the reach is associated with increased gradients, few long pools, and vertical rock faces, all of which are preferable for mussels. Complete loss of mussel communities at eight sites (16%) with relatively diverse historical assemblages was attributed to physical habitat changes including bank erosion, unstable substrate, and sedimentation. Mussel conservation efforts, including restoring and protecting riparian habitats, limiting the effects of in-stream sand and gravel mining, monitoring and controlling invasive species, and protecting water quality, may be warranted in the Meramec River basin.

  11. Mixing in a river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernath, L.; Menegus, R.L.; Ring, H.F.

    1956-05-09

    Many rivers are burdened with tributary streams of warm water and/or liquid wastes containing dissolved or suspended matter. The warm water and waste matter mix thoroughly with the river water some distance downstream from the point of entry of the tributary, but near the point of entry there may be high local temperatures or concentrations of waste. It is often necessary to know the local temperatures or concentrations of waste. The authors have used a formula for computing the turbulent mixing that takes place in such a situation; this formula fits quite well in the case of one Southern river.

  12. Land use and land cover change based on historical space-time model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiong; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Min; Zhang, Yongjing

    2016-09-01

    Land use and cover change is a leading edge topic in the current research field of global environmental changes and case study of typical areas is an important approach understanding global environmental changes. Taking the Qiantang River (Zhejiang, China) as an example, this study explores automatic classification of land use using remote sensing technology and analyzes historical space-time change by remote sensing monitoring. This study combines spectral angle mapping (SAM) with multi-source information and creates a convenient and efficient high-precision land use computer automatic classification method which meets the application requirements and is suitable for complex landform of the studied area. This work analyzes the histological space-time characteristics of land use and cover change in the Qiantang River basin in 2001, 2007 and 2014, in order to (i) verify the feasibility of studying land use change with remote sensing technology, (ii) accurately understand the change of land use and cover as well as historical space-time evolution trend, (iii) provide a realistic basis for the sustainable development of the Qiantang River basin and (iv) provide a strong information support and new research method for optimizing the Qiantang River land use structure and achieving optimal allocation of land resources and scientific management.

  13. Downstream effects of the Pelton-Round Butte hydroelectric project on bedload, transport, channel morphology, and channel-bed texture, lower Deschutes River, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi Fassnacht; Ellen M. McClure; Gordon E. Grant; Peter C. Klingeman

    2003-01-01

    Field, laboratory, and historical data provide the basis for interpreting the effects of the Pelton-Round Butte dam complex on the surface water hydrology and geomorphology of the lower Deschutes River, Oregon, USA. The river's response to upstream impoundment and flow regulation is evaluated in terms of changes in predicted bedload transport rates, channel...

  14. Impacts of Hurricane Katrina on floodplain forests of the Pearl River: Chapter 6A in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Stephen; Barrow, Wylie; Couvillion, Brady R.; Conner, William; Randall, Lori; Baldwin, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Floodplain forests are an important habitat for Neotropical migratory birds. Hurricane Katrina passed through the Pearl River flood plain shortly after making landfall. Field measurements on historical plots and remotely sensed data were used to assess the impact of Hurricane Katrina on the structure of floodplain forests of the Pearl River.

  15. Seasonal Streamflow Reconstructions of the Choctawhatchee River (AL-USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tootle, G. A.; Therrell, M.; Moat, T.; Meko, M.

    2015-12-01

    Tree ring samples were collected from Bald Cypress (Taxodium distichum) species in watersheds adjacent to the Choctawhatchee River (Alabama and Florida - USA). These samples were collected to update an existing tree ring proxy that was developed in the late 1980's and early 1990's (Stahle and Cleaveland, 1992, IGBP PAGES/World Data Center for Paleoclimatology Data Contribution # FL001, Choctawhatchee River. NOAA/NCDC Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder, Colorado, USA). The motivation for updating the tree ring proxy was to determine if recent droughts identified in historic unimpaired Choctawhatchee River streamflow records were reflected in Bald Cypress tree ring growth. Historic streamflow from 1934 to 2013 was obtained for the USGS station at Newton, Alabama and one, five and ten-year droughts were identified and ranked. Many of the most severe droughts were identified in recent (~2000 to present) records (see Figure). Combining the new tree ring proxy with other regional proxies, seasonal streamflow was reconstructed for the Choctawhatchee River Newton, Alabama gage. The reconstructed streamflow allows water managers and planners to observe past wet and dry periods that may exceed magnitude, duration and/or severity of wet and dry periods in observed records.

  16. HARMONIZATION, HISTORICAL COST AND INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Choosing depreciation of assets; revaluation of tangible or keeping their historical cost; registration, whilst the tangible assets are entered in the conservation of amortization expenses or a corresponding adjustment to depreciation expense ascertained; choosing the method of evaluating stocks is accounting policies. IAS 40 is significant because it was the first time the International Accounting Standards Board has introduced a fair value accounting model for non-financial assets. All firms must provide fair value for their real estate assets either directly in the balance sheet in accordance with the fair value model choice, either in the footnotes below cost model selection.

  17. Historical Astrolexicography and Old Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Terry J.

    I describe how the principles of lexicography have been applied in limited ways in astronomy and look at the revision work under way for the third edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, which, when completed, will contain the widest and most detailed coverage of the astronomical lexicon in the English language. Finally, I argue the need for a dedicated historical dictionary of astronomy based rigorously on a corpus of quotations from sources published in English from the beginnings of written English to the present day.

  18. Summary inside IBM's historic turnaround

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This work offers a summary of the book "WHO SAYS ELEPHANTS CAN'T DANCE? Inside IBM's Historic Turnaround" by Louis Gerstner.In nine years as the chairman and CEO of International Business Machine Corporation (IBM), Louis Gerstner brought about a dramatic change in the company's fortunes. When he took charge, IBM was on the verge of extinction as the victim of rapid changes in the computer industry. However, instead of breaking up IBM as most analysts were suggesting, Gerstner and his management team turned the company around and restored it to a position of power and influence within the indu

  19. Analysis of Traditional Historical Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten; Schmidt, A. L.; Petersen, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    A recurrent problem for scholars who investigate traditional and historical clothing is the measuring of items of clothing and subsequent pattern construction. The challenge is to produce exact data without damaging the item. The main focus of this paper is to present a new procedure...... for establishing a three-dimensional model and the corresponding two-dimensional pattern for items of skin clothing that are not flat. The new method is non-destructive, and also accurate and fast. Furthermore, this paper presents an overview of the more traditional methods of pattern documentation and measurement...

  20. On Decarbonization: Historically and Perspectively

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, C.

    2005-01-01

    The possibility that CO2 emitted as a consequence of burning fossil fuels may have an impact on climate stimulated a lot of research on the evolution of the emissions and the possibility of remedies. Here we analyze first the evolution of CO2 emission historically, by looking at the mix and quantity of fuels used. This mix evolves from wood to nuclear energies with an intermezzo of coal, oil and gas, the fossils. The intermezzo lasts about 400 years. These fuels are made of carbon a...

  1. Trends and causes of historical wetland loss, Sabine National Wildlife Refuge, southwest Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Julie C.; Morton, Robert A.; Kelso, Kyle W.

    2011-01-01

    Prior U.S. Geological Survey studies (Open-File Reports 2005-1216 and 2009-1158) examined historical land- and water-area changes and estimated magnitudes of land subsidence and erosion at 10 wetland sites in the Mississippi River delta plain. The present study extends that work by analyzing interior wetland loss and relative magnitudes of subsidence and erosion at five additional wetland sites in Sabine National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR) in the western chenier plain. The study sites were selected because their geologic setting differed from that of the delta plain; also, although the refuge marshes had been managed partly to minimize wetland loss, interior wetland losses there were extensive. Historical aerial photography, datum-corrected marsh elevations and water depths, and sediment cores were integrated to evaluate historical land- and water-area changes at SNWR.

  2. Wild and Scenic Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer portrays the linear federally-owned land features (i.e., national parkways, wild and scenic rivers, etc.) of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the...

  3. Management recommendations: Bear River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and additional...

  4. River research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferrar, AA

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for a comprehensive, multidisciplinary research programme for river ecosystems is described. The scope of the programme needs to include basic descriptions of a systems and biota, the testing and development of functional theory...

  5. Russian River Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an analysis and summary of progress toward achieving the interim management objectives for the Russian River during the 1979 season. Additionally,...

  6. Connecticut River Hydrologic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestero, T. P.

    2004-12-01

    The Connecticut River basin possesses some characteristics that make it unique for studying hydrologic issues that transcend scale. The watershed was first dramatically altered through natural processes (glaciation) and then heavily impacted by human stresses (dams, deforestation, acid precipitation/deposition), only to exhibit recent decades of return to a more natural state (reforestation, land conservation, stream restoration, pollution abatement, and dam removal). The watershed is sufficiently north to be classified as a cold region. More specifically to hydrology, the watershed exhibits the spectrum of flooding problems: ice dams, convective storms, hurricanes, rain on melting snow, and low pressure systems. The 28,000 square kilometer Connecticut River Watershed covers one third of the states of New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. The >640-km long rivers' headwaters start on the Canadian border at the Fourth Connecticut Lake, and flows southward to discharge in Long Island sound. The lower 100 km of river are tidally influenced. The Connecticut River is responsible for 70 % of the freshwater inflow to Long Island Sound. The Connecticut River is a sixth order stream that exhibits a dendritic pattern in an elongated scheme. This setting therefore affords many first and second order streams in almost parallel fashion, flowing west or east towards the central Connecticut River spine. There are 38 major tributaries to the mainstem Connecticut River, and 26 of these tributaries drain greater than 250 square kilometers. There is in excess of 30,000 km of perennially flowing stream length in the watershed. For more information, see: http://www.unh.edu/erg/connho/

  7. The rivers of civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Mark G.; Lewin, John

    2015-04-01

    The hydromorphic regimes that underpinned Old World river-based civilizations are reviewed in light of recent research. Notable Holocene climatic changes varied from region to region, whilst the dynamics of floodplain environments were equally diverse, with river channel changes significantly affecting human settlement. There were longer-term trends in Holocene hydroclimate and multi-centennial length 'flood-rich' and 'flood-poor' episodes. These impacted on five identified flooding and settlement scenarios: (i) alluvial fans and aprons; (ii) laterally mobile rivers; (iii) rivers with well-developed levees and flood basins; (iv) river systems characterised by avulsions and floodouts; and (v) large river-fed wetlands. This gave a range of changes that were either more or less regular or incremental from year-to-year (and thus potentially manageable) or catastrophic. The latter might be sudden during a flood event or a few seasons (acute), or over longer periods extending over many decades or even centuries (chronic). The geomorphic and environmental impacts of these events on riparian societies were very often irreversible. Contrasts are made between allogenic and autogenic mechanism for imposing environmental stress on riverine communities and a distinction is made between channel avulsion and contraction responses. Floods, droughts and river channel changes can precondition as well as trigger environmental crises and societal collapse. The Nile system currently offers the best set of independently dated Holocene fluvial and archaeological records, and the contrasted effects of changing hydromorphological regimes on floodwater farming are examined. The persistence of civilizations depended essentially on the societies that maintained them, but they were also understandably resilient in some environments (Pharaonic Egypt in the Egyptian Nile), appear to have had more limited windows of opportunity in others (the Kerma Kingdom in the Nubian Nile), or required

  8. Historical transformation and epistemological discontinuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Močnik Rastko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from recent formulas of EU bureaucracy for subordinating scientific and educational apparatuses to the needs of the capital and to the requests of its political representatives, the article analyses the interconnection between the historical transformation of the ideological state apparatuses (universities, higher education institutions, research institutes etc. and the epistemological discontinuity provoked by the triumph of technosciences. The hypothesis to be tested is the following: While the crisis of West European-North American capitalism requires an ever tighter submission of ideological state apparatuses, and especially of scientific and academic apparatuses to the needs of the capital, theoretical practices in the humanities and social sciences have come to the point where they entered into an open conflict with the domination of the capital and have, as a consequence, started to subvert their own institutional supports in the ideological apparatuses of the capitalist state. For this purpose, the article reconsiders social sciences as a compromise formation and, eventually, reassesses the historical materialism as a non-Cartesian modern science.

  9. Hydrological simulation of flood transformations in the upper Danube River: Case study of large flood events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitková Veronika Bačová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of understand natural processes as factors that restrict, limit or even jeopardize the interests of human society is currently of great concern. The natural transformation of flood waves is increasingly affected and disturbed by artificial interventions in river basins. The Danube River basin is an area of high economic and water management importance. Channel training can result in changes in the transformation of flood waves and different hydrographic shapes of flood waves compared with the past. The estimation and evolution of the transformation of historical flood waves under recent river conditions is only possible by model simulations. For this purpose a nonlinear reservoir cascade model was constructed. The NLN-Danube nonlinear reservoir river model was used to simulate the transformation of flood waves in four sections of the Danube River from Kienstock (Austria to Štúrovo (Slovakia under relatively recent river reach conditions. The model was individually calibrated for two extreme events in August 2002 and June 2013. Some floods that occurred on the Danube during the period of 1991–2002 were used for the validation of the model. The model was used to identify changes in the transformational properties of the Danube channel in the selected river reach for some historical summer floods (1899, 1954 1965 and 1975. Finally, a simulation of flood wave propagation of the most destructive Danube flood of the last millennium (August 1501 is discussed.

  10. Vistula River bed erosion processes and their influence on Warsaw’s flood safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Magnuszewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Large cities have historically been well protected against floods as a function of their importance to society. In Warsaw, Poland, located on a narrow passage of the Vistula River valley, urban flood disasters were not unusual. Beginning at the end of the 19th century, the construction of river embankment and training works caused the narrowing of the flood passage path in the downtown reach of the river. The process of bed erosion lowered the elevation of the river bed by 205 cm over the 20th century, and the consequences of bed lowering are reflected by the rating curve change. Conditions of the flood passage have been analysed by the CCHE2D hydrodynamic model both in retro-modelling and scenario simulation modelling. The high water mark of the 1844 flood and iterative calculations in retro-modelling made possible estimation of the discharge, Q = 8250 m3 s−1. This highest observed historical flood in a natural river has been compared to recent conditions of the Vistula River in Warsaw by scenario modelling. The result shows dramatic changes in water surface elevation, velocities, and shear stress. The vertical velocity in the proximity of Port Praski gauge at km 513 can reach 3.5 m s−1, a very high value for a lowland river. The average flow conveyance is improving due to channel erosion but also declining in the case of extreme floods due to high resistance from vegetation on the flood plains.

  11. Summary of Stock Identification Research on White Sturgeon of the Columbia River, 1985-1991 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setter, Ann L.; Brannon, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are a long-lived, primitive fish species which forage primarily along the river bottom of large river systems in the Pacific Northwest. Historically, as an anadromous species, they could distribute downstream to feed in the rich estuary or marine areas and then migrate back up the river to spawn. With the historic river becoming a series of flooded impoundments, sturgeon were denied open river access, but they appear to have been able to adapt to the altered environment. White sturgeon are found throughout the Columbia River and are thought to be successfully reproducing in some of the impoundments. In those reservoirs where little or no reproduction takes place, enhancement hatcheries may be an option for use in rebuilding isolated populations. However, the degree of stock specificity that exists in the Columbia River was unknown and precluded the use of the more abundant lower river fish as a common egg source to repropagate the upper river unless genetic similarity could be demonstrated among sturgeon throughout the river system. To resolve the issue, research was conducted to determine what level of genetic differentiation exists among sturgeon in the Columbia River system, using starch gel electrophoresis to enable a baseline of population genetic structure data to be assembled. A greater diversity in electrophoretic pattern was observed in the lower portions of the river. The bulk of the qualitative variability we noted was consistent throughout all sections of the river. Some specific quantitative differences were apparent between the areas we examined. Interpretation of the results was complicated by the fact that dam construction would tend to isolate and mix stocks by preventing the migration of fish returning upstream.

  12. Evaluation of course change detection of Ramganga river using remote sensing and GIS, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Prakash Maurya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Visibility of Ramganga river course change detection was made using Remote Sensing and GIS in study area among period of forty-one years from 1972 to 2013. Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+, LISS-III satellite images from 1972, 1989, 2000, 2006, and 2013 respectively were used to delineate the historical changes of the river course. This study shows that for a long time this area has been suffering due to erosion problem and shifting characteristics of the Ramganga River. The Ramganga river course has been shifting and the overall shifting is towards the south-west direction in different places which leads to the village erosion. The area has remained undeveloped due to infrastructure damaged by flood, changing course. This study may be helpful for the overall river management and planning for future prevention of food, changing coursing, loss of properties.

  13. Calculation of the mercury accumulation in the Idrijca River alluvial plain sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibret, Gorazd; Gosar, Mateja

    2006-09-01

    From the historic literature on the Idrija mercury mine, it is evident that part of the smelting and mining waste was dumped into the Idrijca River. This waste was transported downstream during floods. The amount of mercury which has accumulated in the alluvial sediments of the Idrijca River until the present was studied. Mapping of Holocene river terraces of the Idrijca River was performed in order to estimate the volume of the alluvial sediment. For the purpose of the assessment of the mercury concentration, we sampled the alluvial sediments on different levels and performed an analysis of variance. The greatest variability is between the floodplain and terraces inside the same alluvial plain. Considering this fact, which determined the methodology employed for calculation, we estimated that about 2029 tons of mercury is stored in the Idrijca River alluvial sediments.

  14. Technical Appendix for Development for Modified Streamflows 1928-1989 : Columbia River & Coastal Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; A.G. Crook Company

    1993-06-01

    The report ``Adjusted Streamflow and Storage 1928-1989`` contains listings of historical flows for the sites in the Columbia River and Coastal Basins. This section of the Technical Appendix provides for the site specific procedures used to determine those historical flows. The study purpose, authority, and definitions are given in the main report. The purpose of this section of the Technical Appendix is to document the computational procedures used at each of the project sites to develop historical flows for the period July 1928--September 1989.

  15. Hydromorphological quality as a key element of the ecological status of Polish Carpathian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej WYŻGA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available After a few decades of efforts to detect, quantify and counteract the effects of water pollution on river biota, recent years have brought an increasing understanding of the significance of hydromorphological quality of rivers for their ecological status, and research on Polish Carpathian rivers has contributed to the progress in this field. Our team developed a method of hydromorphological assessment of rivers, which is based on the European Standard EN-14614 and compromises between the needs for practical application and the environmental significance of results. Application of the method in rivers with different channel patterns confirmed its usefulness and showed a significant impact of channelization and channel incision on the hydromorphological quality of Carpathian rivers. Both disturbances simplified flow pattern and homogenised physical habitat conditions in rivers, and the changes are clearly reflected in the reduced abundance and diversity of fish fauna as well as the reduced taxonomic diversity of benthic invertebrate communities. Significant relationships between these biotic characteristics of Polish Carpathian rivers on one hand and the variation of physical habitat conditions and hydromorphological quality of the rivers on the other indicate that recovery of the degraded communities requires such restoration measures that will increase morphological complexity of the watercourses. Environmental changes that took place in Carpathian catchments during the twentieth century have changed water and sediment fluxes in the rivers and thus make it impossible to use the historical state of the watercourses as reference for their restoration. Therefore, reference conditions should be defined as those which exist or would exist under present environmental conditions in the catchment but with the lacking human influence on the channel, riparian zone and floodplain of the river which is to be restored. An erodible corridor seems to be a

  16. Evaluation of the Historic Triangle Wayfinding Sign System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The "Historic Triangle" in Virginia is named for the historic areas comprising and surrounding Williamsburg, Jamestown, and Yorktown, Virginia. A Historic Triangle Wayfinding Sign System was designed to lead travelers from I-64 to historic sites in W...

  17. Hydrologic Variability of the Cosumnes River Floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Booth

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural floodplain ecosystems are adapted to highly variable hydrologic regimes, which include periodic droughts, infrequent large floods, and relatively frequent periods of inundation. To more effectively manage water resources and maintain ecosystem services provided by floodplains – and associated aquatic, riparian, and wetland habitats – requires an understanding of seasonal and inter-annual hydrologic variability of floodplains. The Cosumnes River, the largest river on the west-slope Sierra Nevada mountains without a major dam, provides a pertinent test case to develop a systematic classification of hydrologic variability. By examining the dynamics of its relatively natural flow regime, and a 98-year streamflow record (1908 – 2005, we identified 12 potential flood types. We identified four duration thresholds, defined as short (S, medium (M, long (L, and very long (V. We then intersected the flood duration division by three magnitude classes, defined as small-medium (1, large (2, and very large (3. Of the 12 possible flood types created by this classification matrix, the Cosumnes River streamflow record populated 10 such classes. To assess the robustness of our classification, we employed discriminant analysis to test class fidelity based on independent measures of flood capability, such as start date. Lastly, we used hierarchical divisive clustering to classify water years by flood type composition resulting in 8 water year types. The results of this work highlight the significant seasonal and inter-annual variability in natural flood regimes in Central Valley rivers. The construction of water impoundment and flood control structures has significantly altered all aspects of the flood pulse. Restoring floodplain ecosystem services will require re-establishing key elements of these historic flood regimes in order to achieve regional restoration goals and objectives.

  18. Sediment quality and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Lower Neponset River, Massachusetts, and implications for urban river restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Cooke, Matthew G.; Merrill, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Efforts to restore fish passage, habitat, and recreational use of the Neponset River, a tributary to Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, have raised concerns about the sediment, water, and biota quality of the river. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs Department of Fish and Game Riverways Program and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, studied sediment and water quality, with a specific focus on polychlorinated biphenyls, in the Neponset River. Sediment samples were collected throughout the Neponset River and tested for elements and organic compounds including polyaromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Although enriched compared to background concentrations, sediment quality in the Neponset River was generally better than that of other urban rivers in the United States, except with respect to one constituent, polychlorinated biphenyls. Concentrations of lead, some polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls in the sediment may be toxic to aquatic organisms and may pose a risk to human health. The sediment quality also fails to meet the minimum requirements set by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for lined landfill disposal. The locations of the source(s) of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Neponset River were determined by means of congener analysis from PISCES passive water-column samplers. The PISCES data indicate a sharp increase in polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and a substantial shift in congener pattern downstream of one PISCES sampling location near Fairmont Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts. This result indicates that the area upstream of this sampling location may be the location of a historical source of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Neponset River. The present (2003) source to the water column may likely be PCB contaminated sediment.

  19. Changes in the characteristics of hydrological droughts over a semi-arid watershed within Yellow River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Yuan, Xing; Yang, Dawen

    2017-04-01

    Due to climate change and human interventions, significant decreases in river discharges have been observed in many large river basins over China during the past five decades, especially in the Yellow River basin, the second longest river in China. This suggests an intensified water resources shortage and an increasing hydrological drought risk. In this study, we aimed at analyzing the changes in the characteristics of hydrological droughts over a semi-arid watershed located in the middle reach of Yellow River basin from 1960s to the end of the 21st century. Firstly, historical climate forcing and river discharge data during 1961 2005 were collected from meteorological and hydrological stations, and climate forcing data from 2006 to 2099 were collected from several CMIP5 simulations under different representative concentration pathways (RCPs). Secondly, the frequency and severity of historical hydrological droughts were calculated based on the observed streamflow data and simulated streamflow by using the VIC land surface model and a newly developed eco-hydrological model CLM-GBHM. CLM-GBHM introduced detailed description of river network and sub-basin topological relationships into CLM, and performed quite well in streamflow simulations. The responses of hydrological droughts to historical and future climate change are being analyzed, causes of the changes in terms of natural and anthropogenic influences will be investigated, and the uncertainty for future projections will be estimated. This study will facilitate the implementation of adaptation strategies for hydrological drought over the semiarid watershed in a changing environment.

  20. Socio-economic impacts on flooding: a 4000-year history of the Yellow River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunzhen; Syvitski, James P M; Gao, Shu; Overeem, Irina; Kettner, Albert J

    2012-11-01

    We analyze 4000-year flood history of the lower Yellow River and the history of agricultural development in the middle river by investigating historical writings and quantitative time series data of environmental changes in the river basin. Flood dynamics are characterized by positive feedback loops, critical thresholds of natural processes, and abrupt transitions caused by socio-economic factors. Technological and organizational innovations were dominant driving forces of the flood history. The popularization of iron plows and embarkment of the lower river in the 4th century BC initiated a positive feedback loop on levee breaches. The strength of the feedback loop was enhanced by farming of coarse-sediment producing areas, steep hillslope cultivation, and a new river management paradigm, and finally pushed the flood frequency to its climax in the seventeenth century. The co-evolution of river dynamics and Chinese society is remarkable, especially farming and soil erosion in the middle river, and central authority and river management in the lower river.

  1. Assessing Impacts of Hydropower Regulation on Salmonid Habitat Connectivity to Guide River Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddendorf, Bas; Geris, Josie; Malcolm, Iain; Wilkinson, Mark; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic activity in riverine ecosystems has led to a substantial divergence from the natural state of many rivers globally. Many of Scotland's rivers have been regulated for hydropower with increasing intensity since the 1890s. At the same time they sustain substantial populations of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.), which have a range of requirements in terms of flow and access to habitat, depending on the different life-stages. River barriers for hydropower regulation can change the spatial and temporal connectivity within river networks, the impacts of which on salmon habitat are not fully understood. Insight into such changes in connectivity, and the link with the distribution and accessibility of suitable habitat and areas of high productivity, are essential to aid restoration and/or conservation efforts. This is because they indicate where such efforts might have a higher chance of being successful in terms of providing suitable habitat and increasing river productivity. In this study we applied a graph theory approach to assess historic (natural) and contemporary (regulated) in-stream habitat connectivity of the River Lyon, an important UK salmon river that is moderately regulated for hydropower. Historic maps and GIS techniques were used to construct the two contrasting river networks (i.e., natural vs. regulated). Subsequently, connectivity metrics were used to assess the impacts of hydropower infrastructure on upstream and downstream migration possibilities for adults and juveniles, respectively. A national juvenile salmon production model was used to weight the importance of reaches for juvenile salmon production. Results indicate that the impact of barriers in the Lyon on the connectivity indices depends on the type of barrier and its location within the network, but is generally low for both adults and juveniles, and that compared to the historic river network the reduction in the amount of suitable habitat and juvenile production is most marked

  2. Historical trajectory of nursing school at Technical University of Babahoyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecibel Vera Marquez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Bachelors of the province of the Rivers, to study the careers of health had to travel to other sectors of the country, and before this necessity the Technical University of Babahoyo opened academic spaces in formation in areas of the health creating the School of Nursing with the The mission of training nurses that meet the needs of the population is in the hospital or community, and thus contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of the population of Rio de Janeiro, acting under the ethical and moral principles that society demands. This remembrance describes its historical trajectory, and its spaces of institutional growth, as well as the population coverage, being one of the races with greater demand in the university, the statistical data delivered by the Center of Leveling and Admission of the UTB, shows a Historical evolution of the UTB academic offer of the ENES processes of September 2013 and March 2015, the nursing career is among the first five races most offered among the four periods (Equipo de Apoyo y Seguimiento Acad´emico, 2015. In this way the Nursing career of the Faculty of Health Sciences, has become a space of knowledge and lucubraci´on inspired by the desire to overcome and the permanent work of a practice that strengthens the knowledge, skills and skills that Consolidate the competencies of the nurse profile.

  3. The Social, Historical, and Institutional Contingencies of Dam Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magilligan, F. J.; Sneddon, C. S.; Fox, C. A.

    2017-06-01

    Environmental managers in the United States and elsewhere are increasingly perceiving dam removal as a critical tool for river restoration and enhancing watershed resilience. In New England, over 125 dams have been dismantled for ecological and economic rationales. A surprising number of these removals, including many that are ongoing, have generated heated conflicts between restoration proponents and local communities who value their dammed landscapes. Using a comparative case study approach, we examine the environmental conflict around efforts to remove six dams in New England. Each of these removal efforts followed quite different paths and resultant outcomes: successful removal, stalled removal, and failure despite seemingly favorable institutional conditions. Lengthy conflicts often transpired in instances where removals occurred, but these were successfully arbitrated by paying attention to local historical-geographical conditions conducive to removal and by brokering effective compromises between dam owners and the various local actors and stakeholders involved in the removal process. Yet our results across all cases suggest that these are necessary, but not sufficient conditions for restoration through dam removal since a similar set of conditions typified cases where removals are continuously stalled or completely halted. Scholars examining the intersection between ecological restoration and environmental politics should remain vigilant in seeking patterns and generalities across cases of environmental conflict in order to promote important biophysical goals, but must also remain open to the ways in which those goals are thwarted and shaped by conflicts that are deeply contingent on historical-geographical conditions and broader institutional networks of power and influence.

  4. Determination of droughts and high floods of the Bermejo River (Argentina) based on documentary evidence (17th to 20th century)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, M. R.; Rojas, F.

    2015-10-01

    This study reconstructs a series of droughts and high flow volumes of the Bermejo River from the 17th to 20th century based on a content analysis of historic documentary evidence, which is calibrated with instrumental climate data. The historic data series shows an increase in the frequency of extraordinarily high waters beginning in the 19th century and a significant decrease in extreme droughts beginning in 1890. The data are compared to variations in the Mendoza River for the same period, which show that there was a long-standing lack of correlation between the rivers.

  5. Historical Evolution of Spatial Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical evolution and cross-cultural differences in spatial abilities are analyzed. Spatial abilities have been found to be significantly associated with the complexity of geographical conditions and survival demands. Although impaired spatial cognition is found in cases of, exclusively or predominantly, right hemisphere pathology, it is proposed that this asymmetry may depend on the degree of training in spatial abilities. It is further proposed that spatial cognition might have evolved in a parallel way with cultural evolution and environmental demands. Contemporary city humans might be using spatial abilities in some new, conceptual tasks that did not exist in prehistoric times: mathematics, reading, writing, mechanics, music, etc. Cross-cultural analysis of spatial abilities in different human groups, normalization of neuropsychological testing instruments, and clinical observations of spatial ability disturbances in people with different cultural backgrounds and various spatial requirements, are required to construct a neuropsychological theory of brain organization of spatial cognition.

  6. Group identification and historical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahdra, Baljinder; Ross, Michael

    2007-03-01

    Differences in ingroup identification can influence the accessibility of historical memories. In Study 1, the authors examined individual differences in identity; in Study 2 they experimentally manipulated identity. In Study 1, high identifiers recalled fewer incidents of ingroup violence and hatred than did low identifiers. High and low identifiers did not differ in their recall of ingroup suffering. In Study 2, participants in the high-identity condition recalled fewer incidents of violence and hatred by members of their group than did those in the low-identity condition but a similar number of good deeds. Control participants recalled more positive than negative group actions; this bias was exaggerated in the high-identity condition and eliminated in the low-identity condition. The authors interpret the results as indicating the effects of social identity on individual-level memory processes, especially schema-consistent recall. They evaluate other explanations of the bias, including collective censorship of negative histories.

  7. Piezoelectric Transformers: An Historical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Vazquez Carazo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric transformers (PTs are solid-state devices that transform electrical energy into electrical energy by means of a mechanical vibration. These devices are manufactured using piezoelectric materials that are driven at resonance. With appropriate design and circuitry, it is possible to step up and step down the voltages between the input and output sections of the piezoelectric transformer, without making use of magnetic materials and obtaining excellent conversion efficiencies. The initial concept of a piezoelectric ceramic transformer was proposed by Charles A. Rosen in 1954. Since then, the evolution of piezoelectric transformers through history has been linked to the relevant work of some excellent researchers as well as to the evolution in materials, manufacturing processes, and driving circuit techniques. This paper summarizes the historical evolution of the technology.

  8. Analyzing and Interpreting Historical Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipping, Matthias; Wadhwani, Dan; Bucheli, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter outlines a methodology for the interpretation of historical sources, helping to realize their full potential for the study of organization, while overcoming their challenges in terms of distortions created by time, changes in context, and selective production or preservation. Drawing...... on social scientific methods as well as the practice and reflections of historians, the chapter describes analytical and interpretive process based on three basic elements, illustrating them with exemplars from management research: source criticism to identify possible biases and judge the extent to which...... a source can be trusted to address the research question; triangulation with additional sources to confirm or question an interpretation and strengthen the overall findings; hermeneutics to relate sources to their original contexts and make their interpretation by a researcher today more robust...

  9. Training Analysis: A Historical View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sarracino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The obligatory nature of training analysis, i.e. of the personal analysis of every candidate analyst, was adopted by all psychoanalytic institutes in Freud’s lifetime. But what had initially been a not particularly burdensome addition to training was subsequently transformed into something quite different. Years of analysis: hundreds of hours at vast expense to the candidate, in the face of a basic unconcern on the part of the schools about undertaking empirical studies or even just examining more closely the theoretical justification (apart from the constantly reasserted need for completeness for such a commitment. The considerable resistance to questioning this practice goes hand in hand with the persistent circulation of a series of legends about its origin. An accurate historical review should offer interesting matter for consideration, showing how the custom of requiring training analysis is underpinned by reasons of an institutional nature rather than by theoretical necessity or empirical findings.

  10. The historical contingency of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevles, D J

    2000-01-01

    The principles of bioethics have been historically contingent, a product of social values, circumstances, and experience. During the early twentieth century, they rested on a doctor-knows-best autonomy that permitted physicians to perform research on human subjects with a minimum degree, if any, of informed consent. The eugenics movement of the period embraced an implicit bioethics by presuming to sterilize individuals for the sake of a larger social benefit, a practice and doctrine that helped lead to the Nazi medical experiments and death camps. After World War II, the promulgation of the Nuremberg Code failed to halt eugenic sterilization and risky human experimentation without informed consent either in civilian or military venues. However, beginning in the 1960s, these practices came under mounting critical scrutiny, partly because of the increasing attention given to individual rights. By now, it is widely understood that concern for individual rights rather than an appeal to some national good belongs at the heart of bioethics.

  11. Historical Techniques of Lie Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicianova, Martina

    2015-08-01

    Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., God's judgment in Europe). The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polygraph and graphology. This is followed by an outline of more modern-day approaches such as FACS (Facial Action Coding System), functional MRI, and Brain Fingerprinting. Finally, after the familiarization with the historical development of techniques for lie detection, we discuss the scope for new initiatives not only in the area of designing new methods, but also for the research into lie detection itself, such as its motives and regulatory issues related to deception.

  12. Historical Techniques of Lie Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Vicianova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., God’s judgment in Europe. The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polygraph and graphology. This is followed by an outline of more modern-day approaches such as FACS (Facial Action Coding System, functional MRI, and Brain Fingerprinting. Finally, after the familiarization with the historical development of techniques for lie detection, we discuss the scope for new initiatives not only in the area of designing new methods, but also for the research into lie detection itself, such as its motives and regulatory issues related to deception.

  13. Historical developments in singular perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Malley, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    This engaging text describes the development of singular perturbations, including its history, accumulating literature, and its current status. While the approach of the text is sophisticated, the literature is accessible to a broad audience. A particularly valuable bonus are the historical remarks. These remarks are found throughout the manuscript. They demonstrate the growth of mathematical thinking on this topic by engineers and mathematicians. The book focuses on detailing how the various methods are to be applied. These are illustrated by a  number and variety of examples. Readers are expected to have a working knowledge of elementary ordinary differential equations, including some familiarity with power series techniques, and of some advanced calculus. Dr. O'Malley  has written a number of books on singular perturbations.  This book has developed from many of his works in the field of perturbation theory.

  14. Democracy is a historical urgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synek, Miroslav

    2015-03-01

    Survival of humanity, on this planet, may depend, heavily, on coping with advancing technology of nuclear missiles. Let us consider critical alternatives of powerful governments: democracy, as an alternative to dictatorship. Democracy is based on free elections, as a government of the people, by the people and for the people. Democracy is a historical urgency, in the age of inter-continental nuclear missiles, computerized on a push-button, conceivably controllable by a very powerful, miscalculating and/or insane, dictator, capable of producing global nuclear holocaust, on our entire planet. Diplomacy, together with supporting activities, should be utilized, to help, in important steps, at this time, for achieving democracy in critical areas.

  15. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This successful book, which is now appearing in its second edition, presents a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. The book you hold in hands contributes to fill this demand. The second edition integrates the original text of the first edition with new developments, widening and revisions, due to recent research studies achievements. The result is a book that gives a complete picture of the behaviour of the Masonry Constructions. First of all, it gives the fundamentals of its Statics, based on the no-tension assumption, and then it develops the Limit Analysis for the Masonry Constructions. In this framework, through an interdisciplinary approach combining Engineering and Architecture, the book also investigates the sta...

  16. Historical Gypsy Moth Defoliation Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely understood, populations may rise to very high densities and substantial defoliation of the canopy may occur. These data shows the historical frequency (1972-2002) pattern of gypsy moth defoliation as it spreads south and west from the New England states. forested areas with repeated annual defoliation become more stressed and are at increased risk of permanent damage. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  17. Historical Topographic Map Collection bookmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishburn, Kristin A.; Allord, Gregory J.

    2017-06-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program is scanning published USGS 1:250,000-scale and larger topographic maps printed between 1884, the inception of the topographic mapping program, and 2006. The goal of this project, which began publishing the historical scanned maps in 2011, is to provide a digital repository of USGS topographic maps, available to the public at no cost. For more than 125 years, USGS topographic maps have accurately portrayed the complex geography of the Nation. The USGS is the Nation’s largest producer of printed topographic maps, and prior to 2006, USGS topographic maps were created using traditional cartographic methods and printed using a lithographic printing process. As the USGS continues the release of a new generation of topographic maps (US Topo) in electronic form, the topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, land management planning, and leisure.

  18. Structural health monitoring and condition assessment of Chulitna River Bridge : sensor selection and field installation report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Chulitna River Bridge, built in 1970, is located at Historic Mile Post 132.7 on the Alaska Parks Highway between Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska. The Parks : Highway is the most direct route connecting Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Prudhoe Bay. Heavy...

  19. Approaches to restoration of oak forests on farmed lowlands of the Mississippi River and its tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner; Daniel C. Dey; John A. Stanturf; Brian Roy. Lockhart

    2010-01-01

    The lowlands associated with the Mississippi River and its tributaries historically supported extensive broadleaf forests that were particularly rich in oak (Quercus spp.) species. Beginning in the 1700s, deforestation for agriculture substantially reduced the extent of the original forest, and fragmented the remainder into small parcels. More...

  20. Deep-sea coral record of human impact on watershed quality in the Mississippi River Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prouty, N.G.; Roark, E.B.; Koenig, A.E.; Demopoulos, A.W.J.; Batista, F.C.; Kocar, B.D.; Selby, D.; McCarthy, M.D.; Mienis, F.

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest drivers of historical nutrient and sediment transport into the Gulf of Mexico is the unprecedented scale and intensity of land use change in the Mississippi River Basin. These landscape changes are linked to enhanced fluxes of carbon and nitrogen pollution from the Mississippi

  1. On Hydronymic Catalogues Composition Principles: Cataloguing of Hydronyms of the Msta River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery L. Vasilyev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a brief review of the few Russian hydronymic catalogues (relating to the basins of the Don, Oka, Svir and other rivers based on the hydrographic principle. The authors argue that, in comparison with alphabetized hydronymic dictionaries, hydronymic catalogues have some obvious advantages for onomastic lexicography. This kind of catalogues should include, firstly, all historically attested forms of a hydronym (including those considered to be occasional miswritings and, secondly, all non-hydronymic names making part of the respective hydronymic microsystem and providing “external” (i. e., chronological, derivational, etymological, ethno-historical information about the hydronym. The authors point out that the cataloguing of hydronyms based on the hydrographic principle entails some difficulties: impossibility to localize some bodies of water mentioned in ancient and medieval documents; differences in the indication of the same bodies of water on old and contemporary maps; historical differences in establishing hydrographic hierarchies; historical changes of lake-river systems, etc. The authors also share their experience in creating a hydronymic catalogue of the Msta River basin in Novgorod and Tver Regions of Russia. They describe the principles of the composition of the catalogue and present a short excerpt of it that orders names in the system of the Volma River, one of the Msta’s left tributaries.

  2. Spatial distribution of impacts to channel bed mobility due to flow regulation, Kootenai River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Burke; Klaus Jorde; John M. Buffington; Jeffrey H. Braatne; Rohan Benjakar

    2006-01-01

    The regulated hydrograph of the Kootenai River between Libby Dam and Kootenay Lake has altered the natural flow regime, resulting in a significant decrease in maximum flows (60% net reduction in median 1-day annual maximum, and 77%-84% net reductions in median monthly flows for the historic peak flow months of May and June, respectively). Other key hydrologic...

  3. Nutrient characterisation of river inflow into the estuaries of the Gouritz Water Management Area, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lemley, DA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available environments. Long-term water quality monitoring data (dissolved inorganic nitrogen, i.e. DIN; and dissolved inorganic phosphorus, i.e. DIP), collected by the Department of Water Affairs (DWA), were used to assess historical trends of river nutrient inflow...

  4. The Growth of River Kayaking and Its Indirect Effect on Institutional Whitewater Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Geoff

    Historically, whitewater kayaking has been a key component of some institutional outdoor programs, offering low-cost instruction that emphasizes safety, skill, and the spirit of down-river travel. Each year, several thousand students are introduced to the sport of kayaking through instructional seminars offered by university outdoor programs.…

  5. Revising time series of the Elbe river discharge for flood frequency determination at gauge Dresden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bartl

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The German research programme RIsk MAnagment of eXtreme flood events has accomplished the improvement of regional hazard assessment for the large rivers in Germany. Here we focused on the Elbe river at its gauge Dresden, which belongs to the oldest gauges in Europe with officially available daily discharge time series beginning on 1 January 1890. The project on the one hand aimed to extend and to revise the existing time series, and on the other hand to examine the variability of the Elbe river discharge conditions on a greater time scale. Therefore one major task were the historical searches and the examination of the retrieved documents and the contained information. After analysing this information the development of the river course and the discharge conditions were discussed. Using the provided knowledge, in an other subproject, a historical hydraulic model was established. Its results then again were used here. A further purpose was the determining of flood frequency based on all pre-processed data. The obtained knowledge about historical changes was also used to get an idea about possible future variations under climate change conditions. Especially variations in the runoff characteristic of the Elbe river over the course of the year were analysed. It succeeded to obtain a much longer discharge time series which contain fewer errors and uncertainties. Hence an optimized regional hazard assessment was realised.

  6. Revising time series of the Elbe river discharge for flood frequency determination at gauge Dresden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, S.; Schümberg, S.; Deutsch, M.

    2009-11-01

    The German research programme RIsk MAnagment of eXtreme flood events has accomplished the improvement of regional hazard assessment for the large rivers in Germany. Here we focused on the Elbe river at its gauge Dresden, which belongs to the oldest gauges in Europe with officially available daily discharge time series beginning on 1 January 1890. The project on the one hand aimed to extend and to revise the existing time series, and on the other hand to examine the variability of the Elbe river discharge conditions on a greater time scale. Therefore one major task were the historical searches and the examination of the retrieved documents and the contained information. After analysing this information the development of the river course and the discharge conditions were discussed. Using the provided knowledge, in an other subproject, a historical hydraulic model was established. Its results then again were used here. A further purpose was the determining of flood frequency based on all pre-processed data. The obtained knowledge about historical changes was also used to get an idea about possible future variations under climate change conditions. Especially variations in the runoff characteristic of the Elbe river over the course of the year were analysed. It succeeded to obtain a much longer discharge time series which contain fewer errors and uncertainties. Hence an optimized regional hazard assessment was realised.

  7. Wind River: A Wild and Scenic River Analysis: Preliminary draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Wind River meets the criteria for inclusion in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System. Subject to valid existing rights, the minerals in Federal lands which...

  8. The influence of the scale of mining activity and mine site remediation on the contamination legacy of historical metal mining activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Graham

    2016-12-01

    Globally, thousands of kilometres of rivers are degraded due to the presence of elevated concentrations of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) sourced from historical metal mining activity. In many countries, the presence of contaminated water and river sediment creates a legal requirement to address such problems. Remediation of mining-associated point sources has often been focused upon improving river water quality; however, this study evaluates the contaminant legacy present within river sediments and attempts to assess the influence of the scale of mining activity and post-mining remediation upon the magnitude of PHE contamination found within contemporary river sediments. Data collected from four exemplar catchments indicates a strong relationship between the scale of historical mining, as measured by ore output, and maximum PHE enrichment factors, calculated versus environmental quality guidelines. The use of channel slope as a proxy measure for the degree of channel-floodplain coupling indicates that enrichment factors for PHEs in contemporary river sediments may also be the highest where channel-floodplain coupling is the greatest. Calculation of a metric score for mine remediation activity indicates no clear influence of the scale of remediation activity and PHE enrichment factors for river sediments. It is suggested that whilst exemplars of significant successes at improving post-remediation river water quality can be identified; river sediment quality is a much more long-lasting environmental problem. In addition, it is suggested that improvements to river sediment quality do not occur quickly or easily as a result of remediation actions focused a specific mining point sources. Data indicate that PHEs continue to be episodically dispersed through river catchments hundreds of years after the cessation of mining activity, especially during flood flows. The high PHE loads of flood sediments in mining-affected river catchments and the predicted changes to

  9. Documenting historic and recent extreme floods in Kashmir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Cánovas, Juan Antonio; Koul Tasaduq, Hussain; Alamgir Shabir, Hussain; Shah Mutayib, Bashir; Stoffel, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Kashmir has been frequently subjected to massive floods along its history. The recent extreme flood events which occurred during September 2014, March 2015 and September 2015 have revealed the high vulnerability of its population. Causes of recent extreme flood events have been attributed to the bowl shaped topography, intense land-use changes and unfavorable climatic change conditions at the onset of the monsoon as well as due to the occurrence of westerly disturbances. This reality implies new challenges to authorities and calls for the development of suitable adaptation strategies focusing on a minimization of the expected negative impacts on inhabitants during future extreme floods. In this context, long-term records can improve our understanding about the flood frequency as well as changes in climate - and land-use - linkages. In this communication, we present an extensive flood records from Kashmir by combining historical descriptions with tree-ring records from headwater catchments as well as with the existing flow gauge records. Historical sources include old records from archives of the Irrigation and Flood Control Department of flood events which have taken place at Jhelum River, but also old pictures and other documents about the river system, going back in time to the British period. At the headwater catchment, we additionally perform tree-ring analyses coupled with classical palaeohydraulic techniques to reconstruct the magnitude and occurrence of recent, yet ungauged extreme events. Both sources of data have been compared and merged with the existing flow records in order to provide a clearer picture about flood phenomena in this region. Historical archives corroborate the assumption that that Srinagar (the main city of Kashmir), as well as the surroundings crops land, have been frequently affected by floods. Although the oldest records are from the 19th century, dense annals including information about water levels are available after the 18th

  10. The Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image shows the passage of the Colorado River through several southwestern states. The river begins, in this image, in Utah at the far upper right, where Lake Powell is visible as dark pixels surrounded by the salmon-colored rocks of the Colorado Plateau. The Colorado flows southwest through Glen Canyon, to the Glen Canyon Dam, on the Utah-Arizona border. From there it flows south into Arizona, and then turns sharply west where the Grand Canyon of the Colorado cuts through the mountains. The Colorado flows west to the Arizona-Nevada (upper left) border, where it is dammed again, this time by the Hoover Dam. The dark-colored pixels surrounding the bend in the river are Lake Mead. The river flows south along the border of first Nevada and Arizona and then California and Arizona. The Colorado River, which begins in Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado, empties into the Gulf of California, seen at the bottom center of this image.

  11. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook...

  12. 33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging... Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. (a) Parties wishing to run logs on Red Lake River must provide storage booms near the head of the river to take care...

  13. National Register of Historic Places multiple property documentation form -- Historic, archaeological, and traditional cultural properties of the Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickens, P.R.

    1997-08-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site encompasses an area of 560 square miles on the Columbia River in southeastern Washington. Since 1943, the Hanford Site has existed as a protected area for activities primarily related to the production of radioactive materials for national defense uses. For cultural resources on the Hanford Site, establishment of the nuclear reservation as a high security area, with public access restricted, has resulted in a well-protected status, although no deliberate resource protection measures were in effect to mitigate effects of facilities construction and associated activities. Thus, the Hanford Site contains an extensive record of aboriginal archaeological sites and Native American cultural properties, along with pre-Hanford Euro-American sites (primarily archaeological in nature with the removal of most pre-1943 structures), and a considerable number of Manhattan Project/Cold War era buildings and structures. The recent mission change from production to clean up and disposal of DOE lands created a critical need for development and implementation of new and different cultural resource management strategies. DOE-RL has undertaken a preservation planning effort for the Hanford Site. The intent of this Plan is to enable DOE-RL to organize data and develop goals, objectives, and priorities for the identification, evaluation, registration, protection, preservation, and enhancement of the Site`s historical and cultural properties. Decisions made about the identification, evaluation, registration and treatment of historic properties are most aptly made when relationships between individual properties and other similar properties are considered. The historic context and the multiple property documentation (NTD) process provides DOE-RL the organizational framework for these decisions. Once significant patterns are identified, contexts developed, and expected properties are defined, the NTD process provides the foundation for future

  14. Impacts of the Columbia River hydroelectric system on main-stem habitats of fall chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauble, D.D.; Hanrahan, T.P.; Geist, D.R.; Parsley, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Salmonid habitats in main-stem reaches of the Columbia and Snake rivers have changed dramatically during the past 60 years because of hydroelectric development and operation. Only about 13% and 58% of riverine habitats in the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, remain. Most riverine habitat is found in the upper Snake River; however, it is upstream of Hells Canyon Dam and not accessible to anadromous salmonids. We determined that approximately 661 and 805 km of the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, were once used by fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for spawning. Fall chinook salmon currently use only about 85 km of the main-stem Columbia River and 163 km of the main-stem Snake River for spawning. We used a geomorphic model to identify three river reaches downstream of present migration barriers with high potential for restoration of riverine processes: the Columbia River upstream of John Day Dam, the Columbia-Snake-Yakima River confluence, and the lower Snake River upstream of Little Goose Dam. Our analysis substantiated the assertion that historic spawning areas for fall chinook salmon occurred primarily within wide alluvial floodplains, which were once common in the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers. These areas possessed more unconsolidated sediment and more bars and islands and had lower water surface slopes than did less extensively used areas. Because flows in the main stem are now highly regulated, the predevelopment alluvial river ecosystem is not expected to be restored simply by operational modification of one or more dams. Establishing more normative flow regimes - specifically, sustained peak flows for scouring - is essential to restoring the functional characteristics of existing, altered habitats. Restoring production of fall chinook salmon to any of these reaches also requires that population genetics and viability of potential seed populations (i.e., from tributaries, tailrace spawning areas, and hatcheries) be considered.

  15. Spatial and temporal genetic analysis of Walleyes in the Ohio River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Kevin S.; Zweifela, Richard D.; Stott, Wendylee

    2017-01-01

    Previous genetic analyses have shown that Walleyes Sander vitreus in the upper Ohio River comprise two distinct genetic strains: (1) fish of Great Lakes origin that were stocked into the Ohio River basin and (2) a remnant native strain (Highlands strain). Resource agencies are developing management strategies to conserve and restore the native strain within the upper reaches of the Ohio River. Hybridization between strains has impacted the genetic integrity of the native strain. To better understand the extent and effects of hybridization on the native strain, we used mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers to evaluate the spatial (river sections) and temporal (pre- and poststocking) genetic diversity of Ohio River Walleyes. Contemporary Lake Erie Walleyes and archival museum specimens collected from the Ohio River basin were used for comparison to contemporary Ohio River samples. Although there was evidence of hybridization between strains, most of the genetic diversity within the Ohio River was partitioned by basin of origin (Great Lakes versus the Ohio River), with greater similarity among river sections than between strains within the same section. Results also suggested that the native strain has diverged from historical populations. Furthermore, notable decreases in measures of genetic diversity and increased relatedness among native-strain Walleyes within two sections of the Ohio River may be related to stocking aimed at restoration of the Highlands strain. Our results suggest that although the Highlands strain persists within the Ohio River, it has diverged over time, and managers should consider the potential impacts of future management practices on the genetic diversity of this native strain.

  16. Occurrence, distribution and sources of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface sediments from the Lijiang River, a typical karst river of southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Wang, Yinghui; Yu, Kefu; Li, Pingyang; Zhang, Ruijie; Xu, Yiyin

    2014-11-01

    The Lijiang River is a typical karst river of southwestern China. Karst-aquifer systems are more vulnerable to contamination compared to other types of aquifers. The occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface sediments from the Lijiang River were investigated to evaluate their potential ecological risks. The total concentrations of them in sediments ranged from 0.80 to 18.73 ng/g dry weight (dw) (mean 6.83 ng/g dw). The residue levels of OCPs varied in the order of HCB > HCHs > DDTs. Compositional analyses of OCPs showed that HCHs and DDTs were mainly from historical usage. The ecological risk assessment suggested that HCHs and DDTs in Lijiang River sediments may cause adverse ecological risks, particularly at sites near agricultural areas.

  17. Historical reconstruction of floodplain inundation in the Pantanal (Brazil) using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantin-Cruz, Ibraim; Pedrollo, Olavo; Castro, Nilza M. R.; Girard, Pierre; Zeilhofer, Peter; Hamilton, Stephen K.

    2011-03-01

    SummaryThe relations between hydrology, geomorphology and vegetation provide the basis for understanding the ecological processes in the floodplains of rivers. In this paper, long-term (1969-2009) local flood characteristics (magnitude, duration, frequency, return period) are quantified for the floodplain of the Cuiabá River (Pantanal wetland in Brazil), using a predictive model based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) with input given by the historic river-level record. Morphological features were then described and their relation to vegetation analyzed and used to reconstruct floods. In addition to the river-level data used to train and validate a three-layer ANN, data were also used from 11 floodplain gauges across a 12 km transect lateral to the river, which were monitored during the annual floods of 2004-2007. The resulting neural network gave satisfactory estimates of water depth over the floodplain, with an absolute error of 0.09 m not exceeded in 95% of occurrences. The ANN showed that in almost all years, the level reached by the river was high enough to flood the profile completely: the exceptions were 1971 and 2001 when only 50% and 58% was flooded, to mean depths of 0.34 and 0.48 m, respectively. The highest flood was that of 1995 when the floodplain was flooded to a mean depth of 2.56 m. The median flood event (return period 2 years) produced a mean flood depth 1.80 m and lasted 119 days. Among the most important morphological features is the presence of palaeo-channels which provide hydrological connectivity between the river and the floodplain. The distribution of phytophysiognomic units is significantly influenced by local geomorphology, which determines spatial variation in the magnitude, duration, and frequency of flooding.

  18. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these

  19. Concentrations, loads, and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls, Neponset River and Neponset River Estuary, eastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Walter Baker Impoundments were 3,490 and 2,450 ng/g wet wt (filleted) and 6,890 and 4,080 ng/g wet wt (whole fish). Total PCB-congener concentrations measured in the whole bodies of estuarine bait fish (common mummichog) averaged 708 ng/g wet wt. PCBs that pass from the Neponset River to the Neponset River Estuary are either dissolved or associated with particulate matter (including living and nonliving material) suspended in the water column. A small proportion of PCBs may also be transported as part of the body burden of fish and wildlife. During the period May 13, 2005 to April 28, 2006, about 5,100 g (3.8 L or 1 gal) of PCBs were transported from the Neponset River to the Neponset River Estuary. Generally, about one-half of these PCBs were dissolved in the water column and the other half were associated with particulate matter; however, the proportion that was either dissolved or particulate varied seasonally. Most PCBs transported from the river to the estuary are composed of four or fewer chlorine atoms per biphenyl molecule. The data suggest that widespread PCB contamination of the lower Neponset River originated from Mother Brook, a Neponset River tributary, starting sometime around the early 1950s or earlier. In 1955, catastrophic dam failure caused by flooding likely released PCB-contaminated sediment downstream and into the Neponset River Estuary. PCBs from this source area likely continued to be released after the flood and during subsequent rebuilding of downstream dams. Today (2007), PCBs are mostly trapped behind these dams; however, some PCBs either diffuse or are entrained back into the water column and are transported downstream by river water into the estuary or volatilize into the atmosphere. In addition to the continuing release of PCBs from historically contaminated bottom sediment, PCBs are still (2007) originating from source areas along Mother and Meadow Brook as well as other sources along the river and Boston Harbor. PCBs from the river

  20. A paleozoological perspective on unionid (Mollusca: Unionidae) zoogeography in the upper Trinity River basin, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randklev, Charles R; Wolverton, Steve; Lundeen, Benjamin; Kennedy, James H

    2010-12-01

    In north central Texas, USA, the zoogeography of unionids in the Trinity River is thought to consist of upland and lowland biogeographic components reflective of differences in upstream and downstream hydraulic conditions. Historical and modern surveys from a limited number of localities were used to delineate these zoogeographic provinces based on the absence of several species thought to occur only in the lower Trinity River drainage. Available zooarchaeological data indicate that at least one species considered absent from the upper Trinity River basin was present during the late Holocene (roughly the last 2500 years), suggesting that both biogeographical provinces shared similar mussel fauna in the recent geological past. The discrepancy between historical and zooarchaeological data is probably the result of inadequate sampling and of an extirpation gradient related to impoundments that have been constructed in this drainage during the last century. The presence of lower Trinity species during the late Holocene in the upper Trinity drainage challenges interpretations drawn from modern biogeographic studies.

  1. Historical ruins of remote sensing archaeology in arid desertified environment, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, N. K.; Li, X.

    2017-02-01

    Silk Road is an important exchange channel for human communication and culture propagation between ancient China and the West during historical periods. A lot of human activities performed in Silk Road and many historical ruins leave behind to present. Archaeological ruins can play a significant role in studying and restoring the past human activities, as well as understanding regional environmental changes. There were many flourishingly human activities during different historical periods that were developed in ancient Juyan Oasis in the downstream of the Heihe River Basin. A large number of historical ruins that reflect past human activities preserved between numerous of the nebkhas and sand dunes. In this study, combined high-resolution remote sensing imageries with in situ truths investigated during the fieldwork, certain unknown ruins were identified according to the image features of historical ruins that appear in remotely sensed data, which were undiscovered during the previous field archaeological investigations and unreported in the past public literatures. Almost all of the newly discovered ruins that were identified using remote sensing images are distributed in the Lvcheng and BJ2008 surroundings. Newly findings supplement the missing gaps that were not taking into account during the previous field surveys.

  2. ANÁLISE HISTÓRICA DAS TRANSFORMAÇÕES DA FLORESTA AMAZÔNICA EM ÁREAS AGRÍCOLAS NA BACIA DO RIO SUIA-MIÇU. - Historical Changes of the Amazonian Forest into Agricultural Lands in the Suia-Miçu River Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Roberto Formaggio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mudanças no uso e cobertura da terra, como as ocorridas nas áreas de expansão agrícola na AmazôniaLegal, geram uma série de impactos sociais, econômicos e ambientais. O entendimento destes processospode permitir um melhor planejamento de políticas públicas a fim de monitorar e mapear áreas maissuscetíveis a problemas ambientais. Sendo assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a dinâmicade ocupação da Bacia do Rio Suiá-Miçu, um dos afluentes do Rio Xingu localizado ao norte do estadodo Mato Grosso. Os mapas de uso e cobertura da terra para cada um dos períodos analisados (1973,1984 e 2005 foram confeccionados com o auxílio de imagens dos sensores MSS/Landsat-1, TM/Landsat-5 e do sensor MODIS/Terra. Os resultados mostraram que até 1984, 13% da vegetação natural dabacia havia sido desflorestada, enquanto que em 2005 as atividades agrícolas já ocupavam 40% daárea de estudo. Desta forma, tendo em vista as mudanças na paisagem observadas ao longo das últimasdécadas, torna-se notória a necessidade urgente de estudos mais aprofundados visando a avaliaçãodos impactos ambientais, bem como a preservação dos recursos naturais na regiãoLand use and land cover changes, as seen in the agricultural expansion areas in the Brazilian LegalAmazon, have as consequence several social, economic and environmental impacts. The understandingof these processes allows a better planning of public policies in order to monitor and map areas moresusceptible to environmental problems. Hence, this work had as objective to analyze the land use/landcover changes dynamics in the Suiá-Miçu River Basin, located in the north part of Mato Grosso state,Brazil. The land use/land cover maps for each of the analyzed periods (1973, 1984 and 2005 weremade using images from the MSS/Landsat-1, TM/Landsat-5 and the MODIS/Terra sensors. The resultsshowed that until 1984, 13% of the natural vegetation of the watershed was deforested, while in 2005the

  3. 33 CFR 117.734 - Navesink River (Swimming River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navesink River (Swimming River). 117.734 Section 117.734 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... (Swimming River). The Oceanic Bridge, mile 4.5, shall open on signal; except that, from December 1 through...

  4. Location of Historical Buildings (points) at Fort Davis National Historic Site, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a point shapefile showing where historic buildings were located at Fort Davis National Historic Site. The remnants or foundations of these buildings where...

  5. Characteristics of bedrock-alluvial anastomosed rivers: the Mekong River in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkova, Liubov. V.; Carling, Paul. A.

    2010-05-01

    The Mekong River is the 12th largest river in the world in terms of its length and mean annual discharge and yet it is poorly investigated. In the north eastern regions of Cambodia the Mekong River develops a multichannel pattern. It is characterised by a complex of intersecting bedrock channels, well vegetated alluvial and seasonally inundated islands, various types of sand bars, numerous bedrock exposures, rapids, waterfalls and deep bedrock pools which can be classified as a large mixed bedrock-alluvial anastomosed river of a tropical monsoonal climate zone. In order to complete a portrait of the river at the high level of details new data on morphology, geology and sediments were obtained during field surveys of a 120 km river section in Cambodia and combined with information from published literature and interpretation of available remote sensing images. This process has enabled to update and clarify knowledge on morphology of observed islands and floodplain, comprehensive geology and tectonic structures, hydrological regime and land cover. Complex analyses of the collected data have distinguished several geomorphological zones accordingly to frequency of morphological elements, the planview configuration of channels and vertical profile characteristics. The occurrence of each zone is a subject of variable controlling factors such as local topography, channel gradient, structural and tectonic elements and intercalating geological units. Evolution of the channel pattern has been considered at both short- and long term time scales. Historical cartographic and remote sensing materials were applied to determine planform channel changes over the last 50 years revealing the channels stability and cases of occasional, local erosion and deposition. The channel network was extracted from vector layers to examine channels and islands width and length parameters, bifurcation angles at the upstream end of islands and to obtain main channel network indices such as braiding

  6. Missouri River 1943 Compact Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Flood Control, Bank Stabilization and development of a navigational channel on the Missouri River had a great impact on the river and adjacent lands. The new...

  7. Sprague River Oregon Bars 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  8. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  9. Sprague River Oregon Floodplain 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  10. Sprague River Oregon Floodplain 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  11. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  12. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  13. Haw River PFCs Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PFAS concentrations in river and drinking water in and around the Haw River in North Carolina. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Sun, M., E....

  14. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  15. Hood River Production Program : Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coccoli, Holly; Lambert, Michael

    2000-02-01

    Effective habitat protection and rehabilitation are essential to the long-term recovery of anadromous fish populations in the Hood River subbasin. This Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan was prepared to advance the goals of the Hood River Production Program (HRRP) which include restoring self-sustaining runs of spring chinook salmon and winter and summer steelhead. The HRPP is a fish supplementation and monitoring and evaluation program initiated in 1991 and funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program. The HRPP is a joint effort of the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Using recent watershed assessment and federal watershed analysis reports, this Plan reviews the historic and current condition of riparian, instream and upland habitats; natural watershed processes; anadromous and resident fish populations; identifies limiting factors, and indicates those subbasin areas that need protection or are likely to respond to restoration. Primary habitat restoration needs were identified as (1) improved fish screening and upstream adult passage at water diversions; (2) improved spawning gravel availability, instream habitat structure and diversity; and (3) improved water quality and riparian conditions. While several early action projects have been initiated in the Hood River subbasin since the mid 1990s, this Plan outlines additional projects and strategies needed to protect existing high quality habitat, correct known fish survival problems, and improve the habitat capacity for natural production to meet HRPP goals.

  16. Modeling Nitrogen Processing in Northeast US River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittinghill, K. A.; Stewart, R.; Mineau, M.; Wollheim, W. M.; Lammers, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Due to increased nitrogen (N) pollution from anthropogenic sources, the need for aquatic ecosystem services such as N removal has also increased. River networks provide a buffering mechanism that retains or removes anthropogenic N inputs. However, the effectiveness of N removal in rivers may decline with increased loading and, consequently, excess N is eventually delivered to estuaries. We used a spatially distributed river network N removal model developed within the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System (FrAMES) to examine the geography of N removal capacity of Northeast river systems under various land use and climate conditions. FrAMES accounts for accumulation and routing of runoff, water temperatures, and serial biogeochemical processing using reactivity derived from the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen Experiment (LINX2). Nonpoint N loading is driven by empirical relationships with land cover developed from previous research in Northeast watersheds. Point source N loading from wastewater treatment plants is estimated as a function of the population served and the volume of water discharged. We tested model results using historical USGS discharge data and N data from historical grab samples and recently initiated continuous measurements from in-situ aquatic sensors. Model results for major Northeast watersheds illustrate hot spots of ecosystem service activity (i.e. N removal) using high-resolution maps and basin profiles. As expected, N loading increases with increasing suburban or agricultural land use area. Network scale N removal is highest during summer and autumn when discharge is low and river temperatures are high. N removal as the % of N loading increases with catchment size and decreases with increasing N loading, suburban land use, or agricultural land use. Catchments experiencing the highest network scale N removal generally have N inputs (both point and non-point sources) located in lower order streams. Model results can be used to better

  17. Transboundary water governance in the Mekong: waterscapes in transition: can the Mekong River Commission improve its institutional capacity to mitigate, mediate and resolve transboundary water-related conflict within a rapidly developing Mekong River Basin?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Mark Robert Fraser

    2017-01-01

    This research thesis will explore the relationship between integrated water resource management (IWRM), water conflict and cooperation within the Mekong River Basin and the capacity of the Mekong River Commission (MRC) to influence water governance in a rapidly evolving region. The paper will also analyse the historical evolution of the MRC and its role and influence on regional water governance within a highly complex geopolitical landscape. Based on a comparative analysis of the MRC's respo...

  18. Two Pontic rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes; Jensen, Marit

    2015-01-01

    The accounts of the landscape around the Iris (Yeşilirmak) and the Thermodon (Terme) given by ancient authors are diverse and often contradictory. The Periegesis of the World by Dionysius of Alexandria, a didactic poem written in the early IInd c. A.D., established an image of the two rivers...... that does not correspond to their actual characteristics. A closer study reveals that Dionysius, or possibly his source, has confused the two: the river which he describes as the Thermodon is in fact the Iris, and vice versa. This mistake was not realized by later translators (Avienus, late IVth c. A...

  19. Using place-based curricula to teach about restoring river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, D. R.; Collins, B. D.; Updegrave, C.; Montgomery, D. R.; Colonnese, T. G.; Sheikh, A. J.; Haynie, K.; Johnson, V.; Data Sets; Inquiry in Environmental Restoration Studies (Nsf Geo Project 0808076)

    2010-12-01

    Zalles, Daniel R. (Center for Technology in Learning, SRI International) Collins, Brian D., Updegrave, Cynthia, Montgomery, David R., Colonnese, Thomas G., Sheikh, Amir J., (University of Washington) Haynie, Kathleen., Johnson, Vonda. (Haynie Research and Evaluation) A collaborative team from the University of Washington and SRI International is developing place based curricula about complex river systems. This NSF-funded project, known as Data Sets and Inquiry in Environmental Restoration Studies (DIGERS), is producing and piloting curricula on river systems of the Puget Sound over a two-year period at the University of Washington and at a public high school on an Indian reservation. At the high school, DIGERS is developing for a population of Native American students a geoscience curriculum that is embedded in their culture and bio-physical environment. At the UW, the goal is to teach about rivers as integrated physical, biological, and human systems that are products of their unique geological and human histories. The curriculum addresses the challenge of teaching general principles about rivers in a way that develops students’ capability to develop a more sophisticated understanding of the interplay of attributes that characterize a particular river at a point in time. Undergraduate students also learn about the challenges of trying to "restore" local river environments to some past condition, including the pitfall of over-generalizing the efficacy of human interventions from one river system to another. For the high school curriculum, a web site is being produced that integrates modules of general information about the focal scientific phenomena (e.g., rivers and floodplains; how human activities influence rivers; salmon habitat) and data and inquiry-related skills (e.g., how to reconstruct historical change) with place based historical and contemporary information about a specific river environment: the Snohomish River watershed. This information consists

  20. Using Augmented Reality and Virtual Environments in Historic Places to Scaffold Historical Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Sara K.; Newbill, Phyllis; Ogle, Todd; Terry, Krista

    2018-01-01

    The authors explore how 3D visualizations of historical sites can be used as pedagogical tools to support historical empathy. They provide three visualizations created by a team at Virginia Tech as examples. They discuss virtual environments and how the digital restoration process is applied. They also define historical empathy, explain why it is…

  1. ACCOUNTING HARMONIZATION AND HISTORICAL COST ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a huge interest in accounting harmonization and historical costs accounting, in what they offer us. In this article, different valuation models are discussed. Although one notices the movement from historical cost accounting to fair value accounting, each one has its advantages.

  2. historical narrative and wisdom. towards preaching esther

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article considers the problem of preaching OT historical narrative from the point of view of the depiction of God's participation in the drama. It suggests that historical narrative in general depicts a God who reveals himself infrequently, that his presence is normally veiled, and that the reader often has more information ...

  3. Internationalisation of Law: Historical and Cultural Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lev, Amnon

    2011-01-01

    The article provides a historical overview of the stages in the internationalisation of Danish law and the implication of regional and global legal settings in this process......The article provides a historical overview of the stages in the internationalisation of Danish law and the implication of regional and global legal settings in this process...

  4. 18 CFR 420.45 - Historical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Historical use. 420.45... MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Charges; Exemptions § 420.45 Historical use. A person who or which could not for any reason use, take, withdraw or divert waters of the basin from the place in...

  5. Negotiating the Process of Historical Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endacott, Jason L.

    2014-01-01

    Historical empathy scholarship has evolved to the point where further progress necessitates empirical examinations from a variety of perspectives. Prior studies on historical empathy have largely focused on teachers' pedagogical approach and student outcomes. This qualitative study focuses on students as they engage in the process of historical…

  6. Historical sites at the Prince Edward islands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, J

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available This report gives the results of a workshop held on historical sites at the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward islands, southern Indian Ocean. All known visits and sojourns on the Prince Edward islands up to 1948 are tabulated. All known historical sites...

  7. ORAL TRADITION AND HISTORICAL RECONSTRUCTION IN IGBO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBL

    Fire, war and ravages of time have robbed posterity of most of the rest, and the restitutions that archaeologists and palaeographers could achieve ... the historical validity of Homer‟s epic poems. The historicity of the Homer‟s iliad led to the finding and excavation of Troy as an archaeological site. As McCall had further aptly.

  8. Historic Methods for Capturing Magnetic Field Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    I investigated two late 19th-century methods for capturing magnetic field images from iron filings for historical insight into the pedagogy of hands-on physics education methods, and to flesh out teaching and learning practicalities tacit in the historical record. Both methods offer opportunities for close sensory engagement in data-collection…

  9. Historical and Conceptual Foundation of Diagrammatical Ontology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Uckelman, Sara L.; Schärfe, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    During the Renaissance there was a growing interest for the use of diagrams within conceptual studies. This paper investigates the historical and philosophical foundation of this renewed use of diagrams in ontology as well as the modern relevance of this foundation. We discuss the historical...

  10. Art and Historical Truth: The Boston Massacre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agresto, John

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the inaccuracy of Revere's "Boston Massacre" print as a description of historical fact. Notes, however, that the print is still a description of truth, a correct understanding of the meaning and portent of the occurrence in a way that historical accuracy (rather than art) might well have distorted. (JMF)

  11. Representing Historical Knowledge in Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossner, Karl Eric

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of historical scholars in social science and humanities fields are using geographic information systems (GIS) to help investigate spatial questions and map their findings. The nature of historical data and historiographic practices present several challenges in using GIS that have been addressed only partially to date. For…

  12. Historical Studies of Social Mobility and Stratification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, Marco H.D. van; Maas, Ineke

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses historical studies of social mobility and stratification. The focus is on changes in social inequality and mobility in past societies and their determinants. It discusses major historical sources, approaches, and results in the fields of social stratification (ranks and classes

  13. Historic Preservation Vocabulary, Designations, and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stacy D.

    2011-01-01

    Preservationists use a common language that had its beginnings in the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. This act created the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties, which defined the terms and treatments that have become the standard for preservation projects and plans. These terms have been used…

  14. Escaping Myopia: Teaching Students about Historical Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    There are so many aspects to teaching history that are vital to creating well-rounded historical thinkers, but one of the most fundamental and most overlooked elements is the idea of causality. Far too many students do not understand the idea of causation, that there are multiple reasons for why historical events occurred and transpired in the way…

  15. 49 CFR 1105.8 - Historic Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... resources (such as swampy conditions or the presence of toxic wastes), and the surrounding terrain. (9... modified when the information is not necessary to determine the presence of historic properties and the effect of the proposed action on them. (f) Historic preservation conditions imposed by the Board in rail...

  16. SN 1006 and other historical supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, F. Richard

    2007-08-01

    The supernova which appeared in AD 1006 is unique in history for its brilliance, duration of visibility, and the interest it aroused. Almost thirty separate records of the star are preserved from various parts of the world. This paper briefly summarizes historical records of SN 1006 and discusses the prospects of uncovering further historical records of supernovae.

  17. Patriotic and Historical Plays for Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerman, Sylvia E., Ed.

    The one-act, royalty-free plays in this book dramatize notable events in United States history. Historical selections include dramatizations of the Declaration of Independence, the Boston Tea Party, the Continental Army at Valley Forge, the birth of the Constitution, and George Washington crossing the Delaware and feature such historic figures as…

  18. History of water quality parameters - a study on the Sinos River/Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konzen, G B; Figueiredo, J A S; Quevedo, D M

    2015-05-01

    Water is increasingly becoming a valuable resource, constituting one of the central themes of environmental, economic and social discussions. The Sinos River, located in southern Brazil, is the main river from the Sinos River Basin, representing a source of drinking water supply for a highly populated region. Considering its size and importance, it becomes necessary to conduct a study to follow up the water quality of this river, which is considered by some experts as one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil. As for this study, its great importance lies in the historical analysis of indicators. In this sense, we sought to develop aspects related to the management of water resources by performing a historical analysis of the Water Quality Index (WQI) of the Sinos River, using statistical methods. With regard to the methodological procedures, it should be pointed out that this study performs a time analysis of monitoring data on parameters related to a punctual measurement that is variable in time, using statistical tools. The data used refer to analyses of the water quality of the Sinos River (WQI) from the State Environmental Protection Agency Henrique Luiz Roessler (Fundação Estadual de Proteção Ambiental Henrique Luiz Roessler, FEPAM) covering the period between 2000 and 2008, as well as to a theoretical analysis focusing on the management of water resources. The study of WQI and its parameters by statistical analysis has shown to be effective, ensuring its effectiveness as a tool for the management of water resources. The descriptive analysis of the WQI and its parameters showed that the water quality of the Sinos River is concerning low, which reaffirms that it is one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil. It should be highlighted that there was an overall difficulty in obtaining data with the appropriate periodicity, as well as a long complete series, which limited the conduction of statistical studies such as the present one.

  19. History of water quality parameters – a study on the Sinos River/Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GB Konzen

    Full Text Available Water is increasingly becoming a valuable resource, constituting one of the central themes of environmental, economic and social discussions. The Sinos River, located in southern Brazil, is the main river from the Sinos River Basin, representing a source of drinking water supply for a highly populated region. Considering its size and importance, it becomes necessary to conduct a study to follow up the water quality of this river, which is considered by some experts as one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil. As for this study, its great importance lies in the historical analysis of indicators. In this sense, we sought to develop aspects related to the management of water resources by performing a historical analysis of the Water Quality Index (WQI of the Sinos River, using statistical methods. With regard to the methodological procedures, it should be pointed out that this study performs a time analysis of monitoring data on parameters related to a punctual measurement that is variable in time, using statistical tools. The data used refer to analyses of the water quality of the Sinos River (WQI from the State Environmental Protection Agency Henrique Luiz Roessler (Fundação Estadual de Proteção Ambiental Henrique Luiz Roessler, FEPAM covering the period between 2000 and 2008, as well as to a theoretical analysis focusing on the management of water resources. The study of WQI and its parameters by statistical analysis has shown to be effective, ensuring its effectiveness as a tool for the management of water resources. The descriptive analysis of the WQI and its parameters showed that the water quality of the Sinos River is concerning low, which reaffirms that it is one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil. It should be highlighted that there was an overall difficulty in obtaining data with the appropriate periodicity, as well as a long complete series, which limited the conduction of statistical studies such as the present one.

  20. Constraints and Opportunities for Rehabilitation of an Urban, Sonoran Desert River

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J.; Stromberg, J.; Poznik, J.; White, M.

    2005-12-01

    Several riparian restoration projects are underway in the arid southwestern United States, many centered on urban rivers. In the Phoenix metropolitan area (Arizona), multiple projects are ongoing or planned along the Salt River. Several factors constrain the urban Salt River projects: the occasional surface flows released from the upstream diversion dam are no longer hydraulically connected to the deepened groundwater table in all reaches; upstream diversion and flow-regulating dams create barriers to the flow of fine sediments, seeds and other materials; channelization has disconnected the river from its historic floodplain; and many of the tributary-mainstem connections have been severed. Actions are not being undertaken to reverse these changes; rather, attempts are being made to create localized oases by transporting pumped groundwater via delivery channels to sustain trees planted at the termini of drip-irrigation lines, and by re-shaping the land surface to create ponds and perched aquifers. In addition to these planned restorations, pockets of riparian vegetation have developed naturally along the Salt River in areas where new urban water sources have become available. We are investigating the diversity and dynamics of these self-assembled plant communities, and comparing them to the areas of focused restoration as well as to regional free-flowing reference rivers. Analysis indicates that input of water from urban storm drains sustains a diverse (but spatially limited) riparian plant community along the Salt River, albeit one whose composition reflects, in part, the urbanized landscape and thus deviates from the palette of the intended restoration plantings. In effect, the urban storm drains are functioning as tributaries and connecting the river with its watershed. The new riparian ecosystems at these storm drain outflows and at the planned restoration areas will inevitably differ from those at regional reference rivers, unless historical ecosystem

  1. Nowitna River goose survey, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An aerial goose survey of the upper Nowitna River and a river-floating goose brood survey of the upper Nowitna River were conducted May 27th through July 5th of...

  2. Stochastic Modelling of River Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Schaarup-Jensen, K.

    1996-01-01

    Numerical hydrodynamic river models are used in a large number of applications to estimate critical events for rivers. These estimates are subject to a number of uncertainties. In this paper, the problem to evaluate these estimates using probabilistic methods is considered. Stochastic models for ...... for river geometries are formulated and a coupling between hydraulic computational methods and numerical reliability methods is presented....

  3. Microchemical investigations of historical coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, F.; Fazio, E.; Scibilia, S.; Sabatino, G.; Mezzasalma, A. M.; Neri, F.; Castrizio, D.

    2015-07-01

    Microchemical investigations were carried out on ancient silver coins originated from the same country but of different historical periods between the fifth and the second centuries B.C. Energy-Dispersive X-ray microanalysis in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM-EDX) was employed to obtain qualitative and semi-quantitative information about the chemical composition of these coins. SEM-EDX analyses employ an electron beam of 20 keV, which interacts with the sample leading to the emission of characteristic X-rays, to determine elements present in the surface patina, closely related to the sample preservation. In the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis a monochromatic Al Kα radiation (1486.6 eV) interacts with the sample and photoelectrons are detected as secondary radiation, to investigate about coins elemental composition. Moreover a beam of Ar+ ions with an energy of 3 keV was used for the sputtering procedure in order to perform depth profile measurements, from the surface (patina composition) down to deeper layers. Useful information about production, chronological period and utilization places of coins are obtained to support a correct dating of these samples.

  4. Historical characterization of trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eboli, Paula; Stone, James L; Aydin, Sabri; Slavin, Konstantin V

    2009-06-01

    TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA IS a well known clinical entity characterized by agonizing, paroxysmal, and lancinating facial pain, often triggered by movements of the mouth or eating. Historical reviews of facial pain have attempted to describe this severe pain over the past 2.5 millennia. The ancient Greek physicians Hippocrates, Aretaeus, and Galen, described kephalalgias, but their accounts were vague and did not clearly correspond with what we now term trigeminal neuralgia. The first adequate description of trigeminal neuralgia was given in 1671, followed by a fuller description by physician John Locke in 1677. André described the convulsive-like condition in 1756, and named it tic douloureux; in 1773, Fothergill described it as "a painful affection of the face;" and in 1779, John Hunter more clearly characterized the entity as a form of "nervous disorder" with reference to pain of the teeth, gums, or tongue where the disease "does not reside." One hundred fifty years later, the neurological surgeon Walter Dandy equated neurovascular compression of the trigeminal nerve with trigeminal neuralgia.

  5. Historical Drawbacks of Limited Liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Boyle

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited liability is a human invention which has facilitated enormous economic growth around the world, particularly since the time of its general application in advanced countries during the nineteenth century. The individual legal identity of companies, coupled with the limited liability of their owners, has provided protection for investors from the risks associated with their investments. It has thus contributed to increase the sources of capital available to finance projects which might otherwise have been considered unviable. However, the legal protection offered to investors has negative consequences for other participants in economies. Speculation in stock markets often damages society. It is very important to study the drawbacks of limited liability and to suggest modifications to achieve a more stable, less volatile, economic growth in the world. Although this article goes to some lengths to recognise the work of authors who emphasise the positive historical economic contribution of limited lability, its main objective is to provoke a reflection around texts which point out the drawbacks and propose solutions.

  6. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology.

  7. Historic physics reprints come home

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    In a surprise happy ending, six boxes of historic reprints have returned home to CERN - more than 30 years after they went missing! The 146 items had been part of the personal library of the Nobel prize-winning physicist, Wolfgang Pauli. After his death in 1958, Pauli's widow bequeathed his scientific legacy to CERN, and part of this valuable archival collection was stored in Salle Pauli, the room dedicated to his memory. In those trustful days the room was always left open so that Pauli's Library could be freely consulted; but then 170 preprints by Born, Bohr, Heisenberg and others - some with dedications to Pauli from the author - disappeared in 1972. Regretfully, the room was then locked. Use of the collection was henceforth ‘by appointment only', but it was assumed that the damage was done and the missing items had gone forever. However, in 2002 the CERN Archivist was surprised by a phone call from a representative of Christie's, New York, who explained that some reprints bearing the stamp of the CERN...

  8. Palaeo-geomorphology of The Nile River in Upper Egypt by using geomorphological and geoarchaeological indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdy, Torab

    2017-04-01

    Ancient Egyptians built their temples purposefully close to the River Nile in order to use it for transporting construction stones from faraway quarries to building sites in river-boats. Most temples, therefore, have river-horbours associated with their geometric designs. The paleo-river channel can be remapped based on this idea, beside other geomorphological and geoarchaeological indicators / evidence located between Aswan and Luxor cites. In this sense, this paper will define the characteristics of this ancient course and its associated landforms using paleochannel morphology, paleo-meandering and ancient river dynamics during historic and prehistoric times. It will adopt a geo-archaeological approach including field surveying and mapping, manual auger drilling, grain-size distribution of sample sediments and dating. In addition, multi-date satellite-image interpretations and historic topographic maps will also be used to reconstruct the paleo-geomorphological map of the river course and to investigate its ancient morphology south of Luxor, starting with observations from the present to prehistoric times.

  9. Historical Change of Equilibrium Water Temperature in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, H.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in freshwater ecosystems due to a climate change have been great concern for sustainable river basin management both for water resources utilization and ecological conservation. However, their impact seems to be difficult to evaluate because of wide variety of basin characteristics along a river network both in nature and social environment. This presentation uses equilibrium water temperature as a simple criterion index for evaluating the long-term changes of stream thermal environment due to the historical climate change in Japan. It examines, at first, the relationship between the equilibrium water temperature and the stream temperature observed for 7 years at a lower reach in the Ibo River, Japan. It analyzes, then, the seasonal and regional trends of the equilibrium water temperature change for the last 50 years at 133 meteorological station sites throughout Japan, discussing their rising or falling characteristics. The correlation analysis at the local reach of the Ibo River shows that the equilibrium water temperature has similar trend of change as the stream temperature. However, its value tends to be higher than the stream temperature in summer, while lower in winter. The onset of the higher equilibrium water temperature fluctuates annually from mid February to early April. This onset fluctuation at each spring could be influenced by the different amount of snow at the antecedent winter. The rising or falling trends of the equilibrium water temperature are analyzed both annually and seasonally through the regression analysis of the 133 sites in Japan. Consequently, the trends of the temperature change could be categorized by 12 patterns. As for the seasonal analysis, the results shows that there are many sites indicating the falling trend in spring and summer, and rising trends in autumn and winter. In particular, winter has the strong rising tendency throughout Japan. As for the regional analysis, the result illustrates the precise rationality; e

  10. The Role of stocking in the reestablishment and augmentation of native fish in the Lower Colorado River mainstream (1998-2002)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    The Colorado River has experienced dramatic physical and biological change. Rated as the fifth largest river in the USA by volume, today its waters seldom reach the sea. Water diversions gradually reduce its flow to a point where its last remaining waters are diverted at Morales Dam leaving nearly 100 km of historic channel dry. In contrast, lower basin storage reservoirs cover 36% of the historic channel. Remaining portions of the flowing river have been channelized and straightened to a point where it now resembles a large canal. Levees, mechanical dredging, and the natural forces of erosion have degraded the river channel nearly 2 m in some locations, isolating it from its floodplain and affecting local water tables. The river no longer functions as a natural stream system characteristic of spring run-off, summer spates, and droughts. Today it serves as a water storage and conveyance system to meet human needs.

  11. The River Rock School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gereaux, Teresa Thomas

    1999-01-01

    In the early 1920s, the small Appalachian community of Damascus, Virginia, used private subscriptions and volunteer labor to build a 15-classroom school made of rocks from a nearby river and chestnut wood from nearby forests. The school building's history, uses for various community activities, and current condition are described. (SV)

  12. Discover the Nile River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project WET Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Bordering on the Fantastic. As the longest river on earth, the Nile passes through 10 countries. Presented through a wide range of activities and a winning array of games, it's also unsurpassed at taking young minds into exploring the world of water, as well as natural and man made wonders.

  13. Laboratory Alluvial Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devauchelle, O.; Abramian, A.; Seizilles, G.; Lajeunesse, E.

    2015-12-01

    By which physical mechanisms does a river select its shape and size? We investigate this question using small laboratory rivers formed by laminar flows.In its simplest form, this experiment consists in a flow of glycerol over a uniform layer of plastic sediments. After a few hours, a channel forms spontaneously, and eventually reaches a stable geometry. This equilibrium state corresponds accurately to the force balance proposed by Henderson (1961).If we impose a sediment discharge at the inlet of the experiment, the river adjusts to this boundary condition by widening its channel. Observation suggests that this new equilibrium results from the balance between gravity, which pulls the entrained grains towards the center of the channel, and bedload diffusion, which returns them towards the banks. This balance explains why experimental rivers get wider and shallower as their sediment load increases.However, to test quantitatively this theory against observation, we need to evaluate independently the effect of transverse slope on bedload transport. We propose to use an instability generated by bedload diffusion to do so.

  14. River Out of Edenl

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 11. River Out of Eden Darwin Goes Digital: Old View, New Metaphor. J A Santosh. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 11 November 1997 pp 104-106. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. communities of rivers, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    daily by noise pollution and other health hazards. They drink from the very rivers and rivulets which have been polluted by petroleum extracts making development difficult. The sum total of all development objectives is to make life more meaningful and allow the people feel the impact of the “new dawn" of development.

  16. River Pollution: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Describes a unit on river pollution and analytical methods to use in assessing temperature, pH, flow, calcium, chloride, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved nitrogen, detergents, heavy metals, sewage pollution, conductivity, and sediment cores. Suggests tests to be carried out and discusses significance of results. (JM)

  17. The Mtata River estuary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-02-28

    Feb 28, 1989 ... A survey of the fish fauna of Transkei estuaries. Part Three: The Mtata River estuary. E.E. Plumstead* and J.F. Prinsloo. Department of Zoology, University of Transkei, Private Bag X1 001, Unitra, Umtata, Republic of Transkei. H.J. Schoonbee. Department of Zoology, Rand Afrikaans University, P.O. Box 524, ...

  18. The Hudson River estuary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levinton, J.S; Waldman, J.R

    2006-01-01

    ... emphasis on important issues specific to the Hudson, such as the effect of power plants and high concentrations of PCBs. The chapters are written by specialists at a level that is accessible to students, teachers, and the interested layperson. The Hudson River Estuary is a unique scientifi c biography of a major estuary, with relevance to the s...

  19. Streamflow characterization and summary of water-quality data collection during the Mississippi River flood, April through July 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Heather L.; Barnes, Kimberlee K.

    2013-01-01

    From April through July 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey collected surface-water samples from 69 water-quality stations and 3 flood-control structures in 4 major subbasins of the Mississippi River Basin to characterize the water quality during the 2011 Mississippi River flood. Most stations were sampled at least monthly for field parameters suspended sediment, nutrients, and selected pesticides. Samples were collected at daily to biweekly frequencies at selected sites in the case of suspended sediment. Hydro-carbon analysis was performed on samples collected at two sites in the Atchafalaya River Basin to assess the water-quality implications of opening the Morganza Floodway. Water-quality samples obtained during the flood period were collected at flows well above normal streamflow conditions at the majority of the stations throughout the Mississippi River Basin and its subbasins. Heavy rainfall and snowmelt resulted in high streamflow in the Mississippi River Basin from April through July 2011. The Ohio River Subbasin contributed to most of the flow in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Subbasin during the months of April and May because of widespread rainfall, whereas snowmelt and precipitation from the Missouri River Subbasin and the upper Mississippi River Subbasin contributed to most of the flow in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Subbasin during June and July. Peak streamflows from the 2011 flood were higher than peak streamflow during previous historic floods at most the selected streamgages in the Mississippi River Basin. In the Missouri River Subbasin, the volume of water moved during the 1952 flood was greater than the amount move during the 2011 flood. Median concentrations of suspended sediment and total phosphorus were higher in the Missouri River Subbasin during the flood when compared to the other three subbasins. Surface water in the upper Mississippi River Subbasin contained higher median concentrations of total nitrogen, nitrate

  20. River water pollution condition in upper part of Brantas River and Bengawan Solo River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosmini, D.; Septiono, M. A.; Putri, N. E.; Shabrina, H. M.; Salami, I. R. S.; Ariesyady, H. D.

    2018-01-01

    Wastewater and solid waste from both domestic and industry have been known to give burden on river water quality. Most of river water quality problem in Indonesia has start in the upper part of river due to anthropogenic activities, due to inappropriate land use management including the poor wastewater infrastructure. Base on Upper Citarum River Water pollution problem, it is interesting to study the other main river in Java Island. Bengawan Solo River and Brantas River were chosen as the sample in this study. Parameters assessed in this study are as follows: TSS, TDS, pH, DO, and hexavalent chromium. The status of river water quality are assess using STORET method. Based on (five) parameters, STORET value showed that in Brantas River, Pagerluyung monitoring point had the worst quality relatively compared to other monitoring point in Brantas River with exceeding copper, lead and tin compared to the stream standard in East Java Provincial Regulation No. 2 in 2008. Brantas River was categorized as lightly polluted river based on monitoring period 2011-2015 in 5 monitoring points, namely Pendem, Sengguruh, Kademangan, Meritjan and Kertosono.