WorldWideScience

Sample records for histocompatibility complex-restricted augmenting

  1. A recombinant antibody with the antigen-specific, major histocompatibility complex-restricted specificity of T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P S; Stryhn, A; Hansen, B E

    1996-01-01

    Specific recognition of peptide/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule complexes by the T-cell receptor is a key reaction in the specific immune response. Antibodies against peptide/MHC complexes would therefore be valuable tools in studying MHC function and T-cell recognition and might ...

  2. A Recombinant Antibody with the Antigen-Specific, Major Histocompatibility Complex-Restricted Specificity of T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Peter S.; Stryhn, Anette; Hansen, Bjarke E.; Fugger, Lars; Engberg, Jan; Buus, Soren

    1996-03-01

    Specific recognition of peptide/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule complexes by the T-cell receptor is a key reaction in the specific immune response. Antibodies against peptide/MHC complexes would therefore be valuable tools in studying MHC function and T-cell recognition and might lead to novel approaches in immunotherapy. However, it has proven difficult to generate antibodies with the specificity of T cells by conventional hybridoma techniques. Here we report that the phage display technology is a feasible alternative to generate antibodies recognizing specific, predetermined peptide/MHC complexes.

  3. Major histocompatibility complex-restricted self-recognition in responses to trinitrophenyl-Ficoll. A novel cell interaction pathway requiring self-recognition of accessory cell H-2 determinants by both T cells and B cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodes, R.J.; Hathcock, K.S.; Singer, A.

    1983-01-01

    In vitro primary antibody responses to limiting concentrations of trinitrophenyl (TNP)-Ficoll were shown to be T cell dependent, requiring the cooperation of T helper (TH) cells, B cells, and accessory cells. Under these conditions, TH cells derived from long-term radiation bone marrow chimeras were major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restricted in their ability to cooperate with accessory cells expressing host-type MHC determinants. The requirement for MHC-restricted self-recognition by TNP-Ficoll-reactive B cells was assessed under these T-dependent conditions. In the presence of competent TH cells, chimeric B cells were found to be MHC restricted, cooperating only with accessory cells that expressed host-type MHC products. In contrast, the soluble products of certain monoclonal T cell lines were able to directly activate B cells in response to TNP-Ficoll, bypassing any requirement for MHC-restricted self-recognition. These findings demonstrate the existence of a novel cell interaction pathway in which B cells as well as TH cells are each required to recognize self-MHC determinants on accessory cells, but are not required to recognize each other. They further demonstrate that the requirement for self-recognition by B cells may be bypassed in certain T-dependent activation pathways

  4. Dissociation of alloantigen recognition from self major histocompatibility complex-restricted recognition of cytolytic T lymphocytes by monoclonal antireceptor antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanagawa, O.; Nagasawa, R.

    1987-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies (mAb) directed to the dual reactive cytolytic T lymphocyte clone OH8 (D/sup b/T H-Y and H-2/sup d/) were established. Analysis by cell surface staining and immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled surface molecules of OH8 followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveled that both mAb recognized an identical heterodimeric, clonotypic structure on OH8 cells, i.e., T cell receptor. However, although the MR3-2 mAb inhibited the lysis of either D/sup b/ + H-Y or H-2/sup d/ targets by OH8, the MR3-6 mAb inhibited the lysis of H-2/sup d/ target cells, but not that of D/sup b/ + H-Y target cells. Modulation of T cell receptor by either MR3-2 or MR3-6 mAb rendered the OH8 cytolytic T lyrphocyte incapable of killing both D/sup b/ + H-Y and H-2/sup d/ target cells. These finding suggest that different epitopes of OH8 T cell receptor were involved for the recognition of self + antigen and alloantigen

  5. Augmented serum level of major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (MICA) protein and reduced NKG2D expression on NK and T cells in patients with cervical cancer and precursor lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arreygue-Garcia, Naela A; Delgado-Rizo, Vidal; Garcia-Iglesias, Trinidad; Hernandez-Flores, Georgina; Toro-Arreola, Susana del; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Toro-Arreola, Alicia del; Cid-Arregui, Angel; Gonzalez-Ramella, Oscar; Jave-Suarez, Luis F; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Troyo-Sanroman, Rogelio; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. NK and cytotoxic T cells play an important role in the elimination of virus-infected and tumor cells through NKG2D activating receptors, which can promote the lysis of target cells by binding to the major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (MICA) proteins. Increased serum levels of MICA have been found in patients with epithelial tumors. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of soluble MICA (sMICA) and NKG2D-expressing NK and T cells in blood samples from patients with cervical cancer or precursor lesions with those from healthy donors. Peripheral blood with or without heparin was collected to obtain mononuclear cells or sera, respectively. Serum sMICA levels were measured by ELISA and NKG2D-expressing immune cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Also, a correlation analysis was performed to associate sMICA levels with either NKG2D expression or with the stage of the lesion. Significant amounts of sMICA were detected in sera from nearly all patients. We found a decrease in the number of NKG2D-expressing NK and T cells in both cervical cancer and lesion groups when compared to healthy donors. Pearson analysis showed a negative correlation between sMICA and NKG2D-expressing T cells; however, we did not find a significant correlation when the analysis was applied to sMICA and NKG2D expression on NK cells. Our results show for the first time that high sMICA levels are found in sera from patients with both cervical cancer and precursor lesions when compared with healthy donors. We also observed a diminution in the number of NKG2D-expressing NK and T cells in the patient samples; however, a significant negative correlation between sMICA and NKG2D expression was only seen in T cells

  6. Major Histocompatibilty Complex-Restricted Adaptive Immune Responses to CT26 Colon Cancer Cell Line in Mixed Allogeneic Chimera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K W; Choi, B; Kim, Y M; Cho, C W; Park, H; Moon, J I; Choi, G-S; Park, J B; Kim, S J

    2017-06-01

    Although the induction of mixed allogeneic chimera shows promising clinical tolerance results in organ transplantation, its clinical relevance as an anti-cancer therapy is yet unknown. We introduced a mixed allogenic chimera setting with the use of a murine colon cancer cell line, CT26, by performing double bone marrow transplantation. We analyzed donor- and recipient-restricted anti-cancer T-cell responses, and phenotypes of subpopulations of T cells. The protocol involves challenging 1 × 10 5 cells of CT26 cells intra-hepatically on day 50 after bone marrow transplantation, and, by use of CT26 lysates and an H-2L d -restricted AH1 pentamer, flow cytometric analysis was performed to detect the generation of cancer-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells at various time points. We found that immunocompetence against tumors depends heavily on cancer-specific CD8 + T-cell responses in a major histocompatibility complex-restricted manner; the evidence was further supported by the increase of interferon-γ-secreting CD4 + T cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that during the effector immune response to CT26 cancer challenge, there was a presence of central memory cells (CD62L hi CCR7 + ) as well as effector memory cells (CD62L lo CCR7 - ). Moreover, mixed allogeneic chimeras (BALB/c to C56BL/6 or vice versa) showed similar or heightened immune responses to CT26 cells compared with that of wild-type mice. Our results suggest that the responses of primary immunocompetency and of pre-existing memory T cells against allogeneic cancer are sustained and preserved long-term in a mixed allogeneic chimeric environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Augmented postcard

    OpenAIRE

    Bernik , Aleš

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the examination of augmented reality technology, which allows us mixing real and virtual elements. Augmented reality is a relatively new technology which is becoming more widespread, thanks to a fairly reasonable price of smart phones. Here we presents the types of augmented reality, the necessary technology and their advantages and disadvantages, its current use in applications, and software for building augmented reality applications. The thesis is mainly focuse...

  8. The Major Histocompatibility Complex in Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Ayala García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplant of organs is one of the greatest therapeutic achievements of the twentieth century. In organ transplantation, the adaptive immunity is considered the main response exerted to the transplanted tissue, since the principal target of the immune response is the MHC (major histocompatibility complex molecules expressed on the surface of donor cells. However, we should not forget that the innate and adaptive immunities are closely interrelated and should be viewed as complementary and cooperating. When a human transplant is performed, HLA (human leukocyte antigens molecules from a donor are recognized by the recipient's immune system triggering an alloimmune response Matching of donor and recipient for MHC antigens has been shown to have a significant positive effect on graft acceptance. This paper will present MHC, the innate and adaptive immunities, and clinical HLA testing.

  9. Strategies for future histocompatible stem cell therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehlin, Jan; Barington, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Stem cell therapy based on the safe and unlimited self-renewal of human pluripotent stem cells is envisioned for future use in tissue or organ replacement after injury or disease. A gradual decline of regenerative capacity has been documented among the adult stem cell population in some body organs...... during the aging process. Recent progress in human somatic cell nuclear transfer and inducible pluripotent stem cell technologies has shown that patient-derived nuclei or somatic cells can be reprogrammed in vitro to become pluripotent stem cells, from which the three germ layer lineages can be generated......, genetically identical to the recipient. Once differentiation protocols and culture conditions can be defined and optimized, patient-histocompatible pluripotent stem cells could be directed towards virtually every cell type in the human body. Harnessing this capability to enrich for given cells within...

  10. AUGMENTED REALITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Kirsten; Bahn, Anne Louise

    2017-01-01

    Projektets grundlæggende idé er udvikling af visuel, æstetisk læring med Augmented Reality, hvor intentionen er at bidrage med konkrete undersøgelser og udforskning af begrebet Augmented Reality – herunder koblingen mellem det analoge og digitale i forhold til læring, multimodalitet og it...

  11. Breast Augmentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-13

    Apr 13, 1974 ... Complications encountered after breast augmentation are dealt with in .... in Phisohex or other suitable preparation for a few days before surgery ... In all cases, the prosthesis causes a fibrous tissue capsule to form around it.

  12. Chin augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or bigger compared to the nose. The best candidates for chin augmentation are people with weak or ... www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. ...

  13. Augmented reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Pucer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Today we can obtain in a simple and rapid way most of the information that we need. Devices, such as personal computers and mobile phones, enable access to information in different formats (written, pictorial, audio or video whenever and wherever. Daily we use and encounter information that can be seen as virtual objects or objects that are part of the virtual world of computers. Everyone, at least once, wanted to bring these virtual objects from the virtual world of computers into real environments and thus mix virtual and real worlds. In such a mixed reality, real and virtual objects coexist in the same environment. The reality, where users watch and use the real environment upgraded with virtual objects is called augmented reality. In this article we describe the main properties of augmented reality. In addition to the basic properties that define a reality as augmented reality, we present the various building elements (possible hardware and software that provide an insight into such a reality and practical applications of augmented reality. The applications are divided into three groups depending on the information and functions that augmented reality offers, such as help, guide and simulator.

  14. Evolutionary Analysis of Minor Histocompatibility Genes In Hydra

    KAUST Repository

    Aalismail, Nojood

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we took initiative to study the self/nonself recognition in hydra and its relation to the immune response. Moreover, performing phylogenetic analysis to look for annotated immune genes in hydra gave us a potential to analyze the expression of minor histocompatibility genes that have been shown to play a major role in grafting and transplantation in mammals. Here we obtained the cDNA library that shows expression of minor histocompatibility genes and confirmed that the annotated sequences in databases are actually present. In addition, grafting experiments suggested, although still preliminary, that homograft showed less rejection response than in heterograft. Involvement of possible minor histocompatibility gene orthologous in immune response was examined by qPCR.

  15. Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Kjeldsen, Lars Peter Bech; Rahn, Annette

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of iPad-facilitated application of augmented reality in the teaching of highly complex anatomical and physiological subjects in the training of nurses at undergraduate level. The general aim of the project is to investigate the potentials of this application in terms...... of making the complex content and context of these subjects more approachable to the students through the visualization made possible through the use of this technology. A case study is described in this chapter. Issues and factors required for the sustainable use of the mobile-facilitated application...... of augmented reality are discussed....

  16. Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Brandt, Harald; Radmer, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Artiklen præsenterer resultater fra pilotafprøvning i 7.-klasses fysik/kemi og biologi af to Augmented Reality (AR)-apps til naturfagsundervisning. Muligheder og udfordringer ved lærerens stilladsering af elevernes undersøgende samtale og modelleringskompetence er undersøgt med interview...

  17. Augmented reality

    OpenAIRE

    Jecha, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is focused on a technology called Augmented reality, especially on its use in marketing. The main objective of the thesis is to define why this technology is a suitable tool for marketing and to assess its use in real conditions. This is achieved by defining specific devices and use cases of this technology in practice, whereas evaluation of its use in real enviroment is based on statistics. The contribution of the thesis is objective evaluation of this technology and provision of...

  18. Mobile Collaborative Augmented Reality: The Augmented Stroll

    OpenAIRE

    Renevier , Philippe; Nigay , Laurence

    2001-01-01

    International audience; The paper focuses on Augmented Reality systems in which interaction with the real world is augmented by the computer, the task being performed in the real world. We first define what mobile AR systems, collaborative AR systems and finally mobile and collaborative AR systems are. We then present the augmented stroll and its software design as one example of a mobile and collaborative AR system. The augmented stroll is applied to Archaeology in the MAGIC (Mobile Augmente...

  19. Evolutionary Analysis of Minor Histocompatibility Genes In Hydra

    KAUST Repository

    Aalismail, Nojood

    2016-05-01

    Hydra is a simple freshwater solitary polyp used as a model system to study evolutionary aspects. The immune response of this organism has not been studied extensively and the immune response genes have not been identified and characterized. On the other hand, immune response has been investigated and genetic analysis has been initiated in other lower invertebrates. In the present study we took initiative to study the self/nonself recognition in hydra and its relation to the immune response. Moreover, performing phylogenetic analysis to look for annotated immune genes in hydra gave us a potential to analyze the expression of minor histocompatibility genes that have been shown to play a major role in grafting and transplantation in mammals. Here we obtained the cDNA library that shows expression of minor histocompatibility genes and confirmed that the annotated sequences in databases are actually present. In addition, grafting experiments suggested, although still preliminary, that homograft showed less rejection response than in heterograft. Involvement of possible minor histocompatibility gene orthologous in immune response was examined by qPCR.

  20. ARLearn: augmented reality meets augmented virtuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ternier, Stefaan; Klemke, Roland; Kalz, Marco; Van Ulzen, Patricia; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Ternier, S., Klemke, R., Kalz, M., Van Ulzen, P., & Specht, M. (2012). ARLearn: augmented reality meets augmented virtuality [Special issue]. Journal of Universal Computer Science - Technology for learning across physical and virtual spaces, 18(15), 2143-2164.

  1. Lipofection indirectly increases expression of endogenous major histocompatibility complex class I molecules on tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, B A; Drury, M; Hu, H M; Cao, Z; Huntzicker, E G; Qie, W; Urba, W J

    1998-01-01

    Direct intratumoral injection of a lipid/DNA complex encoding an allogeneic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule leads to regression of both an immunogenic murine tumor and also melanoma lesions in some patients. We have sought to understand the mechanism(s) for this augmentation of antitumor activity. While optimizing parameters for in vitro gene transfer into the D5 subclone of B16BL6, it was noted that lipofected tumors not only expressed the new alloantigen but also exhibited increased expression of endogenous MHC class I, both H-2 Kb and H-2 Db. This increase in expression was not restricted to the small percentage of cells that expressed the transfected gene, but appeared to affect the majority of cells in culture. Class I expression was not increased by lipopolysaccharide, DNA alone, lipid, or lipid/lipopolysaccharide mixtures. Enhanced class I expression required a DNA/lipid complex and was greatest when parameters optimized for gene transfer of the alloantigen were used. All DNA plasmids tested had this effect, including one plasmid whose DNA was not transcribed because it lacked an expression cassette. Because of the critical role that MHC class I antigens play in immune recognition, we propose that lipid complex-mediated gene transfer may provide immunological advantages beyond those that are attributable to expression of the specific gene transferred.

  2. Signal transduction by the major histocompatibility complex class I molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A E; Skov, Svend; Bregenholt, S

    1999-01-01

    Ligation of cell surface major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I) proteins by antibodies, or by their native counter receptor, the CD8 molecule, mediates transduction of signals into the cells. MHC-I-mediated signaling can lead to both increased and decreased activity of the MHC-I-expressing cell...... and functioning, MHC-I molecules might be of importance for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis not only within the immune system, but also in the interplay between the immune system and other organ systems....

  3. Comparative analysis of minor histocompatibility antigens genotyping methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Vdovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide range of techniques could be employed to find mismatches in minor histocompatibility antigens between transplant recipients and their donors. In the current study we compared three genotyping methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR for four minor antigens. Three of the tested methods: allele-specific PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism and real-time PCR with TaqMan probes demonstrated 100% reliability when compared to Sanger sequencing for all of the studied polymorphisms. High resolution melting analysis was unsuitable for genotyping of one of the tested minor antigens (HA-1 as it has linked synonymous polymorphism. Obtained data could be used to select the strategy for large-scale clinical genotyping.

  4. Examining the evidence for major histocompatibility complex-dependent mate selection in humans and nonhuman primates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Winternitz, Jamie Caroline; Abbate, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, 13 May (2015), s. 73-88 ISSN 1179-7274 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : major histocompatibility complex * sexual selection * olfaction * facial attraction * parasite resistance * inbreeding avoidance Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  5. Genetic Divergence of the Rhesus Macaque Major Histocompatibility Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza-Vamenta, Riza; Glusman, Gustavo; Rowen, Lee; Guthrie, Brandon; Geraghty, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is comprised of the class I, class II, and class III regions, including the MHC class I and class II genes that play a primary role in the immune response and serve as an important model in studies of primate evolution. Although nonhuman primates contribute significantly to comparative human studies, relatively little is known about the genetic diversity and genomics underlying nonhuman primate immunity. To address this issue, we sequenced a complete rhesus macaque MHC spanning over 5.3 Mb, and obtained an additional 2.3 Mb from a second haplotype, including class II and portions of class I and class III. A major expansion of from six class I genes in humans to as many as 22 active MHC class I genes in rhesus and levels of sequence divergence some 10-fold higher than a similar human comparison were found, averaging from 2% to 6% throughout extended portions of class I and class II. These data pose new interpretations of the evolutionary constraints operating between MHC diversity and T-cell selection by contrasting with models predicting an optimal number of antigen presenting genes. For the clinical model, these data and derivative genetic tools can be implemented in ongoing genetic and disease studies that involve the rhesus macaque. PMID:15289473

  6. Olfactory fingerprints for major histocompatibility complex-determined body odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, M L; Young, D A; Restrepo, D

    2001-04-01

    Recognition of individual body odors is analogous to human face recognition in that it provides information about identity. Individual body odors determined by differences at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC or H-2) have been shown to influence mate choice, pregnancy block, and maternal behavior in mice. Unfortunately, the mechanism and extent of the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) involvement in the discrimination of animals according to H-2-type has remained ambiguous. Here we study the neuronal activation patterns evoked in the MOB in different individuals on exposure to these complex, biologically meaningful sensory stimuli. We demonstrate that body odors from H-2 disparate mice evoke overlapping but distinct maps of neuronal activation in the MOB. The spatial patterns of odor-evoked activity are sufficient to be used like fingerprints to predict H-2 identity using a novel computer algorithm. These results provide functional evidence for discrimination of H-2-determined body odors in the MOB, but do not preclude a role for the AOB. These data further our understanding of the neural strategies used to decode socially relevant odors.

  7. Olfactory cues associated with the major histocompatibility complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, F; Müller-Ruchholtz, W; Ferstl, R

    Besides its immunological function of self/non-self discrimination the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has been recognized as a possible source of individual specific body odors. Dating back to speculations on the role of the extraordinary polymorphism of the MHC as background of an individual chemosensory identity and to early observations of MHC-dependent mate choice in inbred strains of mice, systematic experimental studies revealed a first evidence for H-2 related body odors in this species. Meanwhile a large number of animal studies with rodents and a series of field studies and experiments with humans have extended our knowledge of MHC-related odor signals and substantiated the hypothesis of immunogenetic associated odor types. These results suggest that the most prominent feature of the MHC, its extraordinary genetic diversity, seems in part to be selectively maintained by behavioral mechanisms which operate in contemporary natural populations. The high degree of heterozygosity found in natural populations of most species seems to be promoted by non-disease-based selection such as mating preferences and selective block of pregnancy.

  8. Molecular Genotype Identification of Different Chickens: Major Histocompatibility Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhi Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chicken is a main poultry in China. Molecular breeding for disease resistance plays an important role in the control of diseases, especially infectious diseases. Choice of genes for disease resistance is the key technology of molecular breeding. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is of great interest to poultry breeding scientists for its extraordinary polymorphism and close relation with traits of resistance against infectious diseases. The MHC-B haplotype plays an important role in the study of disease resistance in chicken. The traditional chicken MHC-B haplotype is commonly defined by serologic reactions of erythrocytes and the majority of studies have been conducted in Leghorn and broiler but study about other chicken breeds is little. In this study, firstly, the microsatellite marker LEI0258 which is located within the MHC was sequenced by using target sequence capture assay in different chicken breeds, and then according to the number of repeated structures and polymorphic sequences in microsatellite, sequence information for the region defined by LEI0258 was obtained for different haplotypes. Afterwards, we identified the relation between MHC-B haplotypes and disease resistance. Collectively, these observed results provided the reference data for disease-resistant breeding association with blood type and for further study of MHC gene function in poultry.

  9. Identification of a Novel UTY‐Encoded Minor Histocompatibility Antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, B. K.; Rasmussen, A. H.; Larsen, Malene Erup

    2012-01-01

    Minor histocompatibility antigens (mHags) encoded by the Y‐chromosome (H‐Y‐mHags) are known to play a pivotal role in allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) involving female donors and male recipients. We present a new H‐Y‐mHag, YYNAFHWAI (UTY139–147), encoded by the UTY gene...... obtained post‐HCT from male recipients of female donor grafts. In one of these recipients, a CD8+ T cell response was observed against a peptide stretch encoded by the UTY gene. Another bioinformatics tool, HLArestrictor, was used to identify the optimal peptide and HLA‐restriction element. Using peptide....../HLA tetramers, the specificity of the CD8+ T cell response was successfully validated as being HLA‐A*24:02‐restricted and directed against the male UTY139–147 peptide. Functional analysis of these T cells demonstrated male UTY139–147 peptide‐specific cytokine secretion (IFNγ, TNFα and MIP‐1β) and cytotoxic...

  10. Secondary Breast Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mitchell H; Somogyi, Ron B; Aggarwal, Shagun

    2016-07-01

    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Assess common clinical problems in the secondary breast augmentation patient. 2. Describe a treatment plan to correct the most common complications of breast augmentation. 3. Provide surgical and nonsurgical options for managing complications of breast augmentation. 4. Decrease the incidence of future complications through accurate assessment, preoperative planning, and precise surgical technique. Breast augmentation has been increasing steadily in popularity over the past three decades. Many of these patients present with secondary problems or complications following their primary breast augmentation. Two of the most common complications are capsular contracture and implant malposition. Familiarity and comfort with the assessment and management of these complications is necessary for all plastic surgeons. An up-to-date understanding of current devices and techniques may decrease the need to manage future complications from the current cohort of breast augmentation patients.

  11. Mobile Augmented Reality Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Prochazka, David; Stencl, Michael; Popelka, Ondrej; Stastny, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    Augmented reality have undergone considerable improvement in past years. Many special techniques and hardware devices were developed, but the crucial breakthrough came with the spread of intelligent mobile phones. This enabled mass spread of augmented reality applications. However mobile devices have limited hardware capabilities, which narrows down the methods usable for scene analysis. In this article we propose an augmented reality application which is using cloud computing to enable using...

  12. Confronting an Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…

  13. Augmented Reality on Android

    OpenAIRE

    Chunghan Li; Chang-Shyh Peng; Daisy F. Sang

    2013-01-01

    Augmented Reality is an application which combines a live view of real-world environment and computer-generated images. This paper studies and demonstrates an efficient Augmented Reality development in the mobile Android environment with the native Java language and Android SDK. Major components include Barcode Reader, File Loader, Marker Detector, Transform Matrix Generator, and a cloud database.

  14. Augmented reality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Donna R

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technology that overlays digital information on objects or places in the real world for the purpose of enhancing the user experience. It is not virtual reality, that is, the technology that creates a totally digital or computer created environment. Augmented reality, with its ability to combine reality and digital information, is being studied and implemented in medicine, marketing, museums, fashion, and numerous other areas. This article presents an overview of augmented reality, discussing what it is, how it works, its current implementations, and its potential impact on libraries.

  15. Surfactant protein D augments bacterial association but attenuates major histocompatibility complex class II presentation of bacterial antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren; Lo, Bernice; Evans, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    Development of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), is associated with lipid dysregulation and inflammation. As the host defense lectin surfactant protein D (SP-D) has multiple effects in lipid homeostasis and inflammation, the correlation between SP-D concentrations and development of d...

  16. Augmented Reality, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Augmented Reality systems come with many benefits derived by co-locating information with a user's environment through the use of one or more output modalities such...

  17. Chin augmentation - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100009.htm Chin augmentation - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  18. Augmenting Clozapine With Sertindole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Emborg, Charlotte; Gydesen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Clozapine augmentation with antipsychotic drugs is widely used despite sparse evidence supporting this strategy. Sertindole is a nonsedating atypical antipsychotic drug with low affinity for cholinergic receptors, which makes it potentially suitable for augmentation of clozapine. The study design...... glucose, lipids, and electrocardiogram. Clozapine augmentation with sertindole was not superior to placebo regarding total score or subscale score of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression, World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief, or Drug Attitude Inventory....... No increased adverse effects compared with placebo were found. Four patients randomized to sertindole experienced a significant worsening of psychosis, and 2 of them required psychiatric admission. Metabolic parameters were unchanged during the study, but augmentation of clozapine with sertindole...

  19. Breast augmentation - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100205.htm Breast augmentation - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  20. Augmented reality in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagaytayan, Raniel; Kelemen, Arpad; Sik-Lanyi, Cecilia

    2018-04-01

    Neurosurgery is a medical specialty that relies heavily on imaging. The use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance images during preoperative planning and intraoperative surgical navigation is vital to the success of the surgery and positive patient outcome. Augmented reality application in neurosurgery has the potential to revolutionize and change the way neurosurgeons plan and perform surgical procedures in the future. Augmented reality technology is currently commercially available for neurosurgery for simulation and training. However, the use of augmented reality in the clinical setting is still in its infancy. Researchers are now testing augmented reality system prototypes to determine and address the barriers and limitations of the technology before it can be widely accepted and used in the clinical setting.

  1. Exploration Augmentation Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM) project goal is to design and deliver a flight module that is to be deployed to Earth-Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO)....

  2. Marketing and Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Zelený, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this diploma thesis is to identify the usage of augmented reality in contemporary marketing practice and the expectations of marketers for the future use. This will be achieved by conducting a quantitative and qualitative research among existing creative and advertising companies. Secondary goal is introducing the concept of augmented reality from the theoretical point of view and also description of potential utilization based on known examples. The tools for the practical p...

  3. INFORMATION VIA AUGMENTED

    OpenAIRE

    Tetteh, Sampson

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of mobile technology today has developed over the past dec-ades. The thirst for information and communication has brought about high data transfer speed on modern mobile handset devices. This makes it possible for Augmented Reality to be used on mobile phones. Vaasa University of Applied Science, Technobothnia science resource center and Lumivaara Museum saw the importance of information and decided to embark on a pilot project where Augmented Reality will not be only us...

  4. Confronting an augmented reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hedberg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and suggest that they be used as drivers for research into effective educational applications of augmented reality. We discuss how multi-modal, sensorial augmentation of reality links to existing theories of education and learning, focusing on ideas of cognitive dissonance and the confrontation of new realities implied by exposure to new and varied perspectives. We also discuss connections with broader debates brought on by the social and cultural changes wrought by the increased digitalisation of our lives, especially the concept of the extended mind. Rather than offer a prescription for augmentation, our intention is to throw open debate and to provoke deep thinking about what interacting with and creating an augmented reality might mean for both teacher and learner.

  5. CD1 and major histocompatibility complex II molecules follow a different course during dendritic cell maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wel, Nicole N.; Sugita, Masahiko; Fluitsma, Donna M.; Cao, Xaiochun; Schreibelt, Gerty; Brenner, Michael B.; Peters, Peter J.

    2003-01-01

    The maturation of dendritic cells is accompanied by the redistribution of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules from the lysosomal MHC class IT compartment to the plasma membrane to mediate presentation of peptide antigens. Besides MHC molecules, dendritic cells also express CD1

  6. Evidence for multiple major histocompatibility class II X-box binding proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Celada, A; Maki, R

    1989-01-01

    The X box is a loosely conserved DNA sequence that is located upstream of all major histocompatibility class II genes and is one of the cis-acting regulatory elements. Despite the similarity between all X-box sequences, each promoter-proximal X box in the mouse appears to bind a separate nuclear factor.

  7. Correlation in chicken between the marker LEI0258 alleles and Major Histocompatibility Complex sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chazara, Olympe; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl; Chang, Chi-Seng

    Background The LEI0258 marker is located within the B region of the chicken Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), and is surprisingly well associated with serology. Therefore, the correlation between the LEI0258 alleles and the MHC class I and the class II alleles at the level of sequences is w...

  8. Pathogen burden, co-infection and major histocompatibility complex variability in the European badger (Meles meles)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sin, Yung Wa; Annavi, Geetha; Dugdale, Hannah L.; Newman, Chris; Burke, Terry; MacDonald, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen-mediated selection is thought to maintain the extreme diversity in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, operating through the heterozygote advantage, rare-allele advantage and fluctuating selection mechanisms. Heterozygote advantage (i.e. recognizing and binding a wider range

  9. Augmented marked graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, King Sing

    2014-01-01

    Petri nets are a formal and theoretically rich model for the modelling and analysis of systems. A subclass of Petri nets, augmented marked graphs possess a structure that is especially desirable for the modelling and analysis of systems with concurrent processes and shared resources.This monograph consists of three parts: Part I provides the conceptual background for readers who have no prior knowledge on Petri nets; Part II elaborates the theory of augmented marked graphs; finally, Part III discusses the application to system integration. The book is suitable as a first self-contained volume

  10. Augmented reality som wearable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Rahn, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler design og implementering af Augmented Reality (AR) i form af en wearable i sygeplejerskeuddannelsens anatomiundervisning, mere specifikt undervisning i lungeanatomi og respiration, med fokus på potentialer for visuel læring. Projektet undersøger, hvordan en udviklet AR-applikat......Artiklen omhandler design og implementering af Augmented Reality (AR) i form af en wearable i sygeplejerskeuddannelsens anatomiundervisning, mere specifikt undervisning i lungeanatomi og respiration, med fokus på potentialer for visuel læring. Projektet undersøger, hvordan en udviklet AR...

  11. Prototyping Augmented Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Learn to create augmented reality apps using Processing open-source programming language Augmented reality (AR) is used all over, and you may not even realize it. Smartphones overlay data onto live camera views to show homes for sale, restaurants, or historical sites. American football broadcasts use AR to show the invisible first-down line on the field to TV viewers. Nike and Budweiser, among others, have used AR in ads. Now, you can learn to create AR prototypes using 3D data, Processing open-source programming language, and other languages. This unique book is an easy-to-follow guide on how

  12. Towards Pervasive Augmented Reality: Context-Awareness in Augmented Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubert, Jens; Langlotz, Tobias; Zollmann, Stefanie; Regenbrecht, Holger

    2017-06-01

    Augmented Reality is a technique that enables users to interact with their physical environment through the overlay of digital information. While being researched for decades, more recently, Augmented Reality moved out of the research labs and into the field. While most of the applications are used sporadically and for one particular task only, current and future scenarios will provide a continuous and multi-purpose user experience. Therefore, in this paper, we present the concept of Pervasive Augmented Reality, aiming to provide such an experience by sensing the user's current context and adapting the AR system based on the changing requirements and constraints. We present a taxonomy for Pervasive Augmented Reality and context-aware Augmented Reality, which classifies context sources and context targets relevant for implementing such a context-aware, continuous Augmented Reality experience. We further summarize existing approaches that contribute towards Pervasive Augmented Reality. Based our taxonomy and survey, we identify challenges for future research directions in Pervasive Augmented Reality.

  13. Maxillary Sinus Floor Augmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starch-Jensen, Thomas; Jensen, Janek Dalsgaard

    2017-01-01

    , radiological and histomorphometric outcome as well as complications are presented after maxillary sinus floor augmentation applying the lateral window technique with a graft material, maxillary sinus membrane elevation without a graft material and osteotome-mediated sinus floor elevation with or without...

  14. Augmented Reality og kulturarv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Kirkedahl Lysholm

    2013-01-01

    Museerne står overfor at skulle omfavne den digitale kultur i håndteringen af den store mængde viden, institutionerne repræsenterer. Augmented Reality-systemer forbinder ved hjælp af moderne teknologi det virtuelle med det virkelige, og kan derfor synes som en oplagt anvendelsesmulighed i...

  15. Augmented Reality i naturfagsundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radmer, Ole; Surland, Mogens; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    Augmented Reality (AR) giver ny mulighed for, at elever kan lave undersøgelser i naturfag med enkel teknologi, hvor animationer og simulationer kobles med det virkelige fænomen. I workshoppen kan I afprøve AR eksempler, udviklet i et internationalt EU projekt. Der vil være noget, der direkte kan...

  16. Collaboration in Augmented Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukosch, S.; Billinghurst, M.; Alem, L.; Kiyokawa, K.

    2015-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology that allows users to view and interact in real time with virtual images seamlessly superimposed over the real world. AR systems can be used to create unique collaborative experiences. For example, co-located users can see shared 3D virtual objects that they

  17. Decellularization of Human Nasal Septal Cartilage for the Novel Filler Material of Vocal Fold Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dae-Woon; Shin, Sung-Chan; Jang, Jeon-Yeob; Park, Hee-Young; Lee, Jin-Choon; Wang, Soo-Geun; Lee, Byung-Joo

    2017-01-01

    The clinical application of allogenic and/or xenogenic cartilage for vocal fold augmentation requires to remove the antigenic cellular component. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of cartilage decellularization and determine the change in immunogenicity after detergent treatment in human nasal septal cartilage flakes made by the freezing and grinding method. Human nasal septal cartilages were obtained from surgical cases. The harvested cartilages were treated by the freezing and grinding technique. The obtained cartilage flakes were treated with 1% Triton X-100 or 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) for decellularization of the cartilage flakes. Hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain), surface electric microscopy, immunohistochemical stain for major histocompatibility complex I and II, and ELISA for DNA contents were performed to assess the effect of cartilage decellularization after detergent treatment. A total of 10 nasal septal cartilages were obtained from surgical cases. After detergent treatment, the average size of the cartilage flakes was significantly decreased. With H&E staining, the cell nuclei of decellularized cartilage flakes were not observed. The expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I and II antigens was not identified in the decellularized cartilage flakes after treatment with detergent. DNA content was removed almost entirely from the decellularized cartilage flakes. Treatment with 2% SDS or 1% Triton X-100 for 1 hour appears to be a promising method for decellularization of human nasal septal cartilage for vocal fold augmentation. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Capillary Refill using Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in Computer science The opportunities within augmented reality is growing. Augmented reality is a combination of the real and the virtual world in real time, and large companies like Microsoft and Google is now investing heavily in the technology. This thesis presents a solution for simulating a medical test called capillary refill, by using augmented reality. The simulation is performed with an augmented reality headset called HoloLens. The HoloLens will recognise a mark...

  19. AR DOC: Augmented reality documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Augmented Reality Documentaries (AR DOC) er et ’lille’ Shareplay projekt (ansøgte midler augmented reality cross media løsninger, til at skabe engagerende publikumsformidling...... indenfor oplevelsesindustrien. Projektet har genereret ny viden omkring, hvordan fysisk og digital formidling kan understøttes via Augmented Reality som formidlingsformat....

  20. Associative link of clinical manifestations of the secondary syphilis of skin and mucosa with histocompatibility antigens Class I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Koshkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty patients with different clinical symptoms of secondary syphilis (ulcer chancres, pustular syphilis, hypertrophic papules, widespread leukoderma and alopecia were examined in order to study the distribution pattern of histocompatibility antigens of the first class in patients with secondary syphilis of the skin and mucous membranes. As a result of the study, the presence of an associative relationship between the distribution pattern of histocompatibility antigens of the first class and various clinical manifestations in patients with secondary syphilis was established.

  1. Isolation and characterization of major histocompatibility complex class IIB genes from the nurse shark.

    OpenAIRE

    Bartl, S; Weissman, I L

    1994-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contains a set of linked genes which encode cell surface proteins involved in the binding of small peptide antigens for their subsequent recognition by T lymphocytes. MHC proteins share structural features and the presence and location of polymorphic residues which play a role in the binding of antigens. In order to compare the structure of these molecules and gain insights into their evolution, we have isolated two MHC class IIB genes from the nurse...

  2. NetMHCcons: a consensus method for the major histocompatibility complex class I predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karosiene, Edita; Lundegaard, Claus; Lund, Ole

    2012-01-01

    A key role in cell-mediated immunity is dedicated to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules that bind peptides for presentation on the cell surface. Several in silico methods capable of predicting peptide binding to MHC class I have been developed. The accuracy of these methods depe...... at www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHCcons, and allows the user in an automatic manner to obtain the most accurate predictions for any given MHC molecule....

  3. Transaxillary Endoscopic Breast Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Bo Sim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The axillary technique is the most popular approach to breast augmentation among Korean women. Transaxillary breast augmentation is now conducted with sharp electrocautery dissection under direct endoscopic vision throughout the entire process. The aims of this method are clear: both a bloodless pocket and a sharp non-traumatic dissection. Round textured or anatomical cohesive gel implants have been used to make predictable well-defined inframammary creases because textured surface implants demonstrated a better stability attributable to tissue adherence compared with smooth surface implants. The axillary endoscopic technique has greatly evolved, and now the surgical results are comparable to those with the inframammary approach. The author feels that this technique is an excellent choice for young patients with an indistinct or absent inframammary fold, who do not want a scar in the aesthetic unit of their chest.

  4. Augmented reality in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhaiber, Jeffrey H

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the history and current knowledge of computer-augmented reality in the field of surgery and its potential goals in education, surgeon training, and patient treatment. National Library of Medicine's database and additional library searches. Only articles suited to surgical sciences with a well-defined aim of study, methodology, and precise description of outcome were included. Augmented reality is an effective tool in executing surgical procedures requiring low-performance surgical dexterity; it remains a science determined mainly by stereotactic registration and ergonomics. Strong evidence was found that it is an effective teaching tool for training residents. Weaker evidence was found to suggest a significant influence on surgical outcome, both morbidity and mortality. No evidence of cost-effectiveness was found. Augmented reality is a new approach in executing detailed surgical operations. Although its application is in a preliminary stage, further research is needed to evaluate its long-term clinical impact on patients, surgeons, and hospital administrators. Its widespread use and the universal transfer of such technology remains limited until there is a better understanding of registration and ergonomics.

  5. Augmented reality services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Koubek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We assume that one of the key reasons is in the difference between a standalone application and a web service. Both architectures have some advantages and disadvantages. The Standalone application (e.g. Nokia/OVI Maps provides the required functionality. From the user point of view, main asset of this “offline” approach is network connectivity independence. However, this kind of applications must be upgraded manually. Moreover, it is hard to get any data about the application usage because it requires additional actions from the user – data are usually acquired through conventional ways, such as email or web forms.The online service such as Google Maps (including its mobile application can offer the same functionality as the offline application. Nevertheless, a permanent connection to provider servers is necessary. This can be taken as a drawback. On the other hand, usage data collection is easier and can be done without the user intervention. The data collection provides a valuable analysis basis of the user habits and needs. This analysis is necessary for design of a complex “user” based solutions such as Google Now.Augmented reality applications are usually based on the first mentioned approach. In this article, we describe our model of augmented reality as a service and compare its features with standalone solutions. Further, other important key aspects for large emergence of augmented reality services in a mainstream market are discussed.

  6. AMI: Augmented Michelson Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furió, David; Hachet, Martin; Guillet, Jean-Paul; Bousquet, Bruno; Fleck, Stéphanie; Reuter, Patrick; Canioni, Lionel

    2015-10-01

    Experiments in optics are essential for learning and understanding physical phenomena. The problem with these experiments is that they are generally time consuming for both their construction and their maintenance, potentially dangerous through the use of laser sources, and often expensive due to high technology optical components. We propose to simulate such experiments by way of hybrid systems that exploit both spatial augmented reality and tangible interaction. In particular, we focus on one of the most popular optical experiments: the Michelson interferometer. In our approach, we target a highly interactive system where students are able to interact in real time with the Augmented Michelson Interferometer (AMI) to observe, test hypotheses and then to enhance their comprehension. Compared to a fully digital simulation, we are investigating an approach that benefits from both physical and virtual elements, and where the students experiment by manipulating 3D-printed physical replicas of optical components (e.g. lenses and mirrors). Our objective is twofold. First, we want to ensure that the students will learn with our simulator the same concepts and skills that they learn with traditional methods. Second, we hypothesis that such a system opens new opportunities to teach optics in a way that was not possible before, by manipulating concepts beyond the limits of observable physical phenomena. To reach this goal, we have built a complementary team composed of experts in the field of optics, human-computer interaction, computer graphics, sensors and actuators, and education science.

  7. Augmented Reality for Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Harald; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Georgsen, Marianne

    Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. So far, however, most research has looked at the technology itself – and AR has been used primarily for commercial purposes. As a learning tool, AR supports an inquiry-based approach to science education with a high level of student...... involvement. The AR-sci-project (Augmented Reality for SCIence education) addresses the issue of applying augmented reality in developing innovative science education and enhancing the quality of science teaching and learning....

  8. Crime Scenes as Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus......, physical damage: they are all readable and interpretable signs. As augmented reality the crime scene carries a narrative which at first is hidden and must be revealed. Due to the process of investigation and the detective's ability to reason and deduce, the crime scene as place is reconstructed as virtual...

  9. Restriction fragment polymorphisms in the major histocompatibility complex of diabetic BB rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastern, W.; Dyrberg, T.; Scholler, J.

    1984-01-01

    DNA isolated from diabetic BB (BB/Hagedorn) rats was examined for restriction fragment length differences within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) as compared with nondiabetic (W-subline) BB rats. Polymorphisms were detected using a mouse class I MHC gene as probe. Specifically, a 2-kb Bam......HI fragment was present in all the nondiabetic rats examined, but absent in the diabetic rats. Similar polymorphisms were observed with various other restriction enzymes, particularly XbaI, HindII, and SacI. There were no polymorphisms detected using either a human DR-alpha (class II antigen heavy chain...

  10. The major histocompatibility complex and perfumers' descriptions of human body odors

    OpenAIRE

    Wedekind, C.; Escher, S.; Van de Waal, M.; Frei, E.

    2007-01-01

    The MHC (major histocompatibility complex) is a group of genes that play a crucial role in immune recognition and in tolerance of tissue grafting. The MHC has also been found to influence body odors, body odor preferences, and mate choice in mice and humans. Here we test whether verbal descriptions of human body odors can be linked to the MHC. We asked 45 male students to live as odor neutral as possible for two consecutive days and to wear a T-shirt during the nights. The odors of these T-sh...

  11. IFN-induced modulation of histocompatibility antigens on human cells. Background, mechanisms and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, M; Basse, P; Justesen, J

    1989-01-01

    IFN proteins are a family of lymphokines with anti-viral effects. Several other effects of IFNs have also been described, including enhancement of natural killer (NK) cell activity, enhancement of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity, and enhancement of the expression of major histocompatibility compl...... to the classical anti-viral mechanism. This concept proposes that the MHC-enhancing effect of IFNs is a vital part of the immunological defense against virus infections and an integral part of the anti-viral effects of IFN proteins. Udgivelsesdato: 1988-Nov...

  12. NASA Communications Augmentation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.; Laios, Straton C.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom Augmentation (NAUG) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), and other projects. The NAUG is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The NAUG network development will be based on the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). This paper describes the NAUG network architecture, subsystems, topology, and services; addresses issues of internetworking the Nascom network with other elements of the Space Station Information System (SSIS); discusses the operations environment. This paper also notes the areas of related research and presents the current conception of how the network will provide broadband services in 1998.

  13. Augmented fish health monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michak, P.; Rogers, R.; Amos, K.

    1991-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Historically, all agencies involved with fish health in the Columbia Basin were conducting various levels of fish health monitoring, pathogen screening and collection. The goals of this project were; to identify, develop and implement a standardized level of fish health methodologies, develop a common data collection and reporting format in the area of artificial production, evaluate and monitor water quality, improve communications between agencies and provide annual evaluation of fish health information for production of healthier smolts. This completion report will contain a project evaluation, review of the goals of the project, evaluation of the specific fish health analyses, an overview of highlights of the project and concluding remarks. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  14. Augmented Virtual Reality Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully-Hanson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Real time motion tracking hardware has for the most part been cost prohibitive for research to regularly take place until recently. With the release of the Microsoft Kinect in November 2010, researchers now have access to a device that for a few hundred dollars is capable of providing redgreenblue (RGB), depth, and skeleton data. It is also capable of tracking multiple people in real time. For its original intended purposes, i.e. gaming, being used with the Xbox 360 and eventually Xbox One, it performs quite well. However, researchers soon found that although the sensor is versatile, it has limitations in real world applications. I was brought aboard this summer by William Little in the Augmented Virtual Reality (AVR) Lab at Kennedy Space Center to find solutions to these limitations.

  15. Augmented reality system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Liang; Su, Yu-Zheng; Hung, Min-Wei; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR)[1][2][3] is very popular in universities and research organizations. The AR technology has been widely used in Virtual Reality (VR) fields, such as sophisticated weapons, flight vehicle development, data model visualization, virtual training, entertainment and arts. AR has characteristics to enhance the display output as a real environment with specific user interactive functions or specific object recognitions. It can be use in medical treatment, anatomy training, precision instrument casting, warplane guidance, engineering and distance robot control. AR has a lot of vantages than VR. This system developed combines sensors, software and imaging algorithms to make users feel real, actual and existing. Imaging algorithms include gray level method, image binarization method, and white balance method in order to make accurate image recognition and overcome the effects of light.

  16. Maxillary sinus augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B Tarun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Placing dental implants in the maxillary posterior region can be both challenging and un-nerving for a regular implant dentist who is not well versed with advanced surgical procedures. It is vital for a general dentist to understand the fundamentals of bone grafting the maxillary sinus if he/she is really committed to providing the best health care for their patients. The dental practice is seeing an increasing group of patients who are living longer, and this group of older baby boomers often has an edentulous posterior maxilla either unilateral or bilateral. When edentulous, the posterior maxilla more likely has diminished bone height, which does not allow for the placement of dental implants without creating additional bone. Through grafting the maxillary sinus, bone of ideal quality can be created (allowing for placement of dental implants, which offer many advantages over other tooth replacement modalities. The sinus graft offers the dental patient a predictable procedure of regenerating lost osseous structure in the posterior maxilla. This offers the patient many advantages for long-term success. If dentists understand these concepts, they can better educate their patients and guide them to have the procedure performed. This article outlines bone grafting of the maxillary sinus for the purpose of placing dental implants. This review will help the readers to understand the intricacies of sinus augmentation. They can relate their patient's condition with the available literature and chalk out the best treatment plan for the patient, especially by using indirect sinus augmentation procedures which are less invasive and highly successful if done using prescribed technique.

  17. Advanced Intellect-Augmentation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbart, D. C.

    This progress report covers a two-year project which is part of a program that is exploring the value of computer aids in augmenting human intellectual capability. The background and nature of the program, its resources, and the activities it has undertaken are outlined. User experience in applying augmentation tools and techniques to various…

  18. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as…

  19. Augmented reality som wearable technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahn, Annette

    “How Augmented reality can facilitate learning in visualizing human anatomy “ At this station I demonstrate how Augmented reality can be used to visualize the human lungs in situ and as a wearable technology which establish connection between body, image and technology in education. I will show...

  20. Typing of human fetal organs for the histocompatibility antigens A, B and DR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuch, B E; Doran, T J; Messel, N; Turtle, J R

    1985-01-01

    In the transplantation of human fetal pancreatic explants into diabetic man, the importance of matching the histocompatibility antigens of donor and recipient to decrease the chances of rejection is unknown. Before this question can be answered human fetuses must be tissue typed. We have shown that lymphocytes harvested from fetal liver, thymus, bone marrow and spleen can be successfully HLA DR typed in 64% and A and B typed in 57% of 58 fetuses aged 15 wk or more. Typing should ideally be carried out on unseparated T and B cells. Best results were achieved if all four of the above organs were available and more than one million viable cells were able to be harvested for typing. Whilst the DR antigens could be typed from all tissues, the A and B antigens could be typed, with few exceptions only from thymus, spleen and bone marrow. The efficacy of matching the histocompatibility antigens of recipient and donor fetuses, especially the DR antigens can now be tested in the human diabetic being transplanted with pancreatic explants.

  1. MH2c: Characterization of major histocompatibility α-helices - an information criterion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hischenhuber, B; Frommlet, F; Schreiner, W; Knapp, B

    2012-07-01

    Major histocompatibility proteins share a common overall structure or peptide binding groove. Two binding groove domains, on the same chain for major histocompatibility class I or on two different chains for major histocompatibility class II, contribute to that structure that consists of two α -helices ("wall") and a sheet of eight anti-parallel beta strands ("floor"). Apart from the peptide presented in the groove, the major histocompatibility α -helices play a central role for the interaction with the T cell receptor. This study presents a generalized mathematical approach for the characterization of these helices. We employed polynomials of degree 1 to 7 and splines with 1 to 2 nodes based on polynomials of degree 1 to 7 on the α -helices projected on their principal components. We evaluated all models with a corrected Akaike Information Criterion to determine which model represents the α -helices in the best way without overfitting the data. This method is applicable for both the stationary and the dynamic characterization of α -helices. By deriving differential geometric parameters from these models one obtains a reliable method to characterize and compare α -helices for a broad range of applications. Program title: MH 2 c (MH helix curves) Catalogue identifier: AELX_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AELX_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 327 565 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 17 433 656 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Matlab Computer: Personal computer architectures Operating system: Windows, Linux, Mac (all systems on which Matlab can be installed) RAM: Depends on the trajectory size, min. 1 GB (Matlab) Classification: 2.1, 4.9, 4.14 External routines: Curve

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  3. Phenobarbital Augments Hypothermic Neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barks, John D.; Liu, Yi-Qing; Shangguan, Yu; Silverstein, Faye S.

    2010-01-01

    Seizures are associated with adverse outcome in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. We hypothesized that early administration of the anticonvulsant phenobarbital after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia could enhance the neuroprotective efficacy of delayed-onset hypothermia. We tested this hypothesis in a neonatal rodent model. Seven-day-old rats (n=104) underwent right carotid ligation, followed by 90 min 8%O2 exposure; 15 min later, they received injections of phenobarbital (40 mg/kg) or saline. One or 3h later, all were treated with hypothermia (30°C, 3h). Function and neuropathology were evaluated after 7 days (“early outcomes”) or 1 month (“late outcomes”). Early outcome assessment demonstrated better sensorimotor performance and less cortical damage in phenobarbital-treated groups; there were no differences between groups in which the hypothermia delay was shortened from 3h to 1h. Late outcome assessment confirmed sustained benefits of phenobarbital+hypothermia treatment; sensorimotor performance was better (persistent attenuation of contralateral forepaw placing deficits and absence of contralateral forepaw neglect); neuropathology scores were lower (medians, phenobarbital 2, saline 8.5, pphenobarbital may augment the neuroprotective efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:20098339

  4. Understanding augmented reality concepts and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Alan B

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality is not a technology. Augmented reality is a medium. Likewise, a book on augmented reality that only addresses the technology that is required to support the medium of augmented reality falls far short of providing the background that is needed to produce, or critically consume augmented reality applications. One reads a book. One watches a movie. One experiences augmented reality. Understanding Augmented Reality addresses the elements that are required to create compelling augmented reality experiences. The technology that supports

  5. Augmented Mirror: Interactive Augmented Reality System Based on Kinect

    OpenAIRE

    Vera , Lucía; Gimeno , Jesús; Coma , Inmaculada; Fernández , Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Part 1: Long and Short Papers; International audience; In this paper we present a virtual character controlled by an actor in real time, who talks with an audience through an augmented mirror. The application, which integrates video images, the avatar and other virtual objects within an Augmented Reality system, has been implemented using a mixture of technologies: two kinect systems for motion capture, depth map and real images, a gyroscope to detect head movements, and control algorithms to...

  6. Overall major histocompatibility complex class I expression is not downregulated in cervix cancer, as detected by immunoelectron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijkeren, MA; Roovers, JP; Oorschot, [No Value; Geuze, HJ

    2004-01-01

    Downregulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules in cervix cancer has been proposed as a mechanism for cancer cells to escape immunodetection. By means of light microscopic immunohistochemistry, it has been shown that in 20-70% of cervix cancers MHC class I is

  7. Mersiline mesh in premaxillary augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2005-01-01

    Premaxillary retrusion may distort the aesthetic appearance of the columella, lip, and nasal tip. This defect is characteristically seen in, but not limited to, patients with cleft lip nasal deformity. This study investigated 60 patients presenting with premaxillary deficiencies in which Mersiline mesh was used to augment the premaxilla. All the cases had surgery using the external rhinoplasty technique. Two methods of augmentation with Mersiline mesh were used: the Mersiline roll technique, for the cases with central symmetric deficiencies, and the Mersiline packing technique, for the cases with asymmetric deficiencies. Premaxillary augmentation with Mersiline mesh proved to be simple technically, easy to perform, and not associated with any complications. Periodic follow-up evaluation for a mean period of 32 months (range, 12-98 months) showed that an adequate degree of premaxillary augmentation was maintained with no clinically detectable resorption of the mesh implant.

  8. The Augmented REality Sandtable (ARES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Introduction The US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Human Sciences Campaign calls out the topic of Virtual /Mixed and Augmented Reality as one of the...type of virtual environment. In virtual reality (VR), the totality of the environment is computer generated. In AR, the real world is augmented by...tangible user interfaces; and the effectiveness of virtual sand tables and similar systems. A market survey was also done to discover the state of

  9. Polarisation of Major Histocompatibility Complex II Host Genotype with Pathogenesis of European Brown Hare Syndrome Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacovakis, Christos; Mamuris, Zissis; Moutou, Katerina A

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted in order to determine the occurrence of European Brown Hare Syndrome virus (EBHSV) in Denmark and possible relation between disease pathogenesis and Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) host genotype. Liver samples were examined from 170 brown hares (hunted, found sick...... were found to be EBHSV-positive (RT-PCR, VP60 gene). In order to investigate associations between viral pathogenesis and host genotype, variation within the exon 2 DQA gene of MHC was assessed. DQA exon 2 analysis revealed the occurrence of seven different alleles in Denmark. Consistent with other...... populations examined so far in Europe, observed heterozygosity of DQA (H o = 0.1180) was lower than expected (H e = 0.5835). The overall variation for both nucleotide and amino acid differences (2.9% and 14.9%, respectively) were lower in Denmark than those assessed in other European countries (8.3% and 16...

  10. Efficient assembly of recombinant major histocompatibility complex class I molecules with preformed disulfide bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard Pedersen, L; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Hansen, N J

    2001-01-01

    The expression of major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I) crucially depends upon the binding of appropriate peptides. MHC-I from natural sources are therefore always preoccupied with peptides complicating their purification and analysis. Here, we present an efficient solution to this problem....... Recombinant MHC-I heavy chains were produced in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified under denaturing conditions. In contrast to common practice, the molecules were not reduced during the purification. The oxidized MHC-I heavy chain isoforms were highly active with respect to peptide binding....... This suggests that de novo folding of denatured MHC-I molecules proceed efficiently if directed by preformed disulfide bond(s). Importantly, these molecules express serological epitopes and stain specific T cells; and they bind peptides specifically. Several denatured MHC-I heavy chains were analyzed and shown...

  11. Isolation and characterization of major histocompatibility complex class II B genes in cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohyama, Tetsuo I; Akiyama, Takuya; Nishida, Chizuko; Takami, Kazutoshi; Onuma, Manabu; Momose, Kunikazu; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we isolated and characterized the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B genes in cranes. Genomic sequences spanning exons 1 to 4 were amplified and determined in 13 crane species and three other species closely related to cranes. In all, 55 unique sequences were identified, and at least two polymorphic MHC class II B loci were found in most species. An analysis of sequence polymorphisms showed the signature of positive selection and recombination. A phylogenetic reconstruction based on exon 2 sequences indicated that trans-species polymorphism has persisted for at least 10 million years, whereas phylogenetic analyses of the sequences flanking exon 2 revealed a pattern of concerted evolution. These results suggest that both balancing selection and recombination play important roles in the crane MHC evolution.

  12. Porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules and analysis of their peptide-binding specificities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Harndahl, Mikkel; Rasmussen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    a HLA-I molecule (HLA-A*11:01), thereby generating recombinant human/swine chimeric MHC-I molecules as well as the intact SLA-1*0401 molecule. Biochemical peptide-binding assays and positional scanning combinatorial peptide libraries were used to analyze the peptide-binding motifs of these molecules....... A pan-specific predictor of peptide–MHC-I binding, NetMHCpan, which was originally developed to cover the binding specificities of all known HLA-I molecules, was successfully used to predict the specificities of the SLA-1*0401 molecule as well as the porcine/human chimeric MHC-I molecules. These data......In all vertebrate animals, CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are controlled by major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules. These are highly polymorphic peptide receptors selecting and presenting endogenously derived epitopes to circulating CTLs. The polymorphism of the MHC...

  13. Multiple major histocompatibility complex class I genes in Asian anurans: Ontogeny and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didinger, Chelsea; Eimes, John A; Lillie, Mette; Waldman, Bruce

    2017-05-01

    Amphibians, as the first terrestrial vertebrates, offer a window into early major histocompatibility complex (MHC) evolution. We characterized the MHC class I of two Korean amphibians, the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans) and the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica). We found at least four transcribed MHC class I (MHC I) loci, the highest number confirmed in any anuran to date. Furthermore, we identified MHC I transcripts in terrestrial adults, and possibly in aquatic larvae, of both species. We conducted a phylogenetic analysis based on MHC I sequence data and found that B. gargarizans and H. japonica cluster together in the superfamily Nobleobatrachia. We further identified three supertypes shared by the two species. Our results reveal substantial variation in the number of MHC I loci in anurans and suggest that certain supertypes have particular physiochemical properties that may confer pathogen resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterisation of major histocompatibility complex class I transcripts in an Australian dragon lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacking, Jessica; Bertozzi, Terry; Moussalli, Adnan; Bradford, Tessa; Gardner, Michael

    2018-07-01

    Characterisation of squamate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes has lagged behind other taxonomic groups. MHC genes encode cell-surface glycoproteins that present self- and pathogen-derived peptides to T cells and play a critical role in pathogen recognition. Here we characterise MHC class I transcripts for an agamid lizard (Ctenophorus decresii) and investigate the evolution of MHC class I in Iguanian lizards. An iterative assembly strategy was used to identify six full-length C. decresii MHC class I transcripts, which were validated as likely to encode classical class I MHC molecules. Evidence for exon shuffling recombination was uncovered for C. decresii transcripts and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of Iguanian MHC class I sequences revealed a pattern expected under a birth-and-death mode of evolution. This work provides a stepping stone towards further research on the agamid MHC class I region. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Major Histocompatibility Complex and Perfumers' Descriptions of Human Body Odors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Wedekind

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The MHC (major histocompatibility complex is a group of genes that play a crucial role in immune recognition and in tolerance of tissue grafting. The MHC has also been found to influence body odors, body odor preferences, and mate choice in mice and humans. Here we test whether verbal descriptions of human body odors can be linked to the MHC. We asked 45 male students to live as odor neutral as possible for two consecutive days and to wear a T-shirt during the nights. The odors of these T-shirts were then described by five evaluators: two professional perfumers and three laymen. One of the perfumers was able to describe the T-shirt odors in such a way that some of the allelic specificity of the MHC was significantly revealed (after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. This shows that, although difficult, some people are able to describe MHC-correlated body odor components.

  16. Oriented coupling of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) to sensor surfaces using light assisted immobilisation technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snabe, Torben; Røder, Gustav Andreas; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Controlled and oriented immobilisation of proteins for biosensor purposes is of extreme interest since this provides more efficient sensors with a larger density of active binding sites per area compared to sensors produced by conventional immobilisation. In this paper oriented coupling of a major...... histocompatibility complex (MHC class I) to a sensor surface is presented. The coupling was performed using light assisted immobilisation--a novel immobilisation technology which allows specific opening of particular disulphide bridges in proteins which then is used for covalent bonding to thiol-derivatised surfaces...... via a new disulphide bond. Light assisted immobilisation specifically targets the disulphide bridge in the MHC-I molecule alpha(3)-domain which ensures oriented linking of the complex with the peptide binding site exposed away from the sensor surface. Structural analysis reveals that a similar...

  17. Expression of major histocompatibility complex class II and costimulatory molecules in oral carcinomas in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel-Dorrego, Mariana; Speight, Paul M; Barrett, A William

    2005-01-01

    Recognition in the 1980 s that keratinocytes can express class II molecules of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) first raised the possibility that these cells might have an immunological function, and may even act as antigen presenting cells (APC). For effective T lymphocyte activation, APC require, in addition to MHC II, appropriate costimulatory signals. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 in keratinocytes derived from healthy oral mucosa and oral carcinomas. Using flow cytometry, it was confirmed that oral keratinocytes, switch on, expression of MHC class II molecules after stimulation with IFNgamma in vitro. All keratinocyte lines expressed CD40 constitutively; by contrast, CD80 and CD86 were universally absent. Loss of CD80 and CD86 may be one means whereby tumours escape immunological surveillance.

  18. Structural requirements and biological significance of interactions between peptides and the major histocompatibility complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, H M; Buus, S; Colon, S

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that T cells recognize a complex between the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction-element and peptide-antigen fragments. Two aspects of this complex formation are considered in this paper: (1) what is the nature of the specificity of the interactions that a...... of binding to Ia (i.e. determinant selection was operative), we found that about 40% of Ia-binding peptides were not immunogenic (i.e. there were also 'holes in the T-cell repertoire')....... responsiveness, we present data that suggest both mechanisms operate in concert with one another. Thus only about 30% of a collection of peptides that in sum represent the sequence of a protein molecule were found to bind to Ia. Although immunogenicity was restricted to those peptides that were capable...

  19. Characterisation of four major histocompatibility complex class II genes of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Quintin; Jobbins, Sarah E; Belov, Katherine; Higgins, Damien P

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules have an integral role in the adaptive immune response, as they bind and present antigenic peptides to T helper lymphocytes. In this study of koalas, species-specific primers were designed to amplify exon 2 of the MHC class II DA and DB genes, which contain much of the peptide-binding regions of the α and β chains. A total of two DA α1 domain variants and eight DA β1 (DAB), three DB α1 and five DB β1 variants were amplified from 20 koalas from two free-living populations from South East Queensland and the Port Macquarie region in northern New South Wales. We detected greater variation in the β1 than in the α1 domains as well as evidence of positive selection in DAB. The present study provides a springboard to future investigation of the role of MHC in disease susceptibility in koalas.

  20. Bayesian Alternation During Tactile Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar Mathias Goeke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A large number of studies suggest that the integration of multisensory signals by humans is well described by Bayesian principles. However, there are very few reports about cue combination between a native and an augmented sense. In particular, we asked the question whether adult participants are able to integrate an augmented sensory cue with existing native sensory information. Hence for the purpose of this study we build a tactile augmentation device. Consequently, we compared different hypotheses of how untrained adult participants combine information from a native and an augmented sense. In a two-interval forced choice (2 IFC task, while subjects were blindfolded and seated on a rotating platform, our sensory augmentation device translated information on whole body yaw rotation to tactile stimulation. Three conditions were realized: tactile stimulation only (augmented condition, rotation only (native condition, and both augmented and native information (bimodal condition. Participants had to choose one out of two consecutive rotations with higher angular rotation. For the analysis, we fitted the participants’ responses with a probit model and calculated the just notable difference (JND. Then we compared several models for predicting bimodal from unimodal responses. An objective Bayesian alternation model yielded a better prediction (χred2 = 1.67 than the Bayesian integration model (χred2= 4.34. Slightly higher accuracy showed a non-Bayesian winner takes all model (χred2= 1.64, which either used only native or only augmented values per subject for prediction. However the performance of the Bayesian alternation model could be substantially improved (χred2= 1.09 utilizing subjective weights obtained by a questionnaire. As a result, the subjective Bayesian alternation model predicted bimodal performance most accurately among all tested models. These results suggest that information from augmented and existing sensory modalities in

  1. Augmented reality for breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancati, Alberto; Angrigiani, Claudio; Nava, Maurizio B; Catanuto, Giuseppe; Rocco, Nicola; Ventrice, Fernando; Dorr, Julio

    2018-02-21

    Augmented reality (AR) enables the superimposition of virtual reality reconstructions onto clinical images of a real patient, in real time. This allows visualization of internal structures through overlying tissues, thereby providing a virtual transparency vision of surgical anatomy. AR has been applied to neurosurgery, which utilizes a relatively fixed space, frames, and bony references; the application of AR facilitates the relationship between virtual and real data. Augmented Breast imaging (ABI) is described. Breast MRI studies for breast implant patients with seroma were performed using a Siemens 3T system with a body coil and a four-channel bilateral phased-array breast coil as the transmitter and receiver, respectively. The contrast agent used was (CA) gadolinium (Gd) injection (0.1 mmol/kg at 2 ml/s) by a programmable power injector. Dicom formated images data from 10 MRI cases of breast implant seroma and 10 MRI cases with T1-2 N0 M0 breast cancer, were imported and transformed into Augmented reality images. Augmented breast imaging (ABI) demonstrated stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence, 3D cursor use, and joystick fly-through. Augmented breast imaging (ABI) to the breast can improve clinical outcomes, giving an enhanced view of the structures to work on. It should be further studied to determine its utility in clinical practice.

  2. Augmented Reality Tower Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisman, Ronald J.; Brown, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Augmented Reality technology may help improve Air Traffic Control Tower efficiency and safety during low-visibility conditions. This paper presents the assessments of five off-duty controllers who shadow-controlled' with an augmented reality prototype in their own facility. Initial studies indicated unanimous agreement that this technology is potentially beneficial, though the prototype used in the study was not adequate for operational use. Some controllers agreed that augmented reality technology improved situational awareness, had potential to benefit clearance, control, and coordination tasks and duties and could be very useful for acquiring aircraft and weather information, particularly aircraft location, heading, and identification. The strongest objections to the prototype used in this study were directed at aircraft registration errors, unacceptable optical transparency, insufficient display performance in sunlight, inadequate representation of the static environment and insufficient symbology.

  3. Therapeutic options for lip augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Lorne; Ellis, David A F

    2007-11-01

    Aesthetic ideals vary with emerging fashion trends and within different cultures. However, over the past few decades, fuller lips have been considered a desirable trait. Many younger patients are presenting for lip augmentation to achieve the sought-after look commonly seen in many fashion magazines. In addition, as individuals age, they lose lip volume, with a thinning of the red lip, some effacement of the vermillion border, and elongation and flattening of the white portion of the lip. Rejuvenation of the lips plays a key role in restoring a more youthful appearance. As a result, lip augmentation appeals to a wide spectrum of patients who present with various different aesthetic goals and expectations. Numerous therapeutic options exist for aesthetic lip augmentation, ranging from temporary and permanent injectable fillers to implants and other surgical techniques.

  4. AUGMENTATION-RELATED BRAIN PLASTICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni eDi Pino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyzes the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain.Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools.Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e. primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the

  5. Superconducting augmented rail gun (SARG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, C.G.; Cummings, C.E.; Fowler, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Superconducting augmentation consists of a superconducting coil operating in the persistent mode closely coupled magnetically with a normally conducting rail gun. A theoretical investigation of the effect of this system on a rail gun has shown that two benefits occur. Projectile velocities and launch efficiencies increase significantly depending on the magnetic coupling between the rail and augmentation circuits. Previous work evaluated an idealized system by neglecting energy dissipation effects. In this paper, the authors extend the analysis to include the neglected terms and show improved actual launch efficiencies for the SARG configuration. In this paper, the authors discuss details of projectile design in depth and present preliminary results of rail gun performance

  6. Allogeneic major histocompatibility complex-mismatched equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells are targeted for death by cytotoxic anti-major histocompatibility complex antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, A K; Schnabel, L V

    2017-07-01

    Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising cell source for treating musculoskeletal injuries in horses. Controversy exists, however, over whether major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched MSCs are recognised by the recipient immune system and targeted for death by a cytotoxic antibody response. To determine if cytotoxic anti-MHC antibodies generated in vivo following MHC-mismatched MSC injections are capable of initiating complement-dependent cytotoxicity of MSCs. Experimental controlled study. Antisera previously collected at Days 0, 7, 14 and 21 post-injection from 4 horses injected with donor MHC-mismatched equine leucocyte antigen (ELA)-A2 haplotype MSCs and one control horse injected with donor MHC-matched ELA-A2 MSCs were utilised in this study. Antisera were incubated with ELA-A2 MSCs before adding complement in microcytotoxicity assays and cell death was analysed via eosin dye exclusion. ELA-A2 peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs) were used in the assays as a positive control. Antisera from all 4 horses injected with MHC-mismatched MSCs contained antibodies that caused the death of ELA-A2 haplotype MSCs in the microcytotoxicity assays. In 2 of the 4 horses, antibodies were present as early as Day 7 post-injection. MSC death was consistently equivalent to that of ELA-A2 haplotype PBL death at all time points and antisera dilutions. Antisera from the control horse that was injected with MHC-matched MSCs did not contain cytotoxic ELA-A2 antibodies at any of the time points examined. This study examined MSC death in vitro only and utilized antisera from a small number of horses. The cytotoxic antibody response induced in recipient horses following injection with donor MHC-mismatched MSCs is capable of killing donor MSCs in vitro. These results suggest that the use of allogeneic MHC-mismatched MSCs must be cautioned against, not only for potential adverse events, but also for reduced therapeutic efficacy due to targeted MSC death. © 2016 The

  7. Histocompatibility Testing for Organ Transplantation Purposes in Albania: A Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkena Shyti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Histocompatibility testing (HT which includes donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA matching, cross-match testing (XMT and anti-HLA antibody searching are crucial examinations in solid organ transplantation aiming to avoid the hyperacute graft rejection and also to predict the immunological outcome of the graft. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyse the tissue typing data collected at the Laboratory of Immunology and Histocompatibility of the University Hospital Center of Tirana, Albania, in order to define those actions that should be taken for improvements in the situation of kidney transplantation in Albania. Design: Descriptive study. Methods: The donor/recipient cross-match testing was performed through a standard complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC assay using separated donor T and B cells that were tested in parallel with the recipient serum sample. All recipient sera were screened for anti-Class I and anti-Class II HLA antibodies using a bead based Luminex anti-HLA antibody screening test. In the case of detected positivity, an allele-specific anti-HLA antibody determination was conducted with the respective Luminex anti-Class I and Class II HLA antibody determination kits. Results: A total of 174 recipients and 202 donors were typed for the purpose of living donor kidney transplantation at our laboratory between January 2006 and December 2012. The mean age and female gender proportion of patients were 34.9 years and 34.5%, respectively, and 48.0 years and 65.3% for the donors, respectively. Here, 25.9% of the patients reported a positive complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match test and/or a positive anti-HLA antibody testing result. Eighteen patients that were negative for the complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match test were positive for anti-HLA antibodies. Conclusion: The predominant causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD in our patient population are chronic pyelonephritis and

  8. Evaluation of two approaches to genotyping major histocompatibility complex class I in a passerine—CE-SSCP and 454 pyrosequencing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Promerová, Marta; Babik, W.; Bryja, Josef; Albrecht, Tomáš; Stuglik, M.; Radwan, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2012), s. 285-292 ISSN 1755-098X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930608; GA ČR GA206/06/0851; GA ČR GAP505/10/1871 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : avian * Carpodacus erythrinus * major histocompatibility complex * next-generation sequencing * scarlet rosefinch Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 7.432, year: 2012

  9. Computer Augmented Learning; A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindred, J.

    The report contains a description and summary of computer augmented learning devices and systems. The devices are of two general types programed instruction systems based on the teaching machines pioneered by Pressey and developed by Skinner, and the so-called "docile" systems that permit greater user-direction with the computer under student…

  10. Aplikasi Web Augmented Reality Villa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gede Yudha Prema Pangestu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bali is one of the highly developed tourist destination in Indonesia. The arrival of tourists having holiday in Bali led to increase residential needs with complete amenities. The occupancy rate of hotel and villa in Bali is increase significantlly during the long vacation. The emergence of new villa and hotel occupancy raises the level of competition in business, so it needs a correct use good marketing communication strategy in marketing the product in order to attract the attention of consumers. Web Application Augmented Reality Villa can help visualize the residential villa in three-dimensional shapes that look more attractive and practical. The use of brochures as written information and the application of augmented reality technology on the Web Application Augmented Reality Villa aims to develop an application that can provide information about the villa to visitors. Web Application uses Augmented Reality Villa designed by FlarToolkit library. Based on the test results show the application can display 3-dimensional objects by scanning marker villa in a brochure which already contain marker.

  11. Data Augmentation for Plant Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawara, Pornntiwa; Okafor, Emmanuel; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Data augmentation plays a crucial role in increasing the number of training images, which often aids to improve classification performances of deep learning techniques for computer vision problems. In this paper, we employ the deep learning framework and determine the effects of several

  12. Isolation and characterization of major histocompatibility complex class IIB genes from the nurse shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, S; Weissman, I L

    1994-01-04

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contains a set of linked genes which encode cell surface proteins involved in the binding of small peptide antigens for their subsequent recognition by T lymphocytes. MHC proteins share structural features and the presence and location of polymorphic residues which play a role in the binding of antigens. In order to compare the structure of these molecules and gain insights into their evolution, we have isolated two MHC class IIB genes from the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum. Two clones, most probably alleles, encode proteins which differ by 13 amino acids located in the putative antigen-binding cleft. The protein structure and the location of polymorphic residues are similar to their mammalian counterparts. Although these genes appear to encode a typical MHC protein, no T-cell-mediated responses have been demonstrated in cartilaginous fish. The nurse shark represents the most phylogenetically primitive organism in which both class IIA [Kasahara, M., Vazquez, M., Sato, K., McKinney, E.C. & Flajnik, M.F. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 89, 6688-6692] and class IIB genes, presumably encoding the alpha/beta heterodimer, have been isolated.

  13. Quantitative disease resistance: to better understand parasite-mediated selection on major histocompatibility complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Helena; Asghar, Muhammad; Hasselquist, Dennis; Bensch, Staffan

    2012-02-07

    We outline a descriptive framework of how candidate alleles of the immune system associate with infectious diseases in natural populations of animals. Three kinds of alleles can be separated when both prevalence of infection and infection intensity are measured--qualitative disease resistance, quantitative disease resistance and susceptibility alleles. Our descriptive framework demonstrates why alleles for quantitative resistance and susceptibility cannot be separated based on prevalence data alone, but are distinguishable on infection intensity. We then present a case study to evaluate a previous finding of a positive association between prevalence of a severe avian malaria infection (GRW2, Plasmodium ashfordi) and a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allele (B4b) in great reed warblers Acrocephalus arundinaceus. Using the same dataset, we find that individuals with allele B4b have lower GRW2 infection intensities than individuals without this allele. Therefore, allele B4b provides quantitative resistance rather than increasing susceptibility to infection. This implies that birds carrying B4b can mount an immune response that suppresses the acute-phase GRW2 infection, while birds without this allele cannot and may die. We argue that it is important to determine whether MHC alleles related to infections are advantageous (quantitative and qualitative resistance) or disadvantageous (susceptibility) to obtain a more complete picture of pathogen-mediated balancing selection.

  14. Odour-based discrimination of similarity at the major histocompatibility complex in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclaire, Sarah; Strandh, Maria; Mardon, Jérôme; Westerdahl, Helena; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2017-01-11

    Many animals are known to preferentially mate with partners that are dissimilar at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in order to maximize the antigen binding repertoire (or disease resistance) in their offspring. Although several mammals, fish or lizards use odour cues to assess MHC similarity with potential partners, the ability of birds to assess MHC similarity using olfactory cues has not yet been explored. Here we used a behavioural binary choice test and high-throughput-sequencing of MHC class IIB to determine whether blue petrels can discriminate MHC similarity based on odour cues alone. Blue petrels are seabirds with particularly good sense of smell, they have a reciprocal mate choice and are known to preferentially mate with MHC-dissimilar partners. Incubating males preferentially approached the odour of the more MHC-dissimilar female, whereas incubating females showed opposite preferences. Given their mating pattern, females were, however, expected to show preference for the odour of the more MHC-dissimilar male. Further studies are needed to determine whether, as in women and female mice, the preference varies with the reproductive cycle in blue petrel females. Our results provide the first evidence that birds can use odour cues only to assess MHC dissimilarity. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Succesful therapy of viral leukemia by transplantation of histocompatibly unmatched marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meredith, R.F.; OKunewick, J.P.; Kuhnert, P.M.; Brozovich, B.J.; Weaver, E.V.

    1978-01-01

    The therapeutic effectiveness on murine viral-leukemia of allogeneic or hybrid hematopoietic cells transplanted from leukemia-virus resistant donors was evaluated and compared with that of syngeneic cells. Transplantation of syngeneic cells gave no protection to the viral-leukemic mice. Transplantation of spleen cells from allogeneic donors resulted in early deaths of both leukemic and non-leukemic recipients. Transplantation of hybrid spleen cells resulted in no long-term survival of the leukemic mice. However, there were a number of long-term survivors among the leukemic recipients of allogeneic or hybrid marrow cells. Engraftment of allogeneic marrow resulted in a large number of survivors. Hybrid marrow recipients showed an even better survival, but some leukemia relapses. Tests of the longterm survivors revealed that even though they gave no evidence of leukemia they still harbored the active virus. This suggests that the mechanism of protection may be related to some inherent characteristic of the donor cells rendering them refractory to viral transformation. A difference in graft-versus-host (GvH) response between the leukemic and control mice was also found after transplantation of allogeneic cells. While all of the controls died of GvH reaction, none of the leukemic recipients showed severe GvH response, suggesting a possible effect of the leukemia on histocompatibility. No GvH reaction was found with hybrid marrow engraftment, although some of the leukemic recipients reconstituted with F 1 cells did die of leukemic relapse. (author)

  16. Effects of major histocompatibility complex class II knockout on mouse bone mechanical properties during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simske, Steven J.; Bateman, Ted A.; Smith, Erin E.; Ferguson, Virginia L.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effect of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) knockout on the development of the mouse peripheral skeleton. These C2D mice had less skeletal development at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age compared to wild-type C57BL/6J (B6) male mice. The C2D mice had decreased femur mechanical, geometric and compositional measurements compared to wild type mice at each of these ages. C2D femur stiffness (S), peak force in 3-pt bending (Pm), and mineral mass (Min-M) were 74%, 64% and 66%, respectively, of corresponding B6 values at 8 weeks of age. Similar differences were measured at 12 weeks (for which C2D femoral S, Pm and Min-M were 71%, 72% and 73%, respectively, of corresponding B6 values) and at 16 weeks (for which C2D femoral S, Pm and Min-M were 80%, 66% and 61%, respectively, of corresponding B6 values). MHC II knockout delays the development of adult bone properties and is accompanied by lower body mass compared to wild-type controls.

  17. High-Resolution Patterns of Meiotic Recombination across the Human Major Histocompatibility Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Michael; Perfetto, Stephen P.; Klitz, William; Nelson, George; Carrington, Mary

    2002-01-01

    Definitive characteristics of meiotic recombination events over large (i.e., >1 Mb) segments of the human genome remain obscure, yet they are essential for establishing the haplotypic structure of the genome and for efficient mapping of complex traits. We present a high-resolution map of recombination at the kilobase level across a 3.3-Mb interval encompassing the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Genotyping of 20,031 single sperm from 12 individuals resulted in the identification and fine mapping of 325 recombinant chromosomes within genomic intervals as small as 7 kb. Several principal characteristics of recombination in this region were observed: (1) rates of recombination can differ significantly between individuals; (2) intense hot spots of recombination occur at least every 0.8 Mb but are not necessarily evenly spaced; (3) distribution in the location of recombination events can differ significantly among individuals; (4) between hot spots, low levels of recombination occur fairly evenly across 100-kb segments, suggesting the presence of warm spots of recombination; and (5) specific sequence motifs associate significantly with recombination distribution. These data provide a plausible model for recombination patterns of the human genome overall. PMID:12297984

  18. DNA variation of the mammalian major histocompatibility complex reflects genomic diversity and population history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuhki, Naoya; O'Brien, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a multigene complex of tightly linked homologous genes that encode cell surface antigens that play a key role in immune regulation and response to foreign antigens. In most species, MHC gene products display extreme antigenic polymorphism, and their variability has been interpreted to reflect an adaptive strategy for accommodating rapidly evolving infectious agents that periodically afflict natural populations. Determination of the extent of MHC variation has been limited to populations in which skin grafting is feasible or for which serological reagents have been developed. The authors present here a quantitative analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism of MHC class I genes in several mammalian species (cats, rodents, humans) known to have very different levels of genetic diversity based on functional MHC assays and on allozyme surveys. When homologous class I probes were employed, a notable concordance was observed between the extent of MHC restriction fragment variation and functional MHC variation detected by skin grafts or genome-wide diversity estimated by allozyme screens. These results confirm the genetically depauperate character of the African cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, and the Asiatic lion, Panthera leo persica; further, they support the use of class I MHC molecular reagents in estimating the extent and character of genetic diversity in natural populations

  19. Spatial variation and low diversity in the major histocompatibility complex in walrus (Odobenus rosmarus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Fales, Krystal; Jay, Chadwick V.; Sage, George K.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Increased global temperature and associated changes to Arctic habitats will likely result in the northward advance of species, including an influx of pathogens novel to the Arctic. How species respond to these immunological challenges will depend in part on the adaptive potential of their immune response system. We compared levels of genetic diversity at a gene associated with adaptive immune response [Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC), DQB exon 2] between populations of walrus (Odobenus rosmarus), a sea ice-dependent Arctic species. Walrus was represented by only five MHC DQB alleles, with frequency differences observed between Pacific and Atlantic populations. MHC DQB alleles appear to be under balancing selection, and most (80 %; n = 4/5) of the alleles were observed in walruses from both oceans, suggesting broad scale differences in the frequency of exposure and diversity of pathogens may be influencing levels of heterozygosity at DQB in walruses. Limited genetic diversity at MHC, however, suggests that walrus may have a reduced capacity to respond to novel immunological challenges associated with shifts in ecological communities and environmental stressors predicted for changing climates. This is particularly pertinent for walrus, since reductions in summer sea ice may facilitate both northward expansion of marine species and associated pathogens from more temperate regions, and exchange of marine mammals and associated pathogens through the recently opened Northwest Passage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in the Canadian high Arctic.

  20. Cyclophilin C Participates in the US2-Mediated Degradation of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Daniel C; Stocki, Pawel; Williams, David B

    2015-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus uses a variety of mechanisms to evade immune recognition through major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. One mechanism mediated by the immunoevasin protein US2 causes rapid disposal of newly synthesized class I molecules by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway. Although several components of this degradation pathway have been identified, there are still questions concerning how US2 targets class I molecules for degradation. In this study we identify cyclophilin C, a peptidyl prolyl isomerase of the endoplasmic reticulum, as a component of US2-mediated immune evasion. Cyclophilin C could be co-isolated with US2 and with the class I molecule HLA-A2. Furthermore, it was required at a particular expression level since depletion or overexpression of cyclophilin C impaired the degradation of class I molecules. To better characterize the involvement of cyclophilin C in class I degradation, we used LC-MS/MS to detect US2-interacting proteins that were influenced by cyclophilin C expression levels. We identified malectin, PDIA6, and TMEM33 as proteins that increased in association with US2 upon cyclophilin C knockdown. In subsequent validation all were shown to play a functional role in US2 degradation of class I molecules. This was specific to US2 rather than general ER-associated degradation since depletion of these proteins did not impede the degradation of a misfolded substrate, the null Hong Kong variant of α1-antitrypsin.

  1. The major histocompatibility complex genes impact pain response in DA and DA.1U rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuan; Yao, Fan-Rong; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Li, Li; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Xie, Wen; Zhao, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Our recent studies have shown that the difference in basal pain sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimulation between Dark-Agouti (DA) rats and a novel congenic DA.1U rats is major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes dependent. In the present study, we further used DA and DA.1U rats to investigate the role of MHC genes in formalin-induced pain model by behavioral, electrophysiological and immunohistochemical methods. Behavioral results showed biphasic nociceptive behaviors increased significantly following the intraplantar injection of formalin in the hindpaw of DA and DA.1U rats. The main nociceptive behaviors were lifting and licking, especially in DA rats (PDA rats were significantly higher than those in DA.1U rats in both phases of the formalin test (PDA rats was significantly higher than that of DA.1U rats (PDA was greater than that in DA.1U rats (PDA rats was significantly higher than that in DA.1U rats in the respective experimental group (PDA and DA.1U rats exhibited nociceptive responses in formalin-induced pain model and DA rats were more sensitive to noxious chemical stimulus than DA.1U rats, indicating that MHC genes might contribute to the difference in pain sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reconstructing an ancestral mammalian immune supercomplex from a marsupial major histocompatibility complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Belov

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The first sequenced marsupial genome promises to reveal unparalleled insights into mammalian evolution. We have used the Monodelphis domestica (gray short-tailed opossum sequence to construct the first map of a marsupial major histocompatibility complex (MHC. The MHC is the most gene-dense region of the mammalian genome and is critical to immunity and reproductive success. The marsupial MHC bridges the phylogenetic gap between the complex MHC of eutherian mammals and the minimal essential MHC of birds. Here we show that the opossum MHC is gene dense and complex, as in humans, but shares more organizational features with non-mammals. The Class I genes have amplified within the Class II region, resulting in a unique Class I/II region. We present a model of the organization of the MHC in ancestral mammals and its elaboration during mammalian evolution. The opossum genome, together with other extant genomes, reveals the existence of an ancestral "immune supercomplex" that contained genes of both types of natural killer receptors together with antigen processing genes and MHC genes.

  3. Recombinational hotspot specific to female meiosis in the mouse major histocompatibility complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroishi, T; Hanzawa, N; Sagai, T; Ishiura, M; Gojobori, T; Steinmetz, M; Moriwaki, K

    1990-01-01

    The wm7 haplotype of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), derived from the Japanese wild mouse Mus musculus molossinus, enhances recombination specific to female meiosis in the K/A beta interval of the MHC. We have mapped crossover points of fifteen independent recombinants from genetic crosses of the wm7 and laboratory haplotypes. Most of them were confined to a short segment of approximately 1 kilobase (kb) of DNA between the A beta 3 and A beta 2 genes, indicating the presence of a female-specific recombinational hotspot. Its location overlaps with a sex-independent hotspot previously identified in the Mus musculus castaneus CAS3 haplotype. We have cloned and sequenced DNA fragments surrounding the hotspot from the wm7 haplotype and the corresponding regions from the hotspot-negative B10.A and C57BL/10 strains. There is no significant difference between the sequences of these three strains, or between these and the published sequences of the CAS3 and C57BL/6 strains. However, a comparison of this A beta 3/A beta 2 hotspot with a previously characterized hotspot in the E beta gene revealed that they have a very similar molecular organization. Each hotspot consists of two elements, the consensus sequence of the mouse middle repetitive MT family and the tetrameric repeated sequences, which are separated by 1 kb of DNA.

  4. Red Queen Processes Drive Positive Selection on Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Jan Ejsmond

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC genes code for proteins involved in the incitation of the adaptive immune response in vertebrates, which is achieved through binding oligopeptides (antigens of pathogenic origin. Across vertebrate species, substitutions of amino acids at sites responsible for the specificity of antigen binding (ABS are positively selected. This is attributed to pathogen-driven balancing selection, which is also thought to maintain the high polymorphism of MHC genes, and to cause the sharing of allelic lineages between species. However, the nature of this selection remains controversial. We used individual-based computer simulations to investigate the roles of two phenomena capable of maintaining MHC polymorphism: heterozygote advantage and host-pathogen arms race (Red Queen process. Our simulations revealed that levels of MHC polymorphism were high and driven mostly by the Red Queen process at a high pathogen mutation rate, but were low and driven mostly by heterozygote advantage when the pathogen mutation rate was low. We found that novel mutations at ABSs are strongly favored by the Red Queen process, but not by heterozygote advantage, regardless of the pathogen mutation rate. However, while the strong advantage of novel alleles increased the allele turnover rate, under a high pathogen mutation rate, allelic lineages persisted for a comparable length of time under Red Queen and under heterozygote advantage. Thus, when pathogens evolve quickly, the Red Queen is capable of explaining both positive selection and long coalescence times, but the tension between the novel allele advantage and persistence of alleles deserves further investigation.

  5. DNA variation of the mammalian major histocompatibility complex reflects genomic diversity and population history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuhki, Naoya; O' Brien, S.J. (National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a multigene complex of tightly linked homologous genes that encode cell surface antigens that play a key role in immune regulation and response to foreign antigens. In most species, MHC gene products display extreme antigenic polymorphism, and their variability has been interpreted to reflect an adaptive strategy for accommodating rapidly evolving infectious agents that periodically afflict natural populations. Determination of the extent of MHC variation has been limited to populations in which skin grafting is feasible or for which serological reagents have been developed. The authors present here a quantitative analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism of MHC class I genes in several mammalian species (cats, rodents, humans) known to have very different levels of genetic diversity based on functional MHC assays and on allozyme surveys. When homologous class I probes were employed, a notable concordance was observed between the extent of MHC restriction fragment variation and functional MHC variation detected by skin grafts or genome-wide diversity estimated by allozyme screens. These results confirm the genetically depauperate character of the African cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, and the Asiatic lion, Panthera leo persica; further, they support the use of class I MHC molecular reagents in estimating the extent and character of genetic diversity in natural populations.

  6. Identification of naturally processed hepatitis C virus-derived major histocompatibility complex class I ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno Wölk

    Full Text Available Fine mapping of human cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses against hepatitis C virus (HCV is based on external loading of target cells with synthetic peptides which are either derived from prediction algorithms or from overlapping peptide libraries. These strategies do not address putative host and viral mechanisms which may alter processing as well as presentation of CTL epitopes. Therefore, the aim of this proof-of-concept study was to identify naturally processed HCV-derived major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I ligands. To this end, continuous human cell lines were engineered to inducibly express HCV proteins and to constitutively express high levels of functional HLA-A2. These cell lines were recognized in an HLA-A2-restricted manner by HCV-specific CTLs. Ligands eluted from HLA-A2 molecules isolated from large-scale cultures of these cell lines were separated by high performance liquid chromatography and further analyzed by electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (MS/tandem MS. These analyses allowed the identification of two HLA-A2-restricted epitopes derived from HCV nonstructural proteins (NS 3 and 5B (NS3₁₄₀₆₋₁₄₁₅ and NS5B₂₅₉₄₋₂₆₀₂. In conclusion, we describe a general strategy that may be useful to investigate HCV pathogenesis and may contribute to the development of preventive and therapeutic vaccines in the future.

  7. High-throughput identification of potential minor histocompatibility antigens by MHC tetramer-based screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hombrink, Pleun; Hadrup, Sine R; Bakker, Arne

    2011-01-01

    the technical feasibility of high-throughput analysis of antigen-specific T-cell responses in small patient samples. However, the high-sensitivity of this approach requires the use of potential epitope sets that are not solely based on MHC binding, to prevent the frequent detection of T-cell responses that lack......T-cell recognition of minor histocompatibility antigens (MiHA) plays an important role in the graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). However, the number of MiHA identified to date remains limited, making clinical application of MiHA reactive T......MHC-tetramer-based enrichment and multi-color flow cytometry. Using this approach, 71 peptide-reactive T-cell populations were generated. The isolation of a T-cell line specifically recognizing target cells expressing the MAP4K1(IMA) antigen demonstrates that identification of MiHA through this approach is in principle...

  8. Augmented reality and its practical application

    OpenAIRE

    ZÍTKOVÁ, Helena

    2011-01-01

    This thesis combines topic of augmented reality with tourism. For analyzing the state of the use of augmented reality was composed case studies. It was created product, which is called Guide to mobile phone.

  9. Augmented assessment as a means to augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    Rigorous scientific assessment of educational technologies typically lags behind the availability of the technologies by years because of the lack of validated instruments and benchmarks. Even when the appropriate assessment instruments are available, they may not be applied because of time and monetary constraints. Work in augmented reality, instrumented mannequins, serious gaming, and similar promising educational technologies that haven't undergone timely, rigorous evaluation, highlights the need for assessment methodologies that address the limitations of traditional approaches. The most promising augmented assessment solutions incorporate elements of rapid prototyping used in the software industry, simulation-based assessment techniques modeled after methods used in bioinformatics, and object-oriented analysis methods borrowed from object oriented programming.

  10. Use of Augmented Reality in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Jeřábek, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with phenomena of augmented reality in context of didactics. The thesis aims to define augmented reality in conceptual and content area and focuses on augmented reality in the structure of educational tools and identification of its functions and use from the didactical standpoint. The thesis characterizes augmented reality as a specific technological-perceptual concept and establishes a system of perceptual, technological and resulting aspects that reflect important paramet...

  11. Affordances in Mobile Augmented Reality Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gjøsæter, Tor

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the affordances of augmented reality content in a mobile augmented reality application. A user study was conducted by performing a multi-camera video recording of seven think aloud sessions. The think aloud sessions consisted of individual users performing tasks, exploring and experiencing a mobile augmented reality (MAR) application we developed for the iOS platform named ARad. We discuss the instrumental affordances we observed when users interacted with augmented realit...

  12. New Augmented Reality Taxonomy: Technologies and Features of Augmented Environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Hugues , Olivier; Fuchs , Philippe; Nannipieri , Olivier

    2011-01-01

    978-1-4614-0063-9; This article has a dual aim: firstly to define augmented reality (AR) en- vironments and secondly, based on our definition, a new taxonomy enabling these environments to be classified. After briefly reviewing existing classifica- tions, we define AR by its purpose, ie. to enable someone to create sensory- motor and cognitive activities in a new space combining the real environment and a virtual environment. Below we present our functional taxonomy of AR environments. We div...

  13. [Augmentation technique on the proximal humerus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scola, A; Gebhard, F; Röderer, G

    2015-09-01

    The treatment of osteoporotic fractures is still a challenge. The advantages of augmentation with respect to primary in vitro stability and the clinical use for the proximal humerus are presented in this article. In this study six paired human humeri were randomized into an augmented and a non-augmented group. Osteosynthesis was performed with a PHILOS plate (Synthes®). In the augmented group the two screws finding purchase in the weakest cancellous bone were augmented. The specimens were tested in a 3-part fracture model in a varus bending test. The augmented PHILOS plates withstood significantly more load cycles until failure. The correlation to bone mineral density (BMD) showed that augmentation could partially compensate for low BMD. The augmentation of the screws in locked plating in a proximal humerus fracture model is effective in improving the primary stability in a cyclic varus bending test. The targeted augmentation of two particular screws in a region of low bone quality within the humeral head was almost as effective as four screws with twice the amount of bone cement. Screw augmentation combined with a knowledge of the local bone quality could be more effective in enhancing the primary stability of a proximal humerus locking plate because the effect of augmentation can be exploited more effectively limiting it to the degree required. The technique of augmentation is simple and can be applied in open and minimally invasive procedures. When the correct procedure is used, complications (cement leakage into the joint) can be avoided.

  14. Augmented Reality for Multi-disciplinary Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiangyu; Rui,

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for multi-disciplinary collaboration. Tangible Augmented Reality has been raised as one of suitable systems for design collaboration. Furthermore, it emphasizes the advantages of Tangible Augmented Reality to illustrate the needs for integrating the Tangible User Interfaces and Augmented Reality Systems.

  15. Augmented reality building operations tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2014-09-09

    A method (700) for providing an augmented reality operations tool to a mobile client (642) positioned in a building (604). The method (700) includes, with a server (660), receiving (720) from the client (642) an augmented reality request for building system equipment (612) managed by an energy management system (EMS) (620). The method (700) includes transmitting (740) a data request for the equipment (612) to the EMS (620) and receiving (750) building management data (634) for the equipment (612). The method (700) includes generating (760) an overlay (656) with an object created based on the building management data (634), which may be sensor data, diagnostic procedures, or the like. The overlay (656) is configured for concurrent display on a display screen (652) of the client (642) with a real-time image of the building equipment (612). The method (700) includes transmitting (770) the overlay (656) to the client (642).

  16. Augmented Reality 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalstieg, Dieter; Langlotz, Tobias; Billinghurst, Mark

    Augmented Reality (AR) was first demonstrated in the 1960s, but only recently have technologies emerged that can be used to easily deploy AR applications to many users. Camera-equipped cell phones with significant processing power and graphics abilities provide an inexpensive and versatile platform for AR applications, while the social networking technology of Web 2.0 provides a large-scale infrastructure for collaboratively producing and distributing geo-referenced AR content. This combination of widely used mobile hardware and Web 2.0 software allows the development of a new type of AR platform that can be used on a global scale. In this paper we describe the Augmented Reality 2.0 concept and present existing work on mobile AR and web technologies that could be used to create AR 2.0 applications.

  17. Augmented Reality in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Brandt, Harald; Swensen, Hakon

    Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. However, most extant studies in this field have focused on the technology itself. The poster presents findings from the first stage of the AR-sci project addressing the issue of applying AR for educational purposes. Benefits and chall......Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. However, most extant studies in this field have focused on the technology itself. The poster presents findings from the first stage of the AR-sci project addressing the issue of applying AR for educational purposes. Benefits...... and challenges related to AR enhancing student learning in science in lower secondary school were identified by expert science teachers, ICT designers and science education researchers from four countries in a Delphi survey. Findings were condensed in a framework to categorize educational AR designs....

  18. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  19. Tracking for Outdoor Mobile Augmented Reality: Further development of the Zion Augmented Reality Application

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Tor Egil Riegels

    2008-01-01

    This report deals with providing tracking to an outdoor mobile augmented reality system and the Zion Augmented Reality Application. ZionARA is meant to display a virtual recreation of a 13th century castle on the site it once stood through an augmented reality Head Mounted Display. Mobile outdoor augmented/mixed reality puts special demands on what kind of equipment is practical. After briefly evaluating the different existing tracking methods, a solution based on GPS and an augmented inertia...

  20. Aesthetic occiput augmentation using methylmethacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong Tai

    2015-01-01

    Cranioplasty for only aesthetic reasons has not been commonly performed to date. However, recently there has been a new focus by the public on a more aesthetically pleasing head shape with frequent patient requests for purely aesthetic contouring of the occiput, an important definer of cosmetic head shape. For example, in Asia, where the normal cranial shape is mesocephalic or brachycephalic and often with a planar occiput, requests for its aesthetic correction are increasingly common. Accordingly, the author developed a minimally invasive occiput augmentation using methylmethacrylate. In this study, the indications for aesthetic occiput contouring were planar occiput, left-right asymmetric occiput, and grooved occiput. Under local anesthesia, soft methylmethacrylate is subperiosteally inserted through a small incision (about 5-cm length), manually and precisely contoured in situ through the scalp to the desired occipital shape. All is performed as an outpatient procedure, and a quick recovery is the case. Between March 2007 and October 2013, 959 patients received such aesthetic occiput augmentation. The mean follow-up period was 49 months (range, 3-84 months). Nearly all patients were satisfied with the outcome, and complications were very rare. Only 5 patients (0.5%) needed additional corrective procedures. The author has concluded that aesthetic occiput augmentation using methylmethacrylate yields consistent, predictable, and satisfactory results. Additional long-term follow-up is required for a final conclusion, however.

  1. Facial sculpting and tissue augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Jean D A; Carruthers, Alastair

    2005-11-01

    Until recently, deep facial sculpting was exclusively the domain of surgical interventions. Recent advances in the available array of dermal and subdermal fillers combined with an esthetic appreciation by both surgeons and nonsurgeons alike of the positive effect of filling the volume-depleted face have led to an expansion in the indications for the use of soft tissue augmenting agents. Subdermal support of the lateral two-thirds of the brow, the nasojugal fold, the malar and buccal fat pads, the lateral lip commissures, and the perioral region, including the pre-jowl sulcus, all restore youthful facial contour and harmony. An important advance in technique is the subdermal rather than the intradermal injection plane. "Instant" facial sculpting giving a brow-lift, cheek-lift, lip expansion, and perioral augmentation is possible using modern soft tissue augmenting agents. The softer, more relaxed appearance contrasts to the somewhat "pulled" appearance of subjects who have had surgical overcorrections. Treatments can be combined with botulinum toxin and other procedures if required. Newer advances in the use of fillers include the use of fillers injected in the subdermal plane for "lunchtime" facial sculpting. Using the modern esthetic filler compounds, which are biodegradable but longer lasting, subjects can have a "rehearsal" treatment or make it ongoing. Some individuals, such as those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related lipoatrophy or those who desire to obtain a longer-lasting effect, may elect to use a nonbiodegradable filling agent.

  2. Distribution of class ii major histocompatibility complex antigenexpressing cells in human dental pulp with carious lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a bacterial infection which causes destruction of the hard tissues of the tooth. Exposure of the dentin to the oral environment as a result of caries inevitably results in a cellular response in the pulp. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is a group of genes that code for cell-surface histocompatibility antigens. Cells expressing class II MHC molecules participate in the initial recognition and the processing of antigenic substances to serve as antigen-presenting cells. Purpose: The aim of the study was to elucidate the alteration in the distribution of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells in human dental pulp as carious lesions progressed toward the pulp. Methods: Fifteen third molars with caries at the occlusal site at various stages of decay and 5 intact third molars were extracted and used in this study. Before decalcifying with 10% EDTA solution (pH 7.4, all the samples were observed by micro-computed tomography to confirm the lesion condition three-dimensionally. The specimens were then processed for cryosection and immunohistochemistry using an anti-MHC class II monoclonal antibody. Results: Class II MHC antigen-expressing cells were found both in normal and carious specimens. In normal tooth, the class II MHC-immunopositive cells were observed mainly at the periphery of the pulp tissue. In teeth with caries, class II MHC-immunopositive cells were located predominantly subjacent to the carious lesions. As the caries progressed, the number of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells was increased. Conclusion: The depth of carious lesions affects the distribution of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells in the dental pulp.Latar belakang: Karies merupakan penyakit infeksi bakteri yang mengakibatkan destruksi jaringan keras gigi. Dentin yang terbuka akibat karies akan menginduksi respon imun seluler pada pulpa. Kompleks histokompatibilitas utama (MHC merupakan sekumpulan gen yang mengkode histokompatibilitas

  3. 454 sequencing reveals extreme complexity of the class II Major Histocompatibility Complex in the collared flycatcher

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    Gustafsson Lars

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of their functional significance, the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class I and II genes have been the subject of continuous interest in the fields of ecology, evolution and conservation. In some vertebrate groups MHC consists of multiple loci with similar alleles; therefore, the multiple loci must be genotyped simultaneously. In such complex systems, understanding of the evolutionary patterns and their causes has been limited due to challenges posed by genotyping. Results Here we used 454 amplicon sequencing to characterize MHC class IIB exon 2 variation in the collared flycatcher, an important organism in evolutionary and immuno-ecological studies. On the basis of over 152,000 sequencing reads we identified 194 putative alleles in 237 individuals. We found an extreme complexity of the MHC class IIB in the collared flycatchers, with our estimates pointing to the presence of at least nine expressed loci and a large, though difficult to estimate precisely, number of pseudogene loci. Many similar alleles occurred in the pseudogenes indicating either a series of recent duplications or extensive concerted evolution. The expressed alleles showed unambiguous signals of historical selection and the occurrence of apparent interlocus exchange of alleles. Placing the collared flycatcher's MHC sequences in the context of passerine diversity revealed transspecific MHC class II evolution within the Muscicapidae family. Conclusions 454 amplicon sequencing is an effective tool for advancing our understanding of the MHC class II structure and evolutionary patterns in Passeriformes. We found a highly dynamic pattern of evolution of MHC class IIB genes with strong signals of selection and pronounced sequence divergence in expressed genes, in contrast to the apparent sequence homogenization in pseudogenes. We show that next generation sequencing offers a universal, affordable method for the characterization and, in perspective

  4. Gene duplication and fragmentation in the zebra finch major histocompatibility complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Christopher N; Ekblom, Robert; Völker, Martin; Westerdahl, Helena; Godinez, Ricardo; Kotkiewicz, Holly; Burt, David W; Graves, Tina; Griffin, Darren K; Warren, Wesley C; Edwards, Scott V

    2010-04-01

    Due to its high polymorphism and importance for disease resistance, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has been an important focus of many vertebrate genome projects. Avian MHC organization is of particular interest because the chicken Gallus gallus, the avian species with the best characterized MHC, possesses a highly streamlined minimal essential MHC, which is linked to resistance against specific pathogens. It remains unclear the extent to which this organization describes the situation in other birds and whether it represents a derived or ancestral condition. The sequencing of the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata genome, in combination with targeted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequencing, has allowed us to characterize an MHC from a highly divergent and diverse avian lineage, the passerines. The zebra finch MHC exhibits a complex structure and history involving gene duplication and fragmentation. The zebra finch MHC includes multiple Class I and Class II genes, some of which appear to be pseudogenes, and spans a much more extensive genomic region than the chicken MHC, as evidenced by the presence of MHC genes on each of seven BACs spanning 739 kb. Cytogenetic (FISH) evidence and the genome assembly itself place core MHC genes on as many as four chromosomes with TAP and Class I genes mapping to different chromosomes. MHC Class II regions are further characterized by high endogenous retroviral content. Lastly, we find strong evidence of selection acting on sites within passerine MHC Class I and Class II genes. The zebra finch MHC differs markedly from that of the chicken, the only other bird species with a complete genome sequence. The apparent lack of synteny between TAP and the expressed MHC Class I locus is in fact reminiscent of a pattern seen in some mammalian lineages and may represent convergent evolution. Our analyses of the zebra finch MHC suggest a complex history involving chromosomal fission, gene duplication and translocation in the

  5. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex highlight interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system

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    Barbara Lukasch

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background A well-functioning immune defence is crucial for fitness, but our knowledge about the immune system and its complex interactions is still limited. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules are involved in T-cell mediated adaptive immune responses, but MHC is also highly upregulated during the initial innate immune response. The aim of our study was therefore to determine to what extent the highly polymorphic MHC is involved in interactions of the innate and adaptive immune defence and if specific functional MHC alleles (FA or heterozygosity at the MHC are more important. Methods To do this we used captive house sparrows (Passer domesticus to survey MHC diversity and immune function controlling for several environmental factors. MHC class I alleles were identified using parallel amplicon sequencing and to mirror immune function, several immunological tests that correspond to the innate and adaptive immunity were conducted. Results Our results reveal that MHC was linked to all immune tests, highlighting its importance for the immune defence. While all innate responses were associated with one single FA, adaptive responses (cell-mediated and humoral were associated with several different alleles. Discussion We found that repeated injections of an antibody in nestlings and adults were linked to different FA and hence might affect different areas of the immune system. Also, individuals with a higher number of different FA produced a smaller secondary response, indicating a disadvantage of having numerous MHC alleles. These results demonstrate the complexity of the immune system in relation to the MHC and lay the foundation for other studies to further investigate this topic.

  6. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex highlight interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasch, Barbara; Westerdahl, Helena; Strandh, Maria; Winkler, Hans; Moodley, Yoshan; Knauer, Felix; Hoi, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    A well-functioning immune defence is crucial for fitness, but our knowledge about the immune system and its complex interactions is still limited. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are involved in T-cell mediated adaptive immune responses, but MHC is also highly upregulated during the initial innate immune response. The aim of our study was therefore to determine to what extent the highly polymorphic MHC is involved in interactions of the innate and adaptive immune defence and if specific functional MHC alleles (FA) or heterozygosity at the MHC are more important. To do this we used captive house sparrows ( Passer domesticus ) to survey MHC diversity and immune function controlling for several environmental factors. MHC class I alleles were identified using parallel amplicon sequencing and to mirror immune function, several immunological tests that correspond to the innate and adaptive immunity were conducted. Our results reveal that MHC was linked to all immune tests, highlighting its importance for the immune defence. While all innate responses were associated with one single FA, adaptive responses (cell-mediated and humoral) were associated with several different alleles. We found that repeated injections of an antibody in nestlings and adults were linked to different FA and hence might affect different areas of the immune system. Also, individuals with a higher number of different FA produced a smaller secondary response, indicating a disadvantage of having numerous MHC alleles. These results demonstrate the complexity of the immune system in relation to the MHC and lay the foundation for other studies to further investigate this topic.

  7. Blood parasites shape extreme major histocompatibility complex diversity in a migratory passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedrzycka, Aleksandra; Bielański, Wojciech; Ćmiel, Adam; Solarz, Wojciech; Zając, Tadeusz; Migalska, Magdalena; Sebastian, Alvaro; Westerdahl, Helena; Radwan, Jacek

    2018-06-01

    Pathogens are one of the main forces driving the evolution and maintenance of the highly polymorphic genes of the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Although MHC proteins are crucial in pathogen recognition, it is still poorly understood how pathogen-mediated selection promotes and maintains MHC diversity, and especially so in host species with highly duplicated MHC genes. Sedge warblers (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) have highly duplicated MHC genes, and using data from high-throughput MHC genotyping, we were able to investigate to what extent avian malaria parasites explain temporal MHC class I supertype fluctuations in a long-term study population. We investigated infection status and infection intensities of two different strains of Haemoproteus, that is avian malaria parasites that are known to have significant fitness consequences in sedge warblers. We found that prevalence of avian malaria in carriers of specific MHC class I supertypes was a significant predictor of their frequency changes between years. This finding suggests that avian malaria infections partly drive the temporal fluctuations of the MHC class I supertypes. Furthermore, we found that individuals with a large number of different supertypes had higher resistance to avian malaria, but there was no evidence for an optimal MHC class I diversity. Thus, the two studied malaria parasite strains appear to select for a high MHC class I supertype diversity. Such selection may explain the maintenance of the extremely high number of MHC class I gene copies in sedge warblers and possibly also in other passerines where avian malaria is a common disease. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Low major histocompatibility complex class II DQA diversity in the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca

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    Ruan Xiang-Dong

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca is one of the most endangered animals due to habitat fragmentation and loss. Although the captive breeding program for this species is now nearly two decades old, researches on the genetic background of such captive populations, especially on adaptive molecular polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex (MHC, are still limited. In this study, we characterized adaptive variation of the giant panda's MHC DQA gene by PCR amplification of its antigen-recognizing region (i.e. the exon 2 and subsequent single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP and sequence analyses. Results The results revealed a low level of DQA exon 2 diversity in this rare animal, presenting 6 alleles from 61 giant panda individuals. The observed polymorphism was restricted to 9 amino acid substitutions, all of which occurred at and adjacent to positions forming the functionally important antigen-binding sites. All the samples were in Hardy-Weinberg proportions. A significantly higher rate of non-synonymous than synonymous substitutions at the antigen-binding sites indicated positive selection for diversity in the locus. Conclusion The DQA allelic diversity of giant pandas was low relative to other vertebrates. Nonetheless, the pandas exhibited more alleles in DQA than those in DRB, suggesting the alpha chain genes would play a leading role when coping with certain pathogens and thus should be included in conservation genetic investigation. The microsatellite and MHC loci might predict long-term persistence potential and short-term survival ability, respectively. Consequently, it is recommended to utilize multiple suites of microsatellite markers and multiple MHC loci to detect overall genetic variation in order to design unbiased conservation strategies.

  9. Introgression from domestic goat generated variation at the major histocompatibility complex of Alpine ibex.

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    Christine Grossen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is a crucial component of the vertebrate immune system and shows extremely high levels of genetic polymorphism. The extraordinary genetic variation is thought to be ancient polymorphisms maintained by balancing selection. However, introgression from related species was recently proposed as an additional mechanism. Here we provide evidence for introgression at the MHC in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex. At a usually very polymorphic MHC exon involved in pathogen recognition (DRB exon 2, Alpine ibex carried only two alleles. We found that one of these DRB alleles is identical to a DRB allele of domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus. We sequenced 2489 bp of the coding and non-coding regions of the DRB gene and found that Alpine ibex homozygous for the goat-type DRB exon 2 allele showed nearly identical sequences (99.8% to a breed of domestic goats. Using Sanger and RAD sequencing, microsatellite and SNP chip data, we show that the chromosomal region containing the goat-type DRB allele has a signature of recent introgression in Alpine ibex. A region of approximately 750 kb including the DRB locus showed high rates of heterozygosity in individuals carrying one copy of the goat-type DRB allele. These individuals shared SNP alleles both with domestic goats and other Alpine ibex. In a survey of four Alpine ibex populations, we found that the region surrounding the DRB allele shows strong linkage disequilibria, strong sequence clustering and low diversity among haplotypes carrying the goat-type allele. Introgression at the MHC is likely adaptive and introgression critically increased MHC DRB diversity in the genetically impoverished Alpine ibex. Our finding contradicts the long-standing view that genetic variability at the MHC is solely a consequence of ancient trans-species polymorphism. Introgression is likely an underappreciated source of genetic diversity at the MHC and other loci under balancing selection.

  10. Evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in the brown bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins constitute an essential component of the vertebrate immune response, and are coded by the most polymorphic of the vertebrate genes. Here, we investigated sequence variation and evolution of MHC class I and class II DRB, DQA and DQB genes in the brown bear Ursus arctos to characterise the level of polymorphism, estimate the strength of positive selection acting on them, and assess the extent of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism in Ursidae. Results We found 37 MHC class I, 16 MHC class II DRB, four DQB and two DQA alleles. We confirmed the expression of several loci: three MHC class I, two DRB, two DQB and one DQA. MHC class I also contained two clusters of non-expressed sequences. MHC class I and DRB allele frequencies differed between northern and southern populations of the Scandinavian brown bear. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) exceeded the rate of synonymous substitutions (dS) at putative antigen binding sites of DRB and DQB loci and, marginally significantly, at MHC class I loci. Models of codon evolution supported positive selection at DRB and MHC class I loci. Both MHC class I and MHC class II sequences showed orthology to gene clusters found in the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Conclusions Historical positive selection has acted on MHC class I, class II DRB and DQB, but not on the DQA locus. The signal of historical positive selection on the DRB locus was particularly strong, which may be a general feature of caniforms. The presence of MHC class I pseudogenes may indicate faster gene turnover in this class through the birth-and-death process. South–north population structure at MHC loci probably reflects origin of the populations from separate glacial refugia. PMID:23031405

  11. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the major histocompatibility complex of the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, U M; Storb, R F

    1988-01-01

    Human major histocompatibility complex (HLA) cDNA probes were used to analyze the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the DLA-D region in dogs. Genomic DNA from peripheral blood leucocytes of 23 unrelated DLA-D-homozygous dogs representing nine DLA-D types (defined by mixed leucocyte reaction) was digested with restriction enzymes (Bam HI, Eco RI, Hind III, Pvu II, Taq I, Rsa I, Msp I, Pst I, and Bgl II), separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, and transferred onto Biotrace membrane. The Southern blots were successively hybridized with radiolabeled HLA cDNA probes corresponding to DR, DQ, DP, and DO beta genes. The autoradiograms for all nine enzyme digests displayed multiple bands with the DRb, DQb, and DPb probes while the DOb probe hybridized with one to two bands. The RFLP patterns were highly polymorphic but consistent within each DLA-D type. Standard RFLP patterns were established for nine DLA-D types which could be discriminated from each other by using two enzymes (Rsa I and Pst I) and the HLA-DPb probe. Cluster analysis of the polymorphic restriction fragments detected by the DRb probe revealed four closely related supertypic groups or DLA-DR families: Dw3 + Dw4 + D1, Dw8 + D10, D7 + D16 + D9, and Dw1. This study provides the basis for DLA-D genotyping at a population level by RFLP analysis. These results also suggest that the genetic organization of the DLA-D region may closely resemble that of the HLA complex.

  12. Dynamics of major histocompatibility complex class I association with the human peptide-loading complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter, Michaela S; Jain, Ankur; Leonhardt, Ralf M; Ha, Taekjip; Cresswell, Peter

    2012-09-07

    Although the human peptide-loading complex (PLC) is required for optimal major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) antigen presentation, its composition is still incompletely understood. The ratio of the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and MHC I to tapasin, which is responsible for MHC I recruitment and peptide binding optimization, is particularly critical for modeling of the PLC. Here, we characterized the stoichiometry of the human PLC using both biophysical and biochemical approaches. By means of single-molecule pulldown (SiMPull), we determined a TAP/tapasin ratio of 1:2, consistent with previous studies of insect-cell microsomes, rat-human chimeric cells, and HeLa cells expressing truncated TAP subunits. We also report that the tapasin/MHC I ratio varies, with the PLC population comprising both 2:1 and 2:2 complexes, based on mutational and co-precipitation studies. The MHC I-saturated PLC may be particularly prevalent among peptide-selective alleles, such as HLA-C4. Additionally, MHC I association with the PLC increases when its peptide supply is reduced by inhibiting the proteasome or by blocking TAP-mediated peptide transport using viral inhibitors. Taken together, our results indicate that the composition of the human PLC varies under normal conditions and dynamically adapts to alterations in peptide supply that may arise during viral infection. These findings improve our understanding of the quality control of MHC I peptide loading and may aid the structural and functional modeling of the human PLC.

  13. Common minor histocompatibility antigen discovery based upon patient clinical outcomes and genomic data.

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    Paul M Armistead

    Full Text Available Minor histocompatibility antigens (mHA mediate much of the graft vs. leukemia (GvL effect and graft vs. host disease (GvHD in patients who undergo allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT. Therapeutic decision making and treatments based upon mHAs will require the evaluation of multiple candidate mHAs and the selection of those with the potential to have the greatest impact on clinical outcomes. We hypothesized that common, immunodominant mHAs, which are presented by HLA-A, B, and C molecules, can mediate clinically significant GvL and/or GvHD, and that these mHAs can be identified through association of genomic data with clinical outcomes.Because most mHAs result from donor/recipient cSNP disparities, we genotyped 57 myeloid leukemia patients and their donors at 13,917 cSNPs. We correlated the frequency of genetically predicted mHA disparities with clinical evidence of an immune response and then computationally screened all peptides mapping to the highly associated cSNPs for their ability to bind to HLA molecules. As proof-of-concept, we analyzed one predicted antigen, T4A, whose mHA mismatch trended towards improved overall and disease free survival in our cohort. T4A mHA mismatches occurred at the maximum theoretical frequency for any given SCT. T4A-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTLs were detected in 3 of 4 evaluable post-transplant patients predicted to have a T4A mismatch.Our method is the first to combine clinical outcomes data with genomics and bioinformatics methods to predict and confirm a mHA. Refinement of this method should enable the discovery of clinically relevant mHAs in the majority of transplant patients and possibly lead to novel immunotherapeutics.

  14. Evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in the brown bear

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    Kuduk Katarzyna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major histocompatibility complex (MHC proteins constitute an essential component of the vertebrate immune response, and are coded by the most polymorphic of the vertebrate genes. Here, we investigated sequence variation and evolution of MHC class I and class II DRB, DQA and DQB genes in the brown bear Ursus arctos to characterise the level of polymorphism, estimate the strength of positive selection acting on them, and assess the extent of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism in Ursidae. Results We found 37 MHC class I, 16 MHC class II DRB, four DQB and two DQA alleles. We confirmed the expression of several loci: three MHC class I, two DRB, two DQB and one DQA. MHC class I also contained two clusters of non-expressed sequences. MHC class I and DRB allele frequencies differed between northern and southern populations of the Scandinavian brown bear. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN exceeded the rate of synonymous substitutions (dS at putative antigen binding sites of DRB and DQB loci and, marginally significantly, at MHC class I loci. Models of codon evolution supported positive selection at DRB and MHC class I loci. Both MHC class I and MHC class II sequences showed orthology to gene clusters found in the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Conclusions Historical positive selection has acted on MHC class I, class II DRB and DQB, but not on the DQA locus. The signal of historical positive selection on the DRB locus was particularly strong, which may be a general feature of caniforms. The presence of MHC class I pseudogenes may indicate faster gene turnover in this class through the birth-and-death process. South–north population structure at MHC loci probably reflects origin of the populations from separate glacial refugia.

  15. Evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in the brown bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuduk, Katarzyna; Babik, Wiesław; Bojarska, Katarzyna; Sliwińska, Ewa B; Kindberg, Jonas; Taberlet, Pierre; Swenson, Jon E; Radwan, Jacek

    2012-10-02

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins constitute an essential component of the vertebrate immune response, and are coded by the most polymorphic of the vertebrate genes. Here, we investigated sequence variation and evolution of MHC class I and class II DRB, DQA and DQB genes in the brown bear Ursus arctos to characterise the level of polymorphism, estimate the strength of positive selection acting on them, and assess the extent of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism in Ursidae. We found 37 MHC class I, 16 MHC class II DRB, four DQB and two DQA alleles. We confirmed the expression of several loci: three MHC class I, two DRB, two DQB and one DQA. MHC class I also contained two clusters of non-expressed sequences. MHC class I and DRB allele frequencies differed between northern and southern populations of the Scandinavian brown bear. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) exceeded the rate of synonymous substitutions (dS) at putative antigen binding sites of DRB and DQB loci and, marginally significantly, at MHC class I loci. Models of codon evolution supported positive selection at DRB and MHC class I loci. Both MHC class I and MHC class II sequences showed orthology to gene clusters found in the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Historical positive selection has acted on MHC class I, class II DRB and DQB, but not on the DQA locus. The signal of historical positive selection on the DRB locus was particularly strong, which may be a general feature of caniforms. The presence of MHC class I pseudogenes may indicate faster gene turnover in this class through the birth-and-death process. South-north population structure at MHC loci probably reflects origin of the populations from separate glacial refugia.

  16. Detection of autoreactive CD4 T cells using major histocompatibility complex class II dextramers

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    Kuszynski Charles

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetramers are useful tools to enumerate the frequencies of antigen-specific T cells. However, unlike CD8 T cells, CD4 T cells - especially self-reactive cells - are challenging to detect with major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II tetramers because of low frequencies and low affinities of their T cell receptors to MHC-peptide complexes. Here, we report the use of fluorescent multimers, designated MHC dextramers that contain a large number of peptide-MHC complexes per reagent. Results The utility of MHC dextramers was evaluated in three autoimmune disease models: 1 proteolipid protein (PLP 139-151-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in SJL/J (H-2s mice; 2 myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG 35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57Bl/6 (H-2b mice; and 3 cardiac myosin heavy chain (Myhc-α 334-352-induced experimental autoimmune myocarditis in A/J (H-2a mice. Flow cytometrically, we demonstrate that IAs/PLP 139-151, IAb/MOG 35-55 and IAk/Myhc-α 334-352 dextramers detect the antigen-sensitized cells with specificity, and with a detection sensitivity significantly higher than that achieved with conventional tetramers. Furthermore, we show that binding of dextramers, but not tetramers, is less dependent on the activation status of cells, permitting enumeration of antigen-specific cells ex vivo. Conclusions The data suggest that MHC dextramers are useful tools to track the generation and functionalities of self-reactive CD4 cells in various experimental systems.

  17. Evidence against suppressor cell involvement in naturally acquired tolerance of a minor histocompatibility antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis was investigated that suppressor cells may be responsible for maintenance of immunologic tolerance of a minor H3 antigen in mice that express the antigen naturally. Lymphoid cell populations from B6.C-H-24c (HW54) mice, a congenic-resistant strain histoincompatible with H-24b-expressing C57BL/6 (B6) mice only with respect to the H-24 locus, were examined in cell-transfer experiments to see if they contained naturally arising H-24c-specific suppressor cells. The H-24 antigen was chosen for these studies because, unlike most other minor and major histocompatibility (H) antigens, it is not detectable on mature lymphoid cells by any of several functional criteria. Thus transfer of HW54 lymphoid cells to B6 hosts could be done without the complication of inducing hyporesponsiveness de novo in the host, as occurs with other minor H antigens that are expressed on lymphocytes. B6 hosts were given HW54 skin grafts along with HW54 lymphoid cells to assess their tolerance of the H-24c-encoded antigen. The hosts were either (1) normal, nonimmune B6 mice; (2) B6 mice rendered immunodeficient by thymectomy and irradiation (TxB) and repopulated with H-24c-immune B6 lymphocytes; or (3) TxB B6 hosts repopulated with nonimmune B6 lymphocytes. In each case it was found that the additionally infused HW54 lymphoid cells did not suppress the ability of these hosts to reject HW54 skin grafts. In other words, HW54 lymphoid cells appear not to possess suppressive activity specific for the H-24c antigen that might maintain antigen-specific natural tolerance. Additional experiments were performed to determine whether HW54 lymphoid cells can inhibit the ability of sublethally irradiated B6 mice to regain the capacity to reject HW54 skin

  18. Conditional analysis identifies three novel major histocompatibility complex loci associated with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jo; Spain, Sarah L; Capon, Francesca; Hayday, Adrian; Nestle, Frank O; Clop, Alex; Barker, Jonathan N; Weale, Michael E; Trembath, Richard C

    2012-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic, inflammatory skin disorder. A number of genetic loci have been shown to confer risk for psoriasis. Collectively, these offer an integrated model for the inherited basis for susceptibility to psoriasis that combines altered skin barrier function together with the dysregulation of innate immune pathogen sensing and adap-tive immunity. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) harbours the psoriasis susceptibility region which exhibits the largest effect size, driven in part by variation contained on the HLA-Cw*0602 allele. However, the resolution of the number and genomic location of potential independent risk loci are hampered by extensive linkage disequilibrium across the region. We leveraged the power of large psoriasis case and control data sets and the statistical approach of conditional analysis to identify potential further association signals distributed across the MHC. In addition to the major loci at HLA-C (P = 2.20 × 10(-236)), we observed and replicated four additional independent signals for disease association, three of which are novel. We detected evidence for association at SNPs rs2507971 (P = 6.73 × 10(-14)), rs9260313 (P = 7.93 × 10(-09)), rs66609536 (P = 3.54 × 10(-07)) and rs380924 (P = 6.24 × 10(-06)), located within the class I region of the MHC, with each observation replicated in an independent sample (P ≤ 0.01). The previously identified locus is close to MICA, the other three lie near MICB, HLA-A and HCG9 (a non-coding RNA gene). The identification of disease associations with both MICA and MICB is particularly intriguing, since each encodes an MHC class I-related protein with potent immunological function.

  19. Introgression from Domestic Goat Generated Variation at the Major Histocompatibility Complex of Alpine Ibex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossen, Christine; Keller, Lukas; Biebach, Iris; Croll, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a crucial component of the vertebrate immune system and shows extremely high levels of genetic polymorphism. The extraordinary genetic variation is thought to be ancient polymorphisms maintained by balancing selection. However, introgression from related species was recently proposed as an additional mechanism. Here we provide evidence for introgression at the MHC in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex). At a usually very polymorphic MHC exon involved in pathogen recognition (DRB exon 2), Alpine ibex carried only two alleles. We found that one of these DRB alleles is identical to a DRB allele of domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). We sequenced 2489 bp of the coding and non-coding regions of the DRB gene and found that Alpine ibex homozygous for the goat-type DRB exon 2 allele showed nearly identical sequences (99.8%) to a breed of domestic goats. Using Sanger and RAD sequencing, microsatellite and SNP chip data, we show that the chromosomal region containing the goat-type DRB allele has a signature of recent introgression in Alpine ibex. A region of approximately 750 kb including the DRB locus showed high rates of heterozygosity in individuals carrying one copy of the goat-type DRB allele. These individuals shared SNP alleles both with domestic goats and other Alpine ibex. In a survey of four Alpine ibex populations, we found that the region surrounding the DRB allele shows strong linkage disequilibria, strong sequence clustering and low diversity among haplotypes carrying the goat-type allele. Introgression at the MHC is likely adaptive and introgression critically increased MHC DRB diversity in the genetically impoverished Alpine ibex. Our finding contradicts the long-standing view that genetic variability at the MHC is solely a consequence of ancient trans-species polymorphism. Introgression is likely an underappreciated source of genetic diversity at the MHC and other loci under balancing selection. PMID:24945814

  20. Major Histocompatibility Complex, demographic, and environmental predictors of antibody presence in a free-ranging mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-López, María José; Monello, Ryan J; Schuttler, Stephanie G; Lance, Stacey L; Gompper, Matthew E; Eggert, Lori S

    2014-12-01

    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) variability plays a key role in pathogen resistance, but its relative importance compared to environmental and demographic factors that also influence resistance is unknown. We analyzed the MHC II DRB exon 2 for 165 raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Missouri (USA). For each animal we also determined the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to two highly virulent pathogens, canine distemper virus (CDV) and parvovirus. We investigated the role of MHC polymorphism and other demographic and environmental factors previously associated with predicting seroconversion. In addition, using an experimental approach, we studied the relative importance of resource availability and contact rates. We found important associations between IgG antibody presence and several MHC alleles and supertypes but not between IgM antibody presence and MHC. No effect of individual MHC diversity was found. For CDV, supertype S8, one allele within S8 (Prlo-DRB(∗)222), and a second allele (Prlo-DRB(∗)204) were positively associated with being IgG+, while supertype S4 and one allele within the supertype (Prlo-DRB(∗)210) were negatively associated with being IgG+. Age, year, and increased food availability were also positively associated with being IgG+, but allele Prlo-DRB(∗)222 was a stronger predictor. For parvovirus, only one MHC allele was negatively associated with being IgG+ and age and site were stronger predictors of seroconversion. Our results show that negative-frequency dependent selection is likely acting on the raccoon MHC and that while the role of MHC in relation to other factors depends on the pathogen of interest, it may be one of the most important factors predicting successful immune response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Augmented reality in intraventricular neuroendoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, T; Schaumann, A; Schulz, M; Thomale, Ulrich-W

    2017-06-01

    Individual planning of the entry point and the use of navigation has become more relevant in intraventricular neuroendoscopy. Navigated neuroendoscopic solutions are continuously improving. We describe experimentally measured accuracy and our first experience with augmented reality-enhanced navigated neuroendoscopy for intraventricular pathologies. Augmented reality-enhanced navigated endoscopy was tested for accuracy in an experimental setting. Therefore, a 3D-printed head model with a right parietal lesion was scanned with a thin-sliced computer tomography. Segmentation of the tumor lesion was performed using Scopis NovaPlan navigation software. An optical reference matrix is used to register the neuroendoscope's geometry and its field of view. The pre-planned ROI and trajectory are superimposed in the endoscopic image. The accuracy of the superimposed contour fitting on endoscopically visualized lesion was acquired by measuring the deviation of both midpoints to one another. The technique was subsequently used in 29 cases with CSF circulation pathologies. Navigation planning included defining the entry points, regions of interests and trajectories, superimposed as augmented reality on the endoscopic video screen during intervention. Patients were evaluated for postoperative imaging, reoperations, and possible complications. The experimental setup revealed a deviation of the ROI's midpoint from the real target by 1.2 ± 0.4 mm. The clinical study included 18 cyst fenestrations, ten biopsies, seven endoscopic third ventriculostomies, six stent placements, and two shunt implantations, being eventually combined in some patients. In cases of cyst fenestrations postoperatively, the cyst volume was significantly reduced in all patients by mean of 47%. In biopsies, the diagnostic yield was 100%. Reoperations during a follow-up period of 11.4 ± 10.2 months were necessary in two cases. Complications included one postoperative hygroma and one insufficient

  2. Webizing mobile augmented reality content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sangchul; Ko, Heedong; Yoo, Byounghyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a content structure for building mobile augmented reality (AR) applications in HTML5 to achieve a clean separation of the mobile AR content and the application logic for scaling as on the Web. We propose that the content structure contains the physical world as well as virtual assets for mobile AR applications as document object model (DOM) elements and that their behaviour and user interactions are controlled through DOM events by representing objects and places with a uniform resource identifier. Our content structure enables mobile AR applications to be seamlessly developed as normal HTML documents under the current Web eco-system.

  3. Controlling bistability by linear augmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Pooja Rani; Shrimali, Manish Dev; Prasad, Awadhesh; Feudel, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    In many bistable oscillating systems only one of the attractors is desired to possessing certain system performance. We present a method to drive a bistable system to a desired target attractor by annihilating the other one. This shift from bistability to monostability is achieved by augmentation of the nonlinear oscillator with a linear control system. For a proper choice of the control function one of the attractors disappears at a critical coupling strength in an control-induced boundary crisis. This transition from bistability to monostability is demonstrated with two paradigmatic examples, the autonomous Chua oscillator and a neuronal system with a periodic input signal.

  4. Indeterminacy and labor augmenting externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile; Goenka, Aditya

    2002-01-01

    In this two-sector discrete time model of endogenous economic growth intersectoral effects are assumed to be "labor augmenting" We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for local indeterminacy and multiplicity of the balanced growth path in terms of factor intensities in both sectors....... The balanced growth path is unique if the consumption good sector is more capital intensive. However, it can be indeterminate. When the investment good sector is more capital intensive a sufficient condition for indeterminacy is that there exists at least three balanced growth paths....

  5. Gene duplication and fragmentation in the zebra finch major histocompatibility complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burt David W

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to its high polymorphism and importance for disease resistance, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC has been an important focus of many vertebrate genome projects. Avian MHC organization is of particular interest because the chicken Gallus gallus, the avian species with the best characterized MHC, possesses a highly streamlined minimal essential MHC, which is linked to resistance against specific pathogens. It remains unclear the extent to which this organization describes the situation in other birds and whether it represents a derived or ancestral condition. The sequencing of the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata genome, in combination with targeted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC sequencing, has allowed us to characterize an MHC from a highly divergent and diverse avian lineage, the passerines. Results The zebra finch MHC exhibits a complex structure and history involving gene duplication and fragmentation. The zebra finch MHC includes multiple Class I and Class II genes, some of which appear to be pseudogenes, and spans a much more extensive genomic region than the chicken MHC, as evidenced by the presence of MHC genes on each of seven BACs spanning 739 kb. Cytogenetic (FISH evidence and the genome assembly itself place core MHC genes on as many as four chromosomes with TAP and Class I genes mapping to different chromosomes. MHC Class II regions are further characterized by high endogenous retroviral content. Lastly, we find strong evidence of selection acting on sites within passerine MHC Class I and Class II genes. Conclusion The zebra finch MHC differs markedly from that of the chicken, the only other bird species with a complete genome sequence. The apparent lack of synteny between TAP and the expressed MHC Class I locus is in fact reminiscent of a pattern seen in some mammalian lineages and may represent convergent evolution. Our analyses of the zebra finch MHC suggest a complex history involving

  6. Zika Virus Escapes NK Cell Detection by Upregulating Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasner, Ariella; Oiknine-Djian, Esther; Weisblum, Yiska; Diab, Mohammad; Panet, Amos; Wolf, Dana G; Mandelboim, Ofer

    2017-11-15

    NK cells are innate lymphocytes that participate in many immune processes encompassing cancer, bacterial and fungal infection, autoimmunity, and even pregnancy and that specialize in antiviral defense. NK cells express inhibitory and activating receptors and kill their targets when activating signals overpower inhibitory signals. The NK cell inhibitory receptors include a uniquely diverse array of proteins named killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), the CD94 family, and the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor (LIR) family. The NK cell inhibitory receptors recognize mostly major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I (MHC-I) proteins. Zika virus has recently emerged as a major threat due to its association with birth defects and its pandemic potential. How Zika virus interacts with the immune system, and especially with NK cells, is unclear. Here we show that Zika virus infection is barely sensed by NK cells, since little or no increase in the expression of activating NK cell ligands was observed following Zika infection. In contrast, we demonstrate that Zika virus infection leads to the upregulation of MHC class I proteins and consequently to the inhibition of NK cell killing. Mechanistically, we show that MHC class I proteins are upregulated via the RIGI-IRF3 pathway and that this upregulation is mediated via beta interferon (IFN-β). Potentially, countering MHC class I upregulation during Zika virus infection could be used as a prophylactic treatment against Zika virus. IMPORTANCE NK cells are innate lymphocytes that recognize and eliminate various pathogens and are known mostly for their role in controlling viral infections. NK cells express inhibitory and activating receptors, and they kill or spare their targets based on the integration of inhibitory and activating signals. Zika virus has recently emerged as a major threat to humans due to its pandemic potential and its association with birth defects. The role of NK cells in Zika virus

  7. Adaptive molecular evolution of the Major Histocompatibility Complex genes, DRA and DQA, in the genus Equus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Pauline L; Getz, Wayne M

    2011-05-18

    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes are central to vertebrate immune response and are believed to be under balancing selection by pathogens. This hypothesis has been supported by observations of extremely high polymorphism, elevated nonsynonymous to synonymous base pair substitution rates and trans-species polymorphisms at these loci. In equids, the organization and variability of this gene family has been described, however the full extent of diversity and selection is unknown. As selection is not expected to act uniformly on a functional gene, maximum likelihood codon-based models of selection that allow heterogeneity in selection across codon positions can be valuable for examining MHC gene evolution and the molecular basis for species adaptations. We investigated the evolution of two class II MHC genes of the Equine Lymphocyte Antigen (ELA), DRA and DQA, in the genus Equus with the addition of novel alleles identified in plains zebra (E. quagga, formerly E. burchelli). We found that both genes exhibited a high degree of polymorphism and inter-specific sharing of allele lineages. To our knowledge, DRA allelic diversity was discovered to be higher than has ever been observed in vertebrates. Evidence was also found to support a duplication of the DQA locus. Selection analyses, evaluated in terms of relative rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations (dN/dS) averaged over the gene region, indicated that the majority of codon sites were conserved and under purifying selection (dN

  8. Adaptive molecular evolution of the Major Histocompatibility Complex genes, DRA and DQA, in the genus Equus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getz Wayne M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC genes are central to vertebrate immune response and are believed to be under balancing selection by pathogens. This hypothesis has been supported by observations of extremely high polymorphism, elevated nonsynonymous to synonymous base pair substitution rates and trans-species polymorphisms at these loci. In equids, the organization and variability of this gene family has been described, however the full extent of diversity and selection is unknown. As selection is not expected to act uniformly on a functional gene, maximum likelihood codon-based models of selection that allow heterogeneity in selection across codon positions can be valuable for examining MHC gene evolution and the molecular basis for species adaptations. Results We investigated the evolution of two class II MHC genes of the Equine Lymphocyte Antigen (ELA, DRA and DQA, in the genus Equus with the addition of novel alleles identified in plains zebra (E. quagga, formerly E. burchelli. We found that both genes exhibited a high degree of polymorphism and inter-specific sharing of allele lineages. To our knowledge, DRA allelic diversity was discovered to be higher than has ever been observed in vertebrates. Evidence was also found to support a duplication of the DQA locus. Selection analyses, evaluated in terms of relative rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations (dN/dS averaged over the gene region, indicated that the majority of codon sites were conserved and under purifying selection (dN dS. However, the most likely evolutionary codon models allowed for variable rates of selection across codon sites at both loci and, at the DQA, supported the hypothesis of positive selection acting on specific sites. Conclusions Observations of elevated genetic diversity and trans-species polymorphisms supported the conclusion that balancing selection may be acting on these loci. Furthermore, at the DQA, positive selection was

  9. Polarisation of major histocompatibility complex II host genotype with pathogenesis of European Brown Hare syndrome virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Iacovakis

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in order to determine the occurrence of European Brown Hare Syndrome virus (EBHSV in Denmark and possible relation between disease pathogenesis and Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC host genotype. Liver samples were examined from 170 brown hares (hunted, found sick or dead, collected between 2004 and 2009. Macroscopical and histopathological findings consistent with EBHS were detected in 24 (14.1% hares; 35 (20.6% had liver lesions not typical of the syndrome, 50 (29.4% had lesions in other tissues and 61 (35.9% had no lesions. Sixty five (38.2% of 170 samples were found to be EBHSV-positive (RT-PCR, VP60 gene. In order to investigate associations between viral pathogenesis and host genotype, variation within the exon 2 DQA gene of MHC was assessed. DQA exon 2 analysis revealed the occurrence of seven different alleles in Denmark. Consistent with other populations examined so far in Europe, observed heterozygosity of DQA (H o = 0.1180 was lower than expected (H e = 0.5835. The overall variation for both nucleotide and amino acid differences (2.9% and 14.9%, respectively were lower in Denmark than those assessed in other European countries (8.3% and 16.9%, respectively. Within the peptide binding region codons the number of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN was much higher than synonymous substitutions (dS, which would be expected for MHC alleles under balancing selection. Allele frequencies did not significantly differ between EBHSV-positive and -negative hares. However, allele Leeu-DQA*30 was detected in significantly higher (P = 0.000006 frequency among the positive hares found dead with severe histopathological lesions than among those found sick or apparently healthy. In contrast, the latter group was characterized by a higher frequency of the allele Leeu-DQA*14 as well as the proportion of heterozygous individuals (P = 0.000006 and P = 0.027. These data reveal a polarisation between EBHSV

  10. Psychotherapy augmentation through preconscious priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois eBorgeat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the hypothesis that repeated preconscious (masked priming of personalized positive cognitions could augment cognitive change and facilitate achievement of patients’ goals following a therapy.Methods: Twenty social phobic patients (13 women completed a 36 weeks study beginning by 12 weeks of group behavioural therapy. After the therapy, they received 6 weeks of preconscious priming and 6 weeks of a control procedure in a randomized cross-over design. The Priming condition involved listening twice daily with a passive attitude to a recording of individualized formulations of appropriate cognitions and attitudes masked by music. The Control condition involved listening to an indistinguishable recording where the formulations had been replaced by random numbers. Changes in social cognitions were measured by the Social Interaction Self Statements Test (SISST.Results: Patients improved following therapy. The Priming procedure was associated with increased positive cognitions and decreased negative cognitions on the SISST while the Control procedure was not. The Priming procedure induced more cognitive change when applied immediately after the group therapy. Conclusion: An effect of priming was observed on social phobia related cognitions in the expected direction. This self administered addition to a therapy could be seen as an augmentation strategy.

  11. Enhancing tourism with augmented and virtual reality

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Augmented and virtual reality are on the advance. In the last twelve months, several interesting devices have entered the market. Since tourism is one of the fastest growing economic sectors in the world and has become one of the major players in international commerce, the aim of this thesis was to examine how tourism could be enhanced with augmented and virtual reality. The differences and functional principles of augmented and virtual reality were investigated, general uses were described ...

  12. Interactive Assembly Guide using Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin; Andersen, Rasmus Skovgaard; Larsen, Christian Lindequist

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an Augmented Reality system for aiding a pump assembling process at Grundfos, one of the leading pump producers. Stable pose estimation of the pump is required in order to augment the graphics correctly. This is achieved by matching image edges with synthesized edges from CAD...... norm. A dynamic visualization of the augmented graphics provides the user with guidance. Usability tests show that the accuracy of the system is sufficient for assembling the pump....

  13. Augmented Reality Using JavaScript

    OpenAIRE

    Hailemichael, Aida

    2013-01-01

    The project goal was to provide a mobile application, for a venue called Kulturhuset Karelia which is located in Tammisaari Finland. In this paper, the concept of Augmented Reality technology is briefly discussed along with the mobile application for the venue. The utilisation of JavaScript for creating Augmented reality content for mobile Augmented reality browser is also demonstrated. The application was created by using Architecht API which is Jacvascript library based on the Wikitude...

  14. Augmenting Locomotion in an Anthropomorphic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Wight

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A powered orthosis has applications ranging from assisting the elderly to augmenting astronauts. An assistive control scheme is developed that uses the force from a slave actuator to augment the force of a master actuator. This can be used to augment a closed-loop control scheme applied to the master actuator. Initially, actuator augmentation is explored both theoretically and experimentally using a simple mechanical system. The control scheme is then applied to a scale model of human lower limbs on a stationary bicycle to investigate the feasibility of a powered orthosis using pneumatic muscle actuators.

  15. [Cement augmentation on the spine : Biomechanical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, J P; Weiser, L; Kueny, R A; Huber, G; Rueger, J M; Lehmann, W

    2015-09-01

    Vertebral compression fractures are the most common osteoporotic fractures. Since the introduction of vertebroplasty and screw augmentation, the management of osteoporotic fractures has changed significantly. The biomechanical characteristics of the risk of adjacent fractures and novel treatment modalities for osteoporotic vertebral fractures, including pure cement augmentation by vertebroplasty, and cement augmentation of screws for posterior instrumentation, are explored. Eighteen human osteoporotic lumbar spines (L1-5) adjacent to vertebral bodies after vertebroplasty were tested in a servo-hydraulic machine. As augmentation compounds we used standard cement and a modified low-strength cement. Different anchoring pedicle screws were tested with and without cement augmentation in another cohort of human specimens with a simple pull-out test and a fatigue test that better reflects physiological conditions. Cement augmentation in the osteoporotic spine leads to greater biomechanical stability. However, change in vertebral stiffness resulted in alterations with the risk of adjacent fractures. By using a less firm cement compound, the risk of adjacent fractures is significantly reduced. Both screw augmentation techniques resulted in a significant increase in the withdrawal force compared with the group without cement. Augmentation using perforated screws showed the highest stability in the fatigue test. The augmentation of cement leads to a significant change in the biomechanical properties. Differences in the stability of adjacent vertebral bodies increase the risk of adjacent fractures, which could be mitigated by a modified cement compound with reduced strength. Screws that were specifically designed for cement application displayed greatest stability in the fatigue test.

  16. Augmented reality in dentistry: a current perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ho-Beom; Park, Young-Seok; Han, Jung-Suk

    2018-02-21

    Augmentation reality technology offers virtual information in addition to that of the real environment and thus opens new possibilities in various fields. The medical applications of augmentation reality are generally concentrated on surgery types, including neurosurgery, laparoscopic surgery and plastic surgery. Augmentation reality technology is also widely used in medical education and training. In dentistry, oral and maxillofacial surgery is the primary area of use, where dental implant placement and orthognathic surgery are the most frequent applications. Recent technological advancements are enabling new applications of restorative dentistry, orthodontics and endodontics. This review briefly summarizes the history, definitions, features, and components of augmented reality technology and discusses its applications and future perspectives in dentistry.

  17. INTEGRATIVE AUGMENTATION OF STANDARDIZED MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Karapetrovic

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The development, features and integrating abilities of different international standards related to management systems are discussed. A group of such standards that augment the performance of quality management systems in organizations is specifically focused on. The concept, characteristics and an illustrative example of one augmenting standard, namely ISO 10001, are addressed. Integration of standardized augmenting systems, both by themselves and within the overall management system, is examined. It is argued that, in research and practice alike, integrative augmentation represents the future of standardized quality and other management systems.

  18. Clinical, immunological and genetic features in eleven Algerian patients with major histocompatibility complex class II expression deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djidjik Réda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Presenting processed antigens to CD4+ lymphocytes during the immune response involves major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. MHC class II genes transcription is regulated by four transcription factors: CIITA, RFXANK, RFX5 and RFXAP. Defects in these factors result in major histocompatibility complex class II expression deficiency, a primary combined immunodeficiency frequent in North Africa. Autosomal recessive mutations in the RFXANK gene have been reported as being the principal defect found in North African patients with this disorder. In this paper, we describe clinical, immunological and genetic features of 11 unrelated Algerian patients whose monocytes display a total absence of MHC class II molecules. They shared mainly the same clinical picture which included protracted diarrhoea and respiratory tract recurrent infections. Genetic analysis revealed that 9 of the 11 patients had the same RFXANK founder mutation, a 26 bp deletion (named I5E6-25_I5E6+1, also known as 752delG26. Immunological and genetic findings in our series may facilitate genetic counselling implementation for Algerian consanguineous families. Further studies need to be conducted to determine 752delG26 heterozygous mutation frequency in Algerian population.

  19. Human major histocompatibility complex contains a minimum of 19 genes between the complement cluster and HLA-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, T.; Bresnahan, M.; Strominger, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    A 600-kilobase (kb) DNA segment from the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region was isolated by extension of a previous 435-kb chromosome walk. The contiguous series of cloned overlapping cosmids contains the entire 555-kb interval between C2 in the complement gene cluster and HLA-B. This region is known to encode the tumor necrosis factors (TNFs) α and β, B144, and the major heat shock protein HSP70. Moreover, a cluster of genes, BAT1-BAT5 (HLA-B-associated transcripts) have been localized in the vicinity of the genes for TNFα and TNFβ. An additional four genes were identified by isolation of corresponding cDNA clones with cosmid DNA probes. These genes for BAT6-BAT9 were mapped near the gene for C2 within a 120-kb region that includes a HSP70 gene pair. These results, together with complementary data from a similar recent study, indicated the presence of a minimum of 19 genes within the C2-HLA-B interval of the MHC class III region. Although the functional properties of most of these genes are yet unknown, they may be involved in some aspects of immunity. This idea is supported by the genetic mapping of the hematopoietic histocompatibility locus-1 (Hh-1) in recombinant mice between TNFα and H-2S, which is homologous to the complement gene cluster in humans

  20. Jointly Optimize Data Augmentation and Network Training: Adversarial Data Augmentation in Human Pose Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Xi; Tang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Fei; Feris, Rogerio; Metaxas, Dimitris

    2018-01-01

    Random data augmentation is a critical technique to avoid overfitting in training deep neural network models. However, data augmentation and network training are usually treated as two isolated processes, limiting the effectiveness of network training. Why not jointly optimize the two? We propose adversarial data augmentation to address this limitation. The main idea is to design an augmentation network (generator) that competes against a target network (discriminator) by generating `hard' au...

  1. LEARNING ANATOMY WITH AUGMENTED REALITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Cita; Dyhrberg O'Neill, Lotte; Nielsen, Kurt Gammelgaard

    An Augmented Reality (AR) app for Hololens glasses was developed to help students learn the anatomy of the human body mediastinum. In this research project, we wanted to evaluate whether AR: strengthened the students’ self-efficacy and motivation, helped students to improve learning, and provided...... a questionnaire regarding their self-efficacy and motivation, presence in the virtual room, experiences with Hololens teaching, and how they used the quizzes. In addition, students answered a test with the same 20 questions used in the app and three additional transfer questions new to students. Finally, students......’ scores on the mediastinum questions in the exam 2 month later were collected to examine the long-term memory of content. Internal consistency was estimated for all measures. Correlations between measures were examined with a correlation matrix, and group differences were examined with one-way analysis...

  2. Augmented reality in laser laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercioli, Franco

    2018-05-01

    Laser safety glasses block visibility of the laser light. This is a big nuisance when a clear view of the beam path is required. A headset made up of a smartphone and a viewer can overcome this problem. The user looks at the image of the real world on the cellphone display, captured by its rear camera. An unimpeded and safe sight of the laser beam is then achieved. If the infrared blocking filter of the smartphone camera is removed, the spectral sensitivity of the CMOS image sensor extends in the near infrared region up to 1100 nm. This substantial improvement widens the usability of the device to many laser systems for industrial and medical applications, which are located in this spectral region. The paper describes this modification of a phone camera to extend its sensitivity beyond the visible and make a true augmented reality laser viewer.

  3. Augmented reality for improved safety

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes, CERN experts have to operate in low visibility conditions or in the presence of possible hazards. Minimising the duration of the operation and reducing the risk of errors is therefore crucial to ensuring the safety of personnel. The EDUSAFE project integrates different technologies to create a wearable personnel safety system based on augmented reality.    The EDUSAFE integrated safety system uses a camera mounted on the helmet to monitor the working area.  In its everyday operation of machines and facilities, CERN adopts a whole set of measures and safety equipment to ensure the safety of its personnel, including personal wearable safety devices and access control systems. However, sometimes, scheduled and emergency maintenance work needs to be done in zones with potential cryogenic hazards, in the presence of radioactive equipment or simply in demanding conditions where visibility is low and moving around is difficult. The EDUSAFE Marie Curie Innovative&...

  4. Augmented Reality and Mobile Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwilt, Ian

    The combined notions of augmented-reality (AR) and mobile art are based on the amalgamation of a number of enabling technologies including computer imaging, emergent display and tracking systems and the increased computing-power in hand-held devices such as Tablet PCs, smart phones, or personal digital assistants (PDAs) which have been utilized in the making of works of art. There is much published research on the technical aspects of AR and the ongoing work being undertaken in the development of faster more efficient AR systems [1] [2]. In this text I intend to concentrate on how AR and its associated typologies can be applied in the context of new media art practices, with particular reference to its application on hand-held or mobile devices.

  5. LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenbeck, D.A.; Krantz, E.A.; Hunt, G.L.; Meyer, O.R.

    1980-01-01

    The outline of the LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program is presented. This program utilizes the LOFT (Loss-of-Fluid Test) reactor facility which is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the LOFT operational transient experiment series as a test bed for methods of enhancing the reactor operator's capability for safer operation. The design of an Operational Diagnotics and Display System is presented which was backfit to the existing data acquisition computers. Basic color-graphic displays of the process schematic and trend type are presented. In addition, displays were developed and are presented which represent safety state vector information. A task analysis method was applied to LOFT reactor operating procedures to test its usefulness in defining the operator's information needs and workload

  6. Sensory augmentation for the blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Manuela Kärcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enacted theories of consciousness conjecture that perception and cognition arise from an active experience of the regular relations that are tying together the sensory stimulation of different modalities and associated motor actions. Previous experiments investigated this concept by employing the technique of sensory substitution. Building on these studies, here we test a set of hypotheses derived from this framework and investigate the utility of sensory augmentation in handicapped people. We provide a late blind subject with a new set of sensorimotor laws: A vibro-tactile belt continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. This experimental approach demonstrates the potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of

  7. An Integrative Introduction to Human Augmentation Science

    OpenAIRE

    Alicea, Bradly

    2018-01-01

    Human Augmentation (HA) spans several technical fields and methodological approaches, including Experimental Psychology, Human-Computer Interaction, Psychophysiology, and Artificial Intelligence. Augmentation involves various strategies for optimizing and controlling cognitive states, which requires an understanding of biological plasticity, dynamic cognitive processes, and models of adaptive systems. As an instructive lesson, we will explore a few HA-related concepts and outstanding issues. ...

  8. Augmented REality Sandtables (ARESs) Impact on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    ARL-CR-0803 ● JULY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Augmented REality Sandtable’s (ARES’s) Impact on Learning by Tarah N......The use of augmented reality (AR) to supplement training tools, specifically sand tables, can produce highly effective systems at relatively low

  9. Augmented Reality Interfaces for Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Pedersen, David Bue; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores potential use cases for using augmented reality (AR) as a tool to operate industrial machines. As a baseline we use an additive manufacturing system, more commonly known as a 3D printer. We implement novel augmented interfaces and controls using readily available open source...

  10. Enhancing Education through Mobile Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joan, D. R. Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author has discussed about the Mobile Augmented Reality and enhancing education through it. The aim of the present study was to give some general information about mobile augmented reality which helps to boost education. Purpose of the current study reveals the mobile networks which are used in the institution campus as well…

  11. Age grouping to optimize augmentation success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert W

    2010-05-01

    This article has described the different age groups that present for noninvasive injectable lip and perioral augmentation, as well as the breakdown of 3 subgroups that present within the 4 general age groups. With the fundamental understanding of these presenting groups and subgroups, the practicing augmenter will be able to better treatment plan and educate the patient on realistic and optimal aesthetic outcomes.

  12. From Augmentation Media to Meme Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuzuru

    Computers as meta media are now evolving from augmentation media vehicles to meme media vehicles. While an augmentation media system provides a seamlessly integrated environment of various tools and documents, meme media system provides further functions to edit and distribute tools and documents. Documents and tools on meme media can easily…

  13. Aspects of User Experience in Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Boesen

    in human factors related to Augmented Reality. This is investigated partly as how Augmented Reality applications are used in unsupervised settings, and partly in specific evaluations related to user performance in supervised settings. The thesis starts by introducing Augmented Reality to the reader......, followed by a presentation of the technical areas related to the field, and different human factor areas. As a contribution to the research area, this thesis presents five separate, but sequential, papers within the area of Augmented Reality.......In Augmented Reality applications, the real environment is annotated or enhanced with computer-generated graphics. This is a topic that has been researched in the recent decades, but for many people this is a brand new and never heard of topic. The main focus of this thesis is investigations...

  14. Novel Augmentation Strategies in Major Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Hypothesis The hypotheses of all the four included studies share the common idea that it is possible to augment the effect of antidepressant drug treatment by applying different interventions and with each intervention attain a clinically meaningful better effect compared to a control condition...... and randomised to augmentation with either active or placebo matching pindolol tablets. In the PEMF study patients were continued on ongoing medication and randomised to augmentation with active or inactive (sham) 30 minutes daily PEMF treatment on weekdays. In the Chronos study all patients were treated...... The results from the Pindolol study showed that pindolol did not augment the effect of venlafaxine for the whole sample. However, for those patients classified as slow metabolizers, based on their O-desmethylvenlafaxine/venlafaxine ratio (ODV/V), pindolol did augment the antidepressant effect. For patients...

  15. Performance of a self-augmented railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, R.L.; Witherspoon, F.D.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The accelerating force of a railgun 1/2L'I 2 a can be increased by augmenting the self-induced magnetic field created by the armature current. Augmentation fields can be produced by external current coils or, as is done here, by shorting the railgun muzzle, and using the gun rails as the augmentation coil. Experimental results are presented for a 3.6-m railgun operated in this self-augmented mode, and effective inductance gradients are achieved which are as much as 9.3 times that of the unaugmented gun. A circuit model is presented which explains features of the measured shunt current and voltage. It is concluded that self-augmentation is an effective way to reduce ohmic heating in the armature of a railgun

  16. Expression of the major histocompatibility antigens HLA-A2 and HLA-B7 by DNA-mediated gene transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernabeu, C.; Finlay, D.; van de Rijn, M.; Maziarz, R. T.; Biro, P. A.; Spits, H.; de Vries, J.; Terhorst, C. P.

    1983-01-01

    Genes coding for the heavy chain of the class I antigens HLA-A2 or HLA-B7 of the human major histocompatibility complex have been introduced into mouse LtK- cells by cotransfection with the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene. HAT-resistant colonies were isolated expressing either HLA-A2 or

  17. Chicken major histocompatibility complex-encoded B-G antigens are found on many cell types that are important for the immune system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, J; Dunon, D; Skjødt, K

    1991-01-01

    B-G antigens are a polymorphic multigene family of cell surface molecules encoded by the chicken major histocompatibility complex (MHC). They have previously been described only on cells of the erythroid lineage. By using flow cytometry, section staining, and immunoprecipitation with monoclonal a...

  18. Shared fine specificity between T-cell receptors and an antibody recognizing a peptide/major histocompatibility class I complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stryhn, A; Andersen, P S; Pedersen, L O

    1996-01-01

    Cytotoxic T cells recognize mosaic structures consisting of target peptides embedded within self-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. This structure has been described in great detail for several peptide-MHC complexes. In contrast, how T-cell receptors recognize peptide...... each other showing that peptide residues 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 were exposed on the MHC surface and recognized by the T cells. Thus, the majority, and perhaps all, of the side chains of the non-primary anchor residues may be available for T-cell recognition, and contribute to the stringent specificity of T...... cells. A striking similarity between the specificity of the T cells and that of the pSAN antibody was found and most of the peptide residues, which could be recognized by the T cells, could also be recognized by the antibody....

  19. The combination of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and non-MHC genes influences murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eyler, Y L; Pfau, C J; Broomhall, K S

    1989-01-01

    with the recessive disease phenotype. In all cases, susceptibility was dominant. In backcross progeny obtained from matings of parental strains differing in both major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and non-MHC (SWR; C3H), 90% of the challenged mice died, indicating that at least three loci controlled...... susceptibility to the disease. When the parental strains carried similar MHC haplotypes but dissimilar background genes (B10.BR; CBA), 78% of the backcross mice succumbed, indicating that at least two non-MHC loci influenced disease susceptibility. It is unlikely, however, that the same two non-MHC loci...... are critical in all genetic combinations, since F1 produced from two H-2 identical, resistant strains (B10.BR; C3H) were found to be fully susceptible. When congenic mice, differing only in the D-end of the MHC region, were analysed, 50% of the backcross animals died, indicating that one gene in the MHC region...

  20. In vivo immunologic selection of class I major histocompatibility complex gene deletion variants from the B16-BL6 melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmadge, J E; Talmadge, C B; Zbar, B; McEwen, R; Meeker, A K; Tribble, H

    1987-06-01

    The mechanism by which tumor allografts escape host immunologic attack was investigated. B16-BL6 cells (the bladder 6 subline of the B16 melanoma) (H-2b) were transfected with a gene (Dd) encoding an allogeneic class I major histocompatibility complex antigen. Clones that expressed Dd antigen were injected into the footpads of nonimmune syngeneic mice, syngeneic immune mice, and nude mice. Under conditions of immunologic selection a clone that contained multiple copies of the transfected gene formed variants that lacked the transfected gene. Primary tumors and pulmonary metastases of immunized mice and pulmonary metastases of nonimmunized mice had lost the Dd gene and, in most cases, all of the associated plasmid. In contrast, in immunodeficient nude mice, primary tumors and pulmonary metastases retained the Dd gene and the associated plasmid. Deletion of genes encoding cell surface antigens may be one of the mechanisms by which allogeneic tumors escape immunologic attack.

  1. New horizons in mouse immunoinformatics: reliable in silico prediction of mouse class I histocompatibility major complex peptide binding affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattotuwagama, Channa K; Guan, Pingping; Doytchinova, Irini A; Flower, Darren R

    2004-11-21

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis is a main cornerstone of modern informatic disciplines. Predictive computational models, based on QSAR technology, of peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) binding affinity have now become a vital component of modern day computational immunovaccinology. Historically, such approaches have been built around semi-qualitative, classification methods, but these are now giving way to quantitative regression methods. The additive method, an established immunoinformatics technique for the quantitative prediction of peptide-protein affinity, was used here to identify the sequence dependence of peptide binding specificity for three mouse class I MHC alleles: H2-D(b), H2-K(b) and H2-K(k). As we show, in terms of reliability the resulting models represent a significant advance on existing methods. They can be used for the accurate prediction of T-cell epitopes and are freely available online ( http://www.jenner.ac.uk/MHCPred).

  2. Digital Augmented Reality Audio Headset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Rämö

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality audio (ARA combines virtual sound sources with the real sonic environment of the user. An ARA system can be realized with a headset containing binaural microphones. Ideally, the ARA headset should be acoustically transparent, that is, it should not cause audible modification to the surrounding sound. A practical implementation of an ARA mixer requires a low-latency headphone reproduction system with additional equalization to compensate for the attenuation and the modified ear canal resonances caused by the headphones. This paper proposes digital IIR filters to realize the required equalization and evaluates a real-time prototype ARA system. Measurements show that the throughput latency of the digital prototype ARA system can be less than 1.4 ms, which is sufficiently small in practice. When the direct and processed sounds are combined in the ear, a comb filtering effect is brought about and appears as notches in the frequency response. The comb filter effect in speech and music signals was studied in a listening test and it was found to be inaudible when the attenuation is 20 dB. Insert ARA headphones have a sufficient attenuation at frequencies above about 1 kHz. The proposed digital ARA system enables several immersive audio applications, such as a virtual audio tourist guide and audio teleconferencing.

  3. Augmented reality for personalized nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yugyung; Lee, Chi H

    As our understanding of onset and progress of diseases at the genetic and molecular level rapidly progresses, the potential of advanced technologies, such as 3D-printing, Socially-Assistive Robots (SARs) or augmented reality (AR), that are applied to personalized nanomedicines (PNMs) to alleviate pathological conditions, has become more prominent. Among advanced technologies, AR in particular has the greatest potential to address those challenges and facilitate the translation of PNMs into formidable clinical application of personalized therapy. As AR is about to adapt additional new methods, such as speech, voice recognition, eye tracing and motion tracking, to enable interaction with host response or biological systems in 3-D space, a combination of multiple approaches to accommodate varying environmental conditions, such as public noise and atmosphere brightness, will be explored to improve its therapeutic outcomes in clinical applications. For instance, AR glasses still being developed by Facebook or Microsoft will serve as new platform that can provide people with the health information they are interested in or various measures through which they can interact with medical services. This review has addressed the current progress and impact of AR on PNMs and its application to the biomedical field. Special emphasis is placed on the application of AR based PNMs to the treatment strategies against senior care, drug addiction and medication adherence. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Display technologies for augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungho; Lee, Seungjae; Jang, Changwon; Hong, Jong-Young; Li, Gang

    2018-02-01

    With the virtue of rapid progress in optics, sensors, and computer science, we are witnessing that commercial products or prototypes for augmented reality (AR) are penetrating into the consumer markets. AR is spotlighted as expected to provide much more immersive and realistic experience than ordinary displays. However, there are several barriers to be overcome for successful commercialization of AR. Here, we explore challenging and important topics for AR such as image combiners, enhancement of display performance, and focus cue reproduction. Image combiners are essential to integrate virtual images with real-world. Display performance (e.g. field of view and resolution) is important for more immersive experience and focus cue reproduction may mitigate visual fatigue caused by vergence-accommodation conflict. We also demonstrate emerging technologies to overcome these issues: index-matched anisotropic crystal lens (IMACL), retinal projection displays, and 3D display with focus cues. For image combiners, a novel optical element called IMACL provides relatively wide field of view. Retinal projection displays may enhance field of view and resolution of AR displays. Focus cues could be reconstructed via multi-layer displays and holographic displays. Experimental results of our prototypes are explained.

  5. Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereaux, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Initiated in January, 1997, under NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, the Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) is a means to leverage recent advances in communications, displays, imaging sensors, biosensors, voice recognition and microelectronics to develop a hands-free, tetherless system capable of real-time personal display and control of computer system resources. Using WARP, an astronaut may efficiently operate and monitor any computer-controllable activity inside or outside the vehicle or station. The WARP concept is a lightweight, unobtrusive heads-up display with a wireless wearable control unit. Connectivity to the external system is achieved through a high-rate radio link from the WARP personal unit to a base station unit installed into any system PC. The radio link has been specially engineered to operate within the high- interference, high-multipath environment of a space shuttle or space station module. Through this virtual terminal, the astronaut will be able to view and manipulate imagery, text or video, using voice commands to control the terminal operations. WARP's hands-free access to computer-based instruction texts, diagrams and checklists replaces juggling manuals and clipboards, and tetherless computer system access allows free motion throughout a cabin while monitoring and operating equipment.

  6. Selective loss of mouse embryos due to the expression of transgenic major histocompatibility class I molecules early in embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aït-Azzouzene, D; Langkopf, A; Cohen, J; Bleux, C; Gendron, M C; Kanellopoulos-Langevin, C

    1998-05-01

    Among the numerous hypotheses proposed to explain the absence of fetal rejection by the mother in mammals, it has been suggested that regulation of expression of the polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) at the fetal-maternal interface plays a major role. In addition to a lack of MHC gene expression in the placenta throughout gestation, the absence of polymorphic MHC molecules on the early embryo, as well as their low level of expression after midgestation, could contribute to this important biologic phenomenon. In order to test this hypothesis, we have produced transgenic mice able to express polymorphic MHC class I molecules early in embryogenesis. We have placed the MHC class la gene H-2Kb under the control of a housekeeping gene promoter, the hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG) gene minimal promoter. This construct has been tested for functionality after transfection into mouse fibroblast L cells. The analysis of three founder transgenic mice and their progeny suggested that fetoplacental units that could express the H-2Kb heavy chains are unable to survive in utero beyond midgestation. We have shown further that a much higher resorption rate, on days 11 to 13 of embryonic development, is observed among transgenic embryos developing from eggs microinjected at the one-cell stage with the pHMG-Kb construct than in control embryos. This lethality is not due to immune phenomena, since it is observed in histocompatible combinations between mother and fetus. These results are discussed in the context of what is currently known about the regulation of MHC expression at the fetal-maternal interface and in various transgenic mouse models.

  7. Augmented Reality: Daily Prayers for Preschooler Student

    OpenAIRE

    Hendra Pradibta

    2018-01-01

    Education is one of the aspects that many synthesized with technology. Yet, this is contrary to the fact that where most of the learning materials are still based on text. This research aims to develop an alternative learning media by implementing Augmented Reality Technology for Preschooler students. Augmented Reality (AR) is an application that can combine the virtual object as text, pictures and animation into the real world. Development of Augmented Reality application uses Web Aurasma Ba...

  8. Determination of student opinions in augmented reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Bicen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of the new technology has changed classroom teaching methods and tools in a positive way. This study investigated the classroom learning with augmented reality and the impact of student opinions. 97 volunteer undergraduate students took part in this study. Results included data in the form of frequencies, percentages and descriptive statistics. The results show that, with gamification methods, augmented reality content affected students’ opinions in a positive way. When QR codes are used in the classroom, students feel independent from classroom materials and can access various resources. Moreover, students think that, when augmented reality in the classroom is used, education is more enjoyable.

  9. Applied Augmented Reality for High Precision Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Clark

    Augmented Reality had a major consumer breakthrough this year with Pokemon Go. The underlying technologies that made that app a success with gamers can be applied to improve the efficiency and efficacy of workers. This session will explore some of the use cases for augmented reality in an industrial environment. In doing so, the environmental impacts and human factors that must be considered will be explored. Additionally, the sensors, algorithms, and visualization techniques used to realize augmented reality will be discussed. The benefits of augmented reality solutions in industrial environments include automated data recording, improved quality assurance, reduction in training costs and improved mean-time-to-resolution. As technology continues to follow Moore's law, more applications will become feasible as performance-per-dollar increases across all system components.

  10. Augmented Reality Simulations on Handheld Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Kurt; Klopfer, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Advancements in handheld computing, particularly its portability, social interactivity, context sensitivity, connectivity, and individuality, open new opportunities for immersive learning environments. This article articulates the pedagogical potential of augmented reality simulations in environmental engineering education by immersing students in…

  11. Affordances in Mobile Augmented Reality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Gjøsæter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the affordances of augmented reality content in a mobile augmented reality application. A user study was conducted by performing a multi-camera video recording of seven think aloud sessions. The think aloud sessions consisted of individual users performing tasks, exploring and experiencing a mobile augmented reality (MAR application we developed for the iOS platform named ARad. We discuss the instrumental affordances we observed when users interacted with augmented reality content, as well as more complex affordances rising from conventions from media content, AR and the traditional WIMP paradigm. We find that remediation of traditional newspaper content through the MAR medium can provide engaging, pleasing and exciting user experiences. However, the some of the content still suffers from being shoveled onto the MAR platform without adapting it properly. Finally, we discuss what content was most successfully mediated to the user and how the content impacts the user experience.

  12. Muzzle shunt augmentation of conventional railguns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.V.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on augmentation which is a technique for reducing the armature current and hence the armature power dissipation in a plasma armature railgun. In spite of the advantages, no large augmented railguns have been built, primarily due to the mechanical and electrical complexity introduced by the extra conductors required. it is possible to achieve some of the benefits of augmentation in a conventional railgun by diverting a fraction φ of the input current through a shunt path at the muzzle of the railgun. In particular, the relation between force and armature current is the same as that obtained in an n-turn, series-connected augmented railgun with n = 1/(1 - φ). The price of this simplification is a reduction in electrical efficiency and some additional complexity in the external electrical system

  13. Augmenting the Web through Open Hypermedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, N.O.

    2003-01-01

    Based on an overview of Web augmentation and detailing the three basic approaches to extend the hypermedia functionality of the Web, the author presents a general open hypermedia framework (the Arakne framework) to augment the Web. The aim is to provide users with the ability to link, annotate, a......, and otherwise structure Web pages, as they see fit. The paper further discusses the possibilities of the concept through the description of various experiments performed with an implementation of the framework, the Arakne Environment......Based on an overview of Web augmentation and detailing the three basic approaches to extend the hypermedia functionality of the Web, the author presents a general open hypermedia framework (the Arakne framework) to augment the Web. The aim is to provide users with the ability to link, annotate...

  14. Global Navigation Satellite System and Augmentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aircraft-based augmentation system (ABAS). ... segment, the ground segment (or) control segment and the user segment ... control station (MCS), and ground antennas. ... repeatability, multipath rejection, size, profile, and environmental.

  15. Improved diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, K.M.; Gilbert, B.L.

    A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.

  16. Fiber Optic Augmented Reality System (FOARS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovation: Fiber Optics Augmented Reality System. This system in form of a mobile app interacts real time with the actual FOSS(Fiber Optics Sensing System) data and...

  17. Thrust augmentation for a small turbojet engine

    OpenAIRE

    Hackaday, Gary L.

    1999-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A Sophia J450 (nine pounds of thrust) gas turbine engine was used first to examine the thrust augmentation generated using an ejector shroud. Experimental results obtained with and without the ejector were compared with performance predicted using an engine code and a one-dimensional ejector analysis. The engine code was revised to incorporate a radial turbine and the correct compressor map. Thrust augmentation of 3-10% was measured an...

  18. Dermal fillers for facial soft tissue augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastoor, Sarosh F; Misch, Carl E; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, patients are demanding not only enhancement to their dental (micro) esthetics, but also their overall facial (macro) esthetics. Soft tissue augmentation via dermal filling agents may be used to correct facial defects such as wrinkles caused by age, gravity, and trauma; thin lips; asymmetrical facial appearances; buccal fold depressions; and others. This article will review the pathogenesis of facial wrinkles, history, techniques, materials, complications, and clinical controversies regarding dermal fillers for soft tissue augmentation.

  19. Breaking the Barriers to True Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Sandor, Christian; Fuchs, Martin; Cassinelli, Alvaro; Li, Hao; Newcombe, Richard; Yamamoto, Goshiro; Feiner, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) have gained considerable commercial traction, with Facebook acquiring Oculus VR for \\$2 billion, Magic Leap attracting more than \\$500 million of funding, and Microsoft announcing their HoloLens head-worn computer. Where is humanity headed: a brave new dystopia-or a paradise come true? In this article, we present discussions, which started at the symposium "Making Augmented Reality Real", held at Nara Institute of Science and Te...

  20. Integrating Hypermedia Techniques with Augmented Reality Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Augmented Reality systems, which overlay virtual information over the real world, can benefit greatly from the techniques established by the Open Hypermedia research field. Storing information and links separately from a document can be advantageous for augmented reality applications and can enable the adaption of content to suit users’ preferences. This thesis explores how Open Hypermedia systems might be used as the information systems behind AR environments. This provides benefits to augme...

  1. Augmented reality implementation methods in mainstream applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Procházka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality has became an useful tool in many areas from space exploration to military applications. Although used theoretical principles are well known for almost a decade, the augmented reality is almost exclusively used in high budget solutions with a special hardware. However, in last few years we could see rising popularity of many projects focused on deployment of the augmented reality on dif­ferent mobile devices. Our article is aimed on developers who consider development of an augmented reality application for the mainstream market. Such developers will be forced to keep the application price, therefore also the development price, at reasonable level. Usage of existing image processing software library could bring a significant cut-down of the development costs. In the theoretical part of the article is presented an overview of the augmented reality application structure. Further, an approach for selection appropriate library as well as the review of the existing software libraries focused in this area is described. The last part of the article out­lines our implementation of key parts of the augmented reality application using the OpenCV library.

  2. Empirical evaluation of augmented prototyping effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Koubek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality is a scientific field well known for more than twenty years. Although there is a huge number of projects that present promising results, the real usage of augmented reality applications for fulfilling common tasks is almost negligible. We believe that one of the principal reasons is insufficient usability of these applications. The situation is analogous to the desktop, mobile or cloud application development or even to the web pages design. The first phase of a technology adoption is the exploration of its potential. As soon as the technical problems are overcome and the technology is widely accepted, the usability is a principal issue. The usability is utmost important also from the business point of view. The cost of augmented reality implementation into the production process is substantial, therefore, the usability that is directly responsible for the implemented solution effectiveness must be appropriately tested. Consequently, the benefit of the implemented solution can be measured.This article briefly outlines common techniques used for usability evaluation. Discussed techniques were designed especially for evaluation of desktop applications, mobile solutions and web pages. In spite of this drawback, their application on augmented reality products is usually possible. Further, a review of existing augmented reality project evaluations is presented.Based on this review, a usability evaluation method for our augmented prototyping application is proposed. This method must overcome the fact that the design is a creative process. Therefore, it is not possible to take into account common criteria such as time consumption.

  3. The HART I augmented electric gun facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fikse, D.A.; Ciesar, J.A.; Wehrli, H.A.; Rimersma, H.; Docherty, E.F.; Pipich, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an augmented electric gun system that has been commissioned. This system, called HART I (Hypervelocity Augmented Railgun Test), is built around a double augmented rail arrangement with a 1.27-cm square bore. It is powered by the SUVAC II 5.6-MJ distributed capacitor power supply. This arrangement allows operation in a simple, series augmented, or transaugmented gun system configuration. The objective of this facility is to perform materials research augmentation studies, and armature development in the 10-km/s regime. Armature masses of 2 to 4 g will be accelerated in a 4-m long barrel. Baseline bore materials will begin with conventional G9/GlidCop systems and then move into pyrolytic boron nitride/refractory materials. Hybrids, plasma, and ablation stabilized armature systems are planned. The gun system is instrumented with plasma and rail B probes for inbore velocity measurements. In addition, breech and muzzle voltages, currents, and external velocities are measured. The HART I system is currently performing hypervelocity experiments to verify the augmentation models

  4. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  5. Augmented Fotonovelas: A Visual Methodology for Community Engaged Research

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo, LeighAnna Grace

    2014-01-01

    Augmented Fotonovelas draw upon the aesthetic of traditional fotonovelas, but incorporate new technologies--such as video interviews, interactive mapping, smart phone technology, and Augmented Reality (AR). Augmented Fotonovelas also make the most of the classic form, utilizing photographs, text, and bubble captions. Through this methodology, new and old come together to produce Augmented Scholarship. I define Augmented Scholarship as knowledge production bridging the gap between communities ...

  6. ARSC: Augmented Reality Student Card--An Augmented Reality Solution for the Education Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Neven A. M.; Zayed, Hala H.; Sharawy, Mohamed I.

    2011-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is the technology of adding virtual objects to real scenes through enabling the addition of missing information in real life. As the lack of resources is a problem that can be solved through AR, this paper presents and explains the usage of AR technology we introduce Augmented Reality Student Card (ARSC) as an application of…

  7. Augmented “Ouch!”. : How to create intersubjective augmented objects into which we can bump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liberati, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide the elements to design an intersubjective augmented reality in order to make the augmented objects part of our everyday world. This work will analyse intersubjectivity from a phenomenological point of view using the works by Husserl and Schutz. Thanks to these two

  8. Augmented reality and ubiquitous computing : The hidden potentialities of augmented reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liberati, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to highlight the augmented reality’s potentialities, depicting its main characteristics and focusing attention on what its goal should be in order to have a new technology completely different from those that already exist. From a technological point of view, augmented

  9. Augment-type two stage accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Mutsuo; Azuma, Kingo.

    1995-01-01

    When a flying body accelerated by a gas gun at a first stage enters into an augment rail passing through an introduction tube, an ignition capacitor for initial plasmas is turned ON to apply a voltage between the augment rails. Subsequently, the accelerating gas present behind the flying body is formed into plasmas by a laser, to flow electric current from one of the inner augment rails → plasma armature → the other of the inner augment rails, and additionally accelerate the flying body by Lorentz force formed in this case. Since the plasmas are maintained in a state of higher density than the plasmas obtained by using all of the augment rails, the ignition capacitor for initial plasmas in switched to a power source. As a result, it is possible to flow the maximum current before the plasmas expand, and a large accelerating force and a high magnetic flux density are attained, to improve acceleration performance of the flying body. (N.H.)

  10. Potential costs of breast augmentation mammaplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, William P; Eichhorn, Mitchell G; Ford, Ronald D

    2016-01-01

    Augmentation mammaplasty is one of the most common surgical procedures performed by plastic surgeons. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost of the initial procedure and its subsequent complications, as well as project the cost of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-recommended surveillance imaging. The potential costs to the individual patient and society were calculated. Local plastic surgeons provided billing data for the initial primary silicone augmentation and reoperative procedures. Complication rates used for the cost analysis were obtained from the Allergen Core study on silicone implants. Imaging surveillance costs were considered in the estimations. The average baseline initial cost of silicone augmentation mammaplasty was calculated at $6335. The average total cost of primary breast augmentation over the first decade for an individual patient, including complications requiring reoperation and other ancillary costs, was calculated at $8226. Each decade thereafter cost an additional $1891. Costs may exceed $15,000 over an averaged lifetime, and the recommended implant surveillance could cost an additional $33,750. The potential cost of a breast augmentation, which includes the costs of complications and imaging, is significantly higher than the initial cost of the procedure. Level III, economic and decision analysis study. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Augmented Reality: Daily Prayers for Preschooler Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Pradibta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Education is one of the aspects that many synthesized with technology. Yet, this is contrary to the fact that where most of the learning materials are still based on text. This research aims to develop an alternative learning media by implementing Augmented Reality Technology for Preschooler students. Augmented Reality (AR is an application that can combine the virtual object as text, pictures and animation into the real world. Development of Augmented Reality application uses Web Aurasma Based Studio, with learning materials of daily prayer for preschool student. The development of the characters and the animations were using Adobe Illustrator and Adobe After Effects. The results of the study showed that technology Augmented Reality can be used as an alternative learning media especially in the learning process in Preschool Al Furqon. This is because the content Augmented Reality in the form of animation can gives more understanding and attention for preschool student to follow the learning process

  12. Comparison of altered expression of histocompatibility antigens with altered immune function in murine spleen cells treated with ultraviolet radiation and/or TPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretell, J.O.; Cone, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that several treatments that inhibited the ability of cells to stimulate the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) also blocked the shedding of histocompatibility antigens and Ia antigens from murine spleen cells. In the present studies, one of these treatments, ultraviolet radiation (UV), was shown to cause an initial loss in the density of H-2K, IA, and IE antigens prior to the block in shedding observed after culture of these cells. Further analysis revealed that the UV-induced loss of antigens could be prevented by the presence of colchicine during irradiation. Biosynthetic analyses revealed the IA antigen synthesis was also inhibited in the UV-irradiated cells. Examination of the effects of a second agent, 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the turnover of histocompatibility antigens revealed that the biosynthesis and shedding of these antigens were accelerated by this agent. However, addition of TPA to UV-irradiated cells did not result in a reversal of the UV-induced block in biosynthesis of IA antigens. Results of immune function assays correlated with the biochemical studies: UV-irradiation inhibited the generation of the MLR, but TPA enhanced this reaction, and addition of TPA to mixed lymphocyte cultures with UV-irradiated stimulators did not reverse the UV-induced inhibition. These results suggest that, although the turnover of histocompatibility antigens may be affected by TPA and UV in an antagonistic fashion, additional factors other than the expression of histocompatibility antigens are operating in the inhibition of stimulation of an MLR by UV radiation or its enhancement by TPA

  13. Orthobiologics in the augmentation of osteoporotic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J Tracy; Nicolaou, Daemeon A

    2015-02-01

    Many orthobiologic adjuvants are available and widely utilized for general skeletal restoration. Their use for the specific task of osteoporotic fracture augmentation is less well recognized. Common conductive materials are reviewed for their value in this patient population including the large group of allograft adjuvants categorically known as the demineralized bone matrices (DBMs). Another large group of alloplastic materials is also examined-the calcium phosphate and sulfate ceramics. Both of these materials, when used for the proper indications, demonstrate efficacy for these patients. The inductive properties of bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and platelet concentrates show no clear advantages for this group of patients. Systemic agents including bisphosphonates, receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL) inhibitors, and parathyroid hormone augmentation all demonstrate positive effects with this fracture cohort. Newer modalities, such as trace ion bioceramic augmentation, are also reviewed for their positive effects on osteoporotic fracture healing.

  14. Cognitive Cost of Using Augmented Reality Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, James; Ssin, Seung Youb; ElSayed, Neven A M; Dorrian, Jillian; Webb, David P; Walsh, James A; Simon, Timothy M; Irlitti, Andrew; Smith, Ross T; Kohler, Mark; Thomas, Bruce H

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the results of two cognitive load studies comparing three augmented reality display technologies: spatial augmented reality, the optical see-through Microsoft HoloLens, and the video see-through Samsung Gear VR. In particular, the two experiments focused on isolating the cognitive load cost of receiving instructions for a button-pressing procedural task. The studies employed a self-assessment cognitive load methodology, as well as an additional dual-task cognitive load methodology. The results showed that spatial augmented reality led to increased performance and reduced cognitive load. Additionally, it was discovered that a limited field of view can introduce increased cognitive load requirements. The findings suggest that some of the inherent restrictions of head-mounted displays materialize as increased user cognitive load.

  15. Augmented reality-assisted skull base surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrilo, I; Sarrafzadeh, A; Bijlenga, P; Landis, B N; Schaller, K

    2014-12-01

    Neuronavigation is widely considered as a valuable tool during skull base surgery. Advances in neuronavigation technology, with the integration of augmented reality, present advantages over traditional point-based neuronavigation. However, this development has not yet made its way into routine surgical practice, possibly due to a lack of acquaintance with these systems. In this report, we illustrate the usefulness and easy application of augmented reality-based neuronavigation through a case example of a patient with a clivus chordoma. We also demonstrate how augmented reality can help throughout all phases of a skull base procedure, from the verification of neuronavigation accuracy to intraoperative image-guidance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel Augmentation Strategies in Major Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    open psychiatric wards. Only a few patients were re-cruited through advertisements (in the PEMF and Chronos studies). Inclusion criteria Inclusion criteria were major depression according to the DSM-IV, including a depressive episode as part of a bipolar disorder. For the PEMF study, treatment...... The results from the Pindolol study showed that pindolol did not augment the effect of venlafaxine for the whole sample. However, for those patients classified as slow metabolizers, based on their O-desmethylvenlafaxine/venlafaxine ratio (ODV/V), pindolol did augment the antidepressant effect. For patients...... classified as fast metabolizers, pindolol worsened the outcome. This interaction between ODV/V ratio and treatment group was statistically significant (p = 0.01). Results from the PEMF study The results from the PEMF Study showed that treatment with active versus sham PEMF augmented the effect of the ongoing...

  17. Handling Occlusions for Robust Augmented Reality Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maidi Madjid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Augmented Reality applications, the human perception is enhanced with computer-generated graphics. These graphics must be exactly registered to real objects in the scene and this requires an effective Augmented Reality system to track the user's viewpoint. In this paper, a robust tracking algorithm based on coded fiducials is presented. Square targets are identified and pose parameters are computed using a hybrid approach based on a direct method combined with the Kalman filter. An important factor for providing a robust Augmented Reality system is the correct handling of targets occlusions by real scene elements. To overcome tracking failure due to occlusions, we extend our method using an optical flow approach to track visible points and maintain virtual graphics overlaying when targets are not identified. Our proposed real-time algorithm is tested with different camera viewpoints under various image conditions and shows to be accurate and robust.

  18. Pemanfaatan Augmented Reality Pada Permainan Othello

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendy Layman Aguston

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi telah mengubah cara pengerjaan suatu pekerjaan dari cara konvensional menjadi cara yang lebih praktis. Dengan hadirnya teknologi Augmented Reality, cara bermain yang menggunakan pion dan membalikkan pion musuh secara manual menjadi lebih mudah dalam memainkan permainan selain juga dapat berinteraksi langsung. Pembuatan permainan Othello menggunakan program Unity dengan framework Vuforia untuk mewujudkan Augmented Reality pada permainan Othello. Untuk menerapkan Augmented Reality dengan baik, dibutuhkan papan permainan sebagai image target yang sesuai dengan kriteria, jenis kamera yang digunakan, jarak kamera terhadap papan permainan, intensitas cahaya yang ditangkap kamera, serta tingkat sensitivitas tombol virtual. Pada permainan Othello ini tersedia fitur komputer yang menggunakan algoritma Alpha Beta Pruning dengan 3 level kedalaman yang menggunakan perhitungan fungsi evaluasi berupa mobility, potential mobility dan penguasaan corner yang menghasilkan kemenangan mencapai 73,33% dari 15 kali uji coba terhadap aplikasi Othello serupa dan 78,34% dari 37 kali uji coba terhadap user.

  19. Two putative subunits of a peptide pump encoded in the human major histocompatability complex class 2 region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahram, S.; Arnold, D.; Bresnahan, M.; Strominger, J.L.; Spies, T.

    1991-01-01

    The class 2 region of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) may encode several genes controlling the processing of endogenous antigen and the presentation of peptide epitopes by MHC class 1 molecules to cytotoxic T lymphocytes. A previously described peptide supply factor (PSF1) is a member of the multidrug-resistance family of transporters and may pump cytosolic peptides into the membrane-bound compartment where class 1 molecules assemble. A second transporter gene, PSF2, was identified 10 kilobases (kb) from PSF1, near the class 2 DOB gene. The complete sequences of PSF1 and PSF2 were determined from cDNA clones. The translation products are closely related in sequence and predicted secondary structure. Both contain a highly conserved ATP-binding fold and share 25% homology in a hydrophobic domain with a tentative number of eight membrane-spanning segments. Based on the principle dimeric organization of these two domains in other transporters, PSF1 and PSF2 may function as complementary subunits, independently as homodimers, or both. Taken together with previous genetic evidence, the coregulation of PSF1 and PSF2 by γ interferon and the to-some-degree coordinate transcription of these genes suggest a common role in peptide-loading of class 1 molecules, although a distinct function of PSF2 cannot be ruled out

  20. Genetic variation of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II B gene in the threatened Hume's pheasant, Syrmaticus humiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weicai Chen

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes are the most polymorphic genes in vertebrates and encode molecules that play a crucial role in pathogen resistance. As a result of their diversity, they have received much attention in the fields of evolutionary and conservation biology. Here, we described the genetic variation of MHC class II B (MHCIIB exon 2 in a wild population of Hume's pheasant (Syrmaticus humiae, which has suffered a dramatic decline in population over the last three decades across its ranges in the face of heavy exploitation and habitat loss. Twenty-four distinct alleles were found in 73 S. humiae specimens. We found seven shared alleles among four geographical groups as well as six rare MHCIIB alleles. Most individuals displayed between one to five alleles, suggesting that there are at least three MHCIIB loci of the Hume's pheasant. The dN ⁄ dS ratio at putative antigen-binding sites (ABS was significantly greater than one, indicating balancing selection is acting on MHCIIB exon 2. Additionally, recombination and gene conversion contributed to generating MHCIIB diversity in the Hume's pheasant. One to three recombination events and seventy-five significant gene conversion events were observed within the Hume's pheasant MHCIIB loci. The phylogenetic tree and network analysis revealed that the Hume's pheasant alleles do not cluster together, but are scattered through the tree or network indicating a trans-species evolutionary mode. These findings revealed the evolution of the Hume's pheasant MHC after suffering extreme habitat fragmentation.

  1. Signal one and two blockade are both critical for non-myeloablative murine HSCT across a major histocompatibility complex barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kia J Langford-Smith

    Full Text Available Non-myeloablative allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is rarely achievable clinically, except where donor cells have selective advantages. Murine non-myeloablative conditioning regimens have limited clinical success, partly through use of clinically unachievable cell doses or strain combinations permitting allograft acceptance using immunosuppression alone. We found that reducing busulfan conditioning in murine syngeneic HSCT, increases bone marrow (BM:blood SDF-1 ratio and total donor cells homing to BM, but reduces the proportion of donor cells engrafting. Despite this, syngeneic engraftment is achievable with non-myeloablative busulfan (25 mg/kg and higher cell doses induce increased chimerism. Therefore we investigated regimens promoting initial donor cell engraftment in the major histocompatibility complex barrier mismatched CBA to C57BL/6 allo-transplant model. This requires full myeloablation and immunosuppression with non-depleting anti-CD4/CD8 blocking antibodies to achieve engraftment of low cell doses, and rejects with reduced intensity conditioning (≤75 mg/kg busulfan. We compared increased antibody treatment, G-CSF, niche disruption and high cell dose, using reduced intensity busulfan and CD4/8 blockade in this model. Most treatments increased initial donor engraftment, but only addition of co-stimulatory blockade permitted long-term engraftment with reduced intensity or non-myeloablative conditioning, suggesting that signal 1 and 2 T-cell blockade is more important than early BM niche engraftment for transplant success.

  2. Signal one and two blockade are both critical for non-myeloablative murine HSCT across a major histocompatibility complex barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford-Smith, Kia J; Sandiford, Zara; Langford-Smith, Alex; Wilkinson, Fiona L; Jones, Simon A; Wraith, J Ed; Wynn, Robert F; Bigger, Brian W

    2013-01-01

    Non-myeloablative allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is rarely achievable clinically, except where donor cells have selective advantages. Murine non-myeloablative conditioning regimens have limited clinical success, partly through use of clinically unachievable cell doses or strain combinations permitting allograft acceptance using immunosuppression alone. We found that reducing busulfan conditioning in murine syngeneic HSCT, increases bone marrow (BM):blood SDF-1 ratio and total donor cells homing to BM, but reduces the proportion of donor cells engrafting. Despite this, syngeneic engraftment is achievable with non-myeloablative busulfan (25 mg/kg) and higher cell doses induce increased chimerism. Therefore we investigated regimens promoting initial donor cell engraftment in the major histocompatibility complex barrier mismatched CBA to C57BL/6 allo-transplant model. This requires full myeloablation and immunosuppression with non-depleting anti-CD4/CD8 blocking antibodies to achieve engraftment of low cell doses, and rejects with reduced intensity conditioning (≤75 mg/kg busulfan). We compared increased antibody treatment, G-CSF, niche disruption and high cell dose, using reduced intensity busulfan and CD4/8 blockade in this model. Most treatments increased initial donor engraftment, but only addition of co-stimulatory blockade permitted long-term engraftment with reduced intensity or non-myeloablative conditioning, suggesting that signal 1 and 2 T-cell blockade is more important than early BM niche engraftment for transplant success.

  3. Major histocompatibility complex class II compatibility, but not class I, predicts mate choice in a bird with highly developed olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandh, Maria; Westerdahl, Helena; Pontarp, Mikael; Canbäck, Björn; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Miquel, Christian; Taberlet, Pierre; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2012-11-07

    Mate choice for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) compatibility has been found in several taxa, although rarely in birds. MHC is a crucial component in adaptive immunity and by choosing an MHC-dissimilar partner, heterozygosity and potentially broad pathogen resistance is maximized in the offspring. The MHC genotype influences odour cues and preferences in mammals and fish and hence olfactory-based mate choice can occur. We tested whether blue petrels, Halobaena caerulea, choose partners based on MHC compatibility. This bird is long-lived, monogamous and can discriminate between individual odours using olfaction, which makes it exceptionally well suited for this analysis. We screened MHC class I and II B alleles in blue petrels using 454-pyrosequencing and quantified the phylogenetic, functional and allele-sharing similarity between individuals. Partners were functionally more dissimilar at the MHC class II B loci than expected from random mating (p = 0.033), whereas there was no such difference at the MHC class I loci. Phylogenetic and non-sequence-based MHC allele-sharing measures detected no MHC dissimilarity between partners for either MHC class I or II B. Our study provides evidence of mate choice for MHC compatibility in a bird with a high dependency on odour cues, suggesting that MHC odour-mediated mate choice occurs in birds.

  4. Hard wiring of T cell receptor specificity for the major histocompatibility complex is underpinned by TCR adaptability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, Scott R.; Chen, Zhenjun; Archbold, Julia K.; Tynan, Fleur E.; Beddoe, Travis; Kjer-Nielsen, Lars; Miles, John J.; Khanna, Rajiv; Moss, Denis J.; Liu, Yu Chih; Gras, Stephanie; Kostenko, Lyudmila; Brennan, Rebekah M.; Clements, Craig S.; Brooks, Andrew G.; Purcell, Anthony W.; McCluskey, James; Rossjohn, Jamie (Monash); (Queensland Inst. of Med. Rsrch.); (Melbourne)

    2010-07-07

    {alpha}{beta} T cell receptors (TCRs) are genetically restricted to corecognize peptide antigens bound to self-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) molecules; however, the basis for this MHC specificity remains unclear. Despite the current dogma, evaluation of the TCR-pMHC-I structural database shows that the nongermline-encoded complementarity-determining region (CDR)-3 loops often contact the MHC-I, and the germline-encoded CDR1 and -2 loops frequently participate in peptide-mediated interactions. Nevertheless, different TCRs adopt a roughly conserved docking mode over the pMHC-I, in which three MHC-I residues (65, 69, and 155) are invariably contacted by the TCR in one way or another. Nonetheless, the impact of mutations at these three positions, either individually or together, was not uniformly detrimental to TCR recognition of pHLA-B*0801 or pHLA-B*3508. Moreover, when TCR-pMHC-I recognition was impaired, this could be partially restored by expression of the CD8 coreceptor. The structure of a TCR-pMHC-I complex in which these three (65, 69, and 155) MHC-I positions were all mutated resulted in shifting of the TCR footprint relative to the cognate complex and formation of compensatory interactions. Collectively, our findings reveal the inherent adaptability of the TCR in maintaining peptide recognition while accommodating changes to the central docking site on the pMHC-I.

  5. Generation of a genomic tiling array of the human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC and its application for DNA methylation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottaviani Diego

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is essential for human immunity and is highly associated with common diseases, including cancer. While the genetics of the MHC has been studied intensively for many decades, very little is known about the epigenetics of this most polymorphic and disease-associated region of the genome. Methods To facilitate comprehensive epigenetic analyses of this region, we have generated a genomic tiling array of 2 Kb resolution covering the entire 4 Mb MHC region. The array has been designed to be compatible with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH and expression profiling, including of non-coding RNAs. The array comprises 7832 features, consisting of two replicates of both forward and reverse strands of MHC amplicons and appropriate controls. Results Using MeDIP, we demonstrate the application of the MHC array for DNA methylation profiling and the identification of tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (tDMRs. Based on the analysis of two tissues and two cell types, we identified 90 tDMRs within the MHC and describe their characterisation. Conclusion A tiling array covering the MHC region was developed and validated. Its successful application for DNA methylation profiling indicates that this array represents a useful tool for molecular analyses of the MHC in the context of medical genomics.

  6. Acquired immunologic tolerance in chimeras and histocompatibility factors in cattle and their relationship to those in humans. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, W.H.

    1976-03-01

    During the course of this project we have studied 35 pairs of chimeric cattle twins. It is now clear that fractionated doses of whole-body 60 Co irradiation can cause marked shifts in the proportions of the two erythrocyte populations that make up the chimeric mixture. However, it has not been possible to eliminate one of the two cell types and thus abrogate the acquired immunologic tolerance. The results of our extensive skin-grafting experiments are remarkable because they show that a chimeric twin may mount a sufficient immune response to reject its cotwin's skin while remaining completely tolerant to erythropoietic elements of its cotwin. In conjunction with these studies, we have acquired sufficient data to define a major histocompatibility locus in cattle using alloimmune anti-lymphocyte typing sera as well as the mixed lymphocyte culture technic. This project has also yielded a considerable number of new immunogenetic parameters for cattle, monkeys and birds. Such parameters are useful for basic and applied studies in immunology

  7. Major histocompatibility complex harbors widespread genotypic variability of non-additive risk of rheumatoid arthritis including epistasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wen-Hua; Bowes, John; Plant, Darren; Viatte, Sebastien; Yarwood, Annie; Massey, Jonathan; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2016-04-25

    Genotypic variability based genome-wide association studies (vGWASs) can identify potentially interacting loci without prior knowledge of the interacting factors. We report a two-stage approach to make vGWAS applicable to diseases: firstly using a mixed model approach to partition dichotomous phenotypes into additive risk and non-additive environmental residuals on the liability scale and secondly using the Levene's (Brown-Forsythe) test to assess equality of the residual variances across genotype groups per marker. We found widespread significant (P 5e-05) vGWAS signals within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) across all three study cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis. We further identified 10 epistatic interactions between the vGWAS signals independent of the MHC additive effects, each with a weak effect but jointly explained 1.9% of phenotypic variance. PTPN22 was also identified in the discovery cohort but replicated in only one independent cohort. Combining the three cohorts boosted power of vGWAS and additionally identified TYK2 and ANKRD55. Both PTPN22 and TYK2 had evidence of interactions reported elsewhere. We conclude that vGWAS can help discover interacting loci for complex diseases but require large samples to find additional signals.

  8. Major Histocompatibility Complex I Mediates Immunological Tolerance of the Trophoblast during Pregnancy and May Mediate Rejection during Parturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rapacz-Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy in larger mammals, the maternal immune system must tolerate the fetus for months while resisting external infection. This tolerance is facilitated by immunological communication between the fetus and the mother, which is mediated by Major Histocompatibility Complex I (MHC I proteins, by leukocytes, and by the cytokines secreted by the leukocytes. Fetal-maternal immunological communication also supports pregnancy by inducing physiological changes in the mother. If the mother “misunderstands” the signal sent by the fetus during pregnancy, the fetus will be miscarried or delivered preterm. Unlike any other maternal organ, the placenta can express paternal antigens. At parturition, paternal antigens are known to be expressed in cows and may be expressed in horses, possibly so that the maternal immune system will reject the placenta and help to expel it. This review compares fetal-maternal crosstalk that is mediated by the immune system in three species with pregnancies that last for nine months or longer: humans, cattle, and horses. It raises the possibility that immunological communication early in pregnancy may prepare the mother for successful expulsion of fetal membranes at parturition.

  9. Major histocompatibility complex-unrestricted cytolytic activity of human T cells: analysis of precursor frequency and effector phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, S.S.; Thiele, D.L.; Lipsky, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    The frequency and phenotype of human T cells that mediate major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted cytolysis were analyzed. T cell clones were generated by culturing adherent cell-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells at a density of 0.3 cell/well with phytohemagglutinin, recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2), and irradiated autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells and/or Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. All of the 198 clones generated by this method were T cells (CD2 + , CD3 + , CD4 + or CD2 + , CD3 + , CD8 + ) that possessed potent lytic activity against K562, an erythroleukemia line sensitive to lysis by human natural killer cells, and Cur, a renal carcinoma cell line resistant to human natural killer activity. Cytolysis, measured by 51 Cr release, was MHC-unrestricted, since the clones were able to lyse MHC class I or class II negative targets, as well as MHC class I and class II negative targets. Although the clones produced tissue necrosis factor/lymphotoxin-like molecules, lysis of Cur of K562 was not mediated by a soluble factor secreted by the clones. These data indicate that the capacity for MHC-unrestricted tumoricidal activity and expression of NKH1 and CD11b, but not CD 16, are properties common to all or nearly all human peripheral blood-derived T cell clones regardless of CD4 or CD8 phenotype

  10. Transplantation of islet cells across major histocompatibility barriers after total lymphoid irradiation and infusion of allogeneic bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britt, L.D.; Scharp, D.W.; Lacy, P.E.; Slavin, S.

    1982-01-01

    Diabetic Lewis rats (AgB1/L) were evaluated as recipients of allogeneic Wistar-Furth (AgB2/2) isolated adult islets without the use of standard recipient immunosuppression. One group was treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and Wistar-Furth bone marrow cell reconstitution to proven chimerism prior to islet transplantation. This group returned to a prediabetic state following Wistar-Furth islet transplantation without any evidence of rejection for 100 days posttransplant. A second group of Lewis rats received only TLI without bone marrow treatment. They gave a varying result following islet transplantation with one recipient showing evidence of prolonged islet survival. A third chimeric control group did not receive isolated islets and did not alter their diabetic state. A fourth group was not given TLI nor donor bone marrow cells and uniformly rejected their allogeneic islets by 7 days. Thus, allogeneic adult islets will survive across major rat histocompatibility barriers using TLI and donor bone marrow chimerism as the only form of immunosuppression

  11. Mate choice for major histocompatibility complex genetic divergence as a bet-hedging strategy in the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Melissa L.; Dionne, Mélanie; Miller, Kristina M.; Bernatchez, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-dependent mating preferences have been observed across vertebrate taxa and these preferences are expected to promote offspring disease resistance and ultimately, viability. However, little empirical evidence linking MHC-dependent mate choice and fitness is available, particularly in wild populations. Here, we explore the adaptive potential of previously observed patterns of MHC-dependent mate choice in a wild population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Québec, Canada, by examining the relationship between MHC genetic variation and adult reproductive success and offspring survival over 3 years of study. While Atlantic salmon choose their mates in order to increase MHC diversity in offspring, adult reproductive success was in fact maximized between pairs exhibiting an intermediate level of MHC dissimilarity. Moreover, patterns of offspring survival between years 0+ and 1+, and 1+ and 2+ and population genetic structure at the MHC locus relative to microsatellite loci indicate that strong temporal variation in selection is likely to be operating on the MHC. We interpret MHC-dependent mate choice for diversity as a likely bet-hedging strategy that maximizes parental fitness in the face of temporally variable and unpredictable natural selection pressures. PMID:21697172

  12. Clinical, Immunological, and Molecular Findings in Five Patients with Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Deficiency from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahnavi Aluri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive form of primary immunodeficiency disorder (PID characterized by the deficiency of MHC class II molecules. This deficiency affects the cellular and humoral immune response by impairing the development of CD4+ T helper (Th cells and Th cell-dependent antibody production by B cells. Affected children typically present with severe respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is the only curative therapy available for treating these patients. This is the first report from India wherein we describe the clinical, immunological, and molecular findings in five patients with MHC class II deficiency. Our patients presented with recurrent lower respiratory tract infection as the most common clinical presentation within their first year of life and had a complete absence of human leukocyte antigen-antigen D-related (HLA-DR expression on B cells and monocytes. Molecular characterization revealed novel mutations in RFAXP, RFX5, and CIITA genes. Despite genetic heterogeneity, these patients were clinically indistinguishable. Two patients underwent HSCT but had a poor survival outcome. Detectable level of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs were measured in our patients, highlighting that this form of PID may be missed by TREC-based newborn screening program for severe combined immunodeficiency.

  13. HUBUNGAN ANTARA PERTUMBUHAN DENGAN KEBERADAAN GEN TAHAN PENYAKIT MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX (MHC PADA IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma Primanita Hayuningtyas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wabah penyakit koi herpes virus (KHV di Indonesia yang terjadi sejak tahun 2002 merupakan salah satu faktor yang memicu kemerosotan produksi ikan mas budidaya. Pembentukan strain unggul ikan mas tahan KHV dapat menjadi solusi bagi permasalahan tersebut. Pemilihan genotip ikan mas tahan KHV dengan marka molekuler gen major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II, khususnya pada alel Cyca DAB 1*05 akan membantu dalam kegiatan seleksi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keberadaan gen MHC-II pada populasi dasar G0 ikan mas strain Rajadanu dan hubungannya dengan pertumbuhan (bobot. Metode deteksi keberadaan gen MHC-II pada dua kelompok ikan dengan ukuran berbeda dilakukan dengan teknik PCR. Hubungan antara pertumbuhan ikan mas dengan persentase kemunculan gen MHC-II dianalisis dengan menggunakan program SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, sehingga diperoleh korelasi di antara keduanya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa hubungan antara pertumbuhan dengan persentase keberadaan gen MHC-II berkorelasi negatif dengan nilai R = -0,742. Hal ini mengindikasikan bahwa semakin cepat pertumbuhan populasi ikan mas maka semakin sedikit persentase individu yang mempunyai gen MHC-II pada setiap populasi ikan mas. Sehingga populasi ikan mas yang pertumbuhannya lambat memiliki tingkat persentase positif MHC-II lebih tinggi (85,71%-100% dibandingkan populasi ikan mas yang pertumbuhannya cepat (42,86%-85,71%.

  14. Genomic polymorphism, recombination, and linkage disequilibrium in human major histocompatibility complex-encoded antigen-processing genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Endert, P M; Lopez, M T; Patel, S D; Monaco, J J; McDevitt, H O

    1992-01-01

    Recently, two subunits of a large cytosolic protease and two putative peptide transporter proteins were found to be encoded by genes within the class II region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). These genes have been suggested to be involved in the processing of antigenic proteins for presentation by MHC class I molecules. Because of the high degree of polymorphism in MHC genes, and previous evidence for both functional and polypeptide sequence polymorphism in the proteins encoded by the antigen-processing genes, we tested DNA from 27 consanguineous human cell lines for genomic polymorphism by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. These studies demonstrate a strong linkage disequilibrium between TAP1 and LMP2 RFLPs. Moreover, RFLPs, as well as a polymorphic stop codon in the telomeric TAP2 gene, appear to be in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-DR alleles and RFLPs in the HLA-DO gene. A high rate of recombination, however, seems to occur in the center of the complex, between the TAP1 and TAP2 genes. Images PMID:1360671

  15. Heating Augmentation for Short Hypersonic Protuberances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Ali R.; Wood, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Computational aeroheating analyses of the Space Shuttle Orbiter plug repair models are validated against data collected in the Calspan University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) 48 inch shock tunnel. The comparison shows that the average difference between computed heat transfer results and the data is about 9.5%. Using CFD and Wind Tunnel (WT) data, an empirical correlation for estimating heating augmentation on short hypersonic protuberances (k/delta less than 0.3) is proposed. This proposed correlation is compared with several computed flight simulation cases and good agreement is achieved. Accordingly, this correlation is proposed for further investigation on other short hypersonic protuberances for estimating heating augmentation.

  16. Medical imaging and augmented reality. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohi, Takeyoshi; Sakuma, Ichiro; Liao, Hongen

    2008-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Medical Imaging and Augmented Reality, MIAR 2008, held in Tokyo, Japan, in August 2008. The 44 revised full papers presented together with 3 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 90 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on surgical planning and simulation, medical image computing, image analysis, shape modeling and morphometry, image-guided robotics, image-guided intervention, interventional imaging, image registration, augmented reality, and image segmentation. (orig.)

  17. Augmented Reality for Maintenance and Repair (ARMAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    implementations by leveraging more robust vision algorithms or by using fiducials. 57 Fi gu re 2 3. A ug m en te d co nt ro ls st at e di ag ra m 58...34 Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality (VR 󈧇), Washington, DC, 2003, p. 199. [18] W. Friedrich , "ARVIKA-Augmented Reality for...and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 󈧊), Santa Barbara , CA, 2006, pp. 105-108. [33] S. G. Rao, S. J. Schmugge

  18. The augmentation algorithm and molecular phylogenetic trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, R.

    1978-01-01

    Moore's (1977) augmentation procedure is discussed, and it is concluded that the procedure is valid for obtaining estimates of the total number of fixed nucleotide substitutions both theoretically and in practice, for both simulated and real data, and in agreement, for experimentally dense data sets, with stochastic estimates of the divergence, provided the restrictions on codon mutability resulting from natural selection are explicitly allowed for. Tateno and Nei's (1978) critique that the augmentation procedure has a systematic bias toward overestimation of the total number of nucleotide replacements is disputed, and a data analysis suggests that ancestral sequences inferred by the method of parsimony contain a large number of incorrectly assigned nucleotides.

  19. Introducing Augmented Reality in Cultural Heritage Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Villarejo, Luis; González-Reverté, Francesc; Miralbell, Oriol; Gomis, Joan Miquel

    2014-01-01

    Augmented Reality is a technology that allows overlaid digital content into our view of the real world through the camera of a Smartphone or a tablet. Video, audio, 2D and 3D images, web and text are just some examples of the type of content that can be overlaid on our perception of the real world. This content can be associated with real world elements by means of geolocation or image recognition. Such technology has great engagement potential and is used in many fields to augment the users’...

  20. Towards Wearable Gaze Supported Augmented Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toshiaki Kurauchi, Andrew; Hitoshi Morimoto, Carlos; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    Augmented cognition applications must deal with the problem of how to exhibit information in an orderly, understandable, and timely fashion. Though context have been suggested to control the kind, amount, and timing of the information delivered, we argue that gaze can be a fundamental tool...... by the wearable computing community to develop a gaze supported augmented cognition application with three interaction modes. The application provides information of the person being looked at. The continuous mode updates information every time the user looks at a different face. The key activated discrete mode...

  1. Medical imaging and augmented reality. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohi, Takeyoshi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechano-Informatics; Sakuma, Ichiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Precision Engineering; Liao, Hongen (eds.) [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Bioengineering

    2008-07-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Medical Imaging and Augmented Reality, MIAR 2008, held in Tokyo, Japan, in August 2008. The 44 revised full papers presented together with 3 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 90 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on surgical planning and simulation, medical image computing, image analysis, shape modeling and morphometry, image-guided robotics, image-guided intervention, interventional imaging, image registration, augmented reality, and image segmentation. (orig.)

  2. Temporal Coherence Strategies for Augmented Reality Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Boesen; Tatzgern, Markus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal coherence of annotations is an important factor in augmented reality user interfaces and for information visualization. In this paper, we empirically evaluate four different techniques for annotation. Based on these findings, we follow up with subjective evaluations in a second experiment...

  3. Design Principles for Augmented Reality Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunleavy, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Augmented reality is an emerging technology that utilizes mobile, context-aware devices (e.g., smartphones, tablets) that enable participants to interact with digital information embedded within the physical environment. This overview of design principles focuses on specific strategies that instructional designers can use to develop AR learning…

  4. The Educational Possibilities of Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabero, Julio; Barroso, Julio

    2016-01-01

    A large number of emergent technologies have been acquiring a strong impulse in recent years. One of these emergent technologies is Augmented Reality (RA), which will surely have a high level of penetration into all our educational centers, including universities, in the next 3 to 5 years, as a number of different reports have already highlighted.…

  5. Personalized augmented reality for anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng; Fallavollita, Pascal; Seelbach, Ina; Von Der Heide, Anna Maria; Euler, Ekkehard; Waschke, Jens; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    Anatomy education is a challenging but vital element in forming future medical professionals. In this work, a personalized and interactive augmented reality system is developed to facilitate education. This system behaves as a "magic mirror" which allows personalized in-situ visualization of anatomy on the user's body. Real-time volume visualization of a CT dataset creates the illusion that the user can look inside their body. The system comprises a RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device to detect the user moving in front of a display. In addition, the magic mirror system shows text information, medical images, and 3D models of organs that the user can interact with. Through the participation of 7 clinicians and 72 students, two user studies were designed to respectively assess the precision and acceptability of the magic mirror system for education. The results of the first study demonstrated that the average precision of the augmented reality overlay on the user body was 0.96 cm, while the results of the second study indicate 86.1% approval for the educational value of the magic mirror, and 91.7% approval for the augmented reality capability of displaying organs in three dimensions. The usefulness of this unique type of personalized augmented reality technology has been demonstrated in this paper. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Determination of Student Opinions in Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicen, Huseyin; Bal, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of the new technology has changed classroom teaching methods and tools in a positive way. This study investigated the classroom learning with augmented reality and the impact of student opinions. 97 volunteer undergraduate students took part in this study. Results included data in the form of frequencies, percentages and…

  7. Intelligent Augmented Reality Training for Motherboard Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerfield, Giles; Mitrovic, Antonija; Billinghurst, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the combination of Augmented Reality (AR) with Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) to assist with training for manual assembly tasks. Our approach combines AR graphics with adaptive guidance from the ITS to provide a more effective learning experience. We have developed a modular software framework for intelligent AR training…

  8. Augmentation of board games using smartphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulsinskas, Arturas; Balan, Catalin; Egede Bukdahl, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains details about research into the effect of digital augmentation on social presence in board games. A case study of the board game Tobago was performed during the project and a prototype application for smartphones was developed in order to compare the players’ social presence...

  9. Augmented reality for Android application development

    CERN Document Server

    Grubert, Jens

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial-based guide aimed at giving you hands-on practical experience to develop AR applications for Android.Augmented Reality for Android Application Development is for Android mobile application developers who are familiar with Android Development Tools and deployment, JMonkeyEngine, and the Vuforia SDK.

  10. CARE: Creating Augmented Reality in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Farzana

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how Augmented Reality using mobile phones can enhance teaching and learning in education. It specifically examines its application in two cases, where it is identified that the agility of mobile devices and the ability to overlay context specific resources offers opportunities to enhance learning that would not otherwise exist.…

  11. Aloqa and layar augmented reality feeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ternier, Stefaan

    2010-01-01

    Aloqa is a service that proactively notifies the user of Point Of Interests (POIs). It runs on iPhone, blackberry and android. With this tool you can easily get directions to events, places, buildings or other places of interests. Layar builds on the same principle, but has a browser that augments

  12. Facial skeletal augmentation using hydroxyapatite cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, M L; Costantino, P D; Friedman, C D; Chow, L C

    1993-02-01

    This study investigates the use of a new calcium phosphate cement, which sets to solid, microporous hydroxyapatite, for facial bone augmentation. In six dogs, the supraorbital ridges were augmented bilaterally with this hydroxyapatite cement. On one side, the hydroxyapatite cement was placed directly onto the bone within a subperiosteal pocket. On the opposite side, the cement was contained within a collagen membrane tubule and then inserted into a subperiosteal pocket. The use of collagen tubules facilitated easy, precise placement of the cement. All implants maintained their original augmented height throughout the duration of the study. They were well tolerated without extrusion or migration, and there was no significant sustained inflammatory response. Histologic studies, performed at 3, 6, and 9 months revealed that when the cement was placed directly onto bone, progressive replacement of the implant by bone (osseointegration of the hydroxyapatite with the underlying bone) without a loss of volume was observed. In contrast, when the cement-collagen tubule combination was inserted, primarily a fibrous union was noted. Despite such fibrous union, the hydroxyapatite-collagen implant solidly bonded to the underlying bone, and no implant resorption was observed. Hydroxyapatite cement can be used successfully for the experimental augmentation of the craniofacial skeleton and may be applicable for such uses in humans.

  13. (Re-)Examination of Multimodal Augmented Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosa, N.E.; Werkhoven, P.J.; Hürst, W.O.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of augmented reality (AR) research has been concerned with visual perception, however the move towards multimodality is imminent. At the same time, there is no clear vision of what multimodal AR is. The purpose of this position paper is to consider possible ways of examining AR other

  14. Accurate overlaying for mobile augmented reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W; van der Schaaf, A; Lagendijk, RL; Jansen, F.W.

    1999-01-01

    Mobile augmented reality requires accurate alignment of virtual information with objects visible in the real world. We describe a system for mobile communications to be developed to meet these strict alignment criteria using a combination of computer vision. inertial tracking and low-latency

  15. Alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinduction in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Bang, G; Haanaes, H R

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone substitutes for alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinduction. Allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin and bone was tested for osteoinductive properties in order to establish an experimental model for further studies. Implantations were perf...

  16. Augmentative Communication Services in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Sarah W.

    1989-01-01

    The article considers current issues concerning service delivery systems and practices concerning augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) services in U.S. schools. Concerns in AAC program development are noted and service delivery models (center-based, community-based, or collaborative) are compared. (DB)

  17. Augmented Reality in Sports: Today and Tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer BOZYER

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapid change experienced in the field of Information Technologies makes the informati cs more tangible in daily life. Today, it became possible to encounter with the informatics applications almost all the disciplines. As a matter of course, many informatics applications are put into the practice regarding the sports discipline. Because of the condition that the power of information processing has increased and the studies on wearable technol ogies in addition to the expert system design, augmented reality (AR has become a topic which gains imp ortance in the field of sports. There are many studies that are conducted with the aim of increasing the efficiency of physical activities done in many sports branches, ensuring a more fair management of competitions and providing the opportunity for spectators to watch the competitions in a more comfortable and efficient way. In this study; the information about the current augmented reality practices th at are used in various sports branches has been given and the mobile and interactive augmented reality practices which are possible to be seen in future have been mentioned. In addition, there is an augmented reality practice which is designed with the aim of ensuring that the shoots of sports people who are interested in archery, are more stable and of ensuring that the trainings and exercises are more efficient by stating to the sports people whether he or she is in the right position for shoot which is c alled as T shape seen at the time of releasing the arrow.

  18. Location-Based Learning through Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Te-Lien; Chanlin, Lih-Juan

    2014-01-01

    A context-aware and mixed-reality exploring tool cannot only effectively provide an information-rich environment to users, but also allows them to quickly utilize useful resources and enhance environment awareness. This study integrates Augmented Reality (AR) technology into smartphones to create a stimulating learning experience at a university…

  19. Volumetric, dashboard-mounted augmented display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, David; Grabowski, Christopher

    2017-11-01

    The optical design of a compact volumetric display for drivers is presented. The system displays a true volume image with realistic physical depth cues, such as focal accommodation, parallax and convergence. A large eyebox is achieved with a pupil expander. The windshield is used as the augmented reality combiner. A freeform windshield corrector is placed at the dashboard.

  20. Get Real: Augmented Reality for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; DeBay, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Kids love augmented reality (AR) simulations because they are like real-life video games. AR simulations allow students to learn content while collaborating face to face and interacting with a multimedia-enhanced version of the world around them. Although the technology may seem advanced, AR software makes it easy to develop content-based…

  1. Understanding the Conics through Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Patricia; Pulido, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the production of a digital environment to foster the learning of conics through augmented reality. The name conic refers to curves obtained by the intersection of a plane with a right circular conical surface. The environment gives students the opportunity to interact with the cone and the plane as virtual objects in real…

  2. The role of imaging in pediatric bladder augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, Micheal; Chow, Jeanne S. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Phelps, Andrew [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Estrada, Carlos [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Bladder augmentation (also called augmentation cystoplasty) refers to a number of surgical methods that increase the capacity and compliance of the urinary bladder. Imaging has an important role in the postoperative evaluation of bladder augmentation. The most common augmentation procedures utilize enteric segments to augment the bladder. The various types of bladder augmentation have characteristic appearances on different imaging modalities. Spontaneous bladder perforation is a complication that is seen in both early and late post-operative periods and it is one of the most important complications for radiologists to be aware of as it is life-threatening. We review the indications for bladder augmentation in children, the surgical techniques employed, the normal postoperative appearances on imaging studies and the role of imaging complications of bladder augmentation including delayed spontaneous bladder rupture, which is life-threatening. (orig.)

  3. Regulation of T cell response to leishmania antigens by determinants of histocompatibility leukocyte class I and II molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacellar O.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that HLA class I molecules play a significant role in the regulation of the proliferation of T cells activated by mitogens and antigens. We evaluated the ability of mAb to a framework determinant of HLA class I molecules to regulate T cell proliferation and interferon gamma (IFN-g production against leishmania, PPD, C. albicans and tetanus toxoid antigens in patients with tegumentary leishmaniasis and healthy subjects. The anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC mAb (W6/32 suppressed lymphocyte proliferation by 90% in cultures stimulated with aCD3, but the suppression was variable in cultures stimulated with leishmania antigen. This suppression ranged from 30-67% and was observed only in 5 of 11 patients. IFN-g production against leishmania antigen was also suppressed by anti-HLA class I mAb. In 3 patients IFN-g levels were suppressed by more than 60%, while in the other 2 cultures IFN-g levels were 36 and 10% lower than controls. The suppression by HLA class I mAb to the proliferative response in leishmaniasis patients and in healthy controls varied with the antigens and the patients or donors tested. To determine whether the suppression is directed at antigen presenting cells (APCs or at the responding T cells, experiments with antigen-primed non-adherent cells, separately incubated with W6/32, were performed. Suppression of proliferation was only observed when the W6/32 mAb was added in the presence of T cells. These data provide evidence that a mAb directed at HLA class I framework determinants can suppress proliferation and cytokine secretion in response to several antigens.

  4. Major Histocompatibility Complex Genes Map to Two Chromosomes in an Evolutionarily Ancient Reptile, the Tuatara Sphenodon punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Hilary C; O'Meally, Denis; Ezaz, Tariq; Amemiya, Chris; Marshall-Graves, Jennifer A; Edwards, Scott

    2015-05-07

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are a central component of the vertebrate immune system and usually exist in a single genomic region. However, considerable differences in MHC organization and size exist between different vertebrate lineages. Reptiles occupy a key evolutionary position for understanding how variation in MHC structure evolved in vertebrates, but information on the structure of the MHC region in reptiles is limited. In this study, we investigate the organization and cytogenetic location of MHC genes in the tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus), the sole extant representative of the early-diverging reptilian order Rhynchocephalia. Sequencing and mapping of 12 clones containing class I and II MHC genes from a bacterial artificial chromosome library indicated that the core MHC region is located on chromosome 13q. However, duplication and translocation of MHC genes outside of the core region was evident, because additional class I MHC genes were located on chromosome 4p. We found a total of seven class I sequences and 11 class II β sequences, with evidence for duplication and pseudogenization of genes within the tuatara lineage. The tuatara MHC is characterized by high repeat content and low gene density compared with other species and we found no antigen processing or MHC framework genes on the MHC gene-containing clones. Our findings indicate substantial differences in MHC organization in tuatara compared with mammalian and avian MHCs and highlight the dynamic nature of the MHC. Further sequencing and annotation of tuatara and other reptile MHCs will determine if the tuatara MHC is representative of nonavian reptiles in general. Copyright © 2015 Miller et al.

  5. Selection, trans-species polymorphism, and locus identification of major histocompatibility complex class IIβ alleles of New World ranid frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemnec-Tyburczy, Karen M.; Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Savage, Anna E.; Zamudio, Kelly R.

    2010-01-01

    Genes encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play key roles in the vertebrate immune system. However, our understanding of the evolutionary processes and underlying genetic mechanisms shaping these genes is limited in many taxa, including amphibians, a group currently impacted by emerging infectious diseases. To further elucidate the evolution of the MHC in frogs (anurans) and develop tools for population genetics, we surveyed allelic diversity of the MHC class II ??1 domain in both genomic and complementary DNA of seven New World species in the genus Rana (Lithobates). To assign locus affiliation to our alleles, we used a "gene walking" technique to obtain intron 2 sequences that flanked MHC class II?? exon 2. Two distinct intron sequences were recovered, suggesting the presence of at least two class II?? loci in Rana. We designed a primer pair that successfully amplified an orthologous locus from all seven Rana species. In total, we recovered 13 alleles and documented trans-species polymorphism for four of the alleles. We also found quantitative evidence of selection acting on amino acid residues that are putatively involved in peptide binding and structural stability of the ??1 domain of anurans. Our results indicated that primer mismatch can result in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) bias, which influences the number of alleles that are recovered. Using a single locus may minimize PCR bias caused by primer mismatch, and the gene walking technique was an effective approach for generating single-copy orthologous markers necessary for future studies of MHC allelic variation in natural amphibian populations. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Availability of endogenous peptides limits expression of an M3a-Ld major histocompatibility complex class I chimera

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Taking advantage of our understanding of the peptide specificity of the major histocompatibility complex class I-b molecule M3a, we sought to determine why these molecules are poorly represented on the cell surface. To this end we constructed a chimeric molecule with the alpha 1 and alpha 2 domains of M3a and alpha 3 of Ld thereby allowing use of available monoclonal antibodies to quantify surface expression. Transfected, but not control, B10.CAS2 (H-2M3b) cells were lysed readily by M3a-restricted monoclonal cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Thus, the chimera bound, trafficked, and presented endogenous mitochondrial peptides. However, despite high levels of M3a-Ld mRNA, transfectants were negative by surface staining. This finding was consistent with inefficient trafficking to the cell surface. Incubation at 26 degrees C, thought to permit trafficking of unoccupied heavy (H) chains, resulted in detectable cell surface expression of chimeric molecules. Incubation with exogenous peptide at 26 degrees C (but not at 37 degrees C) greatly enhanced expression of M3a-Ld molecules in a dose- dependent manner, suggesting stabilization of unoccupied molecules. Stable association of beta 2-microglobulin with the chimeric H chain was observed in labeled cell lysates only in the presence of exogenous specific peptide, indicating that peptide is required for the formation of a ternary complex. These results indicate that surface expression of M3a-Ld is limited largely by the steady-state availability of endogenous peptides. Since most known M3a-binding peptides are N- formylated, native M3a may normally be expressed at high levels only during infection by intracellular bacteria. PMID:8270862

  7. Genetic variation in the extended major histocompatibility complex and susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Y Urayama

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The enduring suspicion that infections and immunologic response may play a role in the etiology of childhood leukemia, particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, is now supported, albeit still indirectly, by numerous epidemiological studies. The cumulative evidence includes, for example, descriptive observations of a peculiar peak incidence at age 2-5 years for ALL in economically developed countries, clustering of cases in situations of population mixing associated with unusual patterns of personal contacts, associations with various proxy measures for immune modulatory exposures early in life, and genetic susceptibility conferred by variation in genes involved in the immune system. In this review, our focus is the extended major histocompatibility complex (xMHC, an approximately 7.6 megabase region that is well-known for its high density of expressed genes, extensive polymorphisms exhibiting complex linkage disequilibrium patterns, and its disproportionately large number of immune-related genes, including human leukocyte antigen (HLA. First discovered through the role they play in transplant rejection, the classical HLA class I (HLA-A, -B, and -C and class II (HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DP molecules reside at the epicenter of the immune response pathways and are now the targets of many disease susceptibility studies, including those for childhood leukemia. The genes encoding the HLA molecules are only a minority of the over 250 expressed genes in the xMHC, and a growing number of studies are beginning to evaluate other loci through targeted investigations or utilizing a mapping approach with a comprehensive screen of the entire region. Here, we review the current epidemiologic evidence available to date regarding genetic variation contained within this highly unique region of the genome and its relationship with childhood ALL risk.

  8. Genetic wealth, population health: Major histocompatibility complex variation in captive and wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Kathleen E; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; Drea, Christine M

    2017-10-01

    Across species, diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is critical to individual disease resistance and, hence, to population health; however, MHC diversity can be reduced in small, fragmented, or isolated populations. Given the need for comparative studies of functional genetic diversity, we investigated whether MHC diversity differs between populations which are open, that is experiencing gene flow, versus populations which are closed, that is isolated from other populations. Using the endangered ring-tailed lemur ( Lemur catta ) as a model, we compared two populations under long-term study: a relatively "open," wild population ( n  = 180) derived from Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar (2003-2013) and a "closed," captive population ( n  = 121) derived from the Duke Lemur Center (DLC, 1980-2013) and from the Indianapolis and Cincinnati Zoos (2012). For all animals, we assessed MHC-DRB diversity and, across populations, we compared the number of unique MHC-DRB alleles and their distributions. Wild individuals possessed more MHC-DRB alleles than did captive individuals, and overall, the wild population had more unique MHC-DRB alleles that were more evenly distributed than did the captive population. Despite management efforts to maintain or increase genetic diversity in the DLC population, MHC diversity remained static from 1980 to 2010. Since 2010, however, captive-breeding efforts resulted in the MHC diversity of offspring increasing to a level commensurate with that found in wild individuals. Therefore, loss of genetic diversity in lemurs, owing to small founder populations or reduced gene flow, can be mitigated by managed breeding efforts. Quantifying MHC diversity within individuals and between populations is the necessary first step to identifying potential improvements to captive management and conservation plans.

  9. Novel full-length major histocompatibility complex class I allele discovery and haplotype definition in pig-tailed macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semler, Matthew R; Wiseman, Roger W; Karl, Julie A; Graham, Michael E; Gieger, Samantha M; O'Connor, David H

    2017-11-13

    Pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina, Mane) are important models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) studies. Their infectability with minimally modified HIV makes them a uniquely valuable animal model to mimic human infection with HIV and progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, variation in the pig-tailed macaque major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and the impact of individual transcripts on the pathogenesis of HIV and other infectious diseases is understudied compared to that of rhesus and cynomolgus macaques. In this study, we used Pacific Biosciences single-molecule real-time circular consensus sequencing to describe full-length MHC class I (MHC-I) transcripts for 194 pig-tailed macaques from three breeding centers. We then used the full-length sequences to infer Mane-A and Mane-B haplotypes containing groups of MHC-I transcripts that co-segregate due to physical linkage. In total, we characterized full-length open reading frames (ORFs) for 313 Mane-A, Mane-B, and Mane-I sequences that defined 86 Mane-A and 106 Mane-B MHC-I haplotypes. Pacific Biosciences technology allows us to resolve these Mane-A and Mane-B haplotypes to the level of synonymous allelic variants. The newly defined haplotypes and transcript sequences containing full-length ORFs provide an important resource for infectious disease researchers as certain MHC haplotypes have been shown to provide exceptional control of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication and prevention of AIDS-like disease in nonhuman primates. The increased allelic resolution provided by Pacific Biosciences sequencing also benefits transplant research by allowing researchers to more specifically match haplotypes between donors and recipients to the level of nonsynonymous allelic variation, thus reducing the risk of graft-versus-host disease.

  10. Sperm competition, but not major histocompatibility divergence, drives differential fertilization success between alternative reproductive tactics in Chinook salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, S J; Helou, L; Pitcher, T E; Heath, J W; Heath, D D

    2018-01-01

    Post-copulatory sexual selection processes, including sperm competition and cryptic female choice (CFC), can operate based on major histocompatibility (MH) genes. We investigated sperm competition between male alternative reproductive tactics [jack (sneaker) and hooknose (guard)] of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Using a full factorial design, we examined in vitro competitive fertilization success of paired jack and hooknose males at three time points after sperm activation (0, 15 and 60 s) to test for male competition, CFC and time effects on male fertilization success. We also examined egg-mediated CFC at two MH genes by examining both the relationship between competitive fertilization success and MH divergence as well as inheritance patterns of MH alleles in resulting offspring. We found that jacks sired more offspring than hooknose males at 0 s post-activation; however, jack fertilization success declined over time post-activation, suggesting a trade-off between sperm speed and longevity. Enhanced fertilization success of jacks (presumably via higher sperm quality) may serve to increase sneaker tactic competitiveness relative to dominant hooknose males. We also found evidence of egg-mediated CFC (i.e. female × male interaction) influencing competitive fertilization success; however, CFC was not acting on the MH genes as we found no relationship between fertilization success and MH II β 1 or MH I α 1 divergence and we found no deviations from Mendelian inheritance of MH alleles in the offspring. Our study provides insight into evolutionary mechanisms influencing variation in male mating success within alternative reproductive tactics, thus underscoring different strategies that males can adopt to attain success. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Role of major histocompatibility complex class II in resistance of mice to naturally acquired infection with Syphacia obvelata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patricia W.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2003-01-01

    Genetics plays a substantial role in host resistance in many host-parasite interactions. We examined the prevalence of naturally acquired infection with Syphacia obvelata in a number of mouse strains housed in a non-barrier facility. These mice, which included cross-bred and congenic, inbred strains on various genetic backgrounds, differ in the loci for the immune function genes--major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII), toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4), and solute carrier family 11, member 1 (Slc11a1)--which allowed comparisons of the impact of these genes on resistance to pinworm infection. Male and female mice of various ages were sampled over an 18-month period; infection was determined by use of the cellophane tape test. Results indicated that mice that were MHCII+/+ had a significantly lower prevalence of infection than did mice that were MHCII-/-. Differences were not seen between male and female mice. Although MHCII+/+ mice had an age-associated decrease in infection prevalence, such decrease was not seen in MHCII-/- mice. In contrast, infection prevalence in mice with the normal Tlr4 gene (Tlr4(LPS-n/LPS-n)) gene did not differ significantly compared with that in mice that were homozygous for either the point mutation (Tlr4(LPS-d/LPS-d)) or deletion (Tlr4(LPS-del/LPS-del)) of that gene. Likewise, the presence (Sle11a1r/r) or absence (Slc11a1s/s) of functional alleles for Slc11a1 had no effect on the prevalence of infection with S. obvelata. In conclusion, presence of MHCII, but not Tlr4 or Slc11a1 significantly influences prevalence of naturally acquired infection with S. obvelata. These data justify further comprehensive analyses of the immune components that are involved in pinworm resistance.

  12. Use of 8-methoxypsoralen and ultraviolet-A pretreated platelet concentrates to prevent alloimmunization against class I major histocompatibility antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grana, N.H.; Kao, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    The use of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and UV-A irradiation to inactivate contaminating donor leukocytes in platelet concentrates and to prevent primary alloimmunization against donor class I major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens in mice was investigated. CBA/CaH-T6J mice with the H2k haplotype and BALB/cByJ mice with the H2d haplotype were used as donors and recipients, respectively. The mixed leukocyte reaction between these two strains of mice showed that treatment of spleen cells with 500 ng/mL 8-MOP and 5J/cm2 UV-A inhibited 99% of responder and 92% of stimulator function. There was no measurable loss of platelet aggregating activity after the treatment. After two weekly transfusions of platelets without any treatment, 93% of control mice (n = 15) developed anti-H2k antibody. In contrast, only 33% of mice (n = 15) receiving platelets treated with 8-MOP and UV-A became alloimmunized. After six weekly platelet transfusions, all mice became alloimmunized. Nevertheless, the mean titers of anti-H2k antibody in sera of the treated groups were significantly lower than the control groups. One hour posttransfusion recoveries of 51Cr-labeled donor platelets were also higher in mice transfused with the treated platelets. Thus, the pretreatment of platelet concentrates with 8-MOP and UV-A irradiation effectively reduced the alloantigenicity of class I MHC molecules. The implication of this finding in relation to the mechanism by which donor leukocytes allosensitize recipients is discussed

  13. Presentation of human minor histocompatibility antigens by HLA-B35 and HLA-B38 molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Junji; Kariyone, Ai; Kano, Kyoichi; Takiguchi, Masafumi; Akiyama, Nobuo

    1990-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones specific for human minor histocompatibility antigens (hmHAs) were produced from a patient who had been grafted with the kidneys from his mother and two HLA-identical sisters. Of eight CTL clones generated, four recognized an hmHA (hmHA-1) expressed on cells from the mother and sister 3 (second donor); two recognized another antigen (hmHA-2) on cells from the father, sister (third donor), and sister 3; and the remaining two clones recognized still another antigen (hmHA-3) on cells from the father and sister 3. Panel studies revealed that CTL recognition of hmHA-1 was restricted by HLA-B35 and that of hmHA-2 and hmHA-3 was restricted by HLA-B38. The HLA-B35 restriction of the hmHA-1 -specific CTL clones was substantiated by the fact that they killed HLA-A null/HLA-B null Hmy2CIR targets transfected with HLA-B35 but not HLA-B51, -Bw52, or -Bw53 transfected Hmy2CIR targets. These data demonstrated that the five amino acids substitutions on the α 1 domain between HLA-B35 and -Bw53, which are associated with Bw4/Bw6 epitopes, play a critical role in the relationship of hmHA-1 to HLA-B35 molecules. The fact that the hmHA-1-specific CTLs failed to kill Hmy2CIR cells expressing HLA-B35/51 chimeric molecules composed of the α 1 domain of HLA-B35 and other domains of HLA-B51 indicated that eight residues on the α 2 domain also affect the interaction of hmHA-1 and the HLA-B35 molecules

  14. Nature of the suppressor cells mediating prolonged graft survival after administration of extracted histocompatibility antigen and cyclosporine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, N.; Kahan, B.D.

    1985-01-01

    Antigen-specific suppressor T cells are induced by donor histocompatibility antigen extracted from spleen cells with 3M KCl combined with cyclosporine (Ag-CsA). A single i.v. injection of 5 mg 3M-KCl-extracted donor Buffalo (Buf, RT1b) antigen (Ag) combined with a three day course of CsA prolonged renal allograft survival in Wistar-Furth (WFu, RT1u) hosts to a greater extent (MST 26.5 days) than CsA alone (MST 11.8 days). Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) or spleen cells harvested from Ag-CsA-treated recipients ten days after transplantation inhibited the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) between normal responder WFu cells and irradiated Buf cells (55.6% and 64.4% suppression, respectively, P less than 0.025), but not third-party Brown-Norway (BN, RT1n) stimulator cells (13.6% and -18.3% suppression, respectively, NS). The suppressor effect was not mediated by cytolytic cells; there was neither primary nor secondary cytolytic activity against 51 Cr-labeled Con-A blastoid Buf cells. The suppressor cells were neither adherent to plastic dishes nor to nylon-wool columns. PBL irradiated with 800 rads, but not 1500 rads, suppressed the MLR. A single injection of cyclophosphamide (CY, 25 mg/kg) seven days after transplantation abrogated the suppression induced by Ag-CsA treatment. Moreover, PBL from Ag-CsA recipients failed to suppress the MLR, if depleted either of all T cells by treatment with monoclonal antibody (Mab) W3/13 HLK (pan T cells; % suppression -15.8), or of cytotoxic/suppressor cells with Mab OX-8 (-19.3% suppression) together with rabbit antimouse immunoglobulin and complement

  15. Alternative realities : from augmented reality to mobile mixed reality

    OpenAIRE

    Claydon, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This thesis provides an overview of (mobile) augmented and mixed reality by clarifying the different concepts of reality, briefly covering the technology behind mobile augmented and mixed reality systems, conducting a concise survey of existing and emerging mobile augmented and mixed reality applications and devices. Based on the previous analysis and the survey, this work will next attempt to assess what mobile augmented and mixed reality could make possible, and what related applications an...

  16. Initial Model of Social Acceptability for Human Augmentation Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eghtebas, Chloe; Pay, Yun Suen; Väänänen, Kaisa; Pfeiffer, Ties; Meyer, Joachim; Lukosch, S.G.

    2017-01-01

    Academia and industry engage in major efforts to develop technologies for augmenting human senses and activities. Many of these technologies, such as augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) head mounted displays (HMD), haptic augmentation systems, and exoskeletons can be applied in numerous

  17. Augmented reality: dé nieuwe dimensie in de sport?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slender, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Volgens trendwatcher Justien Marseille de trend van 2010: augmented reality. Augmented reality is een techniek om met de computer gemaakte beelden toe te voegen aan de realiteit. Het Nederlandse Layar (layar.com) presenteerde zich vorig jaar vol trots als een unieke augmented reality browser, met

  18. Dynamic augmentation restores anterior tibial translation in ACL suture repair: a biomechanical comparison of non-, static and dynamic augmentation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogeslag, Roy A G; Brouwer, Reinoud W; Huis In 't Veld, Rianne; Stephen, Joanna M; Amis, Andrew A

    2018-02-03

    There is a lack of objective evidence investigating how previous non-augmented ACL suture repair techniques and contemporary augmentation techniques in ACL suture repair restrain anterior tibial translation (ATT) across the arc of flexion, and after cyclic loading of the knee. The purpose of this work was to test the null hypotheses that there would be no statistically significant difference in ATT after non-, static- and dynamic-augmented ACL suture repair, and they will not restore ATT to normal values across the arc of flexion of the knee after cyclic loading. Eleven human cadaveric knees were mounted in a test rig, and knee kinematics from 0° to 90° of flexion were recorded by use of an optical tracking system. Measurements were recorded without load and with 89-N tibial anterior force. The knees were tested in the following states: ACL-intact, ACL-deficient, non-augmented suture repair, static tape augmentation and dynamic augmentation after 10 and 300 loading cycles. Only static tape augmentation and dynamic augmentation restored ATT to values similar to the ACL-intact state directly postoperation, and maintained this after cyclic loading. However, contrary to dynamic augmentation, the ATT after static tape augmentation failed to remain statistically less than for the ACL-deficient state after cyclic loading. Moreover, after cyclic loading, ATT was significantly less with dynamic augmentation when compared to static tape augmentation. In contrast to non-augmented ACL suture repair and static tape augmentation, only dynamic augmentation resulted in restoration of ATT values similar to the ACL-intact knee and decreased ATT values when compared to the ACL-deficient knee immediately post-operation and also after cyclic loading, across the arc of flexion, thus allowing the null hypotheses to be rejected. This may assist healing of the ruptured ACL. Therefore, this study would support further clinical evaluation of dynamic augmentation of ACL repair.

  19. Augmenting Probabilistic Risk Assesment with Malevolent Initiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Curtis; Schwieder, David

    2011-01-01

    As commonly practiced, the use of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in nuclear power plants only considers accident initiators such as natural hazards, equipment failures, and human error. Malevolent initiators are ignored in PRA, but are considered the domain of physical security, which uses vulnerability assessment based on an officially specified threat (design basis threat). This paper explores the implications of augmenting and extending existing PRA models by considering new and modified scenarios resulting from malevolent initiators. Teaming the augmented PRA models with conventional vulnerability assessments can cost-effectively enhance security of a nuclear power plant. This methodology is useful for operating plants, as well as in the design of new plants. For the methodology, we have proposed an approach that builds on and extends the practice of PRA for nuclear power plants for security-related issues. Rather than only considering 'random' failures, we demonstrated a framework that is able to represent and model malevolent initiating events and associated plant impacts.

  20. Interactive learning environments in augmented reality technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Wojciechowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of creation of learning environments based on augmented reality (AR is considered. The concept of AR is presented as a tool for safe and cheap experimental learning. In AR learning environments students may acquire knowledge by personally carrying out experiments on virtual objects by manipulating real objects located in real environments. In the paper, a new approach to creation of interactive educational scenarios, called Augmented Reality Interactive Scenario Modeling (ARISM, is mentioned. In this approach, the process of building learning environments is divided into three stages, each of them performed by users with different technical and domain knowledge. The ARISM approach enables teachers who are not computer science experts to create AR learning environments adapted to the needs of their students.

  1. Camera Based Navigation System with Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marcu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays smart mobile devices have enough processing power, memory, storage and always connected wireless communication bandwidth that makes them available for any type of application. Augmented reality (AR proposes a new type of applications that tries to enhance the real world by superimposing or combining virtual objects or computer generated information with it. In this paper we present a camera based navigation system with augmented reality integration. The proposed system aims to the following: the user points the camera of the smartphone towards a point of interest, like a building or any other place, and the application searches for relevant information about that specific place and superimposes the data over the video feed on the display. When the user moves the camera away, changing its orientation, the data changes as well, in real-time, with the proper information about the place that is now in the camera view.

  2. Survey on Urban Warfare Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong You

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban warfare has become one of the main forms of modern combat in the twenty-first century. The main reason why urban warfare results in hundreds of casualties is that the situational information of the combatant is insufficient. Accessing information via an Augmented Reality system can elevate combatants’ situational awareness to effectively improve the efficiency of decision-making and reduce the injuries. This paper begins with the concept of Urban Warfare Augmented Reality (UWAR and illuminates the objectives of developing UWAR, i.e., transparent battlefield, intuitional perception and natural interaction. Real-time outdoor registration, information presentation and natural interaction are presented as key technologies of a practical UWAR system. Then, the history and current research state of these technologies are summarized and their future developments are highlighted from three perspectives, i.e., (1 Better integration with Geographic Information System and Virtual Geographic Environment; (2 More intelligent software; (3 More powerful hardware.

  3. MARCS: Mobile Augmented Reality for Cybersecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Mattina, Brendan Casey

    2017-01-01

    Network analysts have long used two-dimensional security visualizations to make sense of network data. As networks grow larger and more complex, two-dimensional visualizations become more convoluted, potentially compromising user situational awareness of cyber threats. To combat this problem, augmented reality (AR) can be employed to visualize data within a cyber-physical context to restore user perception and improve comprehension; thereby, enhancing cyber situational awareness. Multiple gen...

  4. Facade Proposals for Urban Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Fond , Antoine; Berger , Marie-Odile; Simon , Gilles

    2017-01-01

    International audience; We introduce a novel object proposals method specific to building facades. We define new image cues that measure typical facadecharacteristics such as semantic, symmetry and repetitions. They are combined to generate a few facade candidates in urban environments fast. We show that our method outperforms state-of-the-art object proposals techniques for this task on the 1000 images of the Zurich Building Database. We demonstrate the interest of this procedure for augment...

  5. Lifelong Augmentation of Multimodal Streaming Autobiographical Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Maxime; Fischer, Tobias; Demiris, Yiannis

    2016-01-01

    Robot systems that interact with humans over extended periods of time will benefit from storing and recalling large amounts of accumulated sensorimotor and interaction data. We provide a principled framework for the cumulative organisation of streaming autobiographical data so that data can be continuously processed and augmented as the processing and reasoning abilities of the agent develop and further interactions with humans take place. As an example, we show how a kinematic structure lear...

  6. Augmented reality to training spatial skills

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Gutierrez, Jorge; Contero, Manuel; Alcañiz Raya, Mariano Luis

    2015-01-01

    La Laguna University has been offering courses for the development of spatial skills since 2004. Each year since that time spatial ability of engineering students has been measured before and after the courses to check progress after each training session. We have developed a spatial skills training course based on augmented reality and graphic engineering contents, and designed the AR_Dehaes tool, which is based on its own library the uses computer vision techniques for incorporating vis...

  7. Augmentation Mammaplasty Using Implants: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Takayanagi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the techniques for augmentation mammaplasty is the procedure using implants. Even though this technique has been used for many years, there are still several controversial issues to be discussed and overcome for patient safety. In this review article, capsular contracture, leak or rupture of the implants, possible systemic disease, relation with breast cancer, and recent problems with Poly Implant Prothese implants are described and discussed.

  8. Augmentation Mammaplasty Using Implants: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Takayanagi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the techniques for augmentation mammaplasty is the procedure using implants. Eventhough this technique has been used for many years, there are still several controversial issuesto be discussed and overcome for patient safety. In this review article, capsular contracture,leak or rupture of the implants, possible systemic disease, relation with breast cancer, andrecent problems with Poly Implant Prothese implants are described and discussed.

  9. CIRSE Guidelines on Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: gtsoumakidou@yahoo.com; Too, Chow Wei, E-mail: spyder55@gmail.com; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.koch@gmail.com; Caudrelier, Jean, E-mail: jean.caudrelier@chru-strasbourg.fr; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juliengarnon@gmail.com; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Strasbourg University Hospital, Interventional Radiology Department (France)

    2017-03-15

    Vertebral compression fracture (VCF) is an important cause of severe debilitating back pain, adversely affecting quality of life, physical function, psychosocial performance, mental health and survival. Different vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs) are used in order to consolidate the VCFs, relief pain,and whenever posible achieve vertebral body height restoration. In the present review we give the indications, contraindications, safety profile and outcomes of the existing percutaneous VAPs.

  10. Autologous Fat Injection for Augmented Mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Eul Sik; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Kyu Ran

    2008-01-01

    Autologous fat injection is one of the methods utilized for augmented mammoplasty methods. In this surgical procedure, the fat for transfer is obtained from the donor site of the patient's own body by liposuction and the fat is then injected into the breast. We report here cases of three patients who underwent autologous fat injection. Two of the patients had palpable masses that were present after surgery. The serial imaging findings and surgical method of autologous fat transfer are demonstrated

  11. Medical imaging and augmented reality. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guang-Zhong; Jiang Tianzi; Shen Dinggang; Gu Lixu; Yang Jie

    2006-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Medical Imaging and Augmented Reality, MIAR 2006, held in Shanghai, China, in August 2006. The 45 revised full papers presented together with 4 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 87 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on shape modeling and morphometry, patient specific modeling and quantification, surgical simulation and skills assessment, surgical guidance and navigation, image registration, PET image reconstruction, and image segmentation. (orig.)

  12. Multiple Kernel Learning with Data Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-22

    JMLR: Workshop and Conference Proceedings 63:49–64, 2016 ACML 2016 Multiple Kernel Learning with Data Augmentation Khanh Nguyen nkhanh@deakin.edu.au...University, Australia Editors: Robert J. Durrant and Kee-Eung Kim Abstract The motivations of multiple kernel learning (MKL) approach are to increase... kernel expres- siveness capacity and to avoid the expensive grid search over a wide spectrum of kernels . A large amount of work has been proposed to

  13. Developing augmented reality solutions through user involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Siltanen, Sanni

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) technology merges digital information into the real world. It is an effective visualization method; AR enhances user's spatial perception skills and helps to understand spatial dimensions and relationships. It is beneficial for many professional application areas such as assembly, maintenance and repair. AR visualization helps to concretize building and construction projects and interior design plans – also for non-technically oriented people, who might otherwise have d...

  14. IMPLEMENTATION OF AERONAUTICAL LOCAL SATELLITE AUGMENTATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojce Ilcev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper introduces development and implementation of new Local Satellite AugmentationSystem as an integration component of the Regional Satellite Augmentation System (RSAS employingcurrent and new Satellite Communications, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS for improvement of the AirTraffic Control (ATC and Air Traffic Management (ATM and for enhancement safety systems includingtransport security and control of flights in all stages, airport approaching, landing, departures and allmovements over airport surface areas. The current first generation of the Global Navigation Satellite SystemGNSS-1 applications are represented by fundamental military solutions for Position, Velocity and Time ofthe satellite navigation and determination systems such as the US GPS and Russian GLONASS (Former-USSR requirements, respectively. The establishment of Aeronautical CNS is also discussed as a part ofGlobal Satellite Augmentation Systems of GPS and GLONASS systems integrated with existing and futureRSAS and LSAS in airports areas. Specific influence and factors related to the Comparison of the Currentand New Aeronautical CNS System including the Integration of RSAS and GNSS solutions are discussedand packet of facts is determined to maximize the new satellite Automatic Dependent Surveillance System(ADSS and Special Effects of the RSAS Networks. The possible future integration of RSAS and GNSS andthe common proposal of the satellite Surface Movement Guidance and Control are presented in thechangeless ways as of importance for future enfacements of ATC and ATM for any hypothetical airportinfrastructure.Keywords: ADSS, ATC, ATM, CNS, GSAS, LRAS, RSAS, SMGC, Special Effects of RSAS.

  15. Labor Augmentation with Oxytocin Decreases Glutathione Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Schneid-Kofman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare oxidative stress following spontaneous vaginal delivery with that induced by Oxytocin augmented delivery. Methods. 98 women recruited prior to labor. 57 delivered spontaneously, while 41 received Oxytocin for augmentation of labor. Complicated deliveries and high-risk pregnancies were excluded. Informed consent was documented. Arterial cord blood gases, levels of Hematocrit, Hemoglobin, and Bilirubin were studied. Glutathione (GSH concentration was measured by a spectroscopic method. Plasma and red blood cell (RBC levels of Malondialdehyde indicated lipid peroxidation. RBC uptake of phenol red denoted cell penetrability. SPSS data analysis was used. Results. Cord blood GSH was significantly lower in the Oxytocin group (2.3±0.55 mM versus 2.55±0.55 mM, =.01. No differences were found in plasma or RBC levels of MDA or in uptake of Phenol red between the groups. Conclusion. Lower GSH levels following Oxytocin augmentation indicate an oxidative stress, though selected measures of oxidative stress demonstrate no cell damage.

  16. A Mobile Augmented Reality Emulator for Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Munro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Augmented Reality (AR provides a fusion of the real and virtual worlds by superimposing virtual objects on real world scenery. The implementation of AR on mobile devices is known as Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR. MAR is in its infancy and MAR development software is in the process of maturing. Dating back to the origin of Computer Science as an independent field, software development tools have been an integral part of the process of software creation. MAR, being a relatively new technology, is still lacking such related software development tools. With the rapid progression of mobile devices, the development of MAR applications fusing advanced Computer Vision techniques with mobile device sensors have become increasingly feasible. However, testing and debugging of MAR applications present a new challenge in that they require the developer be at the location that is being augmented at some point during the development process. In this research study, a MAR recorder application was developed as well as emulation class libraries for Android devices that allows the recording and off-site playback of video, location and motion sensor data. The research objective was to provide a software emulator which provides debugging, testing and prototyping capabilities for a MAR application including the ability to emulate the combination of computer vision with locational and motion sensors using previously recorded data. The emulator was evaluated using different mobile technologies. The results indicate that this research could assist developers of MAR applications to implement applications more rapidly, without being at the location.

  17. Augmented spaces, a look beyond advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Andreea Căplescu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available From billboards to urban screens and now to media facades, the augmentation of our cities has expanded, changing social behaviours and public space consumption. Smart buildings are being developed and, much like the smartphones, these hybrids are not only in sci-fi movies anymore. One of the main promoters of media facades and media architecture has been the advertising industry. But artists and designers showed the potential of different approaches, experimenting with digitally augmented spaces both indoors and outdoors. Going beyond the commercial aspect of being an advertising and branding tool, these hybrids offer a variety of uses. Questions of how and where we use them and how they can improve our life quality are discussed here emphasizing that we developed a media behaviour, adjusting our relation to the physical and information environments. I examine some of the most notable experiments outside of the advertising sphere, offering a base for future development of augmented spaces and opening the discussion over the language of new media architecture.

  18. Application results for an augmented video tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Bill

    1991-08-01

    The Relay Mirror Experiment (RME) is a research program to determine the pointing accuracy and stability levels achieved when a laser beam is reflected by the RME satellite from one ground station to another. This paper reports the results of using a video tracker augmented with a quad cell signal to improve the RME ground station tracking system performance. The video tracker controls a mirror to acquire the RME satellite, and provides a robust low bandwidth tracking loop to remove line of sight (LOS) jitter. The high-passed, high-gain quad cell signal is added to the low bandwidth, low-gain video tracker signal to increase the effective tracking loop bandwidth, and significantly improves LOS disturbance rejection. The quad cell augmented video tracking system is analyzed, and the math model for the tracker is developed. A MATLAB model is then developed from this, and performance as a function of bandwidth and disturbances is given. Improvements in performance due to the addition of the video tracker and the augmentation with the quad cell are provided. Actual satellite test results are then presented and compared with the simulated results.

  19. Centers of Excellence Contribution to Knowledge Augmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignone, O.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Knowledge management is a key need of the nuclear industry to cope with the knowledge limited augmentation and the risks of knowledge loss due to a number of reasons, such as: staff attrition, organizational changes, upgraded technologies, new projects implementation, and the nuclear power evolution in recent years (i.e., post-Fukushima upgrades). This document describes the contribution of nuclear centers of excellence to knowledge augmentation. The effective implementation of nuclear centers of excellence is a key success factor for the knowledge management programme of nuclear organizations. This document, is based on a real example of operating organization approach in launching such initiative for staff knowledge augmentation and performance improvement. Eventually, any type of organizations in the nuclear sector could apply the proposed technique to reach better knowledge usage. The nuclear centers of excellence are a key knowledge management initiative for the learning organizations that are caring about organizational intellectual capital and striving for performance improvement. The nuclear centers of excellence can be realized as a forum to exchange ideas, knowledge, information, experiences; to collect lessons learned; and to identify areas for improvement where further organizational competence building is needed. Usual realization of this initiative is going through an active staff involvement in knowledge sharing in a form of different technical communities of practice focusing on specific knowledge domains. (author

  20. Antibodies against major histocompatibility complex class II antigens directly inhibit the growth of T cells infected with Theileria parva without affecting their state of activation

    OpenAIRE

    Eichhorn, M; Prospero, T D; Heussler, Volker; Dobbelaere, D A

    1993-01-01

    We have analyzed the effect of antibodies (Abs) directed against major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II Abs on the proliferation of Theileria parva-infected (Tpi) T cells. Anti-MHC class II Abs exert a direct effect on Tpi T cells causing an acute block in their proliferation. The inhibition does not involve apoptosis and is also entirely reversible. The rapid arrest of DNA synthesis caused by anti- MHC class II Abs is not due to interference with the state of activation of the T cel...

  1. Functional isotypes are not encoded by the constant region genes of the beta subunit of the T cell receptor for antigen/major histocompatibility complex

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Human T cell clones and a cDNA probe specific for constant regions of the beta subunit of the antigen/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) receptor, TiC beta 1 and TiC beta 2, were employed to determine whether these genes were differentially used by functional classes of T lymphocytes. DNA from 10 interleukin-2-dependent T cell clones including class I and class II MHC-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (n = 6), T4+ inducer T lymphocytes (n = 2), and T8+ suppressor T lymphocytes (n = 2) show...

  2. Size polymorphism of chicken major histocompatibility complex-encoded B-G molecules is due to length variation in the cytoplasmic heptad repeat region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, J; Salomonsen, J; Skjødt, K

    1990-01-01

    B-G antigens are cell-surface molecules encoded by a highly polymorphic multigene family located in the chicken major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Rabbit antisera to B-G molecules immunoprecipitate 3-6 bands from iodinated erythrocytes by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gels under reducing......, which bear intrachain disulfide bonds. All 3-6 bands have different mobilities in SDS gels between different haplotypes, ranging from 30 to 55 kDa. This size polymorphism is not affected by glycosidase treatment or addition of protease inhibitors. Partial proteolysis of cell surface-iodinated B...

  3. Soft tissue augmentation 2006: filler fantasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Arnold William

    2006-01-01

    As an increasing number of patients seek esthetic improvement through minimally invasive procedures, interest in soft tissue augmentation and filling agents is at an all-time high. One reason for this interest is the availability of botulinum toxin type A, which works superbly in the upper face. The rejuvenation of the upper face has created much interest in injectable filling agents and implant techniques that work equally well in the restoration of the lower face. One of the central tenets of soft tissue augmentation is the concept of the three-dimensional face. The youthful face has a soft, full appearance, as opposed to the flat, pulled, two-dimensional look often achieved by more traditional surgical approaches. Injectable filling agents can augment and even at times, replace pulling. Additionally, with the lip as the focal center of the lower face, subtle lip enhancement is here to stay, and is in fact, the number one indication for injectable fillers. Moreover, minimally invasive soft tissue augmentation offers cosmetic enhancement without the cost and recovery time associated with more invasive procedures. As more and more physicians take interest in minimally invasive surgery, courses in cosmetic surgery techniques are becoming increasingly popular at the medical meetings of many specialties. Today, physicians have a much larger armamentarium of techniques and materials with which to improve facial contours, ameliorate wrinkles, and provide esthetic rejuvenation to the face. For a substance or device to be amenable for soft tissue augmentation in the medical community, it must meet certain criteria. It must have both a high "use" potential, producing cosmetically pleasing results with a minimum undesirable reactions, and have a low abuse potential in that widespread or incorrect or indiscriminate use would not result in significant morbidity. It must be nonteratogenic, noncarcinogenic, and nonmigratory. In addition, the agent must provide predictable

  4. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III genetics in two Amerindian tribes from southern Brazil: the Kaingang and the Guarani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weg-Remers, S; Brenden, M; Schwarz, E; Witzel, K; Schneider, P M; Guerra, L K; Rehfeldt, I R; Lima, M T; Hartmann, D; Petzl-Erler, M L; de Messias, I J; Mauff, G

    1997-10-01

    Population genetic studies of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region, comprising C2, BF and C4 phenotypes, and molecular genetic data are rarely available for populations other than Caucasoids. We have investigated three Amerindian populations from Southern Brazil: 131 Kaingang from Ivaí (KIV), 111 Kaingang (KRC) and 100 Guarani (GRC) from Rio das Cobras. Extended MHC haplotypes were derived after standard C2, BF, C4 phenotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with TaqI, together with HLA data published previously by segregation analysis. C2 and BF frequencies corresponded to other Amerindian populations. C4B*Q0 frequency was high in the GRC (0.429) but low in the Kaingang. Unusual C4 alleles were found, viz. C4A*58, A*55 and C4B*22 (presumably non-Amerindian) and aberrant C4A*3 of Amerindian origin occurring with a frequency of 0.223 in the GRC. C4A*3 bands of homo- and heterozygous individuals carrying this variant were Rodgers 1 positive and Chido 1,3 positive, showed a C4A specific lysis type and a C4A like alpha-chain. Polymerase chain reaction studies and sequencing showed that this is based on a C4A*3 duplication with a regular C4A*3 and a partially converted C4A*0304 carrying the C4B specific epitopes Ch 6 and Ch 1,3. Associations of class III haplotypes with particular RFLP patterns were similar to those reported for Caucasoids. The previously described association between combined C4A and CYP21P deletions and the 6.4 kb TaqI fragment was not seen in these Amerindians. This fragment occurred within a regular two locus gene structure in the Kaingang, representing a "short" gene at C4 locus I. C4 and CYP21 duplications were frequently observed. The distribution of extended MHC haplotypes provides evidence for a close relationship between the KIV and KRC and a larger genetic distance between the two Kaingang groups and the GRC.

  5. Giant panda BAC library construction and assembly of a 650-kb contig spanning major histocompatibility complex class II region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Hui-Juan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giant panda is rare and endangered species endemic to China. The low rates of reproductive success and infectious disease resistance have severely hampered the development of captive and wild populations of the giant panda. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC plays important roles in immune response and reproductive system such as mate choice and mother-fetus bio-compatibility. It is thus essential to understand genetic details of the giant panda MHC. Construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library will provide a new tool for panda genome physical mapping and thus facilitate understanding of panda MHC genes. Results A giant panda BAC library consisting of 205,800 clones has been constructed. The average insert size was calculated to be 97 kb based on the examination of 174 randomly selected clones, indicating that the giant panda library contained 6.8-fold genome equivalents. Screening of the library with 16 giant panda PCR primer pairs revealed 6.4 positive clones per locus, in good agreement with an expected 6.8-fold genomic coverage of the library. Based on this BAC library, we constructed a contig map of the giant panda MHC class II region from BTNL2 to DAXX spanning about 650 kb by a three-step method: (1 PCR-based screening of the BAC library with primers from homologous MHC class II gene loci, end sequences and BAC clone shotgun sequences, (2 DNA sequencing validation of positive clones, and (3 restriction digest fingerprinting verification of inter-clone overlapping. Conclusion The identifications of genes and genomic regions of interest are greatly favored by the availability of this giant panda BAC library. The giant panda BAC library thus provides a useful platform for physical mapping, genome sequencing or complex analysis of targeted genomic regions. The 650 kb sequence-ready BAC contig map of the giant panda MHC class II region from BTNL2 to DAXX, verified by the three-step method, offers a

  6. Novel Non-Histocompatibility Antigen Mismatched Variants Improve the Ability to Predict Antibody-Mediated Rejection Risk in Kidney Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pineda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Transplant rejection is the critical clinical end-point limiting indefinite survival after histocompatibility antigen (HLA mismatched organ transplantation. The predominant cause of late graft loss is antibody-mediated rejection (AMR, a process whereby injury to the organ is caused by donor-specific antibodies, which bind to HLA and non-HLA (nHLA antigens. AMR is incompletely diagnosed as donor/recipient (D/R matching is only limited to the HLA locus and critical nHLA immunogenic antigens remain to be identified. We have developed an integrative computational approach leveraging D/R exome sequencing and gene expression to predict clinical post-transplant outcome. We performed a rigorous statistical analysis of 28 highly annotated D/R kidney transplant pairs with biopsy-confirmed clinical outcomes of rejection [either AMR or T-cell-mediated rejection (CMR] and no-rejection (NoRej, identifying a significantly higher number of mismatched nHLA variants in AMR (ANOVA—p-value = 0.02. Using Fisher’s exact test, we identified 123 variants associated mainly with risk of AMR (p-value < 0.001. In addition, we applied a machine-learning technique to circumvent the issue of statistical power and we found a subset of 65 variants using random forest, that are predictive of post-tx AMR showing a very low error rate. These variants are functionally relevant to the rejection process in the kidney and AMR as they relate to genes and/or expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs that are enriched in genes expressed in kidney and vascular endothelium and underlie the immunobiology of graft rejection. In addition to current D/R HLA mismatch evaluation, additional mismatch nHLA D/R variants will enhance the stratification of post-tx AMR risk even before engraftment of the organ. This innovative study design is applicable in all solid organ transplants, where the impact of mitigating AMR on graft survival may be greater, with considerable benefits on

  7. Histocompatibility antigen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Updated by: Frank A. Greco, MD, PhD, Director, Biophysical Laboratory, Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial Hospital, Bedford, MA. ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  8. Ligation of major histocompatibility complex class I antigens (MHC-I) prevents apoptosis induced by Fas or SAPK/JNK activation in T-lymphoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamberth, K; Claesson, M H

    2001-01-01

    Early apoptosis in Jurkat T-lymphoma cells was induced by agonistic anti-Fas Ab or by anisomycin which activates the stress kinases SAPK/JNK. Apoptosis was inhibited by ligation of major histocompatibility complex class I antigens (MHC-I). MHC-I ligation induced upregulation of the anti-apoptotic......Early apoptosis in Jurkat T-lymphoma cells was induced by agonistic anti-Fas Ab or by anisomycin which activates the stress kinases SAPK/JNK. Apoptosis was inhibited by ligation of major histocompatibility complex class I antigens (MHC-I). MHC-I ligation induced upregulation of the anti......-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein and stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsim). MHC-I ligation also prevented downregulation of Bcl-2 and destabilization of Deltapsim induced by anti-Fas Ab treatment or anisomycin exposure. Studies on three different Jurkat cell mutants deficient for src p56(lck), ZAP......-70 kinase, or TCR/CD3 gamma-chain showed that the cells undergo apoptosis after Fas ligation. Anisomycin exposure induced apoptosis in the src p56(lck)-deficient cell line but not in the two other mutant cell lines. Simultaneous cross-linking of MHC-I and Fas ligation inhibited apoptosis in the ZAP...

  9. Repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures of postvertebral augmentation patients: a nationwide cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang CL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Loong Liang,1 Hao-Kwan Wang,1 Fei-Kai Syu,2 Kuo-Wei Wang,1 Kang Lu,1 Po-Chou Liliang1 1Department of Neurosurgery, E-Da Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan; 2Department of Pharmacy, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan Purpose: Postvertebral augmentation vertebral compression fractures are common; repeated vertebral augmentation is usually performed for prompt pain relief. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of repeat vertebral augmentation.Methods: We performed a retrospective, nationwide, population-based longitudinal observation study, using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD of Taiwan. All patients who received vertebral augmentation for vertebral compression fractures were evaluated. The collected data included patient characteristics (demographics, comorbidities, and medication exposure and repeat vertebral augmentation. Kaplan–Meier and stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for analyses.Results: The overall incidence of repeat vertebral augmentation was 11.3% during the follow-up until 2010. Patients with the following characteristics were at greater risk for repeat vertebral augmentation: female sex (AOR=1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–2.36, advanced age (AOR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.32–2.08, diabetes mellitus (AOR=4.31; 95% CI: 4.05–5.88, cerebrovascular disease (AOR=4.09; 95% CI: 3.44–5.76, dementia (AOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.69–2.33, blindness or low vision (AOR=3.72; 95% CI: 2.32–3.95, hypertension (AOR=2.58; 95% CI: 2.35–3.47, and hyperlipidemia (AOR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.67–2.22. Patients taking calcium/ vitamin D (AOR=2.98; 95% CI: 1.83–3.93, bisphosphonates (AOR=2.11; 95% CI: 1.26–2.61, or calcitonin (AOR=4.59; 95% CI: 3.40–5.77 were less likely to undergo repeat vertebral augmentation; however, those taking steroids (AOR=7.28; 95% CI: 6.32–8.08, acetaminophen (AOR=3.54; 95% CI: 2.75–4.83, or nonsteroidal

  10. Augmented Reality Edugame Senjata Tradisional Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Sudarmilah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Senjata tradisional merupakan sebuah produk yang berkaitan erat dengan budaya suatu masyarakat. Selain berfungsi sebagai senjata, senjata tradisional telah menjadi identitas suatu bangsa yang membantu memperkaya khasanah budaya nusantara. Pendidikan di Indonesia berpedoman pada kurikulum baru yang disebut kurikulum 2013. Salah satu materi kurikulum mengarahkan siswa untuk belajar tentang senjata tradisional bentuk senjata tradisional. Berdasarkan pada masalah yang timbul dari kurikulum 2013, peneliti menyiapkan metode pembelajaran dengan menggabungkan Augmented Reality (AR dengan permainan edukasi berbasis adventure game dalam menyajikan materi keanekaragaman budaya Indonesia, terutama untuk senjata tradisional sehingga siswa memiliki semangat dalam belajar tentang keanekaragaman budaya Indonesia khusunya senjata.

  11. Electromagnetic acceleration studies with augmented rails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruo, T.; Fujioka, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Okamoto, A.; Ikuta, K.; Nemoto, K.

    1991-01-01

    A comparative study of electromagnetic acceleration in the rail-type accelerators with two kinds of rail geometry was carried out experimentally. The accelerators were energized by 200kJ capacitor bank and the weight of loaded projectiles was about 1.3 grams with 10mm x 10mm square bore. The attained velocity was 4.3km/s in the augmented accelerator, while it was 3.8km/s in the classical device. In this paper these differences in attained velocity are briefly discussed. A theoretical understanding of the rail erosion is also described

  12. Terrain Simplification Research in Augmented Scene Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    environment. As one of the most important tasks in augmented scene modeling, terrain simplification research has gained more and more attention. In this paper, we mainly focus on point selection problem in terrain simplification using triangulated irregular network. Based on the analysis and comparison of traditional importance measures for each input point, we put forward a new importance measure based on local entropy. The results demonstrate that the local entropy criterion has a better performance than any traditional methods. In addition, it can effectively conquer the "short-sight" problem associated with the traditional methods.

  13. A Survey on Applications of Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Sanna; Federico Manuri

    2016-01-01

    The term Augmented Reality (AR) refers to a set of technologies and devices able to enhance and improve human perception, thus bridging the gap between real and virtual space. Physical and artificial objects are mixed together in a hybrid space where the user can move without constraints. This mediated reality is spread in our everyday life: work, study, training, relaxation, time spent traveling are just some of the moments in which you can use AR applications.This paper aims to provide an o...

  14. Augmented Reality Sultan Deli Di Istana Maimun

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan P. L

    2016-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technology that can provide visualization of 3D models. Based from that technology, the modeling from a picture of Sultan Deli Istana Maimun can be applied to restore photos Sultan Deli into a three-dimensional model. This is due to Sultan Deli which is one of the important figures in the history of Medan city known less by the public. Submission of Deli Sultanate history only through such two-dimensional images and other archives. The photo shows the Sultan of Deli ev...

  15. Augmenting Your Own Reality: Student Authoring of Science-Based Augmented Reality Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfer, Eric; Sheldon, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) simulations superimpose a virtual overlay of data and interactions onto a real-world context. The simulation engine at the heart of this technology is built to afford elements of game play that support explorations and learning in students' natural context--their own community and surroundings. In one of the more recent…

  16. Augmented reality in bone tumour resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y. K.; Gupta, S.; Yoon, C.; Han, I.; Kim, H-S.; Choi, H.; Hong, J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We evaluated the accuracy of augmented reality (AR)-based navigation assistance through simulation of bone tumours in a pig femur model. Methods We developed an AR-based navigation system for bone tumour resection, which could be used on a tablet PC. To simulate a bone tumour in the pig femur, a cortical window was made in the diaphysis and bone cement was inserted. A total of 133 pig femurs were used and tumour resection was simulated with AR-assisted resection (164 resection in 82 femurs, half by an orthropaedic oncology expert and half by an orthopaedic resident) and resection with the conventional method (82 resection in 41 femurs). In the conventional group, resection was performed after measuring the distance from the edge of the condyle to the expected resection margin with a ruler as per routine clinical practice. Results The mean error of 164 resections in 82 femurs in the AR group was 1.71 mm (0 to 6). The mean error of 82 resections in 41 femurs in the conventional resection group was 2.64 mm (0 to 11) (p Augmented reality in bone tumour resection: An experimental study. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:137–143. PMID:28258117

  17. Augmented reality for the surgeon: Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jang W; Chen, Robert E; Kim, Esther J; Akinduro, Oluwaseun O; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Han, Phillip K; Si, Phong; Freeman, William D; Diaz, Roberto J; Komotar, Ricardo J; Pirris, Stephen M; Brown, Benjamin L; Bydon, Mohamad; Wang, Michael Y; Wharen, Robert E; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2018-04-30

    Since the introduction of wearable head-up displays, there has been much interest in the surgical community adapting this technology into routine surgical practice. We used the keywords augmented reality OR wearable device OR head-up display AND surgery using PubMed, EBSCO, IEEE and SCOPUS databases. After exclusions, 74 published articles that evaluated the utility of wearable head-up displays in surgical settings were included in our review. Across all studies, the most common use of head-up displays was in cases of live streaming from surgical microscopes, navigation, monitoring of vital signs, and display of preoperative images. The most commonly used head-up display was Google Glass. Head-up displays enhanced surgeons' operating experience; common disadvantages include limited battery life, display size and discomfort. Due to ergonomic issues with dual-screen devices, augmented reality devices with the capacity to overlay images onto the surgical field will be key features of next-generation surgical head-up displays. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Boosting physics education through mobile augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crǎciun, Dana; Bunoiu, Mǎdǎlin

    2017-12-01

    The integration of collaborative applications, based on modern learning technologies and the Internet, of various visualization techniques and digital strategies in open, flexible modern learning environments which facilitate access to resources, represents a challenge for physics teachers in Romania in general, and for novice teachers in particular. Although large efforts have been made worldwide to invest in educational technologies, their impact on the students' learning outcomes is quite modest. In this paper, we describe and analyze various curricular and extracurricular activities specifically designed for and undertaken by pre-service physics teachers. These activities employ new educational technologies, mobile augmented reality (MAR) and are based on modern teaching and learning theories. MAR is an extension for mobile devices of augmented reality, an interactive and in real time combination, of real and virtual objects overlaid in the real environment. The obtained results show that pre-service physics teachers are confident in using MAR in their teaching and learning activities, and consider that the activities performed helped them develop the skills necessary for science teachers in a technology-based society and to reflect upon the role of technology in the current Romanian educational context.

  19. Flow interaction of diffuser augmented wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göltenbott, U.; Ohya, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Jamieson, P.

    2016-09-01

    Up-scaling of wind turbines has been a major trend in order to reduce the cost of energy generation from the wind. Recent studies however show that for a given technology, the cost always rises with upscaling, notably due to the increased mass of the system. To reach capacities beyond 10 MW, multi-rotor systems (MRS) have promising advantages. On the other hand, diffuser augmented wind turbines (DAWTs) can significantly increase the performance of the rotor. Up to now, diffuser augmentation has only been applied to single small wind turbines. In the present research, DAWTs are used in a multi-rotor system. In wind tunnel experiments, the aerodynamics of two and three DAWTs, spaced in close vicinity in the same plane normal to a uniform flow, have been analysed. Power increases of up to 5% and 9% for the two and three rotor configurations are respectively achieved in comparison to a stand-alone turbine. The physical dynamics of the flows are analysed on the basis of the results obtained with a stand-alone turbine.

  20. Mobile Augmented Note-taking to Support Operating Physical Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Liu , Can; Diehl , Jonathan; Huot , Stéphane; Borchers , Jan

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Augmented Reality: Design Issues and Opportunities - 1st Workshop on Mobile Augmented Reality, MobileHCI 2011; In this paper we propose an approach to assist operating physical devices with mobile augmented reality techniques. We propose ideas of interaction techniques, which allow users to put self-authored information as notes onto physical objects. We present the design of two example applications aiming at solving problems from different aspects of physical operations.

  1. Guidelines for user interactions in mobile augmented reality

    OpenAIRE

    Ortman, Erik; Swedlund, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Over the last couple of years the field of Augmented Reality has transformed from something mainly seen in academic researchinto several examples of big commercially successful products, and the widespread use of highly capable mobile devices has greatly helped accelerate this trend. The powerful sensors in modern handsets enable designers to bring Augmented Reality implementations to the hands ofthe users.This thesis examines how Augmented Reality can be implemented onmobile platforms, mainl...

  2. Augmented reality tools and learning practice in mobile-learning

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Mauro; Gomes, José; Gomes, Cristina; Lopes, João

    2014-01-01

    There are many augmented reality (AR) applications available that can be used to create educational contents for these mobile devices. This paper surveys the most popular augmented reality applications and we select AR eco-systems to be used in daily teaching activities which are user friendly, do not require programming skills and are free. Different augmented reality technologies are explored in this paper to create teaching activities with animations, videos and other information to be sho...

  3. Augmented reality mobile application for overlaying images on textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Brinza, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Augmented reality is one the relatively new and fast growing branches in modern informatics. It incorporates in simple people lives on a lot of different levels. It can be used everywhere starting from the simple checking of your email and ending up with a complex augmented reality video games or augmented reality learning. From the ancient times actors tried to immerse the spectators in world of the performance using decoration and costumed. In XVIII – XIX centuries pictures w...

  4. Towards an interactive medical system by augmented reality

    OpenAIRE

    Khawla Ben Abderrahim; Mohamed Kallel; M.S. Bouhlel

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality is a computer field that progresses rapidly. Its principle is to mix the real world and the virtual world. Many applications already use augmented reality, particularly the medical field. Medical image allows doctors to make diagnosis of the patient. This diagnosis allows him to make the best decision without committing professional mistakes that can cause problems. Hence the idea of integrating augmented reality with medical image analysis to help the doctor to make the bes...

  5. Development of a rapid in vitro protein refolding assay which discriminates between peptide-bound and peptide-free forms of recombinant porcine major histocompatibility class I complex (SLA-I)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Kristensen, B.; Ladekjaer-Mikkelsen, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    The extracellular domains of swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA-I, major histocompatibility complex protein class 1) were cloned and sequenced for two haplotypes (114 and H7) which do not share any alleles based on serological typing, and which are the most important in Danish farmed pigs...

  6. Digital Facial Augmentation for Interactive Entertainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Hieda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Digital projection technology allows for effective and entertaining spatial augmented reality applications. Leveraging the capabilities of reasonably accurate object tracking using commodity cameras and/or depth sensors to determine the 3D position and pose of objects in real time, it is possible to project dynamic graphical content on arbitrary surfaces, such as a person’s face. Coupling these capabilities with a simple drawing application, participants can have the experience of "painting" on someone’s face, or even on their own, by observing the projection in a mirror. Similarly, integrating 2D rigid-body, fluid and gravity simulation, one may interact with virtual objects projected on their own face or body.

  7. Augmented reality. Fundamentals and nuclear related applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Hirotake

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR) has attracted considerable interest from both academia and industry. Virtual Reality enables users to interact only with virtual objects in a virtual environment, but AR enables users to interact with both virtual objects and real objects in the real world. This feature supports application of AR to various fields such as education, driving, entertainment, and navigation. Especially, by application of AR to support workers in nuclear power plants, it is expected that working time and human error can be decreased. However, many problems remain unsolved to apply AR to real fields. In this lecture note, fundamental knowledge of AR is presented first including the overview of elemental technologies to realize AR. Then various AR applications to nuclear fields are described. Finally, future prospects are given. (author)

  8. Out of the Cube: Augmented Rubik's Cube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriel Bergig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer gaming habits have a tendency to evolve with technology, the best being ones that immerse both our imagination and intellect. Here, we describe a new game platform, an Augmented Reality Rubik's cube. The cube acts simultaneously as both the controller and the game board. Gameplay is controlled by the cube, and game assets are rendered on top of it. Shuffling and tilting operations on the cube are mapped to game interaction. We discuss the game design decisions involved in developing a game for this platform, as well as the technological challenges in implementing it. Ultimately, we describe two games and discuss the conclusions of an informal user study based on those games.

  9. Augmented Reality: Advances in Diagnostic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Douglas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, advances in medical imaging have provided opportunities for enhanced diagnosis and characterization of diseases including cancer. The improved spatial resolution provides outstanding detail of intricate anatomical structures, but has challenged physicians on how to effectively and efficiently review the extremely large datasets of over 1000 images. Standard volume rendering attempts to tackle this problem as it provides a display of 3D information on a flat 2D screen, but it lacks depth perception and has poor human–machine interface (HMI. Most recently, Augmented Reality/Virtual Reality (AR/VR with depth 3-dimensional (D3D imaging provides depth perception through binocular vision, head tracking for improved HMI and other key AR features. In this article, we will discuss current and future medical applications of AR including assessing breast cancer. We contend that leveraging AR technology may enhance diagnosis, save cost and improve patient care.

  10. A telescope with augmented reality functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qichao; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Qiwei; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-10-01

    This study introduces a telescope with virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) functions. In this telescope, information on the micro-display screen is integrated to the reticule of telescope through a beam splitter and is then received by the observer. The design and analysis of telescope optical system with AR and VR ability is accomplished and the opto-mechanical structure is designed. Finally, a proof-of-concept prototype is fabricated and demonstrated. The telescope has an exit pupil diameter of 6 mm at an eye relief of 19 mm, 6° field of view, 5 to 8 times visual magnification , and a 30° field of view of the virtual image.

  11. Augmenting Satellite Precipitation Estimation with Lightning Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahrooghy, Majid [Mississippi State University (MSU); Anantharaj, Valentine G [ORNL; Younan, Nicolas H. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Petersen, Walter A. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL; Hsu, Kuo-Lin [University of California, Irvine; Behrangi, Ali [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Aanstoos, James [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2013-01-01

    We have used lightning information to augment the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Imagery using an Artificial Neural Network - Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS). Co-located lightning data are used to segregate cloud patches, segmented from GOES-12 infrared data, into either electrified (EL) or non-electrified (NEL) patches. A set of features is extracted separately for the EL and NEL cloud patches. The features for the EL cloud patches include new features based on the lightning information. The cloud patches are classified and clustered using self-organizing maps (SOM). Then brightness temperature and rain rate (T-R) relationships are derived for the different clusters. Rain rates are estimated for the cloud patches based on their representative T-R relationship. The Equitable Threat Score (ETS) for daily precipitation estimates is improved by almost 12% for the winter season. In the summer, no significant improvements in ETS are noted.

  12. A ''quadratized'' augmented plane wave method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smrcka, L.

    1982-02-01

    The exact radial solution inside the muffin-tin sphere is replaced by its Taylor expansion with respect to the energy, truncated after the quadratic term. Making use of it the energy independent augmented plane waves are formed which lead to the secular equations linear in energy. The method resembles the currently used linearized APW method but yields higher accuracy. The analysis of solution inside one muffin-tin sphere shows that the eigenvalue error is proportional to (E-E 0 ) 6 as compared with (E-E 0 ) 4 for LAPW. The error of eigenfunctions is (E-E 0 ) 3 ((E-E 0 ) 2 for LAPW). These conclusions are confirmed by direct numerical calculation of band structure of Cu and Al. (author)

  13. Novel Augmentation Strategies in Major Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Hypothesis The hypotheses of all the four included studies share the common idea that it is possible to augment the effect of antidepressant drug treatment by applying different interventions and with each intervention attain a clinically meaningful better effect compared to a control condition......, and with minor side effects, thus improving the short- and medium-term outcome in major depression. Procedures Study design The basic study design has been the double blind randomised controlled trial (RCT). In the light therapy study, all patients were treated with sertraline for the whole of the study duration...... open psychiatric wards. Only a few patients were re-cruited through advertisements (in the PEMF and Chronos studies). Inclusion criteria Inclusion criteria were major depression according to the DSM-IV, including a depressive episode as part of a bipolar disorder. For the PEMF study, treatment...

  14. [Penile augmentation using acellular dermal matrix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-ming; Cui, Yong-yan; Pan, Shu-juan; Liang, Wei-qiang; Chen, Xiao-xuan

    2004-11-01

    Penile enhancement was performed using acellular dermal matrix. Multiple layers of acellular dermal matrix were placed underneath the penile skin to enlarge its girth. Since March 2002, penile augmentation has been performed on 12 cases using acellular dermal matrix. Postoperatively all the patients had a 1.3-3.1 cm (2.6 cm in average) increase in penile girth in a flaccid state. The penis had normal appearance and feeling without contour deformities. All patients gained sexual ability 3 months after the operation. One had a delayed wound healing due to tight dressing, which was repaired with a scrotal skin flap. Penile enlargement by implantation of multiple layers of acellular dermal matrix was a safe and effective operation. This method can be performed in an outpatient ambulatory setting. The advantages of the acellular dermal matrix over the autogenous dermal fat grafts are elimination of donor site injury and scar and significant shortening of operation time.

  15. Stereoscopic augmented reality for laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xin; Azizian, Mahdi; Wilson, Emmanuel; Wu, Kyle; Martin, Aaron D; Kane, Timothy D; Peters, Craig A; Cleary, Kevin; Shekhar, Raj

    2014-07-01

    Conventional laparoscopes provide a flat representation of the three-dimensional (3D) operating field and are incapable of visualizing internal structures located beneath visible organ surfaces. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images are difficult to fuse in real time with laparoscopic views due to the deformable nature of soft-tissue organs. Utilizing emerging camera technology, we have developed a real-time stereoscopic augmented-reality (AR) system for laparoscopic surgery by merging live laparoscopic ultrasound (LUS) with stereoscopic video. The system creates two new visual cues: (1) perception of true depth with improved understanding of 3D spatial relationships among anatomical structures, and (2) visualization of critical internal structures along with a more comprehensive visualization of the operating field. The stereoscopic AR system has been designed for near-term clinical translation with seamless integration into the existing surgical workflow. It is composed of a stereoscopic vision system, a LUS system, and an optical tracker. Specialized software processes streams of imaging data from the tracked devices and registers those in real time. The resulting two ultrasound-augmented video streams (one for the left and one for the right eye) give a live stereoscopic AR view of the operating field. The team conducted a series of stereoscopic AR interrogations of the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and kidneys in two swine. The preclinical studies demonstrated the feasibility of the stereoscopic AR system during in vivo procedures. Major internal structures could be easily identified. The system exhibited unobservable latency with acceptable image-to-video registration accuracy. We presented the first in vivo use of a complete system with stereoscopic AR visualization capability. This new capability introduces new visual cues and enhances visualization of the surgical anatomy. The system shows promise to improve the precision and

  16. Augmented reality in neurosurgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, Antonio; Cutolo, Fabrizio; Carbone, Marina; Cagnazzo, Federico; Ferrari, Mauro; Ferrari, Vincenzo

    2017-10-01

    Neuronavigation has become an essential neurosurgical tool in pursuing minimal invasiveness and maximal safety, even though it has several technical limitations. Augmented reality (AR) neuronavigation is a significant advance, providing a real-time updated 3D virtual model of anatomical details, overlaid on the real surgical field. Currently, only a few AR systems have been tested in a clinical setting. The aim is to review such devices. We performed a PubMed search of reports restricted to human studies of in vivo applications of AR in any neurosurgical procedure using the search terms "Augmented reality" and "Neurosurgery." Eligibility assessment was performed independently by two reviewers in an unblinded standardized manner. The systems were qualitatively evaluated on the basis of the following: neurosurgical subspecialty of application, pathology of treated lesions and lesion locations, real data source, virtual data source, tracking modality, registration technique, visualization processing, display type, and perception location. Eighteen studies were included during the period 1996 to September 30, 2015. The AR systems were grouped by the real data source: microscope (8), hand- or head-held cameras (4), direct patient view (2), endoscope (1), and X-ray fluoroscopy (1) head-mounted display (1). A total of 195 lesions were treated: 75 (38.46 %) were neoplastic, 77 (39.48 %) neurovascular, and 1 (0.51 %) hydrocephalus, and 42 (21.53 %) were undetermined. Current literature confirms that AR is a reliable and versatile tool when performing minimally invasive approaches in a wide range of neurosurgical diseases, although prospective randomized studies are not yet available and technical improvements are needed.

  17. Augmented reality in a tumor resection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, Pauline; Collins, Toby; Debize, Clement; Novais-Gameiro, Lorraine; Pereira, Bruno; Bartoli, Adrien; Canis, Michel; Bourdel, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) guidance is a technology that allows a surgeon to see sub-surface structures, by overlaying pre-operative imaging data on a live laparoscopic video. Our objectives were to evaluate a state-of-the-art AR guidance system in a tumor surgical resection model, comparing the accuracy of the resection with and without the system. Our system has three phases. Phase 1: using the MRI images, the kidney's and pseudotumor's surfaces are segmented to construct a 3D model. Phase 2: the intra-operative 3D model of the kidney is computed. Phase 3: the pre-operative and intra-operative models are registered, and the laparoscopic view is augmented with the pre-operative data. We performed a prospective experimental study on ex vivo porcine kidneys. Alginate was injected into the parenchyma to create pseudotumors measuring 4-10 mm. The kidneys were then analyzed by MRI. Next, the kidneys were placed into pelvictrainers, and the pseudotumors were laparoscopically resected. The AR guidance system allows the surgeon to see tumors and margins using classical laparoscopic instruments, and a classical screen. The resection margins were measured microscopically to evaluate the accuracy of resection. Ninety tumors were segmented: 28 were used to optimize the AR software, and 62 were used to randomly compare surgical resection: 29 tumors were resected using AR and 33 without AR. The analysis of our pathological results showed 4 failures (tumor with positive margins) (13.8%) in the AR group, and 10 (30.3%) in the Non-AR group. There was no complete miss in the AR group, while there were 4 complete misses in the non-AR group. In total, 14 (42.4%) tumors were completely missed or had a positive margin in the non-AR group. Our AR system enhances the accuracy of surgical resection, particularly for small tumors. Crucial information such as resection margins and vascularization could also be displayed.

  18. Googles Augmented-Reality-Game "Ingress"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Das an das "Geocoaching"-Spielprinzip erinnernde Augmented-­Reality-Game "Ingress" ist auf allen mit Android-Betriebssystem ausgestatteten Smartphones spielbar. Das Alleinstellungsmerkmal des Spiels ist gleich­zeitig auch das beste Patent-Rezept für bzw. gegen notorisches "Couch-Potato-ing": Das Game-Design des "Draußenspiels" erfordert jedoch stets die physische Anwesenheit der SpielerInnen am realen Ort des Geschehens, meist touristisch attraktive Sehenswürdigkeiten und architektonisch markante Plätze. Sobald "Ingress" per App am Smart­phone gestartet wird, stehen Interaktionen und Machtverhältnisse auf dem Handy-Display im Dreh- und Angelpunkt des Geschehens. Die Spielgrafik ist auf das Wesentliche reduziert und erinnert an die Optik von Videospielen der 80er Jahre. "Ingress" im Allgemeinen sowie "Magnus13", die erste von Google organisierte Fan-Veranstaltung Österreichs mit mehreren Hundert TeilnehmerInnen und ist mit einer "digitalen Schnitzeljagd" vergleichbar: Gemeinsam ist der klassischen "Schnitzeljagd" und dem digitalen "Schere-Schein-Papier" Prinzip von "Ingress" die tragende Rolle des im Spiel entstehenden Gemeinschaftsgefühls, welche in einer hohen Langzeitmotivation mündet. Trotz aller Euphorie, ob des unkonventionellen Augmented-Reality-Spielkonzepts und des in Folge der sozialen Dynamik außergewöhnlichen Sucht­potentials, ist angesichts von Edward Snowden und vielfältiger NSA-Abhörmaßnahmen, eine gesunde Portion Skepsis angebracht: Welchen Zweck erfüllt "Ingress"? Gibt es ein verhülltes "Mittel zum Zweck"? Welche Gefahren bestehen mit einer systematischen Auswertung des umfangreichen, ortsrelevanten Daten-Sammelsuriums? "Ingress" verdeutlicht trotz aller Risiken den soziokulturellen Bedeutungswandel des digitalen Spiels: Spiele per se und das Spiel als soziale Interaktion sind aktuell dabei, alle Bereiche unseres Lebens zu erfassen.

  19. Caffeine Sodium Benzoate for Electroconvulsive Therapy Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozymski, Kevin M; Potter, Teresa G; Venkatachalam, Vasu; Pandurangi, Ananda K; Crouse, Ericka L

    2018-05-15

    Because of an ongoing manufacturer shortage of injectable caffeine sodium benzoate (CSB), patients at our health system were given CSB compounded in-house to increase seizure response during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Therefore, we aimed to evaluate its effectiveness and safety as an ECT augmentation agent. Medical records of patients who received compounded CSB at Virginia Commonwealth University Health System were reviewed to identify adults receiving it as part of an index ECT treatment course between June 2012 and December 2016. The primary outcome was change in electroencephalogram seizure duration from pre-caffeine session to initial caffeine session. Data were also collected on demographics, motor seizure duration, maximum heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and concurrent medication use for these sessions and the last caffeine session. Seven-one patients were included in the study, predominantly white females with a mean age of 58.6 years. The most common indication for ECT was major depressive disorder resistant to pharmacotherapy (71.8%), followed by catatonia associated with another mental disorder (19.7%). Electroencephalogram seizure duration increased by 24.1 seconds on average with first CSB use (P < 0.0001), allowing 24 more patients overall to achieve goal of at least 30 seconds (P < 0.0001). No clinically significant changes in maximum heart rate or mean arterial pressure were observed, nor did any patients require an abortive agent for prolonged seizure. Five patients (7%) discontinued CSB prematurely: 4 related to adverse effects and 1 secondary to ineffectiveness. We confirm results of prior studies of the utility of CSB and add that compounded CSB is effective for ECT augmentation, maintaining effectiveness throughout the index course with minimal safety concerns.

  20. Performance of a solar augmented heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, A. F. G.; Tomlinson, J. J.; Reid, R. L.; Chaffin, D. J.

    Performance of a residential size solar augmented heat pump is reported for the 1979-1980 heating season. The facility located in Knoxville, Tennessee, has a measured heat load coefficient of 339.5 watt/C (644 BTU/hr- F). The solar augmented heat pump system consists of 7.4 cu m of one inch diameter crushed limestone. The heat pump is a nominal 8.8 KW (2 1/2 ton) high efficiency unit. The system includes electric resistance heaters to give the option of adding thermal energy to the pebble bed storage during utility off-peak periods, thus offering considerable load management capability. A 15 KW electric resistance duct heater is used to add thermal energy to the pebble bin as required during off-peak periods. Hourly thermal performance and on site weather data was taken for the period November 1, 1979, to April 13, 1980. Thermal performance data consists of heat flow summations for all modes of the system, pebble bed temperatures, and space temperature. Weather data consists of dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, total global insolation (in the plane of the collector), and wind speed and direction. An error analysis was performed and the least accurate of the measurements was determined to be the heat flow at 5%. Solar system thermal performance factor was measured to be 8.77. The heat pump thermal performance factor was 1.64. Total system seasonal performance factor was measured to be 1.66. Using a modified version of TRNSYS, the thermal performance of this system was simulated. When simulation results were compared with data collected onsite, the predicted heat flow and power consumption generally were within experimental accuracy.

  1. Predicting binding affinities of protein ligands from three-dimensional models: application to peptide binding to class I major histocompatibility proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rognan, D; Lauemoller, S L; Holm, A

    1999-01-01

    A simple and fast free energy scoring function (Fresno) has been developed to predict the binding free energy of peptides to class I major histocompatibility (MHC) proteins. It differs from existing scoring functions mainly by the explicit treatment of ligand desolvation and of unfavorable protein...... coordinates of the MHC-bound peptide have first been determined with an accuracy of about 1-1.5 A. Furthermore, it may be easily recalibrated for any protein-ligand complex.......) and of a series of 16 peptides to H-2K(k). Predictions were more accurate for HLA-A2-binding peptides as the training set had been built from experimentally determined structures. The average error in predicting the binding free energy of the test peptides was 3.1 kJ/mol. For the homology model-derived equation...

  2. Activation of Stat-3 is involved in the induction of apoptosis after ligation of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules on human Jurkat T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, S; Nielsen, M; Bregenholt, S

    1998-01-01

    Activation of Janus tyrosine kinases (Jak) and Signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat) after ligation of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) was explored in Jurkat T cells. Cross-linking of MHC-I mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of Tyk2, but not Jak1, Jak2, and Jak3......-probe derived from the interferon-gamma activated site (GAS) in the c-fos promoter, a common DNA sequence for Stat protein binding. An association between hSIE and Stat-3 after MHC-I ligation was directly demonstrated by precipitating Stat-3 from nuclear extracts with biotinylated hSIE probe and avidin......-coupled agarose. To investigate the function of the activated Stat-3, Jurkat T cells were transiently transfected with a Stat-3 isoform lacking the transactivating domain. This dominant-negative acting Stat-3 isoform significantly inhibited apoptosis induced by ligation of MHC-I. In conclusion, our data suggest...

  3. Ligation of major histocompatibility complex class I antigens (MHC-I) prevents apoptosis induced by Fas or SAPK/JNK activation in T-lymphoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamberth, K; Claesson, M H

    2001-01-01

    Early apoptosis in Jurkat T-lymphoma cells was induced by agonistic anti-Fas Ab or by anisomycin which activates the stress kinases SAPK/JNK. Apoptosis was inhibited by ligation of major histocompatibility complex class I antigens (MHC-I). MHC-I ligation induced upregulation of the anti......-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein and stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsim). MHC-I ligation also prevented downregulation of Bcl-2 and destabilization of Deltapsim induced by anti-Fas Ab treatment or anisomycin exposure. Studies on three different Jurkat cell mutants deficient for src p56(lck), ZAP......-70 kinase, or TCR/CD3 gamma-chain showed that the cells undergo apoptosis after Fas ligation. Anisomycin exposure induced apoptosis in the src p56(lck)-deficient cell line but not in the two other mutant cell lines. Simultaneous cross-linking of MHC-I and Fas ligation inhibited apoptosis in the ZAP...

  4. T-cell activation. VI. Inhibitory and stimulatory effects of anti-major histocompatibility complex class I antibodies in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röpke, M; Röpke, C; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1993-01-01

    Murine T splenocytes stimulated in primary allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) were incubated with soluble anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies induced inhibition in the cytotoxicity of the responding population and this inhibition...... was not dependent on the domain on class I molecules recognized by the antibodies. Cross-reactivity of the antibodies between the responder and stimulating cell population caused a marked reduction in the inhibitory effect compared to systems where no such cross-reactivity was present. Saturating levels...... of the antibodies caused a reduction in generation of T-cell cytotoxicity, whereas low concentrations stimulated the same response. These results demonstrate that the MHC class I molecules of T cells are of significant importance in antigen-induced signal transduction....

  5. Automated Analysis of Flow Cytometry Data to Reduce Inter-Lab Variation in the Detection of Major Histocompatibility Complex Multimer-Binding T Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Natasja Wulff; Chandran, P. Anoop; Qian, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Manual analysis of flow cytometry data and subjective gate-border decisions taken by individuals continue to be a source of variation in the assessment of antigen-specific T cells when comparing data across laboratories, and also over time in individual labs. Therefore, strategies to provide...... automated analysis of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) multimer-binding T cells represent an attractive solution to decrease subjectivity and technical variation. The challenge of using an automated analysis approach is that MHC multimer-binding T cell populations are often rare and therefore...... laboratories. We used three different methods, FLOw Clustering without K (FLOCK), Scalable Weighted Iterative Flow-clustering Technique (SWIFT), and ReFlow to analyze flow cytometry data files from 28 laboratories. Each laboratory screened for antigen-responsive T cell populations with frequency ranging from 0...

  6. Augmenting a Child's Reality: Using Educational Tablet Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Patricia; Karas, Carly; Schofield, Damian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the classroom integration of an innovative technology, augmented reality. Although the process of adding new technologies into a classroom setting can be daunting, the concept of augmented reality has demonstrated the ability to educate students and to assist with their comprehension of a procedural task. One half of the…

  7. Potential Use of Augmented Reality in LIS Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this article is the use of augmented reality technology in library and information science education. The aim is to determine the scope and potential uses of augmented reality in the education of information professionals. In order to determine the scope and forms of potential use of AR technology in LIS education a two-step…

  8. Augmented Reality Learning Experiences: Survey of Prototype Design and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marc Ericson C.; Chen, Angie; Taketomi, Takafumi; Yamamoto, Goshiro; Miyazaki, Jun; Kato, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) technology is mature for creating learning experiences for K-12 (pre-school, grade school, and high school) educational settings. We reviewed the applications intended to complement traditional curriculum materials for K-12. We found 87 research articles on augmented reality learning experiences (ARLEs) in the IEEE Xplore…

  9. The Local Games Lab ABQ: Homegrown Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Experiments in the use of augmented reality games formerly required extensive material resources and expertise to implement above and beyond what might be possible within the usual educational contexts. Currently, the more common availability of hardware in these contexts and the existence of easy-to-use, general purpose augmented reality design…

  10. Routine sensor-augmented pump therapy in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kirsten; Scaramuzza, Andrea; Bratina, Natasa

    2013-01-01

    Sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy can improve glycemic control, compared with multiple daily insulin injections or with insulin pump therapy alone, without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia.......Sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy can improve glycemic control, compared with multiple daily insulin injections or with insulin pump therapy alone, without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia....

  11. Augmented Reality, the Future of Contextual Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungkur, Roopesh Kevin; Panchoo, Akshay; Bhoyroo, Nitisha Kirtee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to show the relevance of augmented reality (AR) in mobile learning for the 21st century. With AR, any real-world environment can be augmented by providing users with accurate digital overlays. AR is a promising technology that has the potential to encourage learners to explore learning materials from a totally new…

  12. Sensor-augmented pump therapy at 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    This follow-up study investigates the metabolic and psychosocial effects of sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy in adults with type 1 diabetes 36 months after therapy start.......This follow-up study investigates the metabolic and psychosocial effects of sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy in adults with type 1 diabetes 36 months after therapy start....

  13. AUGMENTED REALITY - STATE OF KNOWLEDGE, USE AND EXPERIMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Filofteia TUTUNEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Technologies for augmenting reality have been consolidated during the last decades, extending their applicability to more and more socio-economic areas. The rapid evolution of mobile technologies and virtualization of the digital environment have created auspicious conditions for massive extension and implementation of solutions for augmenting reality at global level. Experience has already shown that augmented reality, alongside virtual reality can offer very important support solutions in modeling the real world with the aim of extending the human capabilities of perception, allowing the opening of a new phase in the world’s socio-economic development. Starting from the evident tendencies that have manifested at global level in the development and implementation of augmented reality technologies, the paper begins with the presentation of the most important aspects related to augmented reality technologies, highlighting their main areas of application, and presents the study realized for identifying the level of knowledge, use and effective experimentation of augmented reality applications by mobile device users. The results of this study could be very useful to the socio-economic environment, starting with the field of research, continuing with developers and providers of augmented reality solutions, manufacturers and providers of hardware infrastructure support for augmented reality solutions and systems, final users of these solutions, both individuals and businesses, and experimenting digital communities.

  14. Pose estimation for mobile devices and augmented reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we introduce the reader to the field of Augmented Reality (AR) and describe aspects of an AR system. We show the current uses in treatment of phobias, games, sports and industry. We present the challenges for Optical See-Through Augmented Reality in which the real world is perceived

  15. Augmentative biological control of arthropods in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenteren, van J.C.; Bueno, V.H.P.

    2003-01-01

    Augmentative forms of biological control, where natural enemies are periodically introduced, are applied over large areas in various cropping systems in Latin America. About 25% of the world area under augmentative control is situated in this region. Well-known examples are the use of species of the

  16. International workshop on multimodal virtual and augmented reality (workshop summary)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hürst, W.O.; Iwai, Daisuke; Balakrishnan, Prabhakaran

    2016-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) are expected by many to become the next wave of computing with significant impacts on our daily lives. Motivated by this, we organized a workshop on “Multimodal Virtual and Augmented Reality (MVAR)” at the 18th ACM International Conference on

  17. Operational Data Augmentation in Classifying Single Aerial Images of Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okafor, Emmanuel; Smit, Rik; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco

    2017-01-01

    In deep learning, data augmentation is important to increase the amount of training images to obtain higher classification accuracies. Most data-augmentation methods adopt the use of the following techniques: cropping, mirroring, color casting, scaling and rotation for creating additional training

  18. A Systematic Review of Pliance, Tracking, and Augmenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissi, Ama; Hughes, Sean; Mertens, Gaëtan; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; De Houwer, Jan; Crombez, Geert

    Within relational frame theory, a distinction has been made between three types of rule-governed behavior known as pliance, tracking, and augmenting. This review examined whether there is support for the concepts of pliance, tracking, and augmenting in the experimental analysis of behavior; whether

  19. Complications 15 years after breast augmentation with polyacrylamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib M. Ghasemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG has been used as an injectable, permanent filler for soft-tissue augmentation for more than two decades. Several complications have been reported worldwide. In this case report, we present a woman with long-term complications 15 years after bilateral breast augmentation with PAAG injections.

  20. Augmentation of Cognition and Perception Through Advanced Synthetic Vision Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Williams, Steve P.; McNabb, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic Vision System technology augments reality and creates a virtual visual meteorological condition that extends a pilot's cognitive and perceptual capabilities during flight operations when outside visibility is restricted. The paper describes the NASA Synthetic Vision System for commercial aviation with an emphasis on how the technology achieves Augmented Cognition objectives.

  1. Buspirone is an effective augmenting agent of serotonin selective re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. Patients had previously failed mUltiple trials of antidepressants, often including lithium and/or thyroid augmentation, as well as, in 12 cases, electroconvulsive therapy. However, augmentation of an SSRI With buspirone led to a rapid and significant improvement in depression in. 6 of 14 (43%) patients. Conclusion.

  2. Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable Region and Major Histocompatibility Region Genes Are Linked to Induced Graves' Disease in Females From Two Very Large Families of Recombinant Inbred Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliesky, Holly; Banuelos, Bianca; Magana, Jessica; Williams, Robert W.; Rapoport, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Graves' hyperthyroidism is caused by antibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR) that mimic thyroid stimulation by TSH. Stimulating TSHR antibodies and hyperthyroidism can be induced by immunizing mice with adenovirus expressing the human TSHR A-subunit. Prior analysis of induced Graves' disease in small families of recombinant inbred (RI) female mice demonstrated strong genetic control but did not resolve trait loci for TSHR antibodies or elevated serum T4. We investigated the genetic basis for induced Graves' disease in female mice of two large RI families and combined data with earlier findings to provide phenotypes for 178 genotypes. TSHR antibodies measured by inhibition of TSH binding to its receptor were highly significantly linked in the BXD set to the major histocompatibility region (chromosome 17), consistent with observations in 3 other RI families. In the LXS family, we detected linkage between T4 levels after TSHR-adenovirus immunization and the Ig heavy chain variable region (Igvh, chromosome 12). This observation is a key finding because components of the antigen binding region of Igs determine antibody specificity and have been previously linked to induced thyroid-stimulating antibodies. Data from the LXS family provide the first evidence in mice of a direct link between induced hyperthyroidism and Igvh genes. A role for major histocompatibility genes has now been established for genetic susceptibility to Graves' disease in both humans and mice. Future studies using arrays incorporating variation in the complex human Ig gene locus will be necessary to determine whether Igvh genes are also linked to Graves' disease in humans. PMID:25051451

  3. Impact of Leukocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 Blockade on Endogenous Allospecific T Cells to Multiple Minor Histocompatibility Antigen Mismatched Cardiac Allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwun, Jean; Farris, Alton B; Song, Hyunjin; Mahle, William T; Burlingham, William J; Knechtle, Stuart J

    2015-12-01

    Blocking leukocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 in organ transplant recipients prolongs allograft survival. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the therapeutic potential of LFA-1 blockade in preventing chronic rejection are not fully elucidated. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is the preeminent cause of late cardiac allograft failure characterized histologically by concentric intimal hyperplasia. Anti-LFA-1 monoclonal antibody was used in a multiple minor antigen-mismatched, BALB.B (H-2B) to C57BL/6 (H-2B), cardiac allograft model. Endogenous donor-specific CD8 T cells were tracked down using major histocompatibility complex multimers against the immunodominant H4, H7, H13, H28, and H60 minor Ags. The LFA-1 blockade prevented acute rejection and preserved palpable beating quality with reduced CD8 T-cell graft infiltration. Interestingly, less CD8 T cell infiltration was secondary to reduction of T-cell expansion rather than less trafficking. The LFA-1 blockade significantly suppressed the clonal expansion of minor histocompatibility antigen-specific CD8 T cells during the expansion and contraction phase. The CAV development was evaluated with morphometric analysis at postoperation day 100. The LFA-1 blockade profoundly attenuated neointimal hyperplasia (61.6 vs 23.8%; P < 0.05), CAV-affected vessel number (55.3 vs 15.9%; P < 0.05), and myocardial fibrosis (grade 3.29 vs 1.8; P < 0.05). Finally, short-term LFA-1 blockade promoted long-term donor-specific regulation, which resulted in attenuated transplant arteriosclerosis. Taken together, LFA-1 blockade inhibits initial endogenous alloreactive T-cell expansion and induces more regulation. Such a mechanism supports a pulse tolerance induction strategy with anti-LFA-1 rather than long-term treatment.

  4. Applying Augmented Reality in practical classes for engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarov, S. E.; Kholodilin, I. Yu; Nesterov, A. S.; Sokhina, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    In this article the Augmented Reality application for teaching engineering students of electrical and technological specialties is introduced. In order to increase the motivation for learning and the independence of students, new practical guidelines on Augmented Reality were developed in the application to practical classes. During the application development, the authors used software such as Unity 3D and Vuforia. The Augmented Reality content consists of 3D-models, images and animations, which are superimposed on real objects, helping students to study specific tasks. A user who has a smartphone, a tablet PC, or Augmented Reality glasses can visualize on-screen virtual objects added to a real environment. Having analyzed the current situation in higher education: the learner’s interest in studying, their satisfaction with the educational process, and the impact of the Augmented Reality application on students, a questionnaire was developed and offered to students; the study involved 24 learners.

  5. Augmented Reality as a Countermeasure for Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, James; Dorrlan, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan; Chatburn, Alex; Smith, Ross T; Carskadon, Mary A; Lushington, Kurt; Thomas, Bruce H

    2016-04-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to have serious deleterious effects on executive functioning and job performance. Augmented reality has an ability to place pertinent information at the fore, guiding visual focus and reducing instructional complexity. This paper presents a study to explore how spatial augmented reality instructions impact procedural task performance on sleep deprived users. The user study was conducted to examine performance on a procedural task at six time points over the course of a night of total sleep deprivation. Tasks were provided either by spatial augmented reality-based projections or on an adjacent monitor. The results indicate that participant errors significantly increased with the monitor condition when sleep deprived. The augmented reality condition exhibited a positive influence with participant errors and completion time having no significant increase when sleep deprived. The results of our study show that spatial augmented reality is an effective sleep deprivation countermeasure under laboratory conditions.

  6. Augmented Reality in Tourism - Research and Applications Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel L. Kečkeš

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality is a complex interdisciplinary field utilizing information technologies in diverse areas such as medicine, education, architecture, industry, tourism and others, augmenting the real-time, real-world view with additional superimposed information in chosen format(s. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of both research and application aspects of using augmented reality technologies in tourism domain. While most research, and especially applications, are dealing with and developing visual-based augmented reality systems, there is a relevant amount of research discussing the utilization of other human senses such as tactioception and audioception, both being discussed within this work. A comprehensive literature analysis within this paper resulted with the identification, compilation and categorization of the key factors having the most relevant impact on the success of utilization of augmented technology in tourism domain.

  7. Augmented Reality-Guided Lumbar Facet Joint Injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agten, Christoph A; Dennler, Cyrill; Rosskopf, Andrea B; Jaberg, Laurenz; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Farshad, Mazda

    2018-05-08

    The aim of this study was to assess feasibility and accuracy of augmented reality-guided lumbar facet joint injections. A spine phantom completely embedded in hardened opaque agar with 3 ring markers was built. A 3-dimensional model of the phantom was uploaded to an augmented reality headset (Microsoft HoloLens). Two radiologists independently performed 20 augmented reality-guided and 20 computed tomography (CT)-guided facet joint injections each: for each augmented reality-guided injection, the hologram was manually aligned with the phantom container using the ring markers. The radiologists targeted the virtual facet joint and tried to place the needle tip in the holographic joint space. Computed tomography was performed after each needle placement to document final needle tip position. Time needed from grabbing the needle to final needle placement was measured for each simulated injection. An independent radiologist rated images of all needle placements in a randomized order blinded to modality (augmented reality vs CT) and performer as perfect, acceptable, incorrect, or unsafe. Accuracy and time to place needles were compared between augmented reality-guided and CT-guided facet joint injections. In total, 39/40 (97.5%) of augmented reality-guided needle placements were either perfect or acceptable compared with 40/40 (100%) CT-guided needle placements (P = 0.5). One augmented reality-guided injection missed the facet joint space by 2 mm. No unsafe needle placements occurred. Time to final needle placement was substantially faster with augmented reality guidance (mean 14 ± 6 seconds vs 39 ± 15 seconds, P Augmented reality-guided facet joint injections are feasible and accurate without potentially harmful needle placement in an experimental setting.

  8. Augmented reality usage for prototyping speed up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Šťastný

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The integral part of production process in many companies is prototyping. Although, these companies commonly have high quality visualization tools (large screen projections, virtual reality, prototyping was never abandoned. There is a number of reasons. The most important is the possibility of model observation from any angle without any physical constraints and its haptic feedback. The interactivity of model adjustments is important as well. The direct work with the model allows the designers to focus on the creative process more than work with a computer. There is still a problem with a difficult adjustability of the model. More significant changes demand completely new prototype or at least longer time for its realization.The first part of the article describes our approach for solution of this problem by means of Augmented Reality. The merging of the real world model and digital objects allows streamline the work with the model and speed up the whole production phase significantly. The main advantage of augmented reality is the possibility of direct manipulation with the scene using a portable digital camera. Also adding digital objects into the scene could be done using identification markers placed on the surface of the model. Therefore it is not necessary to work with special input devices and lose the contact with the real world model. Adjustments are done directly on the model. The key problem of outlined solution is the ability of identification of an object within the camera picture and its replacement with the digital object. The second part of the article is focused especially on the identification of exact position and orientation of the marker within the picture. The identification marker is generalized into the triple of points which represents a general plane in space. There is discussed the space identification of these points and the description of representation of their position and orientation be means of transformation

  9. Augmented robotic device for EVA hand manoeuvres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Eloise; Brooker, Graham

    2012-12-01

    During extravehicular activities (EVAs), pressurised space suits can lead to difficulties in performing hand manoeuvres and fatigue. This is often the cause of EVAs being terminated early, or taking longer to complete. Assistive robotic gloves can be used to augment the natural motion of a human hand, meaning work can be carried out more efficiently with less stress to the astronaut. Lightweight and low profile solutions must be found in order for the assistive robotic glove to be easily integrated with a space suit pressure garment. Pneumatic muscle actuators combined with force sensors are one such solution. These actuators are extremely light, yet can output high forces using pressurised gases as the actuation drive. Their movement is omnidirectional, so when combined with a flexible exoskeleton that itself provides a degree of freedom of movement, individual fingers can be controlled during flexion and extension. This setup allows actuators and other hardware to be stored remotely on the user's body, resulting in the least possible mass being supported by the hand. Two prototype gloves have been developed at the University of Sydney; prototype I using a fibreglass exoskeleton to provide flexion force, and prototype II using torsion springs to achieve the same result. The gloves have been designed to increase the ease of human movements, rather than to add unnatural ability to the hand. A state space control algorithm has been developed to ensure that human initiated movements are recognised, and calibration methods have been implemented to accommodate the different characteristics of each wearer's hands. For this calibration technique, it was necessary to take into account the natural tremors of the human hand which may have otherwise initiated unexpected control signals. Prototype I was able to actuate the user's hand in 1 degree of freedom (DOF) from full flexion to partial extension, and prototype II actuated a user's finger in 2 DOF with forces achieved

  10. Recent Development of Augmented Reality in Surgery: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vávra, P.; Zonča, P.; Ihnát, P.; El-Gendi, A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The development augmented reality devices allow physicians to incorporate data visualization into diagnostic and treatment procedures to improve work efficiency, safety, and cost and to enhance surgical training. However, the awareness of possibilities of augmented reality is generally low. This review evaluates whether augmented reality can presently improve the results of surgical procedures. Methods We performed a review of available literature dating from 2010 to November 2016 by searching PubMed and Scopus using the terms “augmented reality” and “surgery.” Results. The initial search yielded 808 studies. After removing duplicates and including only journal articles, a total of 417 studies were identified. By reading of abstracts, 91 relevant studies were chosen to be included. 11 references were gathered by cross-referencing. A total of 102 studies were included in this review. Conclusions The present literature suggest an increasing interest of surgeons regarding employing augmented reality into surgery leading to improved safety and efficacy of surgical procedures. Many studies showed that the performance of newly devised augmented reality systems is comparable to traditional techniques. However, several problems need to be addressed before augmented reality is implemented into the routine practice. PMID:29065604

  11. Recent Development of Augmented Reality in Surgery: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vávra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The development augmented reality devices allow physicians to incorporate data visualization into diagnostic and treatment procedures to improve work efficiency, safety, and cost and to enhance surgical training. However, the awareness of possibilities of augmented reality is generally low. This review evaluates whether augmented reality can presently improve the results of surgical procedures. Methods. We performed a review of available literature dating from 2010 to November 2016 by searching PubMed and Scopus using the terms “augmented reality” and “surgery.” Results. The initial search yielded 808 studies. After removing duplicates and including only journal articles, a total of 417 studies were identified. By reading of abstracts, 91 relevant studies were chosen to be included. 11 references were gathered by cross-referencing. A total of 102 studies were included in this review. Conclusions. The present literature suggest an increasing interest of surgeons regarding employing augmented reality into surgery leading to improved safety and efficacy of surgical procedures. Many studies showed that the performance of newly devised augmented reality systems is comparable to traditional techniques. However, several problems need to be addressed before augmented reality is implemented into the routine practice.

  12. Hybrid-augmented intelligence:collaboration and cognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan-ning ZHENG; Zi-yi LIU; Peng-ju REN; Yong-qiang MA; Shi-tao CHEN; Si-yu YU; Jian-ru XUE

    2017-01-01

    The long-term goal of artificial intelligence (AI) is to make machines learn and think like human beings. Due to the high levels of uncertainty and vulnerability in human life and the open-ended nature of problems that humans are facing, no matter how intelligent machines are, they are unable to completely replace humans. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce human cognitive capabilities or human-like cognitive models into AI systems to develop a new form of AI, that is, hybrid-augmented intelligence. This form of AI or machine intelligence is a feasible and important developing model. Hybrid-augmented intelligence can be divided into two basic models:one is human-in-the-loop augmented intelligence with human-computer collaboration, and the other is cognitive computing based augmented intelligence, in which a cognitive model is embedded in the machine learning system. This survey describes a basic framework for human-computer collaborative hybrid-augmented intelligence, and the basic elements of hybrid-augmented intelligence based on cognitive computing. These elements include intuitive reasoning, causal models, evolution of memory and knowledge, especially the role and basic principles of intuitive reasoning for complex problem solving, and the cognitive learning framework for visual scene understanding based on memory and reasoning. Several typical applications of hybrid-augmented intelligence in related fields are given.

  13. Adaptive multimodal interaction in mobile augmented reality: A conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Rimaniza Zainal; Arshad, Haslina; Shukri, Saidatul A'isyah Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    Recently, Augmented Reality (AR) is an emerging technology in many mobile applications. Mobile AR was defined as a medium for displaying information merged with the real world environment mapped with augmented reality surrounding in a single view. There are four main types of mobile augmented reality interfaces and one of them are multimodal interfaces. Multimodal interface processes two or more combined user input modes (such as speech, pen, touch, manual gesture, gaze, and head and body movements) in a coordinated manner with multimedia system output. In multimodal interface, many frameworks have been proposed to guide the designer to develop a multimodal applications including in augmented reality environment but there has been little work reviewing the framework of adaptive multimodal interface in mobile augmented reality. The main goal of this study is to propose a conceptual framework to illustrate the adaptive multimodal interface in mobile augmented reality. We reviewed several frameworks that have been proposed in the field of multimodal interfaces, adaptive interface and augmented reality. We analyzed the components in the previous frameworks and measure which can be applied in mobile devices. Our framework can be used as a guide for designers and developer to develop a mobile AR application with an adaptive multimodal interfaces.

  14. Augmenting painted architectures for communicating cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sdegno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a research under development at the University of Trieste to analyze a painted architecture by Paolo Veronese and to present the results using AR systems (Augmented Reality Systems. The canvas was painted in 1573 and it is now at the Gallerie dell’Accademia Museum in Venice. The aim of the research was to transform a two-dimensional work of art in a three dimensional one, allowing all the visitors of a museum to enter the space of the representation and perceive it in a more direct way. After the geometrical analysis of the picture, we started the digital restitution of the perspective references and proceed to model the virtual scene using Boolean primitives and applying all the textures to render the scene in a very realistic way. The further step was to convert the model into a dynamic form with AR algorithms and associate it with spatial references to allow users to do a virtual experience of it.

  15. Escape route simulator utilizing augmented reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Karen Salazar Ribeiro de; Mó, Antônio Carlos de A.; Santo, André Cotelli do E.; Silva, Marcio Henrique, E-mail: karensalazar.1190@gmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro Universitário Carioca (UniCarioca), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Due to increasing demand and interest in the interaction of technology platforms and integration of different types of systems and technologies, some tools are already providing practical ways to develop integrated applications. The tools explored by this article are Unity, a platform for game development, and Vuforia, an SDK, software development kit, for augmented reality creation. The coalition proposal of these resources is to create an intuitive escape route that can be used for the evacuation of buildings or open spaces in view of imminent danger, such as radiation leakage, and that can be accessed from a target available at the institution. It has also the intention of simulating situations that involve training of personnel in order to obtain methods that allow to save financial resources, and even to avoid that those who are involved are exposed to risks unnecessarily. The simulator is expected to help design, test, and improve ways to maintain the physical integrity of the facility and provide end users with a better sense of immersion and attractiveness. (author)

  16. Escape route simulator utilizing augmented reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Karen Salazar Ribeiro de; Mó, Antônio Carlos de A.; Santo, André Cotelli do E.; Silva, Marcio Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasing demand and interest in the interaction of technology platforms and integration of different types of systems and technologies, some tools are already providing practical ways to develop integrated applications. The tools explored by this article are Unity, a platform for game development, and Vuforia, an SDK, software development kit, for augmented reality creation. The coalition proposal of these resources is to create an intuitive escape route that can be used for the evacuation of buildings or open spaces in view of imminent danger, such as radiation leakage, and that can be accessed from a target available at the institution. It has also the intention of simulating situations that involve training of personnel in order to obtain methods that allow to save financial resources, and even to avoid that those who are involved are exposed to risks unnecessarily. The simulator is expected to help design, test, and improve ways to maintain the physical integrity of the facility and provide end users with a better sense of immersion and attractiveness. (author)

  17. Invisible marker based augmented reality system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanhoon; Park, Jong-Il

    2005-07-01

    Augmented reality (AR) has recently gained significant attention. The previous AR techniques usually need a fiducial marker with known geometry or objects of which the structure can be easily estimated such as cube. Placing a marker in the workspace of the user can be intrusive. To overcome this limitation, we present an AR system using invisible markers which are created/drawn with an infrared (IR) fluorescent pen. Two cameras are used: an IR camera and a visible camera, which are positioned in each side of a cold mirror so that their optical centers coincide with each other. We track the invisible markers using IR camera and visualize AR in the view of visible camera. Additional algorithms are employed for the system to have a reliable performance in the cluttered background. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the viability of the proposed system. As an application of the proposed system, the invisible marker can act as a Vision-Based Identity and Geometry (VBIG) tag, which can significantly extend the functionality of RFID. The invisible tag is the same as RFID in that it is not perceivable while more powerful in that the tag information can be presented to the user by direct projection using a mobile projector or by visualizing AR on the screen of mobile PDA.

  18. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  19. HUNT: Scavenger Hunt with Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This project shows a creative approach to the familiar scavenger hunt game. It involved the implementation of an iPhone application, HUNT, with Augmented Reality (AR capability for the users to play the game as well as an administrative website that game organizers can use to create and make available games for users to play. Using the HUNT mobile app, users will first make a selection from a list of games, and they will then be shown a list of objects that they must seek. Once the user finds a correct object and scans it with the built-in camera on the smartphone, the application will attempt to verify if it is the correct object and then display associated multi-media AR content that may include images and videos overlaid on top of real world views. HUNT not only provides entertaining activities within an environment that players can explore, but the AR contents can serve as an educational tool. The project is designed to increase user involvement by using a familiar and enjoyable game as a basis and adding an educational dimension by incorporating AR technology and engaging and interactive multimedia to provide users with facts about the objects that they have located

  20. Augmented Automated Material Accounting Statistics System (AMASS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumb, R.F.; Messinger, M.; Tingey, F.H.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes an extension of the AMASS methodology which was previously presented at the 1981 INMM annual meeting. The main thrust of the current effort is to develop procedures and a computer program for estimating the variance of an Inventory Difference when many sources of variability, other than measurement error, are admitted in the model. Procedures also are included for the estimation of the variances associated with measurement error estimates and their effect on the estimated limit of error of the inventory difference (LEID). The algorithm for the LEID measurement component uncertainty involves the propagated component measurement variance estimates as well as their associated degrees of freedom. The methodology and supporting computer software is referred to as the augmented Automated Material Accounting Statistics System (AMASS). Specifically, AMASS accommodates five source effects. These are: (1) measurement errors (2) known but unmeasured effects (3) measurement adjustment effects (4) unmeasured process hold-up effects (5) residual process variation A major result of this effort is a procedure for determining the effect of bias correction on LEID, properly taking into account all the covariances that exist. This paper briefly describes the basic models that are assumed; some of the estimation procedures consistent with the model; data requirements, emphasizing availability and other practical considerations; discusses implications for bias corrections; and concludes by briefly describing the supporting computer program

  1. Augmenting cognitive architectures to support diagrammatic imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Balakrishnan; Banerjee, Bonny; Kurup, Unmesh; Lele, Omkar

    2011-10-01

    Diagrams are a form of spatial representation that supports reasoning and problem solving. Even when diagrams are external, not to mention when there are no external representations, problem solving often calls for internal representations, that is, representations in cognition, of diagrammatic elements and internal perceptions on them. General cognitive architectures--Soar and ACT-R, to name the most prominent--do not have representations and operations to support diagrammatic reasoning. In this article, we examine some requirements for such internal representations and processes in cognitive architectures. We discuss the degree to which DRS, our earlier proposal for such an internal representation for diagrams, meets these requirements. In DRS, the diagrams are not raw images, but a composition of objects that can be individuated and thus symbolized, while, unlike traditional symbols, the referent of the symbol is an object that retains its perceptual essence, namely, its spatiality. This duality provides a way to resolve what anti-imagists thought was a contradiction in mental imagery: the compositionality of mental images that seemed to be unique to symbol systems, and their support of a perceptual experience of images and some types of perception on them. We briefly review the use of DRS to augment Soar and ACT-R with a diagrammatic representation component. We identify issues for further research. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Anal Sphincter Augmentation Using Biological Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nasra N; Narang, Sunil K; Köckerling, Ferdinand; Daniels, Ian R; Smart, Neil J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the use of biological materials in the augmentation of the anal sphincter either as part of an overlapping sphincter repair (OSR) or anal bulking procedure. A systematic search of PubMed was conducted using the search terms "anal bulking agents," "anal sphincter repair," or "overlapping sphincter repair." Five studies using biological material as part of an overlapping sphincter repair (OSR) or as an anal bulking agent were identified. 122 patients underwent anal bulking with a biological material. Anorectal physiology was conducted in 27 patients and demonstrated deterioration in maximum resting pressure, and no significant change in maximum squeeze increment. Quality of life scores (QoLs) demonstrated improvements at 6 weeks and 6 months, but this had deteriorated at 12 months of follow up. Biological material was used in 23 patients to carry out an anal encirclement procedure. Improvements in QoLs were observed in patients undergoing OSR as well as anal encirclement using biological material. Incontinence episodes decreased to an average of one per week from 8 to 10 preoperatively. Sphincter encirclement with biological material has demonstrated improvements in continence and QoLs in the short term compared to traditional repair alone. Long-term studies are necessary to determine if this effect is sustained. As an anal bulking agent the benefits are short-term.

  3. RAID: a relation-augmented image descriptor

    KAUST Repository

    Guerrero, Paul; Mitra, Niloy J.; Wonka, Peter

    2016-01-01

    As humans, we regularly interpret scenes based on how objects are related, rather than based on the objects themselves. For example, we see a person riding an object X or a plank bridging two objects. Current methods provide limited support to search for content based on such relations. We present RAID, a relation-augmented image descriptor that supports queries based on inter-region relations. The key idea of our descriptor is to encode region-to-region relations as the spatial distribution of point-to-region relationships between two image regions. RAID allows sketch-based retrieval and requires minimal training data, thus making it suited even for querying uncommon relations. We evaluate the proposed descriptor by querying into large image databases and successfully extract nontrivial images demonstrating complex inter-region relations, which are easily missed or erroneously classified by existing methods. We assess the robustness of RAID on multiple datasets even when the region segmentation is computed automatically or very noisy.

  4. Rotor Design for Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Hjort

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Diffuser augmented wind turbines (DAWTs can increase mass flow through the rotor substantially, but have often failed to fulfill expectations. We address high-performance diffusers, and investigate the design requirements for a DAWT rotor to efficiently convert the available energy to shaft energy. Several factors can induce wake stall scenarios causing significant energy loss. The causality between these stall mechanisms and earlier DAWT failures is discussed. First, a swirled actuator disk CFD code is validated through comparison with results from a far wake swirl corrected blade-element momentum (BEM model, and horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT reference results. Then, power efficiency versus thrust is computed with the swirled actuator disk (AD code for low and high values of tip-speed ratios (TSR, for different centerbodies, and for different spanwise rotor thrust loading distributions. Three different configurations are studied: The bare propeller HAWT, the classical DAWT, and the high-performance multi-element DAWT. In total nearly 400 high-resolution AD runs are generated. These results are presented and discussed. It is concluded that dedicated DAWT rotors can successfully convert the available energy to shaft energy, provided the identified design requirements for swirl and axial loading distributions are satisfied.

  5. Interactive Anatomy-Augmented Virtual Simulation Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebersold, Michelle; Voepel-Lewis, Terri; Cherara, Leila; Weber, Monica; Khouri, Christina; Levine, Robert; Tait, Alan R

    2018-02-01

    Traditionally, clinical psychomotor skills are taught through videos and demonstration by faculty which does not allow for the visualization of internal structures and anatomical landmarks that would enhance the learner skill performance. Sophomore and junior nursing students attending a large Midwestern Institution (N=69) participated in this mixed methods study. Students demonstrated their ability to place a nasogastric tube (NGT) after being randomly assigned to usual training (Control group) or an iPad anatomy-augmented virtual simulation training module (AR group). The ability of the participants to demonstrate competence in placing the NGT was assessed using a 17-item competency checklist. After the demonstration, students completed a survey to elicit information about students' level of training, prior experience with NGT placement, satisfaction with the AR technology, and perceptions of AR as a potential teaching tool for clinical skills training. The ability to correctly place the NGT through all the checklist items was statistically significant in the AR group compared with the control group (P = 0.011). Eighty-six percent of participants in the AR group rated AR as superior/far superior to other procedural training programs to which they had been exposed, whereas, only 5.9% of participants in the control group rated the control program as superior/far superior (P < 0.001). Overall the AR module was better received compared with the control group with regards to realism, identifying landmarks, visualization of internal organs, ease of use, usefulness, and promoting learning and understanding.

  6. Augmented Visual Experience of Simulated Solar Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, A. O., IV; Berardino, R. A.; Hahne, D.; Schreurs, B.; Fox, N. J.; Raouafi, N.

    2017-12-01

    The Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission will explore the Sun's corona, studying solar wind, flares and coronal mass ejections. The effects of these phenomena can impact the technology that we use in ways that are not readily apparent, including affecting satellite communications and power grids. Determining the structure and dynamics of corona magnetic fields, tracing the flow of energy that heats the corona, and exploring dusty plasma near the Sun to understand its influence on solar wind and energetic particle formation requires a suite of sensors on board the PSP spacecraft that are engineered to observe specific phenomena. Using models of these sensors and simulated observational data, we can visualize what the PSP spacecraft will "see" during its multiple passes around the Sun. Augmented reality (AR) technologies enable convenient user access to massive data sets. We are developing an application that allows users to experience environmental data from the point of view of the PSP spacecraft in AR using the Microsoft HoloLens. Observational data, including imagery, magnetism, temperature, and density are visualized in 4D within the user's immediate environment. Our application provides an educational tool for comprehending the complex relationships of observational data, which aids in our understanding of the Sun.

  7. Use of radiation maps in augmented reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droeivoldsmo, Asgeir; Reigstad, Magnus; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Louka, Michael N.; Helgar, Stein; Gustavsen, Morten; Nystad, Espen

    2002-07-01

    The entrance of small wireless computers opens for application of computers in a number of new areas. In the near future, operators will be able to wear a computer much in the same way as eyeglasses or clothing are worn today. One example of a potentially useful application of this technology is visualisation of radiation. With the augmented reality (AR) technique, combining computer-generated pictures with the real world, information of variation in radiation levels can be presented for field operator working in contaminated areas. Using the AR system prototype developed for the experiment described in this report, information about radiation was presented to the subjects using different sensing modalities. The visual mode was chosen as the main mode and compared to a combination of visual, auditory and haptic presentations. A control group presented with paper-based information about levels of radiation performed the same task as the groups using the AR prototype. The results indicate that the operators' awareness of radiation was the same after using the AR prototype as in the control group. The auditory and haptic information presented seemed to have a positive effect on the operators' radiation awareness. The report discusses the results from the experimental test and from a usability test of the prototype. Based on these results and current technology status in the domain of AR, recommendations for further development are given.

  8. RAID: a relation-augmented image descriptor

    KAUST Repository

    Guerrero, Paul

    2016-07-11

    As humans, we regularly interpret scenes based on how objects are related, rather than based on the objects themselves. For example, we see a person riding an object X or a plank bridging two objects. Current methods provide limited support to search for content based on such relations. We present RAID, a relation-augmented image descriptor that supports queries based on inter-region relations. The key idea of our descriptor is to encode region-to-region relations as the spatial distribution of point-to-region relationships between two image regions. RAID allows sketch-based retrieval and requires minimal training data, thus making it suited even for querying uncommon relations. We evaluate the proposed descriptor by querying into large image databases and successfully extract nontrivial images demonstrating complex inter-region relations, which are easily missed or erroneously classified by existing methods. We assess the robustness of RAID on multiple datasets even when the region segmentation is computed automatically or very noisy.

  9. Wave Augmented Diffuser for Centrifugal Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoch, Gary J. (Inventor); Paxson, Daniel E. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A wave augmented diffuser for a centrifugal compressor surrounds the outlet of an impeller that rotates on a drive shaft having an axis of rotation. The impeller brings flow in in an axial direction and imparts kinetic energy to the flow discharging it in radial and tangential directions. The flow is discharged into a plurality of circumferentially disposed wave chambers. The wave chambers are periodically opened and closed by a rotary valve such that the flow through the diffuser is unsteady. The valve includes a plurality of valve openings that are periodically brought into and out of fluid communication with the wave chambers. When the wave chambers are closed, a reflected compression wave moves upstream towards the diffuser bringing the flow into the wave chamber to rest. This action recovers the kinetic energy from the flow and limits any boundary layer growth. The flow is then discharged in an axial direction through an opening in the valve plate when the valve plate is rotated to an open position. The diffuser thus efficiently raises the static pressure of the fluid and discharges an axially directed flow at a radius that is predominantly below the maximum radius of the diffuser.

  10. Spatial augmented reality merging real and virtual worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Bimber, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    Like virtual reality, augmented reality is becoming an emerging platform in new application areas for museums, edutainment, home entertainment, research, industry, and the art communities using novel approaches which have taken augmented reality beyond traditional eye-worn or hand-held displays. In this book, the authors discuss spatial augmented reality approaches that exploit optical elements, video projectors, holograms, radio frequency tags, and tracking technology, as well as interactive rendering algorithms and calibration techniques in order to embed synthetic supplements into the real

  11. Adenoma-carcinoma Sequence in the Bladder After Augmentation Cystoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Naito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 64-year-old woman showing multistep progression from adenoma to adenocarcinoma in the bladder 46 years after augmentation ileocystoplasty. She underwent augmentation ileocystoplasty for tuberculous contracted bladder at 18 years. After 44 years, tubulovillous adenomas were found and resected at the ileovesical anastomosis site. After 2 more years, bladder tumors recurred and revealed adenocarcinomas. Finally, radical cystectomy was required because of frequent recurrence and tumor extensiveness. To our knowledge, this is the first case demonstrating adenoma-carcinoma sequence histopathologically in the bladder after augmentation cystoplasty, indicating multistep carcinogenesis similar to intestinal carcinogenesis.

  12. Intravenous alpha-1 antitrypsin augmentation therapy: systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed the benefits and harms of augmentation therapy with alpha-1 antitrypsin in patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency and lung disease. We searched for randomised trials comparing augmentation therapy with placebo or no treatment in PubMed and ClinicalTrials (7 January 2010). Two...... (difference 1.14 g/l; 95% confidence interval 0.14 to 2.14; p = 0.03) over the total course of the trials. Augmentation therapy with alpha-1 antitrypsin cannot be recommended in view of the lack of evidence of clinical benefit and the cost of treatment....

  13. Deterministic Local Sensitivity Analysis of Augmented Systems - I: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacuci, Dan G.; Ionescu-Bujor, Mihaela

    2005-01-01

    This work provides the theoretical foundation for the modular implementation of the Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis Procedure (ASAP) for large-scale simulation systems. The implementation of the ASAP commences with a selected code module and then proceeds by augmenting the size of the adjoint sensitivity system, module by module, until the entire system is completed. Notably, the adjoint sensitivity system for the augmented system can often be solved by using the same numerical methods used for solving the original, nonaugmented adjoint system, particularly when the matrix representation of the adjoint operator for the augmented system can be inverted by partitioning

  14. Augmented reality as a design tool for mobile interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Nielsen, Christina

    2000-01-01

    applications derived from the classification of augmented reality interfaces. The focus on physical interaction with objects of work and with the mobile device provides us with a range of interaction styles, based on e.g. gestures and manipulation of objects. Furthermore, issues of transparency and directness......This paper challenges user interface paradigms for mobile devices, by using the technical classification of augmented reality interfaces as a thinking tool to develop ideas for interaction with mobile devices. The paper presents future work scenarios from a wastewater treatment plant embodying PDA...... are addressed. The future scenarios indicate that the concepts of augmented reality support solving context problems in mobile design....

  15. Research on Design of MUH Attitude Stability Augmentation Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shigang

    2017-09-01

    Attitude stability augmentation control system with a lower cost need to be designed so that MUH (Mini Unmanned Helicopter) can adapt to different types of geographic environment and fly steadily although the weather may be bad. Attitude feedback was calculated mainly by filtering estimation within attitude acquisition module in this system. Stability augmentation can be improved mainly by PI. This paper will depict running principle and designing process of MUH attitude stability augmentation control system and algorithm that is considered as an important part in this system.

  16. FEATURES OF USING AUGMENTED REALITY TECHNOLOGY TO SUPPORT EDUCATIONAL PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury A. Kravchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the concept and technology of augmented reality, the rationale given the relevance and timeliness of its use to support educational processes. Paper is a survey and study of the possibility of using augmented reality technology in education. Architecture is proposed and constructed algorithms of the software system management QR-codes media objects. An overview of the features and uses of augmented reality technology to support educational processes is displayed, as an option of a new form of visual demonstration of complex objects, models and processes. 

  17. Introduction to Mobile Augmented Reality Development in Unity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob W. Greene

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This lesson serves as an introduction to creating mobile augmented reality applications. Augmented reality (AR can be defined as the overlaying of digital content (images, video, text, sound, etc. onto physical objects or locations, and it is typically experienced by looking through the camera lens of an electronic device such as a smartphone, tablet, or optical head-mounted display (e.g. Microsoft Hololens. Although AR is a cutting-edge, complex technology, there are a number of user-friendly platforms that allow people with no previous coding experience to create compelling augmented reality experiences.

  18. Effective augmentation of networked systems and enhancing pinning controllability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2018-06-01

    Controlling dynamics of networked systems to a reference state, known as pinning control, has many applications in science and engineering. In this paper, we introduce a method for effective augmentation of networked systems, while also providing high levels of pinning controllability for the final augmented network. The problem is how to connect a sub-network to an already existing network such that the pinning controllability is maximised. We consider the eigenratio of the augmented Laplacian matrix as a pinning controllability metric, and use graph perturbation theory to approximate the influence of edge addition on the eigenratio. The proposed metric can be effectively used to find the inter-network links connecting the disjoint networks. Also, an efficient link rewiring approach is proposed to further optimise the pinning controllability of the augmented network. We provide numerical simulations on synthetic networks and show that the proposed method is more effective than heuristic ones.

  19. Augmenting the salt tolerance in wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Augmenting the salt tolerance in wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) through exogenously applied silicon. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... physiology and biochemistry of wheat genotypes (salt sensitive; Auqab-2000 and salt tolerant; SARC-5) ...

  20. Herriott Cell Augmentation of a Quadrature Heterodyne Interferometer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonsen, Erik

    2002-01-01

    A quadrature heterodyne interferometer is augmented with a Herriott Cell multi-pass reflector to increase instrument resolution and enable a separation of the phase shift due to neutral density from room vibrations...

  1. Adaptive Augmented Reality enabled electronic Procedure Toolset, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research is aimed at investigating the feasibility to provide an integrated tool suite for development of Adaptive user interfaces for Augmented Reality...

  2. The Palatal Window for Treating an Incompletely Augmented Maxillary Sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Salvatore; Suzuki, Takanori; Cho, Sang-Choon

    2017-04-01

    Maxillary sinus augmentation through a lateral window is reported as one of the most predictable bone augmentation procedures before implant placement. The elevation of the membrane represents a delicate and crucial step that allows the creation of the space for the bone graft material. If the elevation is not completed, the regenerated bone might be inadequate for the implant placement. In this case, a new intervention will be necessary to complete the bone augmentation. Reaccessing from a lateral window, however, would be challenging due to thickness of the buccal boney wall because of the first grafting procedure; therefore, a different approach has to be used. The aim of this case report is to present the palatal window technique for treating incompletely augmented maxillary sinus. The detailed step-by-step diagnostic and surgical procedures are described, and the advantages and limitations of the technique are discussed through a review of the literature.

  3. Augmented reality aiding collimator exchange at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, Héctor; Fabry, Thomas; Laukkanen, Seppo; Mattila, Jouni; Tabourot, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Novel Augmented Reality techniques have the potential to have a large positive impact on the way remote maintenance operations are carried out in hazardous areas, e.g. areas where radiation doses that imply careful planning and optimization of maintenance operations are present. This paper describes an Augmented Reality strategy, system and implementation for aiding the remote collimator exchange in the LHC, currently the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator. The proposed system relies on marker detection and multi-modal augmentation in real-time. A database system has been used to ensure flexibility. The system has been tested in a mock-up facility, showing real time performance and great potential for future use in the LHC. The technical-scientific difficulties identified during the development of the system and the proposed solutions described in this paper may help the development of future Augmented Reality systems for remote handling in scientific facilities

  4. Hands in space: gesture interaction with augmented-reality interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinghurst, Mark; Piumsomboon, Tham; Huidong Bai

    2014-01-01

    Researchers at the Human Interface Technology Laboratory New Zealand (HIT Lab NZ) are investigating free-hand gestures for natural interaction with augmented-reality interfaces. They've applied the results to systems for desktop computers and mobile devices.

  5. Effectiveness of plate augmentation for femoral shaft nonunion after nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Jung Lin

    2012-08-01

    Conclusion: Plate augmentation with retention of the nail with autologous bone grafting may be an effective and reliable alternative in treating nonunion of the femoral shaft fracture after open reduction and internal fixation with intramedullary nail.

  6. Gas dynamic analysis of the performance of diffuser augmented ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A diffuser augmented wind turbine (DAWT) is considered an ... Maximum power rating ± for a given blade technology ± can be extended substantially by ... twist angles in addition to design parameters such as tip speed ratio with minimum ...

  7. Location based augmented reality application on Unity 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Serra Font, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    This document presents the development and steps taken in order to create an augmented reality application using the Unity 3D software using a mobile handheld device. The steps of the development will be explained and the performance evaluated.

  8. Die Welt als Spielfeld: Mobile Serious Games mit Augmented Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Schneider, Jan; Happe, Sven; Bockelmann, Timo; Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Technological innovations enable us to connect computer games with the environment they are played in: augmented reality games take the world as their playground. In this talk, the use of such technologies for mobile serious games is explored.

  9. Virtual, augmented reality and serious games for healthcare

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Anderson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    There is a tremendous interest among researchers for the development of virtual, augmented reality and games technologies due to their widespread applications in medicine and healthcare. To date the major applications of these technologies include medical simulation, telemedicine, medical and healthcare training, pain control, visualisation aid for surgery, rehabilitation in cases such as stroke, phobia, and trauma therapies. Many recent studies have identified the benefits of using Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, or serious games in a variety of medical applications.   This research volume on Virtual, Augmented Reality and Serious Games for Healthcare 1 offers an insightful introduction to the theories, development and applications of virtual, augmented reality and digital games technologies in medical and clinical settings and healthcare in general. It is divided into six sections: section one presents a selection of applications in medical education and healthcare management; Section two relates to th...

  10. Projector augmented wave method: ab initio molecular dynamics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    kinetic energy is small and the wave function is smooth. However, the wave ... and various strategies have been developed. ... methods let us briefly review the history of augmented ..... alleviated by adding an intelligent zero: If an operator B.

  11. Augmented reality aiding collimator exchange at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, Héctor, E-mail: hector.martinez@sensetrix.com [SenseTrix, PL 20 FI-00101 Helsinki (Finland); Fabry, Thomas [European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Laukkanen, Seppo [SenseTrix, PL 20 FI-00101 Helsinki (Finland); Mattila, Jouni [Tampere University of Technology, PO Box 527, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Tabourot, Laurent [SYMME, Université de Savoie, Polytech Annecy-Chambéry, 5 chemin de Bellevue, 74944 Annecy le Vieux (France)

    2014-11-01

    Novel Augmented Reality techniques have the potential to have a large positive impact on the way remote maintenance operations are carried out in hazardous areas, e.g. areas where radiation doses that imply careful planning and optimization of maintenance operations are present. This paper describes an Augmented Reality strategy, system and implementation for aiding the remote collimator exchange in the LHC, currently the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator. The proposed system relies on marker detection and multi-modal augmentation in real-time. A database system has been used to ensure flexibility. The system has been tested in a mock-up facility, showing real time performance and great potential for future use in the LHC. The technical-scientific difficulties identified during the development of the system and the proposed solutions described in this paper may help the development of future Augmented Reality systems for remote handling in scientific facilities.

  12. Human Performance Assessments when Using Augmented Reality for Navigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldiez, Brian F; Saptoka, Nabin; Aedunuthula, Prashanth

    2006-01-01

    Human performance executing search and rescue type of navigation is one area that can benefit from augmented reality technology when the proper computer generated information is added to a real scene...

  13. Dimensions of Mobile Augmented Reality for Learning: A First Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Specht, Marcus; Ternier, Stefaan; Greller, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Specht, M., Ternier, S., & Greller, W. (2011). Dimensions of Mobile Augmented Reality for Learning: A First Inventory. Journal of the Research for Educational Technology (RCET), 7(1), 117-127. Spring 2011.

  14. Passive Infrared Signature Augmentation of Full-Scale Plastic Targets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gebus, Lisa M; Sanders, Jeffrey S

    2002-01-01

    ... (IR), and radar signatures of threat systems. To address this need, a program was initiated by TMO to augment an existing full-scale, vacuum-formed plastic target with sufficient signature fidelity to adequately stress U.S...

  15. Augmented Reality Development Environment for Electronic Procedure systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) has identified technology needs for Autonomous Crew Operations.  Augmented Reality (AR) is part of the solution to enable crew...

  16. Adaptive Augmenting Control and Launch Vehicle Adaptive Control Flight Experiments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Researchers at NASA Armstrong are working to further the development of an adaptive augmenting control algorithm (AAC). The AAC was developed to improve the...

  17. Virtual and augmented reality for training on maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents two projects focused to support training on maintenance using new technologies. Both projects aims at specifying. designing, developing, and demonstrating prototypes allowing computer guided maintenance of complex mechanical elements using Virtual Reality (VIRMAN) and Augmented Reality (STARMATE) techniques. VIRMAN project is dedicated to training course development on maintenance using Virtual Reality. It based in the animation of three dimension images for component assembly/de-assembly or equipment movements. STARMATE will rely on Augmented Reality techniques which is a growing area in virtual Reality research. The idea of Augmented Reality is to combine a real scene, viewed by the user, with a virtual scene generated by a computer augmenting the reality with additional information. (Author)

  18. Control-Volume Analysis Of Thrust-Augmenting Ejectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Colin K.

    1990-01-01

    New method of analysis of transient flow in thrust-augmenting ejector based on control-volume formulation of governing equations. Considered as potential elements of propulsion subsystems of short-takeoff/vertical-landing airplanes.

  19. Telescopic multi-resolution augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Frenchi, Christopher; Szu, Harold

    2014-05-01

    To ensure a self-consistent scaling approximation, the underlying microscopic fluctuation components can naturally influence macroscopic means, which may give rise to emergent observable phenomena. In this paper, we describe a consistent macroscopic (cm-scale), mesoscopic (micron-scale), and microscopic (nano-scale) approach to introduce Telescopic Multi-Resolution (TMR) into current Augmented Reality (AR) visualization technology. We propose to couple TMR-AR by introducing an energy-matter interaction engine framework that is based on known Physics, Biology, Chemistry principles. An immediate payoff of TMR-AR is a self-consistent approximation of the interaction between microscopic observables and their direct effect on the macroscopic system that is driven by real-world measurements. Such an interdisciplinary approach enables us to achieve more than multiple scale, telescopic visualization of real and virtual information but also conducting thought experiments through AR. As a result of the consistency, this framework allows us to explore a large dimensionality parameter space of measured and unmeasured regions. Towards this direction, we explore how to build learnable libraries of biological, physical, and chemical mechanisms. Fusing analytical sensors with TMR-AR libraries provides a robust framework to optimize testing and evaluation through data-driven or virtual synthetic simulations. Visualizing mechanisms of interactions requires identification of observable image features that can indicate the presence of information in multiple spatial and temporal scales of analog data. The AR methodology was originally developed to enhance pilot-training as well as `make believe' entertainment industries in a user-friendly digital environment We believe TMR-AR can someday help us conduct thought experiments scientifically, to be pedagogically visualized in a zoom-in-and-out, consistent, multi-scale approximations.

  20. Health economic aspects of vertebral augmentation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgström, F; Beall, D P; Berven, S; Boonen, S; Christie, S; Kallmes, D F; Kanis, J A; Olafsson, G; Singer, A J; Åkesson, K

    2015-04-01

    We reviewed all peer-reviewed papers analysing the cost-effectiveness of vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. In general, the procedures appear to be cost effective but are very dependent upon model input details. Better data, rather than new models, are needed to answer outstanding questions. Vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs), including vertebroplasty (VP) and balloon kyphoplasty (BKP), seek to stabilise fractured vertebral bodies and reduce pain. The aim of this paper is to review current literature on the cost-effectiveness of VAPs as well as to discuss the challenges for economic evaluation in this research area. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify existing published studies on the cost-effectiveness of VAPs in patients with osteoporosis. Only peer-reviewed published articles that fulfilled the criteria of being regarded as full economic evaluations including both morbidity and mortality in the outcome measure in the form of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were included. The search identified 949 studies, of which four (0.4 %) were identified as relevant with one study added later. The reviewed studies differed widely in terms of study design, modelling framework and data used, yielding different results and conclusions regarding the cost-effectiveness of VAPs. Three out of five studies indicated in the base case results that VAPs were cost effective compared to non-surgical management (NSM). The five main factors that drove the variations in the cost-effectiveness between the studies were time horizon, quality of life effect of treatment, offset time of the treatment effect, reduced number of bed days associated with VAPs and mortality benefit with treatment. The cost-effectiveness of VAPs is uncertain. In answering the remaining questions, new cost-effectiveness analysis will yield limited benefit. Rather, studies that can reduce the uncertainty in the underlying data

  1. Transparent 3D display for augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungho; Hong, Jisoo

    2012-11-01

    Two types of transparent three-dimensional display systems applicable for the augmented reality are demonstrated. One of them is a head-mounted-display-type implementation which utilizes the principle of the system adopting the concave floating lens to the virtual mode integral imaging. Such configuration has an advantage in that the threedimensional image can be displayed at sufficiently far distance resolving the accommodation conflict with the real world scene. Incorporating the convex half mirror, which shows a partial transparency, instead of the concave floating lens, makes it possible to implement the transparent three-dimensional display system. The other type is the projection-type implementation, which is more appropriate for the general use than the head-mounted-display-type implementation. Its imaging principle is based on the well-known reflection-type integral imaging. We realize the feature of transparent display by imposing the partial transparency to the array of concave mirror which is used for the screen of reflection-type integral imaging. Two types of configurations, relying on incoherent and coherent light sources, are both possible. For the incoherent configuration, we introduce the concave half mirror array, whereas the coherent one adopts the holographic optical element which replicates the functionality of the lenslet array. Though the projection-type implementation is beneficial than the head-mounted-display in principle, the present status of the technical advance of the spatial light modulator still does not provide the satisfactory visual quality of the displayed three-dimensional image. Hence we expect that the head-mounted-display-type and projection-type implementations will come up in the market in sequence.

  2. Augmenting the Deliberative Method for Ranking Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susel, Irving; Lasley, Trace; Montezemolo, Mark; Piper, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) characterized and prioritized the physical cross-border threats and hazards to the nation stemming from terrorism, market-driven illicit flows of people and goods (illegal immigration, narcotics, funds, counterfeits, and weaponry), and other nonmarket concerns (movement of diseases, pests, and invasive species). These threats and hazards pose a wide diversity of consequences with very different combinations of magnitudes and likelihoods, making it very challenging to prioritize them. This article presents the approach that was used at DHS to arrive at a consensus regarding the threats and hazards that stand out from the rest based on the overall risk they pose. Due to time constraints for the decision analysis, it was not feasible to apply multiattribute methodologies like multiattribute utility theory or the analytic hierarchy process. Using a holistic approach was considered, such as the deliberative method for ranking risks first published in this journal. However, an ordinal ranking alone does not indicate relative or absolute magnitude differences among the risks. Therefore, the use of the deliberative method for ranking risks is not sufficient for deciding whether there is a material difference between the top-ranked and bottom-ranked risks, let alone deciding what the stand-out risks are. To address this limitation of ordinal rankings, the deliberative method for ranking risks was augmented by adding an additional step to transform the ordinal ranking into a ratio scale ranking. This additional step enabled the selection of stand-out risks to help prioritize further analysis. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. PENGGUNAAN AUGMENTED REALITY UNTUK MENSIMULASIKAN DEKORASI RUANGAN SECARA REAL TIME

    OpenAIRE

    Ulva Erida Nur Rochmah; Aris Rakhmadi

    2016-01-01

    Abstrak Mendekorasi ruangan merupakan kegiatan  yang memakan banyak waktu dan tenaga, terutama jika objek yang digunakan besar dan berat. Akan merepotkan jika seseorang harus menggeser setiap objek untuk menentukan letak yang sesuai. Hal ini dapat dihindari dengan menggunakan aplikasi berbasis Augmented Reality. Augmented Reality merupakan sebuah teknologi untuk menggabungkan dunia nyata dan dunia virtual dengan cara menampilkan objek-objek virtual di dunia nyata secara real time. Tujuan uta...

  4. Exploring the potential use of augmented reality in medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Orraryd, Pontus

    2017-01-01

    Human anatomy is traditionally taught using textbooks and dissections. With the advent of computer graphics, using 3D applications have started to see much more use in medical educations around the world. Today, technology such as Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality are on everybody’s lips, and many are now curious what we can do with this new technology. This thesis explores how Augmented Reality can be used in medical education to teach human anatomy. Two application prototypes were devel...

  5. Merging Augmented Reality Based Features in Mobile Multimedia Museum Guides

    OpenAIRE

    Damala, Areti; Marchal, Isabelle; Houlier, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Augmented Reality (AR), a computer science field considered by many as a subfield of the broader concept of Mixed Reality, could alter dramatically the way we interact not only with computers but also with the real environment surrounding us, as well as with other human beings. Augmented Reality has so far been used for applications linked with military training, medicine, maintenance, architecture and urban planning, tourism, and entertainment. This last category embr...

  6. Virtual and Augmented Reality on the 5G Highway

    OpenAIRE

    Orlosky, Jason; Kiyokawa, Kiyoshi; Takemura, Haruo

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, virtual and augmented reality have begun to take advantage of the high speed capabilities of data streaming technologies and wireless networks. However, limitations like bandwidth and latency still prevent us from achieving high fidelity telepresence and collaborative virtual and augmented reality applications. Fortunately, both researchers and engineers are aware of these problems and have set out to design 5G networks to help us to move to the next generation of virtual int...

  7. Augmented Reality user interface analysis in mobile devices

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán Guzmán, José Daniel

    2014-01-01

    [ENGLISH] The presence of high-end phones in the telephony market, has allowed consumers to have access to the computational power of mobile smart-phone devices. Powerful processors, combined with cameras and ease of development encourage an increasing number of Augmented Reality (AR) researchers to adopt mobile smart-phones as AR platform. The same way, Augmented Reality on mobile devices has become increasingly popular for many applications, including search and location, tourism, and shopp...

  8. Implementing augmented reality for visualisation of virtual buildings using Android

    OpenAIRE

    Dąbrowski, Piotr Władysław

    2011-01-01

    The mobile phone devices are still developing and they are gaining more functionality and are able to deal with more advanced tasks. One of the technologies timidly trying to approach the mobile phone market is the augmented reality, which does no longer require external equipment to be formed in a programming application. There is a limited number of sources trying to describe the accuracy of augmented reality applications implemented on mobile devices. Within this study an application of au...

  9. Intuitive Robot Tasks with Augmented Reality and Virtual Obstacles

    OpenAIRE

    Gaschler, Andre;Springer, Maximilian;Rickert, Markus;Knoll, Alois

    2017-01-01

    Today's industrial robots require expert knowledge and are not profitable for small and medium sized enterprises with their small lot sizes. It is our strong belief that more intuitive robot programming in an augmented reality robot work cell can dramatically simplify re-programming and leverage robotics technology in short production cycles. In this paper, we present a novel augmented reality system for defining virtual obstacles, specifying tool positions, and specifying robot tasks. We eva...

  10. Introduction to Mobile Augmented Reality Development in Unity

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob W. Greene

    2016-01-01

    This lesson serves as an introduction to creating mobile augmented reality applications. Augmented reality (AR) can be defined as the overlaying of digital content (images, video, text, sound, etc.) onto physical objects or locations, and it is typically experienced by looking through the camera lens of an electronic device such as a smartphone, tablet, or optical head-mounted display (e.g. Microsoft Hololens). Although AR is a cutting-edge, complex technology, there are a number of user-frie...

  11. Using presence to evaluate an augmented reality location aware game

    OpenAIRE

    McCall, Roderick; Wetzel, Richard; Löschner, Johannes; Braun, Anne-Kathrin

    2011-01-01

    Location-aware augmented reality games provide players with a rich and potentially unlimited range of interaction possibilities. In this paper, a study is described which uses a number of measurement techniques including questionnaires, direct observation, semi-structured interviews and video analysis to measure player’s sense of presence. The paper points to the importance of the availability of actions within augmented reality games and how this shapes their sense of presence. The findings ...

  12. Functional Reflective Polarizer for Augmented Reality and Color Vision Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-03

    augment reality system is relatively high as compared to a polarizing beam splitter or a conventional reflective polarizer. Such a functional reflective...brightness of the display [7]. A key component for polarization management is polarizing beam splitter (PBS). Even though the PBS has exceptional...polarizer that can be incorporated into a compact augmented reality system. The design principle of the functional reflective polarizer is explained and

  13. Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) applied in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Ta-Ko Huang; Chi-Hsun Yang; Yu-Hsin Hsieh; Jen-Chyan Wang; Chun-Cheng Hung

    2018-01-01

    The OSCE is a reliable evaluation method to estimate the preclinical examination of dental students. The most ideal assessment for OSCE is used the augmented reality simulator to evaluate. This literature review investigated a recently developed in virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) starting of the dental history to the progress of the dental skill. As result of the lacking of technology, it needs to depend on other device increasing the success rate and decreasing the risk of th...

  14. Human-Assisted AI: an Intelligence Augmentation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Alicea, Bradly

    2018-01-01

    As a flavor of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), Human-Assisted AI can serve to both augment both human performance and artificial systems. This talk will feature a discussion of Human-assisted AI as an instance of Intelligence Augmentation (IA). We will discuss instances of weak and strong IA, in addition to contemporary examples of and paths forward for such systems. In the variety of models presented, data plays a critical role in the structure of interactions between human and artificial ...

  15. Leap Motion controller application in augmented reality technology

    OpenAIRE

    Artemčiukas, Edgaras; Sakalauskas, Leonidas

    2014-01-01

    In this work the analysis of interaction techniques, devices and its’ possibilities were accomplished. It was determined that the problem, which many researchers tries to solve – more natural interaction between users and computers. Interaction system in augmented reality environment using Leap Motion controller was developed. To achieve this goal augmented reality NyARToolkit and Leap Motion controller libraries were used. Solution ensures extensive information about hand, finger...

  16. Augmenting the Sound Experience at Music Festivals using Mobile Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Larsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe experiments carried out at the Nibe music festival in Denmark involving the use of mobile phones to augment the participants' sound experience at the concerts. The experiments involved N=19 test participants that used a mobile phone with a headset playing back sound...... “in-the-wild” experiments augmenting the sound experience at two concerts at this music festival....

  17. Augmented communication with haptic I/O in mobile devices

    OpenAIRE

    Haverinen, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Nonverbal communication is a very important part of face to face communication. Both explicit and implicit additions to verbal communication augment the information content of communication. Before telephones did not provide any means for adding nonverbal information to the communication, but now, as the technology has advanced, it is possible to start augmenting also the communication on the phone. Adding a haptic I/O device to a regular mobile phone opens possibilities to add value to commu...

  18. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-07-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed.

  19. Cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightman, Louise; Ng, Sze; Ahern, Susannah; Cooter, Rodney; Hopper, Ingrid

    2017-12-03

    The medical tourism industry, and in particular cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation, is becoming an increasingly popular global phenomenon. The objective of this study is to determine the extent of medical literature and the patient risk profiles associated with cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation both locally and abroad. OVID MEDLINE, OVID Embase, Cochrane Central and Proquest electronic databases. The search was conducted through to April 2017. Studies pertaining entirely or partly to cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation were considered for inclusion. Exclusion criteria included non-English articles, studies relating to non-cosmetic or non-implant breast augmentation, and studies that did not separately report on findings associated with breast augmentation abroad. We identified 17 observational studies. Common destinations included Europe, South America and South East Asia. Infectious complications were common. Wound dehiscence and aesthetic dissatisfaction also featured. Catastrophic outcomes such as sepsis, intubation and ventilation, radical bilateral mastectomy, irreversible hypoxic brain injury and death were also reported. There were expectations that home country health systems would treat complications and provide non-medically indicated revision procedures. The burden on home country health systems was evident from a public health perspective. Determining the extent of cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation, including outcomes and complications, will help to inform Australian patients who this seek procedure abroad. Furthermore, it will aid in better understanding the health system implications and may help to guide future research and public health interventions both locally and internationally. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  20. Detecting Site-Specific Physicochemical Selective Pressures: Applications to the Class I HLA of the Human Major Histocompatibility Complex and the SRK of the Plant Sporophytic Self-Incompatibility System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainudiin, Raazesh; Wong, Wendy Shuk Wan; Yogeeswaran, Krithika

    2005-01-01

    :transversion biases. Here, we apply this method to two positively selected receptors involved in ligand-recognition: the class I alleles of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of known structure and the S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) of the sporophytic self-incompatibility system (SSI) in cruciferous...... Bayes approach is used to identify sites that may be important for ligand recognition in these proteins....

  1. Augmented reality for industrial robot programmers: Workload analysis for task-based, augmented reality-supported robot control

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, S.; Kain, K.; Giuliani, M.; Mirnig, N.; Stollnberger, G.; Tscheligi, M. ed

    2016-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) can serve as a tool to provide helpful information in a direct way to industrial robot programmers throughout the teaching process. It seems obvious that AR support eases the programming process and increases the programmer's productivity and programming accuracy. However, additional information can also potentially increase the programmer's perceived workload. To explore the impact of augmented reality on robot teaching, as a first step we have chosen a Sphero robot co...

  2. Augmented reality in laparoscopic surgical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, Stéphane; Soler, Luc; Mutter, Didier; Marescaux, Jacques

    2011-09-01

    Minimally invasive surgery represents one of the main evolutions of surgical techniques aimed at providing a greater benefit to the patient. However, minimally invasive surgery increases the operative difficulty since the depth perception is usually dramatically reduced, the field of view is limited and the sense of touch is transmitted by an instrument. However, these drawbacks can currently be reduced by computer technology guiding the surgical gesture. Indeed, from a patient's medical image (US, CT or MRI), Augmented Reality (AR) can increase the surgeon's intra-operative vision by providing a virtual transparency of the patient. AR is based on two main processes: the 3D visualization of the anatomical or pathological structures appearing in the medical image, and the registration of this visualization on the real patient. 3D visualization can be performed directly from the medical image without the need for a pre-processing step thanks to volume rendering. But better results are obtained with surface rendering after organ and pathology delineations and 3D modelling. Registration can be performed interactively or automatically. Several interactive systems have been developed and applied to humans, demonstrating the benefit of AR in surgical oncology. It also shows the current limited interactivity due to soft organ movements and interaction between surgeon instruments and organs. If the current automatic AR systems show the feasibility of such system, it is still relying on specific and expensive equipment which is not available in clinical routine. Moreover, they are not robust enough due to the high complexity of developing a real-time registration taking organ deformation and human movement into account. However, the latest results of automatic AR systems are extremely encouraging and show that it will become a standard requirement for future computer-assisted surgical oncology. In this article, we will explain the concept of AR and its principles. Then, we

  3. Augmented reality for biomedical wellness sensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Szu, Harold

    2013-05-01

    Due to the commercial move and gaming industries, Augmented Reality (AR) technology has matured. By definition of AR, both artificial and real humans can be simultaneously present and realistically interact among one another. With the help of physics and physiology, we can build in the AR tool together with real human day-night webcam inputs through a simple interaction of heat transfer -getting hot, action and reaction -walking or falling, as well as the physiology -sweating due to activity. Knowing the person age, weight and 3D coordinates of joints in the body, we deduce the force, the torque, and the energy expenditure during real human movements and apply to an AR human model. We wish to support the physics-physiology AR version, PPAR, as a BMW surveillance tool for senior home alone (SHA). The functionality is to record senior walking and hand movements inside a home environment. Besides the fringe benefit of enabling more visits from grand children through AR video games, the PP-AR surveillance tool may serve as a means to screen patients in the home for potential falls at points around in house. Moreover, we anticipate PP-AR may help analyze the behavior history of SHA, e.g. enhancing the Smartphone SHA Ubiquitous Care Program, by discovering early symptoms of candidate Alzheimer-like midnight excursions, or Parkinson-like trembling motion for when performing challenging muscular joint movements. Using a set of coordinates corresponding to a set of 3D positions representing human joint locations, we compute the Kinetic Energy (KE) generated by each body segment over time. The Work is then calculated, and converted into calories. Using common graphics rendering pipelines, one could invoke AR technology to provide more information about patients to caretakers. Alerts to caretakers can be prompted by a patient's departure from their personal baseline, and the patient's time ordered joint information can be loaded to a graphics viewer allowing for high

  4. PENGGUNAAN AUGMENTED REALITY UNTUK MENSIMULASIKAN DEKORASI RUANGAN SECARA REAL TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulva Erida Nur Rochmah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Mendekorasi ruangan merupakan kegiatan  yang memakan banyak waktu dan tenaga, terutama jika objek yang digunakan besar dan berat. Akan merepotkan jika seseorang harus menggeser setiap objek untuk menentukan letak yang sesuai. Hal ini dapat dihindari dengan menggunakan aplikasi berbasis Augmented Reality. Augmented Reality merupakan sebuah teknologi untuk menggabungkan dunia nyata dan dunia virtual dengan cara menampilkan objek-objek virtual di dunia nyata secara real time. Tujuan utama dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menciptakan suatu aplikasi Android dengan menggunakan Augmented Reality yang dapat digunakan untuk menggantikan objek nyata dengan objek virtual 3D sehingga memudahkan pengguna dalam mensimulasikan dekorasi ruangan. Aplikasi ini bekerja dengan cara memindai marker yang sudah dicetak pada selembar kertas. Jika marker telah terdeteksi, objek 3D berupa perabot akan ditampilkan di kamera aplikasi. Pengguna dapat memindah lokasi, memutar, dan mengubah ukuran objek untuk mensimulasikan tata letak ruangan. Hasil penelitian ini adalah aplikasi Android berbasis Augmented Reality yang dapat digunakan untuk mensimulasikan dekorasi ruangan secara real time. Kata Kunci: augmented reality, dekorasi, interior, marker Abstract Decorating the room is an activity that takes a lot of time and effort, especially if the object is large and heavy. It would be inconvenient if someone has to drag each object to determine the appropriate location. This problem can be avoided using an Augmented Reality-based application. Augmented reality is a technology that combine the real world and the virtual world by displaying virtual object in real world. The main purpose of this research is to create an Android application using Augmented reality  that can be used to replace the real object with virtual 3D object, making it easier for the user to simulate the decoration of the room. This application works by scanning the marker that has been printed on a

  5. Differential expression of isoproterenol-induced salivary polypeptides in two mouse strains that are congenic for the H-2 histocompatibility gene complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Solís, Remigio O; Weis, Ulrike Kemmerling; Ceballos, Alicia Ramos; Salas, Gustavo Hoecker

    2003-12-01

    Two inbred mouse strains, A/Snell and A.Swiss, which were produced as congenic with regard to the H-2 histocompatibility gene complex, are homozygous for two different groups of isoproterenol-induced salivary polypeptides (IISP). These polypeptides, which have been considered as markers of the hypertrophic growth of the parotid acinar cells, are members of the complex family of salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) on the basis of both their massive accumulation in the parotid acinar cells in response to chronic isoproterenol, secretory character, high solubility in trichloroacetic acid and metachromatic staining by Coomassie blue. IISP expressed in both mouse strains were identified by unidimensional SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis and Coomassie blue staining both in parotid gland homogenates and in whole salivas obtained from mice repeatedly stimulated at 24-h intervals with isoproterenol. Parotid glands from 40 mice (20 A/Snell and 20 A.Swiss) and salivas from 270 mice (200 A/Snell and 70 A.Swiss) were analyzed. One of the congenic strains (A/Snell) expressed five IISP (Mr 65, 61, 51.5, 38, and 37 kDa) and the other strain (A.Swiss) expressed six IISP (Mr 59, 57, 54.5, 46, 36, and 34 kDa). No inter-individual intra-strain variations were observed, thus defining strain-associated patterns of IISP (PRP). Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Applicability of major histocompatibility complex DRB1 alleles as markers to detect vertebrate hybridization: a case study from Iberian ibex × domestic goat in southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasaad Samer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybridization between closely related wild and domestic species is of great concern because it can alter the evolutionary integrity of the affected populations. The high allelic variability of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC loci usually excludes them from being used in studies to detect hybridization events. However, if a the parental species don’t share alleles, and b one of the parental species possesses an exceptionally low number of alleles (to facilitate analysis, then even MHC loci have the potential to detect hybrids. Results By genotyping the exon2 of the MHC class II DRB1 locus, we were able to detect hybridization between domestic goats (Capra hircus and free-ranging Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica by molecular means. Conclusions This is the first documentation of a Capra pyrenaica × Capra hircus hybridization, which presented us the opportunity to test the applicability of MHC loci as new, simple, cost-effective, and time-saving approach to detect hybridization between wild species and their domesticated relatives, thus adding value to MHC genes role in animal conservation and management.

  7. Anti-GBM disease after nephrectomy for xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in a patient expressing HLA DR15 major histocompatibility antigens: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Emma; Mallett, Tamara; Convery, Mairead; McKeever, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibody disease is uncommon in the pediatric population. There are no cases in the literature describing the development of anti-GBM disease following XGP or nephrectomy. We report the case of a 7-year-old boy with no past history of urological illness, treated with antimicrobials and nephrectomy for diffuse, unilateral xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP). Renal function and ultrasound scan of the contralateral kidney postoperatively were normal. Three months later, the child represented in acute renal failure with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis requiring hemodialysis. Renal biopsy showed severe crescentic glomerulonephritis with 95% of glomeruli demonstrating circumferential cellular crescents. Strong linear IgG staining of the glomerular basement membranes was present, in keeping with anti-GBM disease. Circulating anti-GBM antibodies were positive. Treatment with plasma exchange, methylprednisolone, and cyclophosphamide led to normalization of anti-GBM antibody titers. Frequency of hemodialysis was reduced as renal function improved, and he is currently independent of dialysis with estimated glomerular filtration rate 20.7 mls/min/1.73 m 2 . Case studies in the adult literature have reported the development of a rapidly progressive anti-GBM antibody-induced glomerulonephritis following renal surgery where patients expressed HLA DR2/HLA DR15 major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens. Of note, our patient also expresses the HLA DR15 MHC antigen.

  8. CD54/intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and major histocompatibility complex II signaling induces B cells to express interleukin 2 receptors and complements help provided through CD40 ligation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poudrier, J; Owens, T

    1994-01-01

    We have examined signaling roles for CD54 intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II as contact ligands during T help for B cell activation. We used a T helper 1 (Th1)-dependent helper system that was previously shown to be contact as well as interleukin 2 (IL-2......) dependent to demonstrate the relative roles of CD54, MHC II, and CD40 signaling in the events leading to the induction of B cell proliferation and responsiveness to IL-2. Paraformaldehyde-fixed activated Th1-induced expression of IL-2R alpha, IL-2R beta, and B7, and upregulated MHC II and CD54 on B cells...... resulted in the upregulated expression of MHC II and of CD54 and B7, respectively, analogous to the effect of fixed activated Th1 cells. B7 expression was further enhanced by co-cross-linking CD54 and MHC II. Cross-linking of CD40 achieved comparable effects. Strikingly, cross-linking ligation of CD54...

  9. Acquired immunologic tolerance in chimeras and histocompatibility factors in cattle and their relationship to those in humans. Final report. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, W.H.

    1976-03-01

    During the course of this project we have studied 35 pairs of chimeric cattle twins. It is now clear that fractionated doses of whole-body /sup 60/Co irradiation can cause marked shifts in the proportions of the two erythrocyte populations that make up the chimeric mixture. However, it has not been possible to eliminate one of the two cell types and thus abrogate the acquired immunologic tolerance. The results of our extensive skin-grafting experiments are remarkable because they show that a chimeric twin may mount a sufficient immune response to reject its cotwin's skin while remaining completely tolerant to erythropoietic elements of its cotwin. In conjunction with these studies, we have acquired sufficient data to define a major histocompatibility locus in cattle using alloimmune anti-lymphocyte typing sera as well as the mixed lymphocyte culture technic. This project has also yielded a considerable number of new immunogenetic parameters for cattle, monkeys and birds. Such parameters are useful for basic and applied studies in immunology.

  10. Modulation of the major histocompatibility complex by neural stem cell-derived neurotrophic factors used for regenerative therapy in a rat model of stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Chongran

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between functional improvements in ischemic rats given a neural stem cell (NSC transplant and the modulation of the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC mediated by NSC-derived neurotrophins was investigated. Methods The levels of gene expression of nerve growth factor (NGF, brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 were assayed from cultures of cortical NSC from Sprague-Dawley rat E16 embryos. The levels of translated NGF in spent culture media from NSC cultures and the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF of rats with and without NGF injection or NSC transplant were also measured. Results We found a significant increase of NGF, BDNF and NT-3 transcripts and NGF proteins in both the NSC cultures and the CSF of the rats. The immunochemical staining for MHC in brain sections and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of CSF were carried out in sham-operated rats and rats with surgically induced focal cerebral ischemia. These groups were further divided into animals that did and did not receive NGF administration or NSC transplant into the cisterna magna. Our results show an up-regulation of class I MHC in the ischemic rats with NGF and NSC administration. The extent of caspase-III immunoreactivity was comparable among three arms in the ischemic rats. Conclusion Readouts of somatosensory evoked potential and the trap channel test illustrated improvements in the neurological function of ischemic rats treated with NGF administration and NSC transplant.

  11. A polymorphism in the splice donor site of ZNF419 results in the novel renal cell carcinoma-associated minor histocompatibility antigen ZAPHIR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Broen

    Full Text Available Nonmyeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT can induce remission in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC, but this graft-versus-tumor (GVT effect is often accompanied by graft-versus-host disease (GVHD. Here, we evaluated minor histocompatibility antigen (MiHA-specific T cell responses in two patients with metastatic RCC who were treated with reduced-intensity conditioning SCT followed by donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI. One patient had stable disease and emergence of SMCY.A2-specific CD8+ T cells was observed after DLI with the potential of targeting SMCY-expressing RCC tumor cells. The second patient experienced partial regression of lung metastases from whom we isolated a MiHA-specific CTL clone with the capability of targeting RCC cell lines. Whole genome association scanning revealed that this CTL recognizes a novel HLA-B7-restricted MiHA, designated ZAPHIR, resulting from a polymorphism in the splice donor site of the ZNF419 gene. Tetramer analysis showed that emergence of ZAPHIR-specific CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood occurred in the absence of GVHD. Furthermore, the expression of ZAPHIR in solid tumor cell lines indicates the involvement of ZAPHIR-specific CD8+ T cell responses in selective GVT immunity. These findings illustrate that the ZNF419-encoded MiHA ZAPHIR is an attractive target for specific immunotherapy after allogeneic SCT.

  12. Low Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Variation in the Endangered Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis): Inferences About the Role of Balancing Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiyang; Lin, Wenzhi; Zhou, Ruilian; Gui, Duan; Yu, Xinjian; Wu, Yuping

    2016-03-01

    It has been widely reported that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is under balancing selection due to its immune function across terrestrial and aquatic mammals. The comprehensive studies at MHC and other neutral loci could give us a synthetic evaluation about the major force determining genetic diversity of species. Previously, a low level of genetic diversity has been reported among the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) using both mitochondrial marker and microsatellite loci. Here, the expression and sequence polymorphism of 2 MHC class II genes (DQB and DRB) in 32 S. chinensis from PRE collected between 2003 and 2011 were investigated. High ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates, codon-based selection analysis, and trans-species polymorphism (TSP) support the hypothesis that balancing selection acted on S. chinensis MHC sequences. However, only 2 haplotypes were detected at either DQB or DRB loci. Moreover, the lack of deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg expectation at DRB locus combined with the relatively low heterozygosity at both DQB locus and microsatellite loci suggested that balancing selection might not be sufficient, which further suggested that genetic drift associated with historical bottlenecks was not mitigated by balancing selection in terms of the loss of MHC and neutral variation in S. chinensis. The combined results highlighted the importance of maintaining the genetic diversity of the endangered S. chinensis. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Major-histocompatibility-complex-associated variation in secondary sexual traits of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): evidence for good-genes advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchkoff, S S; Lochmiller, R L; Masters, R E; Hoofer, S R; Van Den Bussche, R A

    2001-03-01

    Good-genes hypotheses predict that development of secondary sexual characters can be an honest advertisement of heritable male quality. We explored this hypothesis using a cervid model (adult, male white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus) to determine whether antler development could provide an honest signal of a male's genetic quality and condition to adversaries. We compared antler, morphometric, hormonal, and parasitic data collected from hunter-harvested deer to characteristics of the Mhc-DRB (Odvi), the most widely studied gene of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in Artiodactyla. We detected associations between genetic characteristics at Odvi-DRB and antler development and body mass, suggesting that antler development and body mass may be associated with pathogen resistance in deer and thus may be an honest signal of genetic quality. We also detected associations between Odvi-DRB characteristics and serum testosterone during the breeding season, suggesting that certain MHC characteristics may help deer cope with stresses related to breeding activity. In addition, we observed a negative relationship between degree of antler development and overall abundance of abomasal helminths. Our observations provide support for the hypothesis that antler development in white-tailed deer is an honest signal of quality.

  14. Expression and clinical value of the soluble major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A molecule in the serum of patients with renal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y-K; Jia, C-M; Yuan, G-J; Liu, W; Qiu, Y; Zhu, Q-G

    2015-06-29

    We investigated the expression and clinical value of the soluble major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (sMICA) molecule in the serum of patients with renal tumors. Sixty patients diagnosed with renal tumors were enrolled in the experimental group, whereas 20 healthy volunteers served as the control group. The sMICA levels were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the results were analyzed in combination with data from pathol-ogy examination. The experimental group had a statistically significant higher sMICA level (P < 0.05) than the control group. The sMICA level was higher in patients with malignant tumors than in those with be-nign tumors. We also observed a positive relationship among different tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) pathological stages with more advanced diseases exhibiting higher sMICA levels. As a tumor-associated antigen, MICA has a close relationship with renal tumorigenesis and immune es-cape. Our results indicated that sMICA levels were related to tumor pathol-ogy, TNM stage, and metastasis. Therefore, sMICA might be a potential marker for tumor characteristics, prognosis, and recurrence prediction.

  15. SNP association mapping across the extended major histocompatibility complex and risk of B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Y Urayama

    Full Text Available The extended major histocompatibility complex (xMHC is the most gene-dense region of the genome and harbors a disproportionately large number of genes involved in immune function. The postulated role of infection in the causation of childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL suggests that the xMHC may make an important contribution to the risk of this disease. We conducted association mapping across an approximately 4 megabase region of the xMHC using a validated panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in childhood BCP-ALL cases (n=567 enrolled in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study (NCCLS compared with population controls (n=892. Logistic regression analyses of 1,145 SNPs, adjusted for age, sex, and Hispanic ethnicity indicated potential associations between several SNPs and childhood BCP-ALL. After accounting for multiple comparisons, one of these included a statistically significant increased risk associated with rs9296068 (OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.19-1.66, corrected p=0.036, located in proximity to HLA-DOA. Sliding window haplotype analysis identified an additional locus located in the extended class I region in proximity to TRIM27 tagged by a haplotype comprising rs1237485, rs3118361, and rs2032502 (corrected global p=0.046. Our findings suggest that susceptibility to childhood BCP-ALL is influenced by genetic variation within the xMHC and indicate at least two important regions for future evaluation.

  16. Association of a specific major histocompatibility complex class IIβ single nucleotide polymorphism with resistance to lactococcosis in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colussi, S; Prearo, M; Bertuzzi, S A; Scanzio, T; Peletto, S; Favaro, L; Modesto, P; Maniaci, M G; Ru, G; Desiato, R; Acutis, P L

    2015-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci encode glycoproteins that bind to foreign peptides and initiate immune responses through their interaction with T cells. MHC class II molecules are heterodimers consisting of α and β chains encoded by extremely variable genes; variation in exon 2 is responsible for the majority of observed polymorphisms, mostly concentrated in the codons specifying the peptide-binding region. Lactococcus garvieae is the causative agent of lactococcosis, a warm-water bacterial infection pathogenic for cultured freshwater and marine fish. It causes considerable economic losses, limiting the profitability and development of fish industries in general and the intensive production of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), in particular. The disease is currently controlled with vaccines and antibiotics; however, vaccines have short-term efficacy, and increasing concerns regarding antibiotic residues have called for alternative strategies. To explore the involvement of the MHC class II β-1 domain as a candidate gene for resistance to lactococcosis, we exposed 400 rainbow trout to naturally contaminated water. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and one haplotype were associated with resistance (P trout resistant to lactococcosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The "adjuvant effect" of the polymorphic B-G antigens of the chicken major histocompatibility complex analyzed using purified molecules incorporated in liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, J; Eriksson, H; Skjødt, K

    1991-01-01

    The polymorphic B-G region of the chicken major histocompatibility complex has previously been shown to mediate an "adjuvant effect" on the humoral response to other erythrocyte alloantigens. We demonstrate here that B-G molecules purified with monoclonal antibodies exert this adjuvant effect...... on the production of alloantibodies to chicken class I (B-F) molecules, when the two are in the same liposome. The adjuvant effect may in part be mediated by antibodies, since the antibody response to B-G molecules occurs much faster than the response to B-F molecules, and conditions in which antibodies to B......-G are present increase the speed of the response to B-F molecules. We also found that the presence of B-G molecules in separate liposomes results in a lack of response to B-F molecules. In the light of this and other data, we consider the possible roles for the polymorphic B-G molecules, particularly...

  18. The T-Cell Receptor Can Bind to the Peptide-Bound Major Histocompatibility Complex and Uncomplexed β2-Microglobulin through Distinct Binding Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkle, Patrick S.; Irving, Melita; Hongjian, Song

    2017-01-01

    from molecular dynamics simulations. Using a biological assay based on TCR gene-engineered primary human T cells, we did not observe a significant effect of β2m on T-cell cytotoxicity, suggesting an alternate role for β2m binding. Overall, we show that binding of β2m to the TCR occurs in vitro and......T-Cell receptor (TCR)-mediated recognition of the peptide-bound major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) initiates an adaptive immune response against antigen-presenting target cells. The recognition events take place at the TCR-pMHC interface, and their effects on TCR conformation and dynamics...... are controversial. Here, we have measured the time-resolved hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) of a soluble TCR in the presence and absence of its cognate pMHC by mass spectrometry to delineate the impact of pMHC binding on solution-phase structural dynamics in the TCR. Our results demonstrate that while TCR...

  19. Transforming Polar Research with Google Glass Augmented Reality (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthkoski, T.

    2013-12-01

    Augmented reality is a new technology with the potential to accelerate the advancement of science, particularly in geophysical research. Augmented reality is defined as a live, direct or indirect, view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented (or supplemented) by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. When paired with advanced computing techniques on cloud resources, augmented reality has the potential to improve data collection techniques, visualizations, as well as in-situ analysis for many areas of research. Google is currently a pioneer of augmented reality technology and has released beta versions of their wearable computing device, Google Glass, to a select number of developers and beta testers. This community of 'Glass Explorers' is the vehicle from which Google shapes the future of their augmented reality device. Example applications of Google Glass in geophysical research range from use as a data gathering interface in harsh climates to an on-site visualization and analysis tool. Early participation in the shaping of the Google Glass device is an opportunity for researchers to tailor this new technology to their specific needs. The purpose of this presentation is to provide geophysical researchers with a hands-on first look at Google Glass and its potential as a scientific tool. Attendees will be given an overview of the technical specifications as well as a live demonstration of the device. Potential applications to geophysical research in polar regions will be the primary focus. The presentation will conclude with an open call to participate, during which attendees may indicate interest in developing projects that integrate Google Glass into their research. Application Mockup: Penguin Counter Google Glass Augmented Reality Device

  20. An experimental test of alternative population augmentation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberger, John A; Gerberich, Jill C; Fitzpatrick, Sarah W; Broder, E Dale; Angeloni, Lisa M; Funk, W Chris

    2018-01-19

    Human land use is fragmenting habitats worldwide and inhibiting dispersal among previously connected populations of organisms, often leading to inbreeding depression and reduced evolutionary potential in the face of rapid environmental change. To combat this augmentation of isolated populations with immigrants is sometimes used to facilitate demographic and genetic rescue. Augmentation with immigrants that are genetically and adaptively similar to the target population effectively increases population fitness, but if immigrants are very genetically or adaptively divergent, augmentation can lead to outbreeding depression. Despite well-cited guidelines for the best practice selection of immigrant sources, often only highly divergent populations remain, and experimental tests of these riskier augmentation scenarios are essentially nonexistent. We conducted a mesocosm experiment with Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to test the multigenerational demographic and genetic effects of augmenting 2 target populations with 3 types of divergent immigrants. We found no evidence of demographic rescue, but we did observe genetic rescue in one population. Divergent immigrant treatments tended to maintain greater genetic diversity, abundance, and hybrid fitness than controls that received immigrants from the source used to seed the mesocosms. In the second population, divergent immigrants had a slightly negative effect in one treatment, and the benefits of augmentation were less apparent overall, likely because this population started with higher genetic diversity and a lower reproductive rate that limited genetic admixture. Our results add to a growing consensus that gene flow can increase population fitness even when immigrants are more highly divergent and may help reduce uncertainty about the use of augmentation in conservation. © 2018 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Normative Data for Interpreting the BREAST-Q: Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Lily R.; Homa, Karen; Klassen, Anne F.; Pusic, Andrea L.; Kerrigan, Carolyn L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The BREAST-Q is a rigorously developed, well-validated, patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument with a module designed for evaluating breast augmentation outcomes. However, there are no published normative BREAST-Q scores, limiting interpretation. Methods Normative data were generated for the BREAST-Q Augmentation Module via the Army of Women (AOW), an online community of women (with and without breast cancer) engaged in breast-cancer related research. Members were recruited via email, with women 18 years or older without a history of breast cancer or breast surgery invited to participate. Descriptive statistics and a linear multivariate regression were performed. A separate analysis compared normative scores to findings from previously published BREAST-Q augmentation studies. Results The preoperative BREAST-Q Augmentation Module was completed by 1,211 women. Mean age was 54 ±24 years, mean body mass index (BMI) was 27 ±6, and 39% (n=467) had a bra cup size ≥D. Mean scores were Satisfaction with Breasts (54 ±19), Psychosocial Well-being (66 ±20), Sexual Well-being (49 ±20), and Physical Well-being (86 ±15). Women with a BMI of 30 or greater and bra cup size D or greater had lower scores. In comparison to AOW scores, published BREAST-Q augmentation scores were lower before and higher after surgery for all scales except Physical Well-being. Conclusions The AOW normative data represent breast-related satisfaction and well-being in woman not actively seeking breast augmentation. This data may be used as normative comparison values for those seeking and undergoing surgery as we did, demonstrating the value of breast augmentation in this patient population. PMID:28350657

  2. Who’s That Girl? Handheld Augmented Reality for Printed Photo Books

    OpenAIRE

    Henze , Niels; Boll , Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Part 1: Long and Short Papers; International audience; Augmented reality on mobile phones has recently made major progress. Lightweight, markerless object recognition and tracking makes handheld Augmented Reality feasible for new application domains. As this field is technology driven the interface design has mostly been neglected. In this paper we investigate visualization techniques for augmenting printed documents using handheld Augmented Reality. We selected the augmentation of printed ph...

  3. Gunner Goggles: Implementing Augmented Reality into Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leo L; Wu, Hao-Hua; Bilici, Nadir; Tenney-Soeiro, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that both smartphone and tablet integration into medical education has been lacking. At the same time, there is a niche for augmented reality (AR) to improve this process through the enhancement of textbook learning. Gunner Goggles is an attempt to enhance textbook learning in shelf exam preparatory review with augmented reality. Here we describe our initial prototype and detail the process by which augmented reality was implemented into our textbook through Layar. We describe the unique functionalities of our textbook pages upon augmented reality implementation, which includes links, videos and 3D figures, and surveyed 24 third year medical students for their impression of the technology. Upon demonstrating an initial prototype textbook chapter, 100% (24/24) of students felt that augmented reality improved the quality of our textbook chapter as a learning tool. Of these students, 92% (22/24) agreed that their shelf exam review was inadequate and 19/24 (79%) felt that a completed Gunner Goggles product would have been a viable alternative to their shelf exam review. Thus, while students report interest in the integration of AR into medical education test prep, future investigation into how the use of AR can improve performance on exams is warranted.

  4. Labia Majora Augmentation: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Samer; Kechichian, Elio; Hersant, Barbara; Levan, Philippe; El Hachem, Lena; Noel, Warren; Nasr, Marwan

    2017-10-16

    Currently, there is no standardized approach for labia majora augmentation and controversies still exist regarding this subject. This systematic review aimed to assess the evidence in the literature regarding labia majora augmentation. On November 20, 2016, we conducted an online search of published articles in the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases. All articles describing labia majora augmentation were included in this review. Nine studies were selected for inclusion in the systematic review. Only 2 studies were prospective trials. The most commonly used technique was fat grafting with a total of 4 articles and 183 patients. The mean total injected fat volume ranged from 18 mL to 120 mL per session. Two articles described hyaluronic acid injection techniques. The total injected volume of hyaluronic acid ranged from 2 to 6 mL per session. Three articles used surgical techniques for labia majora augmentation. All included articles did not report any major or life-threatening complications. All techniques demonstrated high satisfaction rates. Labia majora augmentation appears to be a safe, efficient technique with a high satisfaction rate and no reported major complications. However, further randomized controlled trials are warranted. 4. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. [Display technologies for augmented reality in medical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Ulrich; Winkler, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    One of the main challenges for modern surgery is the effective use of the many available imaging modalities and diagnostic methods. Augmented reality systems can be used in the future to blend patient and planning information into the view of surgeons, which can improve the efficiency and safety of interventions. In this article we present five visualization methods to integrate augmented reality displays into medical procedures and the advantages and disadvantages are explained. Based on an extensive literature review the various existing approaches for integration of augmented reality displays into medical procedures are divided into five categories and the most important research results for each approach are presented. A large number of mixed and augmented reality solutions for medical interventions have been developed as research prototypes; however, only very few systems have been tested on patients. In order to integrate mixed and augmented reality displays into medical practice, highly specialized solutions need to be developed. Such systems must comply with the requirements with respect to accuracy, fidelity, ergonomics and seamless integration into the surgical workflow.

  6. Composite augmentation phalloplasty: personal experience after 275 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Monreal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report the author's experience in augmentation phalloplasty by studying a retrospective series of patients who underwent fat grafting for girth enhancement or a composite technique based on suspensory ligament release plus fat grafting performed simultaneously. Methods: The author analyzed retrospectively the outcomes of 275 augmentation phalloplasty procedures performed in 259 patients until November 2013. Of these, 127 correspond to girth augmentation with fat grafting and 148 to composite augmentation phalloplasty (girth augmentation with fat grafting and length improvement by suspensory ligament release. In 16 patients girth and length enhancement were performed in two separate procedures. Results: Of this 259 patients, 87 underwent postoperative follow-up for at least 12 months and 160 patients underwent follow-up for at least 6 months. The average increase in circumference at 6 months was 1.7 cm (1.57 cm at 12 months and the average increase in length of 3.2 cm (3.1 cm at 12 months. Twenty-two patients showed minor complications that were treated without sequelae and without influencing the final result. Conclusion: By judicious use of currently available techniques, it is possible to achieve stable increases in penis size. The use of composite techniques provides better final results than the use of individual techniques performed alone due to the increase of the actual volume of the penis. An adequate informed consent is essential in all patients due to the unrealistic expectations expressed by the majority of them.

  7. Augmented reality (AR and virtual reality (VR applied in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Ko Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The OSCE is a reliable evaluation method to estimate the preclinical examination of dental students. The most ideal assessment for OSCE is used the augmented reality simulator to evaluate. This literature review investigated a recently developed in virtual reality (VR and augmented reality (AR starting of the dental history to the progress of the dental skill. As result of the lacking of technology, it needs to depend on other device increasing the success rate and decreasing the risk of the surgery. The development of tracking unit changed the surgical and educational way. Clinical surgery is based on mature education. VR and AR simultaneously affected the skill of the training lesson and navigation system. Widely, the VR and AR not only applied in the dental training lesson and surgery, but also improved all field in our life. Keywords: OSCE, Dental simulator, Augmented reality, Virtual reality, Dentistry

  8. Fault Diagnosis of Nonlinear Systems Using Structured Augmented State Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jochen Aβfalg; Frank Allg(o)wer

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an internal model approach for modeling and diagnostic functionality design for nonlinear systems operating subject to single- and multiple-faults. We therefore provide the framework of structured augmented state models. Fault characteristics are considered to be generated by dynamical exosystems that are switched via equality constraints to overcome the augmented state observability limiting the number of diagnosable faults. Based on the proposed model, the fault diagnosis problem is specified as an optimal hybrid augmented state estimation problem. Sub-optimal solutions are motivated and exemplified for the fault diagnosis of the well-known three-tank benchmark. As the considered class of fault diagnosis problems is large, the suggested approach is not only of theoretical interest but also of high practical relevance.

  9. Integration Of Sensor Orientation Data Into An Augmented Reality Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgaras Artemčiukas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, such microelectromechanical sensors as accelerome­ters, gyroscopes and magnetometers are the dominant sensors in mobile devices. The market of mobile devices is constantly expanding and focused on sensor integration process by adding supplementary functionality for the applications; therefore, it is possible to adapt these sensors for augmented reality technology solutions. Many augmented reality solutions are based on computer vision processing methods in order to identify and track markers or other objects. However, the main problem is chaotic environment, lighting conditions where object recognition and tracking in real-time becomes difficult and sometimes is an impossible process. This paper analyses possibilities to apply microelectromechanical sensors. Additionally, it investigates quaternion use for sensor data to estimate reliable and accurate camera orientation and represent virtual content in augmented reality technology.

  10. AUGMENTED REALITY AS A TEACHING TOOL IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashko Rizov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of the technology has influenced its inevitable entrance in the learning processes. Teachers are often challenged to use the appropriate educational technology in the process of teaching in order to ease the learning process of students. Introducing new technology in the teaching process should utilize the new technology in any possible way in order to assist the teacher in transferring the knowledge and assist the students in grasping that knowledge. This paper should emphasize the benefits of using augmented reality in higher education, by measuring outcomes of the students which used augmented reality as a teaching tool in the courses. Results from the survey imply that students show significantly improved results in increasing the interest, understanding and interiorizing the learning material. University teachers found that using augmented reality is significantly improving the learning process of students and their teaching process in a pedagogical and technical sense. 

  11. "Messing with the Mind: Evolutionary Challenges to Human Brain Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR eSANIOTIS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of brain augmentation has received considerable scientific attention over the last two decades. A key factor to brain augmentation that has been widely overlooked are the complex evolutionary processes which have taken place in evolving the human brain to its current state of functioning. Like other bodily organs, the human brain has been subject to the forces of biological adaptation. The structure and function of the brain, is very complex and only now we are beginning to understand some of the basic concepts of cognition. Therefore, this article proposes that brain-machine interfacing and nootropics are not going to produce augmented brains because we do not understand enough about how evolutionary pressures have informed the neural networks which support human cognitive faculties.

  12. A Foreign Language Learning Application using Mobile Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin-Alexandru DITA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is described a foreign language learning application using mobile augmented reality based on gamification method and text recognition. The mobile augmented reality is a technology that extends the real world elements with 2D or 3D computer generated objects and lets the users interact with them. A Gamification system is based on different mechanisms that increase the motivation of students, due to the impact that videogames have in their emotional, cognitive and social areas. The proposed solution applies Optical Character Recognition technique, using the camera of the mobile device, in order to identify the text written on a card. The implementation combines the features of gamification system and mobile augmented reality in order to make the learning process more easy and fun. This paper aims to present the results after testing the foreign language learning application in different scenarios.

  13. Bibliography on augmentation of convective heat and mass transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergles, A.E.; Webb, R.L.; Junkhan, G.H.; Jensen, M.K.

    1979-05-01

    Heat transfer augmentation has developed into a major specialty area in heat transfer research and development. A bibliography of world literature on augmentation is presented. The literature is classified into passive augmentation techniques, which require no external power, and active techniques, which do require external power. The fourteen techniques are grouped in terms of their application to the various modes of heat transfer. Mass transfer is included for completeness. Key words are included with each citation for technique/mode identification. The total number of publications cited is 1,967, including 75 surveys of various techniques and 42 papers on performance evaluation of passive techniques. Patents are not included as they will be the subject of a future topical report

  14. Leptin inhibits and ghrelin augments hypothalamic noradrenaline release after stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Akio; Okada, Nobukazu; Rokkaku, Kumiko; Honda, Kazufumi; Ishibashi, Shun; Onaka, Tatsushi

    2008-09-01

    Metabolic conditions affect hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal responses to stressful stimuli. Here we examined effects of food deprivation, leptin and ghrelin upon noradrenaline release in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations after stressful stimuli. Food deprivation augmented both noradrenaline release in the PVN and the increase in plasma ACTH concentration following electrical footshocks (FSs). An intracerebroventricular injection of leptin attenuated the increases in hypothalamic noradrenaline release and plasma ACTH concentrations after FSs, while ghrelin augmented these responses. These data suggest that leptin inhibits and ghrelin facilitates neuroendocrine stress responses via noradrenaline release and indicate that a decrease in leptin and an increase in ghrelin release after food deprivation might contribute to augmentation of stress-induced ACTH release in a fasting state.

  15. Augmented-pressure colostogram in imperforate anus with fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, G.W. (Jefferson Medical Coll., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Radiology); Wolfson, P.J. (Jefferson Medical Coll., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Surgery); Pena, A. (Schneider Children' s Hospital, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Pediatric Surgery)

    1991-12-01

    Most newborns with imperforate anus, except for those with very low varieties, undergo a diverting colostomy performed in the postnatal period, with definitive surgical repair at a later age. Accurate demonstration of the anatomy of any associated fistula between the rectum and urogenital tract is essential for optimal surgical management. An augmented-pressure distal segment colostogram is recommended prior to definitive repair, both to confirm the level of rectal atresia and to define any associated fistulous communication. We report a case of high imperforate anus with rectourethral fistula in which the fistulous tract was not identified on the conventional contrast colostogram but was readily delineated when an augmented-pressure modification of the technique was utilized. The technical aspects of augmented-pressure colostography are presented. (orig.).

  16. Usability engineering: domain analysis activities for augmented-reality systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Joseph; Swan, J. E., II; Hix, Deborah; Lanzagorta, Marco O.; Livingston, Mark; Brown, Dennis B.; Julier, Simon J.

    2002-05-01

    This paper discusses our usability engineering process for the Battlefield Augmented Reality System (BARS). Usability engineering is a structured, iterative, stepwise development process. Like the related disciplines of software and systems engineering, usability engineering is a combination of management principals and techniques, formal and semi- formal evaluation techniques, and computerized tools. BARS is an outdoor augmented reality system that displays heads- up battlefield intelligence information to a dismounted warrior. The paper discusses our general usability engineering process. We originally developed the process in the context of virtual reality applications, but in this work we are adapting the procedures to an augmented reality system. The focus of this paper is our work on domain analysis, the first activity of the usability engineering process. We describe our plans for and our progress to date on our domain analysis for BARS. We give results in terms of a specific urban battlefield use case we have designed.

  17. Nonsurgical Medical Penile Girth Augmentation: Experience-Based Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Jayson; Sharp, Gemma

    2017-10-01

    Penile augmentation is increasingly sought by men who are dissatisfied with the size and/or appearance of their penis. However, augmentation procedures are still considered to be highly controversial with no standardized recommendations reported in the medical literature and limited outcome data. Nevertheless, these procedures continue to be performed in increasing numbers in private settings. Therefore, there is a need for safe, effective, and minimally invasive procedures to be developed, evaluated, and reported in the research literature. In this article, we focus particularly on girth enhancement procedures rather than lengthening procedures as penile girth appears to be particularly important for sexual satisfaction. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the common techniques to date, with a focus on the minimally invasive injectable girth augmentation techniques. Based on considerable operative experience, we offer our own suggestions for patient screening, technique selection, and perioperative care. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. A Determinate Model of Thrust-Augmenting Ejectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, N.; Krothapalli, A.; van Dommelen, L.

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the compressible flow through a constant-area jet-engine ejector in which a primary jet mixes with ambient fluid from a uniform free stream is pursued. The problem is reduced to a determinate mathematical one by prescribing the ratios of stagnation properties between the primary and secondary flows. For some selections of properties and parameters more than one solution is possible and the meaning of these solutions is discussed by means of asymptotic expansions. Our results further show that while under stationary conditions the thrust-augmentation ratio assumes a value of 2 in the large area-ratio limit, for a free-stream Mach number greater than 0.6 very little thrust augmentation is left. Due to the assumptions made, the analysis provides idealized values for the thrust-augmentation ratio and the mass flux entrainment factor.

  19. Outcomes of rotator cuff augmentation surgery with autologous fascia lata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Varo, A P; García-Espona, M A; Roda-Murillo, O

    To evaluate whether augmentation grafts using autologous fascia lata improve functional results for rotator cuff repairs and reduce the retear rate compared to those without augmentation. This is a prospective evaluation comprising 20 patients with a complete symptomatic rotator cuff tear. The operations were carried out from a superior approach performing a total cuff repair, for 10 patients we used a suture augmented with an autologous graft taken from their own fascia lata while unaugmented sutures were used for the other 10 patients. The follow-up period lasted for one year post-intervention. We measured variables for tear type, functionality and pain, both baseline and at 6 and 12-month follow ups. We evaluated retear incidence in each group as well as each group's pain and functionality response. The improved pain levels in the non-graft group evolved gradually over time. Conversely, in the group with the augmentation grafts, average Constant-Murley shoulder outcome scores at six months were already above 10 and were maintained at 12 months. One retear occurred in the graft group and 2 in the group without grafts, thus presenting no significant differences. There were no significant changes in pain and function values at the one year follow up in either group. Our preliminary results regarding rotator cuff augmentation surgery with autologous fascia lata showed a significant improvement in pain levels after 6 months compared to the patients with no augmentation, who required 12 months to reach the same values. After a year of follow up, there were no differences between the mean Constant and pain scores in either intervention group The number of retears in the non-graft group was greater than that in the group with grafts although the difference was not significant. Copyright © 2018 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Perancangan Buku Pengenalan Hardware Komputer Dengan Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Anang Weby; Sofyan, Amir Fatah

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality is technology which combined virtual 2D and 3D object into real environment and projecting 3D virtual object in a real time. Augmented reality or AR is now happening and tend to be high progressed in a daily life. It also has a lot of innovation on the promotion media and advertisement in a business sector.One of the big points in this case is about promoting the product to the consumer in 3D catalog based on AR. As the promotion implemented in general furniture catalog whic...