WorldWideScience

Sample records for historical control evaluation

  1. Internal Evaluation, Historically Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathison, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The author analyzes the growth and nature of internal evaluation from the 1960s to the present and suggests that internal evaluation has been on the increase because of its perceived importance. Although the 1960s were characterized by a rich intellectual development of evaluation theory and practice, the fiscal conservatism of the 1980s ushered…

  2. Historical Contingency in Controlled Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A basic question in evolution is dealing with the nature of an evolutionary memory. At thermodynamic equilibrium, at stable stationary states or other stable attractors the memory on the path leading to the long-time solution is erased, at least in part. Similar arguments hold for unique optima. Optimality in biology is discussed on the basis of microbial metabolism. Biology, on the other hand, is characterized by historical contingency, which has recently become accessible to experimental test in bacterial populations evolving under controlled conditions. Computer simulations give additional insight into the nature of the evolutionary memory, which is ultimately caused by the enormous space of possibilities that is so large that it escapes all attempts of visualization. In essence, this contribution is dealing with two questions of current evolutionary theory: (i) Are organisms operating at optimal performance? and (ii) How is the evolutionary memory built up in populations?

  3. Climate control in historic buildings in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Klenz Larsen, Poul; Broström, Tor

    2011-01-01

    In many historic buildings, conservation heating has been used to control the RH in winter. Heat pumps are much more energy efficient than direct electric heating, so this technology may be adapted for climate control. Dehumidification has not been regarded as appropriate for historic buildings due to poor regulation, but recent development in electronic hygrostats makes this technology an attractive alternative. The annual energy consumption for both control strategies was calculated from st...

  4. Historical model evaluation data requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, B.C.; McCain, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Several studies about tank waste contents have been published using historical records of tank transactions and various analytical measurements. While these records offer a wealth of information, the results are questionable until error estimates associated with the results can be established. However, they do provide a direction for investigation. Two principal observations from the studies are: (1) Large quantities of individual waste types from the various separations processes were widely distributed throughout the tank farms, and (2) The compositions of many of these waste types are quite distinct from one another. A key assumption associated with these observations is that the effects of time and location on the tank wastes are either nominal or not discernable. Since each waste type has a distinct composition, it would benefit all programs to better quantify that composition, and establish an uncertainty for each element of that composition. Various process, disposal, or other decisions could then be made based on current information reducing the need for extended sampling and analysis

  5. Evaluation and cataloging of Korean historical earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kew Hwa; Han, Young Woo; Lee, Jun Hui; Park, Ji Eok; Na, Kwang Wooing; Shin, Byung Ju

    1999-03-01

    Historical earthquake data of the Korean Peninsula which are very important is evaluating seismicity and seismic hazard of the peninsula were collected and analyzed by seismologist and historian. A preliminary catalog of Korean historical earthquake data translated in English was made. Felt places of 528 events felt at more than 2 places were indicated on maps and MMI III isoseismal were drawn for 52 events of MMI≥VII. Epicenters and intensities of these MMI≥VII events were estimated from these isoseismal maps

  6. Evaluation and cataloging of Korean historical earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kew Hwa; Han, Young Woo; Lee, Jun Hui; Park, Ji Eok; Na, Kwang Wooing; Shin, Byung Ju [The Reaearch Institute of Basic Sciences, Seoul Nationl Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    Historical earthquake data of the Korean Peninsula which are very important is evaluating seismicity and seismic hazard of the peninsula were collected and analyzed by seismologist and historian. A preliminary catalog of Korean historical earthquake data translated in English was made. Felt places of 528 events felt at more than 2 places were indicated on maps and MMI III isoseismal were drawn for 52 events of MMI{>=}VII. Epicenters and intensities of these MMI{>=}VII events were estimated from these isoseismal maps.

  7. LWR control assembly designs: A historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennard, M.W.; Harbottle, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    Control rod designs and materials have evolved in response to performance problems in both PWRs and BWRs. Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) due to absorber swelling has primarily affected BWR control rods with B 4 C absorbers, but has also occurred in PWRs with Ag-In-Cd absorbers. The primary problems for some designs of PWR control rods have been wear of the rodlets against upper internal components and swelling with tip wear and cracking. Competition amongst vendors for supplying control rod reloads has also resulted in design improvements. This paper provides an historical review of PWR and BWR control rod designs, their problems and remedies. (author)

  8. Bayesian selective response-adaptive design using the historical control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Ok; Harun, Nusrat; Liu, Chunyan; Khoury, Jane C; Broderick, Joseph P

    2018-06-13

    High quality historical control data, if incorporated, may reduce sample size, trial cost, and duration. A too optimistic use of the data, however, may result in bias under prior-data conflict. Motivated by well-publicized two-arm comparative trials in stroke, we propose a Bayesian design that both adaptively incorporates historical control data and selectively adapt the treatment allocation ratios within an ongoing trial responsively to the relative treatment effects. The proposed design differs from existing designs that borrow from historical controls. As opposed to reducing the number of subjects assigned to the control arm blindly, this design does so adaptively to the relative treatment effects only if evaluation of cumulated current trial data combined with the historical control suggests the superiority of the intervention arm. We used the effective historical sample size approach to quantify borrowed information on the control arm and modified the treatment allocation rules of the doubly adaptive biased coin design to incorporate the quantity. The modified allocation rules were then implemented under the Bayesian framework with commensurate priors addressing prior-data conflict. Trials were also more frequently concluded earlier in line with the underlying truth, reducing trial cost, and duration and yielded parameter estimates with smaller standard errors. © 2018 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Arms control: moral, political and historical lesson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Many of the world's most influential policy-makers and analysts view arms control as a scientific and technological problem. They measure a nation's nuclear power exclusively by megatonnage and throw-weights leaving the intangible elements of military and political power to philosophers and historians. They tend to ignore the human and qualitative aspects of power. This is a book that shift the emphasis to aspects of the nuclear problem which are sometimes overlooked. Basically, these elements are bound up in the moral, political, and historical lessons of the nuclear age. Nonquantitative factors have been central to studies of national defense and military power since the rise of the modern nation state system. However, most students of present-day nuclear weapons tend to stress their revolutionary character. Because they are considered wholly unique, analysts tend to write about them in a historical and apolitical terms. One purpose of the collection of papers in this little volume is to redirect attention to the moral, political, and historical lessons that the nuclear age presents. What most distinguishes the writings of contributors to this volume is their use of certain well-established principles and concepts long acknowledged in military and foreign policy analysis. Thus Father Hehir asks many of the same questions that students of ethics and foreign policy have asked for four hundred years

  10. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of thes...

  11. The Historical Development of Evaluation Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkin, Marvin C.; King, Jean A.

    2016-01-01

    The first article in this series traces the initial development of the concept of evaluation use. As a field, evaluation has always paid attention to the potential for use, both in decision-making and in changing people's thinking. The broad history of the field as we know it today stemmed from two streams: one focused on tests and measurement,…

  12. Historical Overview of Leprosy Control in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldarraín-Chaple, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Leprosy, an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, affects the nervous system, skin, internal organs, extremities and mucous membranes. Biological, social and environmental factors influence its occurrence and transmission. The first effective treatments appeared in 1930 with the development of dapsone, a sulfone. The main components of a control and elimination strategy are early case detection and timely administration of multidrug therapy. OBJECTIVES Review the history of leprosy control in Cuba, emphasizing particularly results of the National Leprosy Control Program, its modifications and influence on leprosy control. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION The historiological method was applied using document review, complemented by interviews with experts on leprosy and its control. Archived documents, medical records, disease prevalence censuses conducted since 1942, and incidence and prevalence statistics for 1960-2015 from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division were reviewed. Reports and scientific literature published on the Program and the history of leprosy in Cuba were also reviewed. DEVELOPMENT Leprosy has been documented in Cuba since 1613. In 1938, the Leprosy Foundation was created with ten dispensaries nationwide for diagnosis and treatment. The first National Leprosy Control Program was established in 1962, implemented in 1963 and revised five times. In 1972, leper colonies were closed and treatment became ambulatory. In 1977, rifampicin was introduced. In 1988, the Program instituted controlled, decentralized, community-based multidrug treatment and established the criteria for considering a patient cured. In 2003, it included actions aimed at early diagnosis and prophylactic treatment of contacts. Since 2008, it prioritizes actions directed toward the population at risk, maintaining five-year followup with dermatological and neurological examination. Primary health care carries out diagnostic and treatment

  13. Quasi-Experiments in Schools: The Case for Historical Cohort Control Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Tamara M.

    2014-01-01

    There is increased emphasis on using experimental and quasi-experimental methods to evaluate educational programs; however, educational evaluators and school leaders are often faced with challenges when implementing such designs in educational settings. Use of a historical cohort control group design provides a viable option for conducting…

  14. Evaluating fire-damaged components of historic covered bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Kukay; Charles Todd; Tyler Jahn; Jenson Sannon; Logan Dunlap; Robert White; Mark Dietenberger

    2016-01-01

    Arson continues to claim many historic covered bridges. Site-specific, post-fire evaluations of the structural integrity of a bridge are often necessary in a fire’s aftermath. Decisions on whether individual wood components can be rehabilitated, reconstructed, or replaced must be made. This report includes coverage of existing approaches and exploratory approaches that...

  15. Recovery and evaluation of historical environmental monitoring data at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from the nuclear operations at the Hanford site since 1944. The Environmental Monitoring Data Task within HEDR is charged with assembling, evaluating, and summarizing key historical measurements of radionuclide concentrations in the environment on and around the Hanford site. The recovery and evaluation of historical environmental monitoring data are integral parts of the environmental dose reconstruction process. The data generated through historical environmental monitoring programs may be critical in the development of dose modeling codes and in performing a meaningful environmental pathway analysis. In addition, environmental monitoring data are essential in the verification of model calculations and in the validation of the model itself. The paper a task logic flowchart illustrating how the process evolves within the Environmental Monitoring Data Task and the interaction with other project tasks. The reconstruction of such data presents numerous challenges, many of which are not generally encountered in typical scientific studies. This paper discusses the process of reconstructing historical environmental monitoring data at Hanford. Several of the difficulties encountered during this process are presented. Items that may be beneficial and should be considered in performing such a task are identified

  16. Performance evaluation methodology for historical document image binarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntirogiannis, Konstantinos; Gatos, Basilis; Pratikakis, Ioannis

    2013-02-01

    Document image binarization is of great importance in the document image analysis and recognition pipeline since it affects further stages of the recognition process. The evaluation of a binarization method aids in studying its algorithmic behavior, as well as verifying its effectiveness, by providing qualitative and quantitative indication of its performance. This paper addresses a pixel-based binarization evaluation methodology for historical handwritten/machine-printed document images. In the proposed evaluation scheme, the recall and precision evaluation measures are properly modified using a weighting scheme that diminishes any potential evaluation bias. Additional performance metrics of the proposed evaluation scheme consist of the percentage rates of broken and missed text, false alarms, background noise, character enlargement, and merging. Several experiments conducted in comparison with other pixel-based evaluation measures demonstrate the validity of the proposed evaluation scheme.

  17. Experience of Implementing Moisture Sorption Control in Historical Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zítek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a novel approach to inhibiting the harmful impact of moisture sorption in old art works and historical exhibits preserved in remote historic buildings that are in use as depositories or exhibition rooms for cultural heritage collections. It is a sequel to the previous work presented in [2], where the principle of moisture sorption stabilization was explained. Sorption isotherm investigations and EMC control implementation in historical buildings not provided with heating are the main concern in this paper. The proposed microclimate adjustment consists in leaving the interior temperature to run almost its spontaneous yearly cycle, while the air humidity is maintained in a specific relationship to the current interior temperature. The interior air humidity is modestly adjusted to protect historical exhibits and art works from harmful variations in the content of absorbed moisture, which would otherwise arise owing to the interior temperature drifts. Since direct measurements of moisture content are not feasible, the air humidity is controlled via a model-based principle. Two long-term implementations of the proposed microclimate control have already proved that it can permanently maintain a constant moisture content in the preserved exhibits. 

  18. Soviet command and control in a historical context

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, Jeffrey A.

    1981-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited An examination is made of the historical antecedents of present day command and control doctrine in the Soviet Union. The continuity of principal characteristics is demonstrated. The ideological determinants shaping the command and control system are first developed. These include centralism, collective decision-making, unity of command, and redundancy. Practical consequences of these are explored. The functioning of Soviet command...

  19. Model Based Control of Moisture Sorption in a Historical Interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zítek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a novel scheme for microclimate control in historical exhibition rooms, inhibiting moisture sorption phenomena that are inadmissible from the preventive conservation point of view. The impact of air humidity is the most significant harmful exposure for a great deal of the cultural heritage deposited in remote historical buildings. Leaving the interior temperature to run almost its spontaneous yearly cycle, the proposed non-linear model-based control protects exhibits from harmful variations in moisture content by compensating the temperature drifts with an adequate adjustment of the air humidity. Already implemented in a medieval interior since 1999, the proposed microclimate control has proved capable of permanently maintaining constant a desirable moisture content in organic or porous materials in the interior of a building. 

  20. The Motivation Analysis Test: an historical and contemporary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Larry C; Walsh, R Patricia; Mills, Michael

    2005-04-01

    This is an historical review and contemporary empirical evaluation of the Motivation Analysis Test (MAT), one of the first tests to take a psychometric approach to the assessment of motivation. Reviews were quite positive, but the test is now over 50 years old. Nevertheless, it employs innovations in measurement not widely used in objective measurement then or now: (1) subtests with different formats, (2) disguised items, (3) speeded administration procedures, and (4) ipsative format and scoring procedures. These issues are discussed and a contemporary sample (N = 360) obtained to evaluate the Motivation Analysis Test in light of its innovative characteristics.

  1. Evaluation of the instability problems in rock slopes surrounding historical Safranbolu by kinematic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İnan Keskin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Safranbolu which has high probability for slope-induced disasters is a very worthwhile settlement for our country and also for the world with its historical and cultural heritage. Finding out potential hazards that may affect the wealth of this world heritage city is very crucial. The historic Safranbolu is surrounded by very steep rock slopes, and occasionally instability occurs in the rock mass that forms these slopes. The rock blocks that are relaesed in various causes and shapes can damage the historic town living spaces by creating a source for the rock fallings and moving down the slope in these very steep slopes. The rock slopes were evaluated by kinematic analysis in order to reduce the mentioned damages and to reveal potential hazards. In the study, characteristics of mass that causes rock fallings are analysed, kinematic controlled instability types are determined considering the obtained data and characteristic of slopes.

  2. Evaluation of Internal Control

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Suciu; Pipu-Nicolae Barsan

    2013-01-01

    Performance is indissolubly tied to control. Performance cannot be obtained without a strong, adequate control, regardless if it is in the public or private sector. Control is one of management’s attributes and it must be organized, implemented and evaluated in every company, regardless of its size. Each person from a company participates to a greater or lesser extent in the control activities.

  3. Visualization of historical data for the ATLAS detector controls - DDV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, J.; Schlenker, S.

    2017-10-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of four detectors located on the Large Hardon Collider (LHC) based at CERN. Its detector control system (DCS) stores the slow control data acquired within the back-end of distributed WinCC OA applications, which enables the data to be retrieved for future analysis, debugging and detector development in an Oracle relational database. The ATLAS DCS Data Viewer (DDV) is a client-server application providing access to the historical data outside of the experiment network. The server builds optimized SQL queries, retrieves the data from the database and serves it to the clients via HTTP connections. The server also implements protection methods to prevent malicious use of the database. The client is an AJAX-type web application based on the Vaadin (framework build around the Google Web Toolkit (GWT)) which gives users the possibility to access the data with ease. The DCS metadata can be selected using a column-tree navigation or a search engine supporting regular expressions. The data is visualized by a selection of output modules such as a java script value-over time plots or a lazy loading table widget. Additional plugins give the users the possibility to retrieve the data in ROOT format or as an ASCII file. Control system alarms can also be visualized in a dedicated table if necessary. Python mock-up scripts can be generated by the client, allowing the user to query the pythonic DDV server directly, such that the users can embed the scripts into more complex analysis programs. Users are also able to store searches and output configurations as XML on the server to share with others via URL or to embed in HTML.

  4. Prospects for tobacco control in Zimbabwe: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelk, G; Mtisi, S; Vaughan, J P

    2001-09-01

    Using a historical and political economy perspective, this paper explores the prospects for tobacco control in Zimbabwe, the world's sixth largest producer and third largest tobacco exporter. Tobacco production, which first began in the former Rhodesia in the early 1900s, is closely associated with colonial history and land occupation by white settlers. The Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia) Tobacco Association was formed in 1928 and soon became a powerful political force. Although land redistribution has always been a central issue, it was not adequately addressed after independence in 1980, largely due to the need for Zimbabwe to gain foreign currency and safeguard employment. However, by the mid-1990s political pressures forced the government to confront the mainly white, commercial farmers with a new land acquisition policy, but intense national and international lobbying prevented its implementation. With advent of global economic changes, and following the start of a structural adjustment programme in 1991, manufacturing began to decline and the government relied even more on the earnings from tobacco exports. Thus strengthening tobacco control policies has always had a low national and public health priority. Recent illegal occupation of predominantly white owned farms, under the guise of implementing the former land redistribution policy, was politically motivated as the government faced its first major challenge at the general elections in June 2000. It remains unclear whether this will lead to long term reductions in tobacco production, although future global declines in demand could weaken the tobacco lobby. However, since Zimbabwe is only a minor consumer of tobacco, a unique opportunity does exist to develop controls on domestic cigarette consumption. To achieve this the isolated ministry of health would need considerable support from international agencies, such as the World Health Organisation and World Bank.

  5. Seismic Evaluation of A Historical Structure In Kastamonu - Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pınar, USTA; Işıl ÇARHOĞLU, Asuman; EVCİ, Ahmet

    2018-01-01

    The Kastomonu province is a seismically active zone. the city has many historical buildings made of stone-masonry. In case of any probable future earthquakes, existing buildings may suffer substantial or heavy damages. In the present study, one of the historical traditional house located in Kastamonu were structurally investigated through probabilistic seismic risk assessment methodology. In the study, the building was modeled by using the Finite Element Modeling (FEM) software, SAP2000. Time history analyses were carried out using 10 different ground motion data on the FEM models. Displacements were interpreted, and the results were displayed graphically and discussed.

  6. Can targeted early intervention improve functional recovery in psychosis? A historical control evaluation of the effectiveness of different models of early intervention service provision in Norfolk 1998-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, David; Hodgekins, Jo; Howells, Lawrence; Millward, Melanie; Ivins, Annabel; Taylor, Gavin; Hackmann, Corinna; Hill, Katherine; Bishop, Nick; Macmillan, Iain

    2009-11-01

    This paper assesses the impact of different models of early intervention (EI) service provision on functional recovery and inpatient hospital admission. The study compares the outcome of a comprehensive EI team with a partial model (community mental health team (CMHT) plus specialist support) and traditional care (generic CMHT) over a 10-year period. The design is in comparison with historical control. The study compares the functional recovery outcomes of three cohorts from the same geographical area over the period 1998-2007. The primary outcomes were partial and full functional recovery defined with respect to readily identifiable UK benefit system thresholds and psychiatric inpatient admission days at 1 and 2 years post-referral. Only 15% of individuals made a full or partial functional recovery at 2 years under the care of a traditional generic CMHT in 1998. In 2007, 52% of the cases were making a full or partial functional recovery under the care of the comprehensive EI team. A large reduction in inpatient admissions was associated with the EI strategy. The implementation of comprehensive EI teams can have a major impact in improving functional recovery outcomes in psychosis and reducing inpatient admissions. Partial implementation using limited funding of specialist workers in collaboration with traditional care appeared to have a more limited effect on these recovery dimensions. The implementation of targeted EI in psychosis strategies can result in substantive functional benefits. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Significance tests in mutagen screening: another method considering historical control frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traut, H.

    1983-01-01

    Recently a method has been devised for testing the significance of the difference between a mutation frequency observed after chemical treatment or iradiation and the historical ('stable') control frequency. Another test is proposed serving the same purpose. Both methods are applied to several examples (experimental frequency versus historical control frequency). The results (P values) obtained agree well. (author)

  8. Historical analysis indicates seepage control on initiation of meandering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhout, J.P.C.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Makaske, B.

    2013-01-01

    In analytical and numerical models of river meandering, initiation of meandering typically occurs uniformly along the streamwise coordinate in the channel. Based on a historical analysis of the Nierskanaal, here we show how and under which circumstances meandering has initiated in isolated sections

  9. What Just Happened? A Historical Evaluation of Project CHECO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    official training on the equipment either, which resulted in several roles of unusable film . The AFHRA historical record contains countless...infamous rescue of Bat 21, which became the subject of a best-selling work of non-fiction and the basis for a Hollywood blockbuster film , the...products of its genre in which “the central message was lost in the medium of its transmittal.” 26 The CHECO reports were united in their critical

  10. Energy efficient HVAC control in historical buildings : a case study for the Amsterdam Museum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompatscher, K.; Seuren, S.; Kramer, R.P.; Van Schijndel, J.A.W.M.; Schellen, H.L.

    2017-01-01

    Museums are often located in historical buildings. To provide suitable housing in a historical building for a museum, these buildings are usually adapted to suit the need for object preservation through HVAC control. Maintaining a strict indoor climate and limiting short fluctuations in indoor

  11. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory historical dose evaluation: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, S.J.

    1991-08-01

    The methodology and results are presented for an evaluation of potential radiation doses to a hypothetical individual who may have resided at an offsite location with the highest concentration of airborne radionuclides near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Volume 1 contains a summary of methods and results. The years of INEL operations from 1952 to 1989 were evaluated. Radiation doses to an adult, child, and infant were estimated for both operational (annual) and episodic (short-term) airborne releases from INEL facilities. Atmospheric dispersion of operational releases was modeled using annual average meteorological conditions. Dispersion of episodic releases was generally modeled using actual hourly wind speed and direction data at the time of release. 50 refs., 23 figs., 10 tabs

  12. Using Historical Data to Automatically Identify Air-Traffic Control Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauderdale, Todd A.; Wu, Yuefeng; Tretto, Celeste

    2014-01-01

    This project seeks to develop statistical-based machine learning models to characterize the types of errors present when using current systems to predict future aircraft states. These models will be data-driven - based on large quantities of historical data. Once these models are developed, they will be used to infer situations in the historical data where an air-traffic controller intervened on an aircraft's route, even when there is no direct recording of this action.

  13. An historical survey of computational methods in optimal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, E.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the salient theoretical developments in the specific area of optimal control algorithms. The first algorithms for optimal control were aimed at unconstrained problems and were derived by using first- and second-variation methods of the calculus of variations. These methods have subsequently been recognized as gradient, Newton-Raphson, or Gauss-Newton methods in function space. A much more recent addition to the arsenal of unconstrained optimal control algorithms are several variations of conjugate-gradient methods. At first, constrained optimal control problems could only be solved by exterior penalty function methods. Later algorithms specifically designed for constrained problems have appeared. Among these are methods for solving the unconstrained linear quadratic regulator problem, as well as certain constrained minimum-time and minimum-energy problems. Differential-dynamic programming was developed from dynamic programming considerations. The conditional-gradient method, the gradient-projection method, and a couple of feasible directions methods were obtained as extensions or adaptations of related algorithms for finite-dimensional problems. Finally, the so-called epsilon-methods combine the Ritz method with penalty function techniques.

  14. Historical analysis of SO2 pollution control policies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cailing; Yin, Huaqiang; Ai, Nanshan; Huang, Zhengwen

    2009-03-01

    Coal is not only an important energy source in China but also a major source of air pollution. Because of this, China's national sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) emissions have been the highest in the world for many years, and since the 1990s, the territory of China's south and southwest has become the third largest acid-rain-prone region in the world. In order to control SO(2) emissions, the Chinese government has formulated and promulgated a series of policies and regulations, but it faces great difficulties in putting them into practice. In this retrospective look at the history of SO(2) control in China, we found that Chinese SO(2) control policies have become increasingly strict and rigid. We also found that the environmental policies and regulations are more effective when central officials consistently give environmental protection top priority. Achieving China's environmental goals, however, has been made difficult by China's economic growth. Part of this is due to the practice of environmental protection appearing in the form of an ideological "campaign" or "storm" that lacks effective economic measures. More recently, better enforcement of environmental laws and regulations has been achieved by adding environmental quality to the performance assessment metrics for leaders at all levels. To continue making advances, China needs to reinforce the economic and environmental assessments for pollution control projects and work harder to integrate economic measures into environmental protection. Nonetheless, China has a long way to go before economic growth and environmental protection are balanced.

  15. Intermittent fasting: a "new" historical strategy for controlling seizures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Adam L; Rubenstein, James E; Kossoff, Eric H

    2013-05-01

    In antiquity, fasting was a treatment for epilepsy and a rationale for the ketogenic diet (KD). Preclinical data indicate the KD and intermittent fasting do not share identical anticonvulsant mechanisms. We implemented an intermittent fasting regimen in six children with an incomplete response to a KD. Three patients adhered to the combined intermittent fasting/KD regimen for 2 months and four had transient improvement in seizure control, albeit with some hunger-related adverse reactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation Of “1927 Urfa Annual” Based On Its Historical Geography Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Güzel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study which is one of two Year Books (Annual published in Turkey by the State (before the Alphabet Reform at beginning of the Republic term, valuable information has been submitted about historical, geographical and social characteristics of Şanlıurfa Province. This work which we try to examine with regards to historical geography characteristics involves quite satisfactory knowledge despite difficult condition of the term it has been written. Especially about climate geomorphology, natural flora, health, education, tourism, transportation, habitation and industrial activities, there has been given basic information that we can come across at the present, lead us to evaluate this work in respect to historical geography. We are able to catch the possibility of seeing our province’s progresses in time by evaluation of these kinds of works written in the past, in this sense

  17. Toy Control Program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H A; Ormond, C; Seeger, B R

    1991-08-01

    The Toy Control Program for the Apple IIe microcomputer is a software and hardware package developed for the training of single-switch scanning skills. The specially designed scanning programs provide on screen visual feedback and activate a battery-powered toy to reinforce performance. This study examined whether the training of preschool subjects in single-switch scanning skills with the Toy Control Program would result in increased task completion scores and increased levels of attention to task, as compared with conditions of toy activation only and microcomputer programs with screen reinforcement only. The results showed that the subjects paid significantly more attention to the toys as reinforcers (p less than .01). No significant difference was found for the performance results of the three conditions. These findings support the use of a program like the Toy Control Program, which integrates the instructional capabilities of a computer with the reinforcement potential of a toy and the creativity of a therapist.

  18. Material control evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddoups, I.G.; Anspach, D.A.; Abbott, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Changes in the Department of Energy's (DOE) scope of work have stimulated several laboratories and commercial companies to develop and apply technology to enhance nuclear material control. Accountability, inventory, radiation exposure, and insider protection concerns increase as many DOE facilities require increased storage. This paper summarizes a study of the existing material control technologies. The goal of the study is to identify, characterize, and quantify the trade-offs associated with using these technologies to provide real-time information on stored nuclear material that in turn supports decreasing the frequency of inventories conducted by site personnel

  19. Five-Year NRHP Re-Evaluation of Historic Buildings Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, R A; Heidecker, K R

    2011-09-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) 'Draft Programmatic Agreement among the Department of Energy and the California State Historic Preservation Officer Regarding Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory' requires a review and re-evaluation of the eligibility of laboratory properties for the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) every five years. The original evaluation was published in 2005; this report serves as the first five-year re-evaluation. This re-evaluation includes consideration of changes within LLNL to management, to mission, and to the built environment. it also determines the status of those buildings, objects, and districts that were recommended as NRHP-eligible in the 2005 report. Buildings that were omitted from the earlier building list, those that have reached 50 years of age since the original assessment, and new buildings are also addressed in the re-evaluation.

  20. Use of historical control data for assessing treatment effects in clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viele, Kert; Berry, Scott; Neuenschwander, Beat; Amzal, Billy; Chen, Fang; Enas, Nathan; Hobbs, Brian; Ibrahim, Joseph G.; Kinnersley, Nelson; Lindborg, Stacy; Micallef, Sandrine; Roychoudhury, Satrajit; Thompson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials rarely, if ever, occur in a vacuum. Generally, large amounts of clinical data are available prior to the start of a study, particularly on the current study’s control arm. There is obvious appeal in using (i.e., ‘borrowing’) this information. With historical data providing information on the control arm, more trial resources can be devoted to the novel treatment while retaining accurate estimates of the current control arm parameters. This can result in more accurate point estimates, increased power, and reduced type I error in clinical trials, provided the historical information is sufficiently similar to the current control data. If this assumption of similarity is not satisfied, however, one can acquire increased mean square error of point estimates due to bias and either reduced power or increased type I error depending on the direction of the bias. In this manuscript, we review several methods for historical borrowing, illustrating how key parameters in each method affect borrowing behavior, and then, we compare these methods on the basis of mean square error, power and type I error. We emphasize two main themes. First, we discuss the idea of ‘dynamic’ (versus ‘static’) borrowing. Second, we emphasize the decision process involved in determining whether or not to include historical borrowing in terms of the perceived likelihood that the current control arm is sufficiently similar to the historical data. Our goal is to provide a clear review of the key issues involved in historical borrowing and provide a comparison of several methods useful for practitioners. PMID:23913901

  1. Use of historical control data for assessing treatment effects in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viele, Kert; Berry, Scott; Neuenschwander, Beat; Amzal, Billy; Chen, Fang; Enas, Nathan; Hobbs, Brian; Ibrahim, Joseph G; Kinnersley, Nelson; Lindborg, Stacy; Micallef, Sandrine; Roychoudhury, Satrajit; Thompson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials rarely, if ever, occur in a vacuum. Generally, large amounts of clinical data are available prior to the start of a study, particularly on the current study's control arm. There is obvious appeal in using (i.e., 'borrowing') this information. With historical data providing information on the control arm, more trial resources can be devoted to the novel treatment while retaining accurate estimates of the current control arm parameters. This can result in more accurate point estimates, increased power, and reduced type I error in clinical trials, provided the historical information is sufficiently similar to the current control data. If this assumption of similarity is not satisfied, however, one can acquire increased mean square error of point estimates due to bias and either reduced power or increased type I error depending on the direction of the bias. In this manuscript, we review several methods for historical borrowing, illustrating how key parameters in each method affect borrowing behavior, and then, we compare these methods on the basis of mean square error, power and type I error. We emphasize two main themes. First, we discuss the idea of 'dynamic' (versus 'static') borrowing. Second, we emphasize the decision process involved in determining whether or not to include historical borrowing in terms of the perceived likelihood that the current control arm is sufficiently similar to the historical data. Our goal is to provide a clear review of the key issues involved in historical borrowing and provide a comparison of several methods useful for practitioners. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. School historical knowledge: fixation of meanings from an evaluation policy in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Leonardo Bomfim Martins

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to problematize the dispute over the fixation of meanings of school historical knowledge in Saerjinho - the evaluative instrument that makes up the evaluation system of the network in Rio de Janeiro. Conceiving the curriculum as signification practice and attribution of meaning and evaluation as a policy and curricular practice, information provided by the website of the Department of Education was analyzed, as were questions of History exams and semi-structured interviews with teachers of this discipline, from a discursive epistemic posture in the post-foundational agenda that understands the production of meaning as a political act. The analysis showed that there are disputes not over what the set historical knowledge consists of, but over who has the right to establish such knowledge within the evaluative instrument.

  3. Establishing the experimenting society : The historical origin of social experimentation according to the randomized controlled design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, T

    2001-01-01

    This article tl aces the historical origin of social experimentation. It highlights the central role of psychology in establishing the randomized controlled design and its quasi-experimental derivatives. The author investigates the differences in the 19th- and 20th-century meaning of the expression

  4. Propulsion Control Technology Development in the United States A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaw, Link C.a; Garg, Sanjay

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a historical perspective of the advancement of control technologies for aircraft gas turbine engines. The paper primarily covers technology advances in the United States in the last 60 years (1940 to approximately 2002). The paper emphasizes the pioneering technologies that have been tested or implemented during this period, assimilating knowledge and experience from industry experts, including personal interviews with both current and retired experts. Since the first United States-built aircraft gas turbine engine was flown in 1942, engine control technology has evolved from a simple hydro-mechanical fuel metering valve to a full-authority digital electronic control system (FADEC) that is common to all modern aircraft propulsion systems. At the same time, control systems have provided engine diagnostic functions. Engine diagnostic capabilities have also evolved from pilot observation of engine gauges to the automated on-board diagnostic system that uses mathematical models to assess engine health and assist in post-flight troubleshooting and maintenance. Using system complexity and capability as a measure, we can break the historical development of control systems down to four phases: (1) the start-up phase (1942 to 1949), (2) the growth phase (1950 to 1969), (3) the electronic phase (1970 to 1989), and (4) the integration phase (1990 to 2002). In each phase, the state-of-the-art control technology is described and the engines that have become historical landmarks, from the control and diagnostic standpoint, are identified. Finally, a historical perspective of engine controls in the last 60 years is presented in terms of control system complexity, number of sensors, number of lines of software (or embedded code), and other factors.

  5. Historical perspective of sexually transmitted infections and their control in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, P J

    2010-04-01

    In designing an effective national response to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), one must incorporate a historical perspective of previous efforts that have addressed different aspects of STIs. One must understand who have been the key players, what aspects of STIs were the focus of efforts (prevention, treatment or control), and which, if any, societal subgroups were targeted (i.e. sex workers, military, men who have sex with men [MSM], etc.). In addition, one must consider historical and modern attitudes towards sex, sexuality and STIs, especially in terms of taboos and stigmas that may be attached to each. Most importantly, one must recognize which efforts have succeeded, which have failed, and why. This paper presents a historical overview of the perceptions of and responses to STIs at different points in Peru's history, and discusses current efforts to build upon past successes and avoid repeating previous failures that could be helpful for other countries in the Latin American region.

  6. Nonlinear control systems - A brief overview of historical and recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Jamshed; Ullah, Mukhtar; Khan, Said Ghani; Khelifa, Baizid; Ćuković, Saša

    2017-12-01

    Last five decades witnessed remarkable developments in linear control systems and thus problems in this subject has been largely resolved. The scope of the present paper is beyond linear solutions. Modern technology demands sophisticated control laws to meet stringent design specifications thus highlighting the increasingly conspicuous position of nonlinear control systems, which is the topic of this paper. Historical role of analytical concepts in analysis and design of nonlinear control systems is briefly outlined. Recent advancements in these systems from applications perspective are examined with critical comments on associated challenges. It is anticipated that wider dissemination of this comprehensive review will stimulate more collaborations among the research community and contribute to further developments.

  7. Control Evaluation Information System Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Sutedjo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to evaluate the control of information system savings in the banking and to identify the weaknesses and problem happened in those saving systems. Research method used are book studies by collecting data and information needed and field studies by interview, observation, questioner, and checklist using COBIT method as a standard to assess the information system control of the company. The expected result about the evaluation result that show in the problem happened and recommendation given as the evaluation report and to give a view about the control done by the company. Conclusion took from this research that this banking company has met standards although some weaknesses still exists in the system.Index Terms - Control Information System, Savings

  8. Developing a Framework for Qualitative Evaluation of Urban Interventions in Iranian Historical Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Arjomand Kermani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Iranian historic city cores are important parts of modern cities because of their valuable monuments and morphology but are also significant because of their population density, location and the major governmental functions they house. Since 1920, modernisation policies and urban development trends in Iran have justified spatial transformation and redevelopment and the demolition and destruction of traditional urban fabrics as a way to provide contemporary requirements and hygiene improvements for the residents. As the UNESCO recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape argues, historic urban cores can only sustain their role in the daily life of the city by getting prepared for and participating in this transformation process. Disagreement over the value of historic urban cores on the one hand and inevitable modification of urban areas in a developing country like Iran on the other, creates a problematic condition for the preservation of the historic environment. The Valletta Principles for the Safeguarding and Management of Historic Cities, Towns and Urban Areas states that historic towns and urban areas require an integrated approach including their “protection, conservation, enhancement and management as well as their coherent development and their harmonious adaptation to contemporary life”. In order to support the process of reaching a balance between these spatial targets in Iran, this research discusses the relation between urban transformation projects and their heritage context. In doing so it connects international literature on urban quality and traditional Iranian urban forms to contemporary Iranian urban design practice. To achieve this integration between urban heritage and spatial development, a framework of quality attributes has been developed to evaluate urban interventions in a heritage context. The three main pillars of this framework have been extracted from and inspired by international literature and guidelines

  9. Can historical controls be used in current clinical trials in osteosarcoma. Metastases and survival in a historical and a concurrent group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brostroem, L.A.; Aparisi, T.; Ingimarsson, S.; Lagergren, C.; Nilsonne, U.; Strander, H.; Soederberg, G.

    1980-01-01

    A historical group consisting of 35 patients with osteosarcoma was compared to a concurrent group of 23 patients. The treatment for the primary tumors differed only slghtly in the two groups. A more active approach was adopted for treatment of pulmonary metastases in the concurrent group. The percentage of patients not developing metastases and the survival rate in the historical group were approximately one half those for the concurrent group. An analysis of prognostic factors disclosed differences between the two groups as regards the size and histological type of the tumor. The results of the study cast doubt on the suitability of historical controls in current clinical trials conducted to ascertain the effectiveness of adjuvant therapy for osteosarcoma

  10. Longitudinal effect of eteplirsen versus historical control on ambulation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goemans, Nathalie; Lowes, Linda P.; Alfano, Lindsay N.; Berry, Katherine; Shao, James; Kaye, Edward M.; Mercuri, Eugenio; Hamid, Hoda Abdel; Byrne, Barry J.; Connolly, Anne M.; Dracker, Robert A.; Matthew Frank, L.; Heydemann, Peter T.; O'Brien, Kevin C.; Sparks, Susan E.; Specht, Linda A.; Rodino‐Klapac, Louise; Sahenk, Zarife; Al‐Zaidy, Samiah; Cripe, Linda H.; Lewis, Sarah; M, Pane; E, Mazzone; S, Messina; GL, Vita; Bertini, D Amico A; Casimiro, Berardinelli A; Y, Torrente; F, Magri; GP, Comi; G, Baranello; T, Mongini; A, Pini; R, Battini; E, Pegoraro; C, Bruno; L, Politano; S, Previtali

    2016-01-01

    Objective To continue evaluation of the long‐term efficacy and safety of eteplirsen, a phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer designed to skip DMD exon 51 in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Three‐year progression of eteplirsen‐treated patients was compared to matched historical controls (HC). Methods Ambulatory DMD patients who were ≥7 years old and amenable to exon 51 skipping were randomized to eteplirsen (30/50mg/kg) or placebo for 24 weeks. Thereafter, all received eteplirsen on an open‐label basis. The primary functional assessment in this study was the 6‐Minute Walk Test (6MWT). Respiratory muscle function was assessed by pulmonary function testing (PFT). Longitudinal natural history data were used for comparative analysis of 6MWT performance at baseline and months 12, 24, and 36. Patients were matched to the eteplirsen group based on age, corticosteroid use, and genotype. Results At 36 months, eteplirsen‐treated patients (n = 12) demonstrated a statistically significant advantage of 151m (p < 0.01) on 6MWT and experienced a lower incidence of loss of ambulation in comparison to matched HC (n = 13) amenable to exon 51 skipping. PFT results remained relatively stable in eteplirsen‐treated patients. Eteplirsen was well tolerated. Analysis of HC confirmed the previously observed change in disease trajectory at age 7 years, and more severe progression was observed in patients with mutations amenable to exon skipping than in those not amenable. The subset of patients amenable to exon 51 skipping showed a more severe disease course than those amenable to any exon skipping. Interpretation Over 3 years of follow‐up, eteplirsen‐treated patients showed a slower rate of decline in ambulation assessed by 6MWT compared to untreated matched HC. Ann Neurol 2016;79:257–271 PMID:26573217

  11. Research on Evaluation of Conservation Planning Implementation of Nanshe Historic Village in Dongguan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yubin, Luo

    2017-10-01

    Conservation planning plays an important role in the protection and development of historic villages. The evaluation of conservation planning is helpful to find out the problems existing in the village protection work which helps to improve the conservation planning system. The paper briefly summarizes the conservation planning background of Nanshe historic village in Dongguan city, Guangdong province, China. The conservation planning guided the protection work of Nanshe village since 2002. It evaluates four aspects of the conservation planning implementation and effect such as protection and utilization of the ancient buildings, roadway repair, landscape and basic sanitation facilities improvement by ways of field research and questionnaire survey. There are only nineteen ancient buildings repaired and the rest of them are part of repaired or not repaired. Most of the roadways are well preserved. Only four of them are partly repaired or not repaired. Most of the villagers like to chat under the ancient banyan trees. Conservation Planning pays not much attention to the needs of the residents. Although conservation planning of Nanshe village developed the near, middle and long term target it actually took 14 years to carry out the near target. It enhances the social awareness of Nanshe village and the sense of belongings of the villagers. Most of the villagers are satisfied with the implementation of the conservation planning. Meanwhile, the paper exposes the conservation planning is too idealistic. It lacks of implementation details and the three phases of the investment funds and pays not much attention to the needs of residents.

  12. Historical seismicity in Morocco: methodological aspects and cases of multidisciplinary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmrabet, T.; Ramdani, M.; Tadili, B.

    1989-05-01

    Within the framework of a cooperative agreement between Sofratome and the Office National d'Electricite of Morocco, the Centre National de la Recherche of Rabat, with the collaboration of the French Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, was put in charge of compiling a revised catalogue of the historical seismicity of Morocco. The method adopted calls for the participation of several different disciplines in view of situating each earthquake in its own geographical and historical context. The approach entails, during the first stage involving primarily the historian, gathering together the original sources of data and subjecting them to a critical analysis in order to assess their reliability. The second stage consists in interpreting the information so as to define those earthquake characteristics that are requisite to seismic hazard studies. This latter evaluation must be the fruit of a multidisciplinary effort. This is particularly true for earthquakes of past centuries, the observations of which are frequently incompatible or biased and accordingly need to be substantiated by referring to information of a varying nature and, wherever possible, calibrated using accurate data from recent events. In a number of instances, duplications are encountered, or lumped effects for distinct events due to calendar misreckonings, erroneous copying, or misconceptions relative to the geological or historical context. A particularly significant example of the interference of these diverse aspects is afforded by the assessment of the destructive effects in Morocco of the 1755 'Lisbon' earthquake: a method is proposed for calibrating its intensities by comparing them with those of the recent 1969 event of similar origin

  13. Evaluation of historical museum interior lighting system using fully immersive virtual luminous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navvab, Mojtaba; Bisegna, Fabio; Gugliermetti, Franco

    2013-05-01

    Saint Rocco Museum, a historical building in Venice, Italy is used as a case study to explore the performance of its' lighting system and visible light impact on viewing the large size art works. The transition from threedimensional architectural rendering to the three-dimensional virtual luminance mapping and visualization within a virtual environment is described as an integrated optical method for its application toward preservation of the cultural heritage of the space. Lighting simulation programs represent color as RGB triplets in a devicedependent color space such as ITU-R BT709. Prerequisite for this is a 3D-model which can be created within this computer aided virtual environment. The onsite measured surface luminance, chromaticity and spectral data were used as input to an established real-time indirect illumination and a physically based algorithms to produce the best approximation for RGB to be used as an input to generate the image of the objects. Conversion of RGB to and from spectra has been a major undertaking in order to match the infinite number of spectra to create the same colors that were defined by RGB in the program. The ability to simulate light intensity, candle power and spectral power distributions provide opportunity to examine the impact of color inter-reflections on historical paintings. VR offers an effective technique to quantify the visible light impact on human visual performance under precisely controlled representation of light spectrum that could be experienced in 3D format in a virtual environment as well as historical visual archives. The system can easily be expanded to include other measurements and stimuli.

  14. Evaluating and managing Cold War era historic properties : the cultural significance of U.S. Air Force defensive radar systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whorton, M.

    1999-01-20

    Aircraft and later missile radar early warning stations played an important role in the Cold War. They are associated with important technological, social, political, and military themes of the Cold War and are worthy of preservation. The scope and scale of these systems make physical preservation impractical, but the U.S. Air Force program of historical evaluation and documentation of these systems will provide valuable information to future generations studying this historic period.

  15. A Historical Evaluation of the U15 Complex, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drollinger, Harold [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Holz, Barbara A. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Bullard, Thomas F. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Goldenberg, Nancy G. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Ashbaugh, Laurence J. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Griffin, Wayne R. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U15 Complex on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Three underground nuclear tests and two underground nuclear fuel storage experiments were conducted at the complex. The nuclear tests were Hard Hat in 1962, Tiny Tot in 1965, and Pile Driver in 1966. The Hard Hat and Pile Driver nuclear tests involved different types of experiment sections in test drifts at various distances from the explosion in order to determine which sections could best survive in order to design underground command centers. The Tiny Tot nuclear test involved an underground cavity in which the nuclear test was executed. It also provided data in designing underground structures and facilities to withstand a nuclear attack. The underground nuclear fuel storage experiments were Heater Test 1 from 1977 to 1978 and Spent Fuel Test - Climax from 1978 to 1985. Heater Test 1 was used to design the later Spent Fuel Test - Climax experiment. The latter experiment was a model of a larger underground storage facility and primarily involved recording the conditions of the spent fuel and the surrounding granite medium. Fieldwork was performed intermittently in the summers of 2011 and 2013, totaling 17 days. Access to the underground tunnel complex is sealed and unavailable. Restricted to the surface, four buildings, four structures, and 92 features associated with nuclear testing and fuel storage experiment activities at the U15 Complex have been recorded. Most of these are along the west side of the complex and next to the primary access road and are characteristic of an industrial mining site, albeit one with scientific interests. The geomorphological fieldwork was conducted over three days in the

  16. A Historical Evaluation of the U15 Complex, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drollinger, Harold [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Holz, Barbara A. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Bullard, Thomas F. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Goldenberg, Nancy G. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Ashbaugh, Laurence J. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Griffin, Wayne R. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-01-09

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U15 Complex on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Three underground nuclear tests and two underground nuclear fuel storage experiments were conducted at the complex. The nuclear tests were Hard Hat in 1962, Tiny Tot in 1965, and Pile Driver in 1966. The Hard Hat and Pile Driver nuclear tests involved different types of experiment sections in test drifts at various distances from the explosion in order to determine which sections could best survive in order to design underground command centers. The Tiny Tot nuclear test involved an underground cavity in which the nuclear test was executed. It also provided data in designing underground structures and facilities to withstand a nuclear attack. The underground nuclear fuel storage experiments were Heater Test 1 from 1977 to 1978 and Spent Fuel Test - Climax from 1978 to 1985. Heater Test 1 was used to design the later Spent Fuel Test - Climax experiment. The latter experiment was a model of a larger underground storage facility and primarily involved recording the conditions of the spent fuel and the surrounding granite medium. Fieldwork was performed intermittently in the summers of 2011 and 2013, totaling 17 days. Access to the underground tunnel complex is sealed and unavailable. Restricted to the surface, four buildings, four structures, and 92 features associated with nuclear testing and fuel storage experiment activities at the U15 Complex have been recorded. Most of these are along the west side of the complex and next to the primary access road and are characteristic of an industrial mining site, albeit one with scientific interests. The geomorphological fieldwork was conducted over three days in the

  17. An Evaluation of the Historical Importance of Fertility and Its Reflection in Ancient Mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behjati-Ardakani, Zohreh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Mahmoodzadeh, Homa; Hosseini, Seyed Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Myths are reflective of human concerns and needs during ancient times. By reviewing them, it turns out that many human problems today, have a historical background. Among the main themes of ancient mythologies, fertility and reproduction have various representations in ancient civilizations. The purpose of this paper was to review myths and common symbols of fertility and reproduction in ancient civilizations and evaluate the reasons of their continuous importance in different cultures. The data in this review study was obtained by scrutinizing the related literature. The gathered data indicated the multiplicity and variety of fertility symbols in ancient myths. Most ancient fertility symbols were inspired by the nature and some of them like earth and water were common in mythology of different civilizations. Therefore, the symbols consolidate the concept of conformity between human reproductive concerns and the nature's necessities.

  18. Sensitivity Evaluation of Spectral Nudging Schemes in Historical Dynamical Downscaling for South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehwish Ramzan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity experiments testing two scale-selective bias correction (SSBC methods have been carried out to identify an optimal spectral nudging scheme for historical dynamically downscaled simulations of South Asia, using the coordinated regional climate downscaling experiment (CORDEX protocol and the regional spectral model (RSM. Two time periods were selected under the category of short-term extreme summer and long-term decadal analysis. The new SSBC version applied nudging to full wind components, with an increased relaxation time in the lower model layers, incorporating a vertical weighted damping coefficient. An evaluation of the extraordinary weather conditions experienced in South Asia in the summer of 2005 confirmed the advantages of the new SSBC when modeling monsoon precipitation. Furthermore, the new SSBC scheme was found to predict precipitation and wind patterns more accurately than the older version in decadal analysis, which applies nudging only to the rotational wind field, with a constant strength at all heights.

  19. Sandia National Laboratories, Tonopah Test Range Fire Control Bunker (Building 09-51): Photographs and Written Historical and Descriptive Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, Rebecca A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Corporate Archives and History Program

    2017-08-01

    The Fire Control Bunker (Building 09-51) is a contributing element to the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Tonopah Test Range (TTR) Historic District. The SNL TTR Historic District played a significant role in U.S. Cold War history in the areas of stockpile surveillance and non-nuclear field testing of nuclear weapons design. The district covers approximately 179,200 acres and illustrates Cold War development testing of nuclear weapons components and systems. This report includes historical information, architectural information, sources of information, project information, maps, blueprints, and photographs.

  20. Ventilated air cavities for the control of rising damp in historical buildings. Functional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª T. Gil Muñoz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the behavior of ventilated air cavities and their level of efficiency when used for the control of rising damp and the associated pathological damage in walls and foundations of historical buildings. The methodology is based on experiments on-site and monitoring. Knowledge of local climate conditions, the surroundings of the building, its construction features and the type of foundation constitute the preliminary conditions for the monitoring. In order to reach the goal we have measured several parameters according to a plan, developed graphical tools for the study, and prepared statistical data. The building of this system has not always been accompanied by a thorough assessment that would justify the intervention. The results show how this situation has affected the design strategies and sizing of the ventilated air cavities, limiting in many cases their efficiency.

  1. Effects of pharmaceutical counselling on antimicrobial use in surgical wards: intervention study with historical control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Eva; Weber, Alexandra; Lohmann, Stefanie; Vetter-Kerkhoff, Cornelia; Strobl, Ralf; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of pharmaceutical consulting on the quality of antimicrobial use in a surgical hospital department in a prospective controlled intervention study. Patients receiving pharmaceutical intervention (intervention group, IG, n = 317) were compared with a historical control group (control group, CG, n = 321). During the control period, antimicrobial use was monitored without intervention. During the subsequent intervention period, a clinical pharmacist reviewed the prescriptions and gave advice on medication. Intervention reduced the length of antimicrobial courses (IG = 10 days, CG = 11 days, incidence rate ratio for i.v. versus o.p. = 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.84 to 0.93) and shortened i.v. administration (IG = 8 days, CG = 10 days, hazard rate = 1.76 in favour of switch from i.v. to p.o., 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 2.52). Intervention also helped to avoid useless combination therapy and reduced total costs for antimicrobials. A clinical pharmacist who reviews prescriptions can promote an increase in efficiency, for example, by shortening the course of treatment. Counselling by ward-based clinical pharmacists was shown to be effective to streamline antimicrobial therapy in surgical units and to increase drug safety. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Physical and mechanical characterisation of historic mortars. Application to the evaluation of the state of conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães, A.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the physical and mechanical characteristics of historic mortars is of vital importance in the selection of repair mortars for historic buildings. As a result, a need has arisen for test methods that can be used to assess those characteristics in irregular, friable samples.The present paper discusses the results of the experimental characterization of historic Portuguese mortars. The test methods used to evaluate water resistance and compressive strength are described. The compressive strength values found for new mortars using the method proposed and the method specified in European standards are compared and the results used to draw conclusions on the potential of the new technique.The correlation between the initial degree of deterioration determined by visual inspection and the experimental data is discussed.El conocimiento de las características físicas y mecánicas de los morteros antiguos es muy importante a la hora de seleccionar morteros de reparación y de planear adecuadamente cualquier intervención de reparación. Así, se hace necesario definir los métodos de ensayo de caracterización aplicables a las muestras irregulares y friables para evaluar dichas características. En el presente trabajo se presentan y analizan algunos resultados de caracterización experimental de morteros antiguos portugueses, y se describen los métodos de ensayo utilizados para evaluar el comportamiento al agua y la resistencia a la compresión. Mediante la comparación con los resultados obtenidos en los ensayos con morteros nuevos, usando dichos métodos y también los métodos recomendados por la norma europea, se sacan conclusiones sobre el potencial de los métodos.Por último, se establece una correlación entre los resultados experimentales y el nivel de deterioro inicial atribuido a los morteros antiguos mediante inspección visual.

  3. Evaluating satellite-derived long-term historical precipitation datasets for drought monitoring in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Francisco; Wardlow, Brian; Tadesse, Tsegaye; Lillo-Saavedra, Mario; Lagos, Octavio

    2017-04-01

    Precipitation is a key parameter for the study of climate change and variability and the detection and monitoring of natural disaster such as drought. Precipitation datasets that accurately capture the amount and spatial variability of rainfall is critical for drought monitoring and a wide range of other climate applications. This is challenging in many parts of the world, which often have a limited number of weather stations and/or historical data records. Satellite-derived precipitation products offer a viable alternative with several remotely sensed precipitation datasets now available with long historical data records (+30years), which include the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) datasets. This study presents a comparative analysis of three historical satellite-based precipitation datasets that include Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B43 version 7 (1998-2015), PERSIANN-CDR (1983-2015) and CHIRPS 2.0 (1981-2015) over Chile to assess their performance across the country and for the case of the two long-term products the applicability for agricultural drought were evaluated when used in the calculation of commonly used drought indicator as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). In this analysis, 278 weather stations of in situ rainfall measurements across Chile were initially compared to the satellite data. The study area (Chile) was divided into five latitudinal zones: North, North-Central, Central, South-Central and South to determine if there were a regional difference among these satellite products, and nine statistics were used to evaluate their performance to estimate the amount and spatial distribution of historical rainfall across Chile. Hierarchical cluster analysis, k-means and singular value decomposition were used to analyze

  4. Roles of sunlight and natural ventilation for controlling infection: historical and current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobday, R A; Dancer, S J

    2013-08-01

    Infections caught in buildings are a major global cause of sickness and mortality. Understanding how infections spread is pivotal to public health yet current knowledge of indoor transmission remains poor. To review the roles of natural ventilation and sunlight for controlling infection within healthcare environments. Comprehensive literature search was performed, using electronic and library databases to retrieve English language papers combining infection; risk; pathogen; and mention of ventilation; fresh air; and sunlight. Foreign language articles with English translation were included, with no limit imposed on publication date. In the past, hospitals were designed with south-facing glazing, cross-ventilation and high ceilings because fresh air and sunlight were thought to reduce infection risk. Historical and recent studies suggest that natural ventilation offers protection from transmission of airborne pathogens. Particle size, dispersal characteristics and transmission risk require more work to justify infection control practices concerning airborne pathogens. Sunlight boosts resistance to infection, with older studies suggesting potential roles for surface decontamination. Current knowledge of indoor transmission of pathogens is inadequate, partly due to lack of agreed definitions for particle types and mechanisms of spread. There is recent evidence to support historical data on the effects of natural ventilation but virtually none for sunlight. Modern practice of designing healthcare buildings for comfort favours pathogen persistence. As the number of effective antimicrobial agents declines, further work is required to clarify absolute risks from airborne pathogens along with any potential benefits from additional fresh air and sunlight. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stress wave timing nondestructive evaluation tools for inspecting historic structures : a guide for use and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Ross; Roy F. Pellerin; Norbert Volny; William W. Salsig; Robert H. Falk

    2000-01-01

    This guide was prepared to assist inspectors in the use of stress wave timing instruments and various methods of locating and defining areas of decay in timber members in historic structures. The first two sections provide (a) background information regarding conventional methods to locate and measure decay in historic structures and (b) the principles of stress wave...

  6. Geologic Resource Evaluation of Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site, Hawai'i: Part I, Geology and Coastal Landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Bruce M.; Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues forming a link between the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE) is the smallest (~86 acres) of three National Parks located on the leeward Kona coast of the Island of Hawai'i. The main structure at PUHE, Pu'ukohola Heiau, is an important historical temple that was built during 1790-91 by King Kamehameha I

  7. Historic production evaluation in Biochemistry Education area during the SBBq annual meetings between 1993 and 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V.; N. N.; G. G. Pereira; Gonçalves; Hornink

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The annual meetings of the Brazilian Society Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (SBBq, with the inclusion of the area of education in Biochemistry in 1993, present themselves as important spaces for the presentation and discussion of the work in the area of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology teaching. OBJECTIVES: Systematize and evaluate the historical development of abstracts in the Education in Biochemistry area, in the SBBq annual meeting, indicating quantitative and qualitative data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 408 abstracts were evaluated, from the panels presented in the area of Education in Biochemistry, from 1993 to 2016. The quantitative evaluation was done by surveying the thematic content, institutions, regions, methods and qualitative analysis based on content analysis (Bardin of the works of the two most frequently approached themes. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The works of the southeast region (65,4% of papers presented were highlighted, with 32% of the works with qualitative methodology, 10% quantitative and 33% quali-quantitative. The most studied topics were Biochemistry teaching (107 papers and metabolism (94 papers. In the contents analysis of the two most frequently addressed themes, the constructivist and socio-interacionist foundations as the most used teaching-learning processes, as well as the use of software as the most used didactic strategy in both themes. The most used didactic resources were texts / informative in the subject of Teaching of Biochemistry (33% and games (21% in the subject of Metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: The results evidenced the major focus of the work addressing undergraduate courses, with a qualitative or quantitative method, focusing mainly on Biochemistry teaching, as well as on metabolism, with an expressive amount of activities using educational software, followed by practical classes. There has been a change in the prevailing fundamentals of the teaching-learning process with the emergence in the

  8. Quality control in diagnostic radiology. Historical development and present status in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Moores, B.

    2007-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. Quality control is now an accepted activity within the overall radiation protection framework for diagnostic radiology. Indeed it is now a legal requirement within Member States specified in EC Directives that establish the basic requirements for radiation protection in medicine. This was not always the case and its historical development can be considered in three parts: 1) The development of test procedures and standardisation of practices; 2) Harmonisation of initiatives and the creation of a European dimension in such practices; 3) Its role and function in a changing and evolving technological environment - current status and future needs. The development of tests methods for diagnostic X-ray equipment was initially intimately related to the development of a scientific basis for the X-ray imaging process. Knowledge of the physical basis for image production in film-screen and fluoroscopic processes required the definition and specification and measurement of particular parameters within the image forming chain. The development of test methods and the necessary measuring equipment involved ongoing research and development by physical scientists throughout Europe and North America. However, the many different approaches employed meant that results of measurements could not always be compared. However, once acceptable test methods and equipment had been developed it was possible to standardise practices through the development of test protocols. In 1980 a foundation for collective European actions was established through the EC radiation protection research and development programme. This helped to establish a European wide forum for actions in the field of medical radiation protection including quality control. These initiatives were driven by EC Directives, which were concerned with protection of the worker, general public and patients from medical practices that utilised ionising radiation. Multi national research

  9. Using Historical Precipitation, Temperature, and Runoff Observations to Evaluate Evaporation Formulations in Land Surface Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Mahanama, P. P.

    2012-01-01

    Key to translating soil moisture memory into subseasonal precipitation and air temperature forecast skill is a realistic treatment of evaporation in the forecast system used - in particular, a realistic treatment of how evaporation responds to variations in soil moisture. The inherent soil moisture-evaporation relationships used in today's land surface models (LSMs), however, arguably reflect little more than guesswork given the lack of evaporation and soil moisture data at the spatial scales represented by regional and global models. Here we present a new approach for evaluating this critical aspect of LSMs. Seasonally averaged precipitation is used as a proxy for seasonally-averaged soil moisture, and seasonally-averaged air temperature is used as a proxy for seasonally-averaged evaporation (e.g., more evaporative cooling leads to cooler temperatures) the relationship between historical precipitation and temperature measurements accordingly mimics in certain important ways nature's relationship between soil moisture and evaporation. Additional information on the relationship is gleaned from joint analysis of precipitation and streamflow measurements. An experimental framework that utilizes these ideas to guide the development of an improved soil moisture-evaporation relationship is described and demonstrated.

  10. A historical overview of leprosy epidemiology and control activities in Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cunha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is an ancient infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. According to comparative genomics studies, this disease originated in Eastern Africa or the Near East and spread with successive human migrations. The Europeans and North Africans introduced leprosy into West Africa and the Americas within the past 500 years. In Brazil, this disease arrived with the colonizers who disembarked at the first colonies, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador and Recife, at the end of the sixteenth century, after which it was spread to the other states. In 1854, the first leprosy cases were identified in State of Amazonas in the north of Brazil. The increasing number of leprosy cases and the need for treatment and disease control led to the creation of places to isolate patients, known as leprosaria. One of them, Colonia Antônio Aleixo was built in Amazonas in 1956 according to the most advanced recommendations for isolation at that time and was deactivated in 1979. The history of the Alfredo da Matta Center (AMC, which was the first leprosy dispensary created in 1955, parallels the history of leprosy in the state. Over the years, the AMC has become one of the best training centers for leprosy, general dermatology and sexually transmitted diseases in Brazil. In addition to being responsible for leprosy control programs in the state, the AMC has carried out training programs on leprosy diagnosis and treatment for health professionals in Manaus and other municipalities of the state, aiming to increase the coverage of leprosy control activities. This paper provides a historical overview of leprosy in State of Amazonas, which is an endemic state in Brazil.

  11. Learning Historical Thinking with Oral History Interviews: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Intervention Study of Oral History Interviews in History Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Christiane; Wagner, Wolfgang; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of the oral history approach with respect to students' historical competence. A total of 35 ninth-grade classes (N = 900) in Germany were randomly assigned to one of four conditions--live, video, text, or a (nontreated) control group--in a pretest, posttest, and follow-up design. Comparing the three…

  12. The Hanford Site N Reactor buildings task identification and evaluation of historic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, D.C.; Marceau, T.E.

    1996-01-01

    The New Production Reactor complex at Hanford (hereafter referred to as N Reactor) is proposed to be deactivated, decommissioned, and demolished in the coming years. Recognizing that the Hanford Site has been important to the nation, state, and local community, a task was funded to examine the effects that these activities may have on the historic properties of N Reactor. The objectives of the N Reactor buildings task were to identify potential historic properties at N Reactor, to complete Historic Property Inventory forms for all structures considered eligible and ineligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places, and to prepare a Memorandum of Agreement that identifies the measures required to mitigate any adverse effects

  13. Evaluating and improving incident management using historical incident data : case studies at Texas transportation management centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The companion guidebook (0-5485-P2) developed as part of this study provides the procedures and : methodologies for effective use of historical incident data at Texas Transportation Management Centers : (TMCs). This research report documents the resu...

  14. Non-destructive analysis for the inspection and control of metalic monuments and historical manuscripts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faubel, W.; Heissler, S.; Klewe-Nebenius, H.; Willin, E.

    2003-01-01

    As a contribution to the increasing efforts to preserve cultural heritage of historical bronze monuments exposed to atmospheric corrosion as well as historical books and manuscripts non-destructive analytical methods are highly desirable enabling an in-situ examination of the surface status of an object. The development and application of novel non-destructive analytical methods based on the photoacoustic and photothermal deflection spectroscopy allowed to investigate the state of bronze patina as well as the effectiveness of conservation procedures for historical manuscripts. (orig.)

  15. The Historical Flood Of July 2008 From Vaser River Basin, Romania. Causes, Effects And Flood Control Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Andrei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Floods is an experience perceived by society as unexpected, unexplainable and traumatizing and nowadays a threat to humanity more than ever. Among the natural phenomena which negatively affect human activities, floods are the ones which usually have the most significant consequences. The research, evaluations and statistics related to these phenomena do not reveal the drama and serious consequences that come with floods. It was proven that the increase of these extreme hydrological phenomena it is closely related to the anthropic activities from the area. Vaser basin is the most significant sub-basin of Vișeu river basin, contributing with 28% from the total flow of Vișeu river. Having a strong touristic and economic potential, the basin is often threatened by flash floods which usually have devastating effects. During July 2008 there was recorded the most significant flood from the history of hydrometric activity that led to substantial damage and death among locals. The present paper aims to analyze this historical flood, identifying the causes, effects, as well as the methods to control this extreme hydric phenomenon.

  16. Historical Overview, Current Status, and Future Trends in Human-Computer Interfaces for Process Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owre, Fridtjov

    2003-01-01

    Approximately 25 yr ago, the first computer-based process control systems, including computer-generated displays, appeared. It is remarkable how slowly the human-computer interfaces (HCI's) of such systems have developed over the years. The display design approach in those early days had its roots in the topology of the process. Usually, the information came from the piping and instrumentation diagrams. Later, some important additional functions were added to the basic system, such as alarm and trend displays. Today, these functions are still the basic ones, and the end-user displays have not changed much except for improved display quality in terms of colors, font types and sizes, resolution, and object shapes, resulting from improved display hardware.Today, there are two schools of display design competing for supremacy in the process control segment of the HCI community. One can be characterized by extension and integration of current practice, while the other is more revolutionary.The extension of the current practice approach can be described in terms of added system functionality and integration. This means that important functions for the plant operator - such as signal validation, plant overview information, safety parameter displays, procedures, prediction of future states, and plant performance optimization - are added to the basic functions and integrated in a total unified HCI for the plant operator.The revolutionary approach, however, takes as its starting point the design process itself. The functioning of the plant is described in terms of the plant goals and subgoals, as well as the means available to reach these goals. Then, displays are designed representing this functional structure - in clear contrast to the earlier plant topology representation. Depending on the design approach used, the corresponding displays have various designations, e.g., function-oriented, task-oriented, or ecological displays.This paper gives a historical overview of past

  17. Evaluation of Integrated Time-Temperature Effect in Pyrolysis Process of Historically Contaminated Soils with Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb)

    OpenAIRE

    Bulmău C; Cocârță D. M.; Reșetar-Deac A. M.

    2013-01-01

    It is already known that heavy metals pollution causes important concern to human and ecosystem health. Heavy metals in soils at the European level represents 37.3% between main contaminates affecting soils (EEA, 2007). This paper illustrates results obtained in the framework of laboratory experiments concerning the evaluation of integrated time-temperature effect in pyrolysis process applied to contaminated soil by two different ways: it is about heavy metals historically contaminated soil f...

  18. Historical Perspectives: A Review and Evaluation of 76 Studies of the Defense Research Enterprise, 1945-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    support and contractor oversight. Recommendations Administration / Organizational Structure  SECDEF and CJCS should initiate high -level “Packard...relevant historical detail, and prominent policy tensions are emphasized. Views expressed in summaries and evaluations represent only those of the...capabilities; 2) Supporting the DoD Smart Buyer mission throughout the acquisition lifecycle (i.e. “the ability to collaborate with contractors and assess

  19. Evaluation of historical land cover, land use, and land-use change emissions in the GCAM integrated assessment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, K. V.; Wise, M.; Kyle, P.; Janetos, A. C.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) are often used as science-based decision-support tools for evaluating the consequences of climate and energy policies, and their use in this framework is likely to increase in the future. However, quantitative evaluation of these models has been somewhat limited for a variety of reasons, including data availability, data quality, and the inherent challenges in projections of societal values and decision-making. In this analysis, we identify and confront methodological challenges involved in evaluating the agriculture and land use component of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). GCAM is a global integrated assessment model, linking submodules of the regionally disaggregated global economy, energy system, agriculture and land-use, terrestrial carbon cycle, oceans and climate. GCAM simulates supply, demand, and prices for energy and agricultural goods from 2005 to 2100 in 5-year increments. In each time period, the model computes the allocation of land across a variety of land cover types in 151 different regions, assuming that farmers maximize profits and that food demand is relatively inelastic. GCAM then calculates both emissions from land-use practices, and long-term changes in carbon stocks in different land uses, thus providing simulation information that can be compared to observed historical data. In this work, we compare GCAM results, both in recent historic and future time periods, to historical data sets. We focus on land use, land cover, land-use change emissions, and albedo.

  20. Live-load performance evaluation of historic covered timber bridges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junwon Seo; Travis K. Hosteng; Brent M. Phares; James P. Wacker

    2015-01-01

    The National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation Program (NHCBP), sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), was established to preserve the covered timber bridge structures that were constructed in the early 1800s. Today, many of the approximately 880 covered timber bridges still in existence in the United States are closed to vehicular traffic;...

  1. Developing a Framework for Qualitative Evaluation of Urban Interventions in Iranian Historical Cores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arjomand Kermani, A.

    2016-01-01

    Iranian historic city cores are important parts of modern cities because of their valuable monuments and morphology but are also significant because of their population density, location and the major governmental functions they house. Since 1920, modernisation policies and urban development trends

  2. Evaluation of social capital in historic urban tissue (Case Study: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today Social Capital as one of the most important comprehensive development factors is a key concept in new attitude to urban planning and management. In this attitude, planning is based on human resources, social capitals and collaborative participation. The social capital in historic tissue is considered from two ...

  3. 36 CFR 67.5 - Standards for Evaluating Significance within Registered Historic Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., materials, workmanship, feeling and association adds to the district's sense of time and place and... which does not add to the district's sense of time and place and historical development; or one where... Register documentation, and other available information as needed. The Keeper may amend the National...

  4. An evaluation of how downscaled climate data represents historical precipitation characteristics beyond the means and variances

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kusangaya, S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available represented the underlying historical precipitation characteristics beyond the means and variances. Using the uMngeni Catchment in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa as a case study, the occurrence of rainfall, rainfall threshold events and wet dry sequence...

  5. Historic preservation requirements and the evaluation of cold war era nuclear facilities at Argonne National Laboratory-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wescott, K. L.

    1999-01-01

    Project design for the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of federal facilities must address the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act which includes compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). Section 106 of the NHPA requires that Federal agencies consider any effect their activities may have on historic properties. While a cultural property is not usually considered historic until it has reached an age of 50 years or older, special consideration is given to younger properties if they are of exceptional importance in demonstrating unique development in American history, architecture, archaeology, engineering, or culture. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) D and D program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E), site properties are evaluated within the context of the Cold War Era and within themes associated with nuclear technology. Under this program, ANL-E staff have conducted archival research on three nuclear reactor facilities, one accelerator, and one laboratory building. DOE and ANL-E have been working closely with the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency (IHPA) to determine the eligibility of these properties for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1998, in consultation with the IHPA, the DOE determined that the reactor facilities were eligible. Memoranda of Agreement were signed between the DOE and the IHPA stipulating mitigation requirements for the recordation of two of these properties. The laboratory building was recently determined eligible and will likely undergo similar documentation procedures. The accelerator was determined not eligible. Similar studies and determinations will be required for all future D and D projects

  6. Design and Implementation of the Dynamic Data Acquisition and Historical Data Query System for BEPCII Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Mei; Huang Song; Zhao Jijiu; Zhao Zhuo; Huang Xianghao; Wang Jincan; Wang Chunhong; Fan Ruohong

    2009-01-01

    The BEPCII is the project of upgrading Beijing Electron Positron Collider, and it's one of the National fundamental research center. Based on the dynamic data query system of the BEPCII control system which has already been put into operation, it provides a more comprehensive presentation of the dynamic data acquisition, historical data query system, including system architecture, database design, development schema and technology, the system environment and system function, and illustrated some results of the system operating. (authors)

  7. Traffic Predictive Control: Case Study and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-26

    This project developed a quantile regression method for predicting future traffic flow at a signalized intersection by combining both historical and real-time data. The algorithm exploits nonlinear correlations in historical measurements and efficien...

  8. A multi-technique approach for detecting and evaluating material inconsistencies in historical banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Hoyo-Meléndez, Julio M; Gondko, Klaudia; Mendys, Agata; Król, Maſgorzata; Klisiſska-Kopacz, Anna; Sobczyk, Joanna; Jaworucka-Drath, Anda

    2016-09-01

    The identification of forged and genuine historical banknotes is an important problem for private collectors and researchers responsible for the care of numismatic collections. This paper presents a research approach for detecting material differences in historical banknotes through the use of microfading spectrometry along with other techniques such as hyperspectral image analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Microfading spectrometry results showed higher sensitivity to light irradiation for an overprint ink used on a suspicious banknote relative to its counterparts. In addition, the spectrocolorimetric changes experienced by the paper substrates during microfade testing also provided a way for discriminating between two groups of banknotes. These variations have been confirmed after analyzing the spectral and physico-chemical data obtained using the abovementioned complementary techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative evaluation of acoustic techniques for detection of damages in historical wood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kloiber, Michal; Reinprecht, L.; Hrivnák, Jaroslav; Tippner, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 20, July-August (2016), s. 622-631 ISSN 1296-2074 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0060; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219; GA MK(CZ) DG16P02M026 Keywords : historical wood * damages * inspection * acoustic techniques * mechanical properties Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1296207416300103

  10. Non-destructive evaluation of timber structures in a historical building of Tiradentes , MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Barbosa de Abreu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to the durability of wood are commonly found in historical buildings structures. Preservation and conservation resolutions must be adopted, in order to avoid losses and substitutions, which mischaracterize buildings. Non-destructive methods for detecting deterioration should be used in order to substantiate decisions and increase the longevity of historical heritage. This work was carried out in order to perform non-destructive essays to infer about the integrity of a beam and a pillar of the original construction of the Sobrado Ramalho, a historical building of the city of Tiradentes, MG. The equipments utilized were the Stress Wave Timer and resistograph. Samples of the elements were taken for analysis of density. The results showed that, in both structures, to calculate the dynamic modulus of elasticity, there was no significant difference for the application of stress wave timer on the alignments studied. There was no significant difference between the directions of application of the resistograph on the pillar, due to its apparent entirety and regular sessions, practically square, and to not being loaded eccentrically. In the case of the beam, there was significant difference, presumably because it has cracks in its traction line. The equipments, unknown by professionals of heritage conservation allow promising methodologies for inspection of timber structures in service.

  11. Traffic Control Device Evaluation Program : FY 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    This report presents findings on the activities conducted in the Traffic Control Device Evaluation Program during the 2017 fiscal year. The research on sponsored changeable message signs (continued from the previous year) was terminated by the Federa...

  12. Evaluation of Statistical Methods for Modeling Historical Resource Production and Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanzad, Bolorchimeg

    This master's thesis project consists of two parts. Part I of the project compares modeling of historical resource production and forecasting of future production trends using the logit/probit transform advocated by Rutledge (2011) with conventional Hubbert curve fitting, using global coal production as a case study. The conventional Hubbert/Gaussian method fits a curve to historical production data whereas a logit/probit transform uses a linear fit to a subset of transformed production data. Within the errors and limitations inherent in this type of statistical modeling, these methods provide comparable results. That is, despite that apparent goodness-of-fit achievable using the Logit/Probit methodology, neither approach provides a significant advantage over the other in either explaining the observed data or in making future projections. For mature production regions, those that have already substantially passed peak production, results obtained by either method are closely comparable and reasonable, and estimates of ultimately recoverable resources obtained by either method are consistent with geologically estimated reserves. In contrast, for immature regions, estimates of ultimately recoverable resources generated by either of these alternative methods are unstable and thus, need to be used with caution. Although the logit/probit transform generates high quality-of-fit correspondence with historical production data, this approach provides no new information compared to conventional Gaussian or Hubbert-type models and may have the effect of masking the noise and/or instability in the data and the derived fits. In particular, production forecasts for immature or marginally mature production systems based on either method need to be regarded with considerable caution. Part II of the project investigates the utility of a novel alternative method for multicyclic Hubbert modeling tentatively termed "cycle-jumping" wherein overlap of multiple cycles is limited. The

  13. Edaravone Reduces Hyperperfusion-Related Neurological Deficits in Adult Moyamoya Disease: Historical Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Haruto; Nakayama, Naoki; Kazumata, Ken; Kuroda, Satoshi; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2016-07-01

    Postoperative hyperperfusion-related transient neurological deficits (TNDs) are frequently observed in adult patients with moyamoya disease who undergo direct bypass procedures. The present study evaluated the effect of the free radical scavenger edaravone on postoperative hyperperfusion in adult moyamoya disease. This study included 92 hemispheres in 72 adult patients who underwent direct bypass for moyamoya disease. Serial measurements of cerebral blood flow were conducted immediately after surgery and on postoperative days 2 and 7. In 40 hemispheres for 36 patients, edaravone (60 mg/d) was administered from the day of surgery to postsurgical day 7. The incidence of postoperative hyperperfusion and associated TNDs were compared with a control group that included 52 hemispheres in 36 patients. Radiological hyperperfusion was observed in 28 of 40 (70.0%) and 39 of 52 (75.0%) hemispheres in the edaravone and control groups, respectively (P=0.30). Hyperperfusion-related TND incidences were significantly lower in the edaravone group compared with the control group (12.5% versus 32.7%; P=0.024). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that edaravone administration (P=0.009) and left-sided surgery (P=0.037) were significantly correlated with hyperperfusion-related TNDs (odds ratios, 0.3 and 4.2, respectively). Perioperative administration of edaravone reduced the incidence of hyperperfusion-related TNDs after direct bypass procedures in adult patients with moyamoya disease. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Archaeological and Historical Literature Search and Research Design, Lava Flow Control Study, Hilo, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    Stewart (an American missionary) accompanied Lord Byron on his voyage to Hawai’i to return the bodies of Kamehameha II and his wife, who had died in...Upon going ashore, Kamehameha caught his foot in a crevice, and an opponent struck him with a canoe paddle. As a result, Kamehameha issued his famous...presence of a bay (Papa’i) suit- able for fishing, the historic Kamehameha legend implying the existence of some inhabitants, and the apparent

  15. Importance of historical seismicity in the evaluation of large return period hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports the results from an historical investigation on earthquake activity in Portugal based on data collected from original sources. A detailed revision of earthquake catalogues in what concerns date of occurrence, isosseismal maps, epicentral location, magnitude and duration of vibration was made for most of the 260 events identified in the period 1000 to 1900. Introducing this new piece of information which exhibits a much higher degree of quality into standard hazard models, uncertainties on final estimates for the zones of large return periods, RP, (RP > 200 years) are greatly reduced

  16. Use of preserved museum fish to evaluate historical and current mercury contamination in fish from two rivers in Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J Jaron; Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W; Pinder, John E; Drenner, S Matthew

    2010-02-01

    We examined the effects of a commonly used preservation technique on mercury concentration in fish tissue. After fixing fish muscle tissue in formalin followed by preservation in isopropanol, we found that mercury concentration in fish muscle tissue increased by 18%, reaching an asymptote after 40 days. We used formalin-isopropanol-preserved longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) from the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History to examine historical changes and predict current mercury concentrations in fish from two rivers in southeastern Oklahoma. Glover River was free-flowing, while Mountain Fork River was impounded in 1970 and a coldwater trout fishery was established upstream from the collection site in 1989. Mercury concentrations in longear sunfish from Glover River showed no historical changes from 1963 to 2001. Mercury concentrations in longear sunfish from Mountain Fork River showed no change from 1925 to 1993 but declined significantly from 1993 to 2003. We also compared mercury concentrations of the most recently collected longear sunfish in the museum to mercury concentrations of unpreserved fish collected from the rivers in 2006. Concentrations of mercury in museum fish were not significantly different from mercury concentrations in unpreserved fish we collected from the rivers. Our study indicates that preserved museum fish specimens can be used to evaluate historical changes and predict current levels of mercury contamination in fish.

  17. Diagnostic investigations and historical-stylistic evaluation on the oil painting: "reading man by oil lamp light"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Lorusso

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This investigation intends to verify the attribution of the oil painting (70x50,5 cm portraying a reading man by oil lamp light, to Gerrit van Hontorst. The note refers not only to a stylistic and historical-artistical evaluation but also to the knowledge, through diagnostic techniques, of the application to characterize components of matter, and of the manufacture execution technique and preservation conditions. This investigation denies the attribution to the painter Gerrit van Hontorst, but it does not exclude a dating within the XVII century.

  18. Treatment outcome and prognostic factors of Stage IIIb squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated with radiation therapy. Establish of historical controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Takashi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Mogami, Hiroshi; Nogawa, Takayoshi; Chiba, Take; Hiura, Masamichi

    2001-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCR) have been used to treat advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. While the effectiveness of these therapies should be evaluated by a prospective randomized control study, no such study had ever been performed at the National Shikoku Cancer Center Hospital. For this reason, the authors assessed the results of radiotherapy after introduction of RALS (remote-controlled afterloading system) for patients with Stage IIIb squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix and establish historical controls. The subjects were 95 patients (median age: 68 years) who had been treated at this hospital between 1983 and 1993. Twelve patients with PS4, severe complications, and active double cancer, received palliative external irradiation alone to the pelvis and 1 received palliative intracavitary received irradiation alone. The other 82 patients had external irradiation to the pelvis and intracavitary irradiation as curative irradiation. Thus, palliative irradiation and curative irradiation were performed in 13 cases and 82 cases, respectively. The overall survival rate (OAS), disease-specific survival rate (DDS), and disease-free survival rate (DFS) at 5 years in the palliative irradiation group were 7.7%, 16.8%, and 0%, respectively. In the curative irradiation group, OAS, DDS, and DFS were 56.1%, 65.9%, and 61.9%, respectively. Comparisons between the two groups showed significant differences each of the survival rates, and the outcome in the palliative irradiation group was very poor. Risk factors for recurrence were investigated, by comparing DFS among the 82 curatively irradiated cases, but no independent risk factors were identified by multivariate analysis. Exclusive of the patients with PS4, severe complications, active double cancer, and palliative irradiation, 62 patients were defined as historical controls. The survival rates of 62 patients were significantly better than those of the

  19. Evaluation of the efficacy of tradizional recovery interventions in historical buildings. A new selection methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Tiziana; Colapietro, Domenico

    2013-04-01

    The interaction between material, energy and cultural resources and between the functional, structural and linguistic organization of the architecture are the basis of the concept of "environmental culture". In the vernacular architecture, with this term it's meant the set of knowledge and techniques that form the symbiosis between architecture and nature, able to ensure conditions of comfort and building safety, to contrast the vulnerability resulting from Geo-environmental adversity. The traditional Mediterranean architecture is configured to be so a system in which the forms and the construction techniques come together in an original unit. This represents the result of the balance between nature and human activities, whose conservation cannot in any way ignore the local materials and the low and traditional recovery technologies. Any energy, functional and structural intervention cannot ignore the understanding of the building as a whole, which is indispensable for a correct design and construction "process" in any renovation interventions in architectural heritage, even if it's a minor construction. In this way the intervention that emerges is certainly appropriate because it isn't a distortion of the "own logic" (formal-spatial-material) of the pre-existent and in continuity with the "modal logic" (IE procedural) that it requires. The need for conservation isn't an obstacle but rather a guide to the restoration design of really effective recovery interventions, by avoiding heavy distortions and by favoring the criterion of minimum intervention. You want to try to give shape to what can only be carried out in full compliance with the historical nature on which one works and excluding the rest. We try to embody only to what that can be realized in full respect of the historical nature on which one works and excluding the rest. Research has found a complete systematization starting from the identification of housing types representative of historical local

  20. Controlling our destinies: Historical, philosophical, social and ethical perspectives on the Human Genome Project: Final report, July 1, 1995-June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloan, P.R.

    1996-09-25

    This report briefly describes the efforts by the organizing committee in preparation for the conference entitled Controlling Our Destinies: Historical, Philosophical, Social, and Ethical Perspectives on the Human Genome Project. The conference was held October 5-8, 1995.

  1. Quest for clean streams in North Carolina: An historical account of stream pollution control in North Carolina. Special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, D.H.

    1990-11-01

    The second historical report dealing with North Carolina's water resources traces the evolution of the state's stream pollution control regulations and programs. From the colonial development of streams and rivers to power mills to the effects of land conversion for agriculture and later for commercial and industrial facilities, the report catalogs the various of stream pollution over time. Developments of waste water treatment under both state and federal laws and regulations are described. The report concluded with a look at contemporary stream pollution issues

  2. Historical development of automation and control of thermal power plants''; Historische Entwicklung der Leittechnik von Dampfkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welfonder, E. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Abt. Stromerzeugung und Automatisierungstechnik (IVD); Sterff, J.

    2006-07-01

    Historically early steam power plants were developed to replace muscular power of men and animals and to gain independence from wind and water power. The further development of power plant technology was driven by the demand to meet the fast growing consumption of electric power with a higher degree of efficiency. In the nineteenth century steam power was the key element for industrialisation. Instrumentation and control equipments were the key factors for the safe operation of power generating processes, becoming more and more complex during the twentieth century. The use of control concepts with increasing performance induced the development of adequate instrumentation and control systems. This paper outlines the history of steam power from the beginning to the seventies and focuses on automation concepts, without further regarding details of apparatus und system technology. (orig.)

  3. Computer program for storage of historical and routine safety data related to radiologically controlled facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, D.A.; Hall, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    A method for tracking and quick retrieval of radiological status of radiation and industrial safety systems in an active or inactive facility has been developed. The system uses a mini computer, a graphics plotter, and mass storage devices. Software has been developed which allows input and storage of architectural details, radiological conditions such as exposure rates, current location of safety systems, and routine and historical information on exposure and contamination levels. A blue print size digitizer is used for input. The computer program retains facility floor plans in three dimensional arrays. The software accesses an eight pen color plotter for output. The plotter generates color plots of the floor plans and safety systems on 8 1/2 x 11 or 20 x 30 paper or on overhead transparencies for reports and presentations

  4. Evaluating the effects of historical land cover change on summertime weather and climate in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichansky, Paul Stuart

    The 19th-century agrarian landscape of New Jersey (NJ) and the surrounding region has been extensively transformed to the present-day land cover by urbanization, reforestation, and localized areas of deforestation. This study used a mesoscale atmospheric numerical model to investigate the sensitivity of the warm season climate of NJ to these land cover changes. Reconstructed 1880s-era and present-day land cover datasets were used as surface boundary conditions for a set of simulations performed with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). Three-member ensembles with historical and present-day land cover were compared to examine the sensitivity of surface air and dewpoint temperatures, rainfall, the individual components of the surface energy budget, horizontal and vertical winds, and the vertical profiles of temperature and humidity to these land cover changes. Mean temperatures for the present-day landscape were 0.3-0.6°C warmer than for the historical landscape over a considerable portion of NJ and the surrounding region, with daily maximum temperatures at least 1.0°C warmer over some of the highly urbanized locations. Reforested regions in the present-day landscape, however, showed a slight cooling. Surface warming was generally associated with repartitioning of net radiation from latent to sensible heat flux, and conversely for cooling. Reduced evapotranspiration from much of the present-day land surface led to dewpoint temperature decreases of 0.3-0.6°C. While urbanization was accompanied by strong surface albedo decreases and increases in net shortwave radiation, reforestation and potential changes in forest composition have generally increased albedos and also enhanced landscape heterogeneity. The increased deciduousness of forests may have further reduced net downward longwave radiation. These land cover changes have modified boundary-layer dynamics by increasing low-level convergence and upper-level divergence in the interior of NJ, especially

  5. The History of Women in Botany and Science at the Herbarium Library: Evaluation for Historical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Sandra J.

    Evaluating library collections by comparing them to bibliographies has a long history in research libraries. This evaluative study examined all 107 titles within the "Women in Botany" section of the Herbarium Library at The Ohio State University (OSU). The Herbarium is not part of the OSU Library system, but functions as a satellite to…

  6. A Historical Reflection on Research Evaluation Studies, Their Recurrent Themes and Challenges. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Sonja; Hanney, Stephen; Wooding, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This report critically examines studies of how scientific research drives innovation which is then translated into socio-economic benefits. It focuses on research evaluation insights that are relevant not only to the academic community, but also to policymakers and evaluation practitioners--and particularly to biomedical and health research…

  7. A comprehensive intervention following the clinical pathway of eating and swallowing disorder in the elderly with dementia: historically controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arahata, Masahisa; Oura, Makoto; Tomiyama, Yuka; Morikawa, Naoe; Fujii, Hatsue; Minani, Shinji; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2017-07-14

    Eating problems in patients with advanced dementia are strongly associated with their deteriorating survival. Food and drink intake in people with dementia may be supported by specific interventions, but the effectiveness of such interventions is backed by almost no evidence. However, comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) might potentially clarify the etiology of decreased oral intake in people with dementia; thus improving their clinical outcomes. This study was a single-arm, non-randomized trial that included historically controlled patients for comparison. We defined elderly patients with both severely decreased oral intake depending on artificial hydration and/or nutrition (AHN) and dementia as "Eating and Swallowing Disorder of the Elderly with Dementia (ESDED)". In the intervention group, participants received CGA through the original clinical pathway with multidisciplinary interventions. This was followed by individualized therapeutic interventions according to assessment of the etiology of their eating problems. During the intervention period (between 1st April 2013 and 31st March 2015), 102 cases of ESDED were enrolled in the study and 90 patients had completed receiving CGA. Conversely, 124 ESDED patient controls were selected from the same hospital enrolled during the historical period (between 1st April 2011 and 31st March 2012). Most participants in both groups were bedridden with severe cognitive impairment. For the intervention group, an average of 4.3 interventional strategies was recommended per participant after CGA. Serological tests, diagnostic imaging and other diagnostic examinations were much more frequently performed in the intervention group. Recovery rate from ESDED in the intervention group was significantly higher than that in the historical group (51% v.s. 34%, respectively, P = 0.02). The 1-year AHN-free survival in the intervention group was significantly higher than that in the historical group (28% v.s. 15%, respectively, P

  8. Morphometric distances among five ethnic groups and evaluation of the secular trend in historical Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danubio, Maria Enrica; Martorella, Domenico; Rufo, Fabrizio; Vecchi, Elvira; Sanna, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the variations, both in space and time, of 10 body dimensions and 2 anthropometric indexes of 745 adult males belonging to 5 ethnic groups of historical Lybia (el-Haràbi, el-Baraghìts, Marabtìn, Oases inhabitants and Tuareg). The data were collected in the years 1928 and 1932 by Puccioni and Cipriani, two Italian anthropologists. The aim was to reconstruct the biological history of Libya at the time, and thus contribute to the ongoing debate on the evolution of the biological standard of living in developing Countries. The subjects were analysed by ethnicity and by 10-year age groups, after adjusting for age. The results of ANCOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test show that among and between groups there are statistical significant differences overall for armspan, height, head breadth, bizygomatic breadth, biiliac breadth/height and head breadth/head length indexes. By means of the cluster analysis, the el-Haràbi, el-Baraghìts and Marabtìn groups cluster together, whereas the Tuareg and Oases inhabitants cluster separately one from the other and both from the other three ethnic groups. Within-group variations are not very marked in all ethnicities. In general, there is the tendency, not statistically significant, to the reduction and/or stasis of body dimensions from the older to the younger, and the differences are greater among the older than the younger age classes. In conclusion, it can be argued that these groups, all different culturally and geographically, were following the same tendency of stasis of the secular trend of the body dimensions considered in this study, and such stasis persisted since, at least, the last twenty years of the 19th century, when the older were born.

  9. Historical performance evaluation of Iowa pavement treatments using data analytics : tech transfer summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Evaluate the performance of the most-used pavement treatments in Iowa by considering different parameters such as type of treatment, treatment thickness, traffic, and pavement type : Estimate a service life for each treatment based on the obs...

  10. Historical performance evaluation of Iowa pavement treatments using data analytics : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The pavement network in Iowa has reached a mature state making maintenance and rehabilitation activities more important than new construction. As such, a need exists to evaluate the performance of the pavement treatments and estimate their performanc...

  11. Evaluating the Chinese Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Chan, Ko Ling; Yan, Elsie Chau Wai; Lam, Gloria Ling Lee; Tang, Debbie Hoi Ming; Graham-Kevan, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the utility of the Chinese version of the Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale (C-CBS-R) as a measure of controlling behaviors in violent Chinese intimate relationships. Using a mixed-methods approach, in-depth, individual interviews were conducted with 200 Chinese women survivors to elicit qualitative data about their personal experiences of control in intimate relationships. The use of controlling behaviors was also assessed using the C-CBS-R. Interview accounts suggested that the experiences of 91 of the women were consistent with the description of coercive control according to Dutton and Goodman's conceptualization of coercion. Using the split-half validation procedure, a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was conducted with the first half of the sample. The area under the curve (AUC) for using the C-CBS-R to identify high control was .99, and the cutoff score of 1.145 maximized both sensitivity and specificity. Applying the cutoff score to the second half gave a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 95%. Overall, the C-CBS-R has demonstrated utility as a measure of controlling behaviors with a cutoff score for distinguishing high from low levels of control in violent Chinese intimate relationships. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. A Historical Evaluation of the U16a Tunnel, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Roberrt C. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Drollinger, Harold [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U16a Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The U16a Tunnel was used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Shoshone Mountain in Area 16 of the Nevada National Security Site. Six nuclear tests were conducted in the U16a Tunnel from 1962 to 1971. These tests are Marshmallow, Gum Drop, Double Play, Ming Vase, Diamond Dust, and Diamond Mine. The U.S. Department of Defense Threat Reduction Agency, with participation from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Las Alamos National Laboratory, sponsored the tests. Fifteen high explosives tests were also conducted at the tunnel. Two were calibration tests during nuclear testing and the remaining were U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency tunnel defeat tests. The U16a Tunnel complex is on the top and slopes of Shoshone Mountain, encompassing an area of approximately 16.7 hectares (41.1 acres). Major modifications to the landscape are a result of three principal activities, road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, and site preparation for activities related to testing. Forty-seven cultural features were recorded at the portal and on the slopes of Shoshone Mountain. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general every day operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, equipment pads, and rail lines. Features on the slopes above the tunnel relate to tunnel ventilation, borehole drilling, and data recording. Feature types include soil-covered bunkers, concrete foundations, instrument cable holes, drill holes, and ventilation shafts. The U16

  13. A Historical Evaluation of the U16a Tunnel, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Robert C. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Drollinger, Harold [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Bullard, Thomas F. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Ashbaugh, Laurence J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Griffin, Wayne R. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U16a Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The U16a Tunnel was used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Shoshone Mountain in Area 16 of the Nevada National Security Site. Six nuclear tests were conducted in the U16a Tunnel from 1962 to 1971. These tests are Marshmallow, Gum Drop, Double Play, Ming Vase, Diamond Dust, and Diamond Mine. The U.S. Department of Defense Threat Reduction Agency, with participation from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Las Alamos National Laboratory, sponsored the tests. Fifteen high explosives tests were also conducted at the tunnel. Two were calibration tests during nuclear testing and the remaining were U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency tunnel defeat tests. The U16a Tunnel complex is on the top and slopes of Shoshone Mountain, encompassing an area of approximately 16.7 hectares (41.1 acres). Major modifications to the landscape are a result of three principal activities, road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, and site preparation for activities related to testing. Forty-seven cultural features were recorded at the portal and on the slopes of Shoshone Mountain. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general every day operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, equipment pads, and rail lines. Features on the slopes above the tunnel relate to tunnel ventilation, borehole drilling, and data recording. Feature types include soil-covered bunkers, concrete foundations, instrument cable holes, drill holes, and ventilation shafts. The U16

  14. Life-cycle-assessment of the historical development of air pollution control and energy recovery in waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Riber, C.; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2010-01-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste is a debated waste management technology. In some countries it is the main waste management option whereas in other countries it has been disregarded. The main discussion point on waste incineration is the release of air emissions from the combustion...... impacts. With regards to the toxic impact categories, emissions from the waste incineration process were always larger than those from the avoided energy production based on natural gas. The results shows that the potential environmental impacts from air emissions have decreased drastically during...... of the waste, but also the energy recovery efficiency has a large importance. The historical development of air pollution control in waste incineration was studied through life-cycle-assessment modelling of eight different air pollution control technologies. The results showed a drastic reduction...

  15. UNDERGROUND AIR DUCT TO CONTROL RISING MOISTURE IN HISTORIC BUILDINGS: IMPROVED DESIGN AND ITS DRYING EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Pazderka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The underground air ducts along peripheral walls of a building are a remediation method, which principle is to enable an air flow along the moist building structure’s surface to allow a sufficient evaporation of moisture from the structure. This measure reduces the water transport (rising moisture into the higher parts of the wall where the high water content in masonry is undesirable. Presently, underground air ducts are designed as masonry structures, which durability in contact with ground moisture is limited. The article describes a new design of an underground air duct, which is based on specially shaped concrete blocks (without wet processes, because the blocks are completely precast. The air duct from concrete blocks is situated completely below the ground surface (exterior or below the floor (interior. Thanks to this, the system is invisible and does not disturb the authentic look of rehabilitated historic buildings. The efficiency of the air duct technical solution was verified by the results of tests (based on the measured moisture values conducted on a laboratory model. The experimental study showed that the moisture in the masonry equipped with the presented underground air duct had decreased considerably compared to the reference sample, namely by 43 % on average. The experimental study was numerically validated through numerical simulations performed with the program WUFI 2D.

  16. Sample size for post-marketing safety studies based on historical controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-te; Makuch, Robert W

    2010-08-01

    As part of a drug's entire life cycle, post-marketing studies are an important part in the identification of rare, serious adverse events. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has begun to implement new post-marketing safety mandates as a consequence of increased emphasis on safety. The purpose of this research is to provide exact sample size formula for the proposed hybrid design, based on a two-group cohort study with incorporation of historical external data. Exact sample size formula based on the Poisson distribution is developed, because the detection of rare events is our outcome of interest. Performance of exact method is compared to its approximate large-sample theory counterpart. The proposed hybrid design requires a smaller sample size compared to the standard, two-group prospective study design. In addition, the exact method reduces the number of subjects required in the treatment group by up to 30% compared to the approximate method for the study scenarios examined. The proposed hybrid design satisfies the advantages and rationale of the two-group design with smaller sample sizes generally required. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Anthropocene streams and base-level controls from historic dams in the unglaciated mid-Atlantic region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritts, Dorothy; Walter, Robert; Rahnis, Michael; Hartranft, Jeff; Cox, Scott; Gellis, Allen; Potter, Noel; Hilgartner, William; Langland, Michael; Manion, Lauren; Lippincott, Caitlin; Siddiqui, Sauleh; Rehman, Zain; Scheid, Chris; Kratz, Laura; Shilling, Andrea; Jenschke, Matthew; Datin, Katherine; Cranmer, Elizabeth; Reed, Austin; Matuszewski, Derek; Voli, Mark; Ohlson, Erik; Neugebauer, Ali; Ahamed, Aakash; Neal, Conor; Winter, Allison; Becker, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Recently, widespread valley-bottom damming for water power was identified as a primary control on valley sedimentation in the mid-Atlantic US during the late seventeenth to early twentieth century. The timing of damming coincided with that of accelerated upland erosion during post-European settlement land-use change. In this paper, we examine the impact of local drops in base level on incision into historic reservoir sediment as thousands of ageing dams breach. Analysis of lidar and field data indicates that historic milldam building led to local base-level rises of 2-5 m (typical milldam height) and reduced valley slopes by half. Subsequent base-level fall with dam breaching led to an approximate doubling in slope, a significant base-level forcing. Case studies in forested, rural as well as agricultural and urban areas demonstrate that a breached dam can lead to stream incision, bank erosion and increased loads of suspended sediment, even with no change in land use. After dam breaching, key predictors of stream bank erosion include number of years since dam breach, proximity to a dam and dam height. One implication of this work is that conceptual models linking channel condition and sediment yield exclusively with modern upland land use are incomplete for valleys impacted by milldams. With no equivalent in the Holocene or late Pleistocene sedimentary record, modern incised stream-channel forms in the mid-Atlantic region represent a transient response to both base-level forcing and major changes in land use beginning centuries ago. Similar channel forms might also exist in other locales where historic milling was prevalent.

  18. Historical review of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onai, Yoshio

    1993-01-01

    The techniques of radiotherapy have been improved by development of particle accelerators, radionuclides and computers. This paper presents a historical review of the physical and technical aspects of radiotherapy in Japan. Changes in the kinds of radiation, such as X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, neutrons and protons used for external radiotherapy, and the equipment involved are described chronologically, and historical changes in the quality of radiotherapy apparatus are outlined. Patient data acquisition equipment, such as X-ray simulator and X-ray CT, beam modifying devices, patient setup devices, and devices to verify treatment fields and patient doses are reviewed historically. Radiation sources for brachytherapy and internal radiotherapy, and remotely controlled afterloading systems are reviewed chronologically. Historical changes in methods to evaluate absorbed doses, dose monitor systems and beam data acquisition systems are outlined. Changes in methods of calculating dose distributions for external X-ray and electron therapy, brachytherapy and internal radiotherapy by unsealded radionuclides are described and calculation techniques for treatment planning system are reviewed. Annual figures in the numbers of radiotherapy equipment, such as telecobalt and telecesium units, linear accelerators, betatrons, microtrons, stereotactic gamma units, conformation radiotherapy units, remotely controlled afterloading systems, and associated equipment such as X-ray simulators and treatment planning systems are provided, as are changes in the number of accelerators by maximum X-ray energy and maximum electron energy, and in the number of licensed hospitals and clinics using small sealed sources. Changes in techniques of external radiotherapy and brachytherapy are described briefly from the point of view of dose distributions. (author)

  19. Feeding, evaluating, and controlling rumen function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Ian J; Golder, Helen M; Hall, Mary Beth

    2014-11-01

    Achieving optimal rumen function requires an understanding of feeds and systems of nutritional evaluation. Key influences on optimal function include achieving good dry matter intake. The function of feeds in the rumen depends on other factors including chemical composition, rate of passage, degradation rate of the feed, availability of other substrates and cofactors, and individual animal variation. This article discusses carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism in the rumen, and provides practical means of evaluation of rations in the field. Conditions under which rumen function is suboptimal (ie, acidosis and bloat) are discussed, and methods for control examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prospects and constraints in biofouling control at Madras Atomic Power Plant: a historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azariah, Jayapaul; Nair, K.V.K.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes the various aspects of Madras Atomic Power Station -its prospects and constraints in biofouling control. It reviews the achievements in biofouling control. It also includes current studies on barnacles and mussels, suspended particulate matter as an antifoulant, flow conditions and larval settlement and biofilm and larval adhesion along with recommendations. (V.R.). 21 refs

  1. Nondestructive methods for the structural evaluation of wood floor systems in historic buildings : preliminary results : [abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong Cai; Michael O. Hunt; Robert J. Ross; Lawrence A. Soltis

    1999-01-01

    To date, there is no standard method for evaluating the structural integrity of wood floor systems using nondestructive techniques. Current methods of examination and assessment are often subjective and therefore tend to yield imprecise or variable results. For this reason, estimates of allowable wood floor loads are often conservative. The assignment of conservatively...

  2. Evaluation of historical and analytical data on the TAN TSF-07 Disposal Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The Technical Support Facility (TSF)-07 Disposal Pond, located at Test Area North at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, has been identified as part of Operable Unit 1-06 under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Department is conducting an evaluation of existing site characterization data for the TSF-07 Disposal Pond Track 1 investigation. The results from the site characterization data will be used to determine whether the operable unit will undergo a Track 2 investigation, an interim action, a remedial investigation/feasibility study, or result in a no-action decision. This report summarizes activities relevant to wastewaters discharged to the pond and characterization efforts conducted from 1982 through 1991. Plan view and vertical distribution maps of the significant contaminants contained in the pond are included. From this evaluation it was determined that cobalt-60, cesium-137, americium-241, mercury, chromium, and thallium are significant contaminants for soils. This report also evaluates the migration tendencies of the significant contaminants into the perched water zone under the pond and the surrounding terrain to support the investigation

  3. Evaluation of historical and analytical data on the TAN TSF-07 Disposal Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The Technical Support Facility (TSF)-07 Disposal Pond, located at Test Area North at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, has been identified as part of Operable Unit 1-06 under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Department is conducting an evaluation of existing site characterization data for the TSF-07 Disposal Pond Track 1 investigation. The results from the site characterization data will be used to determine whether the operable unit will undergo a Track 2 investigation, an interim action, a remedial investigation/feasibility study, or result in a no-action decision. This report summarizes activities relevant to wastewaters discharged to the pond and characterization efforts conducted from 1982 through 1991. Plan view and vertical distribution maps of the significant contaminants contained in the pond are included. From this evaluation it was determined that cobalt-60, cesium-137, americium-241, mercury, chromium, and thallium are significant contaminants for soils. This report also evaluates the migration tendencies of the significant contaminants into the perched water zone under the pond and the surrounding terrain to support the investigation.

  4. THE CONTROL AND EVALUATION OF PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Sabou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focused on importance and benefits of control and evaluation of marketing activities. The control of efficiency review the assessment of the resources for marketing activity, checking also the efficiency of the human resources, advertising, promotion activities and distribution activities. In the analyse of human resources the most important ratio are: the average of costumers visits on a day, the number of custom order received from 100 visits, the number of new customers from a period, the number of lost customers from a period, the marketing human expenditures from all the sales.The strategic control is made to check if the objectives and the company strategy are adapted to the marketing environment.

  5. Evaluation of train-speed control algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavik, M.M. [BKS Advantech (Pty.) Ltd., Pretoria (South Africa)

    2000-07-01

    A relatively simple and fast simulator has been developed and used for the preliminary testing of train cruise-control algorithms. The simulation is done in software on a PC. The simulator is used to gauge the consequences and feasibility of a cruise-control strategy prior to more elaborate testing and evaluation. The tool was used to design and pre-test a train-cruise control algorithm called NSS, which does not require knowledge of exact train mass, vertical alignment, or actual braking force. Only continuous measurements on the speed of the train and electrical current are required. With this modest input, the NSS algorithm effected speed changes smoothly and efficiently for a wide range of operating conditions. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of Integrated Time-Temperature Effect in Pyrolysis Process of Historically Contaminated Soils with Cadmium (Cd and Lead (Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulmău C

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is already known that heavy metals pollution causes important concern to human and ecosystem health. Heavy metals in soils at the European level represents 37.3% between main contaminates affecting soils (EEA, 2007. This paper illustrates results obtained in the framework of laboratory experiments concerning the evaluation of integrated time-temperature effect in pyrolysis process applied to contaminated soil by two different ways: it is about heavy metals historically contaminated soil from one of the most polluted areas within Romania, and artificially contaminated with PCB-containing transformer oil. In particular, the authors focused on a recent evaluation of pyrolysis efficiency on removing lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd from the contaminated soil. The experimental study evaluated two important parameters related to the studied remediation methodology: thermal process temperature and the retention time in reactor of the contaminated soils. The remediation treatments were performed in a rotary kiln reactor, taking into account three process temperatures (400°C, 600°C and 800°C and two retention times: 30 min. and 60 min. Completed analyses have focused on pyrolysis solids and gas products. Consequently, both ash and gas obtained after pyrolysis process were subjected to chemical analyses.

  7. Historical inability to control Aedes aegypti as a main contributor of fast dispersal of chikungunya outbreaks in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Casas-Martínez, Mauricio; Ulloa, Armando; Bond, J Guillermo; Marina, Carlos F; Lopez-Ordóñez, Teresa; Elizondo-Quiroga, Armando; Torres-Monzón, Jorge A; Díaz-González, Esteban E

    2015-12-01

    The arrival of chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in Latin American countries has been expected to trigger epidemics and challenge health systems. Historically considered as dengue-endemic countries, abundant Aedes aegypti populations make this region highly vulnerable to chikungunya virus (CHIKV) circulation. This review describes the current dengue and CHIKF epidemiological situations, as well as the role of uncontrolled Ae. aegypti and Aedes albopictus vectors in spreading the emerging CHIKV. Comments are included relating to the vector competence of both species and failures of surveillance and vector control measures. Dengue endemicity is a reflection of these abundant and persistent Aedes populations that are now spreading CHIKV in the Americas. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Chikungunya discovers the New World." Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. RITA--Registry of Industrial Toxicology Animal data: the application of historical control data for Leydig cell tumors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Thomas; Rittinghausen, Susanne; Kellner, Rupert; Karbe, Eberhard; Kittel, Birgit; Rinke, Matthias; Deschl, Ulrich

    2011-11-01

    Historical data for Leydig cell tumors from untreated or vehicle treated rats from carcinogenicity studies collected in the RITA database are presented. Examples are given for analyses of these data for dependency on variables considered to be of possible influence on the spontaneous incidence of Leydig cell tumors. In the 7453 male rats available for analysis, only one case of a Leydig cell carcinoma was identified. The incidence of Leydig cell adenomas differed markedly between strains. High incidences of close to 100% have been found in F344 rats, while the mean incidence was 4.2% in Sprague-Dawley rats and 13.7% in Wistar rats. Incidences in Wistar rats were highly variable, primarily caused by different sources of animals. Mean incidences per breeder varied from 2.8 to 39.9%. Analyses for the dependency on further parameters have been performed in Wistar rats. In breeders G and I, the Leydig cell tumor incidence decreased over the observation period and with increasing mean terminal body weight. The incidence of Leydig cell tumors increased with mean age at necropsy and was higher in studies with dietary admixture compared to gavage studies. These parameters had no effect on Leydig cell tumor incidence in breeders A and B. Animals from almost all breeders had a considerably higher mean age at necropsy when bearing a Leydig cell adenoma than animals without a Leydig cell adenoma. Studies with longitudinal trimming of the testes had a higher incidence than studies with transverse trimming. The observed dependencies and breeder differences are discussed and explanations are given. Consequences for the use of historical control data are outlined. With the retrospective analyses presented here we were able to confirm the published features of Leydig cell adenomas and carcinomas. This indicates that the RITA database is a valuable tool for analyses of tumors for their biological features. Furthermore, it demonstrates that the RITA database is highly beneficial for

  9. Rationalizing Historical successes of malaria control in Africa in terms of mosquito resource availabilty management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Killeen, G.F.; Seyoum, A.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental management of mosquito resources is a promising approach with which to control malaria, but it has seen little application in Africa for more than half a century. Here we present a kinetic model of mosquito foraging for aquatic habitats and vertebrate hosts that allows estimation of

  10. Patterns and controls on historical channel change in the Willamette River, Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Rose Wallick; Gordon E. Grant; Stephen T. Lancaster; John P. Bolte; Roger P. Denlinger

    2007-01-01

    Distinguishing human impacts on channel morphology from the natural behaviour of fluvial systems is problematic for large river basins. Large river basins, by virtue of their size, typically encompass wide ranges of geology and landforms resulting in diverse controls on channel form. They also inevitably incorporate long and complex histories of overlapping human and...

  11. Evaluating changes to reservoir rule curves using historical water-level data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Ethan; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2013-01-01

    Flood control reservoirs are typically managed through rule curves (i.e. target water levels) which control the storage and release timing of flood waters. Changes to rule curves are often contemplated and requested by various user groups and management agencies with no information available about the actual flood risk of such requests. Methods of estimating flood risk in reservoirs are not easily available to those unfamiliar with hydrological models that track water movement through a river basin. We developed a quantile regression model that uses readily available daily water-level data to estimate risk of spilling. Our model provided a relatively simple process for estimating the maximum applicable water level under a specific flood risk for any day of the year. This water level represents an upper-limit umbrella under which water levels can be operated in a variety of ways. Our model allows the visualization of water-level management under a user-specified flood risk and provides a framework for incorporating the effect of a changing environment on water-level management in reservoirs, but is not designed to replace existing hydrological models. The model can improve communication and collaboration among agencies responsible for managing natural resources dependent on reservoir water levels.

  12. Innovative Technologies for the Protection of Historical Structures against Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Aras

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to represent innovative technologies and strategies to preserve the cultural heritage structures against earthquake effect. In particular, the application of fibre reinforced polymers and structural control systems are explained. Suitability of the strategies to architectural, historical and structural features and reversibility aspects are evaluated. As a case study the application of these strategies to a historical building in Istanbul is discussed.

  13. Evaluation of control strategies in forming processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calmano Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Products of forming processes are subject to quality fluctuations due to uncertainty in semi-finished part properties as well as process conditions and environment. An approach to cope with these uncertainties is the implementation of a closed-loop control taking into account the actual product properties measured by sensors or estimated by a mathematical process model. Both methods of uncertainty control trade off with a financial effort. In case of sensor integration the effort is the cost of the sensor including signal processing as well as the design and manufacturing effort for integration. In case of an estimation model the effort is mainly determined by the time and knowledge needed to derive the model, identify the parameters and implement the model into the PLC. The risk of mismatch between model and reality as well as the risk of wrong parameter identification can be assumed as additional uncertainty (model uncertainty. This paper evaluates controlled and additional uncertainty by taking into account process boundary conditions like the degree of fluctuations in semi-finished part properties. The proposed evaluation is demonstrated by the analysis of exemplary processes.

  14. Evaluating suitability of MODIS-Terra images for reproducing historic sediment concentrations in water bodies: Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Essayas; Philpot, William; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2014-02-01

    Government and NGO funded conservation programs are being implemented in developing countries with the potential benefit of reduced sediment inflow into fresh water lakes. However, these claims are difficult to verify due to limited historical sediment concentration data in lakes and rivers. Remote sensing can potentially aid in monitoring sediment concentration. With almost daily availability over the past ten years and consistent atmospheric correction applied to the images, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250 meter images are potential resources capable of monitoring future concentrations and reconstructing historical sediment concentration records. In this paper, site-specific relationships are developed between reflectance in near-infrared (NIR) images and three factors: total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity and Secchi depth for Lake Tana near the mouth of the Gumara River. The first two sampling campaigns on November 27, 2010 and May 13, 2011 are used in calibration. Reflectance in the NIR varies linearly with turbidity (R2 = 0.89) and TSS (R2 = 0.95). Secchi depth fit best to an exponential relation with R2 of 0.74. The relationships are validated using a third sample set collected on November 7, 2011 with RMSE of 11 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU) for Turbidity, 16.5 mg l-1 for TSS and 0.12 meters for Secchi depth. The MAE was 10% for TSS, 14% for turbidity and 0.1% for Secchi depth. Using the relationship for TSS, a 10-year time series of sediment concentration in Lake Tana near the Gumara River was plotted. It was found that after the severe drought of 2002 and 2003 the concentration in the lake increased significantly. The results showed that MODIS images are potential cost effective tools to monitor suspended sediment concentration and obtain a past history of concentration for evaluating the effect of best management practices.

  15. The historical development of the concept of control in financial reporting

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    M.Com. (International Accounting) The definition of control and the non-consolidation of special purpose entities in group annual financial statements became a topic of concern and focus to investors, securities exchange regulators and accounting professionals after the global financial crisis. The global financial crisis began in 2007 and was caused in part, by investors not being able to access reliable information about the risk levels of entities in which they had invested. Organisatio...

  16. Intermittent fasting: A “new” historical strategy for controlling seizures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Adam L.; Rubenstein, James E.; Kossoff, Eric H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary In antiquity, fasting was a treatment for epilepsy and a rationale for the ketogenic diet (KD). Preclinical data indicate the KD and intermittent fasting do not share identical anticonvulsant mechanisms. We implemented an intermittent fasting regimen in six children with an incomplete response to a KD. Three patients adhered to the combined intermittent fasting/KD regimen for 2 months and four had transient improvement in seizure control, albeit with some hunger-related adverse reactions. PMID:23206889

  17. Intermittent fasting: A “new” historical strategy for controlling seizures?

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, Adam L.; Rubenstein, James E.; Kossoff, Eric H.

    2012-01-01

    In antiquity, fasting was a treatment for epilepsy and a rationale for the ketogenic diet (KD). Preclinical data indicate the KD and intermittent fasting do not share identical anticonvulsant mechanisms. We implemented an intermittent fasting regimen in six children with an incomplete response to a KD. Three patients adhered to the combined intermittent fasting/KD regimen for 2 months and four had transient improvement in seizure control, albeit with some hunger-related adverse reactions.

  18. Water turbine control: Historical outline; Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Regelung der Wasserturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasol, K.H.

    1999-07-01

    Controlled water turbines were first introduced in the second half of the 19th century. The report takes a look at the history of controlled turbines, including those inventions and technologies that paved the way for water turbines as we know them today and for turbine speed control. The report is based on a lecture presented by the author on 10 Nov 1998 in the opening session of the 10th international seminar on hydroelectric power systems at the university of Vienna. The contents are presented in more detail and illustrated by examples. [German] Seit langem widmen sich Wissenschaftshistoriker und auch Ingenieure der Erforschung und Aufarbeitung der Technikgeschichte als eigenstaendige Disziplin der Wissenschaftsgeschichte, wofuer an vielen Universitaeten und Hochschulen entsprechende Lehrstuehle bestehen. Auch an der Entwicklung der Regelungstechnik im Allgemeinen ist das Interesse mit langem erwacht. Die ersten geregelten Wasserturbinen wurden in der zweiten Haelfte des 19. Jahrhunderts bekannt und so ist es denn auch angebracht, die zumindest 130 Jahre der Entwicklungsgeschichte dieser Turbinenregelung darzustellen. Dies ginge nicht, ohne zunaechst auch auf jene anderen Erfindungen und Technologien kurz zurueckzublicken, die Wegbereiter fuer die heutigen Wasserturbinen und fuer die ersten Ansaetze zu deren Drehzahlregelung waren. Diese Arbeit beruht auf einem Hauptvortrag, der am 10 November 1998 in der Eroeffnungssitzung des 10. Internationalen Seminars Wasserkraftanlagen an der Technischen Universitaet Wien gehalten wurde. Gegenueber der schriftlichen Fassung jenes Vortrags wird mit diesem Heft den an diesem speziellen Sektor der Technikgeschichte interessierten Kollegen eine stark erweiterte Fassung vorgelegt. (orig./GL)

  19. Evaluation of bird impacts on historical oil spill cases using the SIMAP oil spill model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French McCay, D.; Rowe, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of an oil spill on bird and other wildlife species can be estimated using the Spill Impact Model Application Package (SIMAP). SIMAP estimates exposure and impact on bird species and their habitat based on physical fate and biological effects models under a broad range of environmental conditions. This paper presented the evaluations of 14 spill case studies which compared model predictions of biological impacts with field observations after a spill. Most of the observational data on the biological impacts of spills was for oiled birds and other wildlife. The impact of an oil spill on fish and invertebrates was examined in one case study. Error analysis was not performed on the field-base estimates of impact. Biological abundances and impacts are highly variable in time and space and very difficult to measure and quantify. Model-predicted and field-based estimates of oiled wildlife were compared. Uncertainty in the model-predicted number of oil wildlife was most related to mapping of biological distributions, behaviour of individuals, and local population density at the time of spill. The greatest uncertainty was the pre-spill abundance. The number of animals oils was found to be directly proportional to the pre-spill abundance assumed in the model inputs. Relative impact can be inferred from the percentage of population oiled. The total number oiled by a spill can be extrapolated using trajectories of oiled birds and counts of oiled animals collected in the field. 54 refs., 16 tabs., 12 figs

  20. Causal Conceptions in Social Explanation and Moral Evaluation: A Historical Tour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicke, Mark D; Mandel, David R; Hilton, Denis J; Gerstenberg, Tobias; Lagnado, David A

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the causes of human behavior is essential for advancing one's interests and for coordinating social relations. The scientific study of how people arrive at such understandings or explanations has unfolded in four distinguishable epochs in psychology, each characterized by a different metaphor that researchers have used to represent how people think as they attribute causality and blame to other individuals. The first epoch was guided by an "intuitive scientist" metaphor, which emphasized whether observers perceived behavior to be caused by the unique tendencies of the actor or by common reactions to the requirements of the situation. This metaphor was displaced in the second epoch by an "intuitive lawyer" depiction that focused on the need to hold people responsible for their misdeeds. The third epoch was dominated by theories of counterfactual thinking, which conveyed a "person as reconstructor" approach that emphasized the antecedents and consequences of imagining alternatives to events, especially harmful ones. With the current upsurge in moral psychology, the fourth epoch emphasizes the moral-evaluative aspect of causal judgment, reflected in a "person as moralist" metaphor. By tracing the progression from the person-environment distinction in early attribution theories to present concerns with moral judgment, our goal is to clarify how causal constructs have been used, how they relate to one another, and what unique attributional problems each addresses. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by Defence Research and Development Canada 2015.

  1. Does Perturbation Training Prevent Falls after Discharge from Stroke Rehabilitation? A Prospective Cohort Study with Historical Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Avril; Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Danells, Cynthia J; Aqui, Anthony; Aryan, Raabeae; Biasin, Louis; DePaul, Vincent G; Inness, Elizabeth L

    2017-10-01

    Individuals with stroke fall frequently, and no exercise intervention has been shown to prevent falls post stroke. Perturbation-based balance training (PBT), which involves practicing reactions to instability, shows promise for preventing falls in older adults and individuals with Parkinson's disease. This study aimed to determine if PBT during inpatient stroke rehabilitation can prevent falls after discharge into the community. Individuals with subacute stroke completed PBT as part of routine inpatient rehabilitation (n = 31). Participants reported falls experienced in daily life for up to 6 months post discharge. Fall rates were compared to a matched historical control group (HIS) who did not complete PBT during inpatient rehabilitation. Five of 31 PBT participants, compared to 15 of 31 HIS participants, reported at least 1 fall. PBT participants reported 10 falls (.84 falls per person per year) whereas HIS participants reported 31 falls (2.0 falls per person per year). When controlled for follow-up duration and motor impairment, fall rates were lower in the PBT group than the HIS group (rate ratio: .36 [.15, .79]; P = .016). These findings suggest that PBT is promising for reducing falls post stroke. While this was not a randomized controlled trial, this study may provide sufficient evidence for implementing PBT in stroke rehabilitation practice. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Historical Evaluation of the U12n Tunnel, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drollinger, Harold [DRI; Jones, Robert C [DRI; Bullard, Thomas F [DRI; Ashbaugh, Laurence J [DRI; Griffin, Wayne R [DRI

    2011-06-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12n Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12n Tunnel was one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. A total of 22 nuclear tests were conducted in the U12n Tunnel from 1967 to 1992. These tests include Midi Mist, Hudson Seal, Diana Mist, Misty North, Husky Ace, Ming Blade, Hybla Fair, Mighty Epic, Diablo Hawk, Miners Iron, Huron Landing, Diamond Ace, Mini Jade, Tomme/Midnight Zephyr, Misty Rain, Mill Yard, Diamond Beech, Middle Note, Misty Echo, Mineral Quarry, Randsburg, and Hunters Trophy. DTRA sponsored all tests except Tomme and Randsburg which were sponsored by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Midnight Zephyr, sponsored by DTRA, was an add on experiment to the Tomme test. Eleven high explosive tests were also conducted in the tunnel and included a Stemming Plan Test, the Pre-Mill Yard test, the two seismic Non-Proliferation Experiment tests, and seven Dipole Hail tests. The U12n Tunnel complex is composed of the portal and mesa areas, encompassing a total area of approximately 600 acres (240 hectares). Major modifications to the landscape have resulted from four principal activities. These are road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, site preparation for activities related to testing, and construction of retention ponds. A total of 202 cultural features were recorded for the portal and mesa areas. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general everyday operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, ventilation

  3. A Historical Evaluation of the U12n Tunnel, Nevada national Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Part 2 of 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drollinger, Harold [DRI; Jones, Robert C [DRI; Bullard, Thomas F [DRI; Ashbaugh, Laurence J [DRI; Griffin, Wayne R

    2011-06-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12n Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12n Tunnel was one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. A total of 22 nuclear tests were conducted in the U12n Tunnel from 1967 to 1992. These tests include Midi Mist, Hudson Seal, Diana Mist, Misty North, Husky Ace, Ming Blade, Hybla Fair, Mighty Epic, Diablo Hawk, Miners Iron, Huron Landing, Diamond Ace, Mini Jade, Tomme/Midnight Zephyr, Misty Rain, Mill Yard, Diamond Beech, Middle Note, Misty Echo, Mineral Quarry, Randsburg, and Hunters Trophy. DTRA sponsored all tests except Tomme and Randsburg which were sponsored by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Midnight Zephyr, sponsored by DTRA, was an add on experiment to the Tomme test. Eleven high explosive tests were also conducted in the tunnel and included a Stemming Plan Test, the Pre-Mill Yard test, the two seismic Non-Proliferation Experiment tests, and seven Dipole Hail tests. The U12n Tunnel complex is composed of the portal and mesa areas, encompassing a total area of approximately 600 acres (240 hectares). Major modifications to the landscape have resulted from four principal activities. These are road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, site preparation for activities related to testing, and construction of retention ponds. A total of 202 cultural features were recorded for the portal and mesa areas. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general everyday operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, ventilation

  4. Development of new historical global Nitrogen fertilizer map and the evaluation of their impacts on terrestrial N cycling and the evaluation of their impacts on terrestrial N cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishina, K.; Ito, A.; Hayashi, S.

    2015-12-01

    The use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer was rapidly growing up after the birth of Haber-Bosch process in the early 20th century. The recent N loading derived from these sources on terrestrial ecosystems was estimated 2 times higher than biogenic N fixation in terrestrial ecosystems (Gruber et al., 2009). However, there are still large uncertainties in cumulative N impacts on terrestrial impact at global scale. In this study, to assess historical N impacts at global scale, we made a new global N fertilizer input map, which was a spatial-temporal explicit map (during 1960-2010) and considered the fraction of NH4+ and NO3- in the N fertilizer inputs. With the developed N fertilizer map, we evaluated historical N20 cycling changes by land-use changes and N depositions in N cycling using ecosystem model 'VISIT'. Prior to the downscaling processes for global N fertilizer map, we applied the statistical data imputation to FAOSTAT data due to there existing many missing data especially in developing countries. For the data imputation, we used multiple data imputation method proposed by Honaker & King (2010). The statistics of various types of synthetic fertilizer consumption are available in FAOSTAT, which can be sorted by the content of NH4+ and NO3-, respectively. To downscaling the country by country N fertilizer consumptions data to the 0.5˚x 0.5˚ grid-based map, we used historical land-use map in Earthstat (Rumankutty et al., 1999). Before the assignment of N fertilizer in each grid, we weighted the double cropping regions to be more N fertilizer input on to these regions. Using M3-Crops Data (Monfreda et al., 2008), we picked up the dominant cropping species in each grid cell. After that, we used Crop Calendar in SAGE dataset (Sacks et al., 2010) and determined schedule of N fertilizer input in each grid cell using dominant crop calendar. Base fertilizer was set to be 7 days before transplanting and second fertilizer to be 30 days after base fertilizer application

  5. Life-cycle-assessment of the historical development of air pollution control and energy recovery in waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Anders; Riber, Christian; Fruergaard, Thilde; Hulgaard, Tore; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-07-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste is a debated waste management technology. In some countries it is the main waste management option whereas in other countries it has been disregarded. The main discussion point on waste incineration is the release of air emissions from the combustion of the waste, but also the energy recovery efficiency has a large importance. The historical development of air pollution control in waste incineration was studied through life-cycle-assessment modelling of eight different air pollution control technologies. The results showed a drastic reduction in the release of air emissions and consequently a significant reduction in the potential environmental impacts of waste incineration. Improvements of a factor 0.85-174 were obtained in the different impact potentials as technology developed from no emission control at all, to the best available emission control technologies of today (2010). The importance of efficient energy recovery was studied through seven different combinations of heat and electricity recovery, which were modelled to substitute energy produced from either coal or natural gas. The best air pollution control technology was used at the incinerator. It was found that when substituting coal based energy production total net savings were obtained in both the standard and toxic impact categories. However, if the substituted energy production was based on natural gas, only the most efficient recovery options yielded net savings with respect to the standard impacts. With regards to the toxic impact categories, emissions from the waste incineration process were always larger than those from the avoided energy production based on natural gas. The results shows that the potential environmental impacts from air emissions have decreased drastically during the last 35 years and that these impacts can be partly or fully offset by recovering energy which otherwise should have been produced from fossil fuels like coal or natural gas

  6. Life-cycle-assessment of the historical development of air pollution control and energy recovery in waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damgaard, Anders; Riber, Christian; Fruergaard, Thilde; Hulgaard, Tore; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste is a debated waste management technology. In some countries it is the main waste management option whereas in other countries it has been disregarded. The main discussion point on waste incineration is the release of air emissions from the combustion of the waste, but also the energy recovery efficiency has a large importance. The historical development of air pollution control in waste incineration was studied through life-cycle-assessment modelling of eight different air pollution control technologies. The results showed a drastic reduction in the release of air emissions and consequently a significant reduction in the potential environmental impacts of waste incineration. Improvements of a factor 0.85-174 were obtained in the different impact potentials as technology developed from no emission control at all, to the best available emission control technologies of today (2010). The importance of efficient energy recovery was studied through seven different combinations of heat and electricity recovery, which were modelled to substitute energy produced from either coal or natural gas. The best air pollution control technology was used at the incinerator. It was found that when substituting coal based energy production total net savings were obtained in both the standard and toxic impact categories. However, if the substituted energy production was based on natural gas, only the most efficient recovery options yielded net savings with respect to the standard impacts. With regards to the toxic impact categories, emissions from the waste incineration process were always larger than those from the avoided energy production based on natural gas. The results shows that the potential environmental impacts from air emissions have decreased drastically during the last 35 years and that these impacts can be partly or fully offset by recovering energy which otherwise should have been produced from fossil fuels like coal or natural gas.

  7. EDF and local authorities: a historical model of compromise and control?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouneau, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    The June 15, 1906 Distribution Act is central to the country's legal and energy heritage, and has retained, after 1946, its validity and relevance, in the era of EDF. By acknowledging the essential role of local authorities, mainly cities, it established the local public electricity agency (SPL) based on relationships between the licensor and the Licence Holder. After setting up the FNCCR (Federation Nationale des Collectivites Concedantes et Regies) in 1933, the April 8, 946 Nationalization Act had initiated a golden age for local electric economy control by public agencies, by confirming the privileges of local authorities. The end of rural electrification, the role of FACE (Fonds d'Amortissement des charges d'electrification rurale) and the increasing number of inter-city associations symbolize the French model of concession economy. Open competition under European energy liberalization directives since 1990 has led to increased authority, as well as responsibilities, for local authorities looking for a new SPL. Its key words are not only competitiveness, but also social and territorial solidarity and the new requirements of sustainable energy development, and its agenda. (author)

  8. Advancing the management and control of typhoid fever: a review of the historical role of human challenge studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Claire S; Darton, Thomas C; Woodward, William E; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M; Pollard, Andrew J

    2014-05-01

    Typhoid infection causes considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in settings where lack of clean water and inadequate sanitation facilitate disease spread through faecal-oral transmission. Improved understanding of the pathogenesis, immune control and microbiology of Salmonella Typhi infection can help accelerate the development of improved vaccines and diagnostic tests necessary for disease control. S. Typhi is a human-restricted pathogen; therefore animal models are limited in their relevance to human infection. During the latter half of the 20th century, induced human infection ("challenge") studies with S. Typhi were used effectively to assess quantitatively the human host response to challenge and to measure directly the efficacy of typhoid vaccines in preventing clinical illness. Here, the findings of these historic challenge studies are reviewed, highlighting the pivotal role that challenge studies have had in improving our understanding of the host-pathogen interaction, and illustrating issues relevant to modern typhoid challenge model design. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using Poisson-gamma model to evaluate the duration of recruitment process when historical trials are available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minois, Nathan; Lauwers-Cances, Valérie; Savy, Stéphanie; Attal, Michel; Andrieu, Sandrine; Anisimov, Vladimir; Savy, Nicolas

    2017-10-15

    At the design of clinical trial operation, a question of a paramount interest is how long it takes to recruit a given number of patients. Modelling the recruitment dynamics is the necessary step to answer this question. Poisson-gamma model provides very convenient, flexible and realistic approach. This model allows predicting the trial duration using data collected at an interim time with very good accuracy. A natural question arises: how to evaluate the parameters of recruitment model before the trial begins? The question is harder to handle as there are no recruitment data available for this trial. However, if there exist similar completed trials, it is appealing to use data from these trials to investigate feasibility of the recruitment process. In this paper, the authors explore the recruitment data of two similar clinical trials (Intergroupe Francais du Myélome 2005 and 2009). It is shown that the natural idea of plugging the historical rates estimated from the completed trial in the same centres of the new trial for predicting recruitment is not a relevant strategy. In contrast, using the parameters of a gamma distribution of the rates estimated from the completed trial in the recruitment dynamic model of the new trial provides reasonable predictive properties with relevant confidence intervals. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Analysis and Risk Evaluation on the Case of Alteration, Revitalization and Conversion of a Historic Building in Gdańsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzyl, Beata; Kristowski, Adam; Miszewska-Urbańska, Emilia

    2017-10-01

    Each investment plan, including the one concerning a building, is exposed to the consequences of various types of threats taking place. Therefore, in the case of some large-scale, atypical and complicated building ventures, some actions included in the procedure of risk management should be taken (identifications, analysis, measurements, control and supervision of the risk). This will allow for the risk to be eliminated or limited. While preparing a building venture, an investor does not possess full information about the course of events on each stage of investment completion. The identification of the above-mentioned unknowns, subjecting them to quantification and specifying the method of dealing with them, allows an investor to increase the effectiveness of the intended plan. The enterprise discussed in this article and analyzed in the context of risk, concerns alteration, revitalization and conversion for office purposes of two buildings located in Gdańsk at 1 and 2 Lastadia Street. These buildings are situated on the area of historical urban layout of Gdańsk, in the northern-eastern part of Stare Przedmieście District (Old Suburb), about 800 meters south from Dlugi Targ Street and 200 meters west from The Old Motława River. The investor is “Gdańskie Melioracje Ltd.”, a limited liability company, which belongs to the Council of Gdańsk. In order to increase the effectiveness of the intended investment venture, while organizing the investment process, the investor commissioned preparation of an analysis and risk evaluation connected with the above-mentioned intention. Based on an on-site visit, the opinions of experts, who have been involved in the process of the preparation of the investment, studies of the available monographies about the technical condition of the buildings at 1 and 2 Lastadia Street and their own experiences, the authors identified 54 types of relevant risks, which have been systematized into 10 subject groups (among others

  11. Seismic performance evaluation of an historical concrete deck arch bridge using survey and drawing of the damages, in situ tests, dynamic identification and pushover analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamo, Otello; Russo, Eleonora; Lodolo, Fabio

    2017-07-01

    The paper describes the performance evaluation of a retrofit historical multi-span (RC) deck arch bridge analyzed with in situ tests, dynamic identification and FEM analysis. The peculiarity of this case study lies in the structural typology of "San Felice" bridge, an historical concrete arch bridge built in the early 20th century, a quite uncommon feature in Italy. The preservation and retrofit of historic cultural heritage and infrastructures has been carefully analyzed in the international codes governing seismic response. A complete survey of the bridge was carried out prior to sketching a drawing of the existing bridge. Subsequently, the study consists in four steps: material investigation and dynamic vibration tests, FEM analysis and calibration, retrofit assessment, pushover analysis. The aim is to define an innovative approach to calibrate the FEM analysis through modern experimental investigations capable of taking structural deterioration into account, and to offer an appropriate and cost-effective retrofitting strategy.

  12. Prospective study of robotic partial nephrectomy for renal cancer in Japan: Comparison with a historical control undergoing laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazushi; Teishima, Jun; Takenaka, Atsushi; Shiroki, Ryoichi; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Hattori, Kazunori; Kanayama, Hiro-Omi; Horie, Shigeo; Yoshino, Yasushi; Fujisawa, Masato

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of robotic partial nephrectomy compared with those of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for T1 renal tumors in Japanese centers. Patients with a T1 renal tumor who underwent robotic partial nephrectomy were eligible for inclusion in the present study. The primary end-point consisted of three components: a negative surgical margin, no conversion to open or laparoscopic surgery and a warm ischemia time ≤25 min. We compared data from these patients with the data from a retrospective study of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy carried out in Japan. A total of 108 patients were registered in the present study; 105 underwent robotic partial nephrectomy. The proportion of patients who met the primary end-point was 91.3% (95% confidence interval 84.1-95.9%), which was significantly higher than 23.3% in the historical data. Major complications were seen in 19 patients (18.1%). The mean change in the estimated glomerular filtration rate in the operated kidney, 180 days postoperatively, was -10.8 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (95% confidence interval -12.3-9.4%). Robotic partial nephrectomy for patients with a T1 renal tumor is a safe, feasible and more effective operative method compared with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. It can be anticipated that robotic partial nephrectomy will become more widely used in Japan in the future. © 2018 The Japanese Urological Association.

  13. The feasibility of using computer graphics in environmental evaluations : interim report, documenting historic site locations using computer graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes a method for locating historic site information using a computer graphics program. If adopted for use by the Virginia Department of Highways and Transportation, this method should significantly reduce the time now required to de...

  14. A Cultural Resources Inventory and Historical Evaluation of the Smoky Atmospheric Nuclear Test, Areas 8, 9, and 10, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Robert C. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); King, Maureen L. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Beck, Colleen M. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Falvey, Lauren W. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Menocal, Tatianna M. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report presents the results of a National Historic Preservation Act Section 106 cultural resources inventory and historical evaluation of the 1957 Smoky atmospheric test location on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The Desert Research Institute (DRI) was tasked to conduct a cultural resources study of the Smoky test area as a result of a proposed undertaking by the Department of Energy Environmental Management. This undertaking involves investigating Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550 for potential contaminants of concern as delineated in a Corrective Action Investigation Plan. CAU 550 is an area that spatially overlaps portions of the Smoky test location. Smoky, T-2c, was a 44 kt atmospheric nuclear test detonated at 5:30 am on August 31, 1957, on top of a 213.4 m (700 ft) 200 ton tower (T-2c) in Area 8 of the NNSS. Smoky was a weapons related test of the Plumbbob series (number 19) and part of the Department of Defense Exercise Desert Rock VII and VIII. The cultural resources effort involved the development of a historic context based on archival documents and engineering records, the inventory of the cultural resources in the Smoky test area and an associated military trench location in Areas 9 and 10, and an evaluation of the National Register eligibility of the cultural resources. The inventory of the Smoky test area resulted in the identification of structures, features, and artifacts related to the physical development of the test location and the post-test remains. The Smoky test area was designated historic district D104 and coincides with a historic archaeological site recorded as 26NY14794 and the military trenches designed for troop observation, site 26NY14795. Sites 26NY14794 and 26NY14795 are spatially discrete with the trenches located 4.3 km (2.7 mi) southeast of the Smoky ground zero. As a result, historic district D104 is discontiguous and in total it covers 151.4 hectares (374 acres). The Smoky test location, recorded as historic

  15. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 1 of 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drollinger, Harold [Desert Research Institute (DRI), Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno,NV (United States); Jones, Robert C. [Desert Research Institute (DRI), Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno,NV (United States); Bullard, Thomas F. [Desert Research Institute (DRI), Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno,NV (United States); Ashbaugh, Laurence J. [Southern Nevada Courier Service, NV (United States); Griffin, Wayne R. [Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  16. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 6 of 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  17. Historical and logical approach of the strategic planning impact evaluation for the Higher Politehcnical Institute of Guayaquil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rodríguez-Herkt

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article the logical historical behavior of the impact assessment of institutional development plan in the Bolivarian Polytechnic Institute in Guayaquil, Ecuador, preceded by the assessment of the most relevant models that have marked the course of history of this process is addressed, on the basis of the key indicators fundamental stages that this process has gone characterized. The historical and logical analysis of the impact assessment of strategic planning requires a raid needed in the different models associated with this process, so as to allow the orientation contextualize the options made in this investigation.

  18. Empathy as a Tool for Historical Understanding: An Evaluative Approach of the Ancient Greek Primary History Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarakou, Elisabeth D.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the ancient Greek history curriculum and the corresponding textbook as they are implemented in the fourth grade of primary school in an aim to determine whether and to what extent empathy is recognized as a fundamental tool for historical understanding. A close examination of the curriculum revealed that empathy is not…

  19. Evaluating the effects of alternative forest management plans under various physiographic settings using historical records as a reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangjian Zhang; Hong S. He; Stephen R. Shifley; Jian Yang; Brian J. Palik

    2011-01-01

    Using historical General Land Office record as a reference, this study employed a landscape-scale disturbance and succession model to estimate the future cumulative effects of six alternative management plans on the tree species composition for various physiographic settings for the Mark Twain National Forest in Missouri. The results indicate that over a 200-year...

  20. Archeological and Historic Cultural Resources Inventory for a Proposed Flood Control Project at Devils Lake, Ramsey County, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Chautauqua Association signed a contract with J.H. McCulloch to secure a right-of- way for the Chautauqua Railway. McCulloch received a 30 year franchise in...excavation at Bakery of U.S. military fort Palo Duro St. Park, TX; Test excavation at historic dugout Sea Rim State Park, TX; Archaeological survey San

  1. Evaluation of robotically controlled advanced endoscopic instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilink, Rob; Kappers, Astrid M.L.; Stramigioli, Stefano; Misra, Sarthak

    Background Advanced flexible endoscopes and instruments with multiple degrees of freedom enable physicians to perform challenging procedures such as the removal of large sections of mucosal tissue. However, these advanced endoscopes are difficult to control and require several physicians to

  2. Customer control and evaluation of service validity and reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raaij, W. Fred; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.

    1998-01-01

    A control and attribution model of service production and evaluation is proposed. Service production consists of the stages specification (input), realization (throughput), and outcome (output). Customers may exercise control over all three stages of the service. Critical factors of service

  3. Evaluation of RTD and thermocouple for PID temperature control in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of RTD and thermocouple for PID temperature control in distributed control system laboratory. D. A. A. Nazarudin, M. K. Nordin, A. Ahmad, M. Masrie, M. F. Saaid, N. M. Thamrin, M. S. A. M. Ali ...

  4. Importance of Sulfate Aerosol in Evaluating the Relative Contributions of Regional Emissions to the Historical Global Temperature Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronova, N.; Schlesinger, M.

    2004-01-01

    During the negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol the delegation of Brazil presented an approach for distributing the burden of emissions reductions among the Parties based on the effect of their cumulative historical emissions on the global-average near-surface temperature. The Letter to the Parties does not limit the emissions to be considered to be only greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Thus, in this paper we explore the importance of anthropogenic SOx emissions that are converted to sulfate aerosol in the atmosphere, together with the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions, in attributing historical temperature change. We use historical emissions and our simple climate model to estimate the relative contributions to global warming of the regional emissions by four Parties: OECD90, Africa and Latin America, Asia, and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union. Our results show that for most Parties the large warming contributed by their GHG emissions is largely offset by the correspondingly large cooling by their SOx emissions. Thus, OECD90 has become the dominant contributor to recent global warming following its large reduction in SOx emissions after 1980

  5. Evaluation of Controller Tuning Methods Applied to Distillation Column Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim; W. Andersen, Henrik; Kümmel, Professor Mogens

    A frequency domain approach is used to compare the nominal performance and robustness of dual composition distillation column control tuned according to Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) and Biggest Log Modulus Tuning (BLT) for three binary distillation columns, WOBE, LUVI and TOFA. The scope of this is to ex......A frequency domain approach is used to compare the nominal performance and robustness of dual composition distillation column control tuned according to Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) and Biggest Log Modulus Tuning (BLT) for three binary distillation columns, WOBE, LUVI and TOFA. The scope...

  6. Evaluation of Salivary Uric Acid and pH in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Patients: A Historical Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Amjad, Samaneh Vaziri; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2018-01-01

    Antioxidants protect the body against cellular damage. Saliva has immunological, enzymatic and antioxidant defense systems. Uric acid is the main and predominant salivary antioxidant. The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary uric acid levels and pH in HIV-infected patients in the west of Iran. HIV-infected patients were selected from behavioral advisory centers of Hamadan and Kermanshah Provinces, west of Iran. Saliva was collected between 8 and10 in the morning. Five mL of whole unstimulated saliva was collected in 5 minutes by spitting into sterilized Falcon tubes based on Navazesh method; pH was measured with a pH meter and uric acid was assessed with spectrophotometric method. Data were analyzed with STATA 12. Salivary pH in the HIV-positive group was lower (6.99±0.46) than the healthy controls (7.14±1.03) but the difference was not statistically significant (P=380). Uric acid concentrations in HIV-infected patients (2.94±2.14) were significantly lower in comparison to the healthy controls (5.21±2.30). The results showed a statistically significant decrease in the case group (P=0.001). Mean age and DMFT index of the case group were higher than the control group. Uric acid, the main antioxidant of saliva, was significantly lower in HIVinfected individuals; pH also was lower in these patients. HIV can alter salivary antioxidant status, which can influence patients' oral health status. Diet with antioxidant properties might be helpful in these patients. More research is necessary to discover true antioxidant and salivary changes and their relation with HIV consequences in future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Evaluating control displays with the Engineering Control Analysis Tool (ECAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plott, B.

    2006-01-01

    In the Nuclear Power Industry increased use of automated sensors and advanced control systems is expected to reduce and/or change manning requirements. However, critical questions remain regarding the extent to which safety will be compromised if the cognitive workload associated with monitoring multiple automated systems is increased. Can operators/engineers maintain an acceptable level of performance if they are required to supervise multiple automated systems and respond appropriately to off-normal conditions? The interface to/from the automated systems must provide the information necessary for making appropriate decisions regarding intervention in the automated process, but be designed so that the cognitive load is neither too high nor too low for the operator who is responsible for the monitoring and decision making. This paper will describe a new tool that was developed to enhance the ability of human systems integration (HSI) professionals and systems engineers to identify operational tasks in which a high potential for human overload and error can be expected. The tool is entitled the Engineering Control Analysis Tool (ECAT). ECAT was designed and developed to assist in the analysis of: Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), operator task requirements, human error probabilities, workload prediction, potential control and display problems, and potential panel layout problems. (authors)

  8. Evaluating control displays with the Engineering Control Analysis Tool (ECAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plott, B. [Alion Science and Technology, MA and D Operation, 4949 Pearl E. Circle, 300, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    In the Nuclear Power Industry increased use of automated sensors and advanced control systems is expected to reduce and/or change manning requirements. However, critical questions remain regarding the extent to which safety will be compromised if the cognitive workload associated with monitoring multiple automated systems is increased. Can operators/engineers maintain an acceptable level of performance if they are required to supervise multiple automated systems and respond appropriately to off-normal conditions? The interface to/from the automated systems must provide the information necessary for making appropriate decisions regarding intervention in the automated process, but be designed so that the cognitive load is neither too high nor too low for the operator who is responsible for the monitoring and decision making. This paper will describe a new tool that was developed to enhance the ability of human systems integration (HSI) professionals and systems engineers to identify operational tasks in which a high potential for human overload and error can be expected. The tool is entitled the Engineering Control Analysis Tool (ECAT). ECAT was designed and developed to assist in the analysis of: Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), operator task requirements, human error probabilities, workload prediction, potential control and display problems, and potential panel layout problems. (authors)

  9. Self-Esteem, Locus of Control, and First-Time NCLEX-RN Passage of BSN Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavis, Pamella Ivey

    Relationships between self-esteem, locus of control (LOC), and first-time passage of National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN®) were examined at baccalaureate nursing programs at two historically black colleges and universities. Shortages continue to exceed demands for RNs prepared at the baccalaureate level. Inconsistent pass rates on the NCLEX-RN for graduates of historically black colleges and universities impede the supply of RNs. Surveys and archival data were used to examine characteristics of the sample and explore relationships among variables. All participants (N = 90) reported high self-esteem and internal LOC. Models suggested that all those with high self-esteem and internal LOC would pass the NCLEX-RN; only 85 percent passed the first time. Statistical analysis revealed a lack of statistical significance between self-esteem, LOC, and first-time passage. Variables not included in the study may have affected first-time passage.

  10. Method for evaluating operator inputs to digital controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Most industrial processes employ operator-interactive control systems. The performance of these control systems is influenced by the choice of control station (device through which operator enters control commands). While the importance of proper control-station selection is widely accepted, standard and simple selection methods are not available for the control station using color-graphics terminals. This paper describes a unique facility for evaluating the effectiveness of various control stations. In the facility, a process is simulated on a hybrid computer, color-graphics display terminals provide information to the operator, and different control stations accept input commands to control the simulation. Tests are being conducted to evaluate a keyboard, a graphics tablet, and a CRT touch panel for use as control stations on a nuclear power plant. Preliminary results indicate that our facility can be used to determine those situations where each type of station is advantageous

  11. Evaluation of hospital disinfection as a means of controlling endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of hospital environment disinfection as a means of controlling endemic nosocomial pathogens in a University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria was evaluated. Disinfectant used in the Hospital was collected from the Infection Control unit and prepared in different concentrations. The isolated bacterial species from the ...

  12. Experimental evaluation of control strategies for hydraulic servo robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Michael Møller; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper different linear and non-linear controllers applied to a hydraulically driven servo robot are evaluated and validated. The task is to make the actuators of the manipulator track a position reference with minimum error. Hydraulic systems are intrinsically non-linear and using linear...... in industrial servo drives. The different controllers are compared and evaluated from simulation and experimental results....

  13. Evaluation of efalizumab using safe psoriasis control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henninger Eric

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe Psoriasis Control (SPC is an important comprehensive measure that is validated for the assessment of benefit:risk of psoriasis treatments, combining efficacy, quality of life, and safety measures. The objective of this analysis was to assess the benefit:risk of efalizumab, a novel biologic agent indicated for the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, by applying the SPC to data from randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies of efalizumab. Methods SPC was applied to week 12 data from four placebo-controlled, Phase III studies: three retrospective and one prospective, the latter including a cohort of "high-need" patients for whom existing therapies were inadequate or unsuitable. Results In the retrospective analysis, 39.4% of patients achieved SPC after 12 weeks of treatment with efalizumab, compared with 10.4% for placebo. In the prospective analysis, 34.3% of patients achieved SPC after 12 weeks of treatment with efalizumab, compared with 7.3% on placebo. Among high-need patients, 33.0% achieved SPC, compared with 3.4% on placebo. Conclusion Efalizumab has a favorable benefit:risk profile using the comprehensive outcome measure SPC.

  14. Smartphone-based reminder system to promote pelvic floor muscle training for the management of postnatal urinary incontinence: historical control study with propensity score-matched analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Kinouchi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a smartphone-based reminder system in promoting pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT to help postpartum women manage urinary incontinence (UI. Methods Forty-nine and 212 postpartum women in the intervention and control groups, respectively, received PFMT guidance using a leaflet and verbal instruction as the standard care at an obstetrics clinic in Japan. Women in the intervention group also received PFMT support using the smartphone-based reminder system between January and August 2014. For analysis, they were compared with historical controls between February 2011 and January 2012, who did not receive such support and were chosen by propensity score matching. The outcomes examined were PFMT adherence and UI prevalence. The former consisted of implementation rate (i.e., the percentage of women who reported performing PFMT during the intervention period, training intensity (i.e., the number of pelvic floor muscle contractions (PFMCs per day, and training frequency (i.e., the number of days PFMT was performed per week; the latter consisted of self-reported UI prevalence at baseline and at the end of the eight-week intervention period. Result Propensity score matching resulted in 58 postpartum women (n = 29 per group. The intervention group exhibited better PFMT adherence than the control group, in terms of PFMT implementation rate (69 vs. 31%, p = 0.008, median training intensity (15 vs. 1 PFMC reps/day, p = 0.006, and training frequency (7 vs. 3 days/week, p < 0.001. UI prevalence was not different between the groups at baseline, but was significantly reduced in the intervention group at eight weeks (0 vs. 24%, p = 0.004. Conclusion Our smartphone-based reminder system appears promising in enhancing PFMT adherence and managing postpartum UI in postpartum women. By enhancing PFMT adherence and improving women’s ability to manage the condition, the reminder system could

  15. Soil mapping and modelling for evaluation of the effects of historical and present-day soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanova, Anna; Szwarczewski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    The loess hilly lands in Danube Lowland are characterized by patchy soil-scape. The soil erosion processes uncover the subsurface, bright loess horizon, while non-eroded and colluvial soils are of the dark colour, in the chernozem area. With the modernisation of agriculture since the 1950's and in the process of collectivization, when small fields were merged into bigger, the soil degradation progressed. However, the analysis of historical sources and sediment archives showed the proofs of historical soil erosion. The objective of this study is to map the soil erosion patterns in connection of both pre- and post-collectivization landscape and to understand the accordingly developed soil erosion patterns. The combined methods of soil mapping and soil erosion modelling were applied in the part of the Trnavska pahorkatina Hilly Land in Danube Lowland. The detailed soil mapping in a zero-order catchment (0.28 km²) uncovered the removal of surface soil horizon of 0.6m or more, while the colluvial soils were about 1.1m deep. The soil properties and dating helped to describe the original soil profile in the valley bottom, and reconstruct the history of soil erosion in the catchment. The soil erosion model was applied using the reconstructed land use patterns in order to understand the effect of recent and historical soil erosion in the lowland landscape. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract ESF-EC-0006-07 and APVV-0625-11; Anna Smetanová has received the support of the AgreenSkills fellowship (under grant agreement n°267196).

  16. Historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora C, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    Short history of the ''Instituto de Asuntos Nucleares''. A short historical review about IAN is made: from 1956 when it was called Instituto Colombiano de Asuntos Nucleares, showing its scientific and technical development and the most important events that have occurred in the last 30 years. The people who had contributed to the progress of the institution are also considered, making emphasis in the important happenings that have guided the routes of the IAN

  17. An evaluation of Mesodon and other larger terrestrial gastropod shells for dating late Holocene and historic alluvium in the Midwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovan, Monica T.; Rech, Jason A.; Pigati, Jeffery S.; Nekola, Jeffery C.; Wiles, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the history of stream erosion and changes in channel morphology is important for managing and restoring unstable streams. One of the significant challenges in this type of research is establishing accurate dating of late Holocene and historic alluvium. Here we evaluate the potential of using 14C dating and amino acid racemization (AAR) to date large terrestrial gastropod shells that are often preserved within alluvial sediments. Many terrestrial gastropods incorporate old carbon from limestone or other carbonate rocks into their shells and therefore are unsuitable for radiocarbon dating. Recent studies, however, have shown that some taxa avoid this ‘limestone problem’ and can yield reliable 14C ages. In this study, we measured the 14C activity of specimens for the genera Mesodon, Ventridens, and Allogona collected live and from alluvial sequences dated independently by dendrochronology, 14C dating of wood, and/or 137Cs analyses. Mesodon zaletus contained old carbon in similar concentrations (up to ~ 30%) found in previous studies of other large taxa and should be avoided for 14C dating when possible. In contrast, shells of Ventridens ligera and Allogona profunda showed minimal limestone effects and therefore may be suitable for dating late Holocene alluvium. These results highlight the importance of taxonomic identification of gastropod taxa prior to their use for 14C dating and demonstrate that shell fragments that are not identifiable should be avoided. We also measured d/l ratios (n = 17) of aspartic and glutamic acid from eight different taxa of terrestrial gastropods recovered from four late Holocene and historic stratigraphic sequences. Average d/l ratios of aspartic and glutamic acid from historic sediments < 300 years old are lower in shells from younger stratigraphic units, indicating that AAR can be used to differentiate between multiple historic stratigraphic units.

  18. Turbine Energy Evaluation by internal dimensional control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediavilla, F.

    2000-01-01

    To maintain the optimum thermal performance in a high level throughout the life of the turbines requires a good testing program, proper analysis of the test data, and a steam path audit during turbine overhauls. If from operating data analysis collected during the performance test before the outage shows that the efficiency of the turbine is coming down, the steam path audit, that is an internal inspection and a dimensional control of the internals, identity and quantity causes of performance degradation like, seal leakages, excessive clearances, solid particle erosion damages, blades deposits and other losses. The steam path audit assigns the heat rate penalties associated with each of these individual losses to the total degradation. This are used to make cost-effective maintenance decisions during the course of the overhaul. After repairs, a closing steam path audit is conducted during the re assembly of the turbine in order to predict return to service condition of the machine and to provide a quality control check on outage repairs. (Author)

  19. EVALUATION OF AUTHENTICITY ON THE BASIS OF THE NARA GRID IN ADAPTIVE REUSE OF MANOCHEHRI HISTORICAL HOUSE KASHAN, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parastoo Eshrati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Since it is highly desirable in the reuse of historic monuments not only to maintain their values but to promote them in contemporary life, authenticity is considered one of the measures of success in adaptive reuse projects. Nara Grid, which is designed concerning authenticity, is used as a tool to assess the authenticity of cultural heritage. This paper investigates authenticity in the adaptive reuse of Manouchehri House in Kashan based on the Nara Grid. The importance of this house lies in the fact that it is one of the first which has been reused by the private sector in this city and also has managed to encourage private sector partnership in the reuse of houses in this city and other historic cities of Iran. It has also been able to increase government trust, which shifts from top-down to a bottom-up approach in the field of cultural heritage, in the private sector. In this research, using Statistical Analysis methods, it is determined within the adaptive reuse of this house which ‘Dimensions’ and ‘Aspects’ of authenticity have received more attention and which ones received less; and also significant differences among individual’s viewpoints according to their gender, field, education, and age were investigated.

  20. HUMAN FACTORS GUIDANCE FOR CONTROL ROOM EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OHARA, J.; BROWN, W.; STUBLER, W.; HIGGINS, J.; WACHTEL, J.; PERSENSKY, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The Human-System Interface Design Review Guideline (NUREG-0700, Revision 1) was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide human factors guidance as a basis for the review of advanced human-system interface technologies. The guidance consists of three components: design review procedures, human factors engineering guidelines, and a software application to provide design review support called the ''Design Review Guideline.'' Since it was published in June 1996, Rev. 1 to NUREG-0700 has been used successfully by NRC staff, contractors and nuclear industry organizations, as well as by interested organizations outside the nuclear industry. The NRC has committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool in the face of emerging and rapidly changing technology. This paper addresses the current research to update of NUREG-0700 based on the substantial work that has taken place since the publication of Revision 1

  1. Evaluation of tactual displays for flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, W. H.; Tanner, R. B.; Triggs, T. J.

    1973-01-01

    Manual tracking experiments were conducted to determine the suitability of tactual displays for presenting flight-control information in multitask situations. Although tracking error scores are considerably greater than scores obtained with a continuous visual display, preliminary results indicate that inter-task interference effects are substantially less with the tactual display in situations that impose high visual scanning workloads. The single-task performance degradation found with the tactual display appears to be a result of the coding scheme rather than the use of the tactual sensory mode per se. Analysis with the state-variable pilot/vehicle model shows that reliable predictions of tracking errors can be obtained for wide-band tracking systems once the pilot-related model parameters have been adjusted to reflect the pilot-display interaction.

  2. Evaluation-Function-based Model-free Adaptive Fuzzy Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Naba

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Designs of adaptive fuzzy controllers (AFC are commonly based on the Lyapunov approach, which requires a known model of the controlled plant. They need to consider a Lyapunov function candidate as an evaluation function to be minimized. In this study these drawbacks were handled by designing a model-free adaptive fuzzy controller (MFAFC using an approximate evaluation function defined in terms of the current state, the next state, and the control action. MFAFC considers the approximate evaluation function as an evaluative control performance measure similar to the state-action value function in reinforcement learning. The simulation results of applying MFAFC to the inverted pendulum benchmark verified the proposed scheme’s efficacy.

  3. Biblical Interpretation Beyond Historicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biblical Interpretation beyond Historicity evaluates the new perspectives that have emerged since the crisis over historicity in the 1970s and 80s in the field of biblical scholarship. Several new studies in the field, as well as the ‘deconstructive’ side of literary criticism that emerged from...... writers such as Derrida and Wittgenstein, among others, lead biblical scholars today to view the texts of the Bible more as literary narratives than as sources for a history of Israel. Increased interest in archaeological and anthropological studies in writing the history of Palestine and the ancient Near...... and the commitment to a new approach to both the history of Palestine and the Bible’s place in ancient history. This volume features essays from a range of highly regarded scholars, and is divided into three sections: “Beyond Historicity”, which explores alternative historical roles for the Bible, “Greek Connections...

  4. Retesting young STI clinic visitors with urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the Netherlands; response to a text message reminder and reinfection rates: a prospective study with historical controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampman, Cjg; Koedijk, Fdh; Driessen-Hulshof, Hcm; Hautvast, Jla; van den Broek, Ivf

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the effect of reminder text messages 6 months after the initial treatment on retest and chlamydia reinfection rates in young heterosexuals compared with a historical control group and to assess factors associated with both outcomes. Heterosexual people (aged 16-23 years), testing positive for urogenital chlamydia, were offered a retest after 6 months. Participants received a text message reminder at 6 months after the initial chlamydia diagnosis. Rates of retest uptake and the result of the retest were analysed using Cox regression. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated to identify factors associated with these outcomes. Furthermore, the retest rate was compared with the retest rate of a historical control group. 30.6% (253/838) of the study group returned within 5-8 months compared with 9.2% (140/1530) in the historical control group. Women and persons who were not notified for a sexually transmitted infection (STI) at inclusion were more likely to return for a retest. 20.4% (56/275) of participants had a chlamydia reinfection upon retesting. Reinfection was higher in participants reporting STI-related symptoms (PR 3.2, 95% CI 1.8 to 5.6) and in participants who were notified for an STI at retest (PR 5.3, 95% CI 2.4 to 11.5). A text message reminder appeared to have a clear, positive impact on the resulting retest rate. These results also indicate that retesting is necessary to identify chlamydia reinfections. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Evaluative Testing of 5LA3421: A Multicomponent Prehistoric and Historic Site, Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Las Animas County, Colorado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charles, Mona; Baker, Thann; Markussen, Christine; Nathan, Randy; Duke, Philip

    2004-01-01

    In the summer of 2002, evaluative testing was undertaken at a large multicomponent site for the purpose of evaluating the potential of this site to yield significant information about the prehistory...

  6. Evaluation of the expression of internal control transcripts by real ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the expression of internal control transcripts by real-time RT-PCR analysis during tomato flower abscission. Song Gao, Tao Xu, Mingfang Qi, Yufeng Liu, Hong Li, Shuangshuang Lv, Jinhong Li, Tianlai Li ...

  7. Material control test and evaluation system at the ICPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    The US DOE is evaluating process monitoring as part of a total nuclear material safeguards system. A monitoring system is being installed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to test and evaluate material control and surveillance concepts in an operating nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Process monitoring for nuclear material control complements conventional safeguards accountability and physical protection to assure adherence to approved safeguards procedures and verify containment of nuclear materials within the processing plant

  8. [Evaluation standards and application for photography of schistosomiasis control theme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun-Li, Cao; Qing-Biao, Hong; Jing-Ping, Guo; Fang, Liu; Tian-Ping, Wang; Jian-Bin, Liu; Lin, Chen; Hao, Wang; You-Sheng, Liang; Jia-Gang, Guo

    2018-02-26

    To set up and apply the evaluation standards for photography of schistosomiasis control theme, so as to offer the scientific advice for enriching the health information carrier of schistosomiasis control. Through the literature review and expert consultation, the evaluation standard for photography of schistosomiasis control theme was formulated. The themes were divided into 4 projects, such as new construction, natural scenery, working scene, and control achievements. The evaluation criteria of the theme photography were divided into the theme (60%), photographic composition (15%), focus exposure (15%), and color saturation (10%) . A total of 495 pictures (sets) from 59 units with 77 authors were collected from schistosomiasis epidemic areas national wide. After the first-step screening and second-step evaluation, the prizes of 3 themes of control achievements and new construction, working scene, and natural scenery were selected, such as 6 pictures of first prize, 12 pictures of second prize, 18 pictures of third prize, and 20 pictures of honorable prize. The evaluation standards of theme photography should be taken into the consideration of the technical elements of photography and the work specification of schistosomiasis prevention and control. In order to improve the ability of records for propaganda purpose of schistosomiasis control and better play a role of guiding correct propaganda, the training and guidance of photography of professionals should be carried out.

  9. Evaluating land use changes by landscape historical examinations at the great pasture of Hajdúbagos (Eastern Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna ANTAL

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available At an Eastern Hungarian protected grassland, namely at the Lesser Mole Rat (Spalax leucodon Nordmann, 1840. Reservation of Hajdúbagos Nature Conservation Area, grazing animal husbandry formed the façade of the land for hundreds of years. Though, due to the unfavourable changes of the last few decades in this sector of agriculture, the primeval sand steppe meadow (Pulsatillo hungaricae-Festucetum rupicolae (Soó 1938 Borhidi 1996 plant association is endangered by the increasingly accelerating succession. To stop or at least to slow down this process the rehabilitation of the area could be necessary. The target of the restoration ecology actions is to restore the previously existing, more favourable natural status of a particular area. However, the lack of knowledge according to the conditions that refer to the original circumstances often complicates this activity. To define these reference conditions the exploration of the history of a certain landscape is very important as restoration is only successful if the restored ecosystem is similar to the original. We examined the land use changes of the research area during the last 250 years according to historical and present geographical databases using GIS technology and completed this work with the study of archival data. By our results we stated that these examinations are crucial in the proper - agriculture related - management of protected areas.

  10. The aim and participation of scientific tourism in evaluation, recognition and widening of the country's historical and cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashchyan, Davit

    2015-07-01

    Though the phenomenon of scientific tourism is widely spread in the USA and Europe, it is a new branch in Armenian tourism. The aim of the scientific tourism is to establish relationship between the tourist and the scientist, without the tourist having any material interest. The main aim is to involve the tourist in the scientific works, giving him a chance to be a part of the expedition. One of the main goals is also to involve the local tourist in the exploration of the historical and cultural heritage. It is important to mention that besides having the chance to take part in the scientific exploration, they also enjoy the time. It gives an opportunity to make the relation between the tourist and the scientist more strengthen, and let them partnering for future. The scientific tourism gives the scientist an opportunity to get new volunteers to make it wide known for the society. What refers to a tourist it is a good chance for him to be a part of a scientific exploration, to satisfy his own interest, to get new knowledge, and take part in the development of his own country.

  11. Evaluation of Linear Regression Simultaneous Myoelectric Control Using Intramuscular EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren H; Kuiken, Todd A; Hargrove, Levi J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of linear regression models to decode patterns of muscle coactivation from intramuscular electromyogram (EMG) and provide simultaneous myoelectric control of a virtual 3-DOF wrist/hand system. Performance was compared to the simultaneous control of conventional myoelectric prosthesis methods using intramuscular EMG (parallel dual-site control)-an approach that requires users to independently modulate individual muscles in the residual limb, which can be challenging for amputees. Linear regression control was evaluated in eight able-bodied subjects during a virtual Fitts' law task and was compared to performance of eight subjects using parallel dual-site control. An offline analysis also evaluated how different types of training data affected prediction accuracy of linear regression control. The two control systems demonstrated similar overall performance; however, the linear regression method demonstrated improved performance for targets requiring use of all three DOFs, whereas parallel dual-site control demonstrated improved performance for targets that required use of only one DOF. Subjects using linear regression control could more easily activate multiple DOFs simultaneously, but often experienced unintended movements when trying to isolate individual DOFs. Offline analyses also suggested that the method used to train linear regression systems may influence controllability. Linear regression myoelectric control using intramuscular EMG provided an alternative to parallel dual-site control for 3-DOF simultaneous control at the wrist and hand. The two methods demonstrated different strengths in controllability, highlighting the tradeoff between providing simultaneous control and the ability to isolate individual DOFs when desired.

  12. The Evaluation of Traffic Control in Changsha City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, S.; Li, J.; Van Zuylen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Different aspects of the traffic control system in the CBD of Changsha have been evaluated. A general issue is the safety conditions, which are evaluated qualitatively. The second issue is the low saturation flow observed on the intersections, that appear to be 20 to 30% lower than the ones in

  13. Statistical Process Control in the Practice of Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavac, Emil J.

    1995-01-01

    A technique developed to monitor the quality of manufactured products, statistical process control (SPC), incorporates several features that may prove attractive to evaluators. This paper reviews the history of SPC, suggests how the approach can enrich program evaluation, and illustrates its use in a hospital-based example. (SLD)

  14. Evaluating the Flipped Classroom: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozny, Nathan; Balser, Cary; Ives, Drew

    2018-01-01

    Despite recent interest in flipped classrooms, rigorous research evaluating their effectiveness is sparse. In this study, the authors implement a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a flipped classroom technique relative to a traditional lecture in an introductory undergraduate econometrics course. Random assignment enables the…

  15. Evaluation of Tobacco Control Policies in Bangladesh | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Evaluation of Tobacco Control Policies in Bangladesh. Bangladesh introduced its first comprehensive tobacco control act in 2005, in an attempt to address the country's high prevalence of tobacco use. ... Institution. University of Dhaka. Pays d' institution. Bangladesh. Site internet. http://www.univdhaka.edu ...

  16. Evaluating the effects of mosquito control adulticides on honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    While mosquito control adulticides can be effective in rapidly reducing mosquito populations during times of high arbovirus transmission, the impacts of these control measures on pollinators has been of recent interest. The purpose of our study was to evaluate mosquito and honey bee mortality using ...

  17. Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller therapy in chest clinics in a sub-Saharan African setting: a cross-sectional study. ... Background: Adherence to controller therapy in asthma is a major concern during the management of the disease. Objective: To determine the adherence rate and identify the ...

  18. Development and evaluation of an Exposure Control Efficacy Library (ECEL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransman, W.; Schinkel, J.; Meijster, T.; Hemmen, J. van; Tielemans, E.; Goede, H.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This paper describes the development and evaluation of an evidence database on the effectiveness of risk management measures (RMMs) to control inhalation exposure. This database is referred to as Exposure Control Efficacy Library (ECEL). Methods: A comprehensive review of scientific

  19. Human factors evaluation of the engineering test reactor control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, W.W.; Boone, M.P.

    1981-03-01

    The Reactor and Process Control Rooms at the Engineering Test Reactor were evaluated by a team of human factors engineers using available human factors design criteria. During the evaluation, ETR, equipment and facilities were compared with MIL-STD-1472-B, Human Engineering design Criteria for Military Systems. The focus of recommendations centered on: (a) displays and controls; placing displays and controls in functional groups; (b) establishing a consistent color coding (in compliance with a standard if possible); (c) systematizing annunciator alarms and reducing their number; (d) organizing equipment in functional groups; and (e) modifying labeling and lines of demarcation

  20. Evaluation of Current Controllers for Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timbus, Adrian; Liserre, Marco; Teodorescu, Remus

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the evaluation of different current controllers employed for grid-connected distributed power generation systems having variable input power, such as wind turbines and photovoltaic systems. The focus is mainly set on linear controllers such as proportional-integral, proportio......This paper discusses the evaluation of different current controllers employed for grid-connected distributed power generation systems having variable input power, such as wind turbines and photovoltaic systems. The focus is mainly set on linear controllers such as proportional......-integral, proportional-resonant, and deadbeat (DB) controllers. Additionally, an improved DB controller robust against grid impedance variation is also presented. Since the paper discusses the implementation of these controllers for grid-connected applications, their evaluation is made in three operating conditions....... First, in steady-state conditions, the contribution of controllers to the total harmonic distortion of the grid current is pursued. Further on, the behavior of controllers in the case of transient conditions like input power variations and grid voltage faults is also examined. Experimental results...

  1. Evaluation of Historic Indo-Pak Relations, Water Resource Issues and Its impact on Contemporary Bilateral Affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tayyab Sohail

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Being developed countries both Pakistan and India are striving for the economic development. Pakistan and India share a 1610 km long border. They share same language, dress and culture and also six watercourses, namely the Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej and Beas, along with their numerous tributaries. Pakistan, like other countries of the region depends heavily on agriculture, with the greater part of the population relying on it for livelihood. As a result, water is not only vital for everyday needs, but a critical source for economic development. Water is a resource on which there is dependency of economy and no substitute. Pakistan and India are close neighbors and lied in South East of Asia. Apart from sharing border and history both the countries have various same customs and traditions.Both countries gained independence in 1947 from British Government, from the day of independence Pakistan has been facing lots of internal and external challenges. Apart from other conflicts, water issues also exist between Pakistan and India. After the nine years negotiation with the help of World Bank, they solved this issue but after some time it started again. Some kind of historical issues including water issues has been discussed in this paper. To judge the public opinion of the both countries, an interview survey was conducted by some international expert and from the people who are directly involved in these kind of profession of Indo-Pak relation. Analyses of interview with some statistic information and on the behalf of history some conclusions and suggestions were including at the end of this study.

  2. Evaluation of Voltage Control Approaches for Future Smart Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates meta-heuristic and deterministic approaches for distribution network voltage control. As part of this evaluation, a novel meta-heuristic algorithm, Cuckoo Search, is applied for distribution network voltage control and compared with a deterministic voltage control algorithm, the oriented discrete coordinate decent method (ODCDM. ODCDM has been adopted in a state-of-the-art industrial product and applied in real distribution networks. These two algorithms have been evaluated under a set of test cases, which were generated to represent the voltage control problems in current and future distribution networks. Sampled test results have been presented, and findings have been discussed regarding the adoption of different optimization algorithms for current and future distribution networks.

  3. Ergonomic requirements to control room design - evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, W.

    1985-01-01

    The method of evaluation introduced is the result of work carried out by the sub-committee 'Control Room Design' of the Engineering Standards Committee in DIN Standards, Ergonomy. This committee compiles standards for the design of control rooms (instrumentation and control) for the monitoring and operation of process engineering cycles. With the agreement of the committee - whom we wish to take the opportunity of thanking at this point for their constructive collaboration - a planned partial standard will be introduced thematically in the following, in order that knowledge gained from the discussion can be included in further work on the subject. The matter in question is a procedure for the qualitative evaluation of the duties to be performed under the control of operators in order that an assessment can be made of existing control concepts or such concepts as are to be found in the draft phase. (orig./GL) [de

  4. Performance evaluation and design of flight vehicle control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Falangas, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    This book will help students, control engineers and flight dynamics analysts to model and conduct sophisticated and systemic analyses of early flight vehicle designs controlled with multiple types of effectors and to design and evaluate new vehicle concepts in terms of satisfying mission and performance goals. Performance Evaluation and Design of Flight Vehicle Control Systems begins by creating a dynamic model of a generic flight vehicle that includes a range of elements from airplanes and launch vehicles to re-entry vehicles and spacecraft. The models may include dynamic effects dealing with structural flexibility, as well as dynamic coupling between structures and actuators, propellant sloshing, and aeroelasticity, and they are typically used for control analysis and design. The book shows how to efficiently combine different types of effectors together, such as aero-surfaces, TVC, throttling engines and RCS, to operate as a system by developing a mixing logic atrix. Methods of trimming a vehicle controll...

  5. Design and Evaluation Methods for Underwater Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Lin

    1996-12-31

    This thesis on underwater control systems is written with the designer in mind, assuming that the reader has some knowledge of control theory. It can be used as a text for undergraduate students and engineers. To help readers better understand the system they will be working with, the thesis is organised in a stepwise way. The reader will gain basic knowledge about underwater operations, equipment and control systems. Then the reader will be able to follow the steps to develop a required control system for an underwater equipment by first understanding the characteristics of the design problem, customer requirement, functional requirement, and possible solution, and then to present a mathematical model of the control problem. Having developed the concept, the thesis guides the reader to develop evaluation criteria and different ways to make the decision. The thesis gives an overview of how to achieve a successful design rather than giving the techniques for detailed control system design. Chapter 1 describes underwater operations and systems. Chapter 2 discusses issues of underwater control systems and control methods. Chapter 3 deals with design method and control systems theory, focusing on human-centered control. Chapter 4 discusses methods used to evaluate and rank products, and chapter 5 applies the methods to an example. 113 refs., 115 figs., 80 tabs.

  6. Design and Evaluation Methods for Underwater Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Lin

    1997-12-31

    This thesis on underwater control systems is written with the designer in mind, assuming that the reader has some knowledge of control theory. It can be used as a text for undergraduate students and engineers. To help readers better understand the system they will be working with, the thesis is organised in a stepwise way. The reader will gain basic knowledge about underwater operations, equipment and control systems. Then the reader will be able to follow the steps to develop a required control system for an underwater equipment by first understanding the characteristics of the design problem, customer requirement, functional requirement, and possible solution, and then to present a mathematical model of the control problem. Having developed the concept, the thesis guides the reader to develop evaluation criteria and different ways to make the decision. The thesis gives an overview of how to achieve a successful design rather than giving the techniques for detailed control system design. Chapter 1 describes underwater operations and systems. Chapter 2 discusses issues of underwater control systems and control methods. Chapter 3 deals with design method and control systems theory, focusing on human-centered control. Chapter 4 discusses methods used to evaluate and rank products, and chapter 5 applies the methods to an example. 113 refs., 115 figs., 80 tabs.

  7. Evaluation of team skills for control room crews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaddy, C.D.; Koontz, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Although team training has received considerable attention throughout industry, a systematic approach to team skills training has only recently been proposed for control room crews. One important step of the approach to team skills training is evaluation of team skills. This paper describes methods and resources, and program considerations in team skills evaluation. The three areas pertaining to methods and resources are: development of evaluation criteria, preparation of event scenarios, and instructor training and additional resources. The program considerations include sequencing and coordination of team skills evaluation in the context of an overall operator training program

  8. Historical prologue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.; Bethe, H.A.; Blair, B.G.; Bracken, P.; Carter, A.B.; Dickinson, H.; Garwin, R.L.; Holloway, D.; Kendall, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    The organizations and machines engaged in a severe nuclear crisis would be its tangible and partially quantifiable factors. For that reason they often dominate our thinking about superpower confrontations. Military organizations, however, are not automatons that can run amok on their own. The perceptions of leaders and populations propel the course of events, and their mindsets are shaped by what experience, history, and myth claim to say about war. Since there has never been combat between nuclear-armed states, it is debatable whether the past has any relevance to what we now face. But the part is all we have to go on. Thus soldiers and statesmen are still haunted by the manner in which this century's two great wars began, and the past thereby influences the thoughts that lead to weapons, to military plans, and to decisions that could turn peace into war. It is therefore essential to have some appreciation for the historical roots that nourish our expectations about international conflict. This paper describes some of these roots

  9. Historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, H. E.

    It was a pleasure to learn, from a recent (May 4) issue of Eos, of the formation of a permanent Committee on History of Geophysics. There is a dire need for reference material, books, and articles on geophysical history.Let me recommend to them that they take a good look at the Dictionary of the History of Science (W.F. Bynum, E.J. Browne, Roy Porter (Eds.), Princeton University Press, 494 pp., 1981). What follows is not a book review, although it may appear so. It is meant to be a challenge to place geophysics on the map in historical context. In this book, hydrology is dealt with in one sentence under the heading ‘cycle,’ geomagnetism under ‘declination and dip,’ and its history ends with Edward Sabine. Seismology appears under earthquakes. No important seismologist is mentioned. In the biographical index, Wiechert is included only for a contribution to physics. Where are Sir Harold Jeffreys, Galitzin, Gutenberg, Mohorovičić, Lehman, and many others? Meteorology ends with V. Bjerknes and Solberg; Köppen, Richardson, Rossby, and other notables [of] the last century do not seem to exist.

  10. Acoustical tree evaluation of Coptotermes Formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) with imidacloprid and noviflumeron in historic Jackson Square, New Orleans, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine years of periodic acoustical monitoring of 93 trees active with Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, evaluated imidacloprid tree foam and noviflumuron bait on activity in trees. Long term, imidacloprid suppressed but did not eliminate termite activity in treated trees...

  11. Risk assessment of historical soil contamination with cyanides; origin, potential human exposure and evaluation of Intervention Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster HW; LBG

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate, and indicate possible adjustment of, the current Dutch Intervention Values for cyanides (CN) a review has been made of sources of CN soil contamination, behaviour of CN species and present environmental concentrations related to soils contaminated before 1987. Knowledge on

  12. Infections and their control: a historical perspective Swb Newsom Infections and their control: a historical perspective Sage/Infection Prevention Society £17.95 235pp 9781849204538 1849204535 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    BILL NEWSOM, an eminent, but now retired, medical microbiologist, provides a personal but engaging review of infections and our attempts to control them. it is a fascinating social history of what has become an essential service, and Newsom highlights the need to be aware of past struggles and avoid repeating mistakes.

  13. Use of task analysis in control room evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, K.C.

    1981-01-01

    Responding to recently formulated regulatory requirements, the BWR Owners' Group, working in conjunction with General Electric, has formulated a method for performing human factors design reviews of nuclear power plant control rooms. This process incorporates task analyses to analyze operational aspects of panel layout and design. Correlation of operator functions defined by emergency procedures against required controls and displays has proven successful in identifying instrumentation required in the control room to adequately respond to transient conditions, and in evaluating the effectiveness of panel design and physical arrangement. Extensions of the analysis have provided information on operator response paths, frequency of use of instruments, and control room layout. The techniques used were based on a need to identify primary controls and indications required by the operator in performing each step of the applicable procedure. The relative locations of these instruments were then analyzed for information on the adequacy of the control room design for those conditions

  14. Historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    A historical perspective of the nuclear waste issue is presented, beginning from the Atoms for Peace Legislation which made nuclear technology available to private industry in 1953 to 1954. Once the nuclear process had been demonstrated to be a technically and economically feasible method to convert thermal energy for electric power generation, commercial application began. The issue of nuclear waste management did not keep up with higher priorities. As early as 1957, research into storing the waste in geological structures was conducted by the National Academy of Sciences, and considerable technical progress was made in the 60's. During the 60's and 70's, numerous legislative actions (e.g., Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Environmental Policy Act) had a significant impact on nuclear waste dipsosal decisions. In 1971 to 1972 the Atomic Energy Commission authorized a nuclear waste repository in Kansas, a decision which was amended the following year and finally abandoned altogether in 1974. The OPEC oil embargo and ensuing price actions moved nuclear power into a more prominent position in the United States' plans for energy independence. This increased the stress between environmental concerns and economic need. The Carter Administration indefinitely deferred reprocessing of spent fuel and initiated a government-wide review of nuclear policy issues. The Congress did not actively begin to fashion a nuclear waste program until February 1980. The legislation which passed the Senate in the Spring of '82, and a compromise version pending before the House, may resolve the issue by establishing a long-term stable policy which will contain milestones, goals and specific decision making processes; it will include a mechanism for the public and the states to be involved; and it will insure adequate financing provisions

  15. Evaluation of postural control in unilateral vestibular hypofunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Maia Quitschal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients with vestibular hypofunction, a typical finding in peripheral vestibular disorders, show body balance alterations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the postural control of patients with vertigo and unilateral vestibular hypofunction. METHOD: This is a clinical cross-sectional study. Twenty-five patients with vertigo and unilateral vestibular hypofunction and a homogeneous control group consisting of 32 healthy individuals were submitted to a neurotological evaluation including the Tetrax Interactive Balance System posturography in eight different sensory conditions. RESULTS: For different positions, vertiginous patients with unilateral vestibular hypofunction showed significantly higher values of general stability index, weight distribution index, right/left and tool/heel synchronizations, Fourier transformation index and fall index than controls. CONCLUSION: Increased values in the indices of weight distribution, right/left and tool/heel synchronizations, Fourier transformation and fall risk characterize the impairment of postural control in patients with vertigo and unilateral vestibular hypofunction.

  16. Mathematical models and lymphatic filariasis control: monitoring and evaluating interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Edwin; Malecela-Lazaro, Mwele N; Maegga, Bertha T A; Fischer, Peter; Kazura, James W

    2006-11-01

    Monitoring and evaluation are crucially important to the scientific management of any mass parasite control programme. Monitoring enables the effectiveness of implemented actions to be assessed and necessary adaptations to be identified; it also determines when management objectives are achieved. Parasite transmission models can provide a scientific template for informing the optimal design of such monitoring programmes. Here, we illustrate the usefulness of using a model-based approach for monitoring and evaluating anti-parasite interventions and discuss issues that need addressing. We focus on the use of such an approach for the control and/or elimination of the vector-borne parasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis.

  17. Evaluation of atmospheric transport models for use in Phase II of the historical public exposures studies at the Rocky Flats Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, A.S.; Killough, G.G.; Till, J.E.

    1999-08-01

    Five atmospheric transport models were evaluated for use in Phase II of the Historical Public Exposures Studies at the Rocky Flats Plant. Models included a simple straight-line Gaussian plume model (ISCST2), several integrated puff models (RATCHET, TRIAD, and INPUFF2), and a complex terrain model (TRAC). Evaluations were based on how well model predictions compared with sulfur hexafluoride tracer measurements taken in the vicinity of Rocky Flats in February 1991. Twelve separate tracer experiments were conducted, each lasting 9 hr and measured at 140 samplers in arcs 8 and 16 km from the release point at Rocky Flats. Four modeling objectives were defined based on the endpoints of the overall study: (1) the unpaired maximum hourly average concentration, (2) paired time-averaged concentration, (3) unpaired time-averaged concentration, and (4) arc-integrated concentration. Performance measures were used to evaluate models and focused on the geometric mean and standard deviation of the predicted-to-observed ratio and the correlation coefficient between predicted and observed concentrations. No one model consistently outperformed the others in all modeling objectives and performance measures. The overall performance of the RATCHET model was somewhat better than the other models.

  18. Historical Evaluation of Film Badge Dosimetry Y-12 Plant: Part 2 - Neutron Radiation ORAUT-OTIB-0045

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Frome, E.L.; Watkins, J.P.; Tankersley, W.G.

    2009-01-01

    A summary of the major neutron sources involved in radiation exposures to Y-12 workers is presented in this TIB. Graphical methods are used to evaluate available neutron dose data from quarterly exposures to Y-12 workers and to determine how the data could be used to derive neutron-to-gamma dose ratios for dose reconstruction purposes. This TIB provides estimates of neutron-to-gamma dose ratios for specific departments and a default value for the neutron-to-gamma dose ratio based on the pooled neutron dose data for all Y-12 departments.

  19. Historical Evaluation of Film Badge Dosimetry Y-12 Plant: Part 2–Neutron Radiation ORAUT-OTIB-0045

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr GD, Frome EL, Watkins JP, Tankersley WG

    2009-12-14

    A summary of the major neutron sources involved in radiation exposures to Y-12 workers is presented in this TIB. Graphical methods are used to evaluate available neutron dose data from quarterly exposures to Y-12 workers and to determine how the data could be used to derive neutron-to-gamma dose ratios for dose reconstruction purposes. This TIB provides estimates of neutron-to-gamma dose ratios for specific departments and a default value for the neutron-to-gamma dose ratio based on the pooled neutron dose data for all Y-12 departments.

  20. Ex-Post Critical Evaluations of Energy Policies in Malaysia from 1970 to 2010: A Historical Institutionalism Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Amir F. N. Abdul-Manan; Azizan Baharuddin; Lee Wei Chang

    2015-01-01

    Ex-post evaluations of energy policies in Malaysia between 1970 and 2010 were conducted. The developments of energy policies in Malaysia were traced from the early 1970s with the introduction of the country’s first energy-related policy all the way to 2010 with the country’s first endeavour towards a biobased energy system. Analyses revealed that many of the policies were either: (1) directly responding to changes in global/domestic socioeconomic and political events, or (2) provided visions ...

  1. Ex-Post Critical Evaluations of Energy Policies in Malaysia from 1970 to 2010: A Historical Institutionalism Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir F. N. Abdul-Manan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ex-post evaluations of energy policies in Malaysia between 1970 and 2010 were conducted. The developments of energy policies in Malaysia were traced from the early 1970s with the introduction of the country’s first energy-related policy all the way to 2010 with the country’s first endeavour towards a biobased energy system. Analyses revealed that many of the policies were either: (1 directly responding to changes in global/domestic socioeconomic and political events, or (2 provided visions to guide developments of the energy sector in alignment with the country’s growth agenda. Critical examinations of the country’s actual energy consumptions during these 40 years were also conducted to evaluate the efficacy of these energy-related policies. Three noteworthy successes in Malaysia’s energy landscape are: (1 the formation of PETRONAS as the national oil and gas company; (2 reduction of country’s over-reliance on oil as a single source of energy by significantly growing the production and use of natural gas in a short span of time; and (3 creation of a thriving oil and gas value chain and ecosystem in the country. However, the country is still critically dependent on scarce petroleum resources, despite having an abundance of renewable reserves. Progress towards renewable energy has been too little and too slow.

  2. Notification: Notification Memo for Evaluation of Management Controls for Alternative Asbestos Control Method Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY12-0011, February 27, 2012. This memorandum is to notify you that the Office of Inspector General (OIG) is initiating an evaluation on the Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) experiments.

  3. Evaluation of olibanum and its resin as rate controlling matrix for controlled release of diclofenac

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdary KPR; Mohapatra P; Murali Krishna M

    2006-01-01

    Olibanum and its resin and carbohydrate fractions were evaluated as rate controlling matrix materials in tablets for controlled release of diclofenac. Diclofenac matrix tablets were formulated employing olibanum and its resin and carbohydrate fractions in different concentrations and the tablets were evaluated for various tablet characters including drug release kinetics and mechanism. Olibanum and its resin component exhibited excellent retarding effect on drug release from the matrix tablet...

  4. Evaluation of the FAA Advanced Flow Control Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The report is an evaluation of the present FAA Advanced Flow Control Procedures (AFCP), based on data gathered from its implementation on February 5, 1971 and on a fast-time digital simulation of traffic feeding into the NY airports on that day. The ...

  5. Evaluation of Tobacco Control Policies in Bangladesh | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The three-year evaluation is expected to shed light on such issues as the price ... the effects of tobacco control policies; and changes in the form of tobacco use. ... Minister Bibeau announces appointments of IDRC's President and new ...

  6. Historical Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    oxide, depleted uranium metal, or a combination of both. The ROD further explained that depleted uranium uranium metal will occur only if uses are available. 1995: The Cylinder Project Management Plan During the uranium metal) were evaluated and found to be acceptable for near-surface disposal at low-level

  7. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  8. Evaluation and control of radon daughter hazards in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holaday, D.A.

    1974-11-01

    This monograph discusses primarily those health hazards to uranium miners which are produced by exposure to ionizing radiation. Emphasis is placed on the areas of evaluation of exposures to the radioactive gas radon-222 and its short-lived transformation products, and methods of controlling such exposures. A limited discussion of the biological effects of radon and radon daughters is undertaken, and some procedures are given for evaluating hazards created by other common contaminants of mine atmospheres. A large amount of information exists on these topics, some of which is unpublished or is not readily available. While efforts were made to obtain data from all sources, undoubtedly some valuable work was overlooked. The monograph is an endeavor to assemble pertinent information and make it available to those who are concerned with producing uranium at minimal risks. Where they were available, a variety of procedures for evaluating hazards are given, and examples of systems for controlling hazards are included. 154 references

  9. Performance evaluation on vibration control of MR landing gear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D Y; Nam, Y J; Park, M K [Graduate School, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Yamane, R [Kokushikan University, 4-28-1 Setagaya, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 154-8515 (Japan)], E-mail: ldy5577@yahoo.co.kr, E-mail: mkpark1@pusan.ac.kr

    2009-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the applicability of the developed MR damper to the landing gear system for the attenuating undesired shock and vibration in the landing and taxing phases. First of all, the experimental model of the MR damper is derived based on the results of performance evaluations. Next, a simplified skyhook controller, which is one of the most straightforward, but effective approaches for improving ride comport in vehicles with active suspensions, is formulated. Then, the vibration control performances of the landing gear system using the MR damper are theoretically evaluated in the landing phase of the aircraft. A series of simulation analyses show that the proposed MR damper with the skyhook controller is effective for suppressing undesired vibration of the aircraft body. Finally, the effectiveness of the simulation results are additionally verified via HILS (Hardware-in-the-loop-simulation) method.

  10. Evaluation of Alternative Field Buses for Lighting ControlApplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Ed; Rubinstein, Francis

    2005-03-21

    The Subcontract Statement of Work consists of two major tasks. This report is the Final Report in fulfillment of the contract deliverable for Task 1. The purpose of Task 1 was to evaluate existing and emerging protocols and standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The detailed task description follows: Task 1. Evaluate alternative sensor/field buses. The objective of this task is to evaluate existing and emerging standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The protocols to be evaluated will include at least: (1) 1-Wire Net, (2) DALI, (3) MODBUS (or appropriate substitute such as EIB) and (4) ZigBee. The evaluation will include a comparative matrix for comparing the technical performance features of the different alternative systems. The performance features to be considered include: (1) directionality and network speed, (2) error control, (3) latency times, (4) allowable cable voltage drop, (5) topology, and (6) polarization. Specifically, Subcontractor will: (1) Analyze the proposed network architecture and identify potential problems that may require further research and specification. (2) Help identify and specify additional software and hardware components that may be required for the communications network to operate properly. (3) Identify areas of the architecture that can benefit from existing standards and technology and enumerate those standards and technologies. (4) Identify existing companies that may have relevant technology that can be applied to this research. (5) Help determine if new standards or technologies need to be developed.

  11. Constraining the Deforestation History of Europe: Evaluation of Historical Land Use Scenarios with Pollen-Based Land Cover Reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jed O. Kaplan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC is the most important transformation of the Earth system that occurred in the preindustrial Holocene, with implications for carbon, water and sediment cycles, biodiversity and the provision of ecosystem services and regional and global climate. For example, anthropogenic deforestation in preindustrial Eurasia may have led to feedbacks to the climate system: both biogeophysical, regionally amplifying winter cold and summer warm temperatures, and biogeochemical, stabilizing atmospheric CO 2 concentrations and thus influencing global climate. Quantification of these effects is difficult, however, because scenarios of anthropogenic land cover change over the Holocene vary widely, with increasing disagreement back in time. Because land cover change had such widespread ramifications for the Earth system, it is essential to assess current ALCC scenarios in light of observations and provide guidance on which models are most realistic. Here, we perform a systematic evaluation of two widely-used ALCC scenarios (KK10 and HYDE3.1 in northern and part of central Europe using an independent, pollen-based reconstruction of Holocene land cover (REVEALS. Considering that ALCC in Europe primarily resulted in deforestation, we compare modeled land use with the cover of non-forest vegetation inferred from the pollen data. Though neither land cover change scenario matches the pollen-based reconstructions precisely, KK10 correlates well with REVEALS at the country scale, while HYDE systematically underestimates land use with increasing magnitude with time in the past. Discrepancies between modeled and reconstructed land use are caused by a number of factors, including assumptions of per-capita land use and socio-cultural factors that cannot be predicted on the basis of the characteristics of the physical environment, including dietary preferences, long-distance trade, the location of urban areas and social organization.

  12. Evaluating Mitigation Effects of Urban Heat Islands in a Historical Small Center with the ENVI-Met® Climate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Ambrosini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban morphology and increasing building density play a key role in the overall use of energy and promotion of environmental sustainability. The urban environment causes a local increase of temperature, a phenomenon known as Urban Heat Island (UHI. The purpose of this work is the study of the possible formation of an UHI and the evaluation of its magnitude, in the context of a small city, carried out with the ENVI-met® software. For this purpose, a simulation was needed, and this simulation is preparatory for a monitoring campaign on site, which will be held in the immediate future. ENVI-met® simulates the temporal evolution of several thermodynamics parameters on a micro-scale range, creating a 3D, non-hydrostatic model of the interactions between building-atmosphere-vegetation. The weather conditions applied simulate a typical Italian summer heat wave. Three different case-studies have been analyzed: Base Case, Cool Case and Green Case. Analysis of the actual state in the Base Case shows how even in an area with average building density, such as the old town center of a small city, fully developed UHI may rise with strong thermal gradients between built areas and open zones with plenty of vegetation. These gradients arise in a really tiny space (few hundreds of meters, showing that the influence of urban geometry can be decisive in the characterization of local microclimate. Simulations, carried out considering the application of green or cool roofs, showed small relevant effects as they become evident only in large areas heavily built up (metropolis subject to more intense climate conditions.

  13. Evaluation of voice control, touch panel control and assistant control during steering of an endoscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, Marius M.; Stefels, Coen N.; Grimbergen, Cornelis A.; Dankelman, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    The increasing amount of equipment used in the Operating Room ( OR) asks for ergonomical user interfaces. The aim of this study was to investigate in a pelvi-trainer setting the efficiency, reliability and user satisfaction of voice control, touch panel control and conventional manual control by an

  14. A re-evaluation of the Italian historical geomagnetic catalogue: implications for paleomagnetic dating at active Italian volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D'Ajello Caracciolo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Paleomagnetism is proving to represent one of the most powerful dating tools of volcanics emplaced in Italy during the last few centuries/millennia. This method requires that valuable proxies of the local geomagnetic field (paleosecular variation ((PSV are available. To this end, we re-evaluate the whole Italian geomagnetic directional dataset, consisting of 833 and 696 declination and inclination measurements, respectively, carried out since 1640 AD at several localities. All directions were relocated via the virtual geomagnetic pole method to Stromboli (38.8° N, 15.2° E, the rough centre of the active Italian volcanoes. For declination-only measurements, missing inclinations were derived (always by pole method by French data (for period 1670–1789, and by nearby Italian sites/years (for periods 1640–1657 and 1790–1962. Using post-1825 declination values, we obtain a 0.46 ± 0.19° yr−1 westward drift of the geomagnetic field for Italy. The original observation years were modified, considering such drift value, to derive at a drift-corrected relocated dataset. Both datasets were found to be in substantial agreement with directions derived from the field models by Jackson et al. (2000 and Pavon-Carrasco et al. (2009. However, the drift-corrected dataset minimizes the differences between the Italian data and both field models, and eliminates a persistent 1.6° shift of 1933–1962 declination values from Castellaccio with respect to other nearly coeval Italian data. The relocated datasets were used to calculate two post-1640 Italian SV curves, with mean directions calculated every 30 and 10 years before and after 1790, respectively. The curve comparison suggests that both available field models yield the best available SV curve to perform paleomagnetic dating of 1600–1800 AD Italian volcanics, while the Italian drift-corrected curve is probably preferable for the 19th century. For the 20th century, the global model by

  15. The Historical Path of Evaluation as Reflected in the Content of Evaluation and Program Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayob, Abu H.; Morell, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the intellectual structure of evaluation by means of citation analysis. By using various article attributes and citation counts in Google Scholar and (Social) Science Citation Index Web of Science, we analyze all articles published in Evaluation and Program Planning from 2000...... until 2012. We identify and discuss the characteristics and development of the field as reflected in the history of those citations....

  16. Evaluation of piezoceramic actuators for control of aircraft interior noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silcox, Richard J.; Lefebvre, Sylvie; Metcalf, Vern L.; Beyer, Todd B.; Fuller, Chris R.

    1992-01-01

    Results of an experiment to evaluate piezoceramic actuators as the control actuator for active control of interior noise in a large-scale fuselage model are presented. Control was demonstrated for tonal excitation using a time domain least mean squares algorithm. A maximum of four actuator channels and six error signals were used. The actuators were employed for control of noise at frequencies where interior cavity modes were the dominant response and for driven acoustic responses where a structure resonance was dominant. Global reductions of 9 to 12 dB were obtained for the cases examined. The most effective configuration of skin-mounted actuators was found to be a pure in-plane forcing function as opposed to a bending excitation. The frame-mounted actuators were found to be equally effective as the skin-mounted actuators. However, both configurations resulted in local regions of unacceptably high vibration response in the structure.

  17. How to understand, evaluate and influence efficient progress in South Africa’s land reform process: A typology from historical lessons from selected sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhlanhla C. Mbatha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: With reports of widespread failures in South Africa’s land reform programmes, the levels of policy uncertainty in the political rhetoric that influences land reform have been increasing. Since 1994 policy targets to transfer land to black farmers have not been met. Of the 2005 target to transfer about 25 million ha of commercial farmland to black farmers by 2014, less than 5 million ha. have been transferred for commercial use. Some studies report failure rates in resettlement projects of up to 90%. To account for the failures, revisions of policies and amendments to legislations have been proposed within a political environment that is becoming increasingly intolerant to slow progress in land transfers and to resettlement failures. Aim: Against this environment, this paper presents a typology for understanding and evaluating important elements of the land reform project in order to influence progress in the process. Setting: The study adopts a historical review of land reform processes in post-colonial Kenya and Zimbabwe in order to identify potential challenges and key lessons for South Africa. Methods: Hence, using institutional and historical analytical lenses in exploring different narratives, the paper reviews reported failures and successes in land reform policy cases from the selected countries. From an institutional framework, prevalent social institutions and key lessons from Kenya, Zimbabwe and South Africa, a typology for evaluating important elements of the land reform process in South Africa is developed and discussed. Additionally, a review of global data collected on average sizes of farms in different regions of the world is provided as evidence to support propositions of what would constitute efficient farmland size ranges for small to medium commercial farms in South Africa. Results and conclusion: A proposition is made on how to use the typology to guide policy and research interventions to reduce failures

  18. Validation of a proposal for evaluating hospital infection control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristiane Pavanello Rodrigues; Lacerda, Rúbia Aparecida

    2011-02-01

    To validate the construct and discriminant properties of a hospital infection prevention and control program. The program consisted of four indicators: technical-operational structure; operational prevention and control guidelines; epidemiological surveillance system; and prevention and control activities. These indicators, with previously validated content, were applied to 50 healthcare institutions in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2009. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the hospitals and indicator scores, and Cronbach's α coefficient was used to evaluate the internal consistency. The discriminant validity was analyzed by comparing indicator scores between groups of hospitals: with versus without quality certification. The construct validity analysis was based on exploratory factor analysis with a tetrachoric correlation matrix. The indicators for the technical-operational structure and epidemiological surveillance presented almost 100% conformity in the whole sample. The indicators for the operational prevention and control guidelines and the prevention and control activities presented internal consistency ranging from 0.67 to 0.80. The discriminant validity of these indicators indicated higher and statistically significant mean conformity scores among the group of institutions with healthcare certification or accreditation processes. In the construct validation, two dimensions were identified for the operational prevention and control guidelines: recommendations for preventing hospital infection and recommendations for standardizing prophylaxis procedures, with good correlation between the analysis units that formed the guidelines. The same was found for the prevention and control activities: interfaces with treatment units and support units were identified. Validation of the measurement properties of the hospital infection prevention and control program indicators made it possible to develop a tool for evaluating these programs

  19. Evaluation Logic of Main Control Board Fire Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kilyoo; Lim, Ho Gon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The main control board (MCB) is defined as the collection of control panels inside the main control room (MCR) of a nuclear power plant (NPP). As the MCB has the control and instrumentation circuits of redundant trains for almost all plant systems, small fires within the control panels may be detrimental to the safe shutdown capability. A big fire affecting many panels in the MCB can cause a forced MCR abandonment of the operators as well as function failures or spurious operations of the control and instrumentation-related components. If the MCR cannot be habitable, a safe shutdown from outside the MCR can be achieved and maintained at an alternate shutdown panel electrically and physically independent from the MCR. Because the MCB consist of many electrical panels, it may have internal barriers between them to prevent a fire from spreading from its origin to neighboring locations. However, most MCBs of domestic NPPs do not have internal barriers within them. If the MCB cabinets are not separated by a double wall with an air gap, the fire propagation of an MCB panel fire cannot be ruled out. Recently, Joglar et al. proposed a new evaluation logic for the MCB panel fires and mentioned that an MCB fire can be divided into propagation and non-propagating fires for abandonment and non-abandonment fire scenarios. However, they did not present the details on the fire modeling approaches and probability formulas for the fire scenarios. In this paper, a decision tree for evaluating the risk of an MCB fire is proposed to systematically determine the fire scenarios in terms of the fire modeling approaches. This paper proposed a decision tree for evaluating the risk of an MCB fire to systematically determine the fire scenarios in terms of fire modeling approaches.

  20. Efficient Evaluation of Wireless Real-Time Control Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Horvath

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a system simulation framework for the design and performance evaluation of complex wireless cyber-physical systems. We describe the simulator architecture and the specific developments that are required to simulate cyber-physical systems relying on multi-channel, multihop mesh networks. We introduce realistic and efficient physical layer models and a system simulation methodology, which provides statistically significant performance evaluation results with low computational complexity. The capabilities of the proposed framework are illustrated in the example of WirelessHART, a centralized, real-time, multi-hop mesh network designed for industrial control and monitor applications.

  1. A Benchmark Evaluation of Fault Tolerant Wind Turbine Control Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    As the world’s power supply to a larger and larger degree depends on wind turbines, it is consequently and increasingly important that these are as reliable and available as possible. Modern fault tolerant control (FTC) could play a substantial part in increasing reliability of modern wind turbin...... accommodation is handled in software sensor and actuator blocks. This means that the wind turbine controller can continue operation as in the fault free case. The other two evaluated solutions show some potential but probably need improvements before industrial applications....

  2. Biological Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies in Argentina: Historical Review, Current Status, and Future Trends for Developing a Parasitoid Mass-Release Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovruski, Sergio M; Schliserman, Pablo

    2012-09-14

    In Argentina there are two tephritid fruit fly species of major economic and quarantine importance: the exotic Ceratitis capitata that originated from Southeast Africa and the native Anastrepha fraterculus. In recent years, the use of fruit fly parasitoids as biocontrol agents has received renewed attention. This increasing interest has recently led to the establishment of a program for the mass rearing of five million Diachasmimorpha longicaudata parasitoids per week in the BioPlanta San Juan facility, San Juan, Argentina. The first augmentative releases of D. longicaudata in Argentina are currently occurring on commercial fig crops in rural areas of San Juan as part of an integrated fruit fly management program on an area-wide basis. In this context, research is ongoing to assess the suitability of indigenous parasitoid species for successful mass rearing on larvae of either C. capitata or A. fraterculus. The purpose of this article is to provide a historical overview of the biological control of the fruit fly in Argentina, report on the strategies currently used in Argentina, present information on native parasitoids as potential biocontrol agents, and discuss the establishment of a long-term fruit fly biological control program, including augmentative and conservation modalities, in Argentina's various fruit growing regions.

  3. Biological Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies in Argentina: Historical Review, Current Status, and Future Trends for Developing a Parasitoid Mass-Release Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio M. Ovruski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Argentina there are two tephritid fruit fly species of major economic and quarantine importance: the exotic Ceratitis capitata that originated from Southeast Africa and the native Anastrepha fraterculus. In recent years, the use of fruit fly parasitoids as biocontrol agents has received renewed attention. This increasing interest has recently led to the establishment of a program for the mass rearing of five million Diachasmimorpha longicaudata parasitoids per week in the BioPlanta San Juan facility, San Juan, Argentina. The first augmentative releases of D. longicaudata in Argentina are currently occurring on commercial fig crops in rural areas of San Juan as part of an integrated fruit fly management program on an area-wide basis. In this context, research is ongoing to assess the suitability of indigenous parasitoid species for successful mass rearing on larvae of either C. capitata or A. fraterculus. The purpose of this article is to provide a historical overview of the biological control of the fruit fly in Argentina, report on the strategies currently used in Argentina, present information on native parasitoids as potential biocontrol agents, and discuss the establishment of a long-term fruit fly biological control program, including augmentative and conservation modalities, in Argentina’s various fruit growing regions.

  4. Evaluation of new control rooms by operator performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, M; Tomizawa, T.; Tai, I.; Monta, K.; Yoshimura, S.; Hattori, Y.

    1987-01-01

    An advanced supervisory and control system called PODIA TM (Plant Operation by Displayed Information and Automation) was developed by Toshiba. Since this system utilizes computer driven CRTs as a main device for information transfer to operators, thorough system integration tests were performed at the factory and evaluations were made of operators' assessment from the initial experience of the system. The PODIA system is currently installed at two BWR power plants. Based on the experiences from the development of PODIA, a more advanced man-machine interface, Advanced-PODIA (A-PODIA), is developed. A-PODIA enhances the capabilities of PODIA in automation, diagnosis, operational guidance and information display. A-PODIA has been validated by carrying out systematic experiments with a full-scope simulator developed for the validation. The results of the experiments have been analyzed by the method of operator performance analysis and applied to further improvement of the A-PODIA system. As a feedback from actual operational experience, operator performance data in simulator training is an important source of information to evaluate human factors of a control room. To facilitate analysis of operator performance, a performance evaluation system has been developed by applying AI techniques. The knowledge contained in the performance evaluation system was elicited from operator training experts and represented as rules. The rules were implemented by employing an object-oriented paradigm to facilitate knowledge management. In conclusion, it is stated that the feedback from new control room operation can be obtained at an early stage by validation tests and also continuously by comprehensive evaluation (with the help of automated tools) of operator performance in simulator training. The results of operator performance analysis can be utilized for improvement of system design as well as operator training. (author)

  5. Prediction and evaluation of nonlinear site response with potentially liquefiable layers in the area of Nafplion (Peloponnesus, Greece for a repeat of historical earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Karastathis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We examine the possible non-linear behaviour of potentially liquefiable layers at selected sites located within the expansion area of the town of Nafplion, East Peloponnese, Greece. Input motion is computed for three scenario earthquakes, selected on the basis of historical seismicity data, using a stochastic strong ground motion simulation technique, which takes into account the finite dimensions of the earthquake sources. Site-specific ground acceleration synthetics and soil profiles are then used to evaluate the liquefaction potential at the sites of interest. The activation scenario of the Iria fault, which is the closest one to Nafplion (M=6.4, is found to be the most hazardous in terms of liquefaction initiation. In this scenario almost all the examined sites exhibit liquefaction features at depths of 6–12 m. For scenario earthquakes at two more distant seismic sources (Epidaurus fault – M6.3; Xylokastro fault – M6.7 strong ground motion amplification phenomena by the shallow soft soil layer are expected to be observed.

  6. Electric energy deficit marginal cost: historic, evaluation and proposition of a new method; Custo marginal do deficit de energia eletrica: historico, avaliacao e proposta de uma nova metodologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Paulo Gerson Cayres

    2009-05-15

    The optimization model actually used to the energy operation planning of the National Interconnected System - NIS has as objective function the minimization of expected total cost operation. To achieve this goal the model provides optimal allocation of hydrothermal resources during the study horizon, employing aggregated subsystems. The deficit marginal cost is a parameter which is explicitly informed to the model, and does a part in the operation total cost calculation being a predominant factor in the service conditions evaluation of national electric energy market, affecting the energy costs and the risk of deficit on NIS. In this work is realized an integral study about the electric energy deficit marginal cost, starting with a historical review, followed by a actualization of your actual value and a propose of a new method for the calculation of deficit marginal cost value. The studies shows the impact of the values found over service conditions to the electric energy market in the energy operation planning, focusing on some usual indicators adopted in studies of the electrical sector. (author)

  7. Subtrochanteric femoral fractures treated with the Long Gamma3® nail: A historical control case study versus Long trochanteric Gamma nail®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiannos, D; Lampridis, V; Bisbinas, I

    2015-10-01

    Gamma nail was developed for the treatment of subtrochanteric hip fractures. Despite its advantages over extramedullary devices, gamma nail has been historically related to significant complications (implant breakage, femoral fractures at the tip of the nail). There is limited data to determine if the rate of these complications was minimized by using a new design of the gamma nail. Therefore we performed a case control study between the long gamma3 nail (LG3N) and the long trochanteric gamma nail (LTGN) to assess if: (1) the complication rate in the treatment of subtrochanteric fractures using the LG3N was lower than the one using the LTGN; (2) the reoperation rate was lower after using the LG3N. The complication rate after fixation of subtrochanteric fracture of the femur is lower with LG3N than with the LTGN. This study prospectively recorded the intra- and postoperative complications of 75 patients with subtrochanteric fractures treated with the LG3N and compared them with those of a historical cohort of 83 patients treated with the LTGN. The two groups were matched regarding age, gender and fracture type. Patients with open, pathological, or impending fractures were excluded. Intraoperative complications in the LG3N group were lower (4 cases, 5.3%) compared with those in the LTGN group (9 cases, 10.8%; P=0.04). The major intraoperative complication encountered with the use of LTGN was fracture of the femur in 3 cases. We encountered in total 9 postoperative complications in LG3N (12%) and 20 in group LTGN (24%). The most frequent complication in both groups was the cut out of the lag screw (3 cases in LG3N and 7 cases in LTGN group). The overall reoperation rate was higher in LTGN group (20.4% vs 10.6%; P=0.03). As a result of the improvement of its mechanical characteristics, LG3N has proved a safe and efficient implant for the treatment of subtochanteric fractures. The new design seems superior to previous generation, giving promising outcomes, reduced

  8. Ior-CEA-1: Labelling, quality control and clinical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Within the Co-ordinated Programme on Labelling, Quality Control and Evaluation of Monoclonal Antibodies, the IAEA has made a great effort to expand efficient labelling methods, mainly those with radioisotopes which have been used for radioimmunoscintigraphy. In this sense, more recently 99 Tc m has been mostly employed in the majority of the investigations due to its ideal physical characteristics. Efficient labelling of monoclonal antibodies depends on a number of factors including the method and way of the label incorporation into the protein. During the last years several direct labelling approaches have been developed, which led to attain simple and inexpensive methods for medical practice, as well as safe and stable techniques which bring accurate and good quality images. Accordingly, this paper describes the results obtained during last five years which come from the comparison among different labelling systems, passing through the quality control to test the labelled monoclonal stability and the protein bioreactivity, to continue in the clinical evaluation of ior-CEA-1, as well as the evaluation of other antibodies. Up to now we have evaluated more than 70 patients with the anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (ior-CEA-1), examined in different clinical assays such as: pilot, phase I-II and extensive phase III-IV trials, whose results are encouraging. It confirms that the employed labelling approach was safe and adequate

  9. Evaluate fundamental approaches to longwall dust control. Phase III report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babbitt, C.; Bartlett, P.; Kelly, J.; Ludlow, J.; Mangolds, A.; Rajan, S.; Ruggieri, S.; Varga, E.

    1984-03-31

    The overall objective of the contract is to evaluate the effectiveness of available dust control technology for double-drum shearer longwall sections in a coordinated, systematic program at a few longwall test sections and to make the results available to the entire coal mining industry. This program is investigating nine different dust control techniques. These nine subprograms encompass a broad range of dust control measures ranging from administrative controls to new hardware. They span not only presently employed methods but also those recently adopted in the United States and those proposed for the future. This report documents the Phase III effort on each of the subprograms. For clarity, the report is divided in sections by subprogram as follows: Section 2, Subprogram A - passive barriers/spray air movers for dust control; Section 3, Subprogram B - practical aspects of deep cutting; Section 4, Subprogram C - stage loader dust control; Section 5, Subprogram D - longwall automation technology; Section 6, Subprogram E - longwall application of ventilation curtains; Section 7, Subprogram F - reversed drum rotation; Section 8, Subprogram G - reduction of shield generated dust; Section 9, Subprogram H - air canopies for longwalls; and Section 10, Subprogram I - mining practices. 43 figures, 11 tables.

  10. Intelligent control of a smart walker and its performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, Simon L; Li, Qingguo

    2013-06-01

    Recent technological advances have allowed the development of force-dependent, intelligently controlled smart walkers that are able to provide users with enhanced mobility, support and gait assistance. The purpose of this study was to develop an intelligent rule-based controller for a smart walker to achieve a smooth interaction between the user and the walker. This study developed a rule-based mapping between the interaction force, measured by a load cell attached to the walker handle, and the acceleration of the walker. Ten young, healthy subjects were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed controller compared to a well-known admittance-based control system. There were no significant differences between the two control systems concerning their user experience, velocity profiles or average cost of transportation. However, the admittance-based control system required a 1.2N lower average interaction force to maintain the 1m/s target speed (p = 0.002). Metabolic data also indicated that smart walker-assisted gait could considerably reduce the metabolic demand of walking with a four-legged walker.

  11. Computer codes for evaluation of control room habitability (HABIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stage, S.A.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Computer Codes for Evaluation of Control Room Habitability (HABIT). HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic chemicals or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel. HABIT is an integrated package of several programs that previously needed to be run separately and required considerable user intervention. This report discusses the theoretical basis and physical assumptions made by each of the modules in HABIT and gives detailed information about the data entry windows. Sample runs are given for each of the modules. A brief section of programming notes is included. A set of computer disks will accompany this report if the report is ordered from the Energy Science and Technology Software Center. The disks contain the files needed to run HABIT on a personal computer running DOS. Source codes for the various HABIT routines are on the disks. Also included are input and output files for three demonstration runs

  12. Study, design and evaluation of nuclear reactor computer control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menacer, S.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear reactor control is a complex process that varies with each reactor and there is no universal agreement as to the best type of control system. After the use of conventional systems for a long time, attention turned towards digital techniques in the reactor control system. This interest emerged because of the difficulties faced in the data manipulation, mainly for post-incident analysis. However, it is not sufficient to insert a computer in a system to solve all the data-handling problems and also the insertion of a computer in a real-time system is not without any effect on the overall system. The scope of this thesis is to show the important parameters that have to be taken into account when choosing and evaluate the performances of the selected system

  13. Evaluation of throughwall crack pipes under displacement controlled loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.

    1987-02-01

    Tearing modulus solutions are developed for flawed throughwall pipes subjected to displacement controlled loading. Two cases of loading were considered: (1) a displacement controlled bending loading, and (2) a displacement controlled axial tension loading. A revised version of the EPRI J-integral estimation scheme is used in the development of the solutions. These solutions can be used for the entire range of elastic-plastic loading, from linear elastic, contained yielding, to large scale yielding of the crack section. Experimental data from pipes in bending were used to assess the accuracy of the compliant loading solutions. The evaluations were performed using elastic plastic J-integral (J) and tearing modulus (T) analysis methods. These solutions are shown to have good accuracy when used to predict the experimental results. The methodology and procedure can also be applied to part-throughwall cracks. These solutions have application to the leak before break fracture mechanics analyses.

  14. Evaluation of throughwall crack pipes under displacement controlled loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.

    1987-01-01

    Tearing modulus solutions are developed for flawed throughwall pipes subjected to displacement controlled loading. Two cases of loading were considered: (1) a displacement controlled bending loading, and (2) a displacement controlled axial tension loading. A revised version of the EPRI J-integral estimation scheme is used in the development of the solutions. These solutions can be used for the entire range of elastic-plastic loading, from linear elastic, contained yielding, to large scale yielding of the crack section. Experimental data from pipes in bending were used to assess the accuracy of the compliant loading solutions. The evaluations were performed using elastic plastic J-integral (J) and tearing modulus (T) analysis methods. These solutions are shown to have good accuracy when used to predict the experimental results. The methodology and procedure can also be applied to part-throughwall cracks. These solutions have application to the leak before break fracture mechanics analyses. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of main control room habitability in Japanese LWR (1). Outline of evaluation method and conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Yuko; Yoneda, Jiro; Okabayashi, Kazuki; Fukuda, Ryo

    2009-01-01

    It has been recognized that main control room habitability (CRH) is very important safety item. Its evaluation method and conditions was recently updated as a common method both for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) in Japan. This paper describes the common procedure for CRH evaluation. Postulated accidents for CRH evaluation are Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) for BWR and PWR, Main Steam Line Break Accident(MSLBA) for BWR, and Steam Generator Tube Rupture(SGTR) for PWR. Evaluation period is thirty days after each accident occurs. Acceptable criterion for each operator is 100mSv as total effective dose equivalent for thirty days, considering the net staying period of an operator in a control room and frequency of alternation of working staff. Total effective dose equivalent is calculated not only for an operator in control room, but also for an operator outside a building for alternation, and then total effective dose is compared with the criterion. The routes for dose evaluation are classified into five patterns, covering three patterns of location of radioactive source (i.e. source inside a building, source released into air, and source leaked into a control room) and covering two patterns of location of an operator (i.e. in control room and outside a building for alternation). Total effective dose by a route for source which is released into air and leaked into a control room is typically the largest contributor, in case of PWR LOCA evaluation, as an example showing relatively severe result. Evaluated dose for this dominant route is significantly affected by two calculations. One is a source term for calculation of radioactive gas release and the other is dispersion calculation in the air for concentration of radioactive gas in the vicinity of a control room. For LOCA 100% Kr,Xe and 50% iodine of total core radionuclide inventory are assumed to be released immediately into containment vessel. This is the most conservative assumption

  16. Evaluation of information display at advanced main control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Dae Hwan; Yu, Seon Jae; Choi, Eui Sun [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    This year we plan to survey information in order to have basic understanding of digital information display and control at the advanced MCR. At first we collect different ways of presenting information at the advanced MCR. Secondly, we conduct literature survey on studies that have investigated information representation techniques and their effects. Then, we need compare differences between conventional NPPs and advanced NPPs. Thirdly, we need to check HMI styles and evaluation techniques that are used currently at foreign NPPs. Indeed, HMI at the advanced MCR is quite different from that at a conventional MCR. It is not desirable to apply the same evaluation technique that has veen used at the conventional MCR. We need to develop an evaluation technique that is valid in theory and applicable in practice. Finally, we identify the requirements for a support system for an HMI evaluator, since it is not easy to carry out an evaluation task even though one has firm background on cognitive engineering theories and practical experiences.

  17. Evaluation of information display at advanced main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Dae Hwan; Yu, Seon Jae; Choi, Eui Sun

    2000-03-01

    This year we plan to survey information in order to have basic understanding of digital information display and control at the advanced MCR. At first we collect different ways of presenting information at the advanced MCR. Secondly, we conduct literature survey on studies that have investigated information representation techniques and their effects. Then, we need compare differences between conventional NPPs and advanced NPPs. Thirdly, we need to check HMI styles and evaluation techniques that are used currently at foreign NPPs. Indeed, HMI at the advanced MCR is quite different from that at a conventional MCR. It is not desirable to apply the same evaluation technique that has veen used at the conventional MCR. We need to develop an evaluation technique that is valid in theory and applicable in practice. Finally, we identify the requirements for a support system for an HMI evaluator, since it is not easy to carry out an evaluation task even though one has firm background on cognitive engineering theories and practical experiences

  18. Experimental evaluation of wind turbines maximum power point tracking controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camblong, H.; Martinez de Alegria, I.; Rodriguez, M.; Abad, G.

    2006-01-01

    Wind energy technology has experienced important improvements this last decade. The transition from fixed speed to variable speed wind turbines has been a significant element of these improvements. It has allowed adapting the turbine rotational speed to the wind speed variations with the aim of optimizing the aerodynamic efficiency. A classic controller that has slow dynamics relative to the mechanical dynamics of the drive train is implemented in commercial wind turbines. The objective of the work related in this paper has been to evaluate the implementation, on a test bench, of a controller whose dynamics can be adjusted to be faster and to compare in particular its aerodynamic efficiency with the conventional controller. In theory, the higher dynamics of the non-classic controller has to lead to a better efficiency. A 180 kW wind turbine whose simulation model has been validated with field data is emulated on an 18 kW test bench. The emulator has also been validated. Test bench trials are a very useful step between numerical simulation and trials on the real system because they allow analyzing some phenomena that may not appear in simulations without endangering the real system. The trials on the test bench show that the non-conventional controller leads to a higher aerodynamic efficiency and that this is offset by higher mechanical torque and electric power fluctuations. Nevertheless, the amplitudes of these fluctuations are relatively low compared to their rated values

  19. Development, Control, and Evaluation of an Actuated Car Door.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strolz, M; Mortl, A; Graf, M; Buss, M

    2009-01-01

    Actuated car doors are a promising way to increase the convenience of access to cars. We propose an advanced actuation and control concept which can easily be integrated into conventional car doors. By utilizing a linear, nonbackdrivable actuator and various sensors, both automatic and manual door operations are enabled. A discrete state controller ensures a safe operation of the door, including automatic opening and closing. The realization of a supportive, high-quality haptic interaction with the car door for the manual operation is the principal part of our work. Due to the impracticality of a direct measurement of the user interaction force at a car door, we chose impedance control to render the desired dynamics. The impedance was designed to provide a convenient, intuitive, and safe manual handling of the door. We implemented and tested four different impedance control schemes, of which impedance control with actuator force feedback performed best. Two experimental evaluations with 16 and 27 participants revealed a predominant approval of the actuated car door.

  20. Evaluation of two methods in controlling dental treatment water contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ritu; Puttaiah, Raghunath; Harris, Robert; Reddy, Anil

    2011-03-01

    Dental unit water systems are contaminated with biofilms that amplify bacterial counts in dental treatment water in excess of a million colony forming units per milliliter (cfu/ml). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Dental Association have agreed that the maximum allowable contamination of dental treatment water not exceed 500 cfu/ml. This study was conducted to evaluate two protocols in controlling contamination of dental unit water systems and dental treatment water. Both methods used an antimicrobial self-dissolving chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) tablet at a high concentration (50 ppm) to shock the dental unit water system biofilms initially followed by periodic exposure. To treat dental treatment source water for patient care, 3 parts per million (ppm) ClO₂ in municipal/tap water was compared to use of a citrus botanical extract dissolved in municipal water. Heterotrophic microbial counts of effluent water and laser scanning confocal microscopy were performed to evaluate effects of the two treatments. Results from this study indicated that both treatments were effective in controlling biofilm contamination and reducing heterotrophic plate counts Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(2):73-83. Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None declared.

  1. Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing of Manned Spacecraft: Historical Precedent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Paul R.; Tuma, Margaret L.; Askins, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    For the first time in nearly 30 years, NASA is developing a new manned space flight launch system. The Ares I will carry crew and cargo to not only the International Space Station, but onward for the future exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Ares I control system and structural designs use complex computer models for their development. An Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test (IVGVT) will validate the efficacy of these computer models. The IVGVT will reduce the technical risk of unexpected conditions that could place the vehicle or crew in jeopardy. The Ares Project Office's Flight and Integrated Test Office commissioned a study to determine how historical programs, such as Saturn and Space Shuttle, validated the structural dynamics of an integrated flight vehicle. The study methodology was to examine the historical record and seek out members of the engineering community who recall the development of historic manned launch vehicles. These records and interviews provided insight into the best practices and lessons learned from these historic development programs. The information that was gathered allowed the creation of timelines of the historic development programs. The timelines trace the programs from the development of test articles through test preparation, test operations, and test data reduction efforts. These timelines also demonstrate how the historical tests fit within their overall vehicle development programs. Finally, the study was able to quantify approximate staffing levels during historic development programs. Using this study, the Flight and Integrated Test Office was able to evaluate the Ares I Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test schedule and workforce budgets in light of the historical precedents to determine if the test had schedule or cost risks associated with it.

  2. Evaluation of Intersection Traffic Control Measures through Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaithambi, Gowri; Sivanandan, R.

    2015-12-01

    Modeling traffic flow is stochastic in nature due to randomness in variables such as vehicle arrivals and speeds. Due to this and due to complex vehicular interactions and their manoeuvres, it is extremely difficult to model the traffic flow through analytical methods. To study this type of complex traffic system and vehicle interactions, simulation is considered as an effective tool. Application of homogeneous traffic models to heterogeneous traffic may not be able to capture the complex manoeuvres and interactions in such flows. Hence, a microscopic simulation model for heterogeneous traffic is developed using object oriented concepts. This simulation model acts as a tool for evaluating various control measures at signalized intersections. The present study focuses on the evaluation of Right Turn Lane (RTL) and Channelised Left Turn Lane (CLTL). A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate RTL and CLTL by varying the approach volumes, turn proportions and turn lane lengths. RTL is found to be advantageous only up to certain approach volumes and right-turn proportions, beyond which it is counter-productive. CLTL is found to be advantageous for lower approach volumes for all turn proportions, signifying the benefits of CLTL. It is counter-productive for higher approach volume and lower turn proportions. This study pinpoints the break-even points for various scenarios. The developed simulation model can be used as an appropriate intersection lane control tool for enhancing the efficiency of flow at intersections. This model can also be employed for scenario analysis and can be valuable to field traffic engineers in implementing vehicle-type based and lane-based traffic control measures.

  3. Advanced control room evaluation: General approach and rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Wachtel, J.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACRs) for future nuclear power plants (NPPs) are being designed utilizing computer-based technologies. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews the human engineering aspects of such control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported in order to protect public health and safety. This paper describes the rationale and general approach to the development of a human factors review guideline for ACRs. The factors influencing the guideline development are discussed, including the review environment, the types of advanced technologies being addressed, the human factors issues associated with advanced technology, and the current state-of-the-art of human factors guidelines for advanced human-system interfaces (HSIs). The proposed approach to ACR review would track the design and implementation process through the application of review guidelines reflecting four review modules: planning, design process analysis, human factors engineering review, and dynamic performance evaluation. 21 refs

  4. Evaluation of quality control of radiopharmaceuticals in Nuclear Medicine service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Jamille A. Lopes; Lira, Renata F. de; Santos, Marcus Aurelio P. dos

    2014-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are a type of pharmaceutical preparation associated with radionuclides with purpose of diagnosis and therapy. Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS) should perform quality control of radiopharmaceuticals according to the recommendations of the manufacturer and scientific evidences accepted by the National Agency Sanitary Surveillance ( Brazilian ANVISA). This study evaluated the quality of the main radiopharmaceuticals in a NMS of the state of Pernambuco in relation to pH and radiochemical purity. The results showed that 96.8% of the radiopharmaceuticals showed radiochemical purity and all pH values were within the range recommended by the American pharmacopoeia. The study found that the quality control when inserted into the NMS, provides important data that allows exclusion of radiopharmaceuticals with low radiochemistry purity, favoring a reliable diagnosis and ensuring good radiation protection practices and biosecurity for patient and occupationally exposed individuals

  5. Evaluation of Management Control Systems in Higher Education Institution with the Performance Management and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Maria Beuren

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the structure and operation of management control systems for performance evaluation in a private higher education institution (HEI. To capture the structure and operation of Management Control Systems (MCS of the HEI, the survey instrument proposed by Ferreira and Otley was used (2006, called Performance Management and Control (PMC. Thus, an adapted PMC structure questionnaire was sent to 55 managers responsible for strategic actions and plans established in the business of the HEI, having 48 answered questionnaires. Also, four out of the five directors of the business school of the HEI were interviewed, besides the documentary research, for the triangulation of data and to validate the results. In data analysis, the techniques of descriptive statistics and information entropy were used. The results show that the overall level of performance evaluation for MCS reached a mean of 3.62 on the scale, less than partial agreement on the items presented. Some weaknesses were pointed out in the system used, and it was also denoted the need for better alignment among strategy, performance and control. It is concluded that the adapted PMC structure questionnaire managed to capture the structure and operation of MCS for performance evaluation in the HEI.

  6. An evaluation of Kazakhstan nuclear export control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeligbayeva, G.; Masenov, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    A system to control the export nuclear materials and technologies is a natural part of creating a self-sustaining government. The government of Kazakhstan has made a great deal of progress in building such a system. Control of export and import of nuclear materials and technologies and dual-use materials, related to nuclear activity, became one of the important part of mechanism of Non-Proliferation conditions realization in Kazakhstan. The system of export control has developed well over the 10 years. Kazakhstan is in the midst of a long process of building a functional export control system consistent with World standards. The state system of export control currently exists in Kazakhstan on the legislative base, and is based on efficient cooperation of the KAEC with a number of competent state bodies (Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, State Customs Committee) each of them has its own specific functions, duties and rights. The export is carried out using licenses, issued by the Ministry of Economy of the RK, according to applications of certain standard which are previously agreed with the KAEC under decision of the RK Government. The KAEC, acting on the base of export control principles and observance of international obligations on non-proliferation matter, makes decisions, only after thorough evaluation of ways of export and reliability of an end-user of the commodity, to agree the application for a license. The most fully developed aspect is the licensing process. General politics of export regulation in Kazakhstan are based on normative acts and rules, which are wholly appropriate (complementary) to the managing principles of nuclear export. There exists a full legal basis for the licensing system. But the process is going, some provisions is changing: in 2000 Kazakhstan corrected the export control law and approved the national control list very similar with EU control list, in 2002 the rules of the process of licensing the export and import

  7. VT Historic Preservation Grant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The State-funded Historic Preservation Grant Program helps municipalities and non-profit organizations rehabilitate the historic buildings that are a vital part of...

  8. Evaluation of chemical, botanical and cultural managements of termites control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufera, Jiregna Tasisa; Fufa, Tena Gobena

    2014-01-15

    The study was conducted at Bojdi Dirmaji District, Wollega Zone (Western Ethiopia) using Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Eight different treatments of chemical, botanical and cultural control methods independently and in combinations were evaluated to identify the most effective method which is environmentally sustainable and economically feasible in controlling the termite problems. The data were collected over 12 weeks and analysis of variance showed significant difference among the treatments for all parameters. Maesa lanceolata 100 g alone showed lower percent damage between 2-8 weeks (33.3%), later on after 9-12 weeks it become non significant and the destructed mound was recovered. Mound treated with Diazinon 60% EC at the rate of 25 and 20 mL alone and Diazinon 60% EC combination with queen removal at rate of 15 and 10 mL showed significant control overall the treatment. From the results of the study the lower rate of Diazinon 60% EC (10 mL per mound) and queen removal could be better option to manage the termite problem and could be more sustainable and integrated manner in the study area.

  9. Efficacy of a hydroactive colloid gel versus historical controls for the prevention of radiotherapy-induced moist desquamation in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censabella, Sandrine; Claes, Stefan; Orlandini, Marc; Braekers, Roel; Bulens, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Radiotherapy-induced moist desquamation (RIMD) is a complication that can affect patients' quality of life and jeopardize radiotherapy outcomes. The curative use of a hydroactive colloid gel has previously been shown effective in the management of RIMD in breast cancer patients. This study aimed at investigating the efficacy of this same gel but in the prevention of RIMD. A group of breast cancer patients who applied the hydroactive gel from start to end of post-lumpectomy radiotherapy (Preventive Hydrogel group) were compared with two groups of matched historical controls: a group applying a dexpanthenol cream throughout their therapy and a group applying first the dexpanthenol cream then, after 11-14 fractions of radiotherapy, the hydroactive gel (Curative Hydrogel group). All patients received identical fractionation regimen. The clinical outcomes were the incidence and time to onset of RIMD. After 25 fractions of radiotherapy (50 Gy), patients in the Preventive Hydrogel group (N = 202) developed RIMD significantly less frequently and later than patients in the Dexpanthenol group (N = 131; incidence = 7% vs 35% respectively, odds ratios = 7.27; probability of RIMD-free survival after 50 Gy = 0.88 vs 0.62). There were no significant differences between the Preventive and the Curative Hydrogel group (N = 87). These findings confirm our previous results: applying the hydroactive colloid gel, rather than dexpanthenol, delayed the onset and reduced the incidence of RIMD in breast cancer patients. However, applying the hydrogel preventively offered no statistically significant advantages over applying it curatively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Democracy and Historical Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we try to clarify the relationship between democracy and historical writing. The strategy is first exploring the general relationship between democracy and historical awareness, and then, studying the relationship between democracy and historical writing itself to find out whether

  11. APPLICATION OF EYE TRACKING FOR MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN HUMAN FACTORS STUDIES IN CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, C.; Spielman, Z.; LeBlanc, K.; Rice, B.

    2017-05-01

    An important element of human factors engineering (HFE) pertains to measurement and evaluation (M&E). The role of HFE-M&E should be integrated throughout the entire control room modernization (CRM) process and be used for human-system performance evaluation and diagnostic purposes with resolving potential human engineering deficiencies (HEDs) and other human machine interface (HMI) design issues. NUREG-0711 describes how HFE in CRM should employ a hierarchical set of measures, particularly during integrated system validation (ISV), including plant performance, personnel task performance, situation awareness, cognitive workload, and anthropometric/ physiological factors. Historically, subjective measures have been primarily used since they are easier to collect and do not require specialized equipment. However, there are pitfalls with relying solely on subjective measures in M&E such that negatively impact reliability, sensitivity, and objectivity. As part of comprehensively capturing a diverse set of measures that strengthen findings and inferences made of the benefits from emerging technologies like advanced displays, this paper discusses the value of using eye tracking as an objective method that can be used in M&E. A brief description of eye tracking technology and relevant eye tracking measures is provided. Additionally, technical considerations and the unique challenges with using eye tracking in full-scaled simulations are addressed. Finally, this paper shares preliminary findings regarding the use of a wearable eye tracking system in a full-scale simulator study. These findings should help guide future full-scale simulator studies using eye tracking as a methodology to evaluate human-system performance.

  12. Extreme value analysis for evaluating ozone control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Brian; Cooley, Daniel; Foley, Kristen; Napelenok, Sergey; Shaby, Benjamin

    2013-06-01

    Tropospheric ozone is one of six criteria pollutants regulated by the US EPA, and has been linked to respiratory and cardiovascular endpoints and adverse effects on vegetation and ecosystems. Regional photochemical models have been developed to study the impacts of emission reductions on ozone levels. The standard approach is to run the deterministic model under new emission levels and attribute the change in ozone concentration to the emission control strategy. However, running the deterministic model requires substantial computing time, and this approach does not provide a measure of uncertainty for the change in ozone levels. Recently, a reduced form model (RFM) has been proposed to approximate the complex model as a simple function of a few relevant inputs. In this paper, we develop a new statistical approach to make full use of the RFM to study the effects of various control strategies on the probability and magnitude of extreme ozone events. We fuse the model output with monitoring data to calibrate the RFM by modeling the conditional distribution of monitoring data given the RFM using a combination of flexible semiparametric quantile regression for the center of the distribution where data are abundant and a parametric extreme value distribution for the tail where data are sparse. Selected parameters in the conditional distribution are allowed to vary by the RFM value and the spatial location. Also, due to the simplicity of the RFM, we are able to embed the RFM in our Bayesian hierarchical framework to obtain a full posterior for the model input parameters, and propagate this uncertainty to the estimation of the effects of the control strategies. We use the new framework to evaluate three potential control strategies, and find that reducing mobile-source emissions has a larger impact than reducing point-source emissions or a combination of several emission sources.

  13. Memory and historical Jesus studies: Formgeschichte in a new dress?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the quest for the historical Jesus, memory studies are seen as an important breakthrough in the study of the historical Jesus and the way forward in establishing the historicity of the Gospel traditions. This article evaluates the claim made by memory studies by evaluating memory studies' critique on the methodology of the ...

  14. History, Historical and Historicity in Heidegger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel CHILLÓN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to the “Historie” is possible as “Geschichte”, that is, so that the events are more than mere collections of past vestiges, it is necessary that the historical (geschichtlich of history is understood as enshrined in the historicity, in Geschichtlichkeit. In § 6 of the Introduction to ‘Being and Time’ Heidegger understands that the historicity refers to the temporality of Dasein, to its finitude. Thiking of the historicity requires, as its main task, overcoming history as history of entities, in terms of history of forgotten being. And, of course, to think the being, the happening of being and Dasein which, as such event, is being, is occurring , it is historicizing .

  15. Evaluation of 'period-generated' control laws for the time-optimal control of reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Time-Optimal control of neutronic power has recently been achieved by developing control laws that determine the actuator mechanism velocity necessary to produce a specified reactor period. These laws are designated as the 'MIT-SNL Period-Generated Minimum Time Control Laws'. Relative to time-optimal response, they function by altering the rate of change of reactivity so that the instantaneous period is stepped from infinity to its minimum allowed value, held at that value until the desired power level is attained, and then stepped back to infinity. The results of a systematic evaluation of these laws are presented. The behavior of each term in the control laws is shown and the capability of these laws to control properly the reactor power is demonstrated. Factors affecting the implementation of these laws, such as the prompt neutron lifetime and the differential reactivity worth of the actuators, are discussed. Finally, the results of an experimental study in which these laws were used to adjust the power of the 5 MWt MIT Research Reactor are shown. The information presented should be of interest to those designing high performance control systems for test, spacecraft, or, in certain instances, commercial reactors

  16. Evaluating the Usability of a Controlled Language Authoring Assistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyata Rei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results of a usability evaluation of a controlled language (CL authoring assistant designed to help non-professional writers create machine translatable source texts. As the author drafts the text, the system detects CL rule violations and proscribed terms. It also incorporates several support functions to facilitate rephrasing of the source. In order to assess the usability of the system, we conducted a rewriting experiment, in which we compared two groups of participants, one with the aid of the system and the other without it. The results revealed that our system helped reduce the number of CL violations by about 9% and the time to correct violations by more than 30%. The CL-applied source text resulted in higher fluency and adequacy of MT outputs. Questionnaire and interview results also implied the improved satisfaction with the task completion of those participants who used the system.

  17. Investigation of geochemical indicators to evaluate the connection between inland and coastal groundwater systems near Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park, Hawai‘i

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillman, Fred D; Oki, Delwyn S.; Johnson, Adam G.; Barber, Larry B.; Beisner, Kimberly R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The connection between inland and coastal aquifers near Kona, Hawai‘i is uncertain. • If connected, increased inland groundwater pumping may threaten coastal ecosystems. • Connection of inland and coastal aquifers was investigated using geochemical data. • Stable isotope results provide strong evidence of a connection between the systems. • Other geochemical data suggest a connection but are not conclusive. - Abstract: Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park (KAHO) is a coastal sanctuary on the western side of the Island of Hawai‘i that was established in 1978 to preserve, interpret, and perpetuate traditional Native Hawaiian culture and activities. KAHO contains a variety of culturally and ecologically significant water resources and water-related habitat for species that have been declared as threatened or endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, or are candidate threatened or endangered species. These habitats are dependent on coastal unconfined groundwater in a freshwater-lens system. The coastal unconfined-groundwater system is recharged by local infiltration of rainfall but also may receive recharge from an inland groundwater system containing groundwater impounded to high altitudes. The area inland of and near KAHO is being rapidly urbanized and increased groundwater withdrawals from the inland impounded-groundwater system may affect habitat and water quality in KAHO, depending on the extent of connection between the coastal unconfined groundwater and inland impounded-groundwater. An investigation of the geochemistry of surface-water and groundwater samples in and near KAHO was performed to evaluate the presence or absence of a connection between the inland impounded- and coastal unconfined-groundwater systems in the area. Analyses of major ions, selected trace elements, rare-earth elements, and strontium-isotope ratio results from ocean, fishpond, anchialine pool, and groundwater samples were consistent with a linear

  18. [Evaluation of visual acuity in a historical cohort of 137 patients treated for amblyopia by occlusion 30-35 years ago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsz-Tóth, B; Loudon, S E; van Kempen-du Saar, H; van de Graaf, E S; Groenewoud, J H; Simonsz, H J

    2007-01-01

    Opinions differ on the course of the visual acuity in the amblyopic eye after cessation of occlusion therapy. This study evaluated visual acuity in a historical cohort treated for amblyopia with occlusion therapy 30-35 years ago. Between 1968 and 1975, 1250 patients had been treated by the orthoptist in the Waterland Hospital in Purmerend, The Netherlands. Of these, 471 received occlusion treatment for amblyopia (prevalence 5.0%, after comparison with the local birth rate). We were able to contact 203 of these patients, 137 were orthoptically re-examined in 2003. We correlated the current visual acuity with the cause of amblyopia, the age at start and end of treatment, the visual acuity at start and end of treatment, fixation, binocular vision and refractive errors. Mean age at the start of treatment was 5.4 +/- 1.9 years, 7.4 +/- 1.7 years at the end and 37 +/- 2.7 years at follow-up. Current visual acuity in the amblyopic eye was correlated with a low visual acuity at the start (p occlusion therapy, an eccentric fixation (p amblyopia (p = 0.005). At the end of the treatment, patients with a strabismic amblyopia (n = 98) had a visual acuity in the amblyopic eye of 0.29 logMAR +/- 0.3, and in 2003 0.27 +/- 0.3 logMAR. In patients with an anisometropic amblyopia (> 1 D, n = 16) visual acuity had decreased from 0.17 +/- 0.23 logMAR to 0.21 logMAR +/- 0.23. In patients with both strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia (n = 23), visual acuity had decreased from 0.52 logMAR +/- 0.54 to 0.65 logMAR +/- 0.54. Overall, acuity had decreased in 54 patients (39%) after cessation of treatment. Of these, 18 patients had an acuity decrease to less than 50% of their acuity at the end of treatment. In 15 of these 18 patients anisohypermetropia had increased. A decrease in visual acuity after cessation of occlusion therapy occurred in patients with a combined cause of amblyopia or with an increase in anisohypermetropia.

  19. College Readiness: The Evaluation of Students Participating in the Historically Black College and University Program in Pre-Calculus and the Calculus Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Angela Renee

    2011-01-01

    This investigative research focuses on the level of readiness of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) students entering Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) in the college Calculus sequence. Calculus is a fundamental course for STEM courses. The level of readiness of the students for Calculus can very well play a…

  20. APPETITE CONTROL: METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE EVALUATION OF FOODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, John; de Graaf, Cees; Hulshof, Toine; Jebb, Susan; Livingstone, Barbara; Lluch, Anne; Mela, David; Salah, Samir; Schuring, Ewoud; van der Knaap, Henk; Westerterp, Margriet

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a set of scientific procedures used to assess the impact of foods and food ingredients on the expression of appetite (psychological and behavioural). An overarching priority has been to enable potential evaluators of health claims about foods to identify justified claims, and to exclude claims that are not supported by scientific evidence for the effect cited. This priority follows precisely from the principles set down in the PASSCLAIM report. (4) The report allows the evaluation of the strength of health claims, about the effects of foods on appetite, which can be sustained on the basis of the commonly used scientific designs and experimental procedures. The report includes different designs for assessing effects on satiation as opposed to satiety,detailed coverage of the extent to which a change in hunger can stand-alone as a measure of appetite control, and an extensive discussion of the statistical procedures appropriate for handling data in this field of research. Since research in this area is continually evolving, new improved methodologies may emerge over time and will need to be incorporated into the framework. One main objective of the report has been to produce guidance on good practice in carrying out appetite research, and not to set down a series of commandments that must be followed. PMID:20122136

  1. A discussion of techniques used in defining the Interactive Measurement Evaluation and Control System at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, B.K.; Hunt, V.; Schweitzer, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes both the general methodology used to study the current needs for a measurement control and evaluation system at Rocky Flats Plant and the recommendations for implementation into the Interactive Measurement Evaluation and Control System (IMECS). The study resulted in a clear assessment of the current system and recommendations for the system which will be its replacement. To arrive at the recommendations, the authors used a formal analysis approach that is based on an in-depth study of the measurement evaluation and control problems and user needs. The problems and needs were defined by interviews with present and potential users of this kind of system throughout the nuclear industry. Some of the recommendations are to provide: timely sample measurement feedback; representative measurement error estimates; a history data base of sample measurements To meet the user needs, the new system will: be interactive with user selection menus; use standards which cover the range of application; facilitate historical analysis of sample data and bookkeeping. The implementation of this program is projected to be more cost effective than the current program. Also included are the authors' recommendations to those involved in the design of a system of similar large magnitude

  2. Evaluation of electronic stability control effectiveness in Australasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Jim; Newstead, Stuart

    2008-11-01

    Electronic stability control (ESC) is an in-vehicle technology aimed at improving primary safety by assisting the driver in avoiding loss of control of the vehicle. The aim of this study was to use available crash data from Australia and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of ESC in reducing crash risk and to establish whether benefits estimated from overseas studies have translated to the Australian and New Zealand environments. The sample analysed included 7699 crashed vehicles fitted with ESC which comprised of 90 different models. Poisson regression was used to test whether the differences in the observed and expected crash counts for ESC fitted vehicles were significant, with exposure being induced from counts of rear end impacts. It was found that ESC reduced the risk of single vehicle crashes in which the driver was injured by 68% for 4WDs compared with 27% for passenger cars. The effect of ESC on multiple vehicle crashes in Australia and New Zealand was not clear. The long-term benefits of fitting ESC to all vehicles in Australia were also investigated based on the estimated single vehicle crash reductions.

  3. Evaluation of Corba for use in distributed control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, F.W.; Arsdall, P. van

    1999-01-01

    The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)-based Simulator was a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that applied simulation techniques to explore critical questions about advanced distributed control system architectures. A three-prong approach comprised of a study of object-oriented distribution tools, computer network modeling, and simulation of key control system scenarios was used in the LDRD project. This input report describes the first of the three approaches the study of object-oriented distribution tools together with measurements, and predictions of use within the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and some aspects of CORBA which remain to be resolved. For the ICCS, the completeness of suitable functionality, the speed of performance and utilization of machine and network resources, and the developing nature of the commercial CORBA products themselves, presented a certain risk. This LDRD thus evaluated CORBA in general, and a particular implementation, to determine its features, performance, and scaling properties, and to optimize its use within the ICCS. Both UNIX and real-time operating systems were studied

  4. Temperature measurement and control system for transtibial prostheses: Functional evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoseiri, Kamiar; Zheng, Yong Ping; Leung, Aaron K L; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Aminian, Gholamreza; Lee, Tat Hing; Safari, Mohammad Reza

    2018-01-01

    The accumulation of heat inside the prosthetic socket increases skin temperature and fosters perspiration, which consequently leads to high tissue stress, friction blister, discomfort, unpleasant odor, and decreased prosthesis suspension and use. In the present study, the prototype of a temperature measurement and control (TM&C) system was designed, fabricated, and functionally evaluated in a phantom model of the transtibial prosthetic socket. The TM&C system was comprised of 12 thermistors divided equally into two groups that arranged internal and external to a prosthetic silicone liner. Its control system was programmed to select the required heating or cooling function of a thermal pump to provide thermal equilibrium based on the amount of temperature difference from a defined set temperature, or the amount of difference between the mean temperature recorded by inside and outside thermistors. A thin layer of aluminum was used for thermal conduction between the thermal pump and different sites around the silicone liner. The results showed functionality of the TM&C system for thermoregulation inside the prosthetic socket. However, enhancing the structure of this TM&C system, increasing its thermal power, and decreasing its weight and cost are main priorities before further development.

  5. Recognition, evaluation, and control of indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chastain, B.

    1993-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is typically associated with terms sick building syndrome, tight building syndrome, building related illness, and problem building. Indoor air pollution is a relatively new public health concern (approximately 15 years old) although this issue is an age-old problem dating back to prehistoric times when humans came to live indoors. This presentation summarizes indoor air quality issues in order to provide you with usable information concerning the recognition and evaluation of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems and the subsequent control measures which can be used for maintaining or improving the indoor air environment for better occupant health and comfort control. Why has the subject become so vocalized in the last fifteen years? Why the sudden interest and awareness concerning indoor air quality issues? During the last half of the 1970's and all of the 1980's, buildings were built or remodeled to minimize air handling, heating, and cooling costs, often limiting the amount of outside air brought into the buildings to near minimums. Paralleling these developments, complaints related to modern buildings increased. The new terms tight building syndrome, sick building syndrome, and indoor air quality became widely used by health and safety professionals and subsequently by newspaper columnist and the general public

  6. Adaptive control for evaluation of flexibility benefits in microgrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holjevac, Ninoslav; Capuder, Tomislav; Kuzle, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Aggregating groups of loads and generators at the same location with centralized control is known as the concept of microgrids. However, if those flexible producers and consumers do not have the ability to balance the variability and uncertainty of RES (renewable energy sources) production within them, from the system perspective they are seen as a source of imbalances and potential problems in maintaining the equilibrium of production and consumption. The papers main goal is to quantify the ability of microgrid components to provide flexibility. This flexibility is analysed from two perspectives, defining two operating principles of each microgrid: independently from the distribution grid and connected, interacting and responding to signals from the upstream system. Following on this, the paper presents two relevant cases. In the first part a deterministic model is developed based on MILP (Mixed Integer Linear programming) simulating the microgrid operation over one year period. This model is used to determine the optimal microgrid configuration with respect to the amount of unused energy, thus defining role and capability of different pieces of equipment and their size (RES (renewable energy sources) wind and solar, HS (heat storage), μCHP (micro combined heat and power plants) and EHP (electric heat pumps)). The second part of this paper further expands the model with MPC (Model Predictive Control) approach in order to capture the behaviour of microgrid interaction with the distribution grid, modelling uncertainties of forecasting RES production by stochastic programming. The model is capable to evaluate both the impact of variable energy production and consumption and the impact of energy balancing tariffs depending on the amount of balancing energy needed for the microgrid operation. - Highlights: • Integrated MILP (Mixed Integer Linear programming) formulation for optimal operation of developed microgrid model. • Determining operational flexibility of

  7. Evaluating methods for controlling depth perception in stereoscopic cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Geng; Holliman, Nick

    2009-02-01

    Existing stereoscopic imaging algorithms can create static stereoscopic images with perceived depth control function to ensure a compelling 3D viewing experience without visual discomfort. However, current algorithms do not normally support standard Cinematic Storytelling techniques. These techniques, such as object movement, camera motion, and zooming, can result in dynamic scene depth change within and between a series of frames (shots) in stereoscopic cinematography. In this study, we empirically evaluate the following three types of stereoscopic imaging approaches that aim to address this problem. (1) Real-Eye Configuration: set camera separation equal to the nominal human eye interpupillary distance. The perceived depth on the display is identical to the scene depth without any distortion. (2) Mapping Algorithm: map the scene depth to a predefined range on the display to avoid excessive perceived depth. A new method that dynamically adjusts the depth mapping from scene space to display space is presented in addition to an existing fixed depth mapping method. (3) Depth of Field Simulation: apply Depth of Field (DOF) blur effect to stereoscopic images. Only objects that are inside the DOF are viewed in full sharpness. Objects that are far away from the focus plane are blurred. We performed a human-based trial using the ITU-R BT.500-11 Recommendation to compare the depth quality of stereoscopic video sequences generated by the above-mentioned imaging methods. Our results indicate that viewers' practical 3D viewing volumes are different for individual stereoscopic displays and viewers can cope with much larger perceived depth range in viewing stereoscopic cinematography in comparison to static stereoscopic images. Our new dynamic depth mapping method does have an advantage over the fixed depth mapping method in controlling stereo depth perception. The DOF blur effect does not provide the expected improvement for perceived depth quality control in 3D cinematography

  8. Control and evaluation programs for TANSY-KM5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosshoeg, G.; Aronsson, D.; Hoek, M.; Rydz, R.; Norberg, L.; Urholm, L.

    1991-01-01

    Our first task was to purchase a computer and to create a basic software library for the preliminary test of the components. Our choice was a Starburst system from CES. The computer was a PDP-11/70 on a chip. It is the same computer as the ones used by the auxiliary CAMAC crate controllers in the TANSY system. However, the host has a 256 kbyte memory instead of the 64 kbyte memory used in the crate controllers. The operation system is RSX11-M. It is a real time system with properties suitable for laboratory works. However, the computer works in 64 kbyte partitions which limits the size of the programs. Four program systems were written. The two first were one-parameter systems for amplitude and time measurements using the ADCs and TDCs which later should be included in the TANSY system. These systems were supplemented with two two-parameter systems, one for time and amplitude measurements and one for time measurements on 16 detectors simultaneously. The display capabilities of these program systems have been used extensively by the TANSY programs. The programs needed for the manipulation of the system give the user a possibility to manually run the system without any intervention from the normal CODAS control system. The programs have been used for calibration measurements as well as test of the TANSY system. The evaluation programs use the output file from a normal measurement. The data file may be tested for errors. The true events can be sorted into different configurations. The final one is the neutron energy sort program, which gives the neutron energy distribution

  9. Yields of historical exploration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huslende, T.

    1995-01-01

    The paper relates to an method of evaluation developed for analysing the yield of historical exploration programs by computerized simulation. The most important elements show in coarse features how the results can be used in the different analyses. The evaluation is to be executed annually for the comparison and sorting of data from different offshore sites. Topics are exploration evaluation study, evaluation process, handling of exploration costs, discovered reserves, development projects, cash flow analysis, analysis of results, finding cost, international comparison. 1 ref., 11 figs

  10. Misprescribing controlled substances: An evaluation of a professional development program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Charlene M; Ghulyan, Marine V; Swiggart, William H

    2016-01-01

    Controlled prescription drug (CPD) abuse has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Most physicians attending a 3-day continuing medical education (CME) professional development program (PDP) lack training in identifying risk and in managing patients who misuse CPDs. To address this issue, the authors conducted an evaluation of a PDP that trains physicians on proper prescribing, identifying substance abuse, utilizing screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT), and implementing motivational interviewing (MI). The authors conducted a program evaluation to assess the efficacy and impact of the PDP on physicians' knowledge and prescribing behaviors. Participants (N = 174) were typically middle-aged (average age of 53 years), male (89%), and physicians (82%) and other health care professionals (18%). Many physicians practice in solo primary care settings (46%). Course evaluations were completed by n = 155 (89%) participants who rated the course and presenters highly (mean 4.8/5 respectively). Physicians' knowledge scores on pre/post assessments increased significantly: pretest (M = 58.7, SD = 13.12) and posttest (M = 78.28, SD = 9.83) (t(173) = 20.06, P ≤ .0001, 95% confidence interval, CI: [-21.51, -17.65]). Almost half of the participants, n = 83/174 (48%), completed the follow-up survey, and 93% agreed/strongly agreed (A/SA) they made professional practice changes. Of participants practicing with an active DEA (Drug Enforcement Administration) registration (n = 57), most agreed/strongly agreed they implemented changes to align their practices with current guidelines (89%), used CPD more appropriately (87%), implemented office policies on prescribing (81%), identified and referred more substance abuse patients to treatment (80%), shared new information/experience from course with other 25 health professionals (93%), and felt the course positively impacted their behaviors personally and professionally (90% and 96%, respectively

  11. Tuberculosis control program in the municipal context: performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiemi Arakawa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of the Tuberculosis Control Program in municipalities of the State of São Paulo. METHODS This is a program evaluation research, with ecological design, which uses three non-hierarchical groups of the municipalities of the State of São Paulo according to their performance in relation to operational indicators. We have selected 195 municipalities with at least five new cases of tuberculosis notified in the Notification System of the State of São Paulo and with 20,000 inhabitants or more in 2010. The multiple correspondence analysis was used to identify the association between the groups of different performances, the epidemiological and demographic characteristics, and the characteristics of the health systems of the municipalities. RESULTS The group with the worst performance showed the highest rates of abandonment (average [avg] = 10.4, standard deviation [sd] = 9.4 and the lowest rates of supervision of Directly Observed Treatment (avg = 6.1, sd = 12.9, and it was associated with low incidence of tuberculosis, high tuberculosis and HIV, small population, high coverage of the Family Health Strategy/Program of Community Health Agents, and being located on the countryside. The group with the best performance presented the highest cure rate (avg = 83.7, sd = 10.5 and the highest rate of cases in Directly Observed Treatment (avg = 83.0, sd = 12.7; the group of regular performance showed regular results for outcome (avg cure = 79.8, sd = 13.2; abandonment avg = 9.5, sd = 8.3 and supervision of the Directly Observed Treatment (avg = 42.8, sd = 18.8. Large population, low coverage of the Family Health Strategy/Program of Community Health Agents, high incidence of tuberculosis and AIDS, and being located on the coast and in metropolitan areas were associated with these groups. CONCLUSIONS The findings highlight the importance of the Directly Observed Treatment in relation

  12. Evaluation of Borama tuberculosis control program in Somaliland, Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayad, Mohamed Gedi; Tarsitani, Gianfranco

    2017-02-28

    The Borama TB program in Somalia lost resources for TB operations in 2003. We evaluated the impact of the loss on the program. Pre-event (2002-2003) and post-event (2007) design were used. All TB patients registered in Borama and a sample of four months from Hargeisa (comparison) TB patients in both periods were abstracted. The following TB treatment outcomes were estimated: treatment success, treatment failure, case fatality, treatment interruption and transfer rates, along with percentage of patients with sputum specimen prior to treatment, percentage of patients from neighboring countries, and monthly average patients enrolled in treatment. The pre-event to post-event outcomes and measures were compared using descriptive and multivariate analyses. In total, 3,367 TB cases were abstracted. In Borama, the TB treatment success rate increased 6% in the post-event. The treatment failure and interruption rates both declined 75%. Monthly average TB patients declined 55%. Percentage of patients smear tested prior to the initiation of the treatment declined 9%. Percentage of TB patients from neighboring countries and other parts of Somalia declined 51%. Treatment interruption/transfer rates declined significantly in the post-event, compared to the pre-event period. Treatment failure/death rate did not change in the post-event period. In Hargeisa, the treatment success, failure/death, and interruption/transfer rates were similar in both periods. The RR did not change in these measures after adjusting for age and gender. This study indicates a significant setback to the Borama TB control program in the majority of measures evaluated, except the TB success rate.

  13. Evaluation of automatic exposure control systems in computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reina, Thamiris Rosado

    2014-07-01

    The development of the computed tomography (CT) technology has brought wider possibilities on diagnostic medicine. It is a non-invasive method to see the human body in details. As the CT application increases, it raises the concern about patient dose, because the higher dose levels imparted compared to other diagnostic imaging modalities. The radiology community (radiologists, medical physicists and manufacturer) are working together to find the lowest dose level possible, without compromising the diagnostic image quality. The greatest and relatively new advance to lower the patient dose is the automatic exposure control (AEC) systems in CT. These systems are designed to ponder the dose distribution along the patient scanning and between patients taking into account their sizes and irradiated tissue densities. Based on the CT scanning geometry, the AEC-systems are very complex and their functioning is yet not fully understood. This work aims to evaluate the clinical performance of AEC-systems and their susceptibilities to assist on possible patient dose optimizations. The approach to evaluate the AEC-systems of three of the leading CT manufacturers in Brazil, General Electric, Philips and Toshiba, was the extraction of tube current modulation data from the DICOM standard image sequences, measurement and analysis of the image noise of those image sequences and measurement of the dose distribution along the scan length on the surface and inside of two different phantoms configurations. The tube current modulation of each CT scanner associated to the resulted image quality provides the performance of the AECsystem. The dose distribution measurements provide the dose profile due to the tube current modulation. Dose measurements with the AEC-system ON and OFF were made to quantify the impact of these systems regarding patient dose. The results attained give rise to optimizations on the AEC-systems applications and, by consequence, decreases the patient dose without

  14. Evaluation of automatic exposure control systems in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reina, Thamiris Rosado

    2014-01-01

    The development of the computed tomography (CT) technology has brought wider possibilities on diagnostic medicine. It is a non-invasive method to see the human body in details. As the CT application increases, it raises the concern about patient dose, because the higher dose levels imparted compared to other diagnostic imaging modalities. The radiology community (radiologists, medical physicists and manufacturer) are working together to find the lowest dose level possible, without compromising the diagnostic image quality. The greatest and relatively new advance to lower the patient dose is the automatic exposure control (AEC) systems in CT. These systems are designed to ponder the dose distribution along the patient scanning and between patients taking into account their sizes and irradiated tissue densities. Based on the CT scanning geometry, the AEC-systems are very complex and their functioning is yet not fully understood. This work aims to evaluate the clinical performance of AEC-systems and their susceptibilities to assist on possible patient dose optimizations. The approach to evaluate the AEC-systems of three of the leading CT manufacturers in Brazil, General Electric, Philips and Toshiba, was the extraction of tube current modulation data from the DICOM standard image sequences, measurement and analysis of the image noise of those image sequences and measurement of the dose distribution along the scan length on the surface and inside of two different phantoms configurations. The tube current modulation of each CT scanner associated to the resulted image quality provides the performance of the AECsystem. The dose distribution measurements provide the dose profile due to the tube current modulation. Dose measurements with the AEC-system ON and OFF were made to quantify the impact of these systems regarding patient dose. The results attained give rise to optimizations on the AEC-systems applications and, by consequence, decreases the patient dose without

  15. Evaluation of Tobacco Control Law at Cafe’ and Restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Özcebe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted in order to evaluate ideas of some cafe and restaurants’ clients and workers about the tobacco control law three years after entering into force in a central district in Ankara in 2008. Methods: In the descriptive study;105 management, 113 worker and 386 client was visited, face to face interviews were done using two different questionnaire form and another form for managements’ evaluation. SPSS 15.0 statistical package program, Chi-square and t-tests were used. Administrative leave was taken. Results: Mean age of workers was 30.1±8.32 years; 82.3% were men, 54.0% smoker; with clients the values are 27.7±8.61 years; 53.6% women and 39.4% were smokers. There’s a difference between smokers and non- smokers’ ideas about the hazards; death due to second-hand smoking (p=0.024; p<0.01. 80.3% of smokers and 74.3% of non-smokers knew the law in restaurants serving alcoholic beverages. Acceptance of the idea of the law could help to quit smoking was significantly different between smoker/non smoker workers and smoker/non smoker clients (p=0.004;p<0.001. According to observations, 7.6% of the managements didn’t have law related plaque, 94.1% had smoking free areas, 57.1% had show window, 22.7% had smoking individuals and 12.6% had ashtray. Conclusion: Tobacco use is an individualistic reality but also a public health issue. Publicly acceptance of 45 law and implementations are needed besides individual perceptions. Implementations must be inspected and Smokers’ observance of the rules must be supplied in order to decrease tobacco use and related health complications.

  16. Evaluation of structural integrity and controllability of main feed water control valve for APWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koji Tachibana; Toshikazu Maeda; Hideyuki Morita; Takaharu Hiroe; Koichiro Oketani

    2005-01-01

    In Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), the main feed water control valve always controls the mass flow rate of main feed water to maintain the water level of steam generator within the allowable range. For the main feed water control valve of PWR, we have used an air operated globe valve conventionally since it has large capacity and quick responsibility. On the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (APWR) system conditions, the mass flow rate of main feed water increases compared with the conventional PWR system conditions as an increase of the generating power. So, it is expected that the fluid force will increase, and it could cause critical damage on internal parts of the valve, such as plug, stem, etc. and uncontrollability of the valve. In this study, we measured the stem strain in the fluid tests using scale model and test loop under the APWR feed water flow rate conditions. The stem strain gave the stem stress and the fluid force acting on the plug surface. We evaluated the stem integrity from the stem stress and confirmed the influence which the fluid force had on the valve controllability by simulating the feed water system considering the fluid force. (authors)

  17. Proactive mining system in potosi silver mines : new information from re-evaluation of historical materials regarding the fifth viceroy toledo’s various policies on environment

    OpenAIRE

    Miyoshi, Emako; Anezaki, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the proactive mining system introduced by the fifth viceroy, Francisco de Toledo (1569–1581) to the Potosi Silver Mine is clarified on the facts found in the historical documents. Main policies in Toledo’s mining business are followings, the application of mercury-amalgamation to extract silver from ores, the construction of the hydraulic-powered system for silver-ore crashing with cascading uses, the recycle system included the extraction of silver from waste ores and collecti...

  18. [Safety evaluation and risk control measures of Cassiae Semen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Meng; Wu, Li; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Li; Gao, Xue-Min; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Chun

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the authors reviewed domestic and foreign literatures, conducted the textual research on origin and development of Cassia Semen, studied records in ancient books and ancient and modern literatures, clinical adverse reactions and relevant experimental studies in recent years, and summarized the clinical features and influencing factors related to the safety of Cassiae Semen. According to the findings,Cassia Semen's safety risks are mainly liver and kidney system damages, with the main clinical features of fatigue, anorexia, disgusting of oil, yellow urine and gray stool; digestive system injury, with the main clinical features of diarrhea, abdominal distension, nausea and loose stool; reproductive system damage, with the main clinical features of vaginal bleeding. Allergic reactions and clinical adverse events, with the main clinical features for numb mouth, itching skin, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, wheezing and lip cyanosis were also reported. The toxicological studies on toxic components of Cassiae Semen obtusifolia were carried out through acute toxicity test, subacute toxicity test, subchronic toxicity test and chronic toxicity test. Risk factors might include patients, compatibility and physicians. Physicians should strictly abide by the medication requirements in the Pharmacopoeia, pay attention to rational compatibility, appropriate dosage,correct usage and appropriate processing, control the dosage below 15 g to avoid excessive intake, strictly control the course of treatment to avoid accumulated poisoning caused by long-term administration. At the same time, clinicians should pay attention to the latest research progress, update the knowledge structure, quickly find the latest and useful materials from clinical practice, scientific research and drug information and other literatures, make evaluation and judgment for the materials, establish a traditional Chinese medicine intelligence information library, and strengthen the control over

  19. A framework for evaluating hydrogen control and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Dong; Suh, Kune Yul; Jae, Moosung

    2003-01-01

    The present paper presents a new framework for assessing accident management strategies using decision trees. The containment event tree (CET) model considers characteristics associated with the implementation of each strategy. It is constructed and quantified using data obtained from NUREG-1150, other probabilistic risk assessments, and the MAAP4 calculations. The proposed framework for evaluating hydrogen control strategies is based on the concept of a measure using a risk triplet. Ulchin units of nuclear power plants 3 and 4 are used as the reference plant. On the basis of best-estimate assessment, it is shown that it is beneficial to execute hydrogen igniters rather than to do nothing with respect to expected value of hydrogen concentration in the containment during an accident. The proposed approach is shown to be flexible in that it can be applied to various accident management strategies based on the timing of mitigation. The advantage of using the CET for assessing an accident management strategy lies with its capability for modeling both the positive and negative aspects associated with progression of the accident, which may in turn affect the containment failure mode

  20. Scylla and charybdis 2.0: reconstructing colonial Spanish American territories between metropolitan dream and effective control, historical ambiguities and cybernetic determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stangl, Werner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to outline the main methodological obstacles that have to be addressed and overcome at reconstructing late colonial Spanish American territories and their development by means of a historical Geographic Information System (HGIS. First we try to show how historians with a broad gamut of research interests could profit from such a territorial HGIS infrastructure for that time and space. In a second step we try to show how certain aspects complicate the task. These include: vernacular concepts of territory (definitions of what actually is a “province”; the quality, focus, and methods of data gathering in contemporary geographic descriptions, cartographies, and other sources; the lack of definition of interior borders; the sometimes contradictory divisions in military, civil, ecclesiastical, and financial districts; as well as the general discrepancy between administrative control and political claims. And as if these aspects were not enough, there are the competing claims on territories of sovereignty in Latin America, which —by applying the uti possidetis juris principle— are largely based on colonial territories. In the last part, we outline the basic concept of a spatial database which tries to respond to the raised issues and furthermore incorporates a chronological axis. The model is illustrated by giving the example of the Puno-region.En el presente trabajo hacemos hincapié en los mayores problemas metodológicos a los que se debe enfrentar al reconstruir los territorios de Hispanoamérica de fines de la Colonia. Primero, trataremos mostrar como una amplia gama de epistemologías podría sacar provecho de una infraestructura de SIG-histórico para tal época y espacio. Luego mostraremos como una variedad de aspectos —conceptos vernáculos de territorio; calidad, foco y métodos de recolecta de datos en descripciones geográficas, mapas y otras fuentes de la época; la faltante definición de fronteras interiores

  1. ORAL TRADITION AND HISTORICAL RECONSTRUCTION IN IGBO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBL

    control, which exists in all societies that make for near accurate preservation of traditions ... historical sources from written sources and from material objects. ..... traditions were detached very early from the rural to the urban areas, where urban.

  2. Obstacle Avoidance Control Design: An Experimental Evaluation in Vehicle Platooning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goos, J.; Alirezaei, M.; Semsar-Kazerooni, E.; Ploeg, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an obstacle avoidance controller (OA) based on the impedance control method is developed. The main goal of the OA controller is to guarantee robust gap making for a merging vehicle within a platoon of vehicles which are longitudinally automated. The proposed OA controller is developed

  3. Evaluation of the regional climate response in Australia to large-scale climate modes in the historical NARCliM simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fita, L.; Evans, J. P.; Argüeso, D.; King, A.; Liu, Y.

    2017-10-01

    NARCliM (New South Wales (NSW)/Australian Capital Territory (ACT) Regional Climate Modelling project) is a regional climate modeling project for the Australian area. It is providing a comprehensive dynamically downscaled climate dataset for the CORDEX-AustralAsia region at 50-km resolution, and south-East Australia at a resolution of 10 km. The first phase of NARCliM produced 60-year long reanalysis driven regional simulations to allow evaluation of the regional model performance. This long control period (1950-2009) was used so that the model ability to capture the impact of large scale climate modes on Australian climate could be examined. Simulations are evaluated using a gridded observational dataset. Results show that using model independence as a criteria for choosing atmospheric model configuration from different possible sets of parameterizations may contribute to the regional climate models having different overall biases. The regional models generally capture the regional climate response to large-scale modes better than the driving reanalysis, though no regional model improves on all aspects of the simulated climate.

  4. Historical Dictionaries and Historical Dictionary Research: Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Resensies / Reviews. 309 ... and Historical Dictionary Research: Papers from the International ... "Cambridge, Trinity College Library MS 0.5.4: A Fifteenth-century ... There are among others ten types of manuscript collections that need attention, ..... The collection is rounded off by a selective index, supplementing the Table.

  5. HARMONIZATION, HISTORICAL COST AND INVESTMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2016-01-01

    Choosing depreciation of assets; revaluation of tangible or keeping their historical cost; registration, whilst the tangible assets are entered in the conservation of amortization expenses or a corresponding adjustment to depreciation expense ascertained; choosing the method of evaluating stocks is accounting policies. IAS 40 is significant because it was the first time the International Accounting Standards Board has introduced a fair value accounting model for non-financial assets. All firm...

  6. Controlled evaluation of silver nanoparticle dissolution using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Ronald D; Vikesland, Peter J

    2012-07-03

    Incorporation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into an increasing number of consumer products has led to concern over the potential ecological impacts of their unintended release to the environment. Dissolution is an important environmental transformation that affects the form and concentration of AgNPs in natural waters; however, studies on AgNP dissolution kinetics are complicated by nanoparticle aggregation. Herein, nanosphere lithography (NSL) was used to fabricate uniform arrays of AgNPs immobilized on glass substrates. Nanoparticle immobilization enabled controlled evaluation of AgNP dissolution in an air-saturated phosphate buffer (pH 7.0, 25 °C) under variable NaCl concentrations in the absence of aggregation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to monitor changes in particle morphology and dissolution. Over the first day of exposure to ≥10 mM NaCl, the in-plane AgNP shape changed from triangular to circular, the sidewalls steepened, the in-plane radius decreased by 5-11 nm, and the height increased by 6-12 nm. Subsequently, particle height and in-plane radius decreased at a constant rate over a 2-week period. Dissolution rates varied linearly from 0.4 to 2.2 nm/d over the 10-550 mM NaCl concentration range tested. NaCl-catalyzed dissolution of AgNPs may play an important role in AgNP fate in saline waters and biological media. This study demonstrates the utility of NSL and AFM for the direct investigation of unaggregated AgNP dissolution.

  7. [Evaluation of the quality control system in blood transfusion service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, R

    2000-01-01

    Implementation of quality system improvement at the Blood Transfusion Institute Novi Sad, included adjustments in practice to the request of ISO 9001 standard. Quality improvement must be a permanent activity of the Institute. The audit is a management tool for monitoring the quality assurance system and is either a quality audit or a medical audit. A well planned, comprehensive quality audit covers each activity of the Blood Transfusion Institute. The procedures may be internal or external. Quality manager is responsible for annual internal quality audits. The purpose of internal audits is to check the efficiency of the quality system in terms of realization of quality policy, fulfullment of designed targets and implementation of quality system documents. An internal quality audit is performed in accordance with the procedure and audit findings are reported to the management in a form of internal quality report as a part of quality system review. The findings must be communicated to all persons responsible for the controlled area. Quality manager can initiate an internal quality audit whenever it is realized that problems about the quality system have occurred. Audits are conducted by the quality manager or an audit team. The accurate list of internal auditors is kept in the Institute archive. Medical audit carried out by a transfusion committee, evaluates the quality of blood transfusion for determining the degree of compliance with established local or national guidelines, in order to promote optimal transfusion practice. Audits are not only used for determining further quality management activities, but also make basis for creating and maintenance of excellent relations with product and service users. Considering all this, Blood Transfusion Institute exceeds the requirements of ISO 9000 standards series.

  8. Evaluation and Quality Control for the Copernicus Seasonal Forecast Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manubens, N.; Hunter, A.; Bedia, J.; Bretonnière, P. A.; Bhend, J.; Doblas-Reyes, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    The EU funded Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) will provide authoritative information about past, current and future climate for a wide range of users, from climate scientists to stakeholders from a wide range of sectors including insurance, energy or transport. It has been recognized that providing information about the products' quality and provenance is paramount to establish trust in the service and allow users to make best use of the available information. This presentation outlines the work being conducted within the Quality Assurance for Multi-model Seasonal Forecast Products project (QA4Seas). The aim of QA4Seas is to develop a strategy for the evaluation and quality control (EQC) of the multi-model seasonal forecasts provided by C3S. First, we present the set of guidelines the data providers must comply with, ensuring the data is fully traceable and harmonized across data sets. Second, we discuss the ongoing work on defining a provenance and metadata model that is able to encode such information, and that can be extended to describe the steps followed to obtain the final verification products such as maps and time series of forecast quality measures. The metadata model is based on the Resource Description Framework W3C standard, being thus extensible and reusable. It benefits from widely adopted vocabularies to describe data provenance and workflows, as well as from expert consensus and community-support for the development of the verification and downscaling specific ontologies. Third, we describe the open source software being developed to generate fully reproducible and certifiable seasonal forecast products, which also attaches provenance and metadata information to the verification measures and enables the user to visually inspect the quality of the C3S products. QA4Seas is seeking collaboration with similar initiatives, as well as extending the discussion to interested parties outside the C3S community to share experiences and establish global

  9. Evaluation tools of quality control for patients submitted to IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavor, Milton

    2011-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is currently been implemented in a rapidly growing number of centers in Brazil. As consequence many institutions are now facing the problem of performing a comprehensive quality control program before and during the implementation of IMRT in the clinical routine practice. The aim of this work is to evaluate and propose a methodology for quality assurance in IMRT treatments. An ionization chamber and a two-dimensional array detector were performed to assess the absolute value of the total dose of all fields in one specific point. The relative total dose distribution of all fields was measured with a radiochromic film and a two-dimensional array at one depth in a phantom. A comparison between measured and calculated dose distributions was performed using the gamma-index method, assessing the percentage of points that meet the criteria of +-3% dose difference and +-3 mm distance to agreement. As a result of 113 tested IMRT beams using ionization chamber and 81 using two-dimensional array, the proposal was to take an action level of about +- 5% compared to the treatment planning systems and measurements, for the verification of the dose in a single point at the low gradient dose region. Analysis of the two-dimensional array measurements showed that the gamma value was <1 for 97.7% of the data and for the film the gamma value was <1 for 96.6% of the data. This can be concluded that for an accurate delivery of dose in 'sliding-window' IMRT with micro multileaf collimator, the absolute value of the total dose and the relative total dose distribution should be checked by absolute and relative dosimetry respectively. (author)

  10. Lagos Historical Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lagos Historical Review is an international and interdisciplinary journal publishing papers with a historical focus. The journal generates and participates in debates to advance the discipline of history and promote its relevance to development. The journal aims to serve the academic community with a bias towards ...

  11. HMI - historical flashback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, B.

    1993-01-01

    This brochure is based on a paper read at a HMI colloquium on 14 Juni 1993. The historical information is based on a detailed historical study published in book form under the title ''Industrial-scale Research in Berlin''. (orig./HSCH) [de

  12. An evaluation of waste control measures in construction industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFUOMA

    Key words: Construction processes, waste, factors, effects, control measures. INTRODUCTION ... of construction projects, an optimum material control on site should be .... on site due to mishandling or careless delivery accounted for 20% of.

  13. Performance evaluation of traffic sensing and control devices : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    High quality sensing and control systems are essential for providing efficient signalized arterial operations. INDOT operates over 2600 traffic signal controllers, approximately 2000 of which use some form of vehicle detection. The private sector con...

  14. Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) Interface Control Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Shon R.

    2017-01-01

    This Interface Control Document (ICD) documents the airspace adaptation and air traffic inputs of NASA's Future ATM Concepts and Evaluation Tool (FACET). Its intended audience is the project manager, project team, development team, and stakeholders interested in interfacing with the system. FACET equips Air Traffic Management (ATM) researchers and service providers with a way to explore, develop and evaluate advanced air transportation concepts before they are field-tested and eventually deployed. FACET is a flexible software tool that is capable of quickly generating and analyzing thousands of aircraft trajectories. It provides researchers with a simulation environment for preliminary testing of advanced ATM concepts. Using aircraft performance profiles, airspace models, weather data, and flight schedules, the tool models trajectories for the climb, cruise, and descent phases of flight for each type of aircraft. An advanced graphical interface displays traffic patterns in two and three dimensions, under various current and projected conditions for specific airspace regions or over the entire continental United States. The system is able to simulate a full day's dynamic national airspace system (NAS) operations, model system uncertainty, measure the impact of different decision-makers in the NAS, and provide analysis of the results in graphical form, including sector, airport, fix, and airway usage statistics. NASA researchers test and analyze the system-wide impact of new traffic flow management algorithms under anticipated air traffic growth projections on the nation's air traffic system. In addition to modeling the airspace system for NASA research, FACET has also successfully transitioned into a valuable tool for operational use. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) traffic flow managers and commercial airline dispatchers have used FACET technology for real-time operations planning. FACET integrates live air traffic data from FAA radar systems and weather data

  15. Dynamic Control of Airport Departures: Algorithm Development and Field Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Simaiakis, Ioannis; Balakrishnan, Hamsa

    2012-01-01

    Surface congestion leads to significant increases in taxi times and fuel burn at major airports. In this paper, we formulate the airport surface congestion management problem as a dynamic control problem. We address two main challenges: the random delay between actuation (at the gate) and the server being controlled (the runway), and the need to develop control strategies that can be implemented in practice by human air traffic controllers. The second requirement necessitates a strategy that ...

  16. Tuberculosis control program in the municipal context: performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Tiemi; Magnabosco, Gabriela Tavares; Andrade, Rubia Laine de Paula; Brunello, Maria Eugenia Firmino; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Ruffino-Netto, Antonio; Scatena, Lucia Marina; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

    2017-03-30

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of the Tuberculosis Control Program in municipalities of the State of São Paulo. This is a program evaluation research, with ecological design, which uses three non-hierarchical groups of the municipalities of the State of São Paulo according to their performance in relation to operational indicators. We have selected 195 municipalities with at least five new cases of tuberculosis notified in the Notification System of the State of São Paulo and with 20,000 inhabitants or more in 2010. The multiple correspondence analysis was used to identify the association between the groups of different performances, the epidemiological and demographic characteristics, and the characteristics of the health systems of the municipalities. The group with the worst performance showed the highest rates of abandonment (average [avg] = 10.4, standard deviation [sd] = 9.4) and the lowest rates of supervision of Directly Observed Treatment (avg = 6.1, sd = 12.9), and it was associated with low incidence of tuberculosis, high tuberculosis and HIV, small population, high coverage of the Family Health Strategy/Program of Community Health Agents, and being located on the countryside. The group with the best performance presented the highest cure rate (avg = 83.7, sd = 10.5) and the highest rate of cases in Directly Observed Treatment (avg = 83.0, sd = 12.7); the group of regular performance showed regular results for outcome (avg cure = 79.8, sd = 13.2; abandonment avg = 9.5, sd = 8.3) and supervision of the Directly Observed Treatment (avg = 42.8, sd = 18.8). Large population, low coverage of the Family Health Strategy/Program of Community Health Agents, high incidence of tuberculosis and AIDS, and being located on the coast and in metropolitan areas were associated with these groups. The findings highlight the importance of the Directly Observed Treatment in relation to the outcome for treatment and raise reflections on the

  17. Diagnostic investigation and historical-stylistic evaluation of oil painting on metal board. Example of “Christ Crucified with two mourning angels”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Lorusso

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The oil painting on metal board (40 x 30 cm under study was bought from the antiquarian French market and bears a very common representation that derives from one of Michelangelo’s designs: “Cristo Crocifisso con due angeli dolenti”. The present paper not only refers to a stylistic and historical-artistic assessment, but also alludes to knowledge in a general sense through diagnostic technique and preservation conditions. The results of the diagnostic study, together with the stylistic analysis, have confirmed that the painting is an ancient one that dates back to the first decades of the XVIIth century.

  18. Evaluation of Selected Pre-Emergence Herbicides for Weed Control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pendimentalin had no significant effect on the plantlets across the rates tested. The best weed control was achieved with diuron applied at 25% and above, while the least weed control occurred on the control plot and these treated with 10% of atrazine and primextra Gold. However, there were no significant variations in the ...

  19. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  20. Evaluation of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Sorbents and Catalysts for Control of Ammonia and Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Bernadette; Somi, George; Winchester, J. Parker; Grose, Jeffrey; Mulloth, Lila; Perry, Jay L.

    2013-01-01

    Designers of future space vehicles envision simplifying the Atmosphere Revitalization (AR) system by combining the functions of trace contaminant (TC) control and carbon dioxide removal into one swing-bed system. Flow rates and bed sizes of the TC and CO2 systems have historically been very different. There is uncertainty about the ability of trace contaminant sorbents to adsorb adequately in high-flow or short bed length configurations, and to desorb adequately during short vacuum exposures. There is also concern about ambient ammonia levels in the absence of a condensing heat exchanger. In addition, new materials and formulations have become commercially available, formulations never evaluated by NASA for purposes of trace contaminant control. The optimal air revitalization system for future missions may incorporate a swing-bed system for carbon dioxide (CO2) and partial trace contaminant control, with a reduced-size, low-power, targeted trace contaminant system supplying the remaining contaminant removal capability. This paper describes the results of a comparative experimental investigation into materials for trace contaminant control that might be part of such a system. Ammonia sorbents and low temperature carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation catalysts are the foci. The data will be useful to designers of AR systems for future flexible path missions. This is a continuation of work presented in a prior year, with extended test results.

  1. D0 HVAC System Controls Evaluation of Upgrade Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, D.; Simon, P.

    1998-01-01

    This engineering note documents three different options for upgrading the Dzero HVAC control system. All three options leave the current field hardware and field devices intact and upgrade the computer control hardware and software. Dzero will be heading into a physics run starting in 2000. This physics run could last several years. The Dzero HVAC system is an integral part of climate control and electronics cooling. The current HVAC control system is based upon a 1985 Johnson Controls System. In order to enter the next long-term physics run with a solid HVAC control system, the current control system needs to be upgraded. This proposal investigates three options: (1) Replacement to the next generation of Johnson Controls Hardware and Software with the Johnson Controls operator interface - FESS; (2) Replacement to the next generation of Johnson Controls Hardware and Software with the FIX32 Operator Interface - FESS/Dzero; and (3) Replacement with a commercially available Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) WITH THE FIX 32 Operator Interface - Dzero.

  2. Effective tree hazard control on forested recreation sites...losses and protection costs evaluated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee A. Paine

    1967-01-01

    Effectiveness of hazard control was evaluated by analyzing data on tree failures, accidents, and control costs on California recreation sites. Results indicate that reduction of limb hazard in oaks and bole hazard in conifers is the most effective form of control. Least effective is limb hazard reduction in conifers. After hazard control goals or control budgets have...

  3. Evaluation of information display at advanced main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Dai Hwan; Jo, Heon Jin; Jeon, Byung Ho

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this research is first to establish an evaluation method for CBPs(Computer-Based Procedures) at the advanced MCR as a part of regulation technology for the safety of KNGR. The second purpose is to design a prototype of a support system for the evaluation. We have selected the guideline method for the evaluation, since currently there is not any better alternative. Several guidelines have been published for the design of CBPs. The guidelines include both guidance for CBP design process review and guidance for CBP design product review. Although CBPs have many advantages over PBPs(Pater-Based Procedures), they have some drawbacks since CBPs show the information on display screens instead of papers, and generate some new issues that have not been raised with PBPs. For the new issues, we need to be cautious because it is hard to generalize the effects of CBPs and there is no conclusive answer yet. A support system is necessary for the evaluation of CBPs, since it is not easy to carry out an evaluation task even though an evaluator has firm background on cognitive engineering theories and practical experiences. The support system is going to have web-style interface and databases of evaluation items, guidelines for each evaluation item, and technical bases from which a guideline is derived. Evaluation items include those for desirable feature of CBPs and those for a subjective evaluation by the operating crew. The support system will facilitate the task of evaluators by linking evaluation items with technical basis and by providing features for recording and tracing the evaluation result and efforts for resolving the issues identified

  4. Evaluation of information display at advanced main control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Dai Hwan; Jo, Heon Jin; Jeon, Byung Ho [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    The purpose of this research is first to establish an evaluation method for CBPs(Computer-Based Procedures) at the advanced MCR as a part of regulation technology for the safety of KNGR. The second purpose is to design a prototype of a support system for the evaluation. We have selected the guideline method for the evaluation, since currently there is not any better alternative. Several guidelines have been published for the design of CBPs. The guidelines include both guidance for CBP design process review and guidance for CBP design product review. Although CBPs have many advantages over PBPs(Pater-Based Procedures), they have some drawbacks since CBPs show the information on display screens instead of papers, and generate some new issues that have not been raised with PBPs. For the new issues, we need to be cautious because it is hard to generalize the effects of CBPs and there is no conclusive answer yet. A support system is necessary for the evaluation of CBPs, since it is not easy to carry out an evaluation task even though an evaluator has firm background on cognitive engineering theories and practical experiences. The support system is going to have web-style interface and databases of evaluation items, guidelines for each evaluation item, and technical bases from which a guideline is derived. Evaluation items include those for desirable feature of CBPs and those for a subjective evaluation by the operating crew. The support system will facilitate the task of evaluators by linking evaluation items with technical basis and by providing features for recording and tracing the evaluation result and efforts for resolving the issues identified.

  5. Performance evaluation on force control for ITER blanket installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aburadani, A., E-mail: aburadani.atsushi@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Mukouyama 801-1, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Takeda, N.; Shigematsu, S.; Murakami, S.; Tanigawa, H.; Kakudate, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Mukouyama 801-1, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Nakahira, M.; Hamilton, D.; Tesini, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► It is crucial issues to avoid any jamming between the blanket modules and the keys. ► Force control for AC servo motor was developed to reduce excessive loads. ► This jam prevention force control method is directly measured and controlled by AC servo motor controllers. ► In the recent test, the module was passively positioned onto keys using the torque control method. -- Abstract: The most critical issue for the ITER blanket installation is to avoid any jamming between the blanket modules and the keys as a result of excessive loading during the module installation process. This is complicated by the limited clearance of 0.5 mm between the modules and the keys. To solve these technical issues, force control, such as controlling the torque for the AC servo motors, was developed to reduce excessive loads which may have an impact on the end-effector and to defer the forces acting on the groove of the blanket. This jam prevention force control method is directly measured and controlled by AC servo motor controllers. The AC servo motors are equipped to move the manipulator and end-effector during module installation.

  6. Performance evaluation on force control for ITER blanket installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburadani, A.; Takeda, N.; Shigematsu, S.; Murakami, S.; Tanigawa, H.; Kakudate, S.; Nakahira, M.; Hamilton, D.; Tesini, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► It is crucial issues to avoid any jamming between the blanket modules and the keys. ► Force control for AC servo motor was developed to reduce excessive loads. ► This jam prevention force control method is directly measured and controlled by AC servo motor controllers. ► In the recent test, the module was passively positioned onto keys using the torque control method. -- Abstract: The most critical issue for the ITER blanket installation is to avoid any jamming between the blanket modules and the keys as a result of excessive loading during the module installation process. This is complicated by the limited clearance of 0.5 mm between the modules and the keys. To solve these technical issues, force control, such as controlling the torque for the AC servo motors, was developed to reduce excessive loads which may have an impact on the end-effector and to defer the forces acting on the groove of the blanket. This jam prevention force control method is directly measured and controlled by AC servo motor controllers. The AC servo motors are equipped to move the manipulator and end-effector during module installation

  7. Evaluation of Modern Tools of Controlling at the Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopenko Olga V.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and practical aspects of the use of tools for operational and strategic controlling at the enterprise are studied. There carried out a detailed analysis of modern tools of controlling with the subsequent identification of operational and strategic controlling tools that are most adapted for the application at domestic enterprises. Furthermore, the study highlights the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed tools for managers to choose the most effective ones for the implementation of operational and strategic controlling. For each enterprise managers should form its own set of controlling tools considering its individual characteristics and existing problems. Prospects for further research are practical application of the recommended tools and implementation of further analysis of the obtained results in terms of the effect from the introduction of specific controlling tools.

  8. The historical supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, David H

    1977-01-01

    The Historical Supernovae is an interdisciplinary study of the historical records of supernova. This book is composed of 12 chapters that particularly highlight the history of the Far East. The opening chapter briefly describes the features of nova and supernova, stars which spontaneously explode with a spectacular and rapid increase in brightness. The succeeding chapter deals with the search for the historical records of supernova from Medieval European monastic chronicles, Arabic chronicles, astrological works etc., post renaissance European scientific writings, and Far Eastern histories and

  9. Development and Evaluation of Fault-Tolerant Flight Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong D.; Gupta, Kajal (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The research is concerned with developing a new approach to enhancing fault tolerance of flight control systems. The original motivation for fault-tolerant control comes from the need for safe operation of control elements (e.g. actuators) in the event of hardware failures in high reliability systems. One such example is modem space vehicle subjected to actuator/sensor impairments. A major task in flight control is to revise the control policy to balance impairment detectability and to achieve sufficient robustness. This involves careful selection of types and parameters of the controllers and the impairment detecting filters used. It also involves a decision, upon the identification of some failures, on whether and how a control reconfiguration should take place in order to maintain a certain system performance level. In this project new flight dynamic model under uncertain flight conditions is considered, in which the effects of both ramp and jump faults are reflected. Stabilization algorithms based on neural network and adaptive method are derived. The control algorithms are shown to be effective in dealing with uncertain dynamics due to external disturbances and unpredictable faults. The overall strategy is easy to set up and the computation involved is much less as compared with other strategies. Computer simulation software is developed. A serious of simulation studies have been conducted with varying flight conditions.

  10. Radium in consumer products: an historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, W.M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper demonstrates in historical and technical perspective how radium began to be used in consumer products and how changing conditions in technology and regulations have greatly modified the use of radium. In addition, the various uses of radium that have been tried or have been used in consumer products have been described, and whenever possible, the historical perspective has been used to show when devices were needed and when changing conditions caused the products to be no longer required. The historical perspective attitude is again used in the evaluation of the risks and benefits of radium in comparison to radium substitutes

  11. Evaluation of compost blankets for erosion control from disturbed lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Rabin; Kalita, Prasanta K; Yatsu, Shotaro; Howard, Heidi R; Svendsen, Niels G

    2011-03-01

    Soil erosion due to water and wind results in the loss of valuable top soil and causes land degradation and environmental quality problems. Site specific best management practices (BMP) are needed to curb erosion and sediment control and in turn, increase productivity of lands and sustain environmental quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of three different types of biodegradable erosion control blankets- fine compost, mulch, and 50-50 mixture of compost and mulch, for soil erosion control under field and laboratory-scale experiments. Quantitative analysis was conducted by comparing the sediment load in the runoff collected from sloped and tilled plots in the field and in the laboratory with the erosion control blankets. The field plots had an average slope of 3.5% and experiments were conducted under natural rainfall conditions, while the laboratory experiments were conducted at 4, 8 and 16% slopes under simulated rainfall conditions. Results obtained from the field experiments indicated that the 50-50 mixture of compost and mulch provides the best erosion control measures as compared to using either the compost or the mulch blanket alone. Laboratory results under simulated rains indicated that both mulch cover and the 50-50 mixture of mulch and compost cover provided better erosion control measures compared to using the compost alone. Although these results indicate that the 50-50 mixtures and the mulch in laboratory experiments are the best measures among the three erosion control blankets, all three types of blankets provide very effective erosion control measures from bare-soil surface. Results of this study can be used in controlling erosion and sediment from disturbed lands with compost mulch application. Testing different mixture ratios and types of mulch and composts, and their efficiencies in retaining various soil nutrients may provide more quantitative data for developing erosion control plans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier

  12. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SDN CONTROLLERS: FLOODLIGHT AND OPENDAYLIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Rowshanrad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Software Defined Network is new network architecture. One of its components is the controller, which is the intelligent part of SDN. Many controllers such as Floodlight, Open Daylight, Maestro, NOX, POX and many others are released. The question is which controller can perform better in which situations. Many works were done to compare controllers regarding architecture, efficiency and controllers’ features. In this paper, two of the most popular controllers, Floodlight and OpenDaylight are compared in terms of Network QoS parameters such as delay and loss in different topologies and network loads. This paper can help researchers to choose the best controller in different use cases such as clouds and multimedia. The results with 95% confidence interval show that OpenDaylight outperforms Floodlight in low loaded networks and also for tree topology in mid loaded networks in terms of latency. Floodlight can outperform OpenDaylight in heavy loaded networks for tree topology in terms of packet loss and in linear topology in terms of latency. There is no significant difference in performance of Floodlight and OpenDaylight controllers in other cases.

  13. Modular reconfigurable machine tools: design, control and evaluation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Padayachee, J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The reconfigurable manufacturing system (RMS) paradigm encapsulates methodologies that enable manufacturing systems to cope effectively with market and product changes. This research presents the design and evaluation of modular reconfigurable...

  14. Evaluation of Control Parameters for the Activated Sludge Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stall, T. Ray; Sherrard, Josephy H.

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation of the use of the parameters currently being used to design and operate the activated sludge process is presented. The advantages and disadvantages for the use of each parameter are discussed. (MR)

  15. Premier Hospital Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To provide a historical overview of the participating hospitals, before the first project report, Premier Healthcare Informatics has used data already available for...

  16. Iowa Historic Cemeteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file represents Iowa Historic Cemeteries. Originally it was based on an Iowa DNR point file marking cemetery locations as found on 7.5 min. USGS quad...

  17. VT Roadside Historic Markers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Roadside Historic Site Marker program has proven an effective way to commemorate Vermont’s many people, events, and places of regional, statewide, or national...

  18. Historical Climatology Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Historical Climatology Series (HCS) is a set of climate-related publications published by NOAA's National Climatic Data Center beginning in 1978. HCS is...

  19. Performance evaluation of traffic sensing and control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    High quality vehicle detection is essential to properly operate actuated phases at traffic signals and to facilitate effective : management of technician and engineering resources. INDOT operates over 2600 traffic signal controllers, approximately 20...

  20. Developing a Systematic Corrosion Control Evaluation Approach in Flint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation covers what the projects were that were recommended by the Flint Safe Drinking Water Task Force for corrosion control assessment for Flint, focusing on the sequential sampling project, the pipe rigs, and pipe scale analyses.

  1. Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adherence to controller therapy in asthma is a major concern during the management of the disease. ... The adherence to asthma treatment was rated using Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. A ..... in an outpatient setting.

  2. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 3: Package evaluation, modification and hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The software package evaluation was designed to analyze commercially available, field-proven, production control or manufacturing resource planning management technology and software package. The analysis was conducted by comparing SRB production control software requirements and conceptual system design to software package capabilities. The methodology of evaluation and the findings at each stage of evaluation are described. Topics covered include: vendor listing; request for information (RFI) document; RFI response rate and quality; RFI evaluation process; and capabilities versus requirements.

  3. Study on comprehensive evaluation model for nuclear power plant control room layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yiming; Liu Yuan; Fan Huixian

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation model for layout of the main control room of nuclear power plants was proposed. Firstly the design scope and principle for the layout of the main control room were defined based on the standards, and then the index system for the comprehensive evaluation was established. Finally, comprehensive evaluation was carried out for the layout design by applying the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method in the index system. (authors)

  4. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  5. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-07-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  6. Evaluation of Real-time operating systems for FGC controls

    CERN Document Server

    Chalas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Power Converter Control for various experiments at CERN, is con- ducted using a machine called Function Generator Controller. The cur- rent generation of FGCs being deployed is FGC3. A certain number of FGCs require very fast and precise control, and for these systems, there is uncertainty of whether the existing hardware will be able to provide the level of determinism required. I have worked in the CCS section as a summer student on a project to study the potential of ARM-based CPUs to provide a real time behaviour fit for a future high-performance FGC4. In this paper, i will present the results of my research into real-time vari- ants of Linux and other real-time operating systems on two different ARM CPUs.

  7. HIL evaluation of control unit in grid-tied coverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porobić Vlado B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL emulation is poised to become unsurpassed design tool for development, testing, and optimization of real-time control algorithms for grid connected power electronics converters for distributed generation, active filters and smart grid applications. It is strongly important to examine and test how grid connected converters perform under different operating conditions including grid disturbances and faults. In that sense, converter’s controller is a key component responsible for ensuring safe and high-performance operation. This paper demonstrates an example how ultra-low latency and high fidelity HIL emulator is used to easily, rapidly and exhaustively test and validate standard control strategy for grid connected power electronics converters, without need for expensive hardware prototyping and laboratory test equipment. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 042004 and by the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of AP Vojvodina under contract No. 114-451-3508/2013-04

  8. An evaluation of control rod motion simulator of research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanda

    2010-01-01

    Motion simulator for rod control research reactor has been carried out using a servo motor. Reactor rod motion control at any point should be in the right position, one of the motors that can move in a precise and correct is the servo motor. To ensure that the servo motor to move in accordance with the desired program, then the servo motor function test should be carried out to ensure having good performance. Tests carried out on meshes stress disorder, the load is stable within a certain period and travel time safety control rod up and down, travel time regulating control rods up and down and travel time compensation control rods up and down. In testing the breakdown voltage V out nets at 24 V, 6.5 A with 12 Q load deviation obtained V0= V1 = 0.1% and 0.65% and for the stability of the load in a certain time deviation V = 0.7125% , next to the breakdown voltage V out nets at 12 V, 4.2 A with a 6 Q load deviation obtained V0= V1 = 0.275% and 1.158% for the stability of the load in a certain time deviation V = 1.463% and the net-voltage noise nets on V out 24 V, 4.5 A with 12 Q load deviation obtained V0 = V1 = 0.196% and 0.496% and for the stability of the load in a certain time deviation V = 0.3625%. While the travel time of a safety control rod up and down, up and down the regulator and compensation rise and fall showed a steady linear graph. The results show that the performance of the servo motor is very stable with the working area below the tolerance limit, it is 5% - 10%.(author)

  9. Evaluation of control rod motion simulator research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanda

    2010-01-01

    Motion simulator has been carried out testing of the reactor control rod using a servomotor. Reactor control rod motion at any point should be in the right position, one of the motors that can move in a precise and correct the servo motor. To ensure that the servo motor to move in accordance with the desired program, then the servomotor function test for motor work to ensure the performance of the appliance. Tests carried out on meshes stress disorder, the load is stable within a certain period and travel time safety control rod up and down, travel time regulating control rods up and down and travel time compensation control rods up and down. In testing the breakdown voltage Vout nets at 24 V, 6.5 A with 12 Ω load deviation obtained V0 = V1 = 0.1% and 0.65% and for the stability of the load in a certain time deviation V = 0.7125%, next to the breakdown voltage Vout nets at 12V, 4.2 A with a 6 Ω load deviation obtained V0 = V1 = 0.275% and 1.158% for the stability of the load in a certain time deviation V = 1.463% and the net-voltage noise nets on Vout 24 V, 4.5 A with 12 Ω load deviation obtained V0 = V1 = 0.196% and 0.496% and for the stability of the load in a certain time deviation V = 0.3625%. While the travel time of a safety control rod up and down, up and down the regulator and compensation rise and fall showed a steady linear graph. The results show that the performance of the servo motor is very stable with the working area below the tolerance limit, it is 5% - 10%. (author)

  10. Evaluation of Wind Farm Controller based Fault Detection and Isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    detection and isolation and fault tolerant control has previously been proposed. Based on this model, and international competition on wind farm FDI was organized. The contributions were presented at the IFAC World Congress 2014. In this paper the top three contributions to this competition are shortly......In the process of lowering cost of energy of power generated by wind turbines, some focus has been drawn towards fault detection and isolation and as well as fault tolerant control of wind turbines with the purpose of increasing reliability and availability of the wind turbines. Most modern wind...

  11. Development, Field Testing, and Evaluation of LIDAR Assisted Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrmann, Robert [Asltom Power Inc.; Wang, Na [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scholbrock, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guadayol, Marc [Alstom Power Inc.; Wright, Alan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arora, Dhiraj [Alstom Power Inc.

    2015-05-18

    Typical wind turbines utilize feedback controllers which have a delayed response to winds peed disturbances. A nacelle mounted LIght Detection and Ranging(LIDAR) system measures a preview wind signal in front of the turbine. This can be included in a feed-forward control system, improving turbine pitch command for incoming variations in wind speed. The overall aim is reduced blade and tower fatigue, and potentially improved annual energy production. To be successful, the LIDAR must yield accurate wind speed measurements. Therefore, a LIDAR was characterized against a nearby met tower and turbine wind speed estimator. Results indicate good correlation between measurements.

  12. A modified isometric test to evaluate blood pressure control with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lifting and supporting weights) and have an important influence on blood pressure, it is essential to evaluate blood pressure response to iso- metric effort. This test can reveal high blood pressure that might otherwise not be detected. Only a few ...

  13. Accident hazard evaluation and control decisions on forested recreation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee A. Paine

    1971-01-01

    Accident hazard associated with trees on recreation sites is inherently concerned with probabilities. The major factors include the probabilities of mechanical failure and of target impact if failure occurs, the damage potential of the failure, and the target value. Hazard may be evaluated as the product of these factors; i.e., expected loss during the current...

  14. Formulation and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Controlled-Release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A coating layer was then applied with a mixture of HPMC, ethylcellulose, shellac, and HPMC phthalate. The effect of several formulation variables on in vitro drug release was studied; furthermore, the drug release kinetics of the optimized formulation was evaluated. The in vivo pharmacokinetics of the optimized formulation ...

  15. EVALUATION OF NANOFILTRATION PRETREATMENTS FOR FLUX LOSS CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differing nanofiltration pretreatment approaches for Ohio River water were evaluated withthe intent of producing systems with varying degrees of biological fouling. The membrane feed water was alum-coagulated, settled, and filtered Ohio River water (SF-ORW). Five 1.8" x 12" N...

  16. Taking Control of Alzheimer's Disease: A Training Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Nina M.; Sherman, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a training program for persons with early-stage Alzheimer's disease and their care partners. Care partners were mailed two surveys, one for themselves and one for the person with dementia. Domains covered in the training included an overview of cognitive disorders, treatment of symptoms including…

  17. A modified isometric test to evaluate blood pressure control with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure at rest is not predictive of roundthe- clock values. Blood pressure should therefore be measured during effort to evaluate hypertension and its response to treatment. The effect of sustained-release verapamil (240 mg taken once a day) on blood pressure at rest and during isometric effort was therefore ...

  18. Computer numeric control subaperture aspheric surface polishing—microroughness evaluation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procháska, František; Polák, Jaroslav; Matoušek, O.; Tomka, David

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 9 (2014), 092011-092011 ISSN 0091-3286 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0079 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : aspheric polishing * optic surface microroughness evaluation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.954, year: 2014 http://opticalengineering.spiedigitallibrary.org/article.aspx?articleid=1901511

  19. Evaluation of a quality control program in radiodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacovenco, Alejandro; Infantosi, A.F.C.; Tauhata, L.

    1996-01-01

    A quality assurance program, implemented at the Radiologic Service of the Hospital of the Military Police in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is evaluated. The results show a reduction around of 70% in the number of rejected films and 75% in the costs. A return to the former conditions is reported as after the discontinuation of the program

  20. The Performance of Structure-Controller Coupled Systems Analysis Using Probabilistic Evaluation and Identification Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosbeh R. Kaloop

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the performance of passively controlled steel frame building under dynamic loads using time series analysis. A novel application is utilized for the time and frequency domains evaluation to analyze the behavior of controlling systems. In addition, the autoregressive moving average (ARMA neural networks are employed to identify the performance of the controller system. Three passive vibration control devices are utilized in this study, namely, tuned mass damper (TMD, tuned liquid damper (TLD, and tuned liquid column damper (TLCD. The results show that the TMD control system is a more reliable controller than TLD and TLCD systems in terms of vibration mitigation. The probabilistic evaluation and identification model showed that the probability analysis and ARMA neural network model are suitable to evaluate and predict the response of coupled building-controller systems.

  1. Efficacy evaluation of selected herbicides on weed control and productivity evaluation of Bt cotton in Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kulvir; Rathore, Pankaj

    2015-07-01

    Field experiments were conducted during Kharif 2012 and 2013 to evaluate the efficacy of different herbicides for weed management in cotton. Highest seed cotton yield (3537.3 kg ha(-1)) was recorded in weed free plots followed by pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha(-1) as Pre.em.+quizalofopethyl @50 g a.i ha(-1) post-em at 2-4 weed leaf stage + one hoeing (3318.9 kg ha") owing to improved number of bolls per plant and boll weight. Statistically least yield was recorded underweedy check (1435.4 kg ha(-1)). Application of pyrithiobac sodium could not express any visible toxic effect on crop indicating its selectivity for cotton, although none of the tested new chemicals i.e., pyrithiobac sodium@ 62.5g a.i ha(-1) and quizalofopethyl @50g a.i ha(-1) when applied alone could not outperform the existing recommended chemicals for weed management. Yield losses to the extent of 6.2-59.4% were recorded due to weed competition. Weed control efficiency (WCE) was highest under weed free check (86.8%) followed by pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha(-1) as Pre. em.+quizalofopethyl @50g a.i ha(-1), at 2-4 weed leaf stage + one hoeing (73.7%), whereas minimum values were for weedy check (24.7%). Though net returns (r94660 ha(-1)) were highest for weed free check but higher B:C ratio (2:11) was observed for pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha(-1) as Pre em.+quizalofopethyl @50 g a.i ha(-1) post-em at 2-4 weed leaf stage+one hoeing. Therefore, for reasons such as labor shortage besides their timely availability, using these herbicides in combination with cultural practices could be the practical solution foreconomically efficient and effective weed management.

  2. Socioeconomic evaluation of vagus stimulation: A controlled national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Sabers, Anne; Christensen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    . The analysis of the effect involved a comparison of the health care costs, occupation and income status of VNS-treated epilepsy patients with those of a control group of epilepsy patients who had a VNS implanted during the 12 months before the index date (pre-period) and during the two years after the index...

  3. Evaluating transit preferential measures : Priority lanes, boarding and control strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, J.; Cats, O.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of bus service improvements such as bus lanes, allowing boarding through all doors and headway-based holding control ideally requires a simulation model that combines features of both classical analytical models and microscopic simulation. However, as the usage of such models has been

  4. Degradation product emission from historic and modern books by headspace SPME/GC-MS: evaluation of lipid oxidation and cellulose hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew J; Calvillo, Jesse L; Roosa, Mark S; Green, David B; Ganske, Jane A

    2011-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds emitted from a several decade series of bound periodicals (1859-1939) printed on ground wood paper, as well as historical books dating from the 1500s to early 1800s made from cotton/linen rag, were studied using an improved headspace SPME/GC-MS method. The headspace over the naturally aging books, stored upright in glass chambers, was monitored over a 24-h period, enabling the identification of a wide range of organic compounds emanating from the whole of the book. The detection of particular straight chain aldehydes, as well as characteristic alcohols, alkenes and ketones is correlated with oxidative degradation of the C(18) fatty acid constituency of paper. The relative importance of hydrolytic and oxidative chemistry involved in paper aging in books published between 1560 and 1939 was examined by comparing the relative abundances of furfural (FUR) a known cellulose hydrolysis product, and straight chain aldehydes (SCA) produced from the oxidation of fatty acids in paper. The relative abundance of furfural is shown to increase across the 379-year publication time span. A comparison of relative SCA peak areas across the series of books examined reveals that SCA emission is more important in the cotton/linen rag books than in the ground wood books.

  5. Implementation and performance evaluation open-source controller for precision control of gripper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Yong; Ham, Un-Hyeong; Park, Young-Woo; Jung, Hak-Sang; Jung, Il-Kyun; Lim, Sun

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes integrating gripper embedded operating system, which consist of external interface structure for sophisticated gripper control. This system has multiple functions that control the gripping module and measure the pose of the gripper body with respect to contact environment. A controller based on open source only for the gripper is developed and an external communication interface between robot controller and gripper controller is designed. An experimental environment for the fixed-cycle test consists of integrating magic gripper software system and hardware on commercial business. As a result, a deviation is measured approximately 2% and the system were verified for gripper control.

  6. Evaluation of secondary environmental impacts of urban runoff pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huibregtse, K.R.; Geinopolos, A.

    1982-03-01

    A generalized evaluation of the impacts associated with different urban stormwater runoff (UR) treatment techniques is presented. It addresses the definition of the problem, estimates the volume and characteristics of the UR and the sludges expected, evaluates six methods of UR sludge treatment, and examines alternatives and impacts for UR treatment sludge handling such as bleed/pump back to the dry weather plant, and land disposal. Regarding bleed/pump back of UR sludges, solids deposition in sewers and overload to the dry weather facilities are anticipated to cause problems. The most cost effective sludge treatment alternative appeared to be lime stabilization followed by thickening, pressure filter dewatering, and landfill disposal. Secondary impacts included costs, water quality, noise, energy consumption, air pollution, and land area requirements

  7. Physical Sciences Facility Air Emission Control Equivalency Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, David M.; Belew, Shan T.

    2008-10-17

    This document presents the adequacy evaluation for the application of technology standards during design, fabrication, installation and testing of radioactive air exhaust systems at the Physical Sciences Facility (PSF), located on the Horn Rapids Triangle north of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) complex. The analysis specifically covers the exhaust portion of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems associated with emission units EP-3410-01-S, EP-3420-01-S and EP 3430-01-S.

  8. Evaluation of the control system checkout test results for YGN 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Eon Young; Shon, Suk Whun; Kim, Shim Whan; Sung, Kang Sik; Seo, Jong Tae.

    1996-11-01

    During the Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 (YGN3) Power Ascension Test (PAT) period, the Control System Checkout tests were performed at 10%, 20%, 50%, 80%, and 100% respectively. This test evaluates the performance of the feedwater control system, reactor regulating system, pressurizer level and pressure control system in controlling their respective parameters within specified control bands at different power levels. The first test evaluates the ability of the FWCS to control steam generator 1 and 2 water levels during steady and transient conditions. The SG level setpoint was changed from normal SG level. The FWCS no.1 and no.2 controlled the SG water level to the new setpoint within the acceptable band. The second test evaluates the ability of the reactor regulating system (RRS) to control reactor coolant system (RCS) average temperature with respect to the reference temperature. The final test evaluates the ability of all of the control systems to work in an integrated manner controlling their respective parameters while the plant is at steady state conditions. The FWCS, RRS, SBCS, PLCS control their respective parameters within the control bands. The tests performed at Unit 3 were successful by meeting all of the test acceptable criteria. The measured test data for the major plant parameters were collected and evaluated. (author). 14 tabs., 217 figs., 7 refs

  9. Quality evaluation of resistivity-controlled silicon crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jong Hoe

    2006-01-01

    The segregation phenomenon of dopants causes a low production yield of silicon crystal that meets the resistivity tolerance required by device manufacturers. In order to control the macroscopic axial resistivity distribution in bulk crystal growth, numerous studies including continuous Czochralski method and double crucible technique have been studied. The simple B-P codoping method for improving the productivity of p-type silicon single-crystal growth by controlling axial specific resistivity distribution was proposed by Wang [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43 (2004) 4079]. In this work, the quality of Czochralski-grown silicon single crystals with a diameter 200 mm using B-P codoping method was studied from the chemical and structural points of view. It was found that the characteristics of B-P codoped wafers including the oxygen precipitation behavior and the grown-in defects are same as that of conventional B-doped Czochralski crystals.

  10. Design and experimental evaluation of flexible manipulator control algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, D.S.; Hwang, D.H.; Babcock, S.M.; Kress, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Within the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program of the US Department of Energy, the remediation of single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks is one of the areas that challenge state-of-the-art equipment and methods. The use of long-reach manipulators is being seriously considered for this task. Because of high payload capacity and high length-to-cross-section ratio requirements, these long-reach manipulator systems are expected to use hydraulic actuators and to exhibit significant structural flexibility. The controller has been designed to compensate for the hydraulic actuator dynamics by using a load-compensated velocity feedforward loop and to increase the bandwidth by using an inner pressure feedback loop. Shaping filter techniques have been applied as feedforward controllers to avoid structural vibrations during operation. Various types of shaping filter methods have been investigated. Among them, a new approach, referred to as a ''feedforward simulation filter'' that uses embedded simulation, has been presented

  11. Instrumentation and Controls evaluation for space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.; Oakes, L.C.

    1984-01-01

    Design of control and protection systems should be coordinated with the design of the neutronic, thermal-hydraulic, and mechanical aspects of the core and plant at the earliest possible stage of concept development. An integrated systematic design approach is necessary to prevent uncoordinated choices in one technology area from imposing impractical or impossible requirements in another. Significant development and qualification will be required for virtually every aspect of reactor control and instrumentation. In-core instrumentation widely used in commercial light water reactors will not likely be usable in the higher temperatures of a space power plant. Thermocouples for temperature measurement and gamma thermometers for flux measurement appear to be the only viable candidates. Recent developments in ex-core neutron detectors may provide achievable alternatives to in-core measurements. Reliable electronic equipment and high-temperature actuators will require major development efforts

  12. Controlled Experiment Replication in Evaluation of E-Learning System's Educational Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubisic, Ani; Stankov, Slavomir; Rosic, Marko; Zitko, Branko

    2009-01-01

    We believe that every effectiveness evaluation should be replicated at least in order to verify the original results and to indicate evaluated e-learning system's advantages or disadvantages. This paper presents the methodology for conducting controlled experiment replication, as well as, results of a controlled experiment and an internal…

  13. Evaluation of plant-wide WWTP control strategies including the effects of filamentous bulking sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Comas, J.S.; Rodríguez Roda, I.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the effect of filamentous bulking sludge on the predicted performance of simulated plant-wide WWTP control strategies. First, as a reference case, several control strategies are implemented, simulated and evaluated using the IWA Benchmark Simulation...

  14. Evaluating high pH for control of dreissenid mussels

    OpenAIRE

    Dave Evans; Sergey E. Mastitsky; Katherine L. Prescott; Thomas H. Prescott; Renata Claudi; Anna Carolina Taraborelli

    2013-01-01

    Two field experiments were carried out using a custom built flow-through laboratory to test the effect of elevated pH on dreissenid musselsas a potential control method. Both experiments tested the ability of dreissenid pediveligers to settle under conditions of elevated pH and thelong-term survival of adult dreissenids under the same conditions. The two experimental sites had different water quality and differentspecies of dreissenids present. The settlement of quagga mussel pediveligers at ...

  15. Movement augmentation to evaluate human control of locomotor stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geoffrey; Wu, Mengnan Mary; Huang, Felix C; Gordon, Keith E

    2017-07-01

    Controlling center of mass (COM) position and velocity within a dynamic base of support is essential for gait stability. This skill is often compromised following neurologic injury, creating a need to develop effective interventions to enhance gait stability. A movement augmentation paradigm applied to walking could potentially be used to improve control of COM dynamics. We have developed a cable robot system, the Agility Trainer, to apply continuous frontal-plane forces to the pelvis during treadmill walking. This cable robot system uses a set of series elastic actuators powered by linear motors to create bilateral forces. Here we use the Agility Trainer to create a negative viscosity force field proportional to the subject's lateral velocity. Two healthy young subjects performed two 10-minute walking trials, Baseline and Negative Viscosity. During the first minute of walking in the Negative Viscosity field, participants' lateral COM motion became less controlled when compared to the rhythmic sinusoidal motion observed during Baseline walking. By the 10th minute of walking in the Negative Viscosity field the participants had adapted their gait patterns, decreasing their variation in peak lateral COM speed each stride. These results demonstrate that it is feasible to use the Agility Trainer to apply a movement augmentation paradigm to human walking.

  16. HARMONIZATION, HISTORICAL COST AND INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Choosing depreciation of assets; revaluation of tangible or keeping their historical cost; registration, whilst the tangible assets are entered in the conservation of amortization expenses or a corresponding adjustment to depreciation expense ascertained; choosing the method of evaluating stocks is accounting policies. IAS 40 is significant because it was the first time the International Accounting Standards Board has introduced a fair value accounting model for non-financial assets. All firms must provide fair value for their real estate assets either directly in the balance sheet in accordance with the fair value model choice, either in the footnotes below cost model selection.

  17. Evaluation of Contractor Quality Control of Built-Up Roofing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Used , i f appli IcablIe. (7) Sc hed u I e f or USLe of 11011-C011t ra ct or pe rsonne I anrd fa c i I i t I e- such as manufacturer ’s representatives...attd off-site: fahi ication. coti actor shiall coiip~ctc coluns (a) through (c) of this log and itamr tle pci soils autlioriced to reviewm tile...Materials D 3740-78 Evaluation of Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Construct ion E 329-77 Inspection and

  18. A Historical Approach to Assertiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Peneva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A very important personal quality is to be able to advocate for yourself - your own positions, to achieve your objectives, to overcome difficulties,to be determined, but without harming the rights of others and to be able to control the aggressive impulses. The concept, which expressesthese personal characteristics, is called "assertiveness". Assertiveness is a part of the personal potential. It is a prerequisite for self-actualization.The goal we set in this historical-psychological paper is to explore the genesis, development and stabilization of the term "assertiveness". Inthis context, we will examine, compare and analyze the positions of the leading authors on this issue.

  19. Results of control-room annunciator-systems evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    Annunciator systems in nuclear power plants tax the operator's ability to cope with large amounts of information. Conventional annunciators do not provide the information in an acceptable way for efficient response, but computer-generated CRT displays have the potential for rectifying this situation. A multidisciplinary team of human factors engineers from EG and G Idaho conducted a study to (a) identify problem areas in reactor control rooms associated with annunciator display systems, (b) provide specific and generic solutions to the problems identified, and (c) provide recommendations and direction for future improvements and research focused on the man/display interface from a human factors engineering perspective

  20. Evaluation of Trichogramma spp. for the control of Trichoplusia ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanez, Andre Malacarne

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological characteristics of the parasitoids Trichogramma acacioi, T. atopovirilia, T. marandobai, T. demoraesi, T. exiguum (two lines), and T. pretiosum (six lines), reared on eggs of Trichoplusia ni. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, with 15 replicates. The biological characteristics evaluated were: parasitism, viability, sexual ratio and number of individuals per egg. The parasitism percentage varied between 7.66 and 53%, with highest value observed for Trichogramma pretiosum Tspd line, and the lowest for the T. pretiosum Trecife line. There was no significant difference for the viability, which remained higher than 85%. The sex ratio varied from 0.75 to 1, and Tspd line showed the lowest value. The number of individuals per egg varied between 2.39 for T. marandobai (Tm1 line) and 1.34 for T. exiguum (Te1 line). T. pretiosum (Tspd line) was the species with the best performance in laboratory with the highest values observed in parasitism and in viability. (author)

  1. An Empirical Study of Agricultural Product Logistics Cost Control Evaluation via Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process

    OpenAIRE

    Qianxia Lu; Yazhou Xiong; Ling Wei

    2015-01-01

    It is one of the core agricultural logistics cost control to establish a reasonable and effective evaluation system of agricultural logistics cost control. In this study, based on the cost basis of the value chain, an agricultural logistics cost control evaluation system is established from three levels, including the logistics costs of agricultural pre-value chain, logistics costs of agricultural mid-value chain, logistics costs of agricultural late-value chain. AHP theory and expert investi...

  2. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN ALTERNATIVE CONTROLLER FOR BLUETOOTH SERVICE DISCOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sughasiny

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth is a short range radio technology to form a small wireless system. It is used in low –cost, low power ad-hoc networks and it suffers from long service discovery delay and high power consumption. Bluetooth employs the 2.4 GHz ISM band, sharing the same bandwidth with the wireless LAN implementing the IEEE 802.11 standards. Thus it causes significantly lower interference. For improving the efficiency of SDP, we present an implementation of Bluetooth 2.1 in the NS-2 simulator, discuss the IEEE 802.11b as a Bluetooth controller and propose a new alternative Bluetooth Controller based on Adaptive Frequency Hopping techniques using Amplifier Power. The resulting approach significantly reduces the service discovery time, thereby lowering power consumption and increasing the throughput. We present the benefits of our new approach and compare it with existing approach using NS-2 Simulations and we have presented the comparison graphs in support of our approach.

  3. Evaluating the Impact of Communication Network Performance on Supervisory Supermarket Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Theilgaard; Minko, Tomasz; Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the evaluation of the impact of non-ideal communication networks on system performance of hierarchical control systems. It develops a stepwise evaluation approach that is applied to the example scenario of a supervisory controller for supermarket temperature control, addressing...... of communication network performance on the supermarket refrigeration control and resulting energy costs using simulation models. The results show that the controller is resilient to downstream information delays, however upstream delays or up- and downstream information loss can cause significant performance...

  4. Have the auditors closed the expectation gap concerning evaluation of internal control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkholm, Peter; Holm, Claus

    internal controls intended for management directors, it provides a framework which explicitly deals with the interests of all parties involved (including auditors, board of directors and regulating bodies). The auditors took this into account by updating the particular auditing standard on internal control....... Realized discrepancies are identified and related to the necessary features of an integrated framework. The necessary features include (1) the definition of internal controls, (2) the components of internal control, (3) the criteria for evaluating internal control as stated by the auditors (4) the criteria...... for evaluating internal controls as stated by management, and (5) the integration of internal control evaluations from management and auditors. The paper provides evidence from an in-depth contents analysis comparing SAS No. 55 from 1988 with the COSO-report from 1992 and SAS No. 78 from 1995. The analysis...

  5. Corrosion Evaluation and Corrosion Control of Steam Generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeng, W. Y.; Kim, U. C.; Sung, K. W.; Na, J. W.; Lee, Y. H.; Lee, D. H.; Kim, K. M.

    2008-06-01

    Corrosion damage significantly influences the integrity and efficiency of steam generator. Corrosion problems of steam generator are unsolved issues until now even though much effort is made around world. Especially the stress corrosion cracking of heat exchange materials is the first issue to be solved. The corrosion protection method of steam generator is important and urgent for the guarantee of nuclear plant's integrity. The objectives of this study are 1) to evaluate the corrosion properties of steam generator materials, 2) to optimize the water chemistry of steam generator and 3) to develop the corrosion protection method of primary and secondary sides of steam generator. The results will be reflected to the water chemistry guideline for improving the integrity and efficiency of steam generator in domestic power plants

  6. Load calculation and system evaluation for electric vehicle climate control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aceves-Saborio, S.; Comfort, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Providing air conditioning for electric vehicles (EV's) represents an important challenge, because vapor-compression air conditioners, which are common in gasoline-powered vehicles, may consume a substantial part of the total energy stored in the EV battery. The authors' work has two major parts: a cooling and heating load calculation for EV's, and an evaluation of several systems that can be used to provide the desired cooling and heating in EV's. Four cases are studied: short-range and full-range EV's are each analyzed twice, first with the regular vehicle equipment, and then with a fan and heat-reflecting windows, to reduce hot soak. Results indicate that for the batteries currently available for EV propulsion, an ice storage system has the minimum weight of all the systems considered. Vapor-compression air conditioners have the minimum for battery storage capacities above 270 kJ/kg

  7. Corrosion Evaluation and Corrosion Control of Steam Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeng, W. Y.; Kim, U. C.; Sung, K. W.; Na, J. W.; Lee, Y. H.; Lee, D. H.; Kim, K. M

    2008-06-15

    Corrosion damage significantly influences the integrity and efficiency of steam generator. Corrosion problems of steam generator are unsolved issues until now even though much effort is made around world. Especially the stress corrosion cracking of heat exchange materials is the first issue to be solved. The corrosion protection method of steam generator is important and urgent for the guarantee of nuclear plant's integrity. The objectives of this study are 1) to evaluate the corrosion properties of steam generator materials, 2) to optimize the water chemistry of steam generator and 3) to develop the corrosion protection method of primary and secondary sides of steam generator. The results will be reflected to the water chemistry guideline for improving the integrity and efficiency of steam generator in domestic power plants.

  8. Evaluation and qualification of novel control techniques with safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossner, S.; Wach, D.

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the questions related to the assessment and qualification of new I and C-systems. The tasks of nuclear power plant I and Cs as well as the efficiency of the new techniques are reflected. Problems with application of new I and Cs and the state of application in Germany and abroad are addressed. Starting from the essential differencies between conventional and new I and C-systems it is evaluated, if and in which way existing safety requirements can be met and to what extent new requirements need to be formulated. An overall concept has to be developed comprising the definition of graded requirement profiles for design and qualification. Associated qualification procedures and tools have to be adapted, developed and tuned upon each other. (orig./HP) [de

  9. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-13 - Annual study and evaluation of internal accounting control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... internal accounting control. 240.17Ad-13 Section 240.17Ad-13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-13 Annual study and evaluation of internal accounting control. (a) Accountant's... accountant concerning the transfer agent's system of internal accounting control and related procedures for...

  10. Experimental evaluation of optimal Vehicle Dynamic Control based on the State Dependent Riccati Equation technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alirezaei, M.; Kanarachos, S.A.; Scheepers, B.T.M.; Maurice, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Development and experimentally evaluation of an optimal Vehicle Dynamic Control (VDC) strategy based on the State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) control technique is presented. The proposed nonlinear controller is based on a nonlinear vehicle model with nonlinear tire characteristics. A novel

  11. Independent Children's Social Work Practice Pilots: Evaluating Practitioners' Job Control and Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Shereen; Manthorpe, Jill; Ridley, Julie; Austerberry, Helen; Farrelly, Nicola; Larkins, Cath; Bilson, Andy; Stanley, Nicky

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether a new model that delegates some out-of-home care services from the public to the private and not-for-profit sectors in England enhances practitioners' job control and stress levels. Methods: A 3-year longitudinal matched-control evaluation examined changes in Karasek demand-control model and Maslach burnout…

  12. Evaluation and quality control of digital subtraction angiography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louisot, P.

    1986-04-01

    After reviewing the development of systems used in angiography, we rewind the medical interest and describe the steps of an angiographic examination. The following chapter is dedicated to the techniques used for the digitalization of video images. The components of the system involved in the image acquisition are thoroughly investigated in chapter 4. Then, we analyse the capabilities of the machines available in France in 1985. Chapter 6 is devoted to the criteria of quality in digital imaging. In order to assign qualitative values to the above criteria, we design a control procedure which is described in chapter 7. The procedure thus allows the estimate of the physical performances of angiographic digital subtraction systems [fr

  13. Use of statistical process control in evaluation of academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Gibbon Gautério

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to study some indicators of academic performance (number of students per class, dropout rate, failure rate and scores obtained by the students to identify a pattern of behavior that would enable to implement improvements in the teaching-learning process. The sample was composed of five classes of undergraduate courses in Engineering. The data were collected for three years. Initially an exploratory analysis with analytical and graphical techniques was performed. An analysis of variance and Tukey’s test investigated some sources of variability. This information was used in the construction of control charts. We have found evidence that classes with more students are associated with higher failure rates and lower mean. Moreover, when the course was later in the curriculum, the students had higher scores. The results showed that although they have been detected some special causes interfering in the process, it was possible to stabilize it and to monitor it.

  14. Evaluation of completeness of selected poison control center data fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Jeanie E; Marchbanks, Brenda; Willis, Branch; Forrester, Mathias B

    2010-08-01

    Poison control center data are used in research and surveillance. Due to the large volume of information, these efforts are dependent on data being recorded in machine readable format. However, poison center records include non-machine readable text fields and machine readable coded fields, some of which are duplicative. Duplicating this data increases the chance of inaccurate/incomplete coding. For surveillance efforts to be effective, coding should be complete and accurate. Investigators identified a convenience sample of 964 records and reviewed the substance code determining if it matched its text field. They also reviewed the coded clinical effects and treatments determining if they matched the notes text field. The substance code matched its text field for 91.4% of the substances. The clinical effects and treatments codes matched their text field for 72.6% and 82.4% of occurrences respectively. This under-reporting of clinical effects and treatments has surveillance and public health implications.

  15. Wood-destroying Coleopteran species in the historical buildings in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to identify the harmful insects causing damage in the historical wooden buildings of Kastamonu. Accordingly, 15 of those historical wooden buildings situated in the city were periodically controlled between the years 2002 and 2005. During those periodic controls, damages caused by insects were ...

  16. Evaluation of Kilifi epilepsy education programme: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibinda, Fredrick; Mbuba, Caroline K; Kariuki, Symon M; Chengo, Eddie; Ngugi, Anthony K; Odhiambo, Rachael; Lowe, Brett; Fegan, Greg; Carter, Julie A; Newton, Charles R

    2014-02-01

    The epilepsy treatment gap is largest in resource-poor countries. We evaluated the efficacy of a 1-day health education program in a rural area of Kenya. The primary outcome was adherence to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) as measured by drug levels in the blood, and the secondary outcomes were seizure frequency and Kilifi Epilepsy Beliefs and Attitudes Scores (KEBAS). Seven hundred thirty-eight people with epilepsy (PWE) and their designated supporter were randomized to either the intervention (education) or nonintervention group. Data were collected at baseline and 1 year after the education intervention was administered to the intervention group. There were 581 PWE assessed at both time points. At the end of the study, 105 PWE from the intervention group and 86 from the nonintervention group gave blood samples, which were assayed for the most commonly used AEDs (phenobarbital, phenytoin, and carbamazepine). The proportions of PWE with detectable AED levels were determined using a standard blood assay method. The laboratory technicians conducting the assays were blinded to the randomization. Secondary outcomes were evaluated using questionnaires administered by trained field staff. Modified Poisson regression was used to investigate the factors associated with improved adherence (transition from nonoptimal AED level in blood at baseline to optimal levels at follow-up), reduced seizures, and improved KEBAS, which was done as a post hoc analysis. This trial is registered in ISRCTN register under ISRCTN35680481. There was no significant difference in adherence to AEDs based on detectable drug levels (odds ratio [OR] 1.46, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.74-2.90, p = 0.28) or by self-reports (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.71-1.40, p = 1.00) between the intervention and nonintervention group. The intervention group had significantly fewer beliefs about traditional causes of epilepsy, cultural treatment, and negative stereotypes than the nonintervention group. There was no

  17. Historical Collage Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Helping students learn how to interpret and analyze imagery is an important skill. With last year's historical election of the first African American president, it was an opportune time to explore where Americans are going as a nation and what kind of future they envision. Middle-school students are eager to give their opinions, but learning to…

  18. Historical centres: changing definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lazzarotti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Second World War, the architectural and planning culture has been showing a fluctuating attention to the theme of historical centres and their enhancement. First of all this uneven progress explains the difficulty to reach a homogeneous definition and this is still lacking. During a long phase of this period, the historical parts of the town were considered as objects to be preserved in an integral way, as urban monuments. This is mostly due to the high symbolic value of these settlements, that represent fundamental landmarks. Identity building and empowerment of local communities are indispensable conditions for any development programme, especially in the case of centres or other historic environments at risk of abandonment. The progressive evolution of this concept brings awareness of the impossibility of separating – either in analytical or in planning terms ­ historical centres from their urban and territorial contexts, which are linked by mutual, deep relationships. This article attempts to retrace the steps signaled by the publication of international documents and conventions, from the Charter of Gubbio (1960 to the Charter of Krakow and the European Landscape Convention (2000; they obviously represent particular points of view, not exhaustive of the richness of the positions in the debate, but extremely significant in terms of diffusion and consensus.

  19. Political Correctness, Historically Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipset, Seymour Martin

    1992-01-01

    This historical review examines conservative and liberal attitudes on U.S. campuses in terms of political, ethnic, racial, gender, and religious issues. Discussed are the era of protest (1960s), the era of quiescence and move toward conservatism (1970-84), reversing the trend via increasing faculty liberalism, and contemporary opinion (a…

  20. Historical dictionary of librarianship

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, Mary Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Dictionary of Librarianship focuses on librarianship as a modern, organized profession, emphasizing the period beginning in the mid-nineteenth century. Author Mary Ellen Quinn relates the history of this profession through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography.

  1. A historical overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Scurlock; Deborah M. Finch

    1997-01-01

    This chapter reviews the historical: 1) occupancy, use of and impacts on ponderosa pine forests by early American Indians and European settlers; and 2) the human use of and impacts on birds in ponderosa pine forests. Contemporary ecology and human use of ponderosa pine forests are described in this publication by Moir et al. and Raish et al. Recent human impacts on...

  2. Evaluating high pH for control of dreissenid mussels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Evans

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were carried out using a custom built flow-through laboratory to test the effect of elevated pH on dreissenid musselsas a potential control method. Both experiments tested the ability of dreissenid pediveligers to settle under conditions of elevated pH and thelong-term survival of adult dreissenids under the same conditions. The two experimental sites had different water quality and differentspecies of dreissenids present. The settlement of quagga mussel pediveligers at the lower Colorado River was inhibited with increasing pH.At the maximum achieved pH of 9.1, there was approximately 90% reduction compared to the maximum settlement observed in the controls.Since the settlement was almost as low in pH 8.9 as at pH 9.1, the inhibition in settlement may have been due to the presence of a precipitateformed under high pH conditions rather than the increase in background pH. No mortality of quagga mussel adults was observed in theexperimental pH levels at the lower Colorado River. At San Justo Reservoir, zebra mussel settlement decreased with increasing pH. Newsettlement was almost entirely absent at the highest pH tested (pH 9.6. The observed mortality of adult zebra mussels was low, but did tendto increase with increasing pH. We also tested the response of adult zebra mussels to short-term exposure to very high pH levels (i.e. pH 10,11, and 12. Adult mussels in poor physical condition experienced 90% mortality after 12 hours at pH 12. For unstressed adult zebra mussels,90% mortality was reached after 120 hours at pH 12. Significant mortalities were also observed both at pH 10 and pH 11. From this study,we conclude that pH elevation could be used both as a preventative treatment to eliminate settlement by dreissenid mussels and as an end ofseason treatment to eliminate adults. The high pH treatment would have to be tailored to the site water quality to prevent formation ofprecipitate during treatment and to minimize corrosive

  3. Management Control Systems, Evaluative Style, and Behaviour : Exploring the Concept and Behavioural Consequences of Evaluative Style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Noeverman (Jan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractOrganisations develop and implement performance measurement and performance evaluation systems to motivate employees to take actions that -in the end- improve organisational (financial) performance. But do these systems really influence employee behaviour as intended? This thesis shows

  4. Towards a benchmark simulation model for plant-wide control strategy performance evaluation of WWTPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppsson, Ulf; Rosen, Christian; Alex, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The COST/IWA benchmark simulation model has been available for seven years. Its primary purpose has been to create a platform for control strategy benchmarking of activated sludge processes. The fact that the benchmark has resulted in more than 100 publications, not only in Europe but also...... worldwide, demonstrates the interest in such a tool within the research community In this paper, an extension of the benchmark simulation model no 1 (BSM1) is proposed. This extension aims at facilitating control strategy development and performance evaluation at a plant-wide level and, consequently...... the changes, the evaluation period has been extended to one year. A prolonged evaluation period allows for long-term control strategies to be assessed and enables the use of control handles that cannot be evaluated in a realistic fashion in the one-week BSM1 evaluation period. In the paper, the extended plant...

  5. A systematic review of studies evaluating diffusion and dissemination of selected cancer control interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Peter; Robinson, Paula; Ciliska, Donna; Armour, Tanya; Brouwers, Melissa; O'Brien, Mary Ann; Sussman, Jonathan; Raina, Parminder

    2005-09-01

    With this review, the authors sought to determine what strategies have been evaluated (including the outcomes assessed) to disseminate cancer control interventions that promote the uptake of behavior change. Five topic areas along the cancer care continuum (smoking cessation, healthy diet, mammography, cervical cancer screening, and control of cancer pain) were selected to be representative. A systematic review was conducted of primary studies evaluating dissemination of a cancer control intervention. Thirty-one studies were identified that evaluated dissemination strategies in the 5 topic areas. No strong evidence currently exists to recommend any one dissemination strategy as effective in promoting the uptake of cancer control interventions. The authors conclude that there is a strong need for more research into dissemination of cancer control interventions. Future research should consider methodological issues such as the most appropriate study design and outcomes to be evaluated. (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Depressed trajectory SLBMs: A technical evaluation and arms control possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronlund, L.; Wright, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    SLBMs (sea-launched ballistic missiles) flown on depressed trajectories would have short flight times, comparable to escape times of bombers and launch times of ICBMs, thus raising the possibility of short time-of-flight (STOF) nuclear attacks. We assess the depressed trajectory (DT) capability of existing SLBMs by calculating the flight times, atmospheric loading on the booster, reentry heating on the reentry vehicle (RV), and degradation of accuracy for a DT SLBM. We find that current US and CIS SLBMs flown on depressed trajectories would have the capability to attack bomber bases at ranges of up to about 2,000 kilometers, and possibly at ranges up to 3,000 kilometers. To target bombers based furthest inland, a new high-velocity booster might be required, and attacking hardened targets would require a maneuvering RV (MaRV). We conclude that DT capabilities could be effectively controlled by the combination of an apogee restriction on the flight testing of existing SLBMs and bans on the development of high-velocity boosters and MaRVs, and that, in view of their inherent STOF capabilities, deep cuts in the number of SLBMs or their elimination might be desirable for an optimal minimum-deterrent force structure

  7. Canadian Cancer Risk Management Model: evaluation of cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William K; Wolfson, Michael C; Flanagan, William M; Shin, Janey; Goffin, John; Miller, Anthony B; Asakawa, Keiko; Earle, Craig; Mittmann, Nicole; Fairclough, Lee; Oderkirk, Jillian; Finès, Philippe; Gribble, Stephen; Hoch, Jeffrey; Hicks, Chantal; Omariba, D Walter R; Ng, Edward

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a decision support tool to assess the potential benefits and costs of new healthcare interventions. The Canadian Partnership Against Cancer (CPAC) commissioned the development of a Cancer Risk Management Model (CRMM)--a computer microsimulation model that simulates individual lives one at a time, from birth to death, taking account of Canadian demographic and labor force characteristics, risk factor exposures, and health histories. Information from all the simulated lives is combined to produce aggregate measures of health outcomes for the population or for particular subpopulations. The CRMM can project the population health and economic impacts of cancer control programs in Canada and the impacts of major risk factors, cancer prevention, and screening programs and new cancer treatments on population health and costs to the healthcare system. It estimates both the direct costs of medical care, as well as lost earnings and impacts on tax revenues. The lung and colorectal modules are available through the CPAC Web site (www.cancerview.ca/cancerrriskmanagement) to registered users where structured scenarios can be explored for their projected impacts. Advanced users will be able to specify new scenarios or change existing modules by varying input parameters or by accessing open source code. Model development is now being extended to cervical and breast cancers.

  8. Study on the improved evaluation of radioactivity of activated control rods in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waki, Toshikazu; Yamada, Motoyuki; Horikawa, Yoshihiko; Miyake, Yusuke; Sakashita, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation method of radioactivity of activated materials has been developed as ORIGEN code. However, it is difficult to precisely evaluate the radioactivity of neutron absorption materials such as control rods. A control rod in PWR is made of Ag-In-Cd alloy that absorbs neutron greatly and the thermal neutron flux decreases rapidly in and around it. This phenomenon is called depression effect. The consideration of depression effect is necessary to evaluate radioactivity of the control rod. In this study we improved the reliability of the cross-section value of Ag-107(n,γ) Ag-108m by the irradiation examination in JRR3. In addition, we calculated (1) the neutron spectrum and neutron flux with depression effect by MCNP of Monte Carlo method and (2) the radioactivity of the activated control rod. The pieces of control rod were irradiated at JMTR of JAERI. As a result of the accuracy of the measurement data calculation results, we developed the method of evaluation for the radioactivity of activated control rod. The radioactivity of activated control rod in PWR was evaluated and compared with the measurement data, resulting in positive accuracy. Of special significance was confirmation of the value of Ag-108m, as an essential nuclide for long term dose estimation of disposal facility. The cross-section value of Ag-107(n,γ) Ag-108m was about one forty of existent library. This method was accurately confirmed and developed for evaluating activated control rods reasonably. (author)

  9. Evaluating geothermal and hydrogeologic controls on regional groundwater temperature distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erick R.; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael; Williams, Colin F.

    2016-01-01

    A one-dimensional (1-D) analytic solution is developed for heat transport through an aquifer system where the vertical temperature profile in the aquifer is nearly uniform. The general anisotropic form of the viscous heat generation term is developed for use in groundwater flow simulations. The 1-D solution is extended to more complex geometries by solving the equation for piece-wise linear or uniform properties and boundary conditions. A moderately complex example, the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), is analyzed to demonstrate the use of the analytic solution for identifying important physical processes. For example, it is shown that viscous heating is variably important and that heat conduction to the land surface is a primary control on the distribution of aquifer and spring temperatures. Use of published values for all aquifer and thermal properties results in a reasonable match between simulated and measured groundwater temperatures over most of the 300 km length of the ESRP, except for geothermal heat flow into the base of the aquifer within 20 km of the Yellowstone hotspot. Previous basal heat flow measurements (∼110 mW/m2) made beneath the ESRP aquifer were collected at distances of >50 km from the Yellowstone Plateau, but a higher basal heat flow of 150 mW/m2 is required to match groundwater temperatures near the Plateau. The ESRP example demonstrates how the new tool can be used during preliminary analysis of a groundwater system, allowing efficient identification of the important physical processes that must be represented during more-complex 2-D and 3-D simulations of combined groundwater and heat flow.

  10. [Influence of education level on self-evaluation and control of patients with bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-jin; Cai, Shao-xi; Tong, Wan-cheng; Li, Wen-jun; Fu, Liang

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the effect of education on self-evaluation and control level in patients with bronchial asthma. Seventy-five asthmatic patients with the initial diagnosis in line with the American Thoracic Society criteria, including 46 with junior high school education or below (group A) and 29 with senior high school education or above (group B), were asked to complete a survey to assess their symptoms and asthma attacks. Asthma control test (ACT) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) evaluation were performed 8, 12 and 24 weeks after salmeterol/fluticasone therapy. Step-down treatment was administered according to GINA guidelines. The self-evaluation of the patients was assessed according to ACT score, physical signs and pulmonary function. An ACT score over 19 indicate well controlled condition. The effect of education on the self-evaluation and control level of bronchial asthma was assessed. The two groups had similar basal level of pulmonary function (FEV1). Eight weeks after the therapy, 29 patients in group A had ACT score over 19, including 11 with high control level; in group B, 17 had ACT score over 19, of whom 4 showed high control level. There was no significant difference between the two groups in control levels and self-evaluation (P>0.05). At 12 weeks, 37 patients in group A had ACT score over 19, with 17 having high control level; 22 patients in group B had ACT score over 19, 4 showing high control level; the two groups were similar in the control levels (P>0.05) but showed significant difference in self-evaluation (Pevaluation (Peducation level may play a role in self-evaluation and control level of bronchial asthma, but its impact differs in the course of the treatment.

  11. Concepts of analytical user interface evaluation method for continuous work in NPP main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. J.; Heo, G. Y.; Jang, S. H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a conceptual study of analytical evaluation method for computer-based user interface in the main control room of advanced nuclear power plant. User interfaces can classify them into two groups as static interface and dynamic interface. Existing evaluation and design methods of user interface have been mainly performed for the static user interface. But, it is useful for the dynamic user interface to control the complex system, and proper evaluation method for this is seldom. Therefore an evaluation method for dynamic user interface is proper for continuous works by standards of the load of cognition and the similarity of an interface

  12. Digitized operator evaluation system for main control room of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Yan Shengyuan; Chen Wenlong

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the human-machine system matching relation of main control room in nuclear power plant accurately and efficiently, the expression and parameters of operator human body model were analyzed, and the evaluation required function of digital operator was determined. Based on the secondary development technology, the digital operator evaluation body model was developed. It could choose generation, gender, operation posture, single/eyes horizon, and left/right hand up to the domain according to the needs of specific evaluation, it was used to evaluate whether display information can be visible and equipment can be touch, and it also has key evaluation functions such as workspace and character visibility at the same time. The examples show that this method can complete the evaluation work of human-machine matching relation for main control room of nuclear power plant accurately, efficiently and quickly, and achieve the most optimal human-machine coordination relationship. (authors)

  13. Baseline Evaluations to Support Control Room Modernization at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald L.; Joe, Jeffrey C.

    2015-02-01

    For any major control room modernization activity at a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) in the U.S., a utility should carefully follow the four phases prescribed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in NUREG-0711, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model. These four phases include Planning and Analysis, Design, Verification and Validation, and Implementation and Operation. While NUREG-0711 is a useful guideline, it is written primarily from the perspective of regulatory review, and it therefore does not provide a nuanced account of many of the steps the utility might undertake as part of control room modernization. The guideline is largely summative—intended to catalog final products—rather than formative—intended to guide the overall modernization process. In this paper, we highlight two crucial formative sub-elements of the Planning and Analysis phase specific to control room modernization that are not covered in NUREG-0711. These two sub-elements are the usability and ergonomics baseline evaluations. A baseline evaluation entails evaluating the system as-built and currently in use. The usability baseline evaluation provides key insights into operator performance using the control system currently in place. The ergonomics baseline evaluation identifies possible deficiencies in the physical configuration of the control system. Both baseline evaluations feed into the design of the replacement system and subsequent summative benchmarking activities that help ensure that control room modernization represents a successful evolution of the control system.

  14. Baseline Evaluations to Support Control Room Modernization at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boring, Ronald L.; Joe, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    For any major control room modernization activity at a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) in the U.S., a utility should carefully follow the four phases prescribed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in NUREG-0711, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model. These four phases include Planning and Analysis, Design, Verification and Validation, and Implementation and Operation. While NUREG-0711 is a useful guideline, it is written primarily from the perspective of regulatory review, and it therefore does not provide a nuanced account of many of the steps the utility might undertake as part of control room modernization. The guideline is largely summative–intended to catalog final products–rather than formative–intended to guide the overall modernization process. In this paper, we highlight two crucial formative sub-elements of the Planning and Analysis phase specific to control room modernization that are not covered in NUREG-0711. These two sub-elements are the usability and ergonomics baseline evaluations. A baseline evaluation entails evaluating the system as-built and currently in use. The usability baseline evaluation provides key insights into operator performance using the control system currently in place. The ergonomics baseline evaluation identifies possible deficiencies in the physical configuration of the control system. Both baseline evaluations feed into the design of the replacement system and subsequent summative benchmarking activities that help ensure that control room modernization represents a successful evolution of the control system.

  15. Virtual reality applied in the ergonomic evaluation of nuclear power plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatto, Leandro Barbosa da Silveira

    2012-01-01

    A nuclear power plant control room is a complex system that controls a nuclear and thermodynamic process used to produce electrical energy. The operators interact with the control room through interfaces that have significant implications to nuclear power plant safety and influence the operator activity. The operator activity presents complexity features and shows a series of mechanisms absents from the human factors guidelines, important to the evaluation and update of control rooms. The ergonomics approach considers the operation strategies, the interaction between the operators, the operator-system interaction, and interaction between operators and support groups. The main objective of this paper is propose the modeling of a nuclear control room, with the support of a game engine core. This tool will be used in the ergonomic evaluation of nuclear control room, generating information and data that will make possible the adequacy of control rooms features to the legal requirements of the regulating agency, assisting the nuclear licensing. (author)

  16. An approach to electromagnetic spectrum evaluation and control for situational awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this presentation the author provides insight on the role of modern electronic warfare technology for the purposes of electromagnetic spectrum evaluation and control, which plays a crucial role in situational awareness required for peacekeeping...

  17. Evaluation of Metarhizium brunneum F52 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) for control of Japanese beetle larvae in turfgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental and commercial preparations of Metarhizium brunneum strain F52 were evaluated for control of Japanese beetle Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarbaeidae) larvae (white grubs) in the laboratory and under field conditions. Experimental preparations consisted of granule and liquid f...

  18. Compilation and evaluation of atomic and molecular data relevant to controlled thermonuclear research needs: USA programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, C.F.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. role in the compilation and evaluation of atomic data for controlled thermonuclear research is discussed in the following three areas: (1) atomic structure data, (2) atomic collision data, and (3) surface data

  19. Time Optimal Run-time Evaluation of Distributed Timing Constraints in Process Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, N.; Kristensen, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers run-time evaluation of an important class of constraints; Timing constraints. These appear extensively in process control systems. Timing constraints are considered in distributed systems, i.e. systems consisting of multiple autonomous nodes......

  20. 32 CFR Appendix G to Part 505 - Management Control Evaluation Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 505, App. G Appendix G to Part 505—Management Control Evaluation Checklist (a) Function. The function covered by this checklist is DA Privacy...

  1. Reduction of thoracic aorta motion artifact with high-pitch 128-slice dual-source computed tomographic angiography: a historical control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Junichiro; Tasaki, Osamu; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Azuma, Takeo; Ohnishi, Mitsuo; Ukai, Isao; Tahara, Kenichi; Ogura, Hiroshi; Kuwagata, Yasuyuki; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Electrocardiogram-gated imaging combined with multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) has reduced cardiac motion artifacts, but it was not practical in the emergency setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a high-pitch, 128-slice dual-source CT (DSCT) scanner to reduce motion artifacts in patients admitted to the emergency room. This study comprised 100 patients suspected of having thoracic aorta lesions. We examined 47 patients with the 128-slice DSCT scanner (DSCT group), and 53 patients were examined with a 64-slice MDCT scanner (MDCT group). Six anatomic areas in the thoracic aorta were evaluated. Computed tomography images in the DSCT group were distinct, and significant differences were observed in images of all areas between the 2 groups except for the descending aorta. The high-pitch DSCT scanner can reduce motion artifacts of the thoracic aorta and enable radiological diagnosis even in patients with tachycardia and without breath hold.

  2. Historic Eastern Canadian earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmis, G.J.K.; Atchinson, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear power plants licensed in Canada have been designed to resist earthquakes: not all plants, however, have been explicitly designed to the same level of earthquake induced forces. Understanding the nature of strong ground motion near the source of the earthquake is still very tentative. This paper reviews historical and scientific accounts of the three strongest earthquakes - St. Lawrence (1925), Temiskaming (1935), Cornwall (1944) - that have occurred in Canada in 'modern' times, field studies of near-field strong ground motion records and their resultant damage or non-damage to industrial facilities, and numerical modelling of earthquake sources and resultant wave propagation to produce accelerograms consistent with the above historical record and field studies. It is concluded that for future construction of NPP's near-field strong motion must be explicitly considered in design

  3. The economics of tobacco control: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviours, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximise the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes.

  4. Historic timber roof structures

    OpenAIRE

    Magina, Miguel Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia Civil – Estruturas e Geotecnia This dissertation covers the study of historic timber roof structures in Transylvania area - Romania, the structures type, its elements and connection variety between them. Procedures to study a structure of this category are approached. It is also referred semi and non-destructive tests that can be done to better understand the present wood characteristics, and potential reparation or strengthening...

  5. Why Digitise Historical Television?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Digitisation of historic TV material is driven by the widespread perception that archival material should be made available to diverse users. Yet digitisation alters the material, taking away any lingering sense of presence. Digitisation and online access, however, offer startling new possibilities. The article offers three: use of material in language teaching and learning; use in dementia therapy; and applications as data in medical research. All depend on ordinary TV for their effectivity.

  6. Evaluation of biological control of fusarium wilt in gerbera with Trichoderma asperellum

    OpenAIRE

    Daiani Brandler; Luan Junior Divensi; Rodrigo José Tonin; Thalita Pedrozo Pilla; Ines Rezendes; Paola Mendes Milanesi

    2017-01-01

    The increase in flower cultivation in recent years has been reflecting the higher incidence of soil pathogens that can cause serious problems. This study aimed to evaluate the biological control of Fusarium wilt in gerbera with Trichoderma asperellum. The evaluated treatments were: T1) Control, only sterile substrate; T2) Substrate + Fusarium oxysporum; T3) Substrate + Fusarium oxysporum + Trichoderma asperellum; and T4) Substrate + Trichoderma asperellum. For this, the pathogen was isolated ...

  7. Formal Process Modeling to Improve Human Decision-Making in Test and Evaluation Acoustic Range Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    MODELING TO IMPROVE HUMAN DECISION-MAKING DURING TEST AND EVALUATION RANGE CONTROL by William Carlson September 2017 Thesis Advisor...the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT...MAKING DURING TEST AND EVALUATION RANGE CONTROL 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) William Carlson 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES

  8. Evaluating the Modus Operandi of Construction Supply Chain using Organization Control Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Jagtap

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Supply chains are omnipresent. However, the modus operandi of the construction supply chain is not clearly established in the literature. This might be attributable to the character of construction projects and the structure of the construction industry. Formal and informal control mechanisms are well established in retail and manufacturing supply chains which is evident in improved product performance. However, there is a paucity of research on the construction supply chain especially at identifying the interplay of control mechanisms and their relationship with project performance. In the case of large and complex construction projects, the client-contractor relationship requires input control, behaviour control and output control for successful project delivery. In the light of organisation control theory and the existing literature on construction supply chains, this study evaluates the modus operandi of the client-contractor relationship based on three control mechanisms: input control (project risk and reward power, and intra-project communication, behaviour control (opportunism and output control (project performance using a structural equation model. A survey data of 258 construction professionals working on construction projects in India was collected. The study findings reveal that input control, in terms of project risk and reward power, and intraproject communication, largely influence behaviour control in terms of opportunism. However, behaviour controls do not directly affect output control in terms of project performance; rather, a direct effect of the input control mechanism of output control is particularly evident.

  9. Reconstructing historical changes in combustion patterns by means of black carbon and PAH evaluation in dated sediments from Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauad, Cristiane R.; Wagener, Angela de L. R.; Farias, Cassia de O.; Carreira, Renato S.; Godoy, Jose M.; Scofield, Arthur de L.; Vasconcelos, Crisogono

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation history of combustion products from the metropolitan area around Guanabara Bay was evaluated using black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as indicators. BC concentration varied between 0.23 and 0.51%, with an increasing mass accumulation tendency over the last 118 years, whereas a decrease in the values of the ratio BC/organic carbon was observed in the upper sediment layers, probably reflecting the enhancement of bay's eutrophication process in the last 30 years. Higher concentrations of pyrolytic PAH were observed between 1925 and 1976, being consistent with the subsequent deforestation, urbanization, and industrialization that occurred in the Guanabara basin in the period. These PAHs were best characterized by the BFl/(BFl+BePy) diagnostic ratio. The data obtained allowed the characterization of the main events that influenced the combustion patterns in the region: burning of biomass and fossil fuel, economic crisis of 1970 and 1990 and the introduction of ethanol in the Brazilian energetic matrix. (author)

  10. Glutathione S-transferase Pi expression predicts response to adjuvant chemotherapy for stage C colon cancer: a matched historical control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankova Lucy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the association between overall survival and Glutathione S-transferase Pi (GST Pi expression and genetic polymorphism in stage C colon cancer patients after resection alone versus resection plus 5-fluourouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods Patients were drawn from a hospital registry of colorectal cancer resections. Those receiving chemotherapy after it was introduced in 1992 were compared with an age and sex matched control group from the preceding period. GST Pi expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Overall survival was analysed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression. Results From an initial 104 patients treated with chemotherapy and 104 matched controls, 26 were excluded because of non-informative immunohistochemistry, leaving 95 in the treated group and 87 controls. Survival did not differ significantly among patients with low GST Pi who did or did not receive chemotherapy and those with high GST Pi who received chemotherapy (lowest pair-wise p = 0.11 whereas patients with high GST Pi who did not receive chemotherapy experienced markedly poorer survival than any of the other three groups (all pair-wise p Conclusion Stage C colon cancer patients with low GST Pi did not benefit from 5-fluourouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy whereas those with high GST Pi did.

  11. Ecological Economic Evaluation Based on Emergy as Embodied Cosmic Exergy: A Historical Study for the Beijing Urban Ecosystem 1978–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Mei Ming

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available For ecological economic evaluation based on the unified biophysical matrix this research illustrates an updated emergy synthesis in terms of embodied cosmic exergy instead of embodied solar energy, which successes the foundation of systems ecological theory but changes the starting point for the estimation from simply the sun to the cosmos. According to the modified definition implicating explicit scarcity and strict additivity based on the fundamental thermodynamics laws, the updated emergy approach overcomes the confusable and intractable deficiencies of traditional one and shows firmer theoretical basis as well as better applicability. As a case study for the regional socio-economic ecosystem, a cosmic emergy based ecological economic evaluation of the Beijing urban ecosystem during the period 1978-2004 is presented. The local and external resources supporting the concerned ecosystem are accounted and analyzed in a common unit, i.e., cosmic Joule, according to which a series of indicators are applied to reveal its evolutional characteristics through five aspects as emergy structure, emergy intensity, emergy welfare, environmental impacts, and degree of exploitation and economic efficiency. During the analyzed period, the major emergy source sustaining the operation of the ecosystem had changed from the renewable resources exploited locally to the nonrenewable resources purchased from outside. Emergy intensity for the Beijing urban ecosystem kept rising owing to the continuous investment of resources, which not only improved the living standard but also intensified the environmental pressure. Moreover, the increase of exploitation degree was accompanied with the decline of economic efficiency, while the rising emergy investment ratio implicates that Beijing was at the risks of resources shortage and high dependence on external resources

  12. ACCOUNTING PARADIGMS WHICH FAVOR HISTORICAL COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Henning Kirkegaard shows that the evolution of accounting is to shift from one paradigm to another . Business continuity perspective should guide the company into the future , without confine it exclusively in the past. Accounting in its classical form , however, can not be dissociated from the historical cost evaluation .

  13. APFO Historical Availability of Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The APFO Historical Availability ArcGIS Online web map provides an easy to use reference of what historical imagery is available by county from the Aerial...

  14. ACHP | Tribal Historic Preservation Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    preservation of significant historic properties. Those functions include identifying and maintaining Working with Section 106 Federal, State, & Tribal Programs Training & Education Publications Search skip specific nav links Home arrow Historic Preservation Programs & Officers arrow THPOs

  15. USGS Historical Topographic Map Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS Historical Quadrangle in GeoPDF. The USGS Historical Quadrangle Scanning Project (HQSP) is scanning all scales and all editions of topographic maps published by...

  16. Multi-criteria evaluation of wastewater treatment plant control strategies under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of activated sludge control strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) via mathematical modelling is a complex activity because several objectives; e.g. economic, environmental, technical and legal; must be taken into account at the same time, i.e. the evaluation of the alter...

  17. Evaluation of fungicides for the control of false smut of rice caused ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benomyl, Copper Oxychloride, Iprodione, Thiabendazole (TBZ) and Mancozeb were evaluated both in the laboratory and field study in 1994, for the control of false smut of rice caused by Ustilaginoidea virens (Cooke) Tak. in upland rice in Edo State, Nigeria. In the laboratory the fungicides were evaluated at three ...

  18. Evaluation of quality of TB control services by private health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of quality of TB control services by private health care providers in Plateau state, Nigeria; 2012. ... We drew up an objective tree and from the objective tree developed a logical framework matrix including evaluation plan. We also conducted desk review to extract data on case findings, case management and ...

  19. Andries van Aarde as historical Jesus scholar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2010-08-12

    Aug 12, 2010 ... This article focuses on Andries van Aarde's work on the historical Jesus and especially his book .... No one can control this infinite stream or formulate its ...... could be found all along the Sea of Galilee and also a few miles.

  20. Ideological and Historical Challenges in Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nino, Lana

    2011-01-01

    Business schools bear a central mission in our society and are responsible for training business managers who work in, lead, and indeed control our corporations and drive our economy's wealth. Historical and ideological challenges have influenced business education and steered it off the expected path. Several theoretical frameworks such as…

  1. Robotic Autonomous Observatories: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Javier Castro-Tirado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a historical introduction to the field of Robotic Astronomy, from the point of view of a scientist working in this field for more than a decade. The author discusses the basic definitions, the differing telescope control operating systems, observatory managers, as well as a few current scientific applications.

  2. Evaluation of power control concepts using the PMAD systems test bed. [Power Management and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, R. F.; Kimnach, G. L.; Jett, T. A.; Trash, L. M.

    1989-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center's Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System testbed and its use in the evaluation of control concepts applicable to the NASA Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS) are described. The facility was constructed to allow testing of control hardware and software in an environment functionally similar to the space station electric power system. Control hardware and software have been developed to allow operation of the testbed power system in a manner similar to a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system employed by utility power systems for control. The system hardware and software are described.

  3. Advanced combustion, emission control, health impacts, and fuels merit review and peer evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-10-01

    This report is a summary and analysis of comments from the Advisory Panel at the FY 2006 DOE National Laboratory Advanced Combustion, Emission Control, Health Impacts, and Fuels Merit Review and Peer Evaluation, held May 15-18, 2006 at Argonne National Laboratory. The work evaluated in this document supports the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE in making its funding decisions for the upcoming fiscal year.

  4. Using the SIMGRO regional hydrological model to evaluate salinity control measures in an irrigation area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupper, E.; Querner, E.P.; Morábito, J.A.; Menenti, M.

    2002-01-01

    In irrigated areas with drainage and an important interaction with the groundwater system, it is often difficult to predict effects of measures to control salinity. Therefore, in order to evaluate measures to control salinity the SIMGRO integrated regional hydrological model was extended with a

  5. The medical practice of euthanasia in Belgium and The Netherlands: legal notification, control and evaluation procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, T.; Bilsen, J.J.; Cohen, J.; Rurup, M.L.; Keyser, E.; Deliens, L.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe and compare current legal procedures for notifying, controlling and evaluating (NCE-procedures) euthanasia in Belgium and the Netherlands, and to discuss the implications for a safe and controllable euthanasia practice. METHODS: We systematically studied and compared official

  6. Combining control input with flight path data to evaluate pilot performance in transport aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbatson, Matt; Harris, Don; Huddlestone, John; Sears, Rodney

    2008-11-01

    When deriving an objective assessment of piloting performance from flight data records, it is common to employ metrics which purely evaluate errors in flight path parameters. The adequacy of pilot performance is evaluated from the flight path of the aircraft. However, in large jet transport aircraft these measures may be insensitive and require supplementing with frequency-based measures of control input parameters. Flight path and control input data were collected from pilots undertaking a jet transport aircraft conversion course during a series of symmetric and asymmetric approaches in a flight simulator. The flight path data were analyzed for deviations around the optimum flight path while flying an instrument landing approach. Manipulation of the flight controls was subject to analysis using a series of power spectral density measures. The flight path metrics showed no significant differences in performance between the symmetric and asymmetric approaches. However, control input frequency domain measures revealed that the pilots employed highly different control strategies in the pitch and yaw axes. The results demonstrate that to evaluate pilot performance fully in large aircraft, it is necessary to employ performance metrics targeted at both the outer control loop (flight path) and the inner control loop (flight control) parameters in parallel, evaluating both the product and process of a pilot's performance.

  7. Factors Controlling Pre-Columbian and Early Historic Maize Productivity in the American Southwest, Part 1: The Southern Colorado Plateau and Rio Grande Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, L.V.

    2011-01-01

    Maize is the New World's preeminent grain crop and it provided the economic basis for human culture in many regions within the Americas. To flourish, maize needs water, sunlight (heat), and nutrients (e. g., nitrogen). In this paper, climate and soil chemistry data are used to evaluate the potential for dryland (rainon-field) agriculture in the semiarid southeastern Colorado Plateau and Rio Grande regions. Processes that impact maize agriculture such as nitrogen mineralization, infiltration of precipitation, bare soil evaporation, and transpiration are discussed and evaluated. Most of the study area, excepting high-elevation regions, receives sufficient solar radiation to grow maize. The salinities of subsurface soils in the central San Juan Basin are very high and their nitrogen concentrations are very low. In addition, soils of the central San Juan Basin are characterized by pH values that exceed 8.0, which limit the availability of both nitrogen and phosphorous. In general, the San Juan Basin, including Chaco Canyon, is the least promising part of the study area in terms of dryland farming. Calculations of field life, using values of organic nitrogen for the upper 50 cm of soil in the study area, indicate that most of the study area could not support a 10-bushel/acre crop of maize. The concepts, methods, and calculations used to quantify maize productivity in this study are applicable to maize cultivation in other environmental settings across the Americas. ?? 2010 US Government.

  8. Stimulation of a turbofan engine for evaluation of multivariable optimal control concepts. [(computerized simulation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldner, K.

    1976-01-01

    The development of control systems for jet engines requires a real-time computer simulation. The simulation provides an effective tool for evaluating control concepts and problem areas prior to actual engine testing. The development and use of a real-time simulation of the Pratt and Whitney F100-PW100 turbofan engine is described. The simulation was used in a multi-variable optimal controls research program using linear quadratic regulator theory. The simulation is used to generate linear engine models at selected operating points and evaluate the control algorithm. To reduce the complexity of the design, it is desirable to reduce the order of the linear model. A technique to reduce the order of the model; is discussed. Selected results between high and low order models are compared. The LQR control algorithms can be programmed on digital computer. This computer will control the engine simulation over the desired flight envelope.

  9. Evaluation of statistical and rainfall-runoff models for predicting historical daily streamflow time series in the Des Moines and Iowa River watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, William H.; Knight, Rodney R.; Eash, David A.; Kasey J. Hutchinson,; Linhart, S. Mike; Christiansen, Daniel E.; Archfield, Stacey A.; Over, Thomas M.; Kiang, Julie E.

    2015-08-24

    Daily records of streamflow are essential to understanding hydrologic systems and managing the interactions between human and natural systems. Many watersheds and locations lack streamgages to provide accurate and reliable records of daily streamflow. In such ungaged watersheds, statistical tools and rainfall-runoff models are used to estimate daily streamflow. Previous work compared 19 different techniques for predicting daily streamflow records in the southeastern United States. Here, five of the better-performing methods are compared in a different hydroclimatic region of the United States, in Iowa. The methods fall into three classes: (1) drainage-area ratio methods, (2) nonlinear spatial interpolations using flow duration curves, and (3) mechanistic rainfall-runoff models. The first two classes are each applied with nearest-neighbor and map-correlated index streamgages. Using a threefold validation and robust rank-based evaluation, the methods are assessed for overall goodness of fit of the hydrograph of daily streamflow, the ability to reproduce a daily, no-fail storage-yield curve, and the ability to reproduce key streamflow statistics. As in the Southeast study, a nonlinear spatial interpolation of daily streamflow using flow duration curves is found to be a method with the best predictive accuracy. Comparisons with previous work in Iowa show that the accuracy of mechanistic models with at-site calibration is substantially degraded in the ungaged framework.

  10. Reconstructing historical changes in combustion patterns by means of black carbon and PAH evaluation in dated sediments from Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauad, Cristiane R.; Wagener, Angela de L. R.; Farias, Cassia de O.; Carreira, Renato S.; Godoy, Jose M.; Scofield, Arthur de L., E-mail: angela@puc-rio.b [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (LABMAM/PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica. Lab. de Estudos Marinhos e Ambientais; Ruiz, Naira M. S.; Menezes, Sonia M.C. de [Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo A. Miguez de Melo (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Crisogono [Laboratory of Geomicrobiology, ETH/Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2013-11-15

    The accumulation history of combustion products from the metropolitan area around Guanabara Bay was evaluated using black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as indicators. BC concentration varied between 0.23 and 0.51%, with an increasing mass accumulation tendency over the last 118 years, whereas a decrease in the values of the ratio BC/organic carbon was observed in the upper sediment layers, probably reflecting the enhancement of bay's eutrophication process in the last 30 years. Higher concentrations of pyrolytic PAH were observed between 1925 and 1976, being consistent with the subsequent deforestation, urbanization, and industrialization that occurred in the Guanabara basin in the period. These PAHs were best characterized by the BFl/(BFl+BePy) diagnostic ratio. The data obtained allowed the characterization of the main events that influenced the combustion patterns in the region: burning of biomass and fossil fuel, economic crisis of 1970 and 1990 and the introduction of ethanol in the Brazilian energetic matrix. (author)

  11. Determination and evaluation of air quality control. Manual of ambient air quality control in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahmann, E.

    1997-07-01

    Measurement of air pollution emissions and ambient air quality are essential instruments for air quality control. By undertaking such measurements, pollutants are registered both at their place of origin and at the place where they may have an effect on people or the environment. Both types of measurement complement each other and are essential for the implementation of air quality legislation, particularly, in compliance with emission and ambient air quality limit values. Presented here are similar accounts of measurement principles and also contains as an Appendix a list of suitability-tested measuring devices which is based on information provided by the manufacturers. In addition, the guide of ambient air quality control contains further information on discontinuous measurement methods, on measurement planning and on the assessment of ambient air quality data. (orig./SR)

  12. Intermediate Genre Study. Historical Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Joan; Lasky, Kathryn

    1996-01-01

    Students can learn to appreciate history as readers and writers of historical fiction. This section presents an introduction to historical fiction, a display idea, a mystery history game, discussion of character-building, charts for students to fill in with information on historical characters, suggestions for customizing writing centers and for…

  13. Scalability of Robotic Controllers: An Evaluation of Controller Options-Experiment II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Army Research Laboratory ATTN: RDRL- HRM -DW Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ARL-TR-5776 9...conditions can be specified in advance. However, if an input device is designed so that it is only practical in one environment, it may be completely...tablet that was carried in the Soldiers’ backpacks and connected to a Microsoft Xbox* 360 game controller (see figure 2) and a handheld Android phone with

  14. Evaluating Information Assurance Control Effectiveness on an Air Force Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Byres, E. J., Lowe, J. (2004). The Myths and facts behind cyber security risks for industrial control systems . Berlin, Germany: VDE 2004 Congress...ACQUISITION (SCADA) SYSTEM THESIS Jason R. Nielsen, Major, USAF AFIT/GCO/ENG/11-10 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE...DATA ACQUISITION (SCADA) SYSTEM THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School of

  15. EVALUATING IMPLEMENTION OF GOVERNMENTAL PROVISION ON NO. 60 YEAR 2008 FOR GOVERNMENTAL INTERNAL CONTROL IN BOARD OF FINANCE AND DEVELOPMENT CONTROL OF SOUTH SULAWESI

    OpenAIRE

    Mediaty

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate Governmental Internal Control System in Board of Finance and Development Control of South Sulawesi. Governmental Internal Control System is a management control of government in achieving purpose of the state with the issuance of Governmental Provision No. 60 year 2008. List of Governmental Internal Control Test consists of five parts in accordance with the Internal Control System elements are: Control Environment, Risk Assessment, Control Activitie...

  16. Evaluation for the habitability of the main control room and the performance of the smoke control system at NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, M. H.; Hong, S. R.; Sung, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    In addition to the indoor air conditioning, the habitability of the main control room for the operators at Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) has to be ensured with a strict design requirements to protect the workers from the radiation exposure, hazardous chemicals, and the smoke with toxic combustion products. With this context, the internal pressure of the control room envelope shall be sustained at slightly higher pressure than the atmospheric pressure. At this paper, the internal pressure of the control room envelope was analyzed by use of the evaluation program, CONTANW that was developed by the NIST. On the basis of design values, the performance status of the smoke control system was also checked by the program, CFAST that was released by the NIST to confirm the dynamic smoke behaviors

  17. Multi-model Mean Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP): Evaluation of Historical and Projected Future Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Dentener, Frank; McConnell, J.R.; Ro, C-U; Shaw, Mark; Vet, Robert; Bergmann, D.; Cameron-Smith, Philip; Dalsoren, S.; Doherty, R.; Faluvegi, G.; Ghan, Steven J.; Josse, B.; Lee, Y. H.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Plummer, David; Shindell, Drew; Skeie, R. B.; Stevenson, D. S.; Strode, S.; Zeng, G.; Curran, M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Das, S.; Fritzsche, D.; Nolan, M.

    2013-08-20

    We present multi-model global datasets of nitrogen and sulfate deposition covering time periods from 1850 to 2100, calculated within the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP). The computed deposition fluxes are compared to surface wet deposition and ice-core measurements. We use a new dataset of wet deposition for 2000-2002 based on critical assessment of the quality of existing regional network data. We show that for present-day (year 2000 ACCMIP time-slice), the ACCMIP results perform similarly to previously published multi-model assessments. The analysis of changes between 1980 and 2000 indicates significant differences between model and measurements over the United States, but less so over Europe. This difference points towards misrepresentation of 1980 NH3 emissions over North America. Based on ice-core records, the 1850 deposition fluxes agree well with Greenland ice cores but the change between 1850 and 2000 seems to be overestimated in the Northern Hemisphere for both nitrogen and sulfur species. Using the Representative Concentration Pathways to define the projected climate and atmospheric chemistry related emissions and concentrations, we find large regional nitrogen deposition increases in 2100 in Latin America, Africa and parts of Asia under some of the scenarios considered. Increases in South Asia are especially large, and are seen in all scenarios, with 2100 values more than double 2000 in some scenarios and reaching >1300 mgN/m2/yr averaged over regional to continental scale regions in RCP 2.6 and 8.5, ~30-50% larger than the values in any region currently (2000). Despite known issues, the new ACCMIP deposition dataset provides novel, consistent and evaluated global gridded deposition fields for use in a wide range of climate and ecological studies.

  18. Multi-model Mean Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP): Evaluation Historical and Projected Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarque, J.-F.; Dentener, F.; McConnell, J.; Ro, C.-U.; Shaw, M.; Vet, R.; Bergmann, D.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Doherty, R.; Faluvegi, G.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present multi-model global datasets of nitrogen and sulfate deposition covering time periods from 1850 to 2100, calculated within the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP). The computed deposition fluxes are compared to surface wet deposition and ice-core measurements. We use a new dataset of wet deposition for 2000-2002 based on critical assessment of the quality of existing regional network data. We show that for present-day (year 2000 ACCMIP time-slice), the ACCMIP results perform similarly to previously published multi-model assessments. For this time slice, we find a multi-model mean deposition of 50 Tg(N) yr1 from nitrogen oxide emissions, 60 Tg(N) yr1 from ammonia emissions, and 83 Tg(S) yr1 from sulfur emissions. The analysis of changes between 1980 and 2000 indicates significant differences between model and measurements over the United States but less so over Europe. This difference points towards misrepresentation of 1980 NH3 emissions over North America. Based on ice-core records, the 1850 deposition fluxes agree well with Greenland ice cores but the change between 1850 and 2000 seems to be overestimated in the Northern Hemisphere for both nitrogen and sulfur species. Using the Representative Concentration Pathways to define the projected climate and atmospheric chemistry related emissions and concentrations, we find large regional nitrogen deposition increases in 2100 in Latin America, Africa and parts of Asia under some of the scenarios considered. Increases in South Asia are especially large, and are seen in all scenarios, with 2100 values more than double 2000 in some scenarios and reaching 1300 mg(N) m2 yr1 averaged over regional to continental scale regions in RCP 2.6 and 8.5, 3050 larger than the values in any region currently (2000). The new ACCMIP deposition dataset provides novel, consistent and evaluated global gridded deposition fields for use in a wide range of climate and ecological studies.

  19. Research on Control Method Based on Real-Time Operational Reliability Evaluation for Space Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A control method based on real-time operational reliability evaluation for space manipulator is presented for improving the success rate of a manipulator during the execution of a task. In this paper, a method for quantitative analysis of operational reliability is given when manipulator is executing a specified task; then a control model which could control the quantitative operational reliability is built. First, the control process is described by using a state space equation. Second, process parameters are estimated in real time using Bayesian method. Third, the expression of the system's real-time operational reliability is deduced based on the state space equation and process parameters which are estimated using Bayesian method. Finally, a control variable regulation strategy which considers the cost of control is given based on the Theory of Statistical Process Control. It is shown via simulations that this method effectively improves the operational reliability of space manipulator control system.

  20. Controller Design and Evaluation of Lane-Keeping-Assistance System for Motorcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Nozomi; Marumo, Yoshitaka; Tsunashima, Hitoshi

    This study seeks to design a lane keeping controller for motorcycles and to evaluate it by computer simulation with a four-degree-of-freedom model and a rider control model. We applied the optimal control theory to the lane keeping controller as a model-based control. By examining the computer simulation with the rider-in-the-loop system consisting of the motorcycle, the controller, and the rider control model, good lane following performance is achieved without interference between the control input and the rider's input. In addition, the virtual point regulator, which compensates the lateral displacement at the virtual point ahead of the vehicle, corresponds to not only the steering torque disturbance but also the lateral force disturbance by choosing the distance to the virtual point.

  1. Validation of an Integrated Airframe and Turbofan Engine Simulation for Evaluation of Propulsion Control Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Sowers, T Shane; Liu, Yuan; Owen, A. Karl; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed independent airframe and engine models that have been integrated into a single real-time aircraft simulation for piloted evaluation of propulsion control algorithms. In order to have confidence in the results of these evaluations, the integrated simulation must be validated to demonstrate that its behavior is realistic and that it meets the appropriate Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification requirements for aircraft. The paper describes the test procedures and results, demonstrating that the integrated simulation generally meets the FAA requirements and is thus a valid testbed for evaluation of propulsion control modes.

  2. Protocol for the effect evaluation of independent medical evaluation after six months sick leave: a randomized controlled trial of independent medical evaluation versus treatment as usual in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husabo, Elisabeth; Monstad, Karin; Holmås, Tor Helge; Oyeflaten, Irene; Werner, Erik L; Maeland, Silje

    2017-06-14

    It has been discussed whether the relationship between a patient on sick leave and his/her general practitioner (GP) is too close, as this may hinder the GP's objective evaluation of need for sick leave. Independent medical evaluation involves an independent physician consulting the patient. This could lead to new perspectives on sick leave and how to follow-up the patient. The current study is a randomized controlled trial in a Norwegian primary care context, involving an effect evaluation, a cost/benefit analysis, and a qualitative evaluation. Independent medical evaluation will be compared to treatment as usual, i.e., the physicians' and social insurance agencies' current management of long-term sick-listed patients. Individuals aged 18-65 years, sick listed by their GP and on full or partial sick leave for the past 6 months in Hordaland county will be included. Exclusion criteria are pregnancy, cancer, dementia or an ICD-10 diagnosis. A total sample of 3800 will be randomly assigned to either independent medical evaluation or treatment as usual. Official register data will be used to measure the primary outcome; change in sickness benefits at 7, 9 and 12 months. Sick listed in other counties will serve as a second control group, if appropriate under the "common trend" assumption. The Norwegian effect evaluation of independent medical evaluation after 6 months sick leave is a large randomized controlled trial, and the first of its kind, to evaluate this type of intervention as a means of getting people back to work after long-term sickness absence. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02524392 . Registered June 23, 2015.

  3. Protocol for the effect evaluation of independent medical evaluation after six months sick leave: a randomized controlled trial of independent medical evaluation versus treatment as usual in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Husabo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been discussed whether the relationship between a patient on sick leave and his/her general practitioner (GP is too close, as this may hinder the GP’s objective evaluation of need for sick leave. Independent medical evaluation involves an independent physician consulting the patient. This could lead to new perspectives on sick leave and how to follow-up the patient. Methods/design The current study is a randomized controlled trial in a Norwegian primary care context, involving an effect evaluation, a cost/benefit analysis, and a qualitative evaluation. Independent medical evaluation will be compared to treatment as usual, i.e., the physicians’ and social insurance agencies’ current management of long-term sick-listed patients. Individuals aged 18–65 years, sick listed by their GP and on full or partial sick leave for the past 6 months in Hordaland county will be included. Exclusion criteria are pregnancy, cancer, dementia or an ICD-10 diagnosis. A total sample of 3800 will be randomly assigned to either independent medical evaluation or treatment as usual. Official register data will be used to measure the primary outcome; change in sickness benefits at 7, 9 and 12 months. Sick listed in other counties will serve as a second control group, if appropriate under the “common trend” assumption. Discussion The Norwegian effect evaluation of independent medical evaluation after 6 months sick leave is a large randomized controlled trial, and the first of its kind, to evaluate this type of intervention as a means of getting people back to work after long-term sickness absence. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02524392 . Registered June 23, 2015.

  4. Using CONFIG for Simulation of Operation of Water Recovery Subsystems for Advanced Control Software Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Flores, Luis; Fleming, Land; Throop, Daiv

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid discrete/continuous simulation tool, CONFIG, has been developed to support evaluation of the operability life support systems. CON FIG simulates operations scenarios in which flows and pressures change continuously while system reconfigurations occur as discrete events. In simulations, intelligent control software can interact dynamically with hardware system models. CONFIG simulations have been used to evaluate control software and intelligent agents for automating life support systems operations. A CON FIG model of an advanced biological water recovery system has been developed to interact with intelligent control software that is being used in a water system test at NASA Johnson Space Center

  5. System Function Evaluation due to Hardware Failure of NSSS Control Systems in the APR1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Juyoung; Ahn, Myunghoon; Kim, Woogoon; Yim, Hyeongsoon

    2016-01-01

    As the performance and failure modes of the control systems may affect the plant response to accidents or disturbances, an evaluation is done to identify potential control system failure modes resulting from single hardware failures. These failure modes are for use in the analytical evaluations that will be performed to assess the plant responses to various disturbances from the viewpoint of postulated system malfunctions. Failure modes that fall into any of the above categories will affect the performance of the control system and should be considered in the analytical evaluation of the NSSS responses to disturbances. An evaluation was performed to identify the failure modes of the NSSS Control Systems, caused by a hardware component, a common sensing device, and a common power supply. The multiple failure modes across the NSSS control Systems are limited by the improved design features, redundancy within each systems, and segmentation between systems. Also, the effects from the failure modes are expected to be acceptably terminated by the Plant Protection System. The failure modes derived through this evaluation will be further considered in the analytical evaluation of the NSSS responses to disturbances in order to identify the single failures which could create the most adverse conditions during a given transient

  6. Evaluating Internal Model Strength and Performance of Myoelectric Prosthesis Control Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Ahmed W; Scheme, Erik J; Sensinger, Jonathon W

    2018-05-01

    On-going developments in myoelectric prosthesis control have provided prosthesis users with an assortment of control strategies that vary in reliability and performance. Many studies have focused on improving performance by providing feedback to the user but have overlooked the effect of this feedback on internal model development, which is key to improve long-term performance. In this paper, the strength of internal models developed for two commonly used myoelectric control strategies: raw control with raw feedback (using a regression-based approach) and filtered control with filtered feedback (using a classifier-based approach), were evaluated using two psychometric measures: trial-by-trial adaptation and just-noticeable difference. The performance of both strategies was also evaluated using Schmidt's style target acquisition task. Results obtained from 24 able-bodied subjects showed that although filtered control with filtered feedback had better short-term performance in path efficiency ( ), raw control with raw feedback resulted in stronger internal model development ( ), which may lead to better long-term performance. Despite inherent noise in the control signals of the regression controller, these findings suggest that rich feedback associated with regression control may be used to improve human understanding of the myoelectric control system.

  7. 48 CFR 552.270-2 - Historic Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in the competition, the Government will give a 2.5 percent price preference to suitable non-historic... Government will give a 2.5 percent price preference to suitable non-historic developed or undeveloped sites... tradeoffs among price and non-price factors, the Government will give a price evaluation preference, based...

  8. Turbine Energy Evaluation by internal dimensional control; Evaluacion energetica de turbinas por control dimensional de internos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mediavilla, F. [Tecnatom. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    To maintain the optimum thermal performance in a high level throughout the life of the turbines requires a good testing program, proper analysis of the test data, and a steam path audit during turbine overhauls. If from operating data analysis collected during the performance test before the outage shows that the efficiency of the turbine is coming down, the steam path audit, that is an internal inspection and a dimensional control of the internals, identity and quantity causes of performance degradation like, seal leakages, excessive clearances, solid particle erosion damages, blades deposits and other losses. The steam path audit assigns the heat rate penalties associated with each of these individual losses to the total degradation. This are used to make cost-effective maintenance decisions during the course of the overhaul. After repairs, a closing steam path audit is conducted during the re assembly of the turbine in order to predict return to service condition of the machine and to provide a quality control check on outage repairs. (Author)

  9. Einstein: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos-Buchwald, Diana

    2015-04-01

    In late 1915, Albert Einstein (1879-1955) completed as series of papers on a generalized theory of gravitation that were to constitute a major conceptual change in the history of modern physics and the crowning achievement of his scientific career. But this accomplishment came after a decade of intense intellectual struggle and was received with muted enthusiasm. Einstein's previously unpublished writings and massive correspondence, edited by the Einstein Papers Project, provide vivid insights into the historical, personal, and scientific context of the formulation, completion, and reception of GR during the first decades of the 20th century.

  10. [Historical roles of salt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, E; Ritz, C

    2004-12-17

    Recently increasing evidence has been provided pointing to a close relation of salt consumption to hypertension as well as to target organ damage. It is interesting to note that the discussion concerning salt is unusually emotional. This may be explained, at least in part, by the fact that since ancient times salt had deep symbolic significance, as exemplified, mostly subconsciously, by many customs and expressions still in current use. In the past salt was essential to preserve food. The past importance of salt as a commodity can well be compared with that of oil today. These and further historical aspects of the role of salt are briefly dealt with in this article.

  11. Retrieving Historical Electrorefining Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Meagan Daniella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-18

    Pyrochemical Operations began at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during 1962 (1). Electrorefining (ER) has been implemented as a routine process since the 1980’s. The process data that went through the ER operation was recorded but had never been logged in an online database. Without a database new staff members are hindered in their work by the lack of information. To combat the issue a database in Access was created to collect the historical data. The years from 2000 onward were entered and queries were created to analyze trends. These trends will aid engineering and operations staff to reach optimal performance for the startup of the new lines.

  12. Expiration of Historical Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David

    2001-01-01

    We present a technique for automatic expiration of data in a historical data warehouse that preserves answers to a known and fixed set of first-order queries. In addition, we show that for queries with output size bounded by a function of the active data domain size (the number of values that have...... ever appeared in the warehouse), the size of the portion of the data warehouse history needed to answer the queries is also bounded by a function of the active data do-main size and therefore does not depend on the age of the warehouse (the length of the history)....

  13. Democracy is a historical urgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synek, Miroslav

    2015-03-01

    Survival of humanity, on this planet, may depend, heavily, on coping with advancing technology of nuclear missiles. Let us consider critical alternatives of powerful governments: democracy, as an alternative to dictatorship. Democracy is based on free elections, as a government of the people, by the people and for the people. Democracy is a historical urgency, in the age of inter-continental nuclear missiles, computerized on a push-button, conceivably controllable by a very powerful, miscalculating and/or insane, dictator, capable of producing global nuclear holocaust, on our entire planet. Diplomacy, together with supporting activities, should be utilized, to help, in important steps, at this time, for achieving democracy in critical areas.

  14. The Researching on Evaluation of Automatic Voltage Control Based on Improved Zoning Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-jun, ZHU; Ang, FU; Guang-de, DONG; Rui-miao, WANG; De-fen, ZHU

    2018-03-01

    According to the present serious phenomenon of increasing size and structure of power system, hierarchically structured automatic voltage control(AVC) has been the researching spot. In the paper, the reduced control model is built and the adaptive reduced control model is researched to improve the voltage control effect. The theories of HCSD, HCVS, SKC and FCM are introduced and the effect on coordinated voltage regulation caused by different zoning methodologies is also researched. The generic framework for evaluating performance of coordinated voltage regulation is built. Finally, the IEEE-96 stsyem is used to divide the network. The 2383-bus Polish system is built to verify that the selection of a zoning methodology affects not only the coordinated voltage regulation operation, but also its robustness to erroneous data and proposes a comprehensive generic framework for evaluating its performance. The New England 39-bus network is used to verify the adaptive reduced control models’ performance.

  15. Ergonomic evaluation of CRT display in new control panels for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabazawa, Yoshihiko

    1983-01-01

    New control panels are to support powerfully the synthetic judgement function of operators by processing enormous plant data in the normal operation and at the time of accidents in nuclear power stations, and displaying the results in collective and ordered form on CRTs. This time, by carrying out the evaluation of new control panels using human engineering method, it was able to be confirmed that the new control panels have achieved the initial objectives, and to determine the criteria for the ergonomic evaluation of central control panels mainly with CRT display. Besides, it is considered that the application to wide range can be expected for this evaluation, not only to the CRT display system of the new control panels for nuclear power stations but also to other CRT images, therefore, the outline is reported. Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. plans to adopt the new control panels with CRT display effectively utilizing process computers hereafter. It is necessary to give sufficient consideration to the method of using CRT images, the kinds of displayed images, colors and the form and arrangement of letters and symbols. 12 CRTs are used for the new control panel. The results are reflected to the control panel for Hamaoka No.3 plant. (Kako, I.)

  16. Human engineering evaluation of Hamaoka No. 3 advanced control room CRT display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Hiroyuki; Ito, Takahiko; Noguchi, Yoshihiro; Kabasawa, Yoshihiko

    1985-01-01

    As the central control board of Hamaoka No. 3 plant, a new type control board was adopted for the purpose of powerfully supporting the general judgement function of operators by processing enormous plant data in the normal operation and at the time of an accident with a computer, and displaying the results on CRT screens in the summarized form. Recently, the evaluation of this new control board was carried out by ergonomical techniques, and it was confirmed that the initial objective has been attained. Besides, the criteria for the ergonomical evaluation of central control boards mainly for CRT display were determined, and the contents of design were able to be systematically evaluated and verified. As the ergonomical design of the central control board, the easy distinction of the function of switches, the easy confirmation of system constitution by mimics, the use of CRTs, the easy identification of operation pilot lamps, alarms, instruments and so on were considered. The central control board consists of the main control board, auxiliary control boards and vertical boards, and 12 CRTs are installed. (Kako, I.)

  17. L(sub 1) Adaptive Flight Control System: Flight Evaluation and Technology Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xargay, Enric; Hovakimyan, Naira; Dobrokhodov, Vladimir; Kaminer, Isaac; Gregory, Irene M.; Cao, Chengyu

    2010-01-01

    Certification of adaptive control technologies for both manned and unmanned aircraft represent a major challenge for current Verification and Validation techniques. A (missing) key step towards flight certification of adaptive flight control systems is the definition and development of analysis tools and methods to support Verification and Validation for nonlinear systems, similar to the procedures currently used for linear systems. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate the advantages of L(sub l) adaptive control architectures for closing some of the gaps in certification of adaptive flight control systems, which may facilitate the transition of adaptive control into military and commercial aerospace applications. As illustrative examples, we present the results of a piloted simulation evaluation on the NASA AirSTAR flight test vehicle, and results of an extensive flight test program conducted by the Naval Postgraduate School to demonstrate the advantages of L(sub l) adaptive control as a verifiable robust adaptive flight control system.

  18. Ergonomics in the licensing and evaluation of nuclear reactors control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Isaac Jose Antonio Luquetti dos; Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguez

    2002-01-01

    A nuclear control room is a complex system that controls a thermodynamic process used to produce electrical energy. The operators interact with the control room through interfaces that have significant implications to nuclear plant safety and influence the operator activity. The TMI (Three Mile Island) accident demonstrated that only the anthropometric aspects were not enough for an adequate nuclear control room design. The studies showed that the accident was aggravated because the designers had not considered adequately human factor aspects. After TMI accident, the designers introduce in the nuclear control room development only human factors standards and human factors guidelines. The ergonomics approaches was not considered. Our objective is introduce in nuclear control room design and nuclear control room evaluation, a methodology that. includes human factors standards, human factors guidelines and ergonomic approaches, the operator activity analysis. (author)

  19. Use of 2.5-D and 3-D technology to evaluate control room upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanes, L. F.; Naser, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI) study in which 2.5-D and 3-D visualization technology was applied to evaluate the design of a nuclear power plant control room upgrade. The study involved converting 3-D CAD flies of a planned upgrade into a photo-realistic appearing virtual model, and evaluating the value and usefulness of the model. Nuclear utility and EPRI evaluators viewed and interacted with the control room virtual model with both 2.5-D and 3-D representations. They identified how control room and similar virtual models may be used by utilities for design and evaluation purposes; assessed potential economic and other benefits; and identified limitations, potential problems, and other issues regarding use of visualization technology for this and similar applications. In addition, the Halden CREATE (Control Room Engineering Advanced Tool-kit Environment) Verification Tool was applied to evaluate features of the virtual model against US NRC NUREG 0700 Revision 2 human factors engineering guidelines (NUREG 0700) [1]. The study results are very favorable for applying 2.5-D visualization technology to support upgrading nuclear power plant control rooms and other plant facilities. Results, however, show that today's 3-D immersive viewing systems are difficult to justify based on cost, availability and value of information provided for this application. (authors)

  20. BUDGETING, BUDGETARY CONTROL AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION: Evidence from Hospitality Firms in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Egbunike

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with the view to address two fundamental issues: first, to determine if there is any association between budget, budgetary control and performance evaluation; second, to ascertain if there is any significant variation in the budget, budgetary control and performance evaluation measures of hospitality firms in Nigeria. The study employed descriptive design and primary data (questionnaire was the major source of data collection. Questionnaire was administered to a total of six hundred (600 employees of ten (10 selected hospitality firms in Nigeria. The data obtained were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings indicated that budget and budgetary control could serve as an avenue through which hospitality firms in Nigeria can be evaluated. In addition, it was revealed that there is a significant variation in the budget, budgetary control and performance evaluation of hospitality firms in Nigeria. On the basis of the findings, it was recommended that hospitality firms in Nigeria should carry out performance evaluation on every aspect of their budget and budgetary activities as a way of ensuring that budgeted outcomes are met. Also, budgetary costs should be a basis of choosing the most-fit performance evaluation technique for hospitality firms since such

  1. Rethinking historical trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Gone, Joseph P; Moses, Joshua

    2014-06-01

    Recent years have seen the rise of historical trauma as a construct to describe the impact of colonization, cultural suppression, and historical oppression of Indigenous peoples in North America (e.g., Native Americans in the United States, Aboriginal peoples in Canada). The discourses of psychiatry and psychology contribute to the conflation of disparate forms of violence by emphasizing presumptively universal aspects of trauma response. Many proponents of this construct have made explicit analogies to the Holocaust as a way to understand the transgenerational effects of genocide. However, the social, cultural, and psychological contexts of the Holocaust and of post-colonial Indigenous "survivance" differ in many striking ways. Indeed, the comparison suggests that the persistent suffering of Indigenous peoples in the Americas reflects not so much past trauma as ongoing structural violence. The comparative study of genocide and other forms of massive, organized violence can do much to illuminate both common mechanisms and distinctive features, and trace the looping effects from political processes to individual experience and back again. The ethics and pragmatics of individual and collective healing, restitution, resilience, and recovery can be understood in terms of the self-vindicating loops between politics, structural violence, public discourse, and embodied experience. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Evaluation of the Nuclear Medicine facilities in Minas Gerais state: quality control program of equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Tadeu Takao Almodovar; Biancardi, Rodrigo; Rocha, Adriana Marcia Guimaraes; Ferreira, Denia Romao; Silva, Franciele Aquiles Anjos; Assuncao, Jonathan Buenos Aires; Alves, Ederson Henrique; Almeida, Ana Flavia Batista; Alves, Nathalia Fernandes; Xavier, Faber Henrique Zacarias; Gontijo, Rodrigo Modesto Gadelha; Mamede, Marcelo; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

    2017-01-01

    With the reformulation of the CNEN-NN-3.05 standard in December 2013, Brazil's Nuclear Medicine (NMS) services have to perform a greater number of quality controls for SPECT and PET equipment. However, little is known about the reality of the quality control programs of these services regarding the application of the new standard. Thus, in this context, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the quality control program of MNSs in the state of Minas Gerais. All NMSs in the state of Minas Gerais were invited to participate in the project. Of these, 34.48% (20 facilities) agreed to participate in the project, 50.00% (29 facilities) did not respond to the invitation and 15.52%(9 facilities) declined their participation. Thus, as of November 2015, 20 SPECT and 2 PET/CT equipment were evaluated for the performance of the quality control tests recommended by the new CNEN standard. The phantoms required for the evaluation came from the Laboratory of Dosimetry and Quality Control of UFMG. Even with the deadlines set by CNEN for the implementation of the quality control program in the NMSs, more than 50% of the evaluated services did not implement the quality controls, and the absence of specific phantoms is the main reason for the failure. Among the problems found in the installations, the most critical were: collimators with no conditions of use in the clinical routine, linearity problems of the evaluated image and values of image uniformity superior to the limits of acceptance. Problems in the uniformity and linearity of the image found directly impacted the performance of other tests, such as spatial resolution, SPECT performance, among others. In a general way, the NMSs in the state of Minas Gerais evaluated with the present study are in clinical feasible conditions. (author)

  3. Computation and Communication Evaluation of an Authentication Mechanism for Time-Triggered Networked Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Goncalo; Moondra, Arul; Dubey, Abhishek; Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.

    2016-01-01

    In modern networked control applications, confidentiality and integrity are important features to address in order to prevent against attacks. Moreover, network control systems are a fundamental part of the communication components of current cyber-physical systems (e.g., automotive communications). Many networked control systems employ Time-Triggered (TT) architectures that provide mechanisms enabling the exchange of precise and synchronous messages. TT systems have computation and communication constraints, and with the aim to enable secure communications in the network, it is important to evaluate the computational and communication overhead of implementing secure communication mechanisms. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of the effects of adding a Hash-based Message Authentication (HMAC) to TT networked control systems. The contributions of the paper include (1) the analysis and experimental validation of the communication overhead, as well as a scalability analysis that utilizes the experimental result for both wired and wireless platforms and (2) an experimental evaluation of the computational overhead of HMAC based on a kernel-level Linux implementation. An automotive application is used as an example, and the results show that it is feasible to implement a secure communication mechanism without interfering with the existing automotive controller execution times. The methods and results of the paper can be used for evaluating the performance impact of security mechanisms and, thus, for the design of secure wired and wireless TT networked control systems. PMID:27463718

  4. Inhibitory self-control moderates the effect of changed implicit food evaluations on snack food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Ashleigh; Kemps, Eva; Moffitt, Robyn

    2015-07-01

    The current study used a modified implicit association test (IAT) to change implicit evaluations of unhealthy snack food and tested its effects on subsequent consumption. Furthermore, we investigated whether these effects were moderated by inhibitory self-control. A sample of 148 women (17-25 years) motivated to manage weight through healthy eating completed an IAT intervention, and pre- and post-intervention IATs assessing implicit evaluations of unhealthy food. The intervention IAT trained participants to pair unhealthy food stimuli with either positive or negative stimuli. A task disguised as a taste-test was used to assess consumption of unhealthy snack foods. Inhibitory self-control was measured using a self-report scale. As predicted, the implicit evaluation of unhealthy food became more negative from pre- to post-training among participants in the food negative pairing condition; however, there was no corresponding change in the food positive pairing condition. The effect of the training on snack consumption was moderated by inhibitory self-control with only participants low in inhibitory self-control having lower snack intake following the food negative training. This finding is consistent with dual-process models of behaviour which predict that self-control capacity renders impulses less influential on behaviour. Furthermore, it suggests that an intervention that retrains implicit food evaluations could be effective at reducing unhealthy eating, particularly among those with low inhibitory self-control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of the staffing evaluation technique for mental tasks of the advanced main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh Tsungling; Yang Chihwei; Lin Chiuhsiangjoe

    2011-01-01

    The key goals of staffing and qualifications review element are to ensure that the right numbers of people with the appropriate skills and abilities are available to support plant operations and events. If the staffing level is too few, excessive stress that caused human errors possibly will be placed on the operators. Accordingly, this study developed a staffing evaluation technique based on CPM-GOMS for the mental tasks such as operations in the advanced main control room. A within-subject experiment was designed to examine the validity of the staffing evaluation technique. The results indicated the performance of evaluated staffing level via the staffing evaluation technique was significantly higher than that of non-evaluated staffing level; thus, validity of the staffing evaluation technique can be accepted. Finally, the implications for managerial practice on the findings of this study were discussed. (author)

  6. Evaluating the Level of Internal Control System in the Management of Financial Security of Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pidvysotska Lyudmyla J.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the organization and technology of evaluation process of the internal control system of bank in order to ensure financial security management of its activities. The work of the internal audit service on monitoring and evaluating the performance of the bank’s internal control system was analyzed. It has been found that improving the level of financial security of commercial banks is conditional upon improvements in the quality of audits and the provision of sound and objective conclusions. The interrelation of the tasks of internal audit service and the tasks of bank’s financial security management has been determined. Methodological recommendations on evaluation of the bank’s internal control system on the basis of results of audit have been proposed.

  7. Historical Slovenian Language Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Erjavec

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The paper presents three language resources enabling better full-text access to digitised printed historical Slovenian texts: a hand-annotated corpus, a hand-annotated lexicon of historical words and a collection of transcribed texts. The aim of the resources is twofold: on one hand they support empirical linguistic research (corpus, collection and represent a reference tool for the research of historical Slovenian (lexicon while on the other hand they may serve as training data for the development of Human Language Technologies enabling better full-text search in digital libraries containing Slovenian written cultural heritage, modernisation of historical texts, and the development of better technological solutions for text recognition and scanning. The hand annotated corpus of historical Slovenian contains the text from 1,000 pages sampled from the years 1750 to 1900, two texts date to the end of the 16th or 17th century. The corpus contains a little more than 250,000 word tokens; each of them being annotated with hand validated linguistic features: modernised form, lemma or base form, and morhpo-syntactic description. Thus the word token »ajfram« is annotated with the normalised form »ajfrom«, by the lemma »ajfer« and morphosyntactic description »Som« or »Samostalnik« (noun, »občni« (common, »moški« (masculine and a modernised form »gorečnost« (fervour. At first the corpus was annotated automatically and then manually verified and corrected. The lexicon was created automatically from the hand-annotated corpus. It contains only attested word-forms and examples of use. The word-forms are ordered under their modern equivalents. All the modern forms of a particular word constitute a dictionary entry, defined by its lemma with conjoint information i.e. the morpho-syntactic description and the closest contemporary synonyms. Thus the entry »ajfrer/Som/gorečnost« is annotated by two modernised words »ajfra

  8. Tinkering: a conceptual and historical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubichler, Manfred D

    2007-01-01

    Francois Jacob's article 'Evolution and Tinkering' published in Science in 1977 is still the locus classicus for the concept of tinkering in biology. It first introduced the notion of tinkering to a wide audience of scientists. Jacob drew on a variety of different sources ranging from molecular biology to evolutionary biology and cultural anthropology. The notion of tinkering, or more accurately, the concept of bricolage, are conceptual abstractions that allow for the theoretical analysis of a wide range of phenomena that are united by a shared underlying process--tinkering, or the opportunistic rearrangement and recombination of existing elements. This paper looks at Jacob's analysis as itself an example of conceptual tinkering. It traces the history of some of its elements and sketches how it has become part of an inclusive discourse of theoretical biology and evolutionary developmental biology that emerged over the last 30 years. I will argue that the theoretical power of Jacob's analysis lies in the fact that he captured a widespread phenomenon. His conceptual analysis is thus an example of an interdisciplinary synthesis that is based on a shared process rather than a shared object.

  9. Simulator Evaluation of Simplified Propulsion-Only Emergency Flight Control Systems on Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Kaneshige, John; Bull, John; Maine, Trindel A.

    1999-01-01

    With the advent of digital engine control systems, considering the use of engine thrust for emergency flight control has become feasible. Many incidents have occurred in which engine thrust supplemented or replaced normal aircraft flight controls. In most of these cases, a crash has resulted, and more than 1100 lives have been lost. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has developed a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system in which computer-controlled engine thrust provides emergency flight control capability. Using this PCA system, an F-15 and an MD-11 airplane have been landed without using any flight controls. In simulations, C-17, B-757, and B-747 PCA systems have also been evaluated successfully. These tests used full-authority digital electronic control systems on the engines. Developing simpler PCA systems that can operate without full-authority engine control, thus allowing PCA technology to be installed on less capable airplanes or at lower cost, is also a desire. Studies have examined simplified ?PCA Ultralite? concepts in which thrust control is provided using an autothrottle system supplemented by manual differential throttle control. Some of these concepts have worked well. The PCA Ultralite study results are presented for simulation tests of MD-11, B-757, C-17, and B-747 aircraft.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of the control of indoor radon daughter levels in new structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, J.E. Jr.; Guimond, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    As part of its assessment of the radiological impact of the phosphate industry in Florida, the US Environmental Protection Agency has surveyed residences built atop uraniferous reclaimed phosphate mining land. These surveys have shown elevated radon daughter levels to exist in structures built on this land. In order to allow safer use of this land for residential construction, various state-of-the-art radon daughter control technologies were evaluated by the Agency. These included forced ventilation, polymeric sealants, excavation, crawl space construction, and improved slab quality. From a cost-effectiveness evaluation, improved slab quality and crawl space construction were determined to best satisfy the criteria for optimal radon daughter control

  11. Study on the evaluation system for the coal safety management based on risk pre-control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-chun; XU Hai-xia; WANG Pei; SONG Xue-feng

    2009-01-01

    The new type of risk management is process management.First,the hazard sources are identified before coal mine accidents occur,and then the pre-control measure and information monitoring method based on classifying the hidden hazard sources are given.Lastly,the risk pre-alarm and risk control method are confirmed,the management standard and management measure are used to eliminate the hidden hazard sources.In this study,an evaluation system is built to evaluate the result of risk management.

  12. Method to evaluate steering and alignment algorithms for controlling emittance growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolphsen, C.; Raubenheimer, T.

    1993-04-01

    Future linear colliders will likely use sophisticated beam-based alignment and/or steering algorithms to control the growth of the beam emittance in the linac. In this paper, a mathematical framework is presented which simplifies the evaluation of the effectiveness of these algorithms. As an application, a quad alignment that uses beam data taken with the nominal linac optics, and with a scaled optics, is evaluated in terms of the dispersive emittance growth remaining after alignment

  13. Cost-benefit evaluation in a quality control programme for conventional radiodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallini, R.; Belletti, S.; Giugni, U.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison is being made between the cost of the staff and equipment in a quality control programme of conventional radiodiagnosis and the benefit obtained in the reduction of spoilt films and in the reduction of dose to patients and workers. For over two years the programme has followed a protocol verified on about 50 X-ray tubes, 25 radiological devices and four automatic processors. The present research, based on previous data, works on a limited but representative sample of radiological X-ray tubes and accessories. The control procedures are carried out periodically to improve and make constant the efficiency of the radiological devices. An evaluation of the cost of these procedures is made. In the meantime the dose to the patients undergoing radiodiagnostic examinations is evaluated by a transmission chamber. Comparison between the values obtained before and after the control enables the benefits to be evaluated. Rejection of radiographic films is evaluated before and after the control to obtain the cost reduction. During the one year control period, there were no variations in the technical characteristics of the personnel, in the operational procedures or in the work-load. (author)

  14. Evaluation of extreme temperature events in northern Spain based on process control charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeta, M.; Valencia, J. L.; Saá, A.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Extreme climate events have recently attracted the attention of a growing number of researchers because these events impose a large cost on agriculture and associated insurance planning. This study focuses on extreme temperature events and proposes a new method for their evaluation based on statistical process control tools, which are unusual in climate studies. A series of minimum and maximum daily temperatures for 12 geographical areas of a Spanish region between 1931 and 2009 were evaluated by applying statistical process control charts to statistically test whether evidence existed for an increase or a decrease of extreme temperature events. Specification limits were determined for each geographical area and used to define four types of extreme anomalies: lower and upper extremes for the minimum and maximum anomalies. A new binomial Markov extended process that considers the autocorrelation between extreme temperature events was generated for each geographical area and extreme anomaly type to establish the attribute control charts for the annual fraction of extreme days and to monitor the occurrence of annual extreme days. This method was used to assess the significance of changes and trends of extreme temperature events in the analysed region. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of an attribute control chart for evaluating extreme temperature events. For example, the evaluation of extreme maximum temperature events using the proposed statistical process control charts was consistent with the evidence of an increase in maximum temperatures during the last decades of the last century.

  15. Application of the Performance Validation Tool for the Evaluation of NSSS Control System Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Suk-whun

    2011-01-01

    When a control system is supplied to nuclear power plant (NPP) under construction, static tests and dynamic tests are typically performed for evaluating its performance. The dynamic test is not realistic for validating the performance of the replaced hardware in operating NPPs because of potential risks and economic burden. We have, therefore, developed a performance validation tool which can evaluate the dynamic performances of the control system without undertaking real plant tests. The window-based nuclear plant performance analyzer (Win-NPA) is used as a virtual NPP in the developed tool and provides appropriate control loads to the target control system via hardwired cables in a manner that the interfaces are identical to the field wiring. The outputs from the control system are used as the simulation inputs of the plant model within the Win-NPA. With this closed-loop configuration, major transient events were simulated to check the performance of the implemented control system by comparing it with that of the control system model of the Win-NPA and that of the old hardware. The developed tool and the methodology were successfully applied to the hardware replacement project for Yonggwang (YGN) 3 and 4 feedwater control system (FWCS) in 2008. Several errors in the implemented control system were fixed through the performance validation tests and the operability tests. As a result, the control system of the YGN 3 and 4 has demonstrated an excellent control performance since then. On the basis of YGN 3 and 4 project experiences, we are performing a similar project in Ulchin (UCN) 3 and 4. This methodology can also be applied to other NPPs under construction as a tool for pre-operational dynamic tests. These performance tests before performing power ascension tests (PATs) are conducive to preventing unnecessary plant transients or unwanted reactor trips caused by hidden errors of control systems during PATs. (author)

  16. Critique of historical reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Richardson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El enfoque aquí desarrollado presupone una nueva visión del mundo civilizado (Weltanschauungen. La idea del historiador de los hechos históricos presupone una visión global del mundo, a excepción de las sociedades que carecen de un lenguaje escrito. Por eso, la razón histórica discutida aquí se limita al tipo de historia que trata de civilizaciones más elevadas. El análisis de visiones del mundo aquí utilizado presupone que los símbolos son muy importantes y que pierden su poder simbólico si se cristalizan en un único sentido. Como en la teoría de Jung, un símbolo tiene la capacidad de estar activo en la mente como un transformador de la conciencia, libre de asociarse con nuevas experiencias y pensamientos. Esta teoría presta especial atención al problema de Dilthey: es decir, el problema de la calidad racional de los hechos históricos. Las visiones del mundo, que dan un significado profundo a muchos hechos históricos, se componen de símbolos y metáforas, incluyendo ideas, imágenes, valores y emociones. Estos tipos de visiones son casi todos instintivos. Es cierto que los historiadores pueden haber formulado, consciente definiciones de estos tipos de visiones del mundo así como ocurrió por las civilizaciones griega y china. Dado que la actual Weltbilt es mucho más compleja e inconsciente, se necesita algo más que una definición lógica para entenderla. Este artículo indica la forma en que puede ser alcanzada una comprensión racional de estas visiones del mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The approach here entertained presupposes a fresh theory of world pictures (Weltanschauungen of higher civilizations. For the historian's idea of historical facts presupposes a world picture, except for societies which lack a written language. That is why the historical reason discussed here is limited to the kind of history which deals with higher civilizations. The analysis of world pictures used here itself presupposes that symbols are

  17. A framework for evaluating distributed control systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donell, C.; Jiang, J.

    2004-01-01

    A framework for evaluating the use of distributed control systems (DCS) in nuclear power plants (NPP) is proposed in this paper. The framework consists of advanced communication, control, hardware and software technology. This paper presents the results of an experiment using the framework test-bench, and elaborates on a variety of other research possibilities. Using a hardware in the loop system (HIL) a DeltaV M3 controller from Emerson Process is connected to a desktop NPP simulator. The industry standard communication protocol, Modbus, has been selected in this study. A simplified boiler pressure control (BPC) module is created on the NPP simulator. The test-bench provides an interface between the controller and the simulator. Through software monitoring the performance of the DCS can be evaluated. Controller access and response times over the Modbus network are observed and compared with theoretical values. The controller accomplishes its task under the specifications set out for the BPC. This novel framework allows a performance metric to be applied against different industrial controllers. (author)

  18. Occupant feedback based model predictive control for thermal comfort and energy optimization: A chamber experimental evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiao; Wang, Qian; Srebric, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This study evaluates an occupant-feedback driven Model Predictive Controller (MPC). • The MPC adjusts indoor temperature based on a dynamic thermal sensation (DTS) model. • A chamber model for predicting chamber air temperature is developed and validated. • Experiments show that MPC using DTS performs better than using Predicted Mean Vote. - Abstract: In current centralized building climate control, occupants do not have much opportunity to intervene the automated control system. This study explores the benefit of using thermal comfort feedback from occupants in the model predictive control (MPC) design based on a novel dynamic thermal sensation (DTS) model. This DTS model based MPC was evaluated in chamber experiments. A hierarchical structure for thermal control was adopted in the chamber experiments. At the high level, an MPC controller calculates the optimal supply air temperature of the chamber heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system, using the feedback of occupants’ votes on thermal sensation. At the low level, the actual supply air temperature is controlled by the chiller/heater using a PI control to achieve the optimal set point. This DTS-based MPC was also compared to an MPC designed based on the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) model for thermal sensation. The experiment results demonstrated that the DTS-based MPC using occupant feedback allows significant energy saving while maintaining occupant thermal comfort compared to the PMV-based MPC.

  19. Basavarajeeyam: A historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishteswar, K

    2011-10-01

    Basavarajeeyam is an important handbook for an Ayurvedic physician of Andhra region. It is a bilingual work and the content was presented in Sanskrit and Telugu languages. With regard to the place and date of Basavarajeeyam there is no common opinion among the present day scholars. Pt Govardhana Sharma Changani in his introduction to the Sanskrit version of Basavarajeeyam exposed a historical profile of Basavrajeeyam picturising him as Basava who was a staunch follower of Veerashaivism and a contemporary of king Bijjala (end of 12(th) cent. AD). The same statement is carried out in the works of Ayurvedic Itihasa written by Atredeva Vidyawalkan and Acharya Priyavrata Sharma. It appears that the historical evidence shown by these scholars is one sided and cannot stand any reason. Basavraju stated that he had started writing this work after a thorough study of many works such as Charaka, Nithyanatheeyam (1360 AD), Revenakalpam, Pujyapadiyam, Bahatam, Kashikhandam (1435 AD) etc. Basavraju has faithfully reproduced certain chapter of Vaidyachintamani, which is considered to be a work of 15(th) century. Basavraju not only mentioned Phirangiroga in the index of diseases described by him at the end of the book, but also indicated Phirangichekka (Madhusnuhi) in the management of Meharoga and Granthi. By this evidence Basavarajiyam should be considered as the work of post Bhavaprakasha period. Basavraju indicates in the Gulmaroga Chikitsa that Sankhadravaka should be administered in the dose of 'Ekanni'. The name Ekanni was given for a copper coin which came in to circulation of money during British India produced from Madras mint (1794 AD). Based on these internal evidences, it can be safely concluded that Basavraju belong to 18(th)century.

  20. Application of human engineering to design of central control room and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Mamoru

    1986-01-01

    The central control room of a nuclear power station is the center of the operation control, monitoring and management of the plant, therefore, the design by the application of human engineering has been performed on the basis of the experience and achievement in thermal power stations and other industries. In this report, the application of human engineering to the development of the new control boards for PWRs and the evaluation are described. In a nuclear power station, the number of the machinery and equipment composing it is large, and the interrelation among them is complex, accordingly, in the information processing system for operation monitoring and control, the man-machine interface works with high density. The concept of multiple protection design requires to show numerous plant parameters on a central control board, and this also complicates the man-machine interface. The introduction of human engineering was seriously studied after the TMI accident. In order to increase the safety and reliability of a plant, the new central control and monitoring system aims at facilitating operation and monitoring, and lightening burden and preventing mistakes in handling and judgement. The operational sequence diagram and mock-up varification, the application of human engineering and the evaluation, the synthetic real-time verification at the time of abnormality and accident, and the evaluation of the reliability improvement of men are reported. (Kako, I.)