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Sample records for histolytica ascaris lumbricoides

  1. Bolus obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides | Wynne | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bolus obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides. J.M. Wynne, B.A.H. Ellman. Abstract. Seventy-three cases of obstruction due to a bolus of Ascaris worms are reviewed, The diagnosis was made on the basis either of a characteristic palpable mass or a characteristic radiographic appearance. In 67 cases conservative treatment ...

  2. Inactivation of ascaris lumbricoides eggs by heat, radiation, and thermoradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannen, J.P.; Garst, D.M.; Langley, S.

    1975-07-01

    It is desirable to eliminate the public health hazards associated with land application of municipal sewage sludge as a fertilizer or soil conditioner. This report describes experimentation to determine the effects of heat, radiation, and thermoradiation on the suppression of embryonation of Ascaris lumbricoides ova, a parasite commonly found in sewage sludge. Heat effects were observed at a minimum temperature of 51 0 C and radiation effects at doses in excess of 15 krads of radiation. Thermoradiation at 47 0 C suppressed embryonation at less than half the total dose required by radiation alone. (U.S.)

  3. Reduced efficacy of albendazole against Ascaris lumbricoides in Rwandan schoolchildren

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    Jürgen Krücken

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Control of human soil-transmitted helminths (STHs relies on preventive chemotherapy of schoolchildren applying the benzimidazoles (BZ albendazole or mebendazole. Anthelmintic resistance (AR is a common problem in nematodes of veterinary importance but for human STHs, information on drug efficacy is limited and routine monitoring is rarely implemented. Herein, the efficacy of single dose albendazole (400 mg was evaluated in 12 schools in the Huye district of Rwanda where Ascaris is the predominant STH. Ascaris eggs were detected by wet mount microscopy and the Mini-FLOTAC method to assess cure rate (CR and faecal egg count reduction (FECR. Blood and faecal samples were analysed for co-infections with Plasmodium sp. and Giardia duodenalis, respectively. Ascaris positive samples collected before and after treatment were analysed for putatively BZ-resistance associated β-tubulin gene single nucleotide polymorphisms. The overall CR was 69.9% by Mini-FLOTAC and 88.6% by wet mount microscopy. The FECR was 75.4% and the 95% calculated confidence intervals were 50.4–87.8% using sample variance, 55.4–88.8% by bootstrapping, and 75.0–75.7% applying a Markov Chain Monte Carlo Bayesian approach. FECR varied widely between 0 and 96.8% for individual schools. No putative BZ-resistance associated polymorphisms were found in the four Ascaris β-tubulin isotype genes examined. Since FECRs <95% indicate reduced efficacy, these findings raise the suspicion of BZ resistance. In the absence of respective molecular evidence, heritable AR in the local Ascaris populations cannot be formally proven. However, since FECRs <95% indicate reduced efficacy, BZ resistance may be suspected which would be alarming and calls for further analyses and routine monitoring in preventive chemotherapy programs. Keywords: Soil-transmitted helminth, Benzimidazole, Albendazole, Resistance, Ascaris, Deworming, Tubulin

  4. The biological activity of ABA-1-like protein from Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    武藤, 理穂; 今井, 伸二郎; 手塚, 裕之; 古橋, 裕子; 藤田, 紘一郎

    2001-01-01

    The elevation of non-specific IgE (total IgE) in Ascaris infection can be seen one week after infection, and reaches a peak after approximately two weeks. It has been reported that ABA-1 protein is the main constituent in the pseudocoelomic fluid of Ascaris suum. To investigate the effect of the ABA-1-like protein from Ascaris lumbricoides (ALB), the cDNA was cloned by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, using original primers based on the consensus sequences of ABA-1 and TBA-1, ...

  5. Successful Elimination of Ascaris lumbricoides from the Gallbladder by Conservative Medical Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Manish Kumar; Singh, Sarabjeet; Bhagat, Tripta Sethi

    2012-01-01

    Migration of Ascaris lumbricoides into the gallbladder is rare, unlike ascariasis of the bile duct and when it does occur, treatment is generally by endoscopic or surgical extraction. We describe a case of the successful treatment of gallbladder ascariasis with conservative therapy.

  6. Successful Elimination of Ascaris lumbricoides from the Gallbladder by Conservative Medical Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Manish Kumar; Singh, Sarabjeet; Bhagat, Tripta Sethi

    2013-06-01

    Migration of Ascaris lumbricoides into the gallbladder is rare, unlike ascariasis of the bile duct and when it does occur, treatment is generally by endoscopic or surgical extraction. We describe a case of the successful treatment of gallbladder ascariasis with conservative therapy.

  7. Massive Infestation of the biliary duct for Ascaris lumbricoides: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristizabal, Humberto; Sanabria, Alvaro

    2001-01-01

    We present a case of a woman who arrived with acute cholangitis symptomatology, and was diagnosed preoperatively by ultrasound as biliary ascariasis. During surgery, we extracted 32 worms of Ascaris lumbricoides from the Gallbladder and the common bile duct. Clinical outcome was successful, with out retention of worms

  8. Granulomatous peritonitis due to Ascaris lumbricoides. Case report Granulomatosis peritoneal por Ascaris lumbricoides.Presentación de un caso

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    Carlos Aguirre Muñoz

    2008-06-01

    the underdeveloped countries. It is related to conditions of poverty, malnutrition and poor hygiene. According to the complex life cycle of the parasite, several and different intestinal and extraintestinal complications can arise, including peritonitis. Appropriate treatment and preventive measures are very important factors to avoid deaths caused by this disease.

    We report the case of a 3 year-old girl, coming from a rural area of Colombia, who presented peritonitis by Ascaris lumbricoides, preceded by persistent diarrhea, pain and abdominal mass. She was incidentally diagnosed by means of laparotomy and peritoneal biopsy, because an intestinal lymphoma was suspected.

  1. Trickle or clumped infection process? A stochastic model for the infection process of the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Martin; Hall, Andrew; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2010-10-01

    The importance of the mode of acquisition of infectious stages of directly-transmitted parasitic helminths has been acknowledged in population dynamics models; hosts may acquire eggs/larvae singly in a "trickle" type manner or in "clumps". Such models have shown that the mode of acquisition influences the distribution and dynamics of parasite loads, the stability of host-parasite systems and the rate of emergence of anthelmintic resistance, yet very few field studies have allowed these questions to be explored with empirical data. We have analysed individual worm weight data for the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides, collected from a three-round chemo-expulsion study in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with the aim of discerning whether a trickle or a clumped infection process predominates. We found that hosts tend to harbour female worms of a similar weight, indicative of a clumped infection process, but acknowledged that unmeasured host heterogeneities (random effects) could not be completely excluded as a cause. Here, we complement our previous statistical analyses using a stochastic infection model to simulate sizes of individual A. lumbricoides infecting a population of humans. We use the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as a quantitative measure of similarity among simulated worm sizes and explore the behaviour of this statistic under assumptions corresponding to trickle or clumped infections and unmeasured host heterogeneities. We confirm that both mechanisms are capable of generating aggregates of similar-sized worms, but that the particular pattern of ICCs described pre- and post-anthelmintic treatment in the data is more consistent with aggregation generated by clumped infections than by host heterogeneities alone. This provides support to the notion that worms may be acquired in clumps. We discuss our results in terms of the population biology of A. lumbricoides and highlight the significance of our modelling approach for the study of the

  2. Trickle or clumped infection process? An analysis of aggregation in the weights of the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Martin; Hall, Andrew; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2010-10-01

    Studying the distribution of parasitic helminth body size across a population of definitive hosts can advance our understanding of parasite population biology. Body size is typically correlated with egg production. Consequently, inequalities in body size have been frequently measured to infer variation in reproductive success (VRS). Body size is also related to parasite age (time since entering the definitive host) and potentially provides valuable information on the mode of acquisition and establishment of immature (larval) parasites within the host: whether parasites tend to establish singly or in aggregates. The mode of acquisition of soil-transmitted helminths has been a theoretical consideration in the parasitological literature but has eluded data-driven investigation. In this paper, we analyse individual Ascaris lumbricoides weight data collected from a cohort of human hosts before and after re-infection following curative treatment, and explore its distribution within and among individuals in the population. Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients indicate that levels of weight inequality (a proxy for VRS) in A.lumbricoides are lower than other published estimates from animal-helminth systems. We explore levels of intra-host weight aggregation using statistical models to estimate the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) while adjusting for covariates using a flexible fractional polynomial transformation approach capable of handling non-linear functional relationships. The estimated ICCs indicate that weights are aggregated within hosts both at equilibrium and after re-infection, suggesting that parasites may establish within the host in clumps. The implications of a clumped infection process are discussed in terms of ascariasis transmission dynamics, control and anthelmintic resistance. Copyright © 2010 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence and intensity of infections of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and associated socio-demographic variables in four rural Honduran communities

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    Smith HM

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Between January and March 1998, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in four rural communities in Honduras, Central America. We examined the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections among 240 fecal specimens, and the association between selected socio-demographic variables and infection for 62 households. The overall prevalence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura was 45% (95% CI 39.0-51.9 and 38% (95% CI 31.8-44.4 respectively. The most intense infections for Ascaris and Trichuris were found in children aged 2-12 years old. By univariate analysis variables associated with infections of A. lumbricoides were: number of children 2-5 years old (p=0.001, level of formal education of respondents (p=0.01, reported site of defecation of children in households (p=0.02, households with children who had a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.002, and the location of households (p=0.03. Variables associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection included: number of children 6-14 years old (p=0.01, p=0.04, respectively, ownership of a latrine (p=0.04, p=0.03, respectively and coinfection with either helminth (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively. By multivariate analysis the number of children 2-5 years living in the household, (p=0.01, odds ratio (OR=22.2, children with a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.0, OR=39.8, and infection of household members with T. trichiura (p=0.02, OR=16.0 were associated with A. lumbricoides infection. The number of children 6-14 years old in the household was associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection (p=0.04, p=0.01, OR=19.2, OR=5.2, respectively.

  4. Ascaridíase das vias urinárias: um caso de penetração de Ascaris lumbricoides através do rim

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    Mario Caymmi Gomes

    1977-10-01

    Full Text Available Uma criança de 2 anos com desnutrição grave e infestação intestinal maciça por Ascaris lumbricoides, apresentou como complicação, documentada em necrópsia, a migração de vermes adultos para a cavidade peritonial e penetração aberrante de dois parasitos através do rim esquerdo. Os Ascaris ficaram alojados no sistema pielo-ureteral, determinando grave infecção purulenta e obstrução ureteral. Esta complicação demonstra a capacidade agressiva de vermes erráticos na cavidade peritonial, com possibilidade de perfurar mesmo uma víscera sólida. São comentados os fatores que facilitaram a migração dos vermes por aqueles órgãos.The author reports an autopsy case of a two year old child with massive intestinal ascariasis and malnutrition, presenting the migration of two adult Ascaris lumbricoides through the left kidney into the pyelo-ureteral system. As a result she developed acute pyelonephritis and ureteral obstruction. Previously the worms left the intestine into the peritoneal cavity (lesser sac through a duodenal cleft. Factors contributing to the migration of the roundworms by those pathways are discussed.

  5. Viabilidade de ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides após tratamento humano com medicamentos específicos: I— Levamisole e Pamoato de pirantel

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Maria Suzana de Lemos; Souza, Dirceu Wagner Carvalho de; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Neves, Jayme; Massara, Cristiano Lara

    1985-01-01

    Com o objetivo de testar a viabilidade do ciclo biológico, 15 pacientes (masculinos, de quatro a 14 anos) com Ascaris lumbricoides, foram selecionados ao acaso. Após tratamento clássico com sais básicos de levamisole (7 pacientes) e de pamoato de pirantel (8), os ovos retirados das fêmeas expelidas ficaram incubados por 18 dias em de H2SO4 N/10. A seguir foram administrados per os a grupos de 5 camundongos por pacientes. Decorridos 8 dias da infecção, os animais foram sacrificados para pesqui...

  6. Shrinking risk profiles after deworming of children in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, with special reference to Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ivan; Gall, Stefanie; Beyleveld, Lindsey; Gerber, Markus; Pühse, Uwe; Du Randt, Rosa; Steinmann, Peter; Zondie, Leyli; Walter, Cheryl; Utzinger, Jürg

    2017-11-27

    Risk maps facilitate discussion among different stakeholders and provide a tool for spatial targeting of health interventions. We present maps documenting shrinking risk profiles after deworming with respect to soil-transmitted helminthiasis among schoolchildren from disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Children were examined for soil-transmitted helminth infections using duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears in March 2015, October 2015 and May 2016, and subsequently treated with albendazole after each survey. The mean infection intensities for Ascaris lumbricoides were 9,554 eggs per gram of stool (EPG) in March 2015, 4,317 EPG in October 2015 and 1,684 EPG in March 2016. The corresponding figures for Trichuris trichiura were 664 EPG, 331 EPG and 87 EPG. Repeated deworming shrank the risk of soil-transmitted helminthiasis, but should be complemented by other public health measures.

  7. Regional variation in Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections by age cohort and sex: effects of market integration among the indigenous Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildner, Theresa E; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Liebert, Melissa A; Urlacher, Samuel S; Madimenos, Felicia C; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2016-11-24

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection peaks during childhood and varies by sex. The impact of market integration (MI) (increasing production for and consumption from a market-based economy) on these infection patterns, however, is unclear. In this study, STH infection is examined by sex and age among indigenous Shuar inhabiting two regions of Amazonian Ecuador: (1) the modestly market-integrated Upano Valley (UV) and (2) the more traditional Cross-Cutucú (CC) region. Kato-Katz fecal smears were examined for parasite presence and infection intensity. Factorial ANOVAs and post hoc simple effects analyses were performed by sex to compare infection intensity between regions and age categories (infant/child, juvenile/adolescent, adult). Significant age and regional differences in Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infection were detected. Overall, infants/children and juveniles/adolescents displayed higher parasite loads than adults. CC females exhibited higher A. lumbricoides loads than UV females, while the opposite pattern was observed for T. trichiura infection in males. Regional infection patterns varied by sex and parasite species, perhaps due to MI-linked environmental and lifestyle changes. These results have public health implications for the identification of individuals at risk for infection and contribute to ongoing efforts to track changes and alleviate STH infection in indigenous populations undergoing MI.

  8. Host-Parasite Interactions in Individuals with Type 1 and 2 Diabetes Result in Higher Frequency of Ascaris lumbricoides and Giardia lamblia in Type 2 Diabetic Individuals

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    Eleuza Rodrigues Machado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Host-parasite interactions in diabetic patients might influence diabetes complications and intestinal parasitosis. The aim was to investigate the occurrence of enteroparasites in individuals with diabetes types 1 and 2. A descriptive study was designed to estimate frequencies of parasites and to compare them in individuals with diabetes types 1 and 2 from two Health Centers and one hospital in the Federal District of Brazil. Patients were allocated to the study by convenience. Three fecal samples of 156 diabetic individuals (120 type 1 and 36 type 2 were analyzed using two parasitological methods. Enteroparasites or commensals frequency in diabetics was 64%. Diabetics infected with up to six species of intestinal parasites or commensals were found. Frequencies of Ascaris lumbricoides and Giardia lamblia were higher in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The lower frequency of A. lumbricoides found in type 1 diabetes may be related to a strong Th2 response to parasites. Autoimmune response developed in type 1 diabetic individuals characterized by the production of Th1 cytokines could explain low frequency of G. lamblia. High frequency of parasites found in type 2 diabetes emphasizes the importance of periodic parasitological examinations in these individuals.

  9. Viabilidade de ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides após tratamento humano com medicamentos específicos: I— Levamisole e Pamoato de pirantel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Suzana de Lemos Souza

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de testar a viabilidade do ciclo biológico, 15 pacientes (masculinos, de quatro a 14 anos com Ascaris lumbricoides, foram selecionados ao acaso. Após tratamento clássico com sais básicos de levamisole (7 pacientes e de pamoato de pirantel (8, os ovos retirados das fêmeas expelidas ficaram incubados por 18 dias em de H2SO4 N/10. A seguir foram administrados per os a grupos de 5 camundongos por pacientes. Decorridos 8 dias da infecção, os animais foram sacrificados para pesquisas microscópica de larvas nos fragmentos pulmonares. Dos 75 animais, somente 1, pertencente ao grupo de tratados com levamisole, não apresentou larvas nos fragmentos pulmonares. Concluiu-se que as drogas, nas doses utilizadas, não possuem ação deletéria sobre os ovos de A. lumbricoides, mas promovem a eliminação de material infectivo, com possibilidade de incrementar a poluição onde vivem comunidades sem adequadas condições de saneamento básico.

  10. Parasitismo por Ascaris lumbricoides em crianças menores de dois anos: estudo populacional em comunidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

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    Costa-Macedo Lêda Maria da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência e a intensidade da infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides foram analisadas mediante um estudo transversal em crianças residentes no Município de Duque de Caxias, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, entre julho e dezembro de 1997. A população do estudo foi constituída por crianças com menos de dois anos de idade e as mães das crianças menores de um ano. As amostras fecais foram recolhidas nos domicílios em frascos contendo solução conservadora de MIF e processadas por meio das técnicas de MIFC e Kato-Katz. As prevalências de infecção por A. lumbricoides observadas foram 3,3% (I.C. 95% 1,0 - 7,8 para os menores de um ano, 30,7% (I.C. 95% 25,4 - 36,4 para as crianças com um ano de idade e 42,3% (I.C. 95% 33,0 - 51,9 para as mães. Infecção com carga parasitária moderada/pesada foi observada em cerca de 38% das crianças com um ano de idade e 36,0% das mães. Estes resultados demonstram a importância da ascariose já no primeiro ano de vida e indicam a necessidade de aprofundamento na investigação desta parasitose na população materno-infantil.

  11. Bolus obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 67 cases conservative treatment was successful. ... bolus of worms, biliary ascariasis,3.6 pancreatitis and acute ... or chronic granulomatous peritonitis is rare.i These complica- ... obstruction admitted to the paediatric surgical wards of the.

  12. Bolus obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infecti\\'e larvae which hatch when ingested. Children usually ingest the eggs present in soil contaminated with human faeces; the infestation rate in some areas may be as high as 70%,1 The intestine may hold up to 5 000 worms,1 The parasites deprive the patient of protein and vitamins,I,4 and induce changes in the.

  13. The presence of serum anti-Ascaris lumbricoides IgE antibodies and of Trichuris trichiura infection are risk factors for wheezing and/or atopy in preschool-aged Brazilian children

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    Alcântara-Neves Neuza M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elucidation of factors that trigger the development of transient wheezing in early childhood may be an important step toward understanding the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases later in life. Transient wheezing has been mainly attributed to viral infections, although sensitisation to aeroallergens and food allergens may occur at an early age. In developing countries, intestinal helminthic infections have also been associated with allergy or atopy-related disorders. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the association of Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides infections with wheezing and atopy in early childhood. Study design A cross-sectional study using a Portuguese-language ISAAC phase I questionnaire, adapted for preschool-aged children, nested in a cohort study of childhood diarrhoea, was conducted on 682 children. Two faecal samples per child were examined for the presence of intestinal helminthic infection. IgE antibodies against three allergenic preparations (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Blomia tropicalis and common child food, as well as against A. lumbricoides antigens, were measured in a sub-sample of these children, whose parents allowed the procedure. Atopy was defined by the presence of levels of serum IgE antibodies ≥0.35 kU/L against at least one of the three tested allergenic preparations. Results Active T. trichiura infection but not A. lumbricoides infection was positively associated with wheezing in the total studied children population [adjusted OR = 2.60; CI = 1.54;4.38] and in the atopic children sub-population [adjusted OR = 3.07; CI = 1.00;9.43]. The association with atopy was also positive and statistically significant only in the brute analysis [OR = 2.13; CI = 1.03;4.40]. Anti-A. lumbricoides IgE antibodies, but not current A. lumbricoides infection, were positively associated with wheezing in atopic children [adjusted OR = 2.01; CI = 1.00;4.50] and in non

  14. Randomized, controlled, assessor-blind clinical trial to assess the efficacy of single- versus repeated-dose albendazole to treat ascaris lumbricoides, trichuris trichiura, and hookworm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegnika, Ayola A; Zinsou, Jeannot F; Issifou, Saadou; Ateba-Ngoa, Ulysse; Kassa, Roland F; Feugap, Eliane N; Honkpehedji, Yabo J; Dejon Agobe, Jean-Claude; Kenguele, Hilaire M; Massinga-Loembe, Marguerite; Agnandji, Selidji T; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Ramharter, Michael; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Kremsner, Peter G; Lell, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    In many regions where soil-transmitted helminth infections are endemic, single-dose albendazole is used in mass drug administration programs to control infections. There are little data on the efficacy of the standard single-dose administration compared to that of alternative regimens. We conducted a randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded clinical trial to determine the efficacies of standard and extended albendazole treatment against soil-transmitted helminth infection in Gabon. A total of 175 children were included. Adequate cure rates and egg reduction rates above 85% were found with a single dose of albendazole for Ascaris infection, 85% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73, 96) and 93.8% (CI, 87.6, 100), respectively, while two doses were necessary for hookworm infestation (92% [CI, 78, 100] and 92% [CI, 78, 100], respectively). However, while a 3-day regimen was not sufficient to cure Trichuris (cure rate, 83% [CI, 73, 93]), this regimen reduced the number of eggs up to 90.6% (CI, 83.1, 100). The rate ratios of two- and three-dose regimens compared to a single-dose treatment were 1.7 (CI, 1.1, 2.5) and 2.1 (CI, 1.5, 2.9) for Trichuris and 1.7 (CI, 1.0, 2.9) and 1.7 (CI, 1.0, 2.9) for hookworm. Albendazole was safe and well tolerated in all regimens. A single-dose albendazole treatment considerably reduces Ascaris infection but has only a moderate effect on hookworm and Trichuris infections. The single-dose option may still be the preferred regimen because it balances efficacy, safety, and compliance during mass drug administration, keeping in mind that asymptomatic low-level helminth carriage may also have beneficial effects. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration number NCT01192802.).

  15. [Detection of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar by PCR in children, less than five years of age with diarrhea, in Maracaibo, Venezuela. A preliminary study].

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    Bracho Mora, Angela; Rivero de Rodríguez, Zulbey; Arraiz, Nailet; Villalobos, Rafael; Urdaneta, Haydee

    2013-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica as a producer of diarrhea, a study was conducted in children, less than five years of age, with diarrhea who attended several out patient clinics of the Servicio Aut6nomo Hospital Universitario, Maracaibo, Venezuela. A macroscopic and microscopic examination with physiological saline, lugol and Kinyoun staining were performed to the stool samples obtained. The remainder of the sample was frozen until DNA extraction, and PCR amplification was performed separately for E. histolytica and E. dispar. Microscopic examination showed no trophozoites and/or cysts of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii, or intestinal coccidians in any of the 50 samples analyzed. Parasites detected were Giardia lamblia (6%), Blastocystis sp. (4%), Pentatrichomonas hominis (2%), Ascaris lumbricoides (2%) and Trichuris trichiura (2%). By PCR, six samples (12%) had DNA of E. dispar and two (4%) had DNA from E. histolytica; no child showed association of both amoebae. The two children who had E. histolytica were one-year-old. E. dispar was detected in younger children. We suggest that the prevalence of E. histolytica in children under five years is really low.

  16. Patients with gastrointestinal complains due to enteric parasites, with reference to Entamoeba histolytica/dispar as dected by ELISA E. histolytica adhesion in stool.

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    El-Kadi, Mohammad A; Dorrah, Ahmad O; Shoukry, Nahla M

    2006-04-01

    A total of 210 patients with gastrointestinal troubles, of both sex and a mean age of 32 +/- 6.1 years, selected from the outpatient's clinics of Al-Azhar University Hospitals. 115 (54.76%) had dysentery, 95 (45.23%) did not have dysentery, 15 (14%) suffered flatulence, 20 (9.52%) had epi-gastric pain, 19 (9.05%) had vague abdominal pain, 5 vomiting (5.2%) and 10 (4.9%) had fever. Two symptoms were in 29 (13.81%) patients and three symptoms in 12 (5.71%). Of the 210 patients, 20 (9.9%) had helminthes infection, 121 (57.6%) had intestinal protozoa and 69 (32.9%) had no parasitic infection. Of these parasite-free patients, 16 had Shigella sp. and nine had Campylobacter sp. Of the patients with intestinal protozoa, 34 (16.2%) had E. histolytica/dispar by stool examination of stained smears. By using ELISA for detection of E. histolytica adhesion in stool samples of 115 with diarrhea only 18 had true E. histolytica infection and of 3 without diarrhea only one had E. histolytica infection. Mean-while, ELISA did not cross-reacted E. coli, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana or Blastocystis hominis. So, ELISA for detection of E. histolytica adhesion in stool samples was more specific than microscopy and safe direction to the E. histolytica treatment. Apart from intestinal protozoan and bacteria, helminthes were seen in stool analysis. These were Schistosoma mansoni (0.95%), Capillaria sp. (0.95%), Enterobius vermicularis (1.90%) macroscopically, Hymenolepis nana (4.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (1.43%).

  17. Wandering ascaris coming out through the abdominal wall

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    Mohd L Wani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is reported here. A 40-year-old female had undergone dilatation and curettage by a quack. On the second day she presented with presented with features of peritonitis. She was explored. Resection anastomosis of the ileum was done for multiple perforations of the ileum. Patient developed a fistula in the anterior abdominal wall which was draining bile-colored fluid. On the 12 th postoperative day a 10-cm-long worm was seen coming out through the fistulous tract which was found to be Ascaris lumbricoids. Ascaris lumbricoids can lead to many complications ranging from worm colic to intestinal obstruction, volvulus, peritonitis, pancreatitis, cholangiohepatitis, liver abscess and many more. Worm has been reported to come out through mouth, nostrils, abdominal drains, T-tubes etc. But ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is very rare hence reported here.

  18. A Phosphorylcholine-Containing Glycolipid-like Antigen Present on the Surface of Infective Stage Larvae of Ascaris spp. Is a Major Antibody Target in Infected Pigs and Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Masure, Dries; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Background The pig parasite Ascaris suum plays and important role in veterinary medicine and represents a suitable model for A. lumbricoides, which infects over 800 million people. In pigs, continued exposure to Ascaris induces immunity at the level of the gut, protecting the host against migrati...

  19. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew Richard; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immuni...

  20. Assessing the zoonotic potential of Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Betson, M.; Bendall, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    The two geohelminths, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, infect more than a billion people worldwide but are only reported sporadically in the developed part of the world. In contrast, the closely related species A. suum and T. suis in pigs have a truly global distribution, with infect...... and pig host, with special focus on recent evidence concerning the zoonotic potential of these parasites, and identify some open questions for future research....

  1. Cytogenetic study of Ascaris trypsin inhibitor in cultured human ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-04-01

    Apr 1, 2009 ... Although the physical and chemical properties of Ascaris trypsin inhibitors ... male of Ascaris suum according to the method of Pudles and. Rola (1967). ..... inhibitor isolated from Ascaris resulted in the appearance of dominant ...

  2. Characterization of Entamoeba histolytica- induced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ing diarrhea, weight loss and epigastric pain. However, these symptoms were later found to be due to a benign tumour of the colon. Although E. histolytica and E. moshkovskii are morphologically very similar, a compari- son of rRNA genes suggest that they are not closely related. (Clark and Diamond 1991). Sequencing of ...

  3. Population dynamics of Ascaris suum in trickle-infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejsum, Peter; Thamsborg, Stig M; Petersen, Heidi H; Kringel, Helene; Fredholm, Merete; Roepstorff, Allan

    2009-10-01

    The population dynamics of Ascaris suum was studied by long-term exposure of pigs to infective eggs. The pigs were experimentally inoculated with 25 A. suum eggs/kg/day, and 7, 8, and 8 pigs were necropsied at weeks 4, 8, and 14 postinoculation (PI), respectively. Despite the fact that the pigs were continuously reinfected, dramatic reductions in numbers of liver lesions (white spots) and migrating lung larvae were observed as a function of time. However, even at the end of the study, a few larvae were able to complete migration, but these larvae seemed unable to mature in the small intestine. Thus, the adult worm population seemed to consist of worms from the first part of the exposure period. The noticeable decrease in number of white spots suggests that the level of exposure is not reflected in the number of white spots in the late phase of a continuous infection. The serum levels of A. suum L3-specific IgG1 and IgA were significantly elevated by week 4 PI, after which the antibody levels declined. The population dynamics and parasite regulating mechanisms are discussed for A. suum in pigs as well as for the closely related species A. lumbricoides in humans.

  4. Ascaris Suum Infection Downregulates Inflammatory Pathways in the Pig Intestine In Vivo and in Human Dendritic Cells In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midttun, Helene L. E.; Acevedo, Nathalie; Skallerup, Per

    2018-01-01

    similar transcriptional pathways in human dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro. DCs exposed to ABF secreted minimal amounts of cytokines and had impaired production of cyclooxygengase-2, altered glucose metabolism, and reduced capacity to induce interferon-gamma production in T cells. Our in vivo and in vitro......Ascaris suum is a helminth parasite of pigs closely related to its human counterpart, A. lumbricoides, which infects almost 1 billion people. Ascaris is thought to modulate host immune and inflammatory responses, which may drive immune hyporesponsiveness during chronic infections. Using...... transcriptomic analysis, we show here that pigs with a chronic A. suum infection have a substantial suppression of inflammatory pathways in the intestinal mucosa, with a broad downregulation of genes encoding cytokines and antigen-processing and costimulatory molecules. A. suum body fluid (ABF) suppressed...

  5. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA.

  6. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Williams

    Full Text Available Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and

  7. Susceptibility testing of Entamoeba histolytica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cedeno, J.R.; Krogstad, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The growth of Entamoeba histolytica in microtiter plates in vitro in a variety of environments with reduced oxygen tensions is reported. With 3% O 2 , 3% CO 2 , and 94% N 2 , the parasite growth in microtiter plates was identical to that in screw-capped culture tubes, as measured by [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation and by quantitative parasite counts. There were no significant differences between the drug concentrations necessary to inhibit parasite growth by 50% based on [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation vs those defined by quantitative parasite counts for the 15 antimicrobial agents tested (including seven drugs used for the treatment of amebiasis). This technique provides a reproducible method to quantitate the activity of potential antiamebic agents in vitro. The isotopic method should be of particular value in defining the metabolism of the parasite and effects of antimicrobial agents on it, whereas the morphologic method may be more valuable for workers with limited resources available to them

  8. Impact of Ascaris suum in livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Nejsum, Peter; Mejer, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The roundworm Ascaris suum is a highly prevalent intestinal parasite of pigs worldwide, and the infection may have low to moderate pathogenic effects on health and productivity. Besides these direct effects, there may be indirect effects on enhanced susceptibility or pathogenicity to bacterial or...

  9. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica , Giardia lamblia , and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The intestinal protozoa Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp. are the causative agents of giardiasis, amebiasis, and cryptosporidiosis, respectively. Adequate knowledge of the geographical distribution of parasites and the demographic variables that influence their prevalence is ...

  10. Genetic diversity of Ascaris in southwestern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Llewellyn-Hughes, Julia

    2012-01-01

    . Microsatellite analysis using eight loci provided evidence for high gene flow between worm populations from the two villages but comparing these worms with others obtained in a prior study on Unguja, Zanzibar, confirmed little genetic exchange and mixing of worm populations between the two areas. By adding......Despite the common occurrence of ascariasis in southwestern Uganda, helminth control in the region has been limited. To gain further insights into the genetic diversity of Ascaris in this area, a parasitological survey in mothers (n=41) and children (n=74) living in two villages, Habutobere...... and Musezero, was carried out. Adult Ascaris worms were collected from infected individuals by chemo-expulsion using pyrantel pamoate treatment. Genetic diversity within these worms was assessed by inspection of DNA sequence variation in a mitochondrial marker and length polymorphism at microsatellite loci...

  11. [Sensibility of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites to ivermectin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Salazar, Francisco; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito D; Vargas-Villareal, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is a problem of public world health. The most frequent clinical presentation are the dysentery and the amebic liver abscess. Fifty millions of cases and more than 100.000 deaths for this disease are reported annually worldwide. The life cycle of E. histolytica has two phases: trophozoite and cyst. Trophozoites are the causal agent of disease. The effective treatment for the amebiasis includes drugs with serious collateral effects. Ivermectin is a macrolid with activity against endoparasites and ectoparasites causing strongiloidosis, filariasis, oncocercosis, scabiasis and pediculosis. The use of ivermectin has been extended almost worldwide; it is recognized as a safe drug. The main objective of this study was to determine in vitro sensibility of trophozoites of E. histolytica was to the treatment with ivermectin. To determine the sensibility of the parasites to the drug, E. histolytica was cultivated in PEHPS medium. During its logarithmic growth phase the trophozoites were exposed to different concentrations of ivermectin. As controls other antiparasitic drugs were used. For each drug, serial dilutions were prepared, and mixed in culture tubes with parasites (2 x 104 cells/ml). They were incubated for 72 h and then the percentage of growth inhibition was calculated by Probit analysis. Ivermectin showed activity against trophozoites of E. histolytica. The 50% of growth inhibition of ivermectin was 6.40 mg/ml. This dose was higher than for other anti parasitic drugs. Its activity in vivo in animal models remains to be demonstrated.

  12. Glucose starvation boosts Entamoeba histolytica virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Tovy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The unicellular parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, is exposed to numerous adverse conditions, such as nutrient deprivation, during its life cycle stages in the human host. In the present study, we examined whether the parasite virulence could be influenced by glucose starvation (GS. The migratory behaviour of the parasite and its capability to kill mammalian cells and to lyse erythrocytes is strongly enhanced following GS. In order to gain insights into the mechanism underlying the GS boosting effects on virulence, we analyzed differences in protein expression levels in control and glucose-starved trophozoites, by quantitative proteomic analysis. We observed that upstream regulatory element 3-binding protein (URE3-BP, a transcription factor that modulates E.histolytica virulence, and the lysine-rich protein 1 (KRiP1 which is induced during liver abscess development, are upregulated by GS. We also analyzed E. histolytica membrane fractions and noticed that the Gal/GalNAc lectin light subunit LgL1 is up-regulated by GS. Surprisingly, amoebapore A (Ap-A and cysteine proteinase A5 (CP-A5, two important E. histolytica virulence factors, were strongly down-regulated by GS. While the boosting effect of GS on E. histolytica virulence was conserved in strains silenced for Ap-A and CP-A5, it was lost in LgL1 and in KRiP1 down-regulated strains. These data emphasize the unexpected role of GS in the modulation of E.histolytica virulence and the involvement of KRiP1 and Lgl1 in this phenomenon.

  13. Characterization of ascaris from ecuador and zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, A M; Betson, M; Oviedo, G; Sandoval, C; Cooper, P J; Stothard, J R

    2015-07-01

    To shed light on the epidemiology of ascariasis in Ecuador and Zanzibar, 177 adult worms retrieved by chemo-expulsion from either people or pigs were collected, measured and subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Upon double digestion with RsaI and HaeIII, PCR-RFLP analysis revealed the presence of A. lumbricoides in people and A. suum in pigs in Ecuador. In contrast, while there are no pigs on Zanzibar, of the 56 worms obtained from people, one was genotyped as A. suum. No additional genetic variation was detected upon further PCR-RFLP analysis with several other restriction enzymes. Upon measurement, worm mass and length differed by location and by species, A. suum being lighter and longer. While there is no evidence to suggest zoonotic transmission in Ecuador, an enduring historical signature of previous zoonotic transmission remains on Zanzibar.

  14. Cross-Reactions between Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum in the diagnosis of visceral larva migrans by western blotting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNES Cáris Maroni

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral larva migrans (VLM is a clinical syndrome caused by infection of man by Toxocara spp, the common roundworm of dogs and cats. Tissue migration of larval stages causes illness specially in children. Because larvae are difficult to detect in tissues, diagnosis is mostly based on serology. After the introduction of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the larval excretory-secretory antigen of T. canis (TES, the diagnosis specificity was greatly improved although cross-reactivity with other helminths are still being reported. In Brazil, diagnosis is routinely made after absorption of serum samples with Ascaris suum antigens, a nematode antigenicaly related with Ascaris lumbricoides which is a common intestinal nematode of children. In order to identify T. canis antigens that cross react to A. suum antigens we analyzed TES antigen by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques. When we used serum samples from patients suspected of VLM and positive result by ELISA as well as a reference serum sample numerous bands were seen (molecular weight of 210-200 kDa, 116-97 kDa, 55-50 kDa and 35-29 kDa. Among these there is at least one band with molecular weight around 55-66 kDa that seem to be responsible for the cross-reactivity between T. canis e A. suum once it disappears when previous absorption of serum samples with A. suum antigens is performed

  15. 21 CFR 866.3220 - Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3220... fluorescent dye (immunofluorescent reagents) used to identify Entamoeba histolytica directly from clinical...

  16. Proteomic comparison of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar and the role of E. histolytica alcohol dehydrogenase 3 in virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H Davis

    Full Text Available The protozoan intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica infects millions of people worldwide and is capable of causing amebic dysentery and amebic liver abscess. The closely related species Entamoeba dispar colonizes many more individuals, but this organism does not induce disease. To identify molecular differences between these two organisms that may account for their differential ability to cause disease in humans, we used two-dimensional gel-based (DIGE proteomic analysis to compare whole cell lysates of E. histolytica and E. dispar. We observed 141 spots expressed at a substantially (>5-fold higher level in E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS than E. dispar and 189 spots showing the opposite pattern. Strikingly, 3 of 4 proteins consistently identified as different at a greater than 5-fold level between E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS and E. dispar were identical to proteins recently identified as differentially expressed between E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS and the reduced virulence strain E. histolytica Rahman. One of these was E. histolytica alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (EhADH3. We found that E. histolytica possesses a higher level of NADP-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase activity than E. dispar and that some EhADH3 can be localized to the surface of E. histolytica. Episomal overexpression of EhADH3 in E. histolytica trophozoites resulted in only subtle phenotypic differences in E. histolytica virulence in animal models of amebic colitis and amebic liver abscess, making it difficult to directly link EhADH3 levels to virulence differences between E. histolytica and less-pathogenic Entamoeba.

  17. Build-up and impact of volatile fatty acids on E. coli and A. lumbricoides during co-digestion of urine diverting dehydrating toilet (UDDT-F) faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riungu, Joy; Ronteltap, Mariska; van Lier, Jules B

    2018-06-01

    This study examined the potential of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) eggs inactivation in faecal matter coming from urine diverting dehydrating toilets (UDDT-F) by applying high concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) during anaerobic stabilization. The impact of individual VFAs on E. coli and A. lumbricoides eggs inactivation in UDDT-F was assessed by applying various concentrations of store-bought acetate, propionate and butyrate. High VFA concentrations were also obtained by performing co-digestion of UDDT-F with organic market waste (OMW) using various mixing ratios. All experiments were performed under anaerobic conditions in laboratory scale batch assays at 35±1 °C. A correlation was observed between E. coli log inactivation and VFA concentration. Store bought VFA spiked UDDT-F substrates achieved E. coli inactivation up to 4.7 log units/day compared to UDDT-F control sample that achieved 0.6 log units/day. In co-digesting UDDT-F and organic market waste (OMW), a ND-VFA concentration of 4800-6000 mg/L was needed to achieve E. coli log inactivation to below detectable levels and complete A. lumbricoides egg inactivation in less than four days. E. coli and A. lumbricoides egg inactivation was found to be related to the concentration of non-dissociated VFA (ND-VFA), increasing with an increase in the OMW fraction in the feed substrate. Highest ND-VFA concentration of 6500 mg/L was obtained at a UDDT-F:OMW ratio 1:1, below which there was a decline, attributed to product inhibition of acidogenic bacteria. Results of our present research showed the potential for E. coli and A. lumbricoides inactivation from UDDT-F up to WHO standards by allowing VFA build-up during anaerobic stabilization of faecal matter. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Prueba de susceptibilidad antiparasitaria in vitro para Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica-E. dispar, Balantidium coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rito Zerpa Larrauri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Pruebas de susceptibilidad antiparasitaria in vitro para Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica-E. dispar y Balantidium coli, así como el cultivo para protozoarios intestinales, han sido publicados escasamente en la literatura médica. En nuestro medio aún no se ha comunicado pruebas de susceptibilidad in vitro para los parásitos mencionados. Objetivos: Plantear una alternativa de prueba de susceptibilidad antiparasitaria in vitro y conocer su resistencia frente a los antimicrobianos. Diseño: Estudio prospectivo, descriptivo. Instituciones: Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Daniel Alcides Carrión", Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, e Instituto Especializado de Salud del Niño, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Cultivos de Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica-E. dispar y Balantidium coli frente a cinco antimicrobianos. Métodos: Se trabajó con 64 cultivos de Blastocystis hominis, 16 de Entamoeba histolytica-dispar y 16 de Balantidium coli, frente a cinco antimicrobianos: metronidazol, cotrimoxazol, tetraciclina, furazolidona y ciprofloxacina. Las cepas de B. hominis, E. histolytica-E. dispar fueron cultivadas en el medio de Pavlova modificado, de 500 muestras de heces de niños con diagnóstico de parasitosis intestinal y las de B. coli de heces de cerdo. Las pruebas de susceptibilidad in vitro se realizaron con el método de microcultivos en el medio de Pavlova modificado, en pocitos con 200 uL del medio sin antiparasitarios (control y con antiparasitarios en 10 concentraciones, desde 128 ug/mL hasta 0,25 ug/mL; luego de incubación a 36º C por 48 horas, la lectura por examen microscópico directo comparó el desarrollo en el medio control con el desarrollo en los pocitos conteniendo los antimicrobianos. Principales medidas de resultados: Concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM. Resultados: Se encontró para B. hominis, con metronidazol CIM 90: 64 ug/mL y CIM 50: 2 ug/mL; para E. histolytica-E. dispar con

  19. Developing a method for quantification of Ascaris eggs on hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen J. H.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    In transmission of soil transmitted helminths, especially with Ascaris and Trichuris infections, the importance of hands is unclear and very limited literature exists. This is partly because of the absence of a reliable method to quantify the number of helminth eggs on hands. The aim of this study...... was to develop a method to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were contaminated with app. 1000 Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates...... of eggs for two different detergents (cationic [benzethonium chloride 0.1%], anionic [7X 1% - quadrafos, glycol ether, and dioctyl sulfoccinate sodium salt]) and de-ionized water used as control. The highest recovery rate (95.6%) was achieved with a hand rinse performed with 7X 1%. Washing hands...

  20. A quantitative assessment method for Ascaris eggs on hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2014-01-01

    The importance of hands in the transmission of soil transmitted helminths, especially Ascaris and Trichuris infections, is under-researched. This is partly because of the absence of a reliable method to quantify the number of eggs on hands. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a method...... to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were seeded with a known number of Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates of eggs for four...... different detergents (cationic [benzethonium chloride 0.1% and cetylpyridinium chloride CPC 0.1%], anionic [7X 1% - quadrafos, glycol ether, and dioctyl sulfoccinate sodium salt] and non-ionic [Tween80 0.1% -polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate]) and two egg detection methods (McMaster technique...

  1. A Phosphorylcholine-Containing Glycolipid-like Antigen Present on the Surface of Infective Stage Larvae of Ascaris spp. Is a Major Antibody Target in Infected Pigs and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Vlaminck

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The pig parasite Ascaris suum plays and important role in veterinary medicine and represents a suitable model for A. lumbricoides, which infects over 800 million people. In pigs, continued exposure to Ascaris induces immunity at the level of the gut, protecting the host against migrating larvae. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize parasite antigens targeted by this local immune response that may be crucial for parasite invasion and establishment and to evaluate their protective and diagnostic potential.Pigs were immunized by trickle infection for 30 weeks, challenged with 2,000 eggs at week 32 and euthanized two weeks after challenge. At necropsy, there was a 100% reduction in worms recovered from the intestine and a 97.2% reduction in liver white spots in comparison with challenged non-immune control animals. Antibodies purified from the intestinal mucus or from the supernatant of cultured antibody secreting cells from mesenteric lymph nodes of immune pigs were used to probe L3 extracts to identify antibody targets. This resulted in the recognition of a 12kDa antigen (As12 that is actively shed from infective Ascaris L3. As12 was characterized as a phosphorylcholine-containing glycolipid-like antigen that is highly resistant to different enzymatic and chemical treatments. Vaccinating pigs with an As12 fraction did not induce protective immunity to challenge infection. However, serological analysis using sera or plasma from experimentally infected pigs or naturally infected humans demonstrated that the As12 ELISA was able to detect long-term exposure to Ascaris with a high diagnostic sensitivity (98.4% and 92%, respectively and specificity (95.5% and 90.0% in pigs and humans, respectively.These findings show the presence of a highly stage specific, glycolipid-like component (As12 that is actively secreted by infectious Ascaris larvae and which acts as a major antibody target in infected humans and pigs.

  2. 5 original article pcr detection of entamoeba histolytica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    STOOL SAMPLES OF HOSPITAL PATIENTS IN SOROTI, EASTERN UGANDA. Ekou1, 3*, J. ... Department of Wildlife and Animal resources management, Makerere University. P.O Box ... In Mexico, E.histolytica prevalence of. 25.3% in the ...

  3. International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences - Vol 6, No 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides and Entamoeba histolytica infections in school children at Yauri Emirate of Kebbi state, northwestern Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. YK Danladi, SS Manga, IO Obaroh ...

  4. Prevalence of intestinal and urinary parasites among food-handlers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    53.3%) out of the food handlers harboured parasites of which 3 (10%) had Trichomonas vaginalis in their urine, 1(3.3%) recorded concomitant infection with Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, 5 (16.7%) had ...

  5. Paleoparasitological report on Ascaris aDNA from an ancient East Asian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Seok Oh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ascaris DNA was extracted and sequenced from a medieval archaeological sample in Korea. While Ascaris eggs were confirmed to be of human origin by archaeological evidence, it was not possible to pinpoint the exact species due to close genetic relationships among them. Despite this shortcoming, this is the first Ascaris ancient DNA (aDNA report from a medieval Asian country and thus will expand the scope of Ascaris aDNA research.

  6. Ascaris phylogeny based on multiple whole mtDNA genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Hawash, Mohamed B F; Betson, Martha

    2016-01-01

    and C) of human and pig Ascaris based on partial cox1 sequences. In the present study, we selected major haplotypes from these different clusters to characterize their whole mitochondrial genomes for phylogenetic analysis. We also undertook coalescent simulations to investigate the evolutionary history...

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for Ascaris and Cryptosporidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseases in particular parasitic infestation is among the drawbacks to profitable pig production since parasites compromise the production and reproduction performance of infested pigs. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors for Ascaris and Cryptosporidium infestations in pigs ...

  8. Effect of human milk and colostrum on Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akisu, Ciler; Aksoy, Umit; Cetin, Hasan; Ustun, Sebnem; Akisu, Mete

    2004-03-01

    Many defense factors of the mother's colostrum or milk protect infants from intestinal, respiratory and systemic infections. In the present study, we investigated the effect of colostrum and mature human milk on E. histolytica parasites in vitro. Samples of human milk were collected from 5 healthy lactating mothers. The medium with human milk at concentrations of 2%, 5% and 10% was obtained. The lethal effect of E. histolytica on the medium supplemented with different concentrations of both colostrum and mature human milk was significant during the first 30 min. We also detected that the results of colostrum and mature human milk were similar. No statistically significant differences were found between same concentrations of colostrum and mature human milk at the same times. Colostrum and mature human milk have significant lethal effect on E. histolytica and protect against its infection in breast fed children.

  9. Morphodynamics of the Actin-Rich Cytoskeleton in Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manich

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is the anaerobic protozoan parasite responsible for human amoebiasis, the third most deadly parasitic disease worldwide. This highly motile eukaryotic cell invades human tissues and constitutes an excellent experimental model of cell motility and cell shape deformation. The absence of extranuclear microtubules in Entamoeba histolytica means that the actin-rich cytoskeleton takes on a crucial role in not only amoebic motility but also other processes sustaining pathogenesis, such as the phagocytosis of human cells and the parasite's resistance of host immune responses. Actin is highly conserved among eukaryotes, although diverse isoforms exist in almost all organisms studied to date. However, E. histolytica has a single actin protein, the structure of which differs significantly from those of its human homologs. Here, we studied the expression, structure and dynamics of actin in E. histolytica. We used molecular and cellular approaches to evaluate actin gene expression during intestinal invasion by E. histolytica trophozoites. Based on a three-dimensional structural bioinformatics analysis, we characterized protein domains differences between amoebic actin and human actin. Fine-tuned molecular dynamics simulations enabled us to examine protein motion and refine the three-dimensional structures of both actins, including elements potentially accounting for differences changes in the affinity properties of amoebic actin and deoxyribonuclease I. The dynamic, multifunctional nature of the amoebic cytoskeleton prompted us to examine the pleiotropic forms of actin structures within live E. histolytica cells; we observed the cortical cytoskeleton, stress fibers, “dot-like” structures, adhesion plates, and macropinosomes. In line with these data, a proteomics study of actin-binding proteins highlighted the Arp2/3 protein complex as a crucial element for the development of macropinosomes and adhesion plaques.

  10. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica in stool specimens at Muhondo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite causing amebiasis. ... The infection occurs by ingestion of mature cyst in fecally contaminated food, water or hands. ... hand before eating and after using latrines) ; (ii) avoiding fecal contamination of food, water, and utensils ; and (iii) boiling drinking water before consumption.

  11. Nuclear transport in Entamoeba histolytica: knowledge gap and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwairgi, Marina A; Ghildyal, Reena

    2018-03-22

    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite that causes human amoebiasis. It is one of the leading parasitic disease burdens in tropical regions and developing countries, with spread to developed countries through migrants from and travellers to endemic regions. Understanding E. histolytica's invasion mechanisms requires an understanding of how it interacts with external cell components and how it engulfs and kills cells (phagocytosis). Recent research suggests that optimal phagocytosis requires signalling events from the cell surface to the nucleus via the cytoplasm, and the induction of several factors that are transported to the plasma membrane. Current research in other protozoans suggests the presence of proteins with nuclear localization signals, nuclear export signals and Ran proteins; however, there is limited literature on their functionality and their functional similarity to higher eukaryotes. Based on learnings from the development of antivirals, nuclear transport elements in E. histolytica may present viable, specific, therapeutic targets. In this review, we aim to summarize our limited knowledge of the eukaryotic nuclear transport mechanisms that are conserved and may function in E. histolytica.

  12. Proteomic analysis of the cyst stage of Entamoeba histolytica.

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    Ibne Karim M Ali

    Full Text Available The category B agent of bioterrorism, Entamoeba histolytica has a two-stage life cycle: an infective cyst stage, and an invasive trophozoite stage. Due to our inability to effectively induce encystation in vitro, our knowledge about the cyst form remains limited. This also hampers our ability to develop cyst-specific diagnostic tools.Three main aims were (i to identify E. histolytica proteins in cyst samples, (ii to enrich our knowledge about the cyst stage, and (iii to identify candidate proteins to develop cyst-specific diagnostic tools.Cysts were purified from the stool of infected individuals using Percoll (gradient purification. A highly sensitive LC-MS/MS mass spectrometer (Orbitrap was used to identify cyst proteins.A total of 417 non-redundant E. histolytica proteins were identified including 195 proteins that were never detected in trophozoite-derived proteomes or expressed sequence tag (EST datasets, consistent with cyst specificity. Cyst-wall specific glycoproteins Jacob, Jessie and chitinase were positively identified. Antibodies produced against Jacob identified cysts in fecal specimens and have potential utility as a diagnostic reagent. Several protein kinases, small GTPase signaling molecules, DNA repair proteins, epigenetic regulators, and surface associated proteins were also identified. Proteins we identified are likely to be among the most abundant in excreted cysts, and therefore show promise as diagnostic targets.The proteome data generated here are a first for naturally-occurring E. histolytica cysts, and they provide important insights into the infectious cyst form. Additionally, numerous unique candidate proteins were identified which will aid the development of new diagnostic tools for identification of E. histolytica cysts.

  13. Inactivation of viable Ascaris eggs by reagents during enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K L; Darby, J L

    2001-12-01

    Various reagents commonly used to enumerate viable helminth eggs from wastewater and sludge were evaluated for their potential to inactivate Ascaris eggs under typical laboratory conditions. Two methods were used to enumerate indigenous Ascaris eggs from sludge samples. All steps in the methods were the same except that in method I a phase extraction step with acid-alcohol (35% ethanol in 0.1 N H(2)SO(4)) and diethyl ether was used whereas in method II the extraction step was avoided by pouring the sample through a 38-microm-mesh stainless steel sieve that retained the eggs. The concentration of eggs and their viability were lower in the samples processed by method I than in the samples processed by method II by an average of 48 and 70%, respectively. A second set of experiments was performed using pure solutions of Ascaris suum eggs to elucidate the effect of the individual reagents and relevant combination of reagents on the eggs. The percentages of viable eggs in samples treated with acid-alcohol alone and in combination with diethyl ether or ethyl acetate were 52, 27, and 4%, respectively, whereas in the rest of the samples the viability was about 80%. Neither the acid nor the diethyl ether alone caused any decrease in egg viability. Thus, the observed inactivation was attributed primarily to the 35% ethanol content of the acid-alcohol solution. Inactivation of the eggs was prevented by limiting the direct exposure to the extraction reagents to 30 min and diluting the residual concentration of acid-alcohol in the sample by a factor of 100 before incubation. Also, the viability of the eggs was maintained if the acid-alcohol solution was replaced with an acetoacetic buffer. None of the reagents used for the flotation step of the sample cleaning procedure (ZnSO(4), MgSO(4), and NaCl) or during incubation (0.1 N H(2)SO(4) and 0.5% formalin) inactivated the Ascaris eggs under the conditions studied.

  14. Sensibilidad de trofozoítos de Entamoeba histolytica a ivermectina Sensibility of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites to ivermectin

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    Francisco González-Salazar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La amibiasis producida por Entamoeba histolytica es un problema de salud pública. Las formas clínicas más frecuentes son la disentería y el absceso hepático amibiano. En el mundo se notifican anualmente 50 millones de casos y más de 100 000 muertes por esta enfermedad. El ciclo de vida de E. histolytica tiene dos fases: trofozoíto y quiste. Los trofozoítos son los responsables de producir enfermedad. El tratamiento actual para la amibiasis incluye medicamentos con efectos colaterales serios. La ivermectina es un macrólido con actividad contra endoparásitos y ectoparásitos causantes de strongiloidosis, filariasis, oncocercosis, sarna y pediculosis. Su uso está extendido a casi todo el mundo y se lo reconoce como un medicamento seguro. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la sensiblidad in vitro de trofozoítos de E. histolytica al tratamiento con ivermectina. Para determinar su sensibilidad a la droga, se utilizaron trofozoítos de E. histolytica cultivados en medio PEHPS. Durante su fase de crecimiento logarítmico se expusieron a diferentes concentraciones de ivermectina. Como controles se usaron otras drogas antiparasitarias. Se prepararon diluciones seriadas de cada droga, luego se agregaron a tubos con parásitos (2 x 10(4 células/ml. Se incubó por 72 h y luego se determinó el porcentaje de inhibición de crecimiento calculado por análisis Probit. La ivermectina tiene actividad contra trofozoítos de E. histolytica. La dosis de ivermectina que produjo el 50% de inhibición de crecimiento fue de 6.40 mg/ml. Esta dosis fue mayor a la encontrada con otras drogas antiparasitarias. Falta demostrar su actividad in vivo en modelos animales.Amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is a problem of public world health. The most frequent clinical presentation are the dysentery and the amebic liver abscess. Fifty millions of cases and more than 100.000 deaths for this disease are reported annually worldwide. The life cycle of E

  15. Serosurvey of Entamoeba Histolytica Exposure among Tepehuanos Population in Durango, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Margarita Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra; Alberto Guido-Arreola, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The seroepidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica infection in Tepehuanos population in Mexico is largely unknown. This study aimed to study the seroprevalence and correlates of E. histolytica antibodies in Tepehuanos in Durango, Mexico. Through a cross-sectional study, we determined the frequency of E. histolytica IgG antibodies in 156 Tepehuanos people in Durango, Mexico using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Furthermore, we studied the association of E. histolytica seroprevalence with the socio-demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of the Tepehuanos studied. Forty-four (28.2%) Tepehuanos with mean age of 31.03 ± 16.71 years old had anti- E. histolytica IgG antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that E. histolytica exposure was positively associated with laborer occupation (Odds ratio=2.77; 95% CI: 1.15, 6.66; p=0.02), and history of lymphadenopathy (Odds ratio=4.97; 95% CI: 1.74, 14.13; p=0.002), and negatively associated with soil contact (Odds ratio=0.13; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.53; p=0.004). Other behavioral characteristics including drinking untreated water or unpasteurized milk, and consumption of unwashed raw vegetables or fruits were not associated with E. histolytica exposure. The seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection in Tepehuanos in Durango is higher thanseroprevalences reported in national surveys. The factors associated with E. histolytica seropositivity reported in the present study might aid for the planning and implementation of effective measures against E. histolytica infection. PMID:26199578

  16. Evolutionary genomics and population structure of Entamoeba histolytica

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    Koushik Das

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Amoebiasis caused by the gastrointestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica has diverse disease outcomes. Study of genome and evolution of this fascinating parasite will help us to understand the basis of its virulence and explain why, when and how it causes diseases. In this review, we have summarized current knowledge regarding evolutionary genomics of E. histolytica and discussed their association with parasite phenotypes and its differential pathogenic behavior. How genetic diversity reveals parasite population structure has also been discussed. Queries concerning their evolution and population structure which were required to be addressed have also been highlighted. This significantly large amount of genomic data will improve our knowledge about this pathogenic species of Entamoeba.

  17. Kaempferol inhibits Entamoeba histolytica growth by altering cytoskeletal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños, Verónica; Díaz-Martínez, Alfredo; Soto, Jacqueline; Marchat, Laurence A; Sanchez-Monroy, Virginia; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther

    2015-11-01

    The flavonoid kaempferol obtained from Helianthemum glomeratum, an endemic Mexican medicinal herb used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, has been shown to inhibit growth of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in vitro; however, the mechanisms associated with this activity have not been documented. Several works reported that kaempferol affects cytoskeleton in mammalian cells. In order to gain insights into the action mechanisms involved in the anti-amoebic effect of kaempferol, here we evaluated the effect of this compound on the pathogenic events driven by the cytoskeleton during E. histolytica infection. We also carried out a two dimensional gel-based proteomic analysis to evidence modulated proteins that could explain the phenotypical changes observed in trophozoites. Our results showed that kaempferol produces a dose-dependent effect on trophozoites growth and viability with optimal concentration being 27.7 μM. Kaempferol also decreased adhesion, it increased migration and phagocytic activity, but it did not affect erythrocyte binding nor cytolytic capacity of E. histolytica. Congruently, proteomic analysis revealed that the cytoskeleton proteins actin, myosin II heavy chain and cortexillin II were up-regulated in response to kaempferol treatment. In conclusion, kaempferol anti-amoebic effects were associated with deregulation of proteins related with cytoskeleton, which altered invasion mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum: formation of two distinct drug targets by varying the relative expression levels of two subunits.

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    Sally M Williamson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes are of medical and veterinary importance, adversely affecting human health and animal welfare. Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal parasite of pigs; in addition to its veterinary significance it is a good model of the human parasite Ascaris lumbricoides, estimated to infect approximately 1.4 billion people globally. Anthelmintic drugs are essential to control nematode parasites, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs on nerve and muscle are the targets of cholinergic anthelmintics such as levamisole and pyrantel. Previous genetic analyses of nematode nAChRs have been confined to Caenorhabditis elegans, which is phylogenetically distinct from Ascaris spp. and many other important parasites. Here we report the cloning and expression of two nAChR subunit cDNAs from A. suum. The subunits are very similar in sequence to C. elegans UNC-29 and UNC-38, are expressed on muscle cells and can be expressed robustly in Xenopus oocytes to form acetylcholine-, nicotine-, levamisole- and pyrantel-sensitive channels. We also demonstrate that changing the stoichiometry of the receptor by injecting different ratios of the subunit cRNAs can reproduce two of the three pharmacological subtypes of nAChR present in A. suum muscle cells. When the ratio was 5:1 (Asu-unc-38ratioAsu-unc-29, nicotine was a full agonist and levamisole was a partial agonist, and oocytes responded to oxantel, but not pyrantel. At the reverse ratio (1:5 Asu-unc-38ratioAsu-unc-29, levamisole was a full agonist and nicotine was a partial agonist, and the oocytes responded to pyrantel, but not oxantel. These results represent the first in vitro expression of any parasitic nicotinic receptor and show that their properties are substantially different from those of C. elegans. The results also show that changing the expression level of a single receptor subunit dramatically altered the efficacy of some anthelmintic drugs. In vitro expression of these subunits may permit the

  19. Bioconjugated fluorescent silica nanoparticles for the rapid detection of Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemadi, Ahmad; Ekrami, Alireza; Oormazdi, Hormozd; Meamar, Ahmad Reza; Akhlaghi, Lame; Samarbaf-Zadeh, Ali Reza; Razmjou, Elham

    2015-05-01

    Rapid detection of Entamoeba histolytica based on fluorescent silica nanoparticle (FSNP) indirect immunofluorescence microscopy was evaluated. Silica nanoparticles were synthesized using Stöber's method, with their surface activated to covalently bind to, and immobilize, protein A. For biolabeling, FSNP was added to conjugated E. histolytica trophozoites with monoclonal anti-E. histolytica IgG1 for microscopic observation of fluorescence. Fluorescent silica nanoparticle sensitivity was determined with axenically cultured E. histolytica serially diluted to seven concentrations. Specificity was evaluated using other intestinal protozoa. Fluorescent silica nanoparticles detected E. histolytica at the lowest tested concentration with no cross-reaction with Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, Blastocystis sp., or Giardia lamblia. Visualization of E. histolytica trophozoites with anti-E. histolytica antibody labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was compared with that using anti-E. histolytica antibody bioconjugated FSNP. Although FITC and FSNP produced similar results, the amount of specific antibody required for FITC to induce fluorescence of similar intensity was fivefold that for FSNP. Fluorescent silica nanoparticles delivered a rapid, simple, cost-effective, and highly sensitive and specific method of detecting E. histolytica. Further study is needed before introducing FSNP for laboratory diagnosis of amoebiasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Entamoeba histolytica Infection in Female Sex Workers: A Matched Case-Control Study in Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Perez-Alamos, Alma Rosa; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2017-07-01

    Infection with Entamoeba histolytica ( E. histolytica ) can be potentially transmitted by sexual contact. The seroepidemiology of E. histolytica in female sex workers has not been studied. The aim of the study was to determine whether E. histolytica is associated with the occupation of female sex work. In addition, the correlates of E. histolytica seroprevalence in female sex workers were also investigated. We performed an age- and gender-matched case-control study of 187 female sex workers and 374 women without sex work. Cases and controls were tested for the presence of E. histolytica IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay. Seroprevalence association with the characteristics of female sex workers was determined by bivariate analysis. Anti- E. histolytica IgG antibodies were found in five (2.7%) of 187 female sex workers and in 16 (4.3%) of 374 controls (odds ratios (OR) = 0.61; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.22 - 1.70; P = 0.34). Mean optical density of the immunoassay in seropositive cases and controls was 1.35 ± 0.93 and 0.73 ± 0.45, respectively (P = 0.05). Seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection did not vary significantly with age, education, socioeconomic level, or health status of sex workers. Seropositivity to E. histolytica did not correlate with work characteristics such as duration in the occupation, condom use, type of sex, or a history of sexually transmitted diseases, or with behavioral variables such as washing hands before eating, or consumption of untreated water. Results indicate that female sex workers do not have an increased risk for E. histolytica infection in Durango City, Mexico. Further studies to determine the risk of infection with E. histolytica by sexual contact should be conducted.

  1. Bioinformatic analysis of Entamoeba histolytica SINE1 elements

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    Butcher Sarah A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive amoebiasis, caused by infection with the human parasite Entamoeba histolytica remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in some less-developed countries. Genetically E. histolytica exhibits a number of unusual features including having approximately 20% of its genome comprised of repetitive elements. These include a number of families of SINEs - non-autonomous elements which can, however, move with the help of partner LINEs. In many eukaryotes SINE mobility has had a profound effect on gene expression; in this study we concentrated on one such element - EhSINE1, looking in particular for evidence of recent transposition. Results EhSINE1s were detected in the newly reassembled E. histolytica genome by searching with a Hidden Markov Model developed to encapsulate the key features of this element; 393 were detected. Examination of their sequences revealed that some had an internal structure showing one to four 26-27 nt repeats. Members of the different classes differ in a number of ways and in particular those with two internal repeats show the properties expected of fairly recently transposed SINEs - they are the most homogeneous in length and sequence, they have the longest (i.e. the least decayed target site duplications and are the most likely to show evidence (in a cDNA library of active transcription. Furthermore we were able to identify 15 EhSINE1s (6 pairs and one triplet which appeared to be identical or very nearly so but inserted into different sites in the genome; these provide good evidence that if mobility has now ceased it has only done so very recently. Conclusions Of the many families of repetitive elements present in the genome of E. histolytica we have examined in detail just one - EhSINE1. We have shown that there is evidence for waves of transposition at different points in the past and no evidence that mobility has entirely ceased. There are many aspects of the biology of this parasite which

  2. Differences in Entamoeba histolytica Cysteine Proteinase 5 Gene Isolated From Bandar Abbas and Tabriz, Iran

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    Sima Rostami

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amebiasis with up to 100 000 human deaths each year is the third cause of human deadly parasitic disease. With regard to the fact that cysteine protease 5 is known to be one of the most important pathogenicity factors of the Entamoeba histolytica and also, CP5 gene has been observed only in E. histolytica, hence we discriminated E. histolytica from E. dispar on CP5 gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and characterized CP5 gene variation in E. histolytica isolated from patients in both cold regions and tropical regions of Iran at molecular level. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total of 2332 stool samples (1550 from Tabriz and 782 from Bandar Abbas were studied microscopically. DNA extraction and PCR method were performed on the positive specimens, infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar. Finally we characterized CP5 gene in E. histolytica isolates from 10 positive samples in the cold regions (Tabriz and 10 positive samples in the tropical regions (Bandar Abbas by sequencing and studied the polymorphism of the gene. Results: Of 1550 subjects studied from Tabriz and 782 from Bandar Abaas, 83/1550 (8.3% and 65/782 (5.35% persons were infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar, respectively. The molecular results on 20 E. histolytica PCR positive isolates from both regions revealed that nucleotides substitution and polymorphism on CP5 gene was more in samples from Bandar Abbas than those from Tabriz. Conclusion: Prevalence of amebiasis was high in the tropical region (Bandar Abbas compared with the cold region (Tabriz. In this study, CP5 gene variation in the pathogenicity and virulence of this parasite in the tropical region was higher than that in the cold region.

  3. Prevalência de parasitoses intestinais na cidade de Eirunepé, Amazonas Prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in the city of Eirunepé, Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Fernández Araujo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas, pelo método de sedimentação espontânea, amostras de fezes de 413 pacientes e encontrada positividade em 266 (64,4% dos seguintes parasitas: Ascaris lumbricoides (35,6%; Trichuris trichiura (18,6%; Ancilostomídeos(9,9%, Strongyloides stercoralis (1%, Enterobius vermiculares (0,5%, e Entamoeba histolytica (13,3% e Giardia lamblia (1%.Samples of 413 patient were analyzed and positivity was found in 64.4% (266 of the exams. The intestinal parasites most prevalent were: Ascaris lumbricoides (35.6%; Trichuris trichiura (18.6%; Ancylostomides (9.9%; Strongyloides stercoralis (1%, Enterobius vermiculares (0,5%; Entamoeba histolytica (13.3% and Giardia lamblia (1%. The presence of varied degrees of anemia were detected in 39.8% of the exams.

  4. Effects of Some Pesticides on Development of Ascaris suum Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong-Man; Kim, Jin-Won; Na, Won-Seok; Youn, Young-Nam; Choi, In-Wook

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of pesticides to parasite eggs, Ascaris suum eggs were incubated with 5 different pesticides (1:1,500-1:2,000 dilutions of 2% emamectin benzoate, 5% spinetoram, 5% indoxacarb, 1% deltamethrin, and 5% flufenoxuron; all v/v) at 20℃ for 6 weeks, and microscopically evaluated the egg survival and development on a weekly basis. The survival rate of A. suum eggs incubated in normal saline (control eggs) was 90±3% at 6 weeks. However, the survival rates of eggs treated with pesticides were 75-85% at this time, thus significantly lower than the control value. Larval development in control eggs commenced at 3 weeks, and 73±3% of eggs had internal larvae at 6 weeks. Larvae were evident in pesticide-treated eggs at 3-4 weeks, and the proportions of eggs carrying larvae at 6 weeks (36±3%-54±3%) were significantly lower than that of the control group. Thus, pesticides tested at levels similar to those used in agricultural practices exhibited low-level ovicidal activity and delayed embryogenesis of A. suum eggs, although some differences were evident among the tested pesticides. PMID:24623893

  5. Factores de virulencia del patógeno intestinal Entamoeba histolytica Virulence factors of the enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica

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    Juanita Trejos-Suárez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica es un protozoo entérico causante de la amebiasis intestinal y extraintestinal. Se calcula que 10% de la población mundial está infectada por el complejo Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar. Según la OMS, hay 500 millones de nuevas infecciones por año y, aproximadamente, 70.000 a 100.000 muertes a causas de ellas. Este parásito cumple un proceso de invasión muy elaborado, en el cual se secretan y expresan proteínas que le permiten adherirse al epitelio, degradar la matriz extracelular y producir citólisis de las células epiteliales para penetrar dentro de la mucosa. El entendimiento de estos factores de virulencia ha generado múltiples estudios en diferentes áreas de las ciencias biomédicas, desde métodos diagnósticos cada vez más sensibles y específicos hasta candidatos para vacunas, lo que abre nuevas expectativas terapéuticas a raíz de estos estudios.The enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is a human pathogen that causes widespread morbidity and mortality. It is estimated that 10% of the world’s population is infected with the complex Entamoeba histolytica/ Entamoeba dispar. According to the WHO there are 500 million new infections per year and it is the cause of approximately 70,000 - 100,000 deaths. This parasite has a very elaborate process of invasion, where there are expressed and secreted proteins that allow the parasite to adhere to the epithelium, to degrade extracellular matrix and to penetrate epithelial cells within the mucosa. Numerous studies have been carried out to understand how virulence factors work in diverse areas of biomedical sciences. The studies have proposed diagnostic tests to increase the sensitivity and specificity and to find vaccine candidates, which are an opening way to new therapeutic expectations.

  6. EVIDENCIA ULTRAESTRUCTURAL DEL NUCLÉOLO DE Entamoeba histolytica

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    Citlali Vázquez-Echeverría

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque la estructura celular de Entamoeba histolytica se conoce con detalle, no se ha descrito la presencia de material nucleolar con el microscopio electrónico. En este trabajo utilizamos técnicas citoquímicas para microscopía de luz y electrónica para evidenciar la presencia del nucléolo en trofozoitos de esta amiba. Con la técnica de azul de toluidina para RNA y la técnica de impregnación argéntica para organizador nucleolar, se observa contraste de material intranuclear periférico. Con el microscopio electrónico, un material similar de naturaleza fibro-granular se contrasta también con las técnicas para ribonucleoproteínas y para organizador nucleolar. Una zona similar es negativa cuando se aplican técnicas para DNA. Estos resultados muestran evidencia ultraestructural de la presencia de un nucléolo periférico y anular en el núcleo de E. histolytica. Se sugiere que este organelo intranuclear es un caracter general de los eucariontes.

  7. The effect of irrigated urban agriculture on malaria, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in different settings of Côte d'Ivoire

    OpenAIRE

    Matthys, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Malaria is responsible for more than one million deaths every year, mainly children under the age of five years living in sub-Saharan Africa. At least one billion people harbor one or several of the three main soil-transmitted helminths, namely Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms and Trichuris trichiura, and about 207 million people are infected with schistosomes. An estimated 70,000 people die each year from amoebiasis, caused by Entamoeba histolytica. Giardiasis, caused by Giardia duodenalis, i...

  8. An Entamoeba sp. strain isolated from rhesus monkey is virulent but genetically different from Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Hiroshi; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Pandey, Kishor; Cheng, Xun-Jia; Kobayashi, Seiki; Sherchand, Jeevan B; Kanbara, Hiroji

    2007-06-01

    An Entamoeba sp. strain, P19-061405, was isolated from a rhesus monkey in Nepal and characterized genetically. The strain was initially identified as Entamoeba histolytica using PCR amplification of peroxiredoxin genes. However, sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene showed a 0.8% difference when compared to the reference E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS human strain. Differences were also observed in the 5.8S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions 1 and 2, and analysis of the serine-rich protein gene from the monkey strain showed unique codon usages compared to E. histolytica isolated from humans. The amino acid sequences of two hexokinases and two glucose phosphate isomerases also differed from those of E. histolytica. Isoenzyme analyses of these enzymes in the monkey strain showed different electrophoretic mobility patterns compared with E. histolytica isolates. Analysis of peroxiredoxin genes indicated the presence of at least seven different types of protein, none of which were identical to proteins in E. histolytica. When the trophozoites from the monkey strain were inoculated into the livers of hamsters, formation of amebic abscesses was observed 7 days after the injection. These results demonstrate that the strain is genetically different from E. histolytica and is virulent. Revival of the name Entamoeba nuttalli is proposed for the organism.

  9. Molecular paleoparasitological diagnosis of Ascaris sp. from coprolites: new scenery of ascariasis in pre-Colombian South America times

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    Daniela Leles

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Paleoparasitological studies using microscopy showed that Ascarisand Trichuris trichiura are the human intestinal parasites most found in archaeological sites. However, in pre-Columbian South American archaeological sites, Ascaris is rare. In this work we standardized a molecular methodology for Ascaris diagnosis directly from ancient DNA retrieved from coprolites. Using cythochrome b gene (142 bp target, ancient DNA sequences were retrieved from South American samples, negative by microscopy. Moreover, the methodology applied was sensitive enough to detect ancient DNA extracted from 30 Ascaris eggs from an European coprolite. These results revealed a new scenery for the paleodistribution of Ascaris in South America.

  10. Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1 based sequence typing reveals phylogenetically distinct Ascaris population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic differentiation among morphologically identical Ascaris species is a debatable scientific issue in the context of Ascariasis epidemiology. To explain the disease epidemiology and also the taxonomic position of different Ascaris species, genome information of infecting strains from endemic areas throughout the world is certainly crucial. Ascaris population from human has been genetically characterized based on the widely used genetic marker, internal transcribed spacer1 (ITS1. Along with previously reported and prevalent genotype G1, 8 new sequence variants of ITS1 have been identified. Genotype G1 was significantly present among female patients aged between 10 to 15 years. Intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD analysis at target locus within our study population has identified an incomplete LD value with potential recombination events. A separate cluster of Indian isolates with high bootstrap value indicate their distinct phylogenetic position in comparison to the global Ascaris population. Genetic shuffling through recombination could be a possible reason for high population diversity and frequent emergence of new sequence variants, identified in present and other previous studies. This study explores the genetic organization of Indian Ascaris population for the first time which certainly includes some fundamental information on the molecular epidemiology of Ascariasis.

  11. Literature Reference for Entamoeba histolytica (Journal of Parasitology. 1972. 58(2): 306–310)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procedures are described for analysis of clinical samples and may be adapted for assessment of solid, particulate, liquid and water samples contaminated with Entamoeba histolytica using a culture method.

  12. Cloning and bacterial expression of adenosine-5'-triphosphate sulfurylase from the enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, T; Arase, T; Shigeta, Y; Asai, T; Leustek, T; Takeuchi, T

    1998-12-08

    A gene encoding adenosine-5'-triphosphate sulfurylase (AS) was cloned from the enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica by polymerase chain reaction using degenerate oligonucleotide primers corresponding to conserved regions of the protein from a variety of organisms. The deduced amino acid sequence of E. histolytica AS revealed a calculated molecular mass of 47925 Da and an unusual basic pI of 9.38. The amebic protein sequence showed 23-48% identities with AS from bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and animals with the highest identities being to Synechocystis sp. and Bacillus subtilis (48 and 44%, respectively). Four conserved blocks including putative sulfate-binding and phosphate-binding regions were highly conserved in the E. histolytica AS. The upstream region of the AS gene contained three conserved elements reported for other E. histolytica genes. A recombinant E. histolytica AS revealed enzymatic activity, measured in both the forward and reverse directions. Expression of the E. histolytica AS complemented cysteine auxotrophy of the AS-deficient Escherichia coli strains. Genomic hybridization revealed that the AS gene exists as a single copy gene. In the literature, this is the first description of an AS gene in Protozoa.

  13. Detection of beta-tubulin in the cytoplasm of the interphasic Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Conde, Eduardo; Vargas-Mejía, Miguel Ángel; Díaz-Orea, María Alicia; Hernández-Rivas, Rosaura; Cárdenas-Perea, María Elena; Guerrero-González, Tayde; González-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Montiel-Jarquín, Álvaro José

    2016-08-01

    It is known that the microtubules (MT) of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites form an intranuclear mitotic spindle. However, electron microscopy studies and the employment of anti-beta-tubulin (β-tubulin) antibodies have not exhibited these cytoskeletal structures in the cytoplasm of these parasites. The purpose of this work was to detect β-tubulin in the cytoplasm of interphasic E. histolytica trophozoites. Activated or non-activated HMI-IMSS-strain E. histolytica trophozoites were used and cultured for 72 h at 37 °C in TYI-S-33 medium, and then these were incubated with the anti-β-tubulin antibody of E. histolytica. The anti-β-tubulin antibody reacted with the intranuclear mitotic spindle of E. histolytica-activated trophozoites as control. In contrast, in non-activated interphasic parasites, anti-β-tubulin antibody reacted with diverse puntiform structures in the cytoplasm and with ring-shaped structures localized in the cytoplasm, cellular membrane and endocytic stomas. In this work, for the first time, the presence of β-tubulin is shown in the cytoplasm of E. histolytica trophozoites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Marivirga lumbricoides sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongle; Zhang, Rui; Li, Qipei; Liu, Keshao; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2015-02-01

    A novel, aerobic, heterotrophic, orange-pigmented, Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped, gliding bacterial strain, designated JLT2000(T), was isolated from surface water of the South China Sea. The strain was oxidase- and catalase-positive. The major cellular fatty acids of strain JLT2000 T: were C12 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), C16 : 0 and C18 : 0. MK-7 was the major respiratory quinone and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain JLT2000(T) was 37.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JLT2000(T) formed a branch within the genus Marivirga, but was clearly separated from the two established species of this genus, Marivirga tractuosa and Marivirga sericea. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strain JLT2000(T) with the type strains of these two species was 95.8 % and 96.1 %, respectively. Strain JLT2000(T) had a shorter cell length and wider growth range in different temperatures and salinities than those of Marivirga tractuosa NBRC 15989(T) and Marivirga sericea NBRC 15983(T). In addition, strain JLT2000(T) could utilize more carbon sources and hydrolyse more polymers than Marivirga tractuosa NBRC 15989(T) and Marivirga sericea NBRC 15983(T). Based on this polyphasic analysis, strain JLT2000(T) represents a novel species of the genus Marivirga, for which the name Marivirga lumbricoides sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JLT2000(T) ( = JCM 18012(T) = CGMCC 1.10832(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  15. SjAPI, the first functionally characterized Ascaris-type protease inhibitor from animal venoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serine protease inhibitors act as modulators of serine proteases, playing important roles in protecting animal toxin peptides from degradation. However, all known serine protease inhibitors discovered thus far from animal venom belong to the Kunitz-type subfamily, and whether there are other novel types of protease inhibitors in animal venom remains unclear. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, by screening scorpion venom gland cDNA libraries, we identified the first Ascaris-type animal toxin family, which contains four members: Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (SjAPI, Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor 2 (SjAPI-2, Chaerilus tricostatus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (CtAPI, and Buthus martensii Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (BmAPI. The detailed characterization of Ascaris-type peptide SjAPI from the venom gland of scorpion Scorpiops jendeki was carried out. The mature peptide of SjAPI contains 64 residues and possesses a classical Ascaris-type cysteine framework reticulated by five disulfide bridges, different from all known protease inhibitors from venomous animals. Enzyme and inhibitor reaction kinetics experiments showed that recombinant SjAPI was a dual function peptide with α-chymotrypsin- and elastase-inhibiting properties. Recombinant SjAPI inhibited α-chymotrypsin with a Ki of 97.1 nM and elastase with a Ki of 3.7 μM, respectively. Bioinformatics analyses and chimera experiments indicated that SjAPI contained the unique short side chain functional residues "AAV" and might be a useful template to produce new serine protease inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, SjAPI is the first functionally characterized animal toxin peptide with an Ascaris-type fold. The structural and functional diversity of animal toxins with protease-inhibiting properties suggested that bioactive peptides from animal venom glands might be a new source of protease inhibitors, which will accelerate the

  16. Immunizing pigs with Ascaris suum hemoglobin increases the inflammatory response in the liver but fails to induce a protective immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether purified Ascaris suum hemoglobin (AsHb) is a suitable vaccine candidate for the control of Ascaris infections, pigs were 30 vaccinated with AsHb in combination with QuilA adjuvant and challenged with A. suum eggs. The number of liver lesions and worms in the intestine was assess...

  17. Studies on the survival of Ascaris suum eggs under laboratory and simulated field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.

    1998-01-01

    A series of four experiments was carried out to study the survival of Ascaris suum eggs: in a pig slurry unit on a farm, in the laboratory under anaerobic conditions and different relative humidities (rH), and under simulated field conditions. Survival of eggs in the pig slurry unit was 20% after

  18. A genetic marker allele conferring resistance to Ascaris suum in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Jørgensen, Claus B.

    2013-01-01

    Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) has helped dissecting the genetics underlying the variation in resistance to helminth infections. In pigs, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP TXNIP and SNP ARNT), both on chromosome 4, have been reported to be associated with Ascaris suum worm burden...

  19. Gamma radiation effects in Ascaris sp. eggs in the treated and untreated sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, Gloria S.M.; Chernicharo, Carlos A.L.; Zerbini, Adriana M.

    2005-01-01

    This work evaluated the efficiency of domestic sewage disinfection. The sewage was treated in UASB reactor (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket), and the influent and affluent disinfection was promoted by gamma irradiation. To test the efficiency of disinfection, Ascaris eggs viability was analyzed undo microscopic observation in samples before and after the irradiation. The Ascaris sp. eggs were recovered from human's faeces and inoculated into sewage samples. The viability of Ascaris sp. eggs was analyzed after exposure to 0.5 KGy, 1.0 KGy, 2.5 KGy, 5.0 KGy e 10 KGy. In addition, suspended solids were analyzed in order to verify the effect of solids content to the irradiation efficiency. Preliminary results indicated that for doses lower than 1.5 KGy, the efficiency of inactivation in the affluent was higher than the influent. It was also observed that doses above of 2.5 KGy had inactivated practically 100% of eggs of Ascaris sp. in the treated and untreated sewage samples. These results suggest that gamma irradiation can be used as an efficient technique to disinfect domestic sewage. (author)

  20. Modulation of human macrophage activity by Ascaris antigens is dependent on macrophage polarization state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Sara; Nejsum, Peter; Williams, Andrew R.

    2018-01-01

    Parasitic worms (helminths) are known to actively modulate host immune responses and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate if adult body fluid (ABF) from the helminth Ascaris suum has immunomodulatory effects on different subtypes of human monocyte-derived macrophages (Mɸ) in vitro...

  1. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: The goal of the study was to further develop an incubation-qPCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs. The specific objectives were to characterize the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determine the specificity of the method, and test the method w...

  2. Interaction between Ascaris suum and Pasteurella multocida in the lungs of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Eriksen, Lizzie; Aalbaek, B

    1992-01-01

    In an experiment including 8 groups of 15 mice, the effect of migrating Ascaris suum larvae in the lungs on the establishment and pathogenicity of aerosol exposure to Pasteurella multocida was investigated. Following aerosol exposure to P. multocida, mice with migrating A. suum in their lungs...

  3. Immune evasion mechanisms of Entamoeba histolytica: progression to disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmin eBegum

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica (Eh is a protozoan parasite that infects 10% of the world’s population and results in 100,000 deaths/year from amebic dysentery and/or liver abscess. In most cases, this extracellular parasite colonizes the colon by high affinity binding to MUC2 mucin without disease symptoms, whereas in some cases, Eh triggers an aggressive inflammatory response upon invasion of the colonic mucosa. The specific host-parasite factors critical for disease pathogenesis are still not well characterized. From the parasite, the signature events that lead to disease progression are cysteine protease cleavage of the C-terminus of MUC2 that dissolves the mucus layer followed by Eh binding and cytotoxicity of the mucosal epithelium. The host mounts an ineffective excessive host pro-inflammatory response following contact with host cells that causes tissue damage and participates in disease pathogenesis as Eh escapes host immune clearance by mechanisms that are not completely understood. Ameba can modulate or destroy effector immune cells by inducing neutrophil apoptosis and suppressing respiratory burst or nitric oxide (NO production from macrophages. Eh adherence to the host cells also induce multiple cytotoxic effects that can promote cell death through phagocytosis, apoptosis or by trogocytosis (ingestion of living cells that might play critical roles in immune evasion. This review focuses on the immune evasion mechanisms that Eh uses to survive and induce disease manifestation in the host.

  4. Immune Evasion Mechanisms of Entamoeba histolytica: Progression to Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Sharmin; Quach, Jeanie; Chadee, Kris

    2015-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) is a protozoan parasite that infects 10% of the world's population and results in 100,000 deaths/year from amebic dysentery and/or liver abscess. In most cases, this extracellular parasite colonizes the colon by high affinity binding to MUC2 mucin without disease symptoms, whereas in some cases, Eh triggers an aggressive inflammatory response upon invasion of the colonic mucosa. The specific host-parasite factors critical for disease pathogenesis are still not well characterized. From the parasite, the signature events that lead to disease progression are cysteine protease cleavage of the C-terminus of MUC2 that dissolves the mucus layer followed by Eh binding and cytotoxicity of the mucosal epithelium. The host mounts an ineffective excessive host pro-inflammatory response following contact with host cells that causes tissue damage and participates in disease pathogenesis as Eh escapes host immune clearance by mechanisms that are not completely understood. Ameba can modulate or destroy effector immune cells by inducing neutrophil apoptosis and suppressing respiratory burst or nitric oxide (NO) production from macrophages. Eh adherence to the host cells also induce multiple cytotoxic effects that can promote cell death through phagocytosis, apoptosis or by trogocytosis (ingestion of living cells) that might play critical roles in immune evasion. This review focuses on the immune evasion mechanisms that Eh uses to survive and induce disease manifestation in the host.

  5. Cloning and partial characterization of Entamoeba histolytica PTPases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera-Rodriguez, Sara Elisa; Baylon-Pacheco, Lidia; Talamas-Rohana, Patricia; Rosales-Encina, Jose Luis

    2006-01-01

    Reversible protein tyrosine phosphorylation is an essential signal transduction mechanism that regulates cell growth, differentiation, mobility, metabolism, and survival. Two genes coding for protein tyrosine phophatases, designed EhPTPA and EhPTPB, were cloned from Entamoeba histolytica. EhPTPA and EhPTPB proteins showed amino acid sequence identity of 37%, both EhPTPases showed similarity with Dictyostelium discoideum and vertebrate trasmembranal PTPases. mRNA levels of EhPTPA gene are up-regulated in trophozoites recovered after 96 h of liver abscess development in the hamster model. EhPTPA protein expressed as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein (GST::EhPTPA) showed enzymatic activity with p-nitrophenylphosphate as a substrate and was inhibited by PTPase inhibitors vanadate and molybdate. GST::EhPTPA protein selectively dephosphorylates a 130 kDa phosphotyrosine-containing protein in trophozoite cell lysates. EhPTPA gene codifies for a 43 kDa native protein. Up-regulation of EhPTPA expression suggests that EhPTPA may play an important role in the adaptive response of trophozoites during amoebic liver abscess development

  6. A Proteomic Investigation of Hepatic Resistance to Ascaris in a Murine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendoline Deslyper

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The helminth Ascaris causes ascariasis in both humans and pigs. Humans, especially children, experience significant morbidity including respiratory complications, growth deficits and intestinal obstruction. Given that 800 million people worldwide are infected by Ascaris, this represents a significant global public health concern. The severity of the symptoms and associated morbidity are related to the parasite burden and not all hosts are infected equally. While the pathology of the disease has been extensively examined, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance and susceptibility to this nematode infection is poor. In order to investigate host differences associated with heavy and light parasite burden, an experimental murine model was developed utilising Ascaris-susceptible and -resistant mice strains, C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca, respectively, which experience differential burdens of migratory Ascaris larvae in the host lungs. Previous studies identified the liver as the site where this difference in susceptibility occurs. Using a label free quantitative proteomic approach, we analysed the hepatic proteomes of day four post infection C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca mice with and without Ascaris infection to identify proteins changes potentially linked to both resistance and susceptibility amongst the two strains, respectively. Over 3000 proteins were identified in total and clear intrinsic differences were elucidated between the two strains. These included a higher abundance of mitochondrial proteins, particularly those associated with the oxidative phosphorylation pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS production in the relatively resistant CBA/Ca mice. We hypothesise that the increased ROS levels associated with higher levels of mitochondrial activity results in a highly oxidative cellular environment that has a dramatic effect on the nematode's ability to successfully sustain a parasitic association with its resistant host. Under

  7. [Monitoring and SWOT analysis of Ascaris eggs pollution in soil of rural China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui-hui; Zhou, Chang-hai; Zang, Wei; Zhang, Xue-qiang; Chen, Ying-dan

    2014-06-01

    To understand the status of Ascaris eggs pollution in soil at national monitoring spots of soil-transmitted nematodiasis, so as to provide the evidence for making countermeasures and evaluating the control effect. Ten households were selected from each of the 22 national monitoring spots annually according to the National Surveillance Program of Soil-Transmitted Nematodiasis (Trial), and the soil samples from vegetable gardens, toilet periphery, courtyards and kitchens were collected and examined by using the modified floatation test with saturated sodium nitrate. Fertilized or unfertilized eggs as well as live or dead fertilized eggs were discriminated and identified. In addition, a SWOT analysis of monitoring of Ascaris eggs pollution in the soil of rural China was carried out. A total of 1 090 households were monitored in 22 monitoring spots from 2006 to 2010. The total detection rate of Ascaris eggs in the soil was 30.73%, and the detection rates of fertilized, unfertilized and live fertilized eggs were 13.21%, 26.42% and 20.28%, respectively. The total detection rates of Ascaris eggs in the vegetable garden, toilet periphery, courtyard and kitchen were 16.51%, 13.49%, 14.22% and 10.73% respectively. The SWOT analysis demonstrated that the monitoring work had both advantages and disadvantages, and was faced with opportunities as well as threats. The pollution status of Ascaris eggs in the soil is still quite severe at some national monitoring spots, and the counter-measures such as implementing hazard-free treatment of stool, improving water supply and sanitation and reforming environment should be taken to protect people from being infected.

  8. Detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar isolates in clinical samples by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Moshira M F; Rashed, Laila A; Abdel-Fattah, Hisham S

    2007-04-01

    A total of 140 out of 180 outpatients attended MISR University for Science and Technology Hospital complained of abdominal pain, diarrhoea and/or dysentery. Stool examination showed 47 (33.6%) had Entamoeba sp., 36 (25.7%) had cysts and 11 (7.9%) had trophozoites. Of 40 asymptomatic ones, 4 (10%) had cysts. A total of 51 positive stool samples for Entamoeba sp. (40 cysts & 11 trophozoites) were tested by Ne-sted Polymerase Chain Reaction (N-PCR) and Restriction Enzyme Digestion (RED) to clarify true E. histolytica from E. dispar. The results showed that 9/51 (17.6%) had E. dispar, while 31 (60.8%) had E. histolytica and 11 (21.6%) had dual infection with both E. histolytica and E. dispar. All E. histolytica PCR proved cases were from the symptomatic group, 11 had trophozoites and 34 had cysts. Thus, the result showed the potential use of molecular tools in detection of E. histolytica and E. dispar, and is a promising tool for epidemiology, particularly to differentiate pathogenic and non pathogenic Entamoeba sp.

  9. Short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of protein expression in Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Upinder

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entamoeba histolytica is an intestinal protozoan parasite of humans. The genome has been sequenced, but the study of individual gene products has been hampered by the lack of the ability to generate gene knockouts. We chose to test the use of RNA interference to knock down gene expression in Entamoeba histolytica. Results An episomal vector-based system, using the E. histolytica U6 promoter to drive expression of 29-basepair short hairpin RNAs, was developed to target protein-encoding genes in E. histolytica. The short hairpin RNAs successfully knocked down protein levels of all three unrelated genes tested with this system: Igl, the intermediate subunit of the galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-inhibitable lectin; the transcription factor URE3-BP; and the membrane binding protein EhC2A. Igl levels were reduced by 72%, URE3-BP by 89%, and EhC2A by 97%. Conclusion Use of the U6 promoter to drive expression of 29-basepair short hairpin RNAs is effective at knocking down protein expression for unrelated genes in Entamoeba histolytica, providing a useful tool for the study of this parasite.

  10. Short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of protein expression in Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Alicia S; Moreno, Heriberto; Good, Katelyn R; Zhang, Hanbang; Singh, Upinder; Petri, William A

    2009-02-17

    Entamoeba histolytica is an intestinal protozoan parasite of humans. The genome has been sequenced, but the study of individual gene products has been hampered by the lack of the ability to generate gene knockouts. We chose to test the use of RNA interference to knock down gene expression in Entamoeba histolytica. An episomal vector-based system, using the E. histolytica U6 promoter to drive expression of 29-basepair short hairpin RNAs, was developed to target protein-encoding genes in E. histolytica. The short hairpin RNAs successfully knocked down protein levels of all three unrelated genes tested with this system: Igl, the intermediate subunit of the galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-inhibitable lectin; the transcription factor URE3-BP; and the membrane binding protein EhC2A. Igl levels were reduced by 72%, URE3-BP by 89%, and EhC2A by 97%. Use of the U6 promoter to drive expression of 29-basepair short hairpin RNAs is effective at knocking down protein expression for unrelated genes in Entamoeba histolytica, providing a useful tool for the study of this parasite.

  11. Molecular differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar from Tunisian food handlers with amoeba infection initially diagnosed by microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ayed S.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to obtain more reliable epidemiological data concerning Entamoeba (E. histolytica infection in Tunisian food handlers using established molecular tools able to differentiate E. histolytica from E. dispar. From 2002 to 2005, 4,266 fresh stools specimens received in the setting of the National program of food handlers’ control were analysed by optical microscopy. Twelve (2.8 ‰ were positive for the presence of four nuclei cysts identified as E. histolytica/E. dispar. Extraction of DNA from the 12 samples, followed by specific amplifications of E. histolytica and E. dispar SSU rDNA, showed that 11 samples (92% were positive for E. dispar and negative for E. histolytica. Sequencing analysis of 8 PCR products permitted to verify the results obtained with conventional PCR. The remaining sample was negative by PCR amplifying E. histolytica DNA or E. dispar DNA specifically, although it did not show any inhibition. It probably contains protozoan cysts genetically distinct from these two species but morphological similar. Estimation of relative proportions between E. histolytica and E. dispar in cyst carriers showed that all explored individuals harboured the non pathogenic E. dispar strains. This result highlights the need of use in this population of complementary tests that allow specific diagnosis and obviate unnecessary chemotherapy.

  12. Prevalence of entamoeba histolytica and entamoeba dispar by means of microscopy and ELISA in a suburb of Lima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo, W.; Alva, P.; Suarez, R.; Espinoza, Y.; Huiza, A.; Sevilla, C.; Naquira, C.

    1999-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of E. histolytica and E. dispar in a marginal population of Callao, Lima, using ELISAs. Two ELISAs were used, one of them for both Entamoeba species (Entamoeba-ELISA), and an E. histolytica-specific ELISA. 128 stool samples from randomized Callao inhabitants were microscopically examined. Thirteen (10%) were microscopically diagnosed as having E. histolytica or E. dispar infection; and 7 (6%) were positive to Entamoeba-ELISA (sensitivity= 54%). Five of the 115 samples without cysts of E. histolytica or E. dispar were Entamoeba ELISA positive (specificity= 96%). All samples were negative to the E. histolytica-specific ELISA. The correlation between the microscopical identification and Entamoeba-ELISA was not good, it may be due to an overvaluation of the of the morphological diagnosis. (authors)

  13. Ascaris and Escherichia coli Inactivation in an Ecological Sanitation System in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Berendes

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the microbial die-off in a latrine waste composting system in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Temperature data and samples were collected from compost aged 0-12+ months. Samples collected from compost bin centers and corners at two depths were assessed for moisture content, E. coli concentration, and Ascaris spp. viability. Center temperatures in compost bins were all above 58 °C, while corner temperatures were 10 - 20 °C lower. Moisture content was 67 ± 10% in all except the oldest compost. A 4-log reduction in E. coli was observed over the first sixteen weeks of composting at both locations and depths, after which E. coli was undetectable (LOD: 142 MPN g(-1 dry weight. In new compost, 10.4% and 8.3% of Ascaris eggs were viable and fully embryonated, respectively. Percent viability dropped to zero in samples older than six weeks. These findings indicate that the Haitian EcoSan composting process was effective in inactivating E. coli and Ascaris spp. in latrine waste within sixteen weeks. This study is one of the first to document efficacy of an ecological sanitation system under field conditions and provides insight into composting methods and monitoring for other international settings.

  14. The tyrosine B10 hydroxyl is crucial for oxygen avidity of Ascaris hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloek, A P; Yang, J; Mathews, F S; Frieden, C; Goldberg, D E

    1994-01-28

    The parasitic nematode Ascaris suum has a gene encoding a two-domain hemoglobin with remarkable oxygen avidity. The strong interaction with oxygen is a consequence of a particularly slow oxygen off-rate. The single polypeptide chain consists of two domains, each of which can be expressed separately in Escherichia coli as a globin-like protein exhibiting oxygen binding characteristics comparable with the native molecule. Site-directed mutagenesis was performed on the gene segment encoding domain one. The E7 position, involved in forming a hydrogen bond with the liganded oxygen in vertebrate globins, is a glutamine in both Ascaris domains. Conversion of this residue to leucine or alanine produced a hemoglobin variant with an oxygen off-rate 5- or 60-fold faster than that of unaltered domain one. Replacement of the tyrosine B10 with either phenylalanine or leucine (as found in vertebrate globins) yielded hemoglobin mutants with oxygen off-rates 280- or 570-fold faster, approaching rates found with vertebrate myoglobins. The data suggest that the distal glutamine hydrogen bonds with the liganded oxygen and that the tyrosine B10 hydroxyl contributes an additional hydrogen bond that appears substantially responsible for the extreme oxygen avidity of Ascaris hemoglobin.

  15. Literature Reference for Entamoeba histolytica (Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2005. 43(11): 5491–5497)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procedures are described for analysis of clinical samples and may be adapted for assessment of solid, particulate, liquid and water samples. The method is a real-time PCR assay that targets the 18S rRNA gene sequence of Entamoeba histolytica.

  16. Data set for the proteomics analysis of the endomembrane system from the unicellular Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Perdomo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite agent of amebiasis, an infectious disease of the human intestine and liver. This parasite contact and kills human cells by an active process involving pathogenic factors. Cellular traffic and secretion activities are poorly characterized in E. histolytica. In this work, we took advantage of a wide proteomic analysis to search for principal components of the endomembrane system in E. histolytica. A total of 5683 peptides matching with 1531 proteins (FDR of 1% were identified which corresponds to roughly 20% of the total amebic proteome. Bioinformatics investigations searching for domain homologies (Smart and InterProScan programs and functional descriptions (KEGG and GO terms allowed this data to be organized into distinct categories. This data represents the first in-depth proteomics analysis of subcellular compartments in E. histolytica and allows a detailed map of vesicle traffic components in an ancient single-cell organism that lacks a stereotypical ER and Golgi apparatus to be established. The data are related to [1].

  17. Identification of EhTIF-IA: The putative E. histolytica orthologue of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-02-04

    Feb 4, 2016 ... We have identified the E. histolytica equivalent of TIF-1A (EhTIF-IA) by homology search within ..... a putative EhTIF-IA with e-value (3e−25). Comparison of .... some biogenesis is correlated with altered rates of rDNA transcription ..... ylation by CK2 facilitates rDNA transcription by promoting dissociation of ...

  18. Gene expression profiling in Entamoeba histolytica identifies key components in iron uptake and metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Adriana Hernández-Cuevas

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is an ameboid parasite that causes colonic dysentery and liver abscesses in humans. The parasite encounters dramatic changes in iron concentration during its invasion of the host, with relatively low levels in the intestinal lumen and then relatively high levels in the blood and liver. The liver notably contains sources of iron; therefore, the parasite's ability to use these sources might be relevant to its survival in the liver and thus the pathogenesis of liver abscesses. The objective of the present study was to identify factors involved in iron uptake, use and storage in E. histolytica. We compared the respective transcriptomes of E. histolytica trophozoites grown in normal medium (containing around 169 µM iron, low-iron medium (around 123 µM iron, iron-deficient medium (around 91 µM iron, and iron-deficient medium replenished with hemoglobin. The differentially expressed genes included those coding for the ATP-binding cassette transporters and major facilitator transporters (which share homology with bacterial siderophores and heme transporters and genes involved in heme biosynthesis and degradation. Iron deficiency was associated with increased transcription of genes encoding a subset of cell signaling molecules, some of which have previously been linked to adaptation to the intestinal environment and virulence. The present study is the first to have assessed the transcriptome of E. histolytica grown under various iron concentrations. Our results provide insights into the pathways involved in iron uptake and metabolism in this parasite.

  19. Gene expression profiling in Entamoeba histolytica identifies key components in iron uptake and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cuevas, Nora Adriana; Weber, Christian; Hon, Chung-Chau; Guillen, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an ameboid parasite that causes colonic dysentery and liver abscesses in humans. The parasite encounters dramatic changes in iron concentration during its invasion of the host, with relatively low levels in the intestinal lumen and then relatively high levels in the blood and liver. The liver notably contains sources of iron; therefore, the parasite's ability to use these sources might be relevant to its survival in the liver and thus the pathogenesis of liver abscesses. The objective of the present study was to identify factors involved in iron uptake, use and storage in E. histolytica. We compared the respective transcriptomes of E. histolytica trophozoites grown in normal medium (containing around 169 µM iron), low-iron medium (around 123 µM iron), iron-deficient medium (around 91 µM iron), and iron-deficient medium replenished with hemoglobin. The differentially expressed genes included those coding for the ATP-binding cassette transporters and major facilitator transporters (which share homology with bacterial siderophores and heme transporters) and genes involved in heme biosynthesis and degradation. Iron deficiency was associated with increased transcription of genes encoding a subset of cell signaling molecules, some of which have previously been linked to adaptation to the intestinal environment and virulence. The present study is the first to have assessed the transcriptome of E. histolytica grown under various iron concentrations. Our results provide insights into the pathways involved in iron uptake and metabolism in this parasite.

  20. Distribution and differential diagnosis of Entamoeba Histolytica from Entamoeba Dispar by the PCR-RFLP method in central Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooshyar, Hossein; Rezian, Mostafa; Kazemi, Bahram

    2003-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar are two morphologically indistinguishable human protozoan parasites that are genetically distinct species. The potential invasive pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica and non-invasive parasites Entamoeba dispar can be differentiated by molecular and other methods. We used Polymer Chain Reaction (PCR) to determine the ratio of two species in a population in central Iran.Human stool samples(n=12 148) were randomly collected in Tehran and Karaj and examined for E.histolytica/E.dispar cysts with direct and formalin-ether methods.Eighty -seven (0.7%) cases were positive, of which 49 (62.8%) isolates were successfully cultured in Robison's medium. A pair of oligonucleotide primers designed from sequence data for genomic DNA coding the 30-KD surface antigen of E.histolytica/E.dipar was used to amplify a 374 base-pair (bp) fragment. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) pattern obtained from a standard E.histolytica isolate had had two fragments (219 bp and 155bp), but the standard isolate of E. disparshowed three fragments (155, 152 and 67bp ). Differential diagonosis of 49 isolates of E. histolytica/ E. dispar from Tehran and Karaj using PCR-RFLP revealed that 46(93.9%) were E. were E. dispar while only 2(4.1%) were E. histolytica .One person (2%) had a mixed infection and showed both patterns The differential diagonosis of the potentially pathogenic parasite E.histolytica from the non-pathogenic E. dispar is of clinical and epidemiological importance. This study demonstrated E. dispar is much more prevalent than E.histolytica among the c yst passersin Tehran and Kraj in Central Iran. (author)

  1. Use of bacterially expressed dsRNA to downregulate Entamoeba histolytica gene expression.

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    Carlos F Solis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modern RNA interference (RNAi methodologies using small interfering RNA (siRNA oligonucleotide duplexes or episomally synthesized hairpin RNA are valuable tools for the analysis of gene function in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. However, these approaches still require time-consuming procedures including transfection and drug selection, or costly synthetic molecules. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report an efficient and handy alternative for E. histolytica gene down-regulation mediated by bacterial double-stranded RNA (dsRNA targeting parasite genes. The Escherichia coli strain HT115 which is unable to degrade dsRNA, was genetically engineered to produce high quantities of long dsRNA segments targeting the genes that encode E. histolytica beta-tubulin and virulence factor KERP1. Trophozoites cultured in vitro were directly fed with dsRNA-expressing bacteria or soaked with purified dsRNA. Both dsRNA delivery methods resulted in significant reduction of protein expression. In vitro host cell-parasite assays showed that efficient downregulation of kerp1 gene expression mediated by bacterial dsRNA resulted in significant reduction of parasite adhesion and lytic capabilities, thus supporting a major role for KERP1 in the pathogenic process. Furthermore, treatment of trophozoites cultured in microtiter plates, with a repertoire of eighty-five distinct bacterial dsRNA segments targeting E. histolytica genes with unknown function, led to the identification of three genes potentially involved in the growth of the parasite. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that the use of bacterial dsRNA is a powerful method for the study of gene function in E. histolytica. This dsRNA delivery method is also technically suitable for the study of a large number of genes, thus opening interesting perspectives for the identification of novel drug and vaccine targets.

  2. Detection of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar in stool specimens by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the population of Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnawi, Abdulaziz B M; Tonkal, Abulkader M; Fouad, Mahmoud A H; Al-Braiken, Faten A

    2007-04-01

    This study determined the prevalence of intestinal parasites, particularly pathogenic Entamoeba sp. (E. histolytica), in patients attending three hospitals in Jeddah City, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, King Abdulaziz Hospital and King Fahad Hospital for gastro-intestinal troubles. 186 stool specimens were examined microscopically for parasites and by ELISA kit (E. histolytica II) for true E. histolytica. 83 samples (44.6%) were positive by microscopy for at least one parasite. Of which, 23 (12.4%) showed two parasites and 15 (8.1%) three parasites. Eight different parasite species were identified. The most prevalent were E. histolytica/dispar (n = 26, 31.3%) and Giardia lamblia (n = 13, 15.7%). Others were Blastocytosis hominis (n = 12, 14.5%), Entamoeba coli (n = 11, 13.3%), Trichuris trichuria (n = 8, 9.6%), Endolymax nana (n = 6, 7.2%), Hymenolepes nana (n = 4, 4.8%) and Chilomastix mesnili (n = 3, 3.6%). Only five stool samples (19%) from those identified by microscopy to contain E. histolytica/dispar, were E. histolytica positive by E. histolytica II ELISA. For the first time to the authors' knowledge the true prevalence of E. histolytica in Saudi Arabia was 2.7%. E. histolytica II ELISA proved to be a highly useful technique to differentiate pathogenic E. histolytica from non pathogenic E. dispar.

  3. A novel nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay for differential detection of Entamoeba histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar DNA in stool samples

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    Parija Subhash C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background E. histolytica, a pathogenic amoeba, is indistinguishable in its cyst and trophozoite stages from those of non-pathogenic E. moshkovskii and E. dispar by light microscopy. We have developed a nested multiplex PCR targeting a 16S-like rRNA gene for differential detection of all the three morphologically similar forms of E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar simultaneously in stool samples. Results The species specific product size for E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar was 439, 553 and 174 bp respectively, which was clearly different for all the three Entamoeba species. The nested multiplex PCR showed a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 100% for the demonstration of E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar DNA in stool samples. The PCR was positive for E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar in a total of 190 out of 202 stool specimens (94% sensitive that were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii by examination of stool by microscopy and/or culture. All the 35 negative control stool samples that were negative for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii by microscopy and culture were also found negative by the nested multiplex PCR (100% specific. The result from the study shows that only 34.6% of the patient stool samples that were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii by examination of stool by microscopy and/or culture, were actually positive for pathogenic E. histolytica and the remaining majority of the stool samples were positive for non-pathogenic E. dispar or E. moshkovskii as demonstrated by the use of nested multiplex PCR. Conclusion The present study reports a new nested multiplex PCR strategy for species specific detection and differentiation of E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii DNA in stool specimens. The test is highly specific, sensitive and also rapid, providing the results within 12 hours of receiving stool specimens.

  4. Evidence for the bacterial origin of genes encoding fermentation enzymes of the amitochondriate protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, B; Mai, Z; Caplivski, D; Ghosh, S; de la Vega, H; Graf, T; Samuelson, J

    1997-06-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an amitochondriate protozoan parasite with numerous bacterium-like fermentation enzymes including the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR), ferredoxin (FD), and alcohol dehydrogenase E (ADHE). The goal of this study was to determine whether the genes encoding these cytosolic E. histolytica fermentation enzymes might derive from a bacterium by horizontal transfer, as has previously been suggested for E. histolytica genes encoding heat shock protein 60, nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase, and superoxide dismutase. In this study, the E. histolytica por gene and the adhE gene of a second amitochondriate protozoan parasite, Giardia lamblia, were sequenced, and their phylogenetic positions were estimated in relation to POR, ADHE, and FD cloned from eukaryotic and eubacterial organisms. The E. histolytica por gene encodes a 1,620-amino-acid peptide that contained conserved iron-sulfur- and thiamine pyrophosphate-binding sites. The predicted E. histolytica POR showed fewer positional identities to the POR of G. lamblia (34%) than to the POR of the enterobacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae (49%), the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. (44%), and the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis (46%), which targets its POR to anaerobic organelles called hydrogenosomes. Maximum-likelihood, neighbor-joining, and parsimony analyses also suggested as less likely E. histolytica POR sharing more recent common ancestry with G. lamblia POR than with POR of bacteria and the T. vaginalis hydrogenosome. The G. lamblia adhE encodes an 888-amino-acid fusion peptide with an aldehyde dehydrogenase at its amino half and an iron-dependent (class 3) ADH at its carboxy half. The predicted G. lamblia ADHE showed extensive positional identities to ADHE of Escherichia coli (49%), Clostridium acetobutylicum (44%), and E. histolytica (43%) and lesser identities to the class 3 ADH of eubacteria and yeast (19 to 36%). Phylogenetic analyses inferred a closer relationship of the E

  5. Cell-matrix interactions of Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar. A comparative study by electron-, atomic force- and confocal microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamás-Lara, Daniel, E-mail: daniel_talamas@hotmail.com [Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico City (Mexico); Talamás-Rohana, Patricia, E-mail: ptr@cinvestav.mx [Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico City (Mexico); Fragoso-Soriano, Rogelio Jaime, E-mail: rogelio@fis.cinvestav.mx [Department of Physics, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico City (Mexico); Espinosa-Cantellano, Martha, E-mail: mespinosac@cinvestav.mx [Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico City (Mexico); Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana, E-mail: bchavez@cinvestav.mx [Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico City (Mexico); González-Robles, Arturo, E-mail: goroa@cinvestav.mx [Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico City (Mexico); Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo, E-mail: amartine@cinvestav.mx [Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2015-10-01

    Invasion of tissues by Entamoeba histolytica is a multistep process that initiates with the adhesion of the parasite to target tissues. The recognition of the non-invasive Entamoeba dispar as a distinct, but closely related protozoan species raised the question as to whether the lack of its pathogenic potential could be related to a weaker adhesion due to limited cytoskeleton restructuring capacity. We here compared the adhesion process of both amebas to fibronectin through scanning, transmission, atomic force, and confocal microscopy. In addition, electrophoretic and western blot assays of actin were also compared. Adhesion of E. histolytica to fibronectin involves a dramatic reorganization of the actin network that results in a tighter contact to and the subsequent focal degradation of the fibronectin matrix. In contrast, E. dispar showed no regions of focal adhesion, the cytoskeleton was poorly reorganized and there was little fibronectin degradation. In addition, atomic force microscopy using topographic, error signal and phase modes revealed clear-cut differences at the site of contact of both amebas with the substrate. In spite of the morphological and genetic similarities between E. histolytica and E. dispar the present results demonstrate striking differences in their respective cell-to-matrix adhesion processes, which may be of relevance for understanding the invasive character of E. histolytica. - Highlights: • Striking differences in adhesion to FN between E. histolytica and E. dispar. • A greater degree of cell stiffness in E. histolytica with respect to E. dispar. • E. histolytica but not E. dispar forms regions of close contact with FN. • The actin cytoskeleton is involved in the pathogenicity of E. histolytica.

  6. Cell-matrix interactions of Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar. A comparative study by electron-, atomic force- and confocal microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamás-Lara, Daniel; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia; Fragoso-Soriano, Rogelio Jaime; Espinosa-Cantellano, Martha; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; González-Robles, Arturo; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Invasion of tissues by Entamoeba histolytica is a multistep process that initiates with the adhesion of the parasite to target tissues. The recognition of the non-invasive Entamoeba dispar as a distinct, but closely related protozoan species raised the question as to whether the lack of its pathogenic potential could be related to a weaker adhesion due to limited cytoskeleton restructuring capacity. We here compared the adhesion process of both amebas to fibronectin through scanning, transmission, atomic force, and confocal microscopy. In addition, electrophoretic and western blot assays of actin were also compared. Adhesion of E. histolytica to fibronectin involves a dramatic reorganization of the actin network that results in a tighter contact to and the subsequent focal degradation of the fibronectin matrix. In contrast, E. dispar showed no regions of focal adhesion, the cytoskeleton was poorly reorganized and there was little fibronectin degradation. In addition, atomic force microscopy using topographic, error signal and phase modes revealed clear-cut differences at the site of contact of both amebas with the substrate. In spite of the morphological and genetic similarities between E. histolytica and E. dispar the present results demonstrate striking differences in their respective cell-to-matrix adhesion processes, which may be of relevance for understanding the invasive character of E. histolytica. - Highlights: • Striking differences in adhesion to FN between E. histolytica and E. dispar. • A greater degree of cell stiffness in E. histolytica with respect to E. dispar. • E. histolytica but not E. dispar forms regions of close contact with FN. • The actin cytoskeleton is involved in the pathogenicity of E. histolytica

  7. Trichostatin A effects on gene expression in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica

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    Singh Upinder

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone modification regulates chromatin structure and influences gene expression associated with diverse biological functions including cellular differentiation, cancer, maintenance of genome architecture, and pathogen virulence. In Entamoeba, a deep-branching eukaryote, short chain fatty acids (SCFA affect histone acetylation and parasite development. Additionally, a number of active histone modifying enzymes have been identified in the parasite genome. However, the overall extent of gene regulation tied to histone acetylation is not known. Results In order to identify the genome-wide effects of histone acetylation in regulating E. histolytica gene expression, we used whole-genome expression profiling of parasites treated with SCFA and Trichostatin A (TSA. Despite significant changes in histone acetylation patterns, exposure of parasites to SCFA resulted in minimal transcriptional changes (11 out of 9,435 genes transcriptionally regulated. In contrast, exposure to TSA, a more specific inhibitor of histone deacetylases, significantly affected transcription of 163 genes (122 genes upregulated and 41 genes downregulated. Genes modulated by TSA were not regulated by treatment with 5-Azacytidine, an inhibitor of DNA-methyltransferase, indicating that in E. histolytica the crosstalk between DNA methylation and histone modification is not substantial. However, the set of genes regulated by TSA overlapped substantially with genes regulated during parasite development: 73/122 genes upregulated by TSA exposure were upregulated in E. histolytica cysts (p-value = 6 × 10-53 and 15/41 genes downregulated by TSA exposure were downregulated in E. histolytica cysts (p-value = 3 × 10-7. Conclusion This work represents the first genome-wide analysis of histone acetylation and its effects on gene expression in E. histolytica. The data indicate that SCFAs, despite their ability to influence histone acetylation, have minimal effects on gene

  8. [Detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar by polymerase chain reaction in a community in Zulia State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Zulbey; Bracho, Angela; Calchi, Marinella; Díaz, Iris; Acurero, Ellen; Maldonado, Adriana; Chourio, Glenis; Arráiz, Nailet; Corzo, Gilbert

    2009-01-01

    Differential identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar is essential for both appropriate patient treatment and epidemiological purposes. To determine the prevalence of these amoeba infections in Santa Rosa de Agua (Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela), a PCR assay using specific primers for each species was standardized and applied. 204 stool samples were analyzed through direct microscopic examination with SSF (0.85%) and lugol, formol-ether concentration, and PCR. Under direct microscopy, 42 individuals (20.58%) presented the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex. Meanwhile PCR showed 47 positive cases for these amoebas: 22 E. histolytica (10.78%), 16 E. dispar (7.84%), and 9 (4.41%) mixed infections. There was no significant difference in the presence of E. histolytica and/or E. dispar according to either gender or age. There were no cases of these amoebas in children under 2 years of age. Observed frequency of E. histolytica (31/204) shows the endemic nature of amoeba infection in this community.

  9. Detection of excretory Entamoeba histolytica DNA in the urine, and detection of E. histolytica DNA and lectin antigen in the liver abscess pus for the diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairnar Krishna

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amoebic liver abscess (ALA and pyogenic liver abscesses (PLA appear identical by ultrasound and other imaging techniques. Collection of blood or liver abscess pus for diagnosis of liver abscesses is an invasive procedure, and the procedure requires technical expertise and disposable syringes. Collection of urine is a noninvasive procedure. Therefore, there has been much interest shown towards the use of urine as an alternative clinical specimen for the diagnosis of some parasitic infections. Here, we report for the first time the detection of E. histolytica DNA excreted in the urine for diagnosis of the cases of ALA. Results E. histolytica DNA was detected in liver abscess pus specimen of 80.4% of ALA patients by a nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting 16S-like r RNA gene. The nested PCR detected E. histolytica DNA in all 37 (100% liver abscess pus specimens collected prior to metronidazole treatment, but were detected in only 53 of 75 (70.6% pus specimens collected after therapy with metronidazole. Similarly, the PCR detected E. histolytica DNA in 21 of 53 (39.6% urine specimens of ALA patients. The test detected E. histolytica DNA in only 4 of 23 (17.4% urine specimens collected prior to metronidazole treatment, but were detected in 17 of 30 (56.7% urine specimens collected after treatment with metronidazole. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of lectin E. histolytica antigen in the liver abscess pus showed a sensitivity of 50% and the indirect haemagglutination (IHA test for detection of amoebic antibodies in the serum showed a sensitivity of 76.8% for the diagnosis of the ALA. Conclusion The present study for the first time shows that the kidney barrier in ALA patients is permeable to E. histolytica DNA molecule resulting in excretion of E. histolytica DNA in urine which can be detected by PCR. The study also shows that the PCR for detection of E. histolytica DNA in urine of

  10. Utilization of Different Omic Approaches to Unravel Stress Response Mechanisms in the Parasite Entamoeba histolytica

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    Shruti Nagaraja

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During its life cycle, the unicellular parasite Entamoeba histolytica is challenged by a wide variety of environmental stresses, such as fluctuation in glucose concentration, changes in gut microbiota composition, and the release of oxidative and nitrosative species from neutrophils and macrophages. The best mode of survival for this parasite is to continuously adapt itself to the dynamic environment of the host. Our ability to study the stress-induced responses and adaptive mechanisms of this parasite has been transformed through the development of genomics, proteomics or metabolomics (omics sciences. These studies provide insights into different facets of the parasite's behavior in the host. However, there is a dire need for multi-omics data integration to better understand its pathogenic nature, ultimately paving the way to identify new chemotherapeutic targets against amebiasis. This review provides an integration of the most relevant omics information on the mechanisms that are used by E. histolytica to resist environmental stresses.

  11. Binding and Endocytosis of Bovine Hololactoferrin by the Parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    OpenAIRE

    Ort?z-Estrada, Guillermo; Calder?n-Salinas, V?ctor; Shibayama-Salas, Mineko; Le?n-Sicairos, Nidia; de la Garza, Mireya

    2015-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a human parasite that requires iron (Fe) for its metabolic function and virulence. Bovine lactoferrin (B-Lf) and its peptides can be found in the digestive tract after dairy products are ingested. The aim of this study was to compare virulent trophozoites recently isolated from hamster liver abscesses with nonvirulent trophozoites maintained for more than 30 years in cultures in vitro regarding their interaction with iron-charged B-Lf (B-holo-Lf). We performed growth ...

  12. In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Silver Nanoparticles on Entamoeba histolytica trophozoite

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    Zahra’a A. Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is a causative agent of amoebiasis, where it causes millions of cases of dysentery and liver abscess each year. Metronidazole is a drug of choice against amoebiasis. The drug is a choice because of its efficacy and low cost, but at the same time it causes several adverse side effects; therefore, it is important to find effective medications to treat amoebiasis without any complications or any side effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of different concentrations (50, 75 and 100 µg/ml of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs against trophozoites stages of E. histolytica in vitro. The results showed a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05 in numbers of trophozoites stages after treated with AgNPs and metronidazole when it was compared with the control. Likewise, a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 was also observed between AgNPs groups and metronidazole drug, while it did not significantly differ between different concentrations of AgNPs. The mortality rate values of the E. histolytica trophozoites after 48h incubation with AgNPs at a concentration of 50, 75 and 100 μg/ml, and metronidazole were 37.2%, 42.4%, 46.7% and 100%, respectively. The microscopic studies confirmed that AgNPs were effective enough to induce apoptosis. Based on our results, the anti-parasitic activity of AgNPs at different concentrations will reduce the mean number of E. histolytica trophozoites.

  13. Evaluation of amoebicidal potential of Paneth cell cryptdin-2 against Entamoeba histolytica.

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    Simran Preet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Amoebiasis is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Currently, metronidazole is the gold choice medication for the treatment of this disease. However, reports have indicated towards the possibility of development of metronidazole-resistance in Entamoeba strains in near future. In view of the emergence of this possibility, in addition to the associated side effects and mutagenic ability of the currently available anti-amoebic drugs, there is a need to explore newer therapeutics against this disease. In this context, the present study evaluated the amoebicidal potential of cryptdin-2 against E. histolytica. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, cryptdin-2 exhibited potent in-vitro amoebicidal activity against E. histolytica in a concentration dependent manner at a minimum amoebicidal concentration (MAC of 4 mg/L. Scanning electron microscopy as well as phase contrast microscopic investigations of cryptdin-2 treated trophozoites revealed that the peptide was able to induce significant morphological alterations in terms of membrane wrinkling, leakage of the cytoplasmic contents and damaged plasma membrane suggesting a possible membrane dependent amoebicidal activity. N-phenyl napthylamine (NPN uptake assay in presence of sulethal, lethal as well as twice the lethal concentrations further confirmed the membrane-dependent mode of action of cryptdin-2 and suggested that the peptide could permeabilize the plasma membrane of E. histolytica. It was also found that cryptdin-2 interfered with DNA, RNA as well as protein synthesis of E. histolytica exerting the highest effect against DNA synthesis. Thus, the macromolecular synthesis studies correlated well with the observations of membrane permeabilization studies. SIGNIFICANCE/CONCLUSIONS: The amoebicidal efficacy of cryptdin-2 suggests that it may be exploited as a promising option to combat amoebiasis or, at least, may act as an adjunct to

  14. Viability of Ascaris suum eggs in stored raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Roepstorff, Allan Knud; Popovic, Olga

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Separation of pig slurry into solid and liquid fractions is gaining importance as a way to manage increasing volumes of slurry. In contrast to solid manure and slurry, little is known about pathogen survival in separated liquid slurry. The viability of Ascaris suum eggs, a conservative...... indicator of fecal pollution, and its association with ammonia was investigated in separated liquid slurry in comparison with raw slurry. For this purpose nylon bags with 6000 eggs each were placed in 1 litre bottles containing one of the two fractions for 308 days at 5 °C or 25 °C. Initial analysis...... of helminth eggs in the separated liquid slurry revealed 47 Ascaris eggs per gramme. At 25 °C, egg viability declined to zero with a similar trend in both raw slurry and the separated liquid slurry by day 308, a time when at 5 °C 88% and 42% of the eggs were still viable in separated liquid slurry and raw...

  15. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii infection among three Orang Asli ethnic groups in Malaysia.

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    Tengku Shahrul Anuar

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii infection is still prevalent in rural Malaysia especially among Orang Asli communities. Currently, information on prevalence of this infection among different ethnic groups of Orang Asli is unavailable in Malaysia. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional study aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii infection was carried out among three Orang Asli ethnic groups (Proto-Malay, Negrito, and Senoi in selected villages in Negeri Sembilan, Perak, and Pahang states, Malaysia.Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Of 500 individuals, 8.7% (13/150 of Proto-Malay, 29.5% (41/139 of Negrito, and 18.5% (39/211 of Senoi were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii, respectively. The prevalence of this infection showed an age-dependency relationship, with higher rates observed among those aged less than 15 years in all ethnic groups studied. Multivariate analysis confirmed that not washing hands after playing with soils or gardening and presence of other family members infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii were significant risk factors of infection among all ethnic groups. However, eating with hands, the consumption of raw vegetables, and close contact with domestic animals were identified as significant risk factors in Senoi.Essentially, the findings highlighted that E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii parasites are still prevalent in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the morphologically identical species of pathogenic, E. histolytica from the non-pathogenic, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are needed. The establishment of such data will be beneficial for the public health authorities in the planning and implementation of specific

  16. Roles of cell adhesion and cytoskeleton activity in Entamoeba histolytica pathogenesis: a delicate balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Paulo; Rigothier, Marie-Christine; Khun, Huot; Roux, Pascal; Huerre, Michel; Guillén, Nancy

    2005-03-01

    The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica colonizes the human large bowel. Invasion of the intestinal epithelium causes amoebic colitis and opens the route for amoebic liver abscesses. The parasite relies on its dynamic actomyosin cytoskeleton and on surface adhesion molecules for dissemination in the human tissues. Here we show that the galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (Gal/GalNAc) lectin clusters in focal structures localized in the region of E. histolytica that contacts monolayers of enterocytes. Disruption of myosin II activity impairs the formation of these structures and renders the trophozoites avirulent for liver abscess development. Production of the cytoplasmic domain of the E. histolytica Gal/GalNAc lectin in engineered trophozoites causes reduced adhesion to enterocytes. Intraportal delivery of these parasites to the liver leads to the formation of a large number of small abscesses with disorganized morphology that are localized in the vicinity of blood vessels. The data support a model for invasion in which parasite motility is essential for establishment of infectious foci, while the adhesion to host cells modulates the distribution of trophozoites in the liver and their capacity to migrate in the hepatic tissue.

  17. Real-time analysis of gut flora in Entamoeba histolytica infected patients of Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Anil Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amebic dysentery is caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica and the ingestion of quadrinucleate cyst of E. histolytica from fecally contaminated food or water initiates infection. Excystation occurs in the lumen of small intestine, where motile and potentially invasive trophozoites germinate from cysts. The ability of trophozoites to interact and digest gut bacteria is apparently important for multiplication of the parasite and its pathogenicity; however the contribution of resident bacterial flora is not well understood. We quantified the population of Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Ruminococcus, Lactobacillus, Clostridium leptum subgroup, Clostridium coccoides subgroup, Eubacterium, Campylobacter, Methanobrevibacter smithii and Sulphur reducing bacteria using genus specific primers in healthy (N = 22 vs amebic patients (E. histolytica positive, N = 17 stool samples by Real-time PCR. Results Absolute quantification of Bacteroides (p = .001, Closrtridium coccoides subgroup (p = 0.002, Clostridium leptum subgroup (p = 0.0001, Lactobacillus (p = 0.037, Campylobacter (p = 0.0014 and Eubacterium (p = 0.038 show significant drop in their population however, significant increase in Bifdobacterium (p = 0.009 was observed where as the population of Ruminococcus (p = 0.33 remained unaltered in healthy vs amebic patients (E. histolytica positive. We also report high prevalence of nimE gene in stool samples of both healthy volunteers and amebic patients. No significant decrease in nimE gene copy number was observed before and after the treatment with antiamebic drug. Conclusions Our results show significant alteration in predominant gut bacteria in E. histolytica infected individuals. The frequent episodes of intestinal amoebic dysentery thus result in depletion of few predominant genera in gut that may lead to poor digestion and absorption of food in intestine. It further disturbs

  18. Decoding the Ascaris suum genome using massively parallel sequencing and advanced bioinformatic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jex, Aaron R.; Liu, Shiping; Li, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes cause substantial morbidity and mortality in animals and people globally and major losses to food production annually. Ascaris is among the commonest geohelminths of swine and people worldwide, and causes major disease and socioeconomic losses, particularly in developing count...

  19. Ascaris suum infection negatively affects the response to a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination and subsequent challenge infection in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is vital to understand the possible mechanisms that may impair optimal vaccine efficacy. The hypothesis posed in this study was that a concurrent Ascaris suum infection of pigs vaccinated with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) vaccine would modulate the protective immune response to a subsequent ch...

  20. In Entamoeba histolytica, a BspA family protein is required for chemotaxis toward tumour necrosis factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Silvestre

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Entamoeba histolytica cell migration is essential for the development of human amoebiasis (an infectious disease characterized by tissue invasion and destruction. The tissue inflammation associated with tumour necrosis factor (TNF secretion by host cells is a well-documented feature of amoebiasis. Tumour necrosis factor is a chemoattractant for E. histolytica, and the parasite may have a TNF receptor at its cell surface. Methods: confocal microscopy, RNA Sequencing, bioinformatics, RNA antisense techniques and histological analysis of human colon explants were used to characterize the interplay between TNF and E. histolytica. Results: an antibody against human TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1 stained the E. histolytica trophozoite surface and (on immunoblots binds to a 150-kDa protein. Proteome screening with the TNFR1 sequence revealed a BspA family protein in E. histolytica that carries a TNFR signature domain and six leucine-rich repeats (named here as "cell surface protein", CSP, in view of its cellular location. Cell surface protein shares structural homologies with Toll-Like receptors, colocalizes with TNF and is internalized in TNF-containing vesicles. Reduction of cellular CSP levels abolished chemotaxis toward TNF and blocked parasite invasion of human colon. Conclusions: there is a clear link between TNF chemotaxis, CSP and pathogenesis.

  1. Sludge hygienization: Helminth eggs destruction by lime treatment Ascaris eggs as model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banas, S.; Schwartzbrod, J. [Lab. de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie de l' Environnement, Nancy (France); Remy, M. [Lhoist, on behalf of the European Lime Assoication (EuLA), Bruessel (Germany); Boehm, R. [Univ. Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany); Verfuerden, M. [Fels-Werke GmbH, im Namen des Bundesverbandes der Deutschen Kalkindustrie (BVK), Koeln (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Most pathogens in the raw sewage are concentrated into the sewage sludge. They can be separated into four categories: viruses, bacteria, protozoa and larger parasites such as human roundworms, tapeworms and liver flukes. Such micro-organisms can cause disease in humans, the transmission occurring in several ways e.g. by inhaling sludge aerosols or dust, by eating vegetables or fruits contaminated by sludge, drinking water contaminated by run-off or by eating meat from livestock infected by grazing pastures fertilised with sludge. The presence of helminth eggs in urban sludge may constitute a sanitary risk when used as agricultural fertiliser. To avoid any contamination, the efficiency of a certain number of sludge hygienization processes must be tested. One of these involves decontamination with quicklime. The Ascaris egg inactivation by liming with lime milk, slaked lime and quicklime is studied in a series of sludges coming from slaughterhouses. (orig.)

  2. Environmental contamination and transmission of Ascaris suum in Danish organic pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran K.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although Ascaris suum is the most common pig nematode, the on-farm transmission dynamics are not well described. Methods: We performed a 1-year field study on five organic pig farms, mapping egg contamination levels in pens and pasture soil as well as faecal egg counts in starter pigs...... % in starters, finishers, dry and lactating sows, respectively. For starters and finishers, the prevalence varied with season increasing towards the end of the year when 83-96 % of finishing pigs from each farm had fresh liver white spots. Farrowing pastures were contaminated with a mean of 78-171 larvated eggs....../kg dry soil depending on farm, while pastures for starter pigs contained 290-5397 larvated eggs/kg dry soil. The concentration of eggs in soil was highest in the autumn. Indoors, all pen areas were contaminated with A. suum eggs at comparable levels for shallow and deep litter. Overall there were 106...

  3. Survival of Ascaris eggs and hygienic quality of human excreta in Vietnamese composting latrines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter K. M.; Phuc, Pham D.; Konradsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    this is the length of time that farmers have available to produce fertilizer between two cropping seasons. This study aimed to investigate whether hygienically safe fertilizer could be produced in the latrines within this period of time. Methods: By inoculating eggs of the helminth parasite indicator Ascaris suum...... from 9.4 to 11.6, a >99% die-off of eggs was obtained after 105 to 117 days of storage for all lime concentrations and 97% of eggs were nonviable after 88 days of storage. The most critical parameter found to determine the die-off process was the amount of ammonia (urine) in the excreta which indicates...... that longer storage periods are needed for parasite egg die-off if urine is separated from the excreta. Conclusion: By inactivating >99% of all A. suum eggs in human excreta during a storage period of only three months the commonly used Double Vault Composting (DVC) latrine, in which urine is not separated...

  4. Full scale validation of helminth ova (Ascaris suum) inactivation by different sludge treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsrud, B.; Gjerde, B.; Lundar, A.

    2003-07-01

    The Norwegian sewage sludge regulation requires disinfection (hygienisation) of all sludges for land application, and one of the criteria is that disinfected sludge should not contain viable helminth ova. All disinfection processes have to be designed and operated in order to comply with this criteria, and four processes employed in Norway (thermophilic aerobic pre-treatment, pre-pasteurisation, thermal vacuum drying in membrane filter presses and lime treatment) have been tested in full scale by inserting semipermeable bags of Ascaris suum eggs into the processes for certain limes. For lime treatment supplementary laboratory tests have been conducted. The paper presents the results of the experiments, and it could be concluded that all processes, except lime treatment, could be operated at less stringent time-temperature regimes than commonly experienced at Norwegian plants today. (author)

  5. Serum antibody responses in pigs trickle-infected with Ascaris and Trichuris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringel, Helene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Petersen, Heidi Huus

    2015-01-01

    A humoral immune response following helminth infection in pigs is well documented. However, it has been difficult to confirm the existence of antibody mediated resistance against the large roundworm, Ascaris suum, and whipworm, Trichuris suis, in experimental settings by correlating worm burdens...... or egg excretion with specific antibody levels. We set out to investigate the association between worm load and T. suis and A. suum specific serum antibody levels (IgG1, IgG2 and IgA) against excretory-secretory products of adults and third stage larvae, respectively, measured at 0, 7 and 14 weeks p.......i. in a trickle-infected F1-resource-population of crossbred pigs (n=195). Furthermore, we wanted to determine the heritability of these antibody isotypes during the course of infection. Most pigs remained infected with A. suum throughout the experiment while they expelled T. suis between 7 and 14 weeks post...

  6. Distribution of 3H-GABA uptake sites in the nematode Ascaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guastella, J.; Stretton, A.O.

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of uptake sites for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the nematode Ascaris suum was examined by autoradiography of 3H-GABA uptake. Single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords were labeled with 3H-GABA. Serial section analysis identified the cells of origin of these processes as the RMEV-like and RMED-like neurons. These cells belong to a set of four neurons in the nerve ring, all of which are labeled by 3H-GABA. 3H-GABA labeling of at least two other sets of cephalic neurons was seen. One of these pairs consists of medium-sized lateral ganglia neurons, located at the level of the amphid commissure bundle. A second pair is located in the lateral ganglia at the level of the deirid commissure bundle. The position and size of these lateral ganglia cells suggest that they are the GABA-immunoreactive lateral ganglia cells frequently seen in whole-mount immunocytochemical preparations. Four neuronal cell bodies located in the retrovesicular ganglion were also labeled with 3H-GABA. These cells, which are probably cholinergic excitatory motor neurons, do not contain detectable GABA-like immunoreactivity. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed. The ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motor neurons, which are known to contain GABA-like immunoreactivity, were not labeled above background with 3H-GABA. Together with the experiments reported previously, these results define three classes of GABA-associated neurons in Ascaris: (1) neurons that contain endogenous GABA and possess a GABA uptake system; (2) neurons that contain endogenous GABA, but that either lack a GABA uptake system or possess a GABA uptake system of low activity; (3) neurons that possess a GABA uptake system, but that lack endogenous GABA

  7. Worldwide genealogy of Entamoeba histolytica: an overview to understand haplotype distribution and infection outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zermeño, Valeria; Ximénez, Cecilia; Morán, Patricia; Valadez, Alicia; Valenzuela, Olivia; Rascón, Edgar; Diaz, Daniel; Cerritos, René

    2013-07-01

    Although Entamoeba histolytica is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites, how the different strains of this species are distributed all over the world and how different genotypes are associated with the infection outcome are yet to be fully understood. Recently, the use of a number of molecular markers has made the characterization of several genotypes in those regions with high incidence of amoebiasis possible. This work proposes the first genealogy of E. histolytica, with an haplotype network based on two tRNA gene-linked array of Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) reported until today, and 47 sequences from 39 new isolates of Mexican Amoebic Liver Abscesses (ALA) samples. One hundred and three sequences were obtained from D-A locus, their information about the geographic region of isolation as well as clinical diagnosis were also collected. One hundred and five sequences from N-K2 locus were also obtained as well as the region of isolation, but the information about clinical diagnosis was not available in all cases. The most abundant and widely distributed haplotype in the world is the one of E. histolytica HM1:IMSS strain. This was found in Mexico, Bangladesh, Japan, China and USA and is associated to symptomatic patients as well as asymptomatic cyst passers. Many other haplotypes were found only in a single country. Both genealogies suggest that there are no lineages within the networks that may be related to a particular geographic region or infection outcome. A concatenated analysis of the two molecular markers revealed 12 different combinations, which suggests the possibility of genetic recombination events. The present study is the first to propose a global genealogy of this species and suggests that there are still many genotypes to be discovered. The genotyping of new isolates will help to understand the great diversity and genetic structure of this parasite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-sensing mechanism is activated in Entamoeba histolytica upon treatment with nitric oxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Santi-Rocca

    Full Text Available The Endoplasmic Reticulum stores calcium and is a site of protein synthesis and modification. Changes in ER homeostasis lead to stress responses with an activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR. The Entamoeba histolytica endomembrane system is simple compared to those of higher eukaryotes, as a canonical ER is not observed. During amoebiasis, an infection of the human intestine and liver by E. histolytica, nitric oxide (NO triggers an apoptotic-like event preceded by an impairment of energy production and a loss of important parasite pathogenic features. We address the question of how this ancient eukaryote responds to stress induced by immune components (i.e. NO and whether stress leads to ER changes and subsequently to an UPR. Gene expression analysis suggested that NO triggers stress responses marked by (i dramatic up-regulation of hsp genes although a bona fide UPR is absent; (ii induction of DNA repair and redox gene expression and iii up-regulation of glycolysis-related gene expression. Enzymology approaches demonstrate that NO directly inhibits glycolysis and enhance cysteine synthase activity. Using live imaging and confocal microscopy we found that NO dramatically provokes extensive ER fragmentation. ER fission in E. histolytica appears as a protective response against stress, as it has been recently proposed for neuron self-defense during neurologic disorders. Chronic ER stress is also involved in metabolic diseases including diabetes, where NO production reduces ER calcium levels and activates cell death. Our data highlighted unique cellular responses of interest to understand the mechanisms of parasite death during amoebiasis.

  9. [Prevalence of intestinal microsporidia and other intestinal parasites in hiv positive patients from Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Rodríguez, Zulbey; Hernández, Amparo; Bracho, Ángela; Salazar, Solneumar; Villalobos, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    To detect the presence of microsporidia and other enteric parasites in patients with HIVAIDS of the Autonomous Services University Hospital of Maracaibo (SAHUM), where there are no previous studies in this field. Fecal samples were analyzed by means of direct exam, concetration method with formal-ether, Kinyoun coloration and fast Gram-Chromotrope coloration. Separate PCR were perfomed to differentiate Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar , when the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex was observed in the microscope. Information on the patient was obtained trough clinical history. Of 56 individuals that participated, 38 (67.86%) presented some commensal parasite and/ or pathogenic species in their fecal sample. Carriers of pathogenic species were predominat (26/38). Protozoa such as Isospora belli protozoa (17.65%), Blastocystis spp. (17.65%), Cryptosporidium spp. (7.84%), E. histolytica/E. dispar (5.88%), Entamoeba coli (3.92%), Giardia lamblia (3.92%), Endolimax nana (3.92%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (3.92%), and Chilomastix mesnilli (1.96%) were diagnosed. Among the helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Strongyloides stercoralis , had a percentage of 27.27% each, and Hymenolepis nana , 18.18%. Entamoeba histolytica was only detected in one of three cases presenting complex microscopic examination. By Gram-chromotrope, 17 samples showed spores of the Microsporidia phylum, equivalent to 33.33% prevalence. Microsporidia may be first prevalente in HIV positive patients when specific diagnostic techniques are used.

  10. Technical advances in trigger-induced RNA interference gene silencing in the parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohamed I; Foda, Bardees M; Suresh, Susmitha; Singh, Upinder

    2016-03-01

    Entamoeba histolytica has a robust endogenous RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. There are abundant 27 nucleotide (nt) anti-sense small RNAs (AS sRNAs) that target genes for silencing and the genome encodes many genes involved in the RNAi pathway such as Argonaute proteins. Importantly, an E. histolytica gene with numerous AS sRNAs can function as a "trigger" to induce silencing of a gene that is fused to the trigger. Thus, the amebic RNAi pathway regulates gene expression relevant to amebic biology and has additionally been harnessed as a tool for genetic manipulation. In this study we have further improved the trigger-induced gene silencing method. We demonstrate that rather than using the full-length gene, a short portion of the coding region fused to a trigger is sufficient to induce silencing; the first 537 bp of the E. histolytica rhomboid gene (EhROM1) fused in-frame to the trigger was sufficient to silence EhROM1. We also demonstrated that the trigger method could silence two amebic genes concomitantly; fusion of the coding regions of EhROM1 and transcription factor, EhMyb, in-frame to a trigger gene resulted in both genes being silenced. Alternatively, two genes can be silenced sequentially: EhROM1-silenced parasites with no drug selection plasmid were transfected with trigger-EhMyb, resulting in parasites with both EhROM1 and EhMyb silenced. With all approaches tested, the trigger-mediated silencing was substantive and silencing was maintained despite loss of the G418 selectable marker. All gene silencing was associated with generation of AS sRNAs to the silenced gene. We tested the reversibility of the trigger system using inhibitors of histone modifications but found that the silencing was highly stable. This work represents a technical advance in the trigger gene silencing method in E. histolytica. Approaches that readily silence multiple genes add significantly to the genetic toolkit available to the ameba research community. Copyright © 2016

  11. An Experimental Animal Model for the Study of Immunity to Entamoeba Histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-15

    off the injury, amebae were proliferating toc rapidly and starting new lesions by invading normal tissue. Masses of trophozoites were often seen...rnu CC 4C- rr rn r NU n 55- B 0 55 to of5 C -- NN 555 3 0 t is 5’ 1 0 It t toC -@ to . ~413 ofU to -4~ 0000% 00 000 00 of 0. a of .0.~ OIL %De-o Sit 0...del sistema fagocftico mononuclear en hamsters infectados con Entamoeba histolytica. Archivos de Investigaci6n M-dica 11(suppl. 1):235-240; 1980b. 68

  12. Host tissue destruction by Entamoeba histolytica: molecules mediating adhesion, cytolysis, and proteolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf D. Horstmann

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan parasite causing human amoebisis, has recently been found to comprise two genetically distinct forms, potentially pathogenic and constitutively nonpathogenic ones. Host tissue destruction by pathogenic forms is belived to result from cell functions mediaed by a lectin-type adherence receptor, a pore-forming peptide involved in host cell lysis, and abundant expression of cysteine proteinase(s. Isolation and molecular cloning of these amoeba products have provided the tools for structural analyses and manipulations of cell functions including comparisons between pathogenic and nonpathogenic forms.

  13. Secretion of acid phosphatase by axenic Entamoeba histolytica NIH-200 and properties of the extracellular enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, A; Pandey, V C; Kumar, S; Sagar, P

    1989-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica (NIH-200) secreted large amounts of acid phosphatase in its external environment when grown axenically in modified TPS-II medium. Fractionation by DEAE-cellulose chromatography of the precipitate obtained from the cell-free medium at 60% ammonium sulfate saturation yielded 3 distinct peaks of enzyme activity. The enzyme in all the peaks showed resistance to tartrate but was inhibited by fluoride, cupric chloride, ethylene diamine-tetra acetic acid, ammonium molybdate and cysteine; however, enzyme associated with different peaks differed in its polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic profiles and behavior towards concanavalin A.

  14. Fate of Entamoeba histolytica during establishment of amoebic liver abscess analyzed by quantitative radioimaging and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigothier, Marie-Christine; Khun, Hout; Tavares, Paulo; Cardona, Ana; Huerre, Michel; Guillén, Nancy

    2002-06-01

    The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amoebiasis, a human disease characterized by dysentery and liver abscess. The physiopathology of hepatic lesions can be satisfactorily reproduced in the hamster animal model by the administration of trophozoites through the portal vein route. Hamsters were infected with radioactively labeled amoebas for analysis of liver abscess establishment and progression. The radioimaging of material from parasite origin and quantification of the number inflammation foci, with or without amoebas, described here provides the first detailed assessment of trophozoite survival and death during liver infection by E. histolytica. The massive death of trophozoites observed in the first hours postinfection correlates with the presence of a majority of inflammatory foci without parasites. A critical point for success of infection is reached after 12 h when the lowest number of trophozoites is observed. The process then enters a commitment phase during which parasites multiply and the size of the infection foci increases fast. The liver shows extensive areas of dead hepatocytes that are surrounded by a peripheral layer of parasites facing inflammatory cells leading to acute inflammation. Our results show that the host response promotes massive parasite death but also suggest also that this is a major contributor to the establishment of inflammation during development of liver abscess.

  15. In vitro induction of Entamoeba histolytica cyst-like structures from trophozoites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Aguilar-Díaz

    Full Text Available Inhibition of encystment can be conceived as a potentially useful mechanism to block the transmission of Entamoeba histolytica under natural conditions. Unfortunately, amoeba encystment has not been achieved in vitro and drugs inhibiting the formation of cysts are not available. Luminal conditions inducing encystment in vivo are also unknown, but cellular stress such as exposure to reactive oxygen species from immune cells or intestinal microbiota could be involved. A role for certain divalent cations as cofactors of enzymes involved in excystment has also been described. In this study, we show that trophozoite cultures, treated with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of trace amounts of several cations, transform into small-sized spherical and refringent structures that exhibit resistance to different detergents. Ultrastructural analysis under scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed multinucleated structures (some with four nuclei with smooth, thick membranes and multiple vacuoles. Staining with calcofluor white, as well as an ELISA binding assay using wheat germ agglutinin, demonstrated the presence of polymers of N-acetylglucosamine (chitin, which is the primary component of the natural cyst walls. Over-expression of glucosamine 6-phosphate isomerase, likely to be the rate-limiting enzyme in the chitin synthesis pathway, was also confirmed by RT-PCR. These results suggest that E. histolytica trophozoites activated encystment pathways when exposed to our treatment.

  16. Entamoeba histolytica phagocytosis of human erythrocytes involves PATMK, a member of the transmembrane kinase family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R Boettner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is the cause of amebic colitis and liver abscess. This parasite induces apoptosis in host cells and utilizes exposed ligands such as phosphatidylserine to ingest the apoptotic corpses and invade deeper into host tissue. The purpose of this work was to identify amebic proteins involved in the recognition and ingestion of dead cells. A member of the transmembrane kinase family, phagosome-associated TMK96 (PATMK, was identified in a proteomic screen for early phagosomal proteins. Anti-peptide affinity-purified antibody produced against PATMK demonstrated that it was a type I integral membrane protein that was expressed on the trophozoite surface, and that co-localized with human erythrocytes at the site of contact. The role of PATMK in erythrophagocytosis in vitro was demonstrated by: (i incubation of ameba with anti-PATMK antibodies; (ii PATMK mRNA knock-down using a novel shRNA expression system; and (iii expression of a carboxy-truncation of PATMK (PATMK(delta932. Expression of the carboxy-truncation of PATMK(delta932 also caused a specific reduction in the ability of E. histolytica to establish infection in the intestinal model of amebiasis, however these amebae retained the ability to cause hepatic abscesses when directly injected in the liver. In conclusion, PATMK was identified as a member of the TMK family that participates in erythrophagocytosis and is uniquely required for intestinal infection.

  17. Crystal structure and putative substrate identification for the Entamoeba histolytica low molecular weight tyrosine phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Alicia S; Jiang, Nona M; Edwards, Thomas E; Sherman, Nicholas E; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Stewart, Lance J; Myler, Peter J; Staker, Bart L; Petri, William A

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a eukaryotic intestinal parasite of humans, and is endemic in developing countries. We have characterized the E. histolytica putative low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMW-PTP). The structure for this amebic tyrosine phosphatase was solved, showing the ligand-induced conformational changes necessary for binding of substrate. In amebae, it was expressed at low but detectable levels as detected by immunoprecipitation followed by immunoblotting. A mutant LMW-PTP protein in which the catalytic cysteine in the active site was replaced with a serine lacked phosphatase activity, and was used to identify a number of trapped putative substrate proteins via mass spectrometry analysis. Seven of these putative substrate protein genes were cloned with an epitope tag and overexpressed in amebae. Five of these seven putative substrate proteins were demonstrated to interact specifically with the mutant LMW-PTP. This is the first biochemical study of a small tyrosine phosphatase in Entamoeba, and sets the stage for understanding its role in amebic biology and pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Entamoeba histolytica phagocytosis of human erythrocytes involves PATMK, a member of the transmembrane kinase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettner, Douglas R; Huston, Christopher D; Linford, Alicia S; Buss, Sarah N; Houpt, Eric; Sherman, Nicholas E; Petri, William A

    2008-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the cause of amebic colitis and liver abscess. This parasite induces apoptosis in host cells and utilizes exposed ligands such as phosphatidylserine to ingest the apoptotic corpses and invade deeper into host tissue. The purpose of this work was to identify amebic proteins involved in the recognition and ingestion of dead cells. A member of the transmembrane kinase family, phagosome-associated TMK96 (PATMK), was identified in a proteomic screen for early phagosomal proteins. Anti-peptide affinity-purified antibody produced against PATMK demonstrated that it was a type I integral membrane protein that was expressed on the trophozoite surface, and that co-localized with human erythrocytes at the site of contact. The role of PATMK in erythrophagocytosis in vitro was demonstrated by: (i) incubation of ameba with anti-PATMK antibodies; (ii) PATMK mRNA knock-down using a novel shRNA expression system; and (iii) expression of a carboxy-truncation of PATMK (PATMK(delta932)). Expression of the carboxy-truncation of PATMK(delta932) also caused a specific reduction in the ability of E. histolytica to establish infection in the intestinal model of amebiasis, however these amebae retained the ability to cause hepatic abscesses when directly injected in the liver. In conclusion, PATMK was identified as a member of the TMK family that participates in erythrophagocytosis and is uniquely required for intestinal infection.

  19. A proteomic and cellular analysis of uropods in the pathogen Entamoeba histolytica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Marquay Markiewicz

    Full Text Available Exposure of Entamoeba histolytica to specific ligands induces cell polarization via the activation of signalling pathways and cytoskeletal elements. The process leads to formation of a protruding pseudopod at the front of the cell and a retracting uropod at the rear. In the present study, we show that the uropod forms during the exposure of trophozoites to serum isolated from humans suffering of amoebiasis. To investigate uropod assembly, we used LC-MS/MS technology to identify protein components in isolated uropod fractions. The galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine lectin, the immunodominant antigen M17 (which is specifically recognized by serum from amoeba-infected persons and a few other cells adhesion-related molecules were primarily involved. Actin-rich cytoskeleton components, GTPases from the Rac and Rab families, filamin, α-actinin and a newly identified ezrin-moesin-radixin protein were the main factors found to potentially interact with capped receptors. A set of specific cysteine proteases and a serine protease were enriched in isolated uropod fractions. However, biological assays indicated that cysteine proteases are not involved in uropod formation in E. histolytica, a fact in contrast to the situation in human motile immune cells. The surface proteins identified here are testable biomarkers which may be either recognized by the immune system and/or released into the circulation during amoebiasis.

  20. Detection and genotyping of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum by oligonucleotide microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Vora, Gary J; Stenger, David A

    2004-07-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are the most frequently identified protozoan parasites causing waterborne disease outbreaks. The morbidity and mortality associated with these intestinal parasitic infections warrant the development of rapid and accurate detection and genotyping methods to aid public health efforts aimed at preventing and controlling outbreaks. In this study, we describe the development of an oligonucleotide microarray capable of detecting and discriminating between E. histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, G. lamblia assemblages A and B, and C. parvum types 1 and 2 in a single assay. Unique hybridization patterns for each selected protozoan were generated by amplifying six to eight diagnostic sequences/organism by multiplex PCR; fluorescent labeling of the amplicons via primer extension; and subsequent hybridization to a set of genus-, species-, and subtype-specific covalently immobilized oligonucleotide probes. The profile-based specificity of this methodology not only permitted for the unequivocal identification of the six targeted species and subtypes, but also demonstrated its potential in identifying related species such as Cryptosporidium meleagridis and Cryptosporidium muris. In addition, sensitivity assays demonstrated lower detection limits of five trophozoites of G. lamblia. Taken together, the specificity and sensitivity of the microarray-based approach suggest that this methodology may provide a promising tool to detect and genotype protozoa from clinical and environmental samples.

  1. An attemp at reversibility and increase of the virulence of axenic strains of Entamoeba histolytica Tentativa de reversibilidade e aumento de virulência de cepas axônicas de Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Gomes

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have tried to verify whether the interaction "in vitro" with bacteria or small pieces of normal hamster liver would modify the pathogenic behavior of axenic strains of E. histolytica: avirulent ones (ICB-32 and ICB-RPS, of attenuated virulence (ICB-CSP and HM1 and of mean virulence (ICB-462. Every attempt to render virulent, recover or increase the virulence of axenic strains of E. histolytica has failedNeste trabalho procuramos verificar se a interação "in vitro" com bactérias e fragmentos de fígado de hamster normal, modificaria o comportamento patogênico de cepas axênicas de E. histolytica avirulentas (ICB-32 e ICB-RPS; virulentas, porém atenuadas (ICB-CSP e HM1 e de média virulência (ICB-462. Todas as tentativas de tornar virulentas, restabelecer ou aumentar a virulência das cepas axênicas de E. histolytica utilizadas fracassaram

  2. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of acute diarrhea with emphasis on Entamoeba histolytica infections in preschool children in an urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Rashidul; Mondal, Dinesh; Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Akther, Selim; Farr, Barry M; Sack, R Bradley; Petri, William A

    2003-10-01

    The epidemiology, clinical features, nutritional status, and causative agents of diarrhea were studied in 289 Bangladeshi children (147 boys and 142 girls) 2-5 years old. The use of improved diagnostic tests for amebiasis enabled for the first time analysis of the contribution of Entamoeba histolytica to total diarrheal illness in this community setting. The average incidence rate of diarrhea was 1.8/child-year, and the average number of diarrheal days was 3.7 days/child-year over an average observation period of 2.8 years/child. Seventy-five percent of the diarrheal episodes were sp. (10%), E. histolytica (8.7%), Campylobacter jejunii (5.8%), P. shigelloides (4.3%), and A. caviae (4.3%). The overall incidence rate of E. histolytica-associated diarrhea was 0.08/child-year. Visible blood and hemoccult test-detected blood loss was found in 7% and 25%, respectively, of cases of E. histolytica-associated diarrhea. Children who had recovered from a diarrheal episode with E. histolytica, but not E. dispar, had half the chance of developing subsequent E. histolytica-associated diarrhea, consistent with the development of species-specific acquired immunity. In conclusion, the use of modern diagnostic tests demonstrated that E. histolytica contributed to overall morbidity from diarrheal illness. Understanding the etiology, frequency, and consequences of acute diarrhea in children from a developing country should aid in the design of interventions to improve child health.

  3. Measurement of anti-Ascaris IgE antibody levels in tropical allergic patients, using modified ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, N R; Pérez, M; López, R I; Turner, K J

    1987-01-01

    The two most common situations in which the determination of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels is of interest are allergic disease and helminthic infection. This is of particular importance in the tropical environment, as helminthiasis possibly influences the expression of allergic reactivity. Because of the low absolute serum levels of IgE, solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) is conventionally used for its measurement. The radioactive and toxic volatile reagents required restricted application of such assays in the tropical situation. We evaluated a nitrocellulose-based, avidin biotin-amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IgE, in which monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies were employed. Excellent correlations were obtained between ELISA and RIA for both total and allergen-specific IgE measurement. The ELISA was then applied to determine the levels of anti-Ascaris antibodies in selected allergic patients, in whom no cutaneous immediate hypersensitivity reactions were demonstrated against common environmental allergens such as house dust, but who had positive skin reactions to Ascaris extract. When compared with non-allergic subjects who had equivalent cutaneous reactivity, no significant differences were found in total IgE levels, house-dust specific IgE levels or non-reaginic anti-Ascaris antibody levels. However, higher levels of IgE antibody against the parasite were detected in the allergic subjects. This observation raises the question of the possible role of Ascaris infection in the stimulation of allergic reactions in such patients. We describe an immunoenzymatic assay for total and specific IgE antibody that is better adapted to the tropical situation than the commonly used radioimmunoassays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Development and survival of Ascaris suum eggs in deep litter of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Indoor transmission of Ascaris suum partly depends on the physico-chemical conditions in bedding material. Temperature, pH, aqueous ammonia, moisture, occurrence and development of A. suum eggs were therefore compared in different areas (resting, intermediate and latrine) of two deep litter......·7 °C) levels. The area contained few eggs (50 eggs g-1 DM) of which 17% were viable, and though only 4% were larvated and 0·7% appeared infective, it was more than in the other areas. Intermediate areas had moderate moisture (43%) and high temperature (43·6 °C) levels. There were many eggs (523 eggs g......-1 DM), but overall viability was very low (5%) and few eggs were larvated (0·004%) or even infective (0·002%). Latrines typically had high moisture (79%) and moderate temperature (30 °C) levels. The concentration of eggs was very high (1444 egg g-1 DM) and though 32% were viable, none had developed...

  5. Vermisidal dan Ovisidal Ekstrak Daun Pepaya Terhadap Cacing Ascaris suum Secara In Vitro

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    Agung Mourizd Adventus Bili Bora

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui vermisidal dan ovisidal dari ekstrak daun pepaya terhadap cacing Ascaris suum. Menggunakan  Rancangan  Acak  Lengkap (RAL, dengan perlakuan beberapa konsentrasi ekstrak daun pepaya 1,5%, 3%, 4,5% dan 6%; kontrol negatif menggunakan NaCl fisiologis dan kontrol positif menggunakan Albendazole 0,12%. Dilakukan uji vermisidal dan uji  ovisidal, uji ovisidal dibagi  menjadi  dua  uji,  yaitu kontak langsung dan kontak tidak  langsung. Untuk uji vermisidal data dianalisis dengan Analisis Probit untuk mengetahui LC100 (Lethal concentration dan LT100 (Lethal  time, sedangkan  untuk  uji  ovisidal  data dianalisis dengan Sidik Ragam dan  jika terdapat perbedaan, dilanjutkan dengan uji jarak berganda Duncan. Hasil  penelitian  vermisidal  didapatkan  LC100 ekstrak  daun  pepaya adalah  3,362%  dan  LT100 39,822  jam.  Untuk  uji  ovisidal  kontak  langsung  dan kontak tidak langsung didapatkan ekstrak daun pepaya berpengaruh sangat nyata (P<0,01 terhadap daya berembrio telur A. suum. Dari hasil penelitian ini disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak daun pepaya efektif sebagai vermisidal dan ovisidal terhadap cacing A. suum secara in-vitro.

  6. Efficacy of a Gal-lectin subunit vaccine against experimental Entamoeba histolytica infection and colitis in baboons (Papio sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Alla, Mohamed D; Wolf, Roman; White, Gary L; Kosanke, Stanley D; Cary, David; Verweij, Jaco J; Zhang, Mie-Jie; Ravdin, Jonathan I

    2012-04-26

    To determine the efficacy of a Gal-lectin based intranasal synthetic peptide vaccine, we developed a new experimental primate model of Entamoeba histolytica intestinal infection. Release of xenic E. histolytica trophozoites (5×10(6)) into the small bowel of baboons (Papio sp.) resulted in a rapid intestinal anti-amebic antibody response and a brief infection; however, release of trophozoites directly into the cecum (5 baboons) elicited a sustained E. histolytica infection, as determined by quantitative fecal PCR, and an ulcerative, inflammatory colitis observed on colonoscopy and histopathology. In three controlled experiments, baboons received four immunizations at seven day intervals of 1600 μg of the vaccine/nostril, with Cholera toxin, 20 μg/nostril as adjuvant; vaccinated (n=6) and control baboons (n=6) baboons were then challenged via colonoscopy with xenic trophozoites (5×10(6)). During 90 days of follow up, 250 of 415 (60.24%) fecal samples in control baboons had a (+) PCR for E. histolytica, compared to only 36 of 423 (8.51%) samples from vaccinated baboons (P<0.001). All 6 vaccinated baboons were free of infection by the 51st day after challenge, 5 of 6 controls positive had (+) fecal PCRs for up to 126 days post-challenge (P=0.019). Inflammatory colitis developed in 4 of 6 control baboons post-challenge, with invasive E. histolytica trophozoites present in 2 of the 4 on histopathology. There was no evidence of inflammatory colitis or parasite invasion in any of the vaccinated baboons; there was a strong inverse correlation between positive ELISA OD value indicating the presence of intestinal anti-peptide IgA antibodies and baboons having a positive fecal PCR CT value, P<0.001. In conclusion, we developed a novel primate model of E. histolytica intestinal infection and demonstrated that a Gal-lectin-based intranasal synthetic peptide vaccine was highly efficacious in preventing experimental E. histolytica infection and colitis in baboons. Copyright

  7. Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar trophozoites in the liver of hamsters: in vivo binding of antibodies and complement

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    Gomes Maria A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human amoebiasis is caused by the parasitic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica that lives in the large intestine of hosts, where can produce asymptomatic colonization until severe invasive infections with blood diarrhea and spreading to other organs. The amoebic abscesses in liver are the most frequent form of amoebiasis outside intestine and still there are doubts about the pathogenic mechanisms involved in their formation. In this study we evaluated the in situ binding of antibodies, C3 and C9 complement components on trophozoites, in livers of hamsters infected with E. histolytica or E. dispar. These parameters were correlated with the extension of the hepatic lesions observed in these animals and with trophozoites survivor. Methods Hamsters were inoculated intra-hepatically with 100,000 trophozoites of E. histolytica or E. dispar strain and necropsied 12, 24, 48, 72, 144 and 192 h after inoculation. Antibodies, C3 and C9 binding to trophozoites were detected by immunohistochemistry. The estimation of the necrosis area and the number of labeled trophozoites was performed using digital morphometry analysis. Results In the liver sections of animals inoculated with the amoebas, the binding of antibodies to E. histolytica trophozoites was significantly lower than to E. dispar trophozoites. Trophozoites of E. dispar were also more frequently vacuolated and high labeled cellular debris observed in the lesions. Positive diffuse reaction to C3 complement component was more intense in livers of animals inoculated with E. histolytica after 24 and 72 h of infection. C3(+ and C9(+ trophozoites were detected in the vascular lumen, granulomas and inside and in the border of necrotic areas of both infected group animals. C3(+ and C9(+ trophozoite debris immunostaining was higher in livers of E. dispar than in livers of E. histolytica. A positive correlation between necrotic areas and number of C9(+ trophozoites was observed in animals

  8. Efficiency of Direct Microscopy of Stool Samples Using an Antigen-Specific Adhesin Test for Entamoeba Histolytica

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    Arzu İrvem

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: E. histolytica is among the common causes of acute gastroenteritis. The pathogenic species E. histolytica and the nonpathogenic species E. dispar cannot be morphologically differentiated, although correct identification of these protozoans is important for treatment and public health. In many laboratories, the screening of leukocytes, erythrocytes, amoebic cysts, trophozoites and parasite eggs is performed using Native-Lugol’s iodine for pre-diagnosis. Aims: In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of E. histolytica in stool samples collected from 788 patients residing in the Anatolian region of İstanbul who presented with gastrointestinal complaints. We used the information obtained to evaluate the effectiveness of microscopic examinations when used in combination with the E. histolytica adhesin antigen test. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study Methods: Preparations of stool samples stained with Native-Lugol’s iodine were evaluated using the E. histolytica adhesin test and examined using standard light microscopy at ×40 magnification. Pearson’s Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis. Results: Of 788 samples, 38 (4.8% were positive for E. histolytica adhesin antigens. When evaluated together with the presences of erythrocytes, leukocytes, cysts, and trophozoites, respectively, using logistic regression analysis, leukocyte positivity was significantly higher. The odds ratio of leukocyte positivity increased adhesin test-positivity by 2,530-fold (95% CI=1.01–6.330. Adhesin test-positivity was significant (p=0.047. Conclusion: In line with these findings, the consistency between the presence of cysts and erythrocytes and adhesin test-positivity was found to be highly significant, but that of higher levels of leukocytes was found to be discordant. It was concluded that leukocytes and trophozoites were

  9. cDNA sequence analysis of a 29-kDa cysteine-rich surface antigen of pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torian, B.E.; Stroeher, V.L.; Stamm, W.E.; Flores, B.M.; Hagen, F.S.

    1990-01-01

    A λgt11 cDNA library was constructed from poly(U)-Spharose-selected Entamoeba histolytica trophozoite RNA in order to clone and identify surface antigens. The library was screened with rabbit polyclonal anti-E. histolytica serum. A 700-base-pair cDNA insert was isolated and the nucleotide sequence was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA revealed a cysteine-rich protein. DNA hybridizations showed that the gene was specific to E. histolytica since the cDNA probe reacted with DNA from four axenic strains of E. histolytica but did not react with DNA from Entamoeba invadens, Acanthamoeba castellanii, or Trichomonas vaginalis. The insert was subcloned into the expression vector pGEX-1 and the protein was expressed as a fusion with the C terminus of glutathione S-transferase. Purified fusion protein was used to generate 22 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and a mouse polyclonal antiserum specific for the E. histolytica portion of the fusion protein. A 29-kDa protein was identified as a surface antigen when mAbs were used to immunoprecipitate the antigen from metabolically 35 S-labeled live trophozoites. The surface location of the antigen was corroborated by mAb immunoprecipitation of a 29-kDa protein from surface- 125 I-labeled whole trophozoites as well as by the reaction of mAbs with live trophozoites in an indirect immunofluorescence assay performed at 4 degree C. Immunoblotting with mAbs demonstrated that the antigen was present on four axenic isolates tested. mAbs recognized epitopes on the 29-kDa native antigen on some but not all clinical isolates tested

  10. cDNA sequence analysis of a 29-kDa cysteine-rich surface antigen of pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torian, B.E.; Stroeher, V.L.; Stamm, W.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA)); Flores, B.M. (Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans (USA)); Hagen, F.S. (Zymogenetics Incorporated, Seattle, WA (USA))

    1990-08-01

    A {lambda}gt11 cDNA library was constructed from poly(U)-Spharose-selected Entamoeba histolytica trophozoite RNA in order to clone and identify surface antigens. The library was screened with rabbit polyclonal anti-E. histolytica serum. A 700-base-pair cDNA insert was isolated and the nucleotide sequence was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA revealed a cysteine-rich protein. DNA hybridizations showed that the gene was specific to E. histolytica since the cDNA probe reacted with DNA from four axenic strains of E. histolytica but did not react with DNA from Entamoeba invadens, Acanthamoeba castellanii, or Trichomonas vaginalis. The insert was subcloned into the expression vector pGEX-1 and the protein was expressed as a fusion with the C terminus of glutathione S-transferase. Purified fusion protein was used to generate 22 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and a mouse polyclonal antiserum specific for the E. histolytica portion of the fusion protein. A 29-kDa protein was identified as a surface antigen when mAbs were used to immunoprecipitate the antigen from metabolically {sup 35}S-labeled live trophozoites. The surface location of the antigen was corroborated by mAb immunoprecipitation of a 29-kDa protein from surface-{sup 125}I-labeled whole trophozoites as well as by the reaction of mAbs with live trophozoites in an indirect immunofluorescence assay performed at 4{degree}C. Immunoblotting with mAbs demonstrated that the antigen was present on four axenic isolates tested. mAbs recognized epitopes on the 29-kDa native antigen on some but not all clinical isolates tested.

  11. Characterization of a Rab11-like GTPase, EhRab11, of Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGugan, Glen C; Temesvari, Lesly A

    2003-07-01

    The Entamoeba histolytica Rab11 family of small molecular weight GTPases consists of three members, EhRab11, EhRab11B, and EhRab11C. The functions of these Rabs in Entamoeba have not been determined. Therefore, as an approach to elucidate the role of the Rab11 family of GTPases in Entamoeba, immunofluorescence microscopy was undertaken to define the subcellular localization of one member of this family, EhRab11. Under conditions of growth, EhRab11 displayed a punctate pattern in the cytoplasm of trophozoites. EhRab11 did not colocalize with markers for the Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, pinosomes, phagosomes, or compartments formed by receptor-mediated endocytosis, suggesting that this Rab may not play a role in vesicle trafficking between these organelles. Under conditions of iron and serum starvation, EhRab11 was translocated to the periphery of the cell. The altered cellular localization was accompanied by multinucleation of the cells as well as the acquisition of detergent resistance by the cells, features that are characteristic of Entamoeba cysts. The translocation of EhRab11 to the periphery of the cell during iron and serum starvation was specific as the subcellular localizations of two other Rab GTPases, EhRab7 and EhRabA, were not altered under the same conditions. In addition, the formation of multinucleated cells by inhibition of cytokinesis was not sufficient to induce the translocation of EhRab11 to the cell periphery. Taken together, the data suggest that iron and serum starvation may induce encystation in E. histolytica and that EhRab11 may play a role in this process. Moreover, these studies are the first to describe a putative role for a Rab GTPase in encystation in Entamoeba sp.

  12. A mechanism of acquired resistance to complement-mediated lysis by Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Kobeh, L; Cabrera, N; Pérez-Montfort, R

    1997-04-01

    Some Entamoeba histolytica strains resist complement-mediated lysis by serum. Susceptible and resistant strains activate the complement system equivalently, but resistant amebas evade killing by membrane attack complexes. Our objective was to determine the mechanism by which trophozoites of E. histolytica resist lysis by human serum. Amebas were made resistant to lysis by incubation with increasing concentrations of normal human serum. The possibility that resistant cells ingest membrane attack complexes was explored by subcellular fractionation of susceptible and resistant trophozoites treated with sublytic concentrations of human serum containing radiolabeled C9. In both cases, most of the label was in the fractions containing plasma membrane. The susceptible strain consistently showed more label associated with these fractions than the resistant strain. Thus, the possibility that the membrane attack complexes were released to the medium was explored. Both resistant and susceptible trophozoites release to the medium similar amounts of material excluded by Sepharose CL-2B in the presence or absence of normal human serum. Labeled C9 elutes together with the main bulk of proteins from the medium: this indicates that it is not in vesicles or high molecular weight aggregates. Coincubation of susceptible amebas with lysates of resistant trophozoites confers resistance to susceptible cells within 30 min. Resistance to lysis by serum can also be acquired by susceptible amebas after coincubation with lysates from human erythrocytes or after feeding them with whole human red blood cells. Resistant but not susceptible trophozoites show intense immunofluorescent staining on their surface with anti-human erythrocytic membrane antibody. These results suggest that amebas acquire resistance to lysis by serum by incorporating into their membranes complement regulatory proteins.

  13. Detección y diferenciación de Entamoeba histolytica y Entamoeba dispar mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en individuos de una comunidad del Estado Zulia, Venezuela Detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar by polymerase chain reaction in a community in Zulia State, Venezuela

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    Zulbey Rivero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La identificación diferencial de Entamoeba histolytica y Entamoeba dispar es esencial para un tratamiento adecuado del paciente y con fines epidemiológicos. Para determinar la prevalencia de E. histolytica y E. dispar se estandarizó y aplicó un ensayo de PCR, utilizando oligonucleótidos específicos para cada especie. 204 muestras de heces de individuos de la comunidad de Santa Rosa de Agua (Municipio Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela, fueron analizadas a través del examen directo con SSF (0,85% y lugol, concentrado de formol-éter y PCR. Al examen microscópico, 42 individuos (20,58% presentaron formas evolutivas del complejo E. histolytica/E. dispar; mientras que la técnica de PCR evidenció un total de 47 casos positivos a estas amibas; de los cuales 22 eran portadores de E. histolytica (10,78%, 16 (7,84% de E. dispar y 9 (4,41% presentaron infección mixta. No hubo diferencia significativa al relacionar las variables sexo y presencia de E. histolytica y/o E. dispar, ni con los grupos etarios. No existieron casos de estas amibas, en los menores de 2 años. La frecuencia observada de E. histolytica (31/204, demuestra el carácter endémico de la amibiasis en esta comunidad.Differential identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar is essential for both appropriate patient treatment and epidemiological purposes. To determine the prevalence of these amoeba infections in Santa Rosa de Agua (Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela, a PCR assay using specific primers for each species was standardized and applied. 204 stool samples were analyzed through direct microscopic examination with SSF (0.85% and lugol, formol-ether concentration, and PCR. Under direct microscopy, 42 individuals (20.58% presented the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex. Meanwhile PCR showed 47 positive cases for these amoebas: 22 E. histolytica (10.78%, 16 E. dispar (7.84%, and 9 (4.41% mixed infections. There was no significant difference in the presence of E

  14. Proteomic Identification of Oxidized Proteins in Entamoeba histolytica by Resin-Assisted Capture: Insights into the Role of Arginase in Resistance to Oxidative Stress.

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    Preeti Shahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is an obligate protozoan parasite of humans, and amebiasis, an infectious disease which targets the intestine and/or liver, is the second most common cause of human death due to a protozoan after malaria. Although amebiasis is usually asymptomatic, E. histolytica has potent pathogenic potential. During host infection, the parasite is exposed to reactive oxygen species that are produced and released by cells of the innate immune system at the site of infection. The ability of the parasite to survive oxidative stress (OS is essential for a successful invasion of the host. Although the effects of OS on the regulation of gene expression in E. histolytica and the characterization of some proteins whose function in the parasite's defense against OS have been previously studied, our knowledge of oxidized proteins in E. histolytica is lacking. In order to fill this knowledge gap, we performed a large-scale identification and quantification of the oxidized proteins in oxidatively stressed E. histolytica trophozoites using resin-assisted capture coupled to mass spectrometry. We detected 154 oxidized proteins (OXs and the functions of some of these proteins were associated with antioxidant activity, maintaining the parasite's cytoskeleton, translation, catalysis, and transport. We also found that oxidation of the Gal/GalNAc impairs its function and contributes to the inhibition of E. histolytica adherence to host cells. We also provide evidence that arginase, an enzyme which converts L-arginine into L-ornithine and urea, is involved in the protection of the parasite against OS. Collectively, these results emphasize the importance of OS as a critical regulator of E. histolytica's functions and indicate a new role for arginase in E. histolytica's resistance to OS.

  15. Enteroparasitas e Capillaria SP entre o grupo Surui, Parque Indigena Aripuana, Rondonia Enteroparasites and Capillaria SP found in indians of the Surui group, Parque Indigena Aripuana, Rondonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. A. Coimbra Júnior

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta dados de enteroparasitas encontradas em índios da comunidade tribal de Suruí, em Rondônia, na Região Amazônica do Brasil. As seguintes espécies foram encontradas: Ascaris lumbricoides (53,3%, Ancilostomidae (43,3%, Strongyloides stercoralis (33,3%, Taenia sp. (5,8%, Trichuris trichiura (5,0%, Hymenolepis nana (4,1%, Giardia lamblia (3,3%, Entamoeba histolytica complex (0,8% e Enterobius vermicularis (0,1%. O encontro de Capillaria sp. nas fezes de dois individuos é discutido.In this paper data on enteroparasites found in indians of the Surui tribal community in Rondônia, Amazon Region of Brazil, are presented. The following species were detected: Ascaris lumbricoides (53.3%, Ancylostomidae (43.3%, Strongyloides stercoralis (33.3%, Taenia sp. (5.8%, Trichuris trichiura (5.0%, Hymenolepis nana (4.1%, Giardia lambia (3.3%, Entamoeba histolytica complex (0.8% and Enterobius vermicularis (0.1%.

  16. O depósito subungueal como disseminador e enteroparasitos

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    Carlos Alberto Moreira Campos

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available Demonstramos, no depósito subungueal de 130 crianças residentes no bairro de Nova Descoberta, Natal - RN, a presença de ovos ou cistos de enteroparasitos, tais como: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichocephalus trichiurus, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostomidae, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica e Giardia lamblia. Ao lado da demonstração dos referidos parasitos, fizemos a correlação entre a incidência parasitária e as espécies encontradas no resíduo que se forma sob as unhas. Dos enteroparasitos encontrados, parece ser esta a primeira referência a ovos de ancilostomídeos no depósito subungueal. Dos 130 exames realizados 16 mostraram-se positivos, com uma percentagem de 12,30%.In the deposit under the finger nails of 130 children living at Nova Descoberta suburb, Natal - RN, the presence of eggs or cysts enteroparasites such as: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichocephalus trichiurus, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostomidae, Entamoeba histolytica e Giardia lamblia was detected. Besides the demonstration of the abovementioned parasites, a correlation between the parasite incidence and the species found in the residue acumulated under the finger nails was tried.

  17. Parasite-specific IL-4 responses in Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis-infected pigs evaluated by ELISPOT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenhard, N. R.; Kringel, H.; Roepstorff, A.

    2007-01-01

    method is a valuable tool for future experimental settings as it enables repeated and parasite-specific measurement of IL-4 at protein level when investigating, for example, immunomodulatory properties of helminths. Furthermore, the method could be used to identify specific parasite antigens inducing IL......The objective of the present study was to develop an ELISPOT method to measure parasite-specific IL-4 producing cells during experimental Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis infections in pigs. In many experimental settings it is useful to be able to measure changes in specifically induced cytokines...

  18. Experimental Ascaris suum infection in the pig: protective memory response after three immunizations and effect of intestinal adult worm population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Eriksen, Lis; Roepstorff, Allan

    1999-01-01

    The protective immune response to larval migration in pigs, with or without adult intestinal worm populations, 10 weeks after 3 weekly Ascaris suum inoculations, was studied in 45 pigs. Controlled adult worm populations were achieved by oral transfer of 10 adult worms to previously immunized pigs...... after anthelmintic drenching. A significant reduction in larval recovery from lungs on day 7, and small intestine on day 14, was observed in immunized pigs compared with previously uninfected control pigs after challenge inoculation. The strong anamnestic response to larval migration was characterized...

  19. Entamoeba histolytica: a beta 1 integrin-like fibronectin receptor assembles a signaling complex similar to those of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Robles, Donaciano; Rosales, Carlos; Rosales-Encina, José Luis; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    During tissue invasion, Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites interact with endothelial cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as fibronectin (FN), collagen, and laminin. It has been demonstrated that trophozoites interact with FN through a beta1 integrin-like FN receptor (beta 1EhFNR), activating tyrosine kinases. In order to characterize the signaling process triggered by the amoebic receptor, activation, and association of tyrosine kinases and structural proteins were determined. As a result of FN binding by the beta 1EhFNR, the receptor itself, FAK, and paxillin were phosphorylated in tyrosine. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that a multimolecular signaling complex was formed by the amoebic FN receptor, FAK, paxillin, and vinculin. These results strongly suggest that a signaling pathway, similar to the one used in mammalian cells, is activated when E. histolytica trophozoites adhere to FN.

  20. Exploring the Possible Role of Lysine Acetylation on Entamoeba histolytica Virulence: A Focus on the Dynamics of the Actin Cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. López-Contreras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoskeleton remodeling can be regulated, among other mechanisms, by lysine acetylation. The role of acetylation on cytoskeletal and other proteins of Entamoeba histolytica has been poorly studied. Dynamic rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton are crucial for amebic motility and capping formation, processes that may be effective means of evading the host immune response. Here we report the possible effect of acetylation on the actin cytoskeleton dynamics and in vivo virulence of E. histolytica. Using western blot, immunoprecipitation, microscopy assays, and in silico analysis, we show results that strongly suggest that the increase in Aspirin-induced cytoplasm proteins acetylation reduced cell movement and capping formation, likely as a consequence of alterations in the structuration of the actin cytoskeleton. Additionally, intrahepatic inoculation of Aspirin-treated trophozoites in hamsters resulted in severe impairment of the amebic virulence. Taken together, these results suggest an important role for lysine acetylation in amebic invasiveness and virulence.

  1. Entamoeba histolytica-secreted cysteine proteases induce IL-8 production in human mast cells via a PAR2-independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ah; Nam, Young Hee; Min, Arim; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Saito-Nakano, Yumiko; Mirelman, David; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an extracellular tissue parasite causing colitis and occasional liver abscess in humans. E. histolytica-derived secretory products (SPs) contain large amounts of cysteine proteases (CPs), one of the important amoebic virulence factors. Although tissue-residing mast cells play an important role in the mucosal inflammatory response to this pathogen, it is not known whether the SPs induce mast cell activation. In this study, when human mast cells (HMC-1 cells) were stimulated with SPs collected from pathogenic wild-type amoebae, interleukin IL-8 mRNA expression and production were significantly increased compared with cells incubated with medium alone. Inhibition of CP activity in the SPs with heat or the CP inhibitor E64 resulted in significant reduction of IL-8 production. Moreover, SPs obtained from inhibitors of cysteine protease (ICP)-overexpressing amoebae with low CP activity showed weaker stimulatory effects on IL-8 production than the wild-type control. Preincubation of HMC-1 cells with antibodies to human protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) did not affect the SP-induced IL-8 production. These results suggest that cysteine proteases in E. histolytica-derived secretory products stimulate mast cells to produce IL-8 via a PAR2-independent mechanism, which contributes to IL-8-mediated tissue inflammatory responses during the early phase of human amoebiasis. © Y.A. Lee et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  2. Entamoeba histolytica-secreted cysteine proteases induce IL-8 production in human mast cells via a PAR2-independent mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Young Ah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is an extracellular tissue parasite causing colitis and occasional liver abscess in humans. E. histolytica-derived secretory products (SPs contain large amounts of cysteine proteases (CPs, one of the important amoebic virulence factors. Although tissue-residing mast cells play an important role in the mucosal inflammatory response to this pathogen, it is not known whether the SPs induce mast cell activation. In this study, when human mast cells (HMC-1 cells were stimulated with SPs collected from pathogenic wild-type amoebae, interleukin IL-8 mRNA expression and production were significantly increased compared with cells incubated with medium alone. Inhibition of CP activity in the SPs with heat or the CP inhibitor E64 resulted in significant reduction of IL-8 production. Moreover, SPs obtained from inhibitors of cysteine protease (ICP-overexpressing amoebae with low CP activity showed weaker stimulatory effects on IL-8 production than the wild-type control. Preincubation of HMC-1 cells with antibodies to human protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2 did not affect the SP-induced IL-8 production. These results suggest that cysteine proteases in E. histolytica-derived secretory products stimulate mast cells to produce IL-8 via a PAR2-independent mechanism, which contributes to IL-8-mediated tissue inflammatory responses during the early phase of human amoebiasis.

  3. Larrea tridentata: A novel source for anti-parasitic agents active against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Naegleria fowleri.

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    Bharat Bashyal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Protozoan parasites infect and kill millions of people worldwide every year, particularly in developing countries where access to clean fresh water is limited. Among the most common are intestinal parasites, including Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. These parasites wreak havoc on the epithelium lining the small intestines (G. lamblia and colon (E. histolytica causing giardiasis and amebiasis, respectively. In addition, there are less common but far more deadly pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri that thrive in warm waters and infect the central nervous systems of their victims via the nasal passages. Despite their prevalence and associated high mortality rates, there remains an unmet need to identify more effective therapeutics for people infected with these opportunistic parasites. To address this unmet need, we have surveyed plants and traditional herbal medicines known throughout the world to identify novel antiparasitic agents with activity against G. lamblia, E. histolytica, and N. fowleri. Herein, we report Larrea tridentata, known as creosote bush, as a novel source for secondary metabolites that display antiparasitic activity against all three pathogens. This report also characterizes the lignan compound classes, nordihydroguairetic acid and demethoxyisoguaiacin, as novel antiparasitic lead agents to further develop more effective drug therapy options for millions of people worldwide.

  4. Larrea tridentata: A novel source for anti-parasitic agents active against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashyal, Bharat; Li, Linfeng; Bains, Trpta; Debnath, Anjan; LaBarbera, Daniel V

    2017-08-01

    Protozoan parasites infect and kill millions of people worldwide every year, particularly in developing countries where access to clean fresh water is limited. Among the most common are intestinal parasites, including Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. These parasites wreak havoc on the epithelium lining the small intestines (G. lamblia) and colon (E. histolytica) causing giardiasis and amebiasis, respectively. In addition, there are less common but far more deadly pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri that thrive in warm waters and infect the central nervous systems of their victims via the nasal passages. Despite their prevalence and associated high mortality rates, there remains an unmet need to identify more effective therapeutics for people infected with these opportunistic parasites. To address this unmet need, we have surveyed plants and traditional herbal medicines known throughout the world to identify novel antiparasitic agents with activity against G. lamblia, E. histolytica, and N. fowleri. Herein, we report Larrea tridentata, known as creosote bush, as a novel source for secondary metabolites that display antiparasitic activity against all three pathogens. This report also characterizes the lignan compound classes, nordihydroguairetic acid and demethoxyisoguaiacin, as novel antiparasitic lead agents to further develop more effective drug therapy options for millions of people worldwide.

  5. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of heparan sulphate binding proteins of Entamoeba histolytica in a guinea pig model of intestinal amoebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Upninder; Khurana, Sumeeta; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Dubey, M L

    2013-11-01

    Entamoeba histolytica infection is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in the form of intestinal and extraintestinal amoebiasis. No vaccine is yet available for amoebiasis. Heparan Sulphate Binding Proteins (HSBPs) from E. histolytica were evaluated for immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a Guinea pig model. Animals were immunized subcutaneously with 30μg of HSBP by three weekly inoculations. The immunogenicity of HSBP was determined by antibody response (IgG, IgM and IgA), splenocyte proliferation assay and in vitro direct amoebicidal assay with splenic lymphocytes and monocytes from vaccinated and control animals. The efficacy of the vaccine was evaluated by challenge infection to vaccinated and control animals by intra-caecal inoculation of E. histolytica trophozoites and comparing gross and histopathological findings in caeca of these animals. HSBP was found to induce specific anti-amoebic response as seen by specific antibody production and direct amoebicidal activity of splenocytes. The vaccine also showed partial protection against challenge infection in vaccinated animals as shown by mild/absent lesions and histopathological findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of fenbendazole in water on pigs infected with Ascaris suum in finishing pigs under field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Brian; Oliviero, Claudio; Orro, Toomas

    2017-01-01

    The husbandry of pigs for meat production is a constantly developing industry. Most studies on the effects of Ascaris suum infection in pigs and its prevention with anthelmintics are over a decade old. We examined the effect of 2.5 mg fenbendazole per kg bodyweight administered in drinking water...... post-mortem. The proportion of Ascaris seropositive pigs changed from 8.6% to 22.2% and 20.3% to 16.3% in the placebo and treatment group respectively. Fenbendazole reduced the presence of A. suum eggs in faeces the percentage of liver rejections by 69.8%. The treatment did not affect daily weight gain...... or lean meat percentage. Pigs with A. suum eggs in faeces at week 6 had a lower average daily weight gain of 61.8 g/day compared with pigs without parasite eggs. Fenbendazole treatment may be a useful option for farms struggling with persistent A. suum problems and demonstrate a beneficial effect...

  7. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of a serine proteinase inhibitor gene from Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Yael; Siman-Tov, Rama; Ankri, Serge

    2004-02-01

    Serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) are irreversible suicide inhibitors of proteinases that regulate a wide range of biological processes, including pathogen evasion of the host defence system. We report the cloning and characterization of a gene encoding a serpin from the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica (Ehserp) that may function in this manner. The protein encoded by Ehserp contains 371 amino acids with a predicted mass of 42.6 kDa. Antibodies to a 42 kDa recombinant Ehserp react specifically with two bands of 42 and 49 kDa in trophozoite extracts. Ehserp has a cytoplasmic localization and is secreted by trophozoites incubated in the presence of mammalian cells, but not by resting trophozoites. A panel of mammalian serine proteinases was screened, but none of them was inhibited by the recombinant Ehserp. In contrast, the 49 kDa Ehserp present in the secretion product (SP) of activated macrophages interacted with human neutrophil cathepsin G to form a complex resistant to sodium dodecyl sulphate. We discuss the nature of the 42 and 49 kDa Ehserp and the possible roles that Ehserp may play in the survival of the parasite inside the host.

  8. Binding and Endocytosis of Bovine Hololactoferrin by the Parasite Entamoeba histolytica

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    Guillermo Ortíz-Estrada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is a human parasite that requires iron (Fe for its metabolic function and virulence. Bovine lactoferrin (B-Lf and its peptides can be found in the digestive tract after dairy products are ingested. The aim of this study was to compare virulent trophozoites recently isolated from hamster liver abscesses with nonvirulent trophozoites maintained for more than 30 years in cultures in vitro regarding their interaction with iron-charged B-Lf (B-holo-Lf. We performed growth kinetics analyses of trophozoites in B-holo-Lf and throughout several consecutive transfers. The virulent parasites showed higher growth and tolerance to iron than nonvirulent parasites. Both amoeba variants specifically bound B-holo-Lf with a similar Kd. However, averages of 9.45 × 105 and 6.65 × 106 binding sites/cell were found for B-holo-Lf in nonvirulent and virulent amoebae, respectively. Virulent amoebae bound more efficiently to human and bovine holo-Lf, human holo-transferrin, and human and bovine hemoglobin than nonvirulent amoebae. Virulent amoebae showed two types of B-holo-Lf binding proteins. Although both amoebae endocytosed this glycoprotein through clathrin-coated vesicles, the virulent amoebae also endocytosed B-holo-Lf through a cholesterol-dependent mechanism. Both amoeba variants secreted cysteine proteases cleaving B-holo-Lf. These data demonstrate that the B-Lf endocytosis is more efficient in virulent amoebae.

  9. Binding and Endocytosis of Bovine Hololactoferrin by the Parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortíz-Estrada, Guillermo; Calderón-Salinas, Víctor; Shibayama-Salas, Mineko; León-Sicairos, Nidia; de la Garza, Mireya

    2015-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a human parasite that requires iron (Fe) for its metabolic function and virulence. Bovine lactoferrin (B-Lf) and its peptides can be found in the digestive tract after dairy products are ingested. The aim of this study was to compare virulent trophozoites recently isolated from hamster liver abscesses with nonvirulent trophozoites maintained for more than 30 years in cultures in vitro regarding their interaction with iron-charged B-Lf (B-holo-Lf). We performed growth kinetics analyses of trophozoites in B-holo-Lf and throughout several consecutive transfers. The virulent parasites showed higher growth and tolerance to iron than nonvirulent parasites. Both amoeba variants specifically bound B-holo-Lf with a similar K d . However, averages of 9.45 × 10(5) and 6.65 × 10(6) binding sites/cell were found for B-holo-Lf in nonvirulent and virulent amoebae, respectively. Virulent amoebae bound more efficiently to human and bovine holo-Lf, human holo-transferrin, and human and bovine hemoglobin than nonvirulent amoebae. Virulent amoebae showed two types of B-holo-Lf binding proteins. Although both amoebae endocytosed this glycoprotein through clathrin-coated vesicles, the virulent amoebae also endocytosed B-holo-Lf through a cholesterol-dependent mechanism. Both amoeba variants secreted cysteine proteases cleaving B-holo-Lf. These data demonstrate that the B-Lf endocytosis is more efficient in virulent amoebae.

  10. The LINEs and SINEs of Entamoeba histolytica: comparative analysis and genomic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakre, Abhijeet A; Rawal, Kamal; Ramaswamy, Ram; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha

    2005-07-01

    Autonomous non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons are commonly referred to as long interspersed elements (LINEs). Short non-autonomous elements that borrow the LINE machinery are called SINES. The Entamoeba histolytica genome contains three classes of LINEs and SINEs. Together the EhLINEs/SINEs account for about 6% of the genome. The recognizable functional domains in all three EhLINEs included reverse transcriptase and endonuclease. A novel feature was the presence of two types of members-some with a single long ORF (less frequent) and some with two ORFs (more frequent) in both EhLINE1 and 2. The two ORFs were generated by conserved changes leading to stop codon. Computational analysis of the immediate flanking sequences for each element showed that they inserted in AT-rich sequences, with a preponderance of Ts in the upstream site. The elements were very frequently located close to protein-coding genes and other EhLINEs/SINEs. The possible influence of these elements on expression of neighboring genes needs to be determined.

  11. Frequency and molecular characterisation of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, and Entamoeba hartmanni in the context of water scarcity in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegar, Deiviane Aparecida; Nunes, Beatriz Coronato; Monteiro, Kerla Joeline Lima; Santos, Jéssica Pereira Dos; Toma, Helena Keiko; Gomes, Tais Ferreira; Lima, Marli Maria; Bóia, Márcio Neves; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to estimate the frequency, associated factors, and molecular characterisation of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, andEntamoeba hartmanni infections. We performed a survey (n = 213 subjects) to obtain parasitological, sanitation, and sociodemographic data. Faecal samples were processed through flotation and centrifugation methods.E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, and E. hartmanni were identified by nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The overall prevalence of infection was 22/213 (10.3%). The infection rate among subjects who drink rainwater collected from roofs in tanks was higher than the rate in subjects who drink desalinated water pumped from wells; similarly, the infection rate among subjects who practice open defecation was significantly higher than that of subjects with latrines. Out of the 22 samples positive for morphologically indistinguishableEntamoeba species, the differentiation by PCR was successful for 21. The species distribution was as follows: 57.1% to E. dispar, 23.8% to E. histolytica, 14.3% toE. histolytica and E. dispar, and 4.8% E. dispar and E. hartmanni. These data suggest a high prevalence of asymptomatic infection by the group of morphologically indistinguishable Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskiicomplex and E. hartmanni species. In this context of water scarcity, the sanitary and socioenvironmental characteristics of the region appear to favour transmission.

  12. Frequency and molecular characterisation of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, and Entamoeba hartmanni in the context of water scarcity in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deiviane Aparecida Calegar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the frequency, associated factors, and molecular characterisation of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, andEntamoeba hartmanni infections. We performed a survey (n = 213 subjects to obtain parasitological, sanitation, and sociodemographic data. Faecal samples were processed through flotation and centrifugation methods.E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, and E. hartmanni were identified by nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The overall prevalence of infection was 22/213 (10.3%. The infection rate among subjects who drink rainwater collected from roofs in tanks was higher than the rate in subjects who drink desalinated water pumped from wells; similarly, the infection rate among subjects who practice open defecation was significantly higher than that of subjects with latrines. Out of the 22 samples positive for morphologically indistinguishableEntamoeba species, the differentiation by PCR was successful for 21. The species distribution was as follows: 57.1% to E. dispar, 23.8% to E. histolytica, 14.3% toE. histolytica and E. dispar, and 4.8% E. dispar and E. hartmanni. These data suggest a high prevalence of asymptomatic infection by the group of morphologically indistinguishable Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskiicomplex and E. hartmanni species. In this context of water scarcity, the sanitary and socioenvironmental characteristics of the region appear to favour transmission.

  13. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children from rural Panama: role of yard environment, soil eggs/larvae and hygiene and play behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sandoval, Nidia; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether the yard environment and child hygiene and play behaviours were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children and with eggs and larvae in soil. Data were collected using questionnaires, a visual survey of the yard, soil samples and fecal samples collected at baseline and following re-infection. The presence of eggs/larvae in soil was associated negatively with water storage (eggs) but positively with dogs (eggs) and distance from home to latrine (larvae). Baseline and re-infection prevalences were: hookworm (28.0%, 3.4%); Ascaris (16.9%, 9.5%); Trichuris (0.9%, 0.7%). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed a higher baseline hookworm infection if yards had eggs or larvae, more vegetation or garbage, and if the child played with soil. Baseline Ascaris was associated with dirt floor, dogs, exposed soil in yard, open defecation and with less time playing outdoors, whereas Ascaris re-infection was associated with water storage, vegetation cover and garbage near the home and not playing with animals. Our results show complex interactions between infection, the yard environment and child behaviours, and indicate that transmission would be reduced if latrines were closer to the home, and if open defecation and water spillage were reduced.

  14. Ascaris suum infection negatively affects the response to a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination and subsequent challenge infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenhard, Nina R.; Jungersen, Gregers; Kokotovic, Branko

    2009-01-01

    Since their first introduction more than a century ago, vaccines have become one of the most cost-effective tools to prevent and manage infectious diseases in human and animal populations. It is vital to understand the possible mechanisms that may impair optimal vaccine efficacy. The hypothesis...... posed in this study was that a concurrent Ascaris suum infection of pigs vaccinated with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh)vaccine would modulate the protectiveimmuneresponse to a subsequent challenge infection. Four groups of pigs were either (1) untreated (group C), (2) vaccinated againstMh 3 weeks after...... the start of the study (group V), (3) given a trickle infection with A. suum throughout the study (group A), or (4) given a trickle infection with A. suum and vaccinated against Mh (group AV). All pigs were subsequently inoculated with live Mh bacteria 4 weeks after the Mh vaccination and necropsied after...

  15. A polyphenol-enriched diet and Ascaris suum infection modulate mucosal immune responses and gut microbiota composition in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Krych, Lukasz; Ahmad, Hajar Fauzan

    2017-01-01

    . suum for 14 days to assess parasite establishment, acquisition of local and systemic immune responses and effects on the gut microbiome. Despite in vitro anthelmintic activity of GP-extracts, numbers of parasite larvae in the intestine were not altered by GP-supplementation. However, the bioactive diet......Polyphenols are a class of bioactive plant secondary metabolites that are thought to have beneficial effects on gut health, such as modulation of mucosal immune and inflammatory responses and regulation of parasite burdens. Here, we examined the interactions between a polyphenol-rich diet...... supplement and infection with the enteric nematode Ascaris suum in pigs. Pigs were fed either a basal diet or the same diet supplemented with grape pomace (GP), an industrial by-product rich in polyphenols such as oligomeric proanthocyanidins. Half of the animals in each group were then inoculated with A...

  16. Global analysis of gene expression in response to L-Cysteine deprivation in the anaerobic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Entamoeba histolytica, an enteric protozoan parasite, causes amebic colitis and extra intestinal abscesses in millions of inhabitants of endemic areas. E. histolytica completely lacks glutathione metabolism but possesses L-cysteine as the principle low molecular weight thiol. L-Cysteine is essential for the structure, stability, and various protein functions, including catalysis, electron transfer, redox regulation, nitrogen fixation, and sensing for regulatory processes. Recently, we demonstrated that in E. histolytica, L-cysteine regulates various metabolic pathways including energy, amino acid, and phospholipid metabolism. Results In this study, employing custom-made Affymetrix microarrays, we performed time course (3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h) gene expression analysis upon L-cysteine deprivation. We identified that out of 9,327 genes represented on the array, 290 genes encoding proteins with functions in metabolism, signalling, DNA/RNA regulation, electron transport, stress response, membrane transport, vesicular trafficking/secretion, and cytoskeleton were differentially expressed (≥3 fold) at one or more time points upon L-cysteine deprivation. Approximately 60% of these modulated genes encoded proteins of no known function and annotated as hypothetical proteins. We also attempted further functional analysis of some of the most highly modulated genes by L-cysteine depletion. Conclusions To our surprise, L-cysteine depletion caused only limited changes in the expression of genes involved in sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism and oxidative stress defense. In contrast, we observed significant changes in the expression of several genes encoding iron sulfur flavoproteins, a major facilitator super-family transporter, regulator of nonsense transcripts, NADPH-dependent oxido-reductase, short chain dehydrogenase, acetyltransferases, and various other genes involved in diverse cellular functions. This study represents the first genome-wide analysis of

  17. Global analysis of gene expression in response to L-Cysteine deprivation in the anaerobic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeelani Ghulam

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entamoeba histolytica, an enteric protozoan parasite, causes amebic colitis and extra intestinal abscesses in millions of inhabitants of endemic areas. E. histolytica completely lacks glutathione metabolism but possesses L-cysteine as the principle low molecular weight thiol. L-Cysteine is essential for the structure, stability, and various protein functions, including catalysis, electron transfer, redox regulation, nitrogen fixation, and sensing for regulatory processes. Recently, we demonstrated that in E. histolytica, L-cysteine regulates various metabolic pathways including energy, amino acid, and phospholipid metabolism. Results In this study, employing custom-made Affymetrix microarrays, we performed time course (3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h gene expression analysis upon L-cysteine deprivation. We identified that out of 9,327 genes represented on the array, 290 genes encoding proteins with functions in metabolism, signalling, DNA/RNA regulation, electron transport, stress response, membrane transport, vesicular trafficking/secretion, and cytoskeleton were differentially expressed (≥3 fold at one or more time points upon L-cysteine deprivation. Approximately 60% of these modulated genes encoded proteins of no known function and annotated as hypothetical proteins. We also attempted further functional analysis of some of the most highly modulated genes by L-cysteine depletion. Conclusions To our surprise, L-cysteine depletion caused only limited changes in the expression of genes involved in sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism and oxidative stress defense. In contrast, we observed significant changes in the expression of several genes encoding iron sulfur flavoproteins, a major facilitator super-family transporter, regulator of nonsense transcripts, NADPH-dependent oxido-reductase, short chain dehydrogenase, acetyltransferases, and various other genes involved in diverse cellular functions. This study represents the first

  18. Molecular epidemiology of amoebiasis in Malaysia: highlighting the different risk factors of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar infections among Orang Asli communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Abdul Ghani, Mohamed Kamel; Abu Bakar, Edariah; Azreen, Siti Nor; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Ghazali, Nuraffini; Bernadus, Mekadina; Moktar, Norhayati

    2012-12-01

    Currently, species-specific information on Entamoeba infections is unavailable in Malaysia and is restricted worldwide due to the re-description of pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica and non-pathogenic Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was conducted to provide the first known documented data on the true prevalence of these three species in western Malaysia using a molecular method. Another aim of this study was to determine the association of potential risk factors associated with each Entamoeba sp. A total of 500 stool samples from three Orang Asli tribes were randomly collected. The overall prevalence of E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii determined by microscopy was 18.6% (93/500). Molecular analysis revealed that while most Entamoeba-positive individuals were infected with E. dispar (13.4%), followed by E. histolytica (3.2%) and E. moshkovskii (1.0%), the present findings show low prevalence rates of mixed infections with E. histolytica and E. dispar (2%), E. dispar and E. moshkovskii (1.2%) and association infections of E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii (0.4%). Logistical regression analysis indicates that the dynamics of the transmission of the three Entamoeba spp. was different. Of six statistically significant variables observed in the univariate analysis, three were retained as significant risk factors for E. histolytica infection in the logistical regression model. These factors were (i) not washing hands after playing with soil or gardening (Odds ratio (OR)=4.7; 95% confidence level (CI)=1.38, 16.14; P=0.013), (ii) indiscriminate defecation in the river or bush (OR=5.7; 95% CI=1.46, 21.95; P=0.012) and (iii) close contact with domestic animals (OR=5.4; 95% CI=1.36, 2.51; P=0.017). However, subjects with family members who were infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii (OR=3.8; 95 CI=2.11, 6.86; PEntamoeba spp. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc

  19. Mecanismos fisiopatogênicos e diagnóstico laboratorial da infecção causada pela Entamoeba histolytica Physiopathogenic mechanisms and laboratorial diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Luciano Neves Santos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A amebíase é a segunda causa de morte entre as doenças parasitárias no mundo. Seu agente etiológico é o protozoário Entamoeba histolytica, que através da secreção de proteinases é capazes de destruir o tecido hospedeiro, matando as células-alvo por contato e fagocitando eritrócitos. Dessa forma, os trofozoítos invadem a mucosa intestinal, provocando a colite amebiana. Em alguns casos atravessam a mucosa e, através da circulação porta, chegam ao fígado, onde causam necrose constituída por poucos trofozoítos rodeados de hepatócitos mortos e debris celulares liquefeitos. Essa invasão está diretamente relacionada com a capacidade de síntese e a secreção de moléculas responsáveis pela virulência dos trofozoítos, como os amebaporos, as lectinas e as cisteína proteinases. O diagnóstico da infecção causada pelo patógeno é rotineiramente realizado através da microscopia óptica de amostras frescas ou espécimes fixados. Entretanto essa metodologia apresenta limitações, sendo incapaz de distinguir as espécies pertencentes ao complexo E. histolytica/E. dispar. A pesquisa de coproantígenos e a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR têm sido utilizadas para diferenciação desses protozoários em amostras fecais. No entanto, estudos mais aprofundados são necessários para maior compreensão sobre a relação parasita/hospedeiro, a proteômica e a genômica do protozoário, o desenvolvimento de vacinas e a real prevalência dessa infecção no Brasil e no mundo.Amebiasis is the second cause of death among parasitary diseases in the world. Its etiologic agent is the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, which destroys the host tissue by means of the secretion of proteinases, kills the target-cells by contact and phagocytizes erythrocytes. Accordingly, the trophozoites invade the intestinal mucosa, what causes amoebaean colitis. In some cases, they pass through the mucosa and reach the liver through the portal system, where

  20. Evaluation of a new single-tube multiprobe real-time PCR for diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shih-Yu; Hsia, Kan-Tai; Chan, Yun-Hsien; Fan, Chia-Kwung; Jiang, Donald Dah-Shyong; Landt, Olfert; Ji, Dar-Der

    2010-08-01

    A single-tube multiprobe real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar was developed. One primer pair with 2 species-specific probes was designed based on new SSU RNA regions of the ribosomal DNA-containing episome. The sensitivity is 1 parasite per milliliter of feces and thus superior to the conventional nested PCR and comparable to other published real-time PCR protocols. The applicability for clinical diagnosis was validated with 218 stool specimens from patients. A total of 51 E. histolytica and 39 E. dispar positive samples was detected by the multiprobe real-time PCR compared to 39 and 22 by routine nested PCR diagnosis. The detection rate of Entamoeba species for the multiprobe real-time PCR assays was significantly higher than the nested PCR (40.8% vs. 28.0%, P Entamoeba moshkovskii, Giardia lamblia , Cryptosporidium sp., Escherichia coli , or other nonpathogenic enteric parasites. The multiprobe real-time PCR assay is simple and rapid and has high specificity and sensitivity. The assay could streamline the laboratory diagnosis procedure and facilitate epidemiological investigation.

  1. Morphology, antigenicity, and nucleic acid content of the Bacteroides sp. used in the culture of Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albach, R A; Shaffer, J G; Watson, R H

    1965-10-01

    Albach, Richard A. (Lutheran General Hospital, Park Ridge, Ill.), James G. Shaffer, and Robert H. Watson. Morphology, antigenicity, and nucleic acid content of the Bacteroides sp. used in the culture of Entamoeba histolytica. J. Bacteriol. 90:1045-1053. 1965.-Certain changes in morphology, antigenicity, and nucleic acid content that occur in a culture of Bacteroides sp. in the presence of penicillin G in CLG medium are described. This "variant" is one of seven recovered in several laboratories, all of which are descendants of the original Bacteroides isolated by Shaffer and Frye. Penicillin-inhibited cells of this culture are currently being used in the routine propagation of Entamoeba histolytica in CLG medium. Evidence is presented for the loss of ability to react with antibody in these penicillin-inhibited bacteria in CLG medium, when studied by fluorescent-antibody techniques. The implications of the antigenic changes observed as they pertain to similar antigenic studies of the amoebas are discussed. A pronounced reduction in the ribonucleic acid (RNA) content of such penicillin-inhibited cells was also observed. The potential importance of the changes that occur in the RNA of these cells with respect to considerations of the growth requirements of the amoebas is also discussed.

  2. Resveratrol Induces Apoptosis-Like Death and Prevents In Vitro and In Vivo Virulence of Entamoeba histolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais-Morales, Jonnatan; Betanzos, Abigail; García-Rivera, Guillermina; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Shibayama, Mineko; Orozco, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebiasis, an infection that kills 100,000 individuals each year. Metronidazole and its derivatives are currently used against this protozoan, but these drugs present adverse effects on human health. Here, we investigated the effect of resveratrol (a natural compound) on E. histolytica trophozoites viability, as well as its influence on the parasite virulence. Trophozoites growth was arrested by 72 μM resveratrol and the IC50 was determined as 220 μM at 48 h. Cells appeared smaller, rounded and in clusters, with debris-containing vacuoles and with abnormally condensed chromatin. Resveratrol triggered reactive oxygen species production. It caused lipid peroxidation and produced phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA fragmentation this latter evidenced by TUNEL assays. It also provoked an increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, activated calpain and decreased superoxide dismutase activity, indicating that an apoptosis-like event occurred; however, autophagy was not detected. Cytopathic activity, phagocytosis, encystment and in vivo virulence were diminished dramatically by pre-incubation of trophozoites with resveratrol, evidencing that resveratrol attenuated the trophozoite virulence in vitro. Interestingly, after the inoculation of virulent trophozoites, animals treated with the drug did not develop or developed very small abscesses. Our findings propose that resveratrol could be an alternative to contend amoebiasis. PMID:26731663

  3. Comparison of the Triage Micro Parasite Panel and Microscopy for the Detection of Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum in Stool Samples Collected in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Swierczewski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are three of the most important parasitic causes of acute diarrhea worldwide. Laboratory diagnosis of these parasites is usually done by ova and parasite examination (O&P examination via microscopy. The sensitivity and specificity of O&P examination varies among laboratories and can be labor intensive and time consuming. The Triage Micro Parasite Panel (BioSite, San Diego, California is an enzyme immunoassay kit that can detect E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. lamblia, and C. parvum simultaneously using fresh or frozen stool. The present study evaluated the Triage Micro Parasite Panel in detecting E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. lamblia, and C. parvum compared to O&P examination in 266 stool samples collected at medical facilities in Kenya. The sensitivity and specificity results for the Triage Micro Parasite Panel were: for E. histolytica/E. dispar: 100%, 100%, G. lamblia: 100%, 100% and C. parvum: 73%, 100%. There was no evidence of cross reactivity using the kit with other parasites identified in the stool specimens. These results indicate that the Triage Micro Parasite Panel is a highly sensitive kit that can be used for screening purposes in large scale studies or outbreak investigations or as a possible alternative to O&P examination.

  4. The prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar in Van Regional Training and Research Hospital: A four-year monitoring

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    Yasemin Bayram

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to determinethe frequency rates of Giardia and E.histolytica/E.dispar and their distribution by years as well as agegroups and gender distribution during a four-year period.Materials and methods: A total of 9911 stool samplessent to our laboratory between January 2008 and December2011 were tested for parasites. Native-Lugol and formolethyl acetate sedimentation methods were utilized formicroscopic identification of Entamoeba sp. and Giardiatrophozoites and cysts in fresh stool samples. Additionally,trichrome staining was performed in stool sampleswhere the distinctive diagnosis could not be confirmed.Results: From a total of 9911 stool samples analyzedduring the study, 4.7% were positive for Giardia and 6.2%were positive for Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar.Of Giardia-positive patients 57% were male and 43%female. Similarly, 56% of Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoebadispar positive patients were male and 44% werefemale. Both parasites’ higher frequency rates seen inmale groups were found statistically significant (p<0.01.Conclusion: It is seen that intestinal protozoon infectionsare still present as an important public health problemin our region. In order to prevent this problem, personalhygiene and sanitation rules education for community aswell as infrastructure improvements are necessary.Key words: Giardia, Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar, prevalence

  5. Susceptibility to Entamoeba histolytica intestinal infection is related to reduction in natural killer T-lymphocytes in C57BL/6 mice

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    Fabrício M.S. Oliveira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan that causes amoebiasis. Recent studies demonstrated that natural killer T lymphocytes (NKT are critical for preventing the development of amoebic liver abscess. In spite of that, there are only a handful of studies in the area. Herein, we explored the role of NKT cells in E. histolytica infection using C57BL/6 wild-type and CD1-/- mice. Animals were inoculated with E. histolytica and sacrificed 48 hours later to collect caecum samples that were used for quantitative analyses of lesions, trophozoites, NK1.1+ T lymphocytes and expression of the mucus protein MUC-2 by immunohistochemistry technique. Quantitative analyses confirmed that the frequency of NK1.1+ T cells was significantly lower in samples from C57BL/6 CD1-/- mice as compared to their wild type (WT counterparts. The extension of necrotic mucosa was larger and the number of trophozoites higher in Entamoeba (Eh-infected CD1-/- mice when compared with Eh-infected WT mice. In mice from both groups, noninfected (CTRL and Eh-infected CD1-/-, there was a reduction in the thickness of the caecal mucosa and in the MUC-2-stained area in comparison with CTRL- and Eh-WT mice. Our results showed that NKT lymphocytes contribute to resistance against Entamoeba histolytica infection and to the control of inflammation in the colitis induced by infection. The presence of a normal epithelial layer containing appropriate levels of mucus had also a protective role against infection.

  6. Identification of EhTIF-IA: The putative E. histolytica orthologue of the human ribosomal RNA transcription initiation factor-IA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ankita; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha; Jhingan, Gagan Deep

    2016-03-01

    Initiation of rDNA transcription requires the assembly of a specific multi-protein complex at the rDNA promoter containing the RNA Pol I with auxiliary factors. One of these factors is known as Rrn3P in yeast and Transcription Initiation Factor IA (TIF-IA) in mammals. Rrn3p/TIF-IA serves as a bridge between RNA Pol I and the pre-initiation complex at the promoter. It is phosphorylated at multiple sites and is involved in regulation of rDNA transcription in a growth-dependent manner. In the early branching parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica, the rRNA genes are present exclusively on circular extra chromosomal plasmids. The protein factors involved in regulation of rDNA transcription in E. histolytica are not known. We have identified the E. histolytica equivalent of TIF-1A (EhTIF-IA) by homology search within the database and was further cloned and expressed. Immuno-localization studies showed that EhTIF-IA co-localized partially with fibrillarin in the peripherally localized nucleolus. EhTIF-IA was shown to interact with the RNA Pol I-specific subunit RPA12 both in vivo and in vitro. Mass spectroscopy data identified RNA Pol I-specific subunits and other nucleolar proteins to be the interacting partners of EhTIF-IA. Our study demonstrates for the first time a conserved putative RNA Pol I transcription factor TIF-IA in E. histolytica.

  7. Microbicidal effect of the lactoferrin peptides Lactoferricin17-30, Lactoferrampin265-284, and Lactoferrin chimera on the parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Soto, F.; León-Sicairos, N.; Nazmi, K.; Bolscher, J.G.; de la Garza, M.

    2010-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a parasitic protozoan that produces amoebiasis, an intestinal disease characterized by ulcerative colitis and dysentery. In some cases, trophozoites can travel to the liver leading to hepatic abscesses and death. Recently, lactoferrin and lactoferricin B have been shown to

  8. Molecular Detection of the Carriage Rate of Four Intestinal Protozoa with Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Possible Overdiagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efunshile, Michael A; Ngwu, Bethrand A F; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A L; Sahar, Sumrin; König, Brigitte; Stensvold, Christen R

    2015-08-01

    Diarrhea remains the second largest killer of children worldwide, and Nigeria ranks number two on the list of global deaths attributable to diarrhea. Meanwhile, prevalence studies on potentially diarrheagenic protozoa in asymptomatic carriers using molecular detection methods remain scarce in sub-Saharan countries. To overcome sensitivity issues related to microscopic detection and identification of cysts in stool concentrates, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to analyze genomic DNAs extracted from stool samples from 199 healthy school children for Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis, and Cryptosporidium. Questionnaires were administered for epidemiological data collection. E. histolytica was not detected in any of the samples, whereas Giardia (37.2%), E. dispar (18.6%), and Cryptosporidium (1%) were found. Most of the children sourced their drinking water from community wells (91%), while the majority disposed of feces in the bush (81.9%). Our study is the first to use real-time PCR to evaluate the epidemiology of E. histolytica, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium in Nigeria where previous studies using traditional diagnostic techniques have suggested higher and lower carriage rates of E. histolytica and Giardia, respectively. It is also the first study to accurately identify the prevalence of common potentially diarrheagenic protozoa in asymptomatic carriers in sub-Saharan Africa. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Effect of fenbendazole in water on pigs infected with Ascaris suum in finishing pigs under field conditions.

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    Lassen, Brian; Oliviero, Claudio; Orro, Toomas; Jukola, Elias; Laurila, Tapio; Haimi-Hakala, Minna; Heinonen, Mari

    2017-04-15

    The husbandry of pigs for meat production is a constantly developing industry. Most studies on the effects of Ascaris suum infection in pigs and its prevention with anthelmintics are over a decade old. We examined the effect of 2.5mg fenbendazole per kg bodyweight administered in drinking water for two consecutive days on A. suum infection 1 and 6 weeks after pigs arrived to fattening units. We hypothesised that the treatment would reduce the presence of A. suum-infections, improve the average daily weight gain of pigs, reduce the percentage of liver rejections in pens by 50% and increase the lean meat percentage at slaughter by 1%. The study included a placebo group (427 pigs) and a treatment group (420 pigs) spanning four different farms previously reporting ≥15% liver rejection. The treatment was given for 2 consecutive days 1 and 6 weeks after the pigs arrived to the fattening unit. Faecal samples were collected during weeks 1, 6 and 12 from all pigs and examined for A. suum eggs. Blood was collected during weeks 1 and 12 from a subgroup of the pigs and examined for anti-A. suum antibodies and clinical blood parameters. Data on liver rejection and lean meat percentage were collected post-mortem. The proportion of Ascaris seropositive pigs changed from 8.6% to 22.2% and 20.3% to 16.3% in the placebo and treatment group respectively. Fenbendazole reduced the presence of A. suum eggs in faeces the percentage of liver rejections by 69.8%. The treatment did not affect daily weight gain or lean meat percentage. Pigs with A. suum eggs in faeces at week 6 had a lower average daily weight gain of 61.8g/day compared with pigs without parasite eggs. Fenbendazole treatment may be a useful option for farms struggling with persistent A. suum problems and demonstrate a beneficial effect on the weight gain of the animals shedding eggs in faeces and result in fewer condemned livers at slaughter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of parasite density and sample storage time on the reliability of Entamoeba histolytica-specific PCR from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickmann, Hagen; Tenner-Racz, Klara; Eggert, Petra; Schwarz, Norbert G; Poppert, Sven; Tannich, Egbert; Hagen, Ralf M

    2013-12-01

    We report on the reliability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Entamoeba histolytica from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue in comparison with microscopy and have determined predictors that may influence PCR results. E. histolytica-specific and Entamoeba dispar-specific real-time PCR and microscopy from adjacent histologic sections were performed using a collection of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens obtained from patients with invasive amebiasis. Specimens had been collected during the previous 4 decades. Association of sample age, parasite density, and reliability of PCR was analyzed. E. histolytica PCR was positive in 20 of 34 biopsies (58.8%); 2 of these 20 were microscopically negative for amebae in neighboring tissue sections. PCR was negative in 9 samples with visible amebae in neighboring sections and in 5 samples without visible parasites in neighboring sections. PCR was negative in all specimens that were older than 3 decades. Low parasite counts and sample ages older than 20 years were predictors for false-negative PCR results. All samples were negative for E. dispar DNA. PCR is suitable for the detection of E. histolytica in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples that are younger than 2 decades and that contain intermediate to high parasite numbers. Negative results in older samples were due to progressive degradation of DNA over time as indicated by control PCRs targeting the human 18S rRNA gene. Moreover, our findings support previous suggestions that only E. histolytica but not E. dispar is responsible for invasive amebiasis.

  11. A novel C-type lectin identified by EST analysis in tissue migratory larvae of Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ayako; Nagayasu, Eiji; Horii, Yoichiro; Maruyama, Haruhiko

    2012-04-01

    C-type lectins (CTLs) are a group of proteins which bind to carbohydrate epitopes in the presence of Ca(2+), which have been described in a wide range of species. In this study, a cDNA sequence coding a putative CTL has been identified from the cDNA library constructed from the pig round worm Ascaris suum lung L3 (LL3) larvae, which was designated as A. suum C-type lectin-1 (As-CTL-1). The 510 nucleotide open reading frame of As-CTL-1 cDNA encoded the predicted 169 amino acid protein including a putative signal peptide of 23 residues and C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CLECT) at residue 26 to 167. As-CTL-1 was most similar to Toxocara canis C-type lectin-1 and 4 (Tc-CTL-1 and 4), and highly homologous to namatode CTLs and mammalian CTLs as well, such as human C-type lectin domain family 4 member G (CLECG4). In addition, As-CTL-1 was strongly expressed in tissue migrating LL3 and the L4 larvae, which were developmental larvae stages within the mammalian host. These results suggest that A. suum larvae might utilize As-CTL-1 to avoid pathogen recognition mechanisms in mammalian hosts due to it is similarity to host immune cell receptors.

  12. Potensi Serbuk Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Sebagai Anthelmintik Terhadap Infeksi Ascaris suum dan Feed Supplement pada Babi

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    Muhammad Ulqiya Syukron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pig ascariasis is an intestinal parasitic disease caused by Ascaris suum. The economic losses in pig ascariasis are caused by a bad feed conversion ratio (FCR and rejection of some organs after animal slaughtering. An anthelmintic utilization and farm management improvement are the common prevention action, however, recently the utilization of herbs as an athelmintic has been developed, one of them is Moringa oleifera leaves. Moringa oleifera leaves are also a potential for a sources of animal food because of their high nutrients. This intervention research aimed to examine the anthelmintic effect of Moringa oleifera leaves and its potency as feed supplement. Experimental design used was ccompletely randomized design split time (CRD Split Time with six treatments namely Moringa oleifera 5% and an infection of infective larvae of A. suum (1, Moringa oleifera 5% (2, positive control (3, Moringa oleifera 10% (4, Moringa oleifera 10% and infection of infective larvae of A. suum (5, and no treatment as negative control (6. Each treatment was imposed on four female landrace piglets aged 8 weeks and weighed around 11 kg. The results showed that Moringa oleifera 5% and 10% of the feed could inhibit the egg production of A.suum and had a significant effect (P<0.05 on weight gain of piglets. It can be concluded that Moringa oleifera leave have an anthelmintic effect to prevent the infection of A. suum and a potential for a feed supplement on pigs.

  13. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections.

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    Norhidayu Sahimin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%, followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%, Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%, India (n = 47, 12.1% and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%. A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms, one cestode (Hymenolepis nana and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3% was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%, E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%, Giardia sp. (10.8%, T. trichura (9.5%, Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%, H. nana (1.8% and E. vermicularis (0.5%. Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality, and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level. Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year's residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country.

  14. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Ariffin, Farnaza; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Lewis, John W.

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%), followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%), Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%), India (n = 47, 12.1%) and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%). A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms), one cestode (Hymenolepis nana) and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp.) were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3%) was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%), E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%), Giardia sp. (10.8%), T. trichura (9.5%), Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%), H. nana (1.8%) and E. vermicularis (0.5%). Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality), and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level). Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year’s residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country. PMID:27806046

  15. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne A L; Ariffin, Farnaza; Behnke, Jerzy M; Lewis, John W; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena

    2016-11-01

    A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%), followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%), Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%), India (n = 47, 12.1%) and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%). A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms), one cestode (Hymenolepis nana) and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp.) were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3%) was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%), E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%), Giardia sp. (10.8%), T. trichura (9.5%), Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%), H. nana (1.8%) and E. vermicularis (0.5%). Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality), and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level). Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year's residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country.

  16. Mitochondrial-type hsp70 genes of the amitochondriate protists, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica and two microsporidians☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisue, Nobuko; Sánchez, Lidya B.; Weiss, Louis M.; Müller, Miklós; Hashimoto, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Genes encoding putative mitochondrial-type heat shock protein 70 (mit-hsp70) were isolated and sequenced from amitochondriate protists, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, and two microsporidians, Encephalitozoon hellem and Glugea plecoglossi. The deduced mit-hsp70 sequences were analyzed by sequence alignments and phylogenetic reconstructions. The mit-hsp70 sequence of these four amitochondriate protists were divergent from other mit-hsp70 sequences of mitochondriate eukaryotes. However, all of these sequences were clearly located within a eukaryotic mitochondrial clade in the tree including various type hsp70 sequences, supporting the emerging notion that none of these amitochondriate lineages are primitively amitochodrial, but lost their mitochondria secondarily in their evolutionary past. PMID:11880223

  17. Non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies (Diptera) as carriers of intestinal human parasites in slum areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, Sisay; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Erko, Berhanu; Balkew, Meshesha; Medhin, Girmay

    2007-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the role of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies as carriers of intestinal parasites in slum areas of Addis Ababa from January 2004 to June 2004. A total of 9550 flies, comprising of at least seven species were collected from four selected sites and examined for human intestinal parasites using the formol-ether concentration method. The dominant fly species was Chrysomya rufifacies (34.9%) followed by Musca domestica (31%), Musca sorbens (20.5.%), Lucina cuprina (6.8%), Sarcophaga sp. (2.8%), Calliphora vicina (2.2%) and Wohlfahrtia sp. (1.8%). Six intestinal helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia spp. and Strongyloides stercoralis) and at least four protozoan parasites (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba coli, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium sp.) were isolated from both the external and gut contents of the flies. A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura among the helminths and E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli among the protozoans were the dominant parasites detected both on the external and in the gut contents of the flies, but occurring more in the latter. Among the flies, C. rufifacies and M. sorbens were the highest carriers of the helminth and protozoan parasites, respectively. The public health significance of these findings is highlighted.

  18. Public health importance of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetene, Teshome; Worku, Netsanet

    2009-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine the role of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies as carriers of human intestinal parasites at Woreta, northwestern Ethiopia. In total, 6530 flies were collected from four breeding sites and then examined for human intestinal parasites, mainly using the formol-ether concentration method. Fly species identified were Musca domestica (32.9%), Chrysomya rufifacies (32.6%), Musca sorbens (23%), Lucina cuprina (4.7%), Calliphora vicina (2.8%), Chrysomya bezziana (2.3%) and Wohlfahrtia magnifica (1.7%). Intestinal parasites such as Ascaris lumbricoides (36.9%), Trichuris trichiura (38.8%), hookworm (13.0%), Hymenolepis nana (0.6%), Taenia spp. (8.4%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.7%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (48.1%), Entamoeba coli (24.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. (16.7%) and Giardia lamblia (10.4%) were isolated from both external and gut contents of the flies. Trichuris trichiura and A. lumbricoides among the helminths and E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli among the protozoans were the dominant parasites identified. It was observed that more parasites were isolated from gut contents than the external surfaces of the flies examined (PChrysomya rufifacies were found to carry more helminths than M. sorbens and M. domestica. Musca sorbens were the highest carriers of protozoan parasites followed by M. domestica and C. rufifacies. The significance of filth flies as carriers of human intestinal parasites has been highlighted.

  19. Prevalência de parasitismo intestinal nas aldeias indígenas da tribo Tembé, Amazônia Oriental Brasileira

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    Miranda Rogério dos Anjos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar a prevalência de enteroparasitismo nas aldeias Tembé, foi realizado um inquérito coproparasitológico em toda a população (93 índios, em dezembro de 1996. Os parasitos mais freqüentes foram ancilostomídeos (29,0%, Ascaris lumbricoides (34,4%, Entamoeba histolytica (12,9% e Giardia lamblia (4,3%. As maiores prevalências de ancilostomídeos e A. lumbricoides foram observadas na aldeia Turé-Mariquita, enquanto que as de E. histolytica e G. lamblia na Acará-Mirim. Não foi observada diferença significativa sob ponto de vista prático entre a média de idade dos índios parasitados e a dos não parasitados. Sexo esteve relacionado apenas a freqüência de ancilostomídeos, bem maior no sexo masculino. Desse modo, a prevalência de enteroparasitas ainda se encontra elevada para alguns agentes, sugerindo que as medidas de atenção devem ser imediatamente incrementadas a fim de se obterem resultados mais positivos no combate ao enteroparasitismo.

  20. Effect of electron beam irradiation on bacterial and Ascaris ova loads and volatile organic compounds in municipal sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engohang-Ndong, Jean; Uribe, R.M.; Gregory, Roger; Gangoda, Mahinda; Nickelsen, Mike G.; Loar, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants produce large amounts of biosolids that can be utilized for land applications. However, prior to their use, these biosolids must be treated to eliminate risks of infections and to reduce upsetting odors. In this study, microbiological and chemical analyzes were performed before and after treatment of sewage sludge with 3 MeV of an electron beam accelerator in a pilot processing plant. Thus, we determined that dose 4.5 kGy was required to reduce fecal coliform counts to safe levels for land applications of sludge while, 14.5 kGy was necessary to decrease Ascaris ova counts to safe levels. Furthermore, at low doses, electron beam irradiation showed little effect on the concentrations of volatile organic compounds, while some increase were recorded at high doses. The concentration of dimethyl sulfide was reduced by 50–70% at irradiation doses of 25.7 kGy and 30.7 kGy respectively. By contrast, electron beam irradiation increased dimethyl disulfide concentrations. We also showed that electron beam treatment was less energy-consuming with shorter processing times than conventional techniques used to decontaminate sludge. Hence opening new avenues for large urban agglomerations to save money and time when treating biosolids for land application. - Highlights: • Use of electron beam irradiation for the treatment of municipal sewage sludge. • Irradiation at 4.5 kGy is required to eliminate risks of bacterial infection. • Irradiation at 14.5 kGy is required to eliminate risks of helminth infection. • Electron beam technology is not effective for controlling volatile organic compounds. • Electron beam treatment of sludge is less expensive than traditional techniques

  1. Effect of post-treatment conditions on the inactivation of helminth eggs (Ascaris suum) after the composting process.

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    Darimani, Hamidatu S; Ito, Ryusei; Maiga, Ynoussa; Sou, Mariam; Funamizu, Naoyuki; Maiga, Amadou H

    2016-01-01

    Safe and appropriate disposal of human waste is a basic requirement for sanitation and protection of public health. For proper sanitation and nutrient recovery, it is necessary to ensure effective treatment methods to complete pathogen destruction in excreta prior to reuse. Composting toilets convert faeces to a reusable resource such as fertilizer or humus for organic agriculture. A composting toilet for rural Burkina Faso was created by modifying a commercial model available in Japan to improve hygiene and increase food production. The toilet has shown to result in a degraded final product, but its effectiveness for pathogen destruction was unclear due to low temperatures generated from the toilet. This study aimed to sanitize compost withdrawn from the composting toilet for food production by setting post-treatment conditions. The inactivation kinetics of Ascaris suum eggs, selected as an indicator for helminth eggs, was determined during post-treatment at different temperatures (30°C, 40°C, 50°C and 60°C) with varying moisture contents (MC) (50%, 60% and 70%). The treatment of compost in a possible additional post-treatment after the composting process was tried in the laboratory test. Inactivation of A. suum eggs was fast with greater than two log reductions achieved within 2 h for temperature 50°C and 50% MC and greater than three log reductions for temperature 60°C and 50% MC within 3 h. Statistical analysis showed the significant impact of temperature and moisture on the inactivation rates of A. suum eggs. The post-treatment can efficiently increase helminth eggs destruction prior to reuse.

  2. A polyphenol-enriched diet and Ascaris suum infection modulate mucosal immune responses and gut microbiota composition in pigs.

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    Andrew R Williams

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are a class of bioactive plant secondary metabolites that are thought to have beneficial effects on gut health, such as modulation of mucosal immune and inflammatory responses and regulation of parasite burdens. Here, we examined the interactions between a polyphenol-rich diet supplement and infection with the enteric nematode Ascaris suum in pigs. Pigs were fed either a basal diet or the same diet supplemented with grape pomace (GP, an industrial by-product rich in polyphenols such as oligomeric proanthocyanidins. Half of the animals in each group were then inoculated with A. suum for 14 days to assess parasite establishment, acquisition of local and systemic immune responses and effects on the gut microbiome. Despite in vitro anthelmintic activity of GP-extracts, numbers of parasite larvae in the intestine were not altered by GP-supplementation. However, the bioactive diet significantly increased numbers of eosinophils induced by A. suum infection in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, and modulated gene expression in the jejunal mucosa of infected pigs. Both GP-supplementation and A. suum infection induced significant and apparently similar changes in the composition of the prokaryotic gut microbiota, and both also decreased concentrations of isobutyric and isovaleric acid (branched-chain short chain fatty acids in the colon. Our results demonstrate that while a polyphenol-enriched diet in pigs may not directly influence A. suum establishment, it significantly modulates the subsequent host response to helminth infection. Our results suggest an influence of diet on immune function which may potentially be exploited to enhance immunity to helminths.

  3. Geographical location and age affects the incidence of parasitic infestations in school children

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    Rayan Paran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors affect the dissemination and distribution of intestinal parasites in human communities. To comprehend the prevalence of parasitic infestation and to examine whether geographical location and age also influence the prevalence of infection, fecal samples from 195 school children (rural = 95; male = 39; female = 56 (urban = 100; male = 60; female = 40 of five age groups ranging from 5 to 11 years in two different socio-economic zones (rural and urban were screened for specific intestinal parasites using standard histological techniques. Percentage incidences of parasitic species found in fecal wet mounts and concentrates in rural children were Entamoeba coli (25.3%, Giardia lamblia (17.9%, Blastocystis hominis (14.7%, Entamoeba histolytica (4.2%, Iodamoeba butschlii (1.1%, Hymenolepis nana (1.1% and Ascaris lumbricoides (1.1%. Whereas the percentage incidences among urban children were E. coli (26%, A. lumbricoides (21%, B. hominis (18%, G. lamblia (14%, T. trichiura (8%, I. butschlii (4% and A. duodenale (1%. Such findings may be related to dietary differences, living conditions and the greater use of natural anti-helminthic medicinal plants in rural communities. These results are important for both epidemiological data collection and for correlating dietary differences to intestinal parasitic diseases. Aims: We chose to investigate whether geographical location and age affect the prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasites among school children from two separate regions (rural and urban in areas surrounding, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Settings and Design: A study of the prevalence of parasitic infestations was undertaken among primary school children, in rural and urban communities around Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: Faecal sample collection, direct microscopic techniques, macroscopic examination and concentration techniques for identifying the parasites. Statistical analysis used: Percentage

  4. Determinação da infecção por Entamoeba histolytica em residentes da área metropolitana de Belém, Pará, Brasil, utilizando ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA para detecção de antígenos Determination of Entamoeba histolytica infection in patients from Greater Metropolitan Belém, Pará, Brazil, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for antigen detection

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    Mônica Cristina de Moraes Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O status epidemiológico da amebíase está sendo reavaliado desde que a Entamoeba histolytica (patogênica foi considerada espécie distinta de Entamoeba dispar (não patogênica. Em nosso estudo, realizamos pesquisa de antígenos de E. histolytica em amostras fecais de pacientes residentes na cidade de Belém, Pará, Brasil, utilizando ensaio imunoenzimático (E. histolytica Test, TechLab Inc., Blacksburg, Estados Unidos disponível comercialmente. Foram analisadas 845 amostras, com positividade em 248 (29,35%. A infecção por E. histolytica foi maior no grupo etário acima de 14 anos (30,36% que no grupo de 0-14 anos (28,28%, porém sem significância estatística (p The epidemiological status of amebiasis has been reevaluated since Entamoeba histolytica (pathogenic was considered a distinct species from Entamoeba dispar (non-pathogenic. We investigated E. histolytica antigens in stool samples from residents of Belém, Pará State, Brazil, with commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (E. histolytica Test, TechLab Inc., Blacksburg, USA. A total of 845 samples were analyzed, of which 248 were positive (29.35%. E. histolytica infection was more frequent in the over-14-year age group (30.36% than in the 0-14-year group (28.28%, but the difference was not statistically significant (p < 0.05. Of all the samples, 334 were also submitted to parasitological methods (direct, Hoffman, and Faust et al.. There were discordant results between ELISA and parasitological methods in 83 samples (24.85%, with more positive results using ELISA. Our results thus suggest that intestinal amebiasis is an important public health problem in Greater Metropolitan Belém.

  5. Diagnosis of intestinal parasites in a rural community of Venezuela: Advantages and disadvantages of using microscopy or RT-PCR.

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    Incani, Renzo Nino; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Hoek, Denise; Ramak, Robbert; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Kortbeek, Titia; Pinelli, Elena

    2017-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and diagnostic performance of microscopy and real time PCR (RT-PCR) for 14 intestinal parasites in a Venezuelan rural community with a long history of persistent intestinal parasitic infections despite the implementation of regular anthelminthic treatments. A total of 228 participants were included in this study. A multiplex RT-PCR was used for the detection of Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium sp. and a monoplex RT-PCR for Entamoeba histolytica. Furthermore, a multiplex PCR was performed for detection of Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Combined microscopy-PCR revealed prevalences of 49.3% for A. lumbricoides, 10.1% for N. americanus (no A. duodenale was detected), 2.0% for S. stercoralis, 40.4% for D. fragilis, 35.1% for G. intestinalis, and 7.9% for E. histolytica/dispar. Significant increases in prevalence at PCR vs. microscopy were found for A. lumbricoides, G. intestinalis and D. fragilis. Other parasites detected by microscopy alone were Trichuris trichiura (25.7%), Enterobius vermicularis (3.4%), Blastocystis sp. (65.8%), and the non-pathogenic Entamoeba coli (28.9%), Entamoeba hartmanni (12.3%), Endolimax nana (19.7%) and Iodamoeba bütschlii (7.5%). Age- but no gender-related differences in prevalences were found for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, G. intestinalis, and E. histolytica/dispar. The persistently high prevalences of intestinal helminths are probably related to the high faecal pollution as also evidenced by the high prevalences of non-pathogenic intestinal protozoans. These results highlight the importance of using sensitive diagnostic techniques in combination with microscopy to better estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially in the case of D. fragilis trophozoites, which deteriorate very rapidly and would be missed by microscopy. In addition, the differentiation between

  6. Prostaglandin E2 produced by Entamoeba histolytica binds to EP4 receptors and stimulates interleukin-8 production in human colonic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Indranil; Chadee, Kris

    2008-11-01

    Entamoeba histolytica pathogenesis in the colon occurs in a stepwise fashion. It begins with colonization of the mucin layer, which is followed by stimulation of a proinflammatory response that causes nonspecific tissue damage that may facilitate parasite invasion of the underlying colonic mucosa. Unfortunately, the parasite and/or host factors that stimulate a proinflammatory response in the gut are poorly understood. In this study, we found that live E. histolytica or secretory or proteins (SP) and soluble ameba components (SAP) can markedly increase interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA expression and protein production in colonic epithelial cells. The IL-8-stimulating molecule produced by live amebae was identified as prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) as trophozoites treated with cyclooxygenase inhibitors inhibited the biosynthesis of PGE(2) and eliminated IL-8 production induced by live parasites or ameba components. Moreover, using specific prostaglandin EP2 and EP4 receptor agonists and antagonists, we found that PGE(2) binds exclusively through EP4 receptors in colonic epithelial cells to stimulate IL-8 production. Silencing of EP4 receptors with EP4 small interfering RNA completely eliminated SP- and SAP-induced IL-8 production. These studies identified bioactive PGE(2) as a one of the major virulence factors produced by E. histolytica that can stimulate the potent neutrophil chemokine and activator IL-8, which can trigger an acute host inflammatory response. Thus, the induction of IL-8 production in response to E. histolytica-derived PGE(2) may be a mechanism that explains the initiation and amplification of acute inflammation associated with intestinal amebiasis.

  7. Identification of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium sp. in Feces of Diarrheal Patient at Puskesmas Jatinangor, September–November 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Komathi Palani; Lia Faridah; Uun Sumardi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diarrhea is one of the main public health problems occurring in West Java. One of the affected areas is Subdistrict Jatinangor. Inappropriate management of sanitation facilities around Jatinangor area causes contamination of water. Cikeruh River is one of the water sources in Jatinangor Area, from which people obtain water for daily activities. Water borne illness due to poor sanitation condition can lead to parasitic infection such as Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Cr...

  8. Evaluation of the Roche LightMix Gastro parasites multiplex PCR assay detecting Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, cryptosporidia, Dientamoeba fragilis, and Blastocystis hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, J; Fuhrmann, J; Kietzmann, H; Tannich, E; Müller, M; Ignatius, R

    2018-03-23

    Multiplex PCR assays offer highly sensitive and specific tools for the detection of enteric pathogens. This prospective study aimed at comparing the novel Roche LightMix Modular Assay Gastro Parasites (LMAGP) detecting Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., Blastocystishominis, and Dientamoebafragilis with routine laboratory procedures. Stool specimens (n = 1062 from 1009 patients) were consecutively examined by LMAGP, R-Biopharm Ridascreen enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) detecting G. duodenalis or E. histolytica/dispar, and microscopy of wet mounts. Discrepant results were analysed by in-house PCR. D. fragilis or B. hominis were detected by LMAGP in 131 (14.4%) and 179 (19.9%; 16 samples positive by microscopy; p PCR). G. duodenalis was detected by LMAGP, EIA, or microscopy in 20, 16, or 9 of 1039 stool samples, respectively; all four samples missed by EIA were confirmed by in-house PCR. In total, 938 stool samples were analysed for E. histolytica/dispar. Nine of ten EIA-positive samples were negative by LMAGP but positive by in-house PCR for E. dispar. One E. histolytica infection (positive by both LMAGP and in-house PCR) was missed by EIA and microscopy. Parasites only detected by microscopy included Enterobius vermicularis eggs (n = 3) and apathogenic amoebae (n = 27). The data call for routine use of multiplex PCR assays for the detection of enteric protozoan parasites in laboratory diagnostics. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiplex PCR detection of Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica directly from dried stool samples from Guinea-Bissauan children with diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mero, Sointu; Kirveskari, Juha; Antikainen, Jenni; Ursing, Johan; Rombo, Lars; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Kantele, Anu

    2017-09-01

    In developing countries, diarrhoea is the most common cause of death for children under five years of age, with Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium and Entamoeba histolytica as the most frequent pathogenic parasites. Traditional microscopy for stool parasites has poor sensitivity and specificity, while new molecular methods may provide more accurate diagnostics. In poor regions with sample storage hampered by uncertain electricity supply, research would benefit from a method capable of analysing dried stools. A real-time multiplex PCR method with internal inhibition control was developed for detecting Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium hominis/parvum and Entamoeba histolytica directly from stool specimens. Applicability to dried samples was checked by comparing with fresh ones in a small test material. Finally, the assay was applied to dried specimens collected from Guinea-Bissauan children with diarrhoea. The PCR's analytical sensitivity limit was 0.1 ng/ml for G. lamblia DNA, 0.01 ng/ml for E. histolytica DNA and 0.1 ng/ml for Cryptosporidium sp. In the test material, the assay performed similarly with fresh and dried stools. Of the 52 Guinea-Bissauan samples, local microscopy revealed a parasite in 15%, while PCR detected 62% positive for at least one parasite: 44% of the dried samples had Giardia, 23% Cryptosporidium and 0% E. histolytica. Our new multiplex real-time PCR for protozoa presents a sensitive method applicable to dried samples. As proof of concept, it worked well on stools collected from Guinea-Bissauan children with diarrhoea. It provides an epidemiological tool for analysing dried specimens from regions poor in resources.

  10. Uso da bioinformática na diferenciação molecular da Entamoeba histolytica e Entamoeba díspar - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v30i2.2375 Molecular discrimination of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar by bioinformatics resources - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v30i2.2375

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    Débora Sommer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Amebíase invasiva, causada por Entamoeba histolytica, é microscopicamente indistinguível da espécie não-patogênica Entamoeba dispar. Com auxílio de ferramentas de bioinformática, objetivou-se diferenciar Entamoeba histolytica e Entamoeba dispar por técnicas moleculares. A análise foi realizada a partir do banco de dados da National Center for Biotechnology Information; pela pesquisa de similaridade de sequências, elegeu-se o gene da cisteína sintase. Um par de primer foi desenhado (programa Web Primer e foi selecionada a enzima de restrição TaqI (programa Web Cutter. Após a atuação da enzima, o fragmento foi dividido em dois, um com 255 pb e outro com 554 pb, padrão característico da E. histolytica. Na ausência de corte, o fragmento apresentou o tamanho de 809 pb, referente à E. dispar.Under microscopic conditions, the invasive Entamoeba histolytica is indistinguishable from the non-pathogenic species Entamoeba dispar. In this way, the present study was carried out to determine a molecular strategy for discriminating both species by the mechanisms of bioinformatics. The gene cysteine synthetase was considered for such a purpose by using the resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information data bank in the search for similarities in the gene sequence. In this way, a primer pair was designed by the Web Primer program and the restriction enzyme TaqI was selected by the Web Cutter software program. The DNA fragment had a size of 809 bp before cutting, which is consistent with E. dispar. The gene fragment was partitioned in a first fragment with 255 bp and a second one with 554 bp, which is similar to the genetic characteristics of E. histolytica.

  11. Identification of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium sp. in Feces of Diarrheal Patient at Puskesmas Jatinangor, September–November 2012

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    Komathi Palani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diarrhea is one of the main public health problems occurring in West Java. One of the affected areas is Subdistrict Jatinangor. Inappropriate management of sanitation facilities around Jatinangor area causes contamination of water. Cikeruh River is one of the water sources in Jatinangor Area, from which people obtain water for daily activities. Water borne illness due to poor sanitation condition can lead to parasitic infection such as Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium parvum which can cause a prolonged diarrhea. There has not been any study done regarding the presence of parasitical infection causing diarrhea around Jatinangor. Methods: In order to identify the parasitic infection, a descriptive study was carried out on 16 fecal samples collected from diarrheal patient who visited Puskesmas Jatinangor from September–November 2012. The parasites were checked by using wet mount method Results: The parasites found were Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium parvum, but none of Giardia lamblia. There were also other findings such as Iodamoeba butschlii and Entamoeba coli. Conclusion: Positive findings of Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium parvum in diarrhea patients is most probably due to contaminated water and food. Measures need to be done to improve sanitary condition in Cikeruh River to prevent diarrhea.

  12. Antiprotozoal Activity against Entamoeba histolytica of Plants Used in Northeast Mexican Traditional Medicine. Bioactive Compounds from Lippia graveolens and Ruta chalepensis

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    Ramiro Quintanilla-Licea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is associated with high morbidity and mortality is becoming a major public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Because of the side-effects and the resistance that pathogenic protozoa build against the standard antiparasitic drugs, e.g., metronidazole, much recent attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. We collected 32 plants used in Northeast Mexican traditional medicine and the methanolic extracts of these species were screened for antiprotozoal activity against E. histolytica trophozoites using in vitro tests. Only 18 extracts showed a significant inhibiting activity and among them six plant extracts showed more than 80% growth inhibition against E. histolytica at a concentration of 150 µg/mL and the IC50 values of these extracts were determined. Lippia graveolens Kunth and Ruta chalepensis Pers. showed the more significant antiprotozoal activity (91.54% and 90.50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 150 µg/mL with IC50 values of 59.14 and 60.07 µg/mL, respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts from these two plants afforded carvacrol (1 and chalepensin (2, respectively, as bioactive compounds with antiprotozoal activity.

  13. Predicting frequency distribution and influence of sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors of Schistosoma mansoni infection and analysis of co-infection with intestinal parasites

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    Carla V.V. Rollemberg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial analysis was used to study the epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni, intestinal parasites and co-infections in an area (Ilha das Flores in Sergipe, Brazil. We collected individually georeferenced sociodemographic, behavioral and parasitological data from 500 subjects, analyzed them by conventional statistics, and produced risk maps by Kernel estimation. The prevalence rates found were: S. mansoni (24.0%, Trichuris trichiura (54.8%, Ascaris lumbricoides (49.2%, Hookworm (17.6% and Entamoeba histolytica (7.0%. Only 59/500 (11.8% individuals did not present any of these infections, whereas 279/500 (55.8% were simultaneously infected by three or more parasites. We observed associations between S. mansoni infection and various variables such as male gender, being rice farmer or fisherman, low educational level, low income, water contact and drinking untreated water. The Kernel estimator indicated that high-risk areas coincide with the poorest regions of the villages as well as with the part of the villages without an adequate sewage system. We also noted associations between both A. lumbricoides and hookworm infections with low education and low income. A. lumbricoides infection and T. trichiura infection were both associated with drinking untreated water and residential open-air sewage. These findings call for an integrated approach to effectively control multiple parasitic infections.

  14. Different profile of intestinal protozoa and helminthic infections among patients with diarrhoea according to age attending a rural hospital in southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Jose M; Rodríguez-Valero, Natalia; Tisiano, Gabriel; Fano, Haji; Yohannes, Tafese; Gosa, Ashenafi; Fruttero, Enza; Reyes, Francisco; Górgolas, Miguel

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association of intestinal parasitic diseases with age and gender in patients with diarrhea attending a rural hospital in southern Ethiopia in the period 2007-2012. A total of 32,191 stool examination was performed in patients who presented with diarrhea. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in the present study was 26.5%. Predominant parasites detected were Giardia lamblia (15.0%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5.4%), and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.0%). The median of age of diarrheal patients with Hymenolepis species, Schistosoma mansoni and G. lamblia was significantly lower (5 y., 10.5 y., and 18 y., respectively; pintestinal parasite and the profile of intestinal parasitic infections is influenced by age.

  15. Diarrhoea-associated parasites in HIV-1 seropositive and sero-negative patients in a teaching hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andualem, Berhanu; Kassu, Afework; Moges, Feleke; Gedefaw, Molla; Diro, Ermias; Mengistu, Getahun; Andargie, Gashaw

    2007-04-01

    to determine the prevalence and type of intestinal parasites in HIV infected and uninfected patients with diarrhea. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Gondar University hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, between March 2003 and October 2004. A total 312 consecutive diarrheic patients were included in the study. Stool specimens were collected and examined for intestinal parasites following direct, formol-ether concentration and modified acid fast staining methods. Among the patients, 63.8% were found to be HIV seropositive. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV seropositive and seronegative diarrheic patients was 30.6% and 33.6%, respectively. The most prevalent parasites were Strongyoides stercoralis (9.0%) and Entamoeba histolytica (8.3%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (5.4%) and Cryptosporidium species (5. 1%). The prevalence of intestinal parasites in diarrheic patients was very high. Institution of appropriate intervention measures are needed to reduce morbidity in such patients.

  16. O depósito subungueal como disseminador e enteroparasitos

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    Carlos Alberto Moreira Campos

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available Demonstramos, no depósito subungueal de 130 crianças residentes no bairro de Nova Descoberta, Natal - RN, a presença de ovos ou cistos de enteroparasitos, tais como: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichocephalus trichiurus, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostomidae, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica e Giardia lamblia. Ao lado da demonstração dos referidos parasitos, fizemos a correlação entre a incidência parasitária e as espécies encontradas no resíduo que se forma sob as unhas. Dos enteroparasitos encontrados, parece ser esta a primeira referência a ovos de ancilostomídeos no depósito subungueal. Dos 130 exames realizados 16 mostraram-se positivos, com uma percentagem de 12,30%.

  17. Useable diffraction data from a multiple microdomain-containing crystal of Ascaris suum As-p18 fatty-acid-binding protein using a microfocus beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielsen, Mads; Riboldi-Tunnicliffe, Alan; Ibáñez-Shimabukuro, Marina; Griffiths, Kate; Roe, Andrew J.; Cooper, Alan; Smith, Brian O.; Córsico, Betina; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2012-01-01

    As-p18, an unusual fatty-acid-binding protein from a parasitic nematode, was expressed in bacteria, purified and crystallized. The use of a microfocus beamline was essential for data collection. As-p18 is a fatty-acid-binding protein from the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. Although it exhibits sequence similarity to mammalian intracellular fatty-acid-binding proteins, it contains features that are unique to nematodes. Crystals were obtained, but initial diffraction data analysis revealed that they were composed of a number of ‘microdomains’. Interpretable data could only be collected using a microfocus beamline with a beam size of 12 × 8 µm

  18. Optimization of the agar-gel method for isolation of migrating Ascaris suum larvae from the liver and lungs of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, I.; Roepstorff, A.; Rasmussen, T.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments on use of an agar-gel method for recovery of migrating Ascaris suum larvae from the liver and lungs of pigs were conducted to obtain fast standardized methods. Subsamples of blended tissues of pig liver and lungs were mixed with agar to a final concentration of 1% agar and the larvae...... clean suspension which reduced the sample counting time. Blending the liver for 60 sec in a commercial blender showed significantly higher larvae recovery than blending for 30 sec. Addition of gentamycin to reduce bacterial growth during incubation, glucose to increase larval motility during migration...

  19. Inquérito parasitológico na CECAP, distrito-sede de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Parasitological survey at CECAP, Botucatu County, S. Paulo State, Brazil

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    Ednir Salata

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo da prevalência de parasitas intestinais realizado em 370 indivíduos residentes na CECAP, distrito-sede de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, permitiu verificar que 41,62% encontravam-se infestados por uma ou mais espécies de parasitas intestinais. Foram encontrados os seguintes parasitas: Entamoeba histolytica 0,54%, E. coli 6,21%, I. butschlii 0,27%, Giardia lamblia 9,72%, Ancylostomidae 5,94%, Strongyloides stercoralis 6,75%, Trichuris trichiura 17,29%, Ascaris lumbricoides 7,56%, Enterobius vermicularis 3,78%, Hymenolepis nana 5,40% e Taenia sp. 1,62%. Apresentam-se dados sobre a distribuição dos parasitas em relação à idade e ao sexo dos indivíduos. O atributo cor não permite maiores considerações por serem os não brancos significantemente pouco numerosos. Dos indivíduos examinados, 25,67% apresentavam apenas uma espécie de parasita e entre as associações parasitárias mais freqüentes encontramos as de Ascaris lumbricoides - Trichuris trichiura e Trichuris trichiura - Giardia lamblia.A parasitological survey among 370 persons was carried out at CECAP, Botucatu County, S. Paulo State, Brazil. It was found that 41.62% of the examinated persons were infected with one or more species of intestinal parasites. The parasite's prevalence was: Entamoeba hystolytica 0.54%, E. coli 6.21%, I. butschlii 0.27%, Giardia lamblia 9.72%, Ancylostomidae 5.94%, Strongyloide stercoralis 6.75%, Trichuris trichiura 17.29%, Ascaris lumbricoides 7.56%, Enterobius vermicularis 3.78%, Hymenolepis nana 5.40% e Taenia sp. 1.62%. Tables are presented showing the distribution of the parasites according to age and sex. Race was not considered because the number of "not white" was significantly low. Of the examinated persons, 25.67% were infected with only one species of parasite and the parasitic associations most frequently found were Ascaris lumbricoides - Trichuris tricriura and Trichuris trichiura - Giardia lamblia.

  20. Monepantel is a non-competitive antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum dentatum

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    Melanie Abongwa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Zolvix® is a recently introduced anthelmintic drench containing monepantel as the active ingredient. Monepantel is a positive allosteric modulator of DEG-3/DES-2 type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs in several nematode species. The drug has been reported to produce hypercontraction of Caenorhabditis elegans and Haemonchus contortus somatic muscle. We investigated the effects of monepantel on nAChRs from Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum dentatum heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Using two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology, we studied the effects of monepantel on a nicotine preferring homomeric nAChR subtype from A. suum comprising of ACR-16; a pyrantel/tribendimidine preferring heteromeric subtype from O. dentatum comprising UNC-29, UNC-38 and UNC-63 subunits; and a levamisole preferring subtype (O. dentatum comprising UNC-29, UNC-38, UNC-63 and ACR-8 subunits. For each subtype tested, monepantel applied in isolation produced no measurable currents thereby ruling out an agonist action. When monepantel was continuously applied, it reduced the amplitude of acetylcholine induced currents in a concentration-dependent manner. In all three subtypes, monepantel acted as a non-competitive antagonist on the expressed receptors. ACR-16 from A. suum was particularly sensitive to monepantel inhibition (IC50 values: 1.6 ± 3.1 nM and 0.2 ± 2.3 μM. We also investigated the effects of monepantel on muscle flaps isolated from adult A. suum. The drug did not significantly increase baseline tension when applied on its own. As with acetylcholine induced currents in the heterologously expressed receptors, contractions induced by acetylcholine were antagonized by monepantel. Further investigation revealed that the inhibition was a mixture of competitive and non-competitive antagonism. Our findings suggest that monepantel is active on multiple nAChR subtypes. Keywords: Monepantel, Zolvix®, Nicotinic acetylcholine

  1. Serum antibody responses in pigs trickle-infected with Ascaris and Trichuris: Heritabilities and associations with parasitological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringel, Helene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Petersen, Heidi Huus; Göring, Harald Heinz Herbert; Skallerup, Per; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-07-30

    A humoral immune response following helminth infection in pigs is well documented. However, it has been difficult to confirm the existence of antibody mediated resistance against the large roundworm, Ascaris suum, and whipworm, Trichuris suis, in experimental settings by correlating worm burdens or egg excretion with specific antibody levels. We set out to investigate the association between worm load and T. suis and A. suum specific serum antibody levels (IgG1, IgG2 and IgA) against excretory-secretory products of adults and third stage larvae, respectively, measured at 0, 7 and 14 weeks p.i. in a trickle-infected F1-resource-population of crossbred pigs (n=195). Furthermore, we wanted to determine the heritability of these antibody isotypes during the course of infection. Most pigs remained infected with A. suum throughout the experiment while they expelled T. suis between 7 and 14 weeks post infection (p.i.). Parasite specific IgG1 and IgA were significantly (P<0.001) elevated after 7 and 14 weeks of infection, whereas parasite specific IgG2 levels only changed slightly at 14 weeks p.i.. However, the observed association between specific antibody isotype levels and faecal egg counts and macroscopic worm load was weak. The relative heritabilities of the different parasite specific isotypes were assessed and resulted in significant heritability estimates for parasite specific IgG1 and IgA. The highest heritabilities were found for A. suum specific IgG1 (h(2)=0.41 and 0.46 at 7 and 14 weeks p.i., respectively). Thus, the present study demonstrates that host genetic factors influence the IgG1 and IgA antibody isotype responses specific to two of the most common gastrointestinal nematodes of swine whereas specific antibody levels were poorly associated with egg excretion and the presence of macroscopic worms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Microfluidic platform for electrophysiological recordings from host-stage hookworm and Ascaris suum larvae: A new tool for anthelmintic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis C. Weeks

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is important for discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device (‘chip’ that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiological signals generated by rhythmic contraction (pumping of the worm's pharynx. These electropharyngeograms (EPGs are recorded simultaneously from multiple worms per chip, providing a medium-throughput readout of muscular and neural activity that is especially useful for compounds targeting neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels. Microfluidic technologies have transformed C. elegans research and the goal of the current study was to validate hookworm and Ascaris suum host-stage larvae in the microfluidic EPG platform. Ancylostoma ceylanicum and A. caninum infective L3s (iL3s that had been activated in vitro generally produced erratic EPG activity under the conditions tested. In contrast, A. ceylanicum L4s recovered from hamsters exhibited robust, sustained EPG activity, consisting of three waveforms: (1 conventional pumps as seen in other nematodes; (2 rapid voltage deflections, associated with irregular contractions of the esophagus and openings of the esophogeal-intestinal valve (termed a ‘flutter’; and (3 hybrid waveforms, which we classified as pumps. For data analysis, pumps and flutters were combined and termed EPG ‘events.’ EPG waveform identification and analysis were performed semi-automatically using custom-designed software. The neuromodulator serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT increased EPG event frequency in A. ceylanicum L4s at an optimal concentration of 0.5 mM. The anthelmintic drug ivermectin (IVM inhibited EPG activity in a concentration-dependent manner. EPGs from A. suum L3s recovered from pig lungs exhibited robust pharyngeal pumping in 1 mM 5HT, which was inhibited by IVM. These experiments validate the use of A

  3. Intestinal parasitosis and socio-environmental factor sof a population from peri-urban area of Manaus - AM - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2010.p30

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    Cecília Leite Motta de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in patients who sought a Basic Health Unit and get to know the conditions and socio-environmental characteristics of a population of peri-urban area of Manaus - AM, Brazil. Methods: A study conducted by spontaneous demand of patients in a Basic Health Unit, Northern Zone of Manaus, Amazonas, between April and July 2007, conducting parasitological examination in 400 stool samples by Hoffmann-Pons-Janer’s method, and interviews. Results: From the total, 271/400 (67,8% contained parasites; 181/268 (45,25% samples were of females; 147/224 (36,7% aged between 19 and 85 years; 119/170 (29,75% with incomplete elementary school; 207/299 (51.75% with a family income between one and three minimum wages; 220/316 (55% were natural from Amazonas; 192/284 (48% worked at home; 199/298 (49,7% consumed water from artesian public well; 106/152 (26.5% treated the water; 165/248 (66% did not treat the consumed water. The most frequent helminthes found: Ascaris lumbricoides 48 (12%, Enterobius vermicularis 44 (11%, Ancilostomídeos 38 (9,5%. Protozoa: Entamoeba histolytica 83 (20,8%, Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana, 79 (19,8% e 79 (19,8% respectively, Giardia lamblia 41 (10,3% and Iodamoeba butschlii 17 (4,3%. It was observed monoparasitism for E. histolytica 83 (20,8%, biparasitism 104/271 (26% E. histolytica and A. lumbricóides, E. histolytica and E. vermicularis, E. histolytica and G. lamblia. Conclusions:   We recorded a high prevalence of parasites in young people with low income, low cultural level, predominantly women of the household. Among the environmental factors associated with these indexes are a deficiency in water services and sanitary sewer.

  4. Differential distribution of a SINE element in the Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar genomes: Role of the LINE-encoded endonuclease

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    Gupta Abhishek K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar are closely related protistan parasites but while E. histolytica can be invasive, E. dispar is completely non pathogenic. Transposable elements constitute a significant portion of the genome in these species; there being three families of LINEs and SINEs. These elements can profoundly influence the expression of neighboring genes. Thus their genomic location can have important phenotypic consequences. A genome-wide comparison of the location of these elements in the E. histolytica and E. dispar genomes has not been carried out. It is also not known whether the retrotransposition machinery works similarly in both species. The present study was undertaken to address these issues. Results Here we extracted all genomic occurrences of full-length copies of EhSINE1 in the E. histolytica genome and matched them with the homologous regions in E. dispar, and vice versa, wherever it was possible to establish synteny. We found that only about 20% of syntenic sites were occupied by SINE1 in both species. We checked whether the different genomic location in the two species was due to differences in the activity of the LINE-encoded endonuclease which is required for nicking the target site. We found that the endonucleases of both species were essentially very similar, both in their kinetic properties and in their substrate sequence specificity. Hence the differential distribution of SINEs in these species is not likely to be influenced by the endonuclease. Further we found that the physical properties of the DNA sequences adjoining the insertion sites were similar in both species. Conclusions Our data shows that the basic retrotransposition machinery is conserved in these sibling species. SINEs may indeed have occupied all of the insertion sites in the genome of the common ancestor of E. histolytica and E. dispar but these may have been subsequently lost from some locations. Alternatively, SINE

  5. Gene migration for re-emerging amebiasis in Iran's northwest-Iraq borders: a microevolutionary scale for reflecting epidemiological drift of Entamoeba histolytica metapopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Asad; Spotin, Adel; Mahami-Oskouei, Mahmoud; Haghighi, Ali; Zebardast, Nozhat; Kohansal, Kobra

    2017-01-01

    In the microevolutionary scales of Entamoeba isolates, the gene migration shows how Entamoeba spp. has epidemiologically drifted among border countries. Five hundred fecal samples were taken from patients suffering gastrointestinal disorders, abdominal pain, and diarrhea at Saggez, northwest Iran located within the border Iraq country. Following parasitological techniques, DNA samples were extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of 18S rRNA region to identify Entamoeba infections. To distinguish the Entamoeba spp., a multiplex PCR was conducted. Amplicons were sequenced to reconfirm their heterogeneity traits and phylogenetic analysis. Additionally, Entamoeba histolytica sequences of Iraq were retrieved from GenBank database. The suspected isolates were diagnosed as E. histolytica (2.2 %), Entamoeba moshkovskii (1 %), and Entamoeba dispar (0.4 %). Mixed Entamoeba infections did not detect among isolates. A parsimonious network of the sequence haplotypes displayed star-like features in the overall isolates containing E.h1, E.d2, and E.m3 as the most common haplotypes. According to analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) test, high partial value of haplotype diversity (0.700 to 0.800) of E. histolytica was shown the total genetic variability within populations while nucleotide diversity was low among Iranian and Iraqi metapopulations. Neutrality indices of the 18S rRNA were shown negative values in E. histolytica populations which indicating significant deviations from neutrality. A pairwise fixation index (F-statistics [Fst]) as a degree of gene flow had a low value for all populations (0.001) while the number of migrants was 2.48. The statistically Fst value indicates that E. histolytica isolates are not genetically differentiated among shared isolates of Iran and Iraq. Occurrence of E.h1 between two regional populations indicates that there is dawn of Entamoeba flow due to transfer of alleles from one population to another population through

  6. Pesquisa de ovos de helmintos e de cistos de protozoários em dinheiro Research into the transmission of helminthic eggs and protozoan cysts on money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Virgilio Levai

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available Em virtude da elevada prevalência de parasitoses intestinais no Brasil e da possível participação de objetos na transmissão dessas afecções, foi desenvolvida pesquisa envolvendo dinheiro difundido na coletividade. Foram analisadas, quanto à presença de ovos de helmintos e de cistos de protozoários, 1.003 cédulas e 1.011 moedas, de valores e procedências diversos. Do estudo resultou o encontro de cistos de Entamoeba histolytica em duas eventualidades, de ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides larvado e infértil, de ovo de Taenia sp. morfologicamente íntegro e de outros elementos não patogênicos. Ficou salientada a importância do dinheiro circulante na epidemiologia das enteroparasitoses, tendo havido sugestão de novos trabalhos de natureza congênere, inclusive delineando diretrizes de ordem profilática.Due to the high prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases in Brazil and to the fact that inanimate objects may play an important role in their transmission, it was decided to carry out an investigation into the existence of helminthic eggs and protozoan cysts in money currently handled by the community. A thousand and three banknotes and 1,011 coins of different origins were analysed, yielding the following results. Entamoeba histolytica cysts were found twice, and fertile and infertile Ascaris lumbricoides eggs and one intact Taenia sp. egg, besides other nonpathogenic elements, were also found. The importance of the handling of money in the epidemiology of common intestinal parasitic diseases is emphasized and it is suggested that further similar studies should be carried out; possible means of prevention are also indicated.

  7. Detection of Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in children with acute diarrhea and severe dehydration in Rio de Janeiro Detecção de Cryptosporidium spp e outros parasitas intestinais em crianças com diarréia aguda e desidratação grave no Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in dehydrated children with gastroenteritis who were admitted to a pediatric hospital. Stool examinations from 218 children were performed. Cryptosporidium spp was identified in eighteen out of 193 stool samples (9.3% subjected to safranin-methylene blue staining. Giardia lamblia was detected in ten out of 213 (4.7% samples examined via the direct or Ritchie methods. Other parasites identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (4.2%, Blastocystis hominis (1.4%, Entamoeba coli (0.9%, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (0.5%, Endolimax nana (0.5%, Trichuris trichiura (0.5% and Enterobius vermicularis (0.5%.O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar a freqüência das infecções por Cryptosporidium spp e outros parasitas intestinais em crianças desidratadas com gastroenterite, internadas em um hospital pediátrico. Exames de fezes de 218 crianças foram realizados. Cryptosporidium spp foi detectado em 18 de 193 (9,3% amostras fecais submetidas à coloração pela safranina/azul-de-metileno. Giardia lamblia foi detectada em dez de 213 (4,7% amostras submetidas ao exame direto ou ao método de Ritchie. Também foram identificados Ascaris lumbricoides (4,2%, Blastocystis hominis (1,4%, Entamoeba coli (0,9%, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (0,5%, Endolimax nana (0,5%, Trichuris trichiura (0,5% and Enterobius vermicularis (0,5%.

  8. Entamoeba histolytica Cysteine Proteinase 5 Evokes Mucin Exocytosis from Colonic Goblet Cells via αvβ3 Integrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Cornick

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Critical to the pathogenesis of intestinal amebiasis, Entamoeba histolytica (Eh induces mucus hypersecretion and degrades the colonic mucus layer at the site of invasion. The parasite component(s responsible for hypersecretion are poorly defined, as are regulators of mucin secretion within the host. In this study, we have identified the key virulence factor in live Eh that elicits the fast release of mucin by goblets cells as cysteine protease 5 (EhCP5 whereas, modest mucus secretion occurred with secreted soluble EhCP5 and recombinant CP5. Coupling of EhCP5-αvβ3 integrin on goblet cells facilitated outside-in signaling by activating SRC family kinases (SFK and focal adhesion kinase that resulted in the activation/phosphorlyation of PI3K at the site of Eh contact and production of PIP3. PKCδ was activated at the EhCP5-αvβ3 integrin contact site that specifically regulated mucin secretion though the trafficking vesicle marker myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS. This study has identified that EhCP5 coupling with goblet cell αvβ3 receptors can initiate a signal cascade involving PI3K, PKCδ and MARCKS to drive mucin secretion from goblet cells critical in disease pathogenesis.

  9. Fascioliasis and Intestinal Parasitoses Affecting Schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: Epidemiology and Treatment with Nitazoxanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumaquero-Ríos, José Lino; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge; Rojas-García, Raúl; Rojas-Rivero, Lázara; Martínez-Tovilla, Yaneth; Valero, María Adela; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Background The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude) through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries. Methodology and Findings A total of 865 6–14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94–13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%). Intensities were however low (24–384 epg). The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids. Conclusions Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate

  10. Fascioliasis and intestinal parasitoses affecting schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: epidemiology and treatment with nitazoxanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumaquero-Ríos, José Lino; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge; Rojas-García, Raúl; Rojas-Rivero, Lázara; Martínez-Tovilla, Yaneth; Valero, María Adela; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2013-11-01

    The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude) through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries. A total of 865 6-14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94-13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%). Intensities were however low (24-384 epg). The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids. Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate alternative to triclabendazole, the present drug of choice

  11. Fascioliasis and intestinal parasitoses affecting schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: epidemiology and treatment with nitazoxanide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lino Zumaquero-Ríos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries.A total of 865 6-14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94-13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%. Intensities were however low (24-384 epg. The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids.Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate alternative to triclabendazole, the present

  12. Parasitosis intestinal en niños, en áreas de alta marginación socioeconómica de la región fronteriza de Chiapas, México

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    Morales-Espinoza Emma Marianela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de parasitosis intestinal en niños de zonas de alta marginación y su asociación con indicadores demográficos y socioeconómicos de interés. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En una muestra de 1478 menores de edad, de entre 1 a 14 años, provenientes de 32 comunidades de la región fronteriza de Chiapas, México, de marzo a septiembre de 1998, se recolectaron tres muestras de heces fecales, seleccionadas aleatoriamente a partir del grado de marginación (alto y muy alto del municipio al que pertenecen, y distancia de la unidad de salud más cercana a la comunidad (<1 hora; 1 hora o más. En una de cada cuatro viviendas con niños menores de 15 años de edad, seleccionadas aleatoriamente, se obtuvieron tres muestras de heces fecales de éstos. Se efectuaron análisis bivariados con la prueba de ji cuadrada y multivariados con modelos lineales generalizados. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia global de parasitosis fue de 67% (intervalo de confianza IC 95% 64-70%. Sesenta por ciento de los niños estaban multiparasitados. La prevalencia de Entamoeba histolytica/E dispar fue de 51.2%, de Giardia lamblia, 18.3% y de Ascaris lumbricoides, 14.5%. La mayor prevalencia de E histolytica/E dispar se asoció con la edad y hablar algún idioma indígena; la de Ascaris lumbricoides con el sitio de obtención de agua y la carencia de refrigerador y electricidad. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario hacer intervenciones locales de salud (calidad del agua, sistemas de desagüe, programas de educación sanitaria (promoción de la lactancia materna y medidas higiénicas y promoción del habla de idiomas indígenas entre los médicos de la región.

  13. Intestinal parasites in children, in highly deprived areas in the border region of Chiapas, Mexico Parasitosis intestinal en niños, en áreas de alta marginación socioeconómica de la región fronteriza de Chiapas, México

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    Emma Marianela Morales-Espinoza

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children in highly deprived areas, and its possible association with demographic and socioeconomic indicators. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From March to September 1998 in a convenience sample of 32 communities of the border region of Chiapas, Mexico, selected at random based on the level of poverty and distance from the community to the nearest health care unit (OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de parasitosis intestinal en niños de zonas de alta marginación y su asociación con indicadores demográficos y socioeconómicos de interés. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En una muestra de 1478 menores de edad, de entre 1 a 14 años, provenientes de 32 comunidades de la región fronteriza de Chiapas, México, de marzo a septiembre de 1998, se recolectaron tres muestras de heces fecales, seleccionadas aleatoriamente a partir del grado de marginación (alto y muy alto del municipio al que pertenecen, y distancia de la unidad de salud más cercana a la comunidad (<1 hora; 1 hora o más. En una de cada cuatro viviendas con niños menores de 15 años de edad, seleccionadas aleatoriamente, se obtuvieron tres muestras de heces fecales de éstos. Se efectuaron análisis bivariados con la prueba de ji cuadrada y multivariados con modelos lineales generalizados. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia global de parasitosis fue de 67% (intervalo de confianza IC 95% 64-70%. Sesenta por ciento de los niños estaban multiparasitados. La prevalencia de Entamoeba histolytica/E dispar fue de 51.2%, de Giardia lamblia, 18.3% y de Ascaris lumbricoides, 14.5%. La mayor prevalencia de E histolytica/E dispar se asoció con la edad y hablar algún idioma indígena; la de Ascaris lumbricoides con el sitio de obtención de agua y la carencia de refrigerador y electricidad. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario hacer intervenciones locales de salud (calidad del agua, sistemas de desagüe, programas de educación sanitaria (promoción de la

  14. Evaluation of multiplex tandem real-time PCR for detection of Cryptosporidium spp., Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia intestinalis in clinical stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, D; Al-Qassab, S E; Barratt, J L N; Stanley, K; Roberts, T; Marriott, D; Harkness, J; Ellis, J T

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the first development and evaluation of a multiplex tandem PCR (MT-PCR) assay for the detection and identification of 4 common pathogenic protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium spp., Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia intestinalis, from human clinical samples. A total of 472 fecal samples submitted to the Department of Microbiology at St. Vincent's Hospital were included in the study. The MT-PCR assay was compared to four real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assays and microscopy by a traditional modified iron hematoxylin stain. The MT-PCR detected 28 G. intestinalis, 26 D. fragilis, 11 E. histolytica, and 9 Cryptosporidium sp. isolates. Detection and identification of the fecal protozoa by MT-PCR demonstrated 100% correlation with the RT-PCR results, and compared to RT-PCR, MT-PCR exhibited 100% sensitivity and specificity, while traditional microscopy of stained fixed fecal smears exhibited sensitivities and specificities of 56% and 100% for Cryptosporidium spp., 38% and 99% for D. fragilis, 47% and 97% for E. histolytica, and 50% and 100% for G. intestinalis. No cross-reactivity was detected in 100 stool samples containing various other bacterial, viral, and protozoan species. The MT-PCR assay was able to provide rapid, sensitive, and specific simultaneous detection and identification of the four most important diarrhea-causing protozoan parasites that infect humans. This study also highlights the lack of sensitivity demonstrated by microscopy, and thus, molecular methods such as MT-PCR must be considered the diagnostic methods of choice for enteric protozoan parasites.

  15. Dimethylated H3K27 Is a Repressive Epigenetic Histone Mark in the Protist Entamoeba histolytica and Is Significantly Enriched in Genes Silenced via the RNAi Pathway*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Bardees M.; Singh, Upinder

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a fundamental biological process that plays a crucial role in regulation of gene expression in many organisms. Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) is one of the important nuclear roles of RNAi. Our previous data show that Entamoeba histolytica has a robust RNAi pathway that links to TGS via Argonaute 2-2 (Ago2-2) associated 27-nucleotide small RNAs with 5′-polyphosphate termini. Here, we report the first repressive histone mark to be identified in E. histolytica, dimethylation of H3K27 (H3K27Me2), and demonstrate that it is enriched at genes that are silenced by RNAi-mediated TGS. An RNAi-silencing trigger can induce H3K27Me2 deposits at both episomal and chromosomal loci, mediating gene silencing. Our data support two phases of RNAi-mediated TGS: an active silencing phase where the RNAi trigger is present and both H3K27Me2 and Ago2-2 concurrently enrich at chromosomal loci; and an established silencing phase in which the RNAi trigger is removed, but gene silencing with H3K27Me2 enrichment persist independently of Ago2-2 deposition. Importantly, some genes display resistance to chromosomal silencing despite induction of functional small RNAs. In those situations, the RNAi-triggering plasmid that is maintained episomally gets partially silenced and has H3K27Me2 enrichment, but the chromosomal copy displays no repressive histone enrichment. Our data are consistent with a model in which H3K27Me2 is a repressive histone modification, which is strongly associated with transcriptional repression. This is the first example of an epigenetic histone modification that functions to mediate RNAi-mediated TGS in the deep-branching eukaryote E. histolytica. PMID:26149683

  16. Dimethylated H3K27 Is a Repressive Epigenetic Histone Mark in the Protist Entamoeba histolytica and Is Significantly Enriched in Genes Silenced via the RNAi Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Bardees M; Singh, Upinder

    2015-08-21

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a fundamental biological process that plays a crucial role in regulation of gene expression in many organisms. Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) is one of the important nuclear roles of RNAi. Our previous data show that Entamoeba histolytica has a robust RNAi pathway that links to TGS via Argonaute 2-2 (Ago2-2) associated 27-nucleotide small RNAs with 5'-polyphosphate termini. Here, we report the first repressive histone mark to be identified in E. histolytica, dimethylation of H3K27 (H3K27Me2), and demonstrate that it is enriched at genes that are silenced by RNAi-mediated TGS. An RNAi-silencing trigger can induce H3K27Me2 deposits at both episomal and chromosomal loci, mediating gene silencing. Our data support two phases of RNAi-mediated TGS: an active silencing phase where the RNAi trigger is present and both H3K27Me2 and Ago2-2 concurrently enrich at chromosomal loci; and an established silencing phase in which the RNAi trigger is removed, but gene silencing with H3K27Me2 enrichment persist independently of Ago2-2 deposition. Importantly, some genes display resistance to chromosomal silencing despite induction of functional small RNAs. In those situations, the RNAi-triggering plasmid that is maintained episomally gets partially silenced and has H3K27Me2 enrichment, but the chromosomal copy displays no repressive histone enrichment. Our data are consistent with a model in which H3K27Me2 is a repressive histone modification, which is strongly associated with transcriptional repression. This is the first example of an epigenetic histone modification that functions to mediate RNAi-mediated TGS in the deep-branching eukaryote E. histolytica. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Comparison of a Stool Antigen Detection Kit and PCR for Diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar Infections in Asymptomatic Cyst Passers in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Solaymani-Mohammadi, Shahram; Rezaian, Mostafa; Babaei, Zahra; Rajabpour, Azam; Meamar, Ahmad R.; Pourbabai, Ahmad A.; Petri, William A.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare stool antigen detection with PCR for the diagnosis of Entamoeba sp. infection in asymptomatic cyst passers from Iran. Entamoeba dispar and, in one case, E. moshkovskii were the Entamoeba spp. found in the amebic cyst passers. There was a 100% correlation between the results from the TechLab E. histolytica II stool antigen kit and those from nested PCR. We concluded that E. dispar is much more common in asymptomatic cyst passers in Iran and that antig...

  18. Comparison of a stool antigen detection kit and PCR for diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar infections in asymptomatic cyst passers in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaymani-Mohammadi, Shahram; Rezaian, Mostafa; Babaei, Zahra; Rajabpour, Azam; Meamar, Ahmad R; Pourbabai, Ahmad A; Petri, William A

    2006-06-01

    The present study was conducted to compare stool antigen detection with PCR for the diagnosis of Entamoeba sp. infection in asymptomatic cyst passers from Iran. Entamoeba dispar and, in one case, E. moshkovskii were the Entamoeba spp. found in the amebic cyst passers. There was a 100% correlation between the results from the TechLab E. histolytica II stool antigen kit and those from nested PCR. We concluded that E. dispar is much more common in asymptomatic cyst passers in Iran and that antigen detection and PCR are comparable diagnostic modalities.

  19. Multiplex PCR detection of Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica directly from dried stool samples from Guinea-Bissauan children with diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mero, Sointu; Kirveskari, Juha; Antikainen, Jenni

    2017-01-01

    and specificity, while new molecular methods may provide more accurate diagnostics. In poor regions with sample storage hampered by uncertain electricity supply, research would benefit from a method capable of analysing dried stools. Methods: A real-time multiplex PCR method with internal inhibition control...... microscopy revealed a parasite in 15%, while PCR detected 62% positive for at least one parasite: 44% of the dried samples had Giardia, 23% Cryptosporidium and 0% E. histolytica. Conclusions: Our new multiplex real-time PCR for protozoa presents a sensitive method applicable to dried samples. As proof...

  20. Molecular epidemiology of ascariasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Bendall, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides infects 0.8 billion people worldwide, and Ascaris suum infects innumerable pigs across the globe. The extent of natural cross-transmission of Ascaris between pig and human hosts in different geographical settings is unknown, warranting investigation....

  1. Heavy subunit of cell surface Gal/GalNAc lectin (Hgl) undergoes degradation via endo-lysosomal compartments in Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Kuldeep; Datta, Sunando

    2017-06-14

    The human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica uses a multifunctional virulence factor, Hgl, a cell surface transmembrane receptor subunit of Gal/GalNAc lectin that contributes to adhesion, invasion, cytotoxicity and immune response in the host. At present, the physiologic importance of Hgl receptor is mostly known for pathogenicity of E. histolytica. However, the molecular mechanisms of Hgl trafficking events and their association with the intracellular membrane transport machinery are largely unknown. We used biochemical and microscopy-based assays to understand the Hgl trafficking in the amoebic trophozoites. Our results suggest that the Hgl is constitutively degraded through delivery into amoebic lysosome-like compartments. Further, we also observed that the Hgl was significantly colocalized with amoebic Rab GTPases such as EhRab5, EhRab7A, and EhRab11B. While, we detected association of Hgl with all these Rab GTPases in early vacuolar compartments, only EhRab7A remains associated with Hgl till its transport to amoebic lysosome-like compartments.

  2. Detection of the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport in Entamoeba histolytica and Characterization of the EhVps4 Protein

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    Israel López-Reyes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic endocytosis involves multivesicular bodies formation, which is driven by endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT. Here, we showed the presence and expression of homologous ESCRT genes in Entamoeba histolytica. We cloned and expressed the Ehvps4 gene, an ESCRT member, to obtain the recombinant EhVps4 and generate specific antibodies, which immunodetected EhVps4 in cytoplasm of trophozoites. Bioinformatics and biochemical studies evidenced that rEhVps4 is an ATPase, whose activity depends on the conserved E211 residue. Next, we generated trophozoites overexpressing EhVps4 and mutant EhVps4-E211Q FLAG-tagged proteins. The EhVps4-FLAG was located in cytosol and at plasma membrane, whereas the EhVps4-E211Q-FLAG was detected as abundant cytoplasmic dots in trophozoites. Erythrophagocytosis, cytopathic activity, and hepatic damage in hamsters were not improved in trophozoites overexpressing EhVps4-FLAG. In contrast, EhVps4-E211Q-FLAG protein overexpression impaired these properties. The localization of EhVps4-FLAG around ingested erythrocytes, together with our previous results, strengthens the role for EhVps4 in E. histolytica phagocytosis and virulence.

  3. Yeast-expressed recombinant As16 protects mice against Ascaris suum infection through induction of a Th2-skewed immune response.

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    Junfei Wei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis remains the most common helminth infection in humans. As an alternative or complementary approach to global deworming, a pan-anthelminthic vaccine is under development targeting Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris infections. As16 and As14 have previously been described as two genetically related proteins from Ascaris suum that induced protective immunity in mice when formulated with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB as an adjuvant, but the exact protective mechanism was not well understood.As16 and As14 were highly expressed as soluble recombinant proteins (rAs16 and rAs14 in Pichia pastoris. The yeast-expressed rAs16 was highly recognized by immune sera from mice infected with A. suum eggs and elicited 99.6% protection against A. suum re-infection. Mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with ISA720 displayed significant larva reduction (36.7% and stunted larval development against A. suum eggs challenge. The protective immunity was associated with a predominant Th2-type response characterized by high titers of serological IgG1 (IgG1/IgG2a > 2000 and high levels of IL-4 and IL-5 produced by restimulated splenocytes. A similar level of protection was observed in mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with alum (Alhydrogel, known to induce mainly a Th2-type immune response, whereas mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with MPLA or AddaVax, both known to induce a Th1-type biased response, were not significantly protected against A. suum infection. The rAs14 protein was not recognized by A. suum infected mouse sera and mice immunized with rAs14 formulated with ISA720 did not show significant protection against challenge infection, possibly due to the protein's inaccessibility to the host immune system or a Th1-type response was induced which would counter a protective Th2-type response.Yeast-expressed rAs16 formulated with ISA720 or alum induced significant protection in mice against A. suum egg challenge that associates with a Th2-skewed immune

  4. Serum-dependent selective expression of EhTMKB1-9, a member of Entamoeba histolytica B1 family of transmembrane kinases.

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    Shiteshu Shrimal

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica transmembrane kinases (EhTMKs can be grouped into six distinct families on the basis of motifs and sequences. Analysis of the E. histolytica genome revealed the presence of 35 EhTMKB1 members on the basis of sequence identity (>or=95%. Only six homologs were full length containing an extracellular domain, a transmembrane segment and an intracellular kinase domain. Reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of the kinase domain was used to generate a library of expressed sequences. Sequencing of randomly picked clones from this library revealed that about 95% of the clones were identical with a single member, EhTMKB1-9, in proliferating cells. On serum starvation, the relative number of EhTMKB1-9 derived sequences decreased with concomitant increase in the sequences derived from another member, EhTMKB1-18. The change in their relative expression was quantified by real time PCR. Northern analysis and RNase protection assay were used to study the temporal nature of EhTMKB1-9 expression after serum replenishment of starved cells. The results showed that the expression of EhTMKB1-9 was sinusoidal. Specific transcriptional induction of EhTMKB1-9 upon serum replenishment was further confirmed by reporter gene (luciferase expression and the upstream sequence responsible for serum responsiveness was identified. EhTMKB1-9 is one of the first examples of an inducible gene in Entamoeba. The protein encoded by this member was functionally characterized. The recombinant kinase domain of EhTMKB1-9 displayed protein kinase activity. It is likely to have dual specificity as judged from its sensitivity to different kinase inhibitors. Immuno-localization showed EhTMKB1-9 to be a surface protein which decreased on serum starvation and got relocalized on serum replenishment. Cell lines expressing either EhTMKB1-9 without kinase domain, or EhTMKB1-9 antisense RNA, showed decreased cellular proliferation and target cell

  5. Interaction between Nbp35 and Cfd1 proteins of cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly reveals a stable complex formation in Entamoeba histolytica.

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    Shadab Anwar

    Full Text Available Iron-Sulfur (Fe-S proteins are involved in many biological functions such as electron transport, photosynthesis, regulation of gene expression and enzymatic activities. Biosynthesis and transfer of Fe-S clusters depend on Fe-S clusters assembly processes such as ISC, SUF, NIF, and CIA systems. Unlike other eukaryotes which possess ISC and CIA systems, amitochondriate Entamoeba histolytica has retained NIF & CIA systems for Fe-S cluster assembly in the cytosol. In the present study, we have elucidated interaction between two proteins of E. histolytica CIA system, Cytosolic Fe-S cluster deficient 1 (Cfd1 protein and Nucleotide binding protein 35 (Nbp35. In-silico analysis showed that structural regions ranging from amino acid residues (P33-K35, G131-V135 and I147-E151 of Nbp35 and (G5-V6, M34-D39 and G46-A52 of Cfd1 are involved in the formation of protein-protein complex. Furthermore, Molecular dynamic (MD simulations study suggested that hydrophobic forces surpass over hydrophilic forces between Nbp35 and Cfd1 and Van-der-Waal interaction plays crucial role in the formation of stable complex. Both proteins were separately cloned, expressed as recombinant fusion proteins in E. coli and purified to homogeneity by affinity column chromatography. Physical interaction between Nbp35 and Cfd1 proteins was confirmed in vitro by co-purification of recombinant Nbp35 with thrombin digested Cfd1 and in vivo by pull down assay and immunoprecipitation. The insilico, in vitro as well as in vivo results prove a stable interaction between these two proteins, supporting the possibility of its involvement in Fe-S cluster transfer to target apo-proteins through CIA machinery in E. histolytica. Our study indicates that initial synthesis of a Fe-S precursor in mitochondria is not necessary for the formation of Cfd1-Nbp35 complex. Thus, Cfd1 and Nbp35 with the help of cytosolic NifS and NifU proteins can participate in the maturation of non-mitosomal Fe-S proteins

  6. Changes in the viability of the eggs of Ascaris suum under the influence of flavourings and source materials approved for use in and on foods

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    A. A. Boyko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common parasitic diseases of pigs globally is ascariasis. It is caused by the nematode Ascaris suum Goeze, 1782 (Nematoda, Ascaridata, which parasitises the small intestine of pigs in its mature form and the respiratory system at the larval stage. This helminthiasis causes immense damage to swine-rearing. Control of the ascariasis pathogen in the host’s organism and in the environment is essential for the health of the animals and successful swine-rearing. The results of studying the effect of flavourings and source materials approved for use in and on foods – cinnamaldehyde (0656 Codex Alimentarius, benzoic acid (Е210 Codex Alimentarius and methylparaben (Е218 Codex Alimentarius , on the viability of invasive eggs of A. suum are useful for determining the minimum concentration of solution of these substances for use against eggs of A. suum (10 g/l. The lowest efficiency against invasive eggs of A. suum was obtained for methylparaben (LD50 = 3850 ± 2130 mg/l, the highest was obtained with cinnamaldehyde (LD50 = 2437 ± 864 mg/l, and benzoic acid (LD50 = 1240 ± 680 mg/l.

  7. Flavanol-Rich Cocoa Powder Interacts with Lactobacillus rhamnossus LGG to Alter the Antibody Response to Infection with the Parasitic Nematode Ascaris suum

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    Saebyeol Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG and flavanol-rich cocoa have purported immune modulating effects. This study compared the host response to infection with Ascaris suum in three-month-old pigs fed a standard growth diet supplemented with a vehicle control: LGG, cocoa powder (CP or LGG + CP. Pigs were inoculated with infective A. suum eggs during Week 5 of dietary treatment and euthanized 17 days later. Lactobacillus abundance was increased in pigs fed LGG or LGG + CP. Specific anti-A. suum IgG2 antibodies were decreased (p < 0.05 in LGG + CP-fed pigs compared to pigs fed CP alone. Pigs fed LGG had significantly reduced expression (p < 0.05 of Eosinophil peroxidase (EPX, Interleukin 13 (IL-13, Eotaxin 3 (CCL26, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 and Interleukin-1Beta (IL1B in the tracheal-bronchial lymph node (TBLN independent of CP treatment. These results suggested that feeding LGG significantly reduced the localized prototypical Th2-related markers of infection with A. suum in the TBLN. Although feeding CP does not appear to affect the A. suum-induced Th2-associated cytokine response, feeding LGG + CP reduced anti-A. suum antibodies and delayed intestinal expulsion of parasitic larvae from the intestine.

  8. Flavanol-Rich Cocoa Powder Interacts with Lactobacillus rhamnossus LGG to Alter the Antibody Response to Infection with the Parasitic Nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Saebyeol; Lakshman, Sukla; Beshah, Ethiopia; Xie, Yue; Molokin, Aleksey; Vinyard, Bryan T; Urban, Joseph F; Davis, Cindy D; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria I

    2017-10-12

    Consumption of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG and flavanol-rich cocoa have purported immune modulating effects. This study compared the host response to infection with Ascaris suum in three-month-old pigs fed a standard growth diet supplemented with a vehicle control: LGG, cocoa powder (CP) or LGG + CP. Pigs were inoculated with infective A . suum eggs during Week 5 of dietary treatment and euthanized 17 days later. Lactobacillus abundance was increased in pigs fed LGG or LGG + CP. Specific anti- A . suum IgG2 antibodies were decreased ( p < 0.05) in LGG + CP-fed pigs compared to pigs fed CP alone. Pigs fed LGG had significantly reduced expression ( p < 0.05) of Eosinophil peroxidase ( EPX) , Interleukin 13 ( IL-13) , Eotaxin 3 ( CCL26) , Toll-like receptor 2 ( TLR2 ), TLR4, and TLR9 and Interleukin-1Beta ( IL1B ) in the tracheal-bronchial lymph node (TBLN) independent of CP treatment. These results suggested that feeding LGG significantly reduced the localized prototypical Th2-related markers of infection with A . suum in the TBLN. Although feeding CP does not appear to affect the A . suum- induced Th2-associated cytokine response, feeding LGG + CP reduced anti- A . suum antibodies and delayed intestinal expulsion of parasitic larvae from the intestine.

  9. Involvement of the actin cytoskeleton and p21rho-family GTPases in the pathogenesis of the human protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica

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    G.D. Godbold

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that infection with the enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica kills more than 50,000 people a year. Central to the pathogenesis of this organism is its ability to directly lyse host cells and cause tissue destruction. Amebic lesions show evidence of cell lysis, tissue necrosis, and damage to the extracellular matrix. The specific molecular mechanisms by which these events are initiated, transmitted, and effected are just beginning to be uncovered. In this article we review what is known about host cell adherence and contact-dependent cytolysis. We cover the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton and small GTP-binding proteins of the p21rho-family in the process of cell killing and phagocytosis, and also look at how amebic interactions with molecules of the extracellular matrix contribute to its cytopathic effects.

  10. Mass spectrometric analysis of L-cysteine metabolism: physiological role and fate of L-cysteine in the enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeelani, Ghulam; Sato, Dan; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Watanabe, Haruo; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2014-11-04

    L-cysteine is essential for virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to higher eukaryotes. Besides having a role in the synthesis of virtually all proteins and of taurine, cysteamine, glutathione, and other redox-regulating proteins, L-cysteine has important functions under anaerobic/microaerophilic conditions. In anaerobic or microaerophilic protozoan parasites, such as Entamoeba histolytica, L-cysteine has been implicated in growth, attachment, survival, and protection from oxidative stress. However, a specific role of this amino acid or related metabolic intermediates is not well understood. In this study, using stable-isotope-labeled L-cysteine and capillary electrophoresis-time of flight mass spectrometry, we investigated the metabolism of L-cysteine in E. histolytica. [U-(13)C3, (15)N]L-cysteine was rapidly metabolized into three unknown metabolites, besides L-cystine and L-alanine. These metabolites were identified as thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (T4C), 2-methyl thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (MT4C), and 2-ethyl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (ET4C), the condensation products of L-cysteine with aldehydes. We demonstrated that these 2-(R)-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids serve for storage of L-cysteine. Liberation of L-cysteine occurred when T4C was incubated with amebic lysates, suggesting enzymatic degradation of these L-cysteine derivatives. Furthermore, T4C and MT4C significantly enhanced trophozoite growth and reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels when it was added to cultures, suggesting that 2-(R)-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids are involved in the defense against oxidative stress. Amebiasis is a human parasitic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. In this parasite, L-cysteine is the principal low-molecular-weight thiol and is assumed to play a significant role in supplying the amino acid during trophozoite invasion, particularly when the parasites move from the anaerobic intestinal lumen to highly

  11. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among Young Children with and without Diarrhea in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

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    Marit G Tellevik

    Full Text Available Although enteroparasites are common causes of diarrheal illness, few studies have been performed among children in Tanzania. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among young children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and identify risk factors for infection.We performed an unmatched case-control study among children 12 months (P = 0.003; OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.5-7.8. Among children aged 7-12 months, those who were breastfed had lower prevalence of G. lamblia infection than those who had been weaned (P = 0.012.Cryptosporidium infection is common among young Tanzanian children with diarrhea, particularly those living with HIV, and infection is more frequent during the rainy season. G. lamblia is frequently implicated in asymptomatic infections, but rarely causes overt diarrheal illness, and its prevalence increases with age.

  12. Pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines as novel inhibitors of O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase of Entamoeba histolytica: an in silico study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadava, Umesh; Shukla, Bindesh Kumar; Roychoudhury, Mihir; Kumar, Devesh

    2015-04-01

    Amoebiasis, a worldwide explosive epidemic, caused by the gastrointestinal anaerobic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, infects the large intestine and, in advance stages, liver, kidney, brain and lung. Metronidazole (MNZ)-the first line medicament against amoebiasis-is potentially carcinogenic to humans and shows significant side-effects. Pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine compounds have been reported to demonstrate antiamoebic activity. In silico molecular docking simulations on nine pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine molecules without linkers (molecules 1-9) and nine pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine molecules with a trimethylene linker (molecules 10-18) along with the reference drug metronidazole (MNZ) were conducted using the modules of the programs Glide-SP, Glide-XP and Autodock with O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase (OASS) enzyme-a promising target for inhibiting the growth of Entamoeba histolytica. Docking simulations using Glide-SP demonstrate good agreement with reported biological activities of molecules 1-9 and indicate that molecules 2 and 4 may act as potential high affinity inhibitors. Trimethylene linker molecules show improved binding affinities among which molecules 15 and 16 supersede. MD simulations on the best docked poses of molecules 2, 4, 15, 16 and MNZ were carried out for 20 ns using DESMOND. It was observed that the docking complexes of molecules 4, 15 and MNZ remain stable in aqueous conditions and do not undergo noticeable fluctuations during the course of the dynamics. Relative binding free energy calculations of the ligands with the enzyme were executed on the best docked poses using the molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (MM-GBSA) approach, which show good agreement with the reported biological activities.

  13. The 25 kDa subunit of cleavage factor Im Is a RNA-binding protein that interacts with the poly(A polymerase in Entamoeba histolytica.

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    Marisol Pezet-Valdez

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, polyadenylation of pre-mRNA 3' end is essential for mRNA export, stability and translation. Taking advantage of the knowledge of genomic sequences of Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan responsible for human amoebiasis, we previously reported the putative polyadenylation machinery of this parasite. Here, we focused on the predicted protein that has the molecular features of the 25 kDa subunit of the Cleavage Factor Im (CFIm25 from other organisms, including the Nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked to another moiety X domain, as well as the RNA binding domain and the PAP/PAB interacting region. The recombinant EhCFIm25 protein (rEhCFIm25 was expressed in bacteria and used to generate specific antibodies in rabbit. Subcellular localization assays showed the presence of the endogenous protein in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. In RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assays, rEhCFIm25 was able to form specific RNA-protein complexes with the EhPgp5 mRNA 3´ UTR used as probe. In addition, Pull-Down and LC/ESI-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry assays evidenced that the putative EhCFIm25 was able to interact with the poly(A polymerase (EhPAP that is responsible for the synthesis of the poly(A tail in other eukaryotic cells. By Far-Western experiments, we confirmed the interaction between the putative EhCFIm25 and EhPAP in E. histolytica. Taken altogether, our results showed that the putative EhCFIm25 is a conserved RNA binding protein that interacts with the poly(A polymerase, another member of the pre-mRNA 3' end processing machinery in this protozoan parasite.

  14. Mecanismos específicos de patogenicidade de protozoários de mucosa: Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia e Trichomonas vaginalis

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    Patrícia de Brum Vieira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica e Giardia lamblia são protozoários que podem parasitar a mucosa intestinal, causando principalmente diarreia. Trichomonas vaginalis coloniza a mucosa vaginal causando tricomonose, a doença sexualmente transmissível não viral mais comum no mundo. Embora coletivamente estes parasitos infectem mais de um bilhão de pessoas a cada ano, seus mecanismos de patogenicidade ainda não estão totalmente esclarecidos. Assim, esta revisão reúne os principais mecanismos envolvidos na patogenicidade destes protozoários, bem como os fatores do microambiente que podem interferir no sucesso da colonização. A patogênese da E. histolytica envolve adesão, lise, fagocitose de células epiteliais e bactérias, invasão tecidual por ação de enzimas e evasão da resposta imune do hospedeiro. A lectina Gal/GalNAc, os amebaporos e as cisteína proteases são as principais moléculas envolvidas nesses processos. O estabelecimento da giardiose depende de diversos mecanismos patogênicos e de virulência desenvolvidos pela G. lamblia, tais como as moléculas envolvidas na adesão, encistamento e variação antigênica. Para o sucesso da colonização da mucosa vaginal, o T. vaginalis expressa moléculas como as adesinas de superfície, lipofosfoglicanos e galectina, envolvidas na adesão às células epiteliais vaginais e alteração da expressão gênica, tanto do parasito como do hospedeiro.

  15. Overexpression of Differentially Expressed Genes Identified in Non-pathogenic and Pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica Clones Allow Identification of New Pathogenicity Factors Involved in Amoebic Liver Abscess Formation.

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    Martin Meyer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We here compared pathogenic (p and non-pathogenic (np isolates of Entamoeba histolytica to identify molecules involved in the ability of this parasite to induce amoebic liver abscess (ALA-like lesions in two rodent models for the disease. We performed a comprehensive analysis of 12 clones (A1-A12 derived from a non-pathogenic isolate HM-1:IMSS-A and 12 clones (B1-B12 derived from a pathogenic isolate HM-1:IMSS-B. "Non-pathogenicity" included the induction of small and quickly resolved lesions while "pathogenicity" comprised larger abscess development that overstayed day 7 post infection. All A-clones were designated as non-pathogenic, whereas 4 out of 12 B-clones lost their ability to induce ALAs in gerbils. No correlation between ALA formation and cysteine peptidase (CP activity, haemolytic activity, erythrophagocytosis, motility or cytopathic activity was found. To identify the molecular framework underlying different pathogenic phenotypes, three clones were selected for in-depth transcriptome analyses. Comparison of a non-pathogenic clone A1np with pathogenic clone B2p revealed 76 differentially expressed genes, whereas comparison of a non-pathogenic clone B8np with B2p revealed only 19 differentially expressed genes. Only six genes were found to be similarly regulated in the two non-pathogenic clones A1np and B8np in comparison with the pathogenic clone B2p. Based on these analyses, we chose 20 candidate genes and evaluated their roles in ALA formation using the respective gene-overexpressing transfectants. We conclude that different mechanisms lead to loss of pathogenicity. In total, we identified eight proteins, comprising a metallopeptidase, C2 domain proteins, alcohol dehydrogenases and hypothetical proteins, that affect the pathogenicity of E. histolytica.

  16. Entamoeba histolytica EhCP112 Dislocates and Degrades Claudin-1 and Claudin-2 at Tight Junctions of the Intestinal Epithelium

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    Patricia Cuellar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During intestinal invasion, Entamoeba histolytica opens tight junctions (TJs reflected by transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER dropping. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying this, we studied in vitro and in vivo the damage produced by the recombinant E. histolytica cysteine protease (rEhCP112 on TJ functions and proteins. rEhCP112 reduced TEER in Caco-2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner; and EhCP112-overexpressing trophozoites provoked major epithelial injury compared to control trophozoites. rEhCP112 penetrated through the intercellular space, and consequently the ion flux increased and the TJs fence function was disturbed. However, macromolecular flux was not altered. Functional in vitro assays revealed specific association of rEhCP112 with claudin-1 and claudin-2, that are both involved in regulating ion flux and fence function. Of note, rEhCP112 did not interact with occludin that is responsible for regulating macromolecular flux. Moreover, rEhCP112 degraded and delocalized claudin-1, thus affecting interepithelial adhesion. Concomitantly, expression of the leaky claudin-2 at TJ, first increased and then it was degraded. In vivo, rEhCP112 increased intestinal epithelial permeability in the mouse colon, likely due to apical erosion and claudin-1 and claudin-2 degradation. In conclusion, we provide evidence that EhCP112 causes epithelial dysfunction by specifically altering claudins at TJ. Thus, EhCP112 could be a potential target for therapeutic approaches against amoebiasis.

  17. Overexpression of Differentially Expressed Genes Identified in Non-pathogenic and Pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica Clones Allow Identification of New Pathogenicity Factors Involved in Amoebic Liver Abscess Formation.

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    Meyer, Martin; Fehling, Helena; Matthiesen, Jenny; Lorenzen, Stephan; Schuldt, Kathrin; Bernin, Hannah; Zaruba, Mareen; Lender, Corinna; Ernst, Thomas; Ittrich, Harald; Roeder, Thomas; Tannich, Egbert; Lotter, Hannelore; Bruchhaus, Iris

    2016-08-01

    We here compared pathogenic (p) and non-pathogenic (np) isolates of Entamoeba histolytica to identify molecules involved in the ability of this parasite to induce amoebic liver abscess (ALA)-like lesions in two rodent models for the disease. We performed a comprehensive analysis of 12 clones (A1-A12) derived from a non-pathogenic isolate HM-1:IMSS-A and 12 clones (B1-B12) derived from a pathogenic isolate HM-1:IMSS-B. "Non-pathogenicity" included the induction of small and quickly resolved lesions while "pathogenicity" comprised larger abscess development that overstayed day 7 post infection. All A-clones were designated as non-pathogenic, whereas 4 out of 12 B-clones lost their ability to induce ALAs in gerbils. No correlation between ALA formation and cysteine peptidase (CP) activity, haemolytic activity, erythrophagocytosis, motility or cytopathic activity was found. To identify the molecular framework underlying different pathogenic phenotypes, three clones were selected for in-depth transcriptome analyses. Comparison of a non-pathogenic clone A1np with pathogenic clone B2p revealed 76 differentially expressed genes, whereas comparison of a non-pathogenic clone B8np with B2p revealed only 19 differentially expressed genes. Only six genes were found to be similarly regulated in the two non-pathogenic clones A1np and B8np in comparison with the pathogenic clone B2p. Based on these analyses, we chose 20 candidate genes and evaluated their roles in ALA formation using the respective gene-overexpressing transfectants. We conclude that different mechanisms lead to loss of pathogenicity. In total, we identified eight proteins, comprising a metallopeptidase, C2 domain proteins, alcohol dehydrogenases and hypothetical proteins, that affect the pathogenicity of E. histolytica.

  18. Obtención de anticuerpos monoclonales de ratón contra proteasa de cisteína 5 recombinante de Entamoeba histolytica

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    Juanita Trejos S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Obtener anticuerpos monoclonales de ratón contra la proteasas de cisteína 5 (EhCP5 de Entamoeba histolytica. Materiales y métodos. Se inmunizaron ratones BALB/c por vía intraperitoneal con adyuvante de Freund completo e incompleto con la proteína recombinante EhCP5 obtenida a partir del cultivo de E.coli DH5α trasfectada con el vector recombinante pJC45 que expresa dicha proteína. Se seleccionó el animal con mejor respuesta de anticuerpos. Al cual se le extrajo su bazo como fuente de linfocitos B, los cuales se fusionaron utilizando PEG con células de mieloma de ratón SP2-0/Ag14. Se procedió a selección de los hibridomas y a la evaluación de los sobrenadantes de las colonias que crecieron a los 7 días mediante ELISA. Los hibridomas con valores más altos de anticuerpos específicos contra la proteína EhCP5r se seleccionaron, y los clones obtenidos por diluciones limitantes fueron expandidos. Resultados. A partir de un clon secretor estable se purifico el anticuerpo monoclonal anti EhCP5r del isotipo IgG1 por cromatografía de afinidad con proteína G. Los clones fueron expandidos in vivo e in vitro. Con el anticuerpo purificado se diseñaron tres sistemas de captura para evaluar la aplicabilidad del anticuerpo monoclonal anti EhCP5r como método inmunodiagnóstico. Conclusiones. Se logro la producción de un anticuerpo monoclonal específico contra EhCP5r que permite diferenciar Entamoeba histolytica de Entamoeba dispar.

  19. Parasitic Infections among Restaurant Workers in Mukalla (Hadhramout/Yemen

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    AM AL-Haddad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To identify intestinal parasites among restaurant workers in Mukalla, Yemen in 2007."nMethods: Stool specimens were collected and examined from a total of 500 restaurant workers at Hadhramout University Health Center .Three types of techniques were used: direct examination, saline sedimentation and formol-ether concentration."nResults:  The positivity in majority of them was single infection whereas 6 cases were double infection that constituted 1.3% of the prevalence. The prevalence was 14.8 % for Entamoeba histolytica/dispor, and 5.2 % for Giardia lamblia, while it was 4.4% for Hymenolepis nana. Other intestinal parasites including Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodinale were also detected. Additionally, the blood parasite Schistosoma mansoni was also detected in 4 cases. The double infection was only with E. histolytica/dispor and Giardia. The infection with these parasites was also accompanied by abdominal troubles "diarrhea, constipation", nausea and vomiting."nConclusion:  These results lead to understand that sanitary measurements are not effective, and this hazardous situation facilitate parasitic agents' distribution among clients. The effectiveness of current pre-employment screening policy must be annual and systematic surveillance is needed in addition to health education.

  20. Human intestinal parasites from a Mamluk Period cesspool in the Christian quarter of Jerusalem: Potential indicators of long distance travel in the 15th century AD.

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    Yeh, Hui-Yuan; Prag, Kay; Clamer, Christa; Humbert, Jean-Baptiste; Mitchell, Piers D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this research is to determine which parasites were present in a mediaeval latrine from the old city of Jerusalem. This latrine contains fragments of pottery from the Middle East and also from Italy, suggesting links of some kind with Europe. Excavation identified two separate entry chutes emptying in a shared cesspool. Radiocarbon dating and pottery analysis is compatible with a date of use in the late fifteenth century and early sixteenth century. Twelve coprolites (preserved stool) and mixed cesspool sediment were analysed with light microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Six species of intestinal parasites were identified. These were the helminths Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm), Trichuris trichiura (whipworm), Taenia sp. (beef/pork/asiatic tapeworm) Diphyllobothrium sp. (fish tapeworm), and two protozoa that can cause dysentery (Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia duodenalis). While roundworm and whipworm were found in every sample, the other parasite species were present in only one or two samples each, suggesting that only a minority of those using the latrine were infected with those species. The role of Jerusalem as a site for long distance trade, migration or pilgrimage is considered when interpreting the Italian pottery and the parasites present, especially E. histolytica and Diphyllobothrium sp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. FACTORS OF RISK TO INTESTINAL PARASITE INFECTIONS AMONG PUBLIC SHOOLCHILDEN IN BAHIA

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    Camila Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was the aim of studying the prevalence of intestinal parasites in school children of the one public school on the periphery of the city of Jequié-BA, and the factors keys involved in the epidemiology of enteroparasites. They were analyzed fecal samples by the sedimentation technique. They obtained data on personal and socioeconomic parameters. Of the 179 parasitological stool tests, 136 (76% had one or more parasites. Prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was the highest 47 (34,6%, followed by Schistosoma mansoni 36 (26,5%, Giardia lamblia 31 (22,8%, E. histolytica/E. dispar 25 (18,4%, E. coli 21 (15,4%, Trichuris trichiura 19 (14%, Hymenolepis nana 16 (11,8%, Ancilostomídeos 12 (8,8%, Iodamoeba butschili 3 (2,2%, Enterobius vermicularis 1 (0,74%. The positive cases were sent to public clinic for treatments. In the school, the children received educational orientation and their family too. It was observed association between the high prevalence of intestinal parasites and habitation, environments, hygiene and sanitary conditions. It was conclude that they need to improve their life conditions. The discussions about fight for the right to the health must be continuously troubled in the school environment so that future citizens could form a new mentality about the importance of protection against diseases.

  2. Factors of risk associated to intestinal parasite infections among public shoolchilden in Bahia

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    Camila Pereira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was the aim of studying the prevalence of intestinal parasites in school children of the one public school on the periphery of the city of Jequié-BA, and the factors keys involved in the epidemiology of enteroparasites. They were analyzed fecal samples by the sedimentation technique. They obtained data on personal and socioeconomic parameters. Of the 179 parasitological stool tests, 136 (76% had one or more parasites. Prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was the highest 47 (34,6%, followed by Schistosoma mansoni 36 (26,5%, Giardia lamblia 31 (22,8%, E. histolytica/E. dispar 25 (18,4%, E. coli 21 (15,4%, Trichuris trichiura 19 (14%, Hymenolepis nana 16 (11,8%, Ancilostomídeos 12 (8,8%, Iodamoeba butschili 3 (2,2%, Enterobius vermicularis 1 (0,74%. The positive cases were sent to public clinic for treatments. In the school, the children received educational orientation and their family too. It was observed association between the high prevalence of intestinal parasites and habitation, environments, hygiene and sanitary conditions. It was conclude that they need to improve their life conditions. The discussions about fight for the right to the health must be continuously troubled in the school environment so that future citizens could form a new mentality about the importance of protection against diseases.

  3. Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems Baseline Survey of Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Intestinal Protozoa among Children up to Five Years.

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    Obala, A A; Simiyu, C J; Odhiambo, D O; Nanyu, V; Chege, P; Downing, R; Mwaliko, E; Mwangi, A W; Menya, D; Chelagat, D; Nyamogoba, H D N; Ayuo, P O; O'Meara, W P; Twagirumukiza, M; Vandenbroek, D; Otsyula, B B O; de Maeseneer, J

    2013-01-01

    Background. The intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are globally endemic, and they constitute the greatest cause of illness and disease worldwide. Transmission of IPIs occurs as a result of inadequate sanitation, inaccessibility to potable water, and poor living conditions. Objectives. To determine a baseline prevalence of IPIs among children of five years and below at Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance (HDSS) area in western Kenya. Methods. Cross-sectional survey was used to collect data. Direct saline and formal-ether-sedimentation techniques were used to process the specimens. Descriptive and inferential statistics such as Chi-square statistics were used to analyze the data. Results. A prevalence of 52.3% (417/797) was obtained with the male child slightly more infected than the female (53.5% versus 51%), but this was not significant (χ (2) = 0.482, P > 0.05). Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica were the most common pathogenic IPIs with a prevalence of 26.1% (208/797) and 11.2% (89/797), respectively. Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) were less common with a prevalence of 4.8% (38/797), 3.8% (30/797), and 0.13% (1/797) for Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, and Trichuris trichiura, respectively. Conclusions. Giardia lamblia and E. histolytica were the most prevalent pathogenic intestinal protozoa, while STHs were less common. Community-based health promotion techniques are recommended for controlling these parasites.

  4. Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems Baseline Survey of Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Intestinal Protozoa among Children up to Five Years

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    A. A. Obala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are globally endemic, and they constitute the greatest cause of illness and disease worldwide. Transmission of IPIs occurs as a result of inadequate sanitation, inaccessibility to potable water, and poor living conditions. Objectives. To determine a baseline prevalence of IPIs among children of five years and below at Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance (HDSS area in western Kenya. Methods. Cross-sectional survey was used to collect data. Direct saline and formal-ether-sedimentation techniques were used to process the specimens. Descriptive and inferential statistics such as Chi-square statistics were used to analyze the data. Results. A prevalence of 52.3% (417/797 was obtained with the male child slightly more infected than the female (53.5% versus 51%, but this was not significant (χ2=0.482, P>0.05. Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica were the most common pathogenic IPIs with a prevalence of 26.1% (208/797 and 11.2% (89/797, respectively. Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs were less common with a prevalence of 4.8% (38/797, 3.8% (30/797, and 0.13% (1/797 for Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, and Trichuris trichiura, respectively. Conclusions. Giardia lamblia and E. histolytica were the most prevalent pathogenic intestinal protozoa, while STHs were less common. Community-based health promotion techniques are recommended for controlling these parasites.

  5. Diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in an Amazonic community of Peru using multiple diagnostic techniques.

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    Machicado, Jorge D; Marcos, Luis A; Tello, Raul; Canales, Marco; Terashima, Angelica; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2012-06-01

    An observational descriptive study was conducted in a Shipibo-Conibo/Ese'Eja community of the rainforest in Peru to compare the Kato-Katz method and the spontaneous sedimentation in tube technique (SSTT) for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites as well as to report the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in this area. A total of 73 stool samples were collected and analysed by several parasitological techniques, including Kato-Katz, SSTT, modified Baermann technique (MBT), agar plate culture, Harada-Mori culture and the direct smear examination. Kato-Katz and SSTT had the same rate of detection for Ascaris lumbricoides (5%), Trichuris trichiura (5%), hookworm (14%) and Hymenolepis nana (26%). The detection rate for Strongyloides stercoralis larvae was 16% by SSTT and 0% by Kato-Katz, but 18% by agar plate culture and 16% by MBT. The SSTT also had the advantage of detecting multiple intestinal protozoa such as Blastocystis hominis (40%), Giardia intestinalis (29%) and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (16%). The most common intestinal parasites found in this community were B. hominis, G. intestinalis, H. nana, S. stercoralis and hookworm. In conclusion, the SSTT is not inferior to Kato-Katz for the diagnosis of common STH infections but is largely superior for detecting intestinal protozoa and S. stercoralis larvae. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intestinal and hepatic parasites determined in a university hospital parasitology laboratory

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    Zeynep Taş Cengiz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to present the prevalence of intestinal and hepatic parasites determined in Yüzüncü Yıl University Medical Faculty Parasitology Laboratory. Methods: The study was performed in 2008, and a total of 5985 stool samples were examined. Stool samples were examined with native-Lugol, sedimentation, flotation, trichrome staining and modified acid-fast staining methods. The stool samples of patient suspected to have Entamoeba histolytica/E.dispar infection were stained by trichrome staining method and evaluated by ELISA method for the antigen. ELISA method was used to confirm the results of Fasciola hepatica positive patients in stool examination. Results: In this study intestinal parasites were identified in 29.6% out of the 5985 people. In the study Giardia intestinalis (9.4%, plenty Blastocystis hominis (5.5%, Hymenolepis nana (1.7%, Ascaris lumbricoides (1.2%, Enterobius vermicularis (0.2%; in the stool examination, F.hepatica (0.1%, Cyclospora cayetanensis (0.1%, E.histolytica/E.dispar (0.06%, Taenia saginata (0.05%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum (0.05%, Trichuris trichiura (0.03% and Cryptosporidium spp. (0.02%, pathogenic parasites, were detected. Conclusion: In the study it is also understood that pathogenic intestinal parasites have still been reported at high rates and the problem of parasitosis continues in Van Province.

  7. Intestinal parasitism among waste pickers in Mato Grosso do Sul, Midwest Brazil

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    Minoru German Higa Júnior

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in both cooperative-affiliated and independent waste pickers operating at the municipal sanitary landfill in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and associate these findings with hemoglobin, eosinophils, vitamin A and C levels and interleukin 5 and 10 (IL-5 and IL-10 production. Biological samples were collected, in addition to clinical, epidemiological, and sociodemographic data. Stool analyzes were based on sedimentation by centrifugation and on spontaneous sedimentation. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine vitamin A and C levels. ELISA was employed to quantify interleukins. Intestinal parasites were found in 29 of the 66 subjects assessed (43.9%. Endolimax nana (22.7%, Entamoeba coli (21.1%, Giardia lamblia (6.1%, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (4.5%, and Ascaris lumbricoides (4.5% were the most prevalent species. Pathogenic parasites were detected in 11 individuals (16.7%. Hypovitaminoses A and C were detected in 19.6% (13/66 and 98.4% (65/66 of subjects, respectively. IL-5 and IL-10 production was observed in 21 (31.8% and 32 (48.4% subjects, respectively. Infection with pathogenic intestinal parasites was not a cause of vitamin A and C deficiency or IL-5 and IL-10 production among these workers.

  8. Status of intestinal parasitosis among hospital visiting patients in Deukhury Valley, Dang, Nepal.

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    Khanal, L K; Rai, S K; Khanal, P R; Ghimire, G

    2011-06-01

    Intestinal parasitosis is highly prevalent among the general population in Nepal. This study aimed to assess the status of intestinal parasitosis among patients attending Deukhury Community Hospital, Lamahi, Dang, situated in the mid western region of Nepal. A total of 210 stool samples examined by direct smear technique were reported. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was found to be 21.4% (M = 23.5% vs F = 19.3%). Children 60 yrs and 15-60 yrs aged people. Among adults, Entamoeba histolytica infection was found to be very high compared to high helminthic infection found among children. Finding showed that, the prevalence was significantly high (68.8%) among people having low socio-economic status compared to others (31.1%) (p < 0.05). Among various parasites detected, E. histolytica was the most common parasite (48.8%) followed by helminths, mainly Ascaris lumbricoides (31.1%), hookworm (13.3%), Trichuris trichiura (4.4%) and Taenia species (2.2%) respectively in the locality.

  9. Parasitological and serological studies on Amoebiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections in Recife and its suburban area, northeast Brazil

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    Mitsu Okazaki

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological examinations were carried out during April to August, 1987, with 187 out-patients of the IMIP hospital, located in the center of Recife City, and 464 inhabitants of several villages around Cabo City, 50 Km southeast of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Approximately 71% of the IMIP patients and 92% of the Cabo inhabitants were infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. There was minimum difference in the prevalence rate of Trichuris trichiura between two areas, whereas the prevalence rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and Entamoeba histolytica were higher in the inhabitants of the Cabo City area. Only Giardia lamblia was more prevalent in the out-patients of IMIP hospital. Test tube cultivation revealed that the prevalence rate of Necator americanus in both areas was much higher than that of Ancylostoma duodenale , and also that the prevalence rate of S. stercoralis of the IMIP patients and Cabo inhabitants were 4.5% and 9.6%, respectively. Six hundred and fifteen sera were serologically examined for amoebiasis by the gel diffusion precipitation test (GDP and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the antigen prepared from axenically cultured trophozoite of E. histolytica (strain HM-ITMSS. No positive reaction was observed in all of the sera as examined by GDP, while 32 out of 615 sera were positive on ELISA.

  10. Effects of hygiene and defecation behavior on helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in Taabo, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, Thomas; Hürlimann, Eveline; Silué, Kigbafori D; Yapi, Richard B; Houngbedji, Clarisse; Kouadio, Bernadette A; Acka-Douabélé, Cinthia A; Kouassi, Dongo; Ouattara, Mamadou; Zouzou, Fabien; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    More than 1 billion people are currently infected with soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomes. The global strategy to control helminthiases is the regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations. However, rapid re-infection occurs in areas where hygiene, access to clean water, and sanitation are inadequate. In July 2011, inhabitants from two villages and seven hamlets of the Taabo health demographic surveillance system in south-central Côte d'Ivoire provided stool and urine samples. Kato-Katz and ether-concentration methods were used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm), and intestinal protozoa. Urine samples were subjected to a filtration method for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium. A questionnaire was administered to households to obtain information on knowledge, attitude, practice, and beliefs in relation to hygiene, sanitation, and defecation behavior. Logistic regression models were employed to assess for associations between questionnaire data and parasitic infections. A total of 1,894 participants had complete data records. Parasitological examinations revealed prevalences of hookworm, S. haematobium, T. trichiura, S. mansoni, and A. lumbricoides of 33.5%, 7.0%, 1.6%, 1.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were detected in 15.0% and 14.4% of the participants, respectively. Only one out of five households reported the presence of a latrine, and hence, open defecation was common. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, sex, socioeconomic status, hygiene, and defecation behavior are determinants for helminths and intestinal protozoa infections. We found that inadequate sanitation and hygiene behavior are associated with soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in the Taabo area of south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Our data will serve as a benchmark to monitor the

  11. In vitro evaluation of the ovistatic and ovicidal effect of the cosmopolitan filamentous fungi isolated from soil on Ascaris suum eggs.

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    Blaszkowska, Joanna; Kurnatowski, Piotr; Wojcik, Anna; Goralska, Katarzyna; Szwabe, Katarzyna

    2014-01-31

    The ovicidal activity of seven fungal strains: Acremonium alabamense, Alternaria chlamydospora, Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium solani, Paecilomyces variotii, Paecilomyces viridis and Penicillium verruculosum isolated from urban soil samples from Poland was determined in vitro. The fungal mycelium was co-cultured with Ascaris suum eggs on plates with 2% water-agar for 28 days. Eggs exposed and unexposed (control) to fungal mycelium were observed weekly by light microscopy and the percentage of malformed eggs were determined. The eggs were classified according to following parameters: type 1 - biochemical and physiological effect without morphological damage to the eggshell; type 2 - lytic effect with morphological alteration of the eggshell and embryo; type 3 - lytic effect with morphological alteration of eggshell and embryo with hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization. All examined species of fungi extended embryogenesis, but the retardation of embryonic development was varied and depended on the species. A. alabamense, A. chlamydospora and P. verruculosum exhibited very high inhibitory activity on A. suum egg development. The fungus-exposed eggs revealed morphological alternations in all stages of embryogenesis. Isolates of F. solani, P. variotii and P. viridis showed hyphal penetration and internal colonization of A. suum eggs (type 3 effect). No appressoria were produced and simple hyphal penetrations were most commonly observed. A. alabamense and P. verruculosum demonstrated morphological destruction, with eggshell destruction. The remaining fungi showed type 1 effect. The results demonstrated that examined strains of F. solani, P. variotii and P. viridis may be considered to be potential limiting factors of parasitic geohelminth populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Actividad in vitro de los venenos de Lachesis muta y Bothrops atrox sobre la viabilidad y desarrollo embrionario de los huevos de Ascaris suum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los venenos de serpientes son concentrados polienzimáticos cuya actividad biológica sobre algunas bacterias y protozoos ha sido comprobada. El objetivo principal del presente trabajo fue estudiar la actividad in vitro de los venenos totales de las serpientes Lachesis muta y Bothrops atrox sobre la viabilidad y el desarrollo embrionario de los huevos de Ascaris suum. Se emplearon los venenos totales en concentraciones de 2, 4, 8 y 16 mg/mL sobre huevos no embrionados y larvados in vitro. Se comparó la actividad de los venenos con la de otras sustancias como el hipoclorito de sodio al 5,25%, Albendazol (solución comercial y solución salina. Ambos venenos, en concentraciones de 4, 8 y 16 mg/mL, inhibieron la blastulación de estos huevos; hasta el sexto día de incubación; en cambio en concentración de 2 mg/mL la inhibición se dio hasta el cuarto día. Posteriormente iniciaron un proceso de embrionación aparentemente normal hasta la formación del estadio infectante. El veneno de B. atrox fue el que presentó el mayor efecto inhibitorio en concentración de 16 mg/mL. El hipoclorito de sodio destruyó el 100% de los huevos, mientras el albendazol ocasionó que los huevos iniciaran un proceso de segmentación anormal que originó su degeneración. Se concluye que los venenos de L. muta y B. atrox muestran actividad inhibitoria al inicio de la blastulación de los huevos de A. suum y no ejercen ningún efecto en los huevos larvados.

  13. The knockdown of each component of the cysteine proteinase-adhesin complex of Entamoeba histolytica (EhCPADH) affects the expression of the other complex element as well as the in vitro and in vivo virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocádiz-Ruiz, Ramón; Fonseca, Wendy; Linford, Alicia S; Yoshino, Timothy P; Orozco, Esther; Rodríguez, Mario A

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite causative of human amoebiasis, disease responsible for 40 000-100 000 deaths annually. The cysteine proteinase-adhesin complex of this parasite (EhCPADH) is a heterodimeric protein formed by a cysteine protease (EhCP112) and an adhesin (EhADH) that plays an important role in the cytopathic mechanism of this parasite. The coding genes for EhCP112 and EhADH are adjacent in the E. histolytica genome, suggesting that their expression may be co-regulated, but this hypothesis has not yet been confirmed. Here, we performed the knockdown of EhCP112 and EhADH using gene-specific short-hairpin RNAs (shRNA), and the effect of these knockdowns on the expression of both complex components as well as on the in vitro and in vivo virulence was analysed. Results showed that the knockdown of one of the EhCPADH components produced a simultaneous downregulation of the other protein. Accordingly, a concomitant reduction in the overall expression of the complex was observed. The downregulation of each component also produced a significant decrease in the in vitro and in vivo virulence of trophozoites. These results demonstrated that the expression of EhCP112 and EhADH is co-regulated and confirmed that the EhCPADH complex plays an important role in E. histolytica virulence.

  14. Enteroparasitoses em manipuladores de alimentos de escolas públicas em Uberlândia (Minas Gerais, Brasil Enteroparasitoses in food handlers in public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique A. de Rezende

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Procedeu-se ao controle das enteroparasitoses em manipuladores de alimentos de escolas públicas de primeiro grau de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, a partir de estudo prospectivo baseado em inquérito parasitológico. Foram acompanhados 264 indivíduos de 57 escolas, com três coletas de fezes (C, sendo C1 em setembro de 1989, C2 em abril de 1990 e C3 em setembro de 1990. Entre os participantes 259 eram do sexo feminino e cinco do sexo masculino, com idades entre 20 e 66 anos. As 792 amostras de fezes foram conservadas em formol a 10% e analisadas pelo método de Hoffman, Pons e Janer. A ocorrência de parasitas intestinais foi de 17, 10 e 10% para C1, C2, e C3, respectivamente. Em C1 detectou-se: Giardia lamblia (8%, ancilostomídeos (6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (3%, Entamoeba histolytica, (2%, Strongyloides stercoralis, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia sp. e Trichuris trichiura (menos de 1% cada um deles. Em C2 detectou-se: ancilostomídeos (5%, G. lamblia (2%, A. lumbricoides (1%, S. stercoralis, H. nana, Taenia sp., Enterobius vermicularis (menos de 1% cada um deles. Em C3 observou-se: ancilostomídeos (5%, G. lamblia (3%, A. lumbricoides (2%, S. stercoralis e E. vermicularis (menos de 1% cada um deles. Os indivíduos infectados receberam tratamento específico após o diagnóstico em cada coleta. Recomendamos a implantação de vigilância epidemiológica através do exame parasitológico periódico, tratamento específico e treinamento sobre manejo higiênico de alimentos e higiene pessoal para todos os manipuladores de alimentos.A prospective study based on a parasitologic survey was carried out with a view toward controlling enteroparasitoses in food handlers who work in public primary schools in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The study subjects were 264 individuals from 57 schools, from whom three fecal samples (C were collected: C1 in September 1989, C2 in April 1990, and C3 in September 1990. The participants were predominantly female (259 women

  15. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    23.9%), Ascaris lumbricoides. (23.2%) and Necator americanus (23.2%) were the most prevalent parasites in the population. Concomitant infections involving 1-4 parasite species were recorded. Most of the observed parasites were potentially.

  16. PENGOBATAN DAN PENILAIAN STATUS GIZI ANAK SDN 1 LUWUS, BATURITI YANG MENDERITA CACINGAN (SOIL- TRANSMITTED HELMINTHIASIS

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    P. A. ASRI DAMAYANTI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT During public health services at Sekolah Dasar 1 (primary school Luwus, a number of 54 out of 140 schoolchildren were treated for helminthiases. Diagnoses of infections were based on their faecal samples examination by Kato-Katz smear technique. The prevalence rate of intestinal helminthic infection was 38,57%. Ascaris lumbricoides was found to be more dominant than Trichuris trichiura. Albendazol 400mg as a single dose for those who suffered Ascaris lumbricoides and Albendazole 400 mg daily for two days for those who suffered Ascaris lumbricoides mix with Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides mix with Enterobius vermicularis. Treatment was done at school in the morning to prevent them from losing such treatment. No side effects were found during treatment.

  17. Serological evidence of exposure to globally relevant zoonotic parasites in the Estonian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Viltrop, Arvo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children a...

  18. mRNA decay proteins are targeted to poly(A+ RNA and dsRNA-containing cytoplasmic foci that resemble P-bodies in Entamoeba histolytica.

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    Itzel López-Rosas

    Full Text Available In higher eukaryotes, mRNA degradation and RNA-based gene silencing occur in cytoplasmic foci referred to as processing bodies (P-bodies. In protozoan parasites, the presence of P-bodies and their putative role in mRNA decay have yet to be comprehensively addressed. Identification of P-bodies might provide information on how mRNA degradation machineries evolved in lower eukaryotes. Here, we used immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy assays to investigate the cellular localization of mRNA degradation proteins in the human intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica and found evidence of the existence of P-bodies. Two mRNA decay factors, namely the EhXRN2 exoribonuclease and the EhDCP2 decapping enzyme, were localized in cytoplasmic foci in a pattern resembling P-body organization. Given that amoebic foci appear to be smaller and less rounded than those described in higher eukaryotes, we have named them "P-body-like structures". These foci contain additional mRNA degradation factors, including the EhCAF1 deadenylase and the EhAGO2-2 protein involved in RNA interference. Biochemical analysis revealed that EhCAF1 co-immunoprecipitated with EhXRN2 but not with EhDCP2 or EhAGO2-2, thus linking deadenylation to 5'-to-3' mRNA decay. The number of EhCAF1-containing foci significantly decreased after inhibition of transcription and translation with actinomycin D and cycloheximide, respectively. Furthermore, results of RNA-FISH assays showed that (i EhCAF1 colocalized with poly(A(+ RNA and (ii during silencing of the Ehpc4 gene by RNA interference, EhAGO2-2 colocalized with small interfering RNAs in cytoplasmic foci. Our observation of decapping, deadenylation and RNA interference proteins within P-body-like foci suggests that these structures have been conserved after originating in the early evolution of eukaryotic lineages. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the localization of mRNA decay proteins within P

  19. Enteroparasitoses em manipuladores de alimentos de escolas públicas em Uberlândia (Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique A. de Rezende

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Procedeu-se ao controle das enteroparasitoses em manipuladores de alimentos de escolas públicas de primeiro grau de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, a partir de estudo prospectivo baseado em inquérito parasitológico. Foram acompanhados 264 indivíduos de 57 escolas, com três coletas de fezes (C, sendo C1 em setembro de 1989, C2 em abril de 1990 e C3 em setembro de 1990. Entre os participantes 259 eram do sexo feminino e cinco do sexo masculino, com idades entre 20 e 66 anos. As 792 amostras de fezes foram conservadas em formol a 10% e analisadas pelo método de Hoffman, Pons e Janer. A ocorrência de parasitas intestinais foi de 17, 10 e 10% para C1, C2, e C3, respectivamente. Em C1 detectou-se: Giardia lamblia (8%, ancilostomídeos (6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (3%, Entamoeba histolytica, (2%, Strongyloides stercoralis, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia sp. e Trichuris trichiura (menos de 1% cada um deles. Em C2 detectou-se: ancilostomídeos (5%, G. lamblia (2%, A. lumbricoides (1%, S. stercoralis, H. nana, Taenia sp., Enterobius vermicularis (menos de 1% cada um deles. Em C3 observou-se: ancilostomídeos (5%, G. lamblia (3%, A. lumbricoides (2%, S. stercoralis e E. vermicularis (menos de 1% cada um deles. Os indivíduos infectados receberam tratamento específico após o diagnóstico em cada coleta. Recomendamos a implantação de vigilância epidemiológica através do exame parasitológico periódico, tratamento específico e treinamento sobre manejo higiênico de alimentos e higiene pessoal para todos os manipuladores de alimentos.

  20. Socioenvironmental conditions and intestinal parasitic infections in Brazilian urban slums: a cross-sectional study

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    Caroline Ferraz Ignacio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are neglected diseases with limited data regarding prevalence in Brazil and many other countries. In increasingly urban societies, investigating the profile and socioenvironmental determinants of IPIs in the general population of slum dwellers is necessary for establishing appropriate public policies catered to these environments. This study assessed the socioenvironmental conditions and prevalence of IPIs in slums of Rio de Janeiro, RJ State, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study covering an agglomeration of urban slums was conducted between 2015 and 2016 using participants observation, a socioeconomic survey, and the spontaneous sedimentation method with three slides per sample to analyze fresh stool specimens ( n =595 searching for intestinal parasites. Results Endolimax nana ( n =95, 16.0% and Entamoeba coli ( n =65, 10.9% were the most frequently identified agents, followed by Giardia intestinalis ( n =24, 4.0% and Ascaris lumbricoides ( n =11, 1.8%. Coinfections caused by E. nana and E. histolytica/dispar and by Entamoeba coli/A. lumbricoides were significant. The use of piped water as drinking water, the presence of A. lumbricoides , and contamination with coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli were more common in major area (MA 1. Children (0-19 years had a greater chance of living in poverty (OR 3.36; 95% CI: 2.50- 4.52; p <0.001 which was pervasive. The predominance of protozoa parasites suggests that a one-size-fits-all approach focusing on preventive chemotherapy for soil-transmitted helminths is not appropriate for all communities in developing countries. It is important that both residents and health professionals consider the socioenvironmental conditions of urban slums when assessing intestinal parasitic infections for disease control and health promotion initiatives.

  1. The In Vitro Effect of Ivermectin on the Activity of Trehalose Synthesis Pathway Enzymes and Their mRNA Expression in the Muscle of Adult Female Ascaris suum (Nematoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata; Łopieńska-Biernat, Elżbieta; Zaobidna, Ewa Anna

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro effect of ivermectin lethal dose on the activity of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) and phosphatase (TPP) and the expression of their mRNA (tps1, tps2, and tpp genes) in the muscle of adult female Ascaris suum was investigated. The presence of ivermectin in the medium caused a decrease in TPS and TPP activities during the experiment compared with the start and control groups. The exception was the group of worms grown for 8 hours in a IVM solution, in which there was a littl...

  2. Protonation mechanism and location of rate-determining steps for the Ascaris suum nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-malic enzyme reaction from isotope effects and pH studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiick, D.M.; Harris, B.G.; Cook, P.F.

    1986-01-01

    The pH dependence of the kinetic parameters and the primary deuterium isotope effects with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and also thionicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (thio-NAD) as the nucleotide substrates were determined in order to obtain information about the chemical mechanism and location of rate-determining steps for the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme reaction. The maximum velocity with thio-NAD as the nucleotide is pH-independent from pH 4.2 to 9.6, while with NAD, V decreases below a pK of 4.8. V/K for both nucleotides decreases below a pK of 5.6 and above a pK of 8.9. Both the tartronate pKi and V/Kmalate decrease below a pK of 4.8 and above a pK of 8.9. Oxalate is competitive vs. malate above pH 7 and noncompetitive below pH 7 with NAD as the nucleotide. The oxalate Kis increases from a constant value above a pK of 4.9 to another constant value above a pK of 6.7. The oxalate Kii also increases above a pK of 4.9, and this inhibition is enhanced by NADH. In the presence of thio-NAD the inhibition by oxalate is competitive vs. malate below pH 7. For thio-NAD, both DV and D(V/K) are pH-independent and equal to 1.7. With NAD as the nucleotide, DV decreases to 1.0 below a pK of 4.9, while D(V/KNAD) and D(V/Kmalate) are pH-independent. Above pH 7 the isotope effects on V and the V/K values for NAD and malate are equal to 1.45, the pH-independent value of DV above pH 7. Results indicate that substrates bind to only the correctly protonated form of the enzyme. Two enzyme groups are necessary for binding of substrates and catalysis. Both NAD and malate are released from the Michaelis complex at equal rates which are equal to the rate of NADH release from E-NADH above pH 7. Below pH 7 NADH release becomes more rate-determining as the pH decreases until at pH 4.0 it completely limits the overall rate of the reaction

  3. Antiparasitic activity of diallyl trisulfide (Dasuansu) on human and animal pathogenic protozoa (Trypanosoma sp., Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Z R; Burri, C; Menzinger, M; Kaminsky, R

    1994-03-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) and one of its major components, allicin, have been known to have antibacterial and antifungal activity for a long time. Diallyl trisulfide is a chemically stable final transformation product of allicin which was synthesized in 1981 in China and used for treatment of bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections in man. The activity of diallyl trisulfide was investigated in several important protozoan parasites in vitro. The IC50 (concentration which inhibits metabolism or growth of parasites by 50%) for Trypanosoma brucei brucei, T.b. rhodesiense, T.b. gambiense, T. evansi, T. congolense and T. equiperdum was in the range of 0.8-5.5 micrograms/ml. IC50 values were 59 micrograms/ml for Entamoeba histolytica and 14 micrograms/ml for Giardia lamblia. The cytotoxicity of the compound was evaluated on two fibroblast cell lines (MASEF, Mastomys natalensis embryo fibroblast and HEFL-12, human embryo fibroblast) in vitro. The maximum tolerated concentration for both cell lines was 25 micrograms/ml. The results indicate that the compound has potential to be used for treatment of several human and animal parasitic diseases.

  4. Monocyte Locomotion Inhibitory Factor Produced by E. histolytica Improves Motor Recovery and Develops Neuroprotection after Traumatic Injury to the Spinal Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermeo, Gabriela; García, Elisa; Flores-Romero, Adrian; Rico-Rosillo, Guadalupe; Marroquín, Rubén; Flores, Carmina; Blanco-Favela, Francisco; Silva-García, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    Monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor (MLIF) is a pentapeptide produced by Entamoeba histolytica that has a potent anti-inflammatory effect. Either MLIF or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was administered directly onto the spinal cord (SC) immediately after injury. Motor recovery was evaluated. We also analyzed neuroprotection by quantifying the number of surviving ventral horn motor neurons and the persistence of rubrospinal tract neurons. To evaluate the mechanism through which MLIF improved the outcome of SC injury, we quantified the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) genes at the site of injury. Finally, the levels of nitric oxide and of lipid peroxidation were also determined in peripheral blood. Results showed that MLIF improved the rate of motor recovery and this correlated with an increased survival of ventral horn and rubrospinal neurons. These beneficial effects were in turn associated with a reduction in iNOS gene products and a significant upregulation of IL-10 and TGF-β expression. In the same way, MLIF reduced the concentration of nitric oxide and the levels of lipid peroxidation in systemic circulation. The present results demonstrate for the first time the neuroprotective effects endowed by MLIF after SC injury. PMID:24294606

  5. A Single RNaseIII Domain Protein from Entamoeba histolytica Has dsRNA Cleavage Activity and Can Help Mediate RNAi Gene Silencing in a Heterologous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompey, Justine M; Foda, Bardees; Singh, Upinder

    2015-01-01

    Dicer enzymes process double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small RNAs that target gene silencing through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. Dicer enzymes are complex, multi-domain RNaseIII proteins, however structural minimalism of this protein has recently emerged in parasitic and fungal systems. The most minimal Dicer, Saccharomyces castellii Dicer1, has a single RNaseIII domain and two double stranded RNA binding domains. In the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica 27nt small RNAs are abundant and mediate silencing, yet no canonical Dicer enzyme has been identified. Although EhRNaseIII does not exhibit robust dsRNA cleavage in vitro, it can process dsRNA in the RNAi-negative background of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and in conjunction with S. castellii Argonaute1 can partially reconstitute the RNAi pathway. Thus, although EhRNaseIII lacks the domain architecture of canonical or minimal Dicer enzymes, it has dsRNA processing activity that contributes to gene silencing via RNAi. Our data advance the understanding of small RNA biogenesis in Entamoeba as well as broaden the spectrum of non-canonical Dicer enzymes that contribute to the RNAi pathway.

  6. A Single RNaseIII Domain Protein from Entamoeba histolytica Has dsRNA Cleavage Activity and Can Help Mediate RNAi Gene Silencing in a Heterologous System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine M Pompey

    Full Text Available Dicer enzymes process double-stranded RNA (dsRNA into small RNAs that target gene silencing through the RNA interference (RNAi pathway. Dicer enzymes are complex, multi-domain RNaseIII proteins, however structural minimalism of this protein has recently emerged in parasitic and fungal systems. The most minimal Dicer, Saccharomyces castellii Dicer1, has a single RNaseIII domain and two double stranded RNA binding domains. In the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica 27nt small RNAs are abundant and mediate silencing, yet no canonical Dicer enzyme has been identified. Although EhRNaseIII does not exhibit robust dsRNA cleavage in vitro, it can process dsRNA in the RNAi-negative background of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and in conjunction with S. castellii Argonaute1 can partially reconstitute the RNAi pathway. Thus, although EhRNaseIII lacks the domain architecture of canonical or minimal Dicer enzymes, it has dsRNA processing activity that contributes to gene silencing via RNAi. Our data advance the understanding of small RNA biogenesis in Entamoeba as well as broaden the spectrum of non-canonical Dicer enzymes that contribute to the RNAi pathway.

  7. Tuberculose e parasitismo intestinal em população indígena na Amazônia brasileira Tuberculosis y parasitismo intestinal en población indígena en el Amazonas Brasilero Tuberculosis and intestinal parasitism among indigenous people in the Brazilian Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Neves Bóia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi estimar as freqüências de tuberculose e parasitoses intestinais na em comunidades indígenas da localidade de Iauareté (AM, em 2001. Estudo transversal (n=333 visando à obtenção de dados demográficos e amostras biológicas para exames de escarro e fezes. Dentre os 43 sintomáticos respiratórios, seis foram positivos na pesquisa de bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes no escarro. As parasitoses intestinais apresentaram freqüência significativamente maior entre a população Hüpda do que entre os índios que habitam os demais bairros (37,5% vs. 19,3% para Ascaris lumbricoides, 32,4% vs. 16,3% para Trichuris trichiura, 75% vs. 19,3% para ancilostomídeos, 75% vs. 35,4% para Entamoeba histolyticaD dispar e 33,3% vs. 10,7% para Giardia lamblia. Conclui-se que a tuberculose e o parasitismo intestinal são freqüentes nessas comunidades, exigindo medidas de controle e melhorias na assistência à saúde.El objetivo del estudio fue estimar las frecuencias de tuberculosis y parasitosis intestinales en las comunidades indígenas de la localidad de Iauareté (Norte de Brasil, en 2001. Estudio transversal (n=333 intentando obtener datos demográficos y muestras biológicas para examenes de esputo y heces. Entre los 43 sintomáticos respiratorios, seis fueron positivos en la pesquisa de bacilos alcohol-ácido resistentes en el esputo. Las parasitosis intestinales presentaron frecuencia significativamente mayor entre la población Hüpda que entre los indios que habitan las demás localidades (37,5% vs. 19,3% para Ascaris lumbricoides, 32,4% vs. 16,3% para Trichuris trichiura, 75% vs. 19,3% para ancilostomídeos, 75% vs. 35,4% para Entamoeba histolytica/dispar y 33,3% vs. 10,7% para Giardia lamblia. Se concluyó que la tuberculosis y el parasitismo intestinal son frecuentes en esas comunidades, exigiendo medidas de control y mejorías en la asistencia a la salud.The objective of the survey was to estimate the frequencies of

  8. Prevalência de parasitos intestinais na comunidade indígena Maxakali, Minas Gerais, Brasil, 2009 Prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en la comunidad indígena Maxakali, Minas Gerais, Brasil, 2009 Prevalence of intestinal parasites in the Maxakali indigenous community in Minas Gerais, Brazil, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Pena

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência de parasitos intestinais na etnia Maxakali em Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os exames parasitológico das fezes foram realizados através da técnica TF-Test, sendo as amostras fecais coletadas em três dias alternados, em tubos independentes, contendo formol a 10%, unificados para dupla filtragem por centrifugação. Triplicatas de uma alíquota do sedimento foram examinadas em microscópio (10x e 40x para identificação de ovos, cistos e larvas. A prevalência de parasitos (89,5% e do poliparasitismo (46% foi semelhante quanto ao sexo e idade, e variou entre as aldeias. As espécies prevalentes foram: Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (48,9%, Giardia duodenalis (32%, Entamoeba coli (40,8%, Endolimax nana (10,3%, ancilostomídeos (37,9%, Schistosoma mansoni (23,7%, Hymenolepis nana (18,6%, Strongyloides stercoralis (5,4%, Ascaris lumbricoides (4,9% e Trichuris trichiura (0,5%. Os Maxakali vivem em condições de vulnerabilidade social, e medidas de infraestrutura e de educação em saúde necessitam ser implementadas pelas instituições governamentais.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en la etnia Maxakali. Los exámenes parasitológicos de las heces se realizaron a través de la técnica TF-Test, las muestras fecales se recogieron en tres días alternados, en tubos independientes, conteniendo formol a un 10%, unificados para un doble filtrado por centrifugación. Triplicados de una alícuota del sedimento se examinaron en microscopio (10x y 40x para la identificación de huevos, quistes y larvas. La prevalencia de parásitos (89,5% y del poliparasitismo (46% fue semejante en cuanto al sexo y edad, y varió entre las aldeas. Las especies prevalentes fueron: Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (48,9%, Giardia duodenalis (32%, Entamoeba coli (40,8%, Endolimax nana (10,3%, ancilostomídeos (37,9%, Schistosoma mansoni (23,7%, Hymenolepis nana

  9. A comparison of modifications of the McMaster method for the enumeration of Ascaris suum eggs in pig faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereckiene, A; Kaziūnaite, V; Vysniauskas, A; Petkevicius, S; Malakauskas, A; Sarkūnas, M; Taylor, M A

    2007-10-21

    The comparative efficacies of seven published McMaster method modifications for faecal egg counting were evaluated on pig faecal samples containing Ascaris suum eggs. Comparisons were made as to the number of samples found to be positive by each of the methods, the total egg counts per gram (EPG) of faeces, the variations in EPG obtained in the samples examined, and the ease of use of each of the methods. Each method was evaluated after the examination of 30 samples of faeces. The positive samples were identified by counting A. suum eggs in one, two and three sections of newly designed McMaster chamber. In the present study compared methods were reported by: I-Henriksen and Aagaard [Henriksen, S.A., Aagaard, K.A., 1976. A simple flotation and McMaster method. Nord. Vet. Med. 28, 392-397]; II-Kassai [Kassai, T., 1999. Veterinary Helminthology. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 260 pp.]; III and IV-Urquhart et al. [Urquhart, G.M., Armour, J., Duncan, J.L., Dunn, A.M., Jennings, F.W., 1996. Veterinary Parasitology, 2nd ed. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, UK, 307 pp.] (centrifugation and non-centrifugation methods); V and VI-Grønvold [Grønvold, J., 1991. Laboratory diagnoses of helminths common routine methods used in Denmark. In: Nansen, P., Grønvold, J., Bjørn, H. (Eds.), Seminars on Parasitic Problems in Farm Animals Related to Fodder Production and Management. The Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tartu, Estonia, pp. 47-48] (salt solution, and salt and glucose solution); VII-Thienpont et al. [Thienpont, D., Rochette, F., Vanparijs, O.F.J., 1986. Diagnosing Helminthiasis by Coprological Examination. Coprological Examination, 2nd ed. Janssen Research Foundation, Beerse, Belgium, 205 pp.]. The number of positive samples by examining single section ranged from 98.9% (method I), to 51.1% (method VII). Only with methods I and II, there was a 100% positivity in two out of three of the chambers examined, and FEC obtained using these methods were significantly (pcoefficient

  10. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in five farms in Holambra, São Paulo, Brazil Prevalência de enteroparasitoses em cinco fazendas de Holambra-SP, Brasil

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    Jun Kobayashi

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available A parasitological survey was carried out on 222 inhabitants of five farms in Holambra, located 30 km north of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, on October 1992. Approximately 70% of the inhabitants were found to be infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. The positive rates of 6 helminths and 7 protozoan species detected are as follows: 5.4% Ascaris lumbricoides; 8.6% Trichuris trichiura; 19.8% Necator americanus; 10.4% Strongyloides stercoralis; 14% Enterobius vermicularis; 0.9% Hymenolepis nana; 3.2% Entamoeba histolytica; 2.7% E. hartmanni; 9.9% E. coli; 14.0% Endolimax nana; 2.3% Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.4% Giardia lamblia; 37.8% Blastocystis hominis. The positive rates of helminth infection were generaly higher in the younger-group under 16 years-old than those in the elder group aged 16 or more, whereas the infection rates of protozoan species were higher in the elder group. The infection rate of Strongyloides was found to be 10.4% by a newly developed sensitive method (an agarplate culture methods.Uma pesquisa coproparasitológica foi realizada em 222 habitantes de cinco fazendas de Holambra, localizada a 30 km ao norte de Campinas, SP, Brasil, em outubro de 1992. Aproximadamente 70% dos habitantes apresentaram pelo menos um tipo de parasitose intestinal. O índice de positividade das 6 espécies de helmintos e de 7 protozoários na população foi o seguinte: Ascaris lumbricoides (5,4%; Trichuris trichiura (8,6%; Necator americanus (19,8%; Strongyloides stercoralis (10,4%; Enterobius vermiculares (1,4%; Hymenolepis nana (0,9%; Entamoeba histolytica (3,2%; E. hartmanni (2,7%; E. coli (9,9%; Endolimax nana (14,0%; Iodamoeba butschlii (2,3%; Giardia lamblia (10,4%; Blastocystis hominis (37,4%. O índice de positividade para infecção por helmitos foi aparentemente maior na população mais jovem (menores de 16 anos do que no grupo de população com idades acima de 16 anos, ao contrário do índice de infecção pelos protozo

  11. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in children from Verón, a rural city of the Dominican Republic

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    Geers Childers KA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Kristin A Geers Childers, James R Palmieri, Mindy Sampson, Danielle Brunet Department of Microbiology, Infectious and Emerging Diseases, Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine, Blacksburg, VA, USA Abstract: Gastrointestinal infections impose a great and often silent burden of morbidity and mortality on poor populations in developing countries. The Dominican Republic (DR is a nation on the island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean Sea. Verón is located in La Alta Grácia province in the southeastern corner of the DR. Dominican and Haitian migrant workers come to Verón to work in Punta Cana, a tourist resort area. Few definitive or comprehensive studies of the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections have been published in the DR. Historically, most of the definitive studies of water-borne or soil-transmitted parasites in the DR were published more than 30 years ago. Presently, there is a high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections throughout the poorest areas of the DR and Haiti. In this study we report the prevalence of gastrointestinal protozoan and helminth parasites from children recruited from the Clínica Rural de Verón during 2008 through 2011. Each participant was asked to provide a fecal sample which was promptly examined microscopically for protozoan and helminth parasites using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC fecal flotation technique to concentrate and isolate helminth ova and protozoan cysts. Of the 128 fecal samples examined, 127 were positive for one or more parasites. The age of the infected children ranged from 2–15 years; 61 were males and 66 were females. The only uninfected child was a 9 year old female. Percent infection rates were 43.8% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 8.5% for Enterobius vermicularis, 21.1% for Entamoeba histolytica, and 22.7% for Giardia duodenalis. Of the children examined, 7.8% had double infections. Any plan of action to reduce gastrointestinal parasites in

  12. Estudo das parasitoses intestinais e da infecção chagásica no Município de Novo Airão, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil Cross-sectional study of intestinal parasites and Chagas' disease in the Municipality of Novo Airão, State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Marcio N. Boia

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo seccional descritivo em uma amostra sistemática por conglomerado de uma em cada dez famílias residentes na sede do Município de Novo Airão, na meso-região norte do Estado do Amazonas, a 250 quilômetros de Manaus por via fluvial. De cada um dos residentes nos 89 domicílios da amostra foram solicitadas fezes para exame pelos métodos de sedimentação de Lutz e pelo Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho e colhido sangue por punção venosa para testes de ELISA e imunofluorescência para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi. O exame de 316 amostras de fezes mostrou 87,6% com um ou mais parasitos: 35,1% com Ascaris lumbricoides, 29,1% com Entamoeba histolytica, 17,4% com Giardia lamblia e outros parasitos com menor prevalência. Estes resultados foram correlacionados com a falta de saneamento e de suprimento de água tratada. De 346 soros examinados 16 (4,6% foram reativos para anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi, mas somente em três deles houve correlação entre este resultado e o contacto das pessoas com triatomíneos silvestres, conhecidos localmente como "piolho da piaçava".A cross-sectional study was performed on the residents of one in every ten households in the town of Novo Airão, in the northern meso-region of the State of Amazonas, 250 kilometers from Manaus by riverboat. A family cluster sample of 89 dwellings was studied. A stool sample was requested from each of the inhabitants for examination using the Lutz sedimentation and Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho techniques, and blood was taken by venous puncture for Trypanosoma cruzi ELISA antibody testing and immunofluorescence. From a total of 316 stool samples, 87.6% had one or more parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (35.1%, Entamoeba histolytica (29.1%, Giardia lamblia (17.4%, and other parasites with lower prevalence rates. These results were directly correlated with lack of sanitation and clean water supply. Of the 346 sera examined, 16 (4.6% were reactive to T

  13. Ocorrência de Cryptosporidium spp. e outros parasitas em hortaliças consumidas in natura, no Recife Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and others parasites in vegetables consumed in natura, Recife, Brazil

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    Celiane Gomes Maia da Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ocorrência de enteroparasitas em hortaliças comercializadas e consumidas em Pernambuco. Foram utilizadas 100 amostras de hortaliças: 40 amostras de alface lisa (Lactuca sativa, 40 de agrião (Nasturtium officinale e 20 de acelga (Beta vulgaris, provenientes de feiras livres e supermercados. A detecção de Cryptosporidium spp. foi realizada conforme Monge e Arias sendo utilizado dois métodos de coloração, Koster modificado e Ziehl-Nielsen. Foi usada a técnica de sedimentação espontânea de Gelli et al. para a análise parasitológica. As análises de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli foram realizadas de acordo com Andrews. Os resultados obtidos mostraram um percentual de contaminação parasitária em 60% de alface, 30% de agrião e 20% de acelga, destacando-se o Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis e Ancylostoma duodenale dentre os helmintos, e o Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba coli e o complexo Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba díspar, dentre os protozoários com maior freqüência. As hortaliças mais contaminadas por coliformes totais e Escherichia coli foram alface nas amostras de supermercado e agrião em feira livre. Esses dados sugerem a necessidade da adoção de medidas educativas aos produtores, e do monitoramento das águas destinadas à irrigação das hortas.The study was carried with the aim to evaluate the occurrence of enteroparasites in vegetables commercialized and consumed in natural form in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Horticultural samples purchased from supermarket and free market: 40 from lettuce (Lactuca sativa, 40 from watercress (Nasturtium officinale and 20 from chard (Beta vulgaris were analyzed. Cryptosporidium spp. detection was realized following Monge and Arias methodology, using two staining processes (Koster modified and Ziehl-Nielsen. Parasitological analysis was determined by the spontaneous sedimentation technique (Gelli et al., and total

  14. Phospholipid-binding protein EhC2A mediates calcium-dependent translocation of transcription factor URE3-BP to the plasma membrane of Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Heriberto; Linford, Alicia S; Gilchrist, Carol A; Petri, William A

    2010-05-01

    The Entamoeba histolytica upstream regulatory element 3-binding protein (URE3-BP) is a transcription factor that binds DNA in a Ca(2+)-inhibitable manner. The protein is located in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm but has also been found to be enriched in the plasma membrane of amebic trophozoites. We investigated the reason for the unusual localization of URE3-BP at the amebic plasma membrane. Here we identify and characterize a 22-kDa Ca(2+)-dependent binding partner of URE3-BP, EhC2A, a novel member of the C2-domain superfamily. Immunoprecipitations of URE3-BP and EhC2A showed that the proteins interact and that such interaction was enhanced in the presence of Ca(2+). Recombinant and native EhC2A bound phospholipid liposomes in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, with half-maximal binding occurring at 3.4 muM free Ca(2+). A direct interaction between EhC2A and URE3-BP was demonstrated by the ability of recombinant EhC2A to recruit recombinant URE3-BP to phospholipid liposomes in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. URE3-BP and EhC2A were observed to translocate to the amebic plasma membrane upon an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of trophozoites, as revealed by subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescent staining. Short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of EhC2A protein expression significantly modulated the mRNA levels of URE3-BP-regulated transcripts. Based on these results, we propose a model for EhC2A-mediated regulation of the transcriptional activities of URE3-BP via Ca(2+)-dependent anchoring of the transcription factor to the amebic plasma membrane.

  15. Single residue mutation in active site of serine acetyltransferase isoform 3 from Entamoeba histolytica assists in partial regaining of feedback inhibition by cysteine.

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    Sudhir Kumar

    Full Text Available The cysteine biosynthetic pathway is essential for survival of the protist pathogen Entamoeba histolytica, and functions by producing cysteine for countering oxidative attack during infection in human hosts. Serine acetyltransferase (SAT and O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS are involved in cysteine biosynthesis and are present in three isoforms each. While EhSAT1 and EhSAT2 are feedback inhibited by end product cysteine, EhSAT3 is nearly insensitive to such inhibition. The active site residues of EhSAT1 and of EhSAT3 are identical except for position 208, which is a histidine residue in EhSAT1 and a serine residue in EhSAT3. A combination of comparative modeling, multiple molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculation studies showed a difference in binding energies of native EhSAT3 and of a S208H-EhSAT3 mutant for cysteine. Mutants have also been generated in vitro, replacing serine with histidine at position 208 in EhSAT3 and replacing histidine 208 with serine in EhSAT1. These mutants showed decreased affinity for substrate serine, as indicated by K(m, compared to the native enzymes. Inhibition kinetics in the presence of physiological concentrations of serine show that IC50 of EhSAT1 increases by about 18 folds from 9.59 µM for native to 169.88 µM for H208S-EhSAT1 mutant. Similar measurements with EhSAT3 confirm it to be insensitive to cysteine inhibition while its mutant (S208H-EhSAT3 shows a gain of cysteine inhibition by 36% and the IC50 of 3.5 mM. Histidine 208 appears to be one of the important residues that distinguish the serine substrate from the cysteine inhibitor.

  16. Obesity in Pregnancy in Southeast Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EGOLUM

    2011-12-22

    Dec 22, 2011 ... selected. In a household where there was more than one child < 5 years of age, the eldest child who is <5 years child was selected as the index child. .... 1. Crompton DWT. Biology of Ascaris lumbricoides. Ascaris and its Prevention and. Control. London, New York and. Philadelphia. Taylor and Francis.

  17. 83 ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    15 (14.6%), Ascaris sp with 5 (4.9%), Trichomonas intestinalis with 16 (15.5%) and ... E. histolytica était plus fréquent 26 ( 25,2% ) que les autres parasites, y compris Giardia avec 15 ( 14,6% ) , Ascaris sp avec .... ore prevalent in male hosts.

  18. Characterization of the gene encoding serine acetyltransferase, a regulated enzyme of cysteine biosynthesis from the protist parasites Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Regulation and possible function of the cysteine biosynthetic pathway in Entamoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, T; Asai, T; Sanchez, L B; Kobayashi, S; Nakazawa, M; Takeuchi, T

    1999-11-05

    The enteric protist parasites Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar possess a cysteine biosynthetic pathway, unlike their mammalian host, and are capable of de novo production of L-cysteine. We cloned and characterized cDNAs that encode the regulated enzyme serine acetyltransferase (SAT) in this pathway from these amoebae by genetic complementation of a cysteine-auxotrophic Escherichia coli strain with the amoebic cDNA libraries. The deduced amino acid sequences of the amoebic SATs exhibited, within the most conserved region, 36-52% identities with the bacterial and plant SATs. The amoebic SATs contain a unique insertion of eight amino acids, also found in the corresponding region of a plasmid-encoded SAT from Synechococcus sp., which showed the highest overall identities to the amoebic SATs. Phylogenetic reconstruction also revealed a close kinship of the amoebic SATs with cyanobacterial SATs. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant E. histolytica SAT revealed several enzymatic features that distinguished the amoebic enzyme from the bacterial and plant enzymes: 1) inhibition by L-cysteine in a competitive manner with L-serine; 2) inhibition by L-cystine; and 3) no association with cysteine synthase. Genetically engineered amoeba strains that overproduced cysteine synthase and SAT were created. The cysteine synthase-overproducing amoebae had a higher level of cysteine synthase activity and total thiol content and revealed increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide. These results indicate that the cysteine biosynthetic pathway plays an important role in antioxidative defense of these enteric parasites.

  19. Frequency of human toxocariasis in a rural population from Cajamarca, Peru determined by DOT-ELISA test Freqüência de toxocaríase humana numa população rural de Cajamarca, Peru, mediante o uso do teste DOT-ELISA

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    William H. Roldán

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of human toxocariasis in Cauday district, Cajamarca, Peru, using a dot-ELISA test. From June to October 2005, a total of 256 adult subjects were studied. Blood samples were collected for serology by a dot-ELISA test and for hematological examination. Parasitological examination was also carried out in stool samples to check cross-reactions in the dot-ELISA. The frequency observed was 44.92%, with a significant higher proportion of positivity in male subjects. From subjects with positive serology, 45.6% had respiratory symptoms, 40.44% abdominal pain, 32.35% hepatic symptoms, 14.7% cutaneous signs, 13.23% ocular manifestations, 43.38% eosinophilia, and all of these were statistically associated to serology. Among the population evaluated, 90.23% (231/256 were parasitized. From subjects with positive serology, 92.17% had at least one intestinal parasite and the most frequent were: Blastocystis hominis (68.38%, Giardia lamblia (28.68%, Hymenolepis nana (20.0%, Ascaris lumbricoides (15.65%, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (13.24%, Cyclospora cayetanensis (4.41%, Cryptosporidium sp. (1.47%, Enterobius vermicularis (0.87%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.87%, Taenia sp. (0.87%, and Trichuris trichiura (0.87%. The rate of false positives in the dot-ELISA test was improved by serum absorption each with A. suum antigens, with a decrease of cross-reactions. In conclusion, human toxocariasis is highly frequent in this population and some risk factors like dog/cat ownership, presence of pets within house, and previous history of geophagia were observed in the present study.O propósito do presente estudo foi estimar a freqüência da toxocaríase no distrito de Cauday, Cajamarca, Peru, usando o dot-ELISA teste. Entre junho e outubro de 2005, um total de 256 pessoas foram avaliadas. Coletaram-se amostras de sangue para o teste de dot-ELISA e para o exame hematológico e amostras de fezes para exame parasitol

  20. Genetic diversity in Entamoeba histolytica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Graham Clark1 Mehreen Zaki2 Ibne Karim Md Ali1. Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK; Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E ...

  1. Genetic diversity in Entamoeba histolytica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    E. moshkovskii, which is typically a free-living species. (Clark and Diamond ... parasites but only the former causes invasive disease. The distinction initially was ... reported that many zymodemes 'disappear' upon removal of the bacterial flora, ...

  2. Prevalencia de microsporidios intestinales y otros enteroparásitos en pacientes con VIH positivo de Maracaibo, Venezuela

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    Zulbey Rivero-Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Desde 1985, los microsporidios se consideran parásitos causantes de infecciones emergentes y oportunistas en individuos inmunocomprometidos en todo el mundo. Objetivo. Detectar la presencia de microsporidios y otros enteroparásitos en pacientes con VIH/sida del Servicio Autónomo Hospital Universitario de Maracaibo (SAHUM, donde no existían estudios previos en este campo. Materiales y métodos. Las muestras fecales se analizaron mediante examen directo, método de concentración con formol-éter, coloración de Kinyoun y coloración Gram-cromotropo rápida. Se realizaron PCR separadas para diferenciar Entamoeba histolytica o Entamoeba dispar, cuando se observó el complejo E. histolytica/dispar al microscopio. Mediante historia clínica se obtuvo información del paciente. Resultados. De los 56 individuos participantes, 38 (67,86 % presentaron alguna especie parasitaria comensal o patógena en su muestra fecal. Predominaron los individuos portadores de especies parásitas patógenas (26/38. Fueron diagnosticados protozoos como Isospora belli (17,65 %, Blastocystis spp. (17,65 %, Cryptosporidium spp. (7,84 %, complejo Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5,88 %, Entamoeba coli (3,92 %, Giardia lamblia (3,92 %, Endolimax nana (3,92 %, Cyclospora cayetanensis (3,92 % y Chilomastix mesnili (1,96 %. Entre los helmintos, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura y Strongyloides stercoralis, presentaron un porcentaje de 27,27 % cada uno, e Hymenolepis nana, de 18,18 %. Solo se detectó E. histolytica en uno de los tres casos que presentaron el complejo al examen microscópico. Mediante Gram-cromotropo, 17 muestras evidenciaron esporas del filo Microsporidia, lo que equivale a un 33,33 % de prevalencia. Conclusión. Los microsporidios pueden ocupar el primer lugar de prevalencia en pacientes con VIH positivo, cuando se utilizan técnicas diagnósticas específicas.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i4.1468

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children from primary schools in western Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Barbara; Bobieva, Mohion; Karimova, Gulzira; Mengliboeva, Zulfira; Jean-Richard, Vreni; Hoimnazarova, Malika; Kurbonova, Matluba; Lohourignon, Laurent K; Utzinger, Jürg; Wyss, Kaspar

    2011-10-07

    Intestinal parasitic infections represent a public health problem in Tajikistan, but epidemiological evidence is scarce. The present study aimed at assessing the extent of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children of 10 schools in four districts of Tajikistan, and to make recommendations for control. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in early 2009. All children attending grades 2 and 3 (age: 7-11 years) from 10 randomly selected schools were invited to provide a stool sample and interviewed about sanitary situation and hygiene behaviour. A questionnaire pertaining to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics was addressed to the heads of households. On the spot, stool samples were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear examination for helminth diagnosis. Additionally, 1-2 g of stool was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, transferred to a specialised laboratory in Europe and examined for helminths and intestinal protozoa. The composite results from both methods served as diagnostic 'gold' standard. Out of 623 registered children, 602 participated in our survey. The overall prevalence of infection with helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa was 32.0% and 47.1%, respectively. There was pronounced spatial heterogeneity. The most common helminth species was Hymenolepis nana (25.8%), whereas the prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Enterobius vermicularis were below 5%. The prevalence of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, namely Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was 26.4% and 25.9%, respectively. Almost half of the households draw drinking water from unimproved sources, such as irrigation canals, rivers and unprotected wells. Sanitary facilities were pit latrines, mostly private, and a few shared with neighbours. The use of public tap/standpipe as a source of drinking water emerged as a protective factor for G. intestinalis infection. Protected spring water reduced the risk of infection

  4. ESTUDO DA PREVALÊNCIA DE ENTEROPARASITOSES NO MUNICÍPIO DE FERREIRA GOMES/AP APÓS A ENCHENTE EM 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalye Dias Martins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a prevalência de enteroparasitoses quando da enchente no município de Ferreira Gomes no estado do Amapá no período de abril e maio de 2011. Foi realizado estudo epidemiológico de natureza retrospectiva, cujas variáveis de análise foram os exames coproparasitológicos realizados na população no período de observação (abril a maio/2011, durante ação promovida pelo Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública do Estado do Amapá (LACEN/AP, realizada em parceria com a Secretaria Estadual de Saúde. Foram realizados 203 exames coprológicos evidenciando-se 64,04% de positividade para uma, duas ou três espécies parasitárias e 35,96% com resultado negativo. Maior frequência de casos positivos se deu no sexo feminino (64,62% contra (35,38% para o masculino. Evidenciou-se a faixa etária entre 01 a 20 anos com maior ocorrência de enteroparasitos, representando (50,77% dos casos. Foram identificadas oito espécies diferentes de parasitos nas amostras analisadas. As mais frequentes foram Endolimax nana (35,63%, Entamoeba histolytica (24,70%, Entamoeba coli (17,81% e Giardia intestinalis (12,96%. Além de Ascaris lumbricoides (4,45%, Trichuris trichiura (3,24%, Pentatrichomonas hominis (0,81% e Hymenolepis nana (0,40%. Observação marcante foi a detecção de poliparasitados (62,31% em particular pela associação E. histolytica/E. nana e (37,69% monoparasitados, principalmente pela E. histolytica (21,86%. As enteroparasitoses evidenciadas no âmbito desse estudo, considerando sobretudo as circunstâncias eco ambientais presentes, sugerem que a intensidade e diversidade de parasitos e respectivas incidências podem estar relacionadas também a ausência de drenagem de águas pluviais, ocupação desordenada da área e rede de água e esgoto deficientes. Palavras-chave: Parasitas intestinais, população, Ferreira Gomes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n3p15-24

  5. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and other intestinal parasites in children with diarrhea

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    Mutalip Çiçek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was planned to determine the role of Cryptosporidium sp. and other intestinal parasites in the diarrheal diseases in children with 0-15 years old Van district.Materials and methods: In this study, stool samples of 450 children were examined for parasites. In the study, nativ-lugol, formaldehyde-ethyl acetate sedimentation methods and trichrome staining methods were used to detect parasites in stool samples. Additionally, sedimentation methods and modified acid fast staining method were used to detect the Cryptosporidium oocysts.Results: Parasites were found in 154 (34.2% among 450 children’s with diarrhea. In this study; the ratios of parasites were as follow: Giardia intestinalis 13.5%, Blastocystis hominis 10%, Entamoeba coli 3.78%, Cryptosporidium spp. 2.2%, Hymenolepis nana 1.33 %ve Ascaris lumbricoides 1.11%.Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar 0.89%, Chilomastix mesnili 1.78%, Iodamoeba butschlii 0.89%, Entamoeba hartmanni 0.89%, Trichomonas hominis 0.67%, Enteromonas hominis 0.67%,Conclusion: In the investigate, it was found that Giardia intestinalis and Blastocystis hominis were most prominent agents in children with diarrhea in our vicinity and Cryptosporidium spp also was an important agent which should be investigated carefully in especially risk group in routine laboratory studies.

  6. PARASITES OF MAN IN SERANG, WEST JAVA

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    W. P. Carney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Survey penyakit menular didesa Cikurai dan Barengkok, Jawa Barat pada bulan Juni 1974 ini adalah merupakan salah satu dari serangkaian survey yang dilakukan oleh Direktorat Jenderal P3.M. Dep. Kes. dan US Namru-2 guna menentukan distribusi dan prevalensi penyakit terutama malaria, filariasis dan penyakit parasit perut. Khususnya didaerah Cikurai dimana dilaporkan adanya Schistosoma in­cognitum secara hyperenzootik maka perlulah dilihat apakah parasit ini ditemukan pula diantara pend-duk setempat. Dari hasil survey didesa Cikurai dan Barengkok, Jawa Barat ini dilihat bahwa Plasmodium falciparum ditemukan pada 8 atau 3 persen dari sediaan darah 261 penduduk yang diperiksa dan tidak terlihat adanya microfilariae. Parasit perut yang menonjol terlihat pada sediaan tinja dari 335 penduduk yang diperiksa adalah Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura dan cacing tambang masing-masing sebesar 89 persen, 87 persen dan 65 persen ; parasit lainnya adalah Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba hart manni, Entamoeba coli, Endolinuu nana, lodamoeba butschlii, Giardia lamblia, Chilomastvc mesnili, Enterobius vermicularis, dan Echinostoma sp. Tidak terlihat adanya Schistosoma incognitum pada sediaan tinja dari 335 penduduk yang diperiksa dikedua desa ini.

  7. Assessment of gastrointestinal parasites in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakulovski, Pascal; Bertout, Sébastien; Locatelli, Sabrina; Butel, Christelle; Pion, Sébastien; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Mallié, Michèle

    2014-07-01

    We tested 114 faecal samples from wild simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-positive (n = 43) and SIV-negative (n = 71) chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites by direct smear. We observed cysts from different protozoa (Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica / Entamoeba dispar, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli and Blastocystis cells) and trophozoites from Troglodytella abrassarti and Balantidium coli. Eggs from different helminths (strongylids, Ascaris lumbricoides, Abbreviata caucasica, Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp., Enterobius anthropopeci, Bertiella sp., Hymenolepis diminuta and an undetermined fluke) were also observed. Finally, we observed eggs that could not be properly identified and classified. We did not observe any differences between the SIV+ and SIV- samples except for the unidentified eggs. The studied chimpanzees were highly parasitised by strongylid (85.1% of prevalence), Troglodytella (43.8%) and Blastocystis (2.9%), and the frequency of the other parasites ranged from 0.9 to 8.8%. These high levels of parasite infections could represent an additional burden in a population where there is a high rate of the SIV virus in circulation.

  8. Intestinal Parasitosis and Their Associated Factors among People Living with HIV at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest-Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshetu, Tegegne; Sibhatu, Getinet; Megiso, Mohammed; Abere, Abrham; Baynes, Habtamu Wondifraw; Biadgo, Belete; Zeleke, Ayalew Jejaw

    2017-07-01

    Most HIV clients die of AIDS related intestinal parasitic infections rather than due to the HIV infection itself. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasite and their associated factors among HIV/AIDS clients at the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Institution based cross sectional study was conducted using systematic random sampling technique from March to May 2016. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Stool samples were collected and processed using direct wet mount, formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelson staining techniques. Besides, blood samples were collected for CD4+ count estimation. Both descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used in data analysis. P-values intestinal parasitosis was found to be 29.1%. The most predominant intestinal parasite detected was cyst of Entamoeba histolytica (8.5%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (6.7%), Strongyloides sterocoralis (3.6%) and Cryptosporidium parvum (3.1%), whereas Schistosoma mansoni (0.9%) and Hymenolepis nana (0.9%) were the least detected. Absence of toilet (AOR= 19.4, CI: 6.46-58.3), improper hand washing before meal (AOR=11.23, 95% CI: 4.16-30.27 and CD4+ count intestinal parasites. The study indicated that intestinal parasites are still a problem among HIV/AIDS patients in the study area. Thus, routine examination for intestinal parasites and interventions should be carried out for better management of clients.

  9. Isolation of Intestinal Parasites of Public Health Importance from Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamu, Haji; Debalke, Serkadis; Zemene, Endalew; Birlie, Belay; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2014-01-01

    Cockroaches are claimed to be mechanical transmitters of disease causing microorganisms such as intestinal parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This study assessed the potential of the German cockroach Blattella germanica in the mechanical transmission of intestinal parasites of public health importance. A total of 2010 cockroaches were collected from 404 households in Jimma Town, southwestern Ethiopia. All the collected cockroaches were identified to species as B. germanica. The contents of their gut and external body parts were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Overall, 152 (75.6%) of the 210 batches were found to harbor at least one species of human intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp, Strongyloides-like parasite, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovski, Giardia duodenalis and Balantidium coli were detected from gut contents. Moreover, parasites were also isolated from the external surface in 22 (10.95%) of the batches. There was significant difference in parasite carriage rate of the cockroaches among the study sites (P = 0.013). In conclusion, B. germanica was found to harbor intestinal parasites of public health importance. Hence, awareness on the potential role of cockroaches in the mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites needs to be created. Moreover, further identification of the Strongyloides-like worm is required using molecular diagnostics.

  10. Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Risk Factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Abraraw; Kibret, Biniam; Bekalu, Eylachew; Abera, Sendeku; Teklu, Takele; Yalew, Aregawi; Endris, Mengistu; Worku, Ligabaw; Tekeste, Zinaye

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection and associated risk factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Teda Health Centre from February to April, 2011. Stool samples were collected from 410 study participants and analysed by direct wet mount and formal ether concentration techniques. Furthermore, sociodemographic data were collected by using standardized questionnaire. Result. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in this study was 62.3%. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite (23.2%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (12.4%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (4.6%), Schistosoma mansoni (8.9%), hookworm (6.6%), Hymenolepis nana (1.5%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.2%). Absence of toilet and hand washing after toilet was shown to be associated with intestinal parasitic infection (P intestinal parasitic infection in the study area. Absence of toilet and hand washing after toilet was found to be associated with intestinal parasitic infection. Therefore, there is a need for integrated control programme to have a lasting impact on transmission of intestinal parasitic infection.

  11. Prevalence of opportunistic intestinal parasitic infection among HIV infected patients who are taking antiretroviral treatment at Jimma Health Center, Jimma, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeynudin, A; Hemalatha, K; Kannan, S

    2013-02-01

    One of the major health problems among HIV sero-positive patients are superimposed infections due to the deficient immunity. Furthermore, intestinal parasitic (IP) infections, which are also one of the basic health problems in tropical regions, are common in these patients. Infection by opportunistic pathogens, including various forms of intestinal parasites has been the hall mark of HIV since the beginning of the epidemic. To study the prevalence of opportunistic intestinal parasitic infection among HIV patients who are taking antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Jimma, Ethiopia. Patient samples were diagnosed by examination of single stool specimen which was examined as fresh wet mounts, formal-ether concentration technique and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Data was obtained from 91 study subjects selected by convenience sampling method. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was found to be 39.56%. Eight types of intestinal parasites was identified, the most dominant being, Ascaris lumbricoides, 21.67%, Entamoeba histolytica, 15% and Cryptosporidium parvum 13.33%. The prevalence of opportunistic parasite was 15.38%, the prevalence of non-opportunistic parasite was 20.87% and the prevalence of both opportunistic and non opportunistic was 3.29%. The study indicated that intestinal parasites were still a problem in the study area. Data also showed that among the predisposing factors, habit of hand washing before meal, usage of latrine and duration after treatment was statistically associated with intestinal parasitic infections.

  12. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care center at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derso, Adane; Nibret, Endalkachew; Munshea, Abaineh

    2016-09-30

    Parasitic infections affect tens of millions of pregnant women worldwide, and directly or indirectly lead to a spectrum of adverse maternal and fetal/placental effects. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care center in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar city, northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted from November 2013 to January 2014 among 384 pregnant women. Stool samples were examined for the presence of trophozoites, cysts, oocysts, and ova using direct, formal-ether sedimentation, and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. An overall prevalence of 31.5 % intestinal parasite infections was recorded. Eight different species of intestinal parasites were found: two protozoan and six helminth species. The highest prevalence was due to Giardia lamblia (13.3 %) followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (7.8 %), hookworm (5.5 %), Ascaris lumbricoides (2.9 %), Schistosoma mansoni (2.9 %), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.6 %), Taenia spp. (0.8 %), and Hymenolepis nana (0.3 %). A relatively high prevalence of intestinal parasite infections was observed among pregnant women. Routine stool examination and provision of health education are required for early medical intervention that would affect the pregnant mothers and their foetuses.

  13. Isolation of Intestinal Parasites of Public Health Importance from Cockroaches (Blattella germanica in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia

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    Haji Hamu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches are claimed to be mechanical transmitters of disease causing microorganisms such as intestinal parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This study assessed the potential of the German cockroach Blattella germanica in the mechanical transmission of intestinal parasites of public health importance. A total of 2010 cockroaches were collected from 404 households in Jimma Town, southwestern Ethiopia. All the collected cockroaches were identified to species as B. germanica. The contents of their gut and external body parts were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Overall, 152 (75.6% of the 210 batches were found to harbor at least one species of human intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp, Strongyloides-like parasite, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovski, Giardia duodenalis and Balantidium coli were detected from gut contents. Moreover, parasites were also isolated from the external surface in 22 (10.95% of the batches. There was significant difference in parasite carriage rate of the cockroaches among the study sites (P=0.013. In conclusion, B. germanica was found to harbor intestinal parasites of public health importance. Hence, awareness on the potential role of cockroaches in the mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites needs to be created. Moreover, further identification of the Strongyloides-like worm is required using molecular diagnostics.

  14. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Factors among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspected Patients Attending University of Gondar Hospital, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegegne, Yalewayker; Wondmagegn, Tadelo; Worku, Ligabaw; Jejaw Zeleke, Ayalew

    2018-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in developing countries. Hence, it is significant to explore coinfection with intestinal parasites and pulmonary tuberculosis because coinfection increases the complexity of control and prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases. To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar Hospital from March to May, 2017. Stool samples were taken from each participant and examined by direct microscopy and concentration technique. Descriptive statistics was performed and chi-square test was used to show the association between variables. P values of Intestinal parasites were detected in 50 (19.6%) among a total of 256 pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients who were included in the study, whereas the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 16.8% (43/256). Pulmonary tuberculosis and intestinal parasite coinfection was detected in 5 (2.0%) of the participants. The most prevalent intestinal parasites infection in this study was Ascaris lumbricoides, 15 (5.85%), followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, 14 (5.46%), and Hookworm, 13 (5.1%). The prevalence of intestinal parasites and their coinfection rate with pulmonary tuberculosis among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients were considerable.

  15. Malnutrition and intestinal parasitic infections in school children of Gondar, North West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, Netsanet; Erko, Berhanu; Torben, Workineh; Belay, Mulugeta; Kasssu, Afework; Fetene, Teshome; Huruy, Kahsay

    2009-01-01

    In developing countries, malnutrition is a considerable health problem with prevalence ranges of 4-46%, with 1-10% severely malnourished. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and intestinal parasitoses and identify risk factors of malnutrition in schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 322 schoolchildren, of age 6 to 14 years, attending private and government primary schools, in Gonder town, North West Ethiopia. The study was conducted from December 2006 to February 2007. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height). Epi Info 2000 software was used to evaluate anthropometric results of each individual and formol-ether concentration technique was employed to identify parasites. The prevalence of underweight, stunting, wasting and intestinal parasitoses was 34.8%, 27%, 50% and 55.6%, respectively. Parasites encountered during the study were Ascaris lumbricoides (17.8%), Trichuiris trichiura (3.4%), hookworm (4.3%), Giardia lamblia (9%), Entamoeba histolytica (2.1%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.4%), Hymenolepis nana (4.7%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.31%), respectively, in single infections. Only two cases of Strongyloides stercoralis was found in multiple infections and none in single infections. The prevalence of multiple parasitoses was 10.9%. Maternal literacy status, sex and age of the child were significantly associated with malnutrition (p intestinal parasitoses in children of the study area.

  16. Cockroaches as carriers of human intestinal parasites in two localities in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinfu, Addisu; Erko, Berhanu

    2008-11-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the role of cockroaches as potential carriers of human intestinal parasites in Addis Ababa and Ziway, Ethiopia. A total of 6480 cockroaches were trapped from the two localities from October 2006 to March 2007. All the cockroaches trapped in Addis Ababa (n=2240) and almost 50% (2100/4240) of those trapped in Ziway were identified as Blattella germanica. The rest of the cockroaches trapped in Ziway were identified as Periplaneta brunnea (24.52%), Pycnoscelus surinamensis (16.03%) and Supella longipalpa (9.90%). Microscopic examination of the external body washes of pooled cockroaches and individual gut contents revealed that cockroaches are carriers of Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar cysts as well as Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp. and Ascaris lumbricoides ova. Besides their role as a nuisance, the present study further confirms that cockroaches serve as carriers of human intestinal parasites. The possible association of cockroaches with allergic conditions such as asthma is also discussed. Hence, appropriate control measures should be taken particularly to make hotels and residential areas free of cockroaches as they represent a health risk.

  17. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in children under the age of 5 years attending the Debre Birhan referral hospital, North Shoa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemene, Telanesh; Shiferaw, Melashu Balew

    2018-01-22

    Intestinal parasitic infection is one of the major childhood health problems in developing countries. In Ethiopia, epidemiological data for several localities is limited. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess intestinal parasitic infections among under-five children attending in Debre Birhan referral hospital, which could help to decrease morbidity and mortality in children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in February, 2014. Stool specimens were collected and examined using concentration method. Out of the 247 under-five children participated, 17.4% (95% CI 12.7-22.1%) of the children were infected with at least one or more protozoa parasites (14.2% [95% CI 9.9-18.5%]) and helminthes (3.2% [95% CI 1.0-5.4%]). Giardia lamblia (8.5%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5.7%), Trichuris trichiura (1.6%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (1.2%) were the most identified parasites. Parasitic infection was higher in children who had source of drinking water from the river (36.8%), among children from mothers with poor hand washing practice (31.7%), and among children born from illiterate mothers (27.5%). This revealed that intestinal parasites affect the health of under-five children in the setting. Hence, improving environmental hygiene and inadequate water sanitation, and health education for behavioral changes to personal hygiene would be crucial for effective control of the parasite infections.

  18. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in certified food-handlers working in food establishments in the City of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, Paul; Aloo-Obudho, Penina; Kabiru, Ephantus; Ombacho, Kepha; Langat, Bernard; Mucheru, Obadiah; Ireri, Laban

    2012-03-01

    Most intestinal parasites are cosmopolitan with the highest prevalence in the tropics and subtopics. Rural-to-urban migration rapidly increases the number of food eating places in towns and their environs. Some of these eating estabishments have poor sanitation and are overcrowded, facilitating disease transmission, especially through food-handling. Our investigations in Nairobi, therefore, were set to determine the presence of intestinal parasites in food-handlers with valid medical certificates. Direct and concentrated stool processing techniques were used. Chisquare test and ANOVA were used for data analysis. The parasites Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia were observed in certified food-handlers. Significant difference was found in parasite frequency by eating classes and gender (χ(2) = 9.49, P = 0.73), (F = 1.495, P = 0.297), but not in parasite occurrence between age brackets (χ(2) = 6.99, P = 0.039). The six-month medical certificate validity period may contribute significantly to the presence of intestinal parasites in certified food-handlers.

  19. Gastrointestinal parasitic infection, anthropometrics, nutritional status, and physical work capacity in Colombian boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W.M.; Dufour, D.L.; Staten, L.K.; Barac-Nieto, M.; Reina, J.C.; Spurr, G.B.

    1999-11-01

    This article tests the hypothesis that the presence of gastrointestinal parasites in Colombian boys is negatively associated with anthropometric characteristics, physical work capacity, blood hemoglobin (Hb) levels, and nutritional status. Anthropometric, Hb, &Vdot;O(2) max, and parasite load data were collected on 1,016 boys in Cali, Colombia. The boys were classified as lower socioeconomic class (SEC) from either urban or rural environments, and upper SEC from an urban environment. Sixty-three percent of the boys were infected with gastrointestinal parasites and, of the infected boys, 80-95% had light parasite loads. Parasites found included Necator americanus, Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichuris trichiura, Giardia spp., and Enterobius vermicularis. Infected boys had significantly lower weight, stature, weight-for-height (among 6-9-year-old boys), Hb levels, and &Vdot;O(2) max (ANCOVA, controlling for age and SEC). In terms of nutritional status, infected boys were 1.47 times more likely to be classified as iron deficient than noninfected boys (chi-square, P nutritional status of populations in regions endemic for parasitic infection should include testing for the presence of infection. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 11:763-771, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Dramatic decrease in prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and new insights into intestinal protozoa in children living in the Chaco region, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchioni, Fabio; Segundo, Higinio; Gabrielli, Simona; Totino, Valentina; Gonzales, Patricia Rojas; Salazar, Esteban; Bozo, Ricardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the prevalence of intestinal parasites among 268 2-12-year-old children living in rural areas, small villages, and semi-urban areas of the Chaco region, south-eastern Bolivia. The overall parasitism was 69%. Only protozoa, helminths, or co-infections were observed in 89.2%, 5.9%, or 4.9% of the positive children, respectively. A significant progressive increase in overall parasite prevalence was found when passing from rural areas to small villages and semi-urban areas. The most commonly found species were Entamoeba coli (38.4%), Giardia intestinalis (37.7%), and Blastocystis spp. (16%). Hymenolepis nana was the most prevalent helminth (5.6%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworms (1.5% and 0.4%) evidenced only in rural areas and in villages. Molecular diagnostics identified Blastocystis subtypes 9 and 2, and 5 infections by Entamoeba histolytica and 4 by Entamoeba dispar. The dramatic decrease in prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths with respect to that observed about 20 years ago (> 40%) evidences the success of the preventive chemotherapy intervention implemented in 1986. Health education and improved sanitation should be intensified to control protozoan infections. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Factors among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspected Patients Attending University of Gondar Hospital, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Yalewayker Tegegne

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in developing countries. Hence, it is significant to explore coinfection with intestinal parasites and pulmonary tuberculosis because coinfection increases the complexity of control and prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases. Objective. To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients. Method. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar Hospital from March to May, 2017. Stool samples were taken from each participant and examined by direct microscopy and concentration technique. Descriptive statistics was performed and chi-square test was used to show the association between variables. P values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. Intestinal parasites were detected in 50 (19.6% among a total of 256 pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients who were included in the study, whereas the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 16.8% (43/256. Pulmonary tuberculosis and intestinal parasite coinfection was detected in 5 (2.0% of the participants. The most prevalent intestinal parasites infection in this study was Ascaris lumbricoides, 15 (5.85%, followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, 14 (5.46%, and Hookworm, 13 (5.1%. Conclusion. The prevalence of intestinal parasites and their coinfection rate with pulmonary tuberculosis among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients were considerable.

  2. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among members of the public in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaiah, I; Rohela, M

    2005-01-01

    A total of 246 stool samples were collected from the public who participated in a Medical Fair held at the University Malaya Medical Center. The stools were examined for intestinal parasites using the formalin-ether concentration technique. The overall infection rate was 6.9% (17 out of 246), with Trichuris trichiura being the most common parasite (4.5%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (0.8%), Clonorchis sinensis (0.8%), hookworm (0.4%), and Entamoeba histolytica (0.4%). None of these participants showed any clinical symptoms. The highest infection rate was among the Chinese 7.7% (13 out of 169), followed by the Malays 7.0% (3 out of 43) and Indians 3.3% (1 out of 30). The highest infection rate was in the age group 16-30 years, which was 9% (6 out of 67). The two cases of clonorchiasis were from two Chinese women aged 28 and 66 years. The 28-year-old Chinese woman was born in Malaysia and had never left the country, while the older woman was also born in Malaysia but had visited Hong Kong as a tourist on two occasions. Both enjoyed eating raw fresh water fish with porridge.

  3. High prevalence of enteroparasites in children from Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Renata Elizabete Pagotti da Fonseca

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and possible associated factors. Method: Cross-sectional epidemiological study of 962 children (3-12-years from an area within the scope of a basic health unit in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected by home interviews and three-sample stool analysis and evaluated with the chi-square and Fisher's exact tests (p<0.05. Results: The prevalence of intestinal parasites was significantly high (57.5%. Giardia lamblia was the most prevalent (50.8%, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (17.8%, Entamoeba histolytica, Hymenolepis nana, Entamoeba coli and Enterobius vermiculares (5.6-7.3% and other parasites of lower prevalence, such as Schistosoma japonicum (1% and Schistosoma mansoni (0.5%. No statistically significant associations were detected between prevalence and the risk factors analyzed. Conclusion: Since the area presents good conditions of environmental sanitation, health education programs should be implemented that emphasize hygiene procedures for the hands and for food and water to be consumed by the population.

  4. Dramatic Decrease in Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminths and New Insights Into Intestinal Protozoa in Children Living in the Chaco Region, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchioni, Fabio; Segundo, Higinio; Gabrielli, Simona; Totino, Valentina; Gonzales, Patricia Rojas; Salazar, Esteban; Bozo, Ricardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of intestinal parasites among 268 2–12-year-old children living in rural areas, small villages, and semi-urban areas of the Chaco region, south-eastern Bolivia. The overall parasitism was 69%. Only protozoa, helminths, or co-infections were observed in 89.2%, 5.9%, or 4.9% of the positive children, respectively. A significant progressive increase in overall parasite prevalence was found when passing from rural areas to small villages and semi-urban areas. The most commonly found species were Entamoeba coli (38.4%), Giardia intestinalis (37.7%), and Blastocystis spp. (16%). Hymenolepis nana was the most prevalent helminth (5.6%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworms (1.5% and 0.4%) evidenced only in rural areas and in villages. Molecular diagnostics identified Blastocystis subtypes 9 and 2, and 5 infections by Entamoeba histolytica and 4 by Entamoeba dispar. The dramatic decrease in prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths with respect to that observed about 20 years ago (> 40%) evidences the success of the preventive chemotherapy intervention implemented in 1986. Health education and improved sanitation should be intensified to control protozoan infections. PMID:25711609

  5. Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiases and Schistosomiasis in Preschool Age Children in Mwea Division, Kirinyaga South District, Kirinyaga County, and Their Potential Effect on Physical Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Sifuna Wefwafwa Sakari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections can significantly contribute to the burden of disease, may cause nutritional and energetic stress, and negatively impact the quality of life in low income countries of the world. This cross-sectional study done in Mwea irrigation scheme, in Kirinyaga, central Kenya, assessed the public health significance of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH, schistosomiasis, and other intestinal parasitic infections, among 361 preschool age children (PSAC through fecal examination, by measuring anthropometric indices, and through their parents/guardians, by obtaining sociodemographic information. Both intestinal helminth and protozoan infections were detected, and, among the soil-transmitted helminth parasites, there were Ascaris lumbricoides (prevalence, 3%, Ancylostoma duodenale (<1%, and Trichuris trichiura (<1%. Other intestinal helminths were Hymenolepis nana (prevalence, 3.6% and Enterobius vermicularis (<1%. Schistosoma mansoni occurred at a prevalence of 5.5%. Interestingly, the protozoan, Giardia lamblia (prevalence, 14.7%, was the most common among the PSAC. Other protozoans were Entamoeba coli (3.9% and Entamoeba histolytica (<1. Anthropometric indices showed evidence of malnutrition. Intestinal parasites were associated with hand washing behavior, family size, water purification, and home location. These findings suggest that G. lamblia infection and malnutrition may be significant causes of ill health among the PSAC in Mwea, and, therefore, an intervention plan is needed.

  6. [The distribution of intestinal parasites in people admitted to the Yüzüncü Yıl University Parasitology Laboratory of Health Research and Training Hospital, in 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Hasan; Taş-Cengiz, Zeynep; Ceylan, Abdulkadir; Ekici, Abdurrahman

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to present the distribution of intestinal parasites in parients admitted to the Parasitology Laboratory of the Health Research and Training Hospital of Yüzüncü Yıl University in 2009. A total of 6267 patients (3037 female, 3230 male; 3798 of 13 years and under, 2469 of 14 years and over) were included. The stool samples were examined by native-Lugol, flotation and sedimentation methods in the Parasitology Laboratory of the hospital. Trichrome and modified acid-fast staining methods were also applied to suspicious stools. One or more than one parasite species were found in 28.5% of 6267 examined stool samples. Parasitosis was determined in 28% of female and 29% of male. Distribution of the parasites determined in the patients was as follows: 15.4% Blastocystis hominis, 6.6% Giardia intestinalis, 4.9% Entamoeba coli, 3.2% plenty B. hominis, 1.7% Chilomastix mesnili, 1.3% Hymenolepis nana, 0.7% Iodamoeba butschlii, 0.5% Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.1% Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, 0.1% Endolimax nana, 0.1% Enteromonas hominis, 0.1% Trichomonas hominis, 0.1% Cyclospora cayetanensis, 0.1% Enterobius vermicularis, 0.03% Entamoeba hartmanni, 0.03% Dicrocoelium dendriticum,0.03% Taenia saginata and 0.02% Trichuris trichiura. This research shows that the intestinal parasitosis problem still continues in the province.

  7. Estudo das parasitoses intestinais e da infecção chagásica no Município de Novo Airão, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Marcio N. Boia

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo seccional descritivo em uma amostra sistemática por conglomerado de uma em cada dez famílias residentes na sede do Município de Novo Airão, na meso-região norte do Estado do Amazonas, a 250 quilômetros de Manaus por via fluvial. De cada um dos residentes nos 89 domicílios da amostra foram solicitadas fezes para exame pelos métodos de sedimentação de Lutz e pelo Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho e colhido sangue por punção venosa para testes de ELISA e imunofluorescência para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi. O exame de 316 amostras de fezes mostrou 87,6% com um ou mais parasitos: 35,1% com Ascaris lumbricoides, 29,1% com Entamoeba histolytica, 17,4% com Giardia lamblia e outros parasitos com menor prevalência. Estes resultados foram correlacionados com a falta de saneamento e de suprimento de água tratada. De 346 soros examinados 16 (4,6% foram reativos para anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi, mas somente em três deles houve correlação entre este resultado e o contacto das pessoas com triatomíneos silvestres, conhecidos localmente como "piolho da piaçava".

  8. Prevalence of intestinal parasites infections among Afghan children of primary and junior high schools residing Kashan city, Iran, 2009-2010

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    Mansoureh Momen Heravi

    2013-06-01

    Results: out of the 430 students, 49.7% were male and the rest were female. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was 33.5%. The frequency of pathogenic intestinal parasite was 15.4%. The rate of intestinal parasite infections were: Entamoeba coli 16.5%, Giardia lamblia 8.8%,Blastocystis hominis 7%, Endolimax nana 3.4%, Iodamoeba buchlelli 3.4%, Chilomastix mesnili 1.62%, Entamoeba histolytica/E.dispar 1.2%,Hymenolepis nana 1.8% , and Ascaris lumbricoides0.2%.Entrobius vermicularis was found in 13.5% of the students using scotch tape test.There was a significant statistical association between duration of living in Afghanistan and intestinal parasitic infections.(p≤0.03 Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the prevalence of parasitic infections in the Afghan children was rather high. Examination and treatment of the students, education of the children and their parents and teachers in the field of personal hygine and environmental sanitation are necessary for prevention of parasite transmission.

  9. Comparative Study of the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Low Socioeconomic Areas from South Chennai, India

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    Jeevitha Dhanabal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites cause one of the most important health problems through their effects in causing undernourishment morbidity and incapacitation due to their behavior particularly in children compared to adults. This study was intended to state the prevalence of intestinal parasites between the slum dwellers of different areas in south Chennai. Among the total of 256 samples collected between the ages of 0–50 yrs, 194 samples were positive. Standard laboratory techniques for parasitological diagnosis were carried out for each sample. Entamoeba coli (23%, Cyclospora sp. (22.2%, Entamoeba histolytica (21.8%, Giardia intestinalis (14.4%, Ascaris lumbricoides (6.2%, Trichuris trichiura (1.1%, and Hymenolepis nana (2.7% were found in the dwellers of low socioeconomic areas. The data on the prevalence of parasites with respect to sex and age showed that the females harbored more numbers of parasites when compared to males. Further, with respect to age, children and teenagers had surplus parasites compared to old age groups. The percentage of educational status showed a reduction in the number of parasites in the higher education dwellers. These parasites could be prevented by possible grouping of better ecological design and hygiene. Conclusively, the examination of personal hygiene as well as routine medical examination and treatment is strongly recommended in the low socio-economic areas.

  10. [Prevalence of infection by intestinal helminths and protozoa in school children from a coastal locality in the province of Valdivia, Chile].

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    Navarrete, N; Torres, P

    1994-01-01

    During July-August 1989, 219 coprological samples from primary school children from Niebla and Los Molinos localities (39 degrees 52'S, 73 degrees 26'W) in the coast of province of Valdivia, Chile, were analysed. Prevalence % (in parentheses) of infection by intestinal protozoa and helminths were the followings: Entamoeba histolytica: (18.0), Entamoeba coli (34.0), Endolimax nana (34.4), Iodamoeba buetschlii (7.4), Blastocystis hominis (64.3), Giardia intestinalis (27.9) Chilomastix mesnili (0.8), Ascaris lumbricoides (12.7), Trichuris trichiura (32.0), Trichostronqylidea gen. sp. (0.8), Enterobius vermicularis (1.6), Hymenolepis nana (0.4) Diphyllobothrium sp. (0.4). No sanitary conditions, water, faeces and garbage disposal were detected in the 55.5%, 86.4% and 52.7% of 110 houses from the sector, respectively. The high prevalence of protozoa and helminths intestinal infections in the sector are related to no sanitary conditions of houses and fecal contamination of the estuary of the Valdivia river.

  11. Human parasites in the Roman World: health consequences of conquering an empire.

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    Mitchell, Piers D

    2017-01-01

    The archaeological evidence for parasites in the Roman era is presented in order to demonstrate the species present at that time, and highlight the health consequences for people living under Roman rule. Despite their large multi-seat public latrines with washing facilities, sewer systems, sanitation legislation, fountains and piped drinking water from aqueducts, we see the widespread presence of whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) and Entamoeba histolytica that causes dysentery. This would suggest that the public sanitation measures were insufficient to protect the population from parasites spread by fecal contamination. Ectoparasites such as fleas, head lice, body lice, pubic lice and bed bugs were also present, and delousing combs have been found. The evidence fails to demonstrate that the Roman culture of regular bathing in the public baths reduced the prevalence of these parasites. Fish tapeworm was noted to be widely present, and was more common than in Bronze and Iron Age Europe. It is possible that the Roman enthusiasm for fermented, uncooked fish sauce (garum) may have facilitated the spread of this helminth. Roman medical practitioners such as Galen were aware of intestinal worms, explaining their existence and planning treatment using the humoural theory of the period.

  12. Epidemiology and control of Schistosomiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections among school children in three rural villages of south Saint Lucia.

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    Kurup, Rajini; Hunjan, Gurdip S

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiology of parasitic infections and the efficacy of treatment among school children in rural villages of south Saint Lucia. A total of 554 school children participated in this study. Parasitic infections were confirmed by using Kato- Katz method. Overall, 61.6% of the school children were infected by any parasitic infection. The helminths identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (15.7%), Hookworm (11.9%), Strongyloides (9.7%), Trichuris trichiura (4.7%), Schistosoma mansoni (0.6%), Taenia solium (0.8%) and Enterobius vermicularis (2.1%), Entamoeba coli (9.7%), Iodameba butschlii (5%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.1%), Giardia lamblia (1.8%) and Endolimax nana (2.1%). The control intervention included treatment with albendazole 400 mg and praziquantel 40 mg/kg as well as awareness campaigns. Post-interventional assessment showed the total prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection reduced from 61.6 to 3.6% with a cure rate of 94.2%, following the control methods.

  13. Intestinal parasitosis in school going children of Dharan municipality, Nepal.

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    Gyawali, Narayan; Amatya, Ritu; Nepal, Hari Prasad

    2009-01-01

    This community-based investigation was carried out to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in primary school-going children of the Dharan municipality, Sunsari, Nepal from 2007 through 2008. A total of 182 stool samples were collected from 101 male and 81 female children of ages 4 to 10 years. A questionnaire including the factors predisposing to parasitosis, was filled up by the parents of each child. Parasitic examination was carried out by direct wet mount examination and concentration method using 10% formol-ether. The prevalence rate was found to be 22.5%. The result revealed preponderance of Giardia lamblia (11.5%) followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (4.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (3.3%), hookworm (1.6%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.5%). Statistically significant difference in the prevalence with respect to age and gender was not seen. However, socioeconomic status, type of toilet used and the practice of hand washing had a strong correlation (p intestinal parasitic infections.

  14. Prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among school children in Baglung districts of Western Nepal.

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    Shrestha, A; Narayan, K C; Sharma, R

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites among school-going children of the Baglung municipality from December 2010 to January 2011. To find out prevalence of parasitosis among school aged children and to make necessary recommendations for preventive measures. A total of 260 stool samples were collected. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on predisposing factors. Nails were observed without prior information to the subjects so as to find their hygienic practice. The stool samples were examined by direct wet mount and formal ether concentration technique. The total prevalence of the intestinal parasitosis was found to be 21.05%. The prevalence for individual parasites was as follows: Entamoeba histolytica (9.23%), Giardia lamblia (5.76%), Trichuris trichuria (5%), Ancylostoma duodenale (2.65%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (2.3%). Nail hygiene and level of education were significantly associated with intestinal parasitosis. The gender and age of the children, sanitary habits including toilet use, hand washing practice, and the use of the antihelminthic drug (albendazole) were not significantly associated with intestinal parasitosis. Higher prevalence was seen in boys, children belonging to age group 10-14 years, lower secondary students, among those who reported gastrointestinal problems within last six months, children from agriculture-based families and children with untrimmed nail. Major contributors for the prevalence of parasites were found to be poor personal hygiene and educational level of the children. Health education and mass treatment are recommended as a preventive measures.

  15. Profile of intestinal parasitosis among school-aged children in Kiliba (eastern DR Congo).

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    Kyambikwa Bisangamo, C; Jabari Mutwa, P; Mulongo Mbarambara, P

    2017-06-01

    This study of feces sought to determine the prevalence of human intestinal parasites in the Kiliba area of the eastern DR Congo. Feces of 602 school children aged from 9 to 20 years were collected from April to June 2014 and examined. Direct analyses were supplemented with the Kato and Ritchie methods. The global prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in school-aged children in the Kiliba area was 91.4 % [95 % CI: 87.6-94.3%]. The frequency of helminthiasis was high at 73.8 % (95 % CI: 68.4-78.6%) and that of protozoa reached 32.9 % (95 % CI: 27.7-38.6%). Girls were infected more often than boys. The group aged 17-20 years had the highest infection rate (97.7 %), but no statistically significant difference was observed among the age groups studied. The most frequent parasite species were: Schistosoma mansoni (30.6 %), Strongyloides stercolaris (21.3 %), Entamoeba histolytica (17.6 %), Trichomonas intestinalis (14.6 %), Ankylostoma duodenale (13.6 %), Ascaris lumbricoides (12.6 %), Trichuris trichiura (9.0 %), Taenia saginata (6.6 %), and Giardia intestinalis (5.0 %). This investigation demonstrated the extreme frequency of these fecal infections. Preventive measures, including water distribution, sanitary installations, and hygiene education, should be implemented.

  16. Epidemiology of Soil-Transmitted Helminth and Intestinal Protozoan Infections in Preschool-Aged Children in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiemjoy, Kristen; Gebresillasie, Sintayehu; Stoller, Nicole E; Shiferaw, Ayalew; Tadesse, Zerihun; Chanyalew, Melsew; Aragie, Solomon; Callahan, Kelly; Keenan, Jeremy D

    2017-04-01

    AbstractIntestinal parasites are important contributors to global morbidity and mortality and are the second most common cause of outpatient morbidity in Ethiopia. This cross-sectional survey describes the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa in preschool children 0-5 years of age in seven communities in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, and investigates associations between infection, household water and sanitation characteristics, and child growth. Stool samples were collected from children 0-5 years of age, 1 g of sample was preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and examined for intestinal helminth eggs and protozoa cysts ether-concentration method. A total of 212 samples were collected from 255 randomly selected children. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides , Trichuris trichiura , and hookworm were 10.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.6-15.1), 1.4% (95% CI = 0-3.0), and 0% (95% CI = 0-1.7), respectively. The prevalence of the pathogenic intestinal protozoa Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica / dispar were 10.4% (95% CI = 6.2-14.6) and 3.3% (95% CI = 0.09-5.7), respectively. Children with A. lumbricoides infections had lower height-for-age z -scores compared with those without, but were not more likely to have stunting. Compared with those without G. lamblia , children with G. lamblia infections had lower weight-for-age and weight-for-height z -scores and were more than five times as likely to meet the z -score definition for wasting (prevalence ratio = 5.42, 95% CI = 2.97-9.89). This article adds to a growing body of research on child growth and intestinal parasitic infections and has implications for their treatment and prevention in preschool-aged children.

  17. Prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food-handlers in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia.

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    Andargie, Gashaw; Kassu, Afework; Moges, Feleke; Tiruneh, Moges; Huruy, Kahsay

    2008-12-01

    Food-handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food-service establishments could be potential sources of infection due to pathogenic organisms. The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among 127 food-handlers working in the cafeterias of the University of Gondar and the Gondar Teachers Training College, Gondar, Ethiopia. Fingernail contents of both the hands and stool specimens were collected from all the 127 food-handlers. The samples were examined for bacteria and intestinal parasites following standard procedures. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the predominant bacteria species (41.7%) isolated from fingernail contents, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (16.5%), Klebsiella species (5.5%), Escherichia coli (3.1%), Serratia species (1.58%), Citrobacter species (0.8%), and Enterobacter species (0.8%). Shigella species were isolated from stool samples of four food-handlers (3.1%). None of the food-handlers was positive for Salmonella species and Shigella species in respect of their fingernail contents. No intestinal parasites were detected from fingernail contents. Intestinal parasites detected in the stools of the food-handlers included Ascaris lumbricoides (18.11%), Strongyloides stercoralis (5.5%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (1.6%), Trichuris trichiura (1.6%), hookworm species (0.8%), Gardia lamblia (0.8%), and Schistosoma mansoni (0.8%); 1.6% of the study subjects were positive for each of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, hookworm, and G. lamblia. The findings emphasize the importance of food-handlers as potential sources of infections and suggest health institutions for appropriate hygienic and sanitary control measures.

  18. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in Benin City, Nigeria

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    Frederick Olusegun Akinbo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the presence of intestinal parasites and their correlation with CD4+ T-cell counts and demographics among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients in Benin City, Nigeria. Stool specimens from 2,000 HIV-positive patients and 500 controls (HIV-negative individuals were examined for ova, cysts, or parasites, using standard procedures. In addition, patient's blood samples were analyzed for CD4 counts by flow cytometry. An overall prevalence rate of 15.3% was observed among HIV-positive patients while 6.2% was noted among non-HIV subjects. HIV status was a significant (P<0.0001 risk factor for acquiring intestinal parasitic infections. Male gender, CD4 count <200cell/µl, and diarrhea were significantly associated with an increased prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV-positive patients. The level of education, occupation, and source of water among HIV patients significantly (P<0.0001 affected the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite in both HIV-positive patients and controls. A CD4 count <200 cells/µl was significantly associated with only Isospora belli and Cryptosporidium infections. The presence of pathogenic intestinal parasites such as A. lumbricoides, hookworm, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichuris trichiura, and Taenia species among HIV-infected persons should not be neglected. Cryptosporidium species and I. belli were the opportunistic parasites observed in this study. Routine screening for intestinal parasites in HIV-positive patients is advocated.

  19. Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Environmental Water Contamination in a Rural Village of Northern Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Alexis; Jollivet, Chloé; Morand, Serge; Thongmalayvong, Boupha; Somphavong, Silaphet; Siew, Chern-Chiang; Ting, Pei-Jun; Suputtamongkol, Saipin; Saensombath, Viengsaene; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Tan, Boon-Huan; Paboriboune, Phimpha; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Chaisiri, Kittipong

    2017-10-01

    A field survey studying intestinal parasites in humans and microbial pathogen contamination at environment was performed in a Laotian rural village to identify potential risks for disease outbreaks. A parasitological investigation was conducted in Ban Lak Sip village, Luang Prabang, Lao PDR involving fecal samples from 305 inhabitants as well as water samples taken from 3 sites of the local stream. Water analysis indicated the presence of several enteric pathogens, i.e., Aeromonas spp., Vibrio spp., E. coli H7, E. coli O157: H7, verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC), Shigella spp., and enteric adenovirus. The level of microbial pathogens contamination was associated with human activity, with greater levels of contamination found at the downstream site compared to the site at the village and upstream, respectively. Regarding intestinal parasites, the prevalence of helminth and protozoan infections were 68.9% and 27.2%, respectively. Eight helminth taxa were identified in fecal samples, i.e., 2 tapeworm species (Taenia sp. and Hymenolepis diminuta), 1 trematode (Opisthorchis sp.), and 5 nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis, trichostrongylids, and hookworms). Six species of intestinal protists were identified, i.e., Blastocystis hominis, Cyclospora spp., Endolimax nana, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, Entamoeba coli, and Giardia lamblia. Questionnaires and interviews were also conducted to determine risk factors of infection. These analyses together with a prevailing infection level suggested that most of villagers were exposed to parasites in a similar degree due to limited socio-economic differences and sharing of similar practices. Limited access to effective public health facilities is also a significant contributing factor.

  20. Marked seasonality of Cyclospora cayetanensis infections: ten-year observation of hospital cases, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Rina Girard; Lagos, Javier; Raudales Santos, Gabriela; Urrutia, Samuel

    2016-02-04

    Document seasonality occurrence and epidemiologic characteristics of Cyclospora cayetanensis infections during a 10-year period from patients consulting at the University Hospital, Honduras. Retrospective non interventional hospital-based study analyzed laboratory results from the period 2002 to 2011 of fresh and Ziehl-Nielsen carbolfuchsin stained routine stool samples received for parasitologic examination. Sporadically a sample with numerous oocysts was allowed to sporulate in 2.5 % potassium dichromate confirming the presence of bi-cystic bi-zoic oocysts. A total of 35,157 fecal samples were examined during a ten-year span, of which a third (28.4 %) was stained by the Ziehl-Neelsen carbolfuchsin method diagnosing a total of 125 (1.3 %) C.cayetanensis infections. A statistically significant apparent seasonality was observed most years during May to August (range p < 0.036-0.001), with 83.3 % of 125 cases occurring in those rainy months. All C. cayetanensis cases came from urban poor neighborhoods; male/female relation was 1:1 except in 2006, when all patients were females (p = 0.05; r(2) = 22,448). Forty four point eight percent of the stool samples were diarrheic or liquid and 65.6 % infections were identified in children 10 years old or less. Enteric helminths and protozoa co-infected Cyclospora positive patients in 52 instances.: 8 % Ascaris lumbricoides, 8 % Giardia duodenalis, 23.2 % Blastocystis spp. and less frequently Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris trichiura. Results suggest a seasonal pattern for Cyclospora infections diagnosed in a clinical setting during the rainy months in Tegucigalpa and surrounding areas. Community studies should be conducted to support or dispute these observations.

  1. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

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    Dinamene Oliveira

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children.A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system.The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%, Giardia lamblia (20.1% and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%. Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886, while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210. The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449.This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  2. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dinamene; Ferreira, Filipa Santana; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António; Centeno-Lima, Sónia

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  3. Etiology of Diarrhea in Children Younger Than 5 Years Attending the Bengo General Hospital in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparinho, Carolina; Mirante, Maria Clara; Centeno-Lima, Sónia; Istrate, Claudia; Mayer, António Carlos; Tavira, Luis; Nery, Susana Vaz; Brito, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    Diarrheal disease is among the leading causes of death in children younger than 5 years, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the most frequent etiological agents of diarrhea and its associated factors in children younger than 5 years attending the Bengo General Hospital in Angola. From September 2012 through December 2013, stool samples were collected from 344 children presenting with diarrhea to investigate the presence of viral, bacterial and parasitic agents. Relevant sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained from parents and caregivers. An enteric pathogen was detected in 66.6% of stool samples: Cryptosporidium spp. (30.0%), rotavirus (25.1%), Giardia lamblia (21.6%), diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (6.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.1%), adenovirus (3.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis (3.5%), astrovirus (2.6%), Hymenolepis nana (1.7%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (0.9%), Taenia spp. (0.6%), Trichuris trichiura (0.3%) and Entamoeba histolytica (0.3%). Children younger than 12 months were more frequently infected with Cryptosporidium spp. compared with older children (age: 12-59 months), independently of sex, season, lethargy and wasting [odds ratio (OR): 3.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.0-6.2]. Age (OR: 5.0, 95% CI: 2.6-9.3), vomiting (OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.5-4.8) and type of admission (inpatients, OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.9) were significantly associated with rotavirus infection. This study demonstrates high rates of infection with an enteric pathogen, particularly in children younger than 12 months, emphasizing the need to address diarrheal disease in this age group.

  4. Parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables sold at central markets in Khartoum state, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mona Ali; Siddig, Emmanuel Edwar; Elaagip, Arwa Hassan; Edris, Ali Mahmoud Mohammed; Nasr, Awad Ahmed

    2016-03-11

    Fresh vegetables are considered as vital nutrients of a healthy diet as they supply the body with essential supplements. The consumption of raw vegetables is the main way for transmission of intestinal parasitic organisms. This study was aimed at detecting the parasitic contamination in fresh vegetables sold in two central open-aired markets in Khartoum state, Sudan. In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 260 fresh vegetable samples and 50 water samples used to sprinkle vegetable(s) were collected from two central open-aired markets (namely; Elshaabi and Central markets) during November 2011 to May 2012. The samples were microscopically examined for detection of parasitic life forms using standardized parasitological techniques for protozoans and helminthes worms. Of the 260 fresh vegetable samples, 35 (13.5 %) were microscopically positive for intestinal parasites whereas 7/50 (14 %) of water samples used to sprinkle vegetable(s) were found positives. Remarkably, high level of contamination in fresh vegetable samples was recorded in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) 36.4 % (4/11) while cayenne pepper (Capsicum annuum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) were not contaminated. The identified protozoans and helminthes were Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba coli, Giardia lamblia, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, T. trichiura and hookworms. The most predominant parasite encountered was E. histolytica/dispar (42.9 %) whereas both T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides (2.9 %) were the least detected parasites. None of the fresh vegetables had single parasitic contamination. The highest percentages found in water samples used to sprinkle vegetable(s) was for Strongyloides larvae 60 % (3/5). It is worth-mentioned that the rate of contamination in Elshaabi market was higher compared with Central market. However, there was no significant correlation between the type of vegetables and existence of parasites in both markets and a high significant

  5. Effects of hygiene and defecation behavior on helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in Taabo, Côte d'Ivoire.

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    Thomas Schmidlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than 1 billion people are currently infected with soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomes. The global strategy to control helminthiases is the regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations. However, rapid re-infection occurs in areas where hygiene, access to clean water, and sanitation are inadequate. METHODOLOGY: In July 2011, inhabitants from two villages and seven hamlets of the Taabo health demographic surveillance system in south-central Côte d'Ivoire provided stool and urine samples. Kato-Katz and ether-concentration methods were used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm, and intestinal protozoa. Urine samples were subjected to a filtration method for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium. A questionnaire was administered to households to obtain information on knowledge, attitude, practice, and beliefs in relation to hygiene, sanitation, and defecation behavior. Logistic regression models were employed to assess for associations between questionnaire data and parasitic infections. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 1,894 participants had complete data records. Parasitological examinations revealed prevalences of hookworm, S. haematobium, T. trichiura, S. mansoni, and A. lumbricoides of 33.5%, 7.0%, 1.6%, 1.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were detected in 15.0% and 14.4% of the participants, respectively. Only one out of five households reported the presence of a latrine, and hence, open defecation was common. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, sex, socioeconomic status, hygiene, and defecation behavior are determinants for helminths and intestinal protozoa infections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that inadequate sanitation and hygiene behavior are associated with soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in the Taabo

  6. Van Bölge Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi\\'nde Giardia intestinalis ve Entamoeba histolytica/dispar prevalansı: Dört yıllık izlem

    OpenAIRE

    Bayram, Yasemin; Parlak, Mehmet; Çıkman, Aytekin

    2013-01-01

    Amaç: Çalışmada dört yıllık sürede Giardia intestinalis ve Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar saptanma oranı, yıllar göre dağılımı ile yaş grupları ve cinsiyete göre dağılımının retrospektif olarak belirlenmesi amaçlanmış­tır. Gereç ve yöntem: Ocak 2008 ile Aralık 2011 tarihleri arasında laboratuvarımıza gönderilen 9911 dışkı örneği parazitolojik yönden incelenmiştir. Taze dışkı örneklerinde Entamoeba sp., Giardia trofozoit ve kistlerinin mikrosko­bik teşhisi i...

  7. Mass treatment for intestinal helminthisis control in an Amazonian endemic area in Brazil Tratamento em massa para controle das helmintíases intestinais em área endêmica na Amazônia Brasileira

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    Márcio Neves Bóia

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and evaluate the sanitary conditions and the role of a mass treatment campaign for control of these infections in Santa Isabel do Rio Negro. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2002, to obtain data related to the sanitary conditions of the population and fecal samples for parasitological examination in 308 individuals, followed by a mass treatment with albendazole or mebendazole with coverage of 83% of the city population in 2003. A new survey was carried out in 2004, involving 214 individuals, for comparison of the prevalences of intestinal parasitosis before and after the mass treatment. The prevalences of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infection were 48%; 27% and 21% respectively in 2002. There was a significant decrease for the frequency of infections by Ascaris lumbricoides (p O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a prevalência e o papel de um tratamento em massa das helmintíases intestinais em Santa Isabel do Rio Negro, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Foi realizado em 2002 um estudo seccional, incluindo inquérito copro-parasitológico, objetivando a obtenção das prevalências das parasitoses intestinais e dados sobre as condições sanitárias do local, estudando-se uma amostra de 308 indivíduos. Em 2003 foi realizada intervenção para tratamento em massa das helmintíases intestinais com administração de albendazol (ou mebendazol para crianças entre 12 e 24 meses na sede do município, alcançando-se 83% de cobertura. Novo inquérito copro-parasitológico foi realizado em 2004, para comparação das prevalências antes a após o tratamento. As prevalências das infecções por Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura e ancilostomídeos foram 48%, 27% e 21%, respectivamente em 2002. Em 2004 observou-se redução significativa das infecções por Ascaris lumbricoides (p < 0,05; OR / 95% IC = 0,44 / 0,30 - 0,65, Trichuris

  8. Enteric parasites and HIV infection: occurrence in AIDS patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Parasitas entéricos e infecção pelo HIV: ocorrência em pacientes com SIDA/AIDS no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    H. Moura

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of intestinal parasites, its relation with the transmission mechanism of HIV, and the clinical state of the AIDS patients, were analyzed in 99 Group IV patients (CDC, 1986, treated at "Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto" (HUPE, between 1986 and 1988. The group consisted of 79 (79.8% patients whose HIV transmission mechanism took place through sexual contact and of 16 (20.2% who were infected through blood. Feces samples from each patient were examined by four distincts methods (Faust et al, Kato-Katz, Baermann-Moraes and Baxby et al.. The moste occuring parasites were: Cryptosporidium sp., Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana (18.2%, Strongyloides stercoralis and Giardia lambia (15.2%. E. histolytica and/or E. hartmanni (13.1%, Ascaris lumbricoides (11.1% and Isospora belli (10.1%. Furthermore, 74.7% of the patients carried at least one species. Intestinal parasites were found in 78.5% of the patients who acquired the HIV through sexual intercourse and in 56,3% of those infected by blood contamination. The difference, was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. In the group under study, the increase of the occurrence of parasitc infections does not seem to depend on the acquisiton of HIV through sexual contact. It appears that in developing countries, the dependancy is more related to the classic mechanisms of parasites transmission and its endemicity.A ocorrência de parasitas intestinais, sua relação com o mecanismo de transmissão do HIV e a apresentação clínica da AIDS foram analisadas em 99 pacientes do grupo IV (CDC, 1986, atendidos no Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto (HUPE entre 1986 e 1988. O grupo era constituído de 79 (79,9% pacientes cujo mecanismos de transmssão do HIV se deu por via sexual e de 16 (20,2% que se infectaram por via sanguínea. Amostras de fezes de cada paciente foram examinadas por quatro métodos distintos (Faust et al., Kato-Katz, Baermann-Moraes e Baxby et al.. Os parasitos mais frq

  9. Ocorrência de enteroparasitas na população geronte de Nova Olinda do Norte Amazonas, Brasil Occurrence of enteroparasites in the elderly population of Nova Olinda do Norte, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Ana Felisa Hurtado-Guerrero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo para avaliar a prevalência de enteroparasitas em um grupo de idosos ribeirinhos, moradores do Município de Nova Olinda do Norte, Estado do Amazonas Brasil, no período de abril e agosto de 1999. Por meio de um estudo de corte transversal foram analisados 81 exames, através do método de Sedimentação Espontânea (Método de Hoffman et al., 1934. Foi constatada positividade em 72,8% dos idosos, predominando o monoparasitismo (43,2%. Os helmintos foram os mais freqüentes (70,4%, destacando-se: Ascaris lumbricoides (35,2%, Trichuris trichiura (16,0%, Ancylostoma duodenale (9,0% e Strongyloides stercoralis (9,0%. Dentre os protozoários (29,5%, a ocorrência de Entamoeba coli foi de 18,2%, Giárdia lamblia de 7,0% e Entamoeba histolytica 4,5%. Não houve associação estatisticamente significativa entre sexo e grau de parasitismo e entre faixas etárias e condição parasitária. Estes resultados evidenciam um quadro de alta prevalência de parasitas intestinais nesta população e discordam dos reportados por outros pesquisadores quando afirmam que a intensidade da infestação por parasitas diminui na idade avançada. Os achados anteriores exigem das autoridades governamentais medidas de controle e educação para melhorar a qualidade de vida desses idosos, considerando a grave repercussão que esses parasitas tem no estado nutricional dos gerontes de baixa renda.A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of enteroparasites attacking elderly people living in a riverside city of the Municipal district of Nova Olinda do Norte, Amazonas State Brazil. In this cross sectional study were examined the faecal material from 81 elderly people using the method of spontaneous sedimentation (Hoffman et al., 1934. It was found a positiveness in 72,8% of the elderly people examined, predominating the mono parasitism (43,2%. The helminths were more frequents (70,3%: Ascaris lumbricoides (35,2%, Trichuris trichiura (16

  10. Worms and war: A case report of trauma and tropical disease intersecting

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    Masumbuko Claude

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We report a case of heavy intestinal infestation with Ascaris lumbricoides complicating the surgical management of a gunshot injury to the abdomen. Co-existent traumatic and infectious pathologies in this case highlight the complex burden of illness among children living in areas of violent conflict, with clinical relevance to trauma surgeons in the tropics.

  11. Assessment of intestinal helminths in community school children of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also 286 helminth worms were recovered as follows; 127 (44.4%), 114 (40%), 21 (7.3%), 20 (7%), 3 (1%) and 1 (0.3%) for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichuira, Hookworms, Fasciola hepatica, Strongyloides stercolaris and Enterobius vermicularis respectively. There was no significant difference in pattern of infection ...

  12. Intestinal Parasites in Children Attending Day Care Centers in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and twenty-one children (57.8%) of the 384 children studied had intestinal parasites. Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale and Trichuris trichura were the commonest parasites found. The relationship between intestinal parasite infestation and diarrhea in past 2 months (X =19.5, df = 1, p< 0.001 ...

  13. MONRATE, a descriptive tool for calculation and prediction of re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to develop an interactive and systematic descriptive tool, MONRATE for calculating and predicting reinfection rates and time of Ascaris lumbricoides following mass chemotherapy using levamisole. Each pupil previously treated was retreated 6 or 7 months after the initial treatment in Ogun ...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Okolie, NJC. Vol 16, No 2 (2007) - Articles Evaluation of Levamisole Activity on Ascaris lumbricoides and Hookworm Infections - A Therapeutic Trial Abstract. ISSN: 1116-1043. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  15. Prevalence and pattern of intestinal parasites among pupils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Intestinal parasitic infestation remains a very common health issue among the children particularly in the public schools. Distribution of free antiparasitic drugs to pupils at the beginning of every term should be incorporated into the school health program. Key words: Intestinal Parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, ...

  16. FREKUENSI SOIL TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS PADA SISWA SEKOLAH DASAR NEGERI DESA SENAMAT KECAMATAN PELEPAT KABUPATEN BUNGO JAMBI

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    Gustina Indriati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available high. Most of health problem caused by infection of intestinum Soil transmitted helminth, frequently infected children. Based on this problem, the study is done to find out the frequensi of STH on the studens of SD Desa Senamat Kecamatan Pelepat Kabupaten Bungo, Jambi Province. The reseacrh is done on August 2010 at SDN 02/II Senamat and SDN 49/II Senamat. The reseacrh used Total sampling Technique. The amount of the sample of this study is 151. The result of this study shows that there are 30,34% infected by STH (Ascaris lumbricoides 22,47% ; Trichuris trichiura 0%, and 11,23% infected by cacing tambang, and infected by Ascaris lumbricoides and cacing tambang 3,37%. While, there are 41,49% infected by STH (Trichuris trichiura 0%, infected cacing tambang 19,35%, and infected Ascaris lumbricoides and cacing tambang 9,67%. This highest infection of STH was found on students of SDN 49/II Senamat, that was Ascaris lumbricoides 32,26% from 62 student. Key words: soil transmitted helminth, student

  17. Research concerning intestinal parasitosis in infant population discovered in two clinic laboratories from Oradea (Romania

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    Daniel-Dumitru PORTELECHI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the research made and the data offered by the specialists in parasitology from Oradea’s no.1 Polyclinic and Children’s Hospital, we have established that children from 1 to 18 years old have been found infected with 7 species of human parasites. Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Oxyurus vermicularis, Trichurus trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta.

  18. Intestinal obstruction in children due to Ascariasis: A tertiary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of worms per mouth or rectum and on x-ray and ultrasonography fi ndings. Only the patients of intestinal obstruction with documented evidence of roundworm infestation were included in the study and were followed for one year. Results: One hundred and three children with intestinal obstruction due to Ascaris lumbricoides

  19. Worms and war: A case report of trauma and tropical disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: We report a case of heavy intestinal infestation with Ascaris lumbricoides complicating the surgical management of a gunshot injury to the abdomen. Co-existent traumatic and infectious pathologies in this case highlight the complex burden of illness among children living in areas of violent conflict, with clinical ...

  20. Intestinal helminthiasis among malnourished school age children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The haematocrit value and worm density in subjects were determined to rate level of infectivity in the individual. The study shows that there are three common intestinal worms in the area Ascaris lumbricoides has the highest prevalence rate of 40.7% followed by Tribchuris trichiura (4.8%) and hookworm (4.4%). Age and sex ...

  1. 97 ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    no relationship between the appearance of the removed appendix and the gender of participants (P>0.05).Three different helminth ova were identified in the 74 samples. In decreasing prevalence, the parasite trend was 8 (10.8%) Ascaris lumbricoides, 5 (6.8%) Enterobius vermicularis, 3 (6.0%), Ankylostoma duodenale, ...

  2. Determining the prevalence of intestinal parasites in three Orang Asli (Aborigines) communities in Perak, Malaysia.

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    Sinniah, B; Sabaridah, I; Soe, M M; Sabitha, P; Awang, I P R; Ong, G P; Hassan, A K R

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among children and adult Orang Aslis (Aborigines) from different locations in Perak. Faecal samples were collected and analyzed using the direct smear and formal ether sedimentation technique. Some of the faecal samples were stained using the Modified Acid fast stain for Cryptosporidium. Nail clippings of the respondents and the soil around their habitat were also analyzed. Of the 77 stool samples examined, 39 (50.6%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The most common parasite detected was Trichuris trichiura (39.0%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (26.9%), Entamoeba coli (5.2%), Giardia lamblia (5.2%), Blastocystis hominis (3.9%), hookworm (3.9%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.3%), Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.3%) respectively. Some respondents had single parasites (24.7%), some with two parasites (18.2%). Some with three parasites (6.5%) and one had four parasites species (1.3%). The parasites were slightly more common in females (54.7%) than males ((41.7%). The parasites were more common in the 13-20 year age group (90.9%) followed by 1-12 years (69.6%), 21-40 year age group (34.8%) and least in the 41-60 year age group (27.8%). Nail examinations of the respondents did not show any evidence of parasites. One had a mite, three had pollen grains and one had yeast cells isolated from the finger nails. Soil samples taken around their houses showed only one sample with a nematode ova and one with oocyst which was of a non human origin.

  3. Intestinal parasite infections in a rural community of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil): Prevalence and genetic diversity of Blastocystis subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carolina Valença; Barreto, Magali Muniz; Andrade, Rosemary de Jesus; Sodré, Fernando; d'Avila-Levy, Claudia Masini; Peralta, José Mauro; Igreja, Ricardo Pereira; de Macedo, Heloisa Werneck; Santos, Helena Lucia Carneiro

    2018-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are considered a serious public health problem and widely distributed worldwide, mainly in urban and rural environments of tropical and subtropical countries. Globally, soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are the most common intestinal parasites. Blastocystis sp. is a highly prevalent suspected pathogenic protozoan, and considered an unusual protist due to its significant genetic diversity and host plasticity. A total of 294 stool samples were collected from inhabitants of three rural valleys in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The stool samples were evaluated by parasitological methods, fecal culture, nested PCR and PCR/Sequencing. Overall prevalence by parasitological analyses was 64.3% (189 out of 294 cases). Blastocystis sp. (55.8%) was the most prevalent, followed by Endolimax nana (18.7%), Entamoeba histolytica complex (7.1%), hookworm infection (7.1%), Entomoeba coli (5.8%), Giardia intestinalis (4.1%), Iodamoeba butchilii (1.0%), Trichuris trichiura (1.0%), Pentatrichomonas hominis (0.7%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.7%). Prevalence of IPIs was significantly different by gender. Phylogenetic analysis of Blastocystis sp. and BLAST search revealed five different subtypes: ST3 (34.0%), ST1 (27.0%), ST2 (27.0%), ST4 (3.5%), ST8 (7.0%) and a non-identified subtype. Our findings demonstrate that intestinal parasite infection rates in rural areas of the Sumidouro municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil are still high and remain a challenge to public health. Moreover, our data reveals significant genetic heterogeneity of Blastocystis sp. subtypes and a possible novel subtype, whose confirmation will require additional data. Our study contributes to the understanding of potential routes of transmission, epidemiology, and genetic diversity of Blastocystis sp. in rural areas both at a regional and global scale.

  4. Survey of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasites among food handlers working at Gondar University, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnew, Mulat; Tiruneh, Moges; Moges, Feleke; Tekeste, Zinaye

    2012-10-02

    Food borne disease are major health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia. Food handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food establishments could be potential sources of disease due to pathogenic organisms. However; information on disease prevalence among food handlers working in University of Gondar cafeterias are very scarce. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, their drug resistance pattern and prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers working in University of Gondar student's cafeterias. A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers working in University of Gondar student's cafeterias. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for collecting data. Nasal swab and stool were investigated for S. aureus and intestinal parasites; respectively as per the standard of the laboratory methods. Among 200 food handlers, females comprised 171(85.5%). The majority (67.5%) of the food-handlers were young adults aged 18-39 years. One hundred ninety four (97%) of the food handlers were not certified as a food handler. Forty one (20.5%) food handlers were positive for nasal carriage of S. aureus, of these 4(9.8%) was resistant for methicilin. Giardia lamblia was the most prevalent parasites 22 (11%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides 13(6.5%), Entamoeba histolytica 12 (6%), Strongyloides stercolaris (0.5), Taenia species 1(0.5%) and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.5%). The finding stressed that food handlers with different pathogenic micro organisms may pose significant risk on the consumers. Higher officials should implement food handler's training on food safety, periodic medical checkup and continuous monitoring of personal hygiene of food handlers.

  5. Prevalence and its associated risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among Yadot primary school children of South Eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulu, Begna; Taye, Solomon; Amsalu, Eden

    2014-11-26

    Intestinal parasitic infections are posing significant morbidity worldwide. In Ethiopia, due to poor socio-economic status, intestinal parasitic infections are highly prevalent. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and its associated risk factors among Yadot primary school children which is found in South-Eastern part of Ethiopia, in the district called Delo-Mena. Institution based cross-sectional study was employed from March to April 2013. In this study, a total of 340 students were selected using simple random sampling, and data on socio-demographic characteristics and factors associated with the prevalence of intestinal parasites as well as stool samples were collected and processed accordingly. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16, and binary and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to measure the strength of association between dependent and independent variables. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 26.2%. Poly-parasitism was detected in 6.2% of the students. Consistently, students who were infected with single, double, triple and quadruple parasites were 20%, 4.7%, 1.2% and 0.3% respectively. In line with this, the most prevalent parasites were Schistosoma mansoni 12.6%, followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 5%, Ascaris lumbricoides 4.7%, and Hymenolepis nana 4.4%. Regarding the risk factors for the infections, not knowing why they wash their hands before meal [(AOR=0.20, 95% CI=0.10-0.40), pintestinal parasitic infections. Intestinal parasitic infections were found to be highly prevalent among Yadot primary school children. Hence, health education, improving sanitation, provision of safe drinking water, increasing latrine use, snail control and deworming to the students are crucial.

  6. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers at cafeteria of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia

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    Hundaol Girma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors among food-handlers working at cafeteria of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods: Socio-demographic and associated risk factors data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. Stool and finger-nail specimens were screened for intestinal parasites using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration sedimentation techniques. Data were edited, cleaned, entered and analyzed using statistical package for social science (SPSS version 20. P ≤ 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: A total of 94 food-handlers working at cafeteria of Jimma University Specialized Hospital were participated in the study. From the total 148 samples (94 stool and 54 fingernails content examined, 31 (33% were positive for one or more parasites. Over all eight types of intestinal parasites were identified. The most prevalent parasite identified was Ascaris lumbricoides (16% followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (4.3%. There was significant association between parasitic infection and food handlers who did not practice hand washing after defecation and before serving food. Conclusions: Relatively high prevalence of intestinal parasites is detected indicating poor hygiene practice of the food-handlers at the study site. The study also identified finger-nail status, hand washing after defecation and before serving food as determinants of intestinal parasitic infection. It is crucial for provision of regular training on strict adherence to good personal hygiene and hygienic food-handling practices as well as regular inspection and medical checkup of food-handlers.

  7. Prevalence of intestinal parasites, salmonella and shigella among apparently health food handlers of Addis Ababa University student's cafeteria, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklilu, Addis; Kahase, Daniel; Dessalegn, Mekonnen; Tarekegn, Negatu; Gebremichael, Saba; Zenebe, Seyfe; Desta, Kassu; Mulugeta, Gebru; Mamuye, Yeshiwodim; Mama, Mohammedaman

    2015-01-24

    Food contamination may occur at any point during its journey through production, processing, distribution, and preparation. The risk of food getting contaminated depends largely on the health status of the food handlers, their personal hygiene, knowledge and practice of food hygiene. Food borne diseases are a public health problem in developed and developing countries like Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers in Addis Ababa student's cafeteria from January to May 2013. Structured questionnaire was used to collect socio demographic data and associated risk factors. Stool specimens were examined for bacteria and intestinal parasites following standard procedures. Biochemical tests were done to identify the species of bacterial isolates. Sensitivity testing was done using Kirby- Baur disk diffusion method. A total of 172 food handlers were enrolled in the study. The majority of study participants were females 134 (77.9%). About 78 (45.3%) of food handlers were found to be positive for different intestinal parasites with the most abundant parasite of Entameoba histolytica/dispar 68 (70.8%) followed by Giardia lamblia 18 (18.8%), Taenia species 5 (5.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides 2 (2.1%), hookworm 2 (2.1%) and Trichuris trichiura 1 (1.1%). Stool cultures revealed 3.5% of Salmonella isolates (Sero-grouping on Salmonella isolate was not done), while Shigella species was not isolated from any of the stool samples obtained from Food handlers. All isolates of Salmonella were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin but resistant to ampicillin, clindamycin, and erythromycin. The present study revealed a high prevalence of intestinal parasite in asymptomatic (apparently health) food handlers. Such infected food handlers can contaminate food, drinks and could serve as source of infection to consumers via food chain.

  8. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and risk factors among schoolchildren at the University of Gondar Community School, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaw, Aschalew; Anagaw, Belay; Nigussie, Bethel; Silesh, Betrearon; Yirga, Atnad; Alem, Meseret; Endris, Mengistu; Gelaw, Baye

    2013-04-05

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Their distribution is mainly associated with poor personal hygiene, environmental sanitation and limited access to clean water. Indeed, epidemiological information on the prevalence of various intestinal parasitic infections in different localities is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control measures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren. This school-based cross-sectional study was undertaken at the University of Gondar Community School from April 2012 to June 2012. Study subjects were selected using a systematic random sampling method. Data were gathered through direct interview by using a pretested questionnaire. The collected stool specimens were examined microscopically for the presence of eggs, cysts and trophozoites of intestinal parasites using direct saline smear and formol-ether concentration methods. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS version 16 software. Out of 304 study subjects, 104 (34.2%) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The prevalence rate was 43 (32.1%) for male and 61 (35.9%) for female. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was high in age group of 10-12 years compared to other age groups. The predominant intestinal parasite was Hymenolepis nana, followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Ascaris lumbricoides with 42 (13.8%), 28 (9.2%), 18 (5.9%), respectively. Hand washing practice and ways of transportation were statistically associated with intestinal parasitic infections. Children in grades 1 to 3 had a higher prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection than those in grades 4 to 8 (p = 0.031). Intestinal parasites were prevalent in varying magnitude among the schoolchildren. The prevalence of infections were higher for helminths compared to protozoa. Measures including education on personal

  9. Status of gastrointestinal parasites in Red Panda of Nepal.

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    Bista, Damber; Shrestha, Saroj; Kunwar, Ajaya Jang; Acharya, Sakshi; Jnawali, Shant Raj; Acharya, Krishna Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Red pandas are known to be highly susceptible to endoparasites, which can have a prominent impact on the population dynamics of this endangered species. There are very limited published reports on prevalence and risk of parasites in wild populations of red panda, especially localized reports. This study attempts to provide an in-depth insight of the status of endoparasites in red pandas, which is critical for strengthening conservation efforts. A total of 272 fecal samples were collected through systematic sampling across the red panda distribution range in Nepal and coprological examination was completed using standard techniques. It was followed by an estimation of prevalence and mean intensity of parasites, as well as statistical analysis, which was carried out using R statistical software. Parasite prevalence was documented in 90.80% ( n  = 247) out of 272 samples examined which includes seven different species along with three genera of parasites belonging to Protozoans (3 species), Cestodes (1 genus, 1 species) and Nematodes (2 genera, 3 species). Nematodes predominated in all infected samples (87.62%). Prevalence of Ancyclostoma duodenale ( n  = 227, 70.06%), having a mean intensity of 3.45 ± 2.88 individuals per sample, was observed, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides ( n  = 19, 5.86%) and Entamoeba histolytica ( n  = 24, 7.41%). Eight variables for assessing the determinants of infestation were tested: protected areas; non-protected areas; aspect; elevation; slope; and distance to water sources, herding stations, and settlements. Only the settlement displayed significant association ( β = -1534e-04, t  =  - 2.192, p  = 0.0293) though each parasite species displayed dissimilar association with different variables. This study indicates the urgent need of improving existing herding practice through habitat zonation, rotational grazing, medication of livestock, and prohibition of open defecation within and around red panda habitat.

  10. Frecuencia de enteroparásitos en niños y niñas del primer ciclo de la educación escolar básica de Escuelas Públicas de Ciudad del Este, Paraguay

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    Gloria Elena Cardozo Ocampos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades parasitarias tienen amplia distribución mundial, y a pesar de los esfuerzos de los organismos de salud, siguen siendo un problema especialmente en los países en vias de desarrollo como el nuestro. El objetivo del presente trabajo, debidamente evaluado por la Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de la Bioética en Paraguay, fue la de determinar la tasa de frecuencia de enteroparásitos en niños y niñas del primer ciclo de la Educación Escolar Básica de Ciudad del Este (Paraguay. En el periodo de setiembre a diciembre del año 2006, fueron visitadas 48 escuelas públicas, durante el cual se recolectó muestras de materia fecal de 388 niños y niñas, entre 7 a 9 años, escogidos aleatoriamente. Las muestras colectadas fueron examinadas por cuatro métodos para la búsqueda de enteroparásitos, el Directo en fresco, Faust, Ritchie and Lutz. El porcentaje de las muestras positivas fue de 94,23%, donde fueron identificados siete tipos de protozoarios y cinco tipos de helmintos. La frecuencia de los enteroparasitos hallados en la población estudiada de la forma en la que sigue: Giardia duodenalis 67%; Entamoeba coli 52%; Blastocystis hominis 45%; Endolimax nana 31%; Chilomastix mesnili 8 %; Iodamoeba butschilii 3% ; Entamoeba histolytica 2% ; Hymenolepis nana 12%; Enterobius vermicularis 1%; Strongyloides stercoralis 2%; Ascaris lumbricoides 1% ; Uncinarias 2%.

  11. Intestinal parasitic infections among expatriate workers in various occupations in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

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    Abdelmunim Izzeldin Abdelrahman Dafalla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent throughout many countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite carriers among 21,347 expatriate workers, including food handlers and housemaids attending the public health center laboratory in Sharjah, UAE. Stool sample collection was performed throughout the period between January and December 2013. All samples were examined microscopically. Demographic data were also obtained and analyzed. Intestinal parasites were found in 3.3% (708/21,347 of the studied samples (single and multiple infections. Among positive samples, six hundred and eighty-three samples (96.5% were positive for a single parasite: Giardia lamblia (257; 36.3% and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (220; 31.1%, respectively, whereas mono-infections with helminths accounted for 206 (29.1% of the samples. Infection rates with single worms were: Ascaris lumbricoides (84; 11.9%, Hookworm (34; 4.8%, Trichuris trichiura (33; 4.7%, Taenia spp. (27; 3.81%, Strongyloides stercoralis (13; 1.8%, Hymenolepis nana (13; 1.8%, and Enterobius vermicularis (2; 0.28%, respectively. Infections were significantly associated with gender (x2 = 14.18; p = 0.002 with males as the most commonly infected with both groups of intestinal parasites (protozoa and helminths. A strong statistical association was noted correlating the parasite occurrence with certain nationalities (x2= 49.5, p <0.001. Furthermore, the study has also found a strong statistical correlation between parasite occurrence and occupation (x2= 15.60; p = 0.029. Multiple infections were not common (3.5% of the positive samples, although one individual (0.14% had four helminth species, concurrently. These findings emphasized that food handlers with different pathogenic parasitic organisms may pose a significant health risk to the public.

  12. Hyperendemic H. pylori and tapeworm infections in a U.S.-Mexico border population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Victor M; Mena, Kristina D; Ortiz, Melchor; Karri, Sitrulasi; Variyam, Easwaran; Behravesh, Casey Barton; Snowden, Karen F; Flisser, Ana; Bristol, John R; Mayberry, Lillian F; Ortega, Ynes R; Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Campos, Armando; Graham, David Y

    2010-01-01

    A higher incidence of infectious disease has been documented in U.S. regions bordering Mexico compared with non-border areas. We assessed the prevalence of important gastrointestinal infections in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and El Paso, Texas, the largest binational community along the U.S.-Mexico border. Fecal specimens from a sample of the asymptomatic population representing all ages were tested for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., and other intestinal parasitic pathogens using flotation, immunoassays, and/or polymerase chain reaction. We also measured indicators of microbiological contamination of drinking water, hands of food preparers, and kitchen surfaces. Overall, of the 386 participants, H. pylori was present in 38.2%, Taenia spp. in 3.3%, Giardia spp. in 2.7%, Cryptosporidium spp. in 1.9%, Entamoeba dispar in 1.3%, and Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus in 0.3% of the study subjects; Cyclospora spp. and Entamoeba histolytica were not found. H. pylori infection was associated with handwashing (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0, 1.8). Taenia spp. was found more often on the U.S. side (PR=8.6, 95% CI 2.3, 30.8). We did not find an association between these infections and the occurrence of total coliforms or fecal coliforms on kitchen surfaces. In addition, Escherichia coli was not found in any drinking water sample. The study results indicated that H. pylori and Taenia spp. infections may be highly prevalent along the U.S.-Mexico border. Additional research is necessary to adequately characterize the prevalence, as well as determine whether interventions that reduce these infections are warranted.

  13. Survey of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasites among food handlers working at Gondar University, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Dagnew Mulat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food borne disease are major health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia. Food handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food establishments could be potential sources of disease due to pathogenic organisms. However; information on disease prevalence among food handlers working in University of Gondar cafeterias are very scarce. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, their drug resistance pattern and prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers working in University of Gondar student’s cafeterias. Method A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers working in University of Gondar student’s cafeterias. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for collecting data. Nasal swab and stool were investigated for S. aureus and intestinal parasites; respectively as per the standard of the laboratory methods. Results Among 200 food handlers, females comprised 171(85.5%. The majority (67.5% of the food-handlers were young adults aged 18–39 years. One hundred ninety four (97% of the food handlers were not certified as a food handler. Forty one (20.5% food handlers were positive for nasal carriage of S. aureus, of these 4(9.8% was resistant for methicilin. Giardia lamblia was the most prevalent parasites 22 (11%, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides 13(6.5%, Entamoeba histolytica 12 (6%, Strongyloides stercolaris (0.5, Taenia species 1(0.5% and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.5%. Conclusion The finding stressed that food handlers with different pathogenic micro organisms may pose significant risk on the consumers. Higher officials should implement food handler’s training on food safety, periodic medical checkup and continuous monitoring of personal hygiene of food handlers.

  14. A Laboratory-Developed TaqMan Array Card for Simultaneous Detection of 19 Enteropathogens

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    Liu, Jie; Gratz, Jean; Amour, Caroline; Kibiki, Gibson; Becker, Stephen; Janaki, Lalitha; Verweij, Jaco J.; Taniuchi, Mami; Sobuz, Shihab U.; Haque, Rashidul; Haverstick, Doris M.

    2013-01-01

    The TaqMan Array Card (TAC) system is a 384-well singleplex real-time PCR format that has been used to detect multiple infection targets. Here we developed an enteric TaqMan Array Card to detect 19 enteropathogens, including viruses (adenovirus, astrovirus, norovirus GII, rotavirus, and sapovirus), bacteria (Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli, Clostridium difficile, Salmonella, Vibrio cholerae, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains including enteroaggregative E. coli [EAEC], enterotoxigenic E. coli [ETEC], enteropathogenic E. coli [EPEC], and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli [STEC]), Shigella/enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), protozoa (Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia, and Entamoeba histolytica), and helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura), as well as two extrinsic controls to monitor extraction and amplification efficiency (the bacteriophage MS2 and phocine herpesvirus). Primers and probes were newly designed or adapted from published sources and spotted onto microfluidic cards. Fecal samples were spiked with extrinsic controls, and DNA and RNA were extracted using the QiaAmp Stool DNA minikit and the QuickGene RNA Tissue kit, respectively, and then mixed with Ag-Path-ID One Step real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) reagents and loaded into cards. PCR efficiencies were between 90% and 105%, with linearities of 0.988 to 1. The limit of detection of the assays in the TAC was within a 10-fold difference from the cognate assays performed on plates. Precision testing demonstrated a coefficient of variation of below 5% within a run and 14% between runs. Accuracy was evaluated for 109 selected clinical specimens and revealed an average sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 77%, respectively, compared with conventional methods (including microscopy, culture, and immunoassay) and 98% and 96%, respectively, compared with our laboratory-developed PCR-Luminex assays. This TAC allows fast, accurate, and quantitative detection of a broad spectrum of enteropathogens and

  15. Intestinal parasitism in the United States: update on a continuing problem.

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    Kappus, K D; Lundgren, R G; Juranek, D D; Roberts, J M; Spencer, H C

    1994-06-01

    To document patterns of intestinal parasitism in the United States, we analyzed results of 216,275 stool specimens examined by the state diagnostic laboratories in 1987; parasites were found in 20.0%. Percentages were highest for protozoans: Giardia lamblia (7.2%), Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana (4.2% each), Blastocystis hominis (2.6%), and Entamoeba histolytica (0.9%). The most commonly identified helminths were nematodes: hookworm (1.5%), Trichuris trichiura (1.2%), and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.8%). Identifications of G. lamblia increased broadly from the 4.0% average found in 1979, with 40 states reporting increases and seven reporting decreases. Seasonally, Giardia identifications increased in the summer and fall, especially in the Midwest. Nine states reported hookworms in more than 2% of specimens; none were states with indigenous transmission. We analyzed similar, but abbreviated, data for 1991; parasites were found in 19.7% of the 178,786 specimens and Giardia was found in 5.6%. States reporting percentages of Giardia identification in the highest quartile for both 1987 and 1991 were located in the Midwest or in the Northwest. Cryptosporidium was identified in both the 1987 and 1991 surveys; it had not been identified in a previous survey. For each year, Cryptosporidium was reported from 25 states across the country (for both years in 17 states). We conclude that intestinal parasitism should not be overlooked as a cause of gastrointestinal illness in the United States and that the prevalence of Giardia may be increasing.

  16. Intestinal parasitic infections among expatriate workers in various occupations in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafalla, Abdelmunim Izzeldin Abdelrahman; Almuhairi, Shaikha Ali Salem Obaid; AlHosani, Mohamed Hassan Jasim; Mohamed, Mira Yousif; Alkous, Mariam Ibrahim Ahmed; AlAzzawi, Mousa Abdelsattar; Abakar, Adam Dawoud; Nour, Bakri Yousif Mohamed; Hasan, Hayder; AbuOdeh, Ra'ed Omar; ElBakri, Ali

    2017-12-21

    Intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent throughout many countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite carriers among 21,347 expatriate workers, including food handlers and housemaids attending the public health center laboratory in Sharjah, UAE. Stool sample collection was performed throughout the period between January and December 2013. All samples were examined microscopically. Demographic data were also obtained and analyzed. Intestinal parasites were found in 3.3% (708/21,347) of the studied samples (single and multiple infections). Among positive samples, six hundred and eighty-three samples (96.5%) were positive for a single parasite: Giardia lamblia (257; 36.3%) and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (220; 31.1%), respectively, whereas mono-infections with helminths accounted for 206 (29.1%) of the samples. Infection rates with single worms were: Ascaris lumbricoides (84; 11.9%), Hookworm (34; 4.8%), Trichuris trichiura (33; 4.7%), Taenia spp. (27; 3.81%), Strongyloides stercoralis (13; 1.8%), Hymenolepis nana (13; 1.8%), and Enterobius vermicularis (2; 0.28%), respectively. Infections were significantly associated with gender (x2 = 14.18; p = 0.002) with males as the most commonly infected with both groups of intestinal parasites (protozoa and helminths). A strong statistical association was noted correlating the parasite occurrence with certain nationalities (x2= 49.5, p parasite occurrence and occupation (x2= 15.60; p = 0.029). Multiple infections were not common (3.5% of the positive samples), although one individual (0.14%) had four helminth species, concurrently. These findings emphasized that food handlers with different pathogenic parasitic organisms may pose a significant health risk to the public.

  17. Geospatial distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and its association with social determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Clarissa Perez; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Dias, Gisele Silva; da Silva, Sidnei; de Freitas, Marcelo Bessa; Almendra, Ricardo; Santana, Paula; Sousa, Maria do Céu

    2017-03-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections remain among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. This study aimed to estimate their prevalence and provide a detailed analysis of geographical distribution of intestinal parasites in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, considering demographic, socio-economic, and epidemiological contextual factors. The cross-section survey was conducted among individuals attending the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases (FIOCRUZ, RJ) during the period from April 2012 to February 2015. Stool samples were collected and processed by sedimentation, flotation, Kato-Katz, Baermann-Moraes and Graham methods, iron haematoxylin staining and safranin staining. Of the 3245 individuals analysed, 569 (17.5%) were infected with at least one parasite. The most common protozoa were Endolimax nana (28.8%), Entamoeba coli (14.8%), Complex Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (13.5%), Blastocystis hominis (12.7%), and Giardia lamblia (8.1%). Strongyloides stercoralis (4.3%), Schistosoma mansoni (3.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.6%), and hookworms (1.5%) were the most frequent helminths. There was a high frequency of contamination by protozoa (87%), and multiple infections were observed in 141 participants (24.8%). A positive association between age (young children) and gender (male) with intestinal parasites was observed. Geospatial distribution of the detected intestinal parasitic infections was not random or homogeneous, but was influenced by socioeconomic conditions (through the material deprivation index (MDI)). Participants classified in the highest levels of deprivation had higher risk of having intestinal parasites. This study provides the first epidemiological information on the prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. Intestinal parasites, especially protozoa, are highly prevalent, indicating that parasitic infections are still a serious public health problem

  18. Intestinal parasites isolated in a large teaching hospital, Italy, 1 May 2006 to 31 December 2008.

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    Masucci, L; Graffeo, R; Bani, S; Bugli, F; Boccia, S; Nicolotti, N; Fiori, B; Fadda, G; Spanu, T

    2011-06-16

    Intestinal parasites account for the majority of parasitic diseases, particularly in endemic areas. Most are transmitted via contaminated food. Because of increased immigration and travel, enteric parasitoses are now distributed worldwide. Between May 2006 and December 2008, we examined stool specimens from 5,351 patients (4,695 Italians, 656 non-Italians) for ova and parasites using microscopy, culture techniques, and molecular methods. Stools from 594 patients (11.1%) were contaminated and for all patients samples combined, a total of 700 intestinal parasites were counted. Ninety of the 594 infected patients had more than one parasite in their stools. Parasites causing intestinal disease occurred in 8.8% of patients. The prevalence was over twice as high among non-Italians (26.8% vs 8.9% in Italians, p003). Most isolates were pathogenic protozoa, including in decreasing order of frequency: Blastocystis hominis, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Cyclospora cayetanensis. The latter two species tended to be more common in Italians, although not at significant level (3.6% (15/418) vs 1.7% (3/176) in non-Italians, OR: 2.15; 95%CI: 0.60–11.70, p=0.22). Helminthes were found in 28 patients, mainly non-Italians (5.7% (10/176) vs 4.3% (18/418), OR: 1.34; 95%CI: 0.54–3.13, p=0.47). Ascaris lumbricoides and Hymenolepis nana were the most common. Strongyloides stercoralis, Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia spp. and Trichuris trichiura were also found. Intestinal parasites are a serious problem in developing countries, but should not be underestimated in industrialised countries.

  19. Children with moderate-high infection with Entamoeba coli have higher percentage of body and abdominal fat than non-infected children.

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    Zavala, G A; García, O P; Campos-Ponce, M; Ronquillo, D; Caamaño, M C; Doak, C M; Rosado, J L

    2016-12-01

    Intestinal parasites, virus and bacterial infections are positively associated with obesity and adiposity in vitro and in animal models, but conclusive evidence of this relationship in humans is lacking. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine differences in adiposity between infected and non-infected children, with a high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and obesity. A total of 296 school-aged children (8.0 ± 1.5 years) from a rural area in Querétaro, Mexico, participated in this study. Anthropometry (weight, height and waist circumference) and body fat (DXA) were measured in all children. A fresh stool sample was collected from each child and analysed for parasites. Questionnaires related to socioeconomic status and clinical history were completed by caretakers. Approximately 11% of the children were obese, and 19% were overweight. The overall prevalence of infection was 61%. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent soil transmitted helminth (16%) followed by hookworm. Entamoeba coli was the predominant protozoa (20%) followed by Endolimax nana, Balantidium coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Iodamoeba bütschlii and Giardia lamblia. Children with moderate-heavy infection of E. coli had significantly higher waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, body and abdominal fat than children not infected or with light-intensity infection (p fat deposition and thereby have long-term consequences on human health. Further studies are needed to better understand if E. coli contributes directly to fat deposition and possible mechanisms. © 2015 World Obesity Federation.

  20. Identification of human intestinal parasites affecting an asymptomatic peri-urban Argentinian population using multi-parallel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Rubén O; Jeun, Rebecca; Juarez, Marisa; Cajal, Pamela S; Vargas, Paola; Echazú, Adriana; Bryan, Patricia E; Nasser, Julio; Krolewiecki, Alejandro; Mejia, Rojelio

    2015-07-17

    In resource-limited countries, stool microscopy is the diagnostic test of choice for intestinal parasites (soil-transmitted helminths and/or intestinal protozoa). However, sensitivity and specificity is low. Improved diagnosis of intestinal parasites is especially important for accurate measurements of prevalence and intensity of infections in endemic areas. The study was carried out in Orán, Argentina. A total of 99 stool samples from a local surveillance campaign were analyzed by concentration microscopy and McMaster egg counting technique compared to the analysis by multi-parallel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). This study compared the performance of qPCR assay and stool microscopy for 8 common intestinal parasites that infect humans including the helminths Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, and the protozoa Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, and Entamoeba histolytica, and investigated the prevalence of polyparasitism in an endemic area. qPCR showed higher detection rates for all parasites as compared to stool microscopy except T. trichiura. Species-specific primers and probes were able to distinguish between A. duodenale (19.1%) and N. americanus (36.4%) infections. There were 48.6% of subjects co-infected with both hookworms, and a significant increase in hookworm DNA for A. duodenale versus N. americanus (119.6 fg/μL: 0.63 fg/μL, P parasites in an endemic area that has improved diagnostic accuracy compared to stool microscopy. This first time use of multi-parallel qPCR in Argentina has demonstrated the high prevalence of intestinal parasites in a peri-urban area. These results will contribute to more accurate epidemiological survey, refined treatment strategies on a public scale, and better health outcomes in endemic settings.

  1. Geospatial distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and its association with social determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Clarissa Perez; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Dias, Gisele Silva; da Silva, Sidnei; de Freitas, Marcelo Bessa; Almendra, Ricardo; Santana, Paula; Sousa, Maria do Céu

    2017-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitic infections remain among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. This study aimed to estimate their prevalence and provide a detailed analysis of geographical distribution of intestinal parasites in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, considering demographic, socio-economic, and epidemiological contextual factors. Methods/Principal findings The cross-section survey was conducted among individuals attending the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases (FIOCRUZ, RJ) during the period from April 2012 to February 2015. Stool samples were collected and processed by sedimentation, flotation, Kato-Katz, Baermann-Moraes and Graham methods, iron haematoxylin staining and safranin staining. Of the 3245 individuals analysed, 569 (17.5%) were infected with at least one parasite. The most common protozoa were Endolimax nana (28.8%), Entamoeba coli (14.8%), Complex Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (13.5%), Blastocystis hominis (12.7%), and Giardia lamblia (8.1%). Strongyloides stercoralis (4.3%), Schistosoma mansoni (3.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.6%), and hookworms (1.5%) were the most frequent helminths. There was a high frequency of contamination by protozoa (87%), and multiple infections were observed in 141 participants (24.8%). A positive association between age (young children) and gender (male) with intestinal parasites was observed. Geospatial distribution of the detected intestinal parasitic infections was not random or homogeneous, but was influenced by socioeconomic conditions (through the material deprivation index (MDI)). Participants classified in the highest levels of deprivation had higher risk of having intestinal parasites. Conclusions/Significance This study provides the first epidemiological information on the prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. Intestinal parasites, especially protozoa, are highly prevalent, indicating that

  2. Intestinal parasites among young children in the interior of Guyana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindo, J F; Validum, L; Ager, A L; Campa, A; Cuadrado, R R; Cummings, R; Palmer, C J

    2002-03-01

    Intestinal parasites contribute greatly to morbidity in developing countries. While there have been several studies of the problem in the Caribbean, including the implementation of control programmes, this has not been done for Guyana. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among young children in a town located in the interior of Guyana. Eighty-five children under the age of 12 years were studied prospectively for intestinal parasites in Mahdia, Guyana. Stool samples were transported in formalin to the Department of Microbiology, The University of the West Indies, Jamaica, for analysis using the formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Data on age and gender of the children were recorded on field data sheets. At least one intestinal parasite was detected in 43.5% (37/85) of the children studied and multiple parasitic infections were recorded in 21.2% (18/85). The most common intestinal helminth parasite was hookworm (28.2%; 24/85), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (18.8%; 16/85) and then Trichuris trichuria (14.1%; 12/85). Among the protozoan infections Giardia lamblia was detected in 10.5% (9/85) of the study population while Entamoeba histolytica appeared rarely. All stool samples were negative for Cryptosporidium and other intestinal Coccidia. There was no predilection for gender with any of the parasites. The pattern of distribution of worms in this area of Guyana was unlike that seen in other studies. Hookworm infection was the most common among the children and a large proportion had multiple infections. The study established the occurrence and prevalence of a number of intestinal parasites in the population of Guyana. This sets the stage for the design and implementation of more detailed epidemiological studies.

  3. School-based prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors in rural communities of Sana'a, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Al-Eryani, Samira M; Saif-Ali, Reyadh; Mahdy, Mohammed A K

    2016-11-01

    Yemen is a developing country overwhelmed with a triad of poverty, diseases and social conflicts. Moreover, the majority of its population live in rural communities and suffer from intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs). Therefore, the present school-based, cross-sectional survey aimed to detect the prevalence of such infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in the rural communities of Bani Alharith, Hamdan and Bani Hushaysh districts of Sana'a, north of Yemen. Socio-demographic data and certain behavioral risk factors as well as stool samples were collected from 1218 schoolchildren from ten randomly schools in the study area. Fresh stool samples were examined for parasites by direct saline and iodine preparations and after concentration with formol-ether technique. The overall prevalence of IPIs was 54.8%, with a higher frequency of protozoal than helminthic infections (37.6 vs. 17.2%, respectively). Parasite species recovered were Entameba histolytica (21.5%), Giardia lamblia (16.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.3%), Hymenolepis nana (5.3%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.6%), Trichuris trichiura (0.5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%). Univariate analysis showed that the male gender and illiteracy of fathers and/or mothers were the socio-demographic factors significantly associated with higher infection rates. The illiteracy of mothers was also confirmed as an independent risk factor by multivariable analysis. On the other hand, not washing hands before eating, not washing fruits and vegetables before consumption, eating uncovered food and not clipping fingernails were the risk behaviors significantly associated with higher infection rates, with the last three ones being confirmed as independent risk factors. Therefore, control measures should include regular treatment of protozoal infections and deworming of schoolchildren, promotion of hygiene in rural schools through health education programs, regular inspection of schoolchildren for personal hygiene

  4. The risk of pathogenic intestinal parasite infections in Kisii Municipality, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabiru Ephantus W

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections worldwide. Various epidemiological studies indicate that the prevalence of intestinal parasites is high especially in developing countries, although in many of these, the environmental risk factors have not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of pathogenic intestinal parasites infections in Kisii Municipality. Methods Random sampling was used in the selection of the study samples. Stool parasitological profiles of food handlers were done by direct smear and formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation method. Both vegetable and meat samples were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. The storage and meat handling practices of the various butcheries were observed. Results Types of samples examined for occurrence of intestinal parasites includes, a total of 84 vegetable, 440 meat and 168 stool samples. Fifty five (65.5% vegetable, 334 (75.9% meat and 69 (41.1% of the stool samples were found positive for intestinal parasites indicating a high overall risk (66.18% for intestinal parasite infections. Of the parasites detected, the most common parasites infesting the foodstuffs and infecting the food handlers were Ascaris lumbricoides and Entamoeba histolytica. Parasites were significantly less likely to be present on meat that was refrigerated during display than meat that was displayed at ambient temperature. Conclusion There is a high risk of infection with intestinal parasites in the sampled Municipal markets. About half of the food handlers surveyed (41.1 % at the Municipal Hospital had one or more parasitic infections. Furthermore, meat (65.5% and vegetables (75.9% sold at the Municipal market were found to be contaminated with parasites hence the inhabitants requires a need for education on food safety, good distribution practices and improvement on sanitary conditions.

  5. [Distribution of entero-parasitic infections in the Peruvian Highland: study carried out in six rural communities of the department of Puno, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maco Flores, Vicente; Marcos Raymundo, Luis A; Terashima Iwashita, Angélica; Samalvides Cuba, Frine; Gotuzzo Herencia, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    A prevalence study was carried out in six rural communities in the Peruvian Highlands with the purpose of achieving a better understanding of the distribution of entero-parasites. The communities were located along the banks of Lake Titicaca, in the provinces of Puno and El Collao, Department of Puno, Peru, at 3,800 m.a.s.l. To that effect, a total of 91 feces samples of adults and children from the following communities were analyzed: Conchaca, Puñutani, Capalla, Culta, Maraesqueña, and Jaillihuaya. Analysis techniques included Direct Examination, Kato Technique, Technique of Spontaneous Sedimentation in a Test Tube and the Lumbreras Rapid Sedimentation Technique. The general prelavence of intestinal parasitosis was found to be 91.2%. The pathogenic entero-parasites found were, in order of frequency, as follows: Hymenolepis nana 6.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 5.5%, Giardia lamblia 3.3%, Taenia sp. 2.2%, Ascaris lumbricoides 2.2%, Trichuris trichiura 1.1%, and Enterobius vermicularis 1.1%. The frequency of the non-pathogenic entero-parasites was as follows: Entamoeba coli 78%, Endolimax nana 39.6%, Iodamoeba butschlii 14.3%, Blastocystis hominis 9.9%, and Chilomastix mesnili 2.2%. Most of the patients had poly parasitism (58.2%), and protozoan infections prevailed over helminthic infection. From the total number of patients infected, 41.8% had one parasite, 33.0% had two parasites, 11.0% had three parasites, 4.4% had four parasites, and 1.1% had five parasites. These results show the high rates of parasitism in the rural population on the banks of Lake Titicaca, which would be associated with socioeconomic factors and the poor environmental sanitation conditions in this area.

  6. Differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-28

    Jun 28, 2016 ... Social Sciences) program for Windows version 17 .... A study in Brazil showed that the prevalence of .... User-friendly online submission • Rigorous, constructive and unbiased peer-review • No space constraints or coloured.

  7. Prevalencia del Enteroparasitismo en escolares de comunidades nativas del Alto Marañon, Amazonas, Perú

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    Nicanor Ibáñez H

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por protozoarios y helmintos intestinales y su relación con el sexo, localidad de procedencia y grupo etáreo, en escolares nativos de la zona selvática del Alto Marañón, provincia de Bagua, departamento de Amazonas, Perú. Materiales y métodos: En este estudio transversal-observacional se seleccionó a los colegios representativos de la mencionada región lográndose examinar las muestras fecales de 1049 escolares de seis a 15 años de edad, entre octubre de 2001 y octubre de 2002, usando las técnicas microscópicas de observación directa, con solución salina fisiológica y lugol, de Teleman y de Kinnyoun. Resultados: La prevalencia de los protozoos y helmintos intestinales hallados es: Entamoeba coli 68,0%; Blastocystis hominis 28,4%; Endolimax nana 23,9%; Iodamoeba butschlii 32,9%; Giardia lamblia 21,4%; Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 12,9%; Cryptosporidium sp 01,9%; Paragonimus peruvianus 00,7% y Fasciola hepatica 00,2% (que no son parásitos intestinales sino de ubicación pulmonar y de vías biliares, respectivamente, pero sus huevos se encuentran en el contenido intestinal; Ancylostoma/Necartor 30,4%; Ascaris lumbricoides 28,9%; Trichocephalus trichiura 16,6%; Enterobius vermicularis 03,6%; Hymenolepis nana 03,5%; Taenia solium/saginata 00,2%; Strongyloides stercoralis 00,8% e H. diminuta 00,2%. Conclusiones: Ancylostoma/Necartor y A. lumbricoides se presentaron con mayor prevalencia en las poblaciones de menor edad de las comunidades de Mesones Muro y Nazaret, mientras que la infección humana por P. peruvianus se registra por primera vez en la región nororiental del Perú.

  8. Epidemiology of intestinal parasite infections in three departments of south-central Côte d’Ivoire before the implementation of a cluster-randomised trial

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    Gaoussou Coulibaly

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of people are infected with helminths and intestinal protozoa, particularly children in low- and middle-income countries. Preventive chemotherapy is the main strategy to control helminthiases. However, rapid re-infection occurs in settings where there is a lack of clean water, sanitation and hygiene. In August and September 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in 56 communities of three departments of south-central Côte d’Ivoire. Study participants were invited to provide stool and urine samples. Stool samples were examined for helminth and intestinal protozoa infections using the Kato-Katz technique and a formalin-ether concentration method. Urine samples were subjected to a filtration method for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude, practices and beliefs with regard to hygiene, sanitation and intestinal parasitic diseases were collected using a questionnaire administered to household heads. Multivariable logistic regression models were employed to analyse associations between parasite infections and risk factors. Overall, 4,305 participants had complete parasitological and questionnaire data. Hookworm was the predominant helminth species (21.2%, while Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium showed prevalences below 10%. Infections with pathogenic intestinal protozoa (e.g. Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar and Giardia intestinalis were similarly prevalent in the three departments. Hookworm infection was associated with open defecation and participants' age and sex. Entamoeba coli infection was negatively associated with the use of tap water at home (odds ratio (OR = 0.66; p = 0.032. Disposal of garbage in close proximity to people’s home was positively associated with G. intestinalis (OR = 1.30; p = 0.015. Taken together, helminth and intestinal protozoa infections

  9. Intestinal parasite prevalence in an area of ethiopia after implementing the SAFE strategy, enhanced outreach services, and health extension program.

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    Jonathan D King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The SAFE strategy aims to reduce transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis through antibiotics, improved hygiene, and sanitation. We integrated assessment of intestinal parasites into large-scale trachoma impact surveys to determine whether documented environmental improvements promoted by a trachoma program had collateral impact on intestinal parasites. METHODOLOGY: We surveyed 99 communities for both trachoma and intestinal parasites (soil-transmitted helminths, Schistosoma mansoni, and intestinal protozoa in South Gondar, Ethiopia. One child aged 2-15 years per household was randomly selected to provide a stool sample of which about 1 g was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, concentrated with ether, and examined under a microscope by experienced laboratory technicians. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 2,338 stool specimens were provided, processed, and linked to survey data from 2,657 randomly selected children (88% response. The zonal-level prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura was 9.9% (95% confidence interval (CI 7.2-12.7%, 9.7% (5.9-13.4%, and 2.6% (1.6-3.7%, respectively. The prevalence of S. mansoni was 2.9% (95% CI 0.2-5.5% but infection was highly focal (range by community from 0-52.4%. The prevalence of any of these helminth infections was 24.2% (95% CI 17.6-30.9% compared to 48.5% as found in a previous study in 1995 using the Kato-Katz technique. The pathogenic intestinal protozoa Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were found in 23.0% (95% CI 20.3-25.6% and 11.1% (95% CI 8.9-13.2% of the surveyed children, respectively. We found statistically significant increases in household latrine ownership, use of an improved water source, access to water, and face washing behavior over the past 7 years. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in hygiene and sanitation promoted both by the SAFE strategy for trachoma and health extension program combined with preventive chemotherapy

  10. Intestinal parasite prevalence in an area of ethiopia after implementing the SAFE strategy, enhanced outreach services, and health extension program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jonathan D; Endeshaw, Tekola; Escher, Elisabeth; Alemtaye, Genetu; Melaku, Sileabatt; Gelaye, Woyneshet; Worku, Abebe; Adugna, Mitku; Melak, Berhanu; Teferi, Tesfaye; Zerihun, Mulat; Gesese, Demelash; Tadesse, Zerihun; Mosher, Aryc W; Odermatt, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Marti, Hanspeter; Ngondi, Jeremiah; Hopkins, Donald R; Emerson, Paul M

    2013-01-01

    The SAFE strategy aims to reduce transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis through antibiotics, improved hygiene, and sanitation. We integrated assessment of intestinal parasites into large-scale trachoma impact surveys to determine whether documented environmental improvements promoted by a trachoma program had collateral impact on intestinal parasites. We surveyed 99 communities for both trachoma and intestinal parasites (soil-transmitted helminths, Schistosoma mansoni, and intestinal protozoa) in South Gondar, Ethiopia. One child aged 2-15 years per household was randomly selected to provide a stool sample of which about 1 g was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, concentrated with ether, and examined under a microscope by experienced laboratory technicians. A total of 2,338 stool specimens were provided, processed, and linked to survey data from 2,657 randomly selected children (88% response). The zonal-level prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura was 9.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.2-12.7%), 9.7% (5.9-13.4%), and 2.6% (1.6-3.7%), respectively. The prevalence of S. mansoni was 2.9% (95% CI 0.2-5.5%) but infection was highly focal (range by community from 0-52.4%). The prevalence of any of these helminth infections was 24.2% (95% CI 17.6-30.9%) compared to 48.5% as found in a previous study in 1995 using the Kato-Katz technique. The pathogenic intestinal protozoa Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were found in 23.0% (95% CI 20.3-25.6%) and 11.1% (95% CI 8.9-13.2%) of the surveyed children, respectively. We found statistically significant increases in household latrine ownership, use of an improved water source, access to water, and face washing behavior over the past 7 years. Improvements in hygiene and sanitation promoted both by the SAFE strategy for trachoma and health extension program combined with preventive chemotherapy during enhanced outreach services are plausible explanations for the

  11. Clinical and serological evidence of Toxocara infection in school children from Morrope District, Lambayeque, Peru Evidências clínicas e sorologicas de infecção por Toxocara em escolares do Distrito de Morrope, Lambayeque, Peru

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    Yrma A. Espinoza

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of human toxocariosis in a child population from Morrope district, Lambayeque, Peru. From October to December 2005, 182 school children (96 male and 86 female were studied. Blood samples were collected for Toxocara ELISA-IgG test and hematological examination. Additionally, stool samples were collected for coproparasitological examination to check cross reactions. We found frequency of positives in 32.4% (59/182 with a significant higher proportion of positivity in male children (p O propósito do presente trabalho foi estimar a freqüência da toxocaríase humana em crianças do distrito de Morrope, Lamabayeque, Perú. Nos meses de outubro a dezembro de 2005, 182 escolares (96 meninos e 86 meninas foram estudados. Coletaram-se amostras de sangue para a análise hematológica e imunológica pelo teste de ELISA-IgG-Toxocara e amostras fecais para o exame parasitológico. A freqüência geral da população foi de 32,4% (59/182 com proporção significativamente maior de positividade nos meninos. Das crianças com resultado positivo ao teste sorológico (52 meninos e sete meninas, 71,2% tinham entre cinco e 10 anos, 77,96% apresentavam sintomas respiratórios, 61,02% apresentavam manifestações oculares, 38,98% apresentavam moléstias hepáticas, 38,98% apresentavam suave ou moderada eosinofília e todos estes sinais foram estatisticamente associados ao resultado da sorologia. A presença de algum parasito intestinal foi observada em 83,5% da população estudada: Blastocystis hominis (53,3%, Giardia lamblia (31,3%, Entamoeba coli (29,1%, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (1,1%, Hymenolepis nana (5,49%, e Ascaris lumbricoides (3,3%, mas estes não tiveram nenhuma associação com a sorologia. A posse de cães e gatos revelou associação estatisticamente significante com a positividade para toxocaríase embora a presença destes animais no domicílio não tenha revelado tal associação. Conclui

  12. Monitoreo de parásitos en efluentes domiciliarios Control of parasites in domestic sewage

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    Liliana Semenas

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la presencia de parásitos en efluentes semisólidos y líquidos en distintas localidades de la Patagonia argentina considerando que ésta es una de las restricciones para su uso. MÉTODOS: Las muestras tomadas en 4 Plantas de Tratamiento de Efluentes Domiciliarios se analizaron siguiendo las normativas de Environmental Protection Agency, Organización Mundial de la Salud, Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater y de algunas clasificaciones. RESULTADOS: Solamente 2 de las 6 muestras de semisólidos analizadas tenían huevos de Ascaris lumbricoides no viables. De las 10 muestras líquidas, solamente 2 no tenían huevos mientras las restantes tenían patógenos de las categorías I (Giardia sp., Hymenolepis diminuta y Enterobius vermicularis y III (Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale y Trichuris trichiura. CONCLUSIONES: Todas las muestras de semisólidos analizadas fueron aptas para su uso como fertilizantes porque no se registró en ninguna de ellas la presencia de huevos viables de Ascaris lumbricoides y solamente 6 de las muestras líquidas fueron aptas para riego por carecer de huevos o por ser su concentración igual o inferior a 1 huevo por litro.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de parasitas em efluentes semi-sólidos e líquidos, em diferentes localidades da Patagonia argentina, por ser fato uma das restrições para seu uso. MÉTODOS: As amostras selecionadas de 4 Centros de Tratamento de Efluentes Domiciliários foram analisadas de acordo com as normas da "Environmental Protection Agenty", Organização Mundial da Saúde e do "Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater", além de algumas classificações. RESULTADOS: Somente 2 das 6 amostras de semi-sólidos analisadas continham ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides não viáveis. Das 10 amostras líquidas, somente 2 não continham ovos, enquanto as restantes continham patógenos das categorias I (Giardia sp., Hymenolepis diminuta e Enterobius

  13. [The prevalence of intestinal parasitism in native villages of the Tembé tribe, the Brazilian eastern Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, R dos A; Xavier, F B; Nascimento, J R; de Menezes, R C

    1999-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitism in the Tembé settlements, parasitological examination was performed in December 1996 in the entire population (93 Indians). Hookworms were found in 29.0%, A. lumbricoides in 34.4%, E. histolytica in 12.9%, and G. lamblia in 4.3% of the individuals. The Turé-Mariquita settlement had the highest prevalence of hookworms and A. lumbricoides, while Acará-Mirim had the highest prevalence of E. histolytica and G. lamblia. No differences in mean age were found between Indians with parasites and Indians without parasites. The association between intestinal parasites and sex was nonsignificant, except for the prevalence of hookworms, which was very high in males (38.6%) compared to females (20.4%). The study showed a high prevalence of some intestinal parasites in the Tembé settlements, indicating that primary and secondary health measures should taken immediately for the prevention of intestinal parasitoses.

  14. Parasitismo intestinal y malnutrición en niños residentes en una zona vulnerable de la ciudad de Santa Marta, Colombia.

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    Sonja Liliana Lozano Socarras

    2013-10-01

    vital organs like liver, lung, lymphatic ganglia and brain, causing injuries in these. The propose of this study was to establish the intestinal parasitic infection and malnutrition frequency in a population of 392 children with ages between 3 and 5 years old, living at risk zone from Santa Marta city. For evaluating the nutritional status of children, were measured the anthropometric indices as weight for age (WA and height for age (HA. The intestinal parasites frequency was of the 55.1% (216/392, the parasites with potential pathogenicity were Entamoeba histolytica (19.9%, Giardia duodenalis (12.7%, Blastocystis hominis (11.7%, and Ascaris lumbricoides (10.7%. The poliparasitism was present in 17.3% of the population (65/392. The acute malnutrition was observed in 41.8% and the chronicle in the 30.1% of the children. A statistically significant association between the general parasitism and the WA indices (p= 0.023 was found, however no significant association between the parasitic infection and HA indices was observed (p= 0.11. The present result demonstrates that the intestinal parasitic infection is high in the vulnerable children population from Santa Marta city, nevertheless is not possible to assure that a relation causes to effect exists between the parasitism and the nutritional deficit.Keywords: Intestinal parasites; frequency; anthropometric indices; malnutrition.

  15. Detection of intestinal parasites on field-grown strawberries in the Federal District of Brazil

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    Sandra Regina Morais da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluated the presence of pathogenic human parasites on field-grown strawberries in the Federal District of Brazil. Methods A total of 48 samples of strawberries and 48 soil samples from 16 properties were analyzed. Results Contaminated strawberries were detected in 56% of the properties. Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides or Ascaris suum, Balantidium coli, Endolimax nana, and Entamoeba spp. were detected. Soil was contaminated with Entamoeba spp., Entamoeba coli, Strongyloides spp., Ancylostomatidae, and Hymenolepis nana. Conclusions Producers should be instructed on the safe handling of strawberries in order to reduce the incidence of strawberries that are contaminated with enteroparasites.

  16. Parasitas intestinais em centros de educação infantil municipal de Lages, SC, Brasil Intestinal parasites in nursey schools of Lages, southern Brazil

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    Rosiléia Marinho de Quadros

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Infecção por enteroparasitas foi avaliada em 200 crianças em idade escolar, residentes em Lages. A prevalência geral entre helmintos e protozoários foi de 70,5% com 61,4% no sexo masculino e 74,5% no feminino. Os parasitos mais prevalentes foram Ascaris lumbricoides (35%, Giardia lamblia (14% e Trichuris trichiura (13%.Two hundred chinldren from nursery schools in Lages, southern Brazil, were associated as to parasitic ibfections. The overall prevalence of helminths and protozoa was 70.5%, affecting 61.4% of male and 74.5% of female children. The most prevalent parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides (35%, Giardia lambia (14% e Trichuris trichiura (13%.

  17. The distribution of intestinal helminth infections in a rural village in Guatemala

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    Timothy J. C. Anderson

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal egg count scores were used to investigate the distribution and abundance of intestinal helminths in the population of a rural village. Prevalences of the major helminths were 41% with Ascaris lumbricoides 60% with Trichuris trichiura and 50% with Necator americanus. All three parasites showed a highly aggregated distribution among hosts. Age/prevalence and age/intensity profiles were typical for both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura with the highest worm burdens in the 50-10 year old children. For hookworm both prevalence and intensity curves were convex in shape with maximum infection levels in the 30-40 year old age class. Infected females had higher burdens of T. trichiura than infected males in all age classes of the population; there were no other effects of host gender. Analysis of associations between parasites within hosts revealed strong correlations between A. lumbricoides and T. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Individuals with heavy infections of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura showed highly significant aggregation within households. Associations between a variety of household features and heavy infections with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura are described.

  18. Sewage water treatment by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamma, M.; Al-Adawi, M.A.; Othman, I.

    1999-06-01

    Irradiation of the outlet wastewater from Adra Plant shows that radiation sensitivity for the total count of the microorganism, fungi, and pathogenic microorganism were 0.328, 0.327, 0.305 kGy respectively at 3.4 kGy/h. No Ascaris Lumbricoides eggs were found. These results show that radiation technology in wastewater treatment at Adra Plant for reuse in irrigation safely from microbial point of view can be applied. (author)

  19. Hubungan Higiene Perorangan Dengan Infeksi Telur Soil Transmitte Helminths (Sth) Pada Siswa-siswi Sdn Rowosari 01 Kecamatan Tembalang Kota Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Widiyanto, Didik; Setyowatiningsih, Lilik

    2016-01-01

    Research objective was to determine the relation of individual hygiene with STH eggs infections among students at SDN 01 Rowosari District Tembalang Semarang. Method:. Types of research including an explanatory descriptive research with Cross sectional approach. Analysts data using Chi-Square on α=0.05 Result: 59.80% personal hygiene criteria are poorly, students infected with STHworm eggs 4.9% consists of Ascaris Lumbricoides and hookworm. There is no significant relation between individual ...

  20. Correlation between malaria incidence and prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths in Colombia: an ecologic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Carlos Andrés; Fernández, Julián Alfredo; Cucunubá, Zulma Milena; Reyes, Patricia; López, Myriam Consuelo; Duque, Sofía

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested an association between the soil-transmitted helminth infections and malaria incidence. However, published evidence is still insufficient and diverging. Since 1977, new ecologic studies have not been carried out to explore this association. Ecologic studies could explore this correlation on a population level, assessing its potential importance on public health. The aim of this evaluation is to explore the association between soil-transmitted helminths prevalence and malaria incidence, at an ecologic level in Colombia. Using data from the National Health Survey, which was carried out in 1980 in Colombia, we calculated Spearman correlation coefficients between the prevalence of: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm, with the 1980 malaria incidence data of the same year provided from the Colombian Malaria National Eradication Service. A robust regression analysis with least trimmed squares was performed. Falciparum malaria incidence and Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence had a low correlation (R²= 0.086) but this correlation was stronger into the clusters of towns with prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides infection above 30% were only included (R²= 0.916). This work showed an ecologic correlation in Colombia between malaria incidence and soil-transmitted helminths prevalence. This could suggest that either there is an association between these two groups of parasites, or could be explained by the presence of common structural determinants for both diseases.

  1. Monitoreo de parásitos en efluentes domiciliarios

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    Semenas Liliana

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la presencia de parásitos en efluentes semisólidos y líquidos en distintas localidades de la Patagonia argentina considerando que ésta es una de las restricciones para su uso. MÉTODOS: Las muestras tomadas en 4 Plantas de Tratamiento de Efluentes Domiciliarios se analizaron siguiendo las normativas de Environmental Protection Agency, Organización Mundial de la Salud, Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater y de algunas clasificaciones. RESULTADOS: Solamente 2 de las 6 muestras de semisólidos analizadas tenían huevos de Ascaris lumbricoides no viables. De las 10 muestras líquidas, solamente 2 no tenían huevos mientras las restantes tenían patógenos de las categorías I (Giardia sp., Hymenolepis diminuta y Enterobius vermicularis y III (Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale y Trichuris trichiura. CONCLUSIONES: Todas las muestras de semisólidos analizadas fueron aptas para su uso como fertilizantes porque no se registró en ninguna de ellas la presencia de huevos viables de Ascaris lumbricoides y solamente 6 de las muestras líquidas fueron aptas para riego por carecer de huevos o por ser su concentración igual o inferior a 1 huevo por litro.

  2. Intestinal parasitic infections among prison inmates and tobacco farm workers in Shewa Robit, north-central Ethiopia.

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    Hassen Mamo

    most frequently encountered species in both study sites accounting for 48.8 and 51.7 percent of the positives in prison and tobacco farm population respectively. Other intestinal parasites detected, with slight variation in prevalence in the two study areas, were hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides stercolaris, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia sp. 35.5 and 33.0 percent of the total positive cases were mixed infections in Shewa Robit prison and tobacco farm, respectively.The results show that IPIs are common health problems in the studied populations.

  3. Enteric parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients before and after the highly active antiretroviral therapy

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    Tatiana Paschoalette Rodrigues Bachur

    Full Text Available Enteroparasites are related to gastrointestinal alterations among patients with HIV/AIDS, some causing severe manifestations in the period before the institution of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. The prevalence of enteroparasitoses in patients with HIV/AIDS seen at two hospitals in Ceará , Brazil, was compared in the pre-HAART (Group 1; n = 482 and HAART (Group 2; n = 100 eras. Fecal parasitologic examinations (FPE were performed using the direct, Lutz, Baermann-Moraes and modified Ziehl-Neelsen methods. The following parasites were detected in Groups 1 and 2, respectively: Strongyloides stercoralis - 30.1% and 11% (p<0.0001, Ascaris lumbricoides - 15.6% and 2% (p<0.0001, hookworms - 13.7% and 2% (p<0.0001, Trichuris trichiura - 13.1% and 1% (p<0.0001, Hymenolepis nana - 0 and 1% (p = 0.1718, Giardia duodenalis - 7.9% and 1% (p = 0.0076, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar - 3.3% and 1% (p = 0.3301, Isospora belli - 4.8% and 1% (p = 0.0993, Cryptosporidium sp. - 8.1% and 0 (p = 0.0007, and non-pathogenic protozoans as well. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence of enteroparasites between the eras (63.9% to 24%; p<0.0001. In the HAART era, the following observations were made: greater frequency of enteroparasites in patients without antiretroviral therapy (p = 0.0575, as in those with AIDS (p = 0.08, and diarrhea (36% of the patients; lack of association with positive FPE (p = 0.626; and non-detection of Cryptosporidium sp. Strongyloides stercoralis showed an elevated prevalence in the two eras and was more frequent in men (32.41% than women (19.04% of Group 1 (p = 0.018, a finding suggesting the transmission of the helminth through sodomy. The advent of the HAART modified the profile of opportunistic infections, including parasites, probably due to the reconstitution of cellular immunity and the direct action of HAART on the parasites.

  4. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia

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    Wegayehu Teklu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological information on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in different regions is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control strategies. Therefore, this present study was conducted to assess the magnitude and pattern of intestinal parasitism in highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia. Methods Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2010 and July 2011 at Lante, Kolla Shelle, Dorze and Geressie kebeles of Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia. The study sites and study participants were selected using multistage sampling method. Data were gathered through house-to-house survey. A total of 858 stool specimens were collected and processed using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques for the presence of parasite. Results Out of the total examined subjects, 342(39.9% were found positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was the highest 98(11.4%, followed by Giardia lamblia 91(10.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides 67(7.8%, Strongyloides stercoralis 51(5.9%, hookworm 42(4.9%, Trichuris trichiura 24(2.8%, Taenia species 18(2.1%, Hymenolepis nana 7(0.6% and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.12%. No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among lowland (37.9% and highland dwellers (42.3% (P = 0.185. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was not significantly different among the study sites but it was relatively higher in Geressie (42.8% than other kebeles. Sex was not associated with parasitic infections (P = 0.481. No statistically significant difference of infection was observed among the age groups (P = 0.228 but it was higher in reproductive age group. Conclusions The high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the lowland and highland dwellers in Gamo area indicated that parasitic infections are important public

  5. Prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers of Southern Ethiopia: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, Mohammedaman; Alemu, Getaneh

    2016-02-01

    Globally about one third of the total population is estimated to be infected with intestinal parasites, of which, the majority are people living in tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world. Cases of intestinal parasitosis are also highly abundant in Ethiopia and hence the aim of present study was to assess prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers working in Arba Minch University students' cafeteria, South Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers working in Arba Minch University from April to June, 2015. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for collecting data about socio-demographic characteristics and possible risk factors. Stool specimens were collected and examined microscopically for the presence of eggs, cysts and trophozoites of intestinal parasites. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS version 20 software. A total of 376 food handlers were enrolled in the study of which thirty one of them were not willing to participate for a stool examination. The majority of study participants were females 273 (72.6 %). About 123 (36 %) of food handlers were found to be positive for different intestinal parasites with the most abundant parasite of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 48 (14 %) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides 32 (9.27 %). Finger nail status (AOR: 2.2, 95 % CI: 1.29-3.72), hand washing practice after toilet (AOR: 1.71, 95 % CI: 1.06-2.77), hand washing practice before food handling (AOR: 1.69, 95 % CI: 1.04-2.75), preparing food when suffering from diseases (AOR: 3.08, 95 % CI: 1.17-8.13), and using common knife for cutting raw flesh food and other food (AOR: 1.72, 95 % CI: 1.01-2.92) were independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infection among the food handlers. This study revealed a high prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers. Since most of the intestinal parasites are transmitted by the feco-oral route, food handlers could be an important source of

  6. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegayehu, Teklu; Tsalla, Tsegaye; Seifu, Belete; Teklu, Takele

    2013-02-18

    Epidemiological information on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in different regions is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control strategies. Therefore, this present study was conducted to assess the magnitude and pattern of intestinal parasitism in highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia. Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2010 and July 2011 at Lante, Kolla Shelle, Dorze and Geressie kebeles of Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia. The study sites and study participants were selected using multistage sampling method. Data were gathered through house-to-house survey. A total of 858 stool specimens were collected and processed using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques for the presence of parasite. Out of the total examined subjects, 342(39.9%) were found positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was the highest 98(11.4%), followed by Giardia lamblia 91(10.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides 67(7.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis 51(5.9%), hookworm 42(4.9%), Trichuris trichiura 24(2.8%), Taenia species 18(2.1%), Hymenolepis nana 7(0.6%) and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.12%). No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among lowland (37.9%) and highland dwellers (42.3%) (P = 0.185). The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was not significantly different among the study sites but it was relatively higher in Geressie (42.8%) than other kebeles. Sex was not associated with parasitic infections (P = 0.481). No statistically significant difference of infection was observed among the age groups (P = 0.228) but it was higher in reproductive age group. The high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the lowland and highland dwellers in Gamo area indicated that parasitic infections are important public health problems. Thus, infection control measures and the

  7. Intestinal parasitic infections among prison inmates and tobacco farm workers in Shewa Robit, north-central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Hassen

    2014-01-01

    frequently encountered species in both study sites accounting for 48.8 and 51.7 percent of the positives in prison and tobacco farm population respectively. Other intestinal parasites detected, with slight variation in prevalence in the two study areas, were hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides stercolaris, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia sp. 35.5 and 33.0 percent of the total positive cases were mixed infections in Shewa Robit prison and tobacco farm, respectively. The results show that IPIs are common health problems in the studied populations.

  8. Intestinal parasitosis and shigellosis among diarrheal patients in Gondar teaching hospital, northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huruy Kahsay

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrheal diseases are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in developing world. Understanding the etiologic agents of diarrheal diseases and their association with socio-demographic characteristics of patients would help to design better preventive measures. Thus, this study was aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and enteropathogenic bacteria in diarrheic patients. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 384 consecutive diarrheal patients who visited Gondar teaching hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia from October 2006 to March 2007 was conducted. Stool specimens were collected and examined for intestinal parasites and enteropathogenic bacteria following standard parasitological and microbiological procedures. Results Intestinal parasites were diagnosed in 36.5% of the patients. The most frequently encountered protozoan parasite was Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (7.3% followed by Giardia lamblia (5.0%, Cryptosporidium parvum (1.8% and Isospora belli (1.3%. The dominant helminthic parasite identified was Ascaris lumbricoides (5.5% followed by Strongyloides stercoralis and Schistosoma mansoni (3.1% each, hookworm infection (1.8%, and Hymenolepis species (1.3%. Multiple infections of intestinal parasites were also observed in 6.3% of the patients. Among the enteropathogenic bacteria Shigella and Salmonella species were isolated from 15.6% and 1.6%, respectively, of the patients. Escherichia coli O57:H7 was not found in any of the stool samples tested. Eighty eight percent and 83.3% of the Shigella and Salmonella isolates were resistant to one or more commonly used antibiotics, respectively. Intestinal parasitosis was higher in patients who live in rural area, in patients who were washing their hands after visiting toilet either irregularly with soap and without soap or not at all, in patients who used well and spring water for household consumption, and in patients who had nausea (P P Conclusions The high

  9. Prevalence of endoparasitic infection in children and its relation with cholera prevention efforts in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Charles T; Garcia, Benito Borrego; Logan, Michael H; New, John C; Patton, Sharon

    2003-07-01

    To investigate whether increased knowledge and use of public health measures promoted for cholera prevention is reflected in lower prevalence of parasitic infection in households in a community in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, that is close to the border with the United States of America. Between 1994 and 1997, fecal samples from 438 children were collected through convenience sampling and then examined for helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts as biologic indicators of household compliance with recommended cholera prevention measures. The suggested measures were to wash hands before meals and after defecation, to drink purified water, to wash fruits and vegetables, and to eat well-cooked food. In addition, information on the knowledge of and the use of cholera preventive measures was collected by interviews with adult informants in 252 households (186 of those households also provided a fecal sample for analysis). Parasitic infections occurred in 131 of the 438 children (30%), who resided in 79 of the 186 households (42%) that provided fecal samples. Giardia lamblia accounted for 12.5% of all infections. Infections with Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma/Necator, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba bütschlii were also noted. Infected children were older and more often had an infected sibling. Households with three or more children were also more likely to have an infected child. The primary caregivers in the households where at least one child had a parasitic infection were distinguished by their inability to list at least three cholera prevention measures from memory. The 42% household prevalence of parasitic infection was relatively high and indicates that some residents of this community may not have fully embraced the public health education efforts promoted for prevention of cholera. The occurrence of

  10. Prevalence of endoparasitic infection in children and its relation with cholera prevention efforts in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T. Faulkner

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether increased knowledge and use of public health measures promoted for cholera prevention is reflected in lower prevalence of parasitic infection in households in a community in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, that is close to the border with the United States of America. METHODS: Between 1994 and 1997, fecal samples from 438 children were collected through convenience sampling and then examined for helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts as biologic indicators of household compliance with recommended cholera prevention measures. The suggested measures were to wash hands before meals and after defecation, to drink purified water, to wash fruits and vegetables, and to eat well-cooked food. In addition, information on the knowledge of and the use of cholera preventive measures was collected by interviews with adult informants in 252 households (186 of those households also provided a fecal sample for analysis. RESULTS: Parasitic infections occurred in 131 of the 438 children (30%, who resided in 79 of the 186 households (42% that provided fecal samples. Giardia lamblia accounted for 12.5% of all infections. Infections with Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma/Necator, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba bütschlii were also noted. Infected children were older and more often had an infected sibling. Households with three or more children were also more likely to have an infected child. The primary caregivers in the households where at least one child had a parasitic infection were distinguished by their inability to list at least three cholera prevention measures from memory. CONCLUSIONS: The 42% household prevalence of parasitic infection was relatively high and indicates that some residents of this community may not have fully embraced the public health education efforts

  11. Factors Associated with High Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoan Infections among Patients in Sana'a City, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyousefi, Naelah A.; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Mahmud, Rohela; Lim, Yvonne A. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Intestinal protozoan diseases in Yemen are a significant health problem with prevalence ranging from 18% to 27%. The present study is a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the factors associated with the high prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among patients seeking health care in Sana'a City, the capital of Yemen. Methodology/Principal Findings Stool samples were collected from 503 patients aged between 1 and 80 years old; 219 were males and 284 females. Biodata were collected via pretested standard questionnaire. Faecal samples were processed and examined for (oo)cysts or ova using a wet mount preparation after formal-ether concentration technique. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected using the Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. The overall prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections was 30.9%. Infection rates of Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Cryptosporidium were 17.7%, 17.1% and 1%, respectively. Other parasites detected included Ascaris lumbricoides (2.4%), Schistosoma mansoni (0.3%), Hymenolepis nana (1.4%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%). Multivariate analysis using forward stepwise logistic regression based on intestinal protozoan infections showed that contact with animals (OR = 1.748, 95% CI = 1.168–2.617) and taking bath less than twice a week (OR = 1.820, 95% CI = 1.192–2.779) were significant risk factors of protozoan infections. Conclusions/Significance This present study indicated that intestinal protozoan infections are still a public health problem in Yemen, with Giardia and Entamoeba infections being most common. Statistical analysis indicated that low personal hygiene and contact with animals were important predictors for intestinal protozoan infections. As highlighted in this study, in order to effectively reduce these infections, a multi-sectoral effort is needed. Preventive measures should include good hygienic practices, good animal husbandry practices, heightened

  12. Enteroparasitoses, Anemia e Estado Nutricional em Grávidas Atendidas em Serviço Público de Saúde Intestinal Parasites, Anemia and Nutritional Status in Pregnant Women in a Public Health Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariani Impieri de Souza

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: estimar a freqüência de enteroparasitoses em gestantes de pré-natal de baixo risco e sua associação com anemia, estado nutricional, escolaridade e saneamento (fossa sanitária no domicílio. Métodos: a partir de amostra de 316 gestantes que iniciaram o pré-natal de baixo risco do ambulatório de pré-natal do Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco (IMIP no período de maio de 2000 a julho de 2001, determinaram-se, por meio de um desenho de corte transversal, as freqüências de enteroparasitoses (método Hoffman, em única amostra e de anemia (Hb Purpose: to determine the frequency of enteroparasitoses in a group of pregnant women undergoing low-risk antenatal care and their association with anemia, maternal nutritional status, schooling and the existence of a bathroom in the home. Methods: to a sample of pregnant women who had begun low-risk antenatal care at IMIP's Maternal Health Care Center between May 2000 and July 2001, a cross-sectional design was applied to determine the frequencies of enteroparasitoses (Hoffman method, in a single sample and anemia (Hb <11.0 g/dL, nutritional status (through BMI standardized for stage of pregnancy and social indicators (schooling and the existence of a bathroom in the home. Results: in a sample of 316 pregnant women, a rate of 37.4% enteroparasitosis was detected, of which 31.6% was infestation by a single parasite. The most commonly found parasite species were Entamoeba histolytica (13.3% and Ascaris lumbricoides (12.0%. Anemia was detected in 55.4% of the pregnant women, malnutrition in 25.0% and overweight or obesity in 24.1%. There was a statistically significant association between enteroparasitosis and schooling. However, no association of, enteroparasitosis, anemia, maternal nutritional status with the existence of a bathroom in the home was noted. Conclusions: The prevalence of enteroparasitoses and anemia is high, albeit without any association of the two conditions, while

  13. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among communities living in different habitats and its comparison with one hundred and one studies conducted over the past 42 years (1970 to 2013) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinniah, B; Hassan A, K R; Sabaridah, I; Soe, M M; Ibrahim, Z; Ali, O

    2014-06-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common diseases affecting mankind causing major public health problems to billions of people living in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in various communities residing in different habitats in Malaysia and compare the findings with 101 studies conducted over the past 42 years (1970-2013). A cross-sectional study design was conducted with the aid of a questionnaire to collect relevant information about the study population. Faecal samples were examined using the direct smear and formal ether sedimentation techniques. A total of 342 children were examined amongst whom 24.6% were positive for intestinal parasitic infections. Results showed that 32.3% of rural children, 20.6% of urban squatters and 5.4% of children from flats were positive for one or more parasites. The most common parasite encountered was Trichuris trichiura (20.2%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%) and hookworm (6.7%). No case of hookworm was reported in urban children whereas 12.2% of rural children were positive. The most common protozoan parasite detected was Entamoeba coli (3.2%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (1.8%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.8%) and Blastocystis hominis (1.2%). Nearly one-fifth (18.4%) of the children had single infection followed by double (12.0%) and triple infections (1.2%). Orang Asli (indigenous) children (44.3%) had the highest infection rate followed by Indians (20.2%), Malays (14.0%) and Chinese (11.9%). Twenty-eight studies carried out on plantation communities with regards to intestinal parasitic infections in Malaysia from 1970 to 2013 showed a steady decline in the prevalence rate ranging from 95.0% in the seventies to 37.0 % in 2012. Intestinal parasitic infections were more common in Orang Asli communities with prevalence ranging from over 90% in the seventies and fluctuating below 70% in most studies between 2000 to 2013 except for two

  14. An epidemiological study of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis among pupils in the peri-urban zone of Kumba town, Meme Division, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefie-Arrey Charles

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paragonimiasis have previously been reported in two zones of the Southwest Province of Cameroon including the Kupe mountain and Mundani foci. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and epidemiology of paragonimiasis in the peri-urban zone of Kumba, Meme Division, located about 50 km away from the Kupe mountain focus. Methods Pupils of several government primary schools in 5 villages around Kumba underwent both parasitologic and clinical investigations in search of signs and symptoms of paragonimiasis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was also searched for in the differential diagnosis.Freshwater crabs from neighbouring streams in the five villages were dissected in search of paragonimus metacercariae. Results Out of a total of 1482 pupils examined in all five villages, 309 individuals (147 males and 162 females were recruited for this study based on the presence of one or more signs or symptoms of paragonimiasis. Eggs of Paragonimus africanus were found in stools and/or sputum of pupils from all five villages, giving an overall paragonimus prevalence of 2.56%. There was no significant difference in the disease prevalence between the villages (X2 = 8.36, P = 0.08. The prevalence of Paragonimus africanus eggs amongst pupils with symptoms of paragonimiasis was 12.3% (38 of 309. Males were infected more than females (17.0% versus 8.0%, but the difference was not significant (X2 = 5.76, P = 0.16. All the 38 paragonimus egg positive subjects presented with cough, 23 (60.53% complained of chest pain while 16 (42.11% had haemoptysis. Stool examinations also detected some intestinal parasites including Ascaris lumbricoides (29.45%, Trichuris trichiura (6.47%, Necator americanus (2.27%, Strongyloides stercoralis (1.62%, Enterobius vermicularis (0.65%, and Entamoeba histolytica (4.53%. No case of M. tuberculosis was noted. Out of a total of 85 dissected crabs (Sudanonautes africanus, 6.02 % were infected with paragonimus

  15. Aspectos epidemiológicos, sociais e sanitários de uma área no Rio Negro, estado do Amazonas, com especial referência às parasitoses intestinais e à infecção chagásica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coura José R.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo seccional foi realizado na população residente em um de cada quatro domicílios habitados na cidade de Barcelos (no norte do Estado do Amazonas, na margem direita do Rio Negro, a 490km de Manaus por via fluvial, visando a avaliar as condições sociais, sanitárias e os indicadores específicos para as parasitoses intestinais e para infecção chagásica. No inquérito, foram aplicados dois questionários, um domiciliar para avaliar os aspectos sociais e sanitários, e outro individual, para a avaliação das condições sociais e epidemiológicas da população. Uma amostra por conglomerado familiar de 171 domicílios foi estudada. De cada um dos 658 habitantes, foi requisitada uma amostra de fezes para exame parasitológico pelas técnicas de sedimentação de Lutz e de Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho, modificado por Willcox & Coura (1989, 1991 e coletada uma amostra de sangue em papel de filtro para a reação de imunofluorescência para anticorpos anti-T. cruzi pelo método de Fife & Muschel modificado por Camargo (1966 e Souza & Camargo (1966 e Petana & Willcox (1975. O exame de fezes mostrou 69,4% das amostras com um ou mais parasitos. O Ascaris lumbricoides foi predominante, com 51% de positividade, e o Entamoeba histolytica, embora com exame não específico, foi positivo em 19,7%. Surpreendentemente, 20,1% das 658 amostras de sangue foram reativas para anticorpos anti-T. cruzi na diluição de 1:20, e 13,7%, na diluição de 1:40. Houve forte correlação entre esses resultados e o nível de contato da população humana com triatomíneos silvestres, conhecidos localmente como piolho-da-piaçava, e conseguimos isolar por xenodiagnóstico uma cepa de T. cruzi de um paciente (nº 209-1 com sorologia positiva para infecção chagásica, natural da área e que havia trabalhado na agricultura, transportando piaçava, e que conhecia muito bem o piolho-da-piaçava.

  16. Nematode cholinergic pharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segerberg, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nematode acetylcholine (ACh) receptors were characterized using both biochemical and electrophysiological techniques, including: (1) receptor binding studies in crude homogenates of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides with the high-affinity probe [ 3 H]N-methylscopolamine ([ 3 H]NMS) which binds to muscarinic receptors in many vertebrate and invertebrate tissues (2) measurement of depolarization and contraction induced by a variety of cholinergic agents, including N-methylscopolamine (NMS), in an innervated dorsal muscle strip preparation of Ascaris; (3) examination of the antagonistic actions of d-tubocurarine (dTC) and NMS at dorsal neuromuscular junction; (4) measurement of input resistance changes in Ascaris commissural motorneurons induced by ACh, dTC, NMS, pilocarpine and other cholinergic drugs

  17. ABSCESO CEREBRAL MULTICÉNTRICO CAUSADO POR ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA

    OpenAIRE

    CASTILLO DE LA CRUZ,MANUEL; JOSÉ LUIS,GALLEGOS BARREDO; MENDIZÁBAL GUERRA,RAFAEL; FÉLIX,IGNACIO; RIVAS,ANGÉLICA

    2004-01-01

    La infección amibiana del sistema nervioso central casi siempre es precedido de un absceso pulmonar o hepático. El absceso cerebral amibiano es raro y sólo se han publicado alrededor de 100 casos en el mundo. La mayoría de los reportes son de la era de la tomografía y hay muy pocos casos con imágenes de resonancia magnética, en ambos estudios, no puede diferenciarse de otro tipo de absceso. El diagnóstico es histopatológico y el tratamiento de elección es el metronidazol. Se reporta el caso d...

  18. Amoebapore is an important virulence factor of Entamoeba histolytica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... ap-a genes. The silenced transfectant was not virulent at all. These results demonstrate that important factors need to be expressed at the correct cellular location and that the parasite has additional internal control mechanisms such as transcriptional gene silencing which can prevent excess amounts of gene expression.

  19. Amoebapore is an important virulence factor of Entamoeba histolytica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    significant amount was released into the surrounding media. Transfection of the .... (I-C) Western blot of the above mentioned cultures reacted with anti AP-A antibodies. (II-A) .... This mislocalization seems to influence the trophozoite. Figure 7.

  20. Strategies of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica to evade ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    the innate immune responses of intestinal epithelial cells ... metabolically active eukaryotic cells and display anti- bacterial activity ..... and TLR4 in inflammatory bowel disease; Infect. Immun. .... which contains a beta2 integrin motif; Mol. Biol.

  1. Strategies of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica to evade ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    and the subsequent migration of the amoeba to the liver where abscesses are formed (Espinosa-Cantellano and. Martinez-Paloma 2000; Stanley 2001). ..... activity of bacterial peroxiredoxins; Nature (London) 407. 211–215. Cario E and Podolsky D K 2000 Differential alteration in intes- tinal epithelial cell expression of ...

  2. Intestinal parasitic infections and its association with undernutrition and CD4 T cell levels among HIV/AIDS patients on HAART in Butajira, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedle, Dereje; Kumera, Gemechu; Eshete, Tewodros; Ketema, Kasahun; Adugna, Haweni; Feyera, Fetuma

    2017-05-15

    Intestinal parasitic infections and HIV/AIDS have been the major public health problems and remain a vital cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Both problems are linked in a vicious cycle. The magnitude of intestinal parasites was prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS even in the HAART era. However, the pertinent risk factors associated with intestinal parasites among HIV/AIDS patients were not well investigated in Ethiopia particularly at Butajira town. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors among HIV/AIDS patients on HAART in Butajira, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and a total of 323 study subjects was involved in the study. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select each participant during data collection. Stool specimen was collected and processed using direct wet mount, formol-ether concentration technique, and modified Ziehl-Neelson staining techniques to identify both common and opportunistic intestinal parasites. Structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, environmental, clinical, and nutritional data. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of various explanatory factors on intestinal parasites. P value ≤0.05 at 95% CI was considered statistically significant. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 35.9% (95% CI 31.0-40.9%). Protozoa's (Entanmoeba histolytica/dispar trophozoite, E. histolytica/dispar cyst, Giardia lamblia trophozoite, and G. lamblia cyst), helminths (Tanea species, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloid stercoralis, Hookworm species and H. nana), and opportunistic intestinal parasites (Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli) were observed in 57 (17.1%), 46 (14.4%), and 28 (8.7%) study participants respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of animals (AOR 6. 14; 95% CI 3.13, 12

  3. Prevalence of endoparasitic infection in children and its relation with cholera prevention efforts in Mexico Prevalencia de la infestación endoparasitaria en niños y su relación con los esfuerzos para la prevención del cólera en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T. Faulkner

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether increased knowledge and use of public health measures promoted for cholera prevention is reflected in lower prevalence of parasitic infection in households in a community in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, that is close to the border with the United States of America. METHODS: Between 1994 and 1997, fecal samples from 438 children were collected through convenience sampling and then examined for helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts as biologic indicators of household compliance with recommended cholera prevention measures. The suggested measures were to wash hands before meals and after defecation, to drink purified water, to wash fruits and vegetables, and to eat well-cooked food. In addition, information on the knowledge of and the use of cholera preventive measures was collected by interviews with adult informants in 252 households (186 of those households also provided a fecal sample for analysis. RESULTS: Parasitic infections occurred in 131 of the 438 children (30%, who resided in 79 of the 186 households (42% that provided fecal samples. Giardia lamblia accounted for 12.5% of all infections. Infections with Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma/Necator, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba bütschlii were also noted. Infected children were older and more often had an infected sibling. Households with three or more children were also more likely to have an infected child. The primary caregivers in the households where at least one child had a parasitic infection were distinguished by their inability to list at least three cholera prevention measures from memory. CONCLUSIONS: The 42% household prevalence of parasitic infection was relatively high and indicates that some residents of this community may not have fully embraced the public health education efforts

  4. PENGOBATAN INFEKSI CACING USUS YANG DITULARKAN DENGAN PERANTARAAN TANAH (SOIL TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS, DENGAN PYRANTEL PAMOATE, DI YOGYAKARTA

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    Noerhajati S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of pyrantel pamoate in controlling soil transmitted helminthic infection has been studied in a sample of population on low socio-economic level, consisting of workers of the Madukismo Suger Estate and their families. Pyrantel pamoate proved to be more effective to Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm than to Trichuris trichiura infection. The cure rates found were 90.2%, 57.5% and 3.7% for A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura respectively, while in the hookworm infection the drug was more effective to Ancylostomiasis duodenale than to Necator americanus. The result of the study showed, that 6 months after treatment was still found a reduction of the prevalence of A. lumbricoides infection to 27.2% (from 74.4% to 47.2% and a reduction of the egg count from 6352 to 3348 per gram of stool. After one year the prevalence rate and the intensity of Ascaris infection reached almost the same level as that before treatment. As regards the hookworm infection, it seemed that the treatment was still effective after a period of one year. Prior to the treatment the prevalence rate was 36.3% and the egg count was J37 per gram of stool, while one year after treatment they were still reduced to 23.97c and 39 respectively.

  5. Paleoparasitological remains revealed by seven historic contexts from "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium

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    Gino Chaves da Rocha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Human occupation for several centuries was recorded in the archaeological layers of "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium. Preventive archaeological excavations were carried out between 1996/1997 and seven historical strata were observed, from Gallo-Roman period up to Modern Times. Soil samples from cesspools, latrines, and structures-like were studied and revealed intestinal parasite eggs in the different archaeological contexts. Ascaris lumbricoides, A. suum, Trichuris trichiura, T. suis. Taenia sp., Fasciola hepatica, Diphyllobothrium sp., Capillaria sp. and Oxyuris equi eggs were found. Paleoparasitology confirmed the use of structures as latrines or cesspit as firstly supposed by the archaeologists. Medieval latrines were not only used for rejection of human excrements. The finding of Ascaris sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs may point to human's or wild swine's feces. Gallo-Roman people used to eat wild boar. Therefore, both A. suum and T. suis, or A. lumbricoides and T. trichuris, may be present, considering a swine carcass recovered into a cesspit. Careful sediment analysis may reveal its origin, although parasites of domestic animals can be found together with those of human's. Taenia sp. eggs identified in latrine samples indicate ingestion of uncooked beef with cysticercoid larvae. F. hepatica eggs suggest the ingestion of raw contaminated vegetables and Diphyllobothrium sp. eggs indicate contaminated fresh-water fish consumption. Ascaris sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs indicate fecal-oral infection by human and/or animal excrements.

  6. The impact of iron supplementation on reinfection with intestinal helminths and Schistosoma mansoni in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annette; Nawiri, J; Friis, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    immune function or to unfavourable host gut conditions caused by an increased oxidative stress. In each case, the lack of effect in children remains to be explained. In contrast, iron supplementation apparently was short-lived in favour of hookworm infection, an effect that needs further clarification......A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was carried out in 1994-96 among 231 children and 181 adults in order to determine the effects of iron on reinfection rates and intensities of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Schistosoma mansoni. Adults given 60 mg...... reinfection rates or intensities in children. Multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for baseline infection status confirmed the effect in adults of iron on A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and S. mansoni reinfection rates. The effect is suggested to be due to reduced risk behaviour, to improved...

  7. Soil-transmitted helminths in southern highland Rwanda: associated factors and effectiveness of school-based preventive chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudacher, Olga; Heimer, Jakob; Steiner, Florian; Kayonga, Yvette; Havugimana, Jean M; Ignatius, Ralf; Musemakweri, Andre; Ngabo, Fidele; Harms, Gundel; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2014-07-01

    Preventive chemotherapy of schoolchildren against soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) is widely implemented in Rwanda. However, data on its actual efficacy are lacking. We assessed prevalence, associated factors and manifestation of STH infection among schoolchildren in southern highland Rwanda as well as cure and reinfection rates. Six hundred and twenty-two children (rural, 301; urban, 321) were included preceding the administration of a single dose of 500 mg mebendazole. Before treatment, and after 2 and 15 weeks, STH infection was determined by Kato-Katz smears and by PCR assays for Ascaris lumbricoides. Clinical and anthropometric data, socio-economic status and factors potentially associated with STH infection were assessed. Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection was present in 38% of rural and in 13% of urban schoolchildren. Ascaris lumbricoides accounted for 96% of infections. Of these, one-third was detected by PCR exclusively. Factors associated with STH infection differed greatly between rural and urban children. Likewise, STH infection was associated with stunting and anaemia only among urban children. The cure rate after 2 weeks was 92%. Among eight non-cleared A. lumbricoides infections, seven were submicroscopic. Reinfection within 3 months occurred in 7%, but the rate was higher among rural children, and with initially present infection, particularly at comparatively high intensity. The rural-urban difference in factors associated with STH infection and in reinfection rates highlights the need for targeted interventions to reduce transmission. PCR assays may help in detecting low-level infections persisting after treatment. In southern Rwanda, mebendazole is highly effective against the STH infections predominated by A. lumbricoides. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Detecção de formas transmissíveis de enteroparasitas na água e nas hortaliças consumidas em comunidades escolares de Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brasil Detection enteroparasites transmissible forms in water and raw vegetables consumed in pre-schools from Sorocaba, São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria De Petrini da Silva Coelho

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a presença de formas transmissíveis de enteroparasitas em água e em hortaliças consumidas cruas, no período de agosto de 1997 a julho de 1998. A água foi submetida à filtração em membranas de celulose. A água da lavagem destas membranas foi submetido ao método de Faust. As hortaliças in natura e lavada foram lavadas e a água submetida ao método de sedimentação. Uma escola não apresentou contaminação; duas tiveram todos os materiais contaminados; quatro, 2 materiais contaminados e três, 1 material contaminado. A água apresentou índice de 0,7% de contaminação (Hymenolepis diminuta, Strongyloides stercoralis e ancilostomídeos; a hortaliça in natura, 3,9% (Strongyloides stercoralis, ancilostomídeos, Ascaris lumbricoides e Giardia lamblia e a lavada, 1,3% (Strongyloides stercoralis, Ascaris lumbricoides e Giardia lamblia. As hortaliças e a água são veiculadoras de enteroparasitas. A forma larval foi a mais presente. A hortaliça in naturaapresentou maior contaminação que a lavada. A lavagem não garantiu a ausência dessas formas em hortaliças.Water and raw vegetables consumed in ten nursery schools were evaluated for the presence of transmissible forms of enteroparasites. The water was submitted to filtration through membranes. The washed membrane water was submitted to the Faust method. The in natura and washed vegetables were washed and the water analyzed by the sedimentation method. Contamination was not detected in one school; in two schools, all the materials were contaminated; in four schools, two items were contaminated and in three, one material presented contamination. The water presented a contamination index of 0.7% contamination (Hymenolepis diminuta, Strongyloides stercoralis and Ancylostomatidae; the vegetables in natura, 3.9% (Strongyloides stercoralis, Ancylostomatidae, Ascaris lumbricoides and Giardia lamblia and the washed samples 1.3% (Strongyloides stercoralis, Ascaris lumbricoides and

  9. Gallbladder ascariasis in Kosovo – focus on ultrasound and conservative therapy: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Toro, Halim; Spahiu, Lidvana; Azemi, Mehmedali; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta; Avdiu, Muharrem; Spahiu-Konjusha, Shqipe; Jaha, Luan

    2018-01-01

    Background Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most common intestinal infections in developing countries, including Kosovo. In contrast to migration to the bile duct, migration of the worm to the gallbladder, due to the narrow and tortuous nature of the cystic duct, is rare. When it does occur, it incites acalculous cholecystitis. Case presentations This case series describes a 16-month-old Albanian girl, a 22-month-old Albanian girl, a 4-year-old Albanian girl, and a 10-year-old Albanian boy....

  10. Gastrodiscoides hominis infection in a Nigerian- case report | Dada ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Il s'agit d'un rapport d'un cas d'un enfant Nigerian âgé de sept ans qui s'est présenté atteints des traits de la sous alimentation et de l'anénue également atteint des gastrodiscoides hominis et ascaris lumbricoides. A la suite de la clairance des vers on a remarqué une enorme amélioration dans le statut de la santé de cet ...

  11. .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaques Muriel Oliveira Kunz

    2008-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides, the most frequent helminth, was prevalent in5.7% of individuals. Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana were the most prevalent protozoa in this study: 20.7% and 12.3% respectively. Although non pathogenic protozoa species, they indicate oral-fecal contamination. Infected individuals were sent to the Health Unit for treatment. Finally, a meeting with the school community was organized to discuss how to prevent intestinal parasite infections by improving basic hygiene habits and best practice with water, food and environment.

  12. Evolução da prevalência de parasitoses intestinais em escolares em Caxias do Sul, RS Evolution of the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among schoolchildren in Caxias do Sul, RS

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    Rita Maria Callegari Basso

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Relatos da prevalência das parasitoses intestinais no Brasil são pontuais e têm sido descritos em diferentes populações, tornando difícil um diagnóstico abrangente. Visando estudar a variação em 35 anos da prevalência de enteroparasitoses em escolares de Caxias do Sul, RS, foram avaliados 9.787 exames parasitológicos de fezes realizados por centrífugo-sedimentação. Resultaram positivas 5.655 (58% amostras sendo mais prevalente a infestação por Ascaris lumbricoides (47%, Trichuris trichiura (36%, Enterobius vermicularis (8% e os protozoários: Giardia lamblia (24% e Entamoeba coli (20%. A prevalência geral diminuiu de 89% para 37%, com um decréscimo médio de 1,4% ao ano. Houve redução na prevalência de Ascaris lumbricoides de 61 para 26% e de Trichuris trichiura de 38 a 18%. Para Giardia lamblia não houve alteração significativa. A prevalência de Entamoeba coli cresceu de 29 a 46%. Os decréscimos obtidos na prevalência dos helmintos são provavelmente devidos às melhorias da infra-estrutura e às ações formativas desenvolvidas nas escolas.Reports on the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in Brazil have been local in nature, with descriptions of different populations, which makes comprehensive diagnosis difficult. With the aim of studying the variation in the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among schoolchildren in Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, over a 35-year period, 9,787 parasitological stool tests that had been performed using centrifugal sedimentation were evaluated. There were positive results from 5,655 samples (58%, and the most prevalent infestations were of Ascaris lumbricoides (47%, Trichuris trichiura (36%, Enterobius vermicularis (8% and the protozoa Giardia lamblia (24% and Entamoeba coli (20%. The overall prevalence diminished from 89% to 37%, indicating an average decrease of 1.4% per year. Reductions in prevalence were observed for Ascaris lumbricoides (61 to 26% and Trichuris trichiura (38

  13. EFECTO DEL ALBENDAZOL Y LA VITAMINA A PERIÓDICOS SOBRE HELMINTOS INTESTINALES Y ANEMIA EN NIÑOS DEL URABÁ ANTIOQUEÑO (COLOMBIA)

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Correa-Botero, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Problema: En Colombia no hay informes sobre efectos en humanos del tratamiento periódico antihelmíntico-vitamina A. Objetivo: Evaluar efectos de albendazol/pamoato de pirantel-vitamina A trimestrales sobre Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus y sobre niveles séricos de retinol y hemoglobina, en niños del Urabá antioqueño. Metodología: Estudio clínico, aleatorio, con grupos paralelos, cerrado, intervenidos y evaluados cada 3-4 meses por 4 veces, seguidos 12 meses. Inte...

  14. Aspiration pneumonia of mineral oil: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malheiros, Noemia Reis; Costa Praxedes, Marcia da; Machado, Dianne Mello; Marchiori, Edson

    1995-01-01

    The authors report a case of 14 month-old boy with clinical features of dyspnea, cough and acrocyanosis following aspiration of mineral oil used in the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides. A chest roentgenogram was reported as extensive bilateral confluent consolidation that showed progressive improvement and the presence of a bilateral infiltration. The diagnosis of aspiration pneumonia of mineral oil was confirmed by lung biopsy. Radiological and anatomo pathological aspects are presented as well as a review of the medical literature about the case. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs

  15. PREDOMINANCE AND SOCIAL DETERMINANTS IN OCCURRENCE OF PARASITOSIS IN CENTEREASTERN REGION OF PARANÁ: A SOCIOECONOMIC ANALYZES OF THE PROBLEM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Regina Cenci Queiroz, Angela Patricia Motin, Cristiane Aparecida Verbaneck, Franciely Damaris de Cristo, Marcia de Souza Oliveira, Marcia Maria Veronese e Shirley Rak Mantovani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the high incidence of parasitic diseases in centereastern region of Paraná, an inquiry about its probable determinants was carried out. Particularly, the occurrence of Ascaris Lumbricoides was analyzed. Bibliographical research referring to this theme and data-collecting from centereastern region have been carried out, attempting to contextualize the epidemiological condition of this region. We can conclude that the high occurrence of ascariasis in analyzed region is linked to life conditions of general population, the deficiency in urban and sanitary planning, socioeconomic conditions and, essentially, the absence of investments in basic infrastructure. Thus, this study demonstrates the need of an urgent prophylactic action.

  16. Species-specific associations between soil-transmitted helminths and micronutrients in Vietnamese schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Nga, Tran Thuy; Winichagoon, Pattanee

    2016-01-01

    6-9 years were recruited from two primary schools. STH infections were determined in stool samples. Hemoglobin, ferritin, retinol, and zinc were measured in blood samples, as well as C-reactive protein to control for inflammation. Iodine excretion was measured in urine. Associations of single...... and multiple infections with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm with micronutrient status (hemoglobin, plasma ferritin, retinol, zinc, and urinary iodine) were estimated by multiple regression analysis. Ascaris infections showed a specific and intensity-dependent negative association...... with vitamin A. Trichuris and hookworm infections were associated with lower hemoglobin concentration, but not with plasma ferritin. Trichuris-infected children had zinc deficiency less often than uninfected children. In conclusion, our study shows species-specific associations between STH infections...

  17. Imaging of ascariasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, C. J.; Chaudhry, A.; Kumar, J.; Debnath, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most common parasitic infestations of the gastrointestinal tract worldwide. During the intestinal phase of the disease, the adult worms usually remain clinically silent, sometimes causing a variety of non-specific abdominal symptoms. When present in large numbers, the worms may get intertwined into a bolus, causing intestinal obstruction, volvulus or even perforation. Occasionally, the adult Ascaris worm may migrate into the Vater's ampulla and enter the bile duct, gall bladder or pancreatic duct, leading to a variety of complications such as biliary colic, gallstone formation, cholecystitis, pyogenic cholangitis, liver abscess and pancreatitis. Imaging plays a significant role in showing the presence of worms and possible complications in intestinal as well as hepatobiliary ascariasis. This pictorial essay aims to illustrate various imaging features of ascariasis and its associated complications

  18. Avaliação da contaminação experimental de areias de praias por enteroparasitas: pesquisa de ovos de Helmintos

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    Joaquim Pereira da Silva

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se avaliar métodos e soluções tradicionalmente utilizados na evidenciação de ovos de helmintos parásitos, de fezes ou do solo, em amostras de areia de praia experimentalmente contaminadas com ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Toxocara canis e Ancylostoma sp. Das soluções classicamente utilizadas, a de Dicromato de Sódio (d= 1,350 foi a que apresentou melhores resultados (índice de recuperação = 50% para ovos de Ascaris, em 24 horas de observação. As duas soluções propostas: Carbonato de Sódio (d= 1,040 e Detergente aniônico sintético - Sulfonato de Sódio (d= 1,040, apresentaram índices de recuperação surpreendentes, superiores a 80% para os ovos de Ascaris, em 24 horas de observação. Conclui-se que o detergente de uso doméstico, pelo seu baixo custo e facilidade de aquisição, pode ser usado na avaliação de rotina da contaminação de areias de praias pelos ovos de enteroparasitos, importantes indicadores de contaminação fecal, necessários a um adequado monitoramento sanitário do meio.An attempt was made to assess methods and solutions traditionally used for evidencing the presence of helminth's eggs in faeces or soil from beach sand samples experimentally infected with eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Toxocara canis and Ancylostomidae. Among classically used solutions. Sodium Dicromate (d= 1.350 was the one with better results (recovery rate =50% for Ascaris eggs in a 24 hours observation. The two suggested solutions - Sodium Carbonate (d= 1.040 and synthetic anionic detergent - Sodium Sulphonate (d- 1.040 - showed surprising recovery rates, higher than 80% for Ascaris eggs in a 24 hours observation. We concluded that, because of their low cost and great availability, domestic detergents can be used for the routine evaluations of beachs contamination with enteroparasites eggs, which are important indicators of faecal contamination and necessary for an adequate sanitary

  19. The influence of different helminth infection phenotypes on immune responses against HIV in co-infected adults in South Africa

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    Mabaso Musawenkosi LH

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The convergent distribution of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV and helminth infections has led to the suggestion that infection with helminths exacerbates the HIV epidemic in developing countries. In South Africa, it is estimated that 57% of the population lives in poverty and carries the highest burden of both HIV and helmith infections, however, the disease interactions are under-researched. Methods We employed both coproscopy and Ascaris lumbricoides-specific serum IgE to increase diagnostic sensitivity and to distinguish between different helminth infection phenotypes and their effects on immune responses in HIV co-infected individuals. Coproscopy was done by formol ether and Kato Katz methods. HIV positive and negative adults were stratified according to the presence or absence of A. lumbricoides and/or Trichuris trichuria eggs with or without elevated Ascaris IgE. Lymphocyte subsets were phenotyped by flow cytometry. Viral loads, serum total IgE and eosinophils were also analysed. Lymphocyte activation markers (CCR5, HLA-DR, CD25, CD38 and CD71 were determined. Non parametric statistics were used to describe differences in the variables between the subgroups. Results Helminth prevalence ranged between 40%-60%. Four distinct subgroups of were identified, and this included egg positive/high Ascaris-specific IgE (egg+IgEhi, egg positive/low IgE (egg+IgElo, egg negative/high IgE (egg-IgEhi and egg negative/low IgE (egg-IgElo individuals. The egg+IgEhi subgroup displayed lymphocytopenia, eosinophilia, (low CD4+ counts in HIV- group, high viral load (in HIV+ group, and an activated lymphocyte profile. High Ascaris IgE subgroups (egg+IgEhi and egg-IgEhi had eosinophilia, highest viral loads, and lower CD4+ counts in the HIV- group. Egg excretion and low IgE (egg+IgElo status demonstrated a modified Th2 immune profile with a relatively competent response to HIV. Conclusions People with both helminth egg excretion and high

  20. Detection of Entamoeba sp. and Helmith Eggs From Water Sources in Urban Slum Area in Bandung Municipality

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    Sri Yusnita Irda Sari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is a waterborne disease due to consumption of contaminated food/water. People in urban slum area have highest risk to get diarrhea because of poor hygiene and sanitation as well as limited access to uncontaminated water. This study aimed to identify conta­mination in watersources by Entamoeba Sp and helmint eggs (Anchylostoma duodenale, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichuria in one of urban slum area in Bandung municipality. Samples were taken from 123 watersources (74 tap water, 21 borehole, 22 dugwell and 6 spring water which was randomly selected in 10 RW along the Cikapundung river basin in Tamansari subdistrict during period of July-September 2015. Water samples were examined by PCR to detect Entamoeba Sp and microscopic identification for helminth eggs. 90 out of 123 samples were positive for Entamoeba Sp (59 tap water, 16 dugwell, 11 borehole and 4 spring water. Helminth egg of Ascaris lumbricoides was detected from unimproved common dugwell which had very high risk of contamination. Appropriate of water treatment prior to consumption is vastly important. Physical improvement to construct improved dugwell should be done to prevent contamination from helminth eggs in watersources.

  1. Intestinal parasites in children and soil from Turbaco, Colombia and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafañe-Ferrer, Lucy M; Pinilla-Pérez, Mavianis

    2016-02-01

    Objective To determine the frequency of intestinal parasites in children and soil from Turbaco- Colombia and associated risks factors. Methods Analytical study in which 390 children between 2 and 12 years old from 10 neighborhoods of Turbaco were included, whose legal representatives gave informed consent. Three serial samples of feces and 10 soil samples were processed. Risk factors were determined through an interview. Physicochemical and structural characteristics of soils were also evaluated. Results Parasites were found in 30.5 % of children. 162 parasites were observed; the most frequent protozoan was Endolimax nana (30.3 %) and in terms of helminthes, the most frequent was Ascaris lumbricoides (4.9 %). No statistical association between age or sex and intestinal parasites (p>0.05) or between risk factors and intestinal parasites (p>0.05) was found. Low frequencies of intestinal parasites were encountered in soil samples, being more common Entamoeba spp., Giardia spp., and Ascaris lumbricoides. Neighborhoods of Turbaco had sandy dry soil with low content of ions, low conductivity and low organic matter. Conclusion This study showed a low frequency of intestinal parasites in feces and soils. Despite this, pathogenic parasites were found which can affect the health of the population. Besides this, a high percentage of intestinal parasites that are transmitted through feces were detected indicating fecal contamination and low level of hygiene.

  2. Meningite eosinofílica e eosinofilia sanguínea de origem parasitária Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis due to parasite associated with blood eosinophilia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrenfried O. Wittig

    1973-06-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de um menino de 12 meses de idade que apresentava febre, rigidez de nuca e hepatoesplenomgalia e que, em dois exames sucessivos, apresentou eosinofilia sangüínea de 72% e 75% e liquórica de 75% e 78%, respectivamente. A biópsia hepática mostrou um granuloma eosinofílico. Embora a criança apresentasse grande infestação por Ascaris lumbricoides, os autores admitem que o quadro clínico apresentado possa ter sido determinado por larvas de Toxocara canis, apesar do parasita não ter sido encontrado.The case of a 12-month boy with hyperthermia, neck stifness, liver and spleen enlargement is reported. By two sucessive examinations there was found eosinophilia in the blood smear (72% and 75% and in the cerebrospinal fluid citology (75% and 78%. An eosinophilic granuloma was found by a liver biopsy. Although there was severe intestinal infestation by Ascaris lumbricoides, the authors believe that the clinical picture could be related to the Toxocara canis larvas (visceral larva migrans.

  3. Evaluating the efficacy of a centrifugation-flotation method for extracting Ascaris ova from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cranston, Imogen; Teoh, Penelope J.; baker, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    method to extract STH ova from soil makes it challenging to examine whether the use of latrines may or may not have an effect on environmental contamination with ova. The present study evaluated the recovery rate of a method developed to extract STH ova from soil. Methods: The adapted centrifugation...... with increasing soil moisture content, particle size and organic matter content. The association between recovery rate and organic matter content was statistically significant. Conclusions: The present study identified a low recovery rate for an adapted centrifugation-flotation method, although this was similar...

  4. Molecular evidence for sustained transmission of zoonotic Ascaris suum among zoo chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Betson, Martha

    Chimpanzees in the Copenhagen Zoo frequently excrete ascarid worms onto the cage floor inspite of a regular anthelmintic treatment program. Previously it had been shown that the source of the infections was of pig origin. However, it was unknown whether the recurrence of the infection was due...... analysis of the cox1 gene (‘barcoding') on expelled worms followed by cluster analysis revealed that the chimpanzees are infected with pig A. suum which now, in spite of control efforts, has stabilized into a permanent transmission cycle in the Zoo's chimpanzee troop...

  5. Functional study of a genetic marker allele associated with resistance to Ascaris suum in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Jørgensen, Claus B.

    2014-01-01

    trickle-infected with A. suum until necropsy at week 8 post first infection (PI), to test the hypothesis that pigs with the AA genotype would have higher levels of resistance than pigs of the AB genotype. We used different indicators of resistance (worm burden, faecal egg counts, number of liver white...

  6. Prevalence of Parasitic Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Yazan

    2016-01-01

    One of the main ways in transmitting parasites to humans is through consuming contaminated raw vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of parasitological contamination (helminthes eggs, Giardia and Entamoeba histolytica cysts) of salad vegetables sold at supermarkets and street vendors in Amman and Baqa’a – Jordan. A total of 133 samples of salad vegetables were collected and examined for the prevalence of parasites. It was found that 29% of the samples were contaminated with different parasites. Of the 30 lettuce, 33 tomato, 42 parsley and 28 cucumber samples examined the prevalence of Ascaris spp. eggs was 43%, 15%, 21% and 4%; Toxocara spp. eggs was 30%, 0%, 0% and 4%; Giardia spp. cysts was 23%, 6%, 0% and 0%; Taenia/Echinococcus eggs was 20%, 0%, 5% and 0%; Fasciola hepatica eggs was 13%, 3%, 2% and 0%; and E. histolytica cysts was 10%, 6%, 0% and 0%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of parasite in salad vegetables either between supermarkets and street vendors, or between Amman and Baqa’a, Ascaris spp. was found to be the highest prevalent parasite in salad vegetables from supermarkets and street vendors and from Amman and Baqa’a. Our results pointed out that, the parasitic contamination of salad vegetables found in our study might be caused by irrigating crops with faecal contaminated water. We concluded that salad vegetables sold in Amman and Baqa’a may cause a health risk to consumers.

  7. Patterns of soil-transmitted helminth infection and impact of four-monthly albendazole treatments in preschool children from semi-urban communities in Nigeria: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Andrew L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children aged between one and five years are particularly vulnerable to disease caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STH. Periodic deworming has been shown to improve growth, micronutrient status (iron and vitamin A, and motor and language development in preschool children and justifies the inclusion of this age group in deworming programmes. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence and intensity of STH infection and to investigate the effectiveness of repeated four-monthly albendazole treatments on STH infection in children aged one to four years. Methods The study was carried out in four semi-urban villages situated near Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. The study was a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial. Children aged one to four years were randomly assigned to receive either albendazole or placebo every four months for 12 months with a follow-up at 14 months. Results The results presented here revealed that 50% of the preschool children in these semi-urban communities were infected by one or more helminths, the most prevalent STH being Ascaris lumbricoides (47.6%. Our study demonstrated that repeated four-monthly anthelminthic treatments with albendazole were successful in reducing prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides infections. At the end of the follow-up period, 12% and 43% of the children were infected with A. lumbricoides and mean epg was 117 (S.E. 50 and 1740 (S.E. 291 in the treatment and placebo groups respectively compared to 45% and 45% of the children being infected with Ascaris and mean epg being 1095 (S.E. 237 and 1126 (S.E. 182 in the treatment and placebo group respectively at baseline. Conclusion Results from this study show that the moderate prevalence and low intensity of STH infection in these preschool children necessitates systematic treatment of the children in child health programmes. Trial Registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN44215995.

  8. Rapid Re-Infection with Soil-Transmitted Helminths after Triple-Dose Albendazole Treatment of School-Aged Children in Yunnan, People's Republic of China

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    Yap, Peiling; Du, Zun-Wei; Wu, Fang-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Chen, Ran; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Hattendorf, Jan; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Post-treatment soil-transmitted helminth re-infection patterns were studied as part of a randomized controlled trial among school-aged children from an ethnic minority group in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. Children with a soil-transmitted helminth infection (N = 194) were randomly assigned to triple-dose albendazole or placebo and their infection status monitored over a 6-month period using the Kato-Katz and Baermann techniques. Baseline prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Strongyloides stercoralis were 94.5%, 93.3%, 61.3%, and 3.1%, respectively, with more than half of the participants harboring triple-species infections. For the intervention group (N = 99), the 1-month post-treatment cure rates were 96.7%, 91.5%, and 19.6% for hookworm, A. lumbricoides, and T. trichiura, respectively. Egg reduction rates were above 88% for all three species. Rapid re-infection with A. lumbricoides was observed: the prevalence 4 and 6 months post-treatment was 75.8% and 83.8%, respectively. Re-infection with hookworm and T. trichiura was considerably slower. PMID:23690551

  9. High latrine coverage is not reducing the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Hoa Binh province, Vietnam.

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    Yajima, Aya; Jouquet, Pascal; Do, Trung Dung; Dang, Thi Cam Thach; Tran, Cong Dai; Orange, Didier; Montresor, Antonio

    2009-03-01

    A baseline epidemiological survey for parasite infections was conducted between December 2007 and January 2008 in 155 villagers in a rural commune in Hoa Binh province, Vietnam. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm infection was 13.5%, 45.2% and 58.1%, respectively. At least one of the parasites was detected in 72.3% of the samples. We found no association between infection with A. lumbricoides or T. trichiura and engagement in agriculture, while hookworm infection was more prevalent in populations having frequent contact with soil. Agricultural use of human faeces was not correlated with any of the infections. We suggest that the consumption of vegetables that are commonly fertilized with human faeces in the community has led to the high infection rates with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura, rather than the manipulation of faeces in farming activity. This also explains the high infection prevalence, despite high latrine coverage (98.1%) in the study population. The presence of latrines alone is not sufficient to reduce the prevalence of helminthiasis in a rural agricultural community if fresh faeces are used as fertilizer.

  10. Human intestinal parasites in the past: new findings and a review

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    Marcelo Luiz Carvalho Gonçalves

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost all known human specific parasites have been found in ancient feces. A review of the paleoparasitological helminth and intestinal protozoa findings available in the literature is presented. We also report the new paleoparasitologic findings from the examination performed in samples collected in New and Old World archaeological sites. New finds of ancylostomid, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichostrongylus spp., Diphyllobothrium latum, Hymenolepis nana and Acantocephalan eggs are reported. According to the findings, it is probable that A. lumbricoides was originally a human parasite. Human ancylostomids, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura, found in the New World in pre-Columbian times, have not been introduced into the Americas by land via Beringia. These parasites could not supported the cold climate of the region. Nomadic prehistoric humans that have crossed the Bering Land Bridge from Asia to the Americas in the last glaciation, probably during generations, would have lost these parasites, which life cycles need warm temperatures in the soil to be transmitted from host to host. Alternative routes are discussed for human parasite introduction into the Americas.

  11. Spatial co-distribution of neglected tropical diseases in the East African Great Lakes region: revisiting the justification for integrated control

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    Clements, Archie C. A.; Deville, Marie-Alice; Ndayishimiye, Onésime; Brooker, Simon; Fenwick, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Summary OBJECTIVE To determine spatial patterns of co-endemicity of schistosomiasis mansoni and the soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm in the Great Lakes region of East Africa, to help plan integrated neglected tropical disease programmes in this region. METHOD Parasitological surveys were conducted in Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya and Burundi in 28 213 children in 404 schools. Bayesian geostatistical models were used to interpolate prevalence of these infections across the study area. Interpolated prevalence maps were overlaid to determine areas of co-endemicity. RESULTS In the Great Lakes region, prevalence was 18.1% for Schistosoma mansoni, 50.0% for hookworm, 6.8% for A. lumbricoides and 6.8% for T. trichiura. Hookworm infection was ubiquitous, whereas S. mansoni, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were highly focal. Most areas were endemic (prevalence ≥10%) or hyperendemic (prevalence ≥50%) for one or more STHs, whereas endemic areas for schistosomiasis mansoni were restricted to foci adjacent large perennial water bodies. CONCLUSION Because of the ubiquity of hookworm, treatment programmes are required for STH throughout the region but efficient schistosomiasis control should only be targeted at limited high-risk areas. Therefore, integration of schistosomiasis with STH control is only indicated in limited foci in East Africa. PMID:20409287

  12. Deworming and the immune status of HIV positive pre-antiretroviral therapy individuals in Arba Minch, Chencha and Gidole hospitals, Southern Ethiopia.

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    Abossie, Ashenafi; Petros, Beyene

    2015-09-28

    Helminths/HIV co-infections are very common in developing countries, especially in Africa. The effect of overlapping distribution of HIV and helminths becomes important because concomitant infection may exacerbate disease outcome of HIV infection. The study aimed at determining the effect of deworming on the immune status of helminth/HIV coinfected Pre-ART HIV patients attending three health institutions in Southern Ethiopia. 97 HIV-positive Pre-ART individuals were observed into 2 groups on the basis of helminth co-infection and no infection. Out of these, 66 study participants were helminths/HIV co-infected and the remaining 31 study participants were helminths (-)/HIV (+) control. Helminth/HIV co-infected participants CD4+ T-cell count was done at baseline, after 15 weeks and 6 months after antihelminthics treatment. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Ascaris lumbricoides was the highest prevalent soil transmitted helminths in Pre-ART individuals in this study. CD4+ T-cell count in the Ascaris lumricoides/HIV co-infected was significantly higher (P = 0.05) and (P intestinal helminth parasites detected in the study. In conclusion, this finding on Ascaris lumbricoides-specific nature of immune interaction in helminth/HIV co-infection may partly explain the inconsistent reports on the role of intestinal helminths on progression of HIV infection to AIDS. Therefore, a well-designed longitudinal study on helminth species-specific HIV/helminth co-infection will be needed to fully establish the possible benefits of deworming in intestinal helminth/HIV co-infection.

  13. A sewage disposal failure as a cause of ascariasis and giardiasis epidemic in a family.

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    Totkova, A; Klobusicky, M; Holkova, R; Valent, M; Stojkovicova, H

    2004-01-01

    In monitoring the incidence of intestinal parasites in children and employees of a nursery the authors examined 31 children with 8 (25.81%) and 16 employees with 3 (18.75%) positive results. The authors wanted to examine also the family members of 8 positive children and 3 positive employees but except from the cleaner's family, (Ascaris lumburicoides, Enterobius vermicularis and Entamoeba coli) nobody accepted the offer. All 8 members of a large family except for Patient 1 (a cleaner) and her grandson were without clinical and laboratory findings. They constitute 3 independent families who lived in 1st category flats. On August 31 there was an extensive sewage disposal failure in the ground floor flat of Family II and the flat was flooded by sewage. All family members worked solidarily on cleaning and also the members of Family IV who are friends of Family II. As shown by clinical symptoms of 'virosis', during the pre-patent period and after an outbreak within 73-78 days, laboratory findings of the family members demonstrated a severe family infection equal to a epidemic of intestinal parasitosis. Ascaris lumbricoides was diagnosed in 8 family members (61.54%) and Giardia intestinalis in 7 family members (53.85%) involved in cleaning. Enterobius vermicularis was found in 2 and Etamoeba coli in 1 family member. In monitored persons, in extreme hygienic conditions during the failure and later, a mass contraction arose on the basis of infection. The fact, that family epidemic arose subsequently, proved, in contrast to sporadic findings in children and adults, a 6.4 and 3.3 times higher incidence of Ascaris lumbricoides and a 5.6 and 8.6 times higher incidence of Giardia intestinalis. The authors discus the reasons of incidence and also preventive measures in population. (Tab. 3, Ref. 29.).

  14. Segregated settlements present an increased risk for the parasite infections spread in Northeastern Slovakia

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    Pipiková J.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of parasitic infections among the children, dogs and its association with soil contamination in two villages with different hygiene level standards were analysed. Infections were present in both examined localities, but in the village with higher living standard, a better personal and communal hygiene level and better dogs care a lower occurrence of parasitic germs in soil was detected. High prevalence of protozoa and helminths was observed not only within canine population but also in children throughout the year in the village with lower hygiene and socio-economic standard. We have identified up to 12 taxa of parasites in 127 collected dogs’ excrements and mean prevalence was 71.65 %. The most frequent were eggs of family Ancylostomatidae and Ascaris spp., followed by Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Giardia duodenalis cysts, Isospora spp. oocysts, eggs of Capillaria aerophila, Trichuris vulpis, Taenia type eggs, Dipylidium caninum, oocysts of Sarcocystis spp. and larvae of Angiostrongylus vasorum. The soil samples collected near dwellings were highly contaminated. Two thirds of samples contained eggs for the most part of family Ancylostomatidae as well as genera Ascaris and Toxocara. Among the kids population helminth ova were present in 53.17 % of stool samples, where the eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Hymenolepis diminuta and cysts of G. duodenalis were the most frequent. In contrast, parasitic diseases were not seen in children population living in the locality with common hygiene standard.

  15. Assessment of the anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole in school children in seven countries where soil-transmitted helminths are endemic.

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    Vercruysse, Jozef; Behnke, Jerzy M; Albonico, Marco; Ame, Shaali Makame; Angebault, Cécile; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Engels, Dirk; Guillard, Bertrand; Nguyen, Thi Viet Hoa; Kang, Gagandeep; Kattula, Deepthi; Kotze, Andrew C; McCarthy, James S; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Montresor, Antonio; Periago, Maria Victoria; Sumo, Laurentine; Tchuenté, Louis-Albert Tchuem; Dang, Thi Cam Thach; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Levecke, Bruno

    2011-03-29

    The three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH) Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Necator americanus/Ancylostoma duodenale are among the most widespread parasites worldwide. Despite the global expansion of preventive anthelmintic treatment, standard operating procedures to monitor anthelmintic drug efficacy are lacking. The objective of this study, therefore, was to define the efficacy of a single 400 milligram dose of albendazole (ALB) against these three STH using a standardized protocol. Seven trials were undertaken among school children in Brazil, Cameroon, Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Tanzania and Vietnam. Efficacy was assessed by the Cure Rate (CR) and the Fecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR) using the McMaster egg counting technique to determine fecal egg counts (FEC). Overall, the highest CRs were observed for A. lumbricoides (98.2%) followed by hookworms (87.8%) and T. trichiura (46.6%). There was considerable variation in the CR for the three parasites across trials (country), by age or the pre-intervention FEC (pre-treatment). The latter is probably the most important as it had a considerable effect on the CR of all three STH. Therapeutic efficacies, as reflected by the FECRs, were very high for A. lumbricoides (99.5%) and hookworms (94.8%) but significantly lower for T. trichiura (50.8%), and were affected to different extents among the 3 species by the pre-intervention FEC counts and trial (country), but not by sex or age. Our finding