Sample records for historic american merchant

  1. Historic survey on nuclear merchant ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Luciano Ondir, E-mail:; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de, E-mail:


    Highlights: • The nuclear merchants ships already built are described and studied. • Their history and main architectural choices are presented, focusing nuclear domain. • The typical problems in those projects are discussed. • Some key factors for developing successful nuclear merchant ships are identified. - Abstract: This work provides a survey on past nuclear merchant ships experience. On light of new regulations on CO{sub 2}, SO{sub x} and NO{sub x}, the options for clean naval propulsion need to be studied. Despite many efforts, the only already sea proven emissions-free energy is nuclear power of pressurized water reactor type. Given the past experience on the field, this work provides some information on history, architectures and hints of reasons for the success or failures of each project. It is found that adequate requirements identification must be done keeping economics always in the center of design. Experience shows, except after major catastrophic accidents, public trust may be earned by open dialog and sound engineering practices.

  2. Historic survey on nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, Luciano Ondir; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de


    Highlights: • The nuclear merchants ships already built are described and studied. • Their history and main architectural choices are presented, focusing nuclear domain. • The typical problems in those projects are discussed. • Some key factors for developing successful nuclear merchant ships are identified. - Abstract: This work provides a survey on past nuclear merchant ships experience. On light of new regulations on CO 2 , SO x and NO x , the options for clean naval propulsion need to be studied. Despite many efforts, the only already sea proven emissions-free energy is nuclear power of pressurized water reactor type. Given the past experience on the field, this work provides some information on history, architectures and hints of reasons for the success or failures of each project. It is found that adequate requirements identification must be done keeping economics always in the center of design. Experience shows, except after major catastrophic accidents, public trust may be earned by open dialog and sound engineering practices.

  3. Understanding "The Merchant of Venice": A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents. (United States)

    Halio, Jay L.

    "The Merchant of Venice," even in its own time, was considered William Shakespeare's most controversial play. Now, one of the most popular read and performed works, the play raises even more important issues for today, particularly anti-Semitism and the treatment of Jews. The analysis of the play in this casebook helps students interpret…

  4. Historical genomics of North American maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerwaarden, van J.; Hufford, M.B.; Ross-Ibarra, J.


    Since the advent of modern plant breeding in the 1930s, North American maize has undergone a dramatic adaptation to high-input agriculture. Despite the importance of genetic contributions to historical yield increases, little is known about the underlying genomic changes. Here we use high-density

  5. The Native American Experience. American Historical Images on File. (United States)

    Wardwell, Lelia, Ed.

    This photo-documentation reference body presents more than 275 images chronicling the experiences of the American Indian from their prehistoric migrations to the present. The volume includes information and images illustrating the life ways of various tribes. The images are accompanied by historical information providing cultural context. The book…

  6. The historical setting of Latin American bioethics. (United States)

    Gracia, D


    The historical stages through which Latin American society has passed are at least four: the first, dominated by a particular sort of ethic I have termed the "ethic of the gift;" then the period of conquest, in which the prevalent ethic was one of war and subjection by force, which I call the "ethic of despotism;" followed by the colonial age, in which a new ethical model of "paternalism" emerged; and finally the stage of the "ethic of autonomy," which began with the independence movements of the 18th and 19th centuries and is far from ended. Independence was won by the criollos from European domination with very little participation by the Indian population. The latter was left out of the democratic process and saw itself relegated to a worse situation than in the centuries of colonial rule, for it was no longer protected by the paternalism of the Laws of the Indies of 1542. This is the reason for the division of the Latin American society of the last century into two quite different social strata: one bourgeois, which has assimilated the liberal revolution, and enjoys a health care quite similar to that available in any other Western country and hence faces the same bioethical problems as any developed Western society; the other a very poor stratum, without any economic or social power and hence unable to exercise its civil rights, such as the rights to life and to humane treatment. In this population sector; which is numerically the larger, the major bioethical problems are those of justice and the distribution of scarce resources. The study of Latin American medical ethics can earn for these subjects, whose deplorable condition has been essentially ignored in the bioethics of the first-world countries, the importance they merit.

  7. Gypsies, Jews, and "The Merchant of Venice." (United States)

    McKendy, Thomas


    Shows how looking at Shakespeare's prejudices and their roots, as seen in "The Merchant of Venice," can teach students not only about historical attitudes but also about their own unacknowledged assumptions and stereotypes. (MM)

  8. The American Indian Holocaust: Healing Historical Unresolved Grief. (United States)

    Brave Heart, Maria Yellow Horse; DeBruyn, Lemyra M.


    Argues for the existence of historical unresolved grief among American Indians. Outlines the historical legacy of war, genocide, and boarding schools resulting in intergenerational trauma and a host of associated social problems. Suggests healing strategies that integrate modern and traditional approaches to healing at the individual, family, and…

  9. Historical Links between Latin American Psychology and Pedagogy in Experimentation (United States)

    Arias, Walter L.


    This work sets out historical information about the development of Latin American psychology over the base of education. It reviews the contribution from education to Latin American psychology, and especially, the creation of experimental psychology laboratories in schools and educational and psychopedagogical institutions, where experimental…

  10. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten


    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded...

  11. American Historical Association Faculty Development Program: Planning and Implementation. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Charles

    The planning and implementation processes of the Long Island Faculty Development Program are described. Originally sponsored by the American Historical Association's Faculty Development Program to improve history instruction, this project includes faculty representatives from four Long Island universities, colleges, and junior colleges. The…

  12. Merchant Seamen Monument



    Postcard. Colour photograph of Merchant Seamen Monument. Printed description on reverse "This memorial was erected in remembrance of the merchant seamen from Limerick and the Shannon Estuary Seamen who lost their lives in the course of duty". 1991 Limerick Treaty 300 logo.

  13. The city of the merchant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnow, Niels Finn

    The City of the Merchant deals with cities, towns and villages in the European medieval period - i.e. in post-antique and pre-industrial Europe. In actual fact, the book mainly deals with Denmark and Northern Italy (the City States), with digressions to other "feudal" localities in France on Sici......, in the middle East, the Crusades, in Germany (the Hansatic League) and, finally, as far a field as the Danish West Indies. The book is part of a larger project that comprises other historical environments....

  14. Evaluating the merchant transmission market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, E.; Bartholomew Fisher, E.


    This paper reviewed the North American bulk electric transmission system, with particular reference to the following merchant power transmission projects that have applied to sell transmission at negotiated rates by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC): Cross Sound Cable; Neptune Phase 1; TransCanada's Northern Lights HVDC line; Montana Alberta Tie; Juan de Fuca Cable; Linden VFT; Connecticut-Long Island Cable; Lake Erie Link; Empire Connection; Harbor Cable; Chesapeake Transmission; and the Neptune/Green Line. The projects were sorted by status as either active, inactive and restructured. Each summary included the interconnection points, capacity, and sponsor. This paper also identified the major hurdles in their approvals. The relative success of the merchant transmission framework in attracting new investment was then reviewed. The successful projects shared 3 common attributes. They connected areas with large price differentials and they used advanced flow control technology such as HVDC, PARs, and VFTs. The successful projects also bridged some type of border, either geographic, electrical, economic, or a combination. Three of the active projects crossed the Canadian-US border, while the other 3 connected New York City to neighbouring regions. It was shown that merchant transmission fills a niche, enabling market responses to connect areas that may be overlooked by a regional planning process. 27 refs

  15. Quantifying impacts of historical climate change in American River basin (United States)

    Sultana, R.


    There is a near consensus among scientists that climate has been changing for the last few decades in different parts of the world. Some regions are already experiencing the impacts of these changes. Warmer climate can alter the hydrology and water resources around the globe. Historical data shows the temperature has been rising in California and affecting California's water resource by reducing snowfall and snowmelt runoff during spring season. In this study, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is used to simulate the historical climate in American River basin, a mountainous watershed in California. The results show that warmer climate in the recent decades (1995-2014) have already have affected streamflow characteristics of the watershed. Compared to the 1965-1974, the mean annual streamflow has decreased more than 6% and the peak streamflow has shifted from May to April. Understanding the changes will assist the water resource managers with valuable insight on the effectiveness of mitigation strategies considered as of now.

  16. Nuclear merchant ship propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, E.; Jager, W.; Schafstall, H.G.


    The operation of about 300 nuclear naval vessels has proven the feasibility of nuclear ship propulsion. Until now six non military ships have been built or are under construction. In the Soviet Union two nuclear icebreakers are in operation, and a third one is under construction. In the western world three prototype merchant ships have been built. Of these ships only the NS OTTO HAHN is in operation and provides valuable experience for future large scale use of nuclear merchant ship propulsion. In many countries studies and plans are made for future nuclear merchant ships. Types of vessels investigated are large containerships, tankers and specialized ships like icebreakers or ice-breaking ships. The future of nuclear merchant ship propulsion depends on three interrelated items: (1) nuclear ship technology; (2) economy of nuclear ship propulsion; (3) legal questions. Nuclear merchant ship technology is based until now on standard ship technology and light water reactor technology. Except for special questions due to the non-stationary type of the plant entirely new problems do not arise. This has been proven by the recent conceptual licensing procedure for a large nuclear containership in Germany. The economics of nuclear propulsion will be under discussion until they are proven by the operation of privately owned lead ships. Unsolved legal questions e.g. in connection with port entry permissions are at present another problem for nuclear shipping. Efforts are made to solve these questions on an international basis. The future development of nuclear energy electricity production in large land based plants will stimulate the employment of smaller units. Any future development of long distance sea transport will have to take this opportunity of a reliable and economic energy supply into account

  17. Marketing Strategy for Merchant Shipbuilders (United States)


    1995 Ship Production Symposium Paper No. 26: Marketing Strategy for Merchant Shipbuilders U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CARDEROCK DIVISION, NAVAL...Production Symposium Paper No. 26: Marketing Strategy for Merchant Shipbuilders 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6... Marketing Strategy for Merchant Shipbuilders Paul W. Stott (V), A&P Appledore international, U.K. ABSTRACT Much has been published over the years about

  18. Merchant funding for power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, B.; Bartlam, M.


    The next frontier for project finance is merchant generation: the financing of IPPs without long-term offtake contracts. Banks are just beginning to finance merchant generation power stations. One of the first was Destec's Indian Queens project in Cornwall, UK. Bruce Johnston and Martin Bartlam of Wilde Sapte discuss the project. (UK)

  19. The Soul of Leadership: African American Students' Experiences in Historically Black and Predominantly White Organizations (United States)

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.


    This study addresses African American students' leadership experiences at predominantly White institutions. Findings indicated participants utilized servant leadership in historically Black organizations and transformational leadership in predominantly White organizations. The differences displayed showed that participants' leadership perceptions…

  20. Indigenous women in Spanish American Historic Epic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Segas


    Full Text Available Epic poetry has always been considered a masculine genre. The eruption of a group identity, masculine, white, aristocratic and christian, is the result of the representation and the exclusion of the Other, fictitious and singular, but in fact composed of a variety of ethnic groups, origins, sex, genders, religions and different degrees between fiction and historicity. Indeed, in the historical epic poetry which narrated the Conquest, except for the conquistadors listed at length and the indigenous kings and caciques, only few characters are distinguished by a historical individualisation. The Other, Amerindian and female, makes a shy entrance into history, into singularity, into the (historical and christian truth. It is the case of interpreters: Malinche and India Catalina, only historical native women that appear as part of the narrative plot as well as in the conquest enterprise in the poems of Lasso de la Vega (Cortés valeroso y Mexicana, Mexicana, of Juan de Castellanos (Elegías de varones ilustres de Indias and of Saavedra Guzmán (El peregrino indiano.

  1. The Obligations of American Citizenship: A Historical Perspective. (United States)

    Murphy, Paul L.


    Historical antecedents of modern constitutionalism are examined, and the concepts of citizen participation, civic responsibility, and limitation of government are explained in that context. Students must be exposed to the constitutional basics--why the document is retained, what values it incorporates, and where it has succeeded and failed. (PP)

  2. Learning Other People's History: Pre-Service Teachers' Developing African American Historical Knowledge (United States)

    King, LaGarrett Jarriel


    Drawing from the historical lens of cultural memory, I examined the development of three social studies pre-service teachers' African American history knowledge. The participants were engaged in a rigorous summer reading program dedicated to learning African American history. This qualitative case study examined both pre and post interpretations…

  3. Latin American Civil-Military Relationships in a Historical Perspective


    Skaar, Elin


    Civil-military relationships constitute a crucial element in the transition to substantive democracy all over the world. During periods of authoritarianism or civil war, the military in Latin America has historically speaking been responsible for extensive violations of human rights and humanitarian law. Since the reintroduction of democracy in the region in the 1980s and 1990s, the military has gradually been brought back under civilian rule. The balance of power between military and civil p...

  4. Medical ethics in its American context. An historical survey. (United States)

    Toulmin, S


    Until the 1950's, moral aspects of clinical practice were handled in the USA within the medical profession. Over the last 30 years, these issues have become subjects for public debate, and have changed the public perception of medicine, in four steps. In the 1950's, moral theologians questioned the implications of medical technology at the edges of life. In the late '60s and '70s, these theologians were joined by political activists, whose zeal provoked a counter-reaction from physicians. In the late '70s and early '80s, the debate became largely theoretical; but in the late '80s it is once again "clinical", though respecting the rights of patients, their families, and other nonphysicians to participate in the relevant moral decisions. In part, these four steps reflect the special feature of American social history in the last 30 years; but in part they also had counterparts in Britain and elsewhere. Either way, the monopoly control over the ethics of medical practice exercised by doctors before the 1950s is unlikely to return.

  5. North American osprey populations and contaminants: Historic and contemporary perspectives (United States)

    Henny, Charles J.; Grove, Robert A.; Kaiser, James L.; Johnson, Branden L.


    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) populations were adversely affected by DDT and perhaps other contaminants in the United States and elsewhere. Reduced productivity, eggshell thinning, and high DDE concentrations in eggs were the signs associated with declining osprey populations in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. The species was one of the first studied on a large scale to bring contaminant issues into focus. Although few quantitative population data were available prior to the 1960s, many osprey populations in North America were studied during the 1960s and 1970s with much learned about basic life history and biology. This article reviews the historical and current effects of contaminants on regional osprey populations. Breeding populations in many regions of North America showed post-DDT-era (1972) population increases of varying magnitudes, with many populations now appearing to stabilize at much higher numbers than initially reported in the 1970s and 1980s. However, the magnitude of regional population increases in the United States between 1981 (first Nationwide Survey, ∼8,000 pairs), when some recovery had already occurred, 1994 (second survey, ∼14,200), and 2001 (third survey, ∼16,000–19,000), or any other years, is likely not a simple response to the release from earlier contaminant effects, but a response to multi-factorial effects. This indirect “contaminant effects” measurement comparing changes (i.e., recovery) in post-DDT-era population numbers over time is probably confounded by changing human attitudes toward birds of prey (shooting, destroying nests, etc.), changing habitats, changing fish populations, and perhaps competition from other species. The species' adaptation to newly created reservoirs and its increasing use of artificial nesting structures (power poles, nesting platforms, cell towers, channel markers, offshore duck blinds, etc.) are two important factors. The timing of the initial use of artificial nesting structures, which replaced

  6. Racial Microaggressions among Asian American and Latino/a Students at a Historically Black University (United States)

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.


    Research illustrates that the enrollments of Asian American and Latino/a students are increasing at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Nevertheless, research on how these students experience the institutional climates of HBCUs is nonexistent; hence, we sought to explore the college-choice process and perceptions of campus…

  7. Overweight and Physical Inactivity Among African American Students at a Historically Black University. (United States)

    Sa, Jaesin; Heimdal, James; Sbrocco, Tracy; Seo, Dong-Chul; Nelson, Beatrice


    Little is known about correlates of overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity among African American students at historically Black colleges and universities. To assess overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity among African American college students at a historically Black university in Maryland in the USA. Data were collected from 268 African American college students in 2013. Data were analyzed with percentage difference z-tests, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression. Cross-sectional survey (student response rate = 49.9%). The overweight/obesity rate of participants was 47.5%, which was higher than that of the U.S. college student population overall (34.1%) and a representative sample of African American college students (38.3%). When age and sex were controlled, a family history of obesity, skipping breakfast, drinking caffeinated drinks, lower family income, and smoking a pipe, cigars, or cigarettes daily were significant correlates of overweight (obesity included). The percentage of physical inactivity was 68.3, and physical inactivity was higher among women and overweight or obese students. Given the high overweight and obesity prevalence among African American college students, historically Black colleges and universities in the USA should increase health promotion efforts targeting weight-related behaviors, particularly physical activity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliya Gounder Palanichamy

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  9. Barter Economies and Centralized Merchants


    Jose Noguera


    The main goal of this essay is to analyze the emergence of a barter economy, and the rise of centralized merchants and a barter redistribution system out of a primitive barter system. The environment is a spatial general equilibrium model where exchange is costly. Since exchange becomes more complicated as the scope of the economy increases, we prove that, after the economy reaches a critical size, the cost of trade expansion surpasses its benefits. This imposes limitations on the scope of th...

  10. Towards a nuclear merchant ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, R.L.R.; Llewelyn, G.I.W.; Farmer, A.A.


    The operation of nuclear merchant ships is likely to be attended by a number of constraints and requirements. Not all of these can be fully resolved until such ships come into use and the necessary experience and confidence have been acquired. But the timing of commercial introduction, if it comes about, will depend on the relative economics of nuclear versus fossil fuel propulsion, and the differences in turn depend in part on the operating costs particular to nuclear ships. A review of operation aspects is essential not only to commercial appraisal; each country whose trade may be carried in nuclear ships - whether it will build such ships or not - will have occasion to give some attention to the problems. It is an international problem and is, as noted later, being considered internationally. This paper; i) reviews some of the operational aspects as seen in the U.K.; ii) summarizes views received by the Nuclear Merchant Ship Unit (NMSU) from U.K. shipping, shipbuilding and nuclear industries on the prospects of a U.K. nuclear merchant ship. (author)

  11. Natural gas infrastructure requirements for merchant plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukaly, B.


    Merchant power plants are complicated with diverse risks. Of course where there are risks there are opportunities for reward. Creating an effective merchant plant requires a strong organization that is committed to marketing, trading and risk management. The organization must have the infrastructure to capitalize on the opportunities a merchant plant provides. The market dynamics are ever changing and move at incredible speeds--what was a moneymaking deal yesterday is no longer valid today. The merchant plant owner is the expert in setting up the actual infrastructure for trading the various commodities, including forward pricing, cash and physical trades, transportation and operation for maximizing the plant's potential. Optionally, the plant's risk profile and a risk management program are the key factors in determining the sucres of the merchant plant project

  12. A study of the historical role of African Americans in science, engineering and technology (United States)

    Jones, Keith Wayne


    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is adequate documentation of an historical role of African and African American involvement in science, engineering, and technology. Through the use of history of science and technology research methodology, along with an examination of the sociological and economic impacts of adequately accredited innovations and inventions contributed by Africans and African Americans, the researcher investigated their contributions to the following areas of science and technology: life science, physical sciences and chemistry, engineering, and science education. In regard to the timeframe for this study, the researcher specifically investigated African and African American involvement in science and technology that includes periods prior to black enslavement, scientific racism and colonialism, as well as during and after those periods. This research study reveals that there are adequate historical data regarding African and African American contributions to science, engineering, and technology. The data reveals that for many millennia African peoples have been continually involved in science and world science histories. The data further show that the numbers of African Americans acquiring BS, MS, Ph.D., Doctor of Science and Doctor of Engineering degrees in science and engineering disciplines are increasing. That these increases are not happening at a rate representative of the present or future African American percentages of the population. Consequently, because of future changes in our nation's demographics, increasing the numbers of people from under-represented groups who pursue scientific and engineering professions has become a matter of national security at the highest levels of government. Moreover, African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans are not pursuing careers or taking courses in science and engineering at a rate high enough to fulfill the prospective needs for the United States' industries, government

  13. Reconsidering American Indian historical trauma: lessons from an early Gros Ventre war narrative. (United States)

    Gone, Joseph P


    Professional clinicians and human services providers are increasingly attributing the mental health problems of American Indians (AIs) to historical trauma (HT). As an alternative to established psychiatric disorders, AI HT was formulated to explain enduring mental health disparities as originating in tribal experiences of Euro-American colonization. As a result, AI HT has been described as the collective, cumulative, and intergenerational psychosocial disability resulting from massive group-based oppression, such as forced relocation, political subjugation, cultural domination, and genocide. One objective of the HT construct is to frame AI distress and dysfunction in social and historical terms. Given widespread indigenous experiences of colonization, the debilitating effects of HT are presumed to affect most AI communities today. With this background in mind, I explore AI HT with specific reference to a "war narrative" obtained by an anthropologist in 1901 from an elderly Gros Ventre woman. In this account, Watches All described her participation in a historic intertribal battle, and her subsequent captivity and escape from the enemy during the late 1860s. This historical narrative references many first-hand experiences that would today be identified as traumatogenic. Interestingly, however, this account complicates several assumptions underlying AI HT, leading to vexing questions of whether Watches All's ordeal actually qualifies as an instance of AI HT. No matter how one answers these questions, such ambiguity highlights serious theoretical confusions requiring elaboration and refinement if AI HT is to remain a useful construct in the behavioral health sciences. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions:

  14. Regulatory Issues Surrounding Merchant Interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijlaars, Kees-Jan; Zwart, Gijsbert


    We discussed various issues concerning the regulatory perspective on private investment in interconnectors. One might claim that leaving investment in transmission infrastructure to competing market parties is more efficient than relying on regulated investment only (especially in the case of long (DC) lines connecting previously unconnected parts of the grids, so that externalities from e.g. loop flows do not play a significant role). We considered that some aspects of interconnection might reduce these market benefits. In particular, the large fixed costs of interconnection construction may lead to significant under investment (due to both first mover monopoly power and the fact that part of generation cost efficiencies realised by interconnection are not captured by the investor itself, and remain external to the investment decision). Second, merchant ownership restricts future opportunities for adaptation of regulation, as would be required e.g. for introduction of potentially more sophisticated methods of congestion management or market splitting. Some of the disadvantages of merchant investment may be mitigated however by a suitable regulatory framework, and we discussed some views in this direction. The issues we discussed are not intended to give a complete framework, and detailed regulation will certainly involve many more specific requirements. Areas we did not touch upon include e.g. the treatment of deep connection costs, rules for operation and maintenance of the line, and impact on availability of capacity on other interconnections

  15. Regulatory Issues Surrounding Merchant Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijlaars, Kees-Jan; Zwart, Gijsbert [Office for Energy Regulation (DTe), The Hague (Netherlands)


    We discussed various issues concerning the regulatory perspective on private investment in interconnectors. One might claim that leaving investment in transmission infrastructure to competing market parties is more efficient than relying on regulated investment only (especially in the case of long (DC) lines connecting previously unconnected parts of the grids, so that externalities from e.g. loop flows do not play a significant role). We considered that some aspects of interconnection might reduce these market benefits. In particular, the large fixed costs of interconnection construction may lead to significant under investment (due to both first mover monopoly power and the fact that part of generation cost efficiencies realised by interconnection are not captured by the investor itself, and remain external to the investment decision). Second, merchant ownership restricts future opportunities for adaptation of regulation, as would be required e.g. for introduction of potentially more sophisticated methods of congestion management or market splitting. Some of the disadvantages of merchant investment may be mitigated however by a suitable regulatory framework, and we discussed some views in this direction. The issues we discussed are not intended to give a complete framework, and detailed regulation will certainly involve many more specific requirements. Areas we did not touch upon include e.g. the treatment of deep connection costs, rules for operation and maintenance of the line, and impact on availability of capacity on other interconnections.

  16. Motivations of North American Tourists from Cruisers to Visit Cultural-Historical Destination (Dubrovnik/Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Radic


    Full Text Available Purpose –The key to understanding motivation of tourists from cruisers who are visiting Dubrovnik is to understand their needs and wants for consuming history and culture as tourism products. The purpose of this paper is to assess the motivations of North American tourists visiting Dubrovnik on their cruises around the Mediterranean. Design/Methods/Approach – In this paper, the author decided to use two paradigms: pragmatism and positivism, which are usually followed by quantitative techniques of data collection. A structured questionnaire enabled author to collect quantitative data that were processed by descriptive statistics. Findings – The paper introduces new perspective on motivations of North American tourists who visit Dubrovnik on their cruises around the Mediterranean. The findings indicated that Cultural component was the most important dimension perceived by North American tourist, for choosing cruises with Dubrovnik as one of port of calls on their itinerary. Research limitations – Main limitations of this research paper were relatively small sample size and participants from only one Cruise Company. Originality – The article depicts motivation of North American tourists from cruise ships that choose to visit cultural-historical destination (Dubrovnik.

  17. The slavery hypothesis for hypertension among African Americans: the historical evidence. (United States)

    Curtin, P D


    The slavery hypothesis for hypertension has stated that the high blood pressures sometimes measured in African Americans are caused by one or more of these conditions: first, salt deficiency in the parts of Africa that supplied slaves for the Americas; second, the trauma of the slave trade itself; third, conditions of slavery in the United States. A review of the historical evidence shows that there was no salt deficiency in those parts of Africa, nor do present-day West Africans have a high incidence of hypertension. Historical evidence does not support the hypothesis that deaths aboard slave ships were caused mainly by conditions that might be conductive to hypertension, such as salt-depleting diseases. Finally, the hypothesis has depended heavily on evidence from the West Indies, which is not relevant for the United States. There is no evidence that diet or the resulting patterns of disease and demography among slaves in the American South were significantly different from those of other poor southerners. Images p1682-a p1684-a PMID:1456349

  18. 77 FR 70810 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions (United States)


    ... Cherry Tree Crossing & 14134 Brandywine Rds., Brandywine, 12001024 University Park Historic District.... Paul African Methodist Episcopal Church, 703 Merchant St., Coatesville, 12001042 Philadelphia County...

  19. Tests of fit of historically-informed models of African American Admixture. (United States)

    Gross, Jessica M


    African American populations in the U.S. formed primarily by mating between Africans and Europeans over the last 500 years. To date, studies of admixture have focused on either a one-time admixture event or continuous input into the African American population from Europeans only. Our goal is to gain a better understanding of the admixture process by examining models that take into account (a) assortative mating by ancestry in the African American population, (b) continuous input from both Europeans and Africans, and (c) historically informed variation in the rate of African migration over time. We used a model-based clustering method to generate distributions of African ancestry in three samples comprised of 147 African Americans from two published sources. We used a log-likelihood method to examine the fit of four models to these distributions and used a log-likelihood ratio test to compare the relative fit of each model. The mean ancestry estimates for our datasets of 77% African/23% European to 83% African/17% European ancestry are consistent with previous studies. We find admixture models that incorporate continuous gene flow from Europeans fit significantly better than one-time event models, and that a model involving continuous gene flow from Africans and Europeans fits better than one with continuous gene flow from Europeans only for two samples. Importantly, models that involve continuous input from Africans necessitate a higher level of gene flow from Europeans than previously reported. We demonstrate that models that take into account information about the rate of African migration over the past 500 years fit observed patterns of African ancestry better than alternative models. Our approach will enrich our understanding of the admixture process in extant and past populations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. latin American literary testimony: historical foreshadowing of gender in the revolutionary discourse of the sixties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria García


    Full Text Available The foundation of testimonio in Latin American literary field, initiated at the end of the ‘60, makes part of the institutionalization of the Cuban revolution, process where its projection to the rest of Latin America constitued a central problem. This paper studies political preconditions of testimonio. In particular, it analizes certain aspects of Cuban revolutionary discourse that anticipate features eventually developed by the literary genre, in the ways the relation between literature and politics is represented, and in the subjects of discourse that are proposed as embodiments of such relation. The paper introduces the question of Cuban revolution, as regards the exemplary status it acquired in Latin America during the sixties. Then, it examines the literary positioning represented by testimonio, as the corollary of a reflexive reconsideration operated by some Latin American writers and critics, concerning their historical role. Finally, it considers three representative documents of Cuban revolution and its continental projection: History will absolve me, by Fidel Castro, and Reminiscences of the Cuban revolutionary war and Bolivian diary, by Ernesto Guevara. We show the textual configuration of a revolutionary subject whose legitimity emerges not only from a political experience which testimony enunciates, but also from particular ways of living and representing literature in the context of a revolutionary practice. In the end of the sixties, the continental literary field would reaffirm such features as its discourse legitimating criteria, during the institutionalization of testimonio as its privileged genre.

  1. 77 FR 31515 - Validation of Merchant Mariners' Vital Information and Issuance of Coast Guard Merchant Mariner's... (United States)


    ...-AA85 Validation of Merchant Mariners' Vital Information and Issuance of Coast Guard Merchant Mariner's...-2004-17455 in the ``Enter Keyword or ID'' box, and then clicking ``Search.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents for Preamble I. Abbreviations II. Regulatory History...

  2. 76 FR 35173 - Validation of Merchant Mariners' Vital Information and Issuance of Coast Guard Merchant Mariner's... (United States)


    ...-AA81 Validation of Merchant Mariners' Vital Information and Issuance of Coast Guard Merchant Mariner's... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section below for instructions on submitting comments. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Manager, Docket Operations, telephone 202-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Request for Comments If you...

  3. The Historical Loss Scale: Longitudinal measurement equivalence and prospective links to anxiety among North American indigenous adolescents. (United States)

    Armenta, Brian E; Whitbeck, Les B; Habecker, Patrick N


    Thoughts of historical loss (i.e., the loss of culture, land, and people as a result of colonization) are conceptualized as a contributor to the contemporary distress experienced by North American Indigenous populations. Although discussions of historical loss and related constructs (e.g., historical trauma) are widespread within the Indigenous literature, empirical efforts to understand the consequence of historical loss are limited, partially because of the lack of valid assessments. In this study we evaluated the longitudinal measurement properties of the Historical Loss Scale (HLS)-a standardized measure that was developed to systematically examine the frequency with which Indigenous individuals think about historical loss-among a sample of North American Indigenous adolescents. We also test the hypothesis that thoughts of historical loss can be psychologically distressing. Via face-to-face interviews, 636 Indigenous adolescents from a single cultural group completed the HLS and a measure of anxiety at 4 time-points, which were separated by 1- to 2-year intervals (Mage = 12.09 years, SD = .86, 50.0% girls at baseline). Responses to the HLS were explained well by 3-factor (i.e., cultural loss, loss of people, and cultural mistreatment) and second-order factor structures. Both of these factor structures held full longitudinal metric (i.e., factor loadings) and scalar (i.e., intercepts) equivalence. In addition, using the second-order factor structure, more frequent thoughts of historical loss were associated with increased anxiety. The identified 3-factor and second-order HLS structures held full longitudinal measurement equivalence. Moreover, as predicted, our results suggest that historical loss can be psychologically distressing for Indigenous adolescents. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. "Making History Go" at a Local Community Center: Popular Media and the Construction of Historical Knowledge among African American Youth. (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Greg


    Looks at how young people use historical knowledge, gained from media sources, to deal with current situations. A group of young African Americans draw on behavioral examples from the film, "Panther," instead of school-based learning, to give them ways to deal with the Ku Klux Klan in their neighborhood. (DAJ)

  5. Debating the Study of the Past: A Historical Analysis of American History Curriculum and Instruction between 1890 and 1920 (United States)

    Galligan, Mark N.


    This paper presents the research design, rationale, and the results of a historical document-based research project to answer the following two-part question: How do popular and dominant political, social, and economic forces affect the creation and delivery of American history curriculum in public schools between 1890 and 1920 and how is this…

  6. Racial and Athletic Identity of African American Football Players at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Predominantly White Institutions (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Reed, Courtney; Steinfeldt, M. Clint


    This study examined racial and athletic identity among African American football players at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Negotiating the dualism of racial and athletic identities can be problematic because both roles are subject to prejudice and discrimination, particularly for…

  7. Examining the Impact of Historical/Developmental, Sociodemographic, and Psychological Factors on Passive Suicide among African-American Men (United States)

    Tucker, Tameka M.


    Nationally published reports on death rates for substance abuse (drug-alcohol related), violence (homicide), and risky sexual behaviors (HIV/AIDS) among African-American men are deeply concerning. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between historical/developmental factors (masculine identity, racial identity, racism),…

  8. A Delineation of Asian American and Latino/a Students' Experiences with Faculty at a Historically Black College and University (United States)

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.


    Research has shown that the enrollment of Asian American and Latino/a students are increasing at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Nevertheless, research on how these students experience the institutional climate of HBCUs is nonexistent. Hence, this study sought to explore the college choice process and perceptions of campus…

  9. Developing and financing merchant power plants in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.J.


    Limited recourse financing for merchant plants in some areas of the world such as Latin America has become almost commonplace in the recent past. Limited recourse project financing for merchant plants in the US, once almost unthinkable, has already been achieved with the frontier-breaking Calpine Pasadena project. While long-term power purchase agreements have historically provided comfort to lenders and developers alike, they are increasingly becoming a thing of the past as utilities are reluctant to lock themselves into a fixed price, which may turn out to exceed the prices available in the open market. So, it seems that the trends toward merchant plants in Latin America will soon take hold in the domestic market. With the market for limited recourse project financing still in the embryonic stage, and the strong likelihood that long-term power purchase agreements will not be available, it is clear that successful domestic projects will have to be well conceived, properly structured and capitalized to secure debt and equity funding commitments. This paper will focus on opportunities for developing merchant plants, the major risks present to developers and investors and the most appropriate strategies for structuring finance for a project

  10. Enter Stage Left: The New Energy Merchants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, Andy


    Financial institutions and private equity investors have been buying merchant generating assets at a furious pace, and they don't play by the same rules as independent power producers and electric utilities. Are traditional players ready for the disruptions to come? Have distressed IPP plant prices bottomed out? The interest of these new entrants has several implications for future market fundamentals

  11. Historical, Socio-Cultural, and Conceptual Issues to Consider When Researching Mexican American Children and Families, and other Latino Subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Buriel


    Full Text Available In order for the field of psychology in the United States to maintain its relevance and validity, it must become more inclusive in its theory and research of Latinos, who are now the largest "minority" group in the nation. In particular, due to immigration and birth rates, Mexican Americans are the largest and fastest growing segment of the Latino population. This paper addresses some of the most significant historical and socio-cultural factors contributing to the psychological nature and wellbeing of Mexican Americans. These factors should be understood and used to guide research and theory in order to make the discipline of psychology relevant for Mexican Americans. The concept of mestizaje is used to explain the biological and cultural mixing constituting the diverse origins of the Mexican people. Immigration to the U.S. is described in terms of selective socio-cultural variables giving rise to a diverse Mexican American culture that is resistant to complete assimilation. Within a U.S. context, the constructs of generational status, acculturation, and biculturalism are used to explain the socio-cultural adaptation of Mexican Americans. The special role of children in immigrant families as language and cultural brokers are also discussed, and used to explain the adjustment of Mexican American families.

  12. Does the African-American-white mortality gap persist after playing professional basketball? A 59-year historical cohort study. (United States)

    Lawler, Tyler; Lawler, Frank; Gibson, Jack; Murray, Rachael


    The African-American-white mortality gap for males in the United States is 6 years in favor of whites. Participation in professional sport may moderate this ethnic disparity. The historical cohort of professional basketball players, with nearly equal numbers of African-American and white players, can provide a natural experiment that may control for the classic confounders of income, education, socioeconomic status (SES), and physical factors related to mortality. The objectives of this study are to assess mortality and calculate survival for the overall study population and within ethnicity. Data were combined from several publicly available sources. The cohort was analyzed to compare longevity among all players, and for players stratified by ethnicity, with the general U.S. population. The final dataset included 3366 individuals, of whom 56.0% were African American. Results suggest white players live 18 months longer than their African-American colleagues. African-American players gained 9 years on their respective referent and live longer than white men in the general public. After controlling for covariates, we found that African-American players have a 75% increased risk of death compared with white players, a statistically significant gap (p gap for males is largely ameliorated (1.5 years vs. 6.1 years) in professional basketball but still persists. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Problem of Agricultural and Industrial Education for African Americans: A Historical Inquiry (United States)

    Croom, Dan B.; Alston, Antoine


    The model of agricultural and industrial education for African Americans in the United States was created by Samuel Chapman Armstrong, founder of Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute. Armstrong developed a paternal approach to educating African Americans and developed the Hampton Institute curriculum with moral education as its base. Booker…

  14. Relationship between collectivism and corruption in American and Chinese books: A historical perspective. (United States)

    Li, Yongshuai; Tan, Xuyun; Huang, Zhenwei; Liu, Li


    Previous research on the relationship between collectivism and corruption has not investigated their co-variation over time. In this study, we use Google Ngram Viewer to track the frequency of words related to collectivism and corruption in American books (1800-2000) and in Chinese Books (1970-2008). The results demonstrate that a positive association between the usage of these terms during the periods in both Chinese and American books, with changes in words related to collectivism preceding changes in words related to corruption in American books. The theoretical and practical implications are also discussed. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. Historic Preservation, History, and the African American: A Discussion and Framework for Change (United States)


    gentrification or new development in historic inner-city areas. These newer tools, though troublesome, are now recognized for what they are, and are being met with...rezonings, and promises of new housing were 3 among the means. Destruction of neighborhoods, displacement, gentrification , and loss of cultural

  16. A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of Female African American Undergraduate Engineering Students at a Predominantly White and an Historically Black Institution (United States)

    Frillman, Sharron Ann


    This phenomenological study examined the experiences of twelve female African Americans enrolled as fulltime undergraduate engineering students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, an historically Black university, and seven female African Americans enrolled as undergraduate engineering students at Purdue University in…

  17. An Intersectional Social Capital Analysis of the Influence of Historically Black Sororities on African American Women's College Experiences at a Predominantly White Institution (United States)

    Greyerbiehl, Lindsay; Mitchell, Donald, Jr.


    Research exploring the college experiences of African American women at predominantly White institutions (PWI) continues to be a necessity as African American women graduate at lower rates than their racial/ethnic peers. This qualitative study explored the influence historically Black sororities had on the college experiences of African American…

  18. Science self-efficacy of African Americans enrolled in freshman level physical science courses in two historically black institutions (United States)

    Prihoda, Belinda Ann


    Science education must be a priority for citizens to function and be productive in a global, technological society. African Americans receive fewer science degrees in proportion to the Caucasian population. The primary purposes of this study were to determine the difference between the pretest and posttest science self-efficacy scores of African-American nonscience majors, the difference between the pretest and posttest science self-efficacy scores of African-American science majors, the relationship between science self-efficacy and course grade, the relationship between gender and science self-efficacy score, and the relationship between science self-efficacy score and course withdrawal. This study utilized a Likert survey instrument. All participants were enrolled in freshman level courses in the physical sciences at a historically black institution: a college or university. Participants completed the pretest survey within two weeks after the 12th class day of the semester. Initially, 458 participants completed the pretest survey. The posttest was administered within two weeks before the final exam. Only 245 participants completed the posttest survey. Results indicate that there is a difference in science self-efficacy of science majors and nonscience majors. There was no significant difference between the pretest and posttest science self-efficacy scores of African-American science majors and nonscience majors. There was no significant relationship between science self-efficacy and course grade, gender and science self-efficacy score, and course withdrawal and science self-efficacy score.

  19. Historical Trends in Graduate Research and Training of Diplomates of the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (United States)

    Bethard, Jonathan D


    The history of forensic anthropology has been documented by numerous scholars. These contributions have described the work of early pioneers in the field and have described important milestones, such as the founding of the Physical Anthropology Section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) in 1972 and the American Board of Forensic Anthropology (ABFA) in 1977. This paper contributes to the growing literature on the history of forensic anthropology by documenting the academic training of all individuals who have been granted diplomate status by the ABFA (n = 115). Doctoral dissertation titles were queried to discern broad patterns of research foci. A total of 39 doctoral granting institutions have trained diplomates and 77.3% of board-certified forensic anthropologists wrote dissertations involving skeletal biology, bioarchaeology, or forensic anthropology. Board-certified forensic anthropologists are a broadly trained group of professionals with far-reaching anthropological interests and expertise. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Regulatory issues in merchant transmission investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunekreeft, G.


    Merchant investment in electricity transmission networks (MTI) is now legally allowed. Predominantly driven by the fear of underinvestment, regulators examine this possibility and given that MTI is a possibility, the regulators face a new set of questions. This paper raises and examines regulatory questions especially from a European institutional framework. The regulatory issues concern the competition effect, the ownership, access regime and the must-offer provision. The paper argues to leave light-handed unregulated MTI light handed and refrain from additional measures. In most cases, it is justified to refrain from sector-specific arrangements because competition,law, if necessary at all, will suffice. However, details matter. (author)

  1. Merchant shipping (Safety Convention) Act 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    When this Act comes into force, it will enable the United Kingdom to ratify and to give effect to the 1974 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (the SOLAS Convention) which replaces the SOLAS Convention of 1960. Under the Act, the Secretary of State may make such rules as he considers appropriate regarding ships provided with nuclear power plants in accordance with Chapter VIII of the Annex to the 1974 Convention and to Recommendations attached to it, dealing with nuclear ships, and insofar as those provisions have not been implemented by the Merchant Shipping Acts 1894 to 1974. (NEA) [fr

  2. Total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume models for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume models for miombo woodlands of Malawi. Daud J Kachamba, Tron Eid. Abstract. The objective of this study was to develop general (multispecies) models for prediction of total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume including options with diameter at breast height (dbh) ...

  3. 76 FR 16434 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... C. Gould, Commandant (CG-5221), Attention MERPAC, U.S. Coast Guard, 2100 Second St., SW., STOP 7126.... merchant marine, including but not limited to training, qualifications, certification, documentation, and... Qualified Members of the Engine Department; and (4) one Pilot who represents the viewpoint of merchant...

  4. Historical perspective on the reintroduction of the fisher and American marten in Michigan and Wisconsin (United States)

    Bronwyn W. Williams; Jonathan H. Gilbert; Patrick A. Zollner


    Management of mustelid species such as fishers and martens requires an understanding of the history of local populations. This is particularly true in areas where populations were extirpated and restored through reintroduction efforts. During the late 19th and 20th centuries, fishers (Martes pennanti) and American martens (Martes americana...

  5. Afro-American Innovation and the Folk Tradition in Jazz: Their Historical Significance. (United States)

    Kofsky, Frank


    This paper illustrates the ways in which the social environment can confer advantages on Black youth with respect to the playing of Afro-American music. The significance of mechanisms that Blacks have elaborated to maintain certain aspects of their culture for the writing of Black history is also explored. (Author/EB)

  6. The Teaching of Reference in American Library Schools. Historical Paper 4 (United States)

    Cheney, Frances Neel


    In this article, the author proposes to present a superficial view of what is being taught in the 32 American Library Association accredited graduate library schools. She briefly discusses and answers the following three questions: (1) Who is teaching reference?; (2) What is being taught?; and (3) How is it being taught? [For the commentary on…

  7. Historical Perspectives on Diverse Asian American Communities: Immigration, Incorporation, and Education (United States)

    Paik, Susan J.; Kula, Stacy M.; Saito, L. Erika; Rahman, Zaynah; Witenstein, Matthew A.


    Background/Context: Asian Americans have recently been reported as the largest incoming immigrant population and the fastest growing racial group. Diverse in culture, tradition, language, and history, they have unique immigrant stories both before and after the Immigration Act in 1965. Historians, sociologists, educators, and other experts inform…

  8. Historic American Landscapes Survey: Arco Naval Proving Ground (Idaho National Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Christina [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Holmer, Marie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gilbert, Hollie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Based on historical evaluations in 1993 and 1997, historians determined that the then-remaining Arco NPG structures were significant to the nation’s history through their association with World War II . Through ensuing discussions with the SHPO, it was further determined that the infrastructure and associated landscape were also significant. According to provisions of INL’s Cultural Resource Management Plan (CRMP) as legitimized through a 2004 Programmatic Agreement between DOE-ID, the Idaho State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO), and Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) historians identified the World War II structures as DOE “Signature Properties”. As defined by DOE-HQ, Signature Properties “denote its [DOE’s] most historically important properties across the complex…and/or those properties that are viewed as having tourism potential.” The INL is a secure site and the INL land and structures are not accessible to the public and, therefore have no “tourism potential”. Although DOE-ID actively sought other uses for the vacant, unused buildings, none were identified and the buildings present safety and health concerns. A condition assessment found lead based paint, asbestos, rodent infestation/droppings, small animal carcasses, mold, and, in CF-633, areas of radiological contamination. In early 2013, DOE-ID notified the Idaho SHPO, ACHP, and, as required by the INL CRMP and PA, DOE-Headquarters Federal Preservation Officer, of their intent to demolish the vacant buildings (CF-606, CF-607, CF-613, CF-632, and CF-633). The proposed “end-state” of the buildings will be either grass and/or gravel pads. Through the NHPA Section 106 consultation process, measures to mitigate the adverse impacts of demolition were determined and agreed to through a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between DOE-ID, SHPO, and ACHP. The measures include the development and installation of interpretive signs to be placed at a publicly accessible location

  9. American Grand Strategy: A Critical Analysis of the Historical Strategy to Balance Liberty and Order (United States)


    for $18.25 million in the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo , which successfully ended the occupation and the Mexican-American War. 84 Ultimately...reestablished and the border dispute was resolved between the two nations in the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo , which restored the security of...America’s National Identity. New York: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 2005. Ikenberry, G. John, and Anne Marie Slaughter. ―Forging a World of Liberty

  10. The Durability of Cultural Influences: How American Foreign Policy Reinforced Historical Biases in El Salvador (United States)


    America Since 1920,” Journal of Latin American Studies, 1983: 276. 11 Kevin Sullivan, “El Salvador: On Unfinished Road to Reform; Despite Being...different than those of President Carter. In fact, a substantial part of his party plank cited key differences between his and the ex-president’s Central...true: Castro himself was influential with FMLN leadership ; in fact, the FMLN formed at his urging.42 The full extent to which Castro, the Soviets or

  11. Henry Hollingsworth Smith and His Bibliographical Index and Historical Record: The Beginning of American Surgical Historiography. (United States)

    Rutkow, Ira


    To explore the details of Henry Hollingsworth Smith's (1815-1890) achievement as the first physician to organize in a systematic and chronologic manner the details of the history of surgery in America and prepare a register of men who performed surgical operations. The life of Smith, the earliest of the nation's surgeons to elucidate the history of American surgery, is little known. His boosting the image of the scalpel wielder helped shape the future of the craft, in particular, surgery's rise as a specialty and profession. An analysis of the published medical literature and unpublished documents relating to Smith and his work to document the history of American surgery. During the 1850 s, a time when surgery was not considered a separate branch of medicine but a mere technical mode of treatment, Smith's efforts in surgical history provided much needed encouragement to surgeons in their pursuit of professional recognition. Although Smith's accomplishment as the nation's first compiler of the history of American surgery has long been forgotten, his effort afforded the men who performed surgical operations their earliest measure of self-respect. As such, Smith belongs in America's pantheon of surgical heroes.

  12. Economists, capitalists, and the making of globalization: North American free trade in comparative-historical perspective. (United States)

    Fairbrother, Malcolm


    Why did globalization happen? Current explanations point to a variety of conditions under which states have made the free market policy changes driving international economic integration since the 1980s. Such accounts disagree, however, about the key actors involved. This article provides a reconciliation, showing how two different combinations of actors, and two different political economic pathways, have led to globalization in recent decades. In developed countries, mobilization by business has been central; elsewhere, technocrats both constrained and empowered by international finance have pursued globalization more independently of business. In both contexts, economists' technical authority has helped legitimate liberalization, despite the limited diffusion of their ideas. The article validates and elaborates this model using a comparative-historical study of how the United States, Canada, and Mexico proposed, negotiated, and ratified agreements for free trade in North America.

  13. Lead isotopes in soils near five historic American lead smelters and refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinowitz, Michael B.


    This survey of soil lead in the vicinity of old industrial sites examines how the stable isotope patterns vary among the sites according to the sources of the lead ore processed at each site. Lead smelters and refineries, which closed down decades ago, are the basis of this investigation. Samples were taken from near five old factory sites in Collinsville and Alton (Illinois), Ponderay (Idaho), East Chicago (Indiana) and Omaha (Nebraska). Historical records were searched for accounts of the sources of the lead. Lead concentrations were measured by atomic absorption flame spectrophotometry, and stable isotopic analysis was done by plasma ionization mass spectrometry. At every site visited, remnants of the old factories, in terms of soil lead pollution, could be found. In spite of potential complications of varying smelter feedstock sourced from mines of different geological age, it was possible to match the isotopic patterns in the soils with the documented sources of the ores. The Collinsville and Alton sites resembled Missouri lead. The Ponderay value was higher than major Bunker Hill, Idaho deposits, but closer to the minor, nearby Oreille County, Washington ores. Mostly Utah ore was used in East Chicago. The Omaha soil reflects lead from Mexico, Colorado and Montana

  14. Historic American Engineering Record, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Stacy; Julie Braun


    Just as automobiles need fuel to operate, so do nuclear reactors. When fossil fuels such as gasoline are burned to power an automobile, they are consumed immediately and nearly completely in the process. When the fuel is gone, energy production stops. Nuclear reactors are incapable of achieving this near complete burn-up because as the fuel (uranium) that powers them is burned through the process of nuclear fission, a variety of other elements are also created and become intimately associated with the uranium. Because they absorb neutrons, which energize the fission process, these accumulating fission products eventually poison the fuel by stopping the production of energy from it. The fission products may also damage the structural integrity of the fuel elements. Even though the uranium fuel is still present, sometimes in significant quantities, it is unburnable and will not power a reactor unless it is separated from the neutron-absorbing fission products by a method called fuel reprocessing. Construction of the Fuel Reprocessing Complex at the Chem Plant started in 1950 with the Bechtel Corporation serving as construction contractor and American Cyanamid Company as operating contractor. Although the Foster Wheeler Corporation assumed responsibility for the detailed working design of the overall plant, scientists at Oak Ridge designed all of the equipment that would be employed in the uranium separations process. After three years of construction activity and extensive testing, the plant was ready to handle its first load of irradiated fuel.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    pose the greatest threat to increased food production, storage and handling ... are to: assess pest control practices of grain merchants in Mubi markets with a .... This further cements the fact that multiple routes of contaminations are possible.




  17. The sexual behavior of American college women: an empirical study and an historical survey. (United States)

    Freedman, M B


    A ramdom sample of 49 seniors at an Eastern women's college is used as the basis for a study on the sexual behavior of college women. The women, who were primarily from the upper middle classes, were interviewed several times a year beginning in their freshman year. Sexual behavior was placed into 5 catagories: limited experience, restricted petting, extensive petting, intercourse confined to serious relationships, and uninhibited behavior. Only 6% exhibited unhibited behavior. 16% had had intercourse with 1 or 2 men with whom they had ha d serious relationships. 41% indulged in extensive petting; 27% in restricted petting; and 10% had had limited experience, which is described as simply kissing. Most of the subjects were content with their status quo. Many experienced a liberalization of their attitudes toward sexual behavior for others during the 4-year college experience, but not for themselves. Reasons for remaining a virgin were practical. There was a singular lack of abstract moral or ethical considerations. The only personality scale that related significantly to the catagories for both freshmen and seniors was the Impulse Expression scale--at the .01 level for freshmen and the .05 level for seniors. The data presented are consistent with those of other studies which report the incidence of nonvirginity among college women to be 25% or lower. The incidence of nonvirginity has changed little since the 1930s. However, the incidence of female homosexuality among college women has decreased sharply since the 1920s. It is concluded that American college students may have evolved patterns of sexual behavior that will remain stable. This behavior consists of petting, intercourse among some engaged couples, and early marriage.

  18. An Analysis of Stereotype Threat in African American Engineering Students at Predominantly White, Ethnically Diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (United States)

    Sparks, David M.


    The purpose of this research was to distinguish the similarities and differences in coping strategies of African American engineering students by analyzing their perceptions of stereotype threat at three academic institution types, Predominantly White Institutions (PWI), ethnically diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).…

  19. Merchants of Death: Media Violence and American Empire. (United States)

    Trend, David


    Research has done little to advance understanding of who accesses the violent imagery in popular culture. The narrow perspective provided by mass-produced media violence must be broadened by critical viewpoints that provide information people need to participate in the democratic process. (Contains 85 reference notes.) (SK)

  20. 17 CFR 1.12 - Maintenance of minimum financial requirements by futures commission merchants and introducing... (United States)


    ... the Securities and Exchange Commission (17 CFR 240.17a-11(c)), must file written notice to that effect... futures commission merchant or as a leverage transaction merchant must be liquidated immediately... leverage transaction merchant shall be only for the purposes of liquidation, because that clearing member...

  1. 12 CFR 225.174 - What aggregate thresholds apply to merchant banking investments? (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What aggregate thresholds apply to merchant banking investments? 225.174 Section 225.174 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF...) Regulations Merchant Banking Investments § 225.174 What aggregate thresholds apply to merchant banking...

  2. 12 CFR 1500.5 - What aggregate thresholds apply to merchant banking investments? (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What aggregate thresholds apply to merchant banking investments? 1500.5 Section 1500.5 Banks and Banking DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS MERCHANT BANKING INVESTMENTS § 1500.5 What aggregate thresholds apply to merchant banking investments? (a...

  3. Merchant electricity transmission expansion: A European case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristiansen, T. [RBS Sempra Commodities, 155 Bishopsgate, London EC2M3TZ (United Kingdom); Rosellon, J. [Centro de Investigacion y Docencia Economicas (CIDE), Division de Economia, Carretera Mexico-Toluca 3655, Lomas de Santa Fe, 01210 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Mohrenstrasse 58, 10117, Berlin (Germany)


    We apply a merchant transmission model to the trilateral market coupling (TLC) arrangement among the Netherlands, Belgium and France as an example, and note that it could further be applied to other market splitting or coupling of Europe's different national power markets. In this merchant framework the system operator allocates financial transmission rights (FTRs) to investors in transmission expansion based upon their preferences, and revenue adequacy. The independent system operator (ISO) preserves some proxy FTRs to manage potential negative externalities that may result from expansion projects. This scheme could help European market coupling arrangements attract additional investment. (author)

  4. Merchant electricity transmission expansion: A European case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, T.; Rosellon, J.


    We apply a merchant transmission model to the trilateral market coupling (TLC) arrangement among the Netherlands, Belgium and France as an example, and note that it could further be applied to other market splitting or coupling of Europe's different national power markets. In this merchant framework the system operator allocates financial transmission rights (FTRs) to investors in transmission expansion based upon their preferences, and revenue adequacy. The independent system operator (ISO) preserves some proxy FTRs to manage potential negative externalities that may result from expansion projects. This scheme could help European market coupling arrangements attract additional investment. (author)

  5. The merchant shipping (dangerous goods) (amendment) rules 1980 No. 789

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    These Rules amend the Merchant Shipping Rules 1978 and revoke the Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) (Amendment) Rules 1979. The purpose of this amendment is to update the references to the 1978 Report of the Department of Trade's Standing Advisory Committee on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods in Ships (the Blue Book) and the 1977 Edition of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code of IMCO (the IMDG Code), referred to in the 1978 Rules. The amendments concern, inter alia, marking of packages on board ship which contain dangerous goods, including radioactive materials (NEA) [fr

  6. AHR and CYP1A expression link historical contamination events to modern day developmental effects in the American alligator. (United States)

    Hale, Matthew D; Galligan, Thomas M; Rainwater, Thomas R; Moore, Brandon C; Wilkinson, Philip M; Guillette, Louis J; Parrott, Benjamin B


    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that initiates a transcriptional pathway responsible for the expression of CYP1A subfamily members, key to the metabolism of xenobiotic compounds. Toxic planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, including dioxin and PCBs, are capable of activating the AHR, and while dioxin and PCB inputs into the environment have been dramatically curbed following strict regulatory efforts in the United States, they persist in the environment and exposures remain relevant today. Little is known regarding the effects that long-term chronic exposures to dioxin or dioxin-like compounds might have on the development and subsequent health of offspring from exposed individuals, nor is much known regarding AHR expression in reptilians. Here, we characterize AHR and CYP1A gene expression in embryonic and juvenile specimen of a long-lived, apex predator, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), and investigate variation in gene expression profiles in offspring collected from sites conveying differential exposures to environmental contaminants. Both age- and tissue-dependent patterning of AHR isoform expression are detected. We characterize two downstream transcriptional targets of the AHR, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, and describe conserved elements of their genomic architecture. When comparisons across different sites are made, hepatic expression of CYP1A2, a direct target of the AHR, appears elevated in embryos from a site associated with a dioxin point source and previously characterized PCB contamination. Elevated CYP1A2 expression is not persistent, as site-specific variation was absent in juveniles originating from field-collected eggs but reared under lab conditions. Our results illustrate the patterning of AHR gene expression in a long-lived environmental model species, and indicate a potential contemporary influence of historical contamination. This research presents a novel opportunity to link

  7. A Review of the Historical, Criminological, and Theoretical Understandings of the Cambodian American Population: A Call for More Comprehensive Research. (United States)

    Chheang, Dany; Connolly, Eric J


    The collective view of Asian Americans as model minorities is evident with the extensive amount of statistical data showing support for the academic and socioeconomic success of Asian Americans in the United States. This perception, however, often presents an inaccurate portrayal of Asian Americans, in general, as it overlooks many of the difficulties and hardships experienced by Asian American ethnic groups such as Southeast Asians. Within this group, Cambodian Americans are at the highest risk for experiencing socioeconomic hardships, behavioral health problems, substance use disorders, and contact with the criminal justice system, with deportation also being a prevailing issue. Unfortunately, research in this area is scant and contemporary research on Cambodian Americans has several limitations. To begin to address this issue, the present article merges information from existing research on this population from a sociohistorical, criminological, and theoretical standpoint to call for more comprehensive research on Cambodian Americans.

  8. 78 FR 11214 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... Certification of Fitness for Entry Level Ratings); and Development of competency requirements for engineers..., 2013 in Houston, TX, to discuss various issues related to the training and fitness of merchant marine..., documentation, and fitness standards. The Committee will advise, consult with, and make recommendations...

  9. 77 FR 47424 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... various issues related to the training and fitness of merchant marine personnel. This meeting will be open..., documentation, and fitness standards. The Committee will advise, consult with, and make [[Page 47425... Criteria) which can be used to assess mariner competencies listed in the International Convention on...

  10. 77 FR 12068 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee (United States)


    ..., 2012, in Burlingame, CA, to discuss various issues related to the training and fitness of merchant..., including but not limited to training, qualifications, certification, documentation, and fitness standards... used to assess mariner competencies listed in the International Convention on Standards of Training...

  11. 77 FR 11142 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee: Intercessional Meeting (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2012-0133] Merchant Marine Personnel... at the Hilton San Francisco Airport Bayfront Hotel, 600 Airport Blvd., Burlingame, CA 94010. For..., we are inviting public comment on the issues to be considered by the working group, which are listed...

  12. 77 FR 65570 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee: Intercessional Meeting (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2012-0968] Merchant Marine Personnel... hotel facilities or services for individuals with disabilities or to request special assistance, contact... comment on the issues to be considered by the work group, which are listed in the ``Agenda'' section below...

  13. 78 FR 33855 - Merchant Mariner Medical Advisory Committee: Intercessional Meeting (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2011-0138] Merchant Mariner Medical..., Maryland 20674-0075. For further information about the Paul Hall Center hotel facilities or services for... participation, we are inviting public comment on the issues to be considered by the working groups as listed in...

  14. Mortality among Danish merchant seamen from 1970 to 1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, L P; Kirk, N U; Jensen, O C


    A retrospective cohort study was performed to analyze the mortality patterns of Danish merchant seamen in the period 1970-1985. The population census in 1970 in Denmark was the source of information on individual occupation, age, and marital status. All men aged 20-64 years and economically activ...

  15. Merchant Banks Fortunes And Structureal Challenges Of Universal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Merchant Banks Fortunes And Structureal Challenges Of Universal Banking In The Port Harcourt Business Environment. ... The techniques adopted in the analysis of data included tabulation, simple percentage, and chi-square (X2). The findings indicated that, although the advent of universal banking has opened up a new ...

  16. 78 FR 35042 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee: Intercessional Meeting (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2013-0407] Merchant Marine Personnel... Labor Organization's Maritime Labour Convention, 2006.'' This meeting will be open to the public. DATES... words ``Department of Homeland Security'' and the docket number for this action. Comments received will...

  17. A Teacher's Guide for "The Merchant of Venice" and "Othello." (United States)

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    William Shakespeare has influenced most, if not all, Western playwrights. His techniques, themes, characters, and plots are contained in much of what is produced today, from television to Broadway. This teacher's guide provides summaries of the plays "The Merchant of Venice" and "Othello," essays, and corresponding student…




  19. Case Studies in Censorship: Censoring "The Merchant of Venice." (United States)

    Gray, Richard A.


    Reviews censorship of "The Merchant of Venice," which has been based on its portrayal of the Jewish character Shylock. Background information is followed by an annotated bibliography which includes 15 citations dealing with Shylock, 22 citations to articles that address the censorship of the play, and 64 works of literature that have…




  1. Using "The Merchant of Venice" in Teaching Monetary Economics. (United States)

    Kish-Goodling, Donna M.


    Uses the theme of usury in Shakespeare's "The Merchant of Venice," and the history of Christian and Jewish beliefs concerning the charging of interest on loans to crystallize lending practices throughout history, particularly the medieval period and the transition to modern capitalism. Outlines themes addressed in the unit and…

  2. 78 FR 19725 - Merchant Mariner Medical Evaluation Program (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2013-0089] Merchant Mariner Medical... the comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review a... evaluation, noting advantages and disadvantages of the different systems. We would also be interested in...

  3. Accuracy of visual wave observation from merchant ships and estimated wave loads; Accuracy of visual wave observation from merchant ships and estimated wave loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabe, H. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan); Masaoka, K. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    There is a large number of studies on discussions concerning accuracy of visual observation of waves and the correction method thereon. This paper give considerations on observation accuracy placing a viewpoint on that by merchant ships. Based on ship meteorological observation tables reported to the Meteorological Agency of Japan on meteorology in North Pacific during 14 years from 1976 to1989, wave observation values taken by merchant ships and observation ships were compared statistically to investigate the accuracy of visual wave observations carried out by merchant ships. With regard to wave heights, the observation values taken by the observation ships and the merchant ships have strong correlation, where the merchant ships evaluate them somewhat higher than the observation ships. Regarding wave cycles of wind waves, the merchant ships tend to have the observation values on longer cycle side. Correlation between the observations values by the merchant ships and the observation ships is weak both in wind waves and swells. There is not much of variation in accuracy of observations during daytime and at night performed by the merchant ships. It will be necessary in the future to give considerations on a method to correct the observation values on wave cycles taken by the merchant ship, and on a correction method in which both of the wave cycles and the wave heights are corrected simultaneously to make the observation values of the merchant ship equal to those of the observation ships. Thus, the observation values reported by general merchant ships in a large number every year will have to be utilized more effectively. 11 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. History of Indian Arts Education in Santa Fe: The Institute of American Indian Arts with Historical Background 1890 to 1962. (United States)

    Garmhausen, Winona

    This book traces the history of the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Sections cover four time periods in the evolution of the Institute: the United States Indian Industrial School at Sante Fe, 1890-1932; the Santa Fe Indian School, 1930-62; and the Institute of American Indian Arts, 1962-70 and 1970-78. The United States…

  5. An analysis of stereotype threat in African American engineering students at predominantly White, ethnically diverse, and historically Black colleges and universities (United States)

    Sparks, David M.

    The purpose of this research was to distinguish the similarities and differences in coping strategies of African American engineering students by analyzing their perceptions of stereotype threat at three academic institution types, Predominantly White Institutions (PWI), ethnically diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). The researcher collected demographic and survey data using the Stereotype Vulnerability Scale (SVS). The study was offered to the entire population of African American engineering students at each college using an online survey. Results were analyzed using MANOVA and Pearson's correlational statistical analyses to test the hypotheses. Findings revealed that little differences exist between students' scores on an assessment of stereotype vulnerability, with a few areas showing that HBCUs and ethnically diverse universities are doing a similar job in addressing perceptions of their African American engineering students. Finding also revealed that the percentage of African American students at a university did not correlate with the scores on the SVS accept on questions related to the personal feelings students have about their race. The strongest findings related to the differences in male and female students across the universities. African American female engineering students appeared to perceive more stereotype threat than did their male counterparts; although, this fining was not statistically significant. Overall, no statistically significant differences were found between students' perceptions of stereotype threat at the three types of universities. Future research should expand the number of survey participants at the current universities, add more HBCUs to the study population, run similar experiments in different parts of the country, compare stereotype threat in private and elite universities, use ethnically diverse universities as models for minority student development, and use new or improved survey instruments

  6. Collateral Composition, Diversification Risk, and Systemically Important Merchant Banks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Derviz, Alexis


    Roč. 14, Special Issue (2014), s. 23-34 ISSN 1572-3089 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11983S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : collateral * systemic risk * merchant bank * CoCo Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.506, year: 2014

  7. EUV mask manufacturing readiness in the merchant mask industry (United States)

    Green, Michael; Choi, Yohan; Ham, Young; Kamberian, Henry; Progler, Chris; Tseng, Shih-En; Chiou, Tsann-Bim; Miyazaki, Junji; Lammers, Ad; Chen, Alek


    As nodes progress into the 7nm and below regime, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) becomes critical for all industry participants interested in remaining at the leading edge. One key cost driver for EUV in the supply chain is the reflective EUV mask. As of today, the relatively few end users of EUV consist primarily of integrated device manufactures (IDMs) and foundries that have internal (captive) mask manufacturing capability. At the same time, strong and early participation in EUV by the merchant mask industry should bring value to these chip makers, aiding the wide-scale adoption of EUV in the future. For this, merchants need access to high quality, representative test vehicles to develop and validate their own processes. This business circumstance provides the motivation for merchants to form Joint Development Partnerships (JDPs) with IDMs, foundries, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and other members of the EUV supplier ecosystem that leverage complementary strengths. In this paper, we will show how, through a collaborative supplier JDP model between a merchant and OEM, a novel, test chip driven strategy is applied to guide and validate mask level process development. We demonstrate how an EUV test vehicle (TV) is generated for mask process characterization in advance of receiving chip maker-specific designs. We utilize the TV to carry out mask process "stress testing" to define process boundary conditions which can be used to create Mask Rule Check (MRC) rules as well as serve as baseline conditions for future process improvement. We utilize Advanced Mask Characterization (AMC) techniques to understand process capability on designs of varying complexity that include EUV OPC models with and without sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs). Through these collaborations, we demonstrate ways to develop EUV processes and reduce implementation risks for eventual mass production. By reducing these risks, we hope to expand access to EUV mask capability for

  8. The Manitoba-Ontario intertie : perspectives of a merchant transmission developer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beers, R.


    This presentation discussed merchant transmission models for the Manitoba-Ontario intertie. Merchant transmission involves the reallocation of risk from rate payers to investors and facility users. Merchant transmission is now a niche market due to the fact that the power industry is now more centrally planned. However, merchant transmission structures limit the ability to fully assess congestion and nodal values, and governments continue to retain control of the power sector. Power generation and contracting trends are now changing as a result of market liberalization. In order to be successful, power merchants require financial markets that possess an understanding of the electricity sector. In a merchant transmission scenario, the sizing, timing, connection points, and tariffs will be determined by demonstrated commercial value, and not by central planning principles. The presentation included consideration of government block contracts and reverse block contracts. Details of the Montana-Alberta intertie project were also provided. tabs., figs

  9. Adapting an Evidence-Based HIV Intervention for At-Risk African American College Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities Who Use Alcohol and Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyla Marie Sawyer-Kurian


    Full Text Available The convergence of the high prevalence of HIV incidence among African American adolescent and adult women along with substance use and risky sexual behavior among university students necessitates the development of a HIV intervention specifically addressing culture, gender, and college factors for female African American university students. The woman-focused HIV intervention was chosen for adaptation because it has been shown to be efficacious with reducing risk for African American women who use alcohol and drugs, and has been successfully adapted 7 times. The target population was African American college women enrolled at a historically Black university who use alcohol and other drugs, and who engaged in risky sex behaviors. To understand and assess the needs of this population, we conducted four focus groups with African American college women, two in-depth interviews with faculty, and a combination of in-depth interviews and focus groups with student affairs and health staff that were analyzed using content analysis. From this analysis, several themes emerged that were used to adapt the intervention. Emerging themes included challenges related to identity and societal stereotypes, lack of knowledge about sexual health (i.e., negotiating safer sex and the function of female and male anatomies, high incidents of pregnancy, negative consequences related to alcohol and marijuana use, and the need to incorporate testimonies from college students, media enhancements, and role-plays to convey intervention messages. After the preliminary adaptation, 11 college women reviewed the adapted intervention and provided positive feedback. Plans for future research are discussed.

  10. A hermeneutic phenomenological study of the experiences of female African American undergraduate engineering students at a predominantly White and an historically Black institution (United States)

    Frillman, Sharron Ann


    This phenomenological study examined the experiences of twelve female African Americans enrolled as fulltime undergraduate engineering students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, an historically Black university, and seven female African Americans enrolled as undergraduate engineering students at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, a traditionally White institution. Interviews provided insights into the "lived" experiences of these young women and the factors they believe have contributed to their success in their respective engineering programs. Data analysis involved coding each participant's responses to interview questions using Atlas.ti, a powerful qualitative data analysis tool. This generated 181 codes that were further categorized into nine emergent themes, indicating the potential for extensive associations among the variables. The emergent themes are as follows: (1) Demographic information/special circumstances, (2) Personal attributes and characteristics, (3) Personal insights, (4) Sense of mission, (5) Sources of negative stress, (6) Success strategies, (7) Various forms of support, (8) Would/would not have made it to where she is now, and (9) Being African American and female in engineering. Analysis of these themes and their relationships led to the development of the Frillman Model of Emergent Themes in Female African American Engineering Students. Success. In addressing similarities and differences, three overriding theme categories emerged. These were: (1) Four personhood themes and dual social identity theme; (2) Environmental input and response theme; and (3) Outcome emergent theme of Would/Would not have made it to where she is now. Recommendations were made for future research to expand upon this exploratory study.

  11. Gender, mathematics, reading comprehension and science reasoning as predictors of science achievement among African-American students at a historical black college or university (United States)

    Davis, Consuella Artiemese

    This study investigated predictors that influence the science achievement of African-American non-science majors in a Physical Science class. The population consisted of male and female college students enrolled in Physical Science courses at a historical black college or university (HBCU) located in the southeastern portion of the United States. A personal data information sheet was administered to 120 participants during the Fall of 2008. The personal data information sheet consisted of questions pertaining to the high school courses, students took in math, language arts and science. It also consisted of basic background information. Students also gave written consent for their midterm and final grades earned in Physical Science to be used in the study as part of the analyses. A t-Test including chi-square tests revealed that there was not a significant difference in the raw scores of African-American females and African American males on the American College Test. A significant difference was not observed between the females and males on the ACT math subtest, t (118) = -.78, p = .43; reading comprehension subtest, t (118) = -1.44, .15 or on the science reasoning subtest, t (118) = -1.46, p = .15. A significant difference was not found between the final grades of African American females and the final grades of African American males. Chi-square tests were conducted to determine goodness of fit, X2 = 6.11, df = 1, p = .191. Although the grades of females were higher than males, results were not significant. The correlation between math ACT and final grades were not significant, r = .131, N = 120, p = .155, reading comprehension ACT and final grades were not significant, r = .072, N = 120, p = .434 and science reasoning ACT and final grades were found not to be significant, r = .109, N = 120, p = .237. Being that the majority of students who participated in the study were from one state, had similar high school backgrounds, had similar majors and were similar in

  12. Safe manning of merchant ships: an approach and computer tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, Alexandre; Kozin, Igor


    In the shipping industry, staffing expenses have become a vital competition parameter. In this paper, an approach and a software tool are presented to support decisions on the staffing of merchant ships. The tool is implemented in the form of a Web user interface that makes use of discrete......-event simulation and allows estimation of the workload and of whether different scenarios are successfully performed taking account of the number of crewmembers, watch schedules, distribution of competencies, and others. The software library ‘SimManning’ at the core of the project is provided as open source...

  13. Shakespeare and Christianity—Studies in the Merchant of Venice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Christianity, by far the most influential religion in the west, touches every phase of man's life so much so that it has shaped the western civilization more decisively and become the blood of western culture. William Shakespeare is the greatest hu-manist, but he is also a Christian rooted in western culture, so it is observed that Shakespeare's thinking pattern and writing were influenced by Christianity. The paper, taking the Merchant of Venice as an example, analyzed Biblical references in Shake-speare's thinking pattern, Christianity and Shakespeare's idealistic character.

  14. 10 CFR 1042.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institutions. 1042.210 Section 1042.210 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE....210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to...

  15. 10 CFR 5.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institutions. 5.210 Section 5.210 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN... merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational...

  16. 17 CFR 155.3 - Trading standards for futures commission merchants. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trading standards for futures commission merchants. 155.3 Section 155.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION TRADING STANDARDS § 155.3 Trading standards for futures commission merchants. (a) Each futures...

  17. 28 CFR 54.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institutions. 54.210 Section 54.210 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION... Coverage § 54.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susan Stacy; Hollie K. Gilbert


    Test Area North (TAN) was a site of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion (ANP) Project of the U.S. Air Force and the Atomic Energy Commission. Its Cold War mission was to develop a turbojet bomber propelled by nuclear power. The project was part of an arms race. Test activities took place in five areas at TAN. The Assembly and Maintenance area was a shop and hot cell complex. Nuclear tests ran at the Initial Engine Test area. Low-power test reactors operated at a third cluster. The fourth area was for Administration. A Flight Engine Test facility (hangar) was built to house the anticipated nuclear-powered aircraft. Experiments between 1955-1961 proved that a nuclear reactor could power a jet engine, but President John F. Kennedy canceled the project in March 1961. ANP facilities were adapted for new reactor projects, the most important of which were Loss of Fluid Tests (LOFT), part of an international safety program for commercial power reactors. Other projects included NASA's Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power and storage of Three Mile Island meltdown debris. National missions for TAN in reactor research and safety research have expired; demolition of historic TAN buildings is underway


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Stacy; Hollie K. Gilbert


    Test Area North (TAN) was a site of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion (ANP) Project of the U.S. Air Force and the Atomic Energy Commission. Its Cold War mission was to develop a turbojet bomber propelled by nuclear power. The project was part of an arms race. Test activities took place in five areas at TAN. The Assembly & Maintenance area was a shop and hot cell complex. Nuclear tests ran at the Initial Engine Test area. Low-power test reactors operated at a third cluster. The fourth area was for Administration. A Flight Engine Test facility (hangar) was built to house the anticipated nuclear-powered aircraft. Experiments between 1955-1961 proved that a nuclear reactor could power a jet engine, but President John F. Kennedy canceled the project in March 1961. ANP facilities were adapted for new reactor projects, the most important of which were Loss of Fluid Tests (LOFT), part of an international safety program for commercial power reactors. Other projects included NASA's Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power and storage of Three Mile Island meltdown debris. National missions for TAN in reactor research and safety research have expired; demolition of historic TAN buildings is underway.

  20. To Test or Not to Test: Barriers and Solutions to Testing African American College Students for HIV at a Historically Black College/University. (United States)

    Hall, Naomi M; Peterson, Jennifer; Johnson, Malynnda


    Young African Americans are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. The purpose was to identify reasons that African American college students at a historically Black college/university (HBCU) identified as barriers to HIV testing, and how these barriers can be removed. Fifty-seven heterosexual-identified undergraduate students (ages 18-25) attending an HBCU in the southeastern US participated in a mixed method study. Latent content analytic techniques were used to code the transcripts for themes and categories, and representative quotations were used in the findings. Quantitative data indicates high levels of perceived knowledge about HIV transmission, low perception of risk and concern of contracting HIV, yet continued sexual risk behavior. Qualitative data indicates three main themes used to avoid testing and three themes to encourage testing. Students were forthcoming in discussing the themes around avoidance of HIV testing (being scared to know, preferring not to know, and lack of discussion about HIV) and encouraging testing (group testing, increasing basic knowledge, and showing the reality of HIV). It is important for college healthcare professionals, researchers, and officials to identify appropriate ways to encourage HIV testing, and promote testing as part of overall health.

  1. Trusteeship and Cooperation in the Flemish merchants community in Cadiz: The brotherhood of “San Andrés de los Flamencos” (17th-18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr Ana Crespo Solana


    Full Text Available  This article presents information on the development, over the centuries, of a little known aspect of the communities of foreign Merchants who settled in Spanish cities during the Modern Age. Using previously unpublished documents, relating to the “Ilustre y Antigua Nación Flamenca” of Seville and Cádiz, the article aims to give a description of the charitable activities carried out by the colony of merchants in Seville and, especially, in Cádiz, who were natives of the Southern Low Countries and the Dutch Republic. This merchant community had assigned the administration of a “Patronato” to their brotherhood, which included the control of numerous items of furniture and properties of great value. The description of this religious and benevolent activity gives a no less interesting view, when compared with the purely economic one, of its importance on the integration of these communities into the Spanish society of the 17th and 18th centuries. This research has been made with historical documents from Spanish Archives (Cádiz, Madrid and Alcalá de Henares.

  2. Maritime Education and Training. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Merchant Marine of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries. House of Representatives. Ninety-Fourth Congress, First Session. (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries.

    The hearings focus on H.R. 1626 and H.R. 9864 (bills to increase the subsistence payments to students at State maritime academies) and H.R. 10413 and H.R. 10500 (bills to amend the Merchant Marine Act of 1936 and the Maritime Academy Act of 1958 to provide for an integrated system of education and training of officers for the U.S. Merchant Marine…

  3. 31 CFR 103.17 - Reports by futures commission merchants and introducing brokers in commodities of suspicious... (United States)


    ... merchants and introducing brokers in commodities of suspicious transactions. 103.17 Section 103.17 Money and... merchants and introducing brokers in commodities of suspicious transactions. (a) General—(1) Every futures commission merchant (“FCM”) and introducing broker in commodities (“IB-C”) within the United States shall...

  4. Interpretive analysis of the textual codes in the Parrot and Merchant story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Najafi


    Full Text Available Abstract Narratology is a brunch of semiology which considers any kind of narrative, literary or non literary, verbal or visual, story or non story and after this specifies the plot. One of the most important subjects in narratology is the interpretation of textual cods which based on can be understood a lot of hidden meanings. Molavi expresses a lot of mystic points in Mathnavi in narrative form which some of his ideas can be realized in the first study but these ideas aren’t all of subjects which he wants to say and a complex of different meaning is hidden in any narrative which can be revealed by consideration of cods.     In terminology of semiology, code is a special situation in historical process of all of indexes and signs which specified for synchronized analyze. In review of literary texts textual cods are more important. Textual cods are the cods which their ambit is more extended than few special text and links these texts to each other in an interpretational form. Aesthetic cods are a group of textual cods which are used in different arts like: poem, painting, theater, music and so on.       The style of expression of aesthetic cods is the same style of art and literature. In the review of Mathnavi's narratives paying attention to narrative cods and using them can be considered as paralinguistic signs. Narrative cods contain interpretational form which used by authors and commentators of texts. In the story of parrot and merchant the textual cods are as follows:   - Parrot: in this story parrot is a symbolic code which shows all of human soul's features.   - Merchant: in this story merchant act as a cultural code which indicates rich who always are solicitous about their finance and are unaware of spiritual world.    - India: in this story India as a signifier code indicates spiritual world. Hermeneutic cods   Molana uses codes which act as turning point and addressed can understand hidden meanings which haven

  5. Is the Merchant Power Producer a broken model?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, James; Simshauser, Paul


    Deregulated energy markets were founded on the Merchant Power Producer, a stand-alone generator that sold its production to the spot and short-term forward markets, underpinned by long-dated project finance. The initial enthusiasm that existed for investment in existing and new merchant power plant capacity shortly after power system deregulation has progressively dissipated, following an excess entry result. In this article, we demonstrate why this has become a global trend. Using debt-sizing parameters typically used by project banks, we model a benchmark plant, then re-simulate its performance using live energy market price data and find that such financings are no longer feasible in the absence of long-term Power Purchase Agreements. - Highlights: ► We model a hypothetical CCGT plant in QLD under project financing constraints typical of the industry. ► We simulate plant operations with live market data to analyse the results. ► We find that a plant which should represent the industry's long-run marginal cost is not a feasible investment.

  6. Food, drugs, and droods: a historical consideration of definitions and categories in American food and drug law. (United States)

    Grossman, Lewis A


    This Article explores the evolution and interaction of the legal and cultural categories "food" and "drug" from the late nineteenth century to the present. The federal statutory definitions of "food" and "drug" have always been ambiguous and plastic, providing the FDA with significant regulatory flexibility. Nevertheless, the agency is not necessarily free to interpret the definitions however it chooses. "Food" and "drug" are not only product classes defined by food and drug law, but also fundamental cultural concepts. This Article demonstrates that the FDA, as well as Congress and the courts, have operated within a constraining cultural matrix that has limited their freedom to impose their preferred understandings of these categories on American society. Nonetheless, history also provides ample evidence that lawmakers possess substantial power to mold the legal categories of "food" and "drug" so as to advance desired policies. One explanation for this regulatory flexibility in the face of deep-seated cultural conceptions is the indeterminate nature of the extralegal notions of "food" and "drug." The terms, as commonly understood, embrace nebulous, overlapping, and constantly evolving realms. Moreover, the relationship between culture and law is not a one-way street with respect to these categories. Although the regulatory apparatus has always had to take into account the extralegal understandings of "food" and "drug," the law in turn has exerted significant influence over their meaning in broader culture.

  7. Quantifying and predicting historical and future patterns of carbon fluxes from the North American Continent to Ocean (United States)

    Tian, H.; Zhang, B.; Xu, R.; Yang, J.; Yao, Y.; Pan, S.; Lohrenz, S. E.; Cai, W. J.; He, R.; Najjar, R. G.; Friedrichs, M. A. M.; Hofmann, E. E.


    Carbon export through river channels to coastal waters is a fundamental component of the global carbon cycle. Changes in the terrestrial environment, both natural (e.g., climatic change, enriched CO2 concentration, and elevated ozone concentration) and anthropogenic (e.g, deforestation, cropland expansion, and urbanization) have greatly altered carbon production, stocks, decomposition, movement and export from land to river and ocean systems. However, the magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of lateral carbon fluxes from land to oceans and the underlying mechanisms responsible for these fluxes remain far from certain. Here we applied a process-based land model with explicit representation of carbon processes in stream and rivers (Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model: DLEM 2.0) to examine how changes in climate, land use, atmospheric CO2, and nitrogen deposition have affected the carbon fluxes from North American continent to Ocean during 1980-2015. Our simulated results indicated that terrestrial carbon export shows substantially spatial and temporal variability. Of the five sub-regions (Arctic coast, Pacific coast, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic coast, and Great lakes), the Arctic sub-region provides the highest DOC flux, whereas the Gulf of Mexico sub-region provided the highest DIC flux. However, terrestrial carbon export to the arctic oceans showed increasing trends for both DOC and DIC, whereas DOC and DIC export to the Gulf of Mexico decreased in the recent decades. Future pattern of riverine carbon fluxes would be largely dependent on the climate change and land use scenarios.

  8. American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species (United States)


    We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama. PMID:24886629

  9. Elzevirian Republics, wise merchants, and new perspectives on Spain and Portugal in the seventeenth-century Dutch Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Rauschenbach


    Full Text Available Between 1625 and 1649, the Leiden publishing house Elzevir issued a series of thirty-five descriptions of all European, a selection of non-European, and three ancient states, that became known as the ‘Elzevirian Republics’. This essay focuses on two of these ‘Republics’, Johannes de Laet’s descriptions of Spain and Portugal. I argue that these books convey an attitude towards geopolitics that is best understood in the light of Caspar Barlaeus’s ideal of the ‘wise merchant’ (mercator sapiens and the historical regent-merchant culture in seventeenth-century Amsterdam. The essay draws on recent scholarship in the history of knowledge, commerce, and the pre-history of objectivity.

  10. Pacific-North American teleconnection and North Pacific Oscillation: historical simulation and future projection in CMIP5 models (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Gan, Bolan; Wu, Lixin; Jia, Fan


    Based on reanalysis datasets and as many as 35 CMIP5 models, this study evaluates the capability of climate models to simulate the spatiotemporal features of Pacific-North American teleconnection (PNA) and North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) in the twentieth century wintertime, and further investigates their responses to greenhouse warming in the twenty-first century. Analysis reveals that while the majority (80%) of models reasonably simulate either the geographical distribution or the amplitude of PNA/NPO pattern, only half of models can well capture both features in space. As for the temporal features, variabilities of PNA and NPO in most models are biased toward higher amplitude. Additionally, most models simulate the interannual variabilities of PNA and NPO, qualitatively consistent with the observation, whereas models generally lack the capability to reproduce the decadal (20-25 years) variability of PNA. As the climate warms under the strongest future warming scenario, the PNA intensity is found to be strengthened, whereas there is no consensus on the direction of change in the NPO intensity among models. The intensification of positive PNA is primarily manifested in the large deepening of the North Pacific trough, which is robust as it is 2.3 times the unforced internal variability. By focusing on the tropical Pacific Ocean, we find that the multidecadal evolution of the North Pacific trough intensity (dominating the PNA intensity evolution) is closely related to that of the analogous trough in the PNA-like teleconnection forced by sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTa) in the tropical central Pacific (CP) rather than the tropical eastern Pacific (EP). Such association is also found to act under greenhouse warming: that is, the strengthening of the PNA-like teleconnection induced by the CP SSTa rather than the EP SSTa is a driving force for the intensification of PNA. This is in part owing to the robust enhancement of the tropical precipitation response to

  11. Pacific-North American teleconnection and North Pacific Oscillation: historical simulation and future projection in CMIP5 models (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Gan, Bolan; Wu, Lixin; Jia, Fan


    Based on reanalysis datasets and as many as 35 CMIP5 models, this study evaluates the capability of climate models to simulate the spatiotemporal features of Pacific-North American teleconnection (PNA) and North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) in the twentieth century wintertime, and further investigates their responses to greenhouse warming in the twenty-first century. Analysis reveals that while the majority (80%) of models reasonably simulate either the geographical distribution or the amplitude of PNA/NPO pattern, only half of models can well capture both features in space. As for the temporal features, variabilities of PNA and NPO in most models are biased toward higher amplitude. Additionally, most models simulate the interannual variabilities of PNA and NPO, qualitatively consistent with the observation, whereas models generally lack the capability to reproduce the decadal (20-25 years) variability of PNA. As the climate warms under the strongest future warming scenario, the PNA intensity is found to be strengthened, whereas there is no consensus on the direction of change in the NPO intensity among models. The intensification of positive PNA is primarily manifested in the large deepening of the North Pacific trough, which is robust as it is 2.3 times the unforced internal variability. By focusing on the tropical Pacific Ocean, we find that the multidecadal evolution of the North Pacific trough intensity (dominating the PNA intensity evolution) is closely related to that of the analogous trough in the PNA-like teleconnection forced by sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTa) in the tropical central Pacific (CP) rather than the tropical eastern Pacific (EP). Such association is also found to act under greenhouse warming: that is, the strengthening of the PNA-like teleconnection induced by the CP SSTa rather than the EP SSTa is a driving force for the intensification of PNA. This is in part owing to the robust enhancement of the tropical precipitation response to

  12. Nuclear merchant ship propulsion. The present status in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsey, R.P.


    The latest report of the Nuclear Ship Stearing Group which deals with three important aspects; economic assessments, international safety and operating procedures for nuclear ships, and the industrial capability of the UK shipbuilding and nuclear industries, is discussed. The integral design concept for a pressurised water reactor for use as a marine reactor is considered. The operational safety aspects of such reactors and of the attendant refuelling facilities are discussed. U.K. capability in the whole nuclear merchant ship propulsion project is considered; reference being made to the design and construction of small PWR reactors, the development, design and supply of the nuclear propulsion unit, financial aspects, and the requirement for cooperation between industrial interests and governmental research units. (U.K.)

  13. Shield design development of nuclear propulsion merchant ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshihisa


    Shielding design both in Japan and abroad for nuclear propulsion merchant ships is explained, with emphasis on the various technological problems having occurred in the shield design for one-body type and separate type LWRs as conceptual design. The following matters are described: the peculiarities of the design as compared with the case of land-based nuclear reactors, problems in the design standards of shielding, the present status and development of the design methods, and the instances of the design; thereby, the trends of shielding design are disclosed. The following matters are pointed out: Importance of the optimum design, of shielding, significance of radiation streaming through large voids, activation of the secondary water in built-in type steam generators, and the need of the guides for shield design. (Mori, K.)

  14. The under-representation of African American women in the STEM fields within the academy: A historical profile and current perceptions (United States)

    Howard, Tenisha Senora

    This research project seeks to discover the reasons behind the underrepresentation of African American women (AAW) in higher education, particularly in the Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics fields. Why is there underrepresentation of AAW in the STEM fields? Research evidence has demonstrated that AAW face social disparities such as race, gender, and class in the academy. A lack of adequate mentoring and financial resources to support their research efforts are related to these disparities and present fundamental challenges for them. To conduct the inquiry about the barriers AAW have to overcome to achieve success in STEM disciplines, a qualitative research method was used to "attend to social, historical, and temporal context. The findings of these studies are tentatively applied; that is, they may be applicable in diverse situations based on comparability of other contexts" (Mariano, 1995, p. 464). The researcher collected data by conducting in-depth interviews with five participants, using an open-ended conversational format to facilitate the development of trust, rapport, and maximum elicitation of stories from the participants. The results suggest that AAW overcome barriers to successful STEM careers through their family and social ties, mentoring relationships as well as their religious practices.

  15. The new latin american historical novel: the deconstruction of a demonized profile built bythe chronicles between the years of 1559 and 1561.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmei Francisco Fleck


    Full Text Available By analyzing the literary piece Lope de Aguirre: Crónicas (1559-1561, by Mampel González and Escadell Tur (1981 we aim to verify this European conqueror profile that names the book. With the main focus on Aguirre, the six chronicles related in the book present the trajectory and the happenings in Pedro de Ursúa’s expedition, in 1560, in which he had the mission of finding the treasures of El Dorado. When he established a vital link with Peru region, Aguirre, in a letter do the Spanish Crown, denaturalizes himself from his domains, a fact that coincides with a pre-declaration of Independence of the American territory. Due to the course the expedition has taken, Aguirre is betrayed by his fellows, the ones who wrote texts full of convictions against the fragmented character. Based on that, this bibliographical investigation tries to recover Aguirre’s discursive image in the chronicles mentioned in order to, comparatively with the data from these chronicles, make reference to the historical novels like Daimón, by Abel Posse (1978 and Lope de Aguirre: Príncipe de la Libertad, by Miguel Otero Silva (1979.

  16. Stressful life events, ethnic identity, historical trauma, and participation in cultural activities: Associations with smoking behaviors among American Indian adolescents in California. (United States)

    Soto, Claradina; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Schwartz, Seth J; Unger, Jennifer B


    American Indian (AI) adolescents have the highest prevalence of commercial tobacco use of any ethnic group in the United States. This study examines ethnic identity (EI), participation in cultural activities, and stressful life events (SLEs) as correlates of smoking and examines historical trauma (HT) as a mediator of these associations. California AI youth (N = 969, ages 13-19, recruited from 49 tribal youth organizations and cultural activities in urban and reservation areas in California) completed a tobacco survey. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model examining HT as a potential mediator of the associations of EI, participation in cultural activities, and SLEs with cigarette smoking. Model fit was adequate. EI, participation in cultural activities, and SLEs predicted HT. HT mediated the associations of participation in cultural activities and SLEs with past-month smoking. Stronger EI predicted greater past-month smoking and this effect was mediated by greater HT. The direct effects from HT to both smoking outcomes were positive and the direct effect from EI to past-month smoking was negative. HT is a risk factor for cigarette smoking both directly and in mediating the links of EI, cultural activities, and SLEs. More efforts are needed to help AI youth to process these thoughts and empower themselves to contribute to their own lives and those of their families and communities without resorting to unhealthy addictive behaviors such as commercial tobacco use. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Historical Collage Drawings (United States)

    Billington, Lisa


    Helping students learn how to interpret and analyze imagery is an important skill. With last year's historical election of the first African American president, it was an opportune time to explore where Americans are going as a nation and what kind of future they envision. Middle-school students are eager to give their opinions, but learning to…

  18. 17 CFR 1.14 - Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for futures commission merchants. (United States)


    ... regarding sources of funding, together with a narrative discussion by management of the liquidity of the... to any futures commission merchant which holds funds or property of or for futures customers of less...

  19. Work environment and safety climate in the Swedish merchant fleet. (United States)

    Forsell, Karl; Eriksson, Helena; Järvholm, Bengt; Lundh, Monica; Andersson, Eva; Nilsson, Ralph


    To get knowledge of the work environment for seafarers sailing under the Swedish flag, in terms of safety climate, ergonomical, chemical and psychosocial exposures, and the seafarers self-rated health and work ability. A Web-based questionnaire was sent to all seafarers with a personal e-mail address in the Swedish Maritime Registry (N = 5608). Comparisons were made mainly within the study population, using Student's t test, prevalence odds ratios and logistic regressions with 95% confidence intervals. The response rate was 35% (N = 1972; 10% women, 90% men), with 61% of the respondents working on deck, 31% in the engine room and 7% in the catering/service department (1% not classifiable). Strain on neck, arm or back and heavy lifting were associated with female gender (p = 0.0001) and younger age (below or above 30 years of age, p harassment or bullying during last year of service. Noise, risk of accidents, hand/arm and whole-body vibrations and psychosocial factors such as harassment were commonly reported work environment problems among seafarers within the Swedish merchant fleet.

  20. High prevalence of Legionella in non-passenger merchant vessels. (United States)

    Collins, S L; Stevenson, D; Mentasti, M; Shaw, A; Johnson, A; Crossley, L; Willis, C


    There is a paucity of information on the risk from potable water in non-passenger merchant vessels (NPMVs) particularly with regard to Legionella and other bacteria. This retrospective study examined water samples from 550 NPMVs docked in eight UK ports. A total of 1027 samples from 412 NPMVs were examined for total aerobic colony counts (ACC), coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci; 41% of samples yielded ACC above the action level (>1 × 103 c.f.u./ml) and 4·5% contained actionable levels (>1 c.f.u./100 ml) of faecal indicator bacteria. Eight hundred and three samples from 360 NPMVs were cultured specifically for Legionella and 58% of vessels proved positive for these organisms with 27% of samples showing levels greater than the UK upper action limit of 1 × 103 c.f.u./l. Cabin showers (49%) and hospital shower (45%) were frequently positive. A subset of 106 samples was analysed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for Legionella and identified a further 11 Legionella-positive NPMVs, returning a negative predictive value of 100%. There was no correlation between NPMV age or size and any microbial parameters (P > 0·05). Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from 46% of NPMVs and sequence-based typing of 17 isolates revealed four sequence types (STs) previously associated with human disease. These data raise significant concerns regarding the management of microbial and Legionella risks on board NPMVs and suggest that better guidance and compliance are required to improve control.

  1. Economic Nationalism in Haughton’s Englishmen for My Money and Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice


    Baldo Jonathan


    Close to the time of Elizabeth’s expulsion of the Hanseatic merchants and the closing of the Steelyard (der Stahlhof) in the years 1597-98, two London plays engaged extensively with the business of trade, the merchant class, foreign merchants, and moneylending: early modern England’s first city comedy, William Haughton’s Englishmen for My Money, or A Woman Will Have Her Will (1598); and Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice (registered 22 July 1598). Whereas Haughton’s play uses foreignness, e...

  2. Blacks against Korean Merchants: An Interpretation of Contributory Factors. (United States)

    Kim, K. Hugh


    Examines the 1990 boycott of Korean-owned food stores in Brooklyn by African Americans. Provides background on ethnic conflicts in America, especially those involving Asian Americans. Calls for increased racial and cultural sensitivity in communities and schools. (DM)

  3. Research on the historic preservation of Zhaojiashan village (United States)

    Ling, Li


    Through field investigation and field visiting, we studied and analyzed the ancient villages of Zhaojiashan in Jiancaoping District, Taiyuan City of Shanxi Province. We learned that Zhaojiashan Village is on the only way of the Shanxi Merchants The Tea Road starting from Taiyuan to Xinzhou. It occupies an indispensable and important position in camel road. There are many historical and cultural relics in the village. The analysis of the historical value and the environment of the village has provided the basis for the protection and exploitation of ancient villages.

  4. An Empirical Research on Marketing Strategies of Different Risk Preference Merchant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Chen


    Full Text Available Holiday merchandise has unique demand characteristics, unofficial start data, and a limited life cycle. In an intensely competitive market, individual merchants are able to get more sales opportunities if they display their products earlier. In this study, a time-variant variance and time-variant expected market demand model are introduced to investigate the order strategies that are used by risk-averse holiday merchants. Our results show that risk preference, market uncertainty, and market power have a significant effect on the merchant’s market strategies. Risk-averse merchants prefer to enhance forecast accuracy rather than using an early-display advantage. They can even give up their early-display advantage if they are faced with increased market uncertainty and small market power. Compared with the fixed purchase cost, the time-sensitive purchase cost can stimulate the merchant to purchase in advance, but this can decrease the merchant’s profit. Consequently, risk-averse merchants always display their merchandise later, decrease the order quantity, and, finally, miss the market opportunity.

  5. [Sharing and distrusting: street merchants' view of children in street situations]. (United States)

    Sánchez-Suárez, Diana M; Giraldo-Puerta, Alexandra; Giraldo-Pineda, Álvaro; Forero-Pulido, Constanza


    Objective To understand the meanings, through the description of experiences that street merchants have of their interactions with children in a street situation in downtown of Medellin in 2013. Methodology Qualitative investigation with ethnographic approach. Observations were made in the zone at different times of the day. Twelve interviews with street merchants were held in their work places. Records were kept in a field journal. Results The street merchants and children in street situations share the same space. Both groups try to survive and their relationship is mediated by the trust-distrust that is established between them. The coexistence generates ambivalent feelings. For the street merchants, children in street situations are the result of abandonment by the family, the state and society. They live in a hard world in which they are exposed to a series of risks that they must face. Conclusion The interaction between street merchants and children in street situations is good to the extent that conflicts are avoided, establishing norms of coexistence. The element that determines this relationship is trust-distrust. In trust, strong affective ties are generated, considering each other family. Distrust generates a preventative attitude.

  6. How to make a graceful exit from the merchant function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, J.


    The impact that deregulation and convergence has had on local distribution companies (LDCs) was discussed. LDCs are getting out of a whole range of business activities, or are turning some of them into new entities while transferring others to affiliates. At the other end of the spectrum, Consumers Gas, Canada's largest LDC, has moved from a gas distribution and an oil pipeline company to becoming a total energy provider. The changes at Consumers Gas began with the Halloween agreement which was based on the following four basic principles: (1) better access for Canadian buyers to gas supply, (2) better access for Canadian producers to gas markets, (3) protection for Canadian consumers for reasonable, foreseeable gas requirements, and (4) a commitment to create a competitive natural gas market in Canada. At the same time, several small niche market players have entered the retail market to compete with large producers such as Sunoco and Shell. Ontario also saw the arrival of large marketers such as Enron, and the development of an active direct purchase market. Today, 65 per cent of the volume of natural gas transport is on behalf of direct purchase customers. The next phase of deregulation was also looked at, focusing primarily on the growing problems with the current regulated local distribution companies' gas supply options and the resulting price volatility and uncertainty due to an increase of direct purchase activity. Various possible ways to resolve this problem are explored, including exiting the merchant function, i.e. to change from an obligation to supply gas to an obligation to deliver gas, all the while ensuring that the consumer is protected. Other problems, such as convergence, unbundling and rebundling will also have to be dealt with in the next phase of deregulation

  7. Leave It to Beaver. Merchants Millpond State Park: An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades 4-6. (United States)

    Williams, Floyd K.

    This learning packet, one in a group of eight, was developed by the Merchants Millpond State Park in North Carolina to teach students in grades 4-6 about the habitat and lifestyle of the beaver. Loose-leaf pages are presented in nine sections that contain: (1) introductions to the North Carolina State Parks System, the Merchants Millpond State…

  8. 17 CFR 21.01 - Special calls for information on controlled accounts from futures commission merchants, clearing... (United States)


    ... CALLS § 21.01 Special calls for information on controlled accounts from futures commission merchants... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special calls for information on controlled accounts from futures commission merchants, clearing members and introducing brokers...

  9. 12 CFR 1500.6 - What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking... (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What risk management, record keeping and... Banking DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS MERCHANT BANKING INVESTMENTS § 1500.6 What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking investments? (a) What...

  10. A historical overview (United States)

    Dan Scurlock; Deborah M. Finch


    This chapter reviews the historical: 1) occupancy, use of and impacts on ponderosa pine forests by early American Indians and European settlers; and 2) the human use of and impacts on birds in ponderosa pine forests. Contemporary ecology and human use of ponderosa pine forests are described in this publication by Moir et al. and Raish et al. Recent human impacts on...

  11. Scylla and charybdis 2.0: reconstructing colonial Spanish American territories between metropolitan dream and effective control, historical ambiguities and cybernetic determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stangl, Werner


    Full Text Available This paper tries to outline the main methodological obstacles that have to be addressed and overcome at reconstructing late colonial Spanish American territories and their development by means of a historical Geographic Information System (HGIS. First we try to show how historians with a broad gamut of research interests could profit from such a territorial HGIS infrastructure for that time and space. In a second step we try to show how certain aspects complicate the task. These include: vernacular concepts of territory (definitions of what actually is a “province”; the quality, focus, and methods of data gathering in contemporary geographic descriptions, cartographies, and other sources; the lack of definition of interior borders; the sometimes contradictory divisions in military, civil, ecclesiastical, and financial districts; as well as the general discrepancy between administrative control and political claims. And as if these aspects were not enough, there are the competing claims on territories of sovereignty in Latin America, which —by applying the uti possidetis juris principle— are largely based on colonial territories. In the last part, we outline the basic concept of a spatial database which tries to respond to the raised issues and furthermore incorporates a chronological axis. The model is illustrated by giving the example of the Puno-region.En el presente trabajo hacemos hincapié en los mayores problemas metodológicos a los que se debe enfrentar al reconstruir los territorios de Hispanoamérica de fines de la Colonia. Primero, trataremos mostrar como una amplia gama de epistemologías podría sacar provecho de una infraestructura de SIG-histórico para tal época y espacio. Luego mostraremos como una variedad de aspectos —conceptos vernáculos de territorio; calidad, foco y métodos de recolecta de datos en descripciones geográficas, mapas y otras fuentes de la época; la faltante definición de fronteras interiores

  12. Economic Nationalism in Haughton’s Englishmen for My Money and Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldo Jonathan


    Full Text Available Close to the time of Elizabeth’s expulsion of the Hanseatic merchants and the closing of the Steelyard (der Stahlhof in the years 1597-98, two London plays engaged extensively with the business of trade, the merchant class, foreign merchants, and moneylending: early modern England’s first city comedy, William Haughton’s Englishmen for My Money, or A Woman Will Have Her Will (1598; and Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice (registered 22 July 1598. Whereas Haughton’s play uses foreignness, embodied in a foreign merchant, three half-English daughters, and three foreign suitors, as a means of promoting national consciousness and pride, Shakespeare indirectly uses the foreign not to unify but to reveal the divisions within England’s own economic values and culture.

  13. Utilization of uranium cost/benefit study for nuclear powered merchant ships. Special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.R.


    This study presents a cost/benefit analysis for the utilization of uranium in merchant ships versus the use of uranium for the generation of electricity in central power stations. The study concludes that an alternative naval fuel to oil must be developed for the merchant marine to reduce U.S. dependency upon foreign supplies of a critical fuel. The study further indicates that use of uranium for ship propulsion results in transport of large quantities of needed import/exports while the residual oil saved will generate the same quantity of electricity in a central power station as the uranium used for ship propulsion

  14. Problems faced by host nations in accepting visits by nuclear powered merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crancher, D.W.


    An international Code of Practice would make a major contribution to the effective regulation of nuclear merchant ships. Ensuring compliance with such a Code would be a significant problem for host nations. An impediment to the development of nuclear shipping is the absence of third party liability provision. There are also problems in host port acceptance into crowded ports and some limitations may be imposed until there is more confidence. There are indications that ship accidents will become the predominant risk and considerably more attention to the problem is required. Waste management need not be a major issue to the acceptance of nuclear merchant ships

  15. The Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) Rules 1978 (Statutory Instrument 1543, 25 October 1978)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    These Rules supersede the Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) Rule of 1965 as amended by the Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) (Amendment) Rules of 1968 and 1972. The Rules now define 'dangerous goods' by reference to goods classified as dangerous for carriage by sea as well as any other goods whose properties might be dangerous it they were carried by sea. This classification is based on that of the 1978 Report of the Standing Advisory Committee on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods of the Department of Trade, and the 1977 Edition of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code published by the Intergovernmental Maritime consultative Organisation. (NEA) [fr

  16. Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service (TMAS) to Swedish merchant and passengers ships 1997-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlund, Karin; Attvall, Stig; Nilsson, Ralph


    BACKGROUND: Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service (TMAS) for seafarers and traveling passengers is important and can be crucial for the optimal medical treatment on board ships. The aim of this study was to analyse and to compare the data from consultations and evacuations from merchant ships...... Classification for Primary Care (ICPC-2). The distribution of symptoms, accidents and diseases, treatments/actions taken, evacuations and the communication forms were analysed. RESULTS: One thousand ninety-five contacts for seafarers from merchant ships and 651 passenger patients from Swedish ferries were...

  17. The More Extreme Nature of North American Monsoon Precipitation in the Southwestern United States as Revealed by a Historical Climatology of Simulated Severe Weather Events

    KAUST Repository

    Luong, Thang M.; Castro, Christopher L.; Chang, Hsin-I; Lahmers, Timothy; Adams, David K.; Ochoa-Moya, Carlos A.


    Long-term changes in North American monsoon (NAM) precipitation intensity in the southwestern United States are evaluated through the use of convective-permitting model simulations of objectively identified severe weather events during

  18. The More Extreme Nature of North American Monsoon Precipitation in the Southwestern United States as Revealed by a Historical Climatology of Simulated Severe Weather Events

    KAUST Repository

    Luong, Thang M.


    Long-term changes in North American monsoon (NAM) precipitation intensity in the southwestern United States are evaluated through the use of convective-permitting model simulations of objectively identified severe weather events during

  19. Merchantable sawlog and bole-length equations for the Northeastern United States (United States)

    Daniel A. Yaussy; Martin E. Dale; Martin E. Dale


    A modified Richards growth model is used to develop species-specific coefficients for equations estimating the merchantable sawlog and bole lengths of trees from 25 species groups common to the Northeastern United States. These regression coefficients have been incorporated into the growth-and-yield simulation software, NE-TWIGS.

  20. Cross sectional study of low back pain among merchant seafarers at a medical centre in Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nair, Ravindran; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Gómez Muñiz, Fernando


    Background: Low back pain [LBP] either acute or chronic is the most common musculoskeletal complaint seen in a clinic. Majority of them are involved with manual handling of heavy objects. Objectives: To explore prevalence characteristics of low back pain syndrome among seafarers from merchant shi...

  1. 31 CFR 103.123 - Customer identification programs for futures commission merchants and introducing brokers. (United States)


    ... TRANSACTIONS Anti-Money Laundering Programs Anti-Money Laundering Programs § 103.123 Customer identification... each futures commission merchant's and introducing broker's anti-money laundering compliance program... money laundering activities, Federal law requires all financial institutions to obtain, verify, and...

  2. Modifying Taper-Derived Merchantable Height Estimates to Account for Tree Characteristics (United States)

    James A. Westfall


    The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Northeastern Forest Inventory and Analysis program (NE-FIA) is developing regionwide tree-taper equations. Unlike most previous work on modeling tree form, this effort necessarily includes a wide array of tree species. For some species, branching patterns can produce undesirable tree form that reduces the merchantable...

  3. 77 FR 67865 - Enhancing Protections Afforded Customers and Customer Funds Held by Futures Commission Merchants... (United States)


    ... Parts 1, 3, 22 et al. Enhancing Protections Afforded Customers and Customer Funds Held by Futures... Customers and Customer Funds Held by Futures Commission Merchants and Derivatives Clearing Organizations... amend existing regulations to require enhanced customer protections, risk management programs, internal...

  4. On the Major Dramatic Conftict of Shakespeare's the Merchant of Venice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    "The Merchant of Venice", a master piece with humanist idea by William Shakespeare, presents readers a dramatic conflict between friendship and greediness, love and cruelty.This essay illustrates briefly how this conflict is created, developed and dramatized. At the same time, the root causes for this conflict is analysed.

  5. Evaluation of total aboveground biomass and total merchantable biomass in Missouri (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; David R. Larsen; Charles D. Keating


    In recent years, the state of Missouri has been converting to biomass weight rather than volume as the standard measurement of wood for buying and selling sawtimber. Therefore, there is a need to identify accurate and precise methods of estimating whole tree biomass and merchantable biomass of harvested trees as well as total standing biomass of live timber for...

  6. Prejudice, Pedagogy, and the Play: A Study of "The Merchant of Venice." (United States)

    Eiferman, Sharon

    There is little critical agreement on the meaning of Shakespeare's "The Merchant of Venice." One must confront the mindset of the play that systematically dehumanizes, stereotypes, excoriates, and seeks the extermination of one group on the grounds that their existence is repugnant to the controlling majority. Such a mindset is the…

  7. 75 FR 70152 - Implementation of Conflicts of Interest Policies and Procedures by Futures Commission Merchants... (United States)


    ... proposed regulations establish conflicts of interest requirements for futures commission merchants (FCMs... comments, identified by RIN number 3038-AC96 and FCM-IB Conflicts of Interest, by any of the following... rulemaking relates to the conflicts of interest provisions set forth in section 732 of the Dodd-Frank Act. In...

  8. 78 FR 17917 - Medical Waivers for Merchant Mariner Credential Applicants With a History of Seizure Disorders (United States)


    ... be considered for a waiver. (1) Mariners with a history of epilepsy or seizure disorder may be... Waivers for Merchant Mariner Credential Applicants With a History of Seizure Disorders AGENCY: Coast Guard... of seizure disorders. Coast Guard regulations provide that convulsive disorders (also known as...

  9. 17 CFR 31.13 - Financial reports of leverage transaction merchants. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial reports of leverage... COMMISSION LEVERAGE TRANSACTIONS § 31.13 Financial reports of leverage transaction merchants. (a) Each... person must include with such financial report a statement describing the source of his current assets...

  10. Ilonggos, Igorrottes, Merchants, and Jews: Shakespeare and American Colonial Education in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Celine Ick


    Full Text Available I begin with a story of bewilderment. Shortly after my return to the Philippines from graduate school in 1994, I found myself an accidental speaker on things Shakespearean at a small, very exclusive Opus Dei-run high school in a converted Lopez mansion in the outskirts of Iloilo. The speaking engagement was unplanned and rather spontaneous. The school authorities, though, did a splendid job of putting a program together for the occasion. Aside from my talk, the impromptu program also featured performances by two of the winners of a recently concluded declamation contest. Quite fortuitously (or would that be unsurprisingly?, the winning declaimers both did pieces from Shakespeare.

  11. Rapid extirpation of a North American frog coincides with an increase in fungal pathogen prevalence: Historical analysis and implications for reintroduction. (United States)

    Adams, Andrea J; Pessier, Allan P; Briggs, Cheryl J


    As extinctions continue across the globe, conservation biologists are turning to species reintroduction programs as one optimistic tool for addressing the biodiversity crisis. For repatriation to become a viable strategy, fundamental prerequisites include determining the causes of declines and assessing whether the causes persist in the environment. Invasive species-especially pathogens-are an increasingly significant factor contributing to biodiversity loss. We hypothesized that Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the causative agent of the deadly amphibian disease chytridiomycosis, was important in the rapid (herpetological experts, analysis of archived field notes and museum specimen collections, and field sampling of the extant amphibian assemblage to examine (1) historical relative abundance of R. boylii ; (2) potential causes of R. boylii declines; and (3) historical and contemporary prevalence of Bd. We found that R. boylii were relatively abundant prior to their rapid extirpation, and an increase in Bd prevalence coincided with R. boylii declines during a time of rapid change in the region, wherein backcountry recreation, urban development, and the amphibian pet trade were all on the rise. In addition, extreme flooding during the winter of 1969 coincided with localized extirpations in R. boylii populations observed by interview respondents. We conclude that Bd likely played an important role in the rapid extirpation of R. boylii from southern California and that multiple natural and anthropogenic factors may have worked in concert to make this possible in a relatively short period of time. This study emphasizes the importance of recognizing historical ecological contexts in making future management and reintroduction decisions.

  12. Casualty data analysis of the world merchant fleet for reported fire and explosion incidents resulting in marine pollution (United States)


    World wide merchant vessel fire and explosion data were analyzed to determine the contribution of these casualties to the marine pollution problem. The source of information is the Lloyd's Casualty Information System Data Base. The major findings of ...

  13. Work related mortality among merchant seafarers employed in UK Royal Fleet Auxillary shipping from 1976 to 2005. (United States)

    Roberts, Stephen E; Marlow, Peter B


    Over 2300 merchant seafarers are currently employed on board UK Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) ships. However, little is known about work related mortality among these seafarers, and whether it is lower than among seafarers in merchant fleets. To establish the causes and circumstances of all work related deaths among seafarers who were employed in RFA ships from 1976 to 2005, to compare mortality rates with those in other merchant fleets, and to identify implications for maritime health. A population based study of work related mortality over 30 years. A total of 60 deaths among seafarers in RFA ships were caused by disease (30), accidents (19), suicide (6), homicide (one), and inconclusive causes (4). Six of the 19 fatal accidents were directly related to work duties (occupational accidents), 12 occurred during off-duty time and one resulted from a shipping disaster. The fatal accident rate was about one half, and the fatal work related accident rate was about one quarter, of corresponding rates in UK merchant shipping from 1976-2002; and they were much lower than those in merchant fleets internationally. The fatal accident rate in RFA shipping also fell by about 80% over the 30 year study period. The lower fatal accident rates in RFA shipping, particularly for work related accidents, presumably reflect a lower incidence of hazardous working practices, arising from better training and career pathways for seafarers in RFA shipping, as well as better maintained ships with higher manning levels than in merchant shipping.

  14. Tourism and Foreign Language Training for Local Merchants and Guides in Penglipuran Tourism Village of Bangli Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Pramita Sugiarti


    Full Text Available Community service in form of practical tourism and foreign language training for local merchants and guides in Penglipuran tourist village, Bangli regency was aimed at improving the knowledge of Japanese tourism and vocabulary and English in accordance with the appropriate grammar. The targets in this training were local merchants and guides in Penglipuran village who had less knowledge about tourism and the proper usage of foreign language. Not only the training of tourism and practical foreign languages, local merchants and guides were also given knowledge about the characteristics of domestic and international tourists, as well as ways of serving the tourists in accordance with the agreed standards. The special target of this dedication was to find a social formula to solve the problems that occurred in the tourist village of Penglipuran. The fostering system implemented so far was less effective so that it led to a decline in knowledge about tourism and foreign languages for local merchants and guides who were the tourism actors expected to provide correct information to the tourists. If this was left unchecked, the number of tourist arrivals and local merchants and guides who had international standard capability would continue to decrease annually. The method of devotion used was the workshop and FGD so that the results of teaching could be understood by Penglipuran village management to continue to conduct trainings that educate local merchants and guides.

  15. “Getting By” at the Urban Periphery: Everyday Struggles of Informal Merchants in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Frische


    Full Text Available The article examines the significance of informal economic practices, e.g. street vending and informal commerce, for young merchants from Ettadhamen, a neighborhood situated in the northwestern periphery of the Greater Tunis area. It further addresses cross-border trade in the Tunisian-Libyan and Tunisian-Algerian border regions in which some of these merchants are indirectly involved. Peripheralization therefore does not imply complete socio-spatial exclusion. Peripheries rather offer important, albeit limited possibilities, to acquire resources through practices that are situated in the interstices between legality and illegality. As these possibilities often avoid state regulation and control, the article also addresses the ambivalent nature of the state-society relations that shapes everyday encounters between inhabitants and state agents, especially the police.

  16. Strategic Mobility and the Decline of the United States Merchant Marine (United States)


    percent of the dry cargo and 99 percent. of the petroleum, ii oils , and lubricants (POL) used in the war. (5/8) Mobil ity planners expect this a prudertt, bla] fwr’t. be twcen DOD orgati,: sealift anid US merchant marine sealift. . b-o , Ilxi) organ i: :t1h i ., i t -- essentil 14 cc fix;d

  17. Merchants and marvels commerce, science, and art in early modern Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Pamela


    The beginning of global commerce in the early modern period had an enormous impact on European culture, changing the very way people perceived the world around them. Merchants and Marvels assembles essays by leading scholars of cultural history, art history, and the history of science and technology to show how ideas about the representation of nature, in both art and science, underwent a profound transformation between the age of the Renaissance and the early 1700s.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Milena Jaramillo


    Full Text Available La Universidad Latinoamericana se configuró a través de la historia bajo el influjo de diversas fuerzas que le dieron una forma particular dados los contextos específicos donde surgió, en relación con las potencias coloniales, la iglesia, el Estado y el impacto de los diferentes modelos que se establecieron acerca de los propósitos a los que debía atender, definidos por los ingleses, franceses, alemanes y americanos. Pese a los intereses que se ciernen sobre La Universidad Latinoamericana, surgen desde múltiples miradas (las experiencias de México, Perú, Guatemala, Argentina, Chile y Colombia, posibilidades de considerar la idea de estructurar un pensamiento propio, que diera cuenta de una identidad distinta que la separa del discurso eurocentrista y la ubica en una perspectiva de análisis concerniente a las realidades a las que debe hacer frente. En la conformación de la Universidad Latinoamericana se ubican entonces, el pensamiento de Andrés Bello, las ideas de José Vasconcelos y las implicaciones del movimiento de Córdoba, en relación con otros movimientos sociales y estudiantiles con características similares, que convergen en la reflexión acerca de la necesidad de hacer un giro decolonial, no sólo a modo de resistencia, sino de autoconciencia acerca de quiénes somos y cómo cimentar un futuro común, fundamentalmente en esta época cuando la Universidad Latinoamericana enfrenta los embates de la globalización y la aplicación de políticas macroeconómicas que desdibujan su ser social y académico deslegitimándola.Abstract:The Latin American University, throughout history, was shaped under the influence of diverse forces which outlined it in a particular manner, given the specific contexts where it appeared, in relation with colonial powers, the church, the State, and the impact of the different models which were established based on the purposes it had to fulfill, which were defined by the English, the French, the

  19. Merchant interconnector projects by generators in the EU: Profitability and allocation of capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koten, Silvester van


    When building a cross-border transmission line (a so-called interconnector) as a for-profit (merchant) project, where the regulator has required that capacity allocation be done non-discriminatorily by explicit auction, the identity of the investor can affect the profitability of the interconnector project and, once operational, the resulting allocation of its capacity. Specifically, when the investor is a generator (hereafter the integrated generator) who also can use the interconnector to export its electricity to a distant location, then, once operational, the integrated generator will bid more aggressively in the allocation auctions to increase the auction revenue and thus its profits. As a result, the integrated generator is more likely to win the auction and the capacity is sold for a higher price. This lowers the allocative efficiency of the auction, but it increases the expected ex-ante profitability of the merchant interconnector project. Unaffiliated, independent generators, however, are less likely to win the auction and, in any case, pay a higher price, which dramatically lowers their revenues from exporting electricity over this interconnector. - Highlights: ► A merchant interconnector owned by an electricity generator needs special attention of regulators. ► Even when allocation of the capacity is done by auctions, the generator will make a large profit. ► The generator will also decrease the allocation of capacity to competitors by bidding aggressively.

  20. [White ginseng commercialization and sales expansion activities of Gaesung merchants in the 1910s and 1920s]. (United States)

    Yang, Jeongpil


    Ginseng has always been the typical export item in Korean history. Until the 18th century, exporting ginseng was wild ginseng from the mountains. Since the 19th century, exporting ginseng became red ginseng, which was red due to steaming and drying process. Red ginseng was produced by Gaesung merchants, so that these merchants were able to gain the control of the output. Gaesung merchants of the 19th century exported red ginseng to China and made huge economic success. However, when the Korean Empire and Japanese colonial government established red ginseng monopoly, it essentially blocked Gaesung traders from manufacturing and exporting any further of its prized commodity. Then, the traders turned to sun-dried white ginseng as a substitute to red ginseng. As a result, white ginseng production dramatically increased after 1914, which in turn made Gaesung merchants newly aware of the commercial value of white ginseng, which was previously ignored. The traders made good use of the traditional medicine herb market, which opened annually, to promote the expansion of white ginseng sales. Moreover, the merchants also adopted modern marketing techniques, as they founded companies to handle solely white ginseng sales, refreshed packaging to raise commodity values, and made an effort in advertising and mail order sales. Due to such endeavors, demand for white ginseng grew exponentially both in domestic and foreign markets, which generated steady growth of white ginseng prices despite the rapid increase of its supply. This phenomenon naturally brought about the rich economic accomplishments of Gaesung merchants. Through the white ginseng sales activities of Gaesung merchants in post-1910s era, two facts can be newly uncovered. First, the mass consumption of white ginseng today in Korean society took a full-scale step after the 1910s. Second, it was a widely-held view that during the Japanese rule, majority of Korean traditional merchants were economically ruined, while a

  1. 75 FR 65647 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions (United States)


    .... Paul Loether, National Register of Historic Places/National Historic Landmarks Program. AMERICAN SAMOA...., Maiden's Alley, Cherry Alley, Mulberry Alley, Bardstown, 10000905 Todd County Woodstock, 6338 Clarksville...

  2. Historical narratives and historical desires: re-evaluating American art criticism of the mid-nineteenth century’: Karen Georgi, Critical Shift: Rereading Jarves, Cook, Stillman, and the Narratives of Nineteenth-Century American Art, The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2013


    Emily Gephart


    Striving to distinguish their authority as and demonstrate their professionalism, art critics James Jackson Jarves, Clarence Cook, and William James Stillman wrote exhibition reviews, essays, and increasingly self-conscious histories of American art and artists in the mid-nineteenth century. Whereas their writing has often been employed to establish a model of opposed pre- and post-war periodization in American art, Karen Georgi challenges this view, re-evaluating the rhetorical structures t...

  3. Latin American Newspapers. (United States)

    Gardner, Mary A.


    Reviews the historical development of the press in Latin America from the sixteenth century to the present. Discusses the various pressures that Latin American newspapers are subject to, including political censorship, economic restrictions, and cultural conflicts. (AEA)

  4. Historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora C, H.H.


    Short history of the ''Instituto de Asuntos Nucleares''. A short historical review about IAN is made: from 1956 when it was called Instituto Colombiano de Asuntos Nucleares, showing its scientific and technical development and the most important events that have occurred in the last 30 years. The people who had contributed to the progress of the institution are also considered, making emphasis in the important happenings that have guided the routes of the IAN

  5. Environmental impact analysis of the Nuclear Merchant Ship Program-addendum. Special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This study represents a qualitative extension of an earlier Environmental Impact Analysis of the Nuclear Merchant Ship Program (MarAd, 1975) using an Ultra Large Crude Carrier (ULCC) as the reference ship, to other types of ships including a containership, dry-bulk cargo vessel, and an icebreaking oil tanker. This qualitative analysis shows that, for ships operating into coastal ports (containerships and possibly dry-bulk carriers), both ecological and radiological impacts would be somewhat greater than for the reference ULCC docking at an offshore terminal. These impacts can be kept within the guidelines established for land based nuclear power plants by implementation of appropriate operating procedures

  6. Navigating through torpedo attacks and enemy raiders: Merchant shipping and freight rates during World War I


    Klovland, Jan Tore


    During World War I ocean freight rates rose to extraordinary levels. Using a new monthly dataset it is shown that freight rates can be well explained by economic activity, commodity prices, war risk and world tonnage in the period 1912 to 1916. In the first two years of the war part of the British merchant eet was directly controlled by the Government but neutral shipping was basically free to operate as normal. In this period neutral shipping accounted for about one third of British impo...

  7. Occupational accidents in the Danish merchant fleet and the nationality of seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara; Nørgaard Fløe Pedersen, Randi


    notified occupational accidents were collected from notifications sent to the Danish Maritime Authority and from records of contact with Danish Radio Medical. Events were matched by personal identification and accident data to create a unified database. Stratified cumulative time spent on board...... was found especially high, while eye injuries seem to be more frequent among South East Asian workers. Conclusions: The study identified substantial differences between nationalities in the rate of various accidents reported from merchant ships sailing under the Danish flag. The differences may...

  8. Safety considerations in the use of ports and approaches by nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance to Governments and Port Authorities on the various procedures and precautionary measures that may be employed when nuclear merchant ships use ports and approaches. The problem is basically that of siting a nuclear reactor in a populated area, with the extra factor of mobility. Added to this is the fact that the safety standards of the nuclear ship may be those of a country other than that of the port of entry. Thus the problem must be solved in international agreements.

  9. Modern Time as Historical Artifact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David Edwin


    Explores different aspects of how Americans have understood and used time since the late eighteenth century through the historical transition that has led to the present 24/7 world, where time-keeping is built into a myriad of devices that record and to some degree direct our actions....

  10. 12 CFR 1500.7 - How do the statutory cross marketing and sections 23A and B limitations apply to merchant banking... (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How do the statutory cross marketing and sections 23A and B limitations apply to merchant banking investments? 1500.7 Section 1500.7 Banks and... statutory cross marketing and sections 23A and B limitations apply to merchant banking investments? Certain...

  11. 12 CFR 225.171 - What are the limitations on managing or operating a portfolio company held as a merchant banking... (United States)


    ... of the portfolio company. Examples of the types of actions that may be subject to these types of... operating a portfolio company held as a merchant banking investment? 225.171 Section 225.171 Banks and... COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Merchant Banking Investments § 225.171 What...

  12. 12 CFR 1500.2 - What are the limitations on managing or operating a portfolio company held as a merchant banking... (United States)


    ... of the portfolio company. Examples of the types of actions that may be subject to these types of... operating a portfolio company held as a merchant banking investment? 1500.2 Section 1500.2 Banks and Banking... on managing or operating a portfolio company held as a merchant banking investment? (a) May a...

  13. Calculation of releases of radioactive materials in gaseous effluents from nuclear-powered merchant ships (NMS-GEFF code)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardile, F.P.; Bangart, R.L.; Collins, J.T.


    The Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization IMCO) is currently preparing guidelines concerning the safety of nuclear-powered merchant ships. An important aspect of these guidelines is the determination of the releases of radioactive material in effluents from these ships and the control exercised by the ships over these releases. To provide a method for the determination of these releases, the NRC staff has developed a computerized model, the NMS-GEFF Code, which is described in the following chapters. The NMS-GEFF Code calculates releases of radioactive material in gaseous effluents for nuclear-powered merchant ships using pressurized water reactors

  14. "The Finest 'Bunch' of Children to Be Found Anywhere": Educating European and American Youths in Korea, 1880s-1940s (United States)

    Dittrich, Klaus


    This article discusses how European and American communities in Korea organised the education of their own children from the "opening" of the country to foreign residents in the 1880s until the Second World War. Education serves as a lens to investigate these dominantly bourgeois communities of missionaries, merchants, experts and…

  15. Strategic investment in merchant transmission: The impact of capacity utilization rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boffa, Federico; Pingali, Viswanath; Sala, Francesca


    In this paper we look at the relative merits of two capacity utilization regimes in the merchant electricity transmission network: Must offer (Mo) where the entire capacity installed has to be made available for transmission and Non Must Offer (NMo) where some capacity could be withheld. We look at two specific cases: (i) demand for transmission varies across time, and (ii) vertical integration is allowed between investors in transmission network and electricity generators. In the case of time-varying demand under Mo, we find that a monopolist may underinvest in transmission when compared to NMo, although NMo may lead to more capacity withholding. In the case of vertical integration, we find that when the market power is with the generators of the exporting node, without vertical integration no welfare-enhancing merchant investment would occur, neither under Mo nor NMo. Further, if the generators in the importing node have market power, in case vertical integration is allowed, Mo is better than NMo. Finally, we also argue that the incentive to collude among various transmission network investors is mitigated with Mo in place. -- Highlights: •We model merits of Must offer (Mo) versus non-Must offer (NMo) regimes. •With fluctuating demand, NMo in general may generate more investment in capacity. •At the same time it may reduce capacity utilization. •With market power in the inefficient generating node, Mo is welfare-enhancing. •Collusion is mitigated with 'must offer' regime in place

  16. Shylock’s Speech in The Merchant of Venice: Critical Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada Dawood


    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine, reveal and analyse Shylock's speech in Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice, by connecting his words to the power, identity, and ideology in the play. The purposes of this study are to examine the effects of linguistic manipulation on power, to link language with the structure of a society, and to find the impact of a combination of different ideologies on each other. Hence, this descriptive qualitative study explores the literature to answer the aforementioned questions. What is found in this paper is that Shylock, the Jew, lacks power, Jewish ideology and Jewish identity, but when he tries to find these aspects, he fails to gain any of them. The reasons behind Shylock's failure in obtaining "the self" can be attributed to his brutal character. His insistence on the literal implementation of the bond leads to his destruction. He neglects the fact that those charged with power are able to edit the language of "his bond" the way they like. To conclude, language is one of the most influencing factors aiding in imposing power, destroying "unwanted" identities, and appropriating others' ideology by the "upper hands" in any society. Keywords: The Merchant of Venice Shylock's Speech, Critical Discourse Analysis.

  17. 1961 American Samoa Historical Scanned Imagery (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These images are part of a project funded by NOAA Office for Coastal Management to develop a high quality, user-friendly, attributed, centralized, multi-territorial...




  19. 17 CFR 17.00 - Information to be furnished by futures commission merchants, clearing members and foreign brokers. (United States)


    ... merchants, clearing members and foreign brokers. (a) Special accounts—reportable futures and options... quantity of exchanges of futures for commodities or for derivatives positions and the number of delivery... be used to report three types of data: long and short futures and options positions, futures delivery...

  20. "I Could Teach You How to Choose Right": Using Holocaust Memoir to Teach Shakespeare's "The Merchant of Venice" (United States)

    Whaley, Annemarie Koning


    The article examines the problems of teaching William Shakespeare's "The Merchant of Venice" after the Holocaust, arguing that even though the play is anti-Semitic, it can become a valuable teaching tool when placed in the context of the Holocaust memoirs "Dry Tears" by Nechama Tec and "The Nazi Officer's Wife" by…

  1. 75 FR 12230 - Black Oak Energy, L.L.C., EPIC Merchant Energy, LP, SESCO Enterprises, LLC v. PJM Interconnection... (United States)


    ... Energy, L.L.C., EPIC Merchant Energy, LP, SESCO Enterprises, LLC v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing March 8, 2010. Take notice that on March 1, 2010, PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. filed a..., Order Accepting Compliance filing issued in this proceeding, Black Oak Energy, L.L.C., et al. v. PJM...

  2. Alexander Claver, Dutch Commerce and Chinese Merchants in Java. Colonial Relationships in Trade and Finance, 1800-1942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwee Hui Kian


    Full Text Available Alexander Claver, Dutch Commerce and Chinese Merchants in Java. Colonial Relationships in Trade and Finance, 1800-1942 (Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 291; Leiden, Boston: Brill, 2014, xxiv + 442 pp., ISBN 978 90 04 25657 6.

  3. 12 CFR 225.175 - What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking... (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What risk management, record keeping and... risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking... conduct, monitor and manage such investment activities and the risks associated with such investment...

  4. Development of merchantable volume equations for natural brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Özçelik


    Full Text Available Determination of stem standing volume is very useful for both sustainable management of timber resources and practical purposes in forestry. Brutian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. and black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. are important raw material of forest products industry of Turkey. With ever changing market conditions, there is a need to accurately estimate tree volumes utilizing multiple upper stem merchantability limits. This is not currently possible with the existing total stem volume tables for these three species. Nowadays, taper equations are the best way to estimate volume for saw timber and biomass purposes. In this study, variable exponent taper equations evaluated and fitted to data come from 253 destructively sampled trees which were collected in natural brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir district. For this aim, the taper equations of Lee et al. (2003, Kozak (2004, and Sharma and Zhang (2004 were used. A second-order continuous-time autoregressive error structure was used to correct the inherent autocorrelation in the hierarchical data. The proposed models generally performed better for Merchantable tree volume. Results show that the Kozak (2004 taper equation was superior to the other equations in predicting diameter and merchantable height, while The Sharma and Zhang (2004 taper model provided the best predictions for merchantable volume than the other models. The one of the important results of this study, the importance of checking fit statistics of taper equations for both diameters and volume estimations.As a results, Sharma and Zhang (2004 taper model recommended for estimating diameter at a specific height, height to a specific diameter along the stem, and merchantable volume for brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir analyzed

  5. Historical prologue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.; Bethe, H.A.; Blair, B.G.; Bracken, P.; Carter, A.B.; Dickinson, H.; Garwin, R.L.; Holloway, D.; Kendall, H.W.


    The organizations and machines engaged in a severe nuclear crisis would be its tangible and partially quantifiable factors. For that reason they often dominate our thinking about superpower confrontations. Military organizations, however, are not automatons that can run amok on their own. The perceptions of leaders and populations propel the course of events, and their mindsets are shaped by what experience, history, and myth claim to say about war. Since there has never been combat between nuclear-armed states, it is debatable whether the past has any relevance to what we now face. But the part is all we have to go on. Thus soldiers and statesmen are still haunted by the manner in which this century's two great wars began, and the past thereby influences the thoughts that lead to weapons, to military plans, and to decisions that could turn peace into war. It is therefore essential to have some appreciation for the historical roots that nourish our expectations about international conflict. This paper describes some of these roots

  6. Historical perspective (United States)

    Landsberg, H. E.

    It was a pleasure to learn, from a recent (May 4) issue of Eos, of the formation of a permanent Committee on History of Geophysics. There is a dire need for reference material, books, and articles on geophysical history.Let me recommend to them that they take a good look at the Dictionary of the History of Science (W.F. Bynum, E.J. Browne, Roy Porter (Eds.), Princeton University Press, 494 pp., 1981). What follows is not a book review, although it may appear so. It is meant to be a challenge to place geophysics on the map in historical context. In this book, hydrology is dealt with in one sentence under the heading ‘cycle,’ geomagnetism under ‘declination and dip,’ and its history ends with Edward Sabine. Seismology appears under earthquakes. No important seismologist is mentioned. In the biographical index, Wiechert is included only for a contribution to physics. Where are Sir Harold Jeffreys, Galitzin, Gutenberg, Mohorovičić, Lehman, and many others? Meteorology ends with V. Bjerknes and Solberg; Köppen, Richardson, Rossby, and other notables [of] the last century do not seem to exist.

  7. Social History and Historical Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Knöbl


    Full Text Available This paper deals with exchanges and misunderstandings between the German school of social history (most prominently represented by scholars from the University of Bielefeld (such as Hans-Ulrich Wehler and Anglo-American trends in historical sociology (exemplified by the works of Barrington Moore, Theda Skocpol and Michael Mann. The social historians tended to dismiss historical sociology as too dependent on modernization theory, without taking into account the critique of that tradition by authors who brought processes of state formation and revolutionary change into the debate. On the other side, mainstream historical sociology worked with assumptions that limited its ability to change the terms and directions of sociological discourse, and to assimilate lessons from history. Among these inbuilt biases, organizational realism and materialism – particularly pronounced in the work of Michael Mann – stand out as particularly important. The paper closes with arguments in favour of bringing more history into historical sociology, with particular emphasis on three sets of problems. There is a need for more historical approaches to differentiation, less dependent on functionalist premises than the hitherto prevalent paradigm. A more explicit thematization of temporality in history and society would, among other things, help to clarify issues linked to the notion of path dependency. Finally, a reconsideration of the models and types of explanation in historical sociology would place more emphasis on their interpretive dimension.

  8. Social History and Historical Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Knöbl


    Full Text Available This paper deals with exchanges and misunderstandings between the German school of social history (most prominently represented by scholars from the University of Bielefeld (such as Hans-Ulrich Wehler and Anglo-American trends in historical sociology (exemplified by the works of Barrington Moore, Theda Skocpol and Michael Mann. The social historians tended to dismiss historical sociology as too dependent on modernization theory, without taking into account the critique of that tradition by authors who brought processes of state formation and revolutionary change into the debate. On the other side, mainstream historical sociology worked with assumptions that limited its ability to change the terms and directions of sociological discourse, and to assimilate lessons from history. Among these inbuilt biases, organizational realism and materialism - particularly pronounced in the work of Michael Mann - stand out as particularly important. The paper closes with arguments in favour of bringing more history into historical sociology, with particular emphasis on three sets of problems. There is a need for more historical approaches to differentiation, less dependent on functionalist premises than the hitherto prevalent paradigm. A more explicit thematization of temporality in history and society would, among other things, help to clarify issues linked to the notion of path dependency. Finally, a reconsideration of the models and types of explanation in historical sociology would place more emphasis on their interpretive dimension.

  9. Reincarnation in America: A Brief Historical Overview


    Lee Irwin


    American theories of reincarnation have a long and complex history, dating from 1680s to the present. It is the purpose of this paper to highlight the main currents of reincarnation theory in the American context, giving a brief historical survey. Sources surveyed begin with Native American traditions, and then move to immigrant traditions based in Western Esotericism, Christianity, Judaism, missionary Hinduism and Buddhism, Spiritualism, Theosophy, Rosicrucianism, and concludes with more cur...

  10. Conclusions from collision examinations for nuclear merchant ships in the FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woisin, G.


    In Germany model tests have been performed for the utilization of a resisting type barrier instead of an energy absorbing type barrier, the latter used in nuclear merchant ships up to now only. After reviewing the model technique the results of nine tests with the new barrier are discussed. Calculations performed to the newly raised questions of the shock accelerations of the reactor plant and of possible overstressing of the hull are reported. The new design has many advantages with respect to safety and to the arrangement of a reactor plant in a ship too. Some questions partly remain unanswered at the moment concerning oblique collisions to the ends of the barrier and the possible effects of bulk cargo in holds close to the bow in striking ships of smaller size

  11. Contraband, free ports, and British merchants in the Caribbean world, 1739-1772

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Hunt


    Full Text Available This article examines the evolution of contraband to legitimate trade in the eighteenth century Caribbean world during the War of Jenkins’ Ear and Seven Years’ War. It focuses on the informal networks of the British South Sea Company and the trade of informal actors. The article explores how British legislators shifted Jamaican and Dominican colonial economies away from contraband trade by opening free ports in 1766. The British Parliament passed the Free Port Act of Jamaica and Dominica following Danish and Dutch colonial efforts to crack down on contraband trade in the Caribbean world. This transition from contraband to legitimate trade enabled British merchants to engage in free trade by importing and exporting an assortment of commodities and enslaved people to and from Jamaica to other colonies in the Caribbean world.

  12. Association between nationality and occupational injury risk on Danish non-passenger merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, B.


    BACKGROUND: Maritime occupational accidents can be determined by several factors, among which human characteristics play a crucial role. Worker's safety behaviour depends on individual physical and mental characteristics as well as on his/her social and cultural background. The aim of this study...... is to investigate the frequency of workplace injuries in the Danish merchant fleet in the period 2010-2012, and to characterise its nationality dependence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Occupational injuries data reported from ships registered in the Danish International Ship Register to the Danish Maritime Authority were...... collected. Publicly available employment data were used to calculate the cumulative incidence rates for Danish, non-Danish European Union (EU) and non-EU employees working on non-passenger ships. Crude injury rates and rates adjusted for occupational status were statistically compared. RESULTS: The majority...

  13. MATL : Canada's first merchant power transmission interconnection : experiences and future outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, L.


    The current status of the Montana Alberta Tie Ltd. (MATL) merchant transmission project was outlined with reference to the business concept, the advantages of the project and market opportunities. Some of the challenges facing the project were discussed along with lessons learned and accomplishments thus far. MATL is preparing to construct a privately funded transmission line between Lethbridge, Alberta and Great Falls, Montana. The project represents the first direct power transmission inter-connection between Montana and Alberta. The 346 km, 230 kV AC transmission line with phase shifting transformer and 300 MW transfer capacity will be a synchronous interconnection and will improve the reliability of the entire electric systems in both Montana and Alberta. The benefits of the interconnected power system include increased reliability and stability of the existing power grids; better import/export capabilities; more competition and options in the marketplace; greater flexibility in scheduling generator maintenance; and, optimal allocation of generation resources. tabs., figs

  14. Teaching Jessica: race, religion, and gender in The Merchant of Venice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicher Efraim


    Full Text Available The Jew’s “fair daughter” in Shakespeare’s play The Merchant of Venice converts and marries a Christian, Lorenzo. Recent attention, however, to changing ideas of race and identity in the early modern period has brought into question the divisions of Christian/Jew/Moor. Can Jessica convert and no longer be considered the Jew’s daughter? As “gentle” and “fair” is she to be considered gentile and in no way dark (spiritually or racially? Jessica’s conversion has apparently little religious meaning, but rather she is saved from the Jew her father by marriage to Lorenzo, who becomes Shylock’s heir. Is Jessica’s conversion to be considered a matter of convenience that might, as Launcelot quips, raise the price of hogs, or is it also to be counted as an ideological and racial conversion that reveals underlying anxieties about gender, sexuality, and religious identity? This essay attempts to argue against the grain of the performance history of The Merchant History, which often downplays the role of Jessica or revises the text of the play, and returns to the text in order to contextualize the conversion of Jessica in contemporary discourses of gender, race, and religion in England’s expansionist colonialism and proto-capitalist commerce. The conversion of Jessica can be seen in that context as an exchange of monetary and ethical value, in which women’s sexuality also had a price-tag. These questions have implications for the teaching of the play and for the understanding of its concerns with unstable sexual, religious, and national identities.

  15. Surveillance of maritime deaths on board Danish merchant ships, 1986-2009. (United States)

    Borch, Daniel F; Hansen, Henrik L; Burr, Hermann; Jepsen, Jørgen R


    A previous study demonstrated a high death rate among seafarers signed on Danish ships during the years 1986-1993. This study aimed to examine and analyse the subsequent development until 2009. A total of 356 fatalities were identified from data supplied from the Danish Maritime Authority, an insurance company, and other sources. Maritime deaths among seafarers signed on Danish ships comprise deaths from 1) accidents, suicides and homicides; and 2) disease on board. Deaths due to 2) occurring ashore within 30 days after signing off were included. The overall and mode-specific death rates were calculated for three eight-year observation periods. The rates for work-related fatal accidents were compared with the rates for land-based trades. All categories of maritime deaths were significantly reduced from 1986 to 2009 - in particular during the last eight-year period (Accidents 1986-1993: 66.6 per 100,000 person years, 2002-2009: 27.0 per 100,000 person years, diseases 49.5-26.1, suicides 14.4-7.8). In spite of the remarkable improvement since 1986, seafarers remain in 2002-2009 more than six times more likely to die from occupational accidents (including shipwrecks) than do workers ashore. The favourable trend of maritime deaths in the Danish merchant fleet may be due to 1) preventive measures - e.g. interventions relating to vessel safety, work environment, and improved medical care on board - and to 2) technological and organizational changes - e.g. newer and larger vessels in the Danish merchant fleet, changed composition of the workforce, and reduced shore leaves. The persisting excess risk warrants further preventive actions.

  16. Occupational accidents in the Danish merchant fleet and the nationality of seafarers. (United States)

    Adám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara; Pedersen, Randi Nørgaard Fløe; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis


    The aim of the study was to examine occupational accidents reported from non-passenger merchant ships registered in the Danish International Ship Register in 2010-2012, with a focus on analysing nationality differences in the risk of getting injured in an accident. Data about notified occupational accidents were collected from notifications sent to the Danish Maritime Authority and from records of contact with Danish Radio Medical. Events were matched by personal identification and accident data to create a unified database. Stratified cumulative time spent on board by seafarers was used to calculate accident rates. Incidence rates of different nationalities were compared by Poisson regression. Western European seafarers had an overall accident rate of 17.5 per 100000 person-days, which proved to be significantly higher than that of Eastern European, South East Asian and Indian seaman (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.53, 0.51 and 0.74, respectively), although differences decreased over the investigated period. Smaller but in most cases still significant discrepancies were observed for serious injuries. The back injury rate of Western European employees was found especially high, while eye injuries seem to be more frequent among South East Asian workers. The study identified substantial differences between nationalities in the rate of various accidents reported from merchant ships sailing under the Danish flag. The differences may be attributed to various factors such as safety behaviour. Investigation of special injury types and characterisation of effective elements of safety culture can contribute to the improvement of workplace safety in the maritime sector.

  17. Historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.M.


    A historical perspective of the nuclear waste issue is presented, beginning from the Atoms for Peace Legislation which made nuclear technology available to private industry in 1953 to 1954. Once the nuclear process had been demonstrated to be a technically and economically feasible method to convert thermal energy for electric power generation, commercial application began. The issue of nuclear waste management did not keep up with higher priorities. As early as 1957, research into storing the waste in geological structures was conducted by the National Academy of Sciences, and considerable technical progress was made in the 60's. During the 60's and 70's, numerous legislative actions (e.g., Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Environmental Policy Act) had a significant impact on nuclear waste dipsosal decisions. In 1971 to 1972 the Atomic Energy Commission authorized a nuclear waste repository in Kansas, a decision which was amended the following year and finally abandoned altogether in 1974. The OPEC oil embargo and ensuing price actions moved nuclear power into a more prominent position in the United States' plans for energy independence. This increased the stress between environmental concerns and economic need. The Carter Administration indefinitely deferred reprocessing of spent fuel and initiated a government-wide review of nuclear policy issues. The Congress did not actively begin to fashion a nuclear waste program until February 1980. The legislation which passed the Senate in the Spring of '82, and a compromise version pending before the House, may resolve the issue by establishing a long-term stable policy which will contain milestones, goals and specific decision making processes; it will include a mechanism for the public and the states to be involved; and it will insure adequate financing provisions

  18. Marks in Latin-American radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Almeida, S. de.


    An historical retrospective of Latin-American radiology is shortly presented. Several radiologic societies as well as personalities, scientists and doctors are reported emphasizing their contribuition to radiologic Latin-American culture. (M.A.C.) [pt

  19. Violent video games and the Supreme Court: lessons for the scientific community in the wake of Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association. (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J


    In June 2011 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that video games enjoy full free speech protections and that the regulation of violent game sales to minors is unconstitutional. The Supreme Court also referred to psychological research on violent video games as "unpersuasive" and noted that such research contains many methodological flaws. Recent reviews in many scholarly journals have come to similar conclusions, although much debate continues. Given past statements by the American Psychological Association linking video game and media violence with aggression, the Supreme Court ruling, particularly its critique of the science, is likely to be shocking and disappointing to some psychologists. One possible outcome is that the psychological community may increase the conclusiveness of their statements linking violent games to harm as a form of defensive reaction. However, in this article the author argues that the psychological community would be better served by reflecting on this research and considering whether the scientific process failed by permitting and even encouraging statements about video game violence that exceeded the data or ignored conflicting data. Although it is likely that debates on this issue will continue, a move toward caution and conservatism as well as increased dialogue between scholars on opposing sides of this debate will be necessary to restore scientific credibility. The current article reviews the involvement of the psychological science community in the Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association case and suggests that it might learn from some of the errors in this case for the future. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Rethinking historical trauma. (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Gone, Joseph P; Moses, Joshua


    Recent years have seen the rise of historical trauma as a construct to describe the impact of colonization, cultural suppression, and historical oppression of Indigenous peoples in North America (e.g., Native Americans in the United States, Aboriginal peoples in Canada). The discourses of psychiatry and psychology contribute to the conflation of disparate forms of violence by emphasizing presumptively universal aspects of trauma response. Many proponents of this construct have made explicit analogies to the Holocaust as a way to understand the transgenerational effects of genocide. However, the social, cultural, and psychological contexts of the Holocaust and of post-colonial Indigenous "survivance" differ in many striking ways. Indeed, the comparison suggests that the persistent suffering of Indigenous peoples in the Americas reflects not so much past trauma as ongoing structural violence. The comparative study of genocide and other forms of massive, organized violence can do much to illuminate both common mechanisms and distinctive features, and trace the looping effects from political processes to individual experience and back again. The ethics and pragmatics of individual and collective healing, restitution, resilience, and recovery can be understood in terms of the self-vindicating loops between politics, structural violence, public discourse, and embodied experience. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:

  1. Bartolomé Arnolfo, a Native from Savoy in Madrid at the Middle of the Seventeenth Century, Financier, Merchant and Owner of Transhumant Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the course of the seventeenth century a numerous community of foreign merchants took shape in Madrid. Individuals of very diverse origins conformed this community that was divided in «nations», in which the merchants of the same origin came together. One of these «nations» was conformed by the subjects of the duke Savoy, that were not very numerous in Madrid at this time. In this article the author pays attention to one of the most prominent members of this nation, the merchant and businessman Bartolomé Arnolfo. He informs about his activity as a merchant, and he pays particular attention to his activity as wool exporter, that he puts in connexion with other activities such as money-lending and transhumant sheep-breeding.

  2. National Register Historic Districts (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  3. Reconsidering the European regulation of merchant transmission investment in light of the third energy package: The role of dominant generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauteclocque, Adrien de; Rious, Vincent


    The regulation of merchant transmission investment (MTI) has become an important issue in the EU electricity sector, subsequent to the granting of authorizations by European authorities to five merchant projects: BritNed, Estlink, the East West Cables, NorGer and recently a merchant line connecting Italy and Austria. The creation of a new Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER) at the EU level, which has decision-making powers on MTI, therefore presents a unique opportunity to question and re-design the current European policy. This paper shows that the recent decisions concerning MTI may suffer a strong bias against dominant electricity generators while incumbent Transmission System Operators (TSOs) or new entrant TSOs are generally favored by national regulators and the European Commission (EC). This strategy is misguided as it fails to recognize both the new incentives of generators to develop MTI and the conflict of interest between the regulated and non-regulated activities of incumbent TSOs. Letting dominant generators undertake MTI is indeed generally beneficial as long as potential abuses of dominance are mitigated. To deter possible anti-competitive effects, we propose a new and feasible allocation of regulatory powers based on a clear demarcation between the market monitoring powers of ACER and the antitrust powers of the EC. - Highlights: → We compare TSOs and generators as merchant transmission investors in Europe. → We find a bias among regulators against the involvement of generators. → The conflict of interest with the regulated activities of TSOs is under-estimated. → Investment by generators is preferable provided market manipulation is deterred. → We propose a new allocation of regulatory powers to make it possible.

  4. Electronic countermeasures (ECM) and acoustic countermeasures (ACM) supported protection for merchant ships against SSM/ASM missiles and mines


    Wallander, Bo L.


    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The necessity for merchant ship self protection has become more and more obvious during recent years. This thesis will investigate the threat (missiles and mines) and associated counter-measures that might be installed to provide a reasonable degree of protection. The results indicate that it is possible to get protection against a sea-skimming missile with a combination of ECM and ESM deployed aboard the ship. For protection against the ...

  5. New products from the power merchant to customer with time measurements and load management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solem, Gerd; Doorman, Gerard; Grande, Ove S.


    The main aim is to develop products from the power merchants that improve the consumer flexibility. For the development of the products the basis is that the consumption is measured by hours and that a connection to a load management scheme is present. Calculations for four products are made where the risk exposure is different for the customer and the supplier. The four products are ''Spot price with mark-up'', ''The combination of constant price and spot price'', ''Constant price with disconnection'' and ''Effect subscription''. The customers are exposed to the spot price in the first two products and may through disconnection reduce the costs by adapting to the market signals. Remote disconnection of parts of the consumption may be offered as a service jointly by the network companies and the power suppliers through a two-way communication but it is not realistic that the customers may pay much for this. ''Spot price with mark-up'' implies that the customer carries the entire risk while constant price may place considerable risk at the power supplier by long high consumption combined with high spot prices. '' Constant price with disconnection'' gives the power supplier the possibilities of reducing the risks. A disconnection possibility that is committing to the customers may be part of the product specification. The customers may be offered a discount calculated out from the costs for alternative price securing. Also '' Effect subscription'' reduces the merchant risks considerably at the disconnection of the consumption. The ''combined product of constant and spot price'' may be interesting from the supplier's viewpoint due to considerable risk reductions compared to solely using the constant price. The product gives the customers a guaranteed price for a part of the product and has an additional possibility of adapting the consumption to the market signals. The network company routines for handling of the hour values are a large challenge. It is important to

  6. Historic Landscape Survey, Maxwell AFB, Alabama (United States)


    signifies Maxwell AFB’s historic landscapes. 2.1 The pre-military landscape Prehistory in the southeastern United States is generally designated as...the period of Native American occupation before Spanish explorers made contact in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. In Alabama, the prehistory ... prehistory or history is made clear.56 A historic property is determined to be either significant or not significant by applying standardized National

  7. Grant Wood: "American Gothic." (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.


    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  8. War as social regeneration: Sombart from The Quintessence of Capitalism to Merchants and Heroes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Degli Esposti


    Full Text Available The essay examines a particular stage of the life and scientific production of Werner Sombart: the years of the First World War. Most biographers of Sombart showed that the German scholar, during these years, remained essentially on the fringe of the debate that took place in Germany, as well in other countries taking part in the war, on the economic and social transformations induced by the conflict, and in particular, on the new role assumed by the State in directing the life of the economy and society. Published in 1915, Händler und Helden (Merchants and Heroes should be primarily considered as a work of propaganda. It is a vicious attack on Britain, seen as the country that had produced a petty and materialistic conception of existence. The topics chosen by Sombart for his polemic, however, summarize many aspects of his previous works on the origins and development of modern economics, and even anticipate some of his reflections – later developed in the second edition of Modern Capitalism or in works such as German socialism – on the future and the fate of capitalism.

  9. Adapting Shakespeare – Converting Shylock in Michael Radford’s the Merchant of Venice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oakes Luke


    Full Text Available This article aims to explore the extension and evolution of Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice through Michael Radford’s 2004 cinematic adaptation. By investigating the concept of adaptation and the significance of intertextuality, Shakespeare’s source text is considered alongside Radford’s twenty-first century recreation to reimagine and redefine the construction of Shylock as both a comic and tragic device utilized across film and play. Issues of racial and religious prejudices alongside anti- Semitic views were particularly prominent in Elizabethan England and, by concentrating on recontextualisation, this article looks to expose Shakespeare’s characterization as a reflective commentary concerning societal discriminations at the time of the play’s performance. By focusing primarily on Shakespeare’s Jewish Usurer, Radford is able to reconstruct and reestablish the dramatic devices and characters within the cinematic version, metaphorically converting Shylock from comic villain to tragic victim. Finally, it argues that this dynamic shift inevitably metamorphoses Shylock from a spectator’s perspective and provides Michael Radford with an opportunity to offer a social commentary on social inequality in the twenty-first century.

  10. American uranium: Relic or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This article is a review of the American Uranium industry. Historical aspects are presented as the industry's history is outlined from the mid-1950's to the present day. Present capabilities are noted, as are a current comparison of American production costs vs. world costs. Future trends are analyzed

  11. American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Pechatnov


    Full Text Available The "Founding fathers" of American Studies at MGIMO are considered to be A.V. Efimov and L.I. Clove. Alexey Efimov - Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences since 1938, Head of the Department of Modern and Contemporary History and Dean of the Historical School at the Moscow State University - one of the first professors of the Faculty of International Relations MGIMO. Efimov distinguished himself by a broad vision and scope of scientific interests. Back in 1934 he published a monograph "On the history of capitalism in the United States," which initiated a series of research culminating in the fundamental work "The United States. The path of capitalist development (pre-imperialist era". Alexey was not only a great scientist but also a great teacher, whose lectures was popular throughout Moscow. His lecture courses, given at the end of the 1940s at MGIMO, became the basis for the first post-war history textbooks USA - "Essays on the history of the United States." At least as colorful a figure was Professor Leo Izrailevich Zubok - a man of unusual destiny. As a teenager he emigrated to the United States with his parents, where he soon joined the American revolutionary movement in the 1920s and was forced to leave the country. He came to MGIMO being already an experienced scientists. His research interests were very wide: from the study of American foreign policy expansion to the history of the labor movement in the United States. Zubok's fundamental works still have not lost its scientific significance. He has successfully combined scientific work with teaching. Tutorials that are based on his lectures were very popular not only among students of MGIMO.

  12. The historic fur trade and climate change (United States)

    Varekamp, Johan C.


    Why did the Dutch come to the North American shores 400 years ago? Was it wanderlust, expansionist policies, or simply money? The earliest western explorers were the Vikings who, in the 1100s, were able to sail beyond Iceland and Greenland to Newfoundland, because they did so during the Medieval Warm Period. English explorer Henry Hudson, on the other hand, could not find a northern passage to China because the early 1600s were the coldest part of the Little Ice Age and the northern seas were frozen over (Figure 1).After Hudson's third voyage, Dutch merchants contracted several sailors to establish trading posts for beaver pelts in the Americas. Among them was Adriaen Block, who built the first western settlement on the island of Manhattan (New York) after a fire on his ship forced him to over-winter there in 1614 [Varekamp and Varekamp, 2006]. His 1614 'figurative map' shows Long Island Sound as an estuary, and introduced for the first time the name 'Niew Nederlandt' (New Netherlands).

  13. Merchants of Light: The Paris Library School, Internationalism, and the Globalization of a Profession (United States)

    Witt, Steven


    Amid growing isolationism after World War I, the American Library Association transferred its wartime programs to train librarians in Europe and promote the American model of public libraries. Working in collaboration with American philanthropists and members of the French library community, ALA established a permanent library school in Paris that…

  14. VT Historic Preservation Grant (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The State-funded Historic Preservation Grant Program helps municipalities and non-profit organizations rehabilitate the historic buildings that are a vital part of...

  15. Democracy and Historical Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon


    In this essay, we try to clarify the relationship between democracy and historical writing. The strategy is first exploring the general relationship between democracy and historical awareness, and then, studying the relationship between democracy and historical writing itself to find out whether

  16. Course Descriptions in Environmental Studies Part One: Historical Courses. (United States)

    Hughes, Donald; And Others


    Presents descriptions (syllabi, outlines, goals) of selected environmental studies courses which approach the discipline from an historical and humanistic perspective. Areas explored in the courses include human ecology, American environmental history, environmental politics, and others. (JN)

  17. History, Historical and Historicity in Heidegger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel CHILLÓN


    Full Text Available In order to the “Historie” is possible as “Geschichte”, that is, so that the events are more than mere collections of past vestiges, it is necessary that the historical (geschichtlich of history is understood as enshrined in the historicity, in Geschichtlichkeit. In § 6 of the Introduction to ‘Being and Time’ Heidegger understands that the historicity refers to the temporality of Dasein, to its finitude. Thiking of the historicity requires, as its main task, overcoming history as history of entities, in terms of history of forgotten being. And, of course, to think the being, the happening of being and Dasein which, as such event, is being, is occurring , it is historicizing .

  18. Cruel Seas: World War 2 Merchant Marine-Related Nautical Fiction from the 1930s to Present


    Krummes, Daniel C


    Cruel Seas is an annotated bibliography of fiction in English that involves civilian steamships of the merchant marine in works set during World War Two (or slightly before).  While the subtitle states "1930s to Present," the last entry was added in 2008, and the work will not be updated.  The entries include novels, novellas, and short stories, but exclude poetry, theater plays, and fiction written for juveniles (unless the work can appeal to adults as well). Many of the works invol...

  19. Merchants, Prices and Salaries in Sonora during the Late Colonial Period. Description of a Captive Trade Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Refugio de la Torre Curiel


    Full Text Available This paper offers a critical view on the existence of regional markets and the New Spain market,  based on the analysis of the presence, in the state of Sonora, of different forms of participation in the deals that depended on, and nurtured, the local trade circuits. Sonoran economies are shown to have been part of a captive trade net managed at a distance from the center of New Spain by Mexico City merchants, and locally manipulated by several middlemen who transferred the system's operational costs to the final consumers through mechanisms such as salaries in kind and compulsory indebtedness.

  20. Aplikasi Event Management Pada Acara Road to GO-FOOD Culinary Festival and GOFOOD Culinary Festival with 50 Best Merchants Sebagai Project Leader Dan Program Manager


    Gamaliel Sihombing, Yeremi; Pradekso, Tandiyo


    GO-JEK, a technology based on-demand service provider is a growing start-up that exist with the aim of providing solutions to our daily social issues. Let's take a look at GO-FOOD, a delivery order services powered by GO-JEK to ease people's effort in ordering their favourite food. In this case, GO-FOOD partnered with thousands of restaurants which then called as merchants. GO-FOOD Culinary Festival with 50 Best Merchants is a culinary festival held by GO-JEK to introduce the most popular 50 ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarjo Sunarjo


    adalah dengan cara menjadikan kepentingan yang perlu dilindungi tersebut ke dalam sebuah hak hukum. Pada hubungan hukum berupa pembayaran transaksi bisnis dengan kartu kredit, melibatkan tiga pihak, yaitu issuing bank (bank yang mengeluarkan kartu, card holder (pemegang kartu dan merchant (tempat-tempat yang mau menerima pembayaran dengan kartu kredit. Antara ketiga pihak tersebut mempunyai hubungan hukum yang berbeda. Para pihak tersebut terutama pemegang kartu kredit harus dilindungi secara hukum sehingga tidak mengalami kerugian ketika bertransaksi dan melakukan pembayaran dengan kartu kredit.

  2. American Studies in Russia


    Antsyferova, Olga


    Interest in the USA, both general and specifically academic, has always existed in Russia, with its own ups and downs. But American studies as an academic discipline started gaining its popularity probably after WWII when there sporadically started to emerge the ever-increasing number of academic books, articles and dissertations in literary and historical research on the USA, the main centers of which were founded at the Academic Research Institute of the USA and Canada, headed by academicia...

  3. Changes in the Use of the Passive Voice over Time: A Historical Look at the "American Journal of Botany" and the Changes in the Use of the Passive Voice from 1914-2008 (United States)

    Dumin, Laura Marie


    Scope and Method of Study. This study looks at 15 articles from the "American Journal of Botany"--5 articles from 1914-1918, 5 articles from 1962-1966, and 5 articles from 2004-2008--to determine if and how the use of the passive voice has changed over time. Findings and Conclusions. The ways in which the passive voice was used, and the…

  4. Production as translation: the merchant of Venice on the “foreign” stage Production as translation: the merchant of Venice on the “foreign” stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L. Fischer


    Full Text Available In recent years, seventeenth-century classical drama has increasingly traversed national borders and become accessible to “foreign” audiences through modern productions based on translations and / or new versions that interrogate the original textual author-ity. The very act of translation, of denying a classical author such as Shakespeare his language, presents a challenge to the universalizing tendency of traditional stage history with its essentialist assumptions that classical texts “are stable and authoritative, that meaning is immanent in them, and that actors and directors are therefore interpreters rather than makers of meaning” (Bulman “Introd.” 1. In any reading of performance, whether past of present, the critic’s task is, as Cary Mazer reminds us, “an act of contextualizing, of historicizing, the performance in its cultural moment” (149.1 The performance text2 is itself historically contingent, the outcome of a process Patrice Pavis terms its “concretization,” wherein “signifier (literary work as thing, signified (aesthetic object, and Social Context. In recent years, seventeenth-century classical drama has increasingly traversed national borders and become accessible to “foreign” audiences through modern productions based on translations and / or new versions that interrogate the original textual author-ity. The very act of translation, of denying a classical author such as Shakespeare his language, presents a challenge to the universalizing tendency of traditional stage history with its essentialist assumptions that classical texts “are stable and authoritative, that meaning is immanent in them, and that actors and directors are therefore interpreters rather than makers of meaning” (Bulman “Introd.” 1. In any reading of performance, whether past of present, the critic’s task is, as Cary Mazer reminds us, “an act of contextualizing, of historicizing, the performance in its cultural

  5. The US merchant blast furnace coke market: current state of play

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloe, A. [Shenango Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (US)


    A five page text is accompanied by a set of 11 slides/overheads. The talk discussed the reasons why the presenter believes that coke prices will stay above their historical levels for the foreseeable future. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Historical Dictionaries and Historical Dictionary Research: Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Resensies / Reviews. 309 ... and Historical Dictionary Research: Papers from the International ... "Cambridge, Trinity College Library MS 0.5.4: A Fifteenth-century ... There are among others ten types of manuscript collections that need attention, ..... The collection is rounded off by a selective index, supplementing the Table.

  7. Lagos Historical Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lagos Historical Review is an international and interdisciplinary journal publishing papers with a historical focus. The journal generates and participates in debates to advance the discipline of history and promote its relevance to development. The journal aims to serve the academic community with a bias towards ...

  8. HMI - historical flashback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, B.


    This brochure is based on a paper read at a HMI colloquium on 14 Juni 1993. The historical information is based on a detailed historical study published in book form under the title ''Industrial-scale Research in Berlin''. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. Historizing epistemology in psychology. (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana


    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  10. Factors Controlling Pre-Columbian and Early Historic Maize Productivity in the American Southwest, Part 2: The Chaco Halo, Mesa Verde, Pajarito Plateau/Bandelier, and Zuni Archaeological Regions (United States)

    Benson, L.V.


    Chemical and nutrient analyses of 471 soil samples from 161 sites within four archaeological regions (Pajarito Plateau/Bandelier, Zuni, Mesa Verde, and the Chaco Halo) were combined with historical climate data in order to evaluate the agricultural productivity of each region. In addition, maize productivity and field-life calculations were performed using organic-nitrogen (N) values from the upper 50 cm of soil in each region and a range (1-3%/year) of N-mineralization rates. The endmember values of this range were assumed representative of dry and wet climate states. With respect to precipitation and heat, the Pajarito Plateau area has excellent agricultural potential; the agricultural potentials of the Zuni and Mesa Verde regions are good; and the agricultural potential of the Chaco Halo is poor. Calculations of N mineralization and field life indicate that Morfield Valley in Mesa Verde should be able to provide 10 bu/ac of maize for decades (without the addition of N) when organic N-mineralization rates exceed 2%. Productivity and field-life potential decrease in the following order: Zuni, Mesa Verde, Bandelier, Chaco Halo. The Chaco Halo is very unproductive; e. g., 10 bushels per acre can be achieved within the Halo only from soils having the highest organic N concentration (third quartile) and which undergo the highest rate (3%) of N mineralization. ?? 2010 US Government.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Bartha


    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to apply the basic principles of the aesthetic discourse on the sublime, beautiful and grotesque to William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice. Even though it is a discourse that only begins in the course of the eighteenth century, I will argue that the structure of the play parallels the model of the traditional sublime, as it deals with a subject-object binary and meditates on the relationship between the material (body and the transcendental (mind. However, the play is also rich in disruptive — or grotesque — forces that unsettle this binary structure. The parallels between the play and the aesthetic discourse could not only help our understanding of postmodern criticism and rewriting of the sublime, but the sublime can also, in turn, shed light on the reception of the play.

  12. American Women and American Studies. (United States)

    Chmaj, Betty E.

    The American Studies Association (ASA) is an interprofessional group, representing a cross-section of persons from American literature, American history, the social sciences, philosophy, archeology, Black Studies, Urban Studies, American Studies, and others. This document by the ASA Commission on the Status of Women includes: (1) a report of the…

  13. Native American youth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Laurence A. French


    Full Text Available Youth and delinquency issues have long been problematic among Native Americans groups both on- and off-reservation. This phenomenon is further complicated by the cultural diversity among American Indians and Alaska Natives scattered across the United States. In address these issues, the paper begins with a historical overview of Native American youth. This history presents the long tradition of federal policies that, how well intended, have resulted in discriminatory practices with the most damages attacks being those directed toward the destruction of viable cultural attributes – the same attributes that make Native Americans unique within United States society. Following the historical material, the authors contrast the pervasive Native American aboriginal ethos of harmony with that of Protestant Ethic that dominates the ethos of the larger United States society. In addition to providing general information on Native American crime and delinquency, the paper also provides a case study of Native American justice within the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe, in both size and population, in the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues specific to Native American youth and efforts to address these problems.

  14. The historical supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, David H


    The Historical Supernovae is an interdisciplinary study of the historical records of supernova. This book is composed of 12 chapters that particularly highlight the history of the Far East. The opening chapter briefly describes the features of nova and supernova, stars which spontaneously explode with a spectacular and rapid increase in brightness. The succeeding chapter deals with the search for the historical records of supernova from Medieval European monastic chronicles, Arabic chronicles, astrological works etc., post renaissance European scientific writings, and Far Eastern histories and

  15. Historical Footage of John Glenn Friendship 7 (United States)


    The Friendship mission launch on the 20th day of February marked the first time that an American attempts to orbit the Earth. Historical footage of John Glenn's suit up, ride out to the launch pad, countdown, liftoff, booster engine cutoff, and separation of the booster engine escape tower is shown. Views of the Earth, Glenn's manual control of the electrical fly-by wire system, and the recovery of the landing vehicle from the ocean are presented.

  16. Historical transformation and epistemological discontinuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Močnik Rastko


    Full Text Available Starting from recent formulas of EU bureaucracy for subordinating scientific and educational apparatuses to the needs of the capital and to the requests of its political representatives, the article analyses the interconnection between the historical transformation of the ideological state apparatuses (universities, higher education institutions, research institutes etc. and the epistemological discontinuity provoked by the triumph of technosciences. The hypothesis to be tested is the following: While the crisis of West European-North American capitalism requires an ever tighter submission of ideological state apparatuses, and especially of scientific and academic apparatuses to the needs of the capital, theoretical practices in the humanities and social sciences have come to the point where they entered into an open conflict with the domination of the capital and have, as a consequence, started to subvert their own institutional supports in the ideological apparatuses of the capitalist state. For this purpose, the article reconsiders social sciences as a compromise formation and, eventually, reassesses the historical materialism as a non-Cartesian modern science.

  17. Premier Hospital Historical Data (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To provide a historical overview of the participating hospitals, before the first project report, Premier Healthcare Informatics has used data already available for...

  18. Iowa Historic Cemeteries (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file represents Iowa Historic Cemeteries. Originally it was based on an Iowa DNR point file marking cemetery locations as found on 7.5 min. USGS quad...

  19. VT Roadside Historic Markers (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Roadside Historic Site Marker program has proven an effective way to commemorate Vermont’s many people, events, and places of regional, statewide, or national...

  20. Historical Climatology Series (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Historical Climatology Series (HCS) is a set of climate-related publications published by NOAA's National Climatic Data Center beginning in 1978. HCS is...

  1. Haitian Americans. (United States)

    Catanese, Anthony V.


    Uses 1990 U.S. Census data to show the changing demographic profile of Haitian Americans. Haitian Americans are likely to live along the Atlantic seaboard and to have relatively low, although not the lowest, incomes. However, the demographic mosaic of Haitian Americans is diverse, showing the effects of Haitian national and ethnic history. (SLD)

  2. Reincarnation in America: A Brief Historical Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Irwin


    Full Text Available American theories of reincarnation have a long and complex history, dating from 1680s to the present. It is the purpose of this paper to highlight the main currents of reincarnation theory in the American context, giving a brief historical survey. Sources surveyed begin with Native American traditions, and then move to immigrant traditions based in Western Esotericism, Christianity, Judaism, missionary Hinduism and Buddhism, Spiritualism, Theosophy, Rosicrucianism, and concludes with more current theoretical influences, based in paranormal science research. The paper demonstrates that current theories of reincarnation are increasingly less dependent upon religious support and increasingly based in direct personal experience, paranormal research, and new therapeutic models. The paper concludes with some reflections on the complexity of reincarnation theory and raises questions concerning the future development of such theory.

  3. Sea Training at Maritime Academies Oversight. Hearings Before the Ad Hoc Select Subcommittee on Maritime Education and Training of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session on Sea Training of United States Merchant Marine Officers and Different Ways of Satisfying This Requirement at the Various Maritime Academies. (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries.

    Recorded are minutes of hearings before the House Ad Hoc Select Subcommittee on Maritime Education and Training regarding the sea training of United States Merchant Marine officers. Examined are various approaches to meeting the sea training requirement, especially the options of maritime academy training vessels, sailing on U.S.-flag merchant…

  4. Biblical Interpretation Beyond Historicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biblical Interpretation beyond Historicity evaluates the new perspectives that have emerged since the crisis over historicity in the 1970s and 80s in the field of biblical scholarship. Several new studies in the field, as well as the ‘deconstructive’ side of literary criticism that emerged from...... writers such as Derrida and Wittgenstein, among others, lead biblical scholars today to view the texts of the Bible more as literary narratives than as sources for a history of Israel. Increased interest in archaeological and anthropological studies in writing the history of Palestine and the ancient Near...... and the commitment to a new approach to both the history of Palestine and the Bible’s place in ancient history. This volume features essays from a range of highly regarded scholars, and is divided into three sections: “Beyond Historicity”, which explores alternative historical roles for the Bible, “Greek Connections...

  5. Historical centres: changing definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lazzarotti


    Full Text Available Since the end of the Second World War, the architectural and planning culture has been showing a fluctuating attention to the theme of historical centres and their enhancement. First of all this uneven progress explains the difficulty to reach a homogeneous definition and this is still lacking. During a long phase of this period, the historical parts of the town were considered as objects to be preserved in an integral way, as urban monuments. This is mostly due to the high symbolic value of these settlements, that represent fundamental landmarks. Identity building and empowerment of local communities are indispensable conditions for any development programme, especially in the case of centres or other historic environments at risk of abandonment. The progressive evolution of this concept brings awareness of the impossibility of separating – either in analytical or in planning terms ­ historical centres from their urban and territorial contexts, which are linked by mutual, deep relationships. This article attempts to retrace the steps signaled by the publication of international documents and conventions, from the Charter of Gubbio (1960 to the Charter of Krakow and the European Landscape Convention (2000; they obviously represent particular points of view, not exhaustive of the richness of the positions in the debate, but extremely significant in terms of diffusion and consensus.

  6. Political Correctness, Historically Speaking. (United States)

    Lipset, Seymour Martin


    This historical review examines conservative and liberal attitudes on U.S. campuses in terms of political, ethnic, racial, gender, and religious issues. Discussed are the era of protest (1960s), the era of quiescence and move toward conservatism (1970-84), reversing the trend via increasing faculty liberalism, and contemporary opinion (a…

  7. Historical dictionary of librarianship

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, Mary Ellen


    The Historical Dictionary of Librarianship focuses on librarianship as a modern, organized profession, emphasizing the period beginning in the mid-nineteenth century. Author Mary Ellen Quinn relates the history of this profession through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography.

  8. Black Lives Matter: Teaching African American Literature and the Struggle (United States)

    Gross, Jeffrey


    In theorizing how we should pedagogically approach African American literature, especially in courses for undergraduates, I argue that we have to move away from questions of what was or even what is African American literature and, instead, find ways to teach African American literature in both its historical contexts--artistic and political--and…

  9. The Emergence of Voices: Vietnamese American Literature 1975-1990. (United States)

    Truong, Monique Thuy-Dung


    The loose and porous body of work defined as Vietnamese American literature emerges from social and historical conflict. Vietnamese American literature speaks of death and irreconcilable loss and the longing for peace of mind. Texts by Vietnamese Americans can deliver the voices necessary to reexamine the Vietnam War. (SLD)

  10. Cultural Strengths to Persevere: Native American Women in Higher Education (United States)

    Waterman, Stephanie J.; Lindley, Lorinda S.


    Beginning with an overview of historical perspectives of Native American women, this article includes some discussion of values and practices of contemporary Native American women, data pertaining to Native American women's participation in higher education, and an introduction of familial cultural capital, community cultural wealth, Native…

  11. A Cost Benefit Analysis Approach to Identify Improvements in Merchant Navy Deck Officers’ HELM (Human Element Leadership and Management Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Saeed


    Full Text Available A review of maritime accidents conducted over the last decade confirms that human error is the main contributing factor in these incidents. Well-developed Non-Technical Skills (NTS can reduce the effects of human error. NTS include both interpersonal and cognitive skills such as situation awareness, teamwork, decision-making, leadership, managerial skills, communication and language skills. In a crisis situation good NTS allow a deck officer to recognise the problem quickly, take action to manage the situation, and utilise the available team members safely and effectively. This paper identifies the importance of NTS training for merchant navy deck officers. It also highlights room for improvement in the existing HELM training. Research has shown that at present the structure of HELM training is not very effective. The other safety critical domains’ efforts into NTS developments are investigated and examples of best practice are adapted into the maritime domain’s NTS training. Suggestions are given for improvements to the HELM course based on proven successful methods in other safety critical domains (aviation and anaesthesia. A subsequent Cost Benefit Analysis for improving deck officers’ NTS is also carried out through the use of Bayesian Networks and Decision Tree Modelling.

  12. Working conditions in the engine department - A qualitative study among engine room personnel on board Swedish merchant ships. (United States)

    Lundh, Monica; Lützhöft, Margareta; Rydstedt, Leif; Dahlman, Joakim


    The specific problems associated with the work on board within the merchant fleet are well known and have over the years been a topic of discussion. The work conditions in the engine room (ER) are demanding due to, e.g. the thermal climate, noise and awkward working postures. The work in the engine control room (ECR) has over recent years undergone major changes, mainly due to the introduction of computers on board. In order to capture the impact these changes had implied, and also to investigate how the work situation has developed, a total of 20 engine officers and engine ratings were interviewed. The interviews were semi-structured and Grounded Theory was used for the data analysis. The aim of the present study was to describe how the engine crew perceive their work situation and working environment on board. Further, the aim was to identify areas for improvements which the engine crew consider especially important for a safe and effective work environment. The result of the study shows that the design of the ECR and ER is crucial for how different tasks are performed. Design which does not support operational procedures and how tasks are performed risk inducing inappropriate behaviour as the crew members' are compelled to find alternative ways to perform their tasks in order to get the job done. These types of behaviour can induce an increased risk of exposure to hazardous substances and the engine crew members becoming injured. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of historical documents for writership (United States)

    Ball, Gregory R.; Pu, Danjun; Stritmatter, Roger; Srihari, Sargur N.


    Over the last century forensic document science has developed progressively more sophisticated pattern recognition methodologies for ascertaining the authorship of disputed documents. These include advances not only in computer assisted stylometrics, but forensic handwriting analysis. We present a writer verification method and an evaluation of an actual historical document written by an unknown writer. The questioned document is compared against two known handwriting samples of Herman Melville, a 19th century American author who has been hypothesized to be the writer of this document. The comparison led to a high confidence result that the questioned document was written by the same writer as the known documents. Such methodology can be applied to many such questioned documents in historical writing, both in literary and legal fields.

  14. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina


    The first Miss Lebanon-America, Rosemary Hakim, landed at Beirut Airport in July 1955 to start a public diplomacy tour. As an American beauty queen from Detroit visiting Lebanon, her parents' homeland, she was greeted enthusiastically by the local press and closely monitored by US government...... a transnational sense of Arab Americanness to negotiate her own gender and ethnic identity. This is significant because we currently lack a broader historical understanding of Arab American women’s public agency, particularly during the mid-twentieth century. Hakim’s memoir requires us to rethink the history...... of Arab American women’s strategies of self-representation in ways that acknowledge but are not confined within the terms of conventional orientalist discourses....

  15. Historic Eastern Canadian earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmis, G.J.K.; Atchinson, R.J.


    Nuclear power plants licensed in Canada have been designed to resist earthquakes: not all plants, however, have been explicitly designed to the same level of earthquake induced forces. Understanding the nature of strong ground motion near the source of the earthquake is still very tentative. This paper reviews historical and scientific accounts of the three strongest earthquakes - St. Lawrence (1925), Temiskaming (1935), Cornwall (1944) - that have occurred in Canada in 'modern' times, field studies of near-field strong ground motion records and their resultant damage or non-damage to industrial facilities, and numerical modelling of earthquake sources and resultant wave propagation to produce accelerograms consistent with the above historical record and field studies. It is concluded that for future construction of NPP's near-field strong motion must be explicitly considered in design

  16. Historical review of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onai, Yoshio


    The techniques of radiotherapy have been improved by development of particle accelerators, radionuclides and computers. This paper presents a historical review of the physical and technical aspects of radiotherapy in Japan. Changes in the kinds of radiation, such as X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, neutrons and protons used for external radiotherapy, and the equipment involved are described chronologically, and historical changes in the quality of radiotherapy apparatus are outlined. Patient data acquisition equipment, such as X-ray simulator and X-ray CT, beam modifying devices, patient setup devices, and devices to verify treatment fields and patient doses are reviewed historically. Radiation sources for brachytherapy and internal radiotherapy, and remotely controlled afterloading systems are reviewed chronologically. Historical changes in methods to evaluate absorbed doses, dose monitor systems and beam data acquisition systems are outlined. Changes in methods of calculating dose distributions for external X-ray and electron therapy, brachytherapy and internal radiotherapy by unsealded radionuclides are described and calculation techniques for treatment planning system are reviewed. Annual figures in the numbers of radiotherapy equipment, such as telecobalt and telecesium units, linear accelerators, betatrons, microtrons, stereotactic gamma units, conformation radiotherapy units, remotely controlled afterloading systems, and associated equipment such as X-ray simulators and treatment planning systems are provided, as are changes in the number of accelerators by maximum X-ray energy and maximum electron energy, and in the number of licensed hospitals and clinics using small sealed sources. Changes in techniques of external radiotherapy and brachytherapy are described briefly from the point of view of dose distributions. (author)

  17. Historic timber roof structures


    Magina, Miguel Jorge


    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia Civil – Estruturas e Geotecnia This dissertation covers the study of historic timber roof structures in Transylvania area - Romania, the structures type, its elements and connection variety between them. Procedures to study a structure of this category are approached. It is also referred semi and non-destructive tests that can be done to better understand the present wood characteristics, and potential reparation or strengthening...

  18. Why Digitise Historical Television?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis


    Full Text Available Digitisation of historic TV material is driven by the widespread perception that archival material should be made available to diverse users. Yet digitisation alters the material, taking away any lingering sense of presence. Digitisation and online access, however, offer startling new possibilities. The article offers three: use of material in language teaching and learning; use in dementia therapy; and applications as data in medical research. All depend on ordinary TV for their effectivity.

  19. APFO Historical Availability of Imagery (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The APFO Historical Availability ArcGIS Online web map provides an easy to use reference of what historical imagery is available by county from the Aerial...

  20. ACHP | Tribal Historic Preservation Officers (United States)

    preservation of significant historic properties. Those functions include identifying and maintaining Working with Section 106 Federal, State, & Tribal Programs Training & Education Publications Search skip specific nav links Home arrow Historic Preservation Programs & Officers arrow THPOs

  1. USGS Historical Topographic Map Collection (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS Historical Quadrangle in GeoPDF. The USGS Historical Quadrangle Scanning Project (HQSP) is scanning all scales and all editions of topographic maps published by...

  2. Repertoire, Authenticity, and Instruction: The Presentation of American Indian Music in Oklahoma's Elementary Schools. Native Americans: Interdisciplinary Perspectives--A Garland Series. (United States)

    Damm, Robert J.

    This book examines the presentation of American Indian music by elementary music educators in Oklahoma, which has the largest American Indian population of any state. A literature review covers an historical profile of multicultural music education, ethnomusicological studies of American Indian music, dissertations pertaining to American Indian…

  3. Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site: Teacher's Guide. (United States)

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC. National Register of Historic Places.

    This guide provides history and social studies teachers, at all grade levels, with information and activities about the American Indians of the Northern Plains who lived in the area of the Knife River where it enters the Missouri River. Located in what is now North Dakota, this area is the Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site. The…

  4. Educational Models in the Historical Development of Latin America. (United States)

    Weinberg, Gregorio


    Examines recent experiments and historical processes in Latin American education since the beginning of the 19th century. Topics discussed include Spanish colonial educational policies, political influences on education after independence, moves for popular education, ascent of the middle classes, and the relationship between the educational…

  5. Colorism within the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) (United States)

    Gasman, Marybeth; Abiola, Ufuoma


    Complexion privilege and color bias have long acted in concert with racism to foster intraracial forms of stratification among African Americans such as the tendency for educational levels and other measureable outcomes (e.g., income) to correspond with skin tone. In this article, we examine the salience of color prejudice at Historically Black…

  6. Living Classrooms: Learning Guide for Famous & Historic Trees. (United States)

    American Forest Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This guide provides information to create and care for a Famous and Historic Trees Living Classroom in which students learn American history and culture in the context of environmental change. The booklet contains 10 hands-on activities that emphasize observation, critical thinking, and teamwork. Worksheets and illustrations provide students with…

  7. A Historic Context for the African American Military Experience (United States)


    come their way (Berlin et al. 1982:8-9; McPherson 1982:355). Their attitude was put to lyrics under the title "Sambo’s Right to be Kilt", a popular...Time of War. Crisis 16:164-165. 1919a An Essay Toward A History of the Black Man in the Great War. Crisis 18:63-87. 1919b Documents of the War

  8. The paradox of American Violence: A historical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Davis Graham


    Full Text Available El artículo presentado aquí es resultado de un trabajo más interpretativo que empírico. Se intenta explicar en éste la paradójica conclusión, desarrollada en el libro La Violencia en América —y sustentada por datos comparativos a nivel nacional— que señala que la historia de los Estados Unidos ha estado marcada por la violencia, sin embargo, gracias a la vitalidad de las instituciones públicas, ésta se ha mantenido en niveles seguros. Cuatro aspectos particulares de la experiencia norteamericana aducen a explicar respectivamente, primero, por qué la violencia en los Estados Unidos ha sido ampliamente desviada de las instituciones públicas, y segundo, por qué la estructura social de los Estados Unidos y sus procesos han sido particularmente conducentes a la violencia. Estos aspectos son: 1 la estructura política liberal-federal de los Estados Unidos y la estructura económica capitalista; 2 una pluralidad racial y étnica sin precedentes; 3 la riqueza; y 4 el carácter nacional y los valores, y, especialmente, cómo estos son reflejados en el compromiso de igualdad, el precepto de autoridad y el conflicto entre libertad e igualdad. Concluye este artículo con una breve crítica de dos recientes, populares, y, sin embargo, contradictorias teorías que proponen explicar la violencia colectiva: en la derecha ideológica, la noción de que la agresión humana es una consecuencia instintiva de la evolución; en la nueva izquierda, la acusación moral que señala que las élites han conspirado represivamente para defender privilegios.

  9. Justifying Music Instruction in American Public Schools: A Historical Perspective. (United States)

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.


    Charts the development of music education from early utilitarianism up to its current emphasis on aesthetic value. Recent attempts to pursue music education as an interdisciplinary subject have been limited due to budget cuts. Briefly discusses this financial crisis and suggests some sources of alternative funding. (MJP)

  10. Intermediate Genre Study. Historical Fiction. (United States)

    Novelli, Joan; Lasky, Kathryn


    Students can learn to appreciate history as readers and writers of historical fiction. This section presents an introduction to historical fiction, a display idea, a mystery history game, discussion of character-building, charts for students to fill in with information on historical characters, suggestions for customizing writing centers and for…

  11. Gender, Mentoring Experiences, and Salary Attainment among Graduates of an Historically Black University. (United States)

    Dreher, George F.; Chargois, Josephine A.


    Survey responses from 170 of 685 African-American graduates of historically Black colleges revealed no gender-based pay differences. Those who had White male mentors had some pay advantages over those without mentors. (SK)

  12. Diamond films: Historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messier, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)


    This section is a compilation of notes and published international articles about the development of methods of depositing diamond films. Vapor deposition articles are included from American, Russian, and Japanese publications. The international competition to develop new deposition methodologies is stressed. The current status of chemical vapor deposition of diamond is assessed.

  13. Historic Opportunity for Action (United States)

    Duncan, Arne


    When President Barack Obama took office, he pledged to revitalize an economy in the midst of the deepest recession in a generation. Working with Congress, he acted quickly to enact an $878 billion package to stimulate the economy in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). More than $100 billion of that will be for education, spanning…

  14. An ocean of stress? The relationship between psychosocial workload and mental strain among engine officers in the Swedish merchant fleet. (United States)

    Rydstedt, Leif W; Lundh, Monica


    The first purpose of this study was to compare the psychosocial working conditions and mental health of our sample of maritime engine officers with a sample of British shore-based professional engineers. The second purpose was to analyse the relationship between the psychosocial working conditions onboard and mental strain for the Swedish maritime engine officers. There were a total of 731 engine officers in the Swedish merchant fleet, almost all males with higher education. The British comparison sample consisted of 312 professional shore-based engineers. A questionnaire was distributed to the Swedish engine officers with a modified version of the JCQ for the DC-S model, the Role conflict and Ambiguity scale, and two items on family-work inter-role conflicts (WFI/FWI), as workload indicators. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS10) were used as strain indicators. There were no significant differences in perceived job stain or in WFI/FWI between the Swedish engine officers and the British professional engineers in perceived job strain. While the British shore-based engineers reported significantly higher role ambiguity the Swedish engine officers perceived a significantly higher degree of role conflict and higher perceived stress. Hierarchic linear regression analysis showed that the Role Stress was strongly related to perceived stress (R(2) = 0.319) as well as to mental health (R(2) = 0.222). When introduced in the second step the DC-S model was significantly related to the outcome measures, as was WFI/FWI when finally introduced. The main source of the high degree of perceived stress among the engine officers does not seem to be the job content but may rather be understood from an interactional perspective, where conflicting requirements are directed towards the individual officer. It can be assumed that the fast technological and organizational changes and the increased pressure for economic profitability that characterize the

  15. Total Stem and Merchantable Volume Equations of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. Growing on Former Farmland in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tord Johansson


    Full Text Available An equation was constructed to estimate the stem volume of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. in 145 stands growing on former farmland in Sweden (Latitude 56–63° N. The mean total age was 40 ± 13 (range 17–91 years, the mean diameter at breast height (ob was 15 ± 4 (range 5–27 cm and the mean density was 1621 ± 902 (range 100–7600 stems ha−1. The equation which fits the data best used the diameter at breast height and total stem height as predictive variables. Merchantable volume equations for the estimation of commercial volume for any top diameter and bole length were developed. Soil types in the stands were sediments (coarse sand, fine sand and silt and heavy, medium and light clay, tills (sandy, fine sandy and silty and peat. The standing volume was calculated; the mean was 253 ± 103 (range 26–507 m3 ha−1 with a MAI (mean annual increment of 6.9±3.5 (range 1.3–16.7 m3 ha−1 year−1. There were statistically significant differences between MAI and coarse sand, sand and silt, light clay, peat and silty till soils. Spruce stands growing on silty tills had the lowest MAI (4.94 ± 2.27 m3 ha−1 year−1 and light clay, fine sand and silt and peat the highest (7.62 ± 4.24, 7.46 ± 3.33 and 8.67 ± 2.83 m3 ha−1 year−1.

  16. Use of Laser Scanning Technology to Obtain As-Built Records of Historic Covered Bridges (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Brian K. Brashaw; Samuel J. Anderson


    Covered bridges are part of the fabric of American history. Although much effort is expended to preserve these structures, many are lost forever. The National Park Service’s Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) has efforts under way to document historic structures. Their Level I documentation is defined in the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards and Guidelines...

  17. Einstein: A Historical Perspective (United States)

    Kormos-Buchwald, Diana


    In late 1915, Albert Einstein (1879-1955) completed as series of papers on a generalized theory of gravitation that were to constitute a major conceptual change in the history of modern physics and the crowning achievement of his scientific career. But this accomplishment came after a decade of intense intellectual struggle and was received with muted enthusiasm. Einstein's previously unpublished writings and massive correspondence, edited by the Einstein Papers Project, provide vivid insights into the historical, personal, and scientific context of the formulation, completion, and reception of GR during the first decades of the 20th century.

  18. [Historical roles of salt]. (United States)

    Ritz, E; Ritz, C


    Recently increasing evidence has been provided pointing to a close relation of salt consumption to hypertension as well as to target organ damage. It is interesting to note that the discussion concerning salt is unusually emotional. This may be explained, at least in part, by the fact that since ancient times salt had deep symbolic significance, as exemplified, mostly subconsciously, by many customs and expressions still in current use. In the past salt was essential to preserve food. The past importance of salt as a commodity can well be compared with that of oil today. These and further historical aspects of the role of salt are briefly dealt with in this article.

  19. Retrieving Historical Electrorefining Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Meagan Daniella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Pyrochemical Operations began at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during 1962 (1). Electrorefining (ER) has been implemented as a routine process since the 1980’s. The process data that went through the ER operation was recorded but had never been logged in an online database. Without a database new staff members are hindered in their work by the lack of information. To combat the issue a database in Access was created to collect the historical data. The years from 2000 onward were entered and queries were created to analyze trends. These trends will aid engineering and operations staff to reach optimal performance for the startup of the new lines.

  20. Expiration of Historical Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David


    We present a technique for automatic expiration of data in a historical data warehouse that preserves answers to a known and fixed set of first-order queries. In addition, we show that for queries with output size bounded by a function of the active data domain size (the number of values that have...... ever appeared in the warehouse), the size of the portion of the data warehouse history needed to answer the queries is also bounded by a function of the active data do-main size and therefore does not depend on the age of the warehouse (the length of the history)....

  1. The Familiar and the Foreign: Dance on the Historically Black College Campus (United States)

    Ebright, Wanda K. W.


    The purpose of this dissertation is to illuminate the missing voices of historically black college and university dance programs in the national discussion on the history and development of dance in American higher education. The methodology included the selection of five subject schools that are historically black colleges and universities…

  2. Counseling Older Japanese American Clients: An Overview and Observations. (United States)

    Itai, Goro; McRae, Cynthia


    Discusses important aspects of providing counseling to older Japanese American clients, including ethical issues based on cultural differences and nontraditional approaches to counseling. Examines unique historical and cultural characteristics of these clients. Includes 26 citations. (Author/CRR)

  3. A History of Learning Communities within American Higher Education (United States)

    Fink, John E.; Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi


    This chapter describes the historical development of learning communities within American higher education. We examine the forces both internal and external to higher education that contributed to and stalled the emergence of learning communities in their contemporary form.

  4. Event Management Application in Go-food Culinary Festival with 50 Best Merchants and Road to Go-food Culinary Festival as a Tenant Manager and Sponsorship


    Syahida Istiqamah, Nazhara; Setyabudi, Djoko


    GO-FOOD, a service featured by go-jek to provide food delivery service. More than 500 restaurants have built partnerships with GO-FOOD Semarang. GO-JEK Semarang also wanted to held an event that was provided by GO-FOOD Semarang itself. GO-FOOD Culinary Festival with 50 best merchants, themed Journey to independence day tells us the Indonesian national history to set free from Colonialists. There was also an event named road to GO-FOOD Culinary Festival as the series of its event held on three...

  5. American Holidays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kathleen; Sego


    The word “holiday” originally was used to honor a sacred per-son or event,hence “Holy Days”.In time great leaders,special oc-casions that marked historical events,were included.Every country has special or unique days that are celebratedonly in certain areas or in a specific country.There are a few days

  6. Historical Slovenian Language Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Erjavec


    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The paper presents three language resources enabling better full-text access to digitised printed historical Slovenian texts: a hand-annotated corpus, a hand-annotated lexicon of historical words and a collection of transcribed texts. The aim of the resources is twofold: on one hand they support empirical linguistic research (corpus, collection and represent a reference tool for the research of historical Slovenian (lexicon while on the other hand they may serve as training data for the development of Human Language Technologies enabling better full-text search in digital libraries containing Slovenian written cultural heritage, modernisation of historical texts, and the development of better technological solutions for text recognition and scanning. The hand annotated corpus of historical Slovenian contains the text from 1,000 pages sampled from the years 1750 to 1900, two texts date to the end of the 16th or 17th century. The corpus contains a little more than 250,000 word tokens; each of them being annotated with hand validated linguistic features: modernised form, lemma or base form, and morhpo-syntactic description. Thus the word token »ajfram« is annotated with the normalised form »ajfrom«, by the lemma »ajfer« and morphosyntactic description »Som« or »Samostalnik« (noun, »občni« (common, »moški« (masculine and a modernised form »gorečnost« (fervour. At first the corpus was annotated automatically and then manually verified and corrected. The lexicon was created automatically from the hand-annotated corpus. It contains only attested word-forms and examples of use. The word-forms are ordered under their modern equivalents. All the modern forms of a particular word constitute a dictionary entry, defined by its lemma with conjoint information i.e. the morpho-syntactic description and the closest contemporary synonyms. Thus the entry »ajfrer/Som/gorečnost« is annotated by two modernised words »ajfra

  7. American Pilots in the Battle of Britain. (United States)


    cause by more than just his father’s fortune. His nephew, also named Charles, was a well heeled American sportsman, busi- nessman and socialite living in...reasons which compelled them to join. Politically , the men probably experienced a sense of kinship with England because of historical ties which would... political feelings were probably best described by another American volunteer’s observation, Six or seven of us volunteered together, and out of a sense of

  8. Human Life and American Values Projection (United States)


    international community, revealing a serious need for clear direction and moral leadership.53 Abortion has been part of the American culture for forty years...turn impedes effective and consistent values projection. Historically, the United States has been unsettled with moral relativism regarding democratic...another example that reveals American discontent with moral relativism . As a result of the Suffrage Movement, women now have the right to vote and

  9. Critique of historical reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Richardson


    Full Text Available El enfoque aquí desarrollado presupone una nueva visión del mundo civilizado (Weltanschauungen. La idea del historiador de los hechos históricos presupone una visión global del mundo, a excepción de las sociedades que carecen de un lenguaje escrito. Por eso, la razón histórica discutida aquí se limita al tipo de historia que trata de civilizaciones más elevadas. El análisis de visiones del mundo aquí utilizado presupone que los símbolos son muy importantes y que pierden su poder simbólico si se cristalizan en un único sentido. Como en la teoría de Jung, un símbolo tiene la capacidad de estar activo en la mente como un transformador de la conciencia, libre de asociarse con nuevas experiencias y pensamientos. Esta teoría presta especial atención al problema de Dilthey: es decir, el problema de la calidad racional de los hechos históricos. Las visiones del mundo, que dan un significado profundo a muchos hechos históricos, se componen de símbolos y metáforas, incluyendo ideas, imágenes, valores y emociones. Estos tipos de visiones son casi todos instintivos. Es cierto que los historiadores pueden haber formulado, consciente definiciones de estos tipos de visiones del mundo así como ocurrió por las civilizaciones griega y china. Dado que la actual Weltbilt es mucho más compleja e inconsciente, se necesita algo más que una definición lógica para entenderla. Este artículo indica la forma en que puede ser alcanzada una comprensión racional de estas visiones del mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The approach here entertained presupposes a fresh theory of world pictures (Weltanschauungen of higher civilizations. For the historian's idea of historical facts presupposes a world picture, except for societies which lack a written language. That is why the historical reason discussed here is limited to the kind of history which deals with higher civilizations. The analysis of world pictures used here itself presupposes that symbols are

  10. Basavarajeeyam: A historical perspective. (United States)

    Nishteswar, K


    Basavarajeeyam is an important handbook for an Ayurvedic physician of Andhra region. It is a bilingual work and the content was presented in Sanskrit and Telugu languages. With regard to the place and date of Basavarajeeyam there is no common opinion among the present day scholars. Pt Govardhana Sharma Changani in his introduction to the Sanskrit version of Basavarajeeyam exposed a historical profile of Basavrajeeyam picturising him as Basava who was a staunch follower of Veerashaivism and a contemporary of king Bijjala (end of 12(th) cent. AD). The same statement is carried out in the works of Ayurvedic Itihasa written by Atredeva Vidyawalkan and Acharya Priyavrata Sharma. It appears that the historical evidence shown by these scholars is one sided and cannot stand any reason. Basavraju stated that he had started writing this work after a thorough study of many works such as Charaka, Nithyanatheeyam (1360 AD), Revenakalpam, Pujyapadiyam, Bahatam, Kashikhandam (1435 AD) etc. Basavraju has faithfully reproduced certain chapter of Vaidyachintamani, which is considered to be a work of 15(th) century. Basavraju not only mentioned Phirangiroga in the index of diseases described by him at the end of the book, but also indicated Phirangichekka (Madhusnuhi) in the management of Meharoga and Granthi. By this evidence Basavarajiyam should be considered as the work of post Bhavaprakasha period. Basavraju indicates in the Gulmaroga Chikitsa that Sankhadravaka should be administered in the dose of 'Ekanni'. The name Ekanni was given for a copper coin which came in to circulation of money during British India produced from Madras mint (1794 AD). Based on these internal evidences, it can be safely concluded that Basavraju belong to 18(th)century.

  11. American Illuminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Illuminated fêtes and civic celebrations began in Renaissance Italy and spread through the courts of Europe. Their fireworks, torches, lamps, and special effects glorified the monarch, marked the birth of a prince, or celebrated military victory. Nineteenth-century Americans rejected such monarch...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article deals with Huth & Co.'s activities in Chile during the 1820s-1850s. Huth was the only London merchant-banker that decided to go global before 1850, and also the only one to open a branch in Chile. The analysis of how his branches operated should take this into account, yet Huth's activities in Chile have only previously been examined using a bilateral approach to examine the economic relations between Chile and Britain. This situation was mainly due to the fact that the richest collection of primary material on Huth & Co. (the Huth papers at University College London had been ignored by scholars working on Anglo-Chilean economic relations during the first half of the nineteenth-century. The main focus of this paper is on the information that we were made unaware of due to this restricted investigative approach. Among them are the connections established between Huth's branches in Chile and the USA, Asia, continental Europe and the rest of Latin America; and the important trade in Spanish quicksilver.El presente artículo trata sobre las actividades económicas en Chile de Huth & Co. durante el período 1820-1850. Huth & Co. fue el único mercader banquero de Londres que decidió tener una empresa global antes de 1850 y el único también en abrir una oficina en Chile. Por lo tanto, las actividades de la sucursal en Chile deben ser analizadas considerando estos dos importantes hechos. Sin embargo, antes de este estudio, las actividades de Huth en el país fueron examinadas usando un enfoque estrictamente bilateral de las relaciones entre Chile y Gran Bretaña. Esta visión restrictiva se debió en gran parte al desconocimiento de los historiadores interesados en las relaciones anglo-chilenas de una importante fuente de información: los archivos de Huth disponibles en el University College London. Debido a este desconocimiento, la historiografía no ha dado cuenta de importantes hechos tratado en este artículo. Por ejemplo, de las

  13. Expanding the Notion of Historical Text through Historic Building Analysis (United States)

    Baron, Christine; Dobbs, Christina


    Among the disciplinary skills necessary for understanding in the social studies classroom is the ability to determine context and build meaning from past events. Historical buildings are an important component of historical study, and they serve as a type of nontraditional text that students can decode and use to construct meaning about multiple…

  14. Historical consciousness - Contemporary history and the problem of historical perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Hollander, JC


    Historical consciousness is an elusive concept, as long as we try to understand it from the narrow perspective of professional historians. Therefore, a wider perspective is needed. If we accept that historical understanding has become a general trait of modern culture, we may try to explain it in

  15. 75 FR 14459 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, OH (United States)


    ... Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, OH, that meet the definitions of ``sacred objects'' and ``objects... consultation that the objects are considered to be both sacred and objects of cultural patrimony. Officials of... American religious leaders for the practice of traditional Native American religions by their present-day...

  16. War and Education in the United States: Racial Ideology and Inequality in Three Historical Episodes (United States)

    Rury, John L.; Darby, Derrick


    This paper examines the impact of war on African-American education. This question is considered in three different periods: the eras of the American Revolution, the Civil War and the Second World War. Large-scale conflict, such as these instances of total war, can afford historical moments when oppressed groups are able take steps to improve…

  17. Historicity and theology, and the quest for historical Jesus1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Geyser


    Full Text Available The issue of history and historicity is reviewed in this article. The efforts of New Historicism is brought to bear on this question in an effort to find a way out of the impasse created by the modernist demand for objectivity and the postmodern resignation to radical relativism. The possibility of historiography is explored in conjunction with the pragmatic approach and leads to the conclusion that a kind of historical knowledge is attainable which can be described as useful even if not perfect. The author concurs with Crossan and his working definition of history as the past reconstructed interactively by the present through argued evidence in public discourse. The intersubjective nature of any historical enterprise leads the author to the conclusion that the search for the historical Jesus can only be done in the dialectical approach of a both ... and: both the historical Jesus and the kerygmatic Christ

  18. Jurisprudence, Peyote and the Native American Church. (United States)

    Lawson, Paul E.; Scholes, Jennifer


    Examines federal and state governments' attempts to suppress peyote use in Indian rituals as historically Christian-inspired. Focuses on questions of morality versus criminal law. Explains history and development of Native American Church of North America. Examines nine contemporary peyote trials. Concludes larger questions of tribal sovereignty…

  19. American Educators' Confrontation with Fascism (United States)

    Fallace, Thomas


    This historical study explores how educators in the United States responded to the rise of fascism between the World Wars. By considering and then ultimately rejecting the fascist approach to education and philosophy, American educators defined democratic education in contrast to fascist/totalitarian approaches to education by rejecting…

  20. The Reconstruction of the Historical Building of the Latin School in Malbork (United States)

    Duda, Zenon; Kryzia, Katarzyna


    The paper summarizes the reconstruction of the historical building erected in the 14th century, during the times of the residence of Grand Master of the Teutonic Order Winrich von Kniprode, currently referred to as the Latin School. It characterizes the location of the Latin School in the urban conservation area of the town of Malbork. The building is situated in the stretch of the buttressed brick escarpment on the Nogat River in the line of the historic defensive walls of Malbork. The paper also outlines the history of this building, constructed and managed by the municipal authorities of Malbork, which for a long time was a seat of a Patronage of Saint George and the Merchant Guild, and next, from the 16th century until 1864, the building housed a school where basic Latin was taught. Next, the situation of this historical monument in the 20th century is discussed. In the next part of the paper, the geological conditions of the site where the building was erected are discussed. The conducted archeological and architectural exploratory research related to the historical building with a particular emphasis on historic preservation and restoration works focusing on the building and its surroundings is presented and analyzed. Currently carried out design, construction and adaptation works allowing new functions to be embedded into this building are also discussed. The paper shows the benefits due to the realization of the reconstruction program of the degraded building of the Latin school in the historic quarter of the town. These activities are aimed at the conversion of the currently derelict building by means of embedding new functions into it. There are being designed, among others, an interactive educational center modern library, astronomical observatory, craft museum and multifunctional hall, allowing proper conditions to be created for the development of educational, artistic and tourism related activities in the reconstructed building. The reconstruction of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Kyzlasov


    Full Text Available Reconstruction of the penis in transgender operations, amputation of the penis, congenital deformities and anomalies of the penis was and remains today an important issue in plastic surgery of the urogenital region. The only method to restore the penis is phalloplasty. In general, over the past decades, generations of clinicians have different ways and flaps for total fallouretheral reconstruction. Thus was formulated the characteristics of an ideal flap for the formation of neophallos, which should be safe, sensitive, without hair, and with long leg. However, despite the fact that the characteristics of a perfect flap, nowadays there is no “gold standard” in the formation of neophallos, as phalloplasty is a fairly complicated surgery, and the choice of method depends on many factors. The choice of methodology is determined by the plastics surgeon and to each patient is individual, depends on the etiology of the disease and the possibility of choosing the form of the donor’s transplant. This article presents a literature review devoted to the historical aspects of phalloplasty. In the article, in chronological order reflected the evolution of the different forming methods neofallos, phallourethrоplasty, describes their advantages and disadvantages.

  2. Analyzing and Interpreting Historical Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipping, Matthias; Wadhwani, Dan; Bucheli, Marcelo


    This chapter outlines a methodology for the interpretation of historical sources, helping to realize their full potential for the study of organization, while overcoming their challenges in terms of distortions created by time, changes in context, and selective production or preservation. Drawing....... The chapter contributes to the creation of a language for describing the use of historical sources in management research....

  3. What Is Linked Historical Data?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Hoekstra, Rinke; Janowicz, Krzysztof; Schlobach, Stefan; Lambrix, Patrick; Hyvönen, Eero


    Datasets that represent historical sources are relative new- comers in the Linked Open Data (LOD) cloud. Following the standard LOD practices for publishing historical sources raises several questions: how can we distinguish between RDF graphs of primary and secondary sources? Should we treat

  4. The Aggregate Dutch Historical Censuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashkpour, Ashkan; Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Mandemakers, Kees


    Historical censuses have an enormous potential for research. In order to fully use this potential, harmonization of these censuses is essential. During the last decades, enormous efforts have been undertaken in digitizing the published aggregated outcomes of the Dutch historical censuses

  5. The Aggregate Dutch Historical Censuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ashkpour (Ashkan); A. Meronõ-Peñuela (Albert); C.A. Mandemakers (Kees)


    textabstractHistorical censuses have an enormous potential for research. In order to fully use this potential, harmonization of these censuses is essential. During the last decades, enormous efforts have been undertaken in digitizing the published aggregated outcomes of the Dutch historical censuses

  6. The Return of Historical Fiction (United States)

    Rycik, Mary Taylor; Rosler, Brenda


    Recently, historical fiction has begun to dominate major children's book awards. This article describes the values of using high-quality historical fiction in the classroom and presents different ways to respond to this genre including using modern technology. Two tables, one of picture books and one of novels, with paired nonfiction texts, are…

  7. Recycling of merchant ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Klopott


    Full Text Available The article briefly outlines the issues concerning ship recycling. It highlights ships' high value as sources of steel scrap and non-ferrous metals, without omitting the fact that they also contain a range of hazardous substances. Moreover, the article also focuses on basic ship demolition methods and their environmental impact, as well as emphasizes the importance of “design for ship recycling” philosophy.

  8. Frances Kellor, Americanization, and the Quest for Participatory Democracy (United States)

    Press, John


    Frances Alice Kellor (1873 - 1952) is most famous for leading the Americanization movement that greeted immigrants from 1906 to 1921. The movement has been damned as coercive in the name of conformity in the historical literature. This dissertation argues that Kellor's Americanization movement promoted immigrants and immigration, Americanized…

  9. Locating the Isle of Orleans : Atlantic and American Historiographical Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, Mark


    This essay offers a review of American and Atlantic approaches to the history of New Orleans. It argues that most American historical writing about New Orleans employs a national perspective that views the city as ‘‘exceptional.’’ The essay highlights the limits of a USA-centered historiography and

  10. 19th Century Roots to the American Vocational Movement. (United States)

    Law, Gordon F.

    Historical developments in the 18th and 19th centuries influenced the course of European and American education and the separate path of vocational education. The first of these developments was the emergence of schools as primary instruments for the transmission of knowledge and culture, as a result of the phenomenal growth of the American states…

  11. Education for, by, and of Asian/Pacific Americans, I. (United States)

    Mizokawa, Donald T.; Morishima, James K.


    This report discusses several perspectives on Asian/Pacific Americans and the educational issues that relate to them. It begins by providing a definition of "Asian/Pacific American," an historical account of their immigration, and a discussion of minority status and cultural relativism. A number of studies and personal experiences that…

  12. Stories of Cuban-Americans Living and Learning Bilingually (United States)

    Perez, Natasha


    This study explores the interplay of bilingualism, identity, literacy and culture for CubanAmerican students in the Cuban diaspora. I contextualize their experiences within the social, historical, and political background of Cuban immigration, situating their stories within the conflicting narratives of Cuban-American imagination in the U.S., to…

  13. United States Merchant Marine Academy: Internal Control Weaknesses Resulted in Improper Sources and Uses of Funds; Some Corrective Actions Are Under Way. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-09-635 (United States)

    Franzel, Jeanette M.


    The U.S. Merchant Marine Academy (Academy), a component of the Department of Transportation's Maritime Administration (MARAD), is one of five U.S. service academies. The Academy is affiliated with 14 nonappropriated fund instrumentalities (NAFI) and two foundations. The US Government Accountability Office (GAO) was asked to determine whether…

  14. American Indian Women: Sorting through Myth and History. A Study of American Indian Women, Stereotypes, and Education in the Classroom (United States)

    Attardo, Jessica L.


    The following study was conducted to examine existing research in education regarding the development of stereotypes in children, analyze historical documents and research to acquire an accurate portrayal of American Indian women, and determine if secondary social studies students lack adequate knowledge about the history of American Indian women,…

  15. (A)Historical science. (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C


    In contrast to many other human endeavors, science pays little attention to its history. Fundamental scientific discoveries are often considered to be timeless and independent of how they were made. Science and the history of science are regarded as independent academic disciplines. Although most scientists are aware of great discoveries in their fields and their association with the names of individual scientists, few know the detailed stories behind the discoveries. Indeed, the history of scientific discovery is sometimes recorded only in informal accounts that may be inaccurate or biased for self-serving reasons. Scientific papers are generally written in a formulaic style that bears no relationship to the actual process of discovery. Here we examine why scientists should care more about the history of science. A better understanding of history can illuminate social influences on the scientific process, allow scientists to learn from previous errors, and provide a greater appreciation for the importance of serendipity in scientific discovery. Moreover, history can help to assign credit where it is due and call attention to evolving ethical standards in science. History can make science better. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. The Influence of Biblical Culture on American Spiritual Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Biblical culture is deeply rooted into current American society and culture,widely impacting every aspect of American people’s life.Through discussing about the historical accumulation of biblical culture reflected in America’s societal and spiritual civilization,this essay analyses the importance and function of biblical culture from the aspect of society inheritance,value,literature creation and customs etc.,helping us to further understand and study American society and culture.

  17. The Influence of Biblical Culture on American Spiritual Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Biblical culture is deeply rooted into current American society and culture, widely impacting every aspect of American people’s life. Through discussing about the historical accumulation of biblical culture reflected in America’s societal and spiritual civilization, this essay analyses the importance and function of biblical culture from the aspect of society inheritance, value, literature creation and customs etc., helping us to further understand and study American society and culture.

  18. Imagined Voodoo: Terror, Sex, and Racism in American Popular Culture


    McGee, Adam Michael


    I analyze the historical and cultural processes by which American racism is reproduced, approaching the issue through the lens of "imagined voodoo" (as distinct from Haitian Vodou). I posit that the American Marine occupation of Haiti (1915-34) was crucial in shaping the American racial imaginary. In film, television, and literature, imagined voodoo continues to serve as an outlet for white racist anxieties. Because it is usually found in low-brow entertainment (like horror) and rarely men...

  19. The "American" (North American) Model of Constitutional Review: Historical Background and Early Development (United States)

    Klishas, Andrey A.


    The paper explores the impact of the continental system exerted on the constitutional and political evolution of both the United States and individual states and tries to characterize the development of constitutional review phenomenon within the framework of the continental legal system and the Anglo-Saxon legal system. The research stands on the…

  20. The Historical Evolution of Dental Impression Materials. (United States)

    Papadiochos, Ioannis; Papadiochou, Sofia; Emmanouil, Ioannis

    The concept of impression making process in dentistry began in the mid 1800s. Dentists realized that the construction of a prosthetic restoration required both a detailed capture of the oral tissues along with stone cast fabrications. To accomplish these goals, impression materials were essential. Beeswax represents the first impression material, while important bechmarks during the historical evolution of dental impression materials are considered to be the introduction of dental trays in the early 1800s and the invention of the gutta-percha, thermoplastic resins and plaster of Paris. The double (corrective) impression technique, along with the functional impression concept that was established after mid 1800s, are also identified as pivotal innovations. During the 20th century, the advances in material development slowed significantly since the majority of the current impression materials had already been invented. However, the introduction of elastomeric impression materials in the field of prosthodontics that offered the advantages of accuracy and dimensional stability substantially upgraded both the impression accuracy and the quality of the final restoration. Presently, the dental practitioner has access to a variety of impression materials and should be aware of their properties, indications and limitations as well. Futhermore, while continuous attempts are being made to enhance these materials, the ideal impression material has yet to be developed. The purpose of this article was to provide a comprehensive review about the historical development of impression dental materials. Copyright American Academy of the History of Dentistry.

  1. Profile: Asian Americans (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American Profile: Asian Americans Asian American Profile (Map of the US with the top 10 states displaying the largest Asian American population according to the Census Bureau) CA - ...

  2. Immunizations and African Americans (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  3. On Shanxi Merchants Economic and Ethical Thought and Their Modern Value%浅议晋商经济伦理思想及其现代价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Shanxi merchants have played an important role in the business filed for over 500 years.As a special business community,the thought of economic ethics they have adhered to in their management is of positive realistic significance and great value for reference under the conditions of today's socialist market economy.%晋商纵横商界五百年,作为一个特殊的商业群体,他们在经营活动中所秉承的经济伦理思想,在当今的社会主义市场经济条件下,具有积极的现实意义和借鉴价值。

  4. Trade of engravings and books between Rome and Spain at the end of the 16th century: the case of the Italian merchant Antonio Pisano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Josefa Tarifa Castilla


    Full Text Available This study reveals the arrival of prints and books to the North of Spain acquired by the Italian merchant Antonio Pisano in Rome during a trip of 1582-1583. The voyage was financed thanks to the temporary commercial company established between Pisano and the Genoese Juan Luis de Musante, royal master-builder to Felipe II in Navarre, and both residents in Pamplona. The works include engravings of sacred and profane themes by the most important engravers of the epoch, such as the Dutch Cornelis Cort and the Mantuans Adamo and Diana Ghisi, in addition to books of figures, some by outstanding artists such as Michelangelo or Polidoro da Caravaggio.

  5. Systematic musicology meets historical musicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.

    findings for Austro-German (linear increase, Adj. R2 = .489, F(1, 19) = 20.138, p analysis, we provide quantitative support for music-historical accounts of an Italian-dominated Baroque (composer birth years 1600...

  6. Historical and Documentary Data Sets (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past climate and environment from historical references and documentary evidence such as church records, harvest dates, and diaries. Parameter keywords...

  7. 2nd Historic Mortars Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, John; Groot, Caspar; Historic Mortars : Characterisation, Assessment and Repair


    This volume focuses on research and practical issues connected with mortars on historic structures. The book is divided into four sections: Characterisation of Historic Mortars, Repair Mortars and Design Issues, Experimental Research into Properties of Repair Mortars, and Assessment and Testing. The papers present the latest work of researchers in their field. The individual contributions were selected from the contributions to the 2nd Historic Mortars Conference, which took place in Prague, September, 22-24, 2010. All papers were reviewed and improved as necessary before publication. This peer review process by the editors resulted in the 34 individual contributions included in here. One extra paper reviewing and summarising State-of-the-Art knowledge covered by this publication was added as a starting and navigational point for the reader. The editors believe that having these papers in print is important and they hope that it will stimulate further research into historic mortars and related subjects. 

  8. FEMA Historical Disaster Declarations - shp (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Historical Disaster Declarations provides geospatial view to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (referred to as the Stafford Act...

  9. Modelling merchantable volumes for uneven aged maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton stands establi-shed by natural regeneration in the central Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Alegria


    Full Text Available Uneven aged maritime pine stands established by natural regeneration have a great expression in Portugal. These stands being overstocked, as opposed to those established from plantations, provide straight and cylindrical tree boles and logs with less knots that makes them very suitable for certain industrial purposes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to fit a set of equations to predict total volume and merchantable volumes to any merchantable limit for uneven aged maritime pine stands established by natural regeneration in the central inland region of Portugal. Data were collected in 30 circular sampling plots of 500 m2 of area, on 1426 trees and 314 sample trees for volume assessment, corresponding to 2353 diameter/height mea-surements. A total height equation, a total volume equation, a volume ratio equation to any top height limit and a taper equation, over bark, were fitted. To select among the best models, several statistics were computed during model fitting and the independent validation procedure to evaluate model fitting, collinearity and prediction performances. A ranking index was used to support the final decision. The models selected were then fitted again using robust regression and weighted regression techniques, because studentized residuals distribution normality and homogeneity assumptions were not observed. This research showed that the models selected for these stands were not the same as those selected in previous studies for the species in this region, suggesting that these results may be due to the influence of stand density conditions on diameter and total height growth, and consequently, on stem form and volume. This set of equations will also be included as components in a single tree growth and yield model developed for these stands. 

  10. The Ties that Bind: Effective American American Communities as Models of Peaceful Coexistence. (United States)

    Steward, Robbie J.

    Peace, though pursued, is often presented in the literature as an elusive and somewhat ethereal state that seldom is attained. However, African American communities in this country have historically developed and maintained effective, collaborative, working alliances that have assisted in individual and group survival under the most adverse…

  11. Sermons in American History: Selected Issues in the American Pulpit 1630-1967. (United States)

    Holland, DeWitte, Ed.; And Others

    This anthology presents 43 American sermons in the context of the social, cultural, and historical development of America. Two or more sermons treat the pro and con viewpoints on nineteen specific issues--from seventeenth century Puritan debates on the authority of God, to the pre-Civil War slavery controversy, to the current questions of Popular…

  12. Black on Yellow: Afro-Americans View Chinese-Americans, 1850-1935 (United States)

    Shankman, Arnold


    Using data collected from black newspapers, an explanation is sought for the unfavorable stereotypes blacks have held about Chinese Americans. Economic competition, cultural and religious differences, and blacks' belief that the Chinese were prejudiced against them are some of the historical factors mentioned which influenced black attitudes…

  13. Native American Women Perceptions in Pk-12 Administrative Positions in North Dakota Public Schools (United States)

    DeCoteau, Lanelia Irene


    Historically Native American women have experienced barriers in their rise to Pk-12 educational leadership positions. There is limited research available on Native American women in educational leadership. Therefore, the purpose for this survey study was to discover what inspired current Pk-12 Native American women educational leaders to choose…

  14. African American Educators' Ideas and Practices for Increasing High School Graduation Rates, 1920-1940 (United States)

    Juergensen, Miyoshi B.


    This study explores African American educators' ideas about school completion in the 1920s and 1930s as a way to begin to understand their contributions to the historical discourse on school completion. Using publications from African American professional teaching organizations, the author elevates and examines how African American educators both…

  15. Executive Summary - Historical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    matter physics experiments at the High Flux Reactor of The Laue Langevin Institute and the ISIS spallation source at Rutherford-Appleton. Recently, we very actively entered the ICARUS neutrino collaboration and were invited to the PIERRE AUGER collaboration which will search for the highest energies in the Universe. Having close ties with CERN we are very actively engaged in CROSS-GRID, a large computer network project. To better understand the historical background of the INP development, it is necessary to add a few comments on financing of science in Poland. During the 70's and the 80's, research was financed through the so-called Central Research Projects for Science and Technical Development. The advantage of this system was that state-allocated research funds were divided only by a few representatives of the scientific community, which allowed realistic allocation of money to a small number of projects. After 1989 we were able to purchase commercially available equipment, which led to the closure of our large and very experienced electronic workshop. We also considerably reduced our well equipped mechanical shop. During the 90's the reduced state financing of science was accompanied by a newly established Committee of Scientific Research which led to the creation of a system of small research projects. This precluded the development of more ambitious research projects and led to the dispersion of equipment among many smaller laboratories and universities. A large research establishment, such as our Institute, could not develop properly under such conditions. In all, between 1989 and 2004 we reduced our personnel from about 800 to 470 and our infrastructure became seriously undercapitalised. However, with energetic search for research funds, from European rather than national research programs, we hope to improve and modernize our laboratories and their infrastructure in the coming years

  16. American power conference 2001 proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Sessions included: distributed generation - trends and technologies; combustion modifications for NOx control; post combustion NOx control; repowering for the future; issues in development of new generation; taking a closer look at operation and maintenance; SCADA technology; customer/demand side management enters the trading area; managing feeder dynamics; keeping the lights on - power quality and reliability; merchant plant grid interconnection; optimising generation assets; power price spikes; e-commerce - from soup to nuts; and power generation market trends.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Andreea Pirnuta


    Full Text Available In an interconnected world where foreign relations matter not only for resources or military alliances but also for cultural relationships, it is highly important to have a better understanding of the power relations among nations. The information carries certain meanings that have important outcomes thus defining the power of a given nation. Foreign policy is the channel through which global politics is exercised. International politics is a hierarchy of power being determined by important cultural, economic as well as geographical aspects. The reasons and strategies that are used in order to reach the outcomes in global politics represent the focus of the present paper. The United States has been the leader in international politics since the early 20th century due to its vast resources and wealth as well as its cultural output. America’s interest in preserving a democratic and free world has its foundation in the beliefs and values it stands for the aim of this paper is to question whether or not there is a concrete premise for the idea of American exceptionalism.

  18. The Cultural Historical Complexity of Human Personality Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa E. Wynn


    Full Text Available Research on implicit intelligence has conceptualized students’ beliefs about the nature of intelligence as either fixed or malleable. This research has largely not included African American adolescents, a group for whom beliefs about intelligence have a cultural historical complexity related to both scientific racism and master narratives of race and intelligence. The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature of implicit theories of intelligence for 63 African American adolescents who are seventh and eighth graders in a public charter school. The two-way ANOVA revealed that these adolescents held a malleable view of intelligence, which did not vary by gender or grade. Exploratory correlation analysis showed some consistent relationships with achievement motivation variables found in other studies. These findings may be explained by African American cultural values and the personality characteristic adaptations that they make living within a racialized society.

  19. Historical earthquake research in Austria (United States)

    Hammerl, Christa


    Austria has a moderate seismicity, and on average the population feels 40 earthquakes per year or approximately three earthquakes per month. A severe earthquake with light building damage is expected roughly every 2 to 3 years in Austria. Severe damage to buildings ( I 0 > 8° EMS) occurs significantly less frequently, the average period of recurrence is about 75 years. For this reason the historical earthquake research has been of special importance in Austria. The interest in historical earthquakes in the past in the Austro-Hungarian Empire is outlined, beginning with an initiative of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the development of historical earthquake research as an independent research field after the 1978 "Zwentendorf plebiscite" on whether the nuclear power plant will start up. The applied methods are introduced briefly along with the most important studies and last but not least as an example of a recently carried out case study, one of the strongest past earthquakes in Austria, the earthquake of 17 July 1670, is presented. The research into historical earthquakes in Austria concentrates on seismic events of the pre-instrumental period. The investigations are not only of historical interest, but also contribute to the completeness and correctness of the Austrian earthquake catalogue, which is the basis for seismic hazard analysis and as such benefits the public, communities, civil engineers, architects, civil protection, and many others.

  20. Passage of American shad: paradigms and realities (United States)

    Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore


    Despite more than 250 years of development, the passage of American shad Alosa sapidissima at dams and other barriers frequently remains problematic. Few improvements in design based on knowledge of the swimming, schooling, and migratory behaviors of American shad have been incorporated into passage structures. Large-scale technical fishways designed for the passage of adult salmonids on the Columbia River have been presumed to have good performance for American shad but have never been rigorously evaluated for this species. Similar but smaller fishway designs on the East Coast frequently have poor performance. Provision of effective downstream passage for both juvenile and postspawning adult American shad has been given little consideration in most passage projects. Ways to attract and guide American shad to both fishway entrances and downstream bypasses remain marginally understood. The historical development of passage structures for American shad has resulted in assumptions and paradigms about American shad behavior and passage that are frequently unsubstantiated by supporting data or appropriate experimentation. We propose that many of these assumptions and paradigms are either unfounded or invalid and that significant improvements to American shad upstream and downstream passage can be made via a sequential program of behavioral experimentation, application of experimental results to the physical and hydraulic design of new structures, and controlled tests of large-scale prototype structures in the laboratory and field.

  1. 32 CFR 174.18 - Historic preservation. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Historic preservation. 174.18 Section 174.18... Historic preservation. (a) The transfer, lease, or sale of National Register-eligible historic property to... the regulations implementing the National Historic Preservation Act (36 CFR 800.5(a)(2)(vii)). One way...

  2. Historical earthquake investigations in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Makropoulos


    Full Text Available The active tectonics of the area of Greece and its seismic activity have always been present in the country?s history. Many researchers, tempted to work on Greek historical earthquakes, have realized that this is a task not easily fulfilled. The existing catalogues of strong historical earthquakes are useful tools to perform general SHA studies. However, a variety of supporting datasets, non-uniformly distributed in space and time, need to be further investigated. In the present paper, a review of historical earthquake studies in Greece is attempted. The seismic history of the country is divided into four main periods. In each one of them, characteristic examples, studies and approaches are presented.

  3. Impact of Historical Networks on ODA Distribution in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Aid relationships in Africa often rely on centuries old networks established by various flows of migrants, students, merchants, colonial administrators, and missionaries. The paper is a mapping of some of the concrete histories of connections between three African countries: Tanzania, Ghana, and ...

  4. Real Analysis A Historical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Stahl, Saul


    A provocative look at the tools and history of real analysis This new edition of Real Analysis: A Historical Approach continues to serve as an interesting read for students of analysis. Combining historical coverage with a superb introductory treatment, this book helps readers easily make the transition from concrete to abstract ideas. The book begins with an exciting sampling of classic and famous problems first posed by some of the greatest mathematicians of all time. Archimedes, Fermat, Newton, and Euler are each summoned in turn, illuminating the utility of infinite, power, and trigonome

  5. [Notes on childhood and theory: a Latin American approach]. (United States)

    Bustelo Graffigna, Eduardo


    This work seeks to introduce and examine different historically relevant theories and propose certain frameworks that allow for the development of a Latin American theoretical approach based in a new discourse regarding childhood and adolescence. In order to undertake the creation of this Latin American approach, understanding the category of childhood as a social and historical construction, the work draws upon the contributions of structuralism (in particular, childhood as a permanent category, its relational dimension with regards to adulthood and its historical and intercultural dimension) and Foucault and Deleuze's concept of the society of control associated with the category of domination, an essential aspect of Latin American thought. The text was presented as a speech in the V World Congress for the Rights of Children and Adolescents held in San Juan, Argentina, from October 15-19, 2012.

  6. Obesity and African Americans (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  7. Native Americans with Diabetes (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approach. The Alexandrians tried to solve the problem of the interpretation .... classified the psalms in four groups, namely historical, prophetical and ethical, as well as .... This is the case, he says ..... H.W. Havelaar & L. Teugels (eds.), The use ...

  9. The Structure of Historical Inquiry (United States)

    Retz, Tyson


    History educators find themselves in the peculiar situation of wishing to introduce students to the history discipline while lacking a clear conception of the features intrinsic to historical inquiry across its various specialisations and subject matters. In affirming that no one methodological charter hangs in the corridors of academic history…

  10. Maintenance Planning for Historic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Plian


    Full Text Available The key to good maintenance of historic buildings is a long-range maintenance plan. Long-range planning recognizes a responsibility to the future to prolong the useful life of a building by preserving it in its present condition and preventing or slowing deterioration and damage from natural or other causes.

  11. A Historical-Morphological Approach Of Japanese Urbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermin Ernesto Flores Quiroz


    Full Text Available This article seeks to describe the shape of Japanese cities through the analysis of the urban models used historically, making emphasis on the model of Castle-Town and its implications today. To do this, a theoretical body containing the following topics will be used: the Chinese model and its influence on the early cities of Japan, the historical stages of the country and the consequent change in the model along with its components and modifications through the modernization of the nation. Finally, the city of Tokyo will be used to exemplify the traces of the model in the contemporary city, while keeping a bibliographic-ethnographic western perspective to denote their differences with Latin American cities in relation to the architecture, the streets and the city centre.

  12. Invisible inventors. A historical overview of creative midwives and nurses. (United States)

    Hiestand, W C


    This historical overview documents women's inventions for providing nursing care dating from 1608 to 1928. The word invention is broadly defined and includes ideas that created therapeutic activities, caregiving environments, and specific devices for care. It focuses on the creative contributions of early outstanding midwives and other practicing nurses around the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Sources include illustrations of patented items, practical hints published in early issues of the American Journal of Nursing (AJN), published translations of original documents from Europe, original historical research on women in Europe and America, and records from the U.S. Government Patent Office. The role of nurses in creating and developing tools and methods for providing nursing care has gone unrecognized. It is important to clarify the record of women's and nurses' inventiveness.

  13. Information field for historical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sviatets, Yu. A.


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main information collision of historical knowledge, which consists in physical inaccessibility of events and phenomena of the past as an object of historical science for a historian as an investigator. The aim of the research is to formulate and discuss a working hypothesis about the information field of historical science. The article provides an analytical background on the main ideas and approaches in the field of modern information field theory. The author carries out the projection of the main provisions of the information field theory on historical research. It is shown that the information field is a really existing information carrier that provides its acquisition, transportation, storage and visualization, as well as provides information and knowledge recorded in various forms, realizes cultural communications. One of the manifestations of such a culture is the sign systems, which determine certain contexts. Signs are characterized by polysemy. Despite artificial origin, semiotic reality is objective. Simultaneously, signs provide intellectual activity of people. Mental signs in the historical process of use by society acquire additional meanings, generating new symbols. Polysemy shapes the problem of epistemological uncertainty of two stages – identifying the problem and solving it. Historians as researchers resort to cognitive models, which, thanks to the translational function, ensure the transfer of information from the known to the unknown. One of the explanations of polysemy is the theory of conceptual integration, according to which the structures of the original mental spaces are projected onto a new, constructed, mental space – blend. This is the result of a personʼs intellectual ability to create new meanings on the basis of the available ones. Since signs and symbols are multi-valued, they form a multiplicity of retrospective scenarios of historical research at the stage of problem formulation


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Eloranta


    Full Text Available This article charts the interwar military procurement practices of several democratic states, concentrating on the United States, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Finland. In addition to comparing some of the foundations of the Allies' successful industrial mobilization in World War II, this article concludes that interwar procurement practices in some of the most liberal democracies were surprisingly resistant to capture by business interests. This finding suggests that in describing this era, we should be cautious about ascribing causal power to trans-historical economic behaviors such as rent-seeking and collusion, without taking into account the institutional setting in which such activities took place. The record of the interwar period suggests that democracies can use bureaucratic administration and public enterprise to establish robust barriers to rent-seeking and corruption in the military economy. During the interwar period, these administrative barriers were erected in conjunction with intense public concern about military profiteering. Whether they would be less effective in different ideological environments deserves further investigation.

  15. Conservation status of American martens and fishers in the Klamath-Siskiyou bioregion (United States)

    K. M. Slauson; W. J. Zielinski


    The American marten (Martes americana) was historically distributed within coastal and high elevation fir fore sts of the Klamath Siskiyou Bioregion (KSB) and was represented by three recognized subspecies (M. a. caurina, M. a. sierrae, and M. a. humboldtensis...

  16. Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreskes, Naomi; Conway, Erik M.; Treiner, Jacques


    The U.S. scientific community has long led the world in research on public health, environmental science, and other issues affecting the quality of life. US scientists have produced landmark studies on the dangers of DDT, tobacco smoke, acid rain, and global warming. But at the same time, a small yet potent subset of this community leads the world in vehement denial of these dangers. In this book, the historian authors explain how a loose-knit group of high-level scientists, with extensive political connections, ran effective campaigns to mislead the public and deny well-established scientific knowledge over four decades. In seven compelling chapters addressing tobacco, acid rain, the ozone hole, global warming, and DDT, they roll back the rug on this dark corner of the American scientific community, showing how the ideology of free market fundamentalism, aided by a too-compliant media, has skewed public understanding of some of the most pressing issues of our era

  17. 论《威尼斯商人》的狂欢化色彩%On the Carnivalistic Color of the Merchant of Venice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞霞; 冯克明


    《威尼斯商人》是莎士比亚的四大喜剧之一。戏剧中的题材、语言、人物形象和场景都充满了狂欢化色彩。探析人物戏剧活动的狂欢式场景,揭示《威尼斯商人》中颠覆与重建的主题,可以管窥作者的人文主义世界观和人生观,以及对自由、平等、仁爱的狂欢式世界的向往。%The Merchant of Venice is one of the four comedies written by William Shakespeare. The theme, language, characters and the settings of the play are all full of carnivalization. To explore and analyze the carnivalistic settings of the play, and reveal the theme of subversion and reconstruction, we can find author’ s humanistic world view and view of life, as well as his aspiration for carni-valistic world of freedom, equality and kindheartedness.

  18. 75 FR 6406 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties (United States)


    ... County Asbury Grove Historic District, Around Asbury St., Hamilton, 09000935, Listed, 11/18/09 Middlesex County Middlesex Canal Historic and Archaeological District, Address Restricted, Boston vicinity...

  19. 75 FR 1075 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties (United States)


    ...: January 4, 2010. J. Paul Loether, Chief, National Register of Historic Places/National Historic Landmarks... VIRGINIA Logan County Blair Mountain Battlefield, Address Restricted, Logan vicinity, 08000496, REMOVED...

  20. Statics of Historic Masonry Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario


    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of much of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. This book aims to help fill this demand presenting a comprehensive new statics of masonry constructions. The book, result of thirty years of research and professional experience, gives the fundamentals of statics of the masonry solid, then applied to the study of statics of arches, piers and vaults. Further, combining engineering and architecture and through an interdisciplinary approach, the book investigates the statical behaviour of many historic monuments, as the Pantheon, the Colosseum,  the domes of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence and of St. Peter in Rome, the Tower of Pisa, the Gothic Cathedrals and the Masonry Buildings under seismic actions.

  1. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario


    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments of its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant; still within the broad studies in the subject it is not yet recognised, in particular within the seismic area, a unitary approach to deal with Masonry structures. This successful book contributes to clarify the issues with a rigorous approach offering a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. This third edition has been driven by some recent developments of the research in the field, and it gives the fundamentals of Statics with an original and rigorous mathematical formulation, further in-depth inquired in this new version. With many refinements and improvements, the book investigates the static behaviour of many historic monuments, such as the Gothic Cathedrals, the Mycenaean Tholoi, the Pantheon, the Colosseum, the dome...

  2. Obesity and Hispanic Americans (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 percent are overweight ... inhqrdr/data/query At a Glace – Risk Factors: Obesity is a risk ... Americans Heart Disease – See Heart Disease and Hispanic Americans ...

  3. Japan 2006 in historical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Tanaka Nishishima


    Full Text Available Readings of the current Japanese politics with the historic and social insight through analysis of four facts registered in 2006: the visit of the prime minister Koizumi to the Yasukuni shrine; the election of Abe Shinzo as the president of Liberal Democratic Party and the formation of Abe cabinet; the Atomic bomb experimentation by the North Corea; the publication of the book of feminist counteroffensive against the numerous rightist conservative harassment.

  4. Historic Radio Astronomy Working Group (United States)


    This special issue of Astronomische Nachrichten contains the proceedings of a session of the Historic Radio Astronomy Working Group of the International Astronomical Union that took place during the 26th General Assembly of the IAU in Prague on 17th August 2006. In addition to the talks presented in Prague some contributions were solicited to give a more complete overview of `The Early History of European Radio Astronomy'.

  5. Historical overview of immunological tolerance. (United States)

    Schwartz, Ronald H


    A fundamental property of the immune system is its ability to mediate self-defense with a minimal amount of collateral damage to the host. The system uses several different mechanisms to achieve this goal, which is collectively referred to as the "process of immunological tolerance." This article provides an introductory historical overview to these various mechanisms, which are discussed in greater detail throughout this collection, and then briefly describes what happens when this process fails, a state referred to as "autoimmunity."

  6. Understanding the 'historical' electricity tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    At the time of the debates about the French 'NOME' (new organization of the electricity market) law, it is interesting to analyse the principles which have led to elaborate the 'historical' electricity tariffs in France, in order to better understand the stakes around their recasting. Today, there exists 2 categories of tariffs: the regulated selling prices and the market offers. The regulated selling prices are different depending on the client (individuals, small professionals, companies)

  7. Historical spaces of social psychology


    Kalampalikis , Nikos; Delouvée , Sylvain; Pétard , Jean-Pierre


    International audience; An extensive analysis of all social psychology textbooks published, in french, between 1947 and 2001, including a history chapter, provides a rich corpus for the study of the history of social psychology. In this article we choose to study the historical spaces of social psychology, in order to show how the discipline was located in geographical, urban, institutional and collective spaces. We argue that, into this specific corpus, spaces are essentially related to some...



    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA


    Choosing depreciation of assets; revaluation of tangible or keeping their historical cost; registration, whilst the tangible assets are entered in the conservation of amortization expenses or a corresponding adjustment to depreciation expense ascertained; choosing the method of evaluating stocks is accounting policies. IAS 40 is significant because it was the first time the International Accounting Standards Board has introduced a fair value accounting model for non-financial assets. All firm...

  9. Historical trauma: politics of a conceptual framework. (United States)

    Prussing, Erica


    The concept of historical trauma (HT) is compelling: Colonialism has set forth cumulative cycles of adversity that promote morbidity and mortality at personal and collective levels, with especially strong mental health impacts. Yet as ongoing community-based as well as scholarly discussions attest, lingering questions continue to surround HT as a framework for understanding the relationships between colonialism and indigenous mental health. Through an overview of 30 recent peer-reviewed publications that aim to clarify, define, measure, and interpret how HT impacts American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) mental health, this paper examines how the conceptual framework of HT has circulated in ways shaped by interactions among three prominent research approaches: evidence-based, culturally relevant, and decolonizing. All define current approaches to AIAN mental health research, but each sets forth different conceptualizations of the connections between colonialism and psychological distress. The unfolding trajectory of research about HT reflects persistent tensions in how these frameworks interact, but also possibilities for better integrating them. These considerations aim to advance conversations about the politics of producing knowledge about AIAN mental health, and support ongoing calls for greater political pluralism in mental health research. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:

  10. Historical review of the causes of cancer. (United States)

    Blackadar, Clarke Brian


    In the early 1900s, numerous seminal publications reported that high rates of cancer occurred in certain occupations. During this period, work with infectious agents produced only meager results which seemed irrelevant to humans. Then in the 1980s ground breaking evidence began to emerge that a variety of viruses also cause cancer in humans. There is now sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpes virus 8 according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Many other causes of cancer have also been identified by the IARC, which include: Sunlight, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, hormones, alcohol, parasites, fungi, bacteria, salted fish, wood dust, and herbs. The World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research have determined additional causes of cancer, which include beta carotene, red meat, processed meats, low fibre diets, not breast feeding, obesity, increased adult height and sedentary lifestyles. In brief, a historical review of the discoveries of the causes of human cancer is presented with extended discussions of the difficulties encountered in identifying viral causes of cancer.

  11. Historical Medical Value of Donguibogam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Keun Song


    Full Text Available Oriental medicine, since its origin in China, has had a long history extending over 2000 years. Today, it comprises several types of medicine predominately practiced in East Asia, including traditional Chinese, traditional Korean, and Kampo medicine. The distinctive medical system of traditional Korean medicine was established shortly after the publication of Donguibogam by Dr. Heo Jun in 1613. Donguibogam is highly acclaimed across East Asia; in 2009, in light of its historical medical value, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization registered the book on its cultural heritage list. Here, we review the historical medical value of Donguibogam. The findings confirm that Donguibogam developed a unique and independent form of traditional Korean medicine and innovatively reformed the disease classification system. Moreover, Donguibogam emphasized the importance of disease prevention and medical pragmatism. This book also accelerated the development of folk medicine. Owing to its historical medical value, Donguibogam is now considered the 'bible' of Oriental medicine. Its wide acceptance has contributed to the expansion of Korean medicine utilization among the general public. Donguibogam has also played an important role in the establishment of traditional Korean medicine as a universally valid and original form of medicine, independent of traditional Chinese medicine.

  12. Mind's historicity: its hidden history. (United States)

    Pizarroso, Noemí


    Whereas psychological research can hardly accept the idea of a changing psychological architecture, mind's historicity seems to be commonplace among historians of psychology, at least in recent decades. Attempts to promote a convergence between psychology and history have always existed, though mainly in the margins of both disciplines. Among these attempts, there is a tradition in French psychology that remains quite marginal even to the history of the discipline and is practically unknown out of the French context. Our goal is to introduce this approach, through the work of its main architect, Ignace Meyerson, to an English speaking reader, in the light of current pleas for historicity. Developed within the core of the discipline of psychology, though in dialogue with many others disciplines, Meyerson's historical psychology appears to be more ambitious than other attempts, as it aims at studying psychological activity itself, beyond the history of its conceptualizations. It is concerned not with the analysis of fragmented, isolated, and mechanistic behaviors or cognitive process, but with the study of mind in its functioning through the multiple and changing fields of experience where human beings are involved.

  13. Historical Analyses of Disordered Handwriting (United States)

    Schiegg, Markus; Thorpe, Deborah


    Handwritten texts carry significant information, extending beyond the meaning of their words. Modern neurology, for example, benefits from the interpretation of the graphic features of writing and drawing for the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases and disorders. This article examines how handwriting analysis can be used, and has been used historically, as a methodological tool for the assessment of medical conditions and how this enhances our understanding of historical contexts of writing. We analyze handwritten material, writing tests and letters, from patients in an early 20th-century psychiatric hospital in southern Germany (Irsee/Kaufbeuren). In this institution, early psychiatrists assessed handwriting features, providing us novel insights into the earliest practices of psychiatric handwriting analysis, which can be connected to Berkenkotter’s research on medical admission records. We finally consider the degree to which historical handwriting bears semiotic potential to explain the psychological state and personality of a writer, and how future research in written communication should approach these sources. PMID:28408774

  14. Implementation of aggregation in the North American power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, R.; Williams, G.


    One key to the impact of deregulation being transmitted to residential customers is the successful formation of aggregation groups and their expansion to include different classes of customers with convergent usage interests. This activity currently is being sponsored not only by for-profit brokerage entities, but also by associations of not-for-profit corporations such as hospitals and universities and by countries. The issues presented fall into several categories. (1) Technical rate taking--feasibility of making appropriate arrangements for alternative supply to consumers on a basis which appropriately reflects customer characteristics and also confers benefit on them all; (2) Legal--Compatibility of proposed arrangements with FERC wholesale regulation under Order No. 888 and emerging state regulation under the different restructuring regimes which their state utility commissions are implementing; (3) Marketing/Sociopolitical--Utilization of modern marketing techniques to effect the political consensus which is a precursor of alternative aggregation arrangements; (4) Financing--identification of capital costs; techniques for financing such costs, including monetization of the savings to be realized. The presentation will extrapolate the potential future significance of aggregation as a force in both restructuring and the development of merchant power projects. It will also assess the extent to which institutional, legal, technical or financial factors may modify the ultimate significance of aggression in the North American Power Industry

  15. Native American Death Taboo: Implications for Health Care Providers. (United States)

    Colclough, Yoshiko Yamashita


    This study was conducted to highlight Native American (NA) perspectives on death taboo in order to examine the cultural appropriateness of hospice services for NA patients, if any. Searching literature that addressed taboo and death from historical, psychological, sociological, and anthropological aspects, a comparison of death perspectives was made between NAs and European Americans. A culturally sensitive transition from palliative care to hospice care was suggested for NA patients and their family.

  16. The formation of a social Hispanic Atlantic space and the integration of merchant communities following the Treaties of Utrecht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo Solana, Ana


    Full Text Available Current research into Spanish commercial expansion in the Americas has recently turned to a new consideration of space as a historical category. In fact, when the interconnecting processes are analysed, one of the most striking phenomena is the actual “production of the space” in which a wide variety of exchanges took place. This production/creation of space becomes obvious in Spanish colonial commerce. This article discusses the theoretical framework for this spatial perspective, and analyses the impact that this construction of space on the organization of routes and on network formation, as well as its evolution within the institutional context following the Treaties of Utrecht.La formación del espacio social hispano-atlántico y la integración de las comunidades mercantiles después de los tratados de Utrecht.- Los estudios sobre la expansión comercial española en América han virado recientemente hacia una importante reconsideración del espacio como categoría histórica. De hecho, uno de los fenómenos más interesantes de analizar en los procesos de interconexión global es la “producción de espacio” en el que se producen los intercambios de todo tipo. Esta producción de espacio es evidente en el caso del comercio colonial español. En este artículo se explicará el marco teórico de esta perspectiva espacial y se analizará el impacto de esta construcción de espacio en la organización de las rutas y en la formación de redes así como su evolución en el marco institucional después de los tratados de Utrecht.

  17. International Polar Year Historical Data and Literature (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The International Polar Year Historical Data and Literature collection (formerly known as the Discovery and Access of Historic Literature from the IPYs (DAHLI)...

  18. A Historical Perspective of the Atlantic’s Evolution


    Teixeira, Nuno Severiano; Marcos, Daniel


    SFRH/BPD/75764/2011 UID/CPO/04627/2013 565280-EPP-1-2015-1-USEPPJMO-NETWORK In the last two centuries, several key moments have defined the Atlantic Basin’s history that help us understand its present. This chapter endeavours to present a comprehensive overview of this evolution, pointing out key events that set up the historical links that still play a role in the Atlantic. In the first section, following a chronological approach, it shows how the American and the French Revolutions...

  19. Cocoa and heart health: a historical review of the science. (United States)

    Pucciarelli, Deanna L


    The medicinal use of cocoa has a long history dating back almost five hundred years when Hernán Cortés's first experienced the drink in Mesoamerica. Doctors in Europe recommended the beverage to patients in the 1700s, and later American physicians followed suit and prescribed the drink in early America--ca. 1800s. This article delineates the historic trajectory of cocoa consumption, the linkage between cocoa's bioactive-mechanistic properties, paying special attention to nitric oxides role in vasodilation of the arteries, to the current indicators purporting the benefits of cocoa and cardiovascular health.

  20. Cocoa and Heart Health: A Historical Review of the Science (United States)

    Pucciarelli, Deanna L.


    The medicinal use of cocoa has a long history dating back almost five hundred years when Hernán Cortés’s first experienced the drink in Mesoamerica. Doctors in Europe recommended the beverage to patients in the 1700s, and later American physicians followed suit and prescribed the drink in early America―ca. 1800s. This article delineates the historic trajectory of cocoa consumption, the linkage between cocoa’s bioactive-mechanistic properties, paying special attention to nitric oxides role in vasodilation of the arteries, to the current indicators purporting the benefits of cocoa and cardiovascular health. PMID:24077240

  1. Cocoa and Heart Health: A Historical Review of the Science


    Deanna L. Pucciarelli


    The medicinal use of cocoa has a long history dating back almost five hundred years when Hern?n Cort?s?s first experienced the drink in Mesoamerica. Doctors in Europe recommended the beverage to patients in the 1700s, and later American physicians followed suit and prescribed the drink in early America?ca. 1800s. This article delineates the historic trajectory of cocoa consumption, the linkage between cocoa?s bioactive-mechanistic properties, paying special attention to nitric oxides role in ...

  2. Cocoa and Heart Health: A Historical Review of the Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna L. Pucciarelli


    Full Text Available The medicinal use of cocoa has a long history dating back almost five hundred years when Hernán Cortés’s first experienced the drink in Mesoamerica. Doctors in Europe recommended the beverage to patients in the 1700s, and later American physicians followed suit and prescribed the drink in early America—ca. 1800s. This article delineates the historic trajectory of cocoa consumption, the linkage between cocoa’s bioactive-mechanistic properties, paying special attention to nitric oxides role in vasodilation of the arteries, to the current indicators purporting the benefits of cocoa and cardiovascular health.

  3. Historical ecology: past, present and future


    Szabó, Péter


    The term ‘historical ecology’ has been used with various meanings since the first half of the 20th century. Studies labelled as historical ecology have been produced in at least four academic disciplines: history, ecology, geography and anthropology. Although all those involved seem to agree that historical ecology concerns the historical interconnectedness of nature and human culture, this field of study has no unified methodology, specialized institutional background and c...

  4. Diagnostic Perspectives on the Family: Process, Structural and Historical Contextual Models. (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F.


    Describes diagnostic perspectives for viewing dysfunctional families. Presents three general types of models (process, structural, and historical) and organized them along a continuum from most descriptive to most inferential. Presented at the 39th Annual Conference of the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, October-November…

  5. 3 CFR 8404 - Proclamation 8404 of August 30, 2009. National Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week... (United States)


    ..., to the growth of local communities, and to our Nation's overall economy. This week, we celebrate the... new, innovative, and ambitious strategies to help the next generation of Americans successfully complete college and prepare themselves for the global economy. During National Historically Black Colleges...

  6. Knife River: Early Village Life on the Plains. Teaching with Historic Places. (United States)

    Metcalf, Fay

    This document, from the lesson plan series, "Teaching with Historic Places," examines the Native Americans who lived on the plains along the Knife River in what is now North Dakota. Following an introductory section, the document sets out student objectives, teaching activities, readings, and illustrations. The teaching activity…

  7. Low Graduation Rates among Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Student Athletes (United States)

    Parker, Alvin D.


    A review of literature reveals that there is a dearth of research examining the low graduation rates among student-athletes at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCU's). By comparison, there has been numerous studies that have examined the African American student-athlete attending predominately White institutions (PWI's). The…

  8. Adjusting forest density estimates for surveyor bias in historical tree surveys (United States)

    Brice B. Hanberry; Jian Yang; John M. Kabrick; Hong S. He


    The U.S. General Land Office surveys, conducted between the late 1700s to early 1900s, provide records of trees prior to widespread European and American colonial settlement. However, potential and documented surveyor bias raises questions about the reliability of historical tree density estimates and other metrics based on density estimated from these records. In this...

  9. Historical trajectories and restoration strategies for the Mississippi River alluvial valley (United States)

    Brice B. Hanberry; John M. Kabrick; Hong S. He; Brian J. Palik


    Unlike upland forests in the eastern United States, little research is available about the composition and structure of bottomland forests before Euro-American settlement. To provide a historical reference encompassing spatial variation for the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, we quantified forest types, species distributions, densities, and stocking of...

  10. Debating Globalization in Social Studies Education: Approaching Globalization Historically and Discursively (United States)

    Agbaria, Ayman K.


    The purpose of this paper is to explore the dominant positions in the debates on globalization in American social studies education. Specifically, the paper illustrates that, first, globalization is conceived of as more of an unprecedented new age and less of a historical development. Second, it is conceived of as more of a natural process and…

  11. 77 FR 43354 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions (United States)


    ...., Joplin, 12000473 St. Louis County North Taylor Avenue Historic District, (Kirkwood MPS) Roughly bounded by Manchester Rd., E. Adams, & N. Taylor Aves., Kirkwood, 12000474 NEW YORK Erie County American..., 12000482 OREGON Coos County Marshfield I.O.O.F. Cemetery, 750 Ingersoll Rd., Coos Bay, 12000483 Morrow...

  12. The Historically Black College as Social Contract, Social Capital, and Social Equalizer. (United States)

    Brown, M. Christopher, II; Davis, James Earl


    Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) enjoy a unique social contract in the national history, acting as social agencies for society by providing equal educational opportunity and attainment for all students. This social contract brokered between the nation and African Americans is realized through social capital or distribution and…

  13. Exploring the Impact of Historically Black Colleges in Promoting the Development of Undergraduates' Self-Concept. (United States)

    Berger, Joseph B.; Milem, Jeffrey F.


    Study explores how institutional context affects the development of self-concept in a sample of 273 African American college students. Findings suggest that students attending church affiliated historically Black colleges develop significantly higher self-ratings in three domains of self-concept-psychosocial wellness, academic, and achievement…

  14. Higher Education in Central America: Historical Foundations for Its Future Projection. (United States)

    Arriaza, Ricardo Sol


    Three trends in Central American higher education are examined in historical context: (1) inertia from lack of mobility, bureaucracy, and corporate influence; (2) elitism as a response to budgetary constraints; and (3) attempts to increase responsiveness to educational needs and demands. Issues examined include earlier attempts at change, slow…

  15. Understanding "The Great Gatsby" Online: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents. (United States)

    Gross, Dalton; Gross, MaryJean

    Today, more than 70 years after its publication, the novel "The Great Gatsby" seems as fresh and pertinent to American life as it did in the 1920s. The social, cultural, and historical milieu of the 1920s reflected in its pages is not so very different from that of today. This interdisciplinary collection of commentary and collateral…

  16. "To Kill a Mockingbird": An Historical Perspective. Learning Page Lesson Plan. (United States)

    Prody, Kathleen; Whearty, Nicolet

    Students gain from a sense of the living history that surrounds Harper Lee's novel, "To Kill a Mockingbird." Through studying primary source materials from American Memory and other online sources, students of all backgrounds may better grasp how historical events and human forces have shaped relationships between black and white and…

  17. Current and historical forest conditions and disturbance regimes in the Hoosier-Shawnee ecological assessment area (United States)

    George R. Parker; Charles M. Ruffner


    We review the historical and current status of forests in the Hoosier-Shawnee Ecological Assessment Area. Native American people influenced the vegetation through fire and agricultural clearing across the region until the early 1800s when European settlers arrived. Clearing of the land for agriculture peaked in the early 1900s after which badly eroded land was...

  18. Improving the Climate for LGBTQ Students at an Historically Black University (United States)

    Lewis, Marilyn W.; Ericksen, Kirsten S.


    African American lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students attending an Historically Black College or University (HBCU) may experience bullying. Using snowball sampling, the authors recruited six LGBTQ students for a focus group to learn how they perceived their HBCU campus atmosphere toward LGBTQ students. Thirty faculty…

  19. Health and Fitness Courses in Higher Education: A Historical Perspective and Contemporary Approach (United States)

    Bjerke, Wendy


    The prevalence of obesity among 18- to 24-year-olds has steadily increased. Given that the majority of young American adults are enrolled in colleges and universities, the higher education setting could be an appropriate environment for health promotion programs. Historically, health and fitness in higher education have been provided via…

  20. Physical Activity Behaviors of Students of a Rural Historically Black College (United States)

    Kemper, Karen A.; Welsh, Ralph S.


    Physical activity can have a positive impact on health disparities among African Americans. Objective: In this study, we assessed physical activity behaviors and correlates of students of a Historically Black College. Methods: In September 2004, an online survey and pedometers were used to measure physical activity behavior and correlates.…

  1. Teaching English and History through Historical Fiction. (United States)

    Hicks, Alun; Martin, Dave


    Explores the appeal of historical fiction for young readers and describes its place within any school curriculum. Describes a project in Dorset Middle Schools which used historical fiction to teach medieval history and English. Notes that students' historical thinking was improved, their knowledge of medieval world advanced, and their writing was…

  2. Principles Of Researching In The Historical Places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatmusaev Tokhir Shaydulovich


    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to researches of historical places also are seen the special phrases used in town planning and architecture component of historical cities historical framework linear system and the significance of centers in the development of cities also researches of dwellings which are the basic component of cities.

  3. A forgotten social science? Creating a place for linguistics in the historical dialogue. (United States)

    Martin-Nielsen, Janet


    The post-World War II era was one of great triumph for American linguists-and yet linguistics is all but absent from the historical literature on postwar social science. This paper aims to illuminate this curious situation: to understand its provenance, evaluate its merits, and contextualize it broadly. I argue that the historiographic lacuna results from two factors: (1) the opt-out of linguists from the wider American social science community, and (2) historical-developmental and -orientational factors that stand linguistics apart from the social science mainstream. The resultant isolation of linguistics has led to a parallel isolation in the historical literature. Ultimately, this paper poses a pivotal and timely question: How is the postwar social science space construed within the existing historiographic framework, and how should it be construed in order to maximize understanding? I propose a rethink of the received historiography centered on intellectual transformations and cross-disciplinary integration. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States (United States)

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y.; Macpherson, J. Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L.


    Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry. PMID:25529636

  5. Historical ecology: past, present and future. (United States)

    Szabó, Péter


    The term 'historical ecology' has been used with various meanings since the first half of the 20th century. Studies labelled as historical ecology have been produced in at least four academic disciplines: history, ecology, geography and anthropology. Although all those involved seem to agree that historical ecology concerns the historical interconnectedness of nature and human culture, this field of study has no unified methodology, specialized institutional background and common publication forums. Knowledge of the development of historical ecology is also limited. As a result, the current multitude of definitions of historical ecology is accompanied by divergent opinions as to where the origins of the field are to be sought. In this review, I follow the development of historical ecology from the 18th century to the present. In the first part, I briefly describe some early examples of historical ecological investigations, followed by a description of the various scientific strands in the 20th century that contributed to the formation of historical ecology. In the second part, I discuss the past five decades of historical ecological investigations in more detail, focusing mostly (but not exclusively) on works that their respective authors identified as historical ecology. I also examine the appearance and interconnectedness of the two main trends (ecological and anthropological) in historical ecological research. In the last part, I attempt to outline the future of historical ecology based on common features in existing research. It appears that at present historical ecology is at a crossroads. With rapidly growing interest in historical ecological research, it may move towards institutionalization or remain an umbrella term. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  6. Historical Astrolexicography and Old Publications (United States)

    Mahoney, Terry J.

    I describe how the principles of lexicography have been applied in limited ways in astronomy and look at the revision work under way for the third edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, which, when completed, will contain the widest and most detailed coverage of the astronomical lexicon in the English language. Finally, I argue the need for a dedicated historical dictionary of astronomy based rigorously on a corpus of quotations from sources published in English from the beginnings of written English to the present day.

  7. Yields of historical exploration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huslende, T.


    The paper relates to an method of evaluation developed for analysing the yield of historical exploration programs by computerized simulation. The most important elements show in coarse features how the results can be used in the different analyses. The evaluation is to be executed annually for the comparison and sorting of data from different offshore sites. Topics are exploration evaluation study, evaluation process, handling of exploration costs, discovered reserves, development projects, cash flow analysis, analysis of results, finding cost, international comparison. 1 ref., 11 figs

  8. Analysis of Traditional Historical Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten; Schmidt, A. L.; Petersen, A. H.


    for establishing a three-dimensional model and the corresponding two-dimensional pattern for items of skin clothing that are not flat. The new method is non-destructive, and also accurate and fast. Furthermore, this paper presents an overview of the more traditional methods of pattern documentation and measurement......A recurrent problem for scholars who investigate traditional and historical clothing is the measuring of items of clothing and subsequent pattern construction. The challenge is to produce exact data without damaging the item. The main focus of this paper is to present a new procedure...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA


    Full Text Available Choosing depreciation of assets; revaluation of tangible or keeping their historical cost; registration, whilst the tangible assets are entered in the conservation of amortization expenses or a corresponding adjustment to depreciation expense ascertained; choosing the method of evaluating stocks is accounting policies. IAS 40 is significant because it was the first time the International Accounting Standards Board has introduced a fair value accounting model for non-financial assets. All firms must provide fair value for their real estate assets either directly in the balance sheet in accordance with the fair value model choice, either in the footnotes below cost model selection.

  10. A Historical Approach to Assertiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Peneva


    Full Text Available A very important personal quality is to be able to advocate for yourself - your own positions, to achieve your objectives, to overcome difficulties,to be determined, but without harming the rights of others and to be able to control the aggressive impulses. The concept, which expressesthese personal characteristics, is called "assertiveness". Assertiveness is a part of the personal potential. It is a prerequisite for self-actualization.The goal we set in this historical-psychological paper is to explore the genesis, development and stabilization of the term "assertiveness". Inthis context, we will examine, compare and analyze the positions of the leading authors on this issue.

  11. Summary inside IBM's historic turnaround

    CERN Document Server


    This work offers a summary of the book "WHO SAYS ELEPHANTS CAN'T DANCE? Inside IBM's Historic Turnaround" by Louis Gerstner.In nine years as the chairman and CEO of International Business Machine Corporation (IBM), Louis Gerstner brought about a dramatic change in the company's fortunes. When he took charge, IBM was on the verge of extinction as the victim of rapid changes in the computer industry. However, instead of breaking up IBM as most analysts were suggesting, Gerstner and his management team turned the company around and restored it to a position of power and influence within the indu

  12. Gondeshapur Revisited; What Historical Evidence? (United States)

    Nayernouri, Touraj


    In recent years, in European academic circles, there has been a trend to dismiss Gondeshapur as a myth perpetrated by the Bokhtishu family in early Islamic era, despite many historiographical attestations. The writings of Islamic historians such as Al-Qifti and Ibn Abi Usaibia have been discounted as exaggerations by non-contemporary historians, and the lack of primary Pahlavi sources blamed for historical hyperbole. In this essay, I have attempted to show through primary Syriac Christian texts, that there was both a medical school and a bimarestan in Gondeshapur in pre-Islamic Sassanid era, and that Galenic medical texts had been translated and taught in that institution.

  13. Peer Mentoring: Encouraging Persistence in Native American Postsecondary Students (United States)

    Lee, Susan D.


    Native Americans have endured historical and contemporary challenges that have adversely affected their achievement, including in the realm of postsecondary education. The difficulties have included, but are not limited to, the problems inherent in the process of assimilation into Caucasian culture, the repercussions of Indian Boarding Schools,…

  14. New Perspectives on the History of American Sign Language (United States)

    Shaw, Emily; Delaporte, Yves


    Examinations of the etymology of American Sign Language have typically involved superficial analyses of signs as they exist over a short period of time. While it is widely known that ASL is related to French Sign Language, there has yet to be a comprehensive study of this historic relationship between their lexicons. This article presents…

  15. American historians on the Cold War: A historiographical interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article categorizes the American historical scholarship on the Cold War into five, perhaps six, clusters. After discussing these clusters, it argues that in spite of paradigmatic differences, there are also areas of agreement in the literature. For one thing, it is clear that before the end of World War II, and therefore before the ...

  16. The Sociocultural Benefits of Writing for African American Adolescent Males (United States)

    Tatum, Alfred; Gue, Valerie


    Historically speaking, reading and writing among African Americans were collaborative acts involving a wide range of texts that held social, economic, political, or spiritual significance. One of the constants of literacy collaboratives was being regularly and purposefully engaged with print within a meaningful social context. During the summer of…

  17. Living in Style: A Guide to American Architecture. (United States)

    Instructor, 1990


    Studying architectural styles is an exciting way to make history come alive and to help students feel a part of their community. This teacher's guide includes several classroom activities, a historical guide to American architectural styles, a list of resources, and a reproducible student worksheet. (IAH)




  19. Asian American History: Reflections on Imperialism, Immigration, and "The Body." (United States)

    Choy, Catherine Ceniza


    Draws on a historical study of the immigration of nurses from the Philippines to the United States and other countries to illustrate the prevalence of stereotypes in images of Asian American history and to show how to confront stereotypes in the writing of history. (SLD)

  20. African American Male College Athletes' Narratives on Education and Racism (United States)

    Singer, John N.


    This study presents narrative case study vignettes of three elite African American male football athletes at a major historically White institution of higher education with a big-time athletics department. More specifically, I draw from critical race theory to garner insight into their secondary schooling background, what education means to them,…

  1. The Great American Divide: The Military-Civilian Gap (United States)


    Steven A. Bank, Kirk J. Stark, and Joseph J. Thorndike provide a historical account of America’s war-time fiscal policies for the major American wars...accessed January 16, 2012). 63 Steven A. Bank, Kirk J. Stark, Joseph J. Thorndike , War and Taxes (Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press, 2008

  2. Obesity and Asian Americans (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  3. American Society of Echocardiography (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Renew Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy Awards, Grants, ...

  4. Asthma and Hispanic Americans (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Asthma Asthma and Hispanic Americans In 2015, 2.2 million Hispanics reported that they currently have asthma. Puerto Rican Americans have almost twice the asthma ...

  5. African-American College Student Attitudes toward Physics and Their Effect on Achievement (United States)

    Drake, Carl Timothy


    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting the attitudes that African-American college students have towards introductory college physics. The population targeted for this study consisted of African-American males and females enrolled in introductory college physics classes at an urban public historical black college or…

  6. Come into My Parlor: "Rendition", "Ugly Betty", and Rude Awakening from the American Dream (United States)

    Beck, Bernard


    Although the national ideology emphasizes that the American Dream is available to immigrants, recent events have made public opinion hostile to two groups, Mexicans and Arabs. Popular culture has played a historic role in presenting sympathetic portrayals of immigrants and their assimilation to American culture. Current depictions of Mexican…

  7. The Extended African American Family: A Pragmatic Strategy That Blunts the Blade of Injustice. (United States)

    Ford, Donna Yvette; And Others


    Considers the extended African-American family, beginning with a historical perspective of the nuclear family and other family arrangements. The importance of the group rather than the individual for African-American culture is explored. Analyses of the function of the extended family indicate its role in adaptation and survival. (SLD)

  8. The Impact of Al-Islam on the African American Population. (United States)

    Lumumba, Hakeem


    This article explores different aspects of the Islamic religion, or Al-Islam, including the beliefs and religious practices of Muslims; the historical relationship among Africa, African Americans, and Al-Islam; and the current and future implications for African Americans. (Contains 25 references.) (GCP)

  9. Young, Gifted, and Black: Promoting High Achievement among African-American Students. (United States)

    Perry, Theresa; Steele, Claude; Hilliard, Asa G., III

    In three linked but separate essays, this book explores how African-American students experience school in a society that has historically devalued their intellectual abilities. It calls for a new understanding of the unique obstacles black students face in American schools and points to a variety of educational practices that can mitigate those…

  10. Unlearning American Patriotism (United States)

    Miller, Richard W.


    Immoral excesses of American foreign policy are so severe and so deep-rooted that American patriotism is now a moral burden. This love, which pulls toward amnesia, wishful thinking and inattention to urgent foreign interests, should be replaced by commitment to a global social movement that seeks to hem in the American empire. Teachers can advance…

  11. 06491 Summary -- Digital Historical Corpora- Architecture, Annotation, and Retrieval


    Burnard, Lou; Dobreva, Milena; Fuhr, Norbert; Lüdeling, Anke


    The seminar "Digital Historical Corpora" brought together scholars from (historical) linguistics, (historical) philology, computational linguistics and computer science who work with collections of historical texts. The issues that were discussed include digitization, corpus design, corpus architecture, annotation, search, and retrieval.

  12. Historical genesis of Hanford Site wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.


    This paper acquaints the audience with historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, and with the generation of the major waste streams of concern in Hanford Site clean-up today. The paper also describes the founding and basic operating history of the Hanford Site, including World War 11 construction and operations, three major postwar expansions (1947-55), the peak years of production (1956-63), production phase downs (1964-the present), and some past suggestions and efforts to chemically treat, open-quotes fractionate,close quotes and/or immobilize Hanford's wastes. Recent events, including the designation of the Hanford Site as the open-quotes flagshipclose quotes of Department of Energy (DOE) waste remediation efforts and the signing of the landmark Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), have generated new interest in Hanford's history. Clean-up milestones dictated in this agreement demand information about how, when, in what quantities and mixtures, and under what conditions, Hanford Site wastes were generated and released. This paper presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. The earliest, 1940s knowledge base, assumptions and calculations about radioactive and chemical discharges, as discussed in the memos, correspondence and reports of the original Hanford Site (then Hanford Engineer Works) builders and operators, are reviewed. The growth of knowledge, research efforts, and subsequent changes in Site waste disposal policies and practices are traced. Finally, the paper places the current Hanford Site waste remediation endeavors in the broad context of American and world history

  13. Pre-historic eating patterns in Latin America and protective effects of plant-based diets on cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Acosta Navarro


    Full Text Available In this review, we present the contributions to nutrition science from Latin American native peoples and scientists, appreciated from a historic point of view since pre-historic times to the modern age. Additionally, we present epidemiological and clinical studies on the area of plant-based diets and their relation with the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases conducted in recent decades, and we discuss challenges and perspectives regarding aspects of nutrition in the region

  14. Historical Contingency in Controlled Evolution (United States)

    Schuster, Peter


    A basic question in evolution is dealing with the nature of an evolutionary memory. At thermodynamic equilibrium, at stable stationary states or other stable attractors the memory on the path leading to the long-time solution is erased, at least in part. Similar arguments hold for unique optima. Optimality in biology is discussed on the basis of microbial metabolism. Biology, on the other hand, is characterized by historical contingency, which has recently become accessible to experimental test in bacterial populations evolving under controlled conditions. Computer simulations give additional insight into the nature of the evolutionary memory, which is ultimately caused by the enormous space of possibilities that is so large that it escapes all attempts of visualization. In essence, this contribution is dealing with two questions of current evolutionary theory: (i) Are organisms operating at optimal performance? and (ii) How is the evolutionary memory built up in populations?

  15. Piezoelectric Transformers: An Historical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Vazquez Carazo


    Full Text Available Piezoelectric transformers (PTs are solid-state devices that transform electrical energy into electrical energy by means of a mechanical vibration. These devices are manufactured using piezoelectric materials that are driven at resonance. With appropriate design and circuitry, it is possible to step up and step down the voltages between the input and output sections of the piezoelectric transformer, without making use of magnetic materials and obtaining excellent conversion efficiencies. The initial concept of a piezoelectric ceramic transformer was proposed by Charles A. Rosen in 1954. Since then, the evolution of piezoelectric transformers through history has been linked to the relevant work of some excellent researchers as well as to the evolution in materials, manufacturing processes, and driving circuit techniques. This paper summarizes the historical evolution of the technology.

  16. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario


    This successful book, which is now appearing in its second edition, presents a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. The book you hold in hands contributes to fill this demand. The second edition integrates the original text of the first edition with new developments, widening and revisions, due to recent research studies achievements. The result is a book that gives a complete picture of the behaviour of the Masonry Constructions. First of all, it gives the fundamentals of its Statics, based on the no-tension assumption, and then it develops the Limit Analysis for the Masonry Constructions. In this framework, through an interdisciplinary approach combining Engineering and Architecture, the book also investigates the sta...

  17. Historical Topographic Map Collection bookmark (United States)

    Fishburn, Kristin A.; Allord, Gregory J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program is scanning published USGS 1:250,000-scale and larger topographic maps printed between 1884, the inception of the topographic mapping program, and 2006. The goal of this project, which began publishing the historical scanned maps in 2011, is to provide a digital repository of USGS topographic maps, available to the public at no cost. For more than 125 years, USGS topographic maps have accurately portrayed the complex geography of the Nation. The USGS is the Nation’s largest producer of printed topographic maps, and prior to 2006, USGS topographic maps were created using traditional cartographic methods and printed using a lithographic printing process. As the USGS continues the release of a new generation of topographic maps (US Topo) in electronic form, the topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, land management planning, and leisure.

  18. Democracy is a historical urgency (United States)

    Synek, Miroslav


    Survival of humanity, on this planet, may depend, heavily, on coping with advancing technology of nuclear missiles. Let us consider critical alternatives of powerful governments: democracy, as an alternative to dictatorship. Democracy is based on free elections, as a government of the people, by the people and for the people. Democracy is a historical urgency, in the age of inter-continental nuclear missiles, computerized on a push-button, conceivably controllable by a very powerful, miscalculating and/or insane, dictator, capable of producing global nuclear holocaust, on our entire planet. Diplomacy, together with supporting activities, should be utilized, to help, in important steps, at this time, for achieving democracy in critical areas.

  19. Historical Evolution of Spatial Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila


    Full Text Available Historical evolution and cross-cultural differences in spatial abilities are analyzed. Spatial abilities have been found to be significantly associated with the complexity of geographical conditions and survival demands. Although impaired spatial cognition is found in cases of, exclusively or predominantly, right hemisphere pathology, it is proposed that this asymmetry may depend on the degree of training in spatial abilities. It is further proposed that spatial cognition might have evolved in a parallel way with cultural evolution and environmental demands. Contemporary city humans might be using spatial abilities in some new, conceptual tasks that did not exist in prehistoric times: mathematics, reading, writing, mechanics, music, etc. Cross-cultural analysis of spatial abilities in different human groups, normalization of neuropsychological testing instruments, and clinical observations of spatial ability disturbances in people with different cultural backgrounds and various spatial requirements, are required to construct a neuropsychological theory of brain organization of spatial cognition.

  20. Historic American engineering record. Nevada national security site, Bren Tower Complex. Written historical and descriptive data and field records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Susan R. [Desert Research Institute, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Goldenberg, Nancy [Carey & Co Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)


    The BREN (Bare Reactor Experiment, Nevada) Tower Complex is significant for its role in the history of nuclear testing, radiation dosimetry studies, and early field testing of the Strategic Missile Defense System designs. At the time it was built in 1962, the 1,527 ft (465 m) BREN Tower was the tallest structure west of the Mississippi River and exceeded the height of the Empire State Building by 55 ft (17 m). It remains the tallest ever erected specifically for scientific purposes and was designed and built to facilitate the experimental dosimetry studies necessary for the development of accurate radiation dose rates for the survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The tower was a key component of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission’s (ABCC) mission to predict the health effects of radiation exposure. Moved to its current location in 1966, the crucial dosimetry studies continued with Operation HENRE (High Energy Neutron Reactions Experiment). These experiments and the data they generated became the basis for a dosimetry system called the Tentative 1965 Dose or more commonly the T65D model. Used to estimate radiation doses received by individuals, the T65D model was applied until the mid-1980s when it was replaced by a new dosimetry system known as DS86 based on the Monte Carlo method of dose rate calculation. However, the BREN Tower data are still used for verification of the validity of the DS86 model. In addition to its importance in radiation heath effects research, the BREN Tower Complex is also significant for its role in the Brilliant Pebbles research project, a major component of the Strategic Defense Initiative popularly known as the “Star Wars” Initiative. Instigated under the Reagan Administration, the program’s purpose was to develop a system to shield the United States and allies from a ballistic missile attack. The centerpiece of the Strategic Defense System was space-based, kinetic-kill vehicles. In 1991, BREN Tower was used for the tether tests of the Brilliant Pebbles prototype vehicle at the earth’s surface prior to the more costly space testing program. The success of these tests established the Brilliant Pebbles program as an essential component of America’s space-based missile defense system even after the dismantling of the Soviet Union. Data from the Brilliant Pebbles research program continues to inspire current missile defense system research (Independent Working Group 2009).

  1. Historical Literature in the ADS (United States)

    Eichhorn, G.; Kurtz, M. J.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.


    The Astrophysics Data System at is in the process of scanning the historical astronomical literature and making it available through the World Wide Web. We have scanned several volumes from the early 1800's of the "Astronomische Nachrichten", and the "Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society", the two oldest astronomical journals. We also have several of the early volumes of the "Astrophysical Journal" and the "Astronomical Journal" available. For all the journals that we cover, we have scanned volume 1. These early volumes can be accessed on a page-by-page basis. We plan to continue to scan this historical literature and complete these journals within the next year. We are also collaborating with a preservation project at Harvard University. This project will microfilm selected parts of astronomical Observatory reports. We plan to scan these microfilms to produce electronic images of these reports and put them on-line in the ADS. We hope to eventually cover most of the astronomical literature. In order to organize the scanned pages into articles, we need tables of contents (ToC). The early issues of the journals did not have printed ToC pages, so this needs to be done by hand. We do not have the financial resources to build these ToCs. We are looking for collaborators who would be willing to work with us in building these ToCs for the older journals and observatory reports. If you are interested in such a project, please contact the first author at

  2. National Register of Historic Places multiple property documentation form -- Historic, archaeological, and traditional cultural properties of the Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickens, P.R.


    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site encompasses an area of 560 square miles on the Columbia River in southeastern Washington. Since 1943, the Hanford Site has existed as a protected area for activities primarily related to the production of radioactive materials for national defense uses. For cultural resources on the Hanford Site, establishment of the nuclear reservation as a high security area, with public access restricted, has resulted in a well-protected status, although no deliberate resource protection measures were in effect to mitigate effects of facilities construction and associated activities. Thus, the Hanford Site contains an extensive record of aboriginal archaeological sites and Native American cultural properties, along with pre-Hanford Euro-American sites (primarily archaeological in nature with the removal of most pre-1943 structures), and a considerable number of Manhattan Project/Cold War era buildings and structures. The recent mission change from production to clean up and disposal of DOE lands created a critical need for development and implementation of new and different cultural resource management strategies. DOE-RL has undertaken a preservation planning effort for the Hanford Site. The intent of this Plan is to enable DOE-RL to organize data and develop goals, objectives, and priorities for the identification, evaluation, registration, protection, preservation, and enhancement of the Site`s historical and cultural properties. Decisions made about the identification, evaluation, registration and treatment of historic properties are most aptly made when relationships between individual properties and other similar properties are considered. The historic context and the multiple property documentation (NTD) process provides DOE-RL the organizational framework for these decisions. Once significant patterns are identified, contexts developed, and expected properties are defined, the NTD process provides the foundation for future

  3. The other in the Albanian historical novel


    Myrvete Dreshaj – Baliu


    Main aim of this study is to identify the reflective dimension of the other in relation to the self in the Albanian historical novel. Written over a longer period of time (in comparison to the other types), the Albanian historical novel, only during the recent decades has presented other views of redimensioning the other within novels. Regardless of the writing period, pattern, or style, in the Albanian historical novel, the concept on the other generally preserves a national dimension, or th...

  4. ACHP | Sustainability and Historic Preservation Links (United States)

    Preservation) Solar Panels Incorporating Solar Panels in a Rehabilitation Project (National Park Service ) Installing Solar Panels on Historic Buildings: A Survey of the Regulatory Environment (Department of Energy

  5. African American therapists working with African American families: an exploration of the strengths perspective in treatment. (United States)

    Bell-Tolliver, LaVerne; Burgess, Ruby; Brock, Linda J


    With the exception of Hill's (1971, 1999) work, historically much of the literature on African American families has focused more on pathology than strengths. This study used interviews with 30 African American psychotherapists, self-identified as employing a strengths perspective with African American families, to investigate which strengths they identified in the families and how they use those strengths in therapy. Themes emerging from data analysis confirmed the continued importance of the five strengths Hill noted. In addition, two new strengths were identified by the participants: a willingness of a greater number of families to seek therapy, and the importance of family structure. Strategies used in engaging the families in therapy and practice implications for family therapists are discussed.

  6. Precious African American memories, post-racial dreams & the American nation. (United States)

    Martin, Waldo E


    This interdisciplinary essay explores a fundamental paradox at the heart of American race relations since the 1960s: "the changing same." The more things change; the more they remain the same. Combining historical and social-scientific evidence with autobiographical reflections, this discussion critically probes the paradoxical decline and persistence of two dimensions of our enduring racial quagmire: racial inequality and white supremacy. The essay argues that these powerful and interrelated elements of America's continuing racial dilemma demand a massive democratic movement to alleviate both at once. This wide-ranging struggle to realize the promise of American democracy requires more than just a revitalized African American Freedom Struggle that is both intraracial and interracial. Progress toward resolving the seemingly intractable problem of racial inequality in the United States demands far more than intensified efforts to alleviate economic inequality; it requires alleviating white supremacy as well.

  7. Backlash against American psychology: an indigenous reconstruction of the history of German critical psychology. (United States)

    Teo, Thomas


    After suggesting that all psychologies contain indigenous qualities and discussing differences and commonalities between German and North American historiographies of psychology, an indigenous reconstruction of German critical psychology is applied. It is argued that German critical psychology can be understood as a backlash against American psychology, as a response to the Americanization of German psychology after WWII, on the background of the history of German psychology, the academic impact of the Cold War, and the trajectory of personal biographies and institutions. Using an intellectual-historical perspective, it is shown how and which indigenous dimensions played a role in the development of German critical psychology as well as the limitations to such an historical approach. Expanding from German critical psychology, the role of the critique of American psychology in various contexts around the globe is discussed in order to emphasize the relevance of indigenous historical research.

  8. A Link to the Future: A Pilot Study Look at How Historically Black Colleges and Universities with Journalism and Mass Communications Units Use the Internet in Recruiting (United States)

    Crawford, Jerry, II


    Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) have had the ability to recruit African-American students since the 1860s by stressing a sense of inclusion and family through their mission statements and community outreach. There was little to no competition for African-American students from predominantly white institutions until integration…

  9. Heart Disease and African Americans (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  10. The American South in the Atlantic World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    decisively shaped the history and culture of the American South from colonial times to the modern era. The essays in this interdisciplinary volume examine a wide range of topics, including race, migration, religion, law, slavery, emancipation, literature, memoir, popular culture, and ethnography. At a time...... when there is growing emphasis on globalizing southern studies the collection both demonstrates and critiques the value of Atlantic World perspectives on the region. Equally important, the mix of case studies and state-of-the field essays combines the latest historical thinking on the South’s myriad...

  11. Representations of intercourse in American literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard


    on theoretical notions from cognitive poetics, the present article assumes that literary representations of intercourse reflect and replicate in readers cognitive-cultural models of intercourse and the roles of, and power relations between, men and women therein. The analysis presented here is quantitative...... and falls under the rubric of corpus stylistics and is based on data from the FICTION component of the Corpus of Historical American English. The analysis measures the preference of male or female passive participants in propositional scenarios denoted by transitive fuck, thus allowing...

  12. 75 FR 17766 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties (United States)


    .... Paul Loether, Chief, National Register of Historic Places/National Historic Landmarks Program. KEY..., LISTED, 1/21/10 (World War II Home Front Efforts in Arkansas, MPS) Logan County Liberty Schoolhouse...

  13. 75 FR 4415 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties (United States)


    .... Paul Loether, Chief, National Register of Historic Places/National Historic Landmarks Program. KEY.... by W. Cherry on the South by W. Court, on the E. by S. Throgmorton and the W. by Clay, Piggott...

  14. 75 FR 8109 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties (United States)


    .... Paul Loether, Chief, National Register of Historic Places/National Historic Landmarks Program. KEY.... Cherry Ln., Greensboro vicinity, 09000963, LISTED, 12/02/09 Leverton, Jacob and Hannah, House, 3531...

  15. 75 FR 10814 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties (United States)


    ..., 2010. J. Paul Loether, Chief, National Register of Historic Places/National Historic Landmarks Program...., Garner vicinity, 09001106, LISTED, 12/16/09 UTAH San Juan County Neck and Cabin Spings Grazing Area...

  16. L’Entrepreneuriat au sein de la famille. Marchands et entrepreneurs en Inde Entrepreneurship in the Family Context: Merchants and Entrepreneurs in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Tambs-Lyche


    Full Text Available Malgré le déni de Max Weber, l’essor actuel de l’économie indienne montre que non seulement l’esprit du capitalisme, mais aussi l’entrepreneuriat, sont bien présents en Inde. Dans cet article, j’analyse les stratégies commerciales des Gauda Saraswat Brahmanes du Sud Kanara (autour de Mangalore, sur la côte Ouest de l’Inde, en utilisant le modèle d’entrepreneuriat proposé par Fredrik Barth (1962, 1967. Fidèle à la tradition du « capitalisme de portefeuille » (Baily 1989, ces marchands distribuent leur capital entre des filières sûres mais modérément rentables, et des projets novateurs et profitables mais risqués. L’entrepreneur, ici, n’est que rarement l’individu, car il s’agit le plus souvent d’une stratégie orchestrée par la famille, qui se confond à son tour avec la firme familiale. Cette orchestration exige des chefs de famille un souci constant de management qui se manifeste en écoutant les idées des cadets et en leur confiant des rôles qui les gratifient au sein de l’entreprise familiale, tout en gardant la main sur la stratégie globale de la firme.In spite of Max Weber’s views, the present growth in the Indian economy shows rather conclusively the presence both of the spirit of capitalism and of entrepreneurship in India. In this article, I analyse the commercial strategies of the Gauda Saraswat Brahmins of South Kanara (around Mangalore, on the West coast of India, using the model of entrepreneurship proposed by Fredrik Barth (1962, 1967. True to the tradition of portefeuille capitalism (Baily 1989, these merchants distribute their capital between safe but moderately remunerative ventures, and projects that are profitable but risky. The entrepreneur, here, is rarely an individual, rather we see a strategy orchestrated by the family, which in its turn corresponds to the family firm. This organisation demands constant attention from the head of the family, who must listen to the ideas of

  17. The Reference of Commercial Ethics of Shanxi Merchants for Vocational Education%晋商商业伦理道德对现代职业教育的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光; 姚玉秀


    During the Ming and Qing Dynasties,Shanxi merchants leaped to first place in the top ten business bands with their sharp minds.In the process of business,they showed diligence,dedication, integrity and other great spirit.Then they formed a specific commercial ethics system,and on this basis they built a world renowened business empire successfully.In the modern vocational education, commercial ethics of Shanxi merchants can be used for enlightenment reference to cultivate a new generation of professional technical talents with good professional ethics,honesty and trustworthiness, diligent and thrifty,dedication and innovation.%明清时期,晋商成为中国十大商帮之首。他们在从商过程中表现出来的勤奋、敬业、诚信等精神,形成一套晋商独有的商业伦理道德体系。在现代职业教育中,晋商商业伦理道德对于培养具有良好职业道德、诚实守信、克勤克俭、爱岗敬业、勇于创新的新一代职业技术人才具有重要的启示和借鉴意义。

  18. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, O.; Lamadrid, A.I.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Romero, I.; Mandina, T.; Di Giorgio, M.; Radl, A.; Taja, M.R.; Sapienza, C.E.; Deminge, M.M.; Fernandez Rearte, J.; Stuck Oliveira, M.; Valdivia, P.; Guerrero-Carbajal, C.; Arceo Maldonado, C.; Cortina Ramirez, G.E.; Espinoza, M.; Martinez-Lopez, W.; Di Tomasso, M.


    Biological Dosimetry is a necessary support for national radiation protection programmes and emergency response schemes. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet) was formally founded in 2007 to provide early biological dosimetry assistance in case of radiation emergencies in the Latin American Region. Here are presented the main topics considered in the foundational document of the network, which comprise: mission, partners, concept of operation, including the mechanism to request support for biological dosimetry assistance in the region, and the network capabilities. The process for network activation and the role of the coordinating laboratory during biological dosimetry emergency response is also presented. This information is preceded by historical remarks on biological dosimetry cooperation in Latin America. A summary of the main experimental and practical results already obtained by the LBDNet is also included. (authors)

  19. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet). (United States)

    García, O; Di Giorgio, M; Radl, A; Taja, M R; Sapienza, C E; Deminge, M M; Fernández Rearte, J; Stuck Oliveira, M; Valdivia, P; Lamadrid, A I; González, J E; Romero, I; Mandina, T; Guerrero-Carbajal, C; ArceoMaldonado, C; Cortina Ramírez, G E; Espinoza, M; Martínez-López, W; Di Tomasso, M


    Biological Dosimetry is a necessary support for national radiation protection programmes and emergency response schemes. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet) was formally founded in 2007 to provide early biological dosimetry assistance in case of radiation emergencies in the Latin American Region. Here are presented the main topics considered in the foundational document of the network, which comprise: mission, partners, concept of operation, including the mechanism to request support for biological dosimetry assistance in the region, and the network capabilities. The process for network activation and the role of the coordinating laboratory during biological dosimetry emergency response is also presented. This information is preceded by historical remarks on biological dosimetry cooperation in Latin America. A summary of the main experimental and practical results already obtained by the LBDNet is also included. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  20. The Military Dimension of American Hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A Political Economy of American Hegemony - Buildups, Booms and Busts by Thomas Oatley offers relevant historical and statistical evidence regarding military buildups in postwar America, assessing the economic and political impact of deficit financed military spending. From this point of view the book proves to be a very instructive and challenging reading. Thomas Oatley is professor of political science at North Carolina University, teaching courses on international politics and political economy. He is also the author of a series of papers and books on international political economy. His main theme of research is the interaction between economic interests and political institutions and how it shaped governments’ foreign economic policies. A Political Economy of American Hegemony Buildups, Booms and Busts is the most recent and also the most challenging of his books, in terms of inquired questions and defended theses.

  1. Twentieth-Century Latin American Literary Studies and Cultural Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Lindstrom


    Full Text Available Since the 1920s, when scholars first began to specialize in Latin American writing, the subject of Latin American literary studies has grown from a small subset of Spanish and Portuguese literary research and teaching to become the largest field within Hispanism and a significant presence in comparative literature. The expansion of their place in the academic world has often prompted students of Latin American literature to wonder whether, in being swept into the mainstream, their field has not left out of account the historical situations of Latin American nations. These reflections lead critics back to a problem that has troubled Latin American thinkers since Independence: the achievement, or erosion, of cultural autonomy. Though undeniably close to major powers, the Latin American nations are unequal partners in trade and cultural exchange. Corresponding to their uneven and shifting relations with Europe and later the United States, their cultural life evolves following a distinctive historical dynamic. This article considers recent efforts by scholars and essayists to characterize the features that distinguish Latin America from more politically and economically advantaged nations. Special attention goes to those scholars who, drawing on anthropological research, examine communicative and expressive practices of indigenous origin, and those who borrow from economic theory to view Latin America as shaped by its history of dependence on more powerful nations and regions.

  2. Using Augmented Reality and Virtual Environments in Historic Places to Scaffold Historical Empathy (United States)

    Sweeney, Sara K.; Newbill, Phyllis; Ogle, Todd; Terry, Krista


    The authors explore how 3D visualizations of historical sites can be used as pedagogical tools to support historical empathy. They provide three visualizations created by a team at Virginia Tech as examples. They discuss virtual environments and how the digital restoration process is applied. They also define historical empathy, explain why it is…

  3. Dermatotoxicology: Historical perspective and advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Mai A.; Maibach, Howard I.


    The fundamental principles underlying the study of dermatotoxicology were developed by Arnold Lehman and John Draize over a half century ago and remain applicable today. This discipline has proven indispensable for addressing the problems associated with skin exposure to chemicals. The 55th anniversary of Lehman's landmark publication on safety factors presents the opportunity to reflect upon the historical beginnings of dermatotoxicology and the role of regulatory policies on the development of this field over the years. The complexity and sheer volume of information that has been collected makes it difficult to comprehensively cover all aspects of this vast discipline. This overview will touch upon the general concepts of ADME, the various forms of contact dermatitis, and transdermal drug delivery systems. The traditional tests performed in animals and humans to identify allergic or irritant potential of chemicals, in addition to alternative methods such as QSAR modeling will be discussed. The subspecialties of infant and occupational dermatotoxicology, as well as dermatotoxicology of aged and ethnic skin, and skin of the vulva and vagina will also be noted.

  4. The INIS Thesaurus: historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duresa, Bekele Negeri; Vakula, Olga


    The INIS Thesaurus is a controlled terminological knowledge base that has been developed over the years through the contribution of INIS Member States in all areas of peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology, which is also the subject scope of the INIS Collection. The thesaurus is primarily used for subject indexing of input into the INIS system and for retrieval of information from the database. Thanks to the vital support of INIS Member States, the thesaurus has been translated into eight languages (i.e. all IAEA official languages plus German and Japanese) and is available online to assist our global users as a tool for retrieval and for general reference. It is a dynamic information resource that is continually updated to cater to new developments of terminologies in nuclear science and technology. Since its inception in the 1960’s, it was decided that the subject analysis for INIS input preparation be based on its own subject categories, which also determines its scope, and keyword indexing using a thesaurus. This article briefly describes the development of the INIS Thesaurus from a historical perspective

  5. Historical model evaluation data requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, B.C.; McCain, D.J.


    Several studies about tank waste contents have been published using historical records of tank transactions and various analytical measurements. While these records offer a wealth of information, the results are questionable until error estimates associated with the results can be established. However, they do provide a direction for investigation. Two principal observations from the studies are: (1) Large quantities of individual waste types from the various separations processes were widely distributed throughout the tank farms, and (2) The compositions of many of these waste types are quite distinct from one another. A key assumption associated with these observations is that the effects of time and location on the tank wastes are either nominal or not discernable. Since each waste type has a distinct composition, it would benefit all programs to better quantify that composition, and establish an uncertainty for each element of that composition. Various process, disposal, or other decisions could then be made based on current information reducing the need for extended sampling and analysis

  6. Historic physics reprints come home

    CERN Multimedia


    In a surprise happy ending, six boxes of historic reprints have returned home to CERN - more than 30 years after they went missing! The 146 items had been part of the personal library of the Nobel prize-winning physicist, Wolfgang Pauli. After his death in 1958, Pauli's widow bequeathed his scientific legacy to CERN, and part of this valuable archival collection was stored in Salle Pauli, the room dedicated to his memory. In those trustful days the room was always left open so that Pauli's Library could be freely consulted; but then 170 preprints by Born, Bohr, Heisenberg and others - some with dedications to Pauli from the author - disappeared in 1972. Regretfully, the room was then locked. Use of the collection was henceforth ‘by appointment only', but it was assumed that the damage was done and the missing items had gone forever. However, in 2002 the CERN Archivist was surprised by a phone call from a representative of Christie's, New York, who explained that some reprints bearing the stamp of the CERN...

  7. Detection capabilities. Some historical footnotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, L.A.


    Part I Summary of relevant topics from 1923 to present-including: Currie (Anal Chem 40:586-593, 1968) detection concepts and capabilities; International detection and uncertainty standards; Failure of classical "1"4C dating and birth of new scientific disciplines; Exploratory nuclear data analysis of "8"5Kr monitors found coincident with the collapse of the Iron Curtain (1989); Faulty statistics proved responsible for mistaken assertions that Currie's LC yields excessive false positives; Low-level counting and AMS for atmospheric "3"7Ar and µmolar fossil/biomass carbon in the environment; Erroneous assumption that our low-level background is a Poisson Process, linked to ∼8 % spurious anticoincidence events. Part II. Exact treatment of bivariate Poisson data-solved in 1930s by Przyborowski and Wilenski, Krakow University, for detecting extreme trace amounts of a malicious contaminant (dodder) in high purity seed standards. We adapted their treatment to detection capabilities in ultra-low-level nuclear counting. The timing of their work had great historical significance, marking the start of World War II, with the invasion of Poland (1939). (author)

  8. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry. (United States)

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor


    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology.

  9. Historical Drawbacks of Limited Liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Boyle


    Full Text Available Limited liability is a human invention which has facilitated enormous economic growth around the world, particularly since the time of its general application in advanced countries during the nineteenth century. The individual legal identity of companies, coupled with the limited liability of their owners, has provided protection for investors from the risks associated with their investments. It has thus contributed to increase the sources of capital available to finance projects which might otherwise have been considered unviable. However, the legal protection offered to investors has negative consequences for other participants in economies. Speculation in stock markets often damages society. It is very important to study the drawbacks of limited liability and to suggest modifications to achieve a more stable, less volatile, economic growth in the world. Although this article goes to some lengths to recognise the work of authors who emphasise the positive historical economic contribution of limited lability, its main objective is to provoke a reflection around texts which point out the drawbacks and propose solutions.

  10. ACHP | Advisory Council on Historic Preservation Publications (United States)

    Integrating NEPA and Section 106 (2013) Measuring Economic Impacts of Historic Preservation (2013) Celebrating Enhancing Federal Management of Historic Properties (2004) Heritage Tourism and the Federal Government : Summit II—Report of Proceedings (2003) Heritage Tourism and the Federal Government: Summit I—Report of

  11. ACHP | Federal Highway Administration Historic Preservation Program (United States)

    arrow FHWA Case Study - Kentucky and Indiana Heritage Tourism and Economic Support is the Focus of avoidance of impacts to historic Madison is not possible. In addition to FHWA, KYTC, INDOT, the Kentucky and remains economically viable and that construction impacts on historic buildings are minimized. The MOA

  12. Historical events of the Chemical Processing Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, W.A.


    The purpose of this report is to summarize and document the significant historical events pertinent to the operation of the Chemical Processing facilities at Hanford. The report covers, in chronological order, the major construction activities and historical events from 1944 to September, 1965. Also included are the production records achieved and a history of the department`s unit cost performance.

  13. Historical sites at the Prince Edward islands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, J


    Full Text Available This report gives the results of a workshop held on historical sites at the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward islands, southern Indian Ocean. All known visits and sojourns on the Prince Edward islands up to 1948 are tabulated. All known historical sites...

  14. Negotiating the Process of Historical Empathy (United States)

    Endacott, Jason L.


    Historical empathy scholarship has evolved to the point where further progress necessitates empirical examinations from a variety of perspectives. Prior studies on historical empathy have largely focused on teachers' pedagogical approach and student outcomes. This qualitative study focuses on students as they engage in the process of historical…

  15. Short Historical Fiction To Get Children Reading. (United States)

    Sullivan, Kathleen


    Provides an annotated bibliography of short historical fiction and picture books for readers in grades K-8. Includes a list of selected Caldecott and Newbery winners with historical themes or backgrounds and a list of activity books featuring Spanish exploration in Mexico, Roman art and fashion, medieval Europe, and cowboys. (PEN)

  16. 20 CFR 638.304 - Historical preservation. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Historical preservation. 638.304 Section 638.304 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM... § 638.304 Historical preservation. The Job Corps Director shall review the “National Register of...

  17. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Historic preservation. 910.32... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.32 Historic preservation... Preservation Plan of the Corporation, are specified for preservation, shall be acomplished (a) in accordance...

  18. Historic Preservation Vocabulary, Designations, and Resources (United States)

    Williams, Stacy D.


    Preservationists use a common language that had its beginnings in the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. This act created the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties, which defined the terms and treatments that have become the standard for preservation projects and plans. These terms have been used…

  19. Open source software development : some historical perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuvolari, A.


    In this paper we suggest that historical studies of technology can help us to account for some, perplexing (at least for traditional economic reasoning) features of open source software development. From a historical perspective, open source software seems to be a particular case of what Robert C.

  20. Open source software development : some historical perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuvolari, A.


    In this paper we suggest that historical studies of technology can help us to account for some, perplexing (at least for traditional economic reasoning) features of open source software development. When looked in historical perspective, open source software seems to be a particular case of what