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Sample records for histological tumor regression

  1. Histological Regression of Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Following RANK Ligand Inhibition

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    Martin F. Dietrich MD, PhD

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lung metastases are a rare complication of giant cell tumors of bone. We herein describe an interesting case of histological regression and size reduction of lung metastases originating from a primary giant cell tumor of bone in response to the RANK ligand inhibitor denosumab.

  2. A histological evaluation and in vivo assessment of intratumoral near infrared photothermal nanotherapy-induced tumor regression

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    Green HN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hadiyah N Green,1,2 Stephanie D Crockett,3 Dmitry V Martyshkin,1 Karan P Singh,2,4 William E Grizzle,2,5 Eben L Rosenthal,2,6 Sergey B Mirov11Department of Physics, Center for Optical Sensors and Spectroscopies, 2Comprehensive Cancer Center, 3Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, 4Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive Medicine, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Shared Facility, 5Department of Pathology, 6Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAPurpose: Nanoparticle (NP-enabled near infrared (NIR photothermal therapy has realized limited success in in vivo studies as a potential localized cancer therapy. This is primarily due to a lack of successful methods that can prevent NP uptake by the reticuloendothelial system, especially the liver and kidney, and deliver sufficient quantities of intravenously injected NPs to the tumor site. Histological evaluation of photothermal therapy-induced tumor regression is also neglected in the current literature. This report demonstrates and histologically evaluates the in vivo potential of NIR photothermal therapy by circumventing the challenges of intravenous NP delivery and tumor targeting found in other photothermal therapy studies.Methods: Subcutaneous Cal 27 squamous cell carcinoma xenografts received photothermal nanotherapy treatments, radial injections of polyethylene glycol (PEG-ylated gold nanorods and one NIR 785 nm laser irradiation for 10 minutes at 9.5 W/cm2. Tumor response was measured for 10–15 days, gross changes in tumor size were evaluated, and the remaining tumors or scar tissues were excised and histologically analyzed.Results: The single treatment of intratumoral nanorod injections followed by a 10 minute NIR laser treatment also known as photothermal nanotherapy, resulted in ~100% tumor regression in ~90% of treated tumors, which was statistically significant in a

  3. Pitfalls in the assessment of radioresponse as determined by tumor regression. Consideration based on the location and histologic constitution of tumors

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    Ohara, Kiyoshi; Shimizu, Wakako; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2000-05-01

    To prove the following hypotheses regarding tumor shrinkage after radiotherapy. Tumors located on an outer tissue surface, e.g. esophageal tumors shrink faster than parenchymal tumors, e.g. lymph-node metastasis, because two clearance mechanisms, exfoliation and absorption, can operate in the former type of tumors whereas only absorption can function in the latter. Tumors which are being controlled do not necessarily respond completely, because tumors are constituted not only of tumor cells but also stromal tissues that are difficult to be absorbed. Long-term shrinkage patterns of a parenchymal tumor were determined by using 18 curatively irradiated hepatomas. Preoperatively irradiated thymomas (10) and lymph-node metastases (37) from head and neck cancers were examined histopathologically. Twenty-one esophageal cancers were used for intra-patient response comparison between the primary disease and the lymph-node metastases. Shrinkage patterns were generally biphasic: rapid exponential regression followed by a plateau phase. Histologically, thymomas generally consisted of predominant fibrous tissues and few remaining tumor cells. Radioresponse did not predict the presence of remaining cancer cells in the lymph nodes. Esophageal-cancer radiorespone was always higher for the primary disease than the lymph-node metastases. The location and histologic constitution of tumors must be taken into account in predicting radiocurability using radioresponse. (author)

  4. Tumor regression patterns in retinoblastoma

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    Zafar, S.N.; Siddique, S.N.; Zaheer, N.

    2016-01-01

    To observe the types of tumor regression after treatment, and identify the common pattern of regression in our patients. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from October 2011 to October 2014. Methodology: Children with unilateral and bilateral retinoblastoma were included in the study. Patients were referred to Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, for chemotherapy. After every cycle of chemotherapy, dilated funds examination under anesthesia was performed to record response of the treatment. Regression patterns were recorded on RetCam II. Results: Seventy-four tumors were included in the study. Out of 74 tumors, 3 were ICRB group A tumors, 43 were ICRB group B tumors, 14 tumors belonged to ICRB group C, and remaining 14 were ICRB group D tumors. Type IV regression was seen in 39.1% (n=29) tumors, type II in 29.7% (n=22), type III in 25.6% (n=19), and type I in 5.4% (n=4). All group A tumors (100%) showed type IV regression. Seventeen (39.5%) group B tumors showed type IV regression. In group C, 5 tumors (35.7%) showed type II regression and 5 tumors (35.7%) showed type IV regression. In group D, 6 tumors (42.9%) regressed to type II non-calcified remnants. Conclusion: The response and success of the focal and systemic treatment, as judged by the appearance of different patterns of tumor regression, varies with the ICRB grouping of the tumor. (author)

  5. Carcinoma of the uterine cervix stage IB and early stage II. Prognostic value of the histological tumor regression after initial brachytherapy

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    Calais, G.; Le Floch, O.; Chauvet, B.; Reynaud-Bougnoux, A.; Bougnoux, P.

    1989-01-01

    In our center limited centro pelvic invasive carcinomas of the uterine cervix (less than 4 cm) are treated with brachytherapy and surgery. With these therapeutic modalities no residual carcinoma was observed for 80% of the patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate our results with this treatment, and to evaluate the prognostic value of the pathological status of the cervix. From 1976 to 1987 we have treated 115 patients with these modalities. Staging system used was the FIGO classification modified for Stage II (divided in early Stage II and late Stage II). Patients were Stage IB (70 cases) and early Stage II (45 cases); 60 Gy were delivered with utero vaginal brachytherapy before any treatment. Six weeks later a radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Twenty-one patients with positive nodes received a pelvic radiotherapy (45 to 55 Gy). Local control rate was 97% (100% for Stage IB and 93% for early Stage II). Uncorrected 10-year actuarial survival rate was 96% for Stage IB and 80% for early Stage II patients. No treatment failure was observed for Stage IB patients. Ninety-two patients (80%) had no residual carcinoma in the cervix (group 1) and 23 patients (20%) had a residual tumor (group 2). The sterilization rate of the cervix was 87% for Stage IB tumors versus 69% for early Stage II, and was 82% for N- patients versus 68% for N+ patients. Ten year actuarial survival rate was 92% for group 1 and 78% for group 2 (p = 0, 1). Grade 3 complications rate was 6%. We conclude that brachytherapy + surgery is a safe treatment for limited centro pelvic carcinomas of the uterine cervix (especially Stage IB) and that pathological status of the cervix after brachytherapy is not a prognostic factor

  6. Predictive value of histologic tumor necrosis after radiation.

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    Chen, Y; Taghian, A G; Rosenberg, A E; O'Connell, J; Okunieff, P; Suit, H D

    2001-12-20

    Postsurgical evaluation of histologic changes of tumors after preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy has been a routine clinical practice of pathologists and oncologists. There appears to be secure evidence that the extent of tumor necrosis vs. viable tumor cells postchemotherapy is a clinically useful predictor of outcome. The significance of histologic tumor necrosis after radiotherapy, however, has not been clearly established and deserves further investigation. We investigated the correlation between histological extent of tumor necrosis, survival of tumor transplants, and radiation doses in an experimental model using three human tumor xenografts. Three human tumor cell lines were investigated: STS-26, SCC-21, and HGL-21. Tumors were grown subcutaneously in athymic nude mice and received external beam radiation of different doses. Tumors were excised 2 weeks postirradiation. One-half of the tumor was divided into 1-mm(3) fragments and transplanted to naive mice. The other half was examined for histologic tumor necrosis. Transplant survival was strongly correlated with radiation dose, TCD(p) (radiation dose that results in local tumor control in proportion, p, to irradiated tumors). In contrast, there was no clear association between transplant survival rate and the extent of tumor necrosis. The experimental model demonstrated a strong inverse correlation between radiation doses and tumor transplant survival. Histologic tumor necrosis did not correlate well with radiation doses or transplant survival rates. Despite common practices in histologic examination of tumors posttherapy, clinical interpretations and implications of histologic tumor necrosis after radiotherapy should be considered with caution. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Histologically confirmed intracranial tumors managed at Enugu, Nigeria

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    Chika Anele Ndubuisi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is controversy about the global distribution of intracranial tumors (ICTs. The previous reports from Africa suggested low frequency and different pattern of distribution of brain tumors from what obtains in other continents. The limitations at that time, including paucity of diagnostic facilities and personnel, have improved. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze the current trend and distribution of histology confirmed brain tumors managed in Enugu, in a decade. Methods: A retrospective analysis of ICTs managed between 2006 and 2015 at Memfys Hospital, Enugu. Only cases with conclusive histology report were analyzed. The World Health Organization ICT classification was used. Results: This study reviewed 252 patients out of 612 neuroimaging diagnosed brain tumors. Mean age was 42.8 years and male-to-female ratio was 1.2:1.0. Annual frequency increased from 11 in 2006 to 55 in 2015. Metastatic brain tumors accounted for 5.6%, and infratentorial tumors represented 16.3%. Frequency of the common primary tumors were meningioma (32.9%, glioma (23.8%, pituitary adenomas (13.5%, and craniopharyngioma (7.5% (P = 0.001. Vestibular schwannoma accounted for 1.2%. Meningioma did not have gender difference (P = 0.714. Medulloblastoma, glioma, and craniopharyngioma were the most common pediatric tumors. About 8.7% presented unconscious (P < 0.001. There was no significant difference between radiology and histology diagnosis (P = 0.932. Conclusion: Meningioma is the most frequent tumor with increasing male incidence, but the frequency of glioma is increasing. Metastasis, acoustic schwannoma, lymphoma, and germ cell tumors seem to be uncommon. Late presentation is the rule.

  8. Breast pathology after cryotherapy. Histological regression of breast cancer after cryotherapy.

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    Gajda, Mieczyslaw R; Mireskandari, Masoud; Baltzer, Pascal A; Pfleiderer, Stefan O; Camara, Oumar; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Kaiser, Werner A; Petersen, Iver

    2014-03-01

    A breast saving treatment is contemporary the preferred method of treatment with comparable results in comparing with mastectomy. In this study were evaluated the effects of cryotherapy by histological verification of changes in post treatment resection specimens. Fifty-three patients in age of 38-81 year with histologically confirmed breast cancer in needle biopsies were managed by cryotherapy between 1999 and 2007. The patients were operated between day 1 and 35 after cryotherapy. The histologic examination of operation materials showed in all cases at least partial tumor destruction. In general in 54.7% of all handled cases (29 patient) there was no residual tumor. In 6 cases (22.2%) from group 1 and in 23 cases (88.5%) of group 2 no tumor rest was found. Cryotherapy can lead to complete destruction of tumoral tissue. In our study all 29 (54.7%) of tumor-free cases after cryotherapy were those with cT1 stage. The experience of operator and the correct selection of appropriate patients (primarily taking the tumor size into account) play the most important role for achieving the best results.

  9. A case of parotid tumor showing remarkable regression following hyperthermo-chemo-radiotherapy

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    Fujimura, Takashi; Yonemura, Yutaka; Kamata, Toru

    1987-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman developed adenocarcinoma of the left parotid gland. Because of the excessive size of her tumor and the fact that she suffered from severe liver dysfunction, she was treated by hyperthermo-chemo-radiotherapy (HCR therapy). After ten sessions of radiofrequency hyperthermia with HEH 500 (13.56 MHz radiofrequency wave), 50-Gy irradiation from a linac and administration of 33.0 g of tegafur in suppository form, the tumor mass showed remarkable regression decreasing in size by as much as 84 % on computed tomography. Histologically, the tumor which was resected under local anesthesia, showed almost total necrosis. The multidisciplinary HCR therapy was well tolerated and effective as a therapy for cancer in this case. (author)

  10. Recurrent DGCR8, DROSHA, and SIX Homeodomain Mutations in Favorable Histology Wilms Tumors

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    A.L. Walz (Amy L.); A.H.A.G. Ooms (Ariadne ); S. Gadd (Samantha); D.S. Gerhard (Daniela S.); M.A. Smith (Malcolm A.); J.M. GuidryAuvil (Jamie M.); D. Meerzaman (Daoud); Q.-R. Chen (Qing-Rong); C. Hsu (ChihHao); C. Yan (Chunhua); C. Nguyen (Cu); Y. Hu (Ying); R. Bowlby (Reanne); D. Brooks (Denise); Y. Ma (Yussanne); A.A. Mungall (Andrew J.); R.A. Moore (Richard A.); J. Schein (Jacqueline); M.A. Marra (Marco A.); V. Huff (Vicki); J.S. Dome (Jeffrey); Y.-Y. Chi (Yueh-Yun); C.G. Mullighan (Charles); J. Ma (Jing); D.A. Wheeler (David A.); O.A. Hampton (Oliver A.); N. Jafari (Nadereh); N. Ross (Nicole); J.M. Gastier-Foster (Julie); E.J. Perlman (Elizabeth J.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe report the most common single-nucleotide substitution/deletion mutations in favorable histology Wilms tumors (FHWTs) to occur within SIX1/. 2 (7% of 534 tumors) and microRNA processing genes (miRNAPGs) DGCR8 and DROSHA (15% of 534 tumors). Comprehensive analysis of 77 FHWTs indicates

  11. Methylated DNA for monitoring tumor growth and regression

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    Kristiansen, Søren; Nielsen, Dorte; Söletormos, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A wide range of protein cancer biomarkers is currently recommended in international guidelines for monitoring the growth and regression of solid tumors. However, a number of these markers are also present in low concentrations in blood obtained from healthy individuals and from patients...... of gene promoters. Because tumor cells naturally secrete DNA and upon cell death leak DNA, modified methylated DNA can be detected in blood, urine, sputum and other body fluids. At present international guidelines do not include recommendations for monitoring modified methylated DNA. The low level...... of evidence can partly be explained by incomplete collection of serial blood samples, by analytical challenges, and by lack of knowledge of how monitoring studies should be designed and how serial marker data obtained from individual patients should be interpreted. Here, we review the clinical validity...

  12. Regression of conjunctival tumor during dietary treatment of celiac disease

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    Tuncer Samuray

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-old girl presented with a hemorrhagic conjunctival lesion in the right eye. The medical history revealed premature cessation of breast feeding, intolerance to the ingestion of baby foods, anorexia, and abdominal distention. Prior to her referral, endoscopic small intestinal biopsy had been carried out under general anesthesia with a possible diagnosis of Celiac Disease (CD. Her parents did not want their child to undergo general anesthesia for the second time for the excisional biopsy. We decided to follow the patient until all systemic investigations were concluded. In evaluation, the case was diagnosed with CD and the conjunctival tumor showed complete regression during gluten-free dietary treatment. The clinical fleshy appearance of the lesion with spider-like vascular extensions and subconjunctival hemorrhagic spots, possible association with an acquired immune system dysfunction due to CD, and spontaneous regression by a gluten-free diet led us to make a presumed diagnosis of conjunctival Kaposi sarcoma.

  13. Facilitating tumor functional assessment by spatially relating 3D tumor histology and in vivo MRI: image registration approach.

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    Lejla Alic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, together with histology, is widely used to diagnose and to monitor treatment in oncology. Spatial correspondence between these modalities provides information about the ability of MRI to characterize cancerous tissue. However, registration is complicated by deformations during pathological processing, and differences in scale and information content. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study proposes a methodology for establishing an accurate 3D relation between histological sections and high resolution in vivo MRI tumor data. The key features of the methodology are: 1 standardized acquisition and processing, 2 use of an intermediate ex vivo MRI, 3 use of a reference cutting plane, 4 dense histological sampling, 5 elastic registration, and 6 use of complete 3D data sets. Five rat pancreatic tumors imaged by T2*-w MRI were used to evaluate the proposed methodology. The registration accuracy was assessed by root mean squared (RMS distances between manually annotated landmark points in both modalities. After elastic registration the average RMS distance decreased from 1.4 to 0.7 mm. The intermediate ex vivo MRI and the reference cutting plane shared by all three 3D images (in vivo MRI, ex vivo MRI, and 3D histology data were found to be crucial for the accurate co-registration between the 3D histological data set and in vivo MRI. The MR intensity in necrotic regions, as manually annotated in 3D histology, was significantly different from other histologically confirmed regions (i.e., viable and hemorrhagic. However, the viable and the hemorrhagic regions showed a large overlap in T2(*-w MRI signal intensity. CONCLUSIONS: The established 3D correspondence between tumor histology and in vivo MRI enables extraction of MRI characteristics for histologically confirmed regions. The proposed methodology allows the creation of a tumor database of spatially registered multi-spectral MR images and multi-stained 3D

  14. Patho-morphology of bone tumors (radiology and histology)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, P.

    1982-01-01

    Using the example of osteosarcoma, the article shows some findings and phenomena which are interpreted as epiphenomena of tumours and could lead to a ''wrong-positive'' diagnosis due to the radiological findings as bone destruction is misinterpreted as tumour destruction and the reactive or degenerative mineralisation as tumour mineralisation. Histological findings are also shown, for example the differences in the tumour type and the maximal size of a bone tumour which cannot be recognized definitely by means of radiology. An important practical example of interdisciplinary cooperation is a patient with a Ewing-sarcoma: for the histological examination, a thin layer of bone tissue was chiselled off twice. Each time, only a reactive bone formation was recognized as the tumour located deeper was not detected. Here, the radiologist must know that the histological recognition of reactive bones does not exclude the Ewing sarcoma; the surgeon must know that, in accordance with the X-ray findings, deeper located tissue must be taken for histological examination and the pathologist, cooperating with the radiologist and knowing the radiological changes, must point out that reactive bone formations do not exclude a deeper-located sarcoma, especially a Ewing sarcoma, and that they can even be typical side symptoms of a Ewing sarcoma. (orig./APR) [de

  15. Imaging of brain tumors with histological correlations. 2. ed.

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    Drevelegas, Antonios (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    This volume provides a deeper understanding of the diagnosis of brain tumors by correlating radiographic imaging features with the underlying pathological abnormalities. All modern imaging modalities are used to complete a diagnostic overview of brain tumors with emphasis on recent advances in diagnostic neuroradiology. High-quality illustrations depicting common and uncommon imaging characteristics of a wide range of brain tumors are presented and analysed, drawing attention to the ways in which these characteristics reflect different aspects of pathology. Important theoretical considerations are also discussed. Since the first edition, chapters have been revised and updated and new material has been added, including detailed information on the clinical application of functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Radiologists and other clinicians interested in the current diagnostic approach to brain tumors will find this book to be an invaluable and enlightening clinical tool. (orig.)

  16. Regression of uveal malignant melanomas following cobalt-60 plaque. Correlates between acoustic spectrum analysis and tumor regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, D.J.; Lizzi, F.L.; Silverman, R.H.; Ellsworth, R.M.; Haik, B.G.; Abramson, D.H.; Smith, M.E.; Rondeau, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Parameters derived from computer analysis of digital radio-frequency (rf) ultrasound scan data of untreated uveal malignant melanomas were examined for correlations with tumor regression following cobalt-60 plaque. Parameters included tumor height, normalized power spectrum and acoustic tissue type (ATT). Acoustic tissue type was based upon discriminant analysis of tumor power spectra, with spectra of tumors of known pathology serving as a model. Results showed ATT to be correlated with tumor regression during the first 18 months following treatment. Tumors with ATT associated with spindle cell malignant melanoma showed over twice the percentage reduction in height as those with ATT associated with mixed/epithelioid melanomas. Pre-treatment height was only weakly correlated with regression. Additionally, significant spectral changes were observed following treatment. Ultrasonic spectrum analysis thus provides a noninvasive tool for classification, prediction and monitoring of tumor response to cobalt-60 plaque

  17. Serial study of the concentration of misonidazole in human tumors correlated with histologic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, T.A.; Dische, S.; Saunders, M.I.; Stratford, M.R.L.; Minchinton, A.

    1981-01-01

    Multiple biopsies were obtained from eight patients with malignant tumors during a course of fractionated radiotherapy. An analysis of the total 2-nitroimidazole concentration and a histological examination of the biopsy sample was done on material which appeared macroscopically similar. The parts of the tumor biopsies showing necrosis were found to contain much lower concentrations of nitroimidazole when compared with those found in the samples with well-vascularized and apparently viable tumor. During the course of irradiation changes in misonidazole concentrations were not found when similar histological material was examined. The low values of misonidazole in necrotic regions in human tumors may partly account for the wide variation of misonidazole concentrations reported in the literature (percent tumor/plasma, mean 62.9 +- 34.4 STD). The clinical significance of the microscopic distribution of misonidazole in tumors in unknown but further work in this area may aid in predicting the usefulness of future radiosensitizers

  18. Functional histology of tumors as a basis of molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungkvist, A.S.; Bussink, J.; Rijken, P.F.; Van Der Kogel, A.; Kaanders, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the various elements of the microenvironment and their interrelationships by quantitative image analysis. Tumor cell proliferation, hypoxia, and apoptosis are detected by immunohistochemical methods, and mapped in relation to the vasculature. This allows quantitative relationships to be measured in the context of tissue structure. Guided by e.g., gene expression profiles for hypoxia induced-genes, several molecular markers of tumor hypoxia were identified and are immunohistochemically detectable. We have thus far concentrated on the glucose transporters glut-1 and glut-3, as well as a pH-regulating enzyme, carbonic anhydrase IX. The extent and distribution of hypoxia is assessed by administering nitroimidazole-based markers such as pimonidazole, that can be detected immunohistochemically. Multiple hypoxia markers (CCI-103F, pimonidazole) can be used to study the effects of modifiers of perfusion or oxygenation on the distribution and dynamics of hypoxic cells in the same tumor. Proliferating cells are detected by thymidine analogues. Apoptotic cells are imaged by TUNEL and caspase-3 detection. In xenografted human tumors, examples of the use of quantitative imaging of hypoxia and proliferation are the study of reoxygenation after irradiation, or the investigation of the lifespan and dynamics of hypoxic cell populations over time. Perturbation of the microenvironment after cytotoxic treatments has been investigated by co-registration of the various markers, e.g. after treatment with the hypoxic cytotoxin tirapazamine. The combination of well-timed administration of external markers of hypoxia and proliferation with the detection of intrinsic molecular markers followed by quantitative image-registration yields a comprehensive view of the dynamics of the microenvironment in individual tumors

  19. Renal cell tumors with clear cell histology and intact VHL and chromosome 3p: a histological review of tumors from the Cancer Genome Atlas database.

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    Favazza, Laura; Chitale, Dhananjay A; Barod, Ravi; Rogers, Craig G; Kalyana-Sundaram, Shanker; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Gupta, Nilesh S; Williamson, Sean R

    2017-11-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma is by far the most common form of kidney cancer; however, a number of histologically similar tumors are now recognized and considered distinct entities. The Cancer Genome Atlas published data set was queried (http://cbioportal.org) for clear cell renal cell carcinoma tumors lacking VHL gene mutation and chromosome 3p loss, for which whole-slide images were reviewed. Of the 418 tumors in the published Cancer Genome Atlas clear cell renal cell carcinoma database, 387 had VHL mutation, copy number loss for chromosome 3p, or both (93%). Of the remaining, 27/31 had whole-slide images for review. One had 3p loss based on karyotype but not sequencing, and three demonstrated VHL promoter hypermethylation. Nine could be reclassified as distinct or emerging entities: translocation renal cell carcinoma (n=3), TCEB1 mutant renal cell carcinoma (n=3), papillary renal cell carcinoma (n=2), and clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (n=1). Of the remaining, 6 had other clear cell renal cell carcinoma-associated gene alterations (PBRM1, SMARCA4, BAP1, SETD2), leaving 11 specimens, including 2 high-grade or sarcomatoid renal cell carcinomas and 2 with prominent fibromuscular stroma (not TCEB1 mutant). One of the remaining tumors exhibited gain of chromosome 7 but lacked histological features of papillary renal cell carcinoma. Two tumors previously reported to harbor TFE3 gene fusions also exhibited VHL mutation, chromosome 3p loss, and morphology indistinguishable from clear cell renal cell carcinoma, the significance of which is uncertain. In summary, almost all clear cell renal cell carcinomas harbor VHL mutation, 3p copy number loss, or both. Of tumors with clear cell histology that lack these alterations, a subset can now be reclassified as other entities. Further study will determine whether additional entities exist, based on distinct genetic pathways that may have implications for treatment.

  20. Histological regression of amyloid in AL amyloidosis is exclusively seen after normalization of serum free light chain

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    van Gameren, Ingrid I.; van Rijswijk, Martin H.; Bijzet, Johan; Vellenga, Edo; Hazenberg, Bouke P.

    Background Histological regression of amyloid has not been studied systematically but is assessed by clinical parameters. We analyzed the change of amyloid deposition in fat tissue in patients with AL amyloidosis following chemotherapy and studied the relation with type of hematologic response.

  1. A comparative study between magnetic resonance imaging and histological findings of bone and soft tissue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Koichi

    1995-01-01

    Diagnostic methodology for bone and soft tissue tumors has made great strides recently through the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here we report a comparative assessment of the histological findings of bone and soft tissue tumors with MRI from 212 cases. The accuracy of a qualitative diagnosis was observed in a solitary bone cyst, enchondroma, giant cell tumor, chondrosarcoma, lipoma, hemangioma, neurinoma, and in a synovial cyst. However, the qualitative diagnosis of a malignant tumor was difficult because of the variety of the intratumoral histological changes. An enhanced-image using Gd-DTPA was useful for differentiation of the viable region in the internal area of a tumor, discrimination of the reactive zone of an edema or assessing vascularity, and for discrimination between a cyst and a solid tumor. Based on comparison with findings from the excised specimen, it was found that histological changes such as calcification, fibrosis, hemorrhaging and necrosis, and the presence or absence of a tumor capsule had been reflected accurately on MR images. However, infiltration of the tumor into the bone cortex and into the articular cartilage were found frequently to be false-positive on MRI. Although problems remained to be solved regarding the evaluation of the presence or absence of tumor infiltration into adjacent tissue, the depiction of periosteal reaction, and regarding differentiation from inflammatory disease, MRI was a very useful information source for operative planning because it could evaluate the relationship between the tumor and adjacent blood vessels or nerves, the effect of preoperative therapy, and effectively discriminate between benign and malignant tumors. (author)

  2. Histological type and grade of breast cancer tumors by parity, age at birth, and time since birth: a register-based study in Norway

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    Albrektsen, Grethe; Heuch, Ivar; Thoresen, Steinar Ø

    2010-01-01

    Some studies have indicated that reproductive factors affect the risk of histological types of breast cancer differently. The long-term protective effect of a childbirth is preceded by a short-term adverse effect. Few studies have examined whether tumors diagnosed shortly after birth have specific histological characteristics. In the present register-based study, comprising information for 22,867 Norwegian breast cancer cases (20-74 years), we examined whether histological type (9 categories) and grade of tumor (2 combined categories) differed by parity or age at first birth. Associations with time since birth were evaluated among 9709 women diagnosed before age 50 years. Chi-square tests were applied for comparing proportions, whereas odds ratios (each histological type vs. ductal, or grade 3-4 vs. grade 1-2) were estimated in polytomous and binary logistic regression analyses. Ductal tumors, the most common histological type, accounted for 81.4% of all cases, followed by lobular tumors (6.3%) and unspecified carcinomas (5.5%). Other subtypes accounted for 0.4%-1.5% of the cases each. For all histological types, the proportions differed significantly by age at diagnoses. The proportion of mucinous and tubular tumors decreased with increasing parity, whereas Paget disease and medullary tumors were most common in women of high parity. An increasing trend with increasing age at first birth was most pronounced for lobular tumors and unspecified carcinomas; an association in the opposite direction was seen in relation to medullary and tubular tumors. In age-adjusted analyses, only the proportions of unspecified carcinomas and lobular tumors decreased significantly with increasing time since first and last birth. However, ductal tumors, and malignant sarcomas, mainly phyllodes tumors, seemed to occur at higher frequency in women diagnosed <2 years after first childbirth. The proportions of medullary tumors and Paget disease were particularly high among women diagnosed 2

  3. Tumor histology and location predict deep nuclei toxicity: Implications for late effects from focal brain irradiation.

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    Plaga, Alexis; Shields, Lisa B E; Sun, David A; Vitaz, Todd W; Spalding, Aaron C

    2012-01-01

    Normal tissue toxicity resulting from both disease and treatment is an adverse side effect in the management of patients with central nervous system malignancies. We tested the hypothesis that despite these improvements, certain tumors place patients at risk for neurocognitive, neuroendocrine, and neurosensory late effects. Defining patient groups at risk for these effects could allow for development of preventive strategies. Fifty patients with primary brain tumors underwent radiation planning with magnetic resonance imaging scan and computed tomography datasets. Organs at risk (OAR) responsible for neurocognitive, neuroendocrine, and neurosensory function were defined. Inverse-planned intensity-modulated radiation therapy was optimized with priority given to target coverage while penalties were assigned to exceeding normal tissue tolerances. Tumor laterality, location, and histology were compared with OAR doses, and analysis of variance was performed to determine the significance of any observed correlation. The ipsilateral hippocampus exceeded dose limits in frontal (74%), temporal (94%), and parietal (100%) lobe tumor locations. The contralateral hippocampus was at risk in the following tumor locations: frontal (53%), temporal (83%), or parietal (50%) lobe. Patients with high-grade glioma were at risk for ipsilateral (88%) and contralateral (73%) hippocampal damage (P <0.05 compared with other histologies). The pituitary gland and hypothalamus exceeded dose tolerances in patients with pituitary tumors (both 100%) and high-grade gliomas (50% and 75%, P <0.05 compared with other histologies), respectively. Despite application of modern radiation therapy, certain tumor locations and histologies continue to place patients at risk for morbidity. Patients with high-grade gliomas or tumors located in the frontal, temporal, or parietal lobes are at risk for neurocognitive decline, likely because of larger target volumes and higher radiation doses. Data from this study

  4. Tumor histology and location predict deep nuclei toxicity: Implications for late effects from focal brain irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaga, Alexis; Shields, Lisa B.E.; Sun, David A.; Vitaz, Todd W.; Spalding, Aaron C.

    2012-01-01

    Normal tissue toxicity resulting from both disease and treatment is an adverse side effect in the management of patients with central nervous system malignancies. We tested the hypothesis that despite these improvements, certain tumors place patients at risk for neurocognitive, neuroendocrine, and neurosensory late effects. Defining patient groups at risk for these effects could allow for development of preventive strategies. Fifty patients with primary brain tumors underwent radiation planning with magnetic resonance imaging scan and computed tomography datasets. Organs at risk (OAR) responsible for neurocognitive, neuroendocrine, and neurosensory function were defined. Inverse-planned intensity-modulated radiation therapy was optimized with priority given to target coverage while penalties were assigned to exceeding normal tissue tolerances. Tumor laterality, location, and histology were compared with OAR doses, and analysis of variance was performed to determine the significance of any observed correlation. The ipsilateral hippocampus exceeded dose limits in frontal (74%), temporal (94%), and parietal (100%) lobe tumor locations. The contralateral hippocampus was at risk in the following tumor locations: frontal (53%), temporal (83%), or parietal (50%) lobe. Patients with high-grade glioma were at risk for ipsilateral (88%) and contralateral (73%) hippocampal damage (P <0.05 compared with other histologies). The pituitary gland and hypothalamus exceeded dose tolerances in patients with pituitary tumors (both 100%) and high-grade gliomas (50% and 75%, P <0.05 compared with other histologies), respectively. Despite application of modern radiation therapy, certain tumor locations and histologies continue to place patients at risk for morbidity. Patients with high-grade gliomas or tumors located in the frontal, temporal, or parietal lobes are at risk for neurocognitive decline, likely because of larger target volumes and higher radiation doses. Data from this study

  5. Tumor histology and location predict deep nuclei toxicity: Implications for late effects from focal brain irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaga, Alexis; Shields, Lisa B.E. [Norton Neuroscience Institute, Louisville, KY (United States); Sun, David A.; Vitaz, Todd W. [Norton Neuroscience Institute, Louisville, KY (United States); Brain Tumor Center, Norton Healthcare, Louisville, KY (United States); Spalding, Aaron C., E-mail: acspalding1@gmail.com [Brain Tumor Center, Norton Healthcare, Louisville, KY (United States); Norton Cancer Institute, Radiation Center, Kosair Children' s Hospital, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Normal tissue toxicity resulting from both disease and treatment is an adverse side effect in the management of patients with central nervous system malignancies. We tested the hypothesis that despite these improvements, certain tumors place patients at risk for neurocognitive, neuroendocrine, and neurosensory late effects. Defining patient groups at risk for these effects could allow for development of preventive strategies. Fifty patients with primary brain tumors underwent radiation planning with magnetic resonance imaging scan and computed tomography datasets. Organs at risk (OAR) responsible for neurocognitive, neuroendocrine, and neurosensory function were defined. Inverse-planned intensity-modulated radiation therapy was optimized with priority given to target coverage while penalties were assigned to exceeding normal tissue tolerances. Tumor laterality, location, and histology were compared with OAR doses, and analysis of variance was performed to determine the significance of any observed correlation. The ipsilateral hippocampus exceeded dose limits in frontal (74%), temporal (94%), and parietal (100%) lobe tumor locations. The contralateral hippocampus was at risk in the following tumor locations: frontal (53%), temporal (83%), or parietal (50%) lobe. Patients with high-grade glioma were at risk for ipsilateral (88%) and contralateral (73%) hippocampal damage (P <0.05 compared with other histologies). The pituitary gland and hypothalamus exceeded dose tolerances in patients with pituitary tumors (both 100%) and high-grade gliomas (50% and 75%, P <0.05 compared with other histologies), respectively. Despite application of modern radiation therapy, certain tumor locations and histologies continue to place patients at risk for morbidity. Patients with high-grade gliomas or tumors located in the frontal, temporal, or parietal lobes are at risk for neurocognitive decline, likely because of larger target volumes and higher radiation doses. Data from this study

  6. The Combination of the Tumor Markers Suggests the Histological Diagnosis of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjie Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor markers are beneficial for the diagnosis and therapy monitoring of lung cancer. However, the value of tumor markers in lung cancer histological diagnosis is unknown. In this study, we analyzed the serum levels of six tumor markers (CEA, CYFRA21-1, SCC, NSE, ProGRP, and CA125 in 2097 suspected patients with lung cancer and determined whether the combination of the tumor markers was useful for histological diagnosis of lung cancer. We found that CYFRA21-1 was the most sensitive marker in NSCLC. ProGRP showed a better clinical performance than that of NSE in discriminating between SCLC and NSCLC. The serum level of CYFRA21-1 or SCC was significantly higher in squamous carcinoma (p<0.05, and the levels of ProGRP and NSE were significantly higher in SCLC (p<0.05. According to the criteria established, SCLC and NSCLC were discriminated with sensitivity of 87.12 and 62.63% and specificity of 64.61 and 99.5%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity in the differentiation of adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma were 68.1 and 81.63% and 70.73 and 65.93%, with NPV of 46.03 and 68.97% and PPV of 85.82 and 79.47%, respectively. Our results suggested the combination of six tumor markers could discriminate the histological types of lung cancer.

  7. Histological type and grade of breast cancer tumors by parity, age at birth, and time since birth: a register-based study in Norway

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    Heuch Ivar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have indicated that reproductive factors affect the risk of histological types of breast cancer differently. The long-term protective effect of a childbirth is preceded by a short-term adverse effect. Few studies have examined whether tumors diagnosed shortly after birth have specific histological characteristics. Methods In the present register-based study, comprising information for 22,867 Norwegian breast cancer cases (20-74 years, we examined whether histological type (9 categories and grade of tumor (2 combined categories differed by parity or age at first birth. Associations with time since birth were evaluated among 9709 women diagnosed before age 50 years. Chi-square tests were applied for comparing proportions, whereas odds ratios (each histological type vs. ductal, or grade 3-4 vs. grade 1-2 were estimated in polytomous and binary logistic regression analyses. Results Ductal tumors, the most common histological type, accounted for 81.4% of all cases, followed by lobular tumors (6.3% and unspecified carcinomas (5.5%. Other subtypes accounted for 0.4%-1.5% of the cases each. For all histological types, the proportions differed significantly by age at diagnoses. The proportion of mucinous and tubular tumors decreased with increasing parity, whereas Paget disease and medullary tumors were most common in women of high parity. An increasing trend with increasing age at first birth was most pronounced for lobular tumors and unspecified carcinomas; an association in the opposite direction was seen in relation to medullary and tubular tumors. In age-adjusted analyses, only the proportions of unspecified carcinomas and lobular tumors decreased significantly with increasing time since first and last birth. However, ductal tumors, and malignant sarcomas, mainly phyllodes tumors, seemed to occur at higher frequency in women diagnosed Conclusion Our results support previous observations that reproductive factors

  8. Intraoperative Spillage of Favorable Histology Wilms Tumor Cells: Influence of Irradiation and Chemotherapy Regimens on Abdominal Recurrence. A Report From the National Wilms Tumor Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalapurakal, John A.; Li, Sierra M.; Breslow, Norman E.; Beckwith, J. Bruce; Ritchey, Michael L.; Shamberger, Robert C.; Haase, Gerald M.; Thomas, Patrick R.M.; Grundy, Paul; Green, Daniel M.; D'Angio, Giulio J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We undertook this study to determine (1) the frequency with which spilled tumor cells of favorable histology produced intra-abdominal disease in patients treated with differing chemotherapy regimens and abdominal radiation therapy (RT) and (2) the patterns of relapse and outcomes in such patients. Methods and Materials: The influence of RT dose (0, 10, and 20 Gy), RT fields (flank, whole abdomen), and chemotherapy with dactinomycin and vincristine (2 drugs) vs. added doxorubicin (three drugs) on intra-abdominal tumor recurrence rates was analyzed by logistic regression in 450 patients. Each patient was considered at risk for two types of failure: flank and subdiaphragmatic beyond-flank recurrence, with the correlation between the two outcomes accounted for in the analyses. Results: The crude odds ratio for the risk of recurrence relative to no RT was 0.35 (0.15-0.78) for 10Gy and 0.08 (0.01-0.58) for 20Gy. The odds ratio for the risk of recurrence for doxorubicin to two drugs after adjusting for RT was not significant. For Stage II patients (NWTS-4), the 8-year event rates with and without spillage, respectively, were 79% and 87% for relapse-free survival (p = 0.07) and 90% and 95% for overall survival (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Irradiation (10 Gy or 20 Gy) reduced abdominal tumor recurrence rates after tumor spillage. Tumor spillage in Stage II patients reduced relapse-free survival and overall survival, but only the latter was of statistical significance. These data provide a basis for assessing the risks vs. benefits when considering treatment for children with favorable histology Wilms tumor and surgical spillage.

  9. Correlation between diagnostic capability of MR-mammography and histology of tissue adjacent to tumor

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    Takahara, Taro [St. Marianna Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate correlation between the capability in the diagnosis of tumor extent and histology of adjacent tissue. MR-mammography (MRM) was obtained in twenty-one patients with surgically resected breast cancer by 0.5 T superconducting magnet (PHILIPS GY-ROSCAN T5-II, release 3.1). Pre and postcontrast 3D-spoiled gradient echo sequence were employed for MRM with spectral presaturation with inversion recovery (SPIR) and on-resonance MTC. The contrast determination time, the passing time of the center of k-space, was 1 min 50 s in 14 cases with key-hole imaging, and 2 min 46 s in 7 cases without key-hole imaging. Early enhancing area was considered as a tumor and an accuracy of tumor extent was evaluated by two radiologists. Accurate interpretation was obtained in 9 of 9 cases with atrophic mammary gland with fatty replacement and 3 of 3 cases with severe fibrosis in mammary gland. Seven cases were unclear in tumor margin due to intense enhancement of the adjacent tissue. One of 3 cases with normal mammary gland showed unclear margin of the tumor, which corresponded to the area of rich population of lobules in a young patient. Two of 2 cases of fibrocystic change with nonproliferative lesions in one case and proliferative lesions without atypia in another, showed unclear margin of tumor. Two cases of 2 intraductal spreading and 2 of 2 cases of massive interstitial invasion also showed unclear margin. The accuracy of tumor extent was found to have no correlation with either histology or enhancing ratio of the tumor. In conclusion, it is warranted to say that histology of adjacent tissue is an important factor to determine diagnostic capability of tumor extent by MRM. Fat replacement and fibrosis of the surrounding tissue are main causes of clear visualization of tumor, while normal mammary gland in young patients, fibrocystic change, intraductal spreading and invasion lead to the unclearness of tumor margin. (author)

  10. Correlation between diagnostic capability of MR-mammography and histology of tissue adjacent to tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Taro

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate correlation between the capability in the diagnosis of tumor extent and histology of adjacent tissue. MR-mammography (MRM) was obtained in twenty-one patients with surgically resected breast cancer by 0.5 T superconducting magnet (PHILIPS GY-ROSCAN T5-II, release 3.1). Pre and postcontrast 3D-spoiled gradient echo sequence were employed for MRM with spectral presaturation with inversion recovery (SPIR) and on-resonance MTC. The contrast determination time, the passing time of the center of k-space, was 1 min 50 s in 14 cases with key-hole imaging, and 2 min 46 s in 7 cases without key-hole imaging. Early enhancing area was considered as a tumor and an accuracy of tumor extent was evaluated by two radiologists. Accurate interpretation was obtained in 9 of 9 cases with atrophic mammary gland with fatty replacement and 3 of 3 cases with severe fibrosis in mammary gland. Seven cases were unclear in tumor margin due to intense enhancement of the adjacent tissue. One of 3 cases with normal mammary gland showed unclear margin of the tumor, which corresponded to the area of rich population of lobules in a young patient. Two of 2 cases of fibrocystic change with nonproliferative lesions in one case and proliferative lesions without atypia in another, showed unclear margin of tumor. Two cases of 2 intraductal spreading and 2 of 2 cases of massive interstitial invasion also showed unclear margin. The accuracy of tumor extent was found to have no correlation with either histology or enhancing ratio of the tumor. In conclusion, it is warranted to say that histology of adjacent tissue is an important factor to determine diagnostic capability of tumor extent by MRM. Fat replacement and fibrosis of the surrounding tissue are main causes of clear visualization of tumor, while normal mammary gland in young patients, fibrocystic change, intraductal spreading and invasion lead to the unclearness of tumor margin. (author)

  11. Analysis of angiogenic factors and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in cartilaginous tumors: clinical and histological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fontes Cintra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To study the role of angiogenesis and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in cartilaginous tumors and correlate these factors with prognosis. INTRODUCTION: For chondrosarcoma, the histological grade is the current standard for predicting tumor outcome. However, a low-grade chondrosarcoma can follow an aggressive course-as monitored by sequential imaging techniques-even when it is histologically indistinguishable from an enchondroma. Therefore, additional tools are needed to help identify the biological potential of these tumors. The degree of angiogenesis that is induced by the tumor could assist in this task. Angiogenesis can be quantified by measuring the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and CD34, and cyclooxygenase-2 can induce angiogenesis by stimulating the production of proangiogenic factors. METHODS: In total, 21 enchondromas and 58 conventional chondrosarcomas were studied by examining the clinical and histopathological findings in conjunction with the immunostaining markers of angiogenesis and cyclooxygenase- 2 expression. RESULTS: The significant variables that were associated with poor outcome were 1 higher-grade chondrosarcomas, 2 tumors that developed in flat bones, and 3 over-expression of CD34 (with a median count that was higher than 5.9 vessels in 5 high power fields. Moreover, CD34 expression (measured using the Chalkley method revealed significantly higher microvessel density in flat bone chondrosarcomas. DISCUSSION: Previous studies have shown a positive correlation between Chalkley microvessel density and histological grade; however, in our sample, we found that the former is predictive of the outcome. Chondrosarcomas in flat bones have been shown to correlate with a poor prognosis. We also found that CD34 microvessel density values were significantly higher in flat-bone chondrosarcomas. This could explain-at least in part-the more aggressive biological course that is taken by these tumors. CONCLUSIONS

  12. Immunohistochemical Expression of Ki67 and p53 in Wilms Tumor and Its Relationship with Tumor Histology and Stage at Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, O. H. Radhika; Kayla, Geetha; Abdul Aleem, Mohammed; Malleboyina, Ramani; Reddy Kota, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Evaluate tumor proliferation marker (Ki67) and p53 tumor suppressor marker in Wilms tumor and correlate with histology, anaplasia, and staging. Design. Prospective, hospital based study conducted at a tertiary pediatric referral centre in south India. Setting. Wilms tumor is the most common childhood renal malignancy worldwide. Anaplasia on histology is associated with treatment resistance but not with aggressiveness clinical presentation. Chemotherapy for Wilms tumor is based on histology and staging. Most patients respond to current chemotherapy protocol. However, a small fraction relapses or metastasizes. Affordable prognostic markers are needed for histopathological evaluation of this tumor. Subjects. Cases of histologically confirmed Wilms tumor over five years. Cases after chemotherapy were excluded as the immunostaining was inconsistent in necrotic areas. Methods. The clinical and radiological findings of 31 cases of Wilms tumor were documented at a tertiary pediatric referral hospital over five years. In addition to Hematoxylin and Eosin staining, Ki67 proliferation index and p53 expression were correlated with tumor histology and staging. Results. Age incidence was 3–8 years with female preponderance. Significant correlation was noted between Ki67 proliferation index and tumor staging. p53 expression was not useful in stratification of Wilms tumor. Conclusion. Ki67 was cost-effective immunohistochemical marker for prognostication of pediatric Wilms tumor. PMID:26904359

  13. Immunohistochemical Expression of Ki67 and p53 in Wilms Tumor and Its Relationship with Tumor Histology and Stage at Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. Radhika Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Evaluate tumor proliferation marker (Ki67 and p53 tumor suppressor marker in Wilms tumor and correlate with histology, anaplasia, and staging. Design. Prospective, hospital based study conducted at a tertiary pediatric referral centre in south India. Setting. Wilms tumor is the most common childhood renal malignancy worldwide. Anaplasia on histology is associated with treatment resistance but not with aggressiveness clinical presentation. Chemotherapy for Wilms tumor is based on histology and staging. Most patients respond to current chemotherapy protocol. However, a small fraction relapses or metastasizes. Affordable prognostic markers are needed for histopathological evaluation of this tumor. Subjects. Cases of histologically confirmed Wilms tumor over five years. Cases after chemotherapy were excluded as the immunostaining was inconsistent in necrotic areas. Methods. The clinical and radiological findings of 31 cases of Wilms tumor were documented at a tertiary pediatric referral hospital over five years. In addition to Hematoxylin and Eosin staining, Ki67 proliferation index and p53 expression were correlated with tumor histology and staging. Results. Age incidence was 3–8 years with female preponderance. Significant correlation was noted between Ki67 proliferation index and tumor staging. p53 expression was not useful in stratification of Wilms tumor. Conclusion. Ki67 was cost-effective immunohistochemical marker for prognostication of pediatric Wilms tumor.

  14. [Incidence of anaplastic tumor in structure of other histologic forms of the thyroid gland cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnik, Iu A; Gorbenko, V N; Vas'ko, A R; Kikhtenko, E V; Gargin, V V

    2014-01-01

    The degrees of invasiveness, proliferative activity, morphofunctional activity of nuclei in the thyroidal gland tumors were studied, while analyzing material, obtained in 1343 patients, suffering thyroidal gland cancer (THGC) and operated on in 2000-2013 yrs. Morphological point quantity of malignancy (as a criterion of the tumor progression grade) and mitotic activity in cellular population were determined in various kinds of THGC. Undifferentiated (anaplastic carcinoma) type of THGC is the most malignant one. There were determined a spindle-like, giant-cell and squamous-cell forms of undifferentiated THGC. The presence of sites of differentiated cancer in 33% of histological preparations witnesses the interrelationship with the earlier existed pathological process.

  15. Acquired Immune Resistance Follows Complete Tumor Regression without Loss of Target Antigens or IFN gamma Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; Harbst, Katja; van Buuren, Marit

    2017-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy can result in durable tumor regressions in some patients. However, patients who initially respond often experience tumor progression. Here, we report mechanistic evidence of tumoral immune escape in an exemplary clinical case: a patient with metastatic melanoma who developed ...

  16. Apoptosis in the transplanted canine transmissible venereal tumor during growth and regression phases Apoptose no tumor venéreo transmissível canino durante as fases de crescimento e regressão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G.A. Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Twelve male, mongrel, adult dogs were subcutaneously transplanted with cells originated from two canine transmissible venereal tumors (TVT. The aim was to demonstrate and to quantify the occurrence of apoptosis in the TVT regression. After six months of transplantation, a tumor sample was obtained from each dog, being six dogs with TVT in the growing phase and six in the regression phase as verified by daily measurements. Samples were processed for histological and ultrastructural purposes as well as for DNA extraction. Sections of 4µm were stained by HE, Shorr, methyl green pyronine, Van Gieson, TUNEL reaction and immunostained for P53. The Shorr stained sections went through morphometry that demonstrated an increase of the apoptotic cells per field in the regressive tumors. It was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, which showed cells with typical morphology of apoptosis and by the TUNEL reaction that detected in situ the 3'OH nick end labeling mainly in the regressive tumors. The regressive TVTs also showed an intensified immunostaining for P53 besides a more intense genomic DNA fragmentation detected by the agarose gel electrophoresis. In conclusion, apoptosis has an important role in the regression of the experimental TVT in a way that is P53-dependent.Doze cães, adultos, machos e sem raça definida foram transplantados subcutaneamente, na região hipogástrica, com células originadas de dois tumores venéreos transmissíveis caninos (TVT. O objetivo do estudo foi demonstrar e quantificar a ocorrência de apoptose na regressão do TVT. Após seis meses, foi obtido um tumor de cada animal, totalizando seis em crescimento e seis em regressão. Fragmentos dos tumores foram processados para avaliação histológica, ultra-estrutural e também para extração de DNA. Cortes de 4µm foram corados em HE, Shorr, verde de metila pironina e Van Gieson e alguns foram submetidos à reação do TUNEL e à imunoistoquímica para P53

  17. Histology-specific therapy for advanced soft tissue sarcoma and benign connective tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Ann W; Schuetze, Scott M

    2012-09-01

    Molecularly targeted agents have shown activity in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and benign connective tissue tumors over the past ten years, but response rates differ by histologic subtype. The field of molecularly targeted agents in sarcoma is increasingly complex. Often, clinicians must rely on phase II data or even case series due to the rarity of these diseases. In subtypes with a clear role of specific factors in the pathophysiology of disease, such as giant cell tumor of the bone and diffuse-type tenosynovial giant cell tumor, it is reasonable to treat with newer targeted therapies, when available, in place of chemotherapy when systemic treatment is needed to control disease. In diseases without documented implication of a pathway in disease pathogenesis (e.g. soft tissue sarcoma and vascular endothelial growth factor), clear benefit from drug treatment should be established in randomized phase III trials before implementation into routine clinical practice. Histologic subtype will continue to emerge as a critical factor in treatment selection as we learn more about the molecular drivers of tumor growth and survival in different subtypes. Many of the drugs that have been recently developed affect tumor growth more than survival, therefore progression-free survival may be a more clinically relevant intermediate endpoint than objective response rate using Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) in early phase sarcoma trials. Because of the rarity of disease and increasing need for multidisciplinary management, patients with connective tissue tumors should be evaluated at a center with expertise in these diseases. Participation in clinical trials, when available, is highly encouraged.

  18. Correlation between dose and tumor response in the radiotherapy of lung cancer of various histological types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Kenji; Kusuhara, Toshiyuki; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Asada, Keiko; Watanabe, Katsushi

    1984-01-01

    Correlation between dose and tumor response by cell types was determined in 50 patients with lung cancer in order to predict the possibility of further tumor regression. The TDF (time-dose-fractionation) concept was used as dose factor. The radiation source was a cobalt-60 γ-ray or linear accelerator 10 MV X-ray. As a routine regime a fraction dose of 2 Gy five times per week was given to 39 of the 50 patients, but a dose of 2 Gy three times per week or of 1.5 Gy five times per week was given to seven and four patients, respectively. Radiation response was the best in small cell carcinoma and better in adenocarcinoma than in squamous cell carcinoma, showing a tumor regression rate of 50% or more in 90%, 80% and 58% of the patients, respectively. The correlation between tumor regression rate and TDF values was good in squamous cell carcinoma (r = 0.73) and small cell carcinoma (r = - 0.72), but poor in adenocarcinoma (r = - 0.10). These results suggest that in squamous cell carcinoma improvement of tumor regression can be expected by increasing TDF values, and in adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma the optimal TDF values are about 100 and 60 to 80, respectively. (author)

  19. Significant histologic features differentiating cellular fibroadenoma from phyllodes tumor on core needle biopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasir, Saba; Gamez, Roberto; Jenkins, Sarah; Visscher, Daniel W; Nassar, Aziza

    2014-09-01

    Cellular fibroepithelial lesions (CFELs) are a heterogeneous group of tumors encompassing cellular fibroadenoma (CFA) and phyllodes tumor (PT). Distinction between the two is challenging on core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens. The objective of this study was to evaluate histologic features that can help distinguish PT from CFA on CNB specimens. Records of all patients diagnosed with CFELs on CNB specimens with follow-up excision between January 2002 and December 2012 were retrieved. Histopathologic stromal features were evaluated on CNB specimens, including mitoses per 10 high-power fields (hpf), overgrowth, increased cellularity, fragmentation, adipose tissue infiltration, heterogeneity, subepithelial condensation, and nuclear pleomorphism. Twenty-seven (42.2%) of 64 were diagnosed as PT (24 benign PTs and three borderline PTs) and 37 (57.8%) as CFA on excision. All features except for increased stromal cellularity were statistically significant. The average number of histologic features seen in PT and CFA was 3.9 and 1.4, respectively (odds ratio [OR], 7.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.44-21.69; P = .0004). The average number of mitoses per 10 hpf was 3.0 for PT compared with 0.8 for CFA (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.18-3.86; P = .01). The presence of mitoses (three or more) and/or total histologic features of three or more on CNB specimens were the most helpful features in predicting PT on excision. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  20. Significant Histological Features Differentiating Cellular Fibroadenoma from Phyllodes Tumor on Core Needle Biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasir, Saba; Gamez, Roberto; Jenkins, Sarah; Visscher, Daniel W.; Nassar, Aziza

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Cellular fibroepithelial lesions (CFEL) are a heterogeneous group of tumors encompassing cellular fibroadenoma (CFA) and phyllodes tumor (PT). Distinction between the two is challenging on core needle biopsy (CNB). The objective of this study was to evaluate histological features that can help distinguish PT from CFA on CNB. Methods Records of all patients diagnosed with CFEL on CNB with follow-up excision between 2002 and 2012 were retrieved. Histopathological stromal features were evaluated on CNB including mitoses per 10 HPF, overgrowth, increased cellularity, fragmentation, adipose tissue infiltration, heterogeneity, subepithelial condensation, and nuclear pleomorphism. Results Twenty-seven of 64 (42.2%) were diagnosed as PT (24 BPT, 3 borderline PT) and 37 (57.8%) as CFA on excision. All features except for increased stromal cellularity were statistically significant. The average number of histologic features seen in PT and CFA was 3.9 and 1.4, respectively (OR 7.27; 95% CI: 2.44, 21.69; p= 0.0004). The average mitoses per 10 HPF was 3.0 for PT as compared to 0.8 for CFA (OR 2.14; 95% CI: 1.18, 3.86; p= 0.01). Conclusions The presence of mitosis (3 or more) and/or total histologic features of 3 or more on CNB were most helpful features in predicting PT on excision. PMID:25125627

  1. Ghost cells in pilomatrixoma, craniopharyngioma, and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor: histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumayor, Alicia; Carlos, Román; Kirsch, Hernán Molina; de Andrade, Bruno A Benevenuto; Romañach, Mario J; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2015-04-01

    Pilomatrixoma, craniopharyngioma, and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor are the main entities presenting ghost cells as an important histological feature, in spite their quite different clinical presentation; it seems that they share a common pathway in the formation of these cells. The aim of this study is to examine and compare the characteristics of ghost and other cells that form these lesions. Forty-three cases including 21 pilomatrixomas, 14 craniopharyngiomas, and eight calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for cytokeratins, CD138, β-catenin, D2-40, Glut-1, FAS, CD10 and also by scanning electron microscopy. The CKs, CD138, β-catenin, Glut-1, FAS, and CD10 were more often expressed by transitional cells of craniopharyngioma and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor, compared with pilomatrixoma. Basaloid cells of pilomatrixoma showed strong positivity for CD138 and CD10. Differences on expression pattern were identified in transitional and basal cells, as ghost cells were negative for most antibodies used, except by low expression for cytokeratins. By scanning electron microscopy, the morphology of ghost cells were similar in their fibrillar cytoplasm, but their pattern varied from sheets in pilomatrixoma to small clusters in craniopharyngioma and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor. Mechanisms involved in formation of ghost cells are unknown, but probably they follow different pathways as protein expression in the basal/transitional cells was not uniform in the three tumors studied. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Glypican-3 mRNA expression level in Wilms tumor: correlation with histological type, stage, and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wari, Md Nahidul; Vallonthaiel, Archana George; Ahmed, Aijaz; Saxena, Deepali; Iyer, Venkateswaran K; Mathur, Sandeep R; Agarwala, Sandeep; Bakhshi, Sameer; Srinivas, V; Chattopadhyaya, P; Sharma, Arundhati; Gupta, S Datta; Dinda, Amit

    2017-06-01

    To correlate expression of Glypican-3 in Wilms tumor with histopathology, stage, and outcome. Glypican-3 mRNA expression by real-time PCR on tumor and normal germline samples from 75 fresh nephrectomies for Wilms tumor with fold change after normalization against GAPDH was compared. Survival analysis for event-free and overall survival (EFS, OS) with 2-year follow-up for Glypican-3 overexpression (>1.5 times) and clinicopathological parameters was performed. Glypican-3 was overexpressed in 37/75 (49.3%). It was overexpressed in 77% (10/13) cases with blastema predominance or anaplastic histology, as compared to 44% of other histologies (27/62) (p = 0.03). OS was 73 and 93%, respectively (p = 0.016), for those with and without GPC-3 overexpression. EFS was not significantly different with Glypican-3 overexpression (p = 0.11). All 5 deaths among blastema predominant tumors and 4/5 deaths among triphasic tumors had overexpressed Glypican-3. Most deaths in Stage IV, Stage III, and Stage I + II (5/7, 3/3, 1/1) had GPC-3 overexpression. On multivariate analysis, only histology and stage were found to have independent prognostic value. Glypican-3 overexpression in Wilms tumor correlates with poor OS on univariate analysis. However, only histology and stage have independent prognostic value. Glypican-3 levels may help to stratify intermediate outcome histology (triphasic) and Stage III Wilms tumors.

  3. On Predicting lung cancer subtypes using ‘omic’ data from tumor and tumor-adjacent histologically-normal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda, Arturo López; Ogoe, Henry Ato; Balasubramanian, Jeya Balaji; Rangel Escareño, Claudia; Visweswaran, Shyam; Herman, James Gordon; Gopalakrishnan, Vanathi

    2016-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most prevalent histological types among lung cancers. Distinguishing between these subtypes is critically important because they have different implications for prognosis and treatment. Normally, histopathological analyses are used to distinguish between the two, where the tissue samples are collected based on small endoscopic samples or needle aspirations. However, the lack of cell architecture in these small tissue samples hampers the process of distinguishing between the two subtypes. Molecular profiling can also be used to discriminate between the two lung cancer subtypes, on condition that the biopsy is composed of at least 50 % of tumor cells. However, for some cases, the tissue composition of a biopsy might be a mix of tumor and tumor-adjacent histologically normal tissue (TAHN). When this happens, a new biopsy is required, with associated cost, risks and discomfort to the patient. To avoid this problem, we hypothesize that a computational method can distinguish between lung cancer subtypes given tumor and TAHN tissue. Using publicly available datasets for gene expression and DNA methylation, we applied four classification tasks, depending on the possible combinations of tumor and TAHN tissue. First, we used a feature selector (ReliefF/Limma) to select relevant variables, which were then used to build a simple naïve Bayes classification model. Then, we evaluated the classification performance of our models by measuring the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Finally, we analyzed the relevance of the selected genes using hierarchical clustering and IPA® software for gene functional analysis. All Bayesian models achieved high classification performance (AUC > 0.94), which were confirmed by hierarchical cluster analysis. From the genes selected, 25 (93 %) were found to be related to cancer (19 were associated with ADC or SCC), confirming the biological relevance of our

  4. MALIGNANT TUMORS OF BONES. MORBIDITY, MORTALITY, INDEX ACCURACY, SURVIVAL OF PATIENTS ACCORDING TO HISTOLOGICAL FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Merabishvili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Standardized (world standard incidence of malignant tumors of bones (S40,41 does not have has significant fluctuations. According to IARC among male population the most common incidence rates range from 1 to 2 cases per 100.000 and among female population – from 0.5 to 1.0 among women.  Purpose of study. To study dynamics of morbidity and mortality from malignant tumors of bones, the quality of estimation, observed and relative survival of patients according to histological forms. The work of this level is held in Russia for the first time. Material and methods of study. There were used an open world and domestic sources to estimate the prevalence of malignant tumors of bones, databases of population-based cancer registers, classical methods of population-based estimation of the prevalence of malignant tumors of bones. results of study. The basis of this work is data from the Population-based Cancer Registry of St. Petersburg and special studies being held before its establishing in 1993. Annually in St. Petersburg there are registered 40–60 primary cases of malignant tumors of bones (S40, 41. The level of morphological verification of these malignancies in Russia is 82.1 %, in St. Petersburg – 84.9 %. There is a high rate of undefined stage: in Russia – 19.7 %, in St. Petersburg – 24.5 %, in Moscow – 23.5 %. During the first year of observation 27.3 % of patients die in Russia, 21.7 % in St. Petersburg, and 11.1 % in Moscow. In comparison with the average data (Eurocare program the relative survival of patients in St. Petersburg is significantly lower: in men (St. Petersburg – 42.2–48.2 %, (Eurocare-3,4 – 55–58 %, in women (St. Petersburg – 32.2–54.6 % (Eurocare – 59–63 %. conclusion. Thus, in this work for the first time in Russia it is showed dynamics of absolute and relative incidence rates of malignant tumors of bones since 1980 by sex and age-specific indicators. It is presented a set of

  5. Combining PET/CT with serum tumor markers to improve the evaluation of histological type of suspicious lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rifeng; Dong, Ximin; Zhu, Wenzhen; Duan, Qing; Xue, Yunjing; Shen, Yanxia; Zhang, Guopeng

    2017-01-01

    Histological type is important for determining the management of patients with suspicious lung cancers. In this study, PET/CT combined with serum tumor markers were used to evaluate the histological type of lung lesions. Patients with suspicious lung cancers underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT and serum tumor markers detection. SUVmax of the tumor and serum levels of tumor markers were acquired. Differences in SUVmax and serum levels of tumor markers among different histological types of lung cancers and between EGFR mutation statues of adenocarcinoma were compared. The diagnostic efficiencies of SUVmax alone, each serum tumor marker alone, combined tumor markers and the combination of both methods were further assessed and compared. SCC had the highest level of SUVmax, followed by SCLC and adenocarcinoma, and benign lesions had a lowest level. CYFRA21-1 and SCC-Ag were significantly higher in SCC, NSE was significantly higher in SCLC (Ptumor marker or SUVmax alone. When combined, the AUC, sensitivity and specificity increased significantly (Ptumor markers (P>0.05 for all). SUVmax and serum tumor markers show values in evaluating the histological types of suspicious lung cancers. When properly combined, the diagnostic efficiency can increase significantly.

  6. Quantification of tumor morphology via 3D histology: application to oral cavity cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Scott; Brandwein-Gensler, Margaret; Tomaszewski, John

    2016-03-01

    Traditional histopathology quantifies disease through the study of glass slides, i.e. two-dimensional samples that are representative of the overall process. We hypothesize that 3D reconstruction can enhance our understanding of histopathologic interpretations. To test this hypothesis, we perform a pilot study of the risk model for oral cavity cancer (OCC), which stratifies patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk for locoregional disease-free survival. Classification is based on study of hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained tissues sampled from the resection specimens. In this model, the Worst Pattern of Invasion (WPOI) is assessed, representing specific architectural features at the interface between cancer and non-cancer tissue. Currently, assessment of WPOI is based on 2D sections of tissue, representing complex 3D structures of tumor growth. We believe that by reconstructing a 3D model of tumor growth and quantifying the tumor-host interface, we can obtain important diagnostic information that is difficult to assess in 2D. Therefore, we introduce a pilot study framework for visualizing tissue architecture and morphology in 3D from serial sections of histopathology. This framework can be used to enhance predictive models for diseases where severity is determined by 3D biological structure. In this work we utilize serial H and E-stained OCC resections obtained from 7 patients exhibiting WPOI-3 (low risk of recurrence) through WPOI-5 (high risk of recurrence). A supervised classifier automatically generates a map of tumor regions on each slide, which are then co-registered using an elastic deformation algorithm. A smooth 3D model of the tumor region is generated from the registered maps, which is suitable for quantitative tumor interface morphology feature extraction. We report our preliminary models created with this system and suggest further enhancements to traditional histology scoring mechanisms that take spatial architecture into consideration.

  7. Assessment of Canine Mast Cell Tumor Mortality Risk Based on Clinical, Histologic, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Rodrigo S; Lavalle, Gleidice E; Monteiro, Lidianne N; Souza, Mayara C C; Cassali, Geovanni D; Araújo, Roberto B

    2018-03-01

    Mast cell tumor (MCT) is a frequent cutaneous neoplasm in dogs that is heterogeneous in clinical presentation and biological behavior, with a variable potential for recurrence and metastasis. Accurate prediction of clinical outcomes has been challenging. The study objective was to develop a system for classification of canine MCT according to the mortality risk based on individual assessment of clinical, histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features. The study included 149 dogs with a histologic diagnosis of cutaneous or subcutaneous MCT. By univariate analysis, MCT metastasis and related death was significantly associated with clinical stage ( P < .0001, r P = -0.610), history of tumor recurrence ( P < .0001, r P = -0.550), Patnaik ( P < .0001, r P = -0.380) and Kiupel grades ( P < .0001, r P = -0.500), predominant organization of neoplastic cells ( P < .0001, r P = -0.452), mitotic count ( P < .0001, r P = -0.325), Ki-67 labeling index ( P < .0001, r P = -0.414), KITr pattern ( P = .02, r P = 0.207), and c-KIT mutational status ( P < .0001, r P = -0.356). By multivariate analysis with Cox proportional hazard model, only 2 features were independent predictors of overall survival: an amendment of the World Health Organization clinical staging system (hazard ratio [95% CI]: 1.824 [1.210-4.481]; P = .01) and a history of tumor recurrence (hazard ratio [95% CI]: 9.250 [2.158-23.268]; P < .001]. From these results, we propose an amendment of the WHO staging system, a method of risk analysis, and a suggested approach to clinical and laboratory evaluation of dogs with cutaneous MCT.

  8. [Histological diagnosis of bone tumors: Guidelines of the French committee of bone pathologists reference network on bone tumors (RESOS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galant, Christine; Bouvier, Corinne; Larousserie, Frédérique; Aubert, Sébastien; Audard, Virginie; Brouchet, Anne; Marie, Béatrice; Guinebretière, Jean-Marc; de Pinieux du Bouexic, Gonzague

    2018-04-01

    The management of patients having a bone lesion requires in many cases the realization of a histological sample in order to obtain a diagnosis. However, with the technological evolution, CT-guided biopsies are performed more frequently, often in outpatient clinics. Interpretation of these biopsies constitutes new challenges for the pathologists within the wide spectrum of bone entities. The purpose of the document is to propose guidelines based on the experience of the French committee of bone pathologists of the reference network on bone tumors (RESOS) regarding the indications and limitations of the diagnosis on restricted material. Copyright © 2018 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Nectin-4 is a new histological and serological tumor associated marker for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre-Lafay, Stéphanie; Geneix, Jeannine; Lecocq, Eric; Popovici, Cornel; Dubreuil, Patrice; Viens, Patrice; Gonçalves, Anthony; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Birnbaum, Daniel; Lopez, Marc; Monville, Florence; Garrido-Urbani, Sarah; Berruyer-Pouyet, Carole; Ginestier, Christophe; Reymond, Nicolas; Finetti, Pascal; Sauvan, Richard; Adélaïde, José

    2007-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease at the molecular level. Evolution is difficult to predict according to classical histoclinical prognostic factors. Different studies highlight the importance of large-scale molecular expression analyses to improve taxonomy of breast cancer and prognostic classification. Identification of new molecular markers that refine this taxonomy and improve patient management is a priority in the field of breast cancer research. Nectins are cell adhesion molecules involved in the regulation of epithelial physiology. We present here Nectin-4/PVRL4 as a new histological and serological tumor associated marker for breast carcinoma. Expression of Nectin-4 protein was measured on a panel of 78 primary cells and cell lines from different origins and 57 breast tumors by FACS analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. mRNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR. Serum Nectin-4 was detected by ELISA and compared with CEA and CA15.3 markers, on panels of 45 sera from healthy donors, 53 sera from patients with non-metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC) at diagnosis, and 182 sera from patients with MBC. Distribution of histological/serological molecular markers and histoclinical parameters were compared using the standard Chi-2 test. Nectin-4 was not detected in normal breast epithelium. By contrast, Nectin-4 was expressed in 61% of ductal breast carcinoma vs 6% in lobular type. Expression of Nectin-4 strongly correlated with the basal-like markers EGFR, P53, and P-cadherin, and negatively correlated with the luminal-like markers ER, PR and GATA3. All but one ER/PR-negative tumors expressed Nectin-4. The detection of Nectin-4 in serum improves the follow-up of patients with MBC: the association CEA/CA15.3/Nectin-4 allowed to monitor 74% of these patients compared to 67% with the association CEA/CA15.3. Serum Nectin-4 is a marker of disease progression, and levels correlate with the number of metastases (P = 0.038). Serum

  10. Nectin-4 is a new histological and serological tumor associated marker for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauvan Richard

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease at the molecular level. Evolution is difficult to predict according to classical histoclinical prognostic factors. Different studies highlight the importance of large-scale molecular expression analyses to improve taxonomy of breast cancer and prognostic classification. Identification of new molecular markers that refine this taxonomy and improve patient management is a priority in the field of breast cancer research. Nectins are cell adhesion molecules involved in the regulation of epithelial physiology. We present here Nectin-4/PVRL4 as a new histological and serological tumor associated marker for breast carcinoma. Methods Expression of Nectin-4 protein was measured on a panel of 78 primary cells and cell lines from different origins and 57 breast tumors by FACS analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC, respectively. mRNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR. Serum Nectin-4 was detected by ELISA and compared with CEA and CA15.3 markers, on panels of 45 sera from healthy donors, 53 sera from patients with non-metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC at diagnosis, and 182 sera from patients with MBC. Distribution of histological/serological molecular markers and histoclinical parameters were compared using the standard Chi-2 test. Results Nectin-4 was not detected in normal breast epithelium. By contrast, Nectin-4 was expressed in 61% of ductal breast carcinoma vs 6% in lobular type. Expression of Nectin-4 strongly correlated with the basal-like markers EGFR, P53, and P-cadherin, and negatively correlated with the luminal-like markers ER, PR and GATA3. All but one ER/PR-negative tumors expressed Nectin-4. The detection of Nectin-4 in serum improves the follow-up of patients with MBC: the association CEA/CA15.3/Nectin-4 allowed to monitor 74% of these patients compared to 67% with the association CEA/CA15.3. Serum Nectin-4 is a marker of disease progression, and levels

  11. Shigella mediated depletion of macrophages in a murine breast cancer model is associated with tumor regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Galmbacher

    Full Text Available A tumor promoting role of macrophages has been described for a transgenic murine breast cancer model. In this model tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs represent a major component of the leukocytic infiltrate and are associated with tumor progression. Shigella flexneri is a bacterial pathogen known to specificly induce apotosis in macrophages. To evaluate whether Shigella-induced removal of macrophages may be sufficient for achieving tumor regression we have developed an attenuated strain of S. flexneri (M90TDeltaaroA and infected tumor bearing mice. Two mouse models were employed, xenotransplantation of a murine breast cancer cell line and spontanous breast cancer development in MMTV-HER2 transgenic mice. Quantitative analysis of bacterial tumor targeting demonstrated that attenuated, invasive Shigella flexneri primarily infected TAMs after systemic administration. A single i.v. injection of invasive M90TDeltaaroA resulted in caspase-1 dependent apoptosis of TAMs followed by a 74% reduction in tumors of transgenic MMTV-HER-2 mice 7 days post infection. TAM depletion was sustained and associated with complete tumor regression.These data support TAMs as useful targets for antitumor therapy and highlight attenuated bacterial pathogens as potential tools.

  12. Nuclear morphometry and prognosis in favorable histology Wilms' tumor: A prospective reevaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslow, N E; Partin, A W; Lee, B R; Guthrie, K A; Beckwith, J B; Green, D M

    1999-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the ability of a previously published nuclear morphometry discriminant function to predict disease-free survival in patients with Wilms' tumor. We identified 218 patients with stage I-IV Wilms' tumor of favorable histology who were entered onto the National Wilms' Tumor Study (NWTS) between January 1, 1990 and April 15, 1994. The nuclear morphometry score was calculated for each patient as follows: MV(f) = (0.02 x AGE) + (1.17 x SNRF) + (90.6 x LEFD) - 94, with AGE denoting age at diagnosis in months, SNRF the skewness of the nuclear roundness factor, and LEFD the lowest value of nuclear ellipticity as measured by the feret diameter method. Relative risks of relapse were estimated for the total score and for each of its components. Sensitivity and specificity were determined for the criterion of "MV(f) is greater than -0.35" as a predictor of relapse. By contrast with previously published results, neither the SNRF nor the LEFD made any contribution to the prediction of disease-free survival. Sensitivity and specificity of the criterion of "MV(f) is greater than -0.35" were 71% and 56%, respectively. Re-evaluation of a published nuclear morphometry score showed that it did not predict disease-free survival in patients with Wilms' tumor. The earlier study very likely overestimated the predictive power of nuclear morphometry by using the same data set both to develop the score and to evaluate its properties. Because of the huge number of combinations of nuclear morphometry measurements that may enter into the multivariate discriminant function, use of appropriate statistical methods is essential to estimate accurately the sensitivity and specificity.

  13. Histological-subtypes and anatomical location correlated in meningeal brain tumors (meningiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Not enough literature is available to suggest a link between the histological subtypes of intracranial meningeal brain tumors, called ′meningiomas′ and their location of origin. Aim: The evidence of correlation between the anatomical location of the intracranial meningiomas and the histopathological grades will facilitate specific diagnosis and accurate treatment. Materials and Methods: The retrospective study was conducted in a single high-patient-inflow Neurosurgical Center, under a standard and uniform medical protocol, over a period of 30 years from December 1982 to December 2012. The records of all the operated 729 meningiomas were analyzed from the patient files in the Medical Records Department. The biodata, x-rays, angiography, computed tomography (CT scans, imaging, histopathological reports, and mortality were evaluated and results drawn. Results: The uncommon histopathological types of meningiomas (16.88% had common locations of origin in the sphenoid ridge, posterior parafalcine, jugular foramen, peritorcular and intraventricular regions, cerebellopontine angle, and tentorial and petroclival areas. The histopathological World Health Organization (WHO Grade I (Benign Type meningiomas were noted in 89.30%, WHO Grade II (Atypical Type in 5.90%, and WHO Grade III (Malignant Type in 4.80% of all meningiomas. Meningiomas of 64.60% were found in females, 47.32% were in the age group of 41-50 years, and 3.43% meningiomas were found in children. An overall mortality of 6.04% was noted. WHO Grade III (malignant meningiomas carried a high mortality (25.71% and the most common sites of meningiomas with high mortality were: The cerebellopontine angles, intraventricular region, sphenoid ridge, tuberculum sellae, and the posterior parafalcine areas. Conclusion: The correlation between the histological subtypes and the anatomical location of intracranial meningeal brain tumors, called meningiomas, is evident, but further research is

  14. Prognostic value of tumor regression evaluated after first course of radiotherapy for anal canal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapet, Olivier; Gerard, Jean-Pierre; Riche, Benjamin; Alessio, Annunziato; Mornex, Francoise; Romestaing, Pascale

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the tumor response after an initial course of irradiation predicts for colostomy-free survival and overall survival in patients with anal canal cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1980 and 1998, 252 patients were treated by pelvic external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) followed by a brachytherapy boost in 218 or EBRT in 34. EBRT was combined with chemotherapy in 168 patients. An evaluation of tumor regression, before the boost, was available for 221 patients. They were divided into four groups according to the tumor response: 80% but 80% vs. ≤80%. The group with a T3-T4 lesion and tumor regression ≤80% had the poorest overall (52.8% ± 12.3%), disease-free (19.9% ± 9.9%), and colostomy-free survival (24.8% ± 11.2%) rates. Conclusion: The amount of tumor regression before EBRT or brachytherapy boost is a strong prognostic factor of disease control without colostomy. When regression is ≤80% in patients with an initial T3-T4 lesion, the use of conservative RT should be carefully evaluated because of the very poor disease-free and colostomy-free survival

  15. Detection of high GS risk group prostate tumors by diffusion tensor imaging and logistic regression modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertas, Gokhan

    2018-07-01

    To assess the value of joint evaluation of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures by using logistic regression modelling to detect high GS risk group prostate tumors. Fifty tumors imaged using DTI on a 3 T MRI device were analyzed. Regions of interests focusing on the center of tumor foci and noncancerous tissue on the maps of mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were used to extract the minimum, the maximum and the mean measures. Measure ratio was computed by dividing tumor measure by noncancerous tissue measure. Logistic regression models were fitted for all possible pair combinations of the measures using 5-fold cross validation. Systematic differences are present for all MD measures and also for all FA measures in distinguishing the high risk tumors [GS ≥ 7(4 + 3)] from the low risk tumors [GS ≤ 7(3 + 4)] (P Logistic regression modelling provides a favorable solution for the joint evaluations easily adoptable in clinical practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment in cherubism--clinical, radiological and histological findings in two children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hero, M; Suomalainen, A; Hagström, J; Stoor, P; Kontio, R; Alapulli, H; Arte, S; Toiviainen-Salo, S; Lahdenne, P; Mäkitie, O

    2013-01-01

    Cherubism is a rare and disfiguring genetic disorder with excessive bone resorption and multilocular lesions in the mandible and/or maxilla. The disease-causing gain-of-function mutations in the SH3-binding protein 2 (SH3BP2) gene result in increased myeloid cell responses to macrophage colony stimulating factor and RANK ligand, formation of hyperactive osteoclasts (giant cells), and hyper-reactive macrophages that produce excessive amounts of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Recent findings in the cherubism mouse model suggest that TNF-α plays a major role in disease pathogenesis and that removal of TNF-α prevents development of the bone phenotype. We treated two children with cherubism with the TNF-α antagonist adalimumab for approximately 2.5 years and collected extensive clinical, radiological and histological follow-up data during the treatment. Histologically the treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the number of multinucleated giant cells and TNF-α staining positivity in both patients. As evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, the lesions in Patient 1 showed either moderate enlargement (mandibular symphysis) or remained stable (mandibular rami and body, the maxilla). In Patient 2, the lesions in mandibular symphysis showed enlargement during the first 8 months of treatment, and thereafter the lesions remained unchanged. Bone formation and resorption markers remained unaffected. The treatment was well tolerated. Based on our findings, TNF-α antagonist may decrease the formation of pathogenic giant cells, but does not result in lesion regression or prevent lesion expansion in active cherubism. TNF-α modulator treatment thus does not appear to provide sufficient amelioration for patients suffering from cherubism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cloning and Characterizing Genes Involved in Monoterpene Induced Mammary Tumor Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    AD GRANT NUMBER DAMDI7-94-J-4041 TITLE: Cloning and Characterizing Genes Involved in Monoterpene Induced Mammary Tumor Regression PRINCIPAL...October 1996 Annual (1 Sep 95 - 31 Aug 96) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Cloning and Characterizing Genes Involved in Monoterpene Induced... Monoterpene -induced/repressed genes were identified in regressing rat mammary carcinomas treated with dietary limonene using a newly developed method

  18. Correlation between tumor regression grade and rectal volume in neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hong Seok; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won; Yu, Jeong Il; Chung, Kwang Zoo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To determine whether large rectal volume on planning computed tomography (CT) results in lower tumor regression grade (TRG) after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in rectal cancer patients. We reviewed medical records of 113 patients treated with surgery following neoadjuvant CCRT for rectal cancer between January and December 2012. Rectal volume was contoured on axial images in which gross tumor volume was included. Average axial rectal area (ARA) was defined as rectal volume divided by longitudinal tumor length. The impact of rectal volume and ARA on TRG was assessed. Average rectal volume and ARA were 11.3 mL and 2.9 cm². After completion of neoadjuvant CCRT in 113 patients, pathologic results revealed total regression (TRG 4) in 28 patients (25%), good regression (TRG 3) in 25 patients (22%), moderate regression (TRG 2) in 34 patients (30%), minor regression (TRG 1) in 24 patients (21%), and no regression (TRG0) in 2 patients (2%). No difference of rectal volume and ARA was found between each TRG groups. Linear correlation existed between rectal volume and TRG (p = 0.036) but not between ARA and TRG (p = 0.058). Rectal volume on planning CT has no significance on TRG in patients receiving neoadjuvant CCRT for rectal cancer. These results indicate that maintaining minimal rectal volume before each treatment may not be necessary.

  19. Correlation between tumor regression grade and rectal volume in neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hong Seok; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won; Yu, Jeong Il; Chung, Kwang Zoo

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether large rectal volume on planning computed tomography (CT) results in lower tumor regression grade (TRG) after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in rectal cancer patients. We reviewed medical records of 113 patients treated with surgery following neoadjuvant CCRT for rectal cancer between January and December 2012. Rectal volume was contoured on axial images in which gross tumor volume was included. Average axial rectal area (ARA) was defined as rectal volume divided by longitudinal tumor length. The impact of rectal volume and ARA on TRG was assessed. Average rectal volume and ARA were 11.3 mL and 2.9 cm². After completion of neoadjuvant CCRT in 113 patients, pathologic results revealed total regression (TRG 4) in 28 patients (25%), good regression (TRG 3) in 25 patients (22%), moderate regression (TRG 2) in 34 patients (30%), minor regression (TRG 1) in 24 patients (21%), and no regression (TRG0) in 2 patients (2%). No difference of rectal volume and ARA was found between each TRG groups. Linear correlation existed between rectal volume and TRG (p = 0.036) but not between ARA and TRG (p = 0.058). Rectal volume on planning CT has no significance on TRG in patients receiving neoadjuvant CCRT for rectal cancer. These results indicate that maintaining minimal rectal volume before each treatment may not be necessary

  20. Computed tomography in the evaluation of malignant pleural mesothelioma-Association of tumor size to a sarcomatoid histology, a more advanced TNM stage and poor survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paajanen, Juuso; Laaksonen, Sanna; Ilonen, Ilkka; Wolff, Henrik; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Kuosma, Eeva; Ollila, Hely; Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Vehmas, Tapio

    2018-02-01

    Appropriate clinical staging of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is critical for correct treatment decisions. Newly revised TNM staging protocol has been released for MPM. We investigated baseline computed tomography (CT) characteristics of MPM patients, the new staging system and a simple tumor size (TS) assessment in terms of survival. As part of our study that included all MPM patients diagnosed in Finland 2000-2012, we retrospectively reviewed 161 CT scans of MPM patients diagnosed between 2007 and 2012 in the Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa. TS was estimated by using the maximal tumor thickness and grading tumor extension along the chest wall. Cox Regression models were used to identify relationships between survival, clinicopathological factors and CT-findings. The median length of follow-up was 9.7 months and the median survival 9.1 months. The right sided tumors tended to be more advanced at baseline and had worse prognosis in the univariate analyses. In the multivariate survival model, TS, pleural effusion along with non-epithelioid histology were predictors of poor survival. Tumor size correlated significantly with a sarcomatoid histopathological finding and several parameters linked to a more advanced TNM stage. Most patients were diagnosed with locally advanced stage, while 12 (7%) had no sign of the tumor in CT. In this study, we demonstrate a novel approach for MPM tumor size evaluation that has a strong relationship with mortality, sarcomatoid histology and TNM stage groups. TS could be used for prognostic purposes and it may be a useful method for assessing therapy responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Predicting respiratory tumor motion with multi-dimensional adaptive filters and support vector regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, Nadeem; Wiersma, Rodney; Mao Weihua; Xing Lei; Shanker, Piyush; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Widrow, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Intra-fraction tumor tracking methods can improve radiation delivery during radiotherapy sessions. Image acquisition for tumor tracking and subsequent adjustment of the treatment beam with gating or beam tracking introduces time latency and necessitates predicting the future position of the tumor. This study evaluates the use of multi-dimensional linear adaptive filters and support vector regression to predict the motion of lung tumors tracked at 30 Hz. We expand on the prior work of other groups who have looked at adaptive filters by using a general framework of a multiple-input single-output (MISO) adaptive system that uses multiple correlated signals to predict the motion of a tumor. We compare the performance of these two novel methods to conventional methods like linear regression and single-input, single-output adaptive filters. At 400 ms latency the average root-mean-square-errors (RMSEs) for the 14 treatment sessions studied using no prediction, linear regression, single-output adaptive filter, MISO and support vector regression are 2.58, 1.60, 1.58, 1.71 and 1.26 mm, respectively. At 1 s, the RMSEs are 4.40, 2.61, 3.34, 2.66 and 1.93 mm, respectively. We find that support vector regression most accurately predicts the future tumor position of the methods studied and can provide a RMSE of less than 2 mm at 1 s latency. Also, a multi-dimensional adaptive filter framework provides improved performance over single-dimension adaptive filters. Work is underway to combine these two frameworks to improve performance.

  2. Virtual microscopy: an evaluation of its validity and diagnostic performance in routine histologic diagnosis of skin tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Patricia Switten; Lindebjerg, Jan; Rasmussen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Digitization of histologic slides is associated with many advantages, and its use in routine diagnosis holds great promise. Nevertheless, few articles evaluate virtual microscopy in routine settings. This study is an evaluation of the validity and diagnostic performance of virtual microscopy...... in routine histologic diagnosis of skin tumors. Our aim is to investigate whether conventional microscopy of skin tumors can be replaced by virtual microscopy. Ninety-six skin tumors and skin-tumor-like changes were consecutively gathered over a 1-week period. Specimens were routinely processed, and digital...... slides were captured on Mirax Scan (Carl Zeiss MicroImaging, Göttingen, Germany). Four pathologists evaluated the 96 virtual slides and the associated 96 conventional slides twice with intermediate time intervals of at least 3 weeks. Virtual slides that caused difficulties were reevaluated to identify...

  3. Blockade of Notch Signaling in Tumor-Bearing Mice May Lead to Tumor Regression, Progression, or Metastasis, Depending on Tumor Cell Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Bin Hu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that blocking Notch signaling in tumor-bearing mice results in abortive angiogenesis and tumor regression. However, given that Notch signaling influences numerous cellular processes in vivo, a comprehensive evaluation of the effect of Notch inactivation on tumor growth would be favorable. In this study, we inoculated four cancer cell lines in mice with the conditional inactivation of recombination signal-binding protein-Jκ (RBP-J, which mediates signaling from all four mammalian Notch receptors. We found that whereas three tumors including hepatocarcinoma, lung cancer, and osteogenic sarcoma grew slower in the RBP-J-deficient mice, at least a melanoma, B16, grew significantly faster in the RBP-J-deficient mice than in the controls, suggesting that the RBP-J-deficient hosts could provide permissive cues for tumor growth. All these tumors showed increased microvessels and up-regulated hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, suggesting that whereas defective angiogenesis resulted in hypoxia, different tumors might grow differentially in the RBP-J-deleted mice. Similarly, increased infiltration of Gr1+/Mac1+ cells were noticed in tumors grown in the RBP-J-inactivated mice. Moreover, we found that when inoculated in the RBP-J knockout hosts, the H22 hepatoma cells had a high frequency of metastasis and lethality, suggesting that at least for H22, deficiency of environmental Notch signaling favored tumor metastasis. Our findings suggested that the general blockade of Notch signaling in tumor-bearing mice could lead to defective angiogenesis in tumors, but depending on tumor cell types, general inhibition of Notch signaling might result in tumor regression, progression, or metastasis.

  4. Role of Immunomodulators in Tumor Regression in Mice Exposed to Fractionated Low Dose of Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokaya Elsayed Maaroaf Elsayed

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy is one of the most promising approaches of cancer treatment. The present study was designed to examine the role of irradiated tumor cell lysate vaccine, IFNα-2b and low dose of gamma irradiation as immunomodulators either alone or combined in tumor regression. Ehrlich ascite carcinoma (EAC) cells and 9 groups of female mice were used. Mice were immunized intramuscularly by tumor cell lysate vaccine one time/week for 3 weeks in the right thigh of mice. After two weeks from last immunization, all mice were challenged with normal viable EAC cells at count of 2.5 ×10 6 /mouse in the opposite left thigh for Ehrlich carcinoma (EC) production. Mice were subcutaneously injected with 10.000 units of IFNα-2b 3 times/week for 4 weeks and others were exposed to fractionated dose of γ- radiation (0.5 Gy/day x 4, day after day). Tumor size, serum tumor markers (TNF-α and CEA), tumor DNA fragmentation and Caspase-3 were evaluated. Oxidative stress (MDA and NO) markers and antioxidants (GSH, GPX and SOD) were determined in spleen and tumor tissues. Histopathological examinations, apoptosis and necrosis in spleen and tumor tissues were also examined. The results revealed significant inhibition in tumor size throughout the observation period either for treatments with vaccine or IFNα-2b either alone or combined with γ-irradiation. DNA fragmentation and Caspase-3 enzyme activities were significantly elevated in immunized mice as compared with EC group along with diminished tumor size while, tumor markers were significantly decreased. MDA and NO were significantly increased in tumor tissue.while, tumor GSH content, GPX and SOD activities were significantly decreased. Combined treatments of female mice bearing EC with IFN-α-2b, tumor cell lysate vaccine and low dose of γ-radiation cause a highly significant decrease in serum TNF-α and CEA levels, increase in Cas-3 activity, no DNA fragmentation, significant increase in MDA, decrease in SOD activity and decreased

  5. Inhibition of colon cancer growth by methylselenocysteine-induced angiogenic chemomodulation is influenced by histologic characteristics of the tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Arup; Tóth, Károly; Sen, Arindam; Seshadri, Mukund; Cao, Shousong; Durrani, Farukh A; Faber, Erik; Repasky, Elizabeth A; Rustum, Youcef M

    2009-07-01

    Despite an armamentarium that is wide in range, scope of action, and target, chemotherapy has limited success in colorectal cancer (CRC). Novel approaches are needed to overcome tumor barriers to chemotherapy that includes an abnormal tumor vasculature constituting a poor drug delivery system. We have previously shown that 5-methylselenocysteine (MSC) enhances therapeutic efficacy of irinotecan in various human tumor xenografts. We have recently demonstrated that MSC through vascular normalization leads to better tumor vascular function in vivo. In this study, we examined the role of MSC on tumor vasculature, interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and drug delivery in 2 histologically distinct CRC xenografts, HCT-8 (uniformly poorly differentiated) and HT-29 (moderately differentiated tumor with avascular glandular regions). The presence of specific histologic structures as a barrier to therapy in these xenografts and their clinical relevance was studied using tissue microarray of human surgical samples of CRC. MSC led to a significant tumor growth inhibition, a reduced microvessel density, and a more normalized vasculature in both colorectal xenografts. While IFP was found to be significantly improved in HCT-8, an improved intratumoral doxorubicin delivery seen in both xenografts could explain the observed increase in therapeutic efficacy. Differentiated, glandular, avascular and hypoxic regions that contribute to tumor heterogeneity in HT-29 were also evident in the majority of surgical samples of CRC. Such regions constitute a physical barrier to chemotherapy and can confer drug resistance. Our results indicate that MSC could enhance chemotherapeutic efficacy in human CRC, especially in CRC with few or no hypoxic regions.

  6. Intermittent Metronomic Drug Schedule Is Essential for Activating Antitumor Innate Immunity and Tumor Xenograft Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Sheng Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metronomic chemotherapy using cyclophosphamide (CPA is widely associated with antiangiogenesis; however, recent studies implicate other immune-based mechanisms, including antitumor innate immunity, which can induce major tumor regression in implanted brain tumor models. This study demonstrates the critical importance of drug schedule: CPA induced a potent antitumor innate immune response and tumor regression when administered intermittently on a 6-day repeating metronomic schedule but not with the same total exposure to activated CPA administered on an every 3-day schedule or using a daily oral regimen that serves as the basis for many clinical trials of metronomic chemotherapy. Notably, the more frequent metronomic CPA schedules abrogated the antitumor innate immune and therapeutic responses. Further, the innate immune response and antitumor activity both displayed an unusually steep dose-response curve and were not accompanied by antiangiogenesis. The strong recruitment of innate immune cells by the 6-day repeating CPA schedule was not sustained, and tumor regression was abolished, by a moderate (25% reduction in CPA dose. Moreover, an ~20% increase in CPA dose eliminated the partial tumor regression and weak innate immune cell recruitment seen in a subset of the every 6-day treated tumors. Thus, metronomic drug treatment must be at a sufficiently high dose but also sufficiently well spaced in time to induce strong sustained antitumor immune cell recruitment. Many current clinical metronomic chemotherapeutic protocols employ oral daily low-dose schedules that do not meet these requirements, suggesting that they may benefit from optimization designed to maximize antitumor immune responses.

  7. Using tumor phenotype, histological tumor distribution, and mammographic appearance to explain the survival differences between screen-detected and clinically detected breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shu-Lin; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Yu, Cheng-Ping; Chang, King-Jen; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Tabár, László; Stephen, Duffy W; Smith, Robert A; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2014-08-01

    In the era of mass screening for breast cancer with mammography, it has been noted that conventional tumor attributes and mammographic appearance are insufficient to account for the better prognosis of screen-detected tumors. Such prognostication may require additional updated pathological information regarding tumor phenotype (e.g., basal status) and histological tumor distribution (focality). We investigated this hypothesis using a Bayesian approach to analyze breast cancer data from Dalarna County, Sweden. We used data for tumors diagnosed in the Swedish Two-County Trial and early service screening period, 1977-1995, and from the mature service screening period, 1996-1998. In the early period of mammographic screening (1977-1995), the crude hazard ratio (HR) of breast cancer death for screen-detected cases compared with symptomatic ones was 0.22 (95% CI: 0.17-0.29) compared with 0.53 (95% CI: 0.34-0.76) when adjusted for conventional tumor attributes only. Using the data from the mature service screening period, 1996-1998, the HR was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.08-0.44) unadjusted and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.26-1.47) after adjustment for tumor phenotype, mammographic appearance, histological tumor distribution, and conventional tumor attributes. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the prediction of breast cancer deaths using these variables without the detection mode was 0.82, only slightly less than that observed when additionally including the detection mode (AUC=0.83). Using Freedman statistics, conventional tumor attributes and mammographic appearances explained 58% (95% CI: 57.5-58.6%) of the difference of breast cancer survival between the screen-detected and the clinically detected breast cancers, whereas the corresponding figure was increased to 77% (95% CI: 75.6-77.6%) when adding the two information on tumor phenotype and histological tumor distribution. The results indicated that conventional tumor attributes and mammographic appearance are not sufficient to be

  8. FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in normal prostate tissue, postatrophic hyperplasia, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and tumor histological lesions in men with and without prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Sabina; Andren, Ove; Ohlson, Anna-Lena; Carlsson, Jessica; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Giunchi, Francesca; Rider, Jennifer R; Fiorentino, Michelangelo

    2018-01-01

    The tumor promoting or counteracting effects of the immune response to cancer development are thought to be mediated to some extent by the infiltration of regulatory T cells (T regs ). In the present study we evaluated the prevalence of T reg populations in stromal and epithelial compartments of normal, post atrophic hyperplasia (PAH), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and tumor lesions in men with and without prostate cancer. Study subjects were 102 men consecutively diagnosed with localized prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy and 38 men diagnosed with bladder cancer undergoing cystoprostatectomy without prostate cancer at the pathological examination. Whole mount sections from all patients were evaluated for the epithelial and stromal expression of CD4 + T regs and CD8 + T regs in normal, PAH, PIN, and tumor lesions. A Friedmańs test was used to investigate differences in the mean number of T regs across histological lesions. Logistic regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) for prostate cancer for each histological area. In men with prostate cancer, similarly high numbers of stromal CD4 + T regs were identified in PAH and tumor, but CD4 + T regs were less common in PIN. Greater numbers of epithelial CD4+ T regs in normal prostatic tissue were positively associated with both Gleason score and pT-stage. We observed a fourfold increased risk of prostate cancer in men with epithelial CD4 + T regs in the normal prostatic tissue counterpart. Our results may suggest a possible pathway through which PAH develops directly into prostate cancer in the presence of CD4 + T regs and indicate that transformation of the anti-tumor immune response may be initiated even before the primary tumor is established. © 2017 The Authors. The Prostate Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  9. Some growth factors in neoplastic tissues of brain tumors of different histological structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pathologic angiogenesis is typical for angiogenic diseases including tumor growth. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, fibroblast growth factor (FGF, transforming growth factor alpha and beta (which are also known as “triggers” of angiogenesis, and other factors (Gacche, Meshram, 2013; Nijaguna et al., 2015 play a special role in its development. Evaluation of the important mechanisms of angiogenesis in physiological and pathological conditions remains to be a subject of heightened interest for the past 30 years. It is known that VEGF A is the main trigger of growing blood vessels into the tumor tissue. This is specific mitogen signal for endothelial cells that triggers the mechanisms of cell division and migration. VEGF-induced tumor vasculature has a number of structural and functional features that provide growth and progression of tumors, including increased permeability of blood vessels and their chaotic arrangement.Objective: to study in comparative aspect the level of certain growth factors in the following tissues: glioblastomas, brain metastasis of the breast cancer, meningiomas as well as corresponding peritumoral areas.Materials and methods. Tissue samples were obtained from 56 patients admitted to the surgical treatment in Rostov Research Institute of Oncology: 24 patients had glioblastomas, 19 patients had brain metastasis of the breast cancer, 13 patients with meningiomas without peritumoral edema. Histological control was carried out in all cases. Age of patients ranged from 35 to 72 years. The level of growth factor was detected in the samples of tumor tissue and regions immediately adjacent to the tumor foci (peritumoral area by the method of immunoassay and using standard test systems. The following growth factor were detected: VEGF-A and its receptors VEGF-R1 (BenderMedSystem, Austria, VEGF-C and its receptor VEGF-R3 (BenderMedSystem, Austria, EGF (Biosource, USA, IFR-1 and IFR-2 (Mediagnost, USA, TGF

  10. Multi-Parametric MRI and Texture Analysis to Visualize Spatial Histologic Heterogeneity and Tumor Extent in Glioblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leland S Hu

    Full Text Available Genetic profiling represents the future of neuro-oncology but suffers from inadequate biopsies in heterogeneous tumors like Glioblastoma (GBM. Contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI targets enhancing core (ENH but yields adequate tumor in only ~60% of cases. Further, CE-MRI poorly localizes infiltrative tumor within surrounding non-enhancing parenchyma, or brain-around-tumor (BAT, despite the importance of characterizing this tumor segment, which universally recurs. In this study, we use multiple texture analysis and machine learning (ML algorithms to analyze multi-parametric MRI, and produce new images indicating tumor-rich targets in GBM.We recruited primary GBM patients undergoing image-guided biopsies and acquired pre-operative MRI: CE-MRI, Dynamic-Susceptibility-weighted-Contrast-enhanced-MRI, and Diffusion Tensor Imaging. Following image coregistration and region of interest placement at biopsy locations, we compared MRI metrics and regional texture with histologic diagnoses of high- vs low-tumor content (≥80% vs <80% tumor nuclei for corresponding samples. In a training set, we used three texture analysis algorithms and three ML methods to identify MRI-texture features that optimized model accuracy to distinguish tumor content. We confirmed model accuracy in a separate validation set.We collected 82 biopsies from 18 GBMs throughout ENH and BAT. The MRI-based model achieved 85% cross-validated accuracy to diagnose high- vs low-tumor in the training set (60 biopsies, 11 patients. The model achieved 81.8% accuracy in the validation set (22 biopsies, 7 patients.Multi-parametric MRI and texture analysis can help characterize and visualize GBM's spatial histologic heterogeneity to identify regional tumor-rich biopsy targets.

  11. Tumor regression achieved by encapsulating a moderately soluble drug into a polymeric thermogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Tianyuan; Chen, Liang; Yu, Lin; Ding, Jiandong

    2014-07-01

    For cancer chemotherapy, a tumor regression without any surgical resection and severe side effects is greatly preferred to merely slowing down the growth of tumors. Here, we report a formulation composed of irinotecan (IRN) and poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA). IRN is a clinically used antitumor drug with active and inactive chemical forms in equilibrium, and the major form at physiological conditions is inactive but still has side effects. The aqueous solution of the PLGA-PEG-PLGA is a sol at room temperature and physically gels at body temperature, forming a thermogel. We successfully mixed this moderately soluble drug into the amphiphilic copolymer aqueous solution for the first time. The mixture was subcutaneously injected into nude mice with xenografted SW620 human colon tumors. Excellent in vivo antitumor efficacy was observed in the group that received the IRN-loaded thermogel. The tumor was significantly regressed after being treated with the IRN/thermogel, and the side effects (blood toxicity and body weight decrease) were very mild. These results might be attributed to the ideal sustained release profile and period of release of the drug from the thermogel and to the significant enhancement of the fraction of the active form of the drug by the thermogel.

  12. [The effect of mammographic screening on tumor size, axillary node status and the degree of histologic anaplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garami, Zoltán; Benkó, Klára; Kósa, Csaba; Fülöp, Balázs; Lukács, Géza

    2006-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor in women in Hungary. Significant reduction of mortality has been brought about not only by the increasing efficiency of complex therapy but also by regular mammographic screening. Of the histopathological data of 633 patients operated with primary breast tumor at the 1st Surgical Clinic of the Debrecen Medical University between January 1st 2000 and December 31st 2004, the authors analyzed tumor diameter, axillary node status and the degree of histologic anaplasia and compared them with the data of mammographic screening. Of the "screened"patients, 70.7% were diagnosed with T1 size tumors, 28.5% with T2 size, and 0.8% with tumors bigger than that. In the "unscreened" patients, our findings were 44.3%, 45.9% and 9.8% respectively. Within T1 tumors, Tla tumors were found in 11%, TIb in 37.6% and T1c in 51.4% in the "screened" group of patients, while the "unscreened" group's results were 2.3%, 12.6% and 85% respectively. 72.7% of the "screened" patients and 56.2% of the "unscreened" patients were found to be axillary node-negative. A study of the degree of histologic anaplasia showed G-I tumors in 15.6%, G-IIs in 62.1% and G-IIIs in 22.3% of the "screened" patients. The corresponding values for the "unscreened" patients were 6.1%, 53.8% and 40.1%, respectively. The differences were highly significant (p < 0.001) in all the parameters investigated. The authors have found a significant increase in the proportion of node-negative patients and patients with smaller tumors even after the first round of mammographic screening and at less than 50% participation. It is to be hoped that a 20% reduction in mortality can be achieved by further increasing the rate of participation.

  13. A subserosal, pedunculated, multilocular uterine leiomyoma with ovarian tumor-like morphology and histological architecture of adenomatoid tumors: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, Kenji; Tanaka, Yu; Hirano, Koki; Kai, Yuka; Arii, Kaoru; Nakatani, Kimiko; Ito, Satoshi; Imai, Toshiya; Fukunaga, Masaharu; Kuroda, Naoto

    2016-12-20

    Uterine leiomyomas are common uterine tumors, and typical cases of leiomyoma are easily diagnosed by imaging study. However, uterine leiomyomas are often altered by degenerative changes, which can cause difficulty and confusion in their clinical diagnosis. We describe the 17th reported case of a uterine leiomyoma clinically diagnosed as an ovarian tumor; however, the present case shows the most detailed radiological evaluation, including contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. We first show that a uterine leiomyoma can histologically mimic an adenomatoid tumor. A 47-year-old premenopausal, nulliparous Japanese woman with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia had lower abdominal pain. Ultrasonography confirmed a 6-cm mass in the right-sided space of the pelvic cavity. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation showed that a multilocular mass was present near the uterus, and a mucinous ovarian tumor was considered. Emergency surgery due to acute abdomen was performed under the diagnosis of pedicle torsion of the ovarian tumor. During surgery, a pedunculated uterine mass without stalk torsion was seen. The mass grossly contained serous and hemorrhagic fluids in the cavities, and pathology examination confirmed that the mass was a leiomyoma with hydropic and cystic degeneration. Anastomosing thin cord-like arrangements of the leiomyoma cells mimicked the architecture of adenomatoid tumors. The tumor cells were positive for the microphthalmia transcription factor but negative for other melanoma markers. Three days postoperatively, she was discharged without sequelae. Marked intratumoral deposition of fluids may induce the multilocular morphology of a tumor, and the cellular arrangement of the tumor cells with hydropic degeneration mimicked an adenomatoid tumor in this case. Clinicians need to be aware that a subserosal leiomyoma with cystic and hydropic degeneration can mimic an ovarian tumor, and pathologists should be aware that such

  14. Multi-Parametric MRI and Texture Analysis to Visualize Spatial Histologic Heterogeneity and Tumor Extent in Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Leland S; Ning, Shuluo; Eschbacher, Jennifer M; Gaw, Nathan; Dueck, Amylou C; Smith, Kris A; Nakaji, Peter; Plasencia, Jonathan; Ranjbar, Sara; Price, Stephen J; Tran, Nhan; Loftus, Joseph; Jenkins, Robert; O'Neill, Brian P; Elmquist, William; Baxter, Leslie C; Gao, Fei; Frakes, David; Karis, John P; Zwart, Christine; Swanson, Kristin R; Sarkaria, Jann; Wu, Teresa; Mitchell, J Ross; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Genetic profiling represents the future of neuro-oncology but suffers from inadequate biopsies in heterogeneous tumors like Glioblastoma (GBM). Contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) targets enhancing core (ENH) but yields adequate tumor in only ~60% of cases. Further, CE-MRI poorly localizes infiltrative tumor within surrounding non-enhancing parenchyma, or brain-around-tumor (BAT), despite the importance of characterizing this tumor segment, which universally recurs. In this study, we use multiple texture analysis and machine learning (ML) algorithms to analyze multi-parametric MRI, and produce new images indicating tumor-rich targets in GBM. We recruited primary GBM patients undergoing image-guided biopsies and acquired pre-operative MRI: CE-MRI, Dynamic-Susceptibility-weighted-Contrast-enhanced-MRI, and Diffusion Tensor Imaging. Following image coregistration and region of interest placement at biopsy locations, we compared MRI metrics and regional texture with histologic diagnoses of high- vs low-tumor content (≥80% vs heterogeneity to identify regional tumor-rich biopsy targets.

  15. Complete histological regression of Kaposi's sarcoma following treatment with protease inhibitors despite persistence of HHV-8 in lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Kirk, O; Elbrønd, B

    1998-01-01

    There is no current curative treatment for HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma. The identification of human herpesvirus-8 as a possible aetiological agent suggests potential efficacy of anti-viral agents. We report here on the complete histological remission of Kaposi's sarcoma following treatment...

  16. Facilitating tumor functional assessment by spatially relating 3D tumor histology and In Vivo MRI: Image registration approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Alic (Lejla); J.C. Haeck (Joost); K. Bol (Karin); S. Klein (Stefan); S.T. van Tiel (Sandra); P.A. Wielepolski (Piotr); M. de Jong (Marion); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); M.R. Bernsen (Monique); J.F. Veenland (Jifke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), together with histology, is widely used to diagnose and to monitor treatment in oncology. Spatial correspondence between these modalities provides information about the ability of MRI to characterize cancerous tissue. However, registration is

  17. Facilitating tumor functional assessment by spatially relating 3D tumor histology and in vivo MRI : Image registration approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alic, L.; Haeck, J.C.; Bol, K.; Klein, S.; Van Tiel, S.T.; Wielepolski, P.A.; De Jong, M.; Niessen, W.J.; Bernsen, M.; Veenland, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), together with histology, is widely used to diagnose and to monitor treatment in oncology. Spatial correspondence between these modalities provides information about the ability of MRI to characterize cancerous tissue. However, registration is complicated

  18. Facilitating tumor functional assessment by spatially relating 3D tumor histology and in vivo MRI: Image registration approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alić, L.; Haeck, J.C.; Bol, K.; Klein, S.; Tiel, S.T. van; Wielopolski, P.A.; Bijster, M.; Bernsen, M.; Jong, M. de; Niessen, W.J.; Veenland, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), together with histology, is widely used to diagnose and to monitor treatment in oncology. Spatial correspondence between these modalities provides information about the ability of MRI to characterize cancerous tissue. However, registration is complicated

  19. Esophageal Stenosis Associated With Tumor Regression in Radiotherapy for Esophageal Cancer: Frequency and Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atsumi, Kazushige [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Shioyama, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: shioyama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Arimura, Hidetaka [Department of Health Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Terashima, Kotaro [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Matsuki, Takaomi [Department of Health Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Nonoshita, Takeshi; Tsurumaru, Daisuke; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Asai, Kaori; Matsumoto, Keiji [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital at Beppu, Oita (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine clinical factors for predicting the frequency and severity of esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: The study group consisted of 109 patients with esophageal cancer of T1-4 and Stage I-III who were treated with definitive radiotherapy and achieved a complete response of their primary lesion at Kyushu University Hospital between January 1998 and December 2007. Esophageal stenosis was evaluated using esophagographic images within 3 months after completion of radiotherapy. We investigated the correlation between esophageal stenosis after radiotherapy and each of the clinical factors with regard to tumors and therapy. For validation of the correlative factors for esophageal stenosis, an artificial neural network was used to predict the esophageal stenotic ratio. Results: Esophageal stenosis tended to be more severe and more frequent in T3-4 cases than in T1-2 cases. Esophageal stenosis in cases with full circumference involvement tended to be more severe and more frequent than that in cases without full circumference involvement. Increases in wall thickness tended to be associated with increases in esophageal stenosis severity and frequency. In the multivariate analysis, T stage, extent of involved circumference, and wall thickness of the tumor region were significantly correlated to esophageal stenosis (p = 0.031, p < 0.0001, and p = 0.0011, respectively). The esophageal stenotic ratio predicted by the artificial neural network, which learned these three factors, was significantly correlated to the actual observed stenotic ratio, with a correlation coefficient of 0.864 (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study suggested that T stage, extent of involved circumference, and esophageal wall thickness of the tumor region were useful to predict the frequency and severity of esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer.

  20. HMGB1 mediates endogenous TLR2 activation and brain tumor regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Curtin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most aggressive primary brain tumor that carries a 5-y survival rate of 5%. Attempts at eliciting a clinically relevant anti-GBM immune response in brain tumor patients have met with limited success, which is due to brain immune privilege, tumor immune evasion, and a paucity of dendritic cells (DCs within the central nervous system. Herein we uncovered a novel pathway for the activation of an effective anti-GBM immune response mediated by high-mobility-group box 1 (HMGB1, an alarmin protein released from dying tumor cells, which acts as an endogenous ligand for Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 signaling on bone marrow-derived GBM-infiltrating DCs.Using a combined immunotherapy/conditional cytotoxic approach that utilizes adenoviral vectors (Ad expressing Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L and thymidine kinase (TK delivered into the tumor mass, we demonstrated that CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells were required for tumor regression and immunological memory. Increased numbers of bone marrow-derived, tumor-infiltrating myeloid DCs (mDCs were observed in response to the therapy. Infiltration of mDCs into the GBM, clonal expansion of antitumor T cells, and induction of an effective anti-GBM immune response were TLR2 dependent. We then proceeded to identify the endogenous ligand responsible for TLR2 signaling on tumor-infiltrating mDCs. We demonstrated that HMGB1 was released from dying tumor cells, in response to Ad-TK (+ gancyclovir [GCV] treatment. Increased levels of HMGB1 were also detected in the serum of tumor-bearing Ad-Flt3L/Ad-TK (+GCV-treated mice. Specific activation of TLR2 signaling was induced by supernatants from Ad-TK (+GCV-treated GBM cells; this activation was blocked by glycyrrhizin (a specific HMGB1 inhibitor or with antibodies to HMGB1. HMGB1 was also released from melanoma, small cell lung carcinoma, and glioma cells treated with radiation or temozolomide. Administration of either glycyrrhizin or anti

  1. Hapten-Induced Contact Hypersensitivity, Autoimmune Reactions, and Tumor Regression: Plausibility of Mediating Antitumor Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan A. Erkes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Haptens are small molecule irritants that bind to proteins and elicit an immune response. Haptens have been commonly used to study allergic contact dermatitis (ACD using animal contact hypersensitivity (CHS models. However, extensive research into contact hypersensitivity has offered a confusing and intriguing mechanism of allergic reactions occurring in the skin. The abilities of haptens to induce such reactions have been frequently utilized to study the mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD to induce autoimmune-like responses such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia and to elicit viral wart and tumor regression. Hapten-induced tumor regression has been studied since the mid-1900s and relies on four major concepts: (1 ex vivo haptenation, (2 in situ haptenation, (3 epifocal hapten application, and (4 antigen-hapten conjugate injection. Each of these approaches elicits unique responses in mice and humans. The present review attempts to provide a critical appraisal of the hapten-mediated tumor treatments and offers insights for future development of the field.

  2. Tumor regression with a combination of drugs interfering with the tumor metabolism: efficacy of hydroxycitrate, lipoic acid and capsaicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Laurent; Guais, Adeline; Israël, Maurice; Junod, Bernard; Steyaert, Jean-Marc; Crespi, Elisabetta; Baronzio, Gianfranco; Abolhassani, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Cellular metabolic alterations are now well described as implicated in cancer and some strategies are currently developed to target these different pathways. In previous papers, we demonstrated that a combination of molecules (namely alpha-lipoic acid and hydroxycitrate, i.e. Metabloc™) targeting the cancer metabolism markedly decreased tumor cell growth in mice. In this work, we demonstrate that the addition of capsaicin further delays tumor growth in mice in a dose dependant manner. This is true for the three animal model tested: lung (LLC) cancer, bladder cancer (MBT-2) and melanoma B16F10. There was no apparent side effect of this ternary combination. The addition of a fourth drug (octreotide) is even more effective resulting in tumor regression in mice bearing LLC cancer. These four compounds are all known to target the cellular metabolism not its DNA. The efficacy, the apparent lack of toxicity, the long clinical track records of these medications in human medicine, all points toward the need for a clinical trial. The dramatic efficacy of treatment suggests that cancer may simply be a disease of dysregulated cellular metabolism.

  3. Affinity for 57Co-Vitamin B12 by a wide histologic variety of tumor types in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shon, M. H.; Park, S. A.; Kim, S. H.; Jeong, K. H.; Lim, C. Y.

    1998-01-01

    The search for tumor-avid agents for use in nuclear medicine imaging is an ongoing field of importance. The purpose of this study was to determine the affinity for radiolabeled vitamin B 12 by a wide histologic variety of tumor types in mice. Seventeen different types of tumor were grown subcutaneously in female Balb/C or Balb nu/nu(nude) mice. When the tumors reached about 1 cm in diameter, mice were injected intraperitoneally with 57 Co-vitamin B 12 . Twenty-four hours later, the mice were sacrificed. Organs and tissues were removed, weighed, and activity per mg determined by gamma counter. Values represented cpm/mg tissue that was normalized to 20 grams body weight for each mouse. A wide variety of tumor types showed significant uptake and concentration of 57 Co-vitamin B 12 , as evidenced by tumor:tissue activity ratios. For many tissues of great importance in terms of background (bone, muscle, blood), the tumor:tissue activity ratios of uptake were high. These data strongly suggest that further efforts to evaluate the utility of radiolabeled adducts of vitamin B 12 for clinical use in oncologic imaging are warranted

  4. Markers of fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition demonstrate field cancerization in histologically normal tissue adjacent to breast tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Kristina A.; Heaphy, Christopher M.; Mai, Minh; Vargas, Keith M.; Jones, Anna C.; Vo, Phung; Butler, Kimberly S.; Joste, Nancy E.; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a field of genetically altered but histologically normal tissue extends 1 cm or more from the margins of human breast tumors. The extent, composition and biological significance of this field are only partially understood, but the molecular alterations in affected cells could provide mechanisms for limitless replicative capacity, genomic instability and a microenvironment that supports tumor initiation and progression. We demonstrate by microarray, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry a signature of differential gene expression that discriminates between patient-matched, tumor-adjacent histologically normal breast tissues located 1 cm and 5 cm from the margins of breast adenocarcinomas (TAHN-1 and TAHN-5, respectively). The signature includes genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, wound healing, fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Myofibroblasts, which are mediators of wound healing and fibrosis, and intra-lobular fibroblasts expressing MMP2, SPARC, TGF-β3, which are inducers of EMT, were both prevalent in TAHN-1 tissues, sparse in TAHN-5 tissues, and absent in normal tissues from reduction mammoplasty. Accordingly, EMT markers S100A4 and vimentin were elevated in both luminal and myoepithelial cells, and EMT markers α-smooth muscle actin and SNAIL were elevated in luminal epithelial cells of TAHN-1 tissues. These results identify cellular processes that are differentially activated between TAHN-1 and TAHN-5 breast tissues, implicate myofibroblasts as likely mediators of these processes, provide evidence that EMT is occurring in histologically normal tissues within the affected field and identify candidate biomarkers to investigate whether or how field cancerization contributes to the development of primary or recurrent breast tumors. PMID:21105047

  5. Ovarian Brenner tumors and Walthard nests: a histologic and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Andres A; Masand, Ramya P

    2014-12-01

    Brenner tumors are composed of urothelial/transitional-type epithelium and, hence, are morphologically similar to Walthard nests and tubal/mesothelial transitional metaplasia. In this study, we analyzed immunohistochemical markers on Brenner tumors to explore Müllerian as well as Wolffian and germ cell derivation. We also attempted to explore their possible association with tubal/paratubal Walthard nests/transitional metaplasia, using the same immunostains. Thirty-two consecutive cases of Brenner tumors were identified. Thirteen (43%) of the patients had Walthard nests in the tubal/periovarian soft tissue. All Brenner tumors were diffusely positive for GATA3 (strongly positive in 30/32 and weakly positive in the remaining 2) and negative for PAX8, PAX2, and SALL4. Similarly, all Walthard nests were positive for GATA3, whereas only 3 (23%) of 13 showed occasional PAX8 expression; all were negative for PAX2 and SALL4. In our study, more than 40% of Brenner tumors had associated Walthard nests. The similar morphology and immunoprofile of Brenner tumors and Walthard nests suggest a probable link between Brenner tumors and Walthard nests. Two additional cases presented highlight small transitional lesions involving the ovary: a possible precursor lesion or the initial steps of Brenner tumor formation. Brenner tumors and most Walthard nests lacked staining for Müllerian (PAX8 and PAX2) and germ cell tumor markers (SALL4). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tumor Oxygen Dynamics: Correlation of In Vivo MRI with Histological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawen Zhao

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Tumor oxygenation has long been recognized as a significant factor influencing cancer therapy. We recently established a novel magnetic resonance in vivo approach to measuring regional tumor oxygen tension, FREDOM (Fluorocarbon Relaxometry Using Echo Planar Imaging for Dynamic Oxygen Mapping, using hexafluorobenzene (HFB as the reporter molecule. We have now investigated oxygen dynamics in the two Dunning prostate R3327 rat tumor sublines, AT1 and H. FREDOM revealed considerable intratumoral heterogeneity in the distribution of pO2 values in both sublines. The anaplastic fastergrowing AT1 tumors were more hypoxic compared with the size-matched, well-differentiated, and slower-growing H tumors. Respiratory challenge with oxygen produced significant increases in mean and median pO2 in all the H tumors (P3 cm3. Immunohistochemical studies using the hypoxia marker, pimonidazole, and the vascular endothelial cell marker, CD31, confirmed that the H tumors had more extensive vasculature and less hypoxia than the AT1 tumors. These results further validate the utilization of FREDOM to monitor tumor oxygenation and concur with the hypothesis that the level of hypoxia is related to tumor growth rate and poor vascularity.

  7. Canine ovarian neoplasms: a clinicopathologic study of 71 cases, including histology of 12 granulosa cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, A K; Greenlee, P G

    1987-11-01

    In a retrospective study of 71 primary ovarian tumors in the dog, epithelial tumors (46%) were more common than sex cord stromal (34%) and germ cell tumors (20%). There were more adenocarcinomas (64%) than adenomas. Sex cord stromal tumors were equally divided into Sertoli-Leydig (12/24) and granulosa cell tumors (12/24). There were equal numbers (7/14) of dysgerminomas and teratomas among the germ cell tumors. Most teratomas (6/7) were malignant. Most granulosa cell tumors were solid; two were mostly cystic. Patterns included sheets of round and ovoid to spindle-shaped cells separated by thin, fibrovascular stroma; neoplastic cells formed rosettes or Call-Exner bodies. In some areas, neoplastic cells were in cords or columns and formed cyst-like structures. Four granulosa cell tumors were macrofollicular, having cysts lined with granulosa cells. Median ages of dogs with different ovarian neoplasms were similar; all were more than 10 years old, except the dogs with teratoma (mean age, 4 years). Most neoplasms were unilateral (84%), except the Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, many of which were bilateral (36%). Size of ovarian neoplasms varied (2 cm3 to 15,000 cm3). Twenty-nine percent of neoplasms metastasized; adenocarcinomas (48%) and malignant teratomas (50%) had the highest rates, and distant metastasis was more common in malignant teratoma. Endometrial hyperplasia was in 67% of the dogs; it was most common in dogs with sex cord stromal tumors (95%). Uterine malignancy was not seen in dogs with granulosa cell tumors, although hyperplasia endometrium was in all dogs with this tumor. Cysts in the contralateral ovaries were most common in dogs with sex cord stromal tumors.

  8. Characterization of sonographically indeterminate ovarian tumors with MR imaging. A logistic regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Y.; Hatanaka, Y.; Torashima, M.; Takahashi, M.; Miyazaki, K.; Okamura, H.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to maximize the discrimination between benign and malignant masses in patients with sonographically indeterminate ovarian lesions by means of unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MR imaging, and to develop a computer-assisted diagnosis system. Material and Methods: Findings in precontrast and Gd-DTPA contrast-enhanced MR images of 104 patients with 115 sonographically indeterminate ovarian masses were analyzed, and the results were correlated with histopathological findings. Of 115 lesions, 65 were benign (23 cystadenomas, 13 complex cysts, 11 teratomas, 6 fibrothecomas, 12 others) and 50 were malignant (32 ovarian carcinomas, 7 metastatic tumors of the ovary, 4 carcinomas of the fallopian tubes, 7 others). A logistic regression analysis was performed to discriminate between benign and malignant lesions, and a model of a computer-assisted diagnosis was developed. This model was prospectively tested in 75 cases of ovarian tumors found at other institutions. Results: From the univariate analysis, the following parameters were selected as significant for predicting malignancy (p≤0.05): A solid or cystic mass with a large solid component or wall thickness greater than 3 mm; complex internal architecture; ascites; and bilaterality. Based on these parameters, a model of a computer-assisted diagnosis system was developed with the logistic regression analysis. To distinguish benign from malignant lesions, the maximum cut-off point was obtained between 0.47 and 0.51. In a prospective application of this model, 87% of the lesions were accurately identified as benign or malignant. (orig.)

  9. Cross platform analysis of methylation, miRNA and stem cell gene expression data in germ cell tumors highlights characteristic differences by tumor histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poynter, Jenny N.; Bestrashniy, Jessica R. B. M.; Silverstein, Kevin A. T.; Hooten, Anthony J.; Lees, Christopher; Ross, Julie A.; Tolar, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in methylation patterns, miRNA expression, and stem cell protein expression occur in germ cell tumors (GCTs). Our goal is to integrate molecular data across platforms to identify molecular signatures in the three main histologic subtypes of Type I and Type II GCTs (yolk sac tumor (YST), germinoma, and teratoma). We included 39 GCTs and 7 paired adjacent tissue samples in the current analysis. Molecular data available for analysis include DNA methylation data (Illumina GoldenGate Cancer Methylation Panel I), miRNA expression (NanoString nCounter miRNA platform), and stem cell factor expression (SABiosciences Human Embryonic Stem Cell Array). We evaluated the cross platform correlations of the data features using the Maximum Information Coefficient (MIC). In analyses of individual datasets, differences were observed by tumor histology. Germinomas had higher expression of transcription factors maintaining stemness, while YSTs had higher expression of cytokines, endoderm and endothelial markers. We also observed differences in miRNA expression, with miR-371-5p, miR-122, miR-302a, miR-302d, and miR-373 showing elevated expression in one or more histologic subtypes. Using the MIC, we identified correlations across the data features, including six major hubs with higher expression in YST (LEFTY1, LEFTY2, miR302b, miR302a, miR 126, and miR 122) compared with other GCT. While prognosis for GCTs is overall favorable, many patients experience resistance to chemotherapy, relapse and/or long term adverse health effects following treatment. Targeted therapies, based on integrated analyses of molecular tumor data such as that presented here, may provide a way to secure high cure rates while reducing unintended health consequences

  10. Analysis of animal experiments of radiation dependent tumor regression in relation to different parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzel, F.; Mueller-Duysing, W.; Blattman, H.; Bacesa, L.; Rao, K.R.; Mindek, G.

    In order to be able to test the therapeutic value of the pions in comparison with conventional X-rays, analyses of animal experiments with induced tumors, transplantation tumors, and comparative cellular kinetic studies of tissue cultures will be performed. So that differences in radiation effect and a possible superiority of the pion therapy be objectively acknowledged, the reaction systems to be tested must be as homogenous as possible. For this purpose, the dependence of the radiation related regression on various parameters such as sex, age of hosts, environmental factors radiation conditions (intensity, fractionation, and so on), tumor size, and so on, must be investigated on sterile animals in a sterile environment. The experiments should be conducted under conditions as close as possible to clinical ones. For comparison, the reaction of normal tissue (in vitro and in vivo) and of malignant cells in short-time tissue cultures will be analysed. Cellular kinetics, alteration of chromosomes and metabolic activity of the cells will be studied

  11. Impact of radioguided occult lesion localization on the correct excision of malignant breast lesions. Effect of histology and tumor size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woll, J.P.P.; Garcia Vicente, A.M.; Gonzalez Garcia, B.; Delgado Portela, M.; Cordero Garcia, J.M.; Pardo Garcia, R.; Molino Trinidad, C.; Soriano Castrejon, A.M.; Cortes Romera, M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of radioguided occult lesion localization (ROLL) in the correct location and excision of malignant breast lesions, and analyze if these results are affected by the histology and tumor size. A total of 105 patients with occult breast lesions were studied. The mean age was 55 years. An intralesional dose of 18.5 MBq of 99mTc-labeled macroaggregated human albumin (AMA) was administered using stereotaxic mammography or ultrasound. Surgical resection was carried out with the help of a gammadetector probe. In the histological study, disease-free margin was defined by a distance between the tumor lesion and the surgical margin of more than 1 mm. The possible influence of tumor histology and lesion diameter with respect to free/affected margins was analyzed. Correct radiotracer placement was achieved in 100/105 of the cases (95.2%). In the remaining 5 cases (4.8%), radiotracer placement was incorrect, with 2 of them being malignant lesions that were found by macroscopic inspection, and the other 3 having benign pathology. Among the malignant lesions (44 cases), correct placement of the radiotracer was achieved in 42 cases (95.5%). Of these 42 malignant lesions, in which the ROLL was correctly performed, free surgical margins were obtained in 24 cases (57.1%), while the other 18 (42.9%) had infiltrated surgical margins. The most common histological type among the malignant lesions was invasive ductal carcinoma (71.4%). The histological types with an increased frequency of infiltration of surgical margins were invasive and microinvasive cancer (94.4%). All the affected margins were in lesions greater than 10 mm, and the highest incidence was in those between 20 and 30 mm (55.5%). In our experience, the advantages of the ROLL technique are a precise localization of malignant breast lesions (95.5%) and an increased probability of a complete excision with free margins in more than one half of them. Nevertheless, special

  12. Assessment of diagnostic value of tumor markers for colorectal neoplasm by logistic regression and ROC curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, G.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of CEA CA199 and CA50 for colorectal neoplasm by logistic regression and ROC curve. Methods: The subjects include 75 patients of colorectal cancer, 35 patients of benign intestinal disease and 49 health controls. CEA CA199 and CA50 are measured by CLIA ECLIA and IRMA respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) of CEA CA 199 CA50 and logistic regression results are compared. [Result] In the cancer-benign group, the AUC of CA50 is larger than the AUC of CA199 Compared with the AUC of combination of CEA CA199 and CA50 (0.604),the AUC of combination of CEA and CA50 (0.875) is larger and it is also larger than any other AUC of CEA CA199 or CA50 alone. In the cancerhealth group, the AUC of combination of CEA CA199 and CA50 is larger than any other AUC of CEA CA199 or CA50 alone. No matter in the cancer-benign group or cancerhealth group. The AUC of CEA is larger than the AUC of CA199 or CA50. Conclusion: CEA is useful in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. In the process of differential diagnosis, the combination of CEA and CA50 can give more information, while the combination of three tumor markers does not perform well. Furthermore, as a statistical method, logistic regression can improve the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. (author)

  13. Distinct Patterns of Stromal and Tumor Expression of ROR1 and ROR2 in Histological Subtypes of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Henry

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The ROR1 and ROR2 receptor tyrosine kinases have both been implicated in ovarian cancer progression and have been shown to drive migration and invasion. There is an increasing importance of the role of stroma in ovarian cancer metastasis; however, neither ROR1 nor ROR2 expression in tumor or stromal cells has been analyzed in the same clinical cohort. AIM: To determine ROR1 and ROR2 expression in ovarian cancer and surrounding microenvironment and examine associations with clinicopathological characteristics. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for ROR1 and ROR2 was used to assess receptor expression in a cohort of epithelial ovarian cancer patients (n = 178. Results were analyzed in relation to clinical and histopathological characteristics and survival. Matched patient sample case studies of normal, primary, and metastatic lesions were used to examine ROR expression in relation to ovarian cancer progression. RESULTS: ROR1 and ROR2 are abnormally expressed in malignant ovarian epithelium and stroma. Higher ROR2 tumor expression was found in early-stage, low-grade endometrioid carcinomas. ROR2 stromal expression was highest in the serous subtype. In matched patient case studies, metastatic samples had higher expression of ROR2 in the stroma, and a recurrent sample had the highest expression of ROR2 in both tumor and stroma. CONCLUSION: ROR1 and ROR2 are expressed in tumor-associated stroma in all histological subtypes of ovarian cancer and hold potential as therapeutic targets which may disrupt tumor and stroma interactions.

  14. Mechanic effect of pulsed focused ultrasound in tumor and muscle tissue evaluated by MRI, histology, and microarray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundt, Walter; Yuh, Esther L.; Steinbach, Silke; Bednarski, Mark D.; Guccione, Samira

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) to tumor and muscle tissue. Pulsed HIFU was applied to tumor and muscle tissue in C3H/Km mice. Three hours after HIFU treatment pre- and post-contrast T1-wt, T2-wt images and a diffusion-wt STEAM-sequence were obtained. After MR imaging, the animals were euthenized and the treated tumor and muscle was taken out for histology and functional genomic analysis. In the tumor tissue a slight increase of the diffusion coefficient could be found. In the muscle tissue T2 images showed increased signal intensity and post-contrast T1 showed a decreased contrast uptake in the center and a severe contrast uptake in the surrounding muscle tissue. A significant increase of the diffusion coefficient was found. Gene expression analysis revealed profound changes in the expression levels of 29 genes being up-regulated and 3 genes being down-regulated in the muscle tissue and 31 genes being up-regulated and 15 genes being down-regulated in the SCCVII tumor tissue. Seven genes were up-regulated in both tissue types. The highest up-regulated gene in the tumor and muscle tissue encoded for Mouse histone H2A.1 gene (FC = 13.2 ± 20.6) and Apolipoprotein E (FC = 12.8 ± 27.4) respectively MHC class III (FC = 83.7 ± 67.4) and hsp70 (FC = 75.3 ± 85.0). Immunoblot confirmed the presence of HSP70 protein in the muscle tissue. Pulsed HIFU treatment on tumor and muscle tissue results in dramatic changes in gene expression, indicating that the effect of pulsed HIFU is in some regard dependent and also independent of the tissue type.

  15. Cytological and histological correlation of granular cell tumor in a series of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soutrik Das

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumor (GCT is an uncommon soft tissue tumor characterized by proliferation of cells with granular eosinophilic cytoplasm. We came across three such tumors, one in the tongue, one in the chest wall, and one in the right deltoid region, which were referred for fine-needle aspiration cytology. On cytological examination, the first two cases were diagnosed as GCT, and the mass in deltoid region was suggestive of proliferative myositis. The cytological details of these cases are discussed. The excision biopsies of the first two cases and Tru-cut biopsy of the deltoid mass confirmed the diagnosis of GCT.

  16. Primary tumor regression speed after radiotherapy and its prognostic significance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ning; Liu, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Yong; Liang, Shao-Bo; Deng, Yan-Ming; Lu, Rui-Liang; Chen, Hai-Yang; Zhao, Hai; Lv, Zhi-Qian; Liang, Shao-Qiang; Yang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    To observe the primary tumor (PT) regression speed after radiotherapy (RT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and evaluate its prognostic significance. One hundred and eighty-eight consecutive newly diagnosed NPC patients were reviewed retrospectively. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging and fiberscope examination of the nasopharynx before RT, during RT when the accumulated dose was 46–50 Gy, at the end of RT, and 3–4 months after RT. Of 188 patients, 40.4% had complete response of PT (CRPT), 44.7% had partial response of PT (PRPT), and 14.9% had stable disease of PT (SDPT) at the end of RT. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates for patients with CRPT, PRPT, and SDPT at the end of RT were 84.0%, 70.7%, and 44.3%, respectively (P < 0.001, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.177, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.480-3.202). The 5-year failure-free survival (FFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates also differed significantly (87.8% vs. 74.3% vs. 52.7%, P = 0.001, HR = 2.148, 95% CI, 1.384-3.333; 91.7% vs. 84.7% vs. 66.1%, P = 0.004, HR = 2.252, 95% CI = 1.296-3.912). The 5-year local relapse–free survival (LRFS) rates were not significantly different (95.8% vs. 86.0% vs. 81.8%, P = 0.137, HR = 1.975, 95% CI, 0.976-3.995). By multivariate analyses, the PT regression speed at the end of RT was the only independent prognostic factor of OS, FFS, and DMFS (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.004, respectively). The 5-year FFS rates for patients with CRPT during RT and CRPT only at the end of RT were 80.2% and 97.1%, respectively (P = 0.033). For patients with persistent PT at the end of RT, the 5-year LRFS rates of patients without and with boost irradiation were 87.1% and 84.6%, respectively (P = 0.812). PT regression speed at the end of RT was an independent prognostic factor of OS, FFS, and DMFS in NPC patients. Immediate strengthening treatment may be provided to patients with poor tumor regression at the end of RT

  17. The unique case-report of metachronous brain tumors of different histology

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    А. М. Zaitsev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  The case of unusual course of brain tumor process – metachronous development of breast cancer brain metastasis and then development of malignant glioma is reported. The surgical treatment for both tumors were performed with intraoperative fluorescence diagnosis and photodynamic therapy. Due to multimodality treatment the patient was alive for 15 months from diagnosis of IV stage breast cancer (brain metastasis. 

  18. P-gp and MRP1 Expression in Parathyroid Tumors Related to Histology, Weight and Tc-99m-Sestamibi Imaging Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorna, F. H.; Hollema, H.; Hendrikse, H. N.; Bart, J.; Brouwers, A. H.; Plukker, J. T. M.

    Objective: P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) are membrane efflux pumps that may have a role in the kinetics of Tc-99m-sestamibi (MIBI) in parathyroid tumors. P-gp and MRP1 expression in parathyroid tumors was studied and related to histology, weight and pre- and

  19. Continuous representation of tumor microvessel density and detection of angiogenic hotspots in histological whole-slide images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Marx, Alexander; Reyes-Aldasoro, Constantino Carlos; Schad, Lothar R; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit; Weis, Cleo-Aron

    2015-08-07

    Blood vessels in solid tumors are not randomly distributed, but are clustered in angiogenic hotspots. Tumor microvessel density (MVD) within these hotspots correlates with patient survival and is widely used both in diagnostic routine and in clinical trials. Still, these hotspots are usually subjectively defined. There is no unbiased, continuous and explicit representation of tumor vessel distribution in histological whole slide images. This shortcoming distorts angiogenesis measurements and may account for ambiguous results in the literature. In the present study, we describe and evaluate a new method that eliminates this bias and makes angiogenesis quantification more objective and more efficient. Our approach involves automatic slide scanning, automatic image analysis and spatial statistical analysis. By comparing a continuous MVD function of the actual sample to random point patterns, we introduce an objective criterion for hotspot detection: An angiogenic hotspot is defined as a clustering of blood vessels that is very unlikely to occur randomly. We evaluate the proposed method in N=11 images of human colorectal carcinoma samples and compare the results to a blinded human observer. For the first time, we demonstrate the existence of statistically significant hotspots in tumor images and provide a tool to accurately detect these hotspots.

  20. Tumor-related markers in histologically normal margins correlate with locally recurrent oral squamous cell carcinoma: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhong; Chen, Si; Chen, Xinming; Zhang, Cuicui; Liang, Xueyi

    2016-02-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is characterized by a high rate of local recurrence (LR) even when the surgical margins are considered histopathologically 'normal'. The aim of our study was to determine the relationship between early tumor-related markers detected in histologically normal margins (HNM) and LR as well as disease-free survival in OSCC. The loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of markers on 9p21 (D9s1747, RPS6, D9s162) and 17p13 (TP53) and the immunostaining results of the corresponding mutant P53, P14, P15, and P16 proteins were assessed and correlated with LR and disease-free survival in 71 OSCC patients who had HNM. Fifteen of 71 patients with HNM developed LR. The presence of the following molecular markers in surgical margins was significantly correlated with the development of LR: LOH on chromosome 9p21 (D9s1747 + RPS6 + D9s162), any LOH, P16, and P53 (chi-square test, P tumor-related markers in histologically 'normal' resection margins may be a useful method for assessing LR in OSCC patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Histologic processing artifacts and inter-pathologist variation in measurement of inked margins of canine mast cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, Patti K; Löhr, Christiane V; Meritet, Danielle; Spagnoli, Sean T; Milovancev, Milan; Russell, Duncan S

    2018-05-01

    Although quantitative assessment of margins is recommended for describing excision of cutaneous malignancies, there is poor understanding of limitations associated with this technique. We described and quantified histologic artifacts in inked margins and determined the association between artifacts and variance in histologic tumor-free margin (HTFM) measurements based on a novel grading scheme applied to 50 sections of normal canine skin and 56 radial margins taken from 15 different canine mast cell tumors (MCTs). Three broad categories of artifact were 1) tissue deformation at inked edges, 2) ink-associated artifacts, and 3) sectioning-associated artifacts. The most common artifacts in MCT margins were ink-associated artifacts, specifically ink absent from an edge (mean prevalence: 50%) and inappropriate ink coloring (mean: 45%). The prevalence of other artifacts in MCT skin was 4-50%. In MCT margins, frequency-adjusted kappa statistics found fair or better inter-rater reliability for 9 of 10 artifacts; intra-rater reliability was moderate or better in 9 of 10 artifacts. Digital HTFM measurements by 5 blinded pathologists had a median standard deviation (SD) of 1.9 mm (interquartile range: 0.8-3.6 mm; range: 0-6.2 mm). Intraclass correlation coefficients demonstrated good inter-pathologist reliability in HTFM measurement (κ = 0.81). Spearman rank correlation coefficients found negligible correlation between artifacts and HTFM SDs ( r ≤ 0.3). These data confirm that although histologic artifacts commonly occur in inked margin specimens, artifacts are not meaningfully associated with variation in HTFM measurements. Investigators can use the grading scheme presented herein to identify artifacts associated with tissue processing.

  2. A note on modeling of tumor regression for estimation of radiobiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Hualiang; Chetty, Indrin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate calculation of radiobiological parameters is crucial to predicting radiation treatment response. Modeling differences may have a significant impact on derived parameters. In this study, the authors have integrated two existing models with kinetic differential equations to formulate a new tumor regression model for estimation of radiobiological parameters for individual patients. Methods: A system of differential equations that characterizes the birth-and-death process of tumor cells in radiation treatment was analytically solved. The solution of this system was used to construct an iterative model (Z-model). The model consists of three parameters: tumor doubling time T d , half-life of dead cells T r , and cell survival fraction SF D under dose D. The Jacobian determinant of this model was proposed as a constraint to optimize the three parameters for six head and neck cancer patients. The derived parameters were compared with those generated from the two existing models: Chvetsov's model (C-model) and Lim's model (L-model). The C-model and L-model were optimized with the parameter T d fixed. Results: With the Jacobian-constrained Z-model, the mean of the optimized cell survival fractions is 0.43 ± 0.08, and the half-life of dead cells averaged over the six patients is 17.5 ± 3.2 days. The parameters T r and SF D optimized with the Z-model differ by 1.2% and 20.3% from those optimized with the T d -fixed C-model, and by 32.1% and 112.3% from those optimized with the T d -fixed L-model, respectively. Conclusions: The Z-model was analytically constructed from the differential equations of cell populations that describe changes in the number of different tumor cells during the course of radiation treatment. The Jacobian constraints were proposed to optimize the three radiobiological parameters. The generated model and its optimization method may help develop high-quality treatment regimens for individual patients

  3. Demographics and Incidence of Histologically Confirmed Intracranial Tumors: A Five-year, Two-center Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhenkov, Deyan L; Kitanova, Martina; Ghenev, Peter; Tonchev, Anton B

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Intracranial tumors (ICTs) are a diverse group of malignancies that pose an immediate threat to patients' lives, no matter their local or metastatic origin, benign or malignant nature. These lesions have severe clinical courses and need to be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible, with pathological verification being the pivotal moment in the process of determining curative modalities. Aim The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of histologically confirmed ICTs in Eastern Bulgaria, based on their type (primary, metastatic, and non-volume occupying lesions (NVOL)), their respective subtypes, and incidence in a descriptive manner. Materials and Methods For a period of five full calendar years (January 1st, 2012 – December 31st, 2016), all histologically confirmed cases of intracranial tumors were prospectively collected from two individual tertiary healthcare institutions. The cases were then statistically analyzed in a descriptive manner, and incidences of primary, metastatic, and NVOL were compared with regards to their specific origins, types, and subtypes. Metastatic tumors were further segregated relative to their intracranial metastatic location. Results The total number of individual ICTs registered in the set timeframe was 822. Primary ICTs represented a total of 66.12% of the histologically confirmed cases, with the most common entries being tumors from a glial and meningeal origin, 30.90% were histologically confirmed as metastatic ICTs, from which the most common entries were of pulmonary origin, and the other 2.94% were NVOL. On behalf of their intracranial metastatic location, metastatic tumors were located predominantly in the supratentorial region, represented as a total of 87.80%, while the other 12.20% were located in the subtentorial region. Based on the descriptive analysis, the annual incidence per 100,000 capita of all ICTs is 9.12, comprised of 6.03 per 100,000 for primary ICTs, 2.82 per 100,000 for metastatic

  4. Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumors (TARTS With Unusual Histological Features in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri Marianovsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH patients with testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs with testicular enlargement present a serious diagnostic challenge. According to the data TARTs are usually benign. They are rare, resulting in paucity in the medical literature regarding their pathological features. We report a case of bilateral synchronous mass-forming TARTs with marked cytological and nuclear atypia misinterpreted as malignant testicular tumors in a 40-years-old man with CAH and CT and MRI data for pheochromocytoma of the right adrenal gland and paraaortal and paracaval lymphadenomegaly. He was previously diagnosed with adrenal cortical carcinoma of the left adrenal gland.

  5. Estimation of lung tumor position from multiple anatomical features on 4D-CT using multiple regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Hirose, Yoshinori; Kitsuda, Kenji; Ono, Yuka; Ishigaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2017-09-01

    To estimate the lung tumor position from multiple anatomical features on four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) data sets using single regression analysis (SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA) approach and evaluate an impact of the approach on internal target volume (ITV) for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of the lung. Eleven consecutive lung cancer patients (12 cases) underwent 4D-CT scanning. The three-dimensional (3D) lung tumor motion exceeded 5 mm. The 3D tumor position and anatomical features, including lung volume, diaphragm, abdominal wall, and chest wall positions, were measured on 4D-CT images. The tumor position was estimated by SRA using each anatomical feature and MRA using all anatomical features. The difference between the actual and estimated tumor positions was defined as the root-mean-square error (RMSE). A standard partial regression coefficient for the MRA was evaluated. The 3D lung tumor position showed a high correlation with the lung volume (R = 0.92 ± 0.10). Additionally, ITVs derived from SRA and MRA approaches were compared with ITV derived from contouring gross tumor volumes on all 10 phases of the 4D-CT (conventional ITV). The RMSE of the SRA was within 3.7 mm in all directions. Also, the RMSE of the MRA was within 1.6 mm in all directions. The standard partial regression coefficient for the lung volume was the largest and had the most influence on the estimated tumor position. Compared with conventional ITV, average percentage decrease of ITV were 31.9% and 38.3% using SRA and MRA approaches, respectively. The estimation accuracy of lung tumor position was improved by the MRA approach, which provided smaller ITV than conventional ITV. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  6. [Regression and therapy-resistance of primary liver tumors and liver metastases after regional chemotherapy and local tumor ablation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H-P

    2005-05-01

    High dosage regional chemotherapy, chemoembolization and other methods of regional treatment are commonly used to treat unresectable primary liver malignancies and liver metastases. In liver malignancies of childhood neoadjuvant chemotherapy is successfully combined with surgical treatment. Chemotherapy and local tumor ablation lead to characteristic histomorphologic changes: Complete destruction of the tumor tissue and its vascular bed is followed by encapsulated necroses. After selective eradication of the tumor cells under preservation of the fibrovasular bed the tumor is replaced by hypocellular edematous and fibrotic tissue. If completely damaged tumor tissue is absorbed quickly, the tumor area is replaced by regenerating liver tissue. Obliterating fibrohyalinosis of tumor vessels, and perivascular edema or necrosis indicate tissue damage along the vascular bed. Degenerative pleomorphism of tumor cells, steatosis, hydropic swelling and Malloryhyalin in HCC can represent cytologic findings of cytotoxic cellular damage. Macroscopic type of HCC influences significantly the response to treatment. Multinodular HCC often contain viable tumor nodules close to destroyed nodules after treatment. Encapsulated uninodular tumors undergo complete necrosis much easier. Large size and a tumor capsule limitate the effect of percutaneous injection of ethanol into HCC. In carcinomas with an infiltrating border, especially in metastases of adenocarcinomas and hepatic cholangiocarcinoma cytostatic treatment damages the tumor tissue mainly in the periphery. Nevertheless the infiltrating rim, portal veins, lymphatic spaces and bile ducts as well as the angle between liver capsule, tumor nodule and bordering parenchyma are the main refugees of viable tumor tissue even after high dosage regional chemotherapy. This local resistance is caused by special local conditions of vascularization and perfusion. These residues are the source of local tumor progression and distant metastases

  7. Radiation therapy for favorable histology Wilms tumor: Prevention of flank recurrence did not improve survival on National Wilms Tumor Studies 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breslow, Norman E.; Beckwith, J. Bruce; Haase, Gerald M.; Kalapurakal, John A.; Ritchey, Michael L.; Shamberger, Robert C.; Thomas, Patrick; D'Angio, Giulio J.; Green, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether radiation therapy (RT) of patients with Wilms tumor of favorable histology prevented flank recurrence and thereby improved the survival outcomes. Methods and Materials: Recurrence and mortality risks were compared among groups of patients with Stage I-IV/favorable histology Wilms tumor enrolled in the third (n = 1,640) and fourth (n = 2,066) National Wilms Tumor Study Group studies. Results: Proportions of patients with flank recurrence were 0 of 513 = 0.0% for 20 Gy, 12 of 805 = 1.5% for 10 Gy, and 44 of 2,388 = 1.8% for no flank RT (p trend 0.001 adjusted for stage and doxorubicin); for intra-abdominal (including flank) recurrence they were 5 of 513 = 1.0%, 30 of 805 = 3.7%, and 58 of 2,388 = 2.4%, respectively (p trend = 0.02 adjusted). Survival percentages at 8 years after intra-abdominal recurrence were 0 of 5 = 0% for 20 Gy, 10 of 30 = 33% for 10 Gy, and 34 of 58 = 56% for no RT (p trend = 0.0001). NWTS-4 discontinued use of 20 Gy RT, and the 8-year flank recurrence risk increased to 2.1% from 1.0% on NWTS-3 (p = 0.013). However, event-free survival was unaltered (88% vs. 86%, p = 0.39), and overall survival was better (93.8% vs. 90.8%, p = 0.036) on NWTS-4. Conclusions: Partly because of lower postrecurrence mortality among nonirradiated patients, prevention of flank recurrence by RT did not improve survival. It is important to evaluate entire treatment policies with regard to long-term outcomes

  8. Role of a Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor and Luteolin in the Regression of Colon Tumors in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Colon carcinogenesis is a devastating problem leading to morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Colon cancer is a complex multi-step process involving progressive disruption of homeostatic mechanisms controlling intestinal epithelial proliferation/inflammation, differentiation and programmed cell death. Colon cancer is the third most common malignant neoplasm worldwide. Its incidence strongly varies globally and is closely linked to elements of a so-called western lifestyle. In Egypt reports showed that colon cancer was detected in 11–15% of patients who underwent colonoscopy and diagnosed in 29–31% of patients aged 40 years or younger. The present study was planned to evaluate the effect of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor (aspirin) and a natural product (luteolin) and on colon cancer induced by 1, 2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH), beside studying the effects of luteolin and aspirin either alone or combined with fractionated low doses of γ- irradiation as a route of cancer therapy. Seventy adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups 10 animals each and treated as follows: 1. Control group (G1): rats of this group received distilled water via gavages for 15 weeks. 2. Colon tumor induction group (G2): rats of this group were injected subcutaneously with DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 15 weeks. 3. Colon tumor + irradiation group (G3): these rats were injected subcutaneously with DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 15 weeks then at the beginning of the 8th week they were exposed to γ-radiation at a dose level of 0.5 Gy/week x 8 and continued during DMH treatment. 4. Colon tumor + aspirin treatment group (G4): rats of this group gavaged aspirin (50 mg/kg/ week) and injected subcutaneously with DMH for 15 weeks. 5. Colon tumor + luteolin treatment group (G5): these rats were treated orally with LUT (0.2 mg/kg body weight/ day) and injected subcutaneously with DMH (20 mg/kg body weight/ week) for 15 weeks. 6. Colon tumor + aspirin

  9. YAP Inhibition Restores Hepatocyte Differentiation in Advanced HCC, Leading to Tumor Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Fitamant

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Defective Hippo/YAP signaling in the liver results in tissue overgrowth and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Here, we uncover mechanisms of YAP-mediated hepatocyte reprogramming and HCC pathogenesis. YAP functions as a rheostat in maintaining metabolic specialization, differentiation, and quiescence within the hepatocyte compartment. Increased or decreased YAP activity reprograms subsets of hepatocytes to different fates associated with deregulation of the HNF4A, CTNNB1, and E2F transcriptional programs that control hepatocyte quiescence and differentiation. Importantly, treatment with small interfering RNA-lipid nanoparticles (siRNA-LNPs targeting YAP restores hepatocyte differentiation and causes pronounced tumor regression in a genetically engineered mouse HCC model. Furthermore, YAP targets are enriched in an aggressive human HCC subtype characterized by a proliferative signature and absence of CTNNB1 mutations. Thus, our work reveals Hippo signaling as a key regulator of the positional identity of hepatocytes, supports targeting of YAP using siRNA-LNPs as a paradigm of differentiation-based therapy, and identifies an HCC subtype that is potentially responsive to this approach.

  10. Comparison of six methods of segmentation of tumor volume on the 18F-F.D.G. PET scan with reference histological volume in non small cell bronchopulmonary cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venel, Y.; Garhi, H.; Baulieu, J.L.; Prunier-Aesch, C.; Muret, A. de; Barillot, I.

    2008-01-01

    The 18 F-F.D.G. PET has demonstrated its importance in oncology, for initial extension and efficacy of anti tumoral therapeutics. Several studies have attempted to prove its utility to define tumoral volumes for conformational radiotherapy in non small cell lung cancers. Some authors have suggested the use of threshold of tumor intensity uptake with 40 or 50% of maximal intensity. Black et al. have determined contouring with linear regression formula of mean semi-quantitative index of tumor uptake (standard uptake value): SUV threshold = 0.307 Sub average + 0.588. Nestle et al. have taken into account the background noise intensity and mean intensity of the tumor: I threshold = β I average +I noise with β 0.15. Our study was done in collaboration with Inserm U618 team and has compared volumes defined on PET scan defined according to different methods based on intensity or S.U.V. to the tumour volume determined on CT scan by radio physicist. We have compared those volumes with histological volume that we considered for reference. Four patients have been included. They had 18 F-F.D.G. PET scan followed by complete tumoral removal surgery. Specific histological procedure allowed to define complete size of the tumor in re expanded lung. Comparatively to pathology, the volumes obtained using I max 40 and I max 50 are all underestimated. The volumes defined by Black's et al. method are under evaluated for the two largest tumours (15.8% to 22%) and overestimated for the two smallest ones (17.9 to 82.9%). Nestle's et al. method, using β = 0.15, correctly estimates two tumor volumes over 2 cm, but overestimates the two small tumors (79.6 to 124%). Finally, the corrected Nestle's et al. formula (using β = 0.264) overestimates three tumours. Volumes defined on CT scan by radio physicist are correct for one lesion, underestimated for one and overestimated for two other ones (44 and 179.5%). Nestle's et al. method seems to be the most accurate for tumours over 2 cm of

  11. Preclinical experiments for analysis of tumor regression due to negative pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattmann, H.; Cabeza, L.; Fritz-Niggli, H.

    To test the potential therapeutic value of negative pions in comparison with conventional x-rays, cobalt-60 γ rays, and high energy electrons and photons (Betatron), experimental analyses with induced tumors (transplant tumors) after irradiation are to be performed in vivo and in vitro (tumor cell suspensions, cell cultures, spontaneous tumors, carcinoma in ascites form); in addition to tumors primarily of mice, human cell tumors will be used; studies will also be made of cell kinetics with various cell types (normal cells, transformed (malignant) cells, beam-resistant, beam-sensitive types) using cell cultures from Chinese hamsters. An attempt will be made to compare slow- and fast-growing tumors. In a second phase, human tumors in conditioned animals will be tested in situ or as cell cultures. Skin, small intestine, regenerating liver and kidney, together with cell cultures, will serve as normal reaction systems

  12. In-vivo luminescence model for the study of tumor regression and regrowth following combination regimens with differentiation-promoting agents and photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollakanti, K.; Anand, S.; Maytin, E. V.

    2013-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy with aminolevulinic acid can be modified by pretreatment regimens with drugs such as 5- Fluorouracil (5-FU) or Vitamin D (calcitriol) that enhance accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) within tumor tissue which presumably will enhance the therapeutic response to light. However, histological approaches for monitoring therapeutic responses are poorly suited for studying long term survival because large numbers of mice need to be sacrificed. To address this limitation, a non-invasive model to monitor tumor regression and regrowth has been established. Breast cancer cells, stably transfected with firefly luciferase (MDA-Luc cell line), are implanted orthotopically in nude mice (0.25 - 1 x 106 cells/site), and monitored 0-60 min after s.c. injection of luciferin, with Xenogen in-vivo imaging system. Luminescence is detectable at day 1 post-implantation. Tumors are suitable for experimentation on day 6, when daily injections of pretreatment agents (5-FU, 300 mg/kg; calcitriol, 1 μg/kg) begin. On day 9, ALA (75 mg/kg i.p.) is given for 4 hr, followed by illumination (633 nm, 100 J/cm2). Tumor luminescence post- PDT is monitored daily and compared with caliper measurements. Pretreatments (5-FU, calcitriol) by themselves do not inhibit luciferase expression, and all tumors grow at a similar rate during the pretreatment period. Results from in vivo survival experiments can be correlated to survival responses of MDA-Luc cells grown in monolayer cultures +/- PDT and +/- pretreatments, and additional mechanistic information (e.g. Ki67 and E-cadherin expression) obtained. In summary, this noninvasive model will permit testing of the therapeutic survival advantages of various pretreatments during cPDT.

  13. SU-E-J-137: Incorporating Tumor Regression Into Robust Plan Optimization for Head and Neck Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, P; Hu, J; Tyagi, N; Mageras, G; Lee, N; Hunt, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a robust planning paradigm which incorporates a tumor regression model into the optimization process to ensure tumor coverage in head and neck radiotherapy. Methods: Simulation and weekly MR images were acquired for a group of head and neck patients to characterize tumor regression during radiotherapy. For each patient, the tumor and parotid glands were segmented on the MR images and the weekly changes were formulated with an affine transformation, where morphological shrinkage and positional changes are modeled by a scaling factor, and centroid shifts, respectively. The tumor and parotid contours were also transferred to the planning CT via rigid registration. To perform the robust planning, weekly predicted PTV and parotid structures were created by transforming the corresponding simulation structures according to the weekly affine transformation matrix averaged over patients other than him/herself. Next, robust PTV and parotid structures were generated as the union of the simulation and weekly prediction contours. In the subsequent robust optimization process, attainment of the clinical dose objectives was required for the robust PTV and parotids, as well as other organs at risk (OAR). The resulting robust plans were evaluated by looking at the weekly and total accumulated dose to the actual weekly PTV and parotid structures. The robust plan was compared with the original plan based on the planning CT to determine its potential clinical benefit. Results: For four patients, the average weekly change to tumor volume and position was −4% and 1.2 mm laterally-posteriorly. Due to these temporal changes, the robust plans resulted in an accumulated PTV D95 that was, on average, 2.7 Gy higher than the plan created from the planning CT. OAR doses were similar. Conclusion: Integration of a tumor regression model into target delineation and plan robust optimization is feasible and may yield improved tumor coverage. Part of this research is supported

  14. Logistic regression analysis of risk factors for postoperative recurrence of spinal tumors and analysis of prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanyong; Yang, Lili; Peng, Chuangang; Wu, Minfei

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk factors for postoperative recurrence of spinal tumors by logistic regression analysis and analysis of prognostic factors. In total, 77 male and 48 female patients with spinal tumor were selected in our hospital from January, 2010 to December, 2015 and divided into the benign (n=76) and malignant groups (n=49). All the patients underwent microsurgical resection of spinal tumors and were reviewed regularly 3 months after operation. The McCormick grading system was used to evaluate the postoperative spinal cord function. Data were subjected to statistical analysis. Of the 125 cases, 63 cases showed improvement after operation, 50 cases were stable, and deterioration was found in 12 cases. The improvement rate of patients with cervical spine tumor, which reached 56.3%, was the highest. Fifty-two cases of sensory disturbance, 34 cases of pain, 30 cases of inability to exercise, 26 cases of ataxia, and 12 cases of sphincter disorders were found after operation. Seventy-two cases (57.6%) underwent total resection, 18 cases (14.4%) received subtotal resection, 23 cases (18.4%) received partial resection, and 12 cases (9.6%) were only treated with biopsy/decompression. Postoperative recurrence was found in 57 cases (45.6%). The mean recurrence time of patients in the malignant group was 27.49±6.09 months, and the mean recurrence time of patients in the benign group was 40.62±4.34. The results were significantly different (Pregression analysis of total resection-related factors showed that total resection should be the preferred treatment for patients with benign tumors, thoracic and lumbosacral tumors, and lower McCormick grade, as well as patients without syringomyelia and intramedullary tumors. Logistic regression analysis of recurrence-related factors revealed that the recurrence rate was relatively higher in patients with malignant, cervical, thoracic and lumbosacral, intramedullary tumors, and higher Mc

  15. Translating Response During Therapy into Ultimate Treatment Outcome: A Personalized 4-Dimensional MRI Tumor Volumetric Regression Approach in Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayr, Nina A.; Wang, Jian Z.; Lo, Simon S.; Zhang Dongqing; Grecula, John C.; Lu Lanchun; Montebello, Joseph F.; Fowler, Jeffrey M.; Yuh, William T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess individual volumetric tumor regression pattern in cervical cancer during therapy using serial four-dimensional MRI and to define the regression parameters' prognostic value validated with local control and survival correlation. Methods and Materials: One hundred and fifteen patients with Stage IB 2 -IVA cervical cancer treated with radiation therapy (RT) underwent serial MRI before (MRI 1) and during RT, at 2-2.5 weeks (MRI 2, at 20-25 Gy), and at 4-5 weeks (MRI 3, at 40-50 Gy). Eighty patients had a fourth MRI 1-2 months post-RT. Mean follow-up was 5.3 years. Tumor volume was measured by MRI-based three-dimensional volumetry, and plotted as dose(time)/volume regression curves. Volume regression parameters were correlated with local control, disease-specific, and overall survival. Results: Residual tumor volume, slope, and area under the regression curve correlated significantly with local control and survival. Residual volumes ≥20% at 40-50 Gy were independently associated with inferior 5-year local control (53% vs. 97%, p <0.001) and disease-specific survival rates (50% vs. 72%, p = 0.009) than smaller volumes. Patients with post-RT residual volumes ≥10% had 0% local control and 17% disease-specific survival, compared with 91% and 72% for <10% volume (p <0.001). Conclusion: Using more accurate four-dimensional volumetric regression analysis, tumor response can now be directly translated into individual patients' outcome for clinical application. Our results define two temporal thresholds critically influencing local control and survival. In patients with ≥20% residual volume at 40-50 Gy and ≥10% post-RT, the risk for local failure and death are so high that aggressive intervention may be warranted.

  16. Transcriptional profiling provides insights into metronomic cyclophosphamide-activated, innate immune-dependent regression of brain tumor xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doloff, Joshua C; Waxman, David J

    2015-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide treatment on a six-day repeating metronomic schedule induces a dramatic, innate immune cell-dependent regression of implanted gliomas. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms whereby metronomic cyclophosphamide induces innate immune cell mobilization and recruitment, or about the role of DNA damage and cell stress response pathways in eliciting the immune responses linked to tumor regression. Untreated and metronomic cyclophosphamide-treated human U251 glioblastoma xenografts were analyzed on human microarrays at two treatment time points to identify responsive tumor cell-specific factors and their upstream regulators. Mouse microarray analysis across two glioma models (human U251, rat 9L) was used to identify host factors and gene networks that contribute to the observed immune and tumor regression responses. Metronomic cyclophosphamide increased expression of tumor cell-derived DNA damage, cell stress, and cell death genes, which may facilitate innate immune activation. Increased expression of many host (mouse) immune networks was also seen in both tumor models, including complement components, toll-like receptors, interferons, and cytolysis pathways. Key upstream regulators activated by metronomic cyclophosphamide include members of the interferon, toll-like receptor, inflammatory response, and PPAR signaling pathways, whose activation may contribute to anti-tumor immunity. Many upstream regulators inhibited by metronomic cyclophosphamide, including hypoxia-inducible factors and MAP kinases, have glioma-promoting activity; their inhibition may contribute to the therapeutic effectiveness of the six-day repeating metronomic cyclophosphamide schedule. Large numbers of responsive cytokines, chemokines and immune regulatory genes linked to innate immune cell recruitment and tumor regression were identified, as were several immunosuppressive factors that may contribute to the observed escape of some tumors from metronomic CPA

  17. Correlation between histological and ultrasonographic findings of soft tissue tumors: To verify the possibility of cell-like resolution in ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Lan; Lai, Yi-Chen; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Chen, Paul Chih-Hsueh; Chiou, Hong-Jen

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the possibility of obtained cell-like resolution in soft tissue tumors on the basis of ultrasound echotexture. This is a prospective study consisting of 57 patients (29 females and 28 males, age range: 9-83 years, average age: 44.5 years) with palpable soft tissue mass, referred from the Departments of Orthopedics and Oncology for ultrasound (US)-guided biopsy. The study was approved by the institutional review board (IRB) of our hospital. Ultrasonographic images were recorded by still imaging in the biopsy tract in each biopsy session. Equipment included curvilinear and linear array probes. After biopsy, a radiologist and a pathologist correlated the US image and the observations regarding the histology of the tissue specimen in low-power (40 × magnification) and high-power (100-400 × magnification) fields. The histologic results included 22 benign and 35 malignant lesions. The echotexture of the soft tissue tumors correlated well with the cellular distribution and arrangement: the greater the number of cells and the more regular their arrangement as seen histologically, the greater is the hypoechogenicity on the ultrasound. The echogenicity of the soft tissue tumor also correlated well with the presence of fat cells, hemorrhage, cartilage, and osteoid tissue, all of which cause an increase in echogenicity. This study showed that the echotexture of soft tissue tumors can predict some details of cellular histology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  18. Canine transmissible venereal tumor and seminoma: a cytohistopathology and chemotherapy study of tumors in the growth phase and during regression after chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanbakht, J; Pedram, B; Taheriyan, M R; Khadivar, F; Hosseini, S H; Abdi, F S; Hosseini, E; Moloudizargari, M; Aghajanshakeri, S H; Javaherypour, S; Shafiee, R; Emrani Bidi, R

    2014-06-01

    In this study, 12 dogs affected by canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) and testicular seminoma tumor were studied retrospectively. The cytological sample was smeared onto a glass slide and either air-dried for May-Grünwald-stain, and masses were surgically removed. The tumors were grossly examined, and sections of 4-μm thick were obtained from each sample and stained with H&E. For chemotherapy, vincristine sulfate was administered weekly as an infusion over 3 min via the cephalic vein at a dose of 0.025 mg/kg after diluting with physiological saline to a total amount of 10 ml. If no remission was observed after 8 weeks, chemotherapy was continued with weekly doxorubicin infusion at a dose of 1 mg/kg. All the tumor samples were divided into four cytohistopathologic groups, namely: multilobular (six cases), papillary (two cases), pedunculated (two cases), and tubular (two cases of seminoma). The most frequently represented tumor type was multilobular (6/10, 60 %) followed by pedunculated (2/10, 20 %), papillary (2/10, 20 %), and tubular (two cases of seminoma, 100 %). Cytological smears from eight tumors in regression after chemotherapy were poorly cellular, and many cells were fragmented. In two progressive tumors, there was an average of 1,406 ± 972 CTVT 200 cells/μl or 96.71 % of total cells counted. Thus, tumor cells represented 96.71 % of total cells within the biopsy specimens and the leukocytes 4.29 % (leukocyte, tumor cell ratio=0.062 ± 0.031). In eight regressive tumors, there was an average of 1,245 ± 1,032 CTVT 200 cells/μl or 97.31 % of total cells counted. Thus, tumor cells represented 97.31 % of total cells and leukocytes 2.69 % (leukocyte, tumor cell ratio=0.071 ± 0.174). Our data suggested that combination treatment with vincristine and doxorubicin in the future could be an excellent therapeutic alternative for the treatment of TVT for probably reducing the resistance to vincristine, and also, treatment success could easily be followed

  19. PSMA-targeted polyinosine/polycytosine vector induces prostate tumor regression and invokes an antitumor immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langut, Yael; Talhami, Alaa; Mamidi, Samarasimhareddy; Shir, Alexei; Zigler, Maya; Joubran, Salim; Sagalov, Anna; Flashner-Abramson, Efrat; Edinger, Nufar; Klein, Shoshana; Levitzki, Alexander

    2017-12-26

    There is an urgent need for an effective treatment for metastatic prostate cancer (PC). Prostate tumors invariably overexpress prostate surface membrane antigen (PSMA). We designed a nonviral vector, PEI-PEG-DUPA (PPD), comprising polyethylenimine-polyethyleneglycol (PEI-PEG) tethered to the PSMA ligand, 2-[3-(1, 3-dicarboxy propyl)ureido] pentanedioic acid (DUPA), to treat PC. The purpose of PEI is to bind polyinosinic/polycytosinic acid (polyIC) and allow endosomal release, while DUPA targets PC cells. PolyIC activates multiple pathways that lead to tumor cell death and to the activation of bystander effects that harness the immune system against the tumor, attacking nontargeted neighboring tumor cells and reducing the probability of acquired resistance and disease recurrence. Targeting polyIC directly to tumor cells avoids the toxicity associated with systemic delivery. PPD selectively delivered polyIC into PSMA-overexpressing PC cells, inducing apoptosis, cytokine secretion, and the recruitment of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PSMA-overexpressing tumors in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice with partially reconstituted immune systems were significantly shrunken following PPD/polyIC treatment, in all cases. Half of the tumors showed complete regression. PPD/polyIC invokes antitumor immunity, but unlike many immunotherapies does not need to be personalized for each patient. The potent antitumor effects of PPD/polyIC should spur its development for clinical use.

  20. The new criteria of clinical response for the primary tumor based on the findings of histological response after chemoradiation therapy in esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Hiroshi; Natsugoe, Shoji; Yokomakura, Naoya; Matsumoto, Masataka; Aikou, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of chemoradiation therapy (CRT) increased in order to improve the surgical resectabilty and clinical outcome. It is important to accurately assess the effect of CRT for selecting further treatment and predicting prognosis. We tried to make the new criteria for imaging diagnosis after we reevaluated the discrepancy between clinical and histological effect of CRT. Subjects were 36 patients with advanced esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy with lymphadenectomy after CRT that consisted of 5-fluorouracil plus cisplatin and 40 Gy of radiation. The clinical and histological response was firstly evaluated based on esophageal disease guidelines for clinical and pathologic studies on carcinoma of the esophagus by the Japanese Society of Clinical response in imaging was reassessed based on the histological response. The number of tumors judged as clinical complete response/partial response/no change (CR/PR/NC) was 0/26/10, and the histological grading 1/2/3 was 17/11/8, respectively. Imaging for Grade 1 tumors showed the existence of viable cancer cells in biopsy specimen. Of 16 patients with such finding, 14 (88%) were histologically judged as Grade 1. Imaging characteristics for grade 3 tumors was more than a 75% reduction in esophagography, and the existence of scar formation by esophagoscopy. All five (100%) patients with these findings were histologically judged as Grade 3. The findings of grade 1 and 3 based on new criteria were independent predictive factors for CRT effect. According to new criteria, it was possible to predict the histological effect by the combination of esophagography and endoscopy in more than 80% of patients after CRT. Our new criteria may offer important information on the selection of further treatment or the prediction of prognosis after CRT in patients with esophageal cancer. (author)

  1. Molecular Genetic Changes Associated With Colorectal Carcinogenesis Are Not Prognostic for Tumor Regression Following Preoperative Chemoradiation of Rectal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zauber, N. Peter; Marotta, Steven P.; Berman, Errol; Grann, Alison; Rao, Maithili; Komati, Naga; Ribiero, Kezia; Bishop, D. Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Preoperative chemotherapy and radiation has become the standard of care for many patients with rectal cancer. The therapy may have toxicity and delays definitive surgery. It would therefore be desirable to identify those cancers that will not regress with preoperative therapy. We assessed a series of rectal cancers for the molecular changes of loss of heterozygosity of the APC and DCC genes, K-ras mutations, and microsatellite instability, changes that have clearly been associated with rectal carcinogenesis. Methods and Materials: Diagnostic colonoscopic biopsies from 53 patients who received preoperative chemotherapy and radiation were assayed using polymerase chain reaction techniques followed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing. Regression of the primary tumor was evaluated using the surgically removed specimen. Results: Twenty-three lesions (45%) were found to have a high degree of regression. None of the molecular changes were useful as indicators of regression. Conclusions: Recognized molecular changes critical for rectal carcinogenesis including APC and DCC loss of heterozygosity, K-ras mutations, and microsatellite instability are not useful as indicators of tumor regression following chemoradiation for rectal carcinoma.

  2. Tumor regression following intravenous administration of lactoferrin- and lactoferricin-bearing dendriplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Li Ying; Koh, Pei Yin; Somani, Sukrut; Al Robaian, Majed; Karim, Reatul; Yean, Yi Lyn; Mitchell, Jennifer; Tate, Rothwelle J; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Blatchford, David R; Mullin, Margaret; Dufès, Christine

    2015-08-01

    The possibility of using gene therapy for the treatment of cancer is limited by the lack of safe, intravenously administered delivery systems able to selectively deliver therapeutic genes to tumors. In this study, we investigated if the conjugation of the polypropylenimine dendrimer to lactoferrin and lactoferricin, whose receptors are overexpressed on cancer cells, could result in a selective gene delivery to tumors and a subsequently enhanced therapeutic efficacy. The conjugation of lactoferrin and lactoferricin to the dendrimer significantly increased the gene expression in the tumor while decreasing the non-specific gene expression in the liver. Consequently, the intravenous administration of the targeted dendriplexes encoding TNFα led to the complete suppression of 60% of A431 tumors and up to 50% of B16-F10 tumors over one month. The treatment was well tolerated by the animals. These results suggest that these novel lactoferrin- and lactoferricin-bearing dendrimers are promising gene delivery systems for cancer therapy. Specific targeting of cancer cells should enhance the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. This is especially true for gene delivery. In this article, the authors utilized a dendrimer-based system and conjugated this with lactoferrin and lactoferricin to deliver anti-tumor genes. The positive findings in animal studies should provide the basis for further clinical studies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Retrospective analysis of a Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) system in full-field digital mammography in correlation to tumor histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenauer, S.; Sohns, C.; Grabbe, E.; Werner, C.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: to evaluate the usefulness of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system in full-field digital mammography in correlation to tumor histology. Material and methods: a total of 476 patients (226 patients with histologically proven malignant tumors, 250 healthy women) took part in this study. The mammograms were studied retrospectively, using the CAD system Image Checker. For 226 patients digital mammograms in MLO-projection were available. For 186 of these patients the CC-projection was also available. CAD markers that correlated with histologically proven carcinomas were considered to be true-positive markers. All other CAD markers were considered to be false-positive. Histologically proven carcinomas without markers were false-negative results. The dependence of the CAD markers placement upon the different carcinoma histologies was studied using the Chi-square test. Results: no significant difference could be proven for the detectability of malignant breast lesions of different histologic types. For the detectability of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), tubular carcinoma and ductulo-lobular carcinoma, the true positives were 71.1%, 75%, 70.7%, 70%, 60% and 80%, respectively, in the MLO projection and 83.9%, 75.9%, 81.8%, 77.8%, 87.5% and 33.3%, respectively, in the CC projection. There was an average of 0.5 false-positive markers per mammographic image. Conclusion: The histologic type of carcinoma seems to have no influence on detectability when using the CAD system. The high rate of false-positive markers shows, however, the limited specificity of the CAD system and that improvements are necessary. (orig.)

  4. Chondrosarcoma of the femur with histology-imaging correlation of tumor growth--preliminary observations concerning periosteal new bone formation and soft tissue extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, German C; Schweitzer, Mark E; Kenan, Samuel; Abdelwahab, Ibrahim F

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was, in chondrosarcoma (CHS) of the femur, to evaluate by radiologic-pathologic correlation, the degree of tumor growth, cortical destruction, periosteal reaction, and soft tissue extension present. Eight cases of histologically proven CHS of the femur were studied. All cases were resected, evaluated histologically with coronal slabs, and compared with radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. In two resected specimens, the tumors were studied in more detail; along with coronal slabs, axial sections of the remaining anterior and posterior halves of both tumors were taken, and the bone specimens were X-rayed and examined histologically. CHS initially involved the medullary cavity and subsequently destroyed the cortex; first, by endosteal scalloping and, second, by subsequent invasion and destruction of the cortex. During this process, there was periosteal new bone formation (PNBF), with increased cortical thickness, the degree of which often correlated with the degree of cortical destruction. In the areas of cortical thickening of three cases, a "grey line" was seen on MRI that separated the cortex from the periosteal new bone; the line, in reality,is a space between the two structures. The presence of this line suggests that the tumor does not extend beyond the cortex. PNBF occurred in all cases and varied in thickness. It frequently developed independent of direct periosteal tumor involvement. The periosteum of one case contained porotic bone with interposed marrow fat, which was easily misinterpreted as tumor extension on MRI. Expansion and remodeling of the femoral diaphysis in CHS, with widening of the medullary cavity, is usually due to extensive cortical destruction with PNBF. Soft tissue extension was present in five cases and apparently occurred by two different mechanisms: direct tumor destruction of the cortex and periosteum, with extension into the soft tissues; and subtle MRI occult tumor permeation through the

  5. Expression of FAP, ADAM12, WISP1, and SOX11 is heterogeneous in aggressive fibromatosis and spatially relates to the histologic features of tumor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misemer, Benjamin S; Skubitz, Amy P N; Carlos Manivel, J; Schmechel, Stephen C; Cheng, Edward Y; Henriksen, Jonathan C; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Corless, Christopher L; Skubitz, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) represents a group of tumors with a variable and unpredictable clinical course, characterized by a monoclonal proliferation of myofibroblastic cells. The optimal treatment for AF remains unclear. Identification and validation of genes whose expression patterns are associated with AF may elucidate biological mechanisms in AF, and aid treatment selection. This study was designed to examine the protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) of four genes, ADAM12, FAP, SOX11, and WISP1, that were found in an earlier study to be uniquely overexpressed in AF compared with normal tissues. Digital image analysis was performed to evaluate inter- and intratumor heterogeneity, and correlate protein expression with histologic features, including a histopathologic assessment of tumor activity, defined by nuclear chromatin density ratio (CDR). AF tumors exhibited marked inter- and intratumor histologic heterogeneity. Pathologic assessment of tumor activity and digital assessment of average nuclear size and CDR were all significantly correlated. IHC revealed protein expression of all four genes. IHC staining for ADAM12, FAP, and WISP1 correlated with CDR and was higher, whereas SOX11 staining was lower in tumors with earlier recurrence following excision. All four proteins were expressed, and the regional variation in tumor activity within and among AF cases was demonstrated. A spatial correlation between protein expression and nuclear morphology was observed. IHC also correlated with the probability of recurrence following excision. These proteins may be involved in AF pathogenesis and the corresponding pathways could serve as potential targets of therapy

  6. Patterns of lymph node sampling and the impact of lymph node density in favorable histology Wilms tumor: An analysis of the national cancer database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, A F; Carrasco, A; Amini, A; Aldrink, J H; Dasgupta, R; Gow, K W; Glick, R D; Ehrlich, P F; Cost, N G

    2018-04-01

    There is controversy about the role of lymph node (LN) sampling or dissection in the management of favorable histology (FH) Wilms tumor (WT), specifically how it performed and how it may impact survival. The objective of this study was to analyze factors affecting LN sampling patterns and the impact of LN yield and density (number of positive LNs/LNs examined) on overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced-stage favorable histology Wilms tumor (FHWT). The National Cancer Database (NCDB) was queried for patients with FHWT during 2004-2013. Demographic, clinical and OS data were abstracted for those who underwent surgical resection. Poisson regression was performed to analyze how factors influenced LN yield. Patients with positive LNs had LN density calculated and were further analyzed. A total of 2340 patients met criteria, with a median age at diagnosis of 3 years (range 0-78 years). The median number of LNs examined was three (range 0-87). Lymph node yield was affected by age, race, insurance, tumor size, laterality, advanced stage, LN positivity, and institutional volume. A total of 390 (16.6%) patients had LN-positive disease. Median LN density for these LN-positive patients was 0.38 (range 0.02-1) (Summary Figure). Estimated 5-year OS was significantly improved for those with LN density ≤0.38 vs. >0.38 (94% vs. 84.6%, P = 0.012). In this population, on multivariate analysis, age and LN density were significant predictors of OS. It is difficult to compile large numbers of cases in rare diseases like WT, and fortunately a large administrative database such as the NCDB can serve as a great resource. However, administrative data come with inherent limitations such as missing data and inability to account for a variety of factors that may influence LN yield and/or OS (specimen designation, pathologist experience, surgeon experience/volume, institutional Children's Oncology Group (COG) association, etc.). In this specific disease, the American Joint Committee

  7. Frequency of papillary tubal hyperplasia (PTH), salpingoliths and transition from adenoma to borderline ovarian tumors (BOT): A systematic analysis of 74 BOT with different histologic types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Lars-Christian; Angermann, Karolin; Hentschel, Bettina; Einenkel, Jens; Höhn, Anne Kathrin

    2017-04-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors (BOT) arise from cystadenomas and represent a transition step within the development of low-grade ovarian carcinomas (Type I tumors). That pathway mirrors the adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence known for colorectal cancer. It has been suggested that papillary tubal hyperplasia (PTH) and salpingoliths may be associated with the development of BOT. To evaluate the frequency of the presence of benign cystadenoma and its transition to BOT in a given patient as well as the presence of PTH and salpingoliths we re-valuated in 74 consecutive cases of BOT with different histologic types. The majority of cases represented serous-BOT (60.8%), followed by mucinous BOT (25.7%), other histologic types were rare. 86.5% showed an adenoma-BOT sequence, which was seen in all mucinous BOT but was missed in 15.6% of serous BOT. Two cases had salpingoliths without associated PTH. PTH was seen in four out of the 74 (5.4%) BOT and occurred only in cases with serous histology. The vast majority of BOT represent a transition from benign cystadenoma to BOT in cases with mucinous and serous histology. Salpingoliths are rarely seen in association with BOT and occurred exclusively in BOT with serous histology. PTH may represent a distinct lesion but is rarely seen in association with BOT, especially in those with non-serous histology. Further studies are needed to evaluate the frequency and pathogenetic association of PTH with BOT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiple injections of electroporated autologous T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor mediate regression of human disseminated tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yangbing; Moon, Edmund; Carpenito, Carmine; Paulos, Chrystal M; Liu, Xiaojun; Brennan, Andrea L; Chew, Anne; Carroll, Richard G; Scholler, John; Levine, Bruce L; Albelda, Steven M; June, Carl H

    2010-11-15

    Redirecting T lymphocyte antigen specificity by gene transfer can provide large numbers of tumor-reactive T lymphocytes for adoptive immunotherapy. However, safety concerns associated with viral vector production have limited clinical application of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CAR). T lymphocytes can be gene modified by RNA electroporation without integration-associated safety concerns. To establish a safe platform for adoptive immunotherapy, we first optimized the vector backbone for RNA in vitro transcription to achieve high-level transgene expression. CAR expression and function of RNA-electroporated T cells could be detected up to a week after electroporation. Multiple injections of RNA CAR-electroporated T cells mediated regression of large vascularized flank mesothelioma tumors in NOD/scid/γc(-/-) mice. Dramatic tumor reduction also occurred when the preexisting intraperitoneal human-derived tumors, which had been growing in vivo for >50 days, were treated by multiple injections of autologous human T cells electroporated with anti-mesothelin CAR mRNA. This is the first report using matched patient tumor and lymphocytes showing that autologous T cells from cancer patients can be engineered to provide an effective therapy for a disseminated tumor in a robust preclinical model. Multiple injections of RNA-engineered T cells are a novel approach for adoptive cell transfer, providing flexible platform for the treatment of cancer that may complement the use of retroviral and lentiviral engineered T cells. This approach may increase the therapeutic index of T cells engineered to express powerful activation domains without the associated safety concerns of integrating viral vectors. Copyright © 2010 AACR.

  9. Predictive factors of esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiation therapy for locally advanced esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atsumi, Kazushige; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Katsumasa

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to clarify the predictive factors correlated with esophageal stenosis within three months after radiation therapy for locally advanced esophageal cancer. We enrolled 47 patients with advanced esophageal cancer with T2-4 and stage II-III who were treated with definitive radiation therapy and achieving complete response of primary lesion at Kyushu University Hospital between January 1998 and December 2005. Esophagography was performed for all patients before treatment and within three months after completion of the radiation therapy, the esophageal stenotic ratio was evaluated. The stenotic ratio was used to define four levels of stenosis: stenosis level 1, stenotic ratio of 0-25%; 2, 25-50%; 3, 50-75%; 4, 75-100%. We then estimated the correlation between the esophageal stenosis level after radiation therapy and each of numerous factors. The numbers and total percentages of patients at each stenosis level were as follows: level 1: n=14 (30%); level 2: 8 (17%); level 3: 14 (30%); and level 4: 11 (23%). Esophageal stenosis in the case of full circumference involvement tended to be more severe and more frequent. Increases in wall thickness tended to be associated with increases in esophageal stenosis severity and frequency. The extent of involved circumference and wall thickness of tumor region were significantly correlated with esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiation therapy (p=0.0006, p=0.005). For predicting the possibility of esophageal stenosis with tumor regression within three months in radiation therapy, the extent of involved circumference and esophageal wall thickness of the tumor region may be useful. (author)

  10. Affinity for {sup 57}Co-Vitamin B{sub 12} by a wide histologic variety of tumor types in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shon, M. H.; Park, S. A.; Kim, S. H.; Jeong, K. H.; Lim, C. Y. [College of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    The search for tumor-avid agents for use in nuclear medicine imaging is an ongoing field of importance. The purpose of this study was to determine the affinity for radiolabeled vitamin B{sub 12} by a wide histologic variety of tumor types in mice. Seventeen different types of tumor were grown subcutaneously in female Balb/C or Balb nu/nu(nude) mice. When the tumors reached about 1 cm in diameter, mice were injected intraperitoneally with {sup 57}Co-vitamin B{sub 12}. Twenty-four hours later, the mice were sacrificed. Organs and tissues were removed, weighed, and activity per mg determined by gamma counter. Values represented cpm/mg tissue that was normalized to 20 grams body weight for each mouse. A wide variety of tumor types showed significant uptake and concentration of {sup 57}Co-vitamin B{sub 12}, as evidenced by tumor:tissue activity ratios. For many tissues of great importance in terms of background (bone, muscle, blood), the tumor:tissue activity ratios of uptake were high. These data strongly suggest that further efforts to evaluate the utility of radiolabeled adducts of vitamin B{sub 12} for clinical use in oncologic imaging are warranted.

  11. Retrospective feasibility study of simultaneous integrated boost in cervical cancer using Tomotherapy: the impact of organ motion and tumor regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Fernanda G; Callaway, Sharon; Delikgoz-Soykut, Ela; Coskun, Mehtap; Porta, Laetitia; Meuwly, Jean-Yves; Soares-Rodrigues, Joao; Heym, Leonie; Moeckli, Raphael; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2013-01-03

    Whole pelvis intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is increasingly being used to treat cervical cancer aiming to reduce side effects. Encouraged by this, some groups have proposed the use of simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) to target the tumor, either to get a higher tumoricidal effect or to replace brachytherapy. Nevertheless, physiological organ movement and rapid tumor regression throughout treatment might substantially reduce any benefit of this approach. To evaluate the clinical target volume - simultaneous integrated boost (CTV-SIB) regression and motion during chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) for cervical cancer, and to monitor treatment progress dosimetrically and volumetrically to ensure treatment goals are met. Ten patients treated with standard doses of CRT and brachytherapy were retrospectively re-planned using a helical Tomotherapy - SIB technique for the hypothetical scenario of this feasibility study. Target and organs at risk (OAR) were contoured on deformable fused planning-computed tomography and megavoltage computed tomography images. The CTV-SIB volume regression was determined. The center of mass (CM) was used to evaluate the degree of motion. The Dice's similarity coefficient (DSC) was used to assess the spatial overlap of CTV-SIBs between scans. A cumulative dose-volume histogram modeled estimated delivered doses. The CTV-SIB relative reduction was between 31 and 70%. The mean maximum CM change was 12.5, 9, and 3 mm in the superior-inferior, antero-posterior, and right-left dimensions, respectively. The CTV-SIB-DSC approached 1 in the first week of treatment, indicating almost perfect overlap. CTV-SIB-DSC regressed linearly during therapy, and by the end of treatment was 0.5, indicating 50% discordance. Two patients received less than 95% of the prescribed dose. Much higher doses to the OAR were observed. A multiple regression analysis showed a significant interaction between CTV-SIB reduction and OAR dose increase. The CTV-SIB had important

  12. Retrospective feasibility study of simultaneous integrated boost in cervical cancer using tomotherapy: the impact of organ motion and tumor regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, Fernanda G; Ozsahin, Mahmut; Callaway, Sharon; Delikgoz-Soykut, Ela; Coskun, Mehtap; Porta, Laetitia; Meuwly, Jean-Yves; Soares-Rodrigues, Joao; Heym, Leonie; Moeckli, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    Whole pelvis intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is increasingly being used to treat cervical cancer aiming to reduce side effects. Encouraged by this, some groups have proposed the use of simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) to target the tumor, either to get a higher tumoricidal effect or to replace brachytherapy. Nevertheless, physiological organ movement and rapid tumor regression throughout treatment might substantially reduce any benefit of this approach. To evaluate the clinical target volume - simultaneous integrated boost (CTV-SIB) regression and motion during chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) for cervical cancer, and to monitor treatment progress dosimetrically and volumetrically to ensure treatment goals are met. Ten patients treated with standard doses of CRT and brachytherapy were retrospectively re-planned using a helical Tomotherapy - SIB technique for the hypothetical scenario of this feasibility study. Target and organs at risk (OAR) were contoured on deformable fused planning-computed tomography and megavoltage computed tomography images. The CTV-SIB volume regression was determined. The center of mass (CM) was used to evaluate the degree of motion. The Dice’s similarity coefficient (DSC) was used to assess the spatial overlap of CTV-SIBs between scans. A cumulative dose-volume histogram modeled estimated delivered doses. The CTV-SIB relative reduction was between 31 and 70%. The mean maximum CM change was 12.5, 9, and 3 mm in the superior-inferior, antero-posterior, and right-left dimensions, respectively. The CTV-SIB-DSC approached 1 in the first week of treatment, indicating almost perfect overlap. CTV-SIB-DSC regressed linearly during therapy, and by the end of treatment was 0.5, indicating 50% discordance. Two patients received less than 95% of the prescribed dose. Much higher doses to the OAR were observed. A multiple regression analysis showed a significant interaction between CTV-SIB reduction and OAR dose increase. The CTV-SIB had important

  13. Retrospective feasibility study of simultaneous integrated boost in cervical cancer using tomotherapy: the impact of organ motion and tumor regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera Fernanda G

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole pelvis intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT is increasingly being used to treat cervical cancer aiming to reduce side effects. Encouraged by this, some groups have proposed the use of simultaneous integrated boost (SIB to target the tumor, either to get a higher tumoricidal effect or to replace brachytherapy. Nevertheless, physiological organ movement and rapid tumor regression throughout treatment might substantially reduce any benefit of this approach. Purpose To evaluate the clinical target volume - simultaneous integrated boost (CTV-SIB regression and motion during chemo-radiotherapy (CRT for cervical cancer, and to monitor treatment progress dosimetrically and volumetrically to ensure treatment goals are met. Methods and materials Ten patients treated with standard doses of CRT and brachytherapy were retrospectively re-planned using a helical Tomotherapy - SIB technique for the hypothetical scenario of this feasibility study. Target and organs at risk (OAR were contoured on deformable fused planning-computed tomography and megavoltage computed tomography images. The CTV-SIB volume regression was determined. The center of mass (CM was used to evaluate the degree of motion. The Dice’s similarity coefficient (DSC was used to assess the spatial overlap of CTV-SIBs between scans. A cumulative dose-volume histogram modeled estimated delivered doses. Results The CTV-SIB relative reduction was between 31 and 70%. The mean maximum CM change was 12.5, 9, and 3 mm in the superior-inferior, antero-posterior, and right-left dimensions, respectively. The CTV-SIB-DSC approached 1 in the first week of treatment, indicating almost perfect overlap. CTV-SIB-DSC regressed linearly during therapy, and by the end of treatment was 0.5, indicating 50% discordance. Two patients received less than 95% of the prescribed dose. Much higher doses to the OAR were observed. A multiple regression analysis showed a significant interaction

  14. Biological-clinical study of radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity of squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth. Growth and regression rates, dynamic histology, and cell kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, M.; Nervi, C.

    1974-01-01

    Effects of combined methotrexate and radiotherapy were studied in 22 patients with advanced squamous cell cancer of the upper air passages. Studies included clinical growth rate of tumor volume prior to treatment, cell kinetics before treatment, electron microscope studies of serial biopsies, response of tumor to methotrexate and radiation, and time and rate of recurrences. Case histories are described for four different types of tumors and results are discussed. (U.S.)

  15. Expression of FAP, ADAM12, WISP1, and SOX11 is heterogeneous in aggressive fibromatosis and spatially relates to the histologic features of tumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misemer, Benjamin S; Skubitz, Amy P N; Carlos Manivel, J; Schmechel, Stephen C; Cheng, Edward Y; Henriksen, Jonathan C; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Corless, Christopher L; Skubitz, Keith M

    2014-02-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) represents a group of tumors with a variable and unpredictable clinical course, characterized by a monoclonal proliferation of myofibroblastic cells. The optimal treatment for AF remains unclear. Identification and validation of genes whose expression patterns are associated with AF may elucidate biological mechanisms in AF, and aid treatment selection. This study was designed to examine the protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) of four genes, ADAM12, FAP, SOX11, and WISP1, that were found in an earlier study to be uniquely overexpressed in AF compared with normal tissues. Digital image analysis was performed to evaluate inter- and intratumor heterogeneity, and correlate protein expression with histologic features, including a histopathologic assessment of tumor activity, defined by nuclear chromatin density ratio (CDR). AF tumors exhibited marked inter- and intratumor histologic heterogeneity. Pathologic assessment of tumor activity and digital assessment of average nuclear size and CDR were all significantly correlated. IHC revealed protein expression of all four genes. IHC staining for ADAM12, FAP, and WISP1 correlated with CDR and was higher, whereas SOX11 staining was lower in tumors with earlier recurrence following excision. All four proteins were expressed, and the regional variation in tumor activity within and among AF cases was demonstrated. A spatial correlation between protein expression and nuclear morphology was observed. IHC also correlated with the probability of recurrence following excision. These proteins may be involved in AF pathogenesis and the corresponding pathways could serve as potential targets of therapy. © 2013 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. N-end rule pathway inhibition assists colon tumor regression via necroptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritha Agarwalla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent study has shown that N-end rule pathway, an ubiquitin dependent proteolytic system, counteracts cell death by degrading many antisurvival protein fragments like BCLxL, BRCA1, RIPK1, etc. Inhibition of the N-end rule pathway can lead to metabolic stabilization of proapoptotic protein fragments like RIPK1, thereby sensitizing cells to programmed cell death. Receptor interacting serine-threonine protein kinase-1 (RIPK1 is one of the upstream regulators of programmed necrosis known as necroptosis. Necroptosis is particularly gaining attention of cancer biologists as it provides an alternate therapeutic modality to kill cancer cells, which often evolve multiple strategies to circumvent growth inhibition by apoptosis. Utilizing the over expression of biotin receptor in cancer cells, herein, we report that coadministration of synthetic hetero-bivalent N-end rule inhibitor RFC11 and anticancer drug shikonin solubilized in a stable biotin receptor-targeted liposome exhibited significant synergistic antitumor effect in both subcutaneous and orthotopic mouse colon tumor model through induction of necroptosis with distinctive upregulation of RIPK1. Besides developing a newly targeted formulation for necroptosis induction, this report is the first in vivo evidence demonstrating that potent inhibition of N-end rule pathway can enhance therapeutic efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutics.

  17. Melanocytic lesions in a private pathology practice. Comparison of histologic features in different tumor types with particular reference to dysplastic nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, N; Hou-Jensen, K

    1993-11-01

    This study reviews a total of 1000 melanocytic lesions--two separate 500 consecutive sample groupings from 1980 and 1989, respectively--diagnosed in a private non-hospital-associated pathology practice. Lesions were classified as lentigo simplex, congenital nevus, "common" nevus, dysplastic nevus, blue nevus, Spitz's nevus or malignant melanoma. A comparison of the two periods reveals an increase in dysplastic nevi from one in 1980 to nine in 1989. The histologic changes in these nevi were compared to those of the other tumors. Pronounced cytologic atypia was seen in the melanocytes of a few "common" nevi, but more often in the dysplastic nevi and in all of the melanomas. Slight nuclear atypia was usual in "common" nevi and lentigines, and also fibroplasia, lymphocytic infiltration, vessel proliferation and pigment incontinence were seen in both "common" nevi and dysplastic nevi. It is concluded that no single histologic variable was specific for dysplastic nevi.

  18. Histological and histoenzymatic studies on the cellular immunoreaction in Ehrlich tumor-bearing C3H/He mice exposed to various doses of local irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, Kazufumi; Gose, Kyuhei; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Imajo, Yoshinari; Kimura, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroshi.

    1982-01-01

    To examine the relationship between the degree of stromal reaction and the dose of irradiation applied locally to the tumor tissue, Ehrlich tumor was transplanted into the right thighs of C3H/He mice, which were subsequently irradiated with a single dose of 1,000, 2,000, 3,000 or 4,000 rad. The mice were killed 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 or 14 days after irradiation, and the resected tumor tissues were examined histologically and enzymohistochemically. The number of peripheral lymphocytes was also counted. The higher the dose of irradiation, the smaller the number of peripheral lymphocytes was observed. Lymphocytic infiltration around the tumor tissue was most intensive about 7 days after irradiation of any dose. The most intensive lymphocytic reaction was observed in the group exposed to 3,000 rad at 7 day after irradiation. Enzymohistochemical study revealed that the infiltrating lymphocytes were mostly T-lymphocytes. These results suggest that there is an optimal dose that produces the most effective cellular immune response against topical tumor cells. (author)

  19. Purging of the neuroblastoma stem cell compartment and tumor regression on exposure to hypoxia or cytotoxic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Ilaria; D'Amico, Massimo; Biagiotti, Tiziana; Giunti, Serena; Carbone, Maria Vittoria; Fredducci, David; Wanke, Enzo; Olivotto, Massimo

    2007-03-15

    We worked out an experimental protocol able to purge the stem cell compartment of the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma clone. This protocol was based on the prolonged treatment of the wild-type cell population with either hypoxia or the antiblastic etoposide. Cell fate was monitored by immunocytochemical and electrophysiologic (patch-clamp) techniques. Both treatments produced the progressive disappearance of neuronal type (N) cells (which constitute the bulk of the tumor), leaving space for a special category of epithelial-like substrate-adherent cells (S(0)). The latter represent a minimal cell component of the untreated population and are endowed with immunocytochemical markers (p75, c-kit, and CD133) and the electrophysiologic "nude" profile, typical of the neural crest stem cells. S(0) cells displayed a highly clonogenic potency and a substantial plasticity, generating both the N component and an alternative subpopulation terminally committed to the fibromuscular lineage. Unlike the N component, this lineage was highly insensitive to the apoptotic activity of hypoxia and etoposide and developed only when the neuronal option was abolished. Under these conditions, the fibromuscular progeny of S(0) expanded and progressed up to the exhaustion of the staminal compartment and to the extinction of the tumor. When combined, hypoxia and etoposide cooperated in abolishing the N cell generation and promoting the conversion of the tumor described. This synergy might mirror a natural condition in the ischemic areas occurring in cancer. These results have relevant implications for the understanding of the documented tendency of neuroblastomas to regress from a malignant to a benign phenotype, either spontaneously or on antiblastic treatment.

  20. The intratumoral distribution of radiolabeled 177Lu-BR96 monoclonal antibodies changes in relation to tumor histology over time in a syngeneic rat colon carcinoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örbom, Anders; Eriksson, Sophie E; Elgström, Erika; Ohlsson, Tomas; Nilsson, Rune; Tennvall, Jan; Strand, Sven-Erik

    2013-08-01

    The therapeutic effect of radioimmunotherapy depends on the distribution of the absorbed dose in relation to viable cancer cells within the tumor, which in turn is a function of the activity distribution. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of (177)Lu-DOTA-BR96 monoclonal antibodies targeting the Lewis Y antigen over 7 d using a syngeneic rat model of colon carcinoma. Thirty-eight tumor-bearing rats were intravenously given 25 or 50 MBq of (177)Lu-DOTA-BR96 per kilogram of body weight and were sacrificed 2, 8, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, or 168 h after injection, with activity measured in blood and tumor samples. Adjacent cryosections of each tumor were analyzed in 3 ways: imaging using a silicon-strip detector for digital autoradiography, staining for histologic characterization, or staining to determine the distribution of the antigen, vasculature, and proliferating cells using immunohistochemistry. Absorbed-dose rate distribution images at the moment of sacrifice were calculated using the activity distribution and a point-dose kernel. The correlations between antigen expression and both activity uptake and absorbed-dose rate were calculated for several regions of interest in each tumor. Nine additional animals with tumors were given unlabeled antibody to evaluate possible immunologic effects. At 2-8 h after injection, activity was found in the tumor margins; at 24 h, in viable antigen-expressing areas within the tumor; and at 48 h and later, increasingly in antigen-negative areas of granulation tissue. The correlation between antigen expression and both the mean activity and the absorbed-dose rate in regions of interest changed from positive to negative after 24 h after injection. Antigen-negative areas also increased over time in animals injected with unlabeled BR96, compared with untreated tumors. The results indicate that viable Lewis Y-expressing tumor cells are most efficiently treated during the initial uptake period. The activity then seems

  1. Neuroendocrine Tumor, Well Differentiated, of the Breast: A Relatively High-Grade Case in the Histological Subtype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Tajima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast is a rare entity, comprising <1% of breast carcinomas. Described here is the case of a 78-year-old woman who developed an invasive tumor in the left breast measuring 2.0 cm x 1.5 cm x 1.2 cm. The tumor was composed of only endocrine elements in the invasive part. It infiltrated in a nested fashion with no tubular formation. Intraductal components were present both inside and outside of the invasive portion. Almost all carcinoma cells consisting of invasive and intraductal parts were positive for synaptophysin and neuron-specific enolase. According to the World Health Organization classification 2012, this tumor was subclassified as neuroendocrine tumor, well-differentiated. Among the subgroup, this tumor was relatively high-grade because it was grade 3 tumor with a few mitotic figures. Vascular and lymphatic permeation and lymph node metastases were noted. In the lymph nodes, the morphology of the tumor was similar to the primary site. No distant metastasis and no relapse was seen for one year after surgery. The prognosis of neuroendocrine carcinomas is thought to be worse than invasive mammary carcinomas, not otherwise specified. Therefore, immunohistochemistry for neuroendocrine markers is important in the routine practice to prevent overlooking neuroendocrine carcinomas.

  2. Comprehensive modulation of tumor progression and regression with periodic fasting and refeeding circles via boosting IGFBP-3 loops and NK responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiancheng; Lin, Xiaojuan; Li, Meng

    2012-10-01

    Progressive tumor-bearing patients deserve to benefit from more realistic approaches. Here, a study revealed the impact of modified periodic fasting and refeeding regimen on tumor progression or regression with little or no loss of food intake and body weight. Human A549 lung, HepG-2 liver, and SKOV-3 ovary progressive tumor-bearing mice were established and subjected to 4 wk of periodic fasting/refeeding cycles (PFRC), including periodic 1-d fasting/6-d refeeding weekly (protocol 1) and periodic 2-d fasting/5-d refeeding weekly (P2DF/5DR, protocol 2), with ad libitum (AL)-fed hosts as controls. Afterwards, PFRC groups exhibited tumor growth arrest with some tendency towards regression; especially, complete regression of progressive tumors and metastases comprised between 43.75 and 56.25% of tumor-challenged hosts in P2DF/5DR group (P fasting/6-d refeeding weekly groups survived a 4-month study period vs. only 31.25-37.5% in AL control group. Immunological assays and Luminex microarray revealed that tumor growth remission is mainly via natural killer cell (NK) reactivity and cross-regulation of IGF-binding protein-3, IGF/IGF-receptor, and megakaryocyte growth and development factor autocrine and paracrine loops. In vivo cellular and humoral assays indicated that tumor-regressive induction by PFRC protocols could be partly terminated by NK cell and IGF-binding protein-3 blockade or replenishment of IGF-I/-II and megakaryocyte growth and development factor. These findings offer a better understanding of comprehensive modulation of periodic fasting/refeeding strategy on the balance between tumor progression and regression.

  3. Adenoviral vaccination combined with CD40 stimulation and CTLA-4 blockage can lead to complete tumor regression in a murine melanoma model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Maria Rathmann; Holst, Peter J; Steffensen, Maria Abildgaard

    2010-01-01

    that the delay in tumor growth can be converted to complete regression and long-term survival in 30-40% of the mice by a booster vaccination plus combinational treatment with agonistic anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and anti-CTLA-4 mAb. Regarding the mechanism underlying the improved clinical effect......, analysis of the tumor-specific response revealed a significantly prolonged tumor-specific CD8 T cell response in spleens of the mice receiving the combinational treatment compared with mice receiving either treatment individually. Matching this, CD8 T cell depletion completely prevented tumor control...

  4. Histological assessment of the efficacy of drug-eluting beads in portal tumor thrombosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Imai, MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old man was diagnosed with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT. The tumors were multiple and existed in both lobes. Drug-eluting beads transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (DEB-TACE was performed for the tumors in the left lobe. Embosphere and Hepasphere were selected for embolization of the arterioportal shunt, followed by loaded epirubicin infusion into the left hepatic artery. Computed tomography showed reduction of PVTT. However, liver failure progressed, and the patient died 67 days after DEB-TACE. Autopsy showed that the beads reached the tumor thrombosis in the portal vein. The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma with PVTT is poor. Although there are no established treatments for unresectable PVTT, DEB-TACE might be a useful option for such cases.

  5. Stage migration after minor changes in histologic estimation of tumor burden in sentinel lymph nodes: the protocol trap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Nyengaard, Jens R; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    protocol trap"). This systematical bias makes it difficult to base treatment decisions on semiquantitative metastasis size estimates. Although based on metastatic melanoma, the principles described herein will apply when measuring nodal tumor burden in other metastasizing cancers, including breast...

  6. Segmentation and Estimation of the Histological Composition of the Tumor Mass in Computed Tomographic Images of Neuroblastoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ayres, Fabio

    2001-01-01

    The problem that we investigate in the present paper Is the improvement of the analysis of the primary tumor mass, in patients with advanced neuroblastoma, using X-ray computed tomography (CT) exams...

  7. Prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes differs depending on histological type and smoking habit in completely resected non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, T; Muramatsu, R; Fujita, T; Nagumo, H; Sakurai, T; Noji, S; Takahata, E; Yaguchi, T; Tsukamoto, N; Kudo-Saito, C; Hayashi, Y; Kamiyama, I; Ohtsuka, T; Asamura, H; Kawakami, Y

    2016-11-01

    T-cell infiltration in tumors has been used as a prognostic tool in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the influence of smoking habit and histological type on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in NSCLC remains unclear. We evaluated the prognostic significance of TILs (CD4 + , CD8 + , CD20 + , and FOXP3 + ) according to histological type and smoking habit using automatic immunohistochemical staining and cell counting in 218 patients with NSCLC. In multivariate survival analyses of clinical, pathological, and immunological factors, a high ratio of FOXP3 + to CD4 + T cells (FOXP3/CD4) [hazard ratio (HR): 4.46, P smoking habit in AD, a high FOXP3/CD4 ratio was poorly prognostic with a smoking history (HR: 5.21, P smoking habit on the immunological environment may lead to the establishment of immunological diagnosis and appropriate individualized immunotherapy for NSCLC. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A Comparative Review of Demographics, Incidence, and Epidemiology of Histologically Confirmed Intracranial Tumors in Brazil and Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraf, Jonathan S; Matev, Boyko K; Dzhenkov, Deyan L; Kitanova, Martina; Iliev, Bogomil; Ghenev, Peter; Tonchev, Anton B; Enchev, Yavor; Adami, Fernando; De Carvalho, Luis Eduardo W

    2018-01-01

    Intracranial tumors (ICTs) attract numerous scientific teams and tremendous financial resources worldwide. These lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) can be both benign and malignant in biological behavior as well as local or metastatic in origin. We compared data from two studies on primary and metastatic ICTs from Brazil and Bulgaria, based on histopathologically confirmed ICTs from tertiary health centers. Primary ICTs significantly outweigh the frequency of metastatic ICTs. Primary ICTs represent 86.45% in Brazil and 69.17% in Bulgaria, with around 60% of their totals being malignant. There is a statistical dominance of tumors from the neuroepithelial origin, with the most common entry being glioblastoma multiforme. The second-most common primary ICT group comprises tumors of meningeal origin. Metastatic ICTs show great variance; 13.55% in Brazil and 31.38% in Bulgaria of all ICT cases being attributed to them. However, metastatic ICTs are even a more diverse group than neuroepithelial tumors, with the majority of this group comprising metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma (almost exclusively in males), metastatic breast adenocarcinoma in females, metastatic pulmonary carcinomas (primarily from the non-small cell group with a male predominance), and metastatic melanoma with an even gender ratio. PMID:29682433

  9. Method for accurate registration of tissue autofluorescence imaging data with corresponding histology: a means for enhanced tumor margin assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jakob; Sun, Tianchen; Chen, Yi-Ling; Phipps, Jennifer E.; Bold, Richard J.; Darrow, Morgan A.; Ma, Kwan-Liu; Marcu, Laura

    2018-01-01

    An important step in establishing the diagnostic potential for emerging optical imaging techniques is accurate registration between imaging data and the corresponding tissue histopathology typically used as gold standard in clinical diagnostics. We present a method to precisely register data acquired with a point-scanning spectroscopic imaging technique from fresh surgical tissue specimen blocks with corresponding histological sections. Using a visible aiming beam to augment point-scanning multispectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy on video images, we evaluate two different markers for the registration with histology: fiducial markers using a 405-nm CW laser and the tissue block's outer shape characteristics. We compare the registration performance with benchmark methods using either the fiducial markers or the outer shape characteristics alone to a hybrid method using both feature types. The hybrid method was found to perform best reaching an average error of 0.78±0.67 mm. This method provides a profound framework to validate diagnostical abilities of optical fiber-based techniques and furthermore enables the application of supervised machine learning techniques to automate tissue characterization.

  10. Comparison of six methods of segmentation of tumor volume on the {sup 18}F-F.D.G. PET scan with reference histological volume in non small cell bronchopulmonary cancers; Comparaison de six methodes de segmentation du volume tumoral sur la {sup 18}F-FDG TEP-TDM avec le volume de reference anatomopathologique dans les cancers bronchopulmonaires non a petites cellules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venel, Y.; Garhi, H.; Baulieu, J.L.; Prunier-Aesch, C. [CHRU de Tours-Bretonneau, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 37 - Tours (France); Muret, A. de [CHRU de Tours-Bretonneau, Service de Radiotherapie, 37 - Tours (France); Barillot, I. [CHRU de Tours-Bretonneau, Service d' Anatomopathologie, 37 - Tours (France)

    2008-06-15

    The {sup 18}F-F.D.G. PET has demonstrated its importance in oncology, for initial extension and efficacy of anti tumoral therapeutics. Several studies have attempted to prove its utility to define tumoral volumes for conformational radiotherapy in non small cell lung cancers. Some authors have suggested the use of threshold of tumor intensity uptake with 40 or 50% of maximal intensity. Black et al. have determined contouring with linear regression formula of mean semi-quantitative index of tumor uptake (standard uptake value): SUV{sub threshold} = 0.307 Sub{sub average} + 0.588. Nestle et al. have taken into account the background noise intensity and mean intensity of the tumor: I{sub threshold} = {beta} I{sub average} +I{sub noise} with {beta} 0.15. Our study was done in collaboration with Inserm U618 team and has compared volumes defined on PET scan defined according to different methods based on intensity or S.U.V. to the tumour volume determined on CT scan by radio physicist. We have compared those volumes with histological volume that we considered for reference. Four patients have been included. They had {sup 18}F-F.D.G. PET scan followed by complete tumoral removal surgery. Specific histological procedure allowed to define complete size of the tumor in re expanded lung. Comparatively to pathology, the volumes obtained using I{sub max} 40 and I{sub max} 50 are all underestimated. The volumes defined by Black's et al. method are under evaluated for the two largest tumours (15.8% to 22%) and overestimated for the two smallest ones (17.9 to 82.9%). Nestle's et al. method, using {beta} = 0.15, correctly estimates two tumor volumes over 2 cm, but overestimates the two small tumors (79.6 to 124%). Finally, the corrected Nestle's et al. formula (using {beta} = 0.264) overestimates three tumours. Volumes defined on CT scan by radio physicist are correct for one lesion, underestimated for one and overestimated for two other ones (44 and 179.5%). Nestle

  11. Locoregional control of non-small cell lung cancer in relation to automated early assessment of tumor regression on cone beam computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Carsten; Bernchou, Uffe; Bertelsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    was estimated on the basis of the first one third and two thirds of the scans. The concordance between estimated and actual relative volume at the end of radiation therapy was quantified by Pearson's correlation coefficient. On the basis of the estimated relative volume, the patients were stratified into 2...... for other clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Automatic measurement of the tumor regression from standard CBCT images was feasible. Pearson's correlation coefficient between manual and automatic measurement was 0.86 in a sample of 9 patients. Most patients experienced tumor volume regression, and this could...

  12. Expression of LIGHT/TNFSF14 Combined with Vaccination against Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E7 Induces Significant Tumor Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanodia, Shreya; Da Silva, Diane M.; Karamanukyan, Tigran; Bogaert, Lies; Fu, Yang-Xin; Kast, W. Martin

    2010-01-01

    LIGHT, a ligand for the lymphotoxin-beta receptor, establishes lymphoid-like tissues inside tumor sites and recruits naïve T-cells into the tumor. However, whether these infiltrating T-cells are specific for tumor antigens is not known. We hypothesized that therapy with LIGHT can expand functional tumor-specific CD8+ T-cells that can be boosted using HPV16E6E7-Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Replicon Particles (HPV16-VRP) and that this combined therapy can eradicate HPV16-induced tumors. Our data show that forced expression of LIGHT in tumors results in an increase in expression of interferon gamma (IFNg) and chemottractant cytokines such as IL-1a, MIG and MIP-2 within the tumor and that this tumor microenvironment correlates with an increase in frequency of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T-cells. Forced expression of LIGHT also results in the expansion of functional T-cells that recognize multiple tumor-antigens, including HPV16 E7, and these T-cells prevent the outgrowth of tumors upon secondary challenge. Subsequent boosting of E7-specific T-cells by vaccination with HPV16-VRP significantly increases their frequency in both the periphery and the tumor, and leads to the eradication of large well-established tumors, for which either treatment alone is not successful. These data establish the safety of Ad-LIGHT as a therapeutic intervention in pre-clinical studies and suggest that patients with HPV16+ tumors may benefit from combined immunotherapy with LIGHT and antigen-specific vaccination. PMID:20460520

  13. Simultaneous inhibition of key growth pathways in melanoma cells and tumor regression by a designed bidentate constrained helical peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Amlanjyoti; Mallick, Shampa; Ghosh, Piya; Maiti, Atanu; Ahmed, Israr; Bhattacharya, Seemana; Mandal, Tapashi; Manna, Asit; Roy, Koushik; Singh, Sandeep; Nayak, Dipak Kumar; Wilder, Paul T; Markowitz, Joseph; Weber, David; Ghosh, Mrinal K; Chattopadhyay, Samit; Guha, Rajdeep; Konar, Aditya; Bandyopadhyay, Santu; Roy, Siddhartha

    2014-07-01

    Protein-protein interactions are part of a large number of signaling networks and potential targets for drug development. However, discovering molecules that can specifically inhibit such interactions is a major challenge. S100B, a calcium-regulated protein, plays a crucial role in the proliferation of melanoma cells through protein-protein interactions. In this article, we report the design and development of a bidentate conformationally constrained peptide against dimeric S100B based on a natural tight-binding peptide, TRTK-12. The helical conformation of the peptide was constrained by the substitution of α-amino isobutyric acid--an amino acid having high helical propensity--in positions which do not interact with S100B. A branched bidentate version of the peptide was bound to S100B tightly with a dissociation constant of 8 nM. When conjugated to a cell-penetrating peptide, it caused growth inhibition and rapid apoptosis in melanoma cells. The molecule exerts antiproliferative action through simultaneous inhibition of key growth pathways, including reactivation of wild-type p53 and inhibition of Akt and STAT3 phosphorylation. The apoptosis induced by the bidentate constrained helix is caused by direct migration of p53 to mitochondria. At moderate intravenous dose, the peptide completely inhibits melanoma growth in a mouse model without any significant observable toxicity. The specificity was shown by lack of ability of a double mutant peptide to cause tumor regression at the same dose level. The methodology described here for direct protein-protein interaction inhibition may be effective for rapid development of inhibitors against relatively weak protein-protein interactions for de novo drug development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. SU-F-J-64: Comparison of Dosimetric Robustness Between Proton Therapy and IMRT Plans Following Tumor Regression for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, C; Ainsley, C; Teo, B; Burgdorf, B; Berman, A; Levin, W; Xiao, Y; Lin, L; Simone, C; Solberg, T [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Janssens, G [IBA, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In the light of tumor regression and normal tissue changes, dose distributions can deviate undesirably from what was planned. As a consequence, replanning is sometimes necessary during treatment to ensure continued tumor coverage or to avoid overdosing organs at risk (OARs). Proton plans are generally thought to be less robust than photon plans because of the proton beam’s higher sensitivity to changes in tissue composition, suggesting also a higher likely replanning rate due to tumor regression. The purpose of this study is to compare dosimetric deviations between forward-calculated double scattering (DS) proton plans with IMRT plans upon tumor regression, and assesses their impact on clinical replanning decisions. Methods: Ten consecutive locally advanced NSCLC patients whose tumors shrank > 50% in volume and who received four or more CT scans during radiotherapy were analyzed. All the patients received proton radiotherapy (6660 cGy, 180 cGy/fx). Dosimetric robustness during therapy was characterized by changes in the planning objective metrics as well as by point-by-point root-mean-squared differences for the entire PTV, ITV, and OARs (heart, cord, esophagus, brachial plexus and lungs) DVHs. Results: Sixty-four pairs of DVHs were reviewed by three clinicians, who requested a replanning rate of 16.7% and 18.6% for DS and IMRT plans, respectively, with a high agreement between providers. Robustness of clinical indicators was found to depend on the beam orientation and dose level on the DVH curve. Proton dose increased most in OARs distal to the PTV along the beam path, but these changes were primarily in the mid to low dose levels. In contrast, the variation in IMRT plans occurred primarily in the high dose region. Conclusion: Robustness of clinical indicators depends where on the DVH curves comparisons are made. Similar replanning rates were observed for DS and IMRT plans upon large tumor regression.

  15. Tumor Delineation and Quantitative Assessment of Glucose Metabolic Rate within Histologic Subtypes of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Using Dynamic 18F Fluorodeoxyglucose PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Tineke W H; de Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee; Visser, Eric P; Oyen, Wim J G; Looijen-Salamon, Monika G; Visvikis, Dimitris; Verhagen, Ad F T M; Bussink, Johan; Vriens, Dennis

    2017-05-01

    Purpose To assess whether dynamic fluorine 18 ( 18 F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has added value over static 18 F-FDG PET for tumor delineation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) radiation therapy planning by using pathology volumes as the reference standard and to compare pharmacokinetic rate constants of 18 F-FDG metabolism, including regional variation, between NSCLC histologic subtypes. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the institutional review board. Patients gave written informed consent. In this prospective observational study, 1-hour dynamic 18 F-FDG PET/computed tomographic examinations were performed in 35 patients (36 resectable NSCLCs) between 2009 and 2014. Static and parametric images of glucose metabolic rate were obtained to determine lesion volumes by using three delineation strategies. Pathology volume was calculated from three orthogonal dimensions (n = 32). Whole tumor and regional rate constants and blood volume fraction (V B ) were computed by using compartment modeling. Results Pathology volumes were larger than PET volumes (median difference, 8.7-25.2 cm 3 ; Wilcoxon signed rank test, P PET images is in best agreement with pathology volume and could be useful for NSCLC autocontouring. Differences in glycolytic rate and V B between SCC and AC are relevant for research in targeting agents and radiation therapy dose escalation. © RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  16. Tumor dose-volume response in image-guided adaptive brachytherapy for cervical cancer: A meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazeron, Renaud; Castelnau-Marchand, Pauline; Escande, Alexandre; Rivin Del Campo, Eleonor; Maroun, Pierre; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Chargari, Cyrus; Haie-Meder, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Image-guided adaptive brachytherapy is a high precision technique that allows dose escalation and adaptation to tumor response. Two monocentric studies reported continuous dose-volume response relationships, however, burdened by large confidence intervals. The aim was to refine these estimations by performing a meta-regression analysis based on published series. Eligibility was limited to series reporting dosimetric parameters according to the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie-European SocieTy for Radiation Oncology recommendations. The local control rates reported at 2-3 years were confronted to the mean D90 clinical target volume (CTV) in 2-Gy equivalent using the probit model. The impact of each series on the relationships was pondered according to the number of patients reported. An exhaustive literature search retrieved 13 series reporting on 1299 patients. D90 high-risk CTV ranged from 70.9 to 93.1 Gy. The probit model showed a significant correlation between the D90 and the probability of achieving local control (p < 0.0001). The D90 associated to a 90% probability of achieving local control was 81.4 Gy (78.3-83.8 Gy). The planning aim of 90 Gy corresponded to a 95.0% probability (92.8-96.3%). For the intermediate-risk CTV, less data were available, with 873 patients from eight institutions. Reported mean D90 intermediate-risk CTV ranged from 61.7 to 69.1 Gy. A significant dose-volume effect was observed (p = 0.009). The D90 of 60 Gy was associated to a 79.4% (60.2-86.0%) local control probability. Based on published data from a high number of patients, significant dose-volume effect relationships were confirmed and refined between the D90 of both CTV and the probability of achieving local control. Further studies based on individual data are required to develop nomograms including nondosimetric prognostic criteria. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Serial megavoltage CT imaging during external beam radiotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer: Observations on tumor regression during treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupelian, Patrick A.; Ramsey, Chester; Meeks, Sanford L.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Forbes, Alan; Wagner, Thomas H.; Langen, Katja M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The ability to obtain soft-tissue imaging in the treatment room, such as with megavoltage CT imaging, enables the observation of tumor regression during a course of external beam radiation therapy. In this current study, we report on the most extensive study looking at the rate of regression of non-small-cell lung cancers during a course of external beam radiotherapy by analyzing serial megavoltage CT images obtained on 10 patients. Methods and Materials: The analysis is performed on 10 patients treated with the Helical Tomotherapy Hi*Art device. All 10 patients had non-small-cell lung cancer. A total of 274 megavoltage CT sets were obtained on the 10 patients (average, 27 scans per patient; range, 9-35). All patients had at least a scan at beginning and at the end of treatment. The frequency of scanning was determined by the treating physician. The treatment was subsequently delivered with the Tomotherapy Hi*Art system. The gross tumor volumes (GTVs) were later contoured on each megavoltage CT scan, and tumor volumes were calculated. Although some patients were treated to draining nodal areas in addition to the primary tumor, only the primary GTVs were tracked. Response to treatment was quantified by the relative decrease in tumor volume over time, i.e., elapsed days from the first day of therapy. The individual GTVs ranged from 5.9 to 737.2 cc in volume at the start of treatment. In 6 of the 10 patients, dose recalculations were also performed to document potential variations in delivered doses within the tumors. The megavoltage CT scans were used, and the planned treatment was recalculated on the daily images. The hypothesis was that dose deposited in the target would increase throughout the course of radiotherapy because of tumor shrinkage and subsequent decreasing attenuation. Specifically, the dose received by 95% of the GTV (D 95 ) was monitored over time for each of the 6 patients treated at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Orlando. Results: Regression

  18. Basal cell carcinoma: PD-L1/PD-1 checkpoint expression and tumor regression after PD-1 blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Evan J; Lilo, Mohammed T; Ogurtsova, Aleksandra; Esandrio, Jessica; Xu, Haiying; Brothers, Patricia; Schollenberger, Megan; Sharfman, William H; Taube, Janis M

    2017-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies that block immune regulatory proteins such as programmed death-1 (PD-1) have demonstrated remarkable efficacy in controlling the growth of multiple tumor types. Unresectable or metastatic basal cell carcinoma, however, has largely gone untested. Because PD-Ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression in other tumor types has been associated with response to anti-PD-1, we investigated the expression of PD-L1 and its association with PD-1 expression in the basal cell carcinoma tumor microenvironment. Among 40 basal cell carcinoma specimens, 9/40 (22%) demonstrated PD-L1 expression on tumor cells, and 33/40 (82%) demonstrated PD-L1 expression on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and associated macrophages. PD-L1 was observed in close geographic association to PD-1+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Additionally, we present, here, the first report of an objective anti-tumor response to pembrolizumab (anti-PD-1) in a patient with metastatic PD-L1 (+) basal cell carcinoma, whose disease had previously progressed through hedgehog pathway-directed therapy. The patient remains in a partial response 14 months after initiation of therapy. Taken together, our findings provide a rationale for testing anti-PD-1 therapy in patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma, either as initial treatment or after acquired resistance to hedgehog pathway inhibition.

  19. MAL2 and tumor protein D52 (TPD52 are frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, but differentially associated with histological subtype and patient outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanayan Susan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The four-transmembrane MAL2 protein is frequently overexpressed in breast carcinoma, and MAL2 overexpression is associated with gain of the corresponding locus at chromosome 8q24.12. Independent expression microarray studies predict MAL2 overexpression in ovarian carcinoma, but these had remained unconfirmed. MAL2 binds tumor protein D52 (TPD52, which is frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, but the clinical significance of MAL2 and TPD52 overexpression was unknown. Methods Immunohistochemical analyses of MAL2 and TPD52 expression were performed using tissue microarray sections including benign, borderline and malignant epithelial ovarian tumours. Inmmunohistochemical staining intensity and distribution was assessed both visually and digitally. Results MAL2 and TPD52 were significantly overexpressed in high-grade serous carcinomas compared with serous borderline tumours. MAL2 expression was highest in serous carcinomas relative to other histological subtypes, whereas TPD52 expression was highest in clear cell carcinomas. MAL2 expression was not related to patient survival, however high-level TPD52 staining was significantly associated with improved overall survival in patients with stage III serous ovarian carcinoma (log-rank test, p Conclusions MAL2 is frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, and TPD52 overexpression is a favourable independent prognostic marker of potential value in the management of ovarian carcinoma patients.

  20. The use of sonographic subjective tumor assessment, IOTA logistic regression model 1, IOTA Simple Rules and GI-RADS system in the preoperative prediction of malignancy in women with adnexal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneczny, Jarosław; Czekierdowski, Artur; Florczak, Marek; Poziemski, Paweł; Stachowicz, Norbert; Borowski, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Sonography based methods with various tumor markers are currently used to discriminate the type of adnexal masses. To compare the predictive value of selected sonography-based models along with subjective assessment in ovarian cancer prediction. We analyzed data of 271 women operated because of adnexal masses. All masses were verified by histological examination. Preoperative sonography was performed in all patients and various predictive models includ¬ing IOTA group logistic regression model LR1 (LR1), IOTA simple ultrasound-based rules by IOTA (SR), GI-RADS and risk of malignancy index (RMI3) were used. ROC curves were constructed and respective AUC's with 95% CI's were compared. Of 271 masses 78 proved to be malignant including 6 borderline tumors. LR1 had sensitivity of 91.0%, specificity of 91.2%, AUC = 0.95 (95% CI: 0.92-0.98). Sensitivity for GI-RADS for 271 patients was 88.5% with specificity of 85% and AUC = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.88-0.95). Subjective assessment yielded sensitivity and specificity of 85.9% and 96.9%, respectively with AUC = 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94-0.99). SR were applicable in 236 masses and had sensitivity of 90.6% with specificity of 95.3% and AUC = 0.93 (95% CI 0.89-0.97). RMI3 was calculated only in 104 women who had CA125 available and had sensitivity of 55.3%, specificity of 94% and AUC = 0.85 (95% CI: 0.77-0.93). Although subjective assessment by the ultrasound expert remains the best current method of adnexal tumors preoperative discrimination, the simplicity and high predictive value favor the IOTA SR method, and when not applicable, the IOTA LR1 or GI-RADS models to be primarily and effectively used.

  1. YKL-40/c-Met expression in rectal cancer biopsies predicts tumor regression following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy: a multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senetta, Rebecca; Duregon, Eleonora; Sonetto, Cristina; Spadi, Rossella; Mistrangelo, Massimiliano; Racca, Patrizia; Chiusa, Luigi; Munoz, Fernando H; Ricardi, Umberto; Arezzo, Alberto; Cassenti, Adele; Castellano, Isabella; Papotti, Mauro; Morino, Mario; Risio, Mauro; Cassoni, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgical resection is the standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer, although complete tumor pathological regression is achieved in only up to 30% of cases. A clinicopathological and molecular predictive stratification of patients with advanced rectal cancer is still lacking. Here, c-Met and YKL-40 have been studied as putative predictors of CRT response in rectal cancer, due to their reported involvement in chemoradioresistance in various solid tumors. A multicentric study was designed to assess the role of c-Met and YKL-40 expression in predicting chemoradioresistance and to correlate clinical and pathological features with CRT response. Immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization for c-Met were performed on 81 rectal cancer biopsies from patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma. All patients underwent standard (50.4 gy in 28 fractions + concurrent capecitabine 825 mg/m2) neoadjuvant CRT or the XELOXART protocol. CRT response was documented on surgical resection specimens and recorded as tumor regression grade (TRG) according to the Mandard criteria. A significant correlation between c-Met and YKL-40 expression was observed (R = 0.43). The expressions of c-Met and YKL-40 were both significantly associated with a lack of complete response (86% and 87% of c-Met and YKL-40 positive cases, prectal cancer. Targeted therapy protocols could take advantage of prior evaluations of c-MET and YKL-40 expression levels to increase therapeutic efficacy.

  2. MAL2 and tumor protein D52 (TPD52) are frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, but differentially associated with histological subtype and patient outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, Jennifer A; Sutherland, Robert L; Fazio, Anna de; O'Brien, Philippa M; Maleki, Sanaz; Hardy, Jayne R; Gloss, Brian S; Murali, Rajmohan; Scurry, James P; Fanayan, Susan; Emmanuel, Catherine; Hacker, Neville F

    2010-01-01

    The four-transmembrane MAL2 protein is frequently overexpressed in breast carcinoma, and MAL2 overexpression is associated with gain of the corresponding locus at chromosome 8q24.12. Independent expression microarray studies predict MAL2 overexpression in ovarian carcinoma, but these had remained unconfirmed. MAL2 binds tumor protein D52 (TPD52), which is frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, but the clinical significance of MAL2 and TPD52 overexpression was unknown. Immunohistochemical analyses of MAL2 and TPD52 expression were performed using tissue microarray sections including benign, borderline and malignant epithelial ovarian tumours. Inmmunohistochemical staining intensity and distribution was assessed both visually and digitally. MAL2 and TPD52 were significantly overexpressed in high-grade serous carcinomas compared with serous borderline tumours. MAL2 expression was highest in serous carcinomas relative to other histological subtypes, whereas TPD52 expression was highest in clear cell carcinomas. MAL2 expression was not related to patient survival, however high-level TPD52 staining was significantly associated with improved overall survival in patients with stage III serous ovarian carcinoma (log-rank test, p < 0.001; n = 124) and was an independent predictor of survival in the overall carcinoma cohort (hazard ratio (HR), 0.498; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.728; p < 0.001; n = 221), and in serous carcinomas (HR, 0.440; 95% CI, 0.294-0.658; p < 0.001; n = 182). MAL2 is frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, and TPD52 overexpression is a favourable independent prognostic marker of potential value in the management of ovarian carcinoma patients

  3. Efficient tumor regression by adoptively transferred CEA-specific CAR-T cells associated with symptoms of mild cytokine release syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linan; Ma, Ning; Okamoto, Sachiko; Amaishi, Yasunori; Sato, Eiichi; Seo, Naohiro; Mineno, Junichi; Takesako, Kazutoh; Kato, Takuma; Shiku, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a cell surface antigen highly expressed in various cancer cell types and in healthy tissues. It has the potential to be a target for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T-cell therapy; however, the safety of this approach in terms of on-target/off-tumor effects needs to be determined. To address this issue in a clinically relevant model, we used a mouse model in which the T cells expressing CEA-specific CAR were transferred into tumor-bearing CEA-transgenic (Tg) mice that physiologically expressed CEA as a self-antigen. The adoptive transfer in conjunction with lymphodepleting and myeloablative preconditioning mediated significant tumor regression but caused weight loss in CEA-Tg, but not in wild-type mice. The weight loss was not associated with overt inflammation in the CEA-expressing gastrointestinal tract but was associated with malnutrition, reflected in elevated systemic levels of cytokines linked to anorexia, which could be controlled by the administration of an anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody without compromising efficacy. The apparent relationship between lymphodepleting and myeloablative preconditioning, efficacy, and off-tumor toxicity of CAR-T cells would necessitate the development of CEA-specific CAR-T cells with improved signaling domains that require less stringent preconditioning for their efficacy. Taken together, these results suggest that CEA-specific CAR-based adoptive T-cell therapy may be effective for patients with CEA + solid tumors. Distinguishing the fine line between therapeutic efficacy and off-tumor toxicity would involve further modifications of CAR-T cells and preconditioning regimens.

  4. T cell receptor (TCR-transgenic CD8 lymphocytes rendered insensitive to transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ signaling mediate superior tumor regression in an animal model of adoptive cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quatromoni Jon G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tumor antigen-reactive T cells must enter into an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, continue to produce cytokine and deliver apoptotic death signals to affect tumor regression. Many tumors produce transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ, which inhibits T cell activation, proliferation and cytotoxicity. In a murine model of adoptive cell therapy, we demonstrate that transgenic Pmel-1 CD8 T cells, rendered insensitive to TGFβ by transduction with a TGFβ dominant negative receptor II (DN, were more effective in mediating regression of established B16 melanoma. Smaller numbers of DN Pmel-1 T cells effectively mediated tumor regression and retained the ability to produce interferon-γ in the tumor microenvironment. These results support efforts to incorporate this DN receptor in clinical trials of adoptive cell therapy for cancer.

  5. The novel Hsp90 inhibitor NXD30001 induces tumor regression in a genetically engineered mouse model of glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haihao; Woolfenden, Steve; Bronson, Roderick T; Jaffer, Zahara M; Barluenga, Sofia; Winssinger, Nicolas; Rubenstein, Allan E; Chen, Ruihong; Charest, Al

    2010-09-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has an abysmal prognosis. We now know that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway and the loss of function of the tumor suppressor genes p16Ink4a/p19ARF and PTEN play a crucial role in GBM pathogenesis: initiating the early stages of tumor development, sustaining tumor growth, promoting infiltration, and mediating resistance to therapy. We have recently shown that this genetic combination is sufficient to promote the development of GBM in adult mice. Therapeutic agents raised against single targets of the EGFR signaling pathway have proven rather inefficient in GBM therapy, showing the need for combinatorial therapeutic approaches. An effective strategy for concurrent disruption of multiple signaling pathways is via the inhibition of the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). Hsp90 inhibition leads to the degradation of so-called client proteins, many of which are key effectors of GBM pathogenesis. NXD30001 is a novel second generation Hsp90 inhibitor that shows improved pharmacokinetic parameters. Here we show that NXD30001 is a potent inhibitor of GBM cell growth in vitro consistent with its capacity to inhibit several key targets and regulators of GBM biology. We also show the efficacy of NXD30001 in vivo in an EGFR-driven genetically engineered mouse model of GBM. Our findings establish that the Hsp90 inhibitor NXD30001 is a therapeutically multivalent molecule, whose actions strike GBM at the core of its drivers of tumorigenesis and represent a compelling rationale for its use in GBM treatment.

  6. Facile synthesis of soybean phospholipid-encapsulated MoS2 nanosheets for efficient in vitro and in vivo photothermal regression of breast tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Xiang Li,1 Yun Gong,2,3 Xiaoqian Zhou,1 Hui Jin,1 Huanhuan Yan,1 Shige Wang,2 Jun Liu11Department of Breast-Thyroid Surgery, Shanghai General Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2College of Science, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, 3Shanghai Publishing and Printing College, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheet has been extensively explored as a photothermal agent for tumor regression; however, its surface modification remains a great challenge. Herein, as an alternative to surface polyethylene glycol modification (PEGylation, a facile approach based on “thin-film” strategy has been proposed for the first time to produce soybean phospholipid-encapsulated MoS2 (SP-MoS2 nanosheets. By simply vacuum-treating MoS2 nanosheets/soybean phospholipid/chloroform dispersion in a rotary evaporator, SP-MoS2 nanosheet was successfully constructed. Owing to the steric hindrance of polymer chains, the surface-coated soybean phospholipid endowed MoS2 nanosheets with excellent colloidal stability. Without showing detectable in vitro and in vivo hemolysis, coagulation, and cyto-/histotoxicity, the constructed SP-MoS2 nanosheets showed good photothermal conversion performance and photothermal stability. SP-MoS2 nanosheet was shown to be a promising platform for in vitro and in vivo breast tumor photothermal therapy. The produced SP-MoS2 nanosheets featured low cost, simple fabrication, and good in vivo hemo-/histocompatibility and hold promising potential for future clinical tumor therapy.Keywords: soybean phospholipid, MoS2 nanosheets, in vivo, photothermal regression, breast tumor

  7. Tumor regression induced by intratumor therapy with a disabled infectious single cycle (DISC) herpes simplex virus (HSV) vector, DISC/HSV/murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, correlates with antigen-specific adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Selman A; Lynam, June; McLean, Cornelia S; Entwisle, Claire; Loudon, Peter; Rojas, José M; McArdle, Stephanie E B; Li, Geng; Mian, Shahid; Rees, Robert C

    2002-04-01

    Direct intratumor injection of a disabled infectious single cycle HSV-2 virus encoding the murine GM-CSF gene (DISC/mGM-CSF) into established murine colon carcinoma CT26 tumors induced a significant delay in tumor growth and complete tumor regression in up to 70% of animals. Pre-existing immunity to HSV did not reduce the therapeutic efficacy of DISC/mGM-CSF, and, when administered in combination with syngeneic dendritic cells, further decreased tumor growth and increased the incidence of complete tumor regression. Direct intratumor injection of DISC/mGM-CSF also inhibited the growth of CT26 tumor cells implanted on the contralateral flank or seeded into the lungs following i.v. injection of tumor cells (experimental lung metastasis). Proliferation of splenocytes in response to Con A was impaired in progressor and tumor-bearer, but not regressor, mice. A potent tumor-specific CTL response was generated from splenocytes of all mice with regressing, but not progressing tumors following in vitro peptide stimulation; this response was specific for the gp70 AH-1 peptide SPSYVYHQF and correlated with IFN-gamma, but not IL-4 cytokine production. Depletion of CD8(+) T cells from regressor splenocytes before in vitro stimulation with the relevant peptide abolished their cytolytic activity, while depletion of CD4(+) T cells only partially inhibited CTL generation. Tumor regression induced by DISC/mGM-CSF virus immunotherapy provides a unique model for evaluating the immune mechanism(s) involved in tumor rejection, upon which tumor immunotherapy regimes may be based.

  8. Preoperative Diagnosis of Gastric Tumors by Three-dimensional Multidetector Row CT and Double Contrast Barium Meal Study: Correlation with Surgical and Histologic Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang-Bin Chen

    2007-11-01

    Conclusion: MDCT has a similar high accuracy in the preoperative diagnosis of different gastric tumors compared with DCBM and provides additional information including tumor depth, lymph node and hepatic metastasis. Therefore, MDCT may be used as a primary tool for preoperative tumor diagnosis and staging.

  9. Assessment of diagnostic value of various tumors markers (CEA, CA199, CA50) for colorectal neoplasm with logistic regression and ROC curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Ping; Huang Gang; Han Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of CEA, CA199 and CA50 for colorectal neoplasm by logistic regression and ROC curve. Methods: Serum CEA (with CLIA), CA199 (with ECLIA) and CA50 (with IRMA) levels were measured in 75 patients with colorectal cancer, 35 patients with benign colorectal disorders and 49 controls. The area under the ROC curve (AUC)s of CEA, CA199, CA50 from logistic regression results were compared. Results: In the cancer-benign disorder group, the AUC of CA50 was larger than the AUC of CA199. AUC of combined CEA, CA50 was largest: not only larger than any AUC of CEA, CA50, CA199 alone but also larger than the AUC of the combined three markers (0.875 vs 0.604). In cancer-control group, the AUC of combination of CEA, CA199 and CA50 was larger than any AUC of CEA, CA199 or CA50 alone. Both in the cancer-benign disorder group or cancer-control group, the AUC of CEA was larger than the AUC of CA199 or CA50. Conclusion: CEA is of definite value in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. For differential diagnosis, the combination of CEA and CA50 can give more information, while the combination of three tumor markers is less helpful. As an advanced statistical method, logistic regression can improve the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. (authors)

  10. Heterogeneity index evaluated by slope of linear regression on 18F-FDG PET/CT as a prognostic marker for predicting tumor recurrence in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-il; Kim, Yong Joong; Paeng, Jin Chul; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key; Kang, Keon Wook

    2017-01-01

    18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) has been investigated as a method to predict pancreatic cancer recurrence after pancreatic surgery. We evaluated the recently introduced heterogeneity indices of 18 F-FDG PET/CT used for predicting pancreatic cancer recurrence after surgery and compared them with current clinicopathologic and 18 F-FDG PET/CT parameters. A total of 93 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients (M:F = 60:33, mean age = 64.2 ± 9.1 years) who underwent preoperative 18 F-FDG PET/CT following pancreatic surgery were retrospectively enrolled. The standardized uptake values (SUVs) and tumor-to-background ratios (TBR) were measured on each 18 F-FDG PET/CT, as metabolic parameters. Metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were examined as volumetric parameters. The coefficient of variance (heterogeneity index-1; SUVmean divided by the standard deviation) and linear regression slopes (heterogeneity index-2) of the MTV, according to SUV thresholds of 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0, were evaluated as heterogeneity indices. Predictive values of clinicopathologic and 18 F-FDG PET/CT parameters and heterogeneity indices were compared in terms of pancreatic cancer recurrence. Seventy patients (75.3%) showed recurrence after pancreatic cancer surgery (mean recurrence = 9.4 ± 8.4 months). Comparing the recurrence and no recurrence patients, all of the 18 F-FDG PET/CT parameters and heterogeneity indices demonstrated significant differences. In univariate Cox-regression analyses, MTV (P = 0.013), TLG (P = 0.007), and heterogeneity index-2 (P = 0.027) were significant. Among the clinicopathologic parameters, CA19-9 (P = 0.025) and venous invasion (P = 0.002) were selected as significant parameters. In multivariate Cox-regression analyses, MTV (P = 0.005), TLG (P = 0.004), and heterogeneity index-2 (P = 0.016) with venous invasion (P < 0.001, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively) demonstrated significant results

  11. Radioresponse of thymomas verified with histologic reponse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohara, Kiyoshi; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Itai, Yuji [Dept. of Radiology, Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba City (Japan)]|[Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba City (Japan); Fuji, Hiroshi [Dept. of Radiology, Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba City (Japan); Sugahara, Shinji [Dept. of Radiology, Hitachi General Hospital, Hitachi City (Japan); Akaogi, Eiichi; Onizuka, Masataka; Ishikawa, Shigemi; Mitsui, Kiyofumi [Dept. of Surgery, Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba City (Japan)]|[Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba City (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Patterns of radiologic response of 10 thymomas treated by preoperative radiotherapy (RT) (18-20 Gy/2 weeks) were determined in conjunction with histologic response. Changes in tumor volume were evaluated with CT scans obtained 5 to 36 days before and 14 to 24 days after the initiation of RT and before surgery. The extent of tumor volume reduction (TR) varied widely (40-78%), while the mean daily volume decrement expressed as a percentage of the pre-RT tumor volume correlated significantly with the pre-RT tumor volume. Histologically, the tumors, all of which were resected 17 to 33 days after RT initiation, generally consisted of predominant fibrous tissues, rare necrotic foci, and few epithelial cells. The TR did not correlate with pre-RT tumor volume, observation period, histologic subtype, or quantity of remaining epithelial cells. The TR of thymomas does not predict RT impact on tumor cells but does reflect the quantity of inherent tumor stroma. (orig.)

  12. Radioresponse of thymomas verified with histologic reponse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Kiyoshi; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Itai, Yuji; Fuji, Hiroshi; Sugahara, Shinji; Akaogi, Eiichi; Onizuka, Masataka; Ishikawa, Shigemi; Mitsui, Kiyofumi

    1998-01-01

    Patterns of radiologic response of 10 thymomas treated by preoperative radiotherapy (RT) (18-20 Gy/2 weeks) were determined in conjunction with histologic response. Changes in tumor volume were evaluated with CT scans obtained 5 to 36 days before and 14 to 24 days after the initiation of RT and before surgery. The extent of tumor volume reduction (TR) varied widely (40-78%), while the mean daily volume decrement expressed as a percentage of the pre-RT tumor volume correlated significantly with the pre-RT tumor volume. Histologically, the tumors, all of which were resected 17 to 33 days after RT initiation, generally consisted of predominant fibrous tissues, rare necrotic foci, and few epithelial cells. The TR did not correlate with pre-RT tumor volume, observation period, histologic subtype, or quantity of remaining epithelial cells. The TR of thymomas does not predict RT impact on tumor cells but does reflect the quantity of inherent tumor stroma. (orig.)

  13. Malignant progressive tumor cell clone exhibits significant up-regulation of cofilin-2 and 27-kDa modified form of cofilin-1 compared to regressive clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Wang, Yufeng; Okada, Futoshi; Baron, Byron; Tokuda, Kazuhiro; Kitagawa, Takao; Akada, Junko; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

    2013-09-01

    QR-32 is a regressive murine fibrosarcoma cell clone which cannot grow when they are transplanted in mice; QRsP-11 is a progressive malignant tumor cell clone derived from QR-32 which shows strong tumorigenicity. A recent study showed there to be differentially expressed up-regulated and down-regulated proteins in these cells, which were identified by proteomic differential display analyses by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Cofilins are small proteins of less than 20 kDa. Their function is the regulation of actin assembly. Cofilin-1 is a small ubiquitous protein, and regulates actin dynamics by means of binding to actin filaments. Cofilin-1 plays roles in cell migration, proliferation and phagocytosis. Cofilin-2 is also a small protein, but it is mainly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles. There are many reports showing the positive correlation between the level of cofilin-1 and cancer progression. We have also reported an increased expression of cofilin-1 in pancreatic cancer tissues compared to adjacent paired normal tissues. On the other hand, cofilin-2 was significantly less expressed in pancreatic cancer tissues. Therefore, the present study investigated the comparison of the levels of cofilin-1 and cofilin-2 in regressive QR-32 and progressive QRsP-11cells by western blotting. Cofilin-2 was significantly up-regulated in QRsP-11 compared to QR-32 cells (p<0.001). On the other hand, the difference of the intensities of the bands of cofilin-1 (18 kDa) in QR-32 and QRsP-11 was not significant. However, bands of 27 kDa showed a quite different intensity between QR-32 and QRsP-11, with much higher intensities in QRsP-11 compared to QR-32 (p<0.001). These results suggested that the 27-kDa protein recognized by the antibody against cofilin-1 is a possible biomarker for progressive tumor cells.

  14. Distribution patterns of the metastases of the lung carcinoma in relation to histological type of the primary tumor: An autopsy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Savic Milovanovic

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: While, overall, the most frequent hematogenous metastases occur in the liver and adrenal glands, various histological types of lung cancer show specific dissemination patterns. Knowing distribution of metastases is essential for making algorithms of treatment, as well as for improving clinical assessment of the patients with unclear clinical findings and suspicion on occult primary lung cancer.

  15. Assessment of tumor control following definitive radiotherapy in carcinoma of the prostate: A continuing dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilepich, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of tumor response and tumor control after definitive radiotherapy is a relatively simple task in most malignancies arising at sites amenable to clinical examination (inspection and palpation). The rates of tumor regression following irradiation are quite variable. While some types of cancer regress completely during the radiotherapy course, some may take weeks or months to resolve. Occasionally, residual induration or a residual mass may persist for prolonged periods (many months), prompting the clinician to consider a biopsy for evaluation of the tumor status. In these circumstances histological examination may show necrotic tumor or residual fibrotic tissue. Finding viable-appearing tumor cells beyond the immediate postirradiation period (several weeks to a few months after completion of the radiotherapy course) is generally accepted as an equivalent of failure to eradicate the tumor. However, in a few types of cancer, presence of histologically identifiable and apparently viable tumor cells over protracted periods does not necessarily imply treatment failure

  16. Extraosseous accumulation of bone scanning agents in malignant brain tumors. Comparison to semi-quantitative evaluation with 99mTc SPECT/201Tl SPECT and histological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Aya

    2003-01-01

    Although 201 Tl chloride (Tl) SPECT has been used in the differential diagnosis between recurrence of malignant brain tumor and necrosis after treatment, it is not generally recognized as a definite modality to distinguish them. We conducted a preliminary study using Tl SPECT and 99m Tc-MDP or 99m Tc-HMDP (Tc) SPECT because it has been said that extraosseous accumulation was caused by calcium deposits in necrotic tissues. In our study, for the purposes of clarifying the mechanism of extraosseous uptake and the correlation between extraosseous accumulation of bone-scanning agent and tumor viability in malignant brain tumors, we compared whether Tc uptake was correlated with the histopathological findings and further performed semi-quantitative evaluation between Tc SPECT and Tl SPECT. The correlation coefficients between the ratio of tumor to normal skull count obtained from Tc SPECT (Tc-T/N) and those of tumor to normal brain count (T/N) and to normal scalp count (T/S) both obtained from Tl SPECT were calculated. Using contrast enhanced CT (CE-CT) or contrast enhanced MRI (CE-MRI), 8 of 10 cases showed intensely ring-enhanced tumor with necrotic lesion. Histopathologically, 7 of 8 cases whose tumor had been resected before treatment had necrosis with increased vascularity or bleeding. Of the remaining 2 cases one case, malignant lymphoma had only hypervascularity by biopsy, while the other one was excluded for resection after treatment. Three of these 8 cases whose CE-CT or CE-MRI showed necrotic lesions exhibited Tc and Tl accumulations in the area corresponding to necrosis. In contrast, 2 showed no Tc nor Tl uptake. Tc-T/N had no significant correlation with any of early-, delayed-T/N or T/S. In conclusion, there was no significant correlation between Tc and Tl uptakes by malignant brain tumors in semi-quantitative evaluation. (author)

  17. Combination therapy of radiation and immunomodulators in the treatment of MM46 tumor transplanted in C3H/He mice. Histological and histoenzymatic studies using alpha-naphtyl acetate esterase staining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyaji, Chihiro; Imanaka, Kazufumi; Gose, Kyuhei; Ichiyanagi, Akihiro; Imajo, Yoshinari (Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-12-01

    Female C3H/He mice aged 13 weeks with transplanted MM 46 tumor were used in histological and enzymohistochemical studies on the timing of administration of immunomodulators, PSK (a protein bound polysaccharide prepared from Coriolus versicolor), or OK-432 (Streptococcal preparation) combined with two fractionated local irradiation with the total dose of 3,000 rad. The daily dose of 250 mg/kg of PSK, or 1 KE/mouse of OK-432 was respectively injected intraperitoneally for four consecutive days before or after irradiation. Mice were sacrificed before irradiation and 7, 14 and 21 days after irradiation. Resected tumor tissues were examined using H-E staining and ..cap alpha..-naphtyl acetate esterase (ANAE) staining to observe the stromal reactions such as the infiltration of mononuclear cells and fibroblasts around tumor tissues. When PSK or OK-432 was administered after irradiation, remarkable lymphocytic infiltration was observed compared with the control group and the group to which PSK or OK-432 was administered before irradiation. ANAE staining revealed most of infiltrating lymphocytes were T-cells. These results suggested that PSK and OK-432 which were received after radiotherapy enhanced the immunological responses against tumors which were represented by remarkable lymphocytic infiltration.

  18. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer with variant histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetterlein, Malte W; Wankowicz, Stephanie A M; Seisen, Thomas; Lander, Richard; Löppenberg, Björn; Chun, Felix K-H; Menon, Mani; Sun, Maxine; Barletta, Justine A; Choueiri, Toni K; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Preston, Mark A

    2017-11-15

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in pure urothelial bladder cancer provides a significant survival benefit. However, to the authors' knowledge, it is unknown whether this benefit persists in histological variants. The objective of the current study was to assess the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the probability of non-organ-confined disease and overall survival after radical cystectomy (RC) in patients with histological variants. Querying the National Cancer Data Base, the authors identified 2018 patients with histological variants who were undergoing RC for bladder cancer between 2003 and 2012. Variants were categorized as micropapillary or sarcomatoid differentiation, squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors, and other histology. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of non-organ-confined disease at the time of RC for each histological variant, stratified by the receipt of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Cox regression models were used to examine the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on overall mortality in each variant subgroup. Patients with neuroendocrine tumors (odds ratio [OR], 0.16; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.08-0.32 [Pchemotherapy. An overall survival benefit for neoadjuvant chemotherapy was only found in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.33-0.74 [P=.001]). Patients with neuroendocrine tumors benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy, as evidenced by better overall survival and lower rates of non-organ-confined disease at the time of RC. For tumors with micropapillary differentiation, sarcomatoid differentiation, or adenocarcinoma, neoadjuvant chemotherapy decreased the frequency of non-organ-confined disease at the time of RC. However, this favorable effect did not translate into a statistically significant overall survival benefit for these patients, potentially due to the aggressive tumor biology. Cancer 2017;123:4346-55. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  19. Dual Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Spady, Richard; Stouli, Sami

    2012-01-01

    We propose dual regression as an alternative to the quantile regression process for the global estimation of conditional distribution functions under minimal assumptions. Dual regression provides all the interpretational power of the quantile regression process while avoiding the need for repairing the intersecting conditional quantile surfaces that quantile regression often produces in practice. Our approach introduces a mathematical programming characterization of conditional distribution f...

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging in the diagnosis of liver disease. Differential diagnosis of hepatic tumors and correlation between NMR imaging and histological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebara, Masaaki; Oto, Masao; Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Kunio; Okuda, Kunio; Hirooka, Noboru; Ikehira, Hiroo; Fukuda, Nobuo; Tateno, Yukio

    1984-06-01

    Characteristics of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) images for various liver diseases were examined using a 0.1 T resistive NMR imaging unit on 26 patients with liver disease and 10 normal volunteers. Hepatic tumors, including small hepatocellular carcinoma 1.5 cm in diameter, were detected on NMR imaging. Ring sign characteristic of nodular type hepatocellular carcinoma was shown on NMR-CT in 60 % of patients. T/sub 1/ values allowed differential diagnosis of hepatic tumors. There was close correlation between NMR images and histopathological findings. The T/sub 1/ in the liver and spleen was more prolonged in patients with liver cirrhosis than in normal volunteers, with significant differences. (Namekawa, K.).

  1. Head and neck tumours: combined MRI assessment based on IVIM and TIC analyses for the differentiation of tumors of different histological types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Misa; Nakamura, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the combined use of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and time-signal intensity curve (TIC) analyses to diagnose head and neck tumours. We compared perfusion-related parameters (PP) and molecular diffusion values (D) determined from IVIM theory and TIC profiles among 92 tumours with different histologies. IVIM parameters (f and D values) and TIC profiles in combination were distinct among the different types of head and neck tumours, including squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), lymphomas, malignant salivary gland tumours, Warthin's tumours, pleomorphic adenomas and schwannomas. A multiparametric approach using both IVIM parameters and TIC profiles differentiated between benign and malignant tumours with 97 % accuracy and diagnosed different tumour types with 89 % accuracy. Combined use of IVIM parameters and TIC profiles has high efficacy in diagnosing head and neck tumours. (orig.)

  2. Multi-modal image registration: matching MRI with histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alic, Lejla; Haeck, Joost C.; Klein, Stefan; Bol, Karin; van Tiel, Sandra T.; Wielopolski, Piotr A.; Bijster, Magda; Niessen, Wiro J.; Bernsen, Monique; Veenland, Jifke F.; de Jong, Marion

    2010-03-01

    Spatial correspondence between histology and multi sequence MRI can provide information about the capabilities of non-invasive imaging to characterize cancerous tissue. However, shrinkage and deformation occurring during the excision of the tumor and the histological processing complicate the co registration of MR images with histological sections. This work proposes a methodology to establish a detailed 3D relation between histology sections and in vivo MRI tumor data. The key features of the methodology are a very dense histological sampling (up to 100 histology slices per tumor), mutual information based non-rigid B-spline registration, the utilization of the whole 3D data sets, and the exploitation of an intermediate ex vivo MRI. In this proof of concept paper, the methodology was applied to one tumor. We found that, after registration, the visual alignment of tumor borders and internal structures was fairly accurate. Utilizing the intermediate ex vivo MRI, it was possible to account for changes caused by the excision of the tumor: we observed a tumor expansion of 20%. Also the effects of fixation, dehydration and histological sectioning could be determined: 26% shrinkage of the tumor was found. The annotation of viable tissue, performed in histology and transformed to the in vivo MRI, matched clearly with high intensity regions in MRI. With this methodology, histological annotation can be directly related to the corresponding in vivo MRI. This is a vital step for the evaluation of the feasibility of multi-spectral MRI to depict histological groundtruth.

  3. Histologic assessment of tumor budding in preoperative biopsies to predict nodal metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and floor of the mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Mai; Sano, Takaaki; Yokoo, Satoshi; Oyama, Tetsunari

    2016-04-01

    In squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue and the floor of the mouth (FOM), it is important to predict lymph node metastasis, including occult metastasis, before operating. The purpose of this study was for us to determine practical histopathologic parameters as predictive factors for lymph node metastasis in preoperative SCC biopsy specimens. We examined 91 cases of SCC for conventional histopathologic assessment and a new factor, tumor budding, and their relationship with lymph node metastasis. Significant factors via univariate analysis (p factoring into the decision as to whether neck dissection is indicated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1582-E1590, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Histologic and Immunohistochemical classification of 41 bovine adrenal gland neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Anette Blak; Leifsson, Páll S.; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2013-01-01

    . An immunohistochemistry panel consisting of antibodies against melan A, synaptophysin, and CNPase was considered most useful to classify bovine adrenal tumors. However, the distinction between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors was based on histologic features as in human medicine....

  5. Therapeutic Non-Toxic Doses of TNF Induce Significant Regression in TNFR2-p75 Knockdown Lewis Lung Carcinoma Tumor Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasi, Sharath P.; Bae, Sanggyu; Song, Jin; Perepletchikov, Aleksandr; Schneider, Douglas; Carrozza, Joseph; Yan, Xinhua; Kishore, Raj; Enderling, Heiko; Goukassian, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) binds to two receptors: TNFR1/p55-cytotoxic and TNFR2/p75-pro-survival. We have shown that tumor growth in p75 knockout (KO) mice was decreased more than 2-fold in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLCs). We hypothesized that selective blocking of TNFR2/p75 LLCs may sensitize them to TNF-induced apoptosis and affect the tumor growth. We implanted intact and p75 knockdown (KD)-LLCs (>90%, using shRNA) into wild type (WT) mice flanks. On day 8 post-inoculation, recombinant murine (rm) TNF-α (12.5 ng/gr of body weight) or saline was injected twice daily for 6 days. Tumor volumes (tV) were measured daily and tumor weights (tW) on day 15, when study was terminated due to large tumors in LLC+TNF group. Tubular bones, spleens and peripheral blood (PB) were examined to determine possible TNF toxicity. There was no significant difference in tV or tW between LLC minus (-) TNF and p75KD/LLC-TNF tumors. Compared to 3 control groups, p75KD/LLC+TNF showed >2-5-fold decreases in tV (ptumors were 100% necrotic, the remaining revealed 40-60% necrosis. No toxicity was detected in bone marrow, spleen and peripheral blood. We concluded that blocking TNFR2/p75 in LLCs combined with intra-tumoral rmTNF injections inhibit LLC tumor growth. This could represent a novel and effective therapy against lung neoplasms and a new paradigm in cancer therapeutics. PMID:24664144

  6. Burned-Out Testicular Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Balalaa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Germ cell tumors constitute the majority of all testicular tumors, which are relatively rare overall and are mainly encountered in young adults and teenagers. The term ‘burned-out’ germ cell tumor refers to the presence of a metastatic germ cell tumor with histological regression of the primary testicular lesion. Clinical examination of the testes and scrotal sonography is pivotal in the initial diagnosis of such neoplasms. We present a case of a 31-year-old male with a retroperitoneal mass and no palpable lesion on testicular examination.

  7. Metanephric Adenoma: clinical, imaging, and histological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Marchini, Giovanni Scala, E-mail: fabio_torri@yahoo.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Urologica; Campos, Rodrigo Sousa Madeira [Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Urologia; Gil, Antonio Otero [Instituto Dante Pazanezzi, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Metanephric adenoma (MA), also designated nephrogenic nephroma or renal epithelial tumor resembling immature nephron, has just been recently recognized as a special type of benign renal epithelial tumor. Only few reports are found in the literature regarding this rare renal tumor. The purpose of this paper is to describe our clinical, imaging and histological / immunohistochemical observations of MA diagnosed in two patients and compare these data to previous information reported in medical databases (author)

  8. Regression Phalanxes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hongyang; Welch, William J.; Zamar, Ruben H.

    2017-01-01

    Tomal et al. (2015) introduced the notion of "phalanxes" in the context of rare-class detection in two-class classification problems. A phalanx is a subset of features that work well for classification tasks. In this paper, we propose a different class of phalanxes for application in regression settings. We define a "Regression Phalanx" - a subset of features that work well together for prediction. We propose a novel algorithm which automatically chooses Regression Phalanxes from high-dimensi...

  9. NMR characteristics of rat mammary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osbakken, M.; Kreider, J.; Taczanowsky, P.

    1984-01-01

    12 rats were injected intradermally with 13762A rat mammary adenocarcinoma (1 x 10/sup 6/ cells). 3 rats died before completion of the study and 2 rat had tumor regression; the first 3 were excluded from data analysis. NMR imaging with a 1.5K gauss resistive magnet at 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks after injection demonstrated increasing tumor mass. Saturation recovery (SR), inversion recovery (IR), and spin echo (SE) pulse sequence images and T/sub 1/ calculation were done for tumor characterization. (Tumor size was too small to identify at 2 weeks.) 3 rats were sacrificed after the last 3 imaging periods for histological studies, done to distinguish solid tumor mass from necrosis. Planimetry of tumor areas showed that as tumors grew in size, the ratio of necrotic area to area of solid tumor increased (week 3 = .3 +- .11; week 4 = .45 +- .07; week 5 = .51 +- 05); simultaneous calculated T/sub 1/ values also increased (week 3 = .35 +- .15; week 4 = .45 +- .06; week 5 = .42 +- 03). Qualitative NMR image T/sub 1/ values also increased as evidenced by progression of SR and IR tumor image intensity from very bright compared to the rest of the body at week 3 to less intense than other structures at week 5. These findings indicate that change in T/sub 1/ may be secondary to the pathophysiological change in the tumor (the increasing in necrosis, associated with increased free water). Thus, the range of T/sub 1/ values obtained in tumors in this study (and in previous studies) may be due to change in tumor physiology and anatomy. Careful correlation of histological with NMR data may allow ultimate use of NMR relaxation characteristics for determination of the physiological state of tumors

  10. Tumor size and prognosis in patients with Wilms tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Oliveira Provenzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Investigate the relationship of the tumor volume after preoperative chemotherapy (TVAPQ and before preoperative chemotherapy (TVBPQ with overall survival at two and at five years, and lifetime. METHODS: Our sample consisted of consecutive patients evaluated in the period from 1989 to 2009 in an Onco-Hematology Service. Clinical, histological and volumetric data were collected from the medical records. For analysis, chi-square, Kaplan-Meier, log-rank and Cox regression tests were used. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 32 patients, 53.1% were male with a median age at diagnosis of 43 months. There was a significant association between TVAPQ>500mL and the difference between the TVBPQ and TVAPQ (p=0.015 and histologic types of risk (p=0.008. It was also verified an association between the difference between the TVBPQ and TVAPQ and the predominant stromal tumor (p=0.037. When assessing the TVAPQ of all patients, without a cutoff, there was an association of the variable with lifetime (p=0.013, i.e., for each increase of 10mL in TVAPQ there was an average increase of 2% in the risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Although our results indicate that the TVAPQ could be considered alone as a predictor of poor prognosis regardless of the cutoff suggested in the literature, more studies are needed to replace the histology and staging by tumor size as best prognostic variable.

  11. NUC041, a Prodrug of the DNA Methytransferase Inhibitor 5-aza-2′,2′-Difluorodeoxycytidine (NUC013, Leads to Tumor Regression in a Model of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Daifuku

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available 5-aza-2′,2′-difluorodeoxycytidine (NUC013 has been shown to be significantly safer and more effective than decitabine in xenograft models of human leukemia and colon cancer. However, it suffers from a similar short half-life as other DNA methyltransferase inhibitors with a 5-azacytosine base, which is problematic for nucleosides that primarily target tumor cells in S phase. Because of the relative instability of 5-azanucleosides, a prodrug approach was developed to improve the pharmacology of NUC013. NUC013 was conjugated with trimethylsilanol (TMS at the 3′ and 5′ position of the sugar, rendering the molecule hydrophobic and producing 3′,5′-di-trimethylsilyl-2′,2′-difluoro-5-azadeoxycytidine (NUC041. NUC041 was designed to be formulated in a hydrophobic vehicle, protecting it from deamination and hydrolysis. In contact with blood, the TMS moieties are readily hydrolyzed to release NUC013. The half-life of NUC013 administered intravenously in mice is 20.1 min, while that of NUC013 derived from intramuscular NUC041 formulated in a pegylated-phospholipid depot is 3.4 h. In a NCI-H460 xenograft of non-small cell lung cancer, NUC013 was shown to significantly inhibit tumor growth and improve survival. Treatment with NUC041 also led to significant tumor growth inhibition. However, NUC041-treated mice had significantly more tumors ulcerate than either NUC013 treated mice or saline control mice, and such ulceration occurred at significantly lower tumor volumes. In these nude mice, tumor regression was likely mediated by the derepression of the tumor suppressor gene p53 and resultant activation of natural killer (NK cells.

  12. TU-AB-202-07: A Novel Method for Registration of Mid-Treatment PET/CT Images Under Conditions of Tumor Regression for Patients with Locally Advanced Lung Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifi, Hoda [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, MI (United States); Zhang, Hong; Jin, Jian-Yyue; Kong, Feng-Ming [Department of Radiation Oncology, GRU Cancer Center, Augusta GA (United States); Chetty, Indrin J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhong, Hualiang

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In PET-guided adaptive radiotherapy (RT), changes in the metabolic activity at individual voxels cannot be derived until the duringtreatment CT images are appropriately registered to pre-treatment CT images. However, deformable image registration (DIR) usually does not preserve tumor volume. This may induce errors when comparing to the target. The aim of this study was to develop a DIR-integrated mechanical modeling technique to track radiation-induced metabolic changes on PET images. Methods: Three patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were treated with adaptive radiotherapy under RTOG 1106. Two PET/CT image sets were acquired 2 weeks before RT and 18 fractions after the start of treatment. DIR was performed to register the during-RT CT to the pre-RT CT using a B-spline algorithm and the resultant displacements in the region of tumor were remodeled using a hybrid finite element method (FEM). Gross tumor volume (GTV) was delineated on the during-RT PET/CT image sets and deformed using the 3D deformation vector fields generated by the CT-based registrations. Metabolic tumor volume (MTV) was calculated using the pre- and during–RT image set. The quality of the PET mapping was evaluated based on the constancy of the mapped MTV and landmark comparison. Results: The B-spline-based registrations changed MTVs by 7.3%, 4.6% and −5.9% for the 3 patients and the correspondent changes for the hybrid FEM method −2.9%, 1% and 6.3%, respectively. Landmark comparisons were used to evaluate the Rigid, B-Spline, and hybrid FEM registrations with the mean errors of 10.1 ± 1.6 mm, 4.4 ± 0.4 mm, and 3.6 ± 0.4 mm for three patients. The hybrid FEM method outperforms the B-Spline-only registration for patients with tumor regression Conclusion: The hybrid FEM modeling technique improves the B-Spline registrations in tumor regions. This technique may help compare metabolic activities between two PET/CT images with regressing tumors. The author gratefully

  13. Autistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    Autistic regression is one of the many mysteries in the developmental course of autism and pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Various definitions of this phenomenon have been used, further clouding the study of the topic. Despite this problem, some efforts at establishing prevalence have been made. The purpose of…

  14. A polyethylenimine-modified carboxyl-poly(styrene/acrylamide copolymer nanosphere for co-delivering of CpG and TGF-β receptor I inhibitor with remarkable additive tumor regression effect against liver cancer in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang SY

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shuyan Liang,* Jun Hu,* Yuanyuan Xie, Qing Zhou, Yanhong Zhu, Xiangliang Yang National Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Cancer immunotherapy based on nanodelivery systems has shown potential for treatment of various malignancies, owing to the benefits of tumor targeting of nanoparticles. However, induction of a potent T-cell immune response against tumors still remains a challenge. In this study, polyethylenimine-modified carboxyl-styrene/acrylamide (PS copolymer nanospheres were developed as a delivery system of unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β receptor I inhibitors for cancer immunotherapy. TGF-β receptor I inhibitors (LY2157299, LY were encapsulated to the PS via hydrophobic interaction, while CpG oligodeoxynucleotides were loaded onto the PS through electrostatic interaction. Compared to the control group, tumor inhibition in the PS-LY/CpG group was up to 99.7% without noticeable toxicity. The tumor regression may be attributed to T-cell activation and amplification in mouse models. The results highlight the additive effect of CpG and TGF-β receptor I inhibitors co-delivered in cancer immunotherapy. Keywords: CpG, TGF-β receptor I inhibitor, Pst-AAm copolymer nanosphere, immunotherapy

  15. An exceptional collision tumor: gastric calcified stromal tumor and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors report an exceptional case of collision tumor comprised of a gastric calcified stromal tumor and a pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The pancreatic tumor was detected fortuitously on the histological exam of resection specimen. Key words: Collision tumor, stromal tumor, adenocarcinoma ...

  16. Nephrogenic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesbauer, P.

    2008-01-01

    Nephroblastomas are the most common malignant renal tumors in childhood. According to the guidelines of the SIOP (Societe Internationale d'Oncologie Pediatrique) and GPOH (Gesellschaft fuer Paediatrische Onkologie und Haematologie) pre-operative chemotherapy can be started without histological confirmation and thus initial imaging studies, in particular ultrasound, play an outstanding role for diagnostic purposes

  17. Tumor metabolism and perfusion ratio assessed by 18F-FDG PET/CT and DCE-MRI in breast cancer patients: Correlation with tumor subtype and histologic prognostic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Young-Sil [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Ajou University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Doo Kyoung [Department of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Yong Sik; Han, Sehwan [Department of Surgery, Ajou University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hee, E-mail: medhand@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • In non-triple negative breast cancer, metabolic parameter (SUVmax) was significantly correlated with perfusion parameters (Kep and Ve). • In triple negative cancers, any perfusion parameters did not correlated with metabolic parameters. • Higher SUVmax, higher SUVmax/Ktrans, higher MTV50/Ktrans, higher TLG50/Ktrans, higher TLG50/Ve ratios were significantly correlated with TNBC. • In triple negative breast cancer, perfusion and metabolic parameters are not significantly correlated. • Triple negative breast cancer showed higher metabolic–perfusion ratios compared to non-triple negative breast cancer. - Abstract: Objective: Our purpose was to evaluate whether breast cancer with high metabolic–perfusion ratio would be associated with poor histopathologic prognostic factors and whether triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) would show high metabolic–perfusion ratio compared to non-triple negative breast cancer (non-TNBC). Methods: From March 2011 to November 2011, 67 females with invasive ductal carcinoma of breast who underwent both MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT were included. Perfusion parameters including Ktrans, Kep and Ve were acquired from Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Metabolic parameters including the standardized uptake value (SUV) and volumetric metabolic parameters including metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were obtained from F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT). Results: In non-TNBC, SUVmax was significantly correlated with Kep (ρ = 0.298, p = 0.036) and Ve (ρ = −0.286, p = 0.044). In TNBC, there was no significant correlation between all perfusion and metabolic parameters. Compared to non-TNBC, higher SUVmax (10.2 vs 5.3, p < 0.001), higher SUVmax/Ktrans (56.02 vs 20.3, p < 0.001), higher MTV50/Ktrans (7.8 vs 16.54, p < 0.001), higher TLG50/Ktrans (36.49 vs 12.3, p < 0.001), higher TLG50/Ve (91.34 vs 27.1 p = 0.022) were

  18. Linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, David J

    2017-01-01

    This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...

  19. HistologiQuiz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brent, Mikkel Bo

    2015-01-01

    HistologiQuiz er en quiz-app udviklet til almen og speciel histologi. Den består af mere end 1400 spørgsmål og over 320 histologiske billeder. Alle spørgsmål tager udgangspunkt i lærebogen Genesers Histologi af Annemarie Brüel m.fl.......HistologiQuiz er en quiz-app udviklet til almen og speciel histologi. Den består af mere end 1400 spørgsmål og over 320 histologiske billeder. Alle spørgsmål tager udgangspunkt i lærebogen Genesers Histologi af Annemarie Brüel m.fl....

  20. Tumor immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, W. den

    1987-01-01

    Tumor immunology, the use of immunological techniques for tumor diagnosis and approaches to immunotherapy of cancer are topics covered in this multi-author volume. Part A, 'Tumor Immunology', deals with present views on tumor-associated antigens, the initiation of immune reactions of tumor cells, effector cell killing, tumor cells and suppression of antitumor immunity, and one chapter dealing with the application of mathematical models in tumor immunology. Part B, 'Tumor Diagnosis and Imaging', concerns the use of markers to locate the tumor in vivo, for the histological diagnosis, and for the monitoring of tumor growth. In Part C, 'Immunotherapy', various experimental approaches to immunotherapy are described, such as the use of monoclonal antibodies to target drugs, the use of interleukin-2 and the use of drugs inhibiting suppression. In the final section, the evaluation, a pathologist and a clinician evaluate the possibilities and limitations of tumor immunology and the extent to which it is useful for diagnosis and therapy. refs.; figs.; tabs

  1. Clinico-Histologic Conferences: Histology and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Phyllis A.; Friedman, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    Providing a context for learning information and requiring learners to teach specific content has been demonstrated to enhance knowledge retention. To enhance students' appreciation of the role of science and specifically histology in clinical reasoning, disease diagnosis, and treatment, a new teaching format was created to provide clinical…

  2. Histologic response after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Locally advanced rectal cancer can be down staged by neoadjuvant therapy and the resultant tumor response can be quantified histologically. This study aimed to assess pathological response of neoadjuvant chemoradiation in patients with locally advanced rectal cancers treated in Wad Medani Teaching ...

  3. Risk of Recurrence in Operated Parasagittal Meningiomas: A Logistic Binary Regression Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano Mesa, José Alberto; Alonso Morillejo, Enrique; Parrón Carreño, Tesifón; Huete Allut, Antonio; Narro Donate, José María; Méndez Román, Paddy; Contreras Jiménez, Ascensión; Pedrero García, Francisco; Masegosa González, José

    2018-02-01

    Parasagittal meningiomas arise from the arachnoid cells of the angle formed between the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and the brain convexity. In this retrospective study, we focused on factors that predict early recurrence and recurrence times. We reviewed 125 patients with parasagittal meningiomas operated from 1985 to 2014. We studied the following variables: age, sex, location, laterality, histology, surgeons, invasion of the SSS, Simpson removal grade, follow-up time, angiography, embolization, radiotherapy, recurrence and recurrence time, reoperation, neurologic deficit, degree of dependency, and patient status at the end of follow-up. Patients ranged in age from 26 to 81 years (mean 57.86 years; median 60 years). There were 44 men (35.2%) and 81 women (64.8%). There were 57 patients with neurologic deficits (45.2%). The most common presenting symptom was motor deficit. World Health Organization grade I tumors were identified in 104 patients (84.6%), and the majority were the meningothelial type. Recurrence was detected in 34 cases. Time of recurrence was 9 to 336 months (mean: 84.4 months; median: 79.5 months). Male sex was identified as an independent risk for recurrence with relative risk 2.7 (95% confidence interval 1.21-6.15), P = 0.014. Kaplan-Meier curves for recurrence had statistically significant differences depending on sex, age, histologic type, and World Health Organization histologic grade. A binary logistic regression was made with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test with P > 0.05; sex, tumor size, and histologic type were used in this model. Male sex is an independent risk factor for recurrence that, associated with other factors such tumor size and histologic type, explains 74.5% of all cases in a binary regression model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The cysteine-rich core domain of REIC/Dkk-3 is critical for its effect on monocyte differentiation and tumor regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Rie; Watanabe, Masami; Huang, Peng; Li, Shun-Ai; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Kumon, Hiromi; Futami, Junichiro

    2015-06-01

    Reduced expression in immortalized cells (REIC)/Dickkopf (Dkk)-3 is a tumor-suppressor gene and has been studied as a promising therapeutic gene for cancer gene therapy. Intratumoral injection of an adenovirus vector carrying the human REIC/Dkk-3 gene (Ad-REIC) elicits cancer cell-specific apoptosis and anticancer immune responses. The cytokine-like effect of secretory REIC/Dkk-3 on the induction of dendritic cell (DC)-like cell differentiation from monocytes plays a role in systemic anticancer immunity. In the present study, we generated recombinant full-length and N-terminally truncated REIC/Dkk-3 to characterize the biological activity of the protein. During the purification procedure, we identified a 17 kDa cysteine-rich stable product (C17-REIC) showing limited degradation. Further analysis showed that the C17-REIC domain was sufficient for the induction of DC-like cell differentiation from monocytes. Concomitant with the differentiation of DCs, the REIC/Dkk-3 protein induced the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) at a level comparable to that of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. In a mouse model of subcutaneous renal adenocarcinoma, intraperitoneal injection of full-length and C17-REIC proteins exerted anticancer effects in parallel with the activation of immunocompetent cells such as DCs and cytotoxic T lymphocytes in peripheral blood. Taken together, our results indicate that the stable cysteine-rich core region of REIC/Dkk-3 is responsible for the induction of anticancer immune responses. Because REIC/Dkk-3 is a naturally circulating serum protein, the upregulation REIC/Dkk-3 protein expression could be a promising option for cancer therapy.

  5. The dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 induces tumor regression in a genetically engineered mouse model of PIK3CA wild-type colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin Roper

    Full Text Available To examine the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 in treatment of PIK3CA wild-type colorectal cancer (CRC.PIK3CA mutant and wild-type human CRC cell lines were treated in vitro with NVP-BEZ235, and the resulting effects on proliferation, apoptosis, and signaling were assessed. Colonic tumors from a genetically engineered mouse (GEM model for sporadic wild-type PIK3CA CRC were treated in vivo with NVP-BEZ235. The resulting effects on macroscopic tumor growth/regression, proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and signaling were examined.In vitro treatment of CRC cell lines with NVP-BEZ235 resulted in transient PI3K blockade, sustained decreases in mTORC1/mTORC2 signaling, and a corresponding decrease in cell viability (median IC(50 = 9.0-14.3 nM. Similar effects were seen in paired isogenic CRC cell lines that differed only in the presence or absence of an activating PIK3CA mutant allele. In vivo treatment of colonic tumor-bearing mice with NVP-BEZ235 resulted in transient PI3K inhibition and sustained blockade of mTORC1/mTORC2 signaling. Longitudinal tumor surveillance by optical colonoscopy demonstrated a 97% increase in tumor size in control mice (p = 0.01 vs. a 43% decrease (p = 0.008 in treated mice. Ex vivo analysis of the NVP-BEZ235-treated tumors demonstrated a 56% decrease in proliferation (p = 0.003, no effects on apoptosis, and a 75% reduction in angiogenesis (p = 0.013.These studies provide the preclinical rationale for studies examining the efficacy of the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 in treatment of PIK3CA wild-type CRC.

  6. Multi-modal image registration: matching MRI with histology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alić, L.; Haeck, J.C.; Klein, S.; Bol, K.; Tiel, S.T. van; Wielopolski, P.A.; Bijster, M.; Niessen, W.J.; Bernsen, M.; Veenland, J.F.; Jong, M. de

    2010-01-01

    Spatial correspondence between histology and multi sequence MRI can provide information about the capabilities of non-invasive imaging to characterize cancerous tissue. However, shrinkage and deformation occurring during the excision of the tumor and the histological processing complicate the co

  7. Preoperative computed tomography for determining nodal status combined with histologic grading as a prognostic factor for patients with tongue carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Ichiro; Kurabayashi, Tohru; Amagasa, Teruo; Iwaki, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Takehito

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of preoperative neck computed tomography (CT) in combination with histologic grading as a prognostic factor for patients with tongue carcinoma. Fifty-five patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue were examined by CT prior to radical neck dissection. The locoregional failure and survival rates of these patients were analyzed in relation to their clinical characteristics, histologic grading (World Health Organization, WHO) based on tongue biopsy, and imaging diagnoses prior to surgery. Logistic multivariate regression analysis showed that both histologic grading and number of metastatic lymph nodes on CT were significant and independent prognostic factors in locoregional failure (p=0.009 and p=0.009, respectively). When the numebr of metastatic lymph nodes detected on preoperative neck CT were combined with the histologic grading for the evaluation, the five-year overall survival rates of A group (0 node with any Grade, or 1 node with Grade I-II) and B group (1 node with Grade III, or 2 or more nodes with any Grade) were 74.5% and 37.5%, respectively (p=0.001). The difference was more significant than histologic grading alone or the number of metastatic lymph nodes seen on CT alone. The combination of preoperative neck CT with histologic grading of the primary tumor is useful as a prognostic indicator for patients with tongue carcinoma. (author)

  8. Heterogeneity index evaluated by slope of linear regression on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT as a prognostic marker for predicting tumor recurrence in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong-il [CHA University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Joong [Veterans Health Service Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paeng, Jin Chul; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, June-Key [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Keon Wook [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) has been investigated as a method to predict pancreatic cancer recurrence after pancreatic surgery. We evaluated the recently introduced heterogeneity indices of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT used for predicting pancreatic cancer recurrence after surgery and compared them with current clinicopathologic and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT parameters. A total of 93 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients (M:F = 60:33, mean age = 64.2 ± 9.1 years) who underwent preoperative {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT following pancreatic surgery were retrospectively enrolled. The standardized uptake values (SUVs) and tumor-to-background ratios (TBR) were measured on each {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, as metabolic parameters. Metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were examined as volumetric parameters. The coefficient of variance (heterogeneity index-1; SUVmean divided by the standard deviation) and linear regression slopes (heterogeneity index-2) of the MTV, according to SUV thresholds of 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0, were evaluated as heterogeneity indices. Predictive values of clinicopathologic and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT parameters and heterogeneity indices were compared in terms of pancreatic cancer recurrence. Seventy patients (75.3%) showed recurrence after pancreatic cancer surgery (mean recurrence = 9.4 ± 8.4 months). Comparing the recurrence and no recurrence patients, all of the {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT parameters and heterogeneity indices demonstrated significant differences. In univariate Cox-regression analyses, MTV (P = 0.013), TLG (P = 0.007), and heterogeneity index-2 (P = 0.027) were significant. Among the clinicopathologic parameters, CA19-9 (P = 0.025) and venous invasion (P = 0.002) were selected as significant parameters. In multivariate Cox-regression analyses, MTV (P = 0.005), TLG (P = 0.004), and heterogeneity index-2 (P = 0.016) with venous invasion (P < 0.001, 0.001, and 0

  9. Outcome and histopathologic regression in oral squamous cell carcinoma after preoperative radiochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driemel, Oliver; Ettl, Tobias; Reichert, Torsten E.; Koelbl, Oliver; Dresp, Bernd V.; Reuther, Juergen; Pistner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: preoperative radiochemotherapy has been reported to enhance tumor response and to improve long-term survival in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. This retrospective study evaluates regression rate and long-term survival in 228 patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinoma treated by neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and radical surgery. Patients and methods: all patients with biopsy-proven, resectable oral squamous cell carcinoma - TNM stages II-IV without distant metastasis - received preoperative treatment consisting of fractioned irradiation of the primary and the regional lymph nodes with a total dose of 40 Gy and additional cisplatin (n = 160) or carboplatin (n = 68) during the 1st week of treatment. Radical surgery and neck dissection followed after a delay of 10-14 days. The study only included cases with histologically negative resection margins. Results: after a median follow-up of 5.2 years, 53 patients (23.2%) had experienced local-regional recurrence. The median 2-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rate was 86.2%. 5-year DSS and 10-year DSS were 76.3% and 66.7%, respectively. Complete histological local tumor regression after surgery (ypTO) was observed in 50 patients (21.9%) and was independent of pretreatment tumor classification. Uni- and multivariate survival analysis revealed that ypT- and ypN-stage were the most decisive predictors for DSS. Conclusion: preoperative radiochemotherapy with cisplatin/carboplatin followed by radical surgery attains favorable long-term survival rates. This applies especially to cases with complete histological tumor regression after radiochemotherapy, which can be assumed for one of five patients. (orig.)

  10. New Colors for Histology: Optimized Bivariate Color Maps Increase Perceptual Contrast in Histological Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Marx, Alexander; Schuster, Alexander K; Schad, Lothar R; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of immunostained histological images is required for reproducible research in many different areas and forms the basis of many clinical decisions. The quality and efficiency of histopathological evaluation is limited by the information content of a histological image, which is primarily encoded as perceivable contrast differences between objects in the image. However, the colors of chromogen and counterstain used for histological samples are not always optimally distinguishable, even under optimal conditions. In this study, we present a method to extract the bivariate color map inherent in a given histological image and to retrospectively optimize this color map. We use a novel, unsupervised approach based on color deconvolution and principal component analysis to show that the commonly used blue and brown color hues in Hematoxylin-3,3'-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) images are poorly suited for human observers. We then demonstrate that it is possible to construct improved color maps according to objective criteria and that these color maps can be used to digitally re-stain histological images. To validate whether this procedure improves distinguishability of objects and background in histological images, we re-stain phantom images and N = 596 large histological images of immunostained samples of human solid tumors. We show that perceptual contrast is improved by a factor of 2.56 in phantom images and up to a factor of 2.17 in sets of histological tumor images. Thus, we provide an objective and reliable approach to measure object distinguishability in a given histological image and to maximize visual information available to a human observer. This method could easily be incorporated in digital pathology image viewing systems to improve accuracy and efficiency in research and diagnostics.

  11. New Colors for Histology: Optimized Bivariate Color Maps Increase Perceptual Contrast in Histological Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Nikolas Kather

    Full Text Available Accurate evaluation of immunostained histological images is required for reproducible research in many different areas and forms the basis of many clinical decisions. The quality and efficiency of histopathological evaluation is limited by the information content of a histological image, which is primarily encoded as perceivable contrast differences between objects in the image. However, the colors of chromogen and counterstain used for histological samples are not always optimally distinguishable, even under optimal conditions.In this study, we present a method to extract the bivariate color map inherent in a given histological image and to retrospectively optimize this color map. We use a novel, unsupervised approach based on color deconvolution and principal component analysis to show that the commonly used blue and brown color hues in Hematoxylin-3,3'-Diaminobenzidine (DAB images are poorly suited for human observers. We then demonstrate that it is possible to construct improved color maps according to objective criteria and that these color maps can be used to digitally re-stain histological images.To validate whether this procedure improves distinguishability of objects and background in histological images, we re-stain phantom images and N = 596 large histological images of immunostained samples of human solid tumors. We show that perceptual contrast is improved by a factor of 2.56 in phantom images and up to a factor of 2.17 in sets of histological tumor images.Thus, we provide an objective and reliable approach to measure object distinguishability in a given histological image and to maximize visual information available to a human observer. This method could easily be incorporated in digital pathology image viewing systems to improve accuracy and efficiency in research and diagnostics.

  12. Glial tumors with neuronal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Kee; Phi, Ji Hoon; Park, Sung-Hye

    2015-01-01

    Immunohistochemical studies for neuronal differentiation in glial tumors revealed subsets of tumors having both characteristics of glial and neuronal lineages. Glial tumors with neuronal differentiation can be observed with diverse phenotypes and histologic grades. The rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle and papillary glioneuronal tumor have been newly classified as distinct disease entities. There are other candidates for classification, such as the glioneuronal tumor without pseudopapillary architecture, glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands, and the malignant glioneuronal tumor. The clinical significance of these previously unclassified tumors should be confirmed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Logistic Regression, Support Vector Machine and Artificial Neural Network for the Differential Diagnosis of Benign and Malignant Solid Breast Tumors by the Use of Three-Dimensional Power Doppler Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shou Tung; Hsiao, Yi Hsuan; Kuo, Shou Jen; Tseng, Hsin Shun; Wu, Hwa Koon; Chen, Dar Ren; Huang, Yu Len

    2009-01-01

    Logistic regression analysis (LRA), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and a neural network (NN) are commonly used statistical models in computeraided diagnostic (CAD) systems for breast ultrasonography (US). The aim of this study was to clarify the diagnostic ability of the use of these statistical models for future applications of CAD systems, such as three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler imaging, vascularity evaluation and the differentiation of a solid mass. A database that contained 3D power Doppler imaging pairs of non-harmonic and tissue harmonic images for 97 benign and 86 malignant solid tumors was utilized. The virtual organ computer-aided analysis-imaging program was used to analyze the stored volumes of the 183 solid breast tumors. LRA, an SVM and NN were employed in comparative analyses for the characterization of benign and malignant solid breast masses from the database. The values of area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, referred to as Az values for the use of non-harmonic 3D power Doppler US with LRA, SVM and NN were 0.9341, 0.9185 and 0.9086, respectively. The Az values for the use of harmonic 3D power Doppler US with LRA, SVM and NN were 0.9286, 0.8979 and 0.9009, respectively. The Az values of six ROC curves for the use of LRA, SVM and NN for non-harmonic or harmonic 3D power Doppler imaging were similar. The diagnostic performances of these three models (LRA, SVM and NN) are not different as demonstrated by ROC curve analysis. Depending on user emphasis for the use of ROC curve findings, the use of LRA appears to provide better sensitivity as compared to the other statistical models

  14. Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Lim Suh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT is a benign glioneuronal neoplasm that most commonly occurs in children and young adults and may present with medically intractable, chronic seizures. Radiologically, this tumor is characterized by a cortical topography and lack of mass effect or perilesional edema. Partial complex seizures are the most common presentation. Three histologic subtypes of DNTs have been described. Histologically, the recognition of a unique, specific glioneuronal element in brain tumor samples from patients with medically intractable, chronic epilepsy serves as a diagnostic feature for complex or simple DNT types. However, nonspecific DNT has diagnostic difficulty because its histology is indistinguishable from conventional gliomas and because a specific glioneuronal element and/or multinodularity are absent. This review will focus on the clinical, radiographic, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features as well as the molecular genetics of all three variants of DNTs. The histological and cytological differential diagnoses for this lesion, especially the nonspecific variant, will be discussed.

  15. Gastritis: the histology report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugge, Massimo; Pennelli, Gianmaria; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Fassan, Matteo; Ingravallo, Giuseppe; Russo, Valentina M; Di Mario, Francesco

    2011-03-01

    Gastritis is defined as inflammation of the gastric mucosa. In histological terms, it is distinguishable into two main categories, i.e. non-atrophic and atrophic. In the gastric mucosa, atrophy is defined as the loss of appropriate glands. There are several etiological types of gastritis, their different etiology being related to different clinical manifestations and pathological features. Atrophic gastritis (resulting mainly from long-standing Helicobacter pylori infection) is a major risk factor for the onset of (intestinal type) gastric cancer. The extent and site of the atrophic changes correlate significantly with the cancer risk. The current format for histology reporting in cases of gastritis fails to establish an immediate link between gastritis phenotype and risk of malignancy. Building on current knowledge of the biology of gastritis, an international group of pathologists [Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment (OLGA)] has proposed a system for reporting gastritis in terms of its stage (the OLGA Staging System): this system places the histological phenotypes of gastritis on a scale of progressively increasing gastric cancer risk, from the lowest (Stage 0) to the highest (Stage IV). The aim of this tutorial is to provide unequivocal information on how to standardize histology reports on gastritis in diagnostic practice. Copyright © 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiparametric MR assessment of pediatric brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzika, A.A.; Astrakas, L.G.; Zarifi, M.K.; Petridou, N.; Young-Poussaint, T.; Goumnerova, L.; Black, P.McL.; Zurakowski, D.; Anthony, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    MR assessment of pediatric brain tumors has expanded to include physiologic information related to cellular metabolites, hemodynamic and diffusion parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between MR and proton MR spectroscopic imaging in children with primary brain tumors. Twenty-one patients (mean age 9 years) with histologically verified brain tumors underwent conventional MR imaging, hemodynamic MR imaging (HMRI) and proton MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). Fourteen patients also had diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWMRI). Metabolic indices including choline-containing compounds (Cho), total creatine (tCr) and lipids/lactate (L) were derived by proton MRSI, relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) by HMRI, and apparent tissue water diffusion coefficients (ADC) by DWMRI. Variables were examined by linear regression and correlation as well as by ANOVA. Cho (suggestive of tumor cellularity and proliferative activity) correlated positively with rCBV, while the relationship between Cho and ADC (suggestive of cellular density) was inverse (P<0.001). The relationship between rCBV and ADC was also inverse (P=0.004). Cho and lipids (suggestive of necrosis and/or apoptosis) were not significantly correlated (P=0.51). A positive relationship was found between lipids and ADC (P=0.002). The relationships between Cho, rCBV, ADC and lipids signify that tumor physiology is influenced by the tumor's physical and chemical environment. Normalized Cho and lipids distinguished high-grade from low-grade tumors (P<0.05). Multiparametric MR imaging using MRSI, HMRI and DWMRI enhances assessment of brain tumors in children and improves our understanding of tumor physiology while promising to distinguish higher- from lower-malignancy tumors, a distinction that is particularly clinically important among inoperable tumors. (orig.)

  17. Lesion size affects diagnostic performance of IOTA logistic regression models, IOTA simple rules and risk of malignancy index in discriminating between benign and malignant adnexal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Legge, A; Testa, A C; Ameye, L; Van Calster, B; Lissoni, A A; Leone, F P G; Savelli, L; Franchi, D; Czekierdowski, A; Trio, D; Van Holsbeke, C; Ferrazzi, E; Scambia, G; Timmerman, D; Valentin, L

    2012-09-01

    To estimate the ability to discriminate between benign and malignant adnexal masses of different size using: subjective assessment, two International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) logistic regression models (LR1 and LR2), the IOTA simple rules and the risk of malignancy index (RMI). We used a multicenter IOTA database of 2445 patients with at least one adnexal mass, i.e. the database previously used to prospectively validate the diagnostic performance of LR1 and LR2. The masses were categorized into three subgroups according to their largest diameter: small tumors (diameter IOTA simple rules and the RMI were applied to each of the three groups. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio (LR+, LR-), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC) were used to describe diagnostic performance. A moving window technique was applied to estimate the effect of tumor size as a continuous variable on the AUC. The reference standard was the histological diagnosis of the surgically removed adnexal mass. The frequency of invasive malignancy was 10% in small tumors, 19% in medium-sized tumors and 40% in large tumors; 11% of the large tumors were borderline tumors vs 3% and 4%, respectively, of the small and medium-sized tumors. The type of benign histology also differed among the three subgroups. For all methods, sensitivity with regard to malignancy was lowest in small tumors (56-84% vs 67-93% in medium-sized tumors and 74-95% in large tumors) while specificity was lowest in large tumors (60-87%vs 83-95% in medium-sized tumors and 83-96% in small tumors ). The DOR and the AUC value were highest in medium-sized tumors and the AUC was largest in tumors with a largest diameter of 7-11 cm. Tumor size affects the performance of subjective assessment, LR1 and LR2, the IOTA simple rules and the RMI in discriminating correctly between benign and malignant adnexal masses. The likely explanation, at least in part, is

  18. Benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Suk Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoplasms of the lacrimal drainage system are uncommon, but potentially life-threatening and are often difficult to diagnose. Among primary lacrimal sac tumors, benign mixed tumors are extremely rare. Histologically, benign mixed tumors have been classified as a type of benign epithelial tumor. Here we report a case of benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac.

  19. Improved correlation of histological data with DCE MRI parameter maps by 3D reconstruction, reslicing and parameterization of the histological images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiessling, Fabian; Le-Huu, Martin; Semmler, Wolfhard; Kunert, Tobias; Thorn, Matthias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Vosseler, Silvia; Fusenig, Norbert E.; Schmidt, Kerstin; Hoffend, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Due to poor correlation of slice thickness and orientation, verification of radiological methods with histology is difficult. Thus, a procedure for three-dimensional reconstruction, reslicing and parameterization of histological data was developed, enabling a proper correlation with radiological data. Two different subcutaneous tumors were examined by MR microangiography and DCE-MRI, the latter being post-processed using a pharmacokinetic two-compartment model. Subsequently, tumors were serially sectioned and vessels stained with immunofluorescence markers. A ray-tracing algorithm performed three-dimensional visualization of the histological data, allowing virtually reslicing to thicker sections analogous to MRI slice geometry. Thick slices were processed as parameter maps color coding the marker density in the depth of the slice. Histological 3D reconstructions displayed the diffuse angioarchitecture of malignant tumors. Resliced histological images enabled specification of high enhancing areas seen on MR microangiography as large single vessels or vessel assemblies. In orthogonally reconstructed histological slices, single vessels were delineated. ROI analysis showed significant correlation between histological parameter maps of vessel density and MR parameter maps (r=0.83, P=0.05). The 3D approach to histology improves correlation of histological and radiological data due to proper matching of slice geometry. This method can be used with any histological stain, thus enabling a multivariable correlation of non-invasive data and histology. (orig.)

  20. Differentiating regressed melanoma from regressed lichenoid keratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Aegean H; Shulman, Kenneth J; Lee, Bonnie A

    2017-04-01

    Distinguishing regressed lichen planus-like keratosis (LPLK) from regressed melanoma can be difficult on histopathologic examination, potentially resulting in mismanagement of patients. We aimed to identify histopathologic features by which regressed melanoma can be differentiated from regressed LPLK. Twenty actively inflamed LPLK, 12 LPLK with regression and 15 melanomas with regression were compared and evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining as well as Melan-A, microphthalmia transcription factor (MiTF) and cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) immunostaining. (1) A total of 40% of regressed melanomas showed complete or near complete loss of melanocytes within the epidermis with Melan-A and MiTF immunostaining, while 8% of regressed LPLK exhibited this finding. (2) Necrotic keratinocytes were seen in the epidermis in 33% regressed melanomas as opposed to all of the regressed LPLK. (3) A dense infiltrate of melanophages in the papillary dermis was seen in 40% of regressed melanomas, a feature not seen in regressed LPLK. In summary, our findings suggest that a complete or near complete loss of melanocytes within the epidermis strongly favors a regressed melanoma over a regressed LPLK. In addition, necrotic epidermal keratinocytes and the presence of a dense band-like distribution of dermal melanophages can be helpful in differentiating these lesions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Hidradenocarcinoma: a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Christine J; Cochran, Alistair J; Eng, William; Binder, Scott W

    2006-11-01

    The diagnosis of hidradenocarcinoma is difficult due to a combination of factors including inconsistent nomenclature/ classification, rarity of the neoplasm, and variable morphology of cells composing the neoplasm. Immunohistochemistry has not been previously performed on a series of hidradenocarcinomas. We evaluated six cases of hidradenocarcinoma histologically and immunohistochemically using antibodies to gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), S-100 protein, keratin AE1/3, cytokeratin 5/6, p53, bcl-1, bcl-2, and Ki67. Histology suggested concurrent eccrine and apocrine differentiation of the cases. Ki67 and p53 staining was strongly positive in five of six tumors. The neoplasms stained with antibodies to CEA, S-100 protein, GCDFP-15, EMA, bcl-1, and bcl-2 in no consistent pattern. All tumors studied stained positively for keratin AE1/3 and cytokeratin 5/6. In making the diagnosis of hidradenocarcinoma, it may be unnecessary to separate hidradenocarcinoma into eccrine and apocrine categories, and although Ki67 and p53 may be helpful, histological parameters remain paramount.

  2. Regression: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Regression, another mechanism studied by Sigmund Freud, has had much research, e.g., hypnotic regression, frustration regression, schizophrenic regression, and infra-human-animal regression (often directly related to fixation). Many investigators worked with hypnotic age regression, which has a long history, going back to Russian reflexologists.…

  3. Histological image classification using biologically interpretable shape-based features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothari, Sonal; Phan, John H; Young, Andrew N; Wang, May D

    2013-01-01

    Automatic cancer diagnostic systems based on histological image classification are important for improving therapeutic decisions. Previous studies propose textural and morphological features for such systems. These features capture patterns in histological images that are useful for both cancer grading and subtyping. However, because many of these features lack a clear biological interpretation, pathologists may be reluctant to adopt these features for clinical diagnosis. We examine the utility of biologically interpretable shape-based features for classification of histological renal tumor images. Using Fourier shape descriptors, we extract shape-based features that capture the distribution of stain-enhanced cellular and tissue structures in each image and evaluate these features using a multi-class prediction model. We compare the predictive performance of the shape-based diagnostic model to that of traditional models, i.e., using textural, morphological and topological features. The shape-based model, with an average accuracy of 77%, outperforms or complements traditional models. We identify the most informative shapes for each renal tumor subtype from the top-selected features. Results suggest that these shapes are not only accurate diagnostic features, but also correlate with known biological characteristics of renal tumors. Shape-based analysis of histological renal tumor images accurately classifies disease subtypes and reveals biologically insightful discriminatory features. This method for shape-based analysis can be extended to other histological datasets to aid pathologists in diagnostic and therapeutic decisions

  4. Histologic response after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    proven advantages of lower acute toxicity7, lower total dose of radiation needed8 and eventual tumor regression and down-staging to enable curative resection and even sphincter preservation8-13. The objective of this study is to assess the pathological response of neoadjuvant chemo radiation in patients with.

  5. Fractional laser exposure induces neutrophil infiltration (N1 phenotype into the tumor and stimulates systemic anti-tumor immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi Kawakubo

    Full Text Available Ablative fractional photothermolysis (aFP using a CO2 laser generates multiple small diameter tissue lesions within the irradiation field. aFP is commonly used for a wide variety of dermatological indications, including treatment of photodamaged skin and dyschromia, drug delivery and modification of scars due to acne, surgical procedures and burns. In this study we explore the utility of aFP for treating oncological indications, including induction of local tumor regression and inducing anti-tumor immunity, which is in marked contrast to current indications of aFP.We used a fractional CO2 laser to treat a tumor established by BALB/c colon carcinoma cell line (CT26.CL25, which expressed a tumor antigen, beta-galactosidase (beta-gal. aFP treated tumors grew significantly slower as compared to untreated controls. Complete remission after a single aFP treatment was observed in 47% of the mice. All survival mice from the tumor inoculation rejected re-inoculation of the CT26.CL25 colon carcinoma cells and moreover 80% of the survival mice rejected CT26 wild type colon carcinoma cells, which are parental cells of CT26.CL25 cells. Histologic section of the FP-treated tumors showed infiltrating neutrophil in the tumor early after aFP treatment. Flow cytometric analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes showed aFP treatment abrogated the increase in regulatory T lymphocyte (Treg, which suppresses anti-tumor immunity and elicited the expansion of epitope-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes, which were required to mediate the tumor-suppressing effect of aFP.We have demonstrated that aFP is able to induce a systemic anti-tumor adaptive immunity preventing tumor recurrence in a murine colon carcinoma in a mouse model. This study demonstrates a potential role of aFP treatments in oncology and further studies should be performed.

  6. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, W.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Intrinsic tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a particularly challenging problem to practicing oncologists. These tumors rarely metastasize outside the CNS, yet even histologically benign tumors can be life-threatening due to their local invasiveness and strategic location. The surrounding normal tissues of the nervous system is often incapable of full functional regeneration, therefore prohibiting aggressive attempts to use either complete surgical resection or high doses of irradiation. Despite these limitations, notable achievements have recently been recorded in the management of these tumors

  7. Histologic Mimics of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanoszek, Lauren M; Wang, Grace Y; Harms, Paul W

    2017-11-01

    - Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignant neoplasm and is a frequently encountered diagnosis in dermatopathology. Although BCC may be locally destructive, it rarely metastasizes. Many diagnostic entities display morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap with BCC, including nonneoplastic processes, such as follicular induction over dermatofibroma; benign follicular tumors, such as trichoblastoma, trichoepithelioma, or basaloid follicular hamartoma; and malignant tumors, such as sebaceous carcinoma or Merkel cell carcinoma. Thus, misdiagnosis has significant potential to result in overtreatment or undertreatment. - To review key features distinguishing BCC from histologic mimics, including current evidence regarding immunohistochemical markers useful for that distinction. - Review of pertinent literature on BCC immunohistochemistry and differential diagnosis. - In most cases, BCC can be reliably diagnosed by histopathologic features. Immunohistochemistry may provide useful ancillary data in certain cases. Awareness of potential mimics is critical to avoid misdiagnosis and resulting inappropriate management.

  8. Prognosis and histology in Stage I nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, D.; Ho, J.H.C.; Fong, M.; Chan, C.L.; Tse, C.H.; Lau, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    During 1969-1975, 212 new patients with Stage I nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with a tumor apparently confined to the nasopharynx were treated at Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kowloon, Hong Kong. The initial histologies of 137 patients were available for review and further studies. The primary tumors were histologically classified into two major types - squamous cell carcinoma (35 patients) and undifferentiated carcinoma (102 patients). The latter was further divided into 4 sub-types: lymphoepithelioma of the Schmincke type, lymphoepithelioma of the Regaud type, spindle cell carcinoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharyngeal type. Such histological typing of the initial tumor was not of value in predicting the clinical outcome, whether in terms of 5-year crude or disease-free survival rate, or the tendency of the tumor to develop recurrence at the primary site, or distance metastases after a standardized course of radiation therapy. There is not significant correlation between the extent of mononuclear infiltration nor fibrosis in the tumor stroma and the survival or tumor control rates

  9. Management of CNS tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The treatment of tumors of the CNS has undergone a number of changes based on the impact of CT. The use of intraoperative US for the establishment of tumor location and tumor histology is demonstrated. MR imaging also is beginning to make an impact on the diagnosis and treatment of tumors of the CNS. Examples of MR images are shown. The authors then discuss the important aspects of tumor histology as it affects management and newer concepts in surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy on tumor treatment. The role of intraoperative placement of radioactive sources, the utilization of heavy particle radiation therapy, and the potential role of other experimental radiation therapy techniques are discussed. The role of hyperfractionated radiation and of neutrons and x-ray in a mixed-beam treatment are discussed in perspective with standard radiation therapy. Current chemotherapy techniques, including intraarterial chemotherapy, are discussed. The complications of radiation therapy alone and in combination with chemotherapy in the management of primary brain tumors, brain metastases, and leukemia are reviewed. A summary of the current management of pituitary tumors, including secreting pituitary adenomas and chromophobe adenomas, are discussed. The treatment with heavy particle radiation, transsphenoidal microsurgical removal, and combined radiotherapeutic and surgical management are considered. Tumor metastasis management of lesions of the brain and spinal cord are considered

  10. A case of intracranial malignant lymphoma with pure akinesia and repeated regression on CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takeo; Yamamoto, Mari; Saitoh, Mitsunori; Aoki, Akira; Imai, Hisamasa; Narabayashi, Hirotaro.

    1984-01-01

    In a case of primary reticulum cell sarcoma in the brain, histologically verified by biopsy, the tumor regressed twice on a CT scan without radiotherapy. The systemic freezing phenomenon was seen as a main clinical symptom. The patient, a 44 year-old male, first complained of decreased livido and festinating speech. He also showed frozen gait, micrographia, a decrease in spontaneity and urinary incontinence. Four months after onset he was hospitalized. Neurological findings on admission revealed freezing of gait, writing, and speech, but there was no weakness of muscles with normal tendon reflexes, and normal muscular tone. In the CT scan on admission, there were high density areas mainly in the head of the right caudate nucleus, the medial deep portion of the right frontal lobe, the right side of the hypothalamus, the anterior thalamus, the globus pallidus. There were also nodular-type enhanced effects in the same areas. Regression of the tumor was seen on the CT scans after administration of betamethasone. The tumor which had again incrased in size regressed spontaneously without the use of steroids after 3 months. Thereafter, the tumor gradually became larger and an open biopsy was perfomed. Histopathological findings showed a reticulum cell sarcoma. There were no findings of systemic malignant lymphoma. Such intracrainal malignant lymphomas showing repeated regression including spontaneous one are very rare in the literature. The freezing phenomenon in this case started with festinating speech and spread to writing and gait. L-DOPA had no effect. This systemic freezing phenomenon was considered to be the same as that in the cases of pure akinesia without rigidity and tremor reported by Narabayashi and Imai, which did not respond to L-DOPA at all. But on the other hand, L-Threo-3, 4-Dihydroxyphenylserine was effective to the frozen gait of this patient. (J.P.N.)

  11. Symplastic leiomyoma of uterus: a rare histological variant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasmeen, F.; Hafeez, M.; Hameed, S.; Ibnerasa, S.N.

    2008-01-01

    Symplastic leiomyoma is a rare histological variant of leiomyoma. This is a case report of a young nulliparous patient who presented with primary infertility for 2 years and swelling in lower abdomen for 6 months. Intramural fibroid was diagnosed during a pelvic ultrasound. Histopathology of that myomectomy showed symplastic leiomyoma with absent mitotic figures. The patient was managed as for a benign tumor. (author)

  12. Ovarian Cancer Risk Factors by Histologic Subtype: An Analysis From the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Poole, Elizabeth M; Trabert, Britton; White, Emily; Arslan, Alan A; Patel, Alpa V; Setiawan, V Wendy; Visvanathan, Kala; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Adami, Hans-Olov; Black, Amanda; Bernstein, Leslie; Brinton, Louise A; Buring, Julie; Butler, Lesley M; Chamosa, Saioa; Clendenen, Tess V; Dossus, Laure; Fortner, Renee; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Gram, Inger T; Hartge, Patricia; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith; Idahl, Annika; Jones, Michael; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kirsh, Victoria; Koh, Woon-Puay; Lacey, James V; Lee, I-Min; Lundin, Eva; Merritt, Melissa A; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peters, Ulrike; Poynter, Jenny N; Rinaldi, Sabina; Robien, Kim; Rohan, Thomas; Sandler, Dale P; Schairer, Catherine; Schouten, Leo J; Sjöholm, Louise K; Sieri, Sabina; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tjonneland, Anna; Travis, Ruth; Trichopoulou, Antonia; van den Brandt, Piet A; Wilkens, Lynne; Wolk, Alicja; Yang, Hannah P; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Tworoger, Shelley S

    2016-08-20

    An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of ovarian cancer is important for improving prevention, early detection, and therapeutic approaches. We evaluated 14 hormonal, reproductive, and lifestyle factors by histologic subtype in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3). Among 1.3 million women from 21 studies, 5,584 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers were identified (3,378 serous, 606 endometrioid, 331 mucinous, 269 clear cell, 1,000 other). By using competing-risks Cox proportional hazards regression stratified by study and birth year and adjusted for age, parity, and oral contraceptive use, we assessed associations for all invasive cancers by histology. Heterogeneity was evaluated by likelihood ratio test. Most risk factors exhibited significant heterogeneity by histology. Higher parity was most strongly associated with endometrioid (relative risk [RR] per birth, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.83) and clear cell (RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.76) carcinomas (P value for heterogeneity [P-het] < .001). Similarly, age at menopause, endometriosis, and tubal ligation were only associated with endometrioid and clear cell tumors (P-het ≤ .01). Family history of breast cancer (P-het = .008) had modest heterogeneity. Smoking was associated with an increased risk of mucinous (RR per 20 pack-years, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.46) but a decreased risk of clear cell (RR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.94) tumors (P-het = .004). Unsupervised clustering by risk factors separated endometrioid, clear cell, and low-grade serous carcinomas from high-grade serous and mucinous carcinomas. The heterogeneous associations of risk factors with ovarian cancer subtypes emphasize the importance of conducting etiologic studies by ovarian cancer subtypes. Most established risk factors were more strongly associated with nonserous carcinomas, which demonstrate challenges for risk prediction of serous cancers, the most fatal subtype. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  13. Reduced Rank Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating...

  14. Histologic assessment of peritumoral edema in soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Lawrence M.; Wunder, Jay S.; Bell, Robert S.; O'Sullivan, Brian; Catton, Charles; Ferguson, Peter; Blackstein, Martin; Kandel, Rita A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether satellite tumor cells can be identified histologically in the tissues surrounding a soft tissue sarcoma and whether their presence correlates with increased T 2 -weighted signal intensity on MRI. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with a high-grade extremity or truncal soft tissue sarcoma underwent preoperative MRI. The extent of high T 2 -weighted signal changes in the tissues surrounding tumor, thought to represent peritumoral edema/reactive changes, was determined. Twelve patients received i.v. gadolinium, and contrast enhancement was determined. All patients underwent surgical resection in the absence of preoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The presence of tumor cells in the surrounding tissues was determined histologically in representative paraffin-embedded sections and correlated with the MRI findings. Results: The extent of peritumoral T 2 -weighted MRI signal changes ranged from 0 to 7.1 cm (mean, 2.5 cm); contrast enhancement ranged from 0 to 5.3 cm (mean, 1.1 cm). Sarcoma cells were identified histologically in the tissues beyond the tumor in 10 of 15 cases. In 6 cases, tumor cells were located within 1 cm of the tumor margin, and in 4 cases, malignant cells were found at a distance >1 cm and up to a maximum of 4 cm. The location of tumor cells beyond the margin did not correlate with tumor size nor did it correlate with the location or extent of peritumoral changes. Conclusion: The ability to identify tumor cells beyond the margin of a soft tissue sarcoma has important implications in planning appropriate targets for treatment. This could influence the use of new radiotherapy technologies such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy that aim to minimize treatment volumes through conformal planning

  15. When machine vision meets histology: A comparative evaluation of model architecture for classification of histology sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Cheng; Han, Ju; Borowsky, Alexander; Parvin, Bahram; Wang, Yunfu; Chang, Hang

    2017-01-01

    Classification of histology sections in large cohorts, in terms of distinct regions of microanatomy (e.g., stromal) and histopathology (e.g., tumor, necrosis), enables the quantification of tumor composition, and the construction of predictive models of genomics and clinical outcome. To tackle the large technical variations and biological heterogeneities, which are intrinsic in large cohorts, emerging systems utilize either prior knowledge from pathologists or unsupervised feature learning for invariant representation of the underlying properties in the data. However, to a large degree, the architecture for tissue histology classification remains unexplored and requires urgent systematical investigation. This paper is the first attempt to provide insights into three fundamental questions in tissue histology classification: I. Is unsupervised feature learning preferable to human engineered features? II. Does cellular saliency help? III. Does the sparse feature encoder contribute to recognition? We show that (a) in I, both Cellular Morphometric Feature and features from unsupervised feature learning lead to superior performance when compared to SIFT and [Color, Texture]; (b) in II, cellular saliency incorporation impairs the performance for systems built upon pixel-/patch-level features; and (c) in III, the effect of the sparse feature encoder is correlated with the robustness of features, and the performance can be consistently improved by the multi-stage extension of systems built upon both Cellular Morphmetric Feature and features from unsupervised feature learning. These insights are validated with two cohorts of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) and Kidney Clear Cell Carcinoma (KIRC). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Selective anti-tumor activity of the novel fluoropyrimidine polymer F10 towards G48a orthotopic GBM tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmeiner, William H; Lema-Tome, Carla; Gibo, Denise; Jennings-Gee, Jamie; Milligan, Carol; Debinski, Waldemar

    2014-02-01

    F10 is a novel anti-tumor agent with minimal systemic toxicity in vivo and which displays strong cytotoxicity towards glioblastoma (GBM) cells in vitro. Here we investigate the cytotoxicity of F10 towards GBM cells and evaluate the anti-tumor activity of locally-administered F10 towards an orthotopic xenograft model of GBM. The effects of F10 on thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibition and Topoisomerase 1 (Top1) cleavage complex formation were evaluated using TS activity assays and in vivo complex of enzyme bioassays. Cytotoxicity of F10 towards normal brain was evaluated using cortices from embryonic (day 18) mice. F10 displays minimal penetrance of the blood-brain barrier and was delivered by intra-cerebral (i.c.) administration and prospective anti-tumor response towards luciferase-expressing G48a human GBM tumors in nude mice was evaluated using IVIS imaging. Histological examination of tumor and normal brain tissue was used to assess the selectivity of anti-tumor activity. F10 is cytotoxic towards G48a, SNB-19, and U-251 MG GBM cells through dual targeting of TS and Top1. F10 is not toxic to murine primary neuronal cultures. F10 is well-tolerated upon i.c. administration and induces significant regression of G48a tumors that is dose-dependent. Histological analysis from F10-treated mice revealed tumors were essentially completely eradicated in F10-treated mice while vehicle-treated mice displayed substantial infiltration into normal tissue. F10 displays strong efficacy for GBM treatment with minimal toxicity upon i.c. administration establishing F10 as a promising drug-candidate for treating GBM in human patients.

  17. Diagnostic radiation and its prognosis of pineal region tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Toshimitsu; Aoki, Yukimasa; Akanuma, Atsuo; Machida, Tohru; Iio, Masahiro; Takakura, Kimitomo

    1984-01-01

    20 Gy of local irradiation was performed for the patients with pineal region tumor. We evaluated the tumor volume on X-CT in the pre-radiation and 20 Gy of post-radiation state. If tumor is sensitive enough to radiation therapy, we add 40 Gy of whole brain and 30 to 40 Gy of whole spine irradiation. If not, we transfer patients to neurosurgeons for the purpose of tumor ressection. We call this procedure ''Diagnostic Radiation.'' We proposed the concept of TRR (Tumor Regression Ratio) in order to evaluate our protocol more objctively. TRR is as follows: TRR (%) = [1-Total Tumor Volume (at each dose) / Total Tumor Volume (at o Gy)] x 100 (%) Total Tumor Volume(mm 3 ) = slice thickness(mm) x siguma HDA (mm 2 ) on each slice: where HDA is high density area on enhanced CT. Eleven patients were studied and TRR of each patients was calculated. The relations between TRR, tumor markers, CSF seeding and prognoiss was discussed. From our study, (1) TRR at 20Gy was important and might predict approximate prognosis of each cae case. A) TRR = 100 → very good B) TRR < 20 → poor C) 20 <= TRR < 100 → high possibility (2) Majority of TRR < 100 cases have turned out to be histologically in teratoma category. (3) Good correlation between the level of tumor markers and prognosis was observed. Cases with elevated level of AFP and/or HCG were radio- resistant and had poor prognosis. (4) Distant metastasis must also be kept in mind in the treatment of pineal region tumor. (author)

  18. Differentiation between benign and malignant palatal tumors using conventional MRI: a retrospective analysis of 130 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yingyan; Xiao, Zebin; Zhang, Hua; She, Dejun; Lin, Xuehua; Lin, Yu; Cao, Dairong

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the discriminative value of conventional magnetic resonance imaging between benign and malignant palatal tumors. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging features of 130 patients with palatal tumors confirmed by histopathologic examination were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical data and imaging findings were assessed between benign and malignant tumors and between benign and low-grade malignant salivary gland tumors. The variables that were significant in differentiating benign from malignant lesions were further identified using logistic regression analysis. Moreover, imaging features of each common palatal histologic entity were statistically analyzed with the rest of the tumors to define their typical imaging features. Older age, partially defined and ill-defined margins, and absence of a capsule were highly suggestive of malignant palatal tumors, especially ill-defined margins (β = 6.400). The precision in determining malignant palatal tumors achieved a sensitivity of 92.8% and a specificity of 85.6%. In addition, irregular shape, ill-defined margins, lack of a capsule, perineural spread, and invasion of surrounding structures were more often associated with low-grade malignant salivary gland tumors. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging is useful for differentiating benign from malignant palatal tumors as well as benign salivary gland tumors from low-grade salivary gland malignancies. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Possibilities of multiparametric MRI in the differential diagnosis of histological types of cervical cancer in the preoperative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Tarachkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is sensitive and specific method of study in patients with cervical cancer (CC. A number of studies have demonstrated the possibility to determine histological type (squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma and the degree of differentiation of this type of tumor by using the apparent diffusion coefficient maps (ADC-map compiled on the basis of diffusion-weighted images (DWI (p <0.05. We have tested whether a more accurate assessment of the histological type and tumor grade in the preoperative stage is possible, by using a wide range of MRI techniques. According to multiparametric MRI, which included T2-weighted imaging (WI, DWI with reconstruction of ADC-maps and dynamic MRI with contrast enhancement, performed in 90 patients with histologically verified cervical cancer, it was shown that adenocarcinoma is characterized by a high intensity and less heterogeneity of MRI signal in fat-suppressed T2WI images as compared to squamous cell carcinoma. Furthermore, patients with adenocarcinomas who underwent dynamic MRI with contrast enhancement had curves with gradually higher change in MRI-signal intensity on T1WI images in 15 seconds after detection of the magnetic resonance contrast agent (MRCA in tumor, continuous increase in MRI signal intensity (when observing for about 2.5 minutes after detection of MRCA in tumor, while in case of squamous cell cancer – a lower variation in MRI signal intensity in T1WI mode to 10-20 second after detection of MRCA in the tumor followed by a biphasic course of the curve, dependence of MRI-signal on time and formation of the “plateau” or the same signal decrease down to 125 sec (about 2.5 min as well as less signal heterogenecity in the period from 10-20 sec to 125 sec (about 2.5 min after MRCA detection in tumor. The differences were statistically significant (p <0.05, and had sensitivity and specificity up to 0.76 and 0.75, respectively for particular signs. According

  20. Carbonic anhydrase XII expression is associated with histologic grade of cervical cancer and superior radiotherapy outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Chong Woo; Nam, Byung-Ho; Kim, Joo-Young; Shin, Hye-Jin; Lim, Hyunsun; Lee, Sun; Lee, Su-Kyoung; Lim, Myong-Cheol; Song, Yong-Jung

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether expression of carbonic anhydrase XII (CA12) is associated with histologic grade of the tumors and radiotherapy outcomes of the patients with invasive cervical cancer. CA12 expression was examined by immunohistochemical stains in cervical cancer tissues from 183 radiotherapy patients. Histological grading was classified as well (WD), moderately (MD) or poorly differentiated (PD). Oligonucleotide microarray experiment was performed using seven cervical cancer samples to examine differentially expressed genes between WD and PD cervical cancers. The association between CA12 and histological grade was analyzed by chi-square test. CA12 and histological grades were analyzed individually and as combined CA12 and histologic grade categories for effects on survival outcome. Immunohistochemical expression of CA12 was highly associated with the histologic grade of cervical cancer. Lack of CA12 expression was associated with PD histology, with an odds ratio of 3.9 (P = 0.01). Microarray analysis showed a fourfold reduction in CA12 gene expression in PD tumors. CA12 expression was marginally associated with superior disease-free survival. Application of the new combined categories resulted in further discrimination of the prognosis of patients with moderate and poorly differentiated tumor grade. Our study indicates that CA12 may be used as a novel prognostic marker in combination with histologic grade of the tumors

  1. Volume fractions of DCE-MRI parameter as early predictor of histologic response in soft tissue sarcoma: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Yan, Zhuangzhi; Gao, Xin

    2017-10-01

    To find early predictors of histologic response in soft tissue sarcoma through volume transfer constant (K trans ) analysis based on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). 11 Patients with soft tissue sarcoma of the lower extremity that underwent preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by limb salvage surgery were included in this retrospective study. For each patient, DCE-MRI data sets were collected before and two weeks after therapy initiation, and histologic tumor cell necrosis rate (TCNR) was reported at surgery. The DCE-MRI volumes were aligned by registration. Then, the aligned volumes were used to obtain the K trans variation map. Accordingly, three sub-volumes (with increased, decreased or unchanged K trans ) were defined and identified, and fractions of the sub-volumes, denoted as F + , F - and F 0 , respectively, were calculated. The predictive ability of volume fractions was determined by using area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between TCNR and volume fractions. In addition, the K trans values of the sub-volumes were compared. The AUC for F - (0.896) and F 0 (0.833) were larger than that for change of tumor longest diameter ΔD (0.625) and the change of mean K trans ΔK trans ¯ (0.792). Moreover, the regression results indicated that TCNR was directly proportional to F 0 (R 2 =0.75, P=0.0003), while it was inversely proportional to F - (R 2 =0.77, P=0.0002). However, TCNR had relatively weak linear relationship with ΔK trans ¯ (R 2 =0.64, P=0.0018). Additionally, TCNR did not have linear relationship with DD (R 2 =0.16, P=0.1246). The volume fraction F - and F 0 have potential as early predictors of soft tissue sarcoma histologic response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tissue engineered tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M; Techy, G B; Ward, B R; Imam, S A; Atkinson, R; Ho, H; Taylor, C R

    2010-08-01

    Many research programs use well-characterized tumor cell lines as tumor models for in vitro studies. Because tumor cells grown as three-dimensional (3-D) structures have been shown to behave more like tumors in vivo than do cells growing in monolayer culture, a growing number of investigators now use tumor cell spheroids as models. Single cell type spheroids, however, do not model the stromal-epithelial interactions that have an important role in controlling tumor growth and development in vivo. We describe here a method for generating, reproducibly, more realistic 3-D tumor models that contain both stromal and malignant epithelial cells with an architecture that closely resembles that of tumor microlesions in vivo. Because they are so tissue-like we refer to them as tumor histoids. They can be generated reproducibly in substantial quantities. The bioreactor developed to generate histoid constructs is described and illustrated. It accommodates disposable culture chambers that have filled volumes of either 10 or 64 ml, each culture yielding on the order of 100 or 600 histoid particles, respectively. Each particle is a few tenths of a millimeter in diameter. Examples of histological sections of tumor histoids representing cancers of breast, prostate, colon, pancreas and urinary bladder are presented. Potential applications of tumor histoids include, but are not limited to, use as surrogate tumors for pre-screening anti-solid tumor pharmaceutical agents, as reference specimens for immunostaining in the surgical pathology laboratory and use in studies of invasive properties of cells or other aspects of tumor development and progression. Histoids containing nonmalignant cells also may have potential as "seeds" in tissue engineering. For drug testing, histoids probably will have to meet certain criteria of size and tumor cell content. Using a COPAS Plus flow cytometer, histoids containing fluorescent tumor cells were analyzed successfully and sorted using such criteria.

  3. Regression analysis by example

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Samprit

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Fourth Edition: ""This book is . . . an excellent source of examples for regression analysis. It has been and still is readily readable and understandable."" -Journal of the American Statistical Association Regression analysis is a conceptually simple method for investigating relationships among variables. Carrying out a successful application of regression analysis, however, requires a balance of theoretical results, empirical rules, and subjective judgment. Regression Analysis by Example, Fifth Edition has been expanded

  4. Malignant pleural mesothelioma: Computed tomography and correlation with histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, Jean M. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa Hospital, 1053 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario K1Y 4E9 (Canada)], E-mail: jeseely@ottawahospital.on.ca; Nguyen, Elsie T., E-mail: nguyen_elsie@hotmail.com; Churg, Andrew M. [University of British Columbia, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1W5 (Canada)], E-mail: achurg@interchange.ubc.ca; Mueller, Nestor L. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre, 855 West 12th Avenue, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9 (Canada)], E-mail: nmuller@vanhosp.bc.ca

    2009-06-15

    Objective: To review the computed tomography (CT) imaging findings of pleural mesothelioma at presentation and to correlate the CT with the histological subtype. Materials and methods: Pathology reports from 1997 to 2006 were reviewed at two academic institutions to identify patients with proven pleural mesothelioma. Diagnosis was based on histologic findings in specimens obtained by transthoracic needle biopsy, surgical biopsy or resection. All histology slides were reviewed by a lung pathologist. CT scans, available in 92 patients, were reviewed blindly and in random order by two independent radiologists. Kappa analysis was completed to assess inter-observer agreement. Eighty patients in whom there was no significant delay between CT imaging and histological diagnosis were assessed by logistic regression analysis to correlate CT and histologic findings. Results: Seventy-two of the 92 mesotheliomas were epithelial, 15 sarcomatous, and 5 of mixed histology. All patients (77 male, 15 female, mean age 68 years) had pleural thickening on CT; the thickening was nodular in 79 patients (86%) and mediastinal in 87 (95%). Ipsilateral volume loss was seen in 42 patients (46%). Pleural effusions were present in 80 patients (87%), being large (>2/3 hemithorax) in 19 patients (21%). Atypical features at presentation included bilateral disease in three patients (3%), and spontaneous pneumothoraces in nine patients (10%). Internal mammary lymphadenopathy was observed in 48 patients (52%) and cardiophrenic lymphadenopathy in 42 (46%). Inter-observer agreement was excellent (average kappa = 0.89). Ipsilateral volume loss was associated with sarcomatous or mixed mesothelioma (p = 0.004). Using logistic regression analysis, other CT findings did not correlate with histological subtype. Conclusions: Ipsilateral volume loss is most frequently associated with sarcomatous or mixed mesothelioma. The remaining imaging findings are not helpful in predicting the histological subtype of

  5. Malignant pleural mesothelioma: Computed tomography and correlation with histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seely, Jean M.; Nguyen, Elsie T.; Churg, Andrew M.; Mueller, Nestor L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review the computed tomography (CT) imaging findings of pleural mesothelioma at presentation and to correlate the CT with the histological subtype. Materials and methods: Pathology reports from 1997 to 2006 were reviewed at two academic institutions to identify patients with proven pleural mesothelioma. Diagnosis was based on histologic findings in specimens obtained by transthoracic needle biopsy, surgical biopsy or resection. All histology slides were reviewed by a lung pathologist. CT scans, available in 92 patients, were reviewed blindly and in random order by two independent radiologists. Kappa analysis was completed to assess inter-observer agreement. Eighty patients in whom there was no significant delay between CT imaging and histological diagnosis were assessed by logistic regression analysis to correlate CT and histologic findings. Results: Seventy-two of the 92 mesotheliomas were epithelial, 15 sarcomatous, and 5 of mixed histology. All patients (77 male, 15 female, mean age 68 years) had pleural thickening on CT; the thickening was nodular in 79 patients (86%) and mediastinal in 87 (95%). Ipsilateral volume loss was seen in 42 patients (46%). Pleural effusions were present in 80 patients (87%), being large (>2/3 hemithorax) in 19 patients (21%). Atypical features at presentation included bilateral disease in three patients (3%), and spontaneous pneumothoraces in nine patients (10%). Internal mammary lymphadenopathy was observed in 48 patients (52%) and cardiophrenic lymphadenopathy in 42 (46%). Inter-observer agreement was excellent (average kappa = 0.89). Ipsilateral volume loss was associated with sarcomatous or mixed mesothelioma (p = 0.004). Using logistic regression analysis, other CT findings did not correlate with histological subtype. Conclusions: Ipsilateral volume loss is most frequently associated with sarcomatous or mixed mesothelioma. The remaining imaging findings are not helpful in predicting the histological subtype of

  6. Bone tumors in R30 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Pool, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Radiographic and histologic findings from a mid-level group (38 dogs) of radium toxicity dogs showed 49 primary bone tumors with a high frequency of tumors within the axial skeleton. Additional primary bone tumors, bone tumors metastatic to bone, soft tissue metastases, and lung metastases were detected. No bone tumors were identified in 3 dogs. Lesions described as radiation osteodystrophy were found in all but 2 dogs

  7. Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Volumetry in Predicting Myometrial Invasion, Lymphovascular Space Invasion, and Tumor Grade: Is It Valuable in International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage I Endometrial Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Hilal; Sarioglu, Fatma Ceren; Bagci, Mustafa; Karadeniz, Tugba; Uluer, Hatice; Sanci, Muzaffer

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this retrospective single-center study was to evaluate the relationship between maximum tumor size, tumor volume, tumor volume ratio (TVR) based on preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) volumetry, and negative histological prognostic parameters (deep myometrial invasion [MI], lymphovascular space invasion, tumor histological grade, and subtype) in International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I endometrial cancer. Preoperative pelvic MR imaging studies of 68 women with surgical-pathologic diagnosis of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I endometrial cancer were reviewed for assessment of MR volumetry and qualitative assessment of MI. Volume of the tumor and uterus was measured with manual tracing of each section on sagittal T2-weighted images. Tumor volume ratio was calculated according to the following formula: TVR = (total tumor volume/total uterine volume) × 100. Receiver operating characteristics curve was performed to investigate a threshold for TVR associated with MI. The Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and linear regression analysis were applied to evaluate possible differences between tumor size, tumor volume, TVR, and negative prognostic parameters. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis of TVR for prediction of deep MI was statistically significant (P = 0.013). An optimal TVR threshold of 7.3% predicted deep myometrial invasion with 85.7% sensitivity, 46.8% specificity, 41.9% positive predictive value, and 88.0% negative predictive value. Receiver operating characteristics curve analyses of TVR, tumor size, and tumor volume for prediction of tumor histological grade or lymphovascular space invasion were not significant. The concordance between radiologic and pathologic assessment for MI was almost excellent (κ value, 0.799; P volumetry, seems to predict deep MI independently in stage I endometrial cancer with insufficient sensitivity and specificity. Its value in clinical practice for

  8. Tumor Heterogeneity and Drug Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerova, L.; Skolekova, S.; Kozovska, Z.

    2015-01-01

    New generation of sequencing methodologies revealed unexpected complexity and genomic alterations linked with the tumor subtypes. This diversity exists across the tumor types, histologic tumor subtypes and subsets of the tumor cells within the same tumor. This phenomenon is termed tumor heterogeneity. Regardless of its origin and mechanisms of development it has a major impact in the clinical setting. Genetic, phenotypic and expression pattern diversity of tumors plays critical role in the selection of suitable treatment and also in the prognosis prediction. Intratumoral heterogeneity plays a key role in the intrinsic and acquired chemoresistance to cytotoxic and targeted therapies. In this review we focus on the mechanisms of intratumoral and inter tumoral heterogeneity and their relationship to the drug resistance. Understanding of the mechanisms and spatiotemporal dynamics of tumor heterogeneity development before and during the therapy is important for the ability to design individual treatment protocols suitable in the given molecular context. (author)

  9. Quantile Regression Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzenberger, Bernd; Wilke, Ralf Andreas

    2015-01-01

    if the mean regression model does not. We provide a short informal introduction into the principle of quantile regression which includes an illustrative application from empirical labor market research. This is followed by briefly sketching the underlying statistical model for linear quantile regression based......Quantile regression is emerging as a popular statistical approach, which complements the estimation of conditional mean models. While the latter only focuses on one aspect of the conditional distribution of the dependent variable, the mean, quantile regression provides more detailed insights...... by modeling conditional quantiles. Quantile regression can therefore detect whether the partial effect of a regressor on the conditional quantiles is the same for all quantiles or differs across quantiles. Quantile regression can provide evidence for a statistical relationship between two variables even...

  10. Cutaneous Leiomyoma: Novel Histologic Findings for Classification and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Kamyab Hesari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle tumors rather benign or malignant can arise wherever the muscular tissue presents but cutaneous leiomyoma is one of the rare benign tumors of the which even the diagnostic criteria from the malignant type of the tumor is still in doubt. This study was aimed to compare the subtypes of cutaneous leiomyoma from different histologic aspects in order to find unique criteria for better classification and diagnosis. The six year data base of our center was reviewed and 25 patients with cutaneous leiomyoma were included in this study. Of 25 patients, 5 were female and 20 were male. 5 patients had angioleiomyoma (ALM and 20 had pilar leiomyoma (PLM. ALM had following characteristics: dilated vascular canals intermingled with compact smooth muscle bundles; well circumscribe counter and myxoid and hyaline changes through the tumor. In contrast, PLMs had following histologic features: poor defined outline, entrapped hair follicles and eccrine glands, acanthosis and elongated rete ridges with hyperpigmentation and smooth muscle bundles which are interdigitated with elongated rete ridges. Here we introduced some distinct histological features for each subtype of the cutaneous leiomyoma which can lead to create novel criteria for classification and diagnosis of the lesion.

  11. Histologic response of soft tissue sarcoma to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willett, C.G.; Schiller, A.L.; Suit, H.D.; Mankin, H.J.; Rosenberg, A.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with soft tissue sarcoma had preoperative radiotherapy, limb-sparing marginal surgical resection and whole-mount tumor histologic analysis. Incisional biopsy specimens before radiotherapy were reviewed for tumor type, grade, and extent of necrosis. Preoperative radiotherapy was given in either of two regimens: 13 patients received a mean total dose of 5250 cGy in one daily 180 to 200 cGy fractions and 14 patients a mean total dose of 4770 cGy in two daily fractions of 180 to 200 cGy separated by 4 hours. Twenty-one specimens had at least 80% necrosis or severely altered cells, a 3+ to 4+ response. Grade and size of the tumor appeared to be indicators of response to treatment rather than histologic type. Three of five patients (60%) with Grade 1, eight of 11 patients (73%) with Grade 2 lesions, and ten of 11 patients (91%) with Grade 3 tumors had 80% or greater necrosis or severely altered cells. For tumors 10 cm or less in greatest diameter, the 3+ to 4+ histologic response was seen in 12 of 14 patients (86%) whereas for lesions greater than 10 cm, this response was observed in nine of 13 patients (69%). For patients with Grade 2 or 3 soft tissue sarcoma, 13 of 14 patients (93%) treated with two fractions per day and two of four patients (50%) receiving one fraction per day exhibited significant response. All six patients treated twice daily for lesions greater than 10 cm had 3+ to 4+ histologic response compared to three of seven (43%) patients treated once per day. Therefore, grade and size of soft tissue sarcoma are important predictors of response to radiotherapy and preoperative twice daily radiotherapy may more likely permit the conservative surgical excision of sarcomas of borderline resectability

  12. EBV-associated post-transplantation B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder following allogenic stem cell transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: tumor regression after reduction of immunosuppression - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niedobitek Gerald

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-associated B-cell post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD is a severe complication following stem cell transplantation. This is believed to occur as a result of iatrogenic immunosuppression leading to a relaxation of T-cell control of EBV infection and thus allowing viral reactivation and proliferation of EBV-infected B-lymphocytes. In support of this notion, reduction of immunosuppressive therapy may lead to regression of PTLD. We present a case of an 18-year-old male developing a monomorphic B-cell PTLD 2 months after receiving an allogenic stem cell transplant for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Reduction of immunosuppressive therapy led to regression of lymphadenopathy. Nevertheless, the patient died 3 months afterwards due to extensive graft-vs.-host-disease and sepsis. As a diagnostic lymph node biopsy was performed only after reduction of immunosuppressive therapy, we are able to study the histopathological changes characterizing PTLD regression. We observed extensive apoptosis of blast cells, accompanied by an abundant infiltrate comprising predominantly CD8-positive, Granzyme B-positive T-cells. This observation supports the idea that regression of PTLD is mediated by cytotoxic T-cells and is in keeping with the observation that T-cell depletion, represents a major risk factor for the development of PTLD.

  13. Understanding logistic regression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sperandei, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Logistic regression is used to obtain odds ratio in the presence of more than one explanatory variable. The procedure is quite similar to multiple linear regression, with the exception that the response variable is binomial. The result is the impact of each variable on the odds ratio of the observed event of interest. The main advantage is to avoid confounding effects by analyzing the association of all variables together. In this article, we explain the logistic regression procedure using ex...

  14. Introduction to regression graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, R Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Covers the use of dynamic and interactive computer graphics in linear regression analysis, focusing on analytical graphics. Features new techniques like plot rotation. The authors have composed their own regression code, using Xlisp-Stat language called R-code, which is a nearly complete system for linear regression analysis and can be utilized as the main computer program in a linear regression course. The accompanying disks, for both Macintosh and Windows computers, contain the R-code and Xlisp-Stat. An Instructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all the problems in the book is ava

  15. Alternative Methods of Regression

    CERN Document Server

    Birkes, David

    2011-01-01

    Of related interest. Nonlinear Regression Analysis and its Applications Douglas M. Bates and Donald G. Watts ".an extraordinary presentation of concepts and methods concerning the use and analysis of nonlinear regression models.highly recommend[ed].for anyone needing to use and/or understand issues concerning the analysis of nonlinear regression models." --Technometrics This book provides a balance between theory and practice supported by extensive displays of instructive geometrical constructs. Numerous in-depth case studies illustrate the use of nonlinear regression analysis--with all data s

  16. The impact of stage, grade, and mucinous histology on the efficacy of systemic chemotherapy in adenocarcinomas of the appendix: Analysis of the National Cancer Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Elliot A; Compton, Carolyn C; Hanna, Nader N; Kosinski, Lauren A; Washington, Mary Kay; Kakar, Sanjay; Weiser, Martin R; Overman, Michael J

    2016-01-15

    Adenocarcinomas of the appendix represent a heterogeneous disease depending on the presence of mucinous histology, histologic grade, and stage. In the current study, the authors sought to explore the interplay of these factors with systemic chemotherapy in a large population data set. Patients in the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) who were diagnosed with mucinous, nonmucinous, and signet ring cell-type appendiceal neoplasms from 1985 through 2006 were selected. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were developed. A total of 11,871 patients met the inclusion criteria for the current study: 50.3% had mucinous neoplasms, 40.5% had nonmucinous neoplasms, and 9.2% had signet ring cell-type neoplasms. The 5-year overall survival (OS) stratified by grade was similar among patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage I to stage III disease but not for those with stage IV disease. The median OS for patients with stage IV mucinous and nonmucinous tumors was 6.4 years and 2.3 years, respectively, for those with well differentiated histology (Pchemotherapy improved OS for both mucinous and nonmucinous histologies, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.78 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.68-0.89 [P = .0002]) and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.74-0.94 [P = .002]), respectively. For patients with stage IV disease, systemic chemotherapy significantly improved OS for those with nonmucinous (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.64-0.82 [Pchemotherapy versus no chemotherapy was 6.4 years versus 6.5 years (P value not significant) for patients with mucinous, well-differentiated tumors and 1.6 years versus 1.0 years (P = .0007) for patients with mucinous, poorly differentiated tumors. Adjuvant chemotherapy demonstrated a significant OS benefit regardless of histology. However, for patients with stage IV disease, the benefit of systemic chemotherapy varied by tumor histology and grade, with patients with well-differentiated, mucinous, appendiceal adenocarcinomas deriving no

  17. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  18. Histologic prognosticators in feline osteosarcoma: a comparison with phenotypically similar canine osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulou, Maria; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Moens, Hester; Kik, Marja

    2008-07-01

    To investigate the histologic characteristics of feline osteosarcoma (OS) and compare the histologic data with phenotypically comparable canine OS. The effects of histologic and clinical variables on survival statistics were evaluated. Retrospective study. Cats (n=62) and dogs (22). Medical records of 62 cats with OS were reviewed for clinically relevant data. Clinical outcome was obtained by telephone interview. Histologic characteristics of OS were classified using a standardized grading system. Histologic characteristics in 22 feline skeletal OS were compared with 22 canine skeletal OS of identical location and subtype. Prognostic variables for clinical outcome were determined using multivariate analysis. Feline OS was characterized by moderate to abundant cellular pleomorphism, low mitotic index, small to moderate amounts of matrix, high cellularity, and a moderate amount of necrosis. There was no significant difference between histologic variables in feline and canine OS. Histologic grade, surgery, and mitotic index significantly influenced clinical outcome as determined by multivariate analysis. Tumor invasion into vessels was not identified as a significant prognosticator. Feline and canine skeletal OS have similar histologic but different prognostic characteristics. Prognosis for cats with OS is related to histologic grade and mitotic index of the tumor.

  19. Prognostic value of tumor burden measurement using the number of tumors in non-surgical patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hao; Wroblewski, Kristen; Pu, Yonglin

    2012-01-01

    Background: No study to test the feasibility and prognostic value of the number of primary tumors, the number of positive lymph nodes, and the total number of tumors in the whole body as tumor burden measurements on FDG PET/CT imaging has been reported. Purpose: To determine whether the number of tumors seen in 18F-FDG PET scans can be a prognostic factor in non-surgical patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Material and Methods: One hundred and forty patients with histologically proven NSCLC and baseline 18F-FDG PET scan before therapy were identified in this retrospective analysis. The total number of tumors (TTn) in the whole body, the number of primary tumors (Tn), positive lymph nodes (Nn), and distant metastases (Mn), along with the maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the tumors were measured. Inter-observer variability of the total number of tumors, counted by two radiologists, was assessed. Survival analyses were performed to determine the prognostic value of the number of tumors. Results: Concordance correlation coefficients for the TTn, Tn, Nn, and Mn were all greater than 0.85. TTn and Nn were strong prognostic factors of NSCLC patients' overall survival (OS). In univariate Cox regression models, gender, stage, TTn, Nn, and Mn were statistically significant factors (P = 0.016, 0.032, 4. Conclusion: Measuring the number of tumors on FDG PET imaging is easy to perform with minimal inter-observer variability. The total number of tumors and number of nodal metastases, as metabolic tumor burden measurements in 18F-FDG PET/CT, are prognostic markers independent of clinical stage, age, gender, and SUV measurement in non-surgical patients with NSCLC

  20. Boosted beta regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schmid

    Full Text Available Regression analysis with a bounded outcome is a common problem in applied statistics. Typical examples include regression models for percentage outcomes and the analysis of ratings that are measured on a bounded scale. In this paper, we consider beta regression, which is a generalization of logit models to situations where the response is continuous on the interval (0,1. Consequently, beta regression is a convenient tool for analyzing percentage responses. The classical approach to fit a beta regression model is to use maximum likelihood estimation with subsequent AIC-based variable selection. As an alternative to this established - yet unstable - approach, we propose a new estimation technique called boosted beta regression. With boosted beta regression estimation and variable selection can be carried out simultaneously in a highly efficient way. Additionally, both the mean and the variance of a percentage response can be modeled using flexible nonlinear covariate effects. As a consequence, the new method accounts for common problems such as overdispersion and non-binomial variance structures.

  1. Neonatal umbilical inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antenatal scan. The preferred treatment option is resection of the tumor. Spontaneous regression has been described. Ann Pediatr Surg 13:160–162 c 2017 Annals of Pediatric. Surgery. ... Keywords: inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, neonatal tumor, surgical resection ... Other anatomical regions were the brain, the.

  2. Diversity of Histologic Patterns and Expression of Cytoskeletal Proteins in Canine Skeletal Osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamine, E; Hirayama, K; Matsuda, K; Okamoto, M; Ohmachi, T; Kadosawa, T; Taniyama, H

    2015-09-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS), the most common bone tumor, includes OS of the head (OSH) and appendicular OS (OSA). In dogs, it is classified into 6 histologic subtypes: osteoblastic, chondroblastic, fibroblastic, telangiectatic, giant cell, and poorly differentiated. This study investigated the significance of the histologic classification relevant to clinical outcome and the histologic and immunohistochemical relationships between pleomorphism and expression of cytoskeletal proteins in 60 cases each of OSH and OSA. Most neoplasms exhibited histologic diversity, and 64% of OS contained multiple subtypes. In addition to the above 6 subtypes, myxoid, round cell, and epithelioid subtypes were observed. Although the epithelioid subtypes were observed in only OSH, no significant difference in the frequency of other subtypes was observed. Also, no significant relevance was observed between the clinical outcome and histologic subtypes. Cytokeratin (CK) was expressed in both epithelioid and sarcomatoid tumor cells in various subtypes, and all CK-positive tumor cells also expressed vimentin. Vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) were expressed in all subtypes. A few SMA-positive spindle-shaped tumor cells exhibited desmin expression. Glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive tumor cells were observed in many subtypes, and some of these cells showed neurofilament expression. Although OSH exhibited significantly stronger immunoreactivity for SMA than OSA, no significant difference in other cytoskeletal proteins was observed. Some tumor cells had cytoskeletal protein expression compatible with the corresponding histologic subtypes, such as CK in the epithelioid subtype and SMA in the fibroblastic subtype. Thus, canine skeletal OS is composed of pleomorphic and heterogenous tumor cells as is reflected in the diversity of histologic patterns and expression of cytoskeletal proteins. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Understanding logistic regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandei, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Logistic regression is used to obtain odds ratio in the presence of more than one explanatory variable. The procedure is quite similar to multiple linear regression, with the exception that the response variable is binomial. The result is the impact of each variable on the odds ratio of the observed event of interest. The main advantage is to avoid confounding effects by analyzing the association of all variables together. In this article, we explain the logistic regression procedure using examples to make it as simple as possible. After definition of the technique, the basic interpretation of the results is highlighted and then some special issues are discussed.

  4. Applied linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Weisberg, Sanford

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ""...this is an excellent book which could easily be used as a course text...""-International Statistical Institute The Fourth Edition of Applied Linear Regression provides a thorough update of the basic theory and methodology of linear regression modeling. Demonstrating the practical applications of linear regression analysis techniques, the Fourth Edition uses interesting, real-world exercises and examples. Stressing central concepts such as model building, understanding parameters, assessing fit and reliability, and drawing conclusions, the new edition illus

  5. Applied logistic regression

    CERN Document Server

    Hosmer, David W; Sturdivant, Rodney X

    2013-01-01

     A new edition of the definitive guide to logistic regression modeling for health science and other applications This thoroughly expanded Third Edition provides an easily accessible introduction to the logistic regression (LR) model and highlights the power of this model by examining the relationship between a dichotomous outcome and a set of covariables. Applied Logistic Regression, Third Edition emphasizes applications in the health sciences and handpicks topics that best suit the use of modern statistical software. The book provides readers with state-of-

  6. Ploidy, cytokinetics, and histology features of aggressive versus less aggressive uterine cervical squamous cell carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.S.; Peters, L.J.; Adelson, M.; Williamson, K.D.; Sneige, N.; Katz, R.L.; Freedman, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors are investigating the interrelationships of flow cytometric measured ploidy, S-fraction with histology features of uterine cervical squamous cell cancers in an attempt to identify aggressive, high risk tumors and less aggressive tumors. Experimentally, pre-radiotherapy biopsy specimens are being studied using flow ploidy and cell-cycle analysis and microscopic scoring for histology features. The results to date for some 200 patients indicate that there are identifyable aggressive tumors, at high risk for 2 yr local control within each stage of disease and differentiation category (WD, MD, PD). These aggressive tumors usually have high degree DNA abnormalities (triploid or greater), high proliferative activity (%S≥20) compared to the less aggressive tumors characterized by diploid/near diploid DNA content, low to moderate %S (2-19, mean 12). Expression of high S-fraction appears to reflect high growth activity or growth potential and characterizes the aggressive tumors

  7. Reordering Histology to Enhance Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerongen, Helen

    2011-01-01

    In redesigning the preclinical curriculum and shifting from a discipline-based approach to an organ system-based approach, faculty at the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson took the opportunity to restructure the sequence of introductory histology content to make it more engaging and relevant. In this article, the author describes…

  8. Understanding poisson regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Matthew J; Higgins, Melinda

    2014-04-01

    Nurse investigators often collect study data in the form of counts. Traditional methods of data analysis have historically approached analysis of count data either as if the count data were continuous and normally distributed or with dichotomization of the counts into the categories of occurred or did not occur. These outdated methods for analyzing count data have been replaced with more appropriate statistical methods that make use of the Poisson probability distribution, which is useful for analyzing count data. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the Poisson distribution and its use in Poisson regression. Assumption violations for the standard Poisson regression model are addressed with alternative approaches, including addition of an overdispersion parameter or negative binomial regression. An illustrative example is presented with an application from the ENSPIRE study, and regression modeling of comorbidity data is included for illustrative purposes. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Quantification of tumor extension in prostate biopsies: importance in the identification of confined tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite Kátia R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the importance of quantifying the adenocarcinoma in prostate biopsies when determining the tumor's final stage in patients who undergo radical prostatectomy. To identify the best methodology for obtaining such data. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prostate biopsies from 132 patients were examined, with determination of Gleason histological grade and tumor volume in number of involved fragments, tumor extent of the fragment mostly affected by the tumor and the total percentage of tumor in the specimen. Theses parameters were statistically correlated with the neoplasia's final stage following the evaluation of radical prostatectomy specimens. RESULTS: An average of 12 and a median of 14 biopsy fragments were evaluated per patient. In the univariate analysis the Gleason histological grade, the largest tumor extent in one fragment and the total percentage of tumor in the specimen were correlated with tumor stage of the surgical specimen. In the multivariate analysis, the Gleason histological grade and the total percentage of tumor were strongly correlated with the neoplasia's final stage. The risk of the tumor not being confined was 3 for Gleason 7 tumors and 10.6 for Gleason 8 tumors or above. In cases where the tumor involved more than 60% of the specimen, the risk of non-confined disease was 4.4 times. Among 19 patients with unfavorable histological parameters, Gleason > 7 and extension greater than 60% the tumor final stage was pT3 in 95%. CONCLUSION: When associated to the Gleason histological grade, tumor quantification in prostate biopsies is an important factor for determining organ-confined disease, and among the methods, total percentage of tumor is the most informative one. Such data should be included in the pathological report and must be incorporated in future nomograms.

  10. Colorectal cancer with venous tumor thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kensuke Otani; Soichiro Ishihara; Keisuke Hata; Koji Murono; Kazuhito Sasaki; Koji Yasuda; Takeshi Nishikawa; Toshiaki Tanaka; Tomomichi Kiyomatsu; Kazushige Kawai; Hiroaki Nozawa; Hironori Yamaguchi; Toshiaki Watanabe

    2018-01-01

    Summary: Colorectal cancer is seldom accompanied by venous tumor thrombosis, and little is known about the features of venous tumor thrombosis in colorectal cancer. However, some reports show that colorectal cancer patients can develop venous tumor thrombosis and warn clinicians not to overlook this complication. In this report, we perform a review of 43 previously reported cases and investigate the characteristics of colorectal cancer accompanied by venous tumor thrombosis. The histological ...

  11. Scanning electron microscopy of primary bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, R.R.; Kerner, B.

    1975-01-01

    Critical-point-drying of tumor tissue fixed in a glutaraldehyde-paraformaldehyde solution and viewed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provides a 3-dimensional view of tumor cells and their matrices. This report describes the SEM appearance of three primary bone tumors: a canine osteosarcoma of the distal radius, a feline chondrosarcoma of the proximal tibia and a canine fibrosarcoma of the proximal humerus. The ultrastructural morphology is compared with the histologic appearance of each tumor

  12. Smoking habit and gastritis histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiot, A; Kemona, A; Namiot, Z

    2007-01-01

    Long-term cigarette smoking may increase the risk of digestive tract pathologies, however, what is the influence smoking habit on gastric mucosa histology is still poorly elicited. The aim of the study was to compare histological evaluation of gastritis in smoker and non-smoker groups. A total of 236 patients of various H. pylori status (109 infected, 127 non-infected), clinical diagnosis (107 duodenal ulcer disease, 129 dyspepsia), and smoking habit (92 smokers, 144 non-smokers) were included. Subjects were classified as smokers if they smoked 5 or more cigarettes per day for at least 3 years. A histological examination of endoscopically obtained samples was performed by two experienced pathomorphologists blinded to the diagnoses and smoking habit. Microscopic slices of the gastric mucosa were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Giemsa. Apart from histological diagnosis, H. pylori status was additionally confirmed by an urease test (CLO-test) at least in one of two gastric locations (antrum or corpus). In the H. pylori infected population, H. pylori density, neutrophils, and mononuclear cells infiltration in the gastric corpus mucosa were lower in smokers than non-smokers, while in the antrum the differences were not significant. In the non-infected population, no significant differences in neutrophils and mononuclear cells infiltration between smokers and non-smokers were found. Since the significant differences in studied parameters of chronic gastritis between smokers and non-smokers were found in the corpus mucosa of H. pylori infected subjects, smoking should be taken into account when a histological evaluation of the gastric mucosa in the H. pylori infected population is performed.

  13. Desmoid tumor within lesser sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmoid tumors or fibromatoses comprise a number of benign fibrous proliferative lesions that have local infiltrative growth and tendency to recur after incomplete excision. They never metastasize. The authors present a 31-year old woman who, due to epigastric pain and palpable mass detected on presentation, underwent the excision of firm tumorous mass, 210x140x115mm in diameter, from the lesser sac. Compressing the splenic vein, the tumor caused left-sided portal hypertension which subsided after the mass was removed. The recovery was uneventful. The histological examination verified typical desmoid tumor. Twelve years after surgery, the patient remained symptom-free with no signs of recurrence.

  14. Histopathologic correlation of parotid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Valverde, Jose Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Malignization percentage of parotid pleomorphic adenoma is defined with fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), prior negative in patients operated by parotid tumor in the Hospital San Juan de Dios between 2008-2012. Patients diagnosed with pleomorphic adenoma by FNAB are described in time, place and person. The histological type of parotid tumors diagnosed are defined. Management offered to patients diagnosed with parotid tumors is understood in the Hospital San Juan de Dios. Complications associated with surgical procedure in patients are specified. A quarter part the of parotid tumors from the series analyzed have been malignant, a similar percentage described in the literature [es

  15. MRI of cystic pituitary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Hitoshi; Hoshi, Seiichiro; Sunada, Souichi; Sunami, Kenro [Kawatetsu Chiba Hospital (Japan); Saeki, Naokatsu; Yamaura, Akira

    1998-11-01

    We retrospectively reviewed MRI findings of 17 patients with 3 histologically proven cystic pituitary tumors. They consisted of 10 cystic pituitary adenomas, 4 craniopharyngiomas and 3 Rathke`s cleft cysts. We analyzed the following MRI parameters such as cyst wall appearance, enhancement pattern of cyst wall, location of residual pituitary gland and location of tumor. They were clinically significant parameters for histological differentiation. Even though combinations of such MRI parameters helped for more accurate preoperative diagnosis, the differentiation between craniopharyngioma and Rathke`s cleft cyst was difficult in some cases. (author)

  16. MRI of cystic pituitary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Hitoshi; Hoshi, Seiichiro; Sunada, Souichi; Sunami, Kenro; Saeki, Naokatsu; Yamaura, Akira

    1998-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed MRI findings of 17 patients with 3 histologically proven cystic pituitary tumors. They consisted of 10 cystic pituitary adenomas, 4 craniopharyngiomas and 3 Rathke's cleft cysts. We analyzed the following MRI parameters such as cyst wall appearance, enhancement pattern of cyst wall, location of residual pituitary gland and location of tumor. They were clinically significant parameters for histological differentiation. Even though combinations of such MRI parameters helped for more accurate preoperative diagnosis, the differentiation between craniopharyngioma and Rathke's cleft cyst was difficult in some cases. (author)

  17. [18]Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for the textural features of cervical cancer associated with lymph node metastasis and histological type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Wei-Chih; Chen, Shang-Wen; Liang, Ji-An; Hsieh, Te-Chun; Yen, Kuo-Yang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the correlation between the lymph node (LN) status or histological types and textural features of cervical cancers on "1"8F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging records of 170 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB-IVA cervical cancer. Four groups of textural features were studied in addition to the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV_m_a_x), metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). Moreover, we studied the associations between the indices and clinical parameters, including the LN status, clinical stage, and histology. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the optimal predictive performance among the various textural indices. Quantitative differences were determined using the Mann-Whitney U test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent factors, among all the variables, for predicting LN metastasis. Among all the significant indices related to pelvic LN metastasis, homogeneity derived from the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) was the sole independent predictor. By combining SUV_m_a_x, the risk of pelvic LN metastasis can be scored accordingly. The TLG_m_e_a_n was the independent feature of positive para-aortic LNs. Quantitative differences between squamous and nonsquamous histology can be determined using short-zone emphasis (SZE) from the gray-level size zone matrix (GLSZM). This study revealed that in patients with cervical cancer, pelvic or para-aortic LN metastases can be predicted by using textural feature of homogeneity from the GLCM and TLG_m_e_a_n_, respectively. SZE from the GLSZM is the sole feature associated with quantitative differences between squamous and nonsquamous histology. (orig.)

  18. [18]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography for the Textural Features of Cervical Cancer Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis and Histological Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei-Chih; Chen, Shang-Wen; Liang, Ji-An; Hsieh, Te-Chun; Yen, Kuo-Yang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the correlation between the lymph node (LN) status or histological types and textural features of cervical cancers on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging records of 170 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB-IVA cervical cancer. Four groups of textural features were studied in addition to the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ), metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). Moreover, we studied the associations between the indices and clinical parameters, including the LN status, clinical stage, and histology. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the optimal predictive performance among the various textural indices. Quantitative differences were determined using the Mann-Whitney U test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent factors, among all the variables, for predicting LN metastasis. Among all the significant indices related to pelvic LN metastasis, homogeneity derived from the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) was the sole independent predictor. By combining SUV max , the risk of pelvic LN metastasis can be scored accordingly. The TLG mean was the independent feature of positive para-aortic LNs. Quantitative differences between squamous and nonsquamous histology can be determined using short-zone emphasis (SZE) from the gray-level size zone matrix (GLSZM). This study revealed that in patients with cervical cancer, pelvic or para-aortic LN metastases can be predicted by using textural feature of homogeneity from the GLCM and TLG mean, respectively. SZE from the GLSZM is the sole feature associated with quantitative differences between squamous and nonsquamous histology.

  19. [18]Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for the textural features of cervical cancer associated with lymph node metastasis and histological type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wei-Chih [Asia University, Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Taichung (China); Chen, Shang-Wen [China Medical University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung (China); China Medical University, School of Medicine, Taichung (China); Taipei Medical University, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); China Medical University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taichung (China); Liang, Ji-An [China Medical University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung (China); China Medical University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taichung (China); Hsieh, Te-Chun; Yen, Kuo-Yang [China Medical University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, Taichung (China); China Medical University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, Taichung (China); Kao, Chia-Hung [China Medical University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taichung (China); China Medical University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, Taichung (China); Asia University, Department of Bioinformatics and Medical Engineering, Taichung (China)

    2017-09-15

    In this study, we investigated the correlation between the lymph node (LN) status or histological types and textural features of cervical cancers on {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging records of 170 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB-IVA cervical cancer. Four groups of textural features were studied in addition to the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}), metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). Moreover, we studied the associations between the indices and clinical parameters, including the LN status, clinical stage, and histology. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the optimal predictive performance among the various textural indices. Quantitative differences were determined using the Mann-Whitney U test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent factors, among all the variables, for predicting LN metastasis. Among all the significant indices related to pelvic LN metastasis, homogeneity derived from the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) was the sole independent predictor. By combining SUV{sub max}, the risk of pelvic LN metastasis can be scored accordingly. The TLG{sub mean} was the independent feature of positive para-aortic LNs. Quantitative differences between squamous and nonsquamous histology can be determined using short-zone emphasis (SZE) from the gray-level size zone matrix (GLSZM). This study revealed that in patients with cervical cancer, pelvic or para-aortic LN metastases can be predicted by using textural feature of homogeneity from the GLCM and TLG{sub mean,} respectively. SZE from the GLSZM is the sole feature associated with quantitative differences between squamous and nonsquamous histology. (orig.)

  20. Parotid hybrid tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo C, Gustavo; Seymour M, Camila; Fernandez R, Lara; Villanueva I, Maria Elena; Scott C, Carlos; Celedon L, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of the salivary glands represent 33%-10% of head and neck neoplasms. The most common location is the parotid gland, accounting for 50%-85% of the cases, with 20%-30% of them being malignant. The following are known to be indicative of a malignant tumor: fast growing, painless mass, associated facial paralysis and lymphadenopathy. Most parotid neoplasm derive from a single histological type but eventually the development of more than one type on the same gland can occur. This paper presents a case of a parotid neoplasm with two different histological tumors, with uncharacteristic clinical presentation. The patient presented initially with ear pain and otorrhoea, in the clinical examination highlighted an external auditory canal tumor. The complementary study revealed a parotid neoplasm and a total resection of the gland was performed. The biopsy revealed an adenoid-cystic carcinoma with differentiated basaloid areas. Adjuvant radio-chemotherapy was administered, and the imaging control with PET-CT showed no evidence of recurrence or dissemination of the tumor

  1. MR imaging of multiple fibroadenoma in breast: comparison with color doppler images and histologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soo Young; Yang, Ik; Park, Hai Jung; Lee, Yul; Chung, Bong Wha; Ahn, Hye Kyung [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-10-01

    To understand the different signal intensities seen on contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in multiple fibroadenoma of the breast, and to compare these with color Doppler ultrasonographic (CDUS) and histologic findings. MRI (1.0 Tesla, TIWI, T2WI, 3D-gradient echo dynamic contrast enhancement study) findings of 24 histologically proven cases of fibroadenoma in five patients were evaluated and compared with the histologic components (myxoid, adenomatous, fibrous). In addition, vascular flow, as seen on CDUS and histologic section, was compared. The observed degree of signal intensity waw classified into three groups, as follows: negative, 8.3%, mild to moderate, 54.2%; marked, 37.5%. On histologic section, the greater the fibrotic component, the higher the intensity of MRI enhancement, the greater the glandular component, and the intensity. CDUS showed vascular flow in only one tumor larger than 3cm in diameter. Vascular patterns of tumors on CDUS were dots in mass and detouring pattern, but in this case and in strongly enhanced cases, tumor vascularity-as seen on histologic section-showed no significant increase. Different signal intensities seen on contrast enhanced MRI in multiple fibroadenoma of the breast may be related more to the amount of glandular and fibrotic component than to increased tumor vascularity.

  2. MR imaging of multiple fibroadenoma in breast: comparison with color doppler images and histologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Soo Young; Yang, Ik; Park, Hai Jung; Lee, Yul; Chung, Bong Wha; Ahn, Hye Kyung

    1997-01-01

    To understand the different signal intensities seen on contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in multiple fibroadenoma of the breast, and to compare these with color Doppler ultrasonographic (CDUS) and histologic findings. MRI (1.0 Tesla, TIWI, T2WI, 3D-gradient echo dynamic contrast enhancement study) findings of 24 histologically proven cases of fibroadenoma in five patients were evaluated and compared with the histologic components (myxoid, adenomatous, fibrous). In addition, vascular flow, as seen on CDUS and histologic section, was compared. The observed degree of signal intensity waw classified into three groups, as follows: negative, 8.3%, mild to moderate, 54.2%; marked, 37.5%. On histologic section, the greater the fibrotic component, the higher the intensity of MRI enhancement, the greater the glandular component, and the intensity. CDUS showed vascular flow in only one tumor larger than 3cm in diameter. Vascular patterns of tumors on CDUS were dots in mass and detouring pattern, but in this case and in strongly enhanced cases, tumor vascularity-as seen on histologic section-showed no significant increase. Different signal intensities seen on contrast enhanced MRI in multiple fibroadenoma of the breast may be related more to the amount of glandular and fibrotic component than to increased tumor vascularity

  3. Spontaneous regression of pulmonary bullae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, H.; Ishikawa, H.; Ohtsuka, M.; Sekizawa, K.

    2002-01-01

    The natural history of pulmonary bullae is often characterized by gradual, progressive enlargement. Spontaneous regression of bullae is, however, very rare. We report a case in which complete resolution of pulmonary bullae in the left upper lung occurred spontaneously. The management of pulmonary bullae is occasionally made difficult because of gradual progressive enlargement associated with abnormal pulmonary function. Some patients have multiple bulla in both lungs and/or have a history of pulmonary emphysema. Others have a giant bulla without emphysematous change in the lungs. Our present case had treated lung cancer with no evidence of local recurrence. He had no emphysematous change in lung function test and had no complaints, although the high resolution CT scan shows evidence of underlying minimal changes of emphysema. Ortin and Gurney presented three cases of spontaneous reduction in size of bulla. Interestingly, one of them had a marked decrease in the size of a bulla in association with thickening of the wall of the bulla, which was observed in our patient. This case we describe is of interest, not only because of the rarity with which regression of pulmonary bulla has been reported in the literature, but also because of the spontaneous improvements in the radiological picture in the absence of overt infection or tumor. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  4. Epidermal growth factor receptor: an independent predictor of survival in astrocytic tumors given definitive irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Zhu; Shaeffer, James; Leslie, Susan; Kolm, Paul; El-Mahdi, Anas M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein was predictive of patient survival independently of other prognostic factors in astrocytic tumors. Methods and Materials: Epidermal growth factor receptor protein expression was investigated immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded surgical specimens of 55 glioblastoma multiforme, 14 anaplastic astrocytoma, and 2 astrocytomas given definitive irradiation. We evaluated the relationship of EGFR protein expression and tumor grade, histologic features, age at diagnosis, sex, patient survival, and recurrence-free survival. Results: The percentage of tumor cells which were EGFR positive related to reduced survival by Cox regression analysis in both univariate (p = 0.0424) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.0016). Epidermal growth factor receptor positivity was the only 1 of 11 clinical and histological variables associated with decreased recurrence-free survival by either univariate (p = 0.0353) or multivariate (p = 0.0182) analysis. Epidermal growth factor receptor protein expression was not related to patient age, sex, or histologic features. Conclusion: Epidermal growth factor receptor positivity was a significant and independent prognostic indicator for overall survival and recurrence-free survival for irradiated patients with astrocytic gliomas

  5. Vector regression introduced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mok Tik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study formulates regression of vector data that will enable statistical analysis of various geodetic phenomena such as, polar motion, ocean currents, typhoon/hurricane tracking, crustal deformations, and precursory earthquake signals. The observed vector variable of an event (dependent vector variable is expressed as a function of a number of hypothesized phenomena realized also as vector variables (independent vector variables and/or scalar variables that are likely to impact the dependent vector variable. The proposed representation has the unique property of solving the coefficients of independent vector variables (explanatory variables also as vectors, hence it supersedes multivariate multiple regression models, in which the unknown coefficients are scalar quantities. For the solution, complex numbers are used to rep- resent vector information, and the method of least squares is deployed to estimate the vector model parameters after transforming the complex vector regression model into a real vector regression model through isomorphism. Various operational statistics for testing the predictive significance of the estimated vector parameter coefficients are also derived. A simple numerical example demonstrates the use of the proposed vector regression analysis in modeling typhoon paths.

  6. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unni, K.K.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on bone tumors. Topics covered include: Bone tumor imaging: Contribution of CT and MRI, staging of bone tumors, perind cell tumors of bone, and metastatic bone disease

  7. Seizure prognosis of patients with low-grade tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Cynthia A; Fadul, Camilo E; Roberts, David W; Thadani, Vijay M; Bujarski, Krzysztof A; Scott, Rod C; Jobst, Barbara C

    2012-09-01

    Seizures frequently impact the quality of life of patients with low grade tumors. Management is often based on best clinical judgment. We examined factors that correlate with seizure outcome to optimize seizure management. Patients with supratentorial low-grade tumors evaluated at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Using multiple regression analysis the patient characteristics and treatments were correlated with seizure outcome using Engel's classification. Of the 73 patients with low grade tumors and median follow up of 3.8 years (range 1-20 years), 54 (74%) patients had a seizure ever and 46 (63%) had at least one seizure before tumor surgery. The only factor significantly associated with pre-surgical seizures was tumor histology. Of the 54 patients with seizures ever, 25 (46.3%) had a class I outcome at last follow up. There was no difference in seizure outcome between grade II gliomas (astrocytoma grade II, oligodendroglioma grade II, mixed oligo-astrocytoma grade II) and other pathologies (pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymomas, DNET, gangliocytoma and ganglioglioma). Once seizures were established seizure prognosis was similar between different pathologies. Chemotherapy (p=0.03) and radiation therapy (p=0.02) had a positive effect on seizure outcome. No other parameter including significant tumor growth during the follow up period predicted seizure outcome. Only three patients developed new-onset seizures after tumor surgery that were non-perioperative. Anticonvulsant medication was tapered in 14 patients with seizures and 10 had no further seizures. Five patients underwent additional epilepsy surgery with a class I outcome in four. Two patients received a vagal nerve stimulator with >50% seizure reduction. Seizures at presentation are the most important factor associated with continued seizures after tumor surgery. Pathology does not influence seizure outcome. Use of long term prophylactic anticonvulsants is unwarranted. Chemotherapy and

  8. Histology-based classification predicts pattern of recurrence and improves risk stratification in primary retroperitoneal sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Marcus C.B.; Brennan, Murray F.; Kuk, Deborah; Agaram, Narasimhan P.; Antonescu, Cristina; Qin, Li-Xuan; Moraco, Nicole; Crago, Aimee M.; Singer, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the prognostic significance of histologic type/subtype in a large series of patients with primary resected retroperitoneal sarcoma. Summary Background Data The histologic diversity and rarity of retroperitoneal sarcoma has hampered the ability to predict patient outcome. Methods From a single-institution, prospective database, 675 patients treated surgically for primary, non-metastatic retroperitoneal sarcoma during 1982–2010 were identified and histologic type/subtype was reviewed. Clinicopathologic variables were analyzed for association with disease-specific death (DSD), local recurrence (LR), and distant recurrence (DR). Results Median follow-up for survivors was 7.5 years. The predominant histologies were well-differentiated liposarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma. Five-year cumulative incidence of DSD was 31%, and factors independently associated with DSD were R2 resection, resection of ≥3 contiguous organs, and histologic type. Five-year cumulative incidence for LR was 39% and for DR was 24%. R1 resection, age, tumor size, and histologic type were independently associated with LR; size, resection of ≥3 organs, and histologic type were independently associated with DR. Liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma were associated with late recurrence and DSD (as long as 15 years from diagnosis). For solitary fibrous tumor, local recurrence was uncommon (sarcoma. Histology predicts the pattern and incidence of LR and DR and will aid in more accurate patient counseling and selection of patients for adjuvant therapy trials. PMID:25915910

  9. Multicollinearity and Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Jamal I.

    2017-12-01

    In regression analysis it is obvious to have a correlation between the response and predictor(s), but having correlation among predictors is something undesired. The number of predictors included in the regression model depends on many factors among which, historical data, experience, etc. At the end selection of most important predictors is something objective due to the researcher. Multicollinearity is a phenomena when two or more predictors are correlated, if this happens, the standard error of the coefficients will increase [8]. Increased standard errors means that the coefficients for some or all independent variables may be found to be significantly different from In other words, by overinflating the standard errors, multicollinearity makes some variables statistically insignificant when they should be significant. In this paper we focus on the multicollinearity, reasons and consequences on the reliability of the regression model.

  10. Predictive features for histology of gastric subepithelial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Teles SCHULZ

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Gastric subepithelial lesion is a relatively common diagnosis after routine upper endoscopy. The diagnostic workup of an undetermined gastric subepithelial lesion should take into consideration clinical and endoscopic features. OBJECTIVE We aimed to investigate the association between patients' characteristics, endoscopic and echographic features with the histologic diagnosis of the gastric subepithelial lesions. METHODS This is a retrospective study with 55 patients, who were consecutively diagnosed with gastric subepithelial lesions, from October 2008 to August 2011. Patients' characteristics, endoscopic and echografic features of each gastric subepithelial lesion were analysed. Histologic diagnosis provided by EUS-guided fine needle aspiration or endoscopic/surgical resection was used as gold standard. RESULTS The probability of gastrointestinal stromal tumors to be located in the cardia was low (4.5%, while for leiomyoma it was high (>95%. In addition, there was a higher risk of gastrointestinal stromal tumors in patients older than 57 years (OR 8.9; 95% CI, with lesions ≥21 mm (OR 7.15; 95% CI, located at 4th layer (OR 18.8; 95% CI, with positive Doppler sign (OR 9; 95% CI, and irregular outer border (OR 7.75; 95% CI. CONCLUSION The location of gastric subepithelial lesions in the gastric cardia lowers the risk of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. While gastric subepithelial lesions occurring in elderly patients, located in the gastric body, with positive Doppler signal and irregular outer border increase the risk of gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

  11. Minimax Regression Quantiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Stefan Holst

    A new and alternative quantile regression estimator is developed and it is shown that the estimator is root n-consistent and asymptotically normal. The estimator is based on a minimax ‘deviance function’ and has asymptotically equivalent properties to the usual quantile regression estimator. It is......, however, a different and therefore new estimator. It allows for both linear- and nonlinear model specifications. A simple algorithm for computing the estimates is proposed. It seems to work quite well in practice but whether it has theoretical justification is still an open question....

  12. riskRegression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozenne, Brice; Sørensen, Anne Lyngholm; Scheike, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In the presence of competing risks a prediction of the time-dynamic absolute risk of an event can be based on cause-specific Cox regression models for the event and the competing risks (Benichou and Gail, 1990). We present computationally fast and memory optimized C++ functions with an R interface...... for predicting the covariate specific absolute risks, their confidence intervals, and their confidence bands based on right censored time to event data. We provide explicit formulas for our implementation of the estimator of the (stratified) baseline hazard function in the presence of tied event times. As a by...... functionals. The software presented here is implemented in the riskRegression package....

  13. Adapting lean to histology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesa, René J

    2009-10-01

    Histology laboratories (histolabs) can increase productivity and reduce turnaround time and errors by using any one of several available management tools. After a few years of operation, all histolabs develop workflow problems. Histology laboratories handling more than 20,000 cases per year benefit the most from implementing management tools, as occurred in the 25 facilities summarized in this article. Discontinuous workflow, lack of "pulling" between steps, accepting unavoidable waiting times while working with small batches within work cells, and a workflow with an uneven rate of completion, are some of the adaptations required by the Lean system when it is used in histology because 70% of the tasks are manual and the flow has to be interrupted to add value to the pieces of tissue during tissue processing, no matter how short that step is. After all these adaptations are incorporated, the histolab becomes as "Lean" as it can be, and the qualifier is also a recognition of the effort and personnel involvement in the implementation. Given its service nature, productivity increments do not expand the histolab customer base and could lead to staffing reductions. This is one of the causes of reluctance by some employees for implementing these techniques which are mostly driven by cost reductions sought by insurance companies and administrators, and not necessarily because of a real medical need to reduce the turnaround time. Finally, any histolab wanting to improve its workflow can follow some easy steps presented here as a guide to accomplish that objective. These steps stress the need for the supervisors to insure that the personnel in the histology laboratory are being paid at a comparable rate as other histolabs in the area.

  14. T-Cell Therapy Using Interleukin-21-Primed Cytotoxic T-Cell Lymphocytes Combined With Cytotoxic T-Cell Lymphocyte Antigen-4 Blockade Results in Long-Term Cell Persistence and Durable Tumor Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis, Aude G; Roberts, Ilana M; Thompson, John A; Margolin, Kim A; Bhatia, Shailender; Lee, Sylvia M; Sloan, Heather L; Lai, Ivy P; Farrar, Erik A; Wagener, Felecia; Shibuya, Kendall C; Cao, Jianhong; Wolchok, Jedd D; Greenberg, Philip D; Yee, Cassian

    2016-11-01

    Purpose Peripheral blood-derived antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) provide a readily available source of effector cells that can be administered with minimal toxicity in an outpatient setting. In metastatic melanoma, this approach results in measurable albeit modest clinical responses in patients resistant to conventional therapy. We reasoned that concurrent cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) checkpoint blockade might enhance the antitumor activity of adoptively transferred CTLs. Patients and Methods Autologous MART1-specific CTLs were generated by priming with peptide-pulsed dendritic cells in the presence of interleukin-21 and enriched by peptide-major histocompatibility complex multimer-guided cell sorting. This expeditiously yielded polyclonal CTL lines uniformly expressing markers associated with an enhanced survival potential. In this first-in-human strategy, 10 patients with stage IV melanoma received the MART1-specific CTLs followed by a standard course of anti-CTLA-4 (ipilimumab). Results The toxicity profile of the combined treatment was comparable to that of ipilimumab monotherapy. Evaluation of best responses at 12 weeks yielded two continuous complete remissions, one partial response (PR) using RECIST criteria (two PRs using immune-related response criteria), and three instances of stable disease. Infused CTLs persisted with frequencies up to 2.9% of CD8 + T cells for as long as the patients were monitored (up to 40 weeks). In patients who experienced complete remissions, PRs, or stable disease, the persisting CTLs acquired phenotypic and functional characteristics of long-lived memory cells. Moreover, these patients also developed responses to nontargeted tumor antigens (epitope spreading). Conclusion We demonstrate that combining antigen-specific CTLs with CTLA-4 blockade is safe and produces durable clinical responses, likely reflecting both enhanced activity of transferred cells and improved recruitment of new responses

  15. T-Cell Therapy Using Interleukin-21–Primed Cytotoxic T-Cell Lymphocytes Combined With Cytotoxic T-Cell Lymphocyte Antigen-4 Blockade Results in Long-Term Cell Persistence and Durable Tumor Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis, Aude G.; Roberts, Ilana M.; Thompson, John A.; Margolin, Kim A.; Bhatia, Shailender; Lee, Sylvia M.; Sloan, Heather L.; Lai, Ivy P.; Farrar, Erik A.; Wagener, Felecia; Shibuya, Kendall C.; Cao, Jianhong; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Greenberg, Philip D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Peripheral blood–derived antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) provide a readily available source of effector cells that can be administered with minimal toxicity in an outpatient setting. In metastatic melanoma, this approach results in measurable albeit modest clinical responses in patients resistant to conventional therapy. We reasoned that concurrent cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) checkpoint blockade might enhance the antitumor activity of adoptively transferred CTLs. Patients and Methods Autologous MART1-specific CTLs were generated by priming with peptide-pulsed dendritic cells in the presence of interleukin-21 and enriched by peptide-major histocompatibility complex multimer-guided cell sorting. This expeditiously yielded polyclonal CTL lines uniformly expressing markers associated with an enhanced survival potential. In this first-in-human strategy, 10 patients with stage IV melanoma received the MART1-specific CTLs followed by a standard course of anti–CTLA-4 (ipilimumab). Results The toxicity profile of the combined treatment was comparable to that of ipilimumab monotherapy. Evaluation of best responses at 12 weeks yielded two continuous complete remissions, one partial response (PR) using RECIST criteria (two PRs using immune-related response criteria), and three instances of stable disease. Infused CTLs persisted with frequencies up to 2.9% of CD8+ T cells for as long as the patients were monitored (up to 40 weeks). In patients who experienced complete remissions, PRs, or stable disease, the persisting CTLs acquired phenotypic and functional characteristics of long-lived memory cells. Moreover, these patients also developed responses to nontargeted tumor antigens (epitope spreading). Conclusion We demonstrate that combining antigen-specific CTLs with CTLA-4 blockade is safe and produces durable clinical responses, likely reflecting both enhanced activity of transferred cells and improved recruitment of new responses

  16. Tumors of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Gamboa, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses are performed to establish the cause of chronic abdominal pain in patients. Histological types are considered in patients with primary tumors of unknown origin. Benign and malignant neoplasms are described, including methods of diagnosis and treatment. Clinical manifestations are cited. Early and accurate diagnoses are important for an acceptable outcome in patients with malignant small bowel tumors. Recurrence is provoked many deaths, suggesting the importance of adjuvant chemotherapy [es

  17. Multiple linear regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, T. R.

    1980-01-01

    Program rapidly selects best-suited set of coefficients. User supplies only vectors of independent and dependent data and specifies confidence level required. Program uses stepwise statistical procedure for relating minimal set of variables to set of observations; final regression contains only most statistically significant coefficients. Program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on NOVA 1200.

  18. Bayesian logistic regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Erp, H.R.N.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a Bayesian logistic regression analysis. It is found that if one wishes to derive the posterior distribution of the probability of some event, then, together with the traditional Bayes Theorem and the integrating out of nuissance parameters, the Jacobian transformation is an

  19. Linear Regression Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Seber, George A F

    2012-01-01

    Concise, mathematically clear, and comprehensive treatment of the subject.* Expanded coverage of diagnostics and methods of model fitting.* Requires no specialized knowledge beyond a good grasp of matrix algebra and some acquaintance with straight-line regression and simple analysis of variance models.* More than 200 problems throughout the book plus outline solutions for the exercises.* This revision has been extensively class-tested.

  20. Nonlinear Regression with R

    CERN Document Server

    Ritz, Christian; Parmigiani, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    R is a rapidly evolving lingua franca of graphical display and statistical analysis of experiments from the applied sciences. This book provides a coherent treatment of nonlinear regression with R by means of examples from a diversity of applied sciences such as biology, chemistry, engineering, medicine and toxicology.

  1. Bayesian ARTMAP for regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasu, L M; Andonie, R

    2013-10-01

    Bayesian ARTMAP (BA) is a recently introduced neural architecture which uses a combination of Fuzzy ARTMAP competitive learning and Bayesian learning. Training is generally performed online, in a single-epoch. During training, BA creates input data clusters as Gaussian categories, and also infers the conditional probabilities between input patterns and categories, and between categories and classes. During prediction, BA uses Bayesian posterior probability estimation. So far, BA was used only for classification. The goal of this paper is to analyze the efficiency of BA for regression problems. Our contributions are: (i) we generalize the BA algorithm using the clustering functionality of both ART modules, and name it BA for Regression (BAR); (ii) we prove that BAR is a universal approximator with the best approximation property. In other words, BAR approximates arbitrarily well any continuous function (universal approximation) and, for every given continuous function, there is one in the set of BAR approximators situated at minimum distance (best approximation); (iii) we experimentally compare the online trained BAR with several neural models, on the following standard regression benchmarks: CPU Computer Hardware, Boston Housing, Wisconsin Breast Cancer, and Communities and Crime. Our results show that BAR is an appropriate tool for regression tasks, both for theoretical and practical reasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bounded Gaussian process regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Larsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We extend the Gaussian process (GP) framework for bounded regression by introducing two bounded likelihood functions that model the noise on the dependent variable explicitly. This is fundamentally different from the implicit noise assumption in the previously suggested warped GP framework. We...... with the proposed explicit noise-model extension....

  3. and Multinomial Logistic Regression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work presented the results of an experimental comparison of two models: Multinomial Logistic Regression (MLR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for classifying students based on their academic performance. The predictive accuracy for each model was measured by their average Classification Correct Rate (CCR).

  4. Mechanisms of neuroblastoma regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, Garrett M.; Bagatell, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    Recent genomic and biological studies of neuroblastoma have shed light on the dramatic heterogeneity in the clinical behaviour of this disease, which spans from spontaneous regression or differentiation in some patients, to relentless disease progression in others, despite intensive multimodality therapy. This evidence also suggests several possible mechanisms to explain the phenomena of spontaneous regression in neuroblastomas, including neurotrophin deprivation, humoral or cellular immunity, loss of telomerase activity and alterations in epigenetic regulation. A better understanding of the mechanisms of spontaneous regression might help to identify optimal therapeutic approaches for patients with these tumours. Currently, the most druggable mechanism is the delayed activation of developmentally programmed cell death regulated by the tropomyosin receptor kinase A pathway. Indeed, targeted therapy aimed at inhibiting neurotrophin receptors might be used in lieu of conventional chemotherapy or radiation in infants with biologically favourable tumours that require treatment. Alternative approaches consist of breaking immune tolerance to tumour antigens or activating neurotrophin receptor pathways to induce neuronal differentiation. These approaches are likely to be most effective against biologically favourable tumours, but they might also provide insights into treatment of biologically unfavourable tumours. We describe the different mechanisms of spontaneous neuroblastoma regression and the consequent therapeutic approaches. PMID:25331179

  5. Predictive value of brain SPECT with 99 technetium - MIBI for differentiation of histologic grade brain gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    León Castellón, Roberto; Martín Escuela, Juan Miguel; López Díaz, Ing. Adlin; Salva Camaño, Silvia; Gómez Viera, DrC. Nelson; San Pedro, Aley Palau; Castro Jiménez, Mayté

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of primary tumors of the nervous system remain difficult and are a challenge to be addressed in a multidisciplinary way. In order to determine the usefulness of brain SPECT 99 Tc MIBI to differentiate histologic grade brain gliomas - Frequently brain tumors - they were studied 68 patients with this technique. A dynamic study first step in AP and lateral view was performed, and a SPECT at 20 minutes post-administration and at 2 hours late views. the post-surgical histological study of injuries was used as control. several imaging parameters such as the absolute activity of 99m Tc-MIBI were calculated both early and late phase, cortex contralateral tumor rates; pituitary tumor; choroid plexus tumor and Reason Late / Early phase tumor index / contralateral cortex tumor volume functional phase, the volume concentration of MIBI activity in the tumor and the retention rate of the radiopharmaceutical. Of the 68 patients studied, 11 were high-grade tumors and 57 low grade. The cortex contralateral tumor in late stage index showed a negative satisfactory sensitivity of 98.6% and specificity 77.1%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 48.2% and (NPV) of 99.8%. The reason late stage / early in the index tumor / contralateral cortex showed values ​​in turn 96.3%, 98.7%, 98.8% and 98.8% sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV respectively. The retention rate showed a 99% sensitivity, 89% specificity and PPV, NPV of 95% and 99% respectively. Conclusion: The combination cortex contralateral tumor rate in late stage, the reason late stage / early stage tumor index / contralateral cortex and the retention rate of the radiopharmaceutical are the most useful parameters to predict histologic grade of brain gliomas. (author)

  6. Contrast enhancement of focal hepatic lesions in CT: effect of size and histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgener, F.A.; Hamlin, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of size and histology on the contrast enhancement of hepatic lesions has been analyzed in this clinical and experimental investigation yielding the following results: (1) The attenuation values of hepatic cysts in patients increase significantly and inversely with their size after contrast enhancement when the cysts measure less than twice the CT-slice thickness. This seems to be caused by partial-volume effect. (2) Experimental tumors of identical sizes and originating from the same cell line can demonstrate different contrast-enhancement patterns. (3) Peak contrast uptake in both experimental and human tumors seems to be inversely related to their size. (4) Compared to liver, contrast washout from experimental and human tumors (presumably the extravascular space) is delayed. The delay in the contrast washout from a tumor seems to correlate with tumor size. These findings suggest that in general, it is not possible to differentiate reliably among various hepatic neoplasms on the basis of their contrast enhancement patterns for the following reasons: (1) Attenuation values of small hepatic neoplasms are distorted by partial volume effect. (2) Tumors of different histologies can demonstrate the same enhancement pattern. (3) Tumors of identical histology and size can demonstrate different enhancement patterns. (4) The enhancement pattern of a tumor changes with growth or size

  7. Infant Brain Tumors: Incidence, Survival, and the Role of Radiation Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, Andrew J.; McDonald, Mark W.; Chang, Andrew L.; Esiashvili, Natia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Results: Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to <2 CPM. For infants with medulloblastoma, desmoplastic histology and treatment with both surgery and upfront radiation were associated with improved survival, but on multivariate regression, only combined surgery and radiation remained associated with improved survival, with a hazard ratio for death of 0.17 compared with surgery alone (p = 0.005). For ATRTs, those treated with surgery and upfront radiation had a 12-month survival of 100% compared with 24.4% for those treated with surgery alone (p = 0.016). For ependymomas survival was higher in patients treated in more recent decades (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation

  8. Ridge Regression Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Mark R.

    1990-01-01

    The introduction of the Global Positioning System (GPS) into the National Airspace System (NAS) necessitates the development of Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) techniques. In order to guarantee a certain level of integrity, a thorough understanding of modern estimation techniques applied to navigational problems is required. The extended Kalman filter (EKF) is derived and analyzed under poor geometry conditions. It was found that the performance of the EKF is difficult to predict, since the EKF is designed for a Gaussian environment. A novel approach is implemented which incorporates ridge regression to explain the behavior of an EKF in the presence of dynamics under poor geometry conditions. The basic principles of ridge regression theory are presented, followed by the derivation of a linearized recursive ridge estimator. Computer simulations are performed to confirm the underlying theory and to provide a comparative analysis of the EKF and the recursive ridge estimator.

  9. Subset selection in regression

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Originally published in 1990, the first edition of Subset Selection in Regression filled a significant gap in the literature, and its critical and popular success has continued for more than a decade. Thoroughly revised to reflect progress in theory, methods, and computing power, the second edition promises to continue that tradition. The author has thoroughly updated each chapter, incorporated new material on recent developments, and included more examples and references. New in the Second Edition:A separate chapter on Bayesian methodsComplete revision of the chapter on estimationA major example from the field of near infrared spectroscopyMore emphasis on cross-validationGreater focus on bootstrappingStochastic algorithms for finding good subsets from large numbers of predictors when an exhaustive search is not feasible Software available on the Internet for implementing many of the algorithms presentedMore examplesSubset Selection in Regression, Second Edition remains dedicated to the techniques for fitting...

  10. Better Autologistic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Wolters

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Autologistic regression is an important probability model for dichotomous random variables observed along with covariate information. It has been used in various fields for analyzing binary data possessing spatial or network structure. The model can be viewed as an extension of the autologistic model (also known as the Ising model, quadratic exponential binary distribution, or Boltzmann machine to include covariates. It can also be viewed as an extension of logistic regression to handle responses that are not independent. Not all authors use exactly the same form of the autologistic regression model. Variations of the model differ in two respects. First, the variable coding—the two numbers used to represent the two possible states of the variables—might differ. Common coding choices are (zero, one and (minus one, plus one. Second, the model might appear in either of two algebraic forms: a standard form, or a recently proposed centered form. Little attention has been paid to the effect of these differences, and the literature shows ambiguity about their importance. It is shown here that changes to either coding or centering in fact produce distinct, non-nested probability models. Theoretical results, numerical studies, and analysis of an ecological data set all show that the differences among the models can be large and practically significant. Understanding the nature of the differences and making appropriate modeling choices can lead to significantly improved autologistic regression analyses. The results strongly suggest that the standard model with plus/minus coding, which we call the symmetric autologistic model, is the most natural choice among the autologistic variants.

  11. Regression in organizational leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernberg, O F

    1979-02-01

    The choice of good leaders is a major task for all organizations. Inforamtion regarding the prospective administrator's personality should complement questions regarding his previous experience, his general conceptual skills, his technical knowledge, and the specific skills in the area for which he is being selected. The growing psychoanalytic knowledge about the crucial importance of internal, in contrast to external, object relations, and about the mutual relationships of regression in individuals and in groups, constitutes an important practical tool for the selection of leaders.

  12. Classification and regression trees

    CERN Document Server

    Breiman, Leo; Olshen, Richard A; Stone, Charles J

    1984-01-01

    The methodology used to construct tree structured rules is the focus of this monograph. Unlike many other statistical procedures, which moved from pencil and paper to calculators, this text's use of trees was unthinkable before computers. Both the practical and theoretical sides have been developed in the authors' study of tree methods. Classification and Regression Trees reflects these two sides, covering the use of trees as a data analysis method, and in a more mathematical framework, proving some of their fundamental properties.

  13. A rare case of multiple meningiomas with different histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma I. Papacocea

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Meningiomas are generally benign tumors but sometimes they manifest tendency to progress towards malignancy. It is not yet clear if anaplastic meningiomas have an innate malignancy characteristic, or an initially beginning histological appearance that degenerates malignantly in time. According to literature data, the risk of a benign meningioma to progress towards malignant phenotype is about 0.16-2%, such malignant transformation occurring after a variable period of time (2-16 years. A still unanswered question is how many of the malignant meningiomas present this appearance as an innate feature and how many of them originate from benign meningiomas. Multiple meningiomas are defined as the presence of two or more distinct meningiomas. They occur in 6-10% of all patients that present meningiomas. Multiple meningiomas with a distinct histological appearance are rarely discovered. They support the theory of meningiomas that develop independently in the same patient. Different histology of multiple meningiomas is found in less than a third of the patients who suffer from this pathology. We are presenting the case of a patient with multiple meningiomas with distinct histology, one being benign and the other malignant. In connection with this case we are raising a question of therapeutic management in patients diagnosed with malignant meningiomas, namely if other possible small/ benign meningiomas should be also entirely resected.

  14. Logistic regression models

    CERN Document Server

    Hilbe, Joseph M

    2009-01-01

    This book really does cover everything you ever wanted to know about logistic regression … with updates available on the author's website. Hilbe, a former national athletics champion, philosopher, and expert in astronomy, is a master at explaining statistical concepts and methods. Readers familiar with his other expository work will know what to expect-great clarity.The book provides considerable detail about all facets of logistic regression. No step of an argument is omitted so that the book will meet the needs of the reader who likes to see everything spelt out, while a person familiar with some of the topics has the option to skip "obvious" sections. The material has been thoroughly road-tested through classroom and web-based teaching. … The focus is on helping the reader to learn and understand logistic regression. The audience is not just students meeting the topic for the first time, but also experienced users. I believe the book really does meet the author's goal … .-Annette J. Dobson, Biometric...

  15. Ultrasound-based logistic regression model LR2 versus magnetic resonance imaging for discriminating between benign and malignant adnexal masses: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kanane; Matsumoto, Koji; Mimura, Takashi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Munechika, Jiro; Ohgiya, Yoshimitsu; Kushima, Miki; Hirose, Yusuke; Asami, Yuka; Iitsuka, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Shingo; Onuki, Mamiko; Tsunoda, Hajime; Matsuoka, Ryu; Ichizuka, Kiyotake; Sekizawa, Akihiko

    2018-06-01

    The diagnostic performances of the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) ultrasound-based logistic regression model (LR2) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in discriminating between benign and malignant adnexal masses have not been directly compared in a single study. Using the IOTA LR2 model and subjective interpretation of MRI findings by experienced radiologists, 265 consecutive patients with adnexal masses were preoperatively evaluated in two hospitals between February 2014 and December 2015. Definitive histological diagnosis of excised tissues was used as a gold standard. From the 265 study subjects, 54 (20.4%) tumors were histologically diagnosed as malignant (including 11 borderline and 3 metastatic tumors). Preoperative diagnoses of malignant tumors showed 91.7% total agreement between IOTA LR2 and MRI, with a kappa value of 0.77 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.68-0.86]. Sensitivity of IOTA LR2 (0.94, 95% CI, 0.85-0.98) for predicting malignant tumors was similar to that of MRI (0.96, 95% CI, 0.87-0.99; P = 0.99), whereas specificity of IOTA LR2 (0.98, 95% CI, 0.95-0.99) was significantly higher than that of MRI (0.91, 95% CI, 0.87-0.95; P = 0.002). Combined IOTA LR2 and MRI results gave the greatest sensitivity (1.00, 95% CI, 0.93-1.00) and had similar specificity (0.91, 95% CI, 0.86-0.94) to MRI. The IOTA LR2 model had a similar sensitivity to MRI for discriminating between benign and malignant tumors and a higher specificity compared with MRI. Our findings suggest that the IOTA LR2 model, either alone or in conjunction with MRI, should be included in preoperative evaluation of adnexal masses.

  16. ADNEXAL SKIN TUMORS IN ZARIA, NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANNALS

    Forty-six lesions (88.5%) were benign and six (11.5%) malignant. Conclusion: Adnexal skin tumors have distinct histological patterns which differentiates them from other cutaneous tumors. They are commonly distributed in the head, neck and trunk. The commonest variants are those of eccrine sweat gland origin. Malignant ...

  17. Convolutional deep belief network with feature encoding for classification of neuroblastoma histological images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Gheisari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children younger than 5 years old. Optimal management of neuroblastic tumors depends on many factors including histopathological classification. The gold standard for classification of neuroblastoma histological images is visual microscopic assessment. In this study, we propose and evaluate a deep learning approach to classify high-resolution digital images of neuroblastoma histology into five different classes determined by the Shimada classification. Subjects and Methods: We apply a combination of convolutional deep belief network (CDBN with feature encoding algorithm that automatically classifies digital images of neuroblastoma histology into five different classes. We design a three-layer CDBN to extract high-level features from neuroblastoma histological images and combine with a feature encoding model to extract features that are highly discriminative in the classification task. The extracted features are classified into five different classes using a support vector machine classifier. Data: We constructed a dataset of 1043 neuroblastoma histological images derived from Aperio scanner from 125 patients representing different classes of neuroblastoma tumors. Results: The weighted average F-measure of 86.01% was obtained from the selected high-level features, outperforming state-of-the-art methods. Conclusion: The proposed computer-aided classification system, which uses the combination of deep architecture and feature encoding to learn high-level features, is highly effective in the classification of neuroblastoma histological images.

  18. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of malignant tumors by photosensitzer photosens: results of 45 clinical cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Victor V.; Chissov, Valery I.; Yakubovskaya, Raisa I.; Aristarkhova, E. I.; Filonenko, E. V.; Belous, T. A.; Vorozhtsov, Georgy N.; Zharkova, Natalia N.; Smirnov, V. V.; Zhitkova, Margarita B.

    1996-01-01

    Photosensitizer Photosens is a mixture of sulphonated Al-phthalocyanines with a different number of substituents per phthalocyanine molecule. In the beginning of 1994, this photosensitizer was approved for clinical trials. Since that time till May 1995, 45 patients with 120 tumors were treated by PDT-Photosens. The main tumor localizations were lung (5/6), head and neck (4/4), esophagus (8/8), stomach (2/2), vulva (2/2), bladder (1/1), breast cancer (3/3), skin (basalioma, melanoma, sarcoma Kaposi, mts breast cancer) (20 patients/94 tumors). The lesions were photoirradiated 48-72 h after intravenous injection of Photosens in doses from 0.5 to 2.0 mg/kg b.w. (1.0 mg/kg b.w., on average). PDT was performed by laser power density from 20 to 1400 mW/sq cm (300 mW/sq.cm, on average), energy density varying from 15 to 200 J/sq cm (100 J/sq.cm, on average). The therapeutical effect of PDT was evaluated histologically, endoscopically, roentgenologically and sonographically 3 - 4 weeks after the treatment. Complete regression of tumors was reached in 56%, significant remission was reached in 34%, and partial remission was observed in 10% of cases. The follow-up of patients with complete tumor regression was to 15 months.

  19. Dynamic volume perfusion CT in patients with lung cancer: Baseline perfusion characteristics of different histological subtypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jingyun; Schmid-Bindert, Gerald; Fink, Christian; Sudarski, Sonja; Apfaltrer, Paul; Pilz, Lothar R.; Liu, Bo; Haberland, Ulrike; Klotz, Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate dynamic volume perfusion CT (dVPCT) tumor baseline characteristics of three different subtypes of lung cancer in untreated patients. Materials and methods: 173 consecutive patients (131 men, 42 women; mean age 61 ± 10 years) with newly diagnosed lung cancer underwent dVPCT prior to biopsy. Tumor permeability, blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and mean transit time (MTT) were quantitatively assessed as well as tumor diameter and volume. Tumor subtypes were histologically determined and compared concerning their dVPCT results. dVPCT results were correlated to tumor diameter and volume. Results: Histology revealed adenocarcinoma in 88, squamous cell carcinoma in 54 and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in 31 patients. Tumor permeability was significantly differing between adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and SCLC (all p < 0.05). Tumor BF and BV were higher in adenocarcinomathan in SCLC (p = 0.001 and p = 0.0002 respectively). BV was also higher in squamous cell carcinoma compared to SCLC (p = 0.01). MTT was not differing between tumor subtypes. Regarding all tumors, tumor diameter did not correlate with any of the dVPCT parameters, whereas tumor volume was negatively associated with permeability, BF and BV (r = −0.22, −0.24, −0.24, all p < 0.05). In squamous cell carcinoma, tumor diameter und volume correlated with BV (r = 0.53 and r = −0.40, all p < 0.05). In SCLC, tumor diameter und volume correlated with MTT (r = 0.46 and r = 0.39, all p < 0.05). In adenocarcinoma, no association between morphological and functional tumor characteristics was observed. Conclusions: dVPCT parameters are only partially related to tumor diameter and volume and are significantly differing between lung cancer subtypes

  20. Age and the risk of anaplasia in magnetic resonance-nonenhancing supratentorial cerebral tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, F G; Chang, S M; Huhn, S L; Davis, R L; Gutin, P H; McDermott, M W; Wilson, C B; Prados, M D

    1997-09-01

    It is often assumed that a cerebral lesion that is nonenhancing on a magnetic resonance imaging study with gadolinium contrast is a low grade tumor. Some physicians recommend observation rather than biopsy for such lesions. The authors prospectively evaluated the incidence of anaplastic tumor histology in a consecutive series of patients who presented to a neuro-oncology service with a nonenhancing mass of the cerebral hemisphere. During a 5-month period, the authors evaluated 31 patients who had a nonenhancing lesion in the cerebral hemisphere on initial magnetic resonance images. Thirty patients underwent stereotactic biopsy (27%) or open resection (73%). The median patient age was 36 years (range, 6-63 years). There was no mortality or permanent neurologic morbidity from surgery. Twenty-eight patients had pathologic confirmation of diagnosis while their lesions were still nonenhancing. Of these patients, 9 (32%) had Grade 3 lesions (anaplastic astrocytoma or oligoastrocytoma), 13 (43%) had Grade 2 lesions (astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, or oligoastrocytoma), and 2 (7%) had Grade 1 lesions (dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors). Two additional patients (ages 33 and 59 years) who developed enhancement within their lesions during preoperative periods of observation had glioblastomas at surgery. Logistic regression was used to relate patient age to the risk of anaplasia in a nonenhancing cerebral mass lesion. Older age predicted a significantly higher risk of anaplasia (P = 0.025). The model predicted that nonenhancing cerebral masses in patients older than 44 years were more likely to be anaplastic tumors than low grade tumors. There was no "safe" age below which low grade histology could be confidently assumed. Magnetic resonance-nonenhancing cerebral lesions may be histologically anaplastic, even in young patients. The risk of anaplasia in magnetic resonance-nonenhancing lesions increases significantly with patient age.

  1. Histology of the first fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.P.; Sansom, I.J.; Repetski, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    THE first description of Anatolepis Bockelie & Fortey was from early Ordovician sediments of Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen1,2, but the genus is now known from many localities in North America and Greenland, ranging in age from the Late Cambrian period to the Early Ordovician3-6. Although initially interpreted as an agnathan fish2,3 that predated other representatives7, this has been widely disputed because the available histological data were unconvincing6,8-10 and the scales fell outside the known morphological range of other accepted early vertebrates9-11. Further doubt was cast upon the vertebrate affinity of Anatolepis when specimens from East Greenland were interpreted as the cuticular fragments of aglaspid arthropods6, although this interpretation has also been refuted12. Here we report on the morphology and histology of large collections of Anatolepis, and demonstrate the presence of dentine, a tissue unique to vertebrates, confirming that the taxon is both a vertebrate and the oldest known fish.

  2. Osteosarcoma: correlation of T1 map and histology map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Jin Suck; Yun, Mi Jin; Jeong, Eun Kee; Shin, Kyoo Ho; Yang, Woo Ick

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether T1 mapping shows regional differences between viable and necrotic regions of osteosarcomas after anticancer chemotherapy and to assess whether this mapping is able to express the characteristics of various intramural tissue components. Eleven of 20 osteosarcomas were included in this study, while the remaining nine were excluded because the tumor site was inappropriate for comparison of T1 map and tumor macrosection. All patients underwent MR imaging for the purpose of T1 mapping, followed by pre-operative chemotherapy and subsequent limb-salvage surgery. Spin echo pulse sequencing was used with varying TR (100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, and 2400 msec) and a constant TE of 20 msec. Using a C-language software program, T1 relaxation time was calculated on a pixel-by-pixel basis and then a T1 map was generated by using a post-processing program, NIH Image. We attempted correlation of the T1 map and histologic findings, particularly in regions of interest(ROI) if certain areas were different from other regions on either the T1 or histologic map. Value was expressed as an average of the ratio of T1 of ROI and T1 of fat tissue, and this was used as an internal reference for normalization of the measurement. Tumor necrosis was 100 %(Grade IV) in six specimens, and over 90 % (Grade III) in five. Viable tumor cells were found mostly in regions with chondroid matrix and seldom in regions with osteoid matrix. Regardless of cell viability, values ranged from 0.9 to 9.87(mean, 4.02) in tumor necrotic area with osteoid matrices, and from 3.04 to 3.9(mean, 3.55) in areas with chondroid matrices. Other regions with fibrous tissue proliferation, hemorrhage, and fatty necrosis showed values of 2.92-9.83(mean, 7.20), 2.65-5.96(mean,3.59), and 1.43-3.11(mean, 2.68) respectively. The values of various tissues overlapped. No statistically significant difference was found between regions in which tumors were viable and those with tumor necrosis. Although we hypothesized

  3. Influence of Educational Level, Stage, and Histological Type on Survival of Oral Cancer in a Brazilian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Thinali Sousa; de Barros Silva, Paulo Goberlânio; Sousa, Eric Fernandes; da Cunha, Maria do PSS; de Aguiar, Andréa Silvia Walter; Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Mota, Mário Rogério Lima; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The mortality rate associated with oral cancer is estimated at approximately 12,300 deaths per year, and the survival rate is only 40% to 50% for diagnosed patients and is closely related to the duration of time between disease perception and its diagnosis and treatment. Socioeconomic risk factors are determinants of the incidence and mortality related to oral cancer. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study of 573 records of patients with oral cancer at Haroldo Juaçaba Hospital – Cancer Institute of Ceará from 2000 to 2009 to evaluate the influence of socioeconomic factors on survival and epidemiological behavior of this neoplasia in a Brazilian population. In this study, patients with oral cancer were males greater than 60 years of age, presented squamous cell carcinoma in the floor of mouth and were characterized by low education levels. A total of 573 lesions were found in oral cavities. Cox proportional hazards regression model showed that the histological type, tumor stage, and low degree of education significantly influenced survival. A lower patient survival rate was correlated with a more advanced stage of disease and a worse prognosis. Squamous cell carcinoma is associated with a higher mortality when compared with other histological types of malign neoplasia. PMID:26817864

  4. Steganalysis using logistic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubenko, Ivans; Ker, Andrew D.

    2011-02-01

    We advocate Logistic Regression (LR) as an alternative to the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers commonly used in steganalysis. LR offers more information than traditional SVM methods - it estimates class probabilities as well as providing a simple classification - and can be adapted more easily and efficiently for multiclass problems. Like SVM, LR can be kernelised for nonlinear classification, and it shows comparable classification accuracy to SVM methods. This work is a case study, comparing accuracy and speed of SVM and LR classifiers in detection of LSB Matching and other related spatial-domain image steganography, through the state-of-art 686-dimensional SPAM feature set, in three image sets.

  5. SEPARATION PHENOMENA LOGISTIC REGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikaro Daniel de Carvalho Barreto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an application of concepts about the maximum likelihood estimation of the binomial logistic regression model to the separation phenomena. It generates bias in the estimation and provides different interpretations of the estimates on the different statistical tests (Wald, Likelihood Ratio and Score and provides different estimates on the different iterative methods (Newton-Raphson and Fisher Score. It also presents an example that demonstrates the direct implications for the validation of the model and validation of variables, the implications for estimates of odds ratios and confidence intervals, generated from the Wald statistics. Furthermore, we present, briefly, the Firth correction to circumvent the phenomena of separation.

  6. riskRegression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozenne, Brice; Sørensen, Anne Lyngholm; Scheike, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In the presence of competing risks a prediction of the time-dynamic absolute risk of an event can be based on cause-specific Cox regression models for the event and the competing risks (Benichou and Gail, 1990). We present computationally fast and memory optimized C++ functions with an R interface......-product we obtain fast access to the baseline hazards (compared to survival::basehaz()) and predictions of survival probabilities, their confidence intervals and confidence bands. Confidence intervals and confidence bands are based on point-wise asymptotic expansions of the corresponding statistical...

  7. Adaptive metric kernel regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Kernel smoothing is a widely used non-parametric pattern recognition technique. By nature, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is usually difficult to apply to high input dimensions. In this contribution, we propose an algorithm that adapts the input metric used in multivariate...... regression by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms...

  8. Adaptive Metric Kernel Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Kernel smoothing is a widely used nonparametric pattern recognition technique. By nature, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is usually difficult to apply to high input dimensions. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that adapts the input metric used in multivariate regression...... by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows one to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms the standard...

  9. Rare tumors of the rectum. Narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errasti Alustiza, José; Espín Basany, Eloy; Reina Duarte, Angel

    2014-11-01

    Most rectal neoplasms are adenocarcinomas, but there is a small percentage of tumors which are of other histological cell lines such as neuroendocrine tumors, sarcomas, lymphomas and squamous cell carcinomas, which have special characteristics and different treatments. We have reviewed these rare tumors of the rectum from a clinical and surgical point of view. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Histologic effects of resurfacing lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Joshua R; Greene, Ryan M; Green, Jeremy B

    2014-02-01

    By utilizing resurfacing lasers, physicians can significantly improve the appearance of sun-damaged skin, scars, and more. The carbon dioxide and erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet lasers were the first ablative resurfacing lasers to offer impressive results although these earlier treatments were associated with significant downtime. Later, nonablative resurfacing lasers such as the neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser proved effective, after a series of treatments with less downtime, but with more modest results. The theory of fractional photothermolysis has revolutionized resurfacing laser technology by increasing the safety profile of the devices while delivering clinical efficacy. A review of the histologic and molecular consequences of the resurfacing laser-tissue interaction allows for a better understanding of the devices and their clinical effects. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Plain radiologic findings of primary lung cancer by histologic types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Seok; Park, Jae Hyung; Choi, Byung In; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Kim, Chu Wan

    1983-01-01

    Plain chest films are the most useful modality in diagnosis of primary lung cancer, but it is difficult to interpret the radiologic findings by histological types. Authors reviewed chest films of 324 cases of histologically confirmed primary lung cancer from January 1974 to April 1982 at Seoul National University. The results are as follows; 1. Incidence was most common in the 6th decade as 34.4%. Male to female sex radio was 3.8 : 1 and there was no sex difference in Adenocarcinoma. 2. Distribution of histologic types of primary lung cancers as follows; Squamous cell carcinoma 50.6%, Small cell carcinoma 22.5%, Large cell carcinoma 9.3%, Bronchogenic adeno carcinoma 10.5%, Bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma 1.9%, Adenosquamous carcinoma 0.6%, Carcinoid tumor 0.3%, Adenoid cystic carcinoma 0.3%. 3. Radiologic findings by histologic types are follows; a) Squamous cell carcinoma commonly present as collapse (51.8%), peripheral mass (40.8%), pneumonitis (37.2%), hilar involvement (34.8%), and in single abnormality, peripheral mass (44.4%). b) Small cell carcinoma commonly present as hilar involvement (78.1%), mediastinal widening or mass (53.4%) and in single abnormality, hilar involvement (58.3%). c) Large cell carcinoma commonly present as hilar involvement (50%), pneumonia (46.7%), collapse (40%), peripheral mass (36.7%) and in single abnormality, large peripheral mass (33.3%). d) Bronchogenic adenocarcinoma commonly present as peripheral mass (44.1%), collapse (41.2%), pleural effusion (35.2%) and in single abnormality, peripheral mass (50%). e) Solitary peripheral mass commonly present as lobulation (48%) and spiculated margin (51%), but no specific findings by histologic types. Cavitary formation was most common in Squamous cell carcinoma

  12. Bilateral malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast | Odik | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... biphasic tumors, arising from the intra-lobular breast stroma. It constitutes less than 1%of all breast tumors. Bilateralmalignant phyllodes tumor is uncommon.We report a case of 32-year oldmultiparouswoman who died of multi-organ metastatic disease. The diagnosis was based on histology report of the breast specimen.

  13. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy....... investment. We conclude by stressing the need for more theoretical work before this kind of cross-country regressions are used for policy purposes.......This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy...

  14. The Impact of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for High-Grade Gliomas by Histology in the United States Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusthoven, Chad G., E-mail: Chad.Rusthoven@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Carlson, Julie A.; Waxweiler, Timothy V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Dally, Miranda J.; Barón, Anna E. [Department of Biostatistics and Informatics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Yeh, Norman; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Liu, Arthur K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Ney, Douglas E.; Damek, Denise M. [Department of Neurology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Lillehei, Kevin O. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To compare the survival impact of adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (RT) for malignant gliomas of glioblastoma (GBM), anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO), and mixed anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA) histology. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was queried from 1998 to 2007 for patients aged ≥18 years with high-grade gliomas managed with upfront surgical resection, treated with and without adjuvant RT. Results: The primary analysis totaled 14,461 patients, with 12,115 cases of GBM (83.8%), 1312 AA (9.1%), 718 AO (4.9%), and 316 AOA (2.2%). On univariate analyses, adjuvant RT was associated with significantly improved overall survival (OS) for GBMs (2-year OS, 17% vs 7%, p<.001), AAs (5-year OS, 38% vs 24%, p<.001), and AOAs (5-year OS, 55% vs 44%, p=.026). No significant differences in OS were observed for AOs (5-year OS, with RT 50% vs 56% without RT, p=.277). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards models accounting for extent of resection, age, sex, race, year, marital status, and tumor registry, RT was associated with significantly improved OS for both GBMs (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.50-0.55; P<.001) and AAs (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.48-0.68; P<.001) but only a trend toward improved OS for AOAs (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.45-1.09; P=.110). Due to the observation of nonproportional hazards, Cox regressions were not performed for AOs. A significant interaction was observed between the survival impact of RT and histology overall (interaction P<.001) and in a model limited to the anaplastic (WHO grade 3) histologies. (interaction P=.024), characterizing histology as a significant predictive factor for the impact of RT. Subgroup analyses demonstrated greater hazard reductions with RT among patients older than median age for both GBMs and AAs (all interaction P≤.001). No significant interactions were observed between RT and extent of resection. Identical patterns of significance were

  15. Pathogenesis of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors from a Developmental Point of View

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Biermann (Katharina)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCurrent classification systems of human germ cell tumors (GCTs) are based on histological composition. In the group of nonseminomas, different variants of teratoma (somatic differentiation), yolk sac tumor and choriocarcinoma (extra-embryonic differentiation), are recognized, as well

  16. [Bilateral anophthalmia and left-sided orbital tumor : case of an eight-month-old infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundertmark, P; Dierks, P; Gottschalk, J; Kreusch, T; Wiegand, W

    2011-08-01

    An 8-month-old infant from Russia with bilateral anophthalmia presented with an expanding orbital tumor. The tumor was extirpated and the histological examination revealed a non-malignant pseudocystic process with residual neuro-ectodermal structures.

  17. Modified Regression Correlation Coefficient for Poisson Regression Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaengthong, Nattacha; Domthong, Uthumporn

    2017-09-01

    This study gives attention to indicators in predictive power of the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) which are widely used; however, often having some restrictions. We are interested in regression correlation coefficient for a Poisson regression model. This is a measure of predictive power, and defined by the relationship between the dependent variable (Y) and the expected value of the dependent variable given the independent variables [E(Y|X)] for the Poisson regression model. The dependent variable is distributed as Poisson. The purpose of this research was modifying regression correlation coefficient for Poisson regression model. We also compare the proposed modified regression correlation coefficient with the traditional regression correlation coefficient in the case of two or more independent variables, and having multicollinearity in independent variables. The result shows that the proposed regression correlation coefficient is better than the traditional regression correlation coefficient based on Bias and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE).

  18. Bilateral Wilms' tumor with anaplasia: lessons from the National Wilms' Tumor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Thomas E; Green, Daniel M; Perlman, Elizabeth J; Argani, Pedram; Grundy, Paul; Ritchey, Michael L; Shamberger, Robert C

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether initial diagnostic technique influenced the ability to identify anaplastic histology, to determine the time interval to diagnosis of anaplasia, and to delineate the incidence of discordant pathology in bilateral Wilms' tumor. We hypothesized that delay in diagnosis of anaplasia could affect time to appropriate surgery and intensive multimodality therapy. One hundred eight-nine children were enrolled in the fourth National Wilms' Tumor Study with synchronous bilateral tumors, 27 of whom were eventually shown to have anaplastic histology. Initial diagnostic technique, time interval to diagnosis of anaplasia, and the incidence of discordant pathology were determined. Anaplasia was identified in 0 of 7 tumors by core needle biopsy, 3 of 9 tumors by open wedge biopsy, and in 7 of 9 cases by partial or complete nephrectomy. The mean duration of first chemotherapy regimen (DD or EE) was 20, 39, and 36 weeks, respectively, before anaplasia was identified at second surgery. Discordant pathology between bilateral tumors was identified on final tissue diagnosis in 20 patients. Only 4 patients had anaplastic tumors in both kidneys. Core needle biopsy did not identify anaplasia in 7 of 7 children. Open biopsy or partial/complete nephrectomy identified anaplasia at initial diagnostic procedure in 10 of 18 children. Twenty of 24 patients at final tissue diagnosis had discordant pathology between the 2 kidneys. Earlier interval incisional biopsy or resection may identify anaplastic histology and limit the duration of chemotherapy targeted to favorable histology for children with bilateral Wilms' tumor and anaplasia.

  19. Characterization of the murine orthotopic adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma PDX model by MRI in correlation with histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölsken, Annett; Schwarz, Marc; Gillmann, Clarissa; Pfister, Christina; Uder, Michael; Doerfler, Arnd; Buchfelder, Michael; Schlaffer, Sven; Fahlbusch, Rudolf; Buslei, Rolf; Bäuerle, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    Adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas (ACP) as benign sellar brain tumors are challenging to treat. In order to develop robust in vivo drug testing methodology, the murine orthotopic craniopharyngioma model (PDX) was characterized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology in xenografts from three patients (ACP1-3). In ACP PDX, multiparametric MRI was conducted to assess morphologic characteristics such as contrast-enhancing tumor volume (CETV) as well as functional parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) including area-under-the-curve (AUC), peak enhancement (PE), time-to-peak (TTP) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). These MRI parameters evaluated in 27 ACP PDX were correlated to histological features and percentage of vital tumor cell content. Qualitative analysis of MRI and histology from PDX revealed a similar phenotype as seen in patients, although the MRI appearance in mice resulted in a more solid tumor growth than in humans. CETV were significantly higher in ACP2 xenografts relative to ACP1 and ACP3 which correspond to respective average vitality of 41%, <10% and 26% determined histologically. Importantly, CETV prove tumor growth of ACP2 PDX as it significantly increases in longitudinal follow-up of 110 days. Furthermore, xenografts from ACP2 revealed a significantly higher AUC, PE and TTP in comparison to ACP3, and significantly increased ADC relative to ACP1 and ACP3 respectively. Overall, DCE-MRI and DWI can be used to distinguish vital from non-vital grafts, when using a cut off value of 15% for vital tumor cell content. MRI enables the assessment of craniopharyngioma PDX vitality in vivo as validated histologically.

  20. A Rare Cutaneous Adnexal Tumor: Malignant Proliferating Trichilemmal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Alici

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferating trichilemmal tumors (PTTs are neoplasms derived from the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. These tumors, which commonly affect the scalp of elderly women, rarely demonstrate malignant transformation. Although invasion of the tumors into neighboring tissues and being accompanied with anaplasia and necrosis are accepted as findings of malignancy, histological features may not always be sufficient to identify these tumors. The clinical behavior of the tumor may be incompatible with its histological characteristics. Squamous-cell carcinoma should certainly be considered in differential diagnosis because of its similarity in morphological appearance with PTT. Immunostaining for CD34, P53, and Ki-67 is a useful adjuvant diagnostic method that can be used in differential diagnosis aside from morphological findings. In this study, we aimed to present the case of a 52-year-old female patient with clinicopathological features. We reported a low-grade malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor in this patient and detected no relapse or metastasis in a 24-month period of follow-up.

  1. PIONEERING WORK IN COMPUTER VISION FOR HISTOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei Daniel Timofte; Irina-Draga Căruntu

    2017-01-01

    The concept of computer-assisted training was firstly implemented in UMF Iasi in 1997, through the development of two pioneering digital instruments, namely the Histology Album and the Oral Histology Album. Both were built for learning purposes and became available, at that time, as Internet resources worldwide visible. The application of this particular e-learning method was dictated by the importance of well-defined visual images in acquiring basic histologic principles. Thus, t...

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of intramuscular myxoma with histological comparison and a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, A.; Martinez, S.; Bossen, E.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) features of intramuscular myxoma (IM) compared with its pathological findings. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed records and imaging studies of patients with histologically proven IM. Two radiologists also analyzed by consensus all the MR studies (pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences) and a pathologist reviewed the available histological material. Seventeen patients with 18 histologically proven IM were reviewed. Histological samples of 11 of these 18 tumors were available for pathological analysis. There were 14 women and three men, with a mean age of 58.9 years. IM involved predominantly the thigh (n=10). MR imaging showed well-circumscribed intramuscular masses, hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Eleven masses were homogeneous and seven slightly heterogeneous due to fibrous septa. Enhanced MR imaging demonstrated three different patterns: peripheral enhancement (n=1), peripheral and patchy internal enhancement (n=7) or peripheral and linear internal enhancement (n=4). Intratumoral cysts were detected in four masses. MR imaging showed the presence of a pseudocapsule (n=12), fat around the lesion (n=16) and peritumoral edema (n=16). Histologically, all the tumors were hypocellular, hypovascular and myxoid. Peripheral areas of collagenous fibers formed a partial capsule and IM often merged into surrounding muscular fibers. More cellular tumors and those with scanty myxoid stroma tended to show a more prominent internal enhancement. IM shows several recognizable MR features which suggest its diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. Canonical variate regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chongliang; Liu, Jin; Dey, Dipak K; Chen, Kun

    2016-07-01

    In many fields, multi-view datasets, measuring multiple distinct but interrelated sets of characteristics on the same set of subjects, together with data on certain outcomes or phenotypes, are routinely collected. The objective in such a problem is often two-fold: both to explore the association structures of multiple sets of measurements and to develop a parsimonious model for predicting the future outcomes. We study a unified canonical variate regression framework to tackle the two problems simultaneously. The proposed criterion integrates multiple canonical correlation analysis with predictive modeling, balancing between the association strength of the canonical variates and their joint predictive power on the outcomes. Moreover, the proposed criterion seeks multiple sets of canonical variates simultaneously to enable the examination of their joint effects on the outcomes, and is able to handle multivariate and non-Gaussian outcomes. An efficient algorithm based on variable splitting and Lagrangian multipliers is proposed. Simulation studies show the superior performance of the proposed approach. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in an [Formula: see text] intercross mice study and an alcohol dependence study. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Tumor cell proliferation kinetics and tumor growth rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubiana, M

    1989-01-01

    The present knowledge on the growth rate and the proliferation kinetics of human tumor is based on the measurement of the tumor doubling times (DT) in several hundred patients and on the determination of the proportion of proliferating cells with radioactive thymidine or by flow cytometry in large numbers of patients. The results show that the DT of human tumor varies widely, from less than one week to over one year with a median value of approximately 2 months. The DTs are significantly correlated with the histological type. They depend upon (1) the duration of the cell cycle whose mean duration is 2 days with small variations from tumor to tumor, (2) the proportion of proliferating cells and consequently the cell birth rate which varies widely among tumors and which is significantly correlated to the DT, (3) the cell loss factors which also vary widely and which are the greatest when proliferation is most intensive. These studies have several clinical implications: (a) they have further increased our understanding of the natural history of human tumor, (b) they have therapeutic implications since tumor responsiveness and curability by radiation and drugs are strongly influenced by the cell kinetic parameters of the tumor, (c) the proportion of proliferating cells is of great prognostic value in several types of human cancers. The investigation of the molecular defects, which are correlated with the perturbation of control of cell proliferation, should lead to significant fundamental and therapeutic advances. (orig.).

  5. Collision tumor: serous cystadenocarcinoma and dermoid cyst in the same ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bige, Ozgur; Demir, Ahmet; Koyuncuoglu, Meral

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Collision tumor means the coexistence of two adjacent, but histologically distinct tumors without histologic admixture in the same tissue or organ. Collision tumors involving ovaries are extremely rare. CASE: We present a case of 45-year-old parous woman with a left dermoid cyst......, with unusual imaging findings, massive ascites and peritoneal carcinomatosis. The patient underwent cytoreductive surgery. The histopathology revealed a collision tumor consisting of an invasive serous cystadenocarcinoma and a dermoid cyst....

  6. Osteoarthritis - histology and pathogenetic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulzbacher, I.

    2000-01-01

    Osteoarthitis is the most common joint disease affecting over 60% of the elderly population. It is characterized by the progressive erosion of articular cartilage leading to incapacity of movement. In the great majority of instances, osteoarthritis appears insidiously, without apparent initiating cause. This primary form is usually oligoarticular involving hip, knee, cervical vertebrae, interphalangeal joints of the fingers or tarsometatarsal joints of the feet. In case of an underlying systemic diasease or local injury the cartilage destruction is considered as secondary osteoarthritis. The pathogenesis of primary osteoarthritis suggests an intrinsic disease of cartilage in which biochemical and metabolic alterations result in its breakdown. Within the last decades different models were stablished which also concentrated on other joint structures such as bone or ligaments. Changes of the subchondral bone were found to precide cartilage damage suggesting a primary alteration of the subchondral region. Other studies concentrated on the metabolic activity of chondrocytes in healthy cartilage of osteoarthritis patients. The precise event that leads to these changes is still not clear. This review concentrates on the histological features in the course of the disease and tries to provide a summary on different pathogenetic concepts. (orig.) [de

  7. Correlation of F-18 FDG PET with morphometric tumor response after neoadjuvant chemoradiation in locally advanced (stage III) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.; Schmuecking, M.; Bonnet, R.; Presselt, N.; Przetak, C.; Junker, K.; Schneider, C.P.; Hoeffken, K.; Wendt, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To determine the role of 2-[(18)F] fluoro-2- deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in morphometric tumor response after neoadjuvant chemoradiation, findings in 32 patients were analyzed prospectively in an ongoing multicenter trial (LUCAS-MD, Germany). Material and Methods: Inclusion criteria was histologically confirmed NSCLC stage IIIA/IIIB. For staging all patients received a PET scan in addition to a spiral CT and/or MRI before therapy. Neoadjuvant treatment consisted of 2-3 cycles of chemotherapy with paclitaxel (225 mg/m 2 ) and carboplatin (AUC 6), each d1 q22 and a block of chemoradiation (45Gy, 1.5Gy b.i.d., concomitant with paclitaxel (50 mg/m 2 ) and carboplatin (AUC = 2), each d1, d8, d15) followed by surgery. All patients received a second PET after completion of neoadjuvant therapy prior to surgery. Whole-body PET (ECAT Exact 47) studies (attenuation corrected, iteratively reconstructed) were obtained 60 min. after injection of 6 MBq/kg body weight F-18 FDG. For semi-quantitative analysis, the tumor standardized uptake values (SUV), the tumor to background SUV ratio (T/B ratio), the metabolic tumor diameter (MTD) and the metabolic tumor index (MTI = SUV x MTD) were assessed in all primary tumors and in metastatic lymph nodes. Additionally, image fusion of PET with CT data was applied (using a HERMES Computer, Nuclear Diagnostics, Sweden). Results: So far, all patients (7/32) with complete metabolic response in lymph node metastases detected by PET, had no vital tumor cells (morphometric regression grade III). In primary tumors showing complete metabolic response, the regression grade was IIB (less than 10% vital tumor cells) or III. Conclusion: Morphometric tumor response after neoadjuvant therapy correlates strongly with metabolic remission by FDG-PET. PET precedes the tumor response as measured by CT after neoadjuvant treatment and may predict the long term therapeutic outcome in stage III NSCLC

  8. Mifepristone inhibits MPA-and FGF2-induced mammary tumor growth but not FGF2-induced mammary hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Cerliani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated a crosstalk between fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2 and progestins inducing experimental breast cancer growth. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of FGF2 and of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA on the mouse mammary glands and to investigate whether the antiprogestin RU486 was able to reverse the MPA- or FGF2-induced effects on both, mammary gland and tumor growth. We demonstrate that FGF2 administered locally induced an intraductal hyperplasia that was not reverted by RU486, suggesting that FGF2-induced effects are progesterone receptor (PR-independent. However, MPA-induced paraductal hyperplasia was reverted by RU486 and a partial agonistic effect was observed in RU486-treated glands. Using C4-HD tumors which only grow in the presence of MPA, we showed that FGF2 administered intratumorally was able to stimulate tumor growth as MPA. The histology of FGF2-treated tumors showed different degrees of gland differentiation. RU486 inhibited both, MPA or FGF2 induced tumor growth. However, only complete regression was observed in MPA-treated tumors. Our results support the hypothesis that stromal FGF2 activates PR inducing hormone independent tumor growth.

  9. Histological review of breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuoka, Shoji; Asano, Masahide; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Sakamoto, Goi; Hartmann, W.H.; Hutter, R.V.P.; Henson, D.E.

    1983-09-01

    A group of pathologists from the United States and Japan reviewed breast cancer material of women exposed to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and controls. The purpose of the review was to verify the diagnoses, establish a base of confirmed cases for epidemiologic study, and provide a reference for other pathology review. Compared to the control group, matched through the Life Span Study extended sample, there were no differences in distribution of tumor type and tumor size. There were also no differences in histological type by age or radiation dose. The peak age for cancer to develop was the same in the exposed and control groups. The type of radiation had no effect on histological type. Atypical changes or residual proliferative lesions were not found in women exposed to radiation but free from cancer. On the basis of this study, it was concluded that radiogenic breast cancer does not differ histologically from spontaneously occurring cancer in Japanese women. (author)

  10. Lobular histology and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in invasive breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lips, Esther H.; Mukhtar, Rita A.; Yau, Christina; de Ronde, Jorma J.; Livasy, Chad; Carey, Lisa A.; Loo, Claudette E.; Vrancken-Peeters, Marie-Jeanne T. F. D.; Sonke, Gabe S.; Berry, Donald A.; van't Veer, Laura J.; Esserman, Laura J.; Wesseling, Jelle; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd; Shelley Hwang, E.

    2012-01-01

    Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) has been reported to be less responsive to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) than invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). We sought to determine whether ILC histology indeed predicts poor response to NAC by analyzing tumor characteristics such as protein expression, gene

  11. Glioblastomas with Oligodendroglial Component – Common Origin of the Different Histological Parts and Genetic Subclassification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Klink

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glioblastomas are the most common and most malignant brain tumors in adults. A small subgroup of glioblastomas contains areas with histological features of oligodendroglial differentiation (GBMO. Our objective was to genetically characterize the oligodendroglial and the astrocytic parts of GBMOs and correlate morphologic and genetic features with clinical data.

  12. Invasive lobular carcinoma of the male breast: A rare histology of an uncommon disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, R.; Kumar, P.; Sharma, D.N.; Haresh, K.P.; Gupta, S.; Julka, P.K.; Rath, G.K.; Bhankar, H.

    2016-01-01

    Male breast carcinoma is a rare malignancy comprising less than 1% of all breast cancers. It is a serious disease with most patients presenting in advanced stages. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma is the most common histology while lobular carcinoma represents less than 1% of all these tumors. We report a case of locally advanced lobular carcinoma of breast in a 60 year old male

  13. Abnormal diffusion-weighted MRI in medulloblastoma: does it reflect small cell histology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotsenas, A.L.; Roth, T.C.; Manness, W.K.; Faerber, E.N.

    1999-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy presented with the classic CT and MRI findings of medulloblastoma and the unusual finding of increased signal on diffusion MRI. The small-cell histology of medulloblastoma may account for the increased signal seen on diffusion MRI. Diffusion MRI with echoplanar technique may be useful in evaluation of these tumors and metastatic disease. (orig.)

  14. The Effect of Amifostine on Submandibular Gland Histology after Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline C. Junn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of amifostine on submandibular gland histology in patients receiving chemoradiation therapy. Methods. We conducted a retrospective submandibular gland histologic slide review of HNSCC patients receiving chemoradiation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with three different levels of amifostine exposure. We used six scoring parameters: fatty replacement, lobular architecture degeneration, interstitial fibrosis, ductal degeneration, acinar degeneration, and inflammatory component presence. Results. Differences in gender, tumor stage, amifostine dose, age, number of days after neck dissection, and smoking history (pack years exposure were not significant between the three groups, although there was a difference between groups in the primary subsite (P=0.006. The nonparametric Cuzick's test for histologic parameters with varied amifostine treatment showed no significance among the three groups. Conclusions. Although patients did not receive a full dose of amifostine due to side effects, varying doses of amifostine had no apparent evident cytoprotective effects in three groups of cancer patients treated with primary chemoradiation.

  15. Histologic scoring of gastritis and gastric cancer in mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Arlin B

    2012-01-01

    Histopathology is a defining endpoint in mouse models of experimental gastritis and gastric adenocarcinoma. Presented here is an overview of the histology of gastritis and gastric cancer in mice experimentally infected with Helicobacter pylori or H. felis. A modular histopathologic scoring scheme is provided that incorporates relevant disease-associated changes. Whereas the guide uses Helicobacter infection as the prototype challenge, features may be applied to chemical and genetically engineered mouse models of stomach cancer as well. Specific criteria included in the combined gastric histologic activity index (HAI) include inflammation, epithelial defects, oxyntic atrophy, hyperplasia, pseudopyloric metaplasia, and dysplasia or neoplasia. Representative photomicrographs accompany descriptions for each lesion grade. Differentiation of genuine tumor invasion from pseudoinvasion is highlighted. A brief comparison of normal rodent versus human stomach anatomy and physiology is accompanied by an introduction to mouse-specific lesions including mucous metaplasia and eosinophilic droplets (hyalinosis). In conjunction with qualified pathology support, this guide is intended to assist research scientists, postdoctoral fellows, graduate students, and medical professionals from affiliated disciplines in the interpretation and histologic grading of chronic gastritis and gastric carcinoma in mouse models.

  16. Tumor carcinoide apendicular Appendiceal carcinoid tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Vázquez Palanco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue dar a conocer un interesante caso de tumor carcinoide que se presentó con cuadro clínico de apendicitis aguda. El paciente fue un varón de 8 años de edad, al cual se realizó apendicectomía a causa de una apendicitis aguda. El resultado anatomopatológico confirmó un tumor de células endocrinas (argentafinoma, tumor carcinoide en el tercio distal del órgano, que infiltraba hasta la serosa, y apendicitis aguda supurada. El paciente fue enviado a un servicio de oncohematología para tratamiento oncoespecífico. Por lo inusual de estos tumores en edades tempranas y por lo que puede representar para el niño una conducta no consecuente, decidimos presentar este caso a la comunidad científica nacional e internacional. Es extremadamente importante el seguimiento de los pacientes con apendicitis aguda y de las conclusiones del examen histológico, por lo que puede representar para el niño una conducta inadecuada en una situación como esta.The objective of this paper was to make known an interesting case of carcinoid tumor that presented a clinical picture of acute appendicitis.The patient was an eight-year-old boy that underwent appendectomy due to an acute appendicitis. The anatomopathological report confirmed an endocrine cell tumor (argentaffinoma, carcinoid tumor in the distal third of the organ that infiltrated up to the serosa, and acute suppurative appendicitis. The patient was referred to an oncohematology service for oncospecific treatment. As it is a rare tumor at early ages, and taking into account what a inconsequent behavior may represent for the child, it was decided to present this case to the national and international scientific community. The follow-up of the patients with acute appendicitis and of the conclusions of the histological examination is extremely important considering what an inadequate conduct may represent for the child in a situation like this.

  17. Tumor residual pós-quimioterapia neoadjuvante para câncer de mama: impacto sobre o tratamento cirúrgico conservador Residual tumor after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: impact on conservative surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Mantovani Barbosa

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: analisar as alterações histopatológicas provocadas pela ação da quimioterapia neoadjuvante (fluoracil, epirrubicina e ciclofosfamida; FEC -- 4 ciclos na área tumoral, no tecido mamário adjacente e nos linfonodos homolaterais, em peças cirúrgicas obtidas de pacientes portadoras de carcinomas primários da mama. Método: estudo histológico detalhado de 30 peças cirúrgicas obtidas por mastectomia radical (Patey de pacientes portadoras de carcinomas primários da mama, previamente submetidas a esse tipo de terapêutica sistêmica. Resultados: observamos regressão tumoral, de grau variável, em todas as peças analisadas. Esta regressão ocorreu de forma irregular, restando inúmeros focos refratários na área ocupada pelo tumor primário. Observamos focos celulares resistentes independentes do tumor primário no tecido mamário. Detalhamos outros achados histopatológicos decorrentes da ação quimioterápica nos tecidos tumoral e mamário, como calcificações e fibrose, e nos linfonodos axilares homolaterais. Conclusão: concluímos que a ação da quimioterapia neoadjuvante não é uniforme, restando focos tumorais refratários, tanto na área do tumor inicial, quanto à distância. A regressão do tumor independe da resposta de regressão dos linfonodos axilares metastáticos. A utilização da cirurgia conservadora pós-quimioterapia neoadjuvante (FEC deve ser evitada.Purpose: analysis of histopathologic alterations caused by neoadjuvant chemotherapy (fluorouracil, epirubicine, cyclophosphamide; FEC - 4 cycles at the tumor site, adjacent mammary tissue and homolateral lymph nodes, as observed in sections of patients with primary breast carcinomas. Method: histological studies performed on 30 surgical sections obtained from radical mastectomy (Patey of patients with primary breast carcinomas, who underwent prior neoadjuvant systemic therapy. Results: all sections showed tumor regression with variable intensity. This

  18. Ameloblastomatous calcifying odontogenic cyst: A rare histologic variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj N Kallalli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastoma is a well-known odontogenic tumor that can be associated with calcifying odontogenic cysts (COCs, but only a few reports give its clinical and radiographic features. Calcifying odontogenic cyst was first categorized as a distinct entity by Gorlin et al., and has been named after him since then. Calcifying odontogenic cyst is an uncommon developmental odontogenic lesion that demonstrates histopathologic diversity. It is well known that this lesion can occur in association with odontogenic tumors such as complex odontoma and ameloblastoma. The term COC was not included by the World Health Organization (WHO in its report of 2005 and is called calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT. Histopathologic examination of ameloblastomatous CCOT reveals ameloblastic islands containing ghost cells. Although association of ameloblastoma with this lesion is important, only a few cases have been reported in literature. The present case report is of ameloblastomatous calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor, a rare histologic variant, in a 20-year-old male patient in the left mandibular posterior region.

  19. Radiation therapy of brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, K. J.; Lee, D. H.; Park, C. Y.

    1980-01-01

    One hundred and six cases of brain tumors were treated at the Yonsei Cancer Center from January 1972 to August 1978 by Co-60 teletherapy unit. We analyses their clinical findings, histopathological findings, treatment and results. In those cases which computerized tomography had been used before and after radiation therapy, changes in tumor size and the presence of edema or necrosis following treatment was evaluated. 1. Among 106 cases, 90 cases were primary brain tumors and 16 cases were metastatic brain tumors. Pituitary tumors (38), glioma (34) and pinealoma (10) composed of most of primary brain tumors. 2. Post treatment follow-up was possible in 38 cases more than 1 years. Four among 11 cases of giloma expired and survivors had considerable neurological symptoms except 2 cases. Sixty five percent (12/20) of pituitary tumors showed improvement of visual symptoms and all cases (7) of pinealoma which post treatment follow-up was possible, showed remarkable good response. 3. Findings of CT scan after radiation treatment were compatible with results of clinical findings and post treatment follow-up. It showed complete regression of tumor mass in one case of pinealoma and medulloblastoma. One case of pituitary tumor showed almost complete regression of tumor mass. It also showed large residual lesion in cases of glioblastoma multiforme and cystic astrocytoma.

  20. Evaluation of dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted perfusion MRI in the differentiation of tumor recurrence from radiation necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Vibeke Andrée; Simonsen, Helle J; Law, Ian

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To investigate if perfusion measured with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) can be used to differentiate radiation necrosis from tumor recurrence in patients with high-grade glioma. METHODS: The study was approved by the institutional review board...... to measure cerebral blood volume (CBV), blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and cerebral blood flow (CBF). Subjects also underwent FDG-PET and lesions were classified as either metabolically active or inactive. Follow-up clinical MRI and lesion histology in case of additional tissue resection was used...... to determine whether lesions were regressing or progressing. RESULTS: Fourteen enhancing lesions could be classified as progressing (11) or regressing (three). An empirical threshold of 2.0 ml/100 g for CBV allowed detection of regressing lesions with a sensitivity of 100 % and specificity of 100 %. FDG-PET...

  1. Productivity standards for histology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesa, René J

    2010-04-01

    The information from 221 US histology laboratories (histolabs) and 104 from 24 other countries with workloads from 600 to 116 000 cases per year was used to calculate productivity standards for 23 technical and 27 nontechnical tasks and for 4 types of work flow indicators. The sample includes 254 human, 40 forensic, and 31 veterinary pathology services. Statistical analyses demonstrate that most productivity standards are not different between services or worldwide. The total workload for the US human pathology histolabs averaged 26 061 cases per year, with 54% between 10 000 and less than 30 000. The total workload for 70% of the histolabs from other countries was less than 20 000, with an average of 15 226 cases per year. The fundamental manual technical tasks in the histolab and their productivity standards are as follows: grossing (14 cases per hour), cassetting (54 cassettes per hour), embedding (50 blocks per hour), and cutting (24 blocks per hour). All the other tasks, each with their own productivity standards, can be completed by auxiliary staff or using automatic instruments. Depending on the level of automation of the histolab, all the tasks derived from a workload of 25 cases will require 15.8 to 17.7 hours of work completed by 2.4 to 2.7 employees with 18% of their working time not directly dedicated to the production of diagnostic slides. This article explains how to extrapolate this productivity calculation for any workload and different levels of automation. The overall performance standard for all the tasks, including 8 hours for automated tissue processing, is 3.2 to 3.5 blocks per hour; and its best indicator is the value of the gross work flow productivity that is essentially dependent on how the work is organized. This article also includes productivity standards for forensic and veterinary histolabs, but the staffing benchmarks for histolabs will be the subject of a separate article. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Histological characteristics of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuperus, JS; Westerveld, L Anneloes; Rutges, Joost A; Alblas, Jacqueline; van Rijen, Mattie H; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Oner, F Cumhur; Verlaan, JJ

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a predominantly radiographic diagnosis and histological knowledge of DISH is limited. The aim of this study was to describe the histological characteristics of DISH in the spinal column and to study the relation between DISH and intervertebral disc

  3. Polynomial regression analysis and significance test of the regression function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhengming; Zhao Juan; He Shengping

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze the decay heating power of a certain radioactive isotope per kilogram with polynomial regression method, the paper firstly demonstrated the broad usage of polynomial function and deduced its parameters with ordinary least squares estimate. Then significance test method of polynomial regression function is derived considering the similarity between the polynomial regression model and the multivariable linear regression model. Finally, polynomial regression analysis and significance test of the polynomial function are done to the decay heating power of the iso tope per kilogram in accord with the authors' real work. (authors)

  4. Histologic Subtype in Core Lung Biopsies of Early-Stage Lung Adenocarcinoma is a Prognostic Factor for Treatment Response and Failure Patterns After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeman, Jonathan E.; Rimner, Andreas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Montecalvo, Joseph [Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Hsu, Meier; Zhang, Zhigang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Reibnitz, Donata von; Panchoo, Kelly [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Yorke, Ellen [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Adusumilli, Prasad S. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Travis, William [Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wu, Abraham J., E-mail: wua@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an effective treatment for early-stage lung cancer. The histologic subtype of surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma is recognized as a prognostic factor, with the presence of solid or micropapillary patterns predicting poor outcomes. We describe the outcomes after SBRT for early-stage lung adenocarcinoma stratified by histologic subtype. Methods and Materials: We identified 119 consecutive patients (124 lesions) with stage I to IIA lung adenocarcinoma who had undergone definitive SBRT at our institution from August 2008 to August 2015 and had undergone core biopsy. Histologic subtyping was performed according to the 2015 World Health Organization classification. Of the 124 tumors, 37 (30%) were a high-risk subtype, defined as containing a component of solid and/or micropapillary pattern. The cumulative incidences of local, nodal, regional, and distant failure were compared between the high-risk and non–high-risk adenocarcinoma subtypes using Gray's test, and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated from propensity score–weighted Cox regression models. Results: The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 17 months and for surviving patients was 21 months. The 1-year cumulative incidence of and adjusted HR for local, nodal, regional, and distant failure in high-risk versus non–high-risk lesions was 7.3% versus 2.7% (HR 16.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.5-81.4), 14.8% versus 2.6% (HR 3.8; 95% CI 0.95-15.0), 4.0% versus 1.2% (HR 20.9; 95% CI 2.3-192.3), and 22.7% versus 3.6% (HR 6.9; 95% CI 2.2-21.1), respectively. No significant difference was seen with regard to overall survival. Conclusions: The outcomes after SBRT for early-stage adenocarcinoma of the lung correlate highly with histologic subtype, with micropapillary and solid tumors portending significantly higher rates of locoregional and metastatic progression. In this context, the histologic subtype

  5. Recursive Algorithm For Linear Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanasi, S. V.

    1988-01-01

    Order of model determined easily. Linear-regression algorithhm includes recursive equations for coefficients of model of increased order. Algorithm eliminates duplicative calculations, facilitates search for minimum order of linear-regression model fitting set of data satisfactory.

  6. A Genomics-Based Classification of Human Lung Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidel, Danila; Zander, Thomas; Heukamp, Lukas C.; Peifer, Martin; Bos, Marc; Fernandez-Cuesta, Lynnette; Leenders, Frauke; Lu, Xin; Ansen, Sascha; Gardizi, Masyar; Nguyen, Chau; Berg, Johannes; Russell, Prudence; Wainer, Zoe; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Rogers, Toni-Maree; Solomon, Benjamin; Pao, William; Carter, Scott L.; Getz, Gad; Hayes, D. Neil; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Thunnissen, Erik; Travis, William D.; Perner, Sven; Wright, Gavin; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Buettner, Reinhard; Wolf, Juergen; Thomas, Roman; Gabler, Franziska; Wilkening, Ines; Mueller, Christian; Dahmen, Ilona; Menon, Roopika; Koenig, Katharina; Albus, Kerstin; Merkelbach-Bruse, Sabine; Fassunke, Jana; Schmitz, Katja; Kuenstlinger, Helen; Kleine, Michaela; Binot, Elke; Querings, Silvia; Altmueller, Janine; Boessmann, Ingelore; Nuemberg, Peter; Schneider, Peter; Groen, Harry; Timens, Wim

    2013-01-01

    We characterized genome alterations in 1255 clinically annotated lung tumors of all histological subgroups to identify genetically defined and clinically relevant subtypes. More than 55% of all cases had at least one oncogenic genome alteration potentially amenable to specific therapeutic

  7. Lobular histology and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, Esther H; Mukhtar, Rita A; Yau, Christina; de Ronde, Jorma J; Livasy, Chad; Carey, Lisa A; Loo, Claudette E; Vrancken-Peeters, Marie-Jeanne T F D; Sonke, Gabe S; Berry, Donald A; Van't Veer, Laura J; Esserman, Laura J; Wesseling, Jelle; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd; Shelley Hwang, E

    2012-11-01

    Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) has been reported to be less responsive to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) than invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). We sought to determine whether ILC histology indeed predicts poor response to NAC by analyzing tumor characteristics such as protein expression, gene expression, and imaging features, and by comparing NAC response rates to those seen in IDC after adjustment for these factors. We combined datasets from two large prospective NAC trials, including in total 676 patients, of which 75 were of lobular histology. Eligible patients had tumors ≥3 cm in diameter or pathologic documentation of positive nodes, and underwent serial biopsies, expression microarray analysis, and MRI imaging. We compared pathologic complete response (pCR) rates and breast conservation surgery (BCS) rates between ILC and IDC, adjusted for clinicopathologic factors. On univariate analysis, ILCs were significantly less likely to have a pCR after NAC than IDCs (11 vs. 25 %, p = 0.01). However, the known differences in tumor characteristics between the two histologic types, including hormone receptor (HR) status, HER2 status, histological grade, and p53 expression, accounted for this difference with the lowest pCR rates among HR+/HER2- tumors in both ILC and IDC (7 and 5 %, respectively). ILC which were HR- and/or HER2+ had a pCR rate of 25 %. Expression subtyping, particularly the NKI 70-gene signature, was correlated with pCR, although the small numbers of ILC in each group precluded significant associations. BCS rate did not differ between IDC and ILC after adjusting for molecular characteristics. We conclude that ILC represents a heterogeneous group of tumors which are less responsive to NAC than IDC. However, this difference is explained by differences in molecular characteristics, particularly HR and HER2, and independent of lobular histology.

  8. T3 receptors in human pituitary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiavelli, Gloria A; Pauni, Micaela; Heredia Sereno, Gastón M; Szijan, Irene; Basso, Armando; Burdman, José A

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the synthesis of T3 receptors in human tumors of the anterior pituitary gland, its relationship with the hormone synthesized and/or secreted by the tumor and the post-surgical evolution of the patient. Patients were evaluated clinically and by magnetic nuclear resonance to classify the adenoma according to their size. Hormonal concentrations in sera were determined by radioimmunoassay. Immunohistochemistry of the pituitary hormones was performed in the tumors. Tumors were obtained at surgery and immediately frozen in ice, transported to the laboratory and stored at -70 degrees C. Reverse transcription was performed with purified RNA from the tumors. Out of 33 pituitary tumors, 29 had RNA for T3 receptors synthesis (88%). They were present in different histological specimens, the tumors were grades 1-4 according to their size, and there was no relationship between the size of the tumor and the presence of T3 receptor RNAs. The post-surgical evolution of the patient was mostly dependent on the size and not on the presence of T3 receptors. The presence of thyroid hormone receptors in pituitary tumors is in line with two important characteristics of these tumors: they are histologically benign and well differentiated.

  9. Primary tumors of the patella. A review of 42 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kransdorf, M.J. (Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Radiology; University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine); Moser, R.P. Jr. (Armed Forces Inst. of Pathology, Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Radiologic Pathology; University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine); Vinh, T.N. (Armed Forces Inst. of Pathology, Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery); Aoki, J. (Armed Forces Inst. of Pathology, Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Radiologic Pathology); Callaghan, J.J. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery)

    1989-08-01

    This study reports 42 cases of histologically proven and radiographically correlated primary patellar tumors. Despite diverse histologic diagnoses, the radiographic appearanaces of benign as opposed to malignant patellar neoplasms are essentially indistinguishable. Although the literature suggests that giant cell tumor is the most frequent benign tumor of the patella, the most common benign neoplasm in this series is chondroblastoma (16 cases). Only four primary malignant lesions were encountered, three cases of lymphoma and one case of hemangioendothelioma. Since 38 (90%) of the 42 cases were benign, a benign etiology should be strongly favored, notwithstanding the radiographic appearance, whenever a primary patellar tumor is encountered. (orig.).

  10. Childhood Salivary Gland Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salivary gland tumors in children are very rare and prognosis is usually good. Salivary gland tumors may occur after radiation therapy and chemotherapy for treatment of primary leukemia or solid tumors. Get detailed information about the incidence, histology, clinical presentation and treatment of salivary gland tumors in this summary for clinicians.

  11. Sinus Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RESOURCES Medical Societies Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > CONDITIONS > Sinus Tumors Adult Sinusitis Pediatric ... and they vary greatly in location, size and type. Care for these tumors is individualized to each ...

  12. Tumors markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi-Mizumoto, N.H.

    1989-01-01

    In order to study blood and cell components alterations (named tumor markers) that may indicate the presence of a tumor, several methods are presented. Aspects as diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic value and clinical evaluation are discussed. (M.A.C.)

  13. Wilms tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... suggested. Alternative Names Nephroblastoma; Kidney tumor - Wilms Images Kidney anatomy Wilms tumor References Babaian KN, Delacroix SE, Wood CG, Jonasch E. Kidney cancer. In: Skorecki K, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, ...

  14. Myxoid Neurothekeoma: A Rare Soft Tissue Tumor of Hand in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nerve sheath myxoma (neurothekeoma) is an uncommon benign soft tissue tumor of the peripheral nerves with fairly distinctive histological features. It is commonly located on the upper extremities or the head and the neck.[1] Histologic variants of neurothekeoma include myxoid, cellular, and mixed tumors. A recent ...

  15. Value of lymphography in the diagnosis of urological tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1979, 204 lymphadenectomies in patients with tumors of the prostate, kidneys, bladder and testicles were carried through following bilateral pedal lymphography. Referred to all organs, the positive and negative initial lymphographic findings were in accordance with the histological ones in about 67%. The more extended the primary tumor, the greater was the consistency of lymphographic and histological findings. This is most obvious in renal adenocarcinomas. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Morphometric evaluation of NB84, synaptophysin and AgNOR is useful for the histological diagnosis and prognosis in peripheral neuroblastic tumors (pNTs A avaliação morfométrica de NB84, sinaptofisina e AgNOR é útil para o dignóstico histológico e prognóstico dos tumores neuroblásticos periféricos (pNTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida de Cássia Carvalho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the importance of NB84, synaptophysin and AgNOR and explore the quantitative association of these factors with diagnosis and outcome as well as the association between NB84 and AgNOR and other tumor and stromal factors in twenty-eight peripheral neuroblastic tumors. METHODS: We assessed AgNORs, NB84, synaptophysin and several other markers in tumor tissues from 28 patients with primary neuroblastic tumors. The treatment included: surgery for stage 1, chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation for most of stages 3 and 4. Histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and morphometry were used to evaluate the amount of tumor staining for AgNOR, NB84 and synaptophysin; the outcome for our study was survival time until death due to recurrent neuroblastic tumors. RESULTS: Only stage (pOBJETIVO: Estudar a importância dos marcadores NB84 e AgNOR e explorar as relações quantitativas entre esses marcadores com o diagnóstico e prognóstico assim como as relações entre NB84 e AgNOR e outros marcadores tumorais e estromais em 28 tumores neuroblásticos periféricos. MÉTODOS: Examinamos AgNOR, NB84 e sinaptofisina e vários outros marcadores em tecidos tumorais de vinte e oito pacientes com tumors neuroblásticos primários. Tratamento dos pacientes incluiu: cirurgia para o estágio 1, quimioterapia e transplante de medula óssea para a maioria dos pacientes nos estágios 3 e 4. Utilizamos histoquímica, imunohistoquímica e morfometria para avaliar a intensidade e extensão de expressão do AgNOR, NB84 e sinaptofisina, tendo o prognóstico dos pacientes incluído o tempo de sobrevida até a morte por recurrência dos tumores neuroblásticos. RESULTADOS: Estadiamento (p<0.01, AgNOR (p<0.01, NB84 (p<0.01 e sinaptofisina (p=0.01 foram marcadores independents de sobrevida. CONCLUSÕES: A determinação dos marcadores NB84 e sinaptofisina mostrou-se como uma ferramenta útil no diagnóstico dos tumors neuroblásticos periféricos; a associa

  17. CT morphology of benign median nerve tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feyerabend, T.; Schmitt, R.; Lanz, U.; Warmuth-Metz, M.; Wuerzburg Univ.

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was performed in 3 patients with benign tumors of the median nerve, histologically confirmed as neurilemmoma, fibrolipoma and hemangioma. The neurilemmoma showed a ring-shaped contrast enhancement. The fibrolipoma presented with areas of solid soft tissue and areas of fat. The hemangioma was a solid tumor with a lacunar, vascular contrast enhancement. According to our experience and to the previous literature CT gives useful information regarding the anatomic location, size, and relationship of peripheral nerve sheath tumors to surrounding structures, and may help to differentiate between various tumor types. (orig.)

  18. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Ouyang, Ling; Han, Xue; Zhou, Yang; Tong, Xin; Zhang, Shulang; Zhang, Qingfu

    2013-01-01

    Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are rare and high-grade malignant tumors that mostly occur in children and young adults. The most common sites are the trunk, limbs, and retroperitoneum. Herein, we present a case of a PNET involving the cervix uteri in a 27-year-old woman. The lesion showed characteristic histologic features of a PNET and was positive for the immunohistochemical markers cluster of differentiation (CD) 99, vimentin, neuron-specific enolase, neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (CD56), and CD117 (c-kit), further defining the tumor while helping to confirm PNET. The clinical Stage IIIB tumor was treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. PMID:23836982

  19. Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zura Kakushadze

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.

  20. Regression in autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanatos, Gerry A

    2008-12-01

    A significant proportion of children diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder experience a developmental regression characterized by a loss of previously-acquired skills. This may involve a loss of speech or social responsitivity, but often entails both. This paper critically reviews the phenomena of regression in autistic spectrum disorders, highlighting the characteristics of regression, age of onset, temporal course, and long-term outcome. Important considerations for diagnosis are discussed and multiple etiological factors currently hypothesized to underlie the phenomenon are reviewed. It is argued that regressive autistic spectrum disorders can be conceptualized on a spectrum with other regressive disorders that may share common pathophysiological features. The implications of this viewpoint are discussed.

  1. Radiation regression patterns after cobalt plaque insertion for retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buys, R.J.; Abramson, D.H.; Ellsworth, R.M.; Haik, B.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of 31 eyes of 30 patients who had been treated with cobalt plaques for retinoblastoma disclosed that a type I radiation regression pattern developed in 15 patients; type II, in one patient, and type III, in five patients. Nine patients had a regression pattern characterized by complete destruction of the tumor, the surrounding choroid, and all of the vessels in the area into which the plaque was inserted. This resulting white scar, corresponding to the sclerae only, was classified as a type IV radiation regression pattern. There was no evidence of tumor recurrence in patients with type IV regression patterns, with an average follow-up of 6.5 years, after receiving cobalt plaque therapy. Twenty-nine of these 30 patients had been unsuccessfully treated with at least one other modality (ie, light coagulation, cryotherapy, external beam radiation, or chemotherapy)

  2. Radiation regression patterns after cobalt plaque insertion for retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buys, R.J.; Abramson, D.H.; Ellsworth, R.M.; Haik, B.

    1983-08-01

    An analysis of 31 eyes of 30 patients who had been treated with cobalt plaques for retinoblastoma disclosed that a type I radiation regression pattern developed in 15 patients; type II, in one patient, and type III, in five patients. Nine patients had a regression pattern characterized by complete destruction of the tumor, the surrounding choroid, and all of the vessels in the area into which the plaque was inserted. This resulting white scar, corresponding to the sclerae only, was classified as a type IV radiation regression pattern. There was no evidence of tumor recurrence in patients with type IV regression patterns, with an average follow-up of 6.5 years, after receiving cobalt plaque therapy. Twenty-nine of these 30 patients had been unsuccessfully treated with at least one other modality (ie, light coagulation, cryotherapy, external beam radiation, or chemotherapy).

  3. Spinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, J.W.M. van; Hauwe, L. van den; Oezsarlak, Oe.; Schepper, A.M.A. de; Parizel, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Spinal tumors are uncommon lesions but may cause significant morbidity in terms of limb dysfunction. In establishing the differential diagnosis for a spinal lesion, location is the most important feature, but the clinical presentation and the patient's age and gender are also important. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays a central role in the imaging of spinal tumors, easily allowing tumors to be classified as extradural, intradural-extramedullary or intramedullary, which is very useful in tumor characterization. In the evaluation of lesions of the osseous spine both computed tomography (CT) and MR are important. We describe the most common spinal tumors in detail. In general, extradural lesions are the most common with metastasis being the most frequent. Intradural tumors are rare, and the majority is extramedullary, with meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors being the most frequent. Intramedullary tumors are uncommon spinal tumors. Astrocytomas and ependymomas comprise the majority of the intramedullary tumors. The most important tumors are documented with appropriate high quality CT or MR images and the characteristics of these tumors are also summarized in a comprehensive table. Finally we illustrate the use of the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of neoplasms affecting the central nervous system

  4. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  5. Urogenital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Linear regression in astronomy. I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Takashi; Feigelson, Eric D.; Akritas, Michael G.; Babu, Gutti Jogesh

    1990-01-01

    Five methods for obtaining linear regression fits to bivariate data with unknown or insignificant measurement errors are discussed: ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression of Y on X, OLS regression of X on Y, the bisector of the two OLS lines, orthogonal regression, and 'reduced major-axis' regression. These methods have been used by various researchers in observational astronomy, most importantly in cosmic distance scale applications. Formulas for calculating the slope and intercept coefficients and their uncertainties are given for all the methods, including a new general form of the OLS variance estimates. The accuracy of the formulas was confirmed using numerical simulations. The applicability of the procedures is discussed with respect to their mathematical properties, the nature of the astronomical data under consideration, and the scientific purpose of the regression. It is found that, for problems needing symmetrical treatment of the variables, the OLS bisector performs significantly better than orthogonal or reduced major-axis regression.

  7. Assessing the scale of tumor heterogeneity by complete hierarchical segmentation of MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gensheimer, Michael F; Ermoian, Ralph P; Hawkins, Douglas S; Trister, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    In many cancers, intratumoral heterogeneity has been found in histology, genetic variation and vascular structure. We developed an algorithm to interrogate different scales of heterogeneity using clinical imaging. We hypothesize that heterogeneity of perfusion at coarse scale may correlate with treatment resistance and propensity for disease recurrence. The algorithm recursively segments the tumor image into increasingly smaller regions. Each dividing line is chosen so as to maximize signal intensity difference between the two regions. This process continues until the tumor has been divided into single voxels, resulting in segments at multiple scales. For each scale, heterogeneity is measured by comparing each segmented region to the adjacent region and calculating the difference in signal intensity histograms. Using digital phantom images, we showed that the algorithm is robust to image artifacts and various tumor shapes. We then measured the primary tumor scales of contrast enhancement heterogeneity in MRI of 18 rhabdomyosarcoma patients. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we explored the influence of heterogeneity parameters on relapse-free survival. Coarser scale of maximum signal intensity heterogeneity was prognostic of shorter survival (p = 0.05). By contrast, two fractal parameters and three Haralick texture features were not prognostic. In summary, our algorithm produces a biologically motivated segmentation of tumor regions and reports the amount of heterogeneity at various distance scales. If validated on a larger dataset, this prognostic imaging biomarker could be useful to identify patients at higher risk for recurrence and candidates for alternative treatment. (paper)

  8. Assessing the scale of tumor heterogeneity by complete hierarchical segmentation of MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensheimer, Michael F; Hawkins, Douglas S; Ermoian, Ralph P; Trister, Andrew D

    2015-02-07

    In many cancers, intratumoral heterogeneity has been found in histology, genetic variation and vascular structure. We developed an algorithm to interrogate different scales of heterogeneity using clinical imaging. We hypothesize that heterogeneity of perfusion at coarse scale may correlate with treatment resistance and propensity for disease recurrence. The algorithm recursively segments the tumor image into increasingly smaller regions. Each dividing line is chosen so as to maximize signal intensity difference between the two regions. This process continues until the tumor has been divided into single voxels, resulting in segments at multiple scales. For each scale, heterogeneity is measured by comparing each segmented region to the adjacent region and calculating the difference in signal intensity histograms. Using digital phantom images, we showed that the algorithm is robust to image artifacts and various tumor shapes. We then measured the primary tumor scales of contrast enhancement heterogeneity in MRI of 18 rhabdomyosarcoma patients. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we explored the influence of heterogeneity parameters on relapse-free survival. Coarser scale of maximum signal intensity heterogeneity was prognostic of shorter survival (p = 0.05). By contrast, two fractal parameters and three Haralick texture features were not prognostic. In summary, our algorithm produces a biologically motivated segmentation of tumor regions and reports the amount of heterogeneity at various distance scales. If validated on a larger dataset, this prognostic imaging biomarker could be useful to identify patients at higher risk for recurrence and candidates for alternative treatment.

  9. Tumor size evaluated by pelvic examination compared with 3-D MR quantitative analysis in the prediction of outcome for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayr, Nina A.; Jie Zheng; Yuh, William T.C.; B-Chen, Wen; Ehrhardt, James C.; Sorosky, Joel I.; Pelsang, Retta E.; Hussey, David H.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Tumor size estimated by pelvic examination (PE) is an important prognostic factor in cervical cancer treated with radiation therapy (RT). Recent histologic correlation studies also showed that magnetic resonance imaging (MR) provides high accuracy in the measurement of the actual tumor volume. The purpose of this study was to: (a) compare the accuracy of PE and MR in predicting outcome, and (b) correlate tumor measurements by PE vs. MR. Materials and Methods: Tumor measurements were performed prospectively in 172 MR studies in 43 patients with advanced cervical cancer. MR and PE were performed at the same time intervals: exam 1 (start of RT), exam 2 (after 20-24 Gy/2-2.5 wks), exam 3 (after 40-50 Gy/4-5 wks), and exam 4 (1-2 months after RT). PE determined tumor diameters in anteroposterior (ap), lateral (lat), and craniocaudal (cc) direction, and clinical tumor size was computed as maximum diameter, average diameter, and volume (ap x lat x cc x π/6). MR-derived tumor size was computed by summation of the tumor areas in each slice and multiplication by the slice thickness. Tumor regression during RT was calculated for each method as percentage of initial volume. The measurements were correlated with local recurrence and disease-free survival. Median follow-up was 18 months (range: 3-50 months). Results: Prediction of local control. Overall, tumor regression rate (rapid vs. slow; Table 1) was more precise than the initial tumor size (Table 2) in the prediction of outcome. MR provided a significantly more accurate and earlier prediction of local control (exam 2 and 3 vs. exam 4; Table 1) and disease-free survival than PE. Based on the initial tumor size (Table 2), MR was also better than PE in predicting local control and disease-free survival, particularly in large (≥ 100 cm 3 ) tumors. Size correlation. Tumor size (maximum diameter, average diameter, volume) by PE and MR did not correlate well (r 2 = .51, .61, .58, respectively). When using MR

  10. Why does Jack, and not Jill, break his crown? Sex disparity in brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Tao; Warrington, Nicole M; Rubin, Joshua B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract It is often reported that brain tumors occur more frequently in males, and that males suffer a worse outcome from brain tumors than females. If correct, these observations suggest that sex plays a fundamental role in brain tumor biology. The following review of the literature regarding primary and metastatic brain tumors, reveals that brain tumors do occur more frequently in males compared to females regardless of age, tumor histology, or region of the world. Sexually dimorphic mecha...

  11. Advanced statistics: linear regression, part I: simple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marill, Keith A

    2004-01-01

    Simple linear regression is a mathematical technique used to model the relationship between a single independent predictor variable and a single dependent outcome variable. In this, the first of a two-part series exploring concepts in linear regression analysis, the four fundamental assumptions and the mechanics of simple linear regression are reviewed. The most common technique used to derive the regression line, the method of least squares, is described. The reader will be acquainted with other important concepts in simple linear regression, including: variable transformations, dummy variables, relationship to inference testing, and leverage. Simplified clinical examples with small datasets and graphic models are used to illustrate the points. This will provide a foundation for the second article in this series: a discussion of multiple linear regression, in which there are multiple predictor variables.

  12. Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary: Is there a role of histology-specific treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takano Masashi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several clinical trials to establish standard treatment modality for ovarian cancers included a high abundance of patients with serous histologic tumors, which were quite sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy. On the other hand, ovarian tumor with rare histologic subtypes such as clear cell or mucinous tumors have been recognized to show chemo-resistant phenotype, leading to poorer prognosis. Especially, clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (CCC is a distinctive tumor, deriving from endometriosis or clear cell adenofibroma, and response rate to platinum-based therapy is extremely low. It was implied that complete surgical staging enabled us to distinguish a high risk group of recurrence in CCC patients whose disease was confined to the ovary (pT1M0; however, complete surgical staging procedures could not lead to improved survival. Moreover, the status of peritoneal cytology was recognized as an independent prognostic factor in early-staged CCC patients, even after complete surgical staging. In advanced cases with CCC, the patients with no residual tumor had significantly better survival than those with the tumor less than 1 cm or those with tumor diameter more than 1 cm. Therefore, the importance of achieving no macroscopic residual disease at primary surgery is so important compared with other histologic subtypes. On the other hand, many studies have shown that conventional platinum-based chemotherapy regimens yielded a poorer prognosis in patients with CCC than in patients with serous subtypes. The response rate by paclitaxel plus carboplatin (TC was slightly higher, ranging from 22% to 56%, which was not satisfactory enough. Another regimen for CCC tumors is now being explored: irinotecan plus cisplatin, and molecular targeting agents. In this review article, we discuss the surgical issues for early-staged and advanced CCC including possibility of fertility-sparing surgery, and the chemotherapy for CCC disease.

  13. Computed tomography in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, Nadir; Altehoefer, Carsten; Winterer, Jan; Schaefer, Oliver; Springer, Oliver; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Furtwaengler, Alex

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the imaging characteristics of primary and recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in computed tomography with respect to the tumor size. Computed tomography was performed in 35 patients with histologically confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumors and analyzed retrospectively by two experienced and independent radiologist. The following morphologic tumor characteristics of primary (n=20) and (n=16) recurrent tumors were evaluated according to tumor size, shape, homogeneity, density compared with liver, contrast enhancement, presence of calcifications, ulcerations, fistula or distant metastases and the anatomical relationship to the intestinal wall, and the infiltration of adjacent visceral organs. Small GIST ( 5-10 cm) demonstrated an irregular shape, inhomogeneous density on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images, a combined intra- and extraluminal tumor growth with aggressive findings, and infiltration of adjacent organs in 9 primary diagnosed and 2 recurrent tumors. Large GIST (>10 cm), which were observed in 8 primary tumors and 11 recurrent tumors, showed an irregular margin with inhomogeneous density and aggressive findings, and were characterized by signs of malignancy such as distant and peritoneal metastases. Small recurrent tumors had a similar appearance as compared with large primary tumors. Computed tomography gives additional information with respect to the relationship of gastrointestinal stromal tumor to the gastrointestinal wall and surrounding organs, and it detects distant metastasis. Primary and recurrent GIST demonstrate characteristic CT imaging features which are related to tumor size. Aggressive findings and signs of malignancy are found in larger tumors and in recurrent disease. Computed tomography is useful in detection and characterization of primary and recurrent tumors with regard to tumor growth pattern, tumor size, and varied appearances of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and indirectly

  14. Tumors of the pineal region: radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, G.; Delgado, F.; Cano, A.; Vicente, J.; Ramos, M.

    1997-01-01

    To consider the different radiological findings that, together with age, sex, clinical picture and serum markers, indicate a presumed or even definitive diagnosis in tumors of the pineal region. We reviewed retrospectively 18 patients diagnosed as having pineal region tumors. The lesions in this series consisted of seven germinoma, three meningiomas, one pineoblastoma. two ependymomas, one teratoma, two glial cysts, and arachnoid cyst and a lipoma. All but the arachnoid cysts and the lipoma were confirmed histologically. We took into account mainly the epidemiological data, tumor markers and CT and MR features. The germinoma was the most common lesions, representing 38.8% of the tumors in our series. All developed in men (mean age: 21 years). Small non tumoral calcifications were present in pineal gland in six of these cases. This tumor usually invades adjacent structures and produces metastatic seeding in CSF. The pineoblastoma contained prominent tumor calcifications. Meningiomas were detected only in middle-aged women. In addition to the fact that the behavior of these lesions was typical of that meningiomas in other locations, meningeal enhancement in the vicinity of the extraaxial tumor aided in the diagnosis. The teratoma showed variable attenuation, ranging from a fatty substance to calcium, and elevated fetoprotein levels. The glial cyst is a cyst lesion that does not be-have exactly like the CSF, while the arachnoid cyst was isointense with respect to the CSF in all sequences. Enhancement was observed in the glial cysts, one peripheral and the other nodular. The assessment of age, sex, clinical picture and tumor markers, together with the features observed in CT an MR images are suggestive of the histological diagnosis of pineal region tumors. We recommend the use of CT because of its availability and its ability detect calcifications, thus indicating a specific histological type, and of MR because of its greater anatomical definition and its, ability to

  15. Clinical study of the histologic host response of the patients with lung cancer during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gose, Kyuhei

    1984-01-01

    Serial bronchofiberscopic biopsies were performed during radiotherapy in 28 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The effect of radiotherapy on tumor tissue was examined histologically as to the responsiveness of the host against tumor cells. The mononuclear cell infiltration induced in the tumor by irradiation correlated well with its direct effect on the tumor cells. The most remarkable infiltration was observed at the dose of 2000 rad and in the polypoid type. Indirect immunofluonescent technique with monoclonal anti OKT 3 and OKIa revealed that most of the infiltrated cells were T-lymphocytes. There was a good relationship between the grade of mononuclear cell infiltration and the survival period. These facts suggest that the mononuclear cells in the irradiated tumor tissues represent host resistance against cancer and the intensity of the infiltration correlates with the clinical course and prognosis of the lung cancer patients. (author)

  16. Percentage tumor necrosis following chemotherapy in neuroblastoma correlates with MYCN status but not survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomken, Simon; Davies, Beverley; Chong, Leeai; Cole, Michael; Wood, Katrina M; McDermott, Michael; Tweddle, Deborah A

    2011-03-01

    The percentage of chemotherapy-induced necrosis in primary tumors corresponds with outcome in several childhood malignancies, including high-risk metastatic diseases. In this retrospective pilot study, the authors assessed the importance of postchemotherapy necrosis in high-risk neuroblastoma with a histological and case notes review of surgically resected specimens. The authors reviewed all available histology of 31 high-risk neuroblastoma cases treated with COJEC (dose intensive etoposide and vincristine with either cyclophosphamide, cisplatin or carboplatin) or OPEC/OJEC (etoposide, vincristine and cyclophosphamide with alternating cisplatin [OPEC] or carboplatin [OJEC]) induction chemotherapy in 2 Children's Cancer & Leukaemia Group (CCLG) pediatric oncology centers. The percentage of postchemotherapy necrosis was assessed and compared with MYCN amplification status and overall survival. The median percentage of postchemotherapy tumor necrosis was 60%. MYCN status was available for 28 cases, of which 12 were amplified (43%). Survival in cases with ≥ 60% necrosis or ≥ 90% necrosis was not better than those with less necrosis, nor was percentage necrosis associated with survival using Cox regression. However, MYCN-amplified tumors showed a higher percentage of necrosis than non-MYCN-amplified tumors, 71.3% versus 37.2% (P = .006). This effect was not related to prechemotherapy necrosis and did not confer improved overall survival. Postchemotherapy tumor necrosis is higher in patients with MYCN amplification. In this study, postchemotherapy necrosis did not correlate with overall survival and should not lead to modification of postoperative treatment. However, these findings need to be confirmed in a larger prospective study of children with high-risk neuroblastoma.

  17. Imaging Tumor Necrosis with Ferumoxytol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Aghighi

    Full Text Available Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO are promising contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. USPIO mediated proton relaxation rate enhancement is strongly dependent on compartmentalization of the agent and can vary depending on their intracellular or extracellular location in the tumor microenvironment. We compared the T1- and T2-enhancement pattern of intracellular and extracellular USPIO in mouse models of cancer and pilot data from patients. A better understanding of these MR signal effects will enable non-invasive characterizations of the composition of the tumor microenvironment.Six 4T1 and six MMTV-PyMT mammary tumors were grown in mice and imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. R1 relaxation rates were calculated for different tumor types and different tumor areas and compared with histology. The transendothelial leakage rate of ferumoxytol was obtained by our measured relaxivity of ferumoxytol and compared between different tumor types, using a t-test. Additionally, 3 patients with malignant sarcomas were imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. T1- and T2-enhancement patterns were compared with histopathology in a descriptive manner as a proof of concept for clinical translation of our observations.4T1 tumors showed central areas of high signal on T1 and low signal on T2 weighted MR images, which corresponded to extracellular nanoparticles in a necrotic core on histopathology. MMTV-PyMT tumors showed little change on T1 but decreased signal on T2 weighted images, which correlated to compartmentalized nanoparticles in tumor associated macrophages. Only 4T1 tumors demonstrated significantly increased R1 relaxation rates of the tumor core compared to the tumor periphery (p<0.001. Transendothelial USPIO leakage was significantly higher for 4T1 tumors (3.4±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100cm3 compared to MMTV-PyMT tumors (1.0±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100 cm3. Likewise, ferumoxytol imaging in patients showed similar findings with

  18. Differential diagnosis of liver tumors. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratz, K.F.; Schober, Otmar; Ringe, Burckhard

    1991-01-01

    Liver own tumors were classified by histological criteria considering the tissue origin. hemangioma and hemangioendothelioma are of mesenchymal origin, the focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), the hepato-blastoma, hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) or carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic bile duct cystadenoma or carcinoma are epithelial tumors. Only the hemangioma and the FNH have an unhesitating prognosis. All the other tumors should be diagnosed definitively by histological examination. This means, the tumor has to be resected if possible. To answer the question of resectability radionuclide procedures contribute little. US, transmission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and angiography are necessary in this case. This chapter deals with findings and problems involved with the use of radionuclide methods. (author). 28 refs.; 5 figs.; 6 tabs

  19. Preliminary studies on factors controlling the rate of regrowth of heavily x-irradiated rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenforde, T.S.; Curtis, S.B.; Woodruff, H.K.; Parks, D.L.; Daniels, S.J.; Crabtree, K.E.; Schilling, W.A.; DeGuzman, R.J.

    1977-12-01

    Following large single doses of x rays, rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumors exhibit a volume response which characteristically has a swelling phase, a regression phase, a rapid ''initial'' regrowth phase and a slow ''late'' regrowth phase. The preliminary experiments reported here were designed to examine three mechanisms that may underlie the reduction in growth rate occurring in the late regrowth phase; heritable non-lethal cellular damage, host immunity, delayed post-irradiation tissue and vascular damage. Based on retransplantation experiments and studies with immunosuppressed rats, neither heritable non-lethal damage nor host immune factors appear to influence the regrowth rate of tumors receiving radiation doses well below the cure level. After an x-ray dose approaching the cure level, regrowing tumors were observed to have a greatly reduced growth rate, possibly reflecting the presence of heritable non-lethal damage and/or an increased antigenicity of the heavily irradiated tumor cells. Morphometric analysis of histological sections did not reveal statistically significant abnormalities at the cellular level during the late regrowth phase, except for an increase in the percentage of necrotic tissue relative to non-irradiated tumors. The morphological resolution of small blood vessels was not adequate to evaluate delayed vascular damage in regrowing irradiated tumors

  20. Linear regression in astronomy. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Babu, Gutti J.

    1992-01-01

    A wide variety of least-squares linear regression procedures used in observational astronomy, particularly investigations of the cosmic distance scale, are presented and discussed. The classes of linear models considered are (1) unweighted regression lines, with bootstrap and jackknife resampling; (2) regression solutions when measurement error, in one or both variables, dominates the scatter; (3) methods to apply a calibration line to new data; (4) truncated regression models, which apply to flux-limited data sets; and (5) censored regression models, which apply when nondetections are present. For the calibration problem we develop two new procedures: a formula for the intercept offset between two parallel data sets, which propagates slope errors from one regression to the other; and a generalization of the Working-Hotelling confidence bands to nonstandard least-squares lines. They can provide improved error analysis for Faber-Jackson, Tully-Fisher, and similar cosmic distance scale relations.

  1. Time-adaptive quantile regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Madsen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    and an updating procedure are combined into a new algorithm for time-adaptive quantile regression, which generates new solutions on the basis of the old solution, leading to savings in computation time. The suggested algorithm is tested against a static quantile regression model on a data set with wind power......An algorithm for time-adaptive quantile regression is presented. The algorithm is based on the simplex algorithm, and the linear optimization formulation of the quantile regression problem is given. The observations have been split to allow a direct use of the simplex algorithm. The simplex method...... production, where the models combine splines and quantile regression. The comparison indicates superior performance for the time-adaptive quantile regression in all the performance parameters considered....

  2. Histologic characterization of canine dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidholm, A; Jönsson, L

    2005-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), characterized by chamber dilatation and myocardial systolic and diastolic dysfunction, is one of the most common heart diseases in dogs. The clinical diagnosis is based on findings on echocardiographic and Doppler examinations, with the active exclusion of other acquired or congenital heart diseases. However, the echocardiographic criteria for the diagnosis of DCM are not wholly specific for the disease, and histologic examination may be necessary for final diagnosis. Review of reports on histologic findings in dogs with clinically diagnosed DCM reveals two histologically distinct forms of DCM: 1) cardiomyopathy of Boxers and Doberman Pinschers, corresponding to the "fatty infiltration-degenerative" type and 2) the form seen in many giant, large-, and medium-sized breeds, including some Boxers and Doberman Pinschers, classified as the "attenuated wavy fiber" type of DCM. The histologic changes of the attenuated wavy fiber type of DCM may precede clinical and echocardiographic signs of heart disease, thus indicating an early stage of DCM.

  3. SE Marine Mammal Histology/Tissue data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples are collected from stranded marine mammals in the Southeastern United States. These tissue samples are examined histologically and evaluated to...

  4. Retro-regression--another important multivariate regression improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randić, M

    2001-01-01

    We review the serious problem associated with instabilities of the coefficients of regression equations, referred to as the MRA (multivariate regression analysis) "nightmare of the first kind". This is manifested when in a stepwise regression a descriptor is included or excluded from a regression. The consequence is an unpredictable change of the coefficients of the descriptors that remain in the regression equation. We follow with consideration of an even more serious problem, referred to as the MRA "nightmare of the second kind", arising when optimal descriptors are selected from a large pool of descriptors. This process typically causes at different steps of the stepwise regression a replacement of several previously used descriptors by new ones. We describe a procedure that resolves these difficulties. The approach is illustrated on boiling points of nonanes which are considered (1) by using an ordered connectivity basis; (2) by using an ordering resulting from application of greedy algorithm; and (3) by using an ordering derived from an exhaustive search for optimal descriptors. A novel variant of multiple regression analysis, called retro-regression (RR), is outlined showing how it resolves the ambiguities associated with both "nightmares" of the first and the second kind of MRA.

  5. Quantile regression theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Davino, Cristina; Vistocco, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    A guide to the implementation and interpretation of Quantile Regression models This book explores the theory and numerous applications of quantile regression, offering empirical data analysis as well as the software tools to implement the methods. The main focus of this book is to provide the reader with a comprehensivedescription of the main issues concerning quantile regression; these include basic modeling, geometrical interpretation, estimation and inference for quantile regression, as well as issues on validity of the model, diagnostic tools. Each methodological aspect is explored and

  6. Histologic progression in non-hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, S.M.; Chabner, B.A.; DeVita, V.T. Jr.; Simon, R.; Berard, C.W.; Jones, R.B.; Garvin, A.J.; Canellos, G.P.; Osborne, C.K.; Young, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical course and biopsy specimens from 515 consecutive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients was evaluated retrospectively in an attempt to determine the clinical importance of documented changes in histology over time. Two-hundred and five of these patients has an initial diagnosis of nodular lymphoma and were reviewed for this anaysis. Sixty-three underwent a repeat biopsy greater than 6 mo after initial diagnosis. In 23 patients, these repeat biopsies revealed a change in histology to a diffuse pattern and/or a change to a larger ''histiocytic'' cell type, while repeat biopsies for the other 40 (63%) disclosd persistence of a nodular pattern and no clear change in basic cell type. Progression from nodular lymphoma to diffuse histiocytic, mixed, or undifferentiated types of lymphomas of Rappaport was found in repeate biopsies obtained from 19 patients (30%). Prognosis for survival following a biopsy that demonstrated histologic change was related to the histology demonstrated at the most recent biopsy and to the response to subsequent drug treatment. Survival following repeat biopsy for these 19 patients was significantly shorter than for the 40 patients whose histology remained nodular (p < 0.001). However, attainment of a complete remission with intensive combination chemotherapy was associated with prolonged survival in eight patients and prolonged disease-free survival in one patient. Since prior treatment may compromise the ability to achieve a complete response to chemotherapy in patients with nodular lymphoma who develop an aggressive diffuse histology, the likelihood of histologic progression must be considered in the design of future clinical trials in nodular lymphoma. Histologic progression does not preclude attainment of a complete response to intensive chemotherapy

  7. Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor of the Breast: Imaging Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Eun Deok; Kim, Min Kyun; Kim, Jeong Soo; Whang, In Yong

    2013-01-01

    Focal neuroendocrine differentiation can be found in diverse histological types of breast tumors. However, the term, neuroendocrine breast tumor, indicates the diffuse expression of neuroendocrine markers in more than 50% of the tumor cell population. The imaging features of neuroendocrine breast tumor have not been accurately described due to extreme rarity of this tumor type. We present a case of a pathologically confirmed, primary neuroendocrine breast tumor in a 42-year-old woman, with imaging findings difficult to be differentiated from that of invasive ductal carcinoma

  8. Correlation between PET/CT results and histological and immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Galvão Vieira Bitencourt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To correlate the results of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT performed with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts with histological/immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinoma patients. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional study with prospective data collection, where patients with biopsy-confirmed breast carcinomas were studied. The patients underwent PET/CT examination in prone position, with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts. PET/CT findings were compared with histological and immunohistochemical data. Results The authors identified 59 malignant breast lesions in 50 patients. The maximum diameter of the lesions ranged from 6 to 80 mm (mean: 32.2 mm. Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common histological type (n = 47; 79.7%. At PET/CT, 53 (89.8% of the lesions demonstrated anomalous concentrations of 18F-FDG, with maximum SUV ranging from 0.8 to 23.1 (mean: 5.5. A statistically significant association was observed between higher values of maximum SUV and histological type, histological grade, molecular subtype, tumor diameter, mitotic index and Ki-67 expression. Conclusion PET/CT performed with specific protocol for assessment of breasts has demonstrated good sensitivity and was associated with relevant histological/immunohistochemical factors related to aggressiveness and prognosis of breast carcinomas.

  9. Correlation between PET/CT results and histological and immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitencourt, Almir Galvao Vieira; Lima, Eduardo Nobrega Pereira; Chojniak, Rubens; Marques, Elvira Ferreira; Souza, Juliana Alves de; Graziano, Luciana; Andrade, Wesley Pereira; Osorio, Cynthia Aparecida Bueno de Toledo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to correlate the results of 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) performed with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts with histological/immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinoma patients. Materials and methods: cross-sectional study with prospective data collection, where patients with biopsy-confirmed breast carcinomas were studied. The patients underwent PET/CT examination in prone position, with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts. PET/CT findings were compared with histological and immunohistochemical data. Results: the authors identified 59 malignant breast lesions in 50 patients. The maximum diameter of the lesions ranged from 6 to 80 mm (mean: 32.2 mm). Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common histological type (n = 47; 79.7%). At PET/CT, 53 (89.8%) of the lesions demonstrated anomalous concentrations of 18 F-FDG, with maximum SUV ranging from 0.8 to 23.1 (mean: 5.5). A statistically significant association was observed between higher values of maximum SUV and histological type, histological grade, molecular subtype, tumor diameter, mitotic index and Ki-67 expression. Conclusion: PET/CT performed with specific protocol for assessment of breasts has demonstrated good sensitivity and was associated with relevant histological/immunohistochemical factors related to aggressiveness and prognosis of breast carcinomas. (author)

  10. Malignant Tumors Of The Heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrava, J.

    2007-01-01

    Autoptic prevalence of the heart tumors is 0,01 – 0,3 %. 12 – 25 % of them are malignant tumors and 75 – 88 % are benign. Malignancies are more frequently found in the right heart. Metastatic tumors occur 20 – 40-times more frequently than primary neoplasms. Even 94 % of primary malignant tumors are sarcomas. Most frequent of them are angio sarcomas. Heart metastases are only found in extensive dissemination. Highest prevalence of heart metastases is observed in melanoma, followed by malignant germ cell tumors, leukemia, lymphoma, lung cancer. The clinical presentation is due to the combination of heart failure, embolism, arrhythmias, pericardial effusion or tamponade. The symptoms depend on anatomical localization and the tumor size but not on the histological type. Prognosis of the heart malignancies is poor. Untreated patients die within several weeks to 2 years after the diagnosis was determined. Whenever possible the heart tumor should be resected, despite the surgery is usually neither definite nor sufficiently effective therapy. The patients with completely resectable sarcomas have better prognosis (median of survival 12 – 24 months) than the patients with incomplete resection (3 – 10 months). Complete excision is possible in only less than half of the patients. In some patients chemotherapy, radiotherapy, heart transplantation or combination of them prolonged the survival up to 2 years. Despite of this treatment median of the survival is only 1 year. (author)

  11. Panel Smooth Transition Regression Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González, Andrés; Terasvirta, Timo; Dijk, Dick van

    We introduce the panel smooth transition regression model. This new model is intended for characterizing heterogeneous panels, allowing the regression coefficients to vary both across individuals and over time. Specifically, heterogeneity is allowed for by assuming that these coefficients are bou...

  12. Testing discontinuities in nonparametric regression

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wenlin

    2017-01-19

    In nonparametric regression, it is often needed to detect whether there are jump discontinuities in the mean function. In this paper, we revisit the difference-based method in [13 H.-G. Müller and U. Stadtmüller, Discontinuous versus smooth regression, Ann. Stat. 27 (1999), pp. 299–337. doi: 10.1214/aos/1018031100

  13. Testing discontinuities in nonparametric regression

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wenlin; Zhou, Yuejin; Tong, Tiejun

    2017-01-01

    In nonparametric regression, it is often needed to detect whether there are jump discontinuities in the mean function. In this paper, we revisit the difference-based method in [13 H.-G. Müller and U. Stadtmüller, Discontinuous versus smooth regression, Ann. Stat. 27 (1999), pp. 299–337. doi: 10.1214/aos/1018031100

  14. Logistic Regression: Concept and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokluk, Omay

    2010-01-01

    The main focus of logistic regression analysis is classification of individuals in different groups. The aim of the present study is to explain basic concepts and processes of binary logistic regression analysis intended to determine the combination of independent variables which best explain the membership in certain groups called dichotomous…

  15. Angiogenesis of cancer of the cervix. Contrast-enhanced dynamic MRT, histological quantification of capillary density and lymph system infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawighorst, H.; Knoop, M.V.; Zuna, I.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Essig, M.; Hoffmann, U.; Brix, G.; Kaick, G. van; Knapstein, P.G.; Weikel, W.; Schaeffer, U.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: It was the aim of this project to examine (i) the relationships between contrastenhanced dynamic MR imaging derived characteristics and histologic microvessel density counts - a recognized surrogate of tumor angiogenesis - from tumors in patients with primary or recurrent cancer of the uterine cervix, and (ii) to correlate these parameters with lymphatic involvement (i.e. lymphatic channels) to assess tumorbiological aggressiveness in terms of lymphatic spread. Results: Pharmacokinetic MR imaging derived parameters (A, k 21 ) showed a weak but signifikant (p 21 compared with histologic microvessel density, resulting in a significantly (p [de

  16. Radiocolloid Uptake in the Pancreas Islet Cell Tumor: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, W. J.; Chung, S. K.; Yeon, S. K.; Shinn, K. S.; Bahk, Y. W. [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-03-15

    Colloid uptake in various hepatic conditions such as focal nodular hyperplasia, regenerating nodular in the cirrhotic liver, hamartoma, hemangioma and rarely hepatoma has been documented. Extrahepatic tumors may show colloid uptake and they include splenic hemangioma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, breast carcinoma and Kaposi's sarcoma. The mechanism of colloid uptake in those lesions is associated with phagocytic activity in or around the tumors. We report a pancreas islet cell tumor that showed colloid uptake on {sup 99m}Tc-phytate liver scan without histologic evidence of phagocytosis by tumor cells or infiltration of phagocytes in the tumor. Microscopically the tumor was highly vascular and showed diffuse hemorrhage throughout the tumor. We postulated that extravasation of the colloid into the tumor interstitium caused nonspecific colloid uptake in this tumor. It is expected that hemorrhagic tumor may show nonspecific colloid uptake without phagocytosis in or about the lesion.

  17. Radiocolloid Uptake in the Pancreas Islet Cell Tumor: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W. J.; Chung, S. K.; Yeon, S. K.; Shinn, K. S.; Bahk, Y. W.

    1994-01-01

    Colloid uptake in various hepatic conditions such as focal nodular hyperplasia, regenerating nodular in the cirrhotic liver, hamartoma, hemangioma and rarely hepatoma has been documented. Extrahepatic tumors may show colloid uptake and they include splenic hemangioma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, breast carcinoma and Kaposi's sarcoma. The mechanism of colloid uptake in those lesions is associated with phagocytic activity in or around the tumors. We report a pancreas islet cell tumor that showed colloid uptake on 99m Tc-phytate liver scan without histologic evidence of phagocytosis by tumor cells or infiltration of phagocytes in the tumor. Microscopically the tumor was highly vascular and showed diffuse hemorrhage throughout the tumor. We postulated that extravasation of the colloid into the tumor interstitium caused nonspecific colloid uptake in this tumor. It is expected that hemorrhagic tumor may show nonspecific colloid uptake without phagocytosis in or about the lesion.

  18. Fungible weights in logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeff A; Waller, Niels G

    2016-06-01

    In this article we develop methods for assessing parameter sensitivity in logistic regression models. To set the stage for this work, we first review Waller's (2008) equations for computing fungible weights in linear regression. Next, we describe 2 methods for computing fungible weights in logistic regression. To demonstrate the utility of these methods, we compute fungible logistic regression weights using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (2010) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey, and we illustrate how these alternate weights can be used to evaluate parameter sensitivity. To make our work accessible to the research community, we provide R code (R Core Team, 2015) that will generate both kinds of fungible logistic regression weights. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Ordinary least square regression, orthogonal regression, geometric mean regression and their applications in aerosol science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng Ling; Zhang Tianyi; Kleinman, Lawrence; Zhu Wei

    2007-01-01

    Regression analysis, especially the ordinary least squares method which assumes that errors are confined to the dependent variable, has seen a fair share of its applications in aerosol science. The ordinary least squares approach, however, could be problematic due to the fact that atmospheric data often does not lend itself to calling one variable independent and the other dependent. Errors often exist for both measurements. In this work, we examine two regression approaches available to accommodate this situation. They are orthogonal regression and geometric mean regression. Comparisons are made theoretically as well as numerically through an aerosol study examining whether the ratio of organic aerosol to CO would change with age

  20. 201Tl scintigraphic evaluation of tumor mass and viability of bone and soft-tissue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Takatoshi; Kubota, Masahiro; Yoshida, Satoru; Shibata, Masahito; Wakabayashi, Jun-ichi; Obata, Hiroyuki; Matsuyama, Toshikatsu; Usui, Masamichi; Ishii, Sei-ichi.

    1994-01-01

    To characterize 201 Tl uptake in patients with bone and soft-tissue tumor, we studied 49 patients with surgically proven tumors and one patient with a tumor diagnosed arteriographically. In 37 of our 50 patients, the tumor was evaluated with 201 Tl and arteriography. Moreover, in 14 of patients with pre-operative chemotherapy, pathologic changes were graded on the basis of percent tumor necrosis as defined histologically. The percent tumor necrosis histologically was compared with changes in the scintigraphic and conventional angiographic studies. Radiologic comparisons demonstrated a high degree of correlation with images of 201 Tl and both arterial and blood pool phase of 99m Tc-HMDP. Ninety-six percent of 28 malignant tumors had positive 201 Tl uptake. None of the patients showed any thallium accumulation in the soft tissues or skeleton adjacent to the lesion. Activity of 201 Tl was mainly dependent upon a tumor blood flow and a vascular density. In of 14 cases with the preoperative chemotherapeutic treatment, 201 Tl scintigraphic changes showed concordance with % tumor necrosis. Thallium-201 was superior to 99m Tc-HMDP in predicting tumor response to chemotherapy. Interestingly, delayed images of 99m Tc-HMDP of 5 responders with >90% tumor necrosis showed decreased uptake in the adjacent bone to the tumor mass lesions. It seems to be quite all right to consider that a major determinant of 201 Tl uptake is intratumoral angiogenecity, which is closely connected with tumor viability. Therefore, 201 Tl is a sensitive radiopharmaceutical for detection of vascular rich bone and soft-tissue tumors, and appears to be a simple and an accurate test for evaluating the response to specific therapeutic regimens of malignant bone and soft-tissue tumors. (author)

  1. Prognostic Utility of Histological Growth Patterns of Colorectal Lung Oligometastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Son Jae; Pak, Min Gyoung; Lee, Hyoun Wook; Ha, Seung Yeon; Roh, Mee Sook

    2018-03-01

    Patients with resectable colorectal lung oligometastasis (CLOM) demonstrate a heterogeneous oncological outcome. However, the parameters for predicting tumor aggressiveness have not yet been fully investigated in CLOM. This study was performed to determine the prognostic value of histological growth patterns in patients who underwent surgery for CLOM. The study included 92 patients who were diagnosed with CLOM among the first resection cases. CLOMs grow according to three histological patterns: aerogenous, pushing, and desmoplastic patterns. The growth patterns were evaluated on archival hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections. The aerogenous pattern was found in 29.4% (n=27) of patients, the pushing pattern in 34.7% (n=32), the desmoplastic pattern in 6.5% (n=6), and a mix of two growth patterns in 29.4% (n=27). The size of the aerogenous pattern was significantly smaller than that of metastases with other patterns (p=.033). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients showing an aerogenous pattern appeared to have a poorer prognosis, which was calculated from the time of diagnosis of the CLOM (p=.044). The 5-year survival rate from the diagnosis of colorectal cancer tended to be lower in patients with an aerogenous pattern than in those who had a non-aerogenous pattern; however, the difference was marginally significant (p=.051). In the multivariate Cox analysis, the aerogenous pattern appeared as an independent predictor of poor overall survival (hazard ratio, 3.122; 95% confidence interval, 1.196 to 8.145; p=.020). These results suggest that the growth patterns may play a part as a histology-based prognostic parameter for patients with CLOM.

  2. Kidney cancer in Lebanon: a specific histological distribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafaja, Sarah; Kourie, Hampig Raphael; Matar, Dany; Sader-Ghorra, Claude; Kattan, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Kidney cancer is the third most frequent urologic cancer in Lebanon after prostate and bladder cancer, accounting for 1.5% of all diagnosed cancers. In this paper, we report the histologic characteristics and distribution of kidney cancer, never described in Lebanon or the Middle East. Pathology results of operated kidney cancer were collected during a two year period (2010-2011) from two different Lebanese hospitals (Hotel-Dieu de France University Hospital and Saint Joseph Hospital). A total of 124 reports were reviewed and analyzed according to WHO classification of 2009. The 124 patients diagnosed with kidney cancer had a median age of 62.4 [18-86], 75% being men and 25% women. Some 71 % of the lesions were renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 25.8% had a urothelial histology, 1.6% were lymphomas and 1.6% were metastases to the kidney. Patients having RCC had a median age of 60.3 [18-85], 77.3% were men and 22.7% women. Of the RCCs, 59.1% were clear cell carcinoma, 22.7% papillary, 11.4% chromophobic, 3.4% rom the collecting ducts of Bellini and 3.4% were not otherwise classified. Histological distribution of Lebanese kidney cancer seems unusual when compared to the literature. The percentage of urothelial renal pelvis tumors is strikingly high. Moreover, clear cell carcinoma accounts for only 59.1% of RCCS in contrast to the 75% described elsewhere, while papillary carcinoma represents more than 22.7% compared to 10%.

  3. Prognostic Utility of Histological Growth Patterns of Colorectal Lung Oligometastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Jae Yeong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Patients with resectable colorectal lung oligometastasis (CLOM demonstrate a heterogeneous oncological outcome. However, the parameters for predicting tumor aggressiveness have not yet been fully investigated in CLOM. This study was performed to determine the prognostic value of histological growth patterns in patients who underwent surgery for CLOM. Methods The study included 92 patients who were diagnosed with CLOM among the first resection cases. CLOMs grow according to three histological patterns: aerogenous, pushing, and desmoplastic patterns. The growth patterns were evaluated on archival hematoxylin and eosin–stained tissue sections. Results The aerogenous pattern was found in 29.4% (n=27 of patients, the pushing pattern in 34.7% (n=32, the desmoplastic pattern in 6.5% (n=6, and a mix of two growth patterns in 29.4% (n=27. The size of the aerogenous pattern was significantly smaller than that of metastases with other patterns (p=.033. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients showing an aerogenous pattern appeared to have a poorer prognosis, which was calculated from the time of diagnosis of the CLOM (p=.044. The 5-year survival rate from the diagnosis of colorectal cancer tended to be lower in patients with an aerogenous pattern than in those who had a non-aerogenous pattern; however, the difference was marginally significant (p=.051. In the multivariate Cox analysis, the aerogenous pattern appeared as an independent predictor of poor overall survival (hazard ratio, 3.122; 95% confidence interval, 1.196 to 8.145; p=.020. Conclusions These results suggest that the growth patterns may play a part as a histology-based prognostic parameter for patients with CLOM.

  4. Liver cancer in atomic-bomb survivors. Histological characteristics and relationships to radiation and hepatitis B and C viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Sharp, G.B.; Mizuno, Terumi

    2001-01-01

    Histological features of primary liver cancer among atomic-bomb survivors and their relationship to hepatitis B (HBV) and C viral (HCV) infections are of special interest because of the increased risk of liver cancer in persons exposed to ionizing radiation and the high and increasing liver cancer rates in Japan and elsewhere. We conducted a pathology review of liver cancers occurring from 1958 to 1987 among subjects in the 120,321 member cohort of 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents. A panel of pathologists classified tumor histological types and defined accompanying cirrhotic changes of the liver. Archival tissue samples were assessed for HBV using pathology stains and PCR. Reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR was used to determine HCV status. We used unconditional logistic regression to compare 302 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases to 53 cholangiocarcinoma (CC) cases, adjusting for age, year of diagnosis, sex and viral status. Cirrhotic changes occurred significantly more often among HCC than CC cases (76% in HCC and 6% in CC). Compared to CC cases, HCC cases were 10.9 times more likely to be HBV-positive (95% confidence interval: 2.1-83.2) and 4.3 times more likely to be HCV-positive (95% confidence interval: 1.1-20.5) No significant differences were found between HCC and CC cases in radiation exposures. The predominance of HCC in the atomic-bomb survivors follows the background liver cancer pattern in Japan. Our findings suggest that HBV and HCV are involved in the pathogenesis of HCC with or without cirrhosis and are significantly less important in that of CC. (author)

  5. Regression to Causality : Regression-style presentation influences causal attribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordacconi, Mats Joe; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2014-01-01

    of equivalent results presented as either regression models or as a test of two sample means. Our experiment shows that the subjects who were presented with results as estimates from a regression model were more inclined to interpret these results causally. Our experiment implies that scholars using regression...... models – one of the primary vehicles for analyzing statistical results in political science – encourage causal interpretation. Specifically, we demonstrate that presenting observational results in a regression model, rather than as a simple comparison of means, makes causal interpretation of the results...... more likely. Our experiment drew on a sample of 235 university students from three different social science degree programs (political science, sociology and economics), all of whom had received substantial training in statistics. The subjects were asked to compare and evaluate the validity...

  6. Endosonographic Features of Histologically Proven Gastric Ectopic Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Wei Chou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric ectopic pancreas is an uncommon developmental anomaly and its histological diagnosis is usually difficult by using a conventional biopsy forceps. In the literature, most cases of gastric ectopic pancreas were usually diagnosed by gross pattern during endoscopic examination or features of endoscopic ultrasound. In contrast, this disease was seldom diagnosed by histology in clinical practice. Although the typical endoscopic ultrasonographic features of ectopic pancreas include heterogeneous echogenicity, indistinct borders, and a location within 2 or more layers, it can also exhibit hypoechoic homogeneous echogenicity and a distinct border within the fourth sonographic layer (muscularis propria similar to the endoscopic ultrasonographic features of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. In our study, we found that 53% of gastric ectopic pancreas originated within the fourth sonographic layer, demonstrating hypoechoic, homogeneous echogenicity, and distinct borders. Therefore, recognizing endoscopic ultrasonographic features, combining with deep biopsy, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration/core needle biopsy can prevent conducting unnecessary resection. Surgical resection is the mainstay treatment for symptomatic gastric ectopic pancreas, but endoscopic resection using endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection technique provides an alternative method of removing superficial-type and deep-type gastric ectopic pancreas.

  7. Radiation Therapy of Suprasellar Germ Cell Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woo Yoon; Choi, Doo Ho; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Il Han; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed on 15 patients with suprasellar germ cell tumors treated by megavoltage external beam irradiation between Feb. 1979 and Dec. 1985. Follow-up period of survivors was 30 to 91 months. Histologic diagnosis was obtained before radiation therapy in 10 patients (9 germinomas and 1 mixed). Five patients were treated without histologic verification. In 9 patients with biopsy-proven germinomas radiation therapy was delivered to the craniospinal axis in 6, to the whole brain in 3. In 5 patients with mixed germ cell tumor or elevated tumor marker, irradiation was delivered to the craniospinal axis in 2, to the whole brain in 2, and to the primary site only in 1. Total doses ranged from 5,000 to 5,500 cGy to the primary site, 3,000 to 4,400 cGy to the whole brain, and 1,300 to 3,000 cGy to the spine. In these 14, local tumor was controlled and primary or spinal failure was not observed. One patient without elevated tumor marker was treated to the whole brain, The tumor was not controlled and he had spinal recurrence. It is proven that radiation therapy is an effective treatment for suprasellar germ cell tumors. The neuroendocrinologic presentation, tumor marker status, early response to radiation measured on CT seem to be useful means for selecting patients for radiation therapy when tissue diagnosis is not available

  8. Histopathological studies on the irradiated brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Tadao

    1980-01-01

    Of 43 cases of irradiated brain tumor, histological findings showed extensive necrosis or disappearance of the neoplasm, considered to be attributable to radiation treatment, in 30 (70%). Extensive necrosis of the tumor in areas exposed to radiation was found in 16 treated cases (37.2%). The histopathology of massive necrosis was that of simple coagulative necrosis, sometimes with marked vascular alterations and extravasation of fibrinoid material into the necrotic tissue. Necrosis was almost always incomplete, and foci of residual tumors were found at the periphery of the tumors. The terminal picture in cases of massive necrosis was often that of widespread intra- and extracranial metastasis. Almost complete disappearance of the tumor was observed in some cases with subsequent diffuse degenerative changes in the brain parenchyma exposed to radiation. In 5 cases of irradiated tumors, autopsy findings suggested that the growth of the primary tumor might have been restricted. And in 5 cases tumor cytology revealed the marked presence of a large number of multinucleated, bizarre giant cells with evidence of degeneration in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Multifocal necrosis of the brain, with axonal swelling and sponginess of the tissue, was observed in two patients following combined radiation and antineoplastic chemotherapy. Diffuse loss and degeneration of nerve cells of the cerebral cortex in pseudo-laminar fashion was observed in 7 patients with or without bilateral necrosis of the globus pallidus. Histological findings revealed typical anoxic encephalopathy. (J.P.N.)

  9. Histopathological studies on the irradiated brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narita, T [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan).School of Medicine

    1980-01-01

    Of 43 cases of irradiated brain tumor, histological findings showed extensive necrosis or disappearance of the neoplasm, considered to be attributable to radiation treatment, in 30 (70%). Extensive necrosis of the tumor in areas exposed to radiation was found in 16 treated cases (37.2%). The histopathology of massive necrosis was that of simple coagulative necrosis, sometimes with marked vascular alterations and extravasation of fibrinoid material into the necrotic tissue. Necrosis was almost always incomplete, and foci of residual tumors were found at the periphery of the tumors. The terminal picture in cases of massive necrosis was often that of widespread intra- and extracranial metastasis. Almost complete disappearance of the tumor was observed in some cases with subsequent diffuse degenerative changes in the brain parenchyma exposed to radiation. In 5 cases of irradiated tumors, autopsy findings suggested that the growth of the primary tumor might have been restricted. And in 5 cases tumor cytology revealed the marked presence of a large number of multinucleated, bizarre giant cells with evidence of degeneration in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Multifocal necrosis of the brain, with axonal swelling and sponginess of the tissue, was observed in two patients following combined radiation and antineoplastic chemotherapy. Diffuse loss and degeneration of nerve cells of the cerebral cortex in pseudo-laminar fashion was observed in 7 patients with or without bilateral necrosis of the globus pallidus. Histological findings revealed typical anoxic encephalopathy.

  10. Papillary endothelial hyperplasia (Masson's tumor) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liné, A; Sanchez, J; Jayyosi, L; Birembaut, P; Ohl, X; Poli-Mérol, M-L; François, C

    2017-06-01

    The intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH/Masson's tumor) is a rare benign tumor of the skin and subcutaneous vessels. We report, in four pediatric cases, clinical presentation, care (diagnostic and surgical) of Masson's tumor in children. Two boys (two years) and two girls (four and six years) showed a pain subcutaneous tumor (one to five centimeters). They were in the transverse abdominal muscle, between two metatarsals, at the front of thigh and in the axilla. Imaging performed (MRI, Doppler ultrasound) evoked either a hematoma, a lymphangioma or hemangioma. The indication for removal was selected from pain and/or parental concern. The diagnosis was histologically. A lesion persisted in residual form (incomplete initial resection), and is currently not scalable for eleven years. This tumor is characterized by excessive proliferation and papillary endothelial cells in the vessels, following a thrombotic event. It is found mainly in adults (no specific age), and preferentially localizes in the face and limbs. The clinical differential diagnosis of this tumor is angiosarcoma. The imagery has not allowed in our series to diagnose but still essential to eliminate differential diagnoses. Only surgical excision with histological examination can differentiate. Our study emphasizes the possibility of pediatric cases with two cases of unusual locations (abdominal and axilla). Clinical presentations we met, now lead us to direct our histologist looking for a Masson tumor in any child with a subcutaneous tumor and/or intramuscular pain, sudden onset, and vascular appearance (after excluding an arteriovenous malformation). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Mammographic density and histopathologic characteristics of screen-detected tumors in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshina, Nataliia; Ursin, Giske; Hoff, Solveig Roth; Akslen, Lars A; Roman, Marta; Sebuødegård, Sofie; Hofvind, Solveig

    2015-01-01

    High mammographic density might mask breast tumors, resulting in delayed diagnosis or missed cancers. To investigate the association between mammographic density and histopathologic tumor characteristics (histologic type, size, grade, and lymph node status) among women screened in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Information about 1760 screen-detected ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 7366 invasive breast cancers diagnosed among women aged 50–69 years, 1996–2010, was analyzed. The screening mammograms were classified subjectively according to the amount of fibroglandular tissue into fatty, medium dense, and dense by breast radiologists. Chi-square test was used to compare the distribution of tumor characteristics by mammographic density. Odds ratio (OR) of tumor characteristics by density was estimated by means of logistic regression, adjusting for screening mode (screen-film and full-field digital mammography), and age. Mean and median tumor size of invasive breast cancers was 13.8 and 12 mm, respectively, for women with fatty breasts, and 16.2 and 14 mm for those with dense breasts. Lymph node positive tumors were identified among 20.6% of women with fatty breasts compared with 27.2% of those with dense breasts (P < 0.001). The proportion of DCIS was significantly lower for women with fatty (15.8%) compared with dense breasts (22.0%). Women with dense breasts had an increased risk of large (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.18–1.73) and lymph node positive tumors (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05–1.51) compared with women with fatty and medium dense breasts. High mammographic density was positively associated with tumor size and lymph node positive tumors

  12. Regression analysis with categorized regression calibrated exposure: some interesting findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjartåker Anette

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regression calibration as a method for handling measurement error is becoming increasingly well-known and used in epidemiologic research. However, the standard version of the method is not appropriate for exposure analyzed on a categorical (e.g. quintile scale, an approach commonly used in epidemiologic studies. A tempting solution could then be to use the predicted continuous exposure obtained through the regression calibration method and treat it as an approximation to the true exposure, that is, include the categorized calibrated exposure in the main regression analysis. Methods We use semi-analytical calculations and simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach compared to the naive approach of not correcting for measurement error, in situations where analyses are performed on quintile scale and when incorporating the original scale into the categorical variables, respectively. We also present analyses of real data, containing measures of folate intake and depression, from the Norwegian Women and Cancer study (NOWAC. Results In cases where extra information is available through replicated measurements and not validation data, regression calibration does not maintain important qualities of the true exposure distribution, thus estimates of variance and percentiles can be severely biased. We show that the outlined approach maintains much, in some cases all, of the misclassification found in the observed exposure. For that reason, regression analysis with the corrected variable included on a categorical scale is still biased. In some cases the corrected estimates are analytically equal to those obtained by the naive approach. Regression calibration is however vastly superior to the naive method when applying the medians of each category in the analysis. Conclusion Regression calibration in its most well-known form is not appropriate for measurement error correction when the exposure is analyzed on a

  13. Prognostic significance of axillary dissection in breast cancer patients with micrometastases or isolated tumor cells in sentinel nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Ejlertsen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the impact of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) on the risk of axillary recurrence (AR) and overall survival (OS) in breast cancer patients with micrometastases or isolated tumor cells (ITC) in sentinel nodes. We used the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) database...... to identify patients with micrometastases or ITC in sentinel nodes following surgery for primary breast cancer between 2002 and 2008. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was developed to assess the hazard ratios (HR) for AR and OS between patients with and without ALND. We identified 2074 patients...... and 2.21 (95 % CI 0.54-8.95, P = 0.27), in patients with ITC after a median follow-up of 6 years and 3 months. There was no significant difference in overall survival between patients with and without ALND, when adjusting for age, co-morbidity, tumor size, histology type, malignancy grade...

  14. Endogenous DNA Damage and Risk of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, M B; Sigurdson, A J; Jones, I M; Thomas, C B; Graubard, B I; Korde, L; Greene, M H; McGlynn, K A

    2008-01-18

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are comprised of two histologic groups, seminomas and nonseminomas. We postulated that the possible divergent pathogeneses of these histologies may be partially explained by variable endogenous DNA damage. To assess our hypothesis, we conducted a case-case analysis of seminomas and nonseminomas using the alkaline comet assay to quantify single-strand DNA breaks and alkali-labile sites. The Familial Testicular Cancer study and the U.S. Radiologic Technologists cohort provided 112 TGCT cases (51 seminomas & 61 nonseminomas). A lymphoblastoid cell line was cultured for each patient and the alkaline comet assay was used to determine four parameters: tail DNA, tail length, comet distributed moment (CDM) and Olive tail moment (OTM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using logistic regression. Values for tail length, tail DNA, CDM and OTM were modeled as categorical variables using the 50th and 75th percentiles of the seminoma group. Tail DNA was significantly associated with nonseminoma compared to seminoma (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 3.31, 95%CI: 1.00, 10.98; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 3.71, 95%CI: 1.04, 13.20; p for trend=0.039). OTM exhibited similar, albeit statistically non-significant, risk estimates (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 2.27, 95%CI: 0.75, 6.87; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 2.40, 95%CI: 0.75, 7.71; p for trend=0.12) whereas tail length and CDM showed no association. In conclusion, the results for tail DNA and OTM indicate that endogenous DNA damage levels are higher in patients who develop nonseminoma compared with seminoma. This may partly explain the more aggressive biology and younger age-of-onset of this histologic subgroup compared with the relatively less aggressive, later-onset seminoma.

  15. Anticonvulsant therapy in brain-tumor related epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröscher Walter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The lifetime risk of patients with brain tumors to have focal epileptic seizures is 10-100%; the risk depends on different histology. Specific guidelines for drug treatment of brain tumor-related seizures have not yet been established.

  16. Childhood Laryngeal Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laryngeal tumors in children are rare and can be benign (papillomatosis) or malignant. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common cancer of the larynx in children. Get comprehensive information about childhood laryngeal tumors, including histology, presentation, and treatment in this summary for clinicians.

  17. Advanced statistics: linear regression, part II: multiple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marill, Keith A

    2004-01-01

    The applications of simple linear regression in medical research are limited, because in most situations, there are multiple relevant predictor variables. Univariate statistical techniques such as simple linear regression use a single predictor variable, and they often may be mathematically correct but clinically misleading. Multiple linear regression is a mathematical technique used to model the relationship between multiple independent predictor variables and a single dependent outcome variable. It is used in medical research to model observational data, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic studies in which the outcome is dependent on more than one factor. Although the technique generally is limited to data that can be expressed with a linear function, it benefits from a well-developed mathematical framework that yields unique solutions and exact confidence intervals for regression coefficients. Building on Part I of this series, this article acquaints the reader with some of the important concepts in multiple regression analysis. These include multicollinearity, interaction effects, and an expansion of the discussion of inference testing, leverage, and variable transformations to multivariate models. Examples from the first article in this series are expanded on using a primarily graphic, rather than mathematical, approach. The importance of the relationships among the predictor variables and the dependence of the multivariate model coefficients on the choice of these variables are stressed. Finally, concepts in regression model building are discussed.

  18. Logic regression and its extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwender, Holger; Ruczinski, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    Logic regression is an adaptive classification and regression procedure, initially developed to reveal interacting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetic association studies. In general, this approach can be used in any setting with binary predictors, when the interaction of these covariates is of primary interest. Logic regression searches for Boolean (logic) combinations of binary variables that best explain the variability in the outcome variable, and thus, reveals variables and interactions that are associated with the response and/or have predictive capabilities. The logic expressions are embedded in a generalized linear regression framework, and thus, logic regression can handle a variety of outcome types, such as binary responses in case-control studies, numeric responses, and time-to-event data. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to the logic regression methodology, list some applications in public health and medicine, and summarize some of the direct extensions and modifications of logic regression that have been proposed in the literature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Echocardiographic versus histologic findings in Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaoyan; He, Yihua; Li, Zhian; Han, Jiancheng; Chen, Jian; Nixon, J V Ian

    2015-02-01

    This retrospective study attempted to establish the prevalence of multiple-valve involvement in Marfan syndrome and to compare echocardiographic with histopathologic findings in Marfan patients undergoing valvular or aortic surgery. We reviewed echocardiograms of 73 Marfan patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery from January 2004 through October 2009. Tissue histology was available for comparison in 29 patients. Among the 73 patients, 66 underwent aortic valve replacement or the Bentall procedure. Histologic findings were available in 29 patients, all of whom had myxomatous degeneration. Of 63 patients with moderate or severe aortic regurgitation as determined by echocardiography, 4 had thickened aortic valves. The echocardiographic findings in 18 patients with mitral involvement included mitral prolapse in 15. Of 11 patients with moderate or severe mitral regurgitation as determined by echocardiography, 4 underwent mitral valve repair and 7 mitral valve replacement. Histologic findings among mitral valve replacement patients showed thickened valve tissue and myxomatous degeneration. Tricuspid involvement was seen echocardiographically in 8 patients, all of whom had tricuspid prolapse. Two patients had severe tricuspid regurgitation, and both underwent repair. Both mitral and tricuspid involvement were seen echocardiographically in 7 patients. Among the 73 patients undergoing cardiac surgery for Marfan syndrome, 66 had moderate or severe aortic regurgitation, although their valves manifested few histologic changes. Eighteen patients had mitral involvement (moderate or severe mitral regurgitation, prolapse, or both), and 8 had tricuspid involvement. Mitral valves were most frequently found to have histologic changes, but the tricuspid valve was invariably involved.

  20. Clinical and Histologic Mimickers of Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboj, Amrit K; Oxentenko, Amy S

    2017-08-17

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small bowel, classically associated with diarrhea, abdominal pain, and malabsorption. The diagnosis of celiac disease is made when there are compatible clinical features, supportive serologic markers, representative histology from the small bowel, and response to a gluten-free diet. Histologic findings associated with celiac disease include intraepithelial lymphocytosis, crypt hyperplasia, villous atrophy, and a chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate in the lamina propria. It is important to recognize and diagnose celiac disease, as strict adherence to a gluten-free diet can lead to resolution of clinical and histologic manifestations of the disease. However, many other entities can present with clinical and/or histologic features of celiac disease. In this review article, we highlight key clinical and histologic mimickers of celiac disease. The evaluation of a patient with serologically negative enteropathy necessitates a carefully elicited history and detailed review by a pathologist. Medications can mimic celiac disease and should be considered in all patients with a serologically negative enteropathy. Many mimickers of celiac disease have clues to the underlying diagnosis, and many have a targeted therapy. It is necessary to provide patients with a correct diagnosis rather than subject them to a lifetime of an unnecessary gluten-free diet.

  1. Tumoral tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    Direct tumor tracers are subdivided in the following categories:metabolite tracers, antitumoral tracers, radioactive proteins and cations. Use of 67 Ga-citrate as a clinically important tumoral tracer is emphasized and gallium-67 whole-body scintigraphy is discussed in detail. (M.A.) [pt

  2. Placental histologic patterns and neonatal seizure, in preterm premature rupture of membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyun Sun; Cheon, Ju Young; Choi, Sae Kyung; Lee, Hye Won; Lee, Ahwon; Park, In Yang; Shin, Jong Chul

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between placenta and perinatal outcomes, in preterm infants born to mothers with preterm premature rupture of fetal membrane (PPROM). We report detailed histology of placentas and perinatal outcomes of infants from 79 PPROM pregnancies. Placental histologic pattern and adverse perinatal outcomes were assessed by logistic regression, adjusting for gestational age at birth, birth weight and interval from rupture of membrane to delivery. Mean gestational age at membrane rupture was 29.5 ± 3.4 weeks. The incidence of histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA), fetal inflammatory response (FIR) and vascular thrombotic abnormalities in placental histologic examination were 63.3, 25.3 and 78.5%, respectively. Neonates with FIR showed significantly higher incidence of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) (85% versus 59.3%, p = 0.0364) at brain ultrasonography, than neonates without FIR, in univariate analysis, but not in logistic regression analysis. In logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio of low Apgar score at 1 min in the neonates with clinical chorioamnionitis was 5.009 (95% CI, 1.242-20.195). The odds ratio of neonatal seizure in the neonates with FIR and vascular thrombotic problem was 7.486 (95% CI, 1.617-34.653). Our findings support the association between FIR with vascular thrombotic problem in placenta and neonatal seizure, in pregnancies with PPROM.

  3. Malignant tumors of gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    International histological classification and classification according to TNM systems, domestic clinical classification according to stages of carcinoma of stomach, large intestine and rectum are presented. Diagnosis of tumoral processes of the given localizations should be based on complex application of diagnostic methods: clinical, ultrasonic, radiological and others. Surgical method and variants of surgical method with preoperative radiotherapy play a leading role in treatment of mentioned tumors. Combined method of treatment-surgical intervention with postoperation intravenous injection of colloid 198 Au - is applied for preventing propagation of stomach cancer metastases. Advisability of combining operations with radiological and antitumoral medicamentous therapy is shown. Reliable results of treatment of malignant tumors of gastrointestinal tract are presented

  4. Animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  5. Risk of Local Recurrence of Benign and Borderline Phyllodes Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borhani-Khomani, Kaveh; Talman, Maj-Lis Møller; Kroman, Niels

    2016-01-01

    women aged 18 years or older, operated from 1999 to 2014, with resected benign or borderline PTs. Information on age, size of primary tumor and recurrence, histological grade, surgical treatment, margin size, and local recurrence were collected from the national Danish Pathology Register. RESULTS.......1-192). We identified 30 local recurrences, i.e., a recurrence rate of 6.3 %. Twenty-three recurrences had similar or lower histological grading than the primary tumor, one primary benign PT recurred as a tumor with unclear diagnosis, and one primary borderline PT recurred as malignant. The number...

  6. Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

  7. Quantile Regression With Measurement Error

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Ying; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    . The finite sample performance of the proposed method is investigated in a simulation study, and compared to the standard regression calibration approach. Finally, we apply our methodology to part of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project growth data, a

  8. Histological and cytological studies on radiosensitivity of cervical carcinoma according to histological types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Wataru; Kudo, Ryuichi

    1983-01-01

    Morphological investigation were made on the radiosensitivity, according to the histological types; 1 keratinizing(K), 2 large cell nonkeratinizing(LNK), and 3 small cell nonkeratinizing(S) type. The result obtained are as follows. 1) Histological and cytological estimation of irradiated effects were examined at the 7th day after 10 Gray test-irradiation: (i) Histological studies were done with the biopsy specimens (76 cases): There were significance differences among 3 histological types (LNK>K>S, P S, K>S, P<0.05). (iii) There was a correlation between the histological and cytological irradiation effects. 2) DNA histogram patterns were also examined spectrophotometrically. It seemed that the patterns after test-irradiation were broad and these peaks were situated rather to high ploidy in histologically and cytologically highly effective cases. 3) Early ultrastructural findings after test-irradiation were as follows: (i) appearance of intra-nuclear ''pseudoinclusion'', (ii) swelling of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and so on. Although these characteristics presented the same sequence of events without regard to their histological types, they were not synchronized. It seemed that they appeared earlier after test-irradiation in histologically high-sensitivity cases than in low-sensitivity cases. (author)

  9. From Rasch scores to regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang

    2006-01-01

    Rasch models provide a framework for measurement and modelling latent variables. Having measured a latent variable in a population a comparison of groups will often be of interest. For this purpose the use of observed raw scores will often be inadequate because these lack interval scale propertie....... This paper compares two approaches to group comparison: linear regression models using estimated person locations as outcome variables and latent regression models based on the distribution of the score....

  10. Testing Heteroscedasticity in Robust Regression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 4 (2011), s. 25-28 ISSN 2045-3345 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA402/09/0557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : robust regression * heteroscedasticity * regression quantiles * diagnostics Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics , Operational Research http://www.researchjournals.co.uk/documents/Vol4/06%20Kalina.pdf

  11. Regression methods for medical research

    CERN Document Server

    Tai, Bee Choo

    2013-01-01

    Regression Methods for Medical Research provides medical researchers with the skills they need to critically read and interpret research using more advanced statistical methods. The statistical requirements of interpreting and publishing in medical journals, together with rapid changes in science and technology, increasingly demands an understanding of more complex and sophisticated analytic procedures.The text explains the application of statistical models to a wide variety of practical medical investigative studies and clinical trials. Regression methods are used to appropriately answer the

  12. Forecasting with Dynamic Regression Models

    CERN Document Server

    Pankratz, Alan

    2012-01-01

    One of the most widely used tools in statistical forecasting, single equation regression models is examined here. A companion to the author's earlier work, Forecasting with Univariate Box-Jenkins Models: Concepts and Cases, the present text pulls together recent time series ideas and gives special attention to possible intertemporal patterns, distributed lag responses of output to input series and the auto correlation patterns of regression disturbance. It also includes six case studies.

  13. [Surgical treatment of the primary tumor in stage IV breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Anula, Juan; Sánchez Andújar, Belén; Machuca Chiriboga, Pablo; Navarro Cecilia, Joaquín; Dueñas Rodríguez, Basilio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of loco-regional surgery on survival of patients with stage IV breast cancer. Retrospective study that included patients with breast cancer and synchronous metastases. Patients with ECOG above 2 and high-risk patients were excluded. The following variables were evaluated: age, tumor size, nodal involvement, histological type, histological grade, hormone receptor status, HER2 overexpression, number of affected organs, location of metastases and surgical treatment. The impact of surgery and several clinical and pathologic variables on survival was analyzed by Cox regression model. A total of 69 patients, of whom 36 (52.2%) underwent surgery (study group) were included. After a mean follow-up of 34 months, the median survival of the series was 55 months and no significant differences between the study group and the group of patients without surgery (P=0.187) were found. Two factors associated with worse survival were identified: the number of organs with metastases (HR=1.69, IC 95%: 1.05-2.71) and triple negative breast cancer (HR=3.49, IC 95%: 1.39-8.74). Loco-regional surgery, however, was not associated with survival. Loco-regional surgical treatment was not associated with improved survival inpacientes with stage IV breast cancer. The number of organs with metastases and tumors were triple negative prognostic factors for survival. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Histological examination of the gadolinium-enhanced dura mater around meningiomas on magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Keiichi; Tada, Tsuyoshi; Fukasaku, Kazuaki; Kyoshima, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Shigeaki

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging often demonstrates gadolinium (Gd) enhancement of the dura mater around meningiomas. The Gd-enhanced dura mater was histologically investigated to detect meningioma cells. Gd enhancement of the dura mater occurred in 11 (79%) of the 14 meningiomas studied, and extended as far as 35 mm from the tumor. Histological examination revealed generation of vascular-rich loose connective tissue at the surface of the dura in all five tumors examined. Some clusters of meningothelial cells were distributed in the loose connective tissue in three of the five specimens, and one cluster was obviously neoplastic. These observations suggest that clusters of meningioma cells occur in the Gd-enhanced dura mater around meningiomas. (author)

  15. Histological examination of the gadolinium-enhanced dura mater around meningiomas on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Keiichi; Tada, Tsuyoshi; Fukasaku, Kazuaki; Kyoshima, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Shigeaki [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1993-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging often demonstrates gadolinium (Gd) enhancement of the dura mater around meningiomas. The Gd-enhanced dura mater was histologically investigated to detect meningioma cells. Gd enhancement of the dura mater occurred in 11 (79%) of the 14 meningiomas studied, and extended as far as 35 mm from the tumor. Histological examination revealed generation of vascular-rich loose connective tissue at the surface of the dura in all five tumors examined. Some clusters of meningothelial cells were distributed in the loose connective tissue in three of the five specimens, and one cluster was obviously neoplastic. These observations suggest that clusters of meningioma cells occur in the Gd-enhanced dura mater around meningiomas. (author).

  16. RBE determination of tumors by serum aldolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalluege, K H [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin. Zentralinstitut fuer Krebsforschung

    1981-06-01

    In patients with histologically ascertained bronchial carcinoma the tumor volume and the plasma volume was determined before therapy. Following the first irradiation of the tumor with a /sup 60/Co pendulum technique over the diseased side with 5 Gy for the 80% isodose determination of aldolase and creatin kinase was performed frequently during 24 h. A peak of serum aldolase was found 16 - 18 h after irradiation. The aldolase values of this peak were higher for undifferentiated carcinomas than for squamous cell carcinomas and proportional to the size of the tumor. The hypothesis is made that by means of this method using different radiation qualities their 'relative biological effectiveness' can be determined.

  17. [Malignant nonepithelial tumors of the lung].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakhtenberg, A Kh; Biriukov, Iu V; Frank, G A; Kunitsyn, A G; Grigor'eva, S P; Aĭtakov, Z N; Korenev, S V; Efimova, O Iu; Vial'tsev, N V

    1990-01-01

    The main peculiarities of the clinical course of lung sarcoma were determined from representative material of 134 patients. The main features differentiating malignant nonepithelial tumors from carcinoma of the lung are: younger age (average age 45.5 years), predominantly peripheral clinico-anatomical form (82.8%), and prevalent hematogenic metastasis. Five-year survival in the whole group of patients after surgical treatment was 54%. The size and histological form of the tumor are the main factors of prognosis. The degree of differentiation acquires prognostic significance in tumors measuring more than 3 cm in diameter.

  18. A gene signature in histologically normal surgical margins is predictive of oral carcinoma recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Patricia P; Simpson, Colleen; Goldstein, David; Brown, Dale; Gilbert, Ralph; Gullane, Patrick; Irish, Jonathan; Jurisica, Igor; Kamel-Reid, Suzanne; Waldron, Levi; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Pintilie, Melania; Galloni, Natalie Naranjo; Xuan, Yali; Cervigne, Nilva K; Warner, Giles C; Makitie, Antti A

    2011-01-01

    Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is a major cause of cancer death worldwide, which is mainly due to recurrence leading to treatment failure and patient death. Histological status of surgical margins is a currently available assessment for recurrence risk in OSCC; however histological status does not predict recurrence, even in patients with histologically negative margins. Therefore, molecular analysis of histologically normal resection margins and the corresponding OSCC may aid in identifying a gene signature predictive of recurrence. We used a meta-analysis of 199 samples (OSCCs and normal oral tissues) from five public microarray datasets, in addition to our microarray analysis of 96 OSCCs and histologically normal margins from 24 patients, to train a gene signature for recurrence. Validation was performed by quantitative real-time PCR using 136 samples from an independent cohort of 30 patients. We identified 138 significantly over-expressed genes (> 2-fold, false discovery rate of 0.01) in OSCC. By penalized likelihood Cox regression, we identified a 4-gene signature with prognostic value for recurrence in our training set. This signature comprised the invasion-related genes MMP1, COL4A1, P4HA2, and THBS2. Over-expression of this 4-gene signature in histologically normal margins was associated with recurrence in our training cohort (p = 0.0003, logrank test) and in our independent validation cohort (p = 0.04, HR = 6.8, logrank test). Gene expression alterations occur in histologically normal margins in OSCC. Over-expression of the 4-gene signature in histologically normal surgical margins was validated and highly predictive of recurrence in an independent patient cohort. Our findings may be applied to develop a molecular test, which would be clinically useful to help predict which patients are at a higher risk of local recurrence

  19. Plaque echodensity and textural features are associated with histologic carotid plaque instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doonan, Robert J; Gorgui, Jessica; Veinot, Jean P; Lai, Chi; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos; Corriveau, Marc M; Steinmetz, Oren K; Daskalopoulou, Stella S

    2016-09-01

    Carotid plaque echodensity and texture features predict cerebrovascular symptomatology. Our purpose was to determine the association of echodensity and textural features obtained from a digital image analysis (DIA) program with histologic features of plaque instability as well as to identify the specific morphologic characteristics of unstable plaques. Patients scheduled to undergo carotid endarterectomy were recruited and underwent carotid ultrasound imaging. DIA was performed to extract echodensity and textural features using Plaque Texture Analysis software (LifeQ Medical Ltd, Nicosia, Cyprus). Carotid plaque surgical specimens were obtained and analyzed histologically. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to reduce imaging variables. Logistic regression models were used to determine if PCA variables and individual imaging variables predicted histologic features of plaque instability. Image analysis data from 160 patients were analyzed. Individual imaging features of plaque echolucency and homogeneity were associated with a more unstable plaque phenotype on histology. These results were independent of age, sex, and degree of carotid stenosis. PCA reduced 39 individual imaging variables to five PCA variables. PCA1 and PCA2 were significantly associated with overall plaque instability on histology (both P = .02), whereas PCA3 did not achieve statistical significance (P = .07). DIA features of carotid plaques are associated with histologic plaque instability as assessed by multiple histologic features. Importantly, unstable plaques on histology appear more echolucent and homogeneous on ultrasound imaging. These results are independent of stenosis, suggesting that image analysis may have a role in refining the selection of patients who undergo carotid endarterectomy. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tumores de glândula parótida: estudo retrospectivo de 154 pacientes

    OpenAIRE

    Maahs, Gerson Schulz; Oppermann, Paula de Oliveira; Maahs, Lucas Gerhard Peter; Machado Filho, Geraldo; Ronchi, André Dajori

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Benign tumors of the parotid gland comprise the majority of salivary gland tumors. OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical characteristics of parotid gland tumors submitted to surgical treatment by the same surgeon. METHODS: Retrospective study with 154 patients who had parotid gland tumors. Clinical and histological data, type of surgery, and complications were assessed and described. RESULTS: The main manifestation was a mass with a median evolution of 12 months for benign tumors an...

  1. [Soft tissue sarcomas: the role of histology and molecular pathology for differential diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poremba, C

    2006-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas include a wide spectrum of different entities. The so-called small round blue cell tumors and spindle cell tumors are difficult to classify based solely on conventional histology. To identify different subtypes of tumors special histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques are necessary. Analysis of protein expression by immunohistochemistry provides a helpful tool to investigate the histogenesis of tumors. A basic spectrum of antibodies should be included to study these tumors: Desmin and myogenin (or MyoD1) for skeletal differentiation; S-100, NSE, CD56, and synaptophysin for neural/neuroendocrine differentiation; CD3, CD20, and CD79 alpha for malignant lymphomas; CD34, sm-actin, and beta-catenin for spindle cell tumors; additional antigens, e. g. Ki-67 and p 53, for estimation of proliferation and tumor suppressor gene malfunctions. Nevertheless, the molecular analysis of soft tissue sarcomas is necessary for demonstration of specific translocations or gene defects to specify and proof a diagnosis. For this purpose, RT-PCR for RNA expression analysis of gene fusion transcripts and multi-color FISH for analysis of chromosomal rearrangements are used. Further investigations, using DNA microrrays may help to subclassify such tumors, with respect to prognosis or prediction of therapeutic response.

  2. Osteomas of the skull. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and histological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Yasushi; Matsumura, Akira; Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Nose, Tadao [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of five patients with osteomas of the skull and six patients with other primary skull tumors were reviewed. All osteomas appeared as low-intensity areas on T{sub 1}-weighted images. T{sub 2}-weighted images showed homogeneous low-intensity areas in two dense osteomas, a high-intensity area in one spongy osteoma, and mixed intensity areas in two mixed spongy and dense osteomas, respec