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Sample records for histidine-rich protein ii

  1. Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein II causes vascular leakage and exacerbates experimental cerebral malaria in mice.

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    Pal, Priya; Balaban, Amanda E; Diamond, Michael S; Sinnis, Photini; Klein, Robyn S; Goldberg, Daniel E

    2017-01-01

    A devastating complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection is cerebral malaria, in which vascular leakage and cerebral swelling lead to coma and often death. P. falciparum produces a protein called histidine-rich protein II (HRPII) that accumulates to high levels in the bloodstream of patients and serves as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for falciparum malaria. Using a human cerebral microvascular endothelial barrier model, we previously found that HRPII activates the endothelial cell inflammasome, resulting in decreased integrity of tight junctions and increased endothelial barrier permeability. Here, we report that intravenous administration of HRPII induced blood-brain barrier leakage in uninfected mice. Furthermore, HRPII infusion in P. berghei-infected mice increased early mortality from experimental cerebral malaria. These data support the hypothesis that HRPII is a virulence factor that contributes to cerebral malaria by compromising the integrity of the blood-brain barrier.

  2. Large Variation in Detection of Histidine-Rich Protein 2 in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Colombia

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    Pava, Zuleima; Echeverry, Diego F.; Díaz, Gustavo; Murillo, Claribel

    2010-01-01

    Most rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) available use histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) as a target. However, it has been reported that sequence variations of this protein affects its sensitivity. Currently, there is insufficient evidence for HRP2 variability in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Colombia and its relationship with RDT performance. To determine possible geographic differences and their effects on the performance of RDTs, 22 blood samples from patients with P. falciparum malaria from Tumaco and Buenaventura, Colombia were assessed by measurement of HRP2 concentration by an HRP2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, RDTs, and thick blood smear. Statistical analysis showed an association between RDT performance and HRP2 concentrations. No significant difference was found between locations. A large variation of antigen concentration in samples was found at same parasitemia. In contrast to previously reports, there was no correlation between initial parasitemia and HRP2 concentration. Our results indicate that antigen quantity should be studied more carefully because the sensitivity of the RDT is affected more by antigen concentration than by parasitemia. PMID:20889875

  3. Identification of Plasmodium falciparum isolates lacking histidine-rich protein 2 and 3 in Eritrea.

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    Menegon, Michela; L'Episcopia, Mariangela; Nurahmed, Abduselam M; Talha, Albadawi A; Nour, Bakri Y M; Severini, Carlo

    2017-11-01

    The histidine-rich protein 2 of Plasmodium falciparum is the most common malaria antigen targeted by rapid diagnostic tests for the specific diagnosis of P. falciparum. Recently, pfhrp2 gene deletions have been documented in P. falciparum isolates from South America and some multiple endemic countries in Africa and Asia. Parasites with such gene deletions can produce false negative diagnostic results using HRP2-based rapid diagnostic kits. In the present work, the prevalence of P. falciparum parasites lacking pfhrp2, pfhrp3, which produces a second P. falciparum antigen that is recognized by PfHRP2 -based rapid diagnostic tests, and their flanking genes was evaluated in 135 P. falciparum isolates from Gash Barka region and in 9 isolates from Debub region, in Eritrea. In the analyzed samples, 56% (81/144) of isolates were pfhrp2/pfhrp3 positive, while 9.7% (14/144) showed deletion of exon 2 of pfhrp2 gene and 43% (62/144) of isolates lacked the pfhrp3 gene. These results suggest that the pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 deletion phenomenon is present in a considerable proportion in the study areas, thus making the HRP2/3 based rapid diagnostic tests not completely reliable for malaria diagnosis in Eritrea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving the binding capacity of Ni2+ decorated porous magnetic silica spheres for histidine-rich protein separation.

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    Benelmekki, M; Caparros, C; Xuriguera, E; Lanceros-Mendez, S; Rodriguez-Carmona, E; Mendoza, R; Corchero, J L; Martinez, Ll M

    2013-01-01

    Biomagnetic immobilization of histidine-rich proteins based on the single-step affinity adsorption of transition metal ions continues to be a suitable practice as a cost effective and a up scaled alternative to the to multiple-step chromatographic separations. In our previous work, we synthesised Porous Magnetic silica (PMS) spheres by one-step hydrothermal-assisted modified-stöber method. The obtained spheres were decorated with Ni(2+) and Co(2+), and evaluated for the capture of a H6-Tagged green fluorescence protein (GFP-H6) protein. The binding capacity of the obtained spheres was found to be slightly higher in the case Ni(2+) decorated PMS spheres (PMSNi). However, comparing with commercial products, the binding capacity was found to be lower than the expected. In this way, the present work is an attempt to improve the binding capacity of PMSNi to histidine-rich proteins. We find that increasing the amount of Ni(2+) onto the surface of the PMS spheres leads to an increment of the binding capacity to GFP-H6 by a factor of two. On the other hand, we explore how the size of histidine-rich protein can affect the binding capacity comparing the results of the GFP-6H to those of the His-tagged α-galactosidase (α-GLA). Finally, we demonstrate that the optimization of the magnetophoresis parameters during washing and eluting steps can lead to an additional improvement of the binding capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Improving the binding capacity of Ni2+ decorated porous magnetic silica spheres for histidine-rich protein separation

    OpenAIRE

    Benelmekki, Maria; Caparrós Vázquez, Cristina Maria; Xuriguera, Elena; Lanceros Méndez, Senentxu; Rodriguez-Carmona, Escar; Mendoza, R; Corchero, Jose Luis; Martinez, lluis Maria

    2012-01-01

    Biomagnetic immobilization of histidine-rich proteins based on the single-step affinity adsorption of transition metal ions continues to be a suitable practice as a cost effective and a up scaled alternative to the to multiple-step chromatographic separations. In our previous work [12], we synthesised Porous Magnetic silica (PMS) spheres by one-step hydrothermal-assisted modified-stöber method. The obtained spheres were decorated with Ni2+ and Co2+, and evaluated for the capture of a H6-Tagge...

  6. Functional Regulation of the Plasma Protein Histidine-Rich Glycoprotein by Zn2+ in Settings of Tissue Injury

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    Kristin M. Priebatsch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Divalent metal ions are essential nutrients for all living organisms and are commonly protein-bound where they perform important roles in protein structure and function. This regulatory control from metals is observed in the relatively abundant plasma protein histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG, which displays preferential binding to the second most abundant transition element in human systems, Zinc (Zn2+. HRG has been proposed to interact with a large number of protein ligands and has been implicated in the regulation of various physiological and pathological processes including the formation of immune complexes, apoptotic/necrotic and pathogen clearance, cell adhesion, antimicrobial activity, angiogenesis, coagulation and fibrinolysis. Interestingly, these processes are often associated with sites of tissue injury or tumour growth, where the concentration and distribution of Zn2+ is known to vary. Changes in Zn2+ levels have been shown to modify HRG function by altering its affinity for certain ligands and/or providing protection against proteolytic disassembly by serine proteases. This review focuses on the molecular interplay between HRG and Zn2+, and how Zn2+ binding modifies HRG-ligand interactions to regulate function in different settings of tissue injury.

  7. Multiple genetic origins of histidine-rich protein 2 gene deletion in Plasmodium falciparum parasites from Peru

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    Akinyi, Sheila; Hayden, Tonya; Gamboa, Dionicia; Torres, Katherine; Bendezu, Jorge; Abdallah, Joseph F.; Griffing, Sean M.; Quezada, Wilmer Marquiño; Arrospide, Nancy; De Oliveira, Alexandre Macedo; Lucas, Carmen; Magill, Alan J.; Bacon, David J.; Barnwell, John W.; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2013-01-01

    The majority of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detect Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2), encoded by the pfhrp2 gene. Recently, P. falciparum isolates from Peru were found to lack pfhrp2 leading to false-negative RDT results. We hypothesized that pfhrp2-deleted parasites in Peru derived from a single genetic event. We evaluated the parasite population structure and pfhrp2 haplotype of samples collected between 1998 and 2005 using seven neutral and seven chromosome 8 microsatellite markers, respectively. Five distinct pfhrp2 haplotypes, corresponding to five neutral microsatellite-based clonal lineages, were detected in 1998-2001; pfhrp2 deletions occurred within four haplotypes. In 2003-2005, outcrossing among the parasite lineages resulted in eight population clusters that inherited the five pfhrp2 haplotypes seen previously and a new haplotype; pfhrp2 deletions occurred within four of these haplotypes. These findings indicate that the genetic origin of pfhrp2 deletion in Peru was not a single event, but likely occurred multiple times. PMID:24077522

  8. Evolution of Helicobacter: Acquisition by Gastric Species of Two Histidine-Rich Proteins Essential for Colonization

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    Vorontsov, Egor; Gallaud, Julien; Malosse, Christian; Michel, Valérie; Cavazza, Christine; Robbe-Saule, Marie; Richaud, Pierre; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; De Reuse, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    Metal acquisition and intracellular trafficking are crucial for all cells and metal ions have been recognized as virulence determinants in bacterial pathogens. Virulence of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is dependent on nickel, cofactor of two enzymes essential for in vivo colonization, urease and [NiFe] hydrogenase. We found that two small paralogous nickel-binding proteins with high content in Histidine (Hpn and Hpn-2) play a central role in maintaining non-toxic intracellular nickel content and in controlling its intracellular trafficking. Measurements of metal resistance, intracellular nickel contents, urease activities and interactomic analysis were performed. We observed that Hpn acts as a nickel-sequestration protein, while Hpn-2 is not. In vivo, Hpn and Hpn-2 form homo-multimers, interact with each other, Hpn interacts with the UreA urease subunit while Hpn and Hpn-2 interact with the HypAB hydrogenase maturation proteins. In addition, Hpn-2 is directly or indirectly restricting urease activity while Hpn is required for full urease activation. Based on these data, we present a model where Hpn and Hpn-2 participate in a common pathway of controlled nickel transfer to urease. Using bioinformatics and top-down proteomics to identify the predicted proteins, we established that Hpn-2 is only expressed by H. pylori and its closely related species Helicobacter acinonychis. Hpn was detected in every gastric Helicobacter species tested and is absent from the enterohepatic Helicobacter species. Our phylogenomic analysis revealed that Hpn acquisition was concomitant with the specialization of Helicobacter to colonization of the gastric environment and the duplication at the origin of hpn-2 occurred in the common ancestor of H. pylori and H. acinonychis. Finally, Hpn and Hpn-2 were found to be required for colonization of the mouse model by H. pylori. Our data show that during evolution of the Helicobacter genus, acquisition of Hpn and Hpn-2 by gastric

  9. Detection of histidine rich protein & lactate dehydrogenase of Plasmodium falciparum in malaria patients by sandwich ELISA using in-house reagents

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Priyanka; Biswas, Sukla; Mohan, Teena; Ali, Shakir; Rao, D.N.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Despite major control efforts, malaria remains a major public health problem that still causes high mortality rate worldwide especially in Africa and Asia. Accurate and confirmatory diagnosis before treatment initiation is the only way to control the disease. The present study was undertaken to develop reagents using sandwich ELISA for simultaneous detection of PfHRP2 (Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein) and PfLDH (P. falciparum lactate dehydrogenase) antige...

  10. Biochemical characterization of RAR1 cysteine- and histidine-rich domains (CHORDs): a novel class of zinc-dependent protein-protein interaction modules.

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    Heise, Charles T; Le Duff, Cécile S; Boter, Marta; Casais, Catarina; Airey, Joanne E; Leech, Andrew P; Amigues, Béatrice; Guerois, Raphaël; Moore, Geoffrey R; Shirasu, Ken; Kleanthous, Colin

    2007-02-13

    Disease resistance in plants requires the activation of defense signaling pathways to prevent the spread of infection. The protein Required for Mla12 Resistance (RAR1) is a component of such pathways, which contains cysteine- and histidine-rich domains (CHORDs) that bind zinc. CHORDs are 60 amino acid domains, usually arranged in tandem, found in almost all eukaryotes, where they are involved in processes ranging from pressure sensing in the heart to maintenance of diploidy in fungi, and exhibit distinct protein-protein interaction specificity. In the case of RAR1, CHORD-I is known to interact with heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) and CHORD-II is known to interact with the Suppressor of the G2 allele of Skp1 (SGT1). The focus of this work on RAR1 from barley and Arabidopsis was to address the paucity of biochemical information on RAR1 and its constituent CHORDs, particularly the role of the metal ion. Sedimentation experiments indicated RAR1 to be an extended monomer in solution with few intramolecular interactions. This was reinforced by denaturation experiments, where little difference between the stability of the individual domains and intact RAR1 could be detected by intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and atomic absorption showed that, contrary to previous reports, RAR1 binds five zinc ions; each CHORD binds two, and the plant-specific, 20 amino acid cysteine- and histidine-containing motif (CCCH motif) located between the two CHORDs binds the fifth. Fluorescence, ultraviolet circular dichroism (UV CD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy further demonstrated that zinc ions are essential for maintaining CHORD structure. Finally, we used isothermal titratrion colarimetry to show that zinc is essential for the specific binding interactions of CHORD-II with SGT1. Our study provides the first biochemical and biophysical data on the zinc metalloprotein RAR1, defines its metal stoichiometry and that of its

  11. A novel mechanism of “metal gel-shift” by histidine-rich Ni2+-binding Hpn protein from Helicobacter pylori strain SS1

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    Ito, Yuki; Masumoto, Junya; Morita, Eugene Hayato; Hayashi, Hidenori

    2017-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is a universally used method for determining approximate molecular weight (MW) in protein research. Migration of protein that does not correlate with formula MW, termed “gel shifting” appears to be common for histidine-rich proteins but not yet studied in detail. We investigated “gel shifting” in Ni2+-binding histidine-rich Hpn protein cloned from Helicobacter pylori strain SS1. Our data demonstrate two important factors determining “gel shifting” of Hpn, polyacrylamide-gel concentration and metal binding. Higher polyacrylamide-gel concentrations resulted in faster Hpn migration. Irrespective of polyacrylamide-gel concentration, preserved Hpn-Ni2+ complex migrated faster (3–4 kDa) than apo-Hpn, phenomenon termed “metal gel-shift” demonstrating an intimate link between Ni2+ binding and “gel shifting”. To examine this discrepancy, eluted samples from corresponding spots on SDS-gel were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The MW of all samples was the same (6945.66±0.34 Da) and identical to formula MW with or without added mass of Ni2+. MALDI-TOF-MS of Ni2+-treated Hpn revealed that monomer bound up to six Ni2+ ions non-cooperatively, and equilibrium between protein-metal species was reliant on Ni2+ availability. This corroborates with gradually increased heterogeneity of apo-Hpn band followed by compact "metal-gel shift" band on SDS-PAGE. In view of presented data metal-binding and “metal-gel shift” models are discussed. PMID:28207866

  12. Histidine-rich protein 2 (pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from select sites in Brazil and Bolivia.

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    Giselle Maria Rachid Viana

    Full Text Available More than 80% of available malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs are based on the detection of histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2 for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Recent studies have shown the genes that code for this protein and its paralog, histidine-rich protein-3 (PfHRP3, are absent in parasites from the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Lack of PfHRP2 protein through deletion of the pfhrp2 gene leads to false-negative RDT results for P. falciparum. We have evaluated the extent of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in a convenience sample of 198 isolates from six sites in three states across the Brazilian Amazon Basin (Acre, Rondonia and Para and 25 isolates from two sites in Bolivia collected at different times between 2010 and 2012. Pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene and their flanking genes on chromosomes 7 and 13, respectively, were amplified from 198 blood specimens collected in Brazil. In Brazil, the isolates collected in Acre state, located in the western part of the Brazilian Amazon, had the highest percentage of deletions for pfhrp2 25 (31.2% of 79, while among those collected in Rondonia, the prevalence of pfhrp2 gene deletion was only 3.3% (2 out of 60 patients. In isolates from Para state, all parasites were pfhrp2-positive. In contrast, we detected high proportions of isolates from all 3 states that were pfhrp3-negative ranging from 18.3% (11 out of 60 samples to 50.9% (30 out of 59 samples. In Bolivia, only one of 25 samples (4% tested had deleted pfhrp2 gene, while 68% (17 out of 25 samples were pfhrp3-negative. Among the isolates tested, P. falciparum pfhrp2 gene deletions were present mainly in those from Acre State in the Brazilian Amazon. These results indicate it is important to reconsider the use of PfHRP2-based RDTs in the western region of the Brazilian Amazon and to implement appropriate surveillance systems to monitor pfhrp2 gene deletions in this and other parts of the Amazon region.

  13. Histidine-rich protein 2 (pfhrp2) and pfhrp3 gene deletions in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from select sites in Brazil and Bolivia.

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    Rachid Viana, Giselle Maria; Akinyi Okoth, Sheila; Silva-Flannery, Luciana; Lima Barbosa, Danielle Regina; Macedo de Oliveira, Alexandre; Goldman, Ira F; Morton, Lindsay C; Huber, Curtis; Anez, Arletta; Dantas Machado, Ricardo Luiz; Aranha Camargo, Luís Marcelo; Costa Negreiros do Valle, Suiane; Marins Póvoa, Marinete; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Barnwell, John W

    2017-01-01

    More than 80% of available malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are based on the detection of histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2) for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Recent studies have shown the genes that code for this protein and its paralog, histidine-rich protein-3 (PfHRP3), are absent in parasites from the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Lack of PfHRP2 protein through deletion of the pfhrp2 gene leads to false-negative RDT results for P. falciparum. We have evaluated the extent of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in a convenience sample of 198 isolates from six sites in three states across the Brazilian Amazon Basin (Acre, Rondonia and Para) and 25 isolates from two sites in Bolivia collected at different times between 2010 and 2012. Pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene and their flanking genes on chromosomes 7 and 13, respectively, were amplified from 198 blood specimens collected in Brazil. In Brazil, the isolates collected in Acre state, located in the western part of the Brazilian Amazon, had the highest percentage of deletions for pfhrp2 25 (31.2%) of 79, while among those collected in Rondonia, the prevalence of pfhrp2 gene deletion was only 3.3% (2 out of 60 patients). In isolates from Para state, all parasites were pfhrp2-positive. In contrast, we detected high proportions of isolates from all 3 states that were pfhrp3-negative ranging from 18.3% (11 out of 60 samples) to 50.9% (30 out of 59 samples). In Bolivia, only one of 25 samples (4%) tested had deleted pfhrp2 gene, while 68% (17 out of 25 samples) were pfhrp3-negative. Among the isolates tested, P. falciparum pfhrp2 gene deletions were present mainly in those from Acre State in the Brazilian Amazon. These results indicate it is important to reconsider the use of PfHRP2-based RDTs in the western region of the Brazilian Amazon and to implement appropriate surveillance systems to monitor pfhrp2 gene deletions in this and other parts of the Amazon region.

  14. The interaction of a histidine-rich protein hpn with the membrane mimics: implications for pathologic roles of Hpn in Helicobacter pylori.

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    Zhou, Qinglu; Qi, Shuang; Sun, Xuesong; Ge, Ruiguang

    2014-04-01

    Hpn is a small histidine-rich protein in Helicobacter pylori. This protein has been shown to play roles in nickel storage and detoxification and to exhibit cytotoxicity to gastric epithelial cells. Hpn can be secreted outside of the bacterium and forms amyloid-like structures. To study the interactions between Hpn and membrane mimics, which may further our understanding of the pathologic roles of this bacterium. Various biochemical and biophysical methods, such as secondary structure determination be CD, calcein release assay with fluorescence spectrometry, and Laurdan and Prodan generalized polarization determination have been used to characterize the interaction between Hpn and membrane mimics. Membrane mimics induced the formation of α-helix in Hpn. The interaction disrupts the integrity of the membrane mimics and leads to the release of inner calcein probe. The experiments involving the Laurdan and Prodan fluorescence indicated that increasing the total protein/lipid ratio leads to a less ordered and more hydrated lipid membrane structure close to the water/lipid interface of lipid bilayers modeling the mitochondrial inner membrane. The present data indicated that Hpn may take part in the pathological roles of Helicobacter pylori through membrane interactions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Estimating the Added Utility of Highly Sensitive Histidine-Rich Protein 2 Detection in Outpatient Clinics in Sub-Saharan Africa.

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    Plucinski, Mateusz M; Rogier, Eric; Dimbu, Pedro Rafael; Fortes, Filomeno; Halsey, Eric S; Aidoo, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Most malaria testing is by rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) that detect Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2). Recently, several RDT manufacturers have developed highly sensitive RDTs (hsRDTs), promising a limit of detection (LOD) orders of magnitude lower than conventional RDTs. To model the added utility of hsRDTs, HRP2 concentration in Angolan outpatients was measured quantitatively using an ultrasensitive bead-based assay. The distribution of HRP2 concentration was bimodal in both afebrile and febrile patients. The conventional RDT was able to detect 81% of all HRP2-positive febrile patients and 52-77% of HRP2-positive afebrile patients. The added utility of hsRDTs was estimated to be greater in afebrile patients, where an hsRDT with a LOD of 200 pg/mL would detect an additional 50-60% of HRP2-positive persons compared with a conventional RDT with a LOD of 3,000 pg/mL. In febrile patients, the hsRDT would detect an additional 10-20% of cases. Conventional RDTs already capture the vast majority of symptomatic HRP2-positive individuals, and hsRDTs would have to reach a sufficiently low LOD approaching 200 pg/mL to provide added utility in identifying HRP2-positive, asymptomatic individuals.

  16. Ex vivo drug sensitivity profiles of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Cambodia and Thailand, 2005 to 2010, determined by a histidine-rich protein-2 assay

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    Tyner Stuart D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vitro drug susceptibility assay of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates processed “immediate ex vivo” (IEV, without culture adaption, and tested using histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP-2 detection as an assay, is an expedient way to track drug resistance. Methods From 2005 to 2010, a HRP-2 in vitro assay assessed 451 P. falciparum field isolates obtained from subjects with malaria in western and northern Cambodia, and eastern Thailand, processed IEV, for 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50 against seven anti-malarial drugs, including artesunate (AS, dihydroartemisinin (DHA, and piperaquine. Results In western Cambodia, from 2006 to 2010, geometric mean (GM IC50 values for chloroquine, mefloquine, quinine, AS, DHA, and lumefantrine increased. In northern Cambodia, from 2009–2010, GM IC50 values for most drugs approximated the highest western Cambodia GM IC50 values in 2009 or 2010. Conclusions Western Cambodia is associated with sustained reductions in anti-malarial drug susceptibility, including the artemisinins, with possible emergence, or spread, to northern Cambodia. This potential public health crisis supports continued in vitro drug IC50 monitoring of P. falciparum isolates at key locations in the region.

  17. Evidence that muscle cells do not express the histidine-rich glycoprotein associated with AMP deaminase but can internalise the plasma protein

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    A.R.M. Sabbatini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG is synthesized by liver and is present at relatively high concentration in the plasma of vertebrates. We have previously described the association of a HRG-like molecule to purified rabbit skeletal muscle AMP deaminase (AMPD. We also provided the first evidence for the presence of a HRG-like protein in human skeletal muscle where a positive correlation between HRG content and total determined AMPD activity has been shown. In the present paper we investigate the origin of skeletal muscle HRG. The screening of a human skeletal muscle cDNA expression library using an anti-HRG antibody failed to reveal any positive clone. The RT-PCR analysis, performed on human skeletal muscle RNA as well as on RNA from the rhabdomyosarcoma (RD cell line, failed to show any mRNA specific for the plasma HRG or for the putative muscle variant. When the RD cells were incubated with human plasma HRG, a time-dependent increase of the HRG immunoreactivity was detected both at the plasma membrane level and intracellularly. The internalisation of HRG was inhibited by the addition of heparin. The above data strongly suggest that skeletal muscle cells do not synthesize the muscle variant of HRG but instead can actively internalise it from plasma.

  18. Ex vivo drug sensitivity profiles of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Cambodia and Thailand, 2005 to 2010, determined by a histidine-rich protein-2 assay.

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    Tyner, Stuart D; Lon, Chanthap; Se, Youry; Bethell, Delia; Socheat, Doung; Noedl, Harald; Sea, Darapiseth; Satimai, Wichai; Schaecher, Kurt; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Fukuda, Mark M; Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Chaichana, Panjaporn; Saingam, Piyaporn; Buathong, Nillawan; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Chann, Soklyda; Timmermans, Ans; Saunders, David L; Walsh, Douglas S

    2012-06-13

    In vitro drug susceptibility assay of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates processed "immediate ex vivo" (IEV), without culture adaption, and tested using histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP-2) detection as an assay, is an expedient way to track drug resistance. From 2005 to 2010, a HRP-2 in vitro assay assessed 451 P. falciparum field isolates obtained from subjects with malaria in western and northern Cambodia, and eastern Thailand, processed IEV, for 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) against seven anti-malarial drugs, including artesunate (AS), dihydroartemisinin (DHA), and piperaquine. In western Cambodia, from 2006 to 2010, geometric mean (GM) IC50 values for chloroquine, mefloquine, quinine, AS, DHA, and lumefantrine increased. In northern Cambodia, from 2009-2010, GM IC50 values for most drugs approximated the highest western Cambodia GM IC50 values in 2009 or 2010. Western Cambodia is associated with sustained reductions in anti-malarial drug susceptibility, including the artemisinins, with possible emergence, or spread, to northern Cambodia. This potential public health crisis supports continued in vitro drug IC50 monitoring of P. falciparum isolates at key locations in the region.

  19. Detection of histidine rich protein & lactate dehydrogenase of Plasmodium falciparum in malaria patients by sandwich ELISA using in-house reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Biswas, Sukla; Mohan, Teena; Ali, Shakir; Rao, D N

    2013-12-01

    Despite major control efforts, malaria remains a major public health problem that still causes high mortality rate worldwide especially in Africa and Asia. Accurate and confirmatory diagnosis before treatment initiation is the only way to control the disease. The present study was undertaken to develop reagents using sandwich ELISA for simultaneous detection of PfHRP2 (Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein) and PfLDH (P. falciparum lactate dehydrogenase) antigens in the proven malaria cases. The antibodies were raised against two epitopes of PfHRP2 protein and three unique and unexplored epitopes of PfLDH protein. These antibodies were able to detect PfHRP2 and PfLDH antigens in culture supernatant and parasitized RBC lysate of P. falciparum, respectively up to 50 parasites/μl. The in-house reagents were tested in 200 P. falciparum positive patients residing in Baghpat district of Uttar Pradesh in northern India. Microsphere (PLGA) with CpG ODN were used to generate high titre and high affinity antibodies against selected peptides of PfHRP-2 and pLDH antigen in mice and rabbit. The peptide specific peak titre varied from 12,800 - 102,400 with an affinity ranging 0.73 - 3.0 mM. The indigenously developed reagents are able to detect PfHRP2 and PfLDH antigens as low as 75 parasites/μl of blood with a very high sensitivity (96-100%) and specificity (100%). The study highlight the identification of unique epitopes of PfHRP2 and PfLDH, and the generated antibodies against these antigens were used for quantitative estimation of these two antigens using sandwich ELISA. No corresreactivity with P. vivax infected patients was observed with the sera.

  20. Ex vivo drug sensitivity profiles of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Cambodia and Thailand, 2005 to 2010, determined by a histidine-rich protein-2 assay

    OpenAIRE

    Tyner Stuart D; Lon Chanthap; Se Youry; Bethell Delia; Socheat Doung; Noedl Harald; Sea Darapiseth; Satimai Wichai; Schaecher Kurt; Rutvisuttinunt Wiriya; Fukuda Mark M; Chaorattanakawee Suwanna; Yingyuen Kritsanai; Sundrakes Siratchana; Chaichana Panjaporn

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In vitro drug susceptibility assay of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates processed “immediate ex vivo” (IEV), without culture adaption, and tested using histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP-2) detection as an assay, is an expedient way to track drug resistance. Methods From 2005 to 2010, a HRP-2 in vitro assay assessed 451 P. falciparum field isolates obtained from subjects with malaria in western and northern Cambodia, and eastern Thailand, processed IEV, for 50% inhibitory co...

  1. High performance of histidine-rich protein 2 based rapid diagnostic tests in French Guiana are explained by the absence of pfhrp2 gene deletion in P. falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Trouvay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Care for malaria patients in endemic areas has been improved through the increasing use of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs. Most RDTs target the histidine-rich protein-2 antigen (PfHRP2 to detect P. falciparum, as it is abundant and shows great heat stability. However, their use in South America has been widely questioned following a recent publication that pinpoints the high prevalence of Peruvian field isolates lacking the gene encoding this protein. In the remote rural health centers of French Guiana, RDTs are the main diagnosis tools. Therefore, a study of PfHRP2 RDT performances and pfhrp2 genotyping was conducted to determine whether a replacement of the current pLDH-based kit could be considered. METHODS: The performance study compared the SD Malaria Ag test P.f/Pan® kit with the current gold standard diagnosis by microscopy. The prevalence of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 deletions were evaluated from 221 P. falciparum isolates collected between 2009 and 2011 in French Guiana. RESULTS: Between January 2010 and August 2011, 960 suspected cases of malaria were analyzed using microscopy and RDTs. The sensitivity of the SD Malaria Ag test P.f/Pan® for detection of P. falciparum was 96.8% (95% CI: 90.9-99.3, and 86.0% (95% CI: 78.9-91.5 for the detection of P. vivax. No isolates (95% CI: 0-4.5 lacking either exon of the pfhrp2 gene were identified among the 221 P. falciparum isolates analyzed, but 7.4% (95% CI: 2.8-15.4 lacked the exon 2 part of the pfhrp3 gene. CONCLUSIONS: Field isolates lacking either exon of the pfhrp2 gene are absent in this western part of South America. Despite its sensibility to detect P. vivax, the SD Malaria Ag test P.f/Pan® kit is a satisfying alternative to microscopy in remote health centers, where it is difficult to provide highly skilled microscopists and to maintain the necessary equipment.

  2. Structural-dynamical investigation of the ZnuA histidine-rich loop: involvement in zinc management and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconi, Mattia; Oteri, Francesco; Di Palma, Francesco; Pandey, Saurabh; Battistoni, Andrea; Desideri, Alessandro

    2011-02-01

    Comparative homology modelling techniques have been used to model the protein ZnuA from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium using the 3D structure of the homologous protein from Escherichia coli. These two-domain proteins bind one Zn(2+) atom, with high affinity, in the inter-domain cleft and possess a histidine-rich loop in the N-terminal domain. Alternative structures of the ZnuA histidine-rich loop, never resolved by the X-ray diffraction method, have been modelled. A model of the apo form, one with the histidine-rich loop deleted and two alternative structures with a second zinc ion bound to the histidine-rich loop, have been generated. In all the modelled proteins, investigated through molecular dynamics simulation, the histidine-rich loop is highly mobile and its fluctuations are correlated to the ligand stability observed in the zinc sites. Based on the plasticity of the histidine-rich loop and its significant effects on protein mobility a possible role in the capture and/or transfer of the zinc ions has been suggested.

  3. Nuclear localization of the dehydrin OpsDHN1 is determined by histidine-rich motif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Sánchez, Itzell E.; Maruri-López, Israel; Ferrando, Alejandro; Carbonell, Juan; Graether, Steffen P.; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan F.

    2015-01-01

    The cactus OpsDHN1 dehydrin belongs to a large family of disordered and highly hydrophilic proteins known as Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins, which accumulate during the late stages of embryogenesis and in response to abiotic stresses. Herein, we present the in vivo OpsDHN1 subcellular localization by N-terminal GFP translational fusion; our results revealed a cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of the GFP::OpsDHN1 protein in Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal cells. In addition, dimer assembly of OpsDHN1 in planta using a Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) approach was demonstrated. In order to understand the in vivo role of the histidine-rich motif, the OpsDHN1-ΔHis version was produced and assayed for its subcellular localization and dimer capability by GFP fusion and BiFC assays, respectively. We found that deletion of the OpsDHN1 histidine-rich motif restricted its localization to cytoplasm, but did not affect dimer formation. In addition, the deletion of the S-segment in the OpsDHN1 protein affected its nuclear localization. Our data suggest that the deletion of histidine-rich motif and S-segment show similar effects, preventing OpsDHN1 from getting into the nucleus. Based on these results, the histidine-rich motif is proposed as a targeting element for OpsDHN1 nuclear localization. PMID:26442018

  4. Nuclear localization of the dehydrin OpsDHN1 is determined by histidine-rich motif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzell Euridice Hernández-Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The cactus OpsDHN1 dehydrin belongs to a large family of disordered and highly hydrophilic proteins known as Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins, which accumulate during the late stages of embryogenesis and in response to abiotic stresses. Herein, we present the in vivo OpsDHN1 subcellular localization by N-terminal GFP translational fusion; our results revealed a cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of the GFP::OpsDHN1 protein in Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal cells. In addition, dimer assembly of OpsDHN1 in planta using a Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC approach was demonstrated. In order to understand the in vivo role of the histidine-rich motif, the OpsDHN1-ΔHis version was produced and assayed for its subcellular localization and dimer capability by GFP fusion and BiFC assays, respectively. We found that deletion of the OpsDHN1 histidine-rich motif restricted its localization to cytoplasm, but did not affect dimer formation. In addition, the deletion of the S-segment in the OpsDHN1 protein affected its nuclear localization. Our data suggest that the deletion of histidine-rich motif and S-segment show similar effects, preventing OpsDHN1 from getting into the nucleus. Based on these results, the histidine rich motif is proposed as a targeting element for OpsDHN1 nuclear localization.

  5. Histidine-rich glycoprotein promotes macrophage activation and inflammation in chronic liver disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartneck, M.; Fech, V.; Ehling, J.; Govaere, O.; Warzecha, K.T.; Hittatiya, K.; Vucur, M.; Gautheron, J.; Luedde, T.; Trautwein, C.; Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria; Roskams, T.; Jahnen-Dechent, W.; Tacke, F.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen- and injury-related danger signals as well as cytokines released by immune cells influence the functional differentiation of macrophages in chronic inflammation. Recently, the liver-derived plasma protein, histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), was demonstrated, in mouse tumor models, to

  6. Direct comparison of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests in Plasmodium falciparum reference clones and fresh ex vivo field isolates from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Tyner, Stuart D; Lon, Chanthap; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Ruttvisutinunt, Wiriya; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Sai-gnam, Piyaporn; Johnson, Jacob D; Walsh, Douglas S; Saunders, David L; Lanteri, Charlotte A

    2013-07-12

    Performance of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests were directly compared using Plasmodium falciparum reference strains and fresh ex vivo isolates from Cambodia against a panel of standard anti-malarials. The objective was to determine which of these two common assays is more appropriate for studying drug susceptibility of "immediate ex vivo" (IEV) isolates, analysed without culture adaption, in a region of relatively low malaria transmission. Using the HRP-2 and MSF methods, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against a panel of malaria drugs were determined for P. falciparum reference clones (W2, D6, 3D7 and K1) and 41 IEV clinical isolates from an area of multidrug resistance in Cambodia. Comparison of the IC50 values from the two methods was made using Wilcoxon matched pair tests and Pearson's correlation. The lower limit of parasitaemia detection for both methods was determined for reference clones and IEV isolates. Since human white blood cell (WBC) DNA in clinical samples is known to reduce MSF assay sensitivity, SYBR Green I fluorescence linearity of P. falciparum samples spiked with WBCs was evaluated to assess the relative degree to which MSF sensitivity is reduced in clinical samples. IC50 values correlated well between the HRP-2 and MSF methods when testing either P. falciparum reference clones or IEV isolates against 4-aminoquinolines (chloroquine, piperaquine and quinine) and the quinoline methanol mefloquine (Pearson r = 0.85-0.99 for reference clones and 0.56-0.84 for IEV isolates), whereas a weaker IC50 value correlation between methods was noted when testing artemisinins against reference clones and lack of correlation when testing IEV isolates. The HRP-2 ELISA produced a higher overall success rate (90% for producing IC50 best-fit sigmoidal curves), relative to only a 40% success rate for the MSF assay, when evaluating ex

  7. Metal-mediated molecular self-healing in histidine-rich mussel peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephan; Reinecke, Antje; Wojcik, Felix; Pussak, Daniel; Hartmann, Laura; Harrington, Matthew James

    2014-05-12

    Mussels withstand high-energy wave impacts in rocky seashore habitats by fastening tightly to surfaces with tough and self-healing proteinaceous fibers called byssal threads. Thread mechanical behavior is believed to arise from reversibly breakable metal coordination cross-links embedded in histidine-rich protein domains (HRDs) in the principle load-bearing proteins comprising the fibrous thread core. In order to investigate HRD behavior at the molecular level, we have synthesized a histidine-rich peptide derived from mussel proteins (His5-bys) and studied its reversible adhesive self-interaction in the presence and absence of metal ions using PEG-based soft-colloidal probes (SCPs). Adhesion energies of greater than 0.3 mJ/m(2) were measured in the presence of metal ions, and the stiffness of the modified SCPs exhibited a 3-fold increase, whereas no adhesion was observed in the absence of metals. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of metal-coordination via histidine residues by the peptide-supporting the role of His-metal complexes in the mechanical behavior of the byssus.

  8. Resonance Raman investigation of the effects of copper binding to iron-mesoporphyrin.histidine-rich glycoprotein complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, R W; Nunez, D J; Morgan, W. T.; Muhoberac, B B; Ondrias, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) binds both hemes and metal ions simultaneously with evidence for interaction between the two. This study uses resonance Raman and optical absorption spectroscopies to examine the heme environment of the 1:1 iron-mesoporphyrin.HRG complex in its oxidized, reduced and CO-bound forms in the absence and presence of copper. Significant perturbation of Fe(3+)-mesoporphyrin.HRG is induced by Cu2+ binding to the protein. Specifically, high frequency heme resonance Ra...

  9. Divalent metal binding by histidine-rich glycoprotein differentially regulates higher order oligomerisation and proteolytic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebatsch, Kristin M; Poon, Ivan K H; Patel, Kruti K; Kvansakul, Marc; Hulett, Mark D

    2017-01-01

    The serum protein histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) has been implicated in tissue injury and tumour growth. Several HRG functions are regulated by the divalent metal Zn2+ , including ligand binding and proteolytic processing that releases active HRG fragments. Although HRG can bind divalent metals other than Zn2+ , the impact of these divalent metals on the biophysical properties of HRG remains poorly understood. We now show that HRG binds Zn2+ , Ni2+ , Cu2+ and Co2+ with micromolar affinities, but differing stoichiometries, and regulate the release of specific HRG fragments during proteolysis. Furthermore, HRG binding to Zn2+ promotes HRG dimer formation in a Zn2+ -concentration- and pH-dependent manner. Our data highlight the complex divalent metal-dependent regulatory mechanisms that govern HRG function. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  10. Histidine-rich glycoprotein can prevent development of mouse experimental glioblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kärrlander

    Full Text Available Extensive angiogenesis, formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels, is an important feature of malignant glioma. Several antiangiogenic drugs targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF or its receptors are currently in clinical trials as therapy for high-grade glioma and bevacizumab was recently approved by the FDA for treatment of recurrent glioblastoma. However, the modest efficacy of these drugs and emerging problems with anti-VEGF treatment resistance welcome the development of alternative antiangiogenic therapies. One potential candidate is histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG, a plasma protein with antiangiogenic properties that can inhibit endothelial cell adhesion and migration. We have used the RCAS/TV-A mouse model for gliomas to investigate the effect of HRG on brain tumor development. Tumors were induced with platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B, in the presence or absence of HRG. We found that HRG had little effect on tumor incidence but could significantly inhibit the development of malignant glioma and completely prevent the occurrence of grade IV tumors (glioblastoma.

  11. Two histidine-rich HRGPS from Zea mays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieliszewski, M.J.; Lamport, D.T.A. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1990-05-01

    We used intact cell elution to isolate two maize HRGPs that co-chromatographed, but resolved after HF-deglycosylation, into two bands (M{sub r} 68 70 kD) on SDS PAGE. They were rich in His, thus designated HHRGPs, and contained 65% carbohydrate occurring as O-arabinosylated Hyp (63 mole%) and Gal (37%) possibly occurring as polygalactose on Thr or Ser. HHRGP did not react with Yariv artificial antigen, or agglutinate rabbit reticulocytes, implying that they are not arabinogalactan proteins or lectins. Furthermore, they were not in a polyproline-II conformation, judging by CD spectra, although TEM showed tham as extended rods. Quantitative ELISAs showed that antibodies raised against deglycosylated HHRGP crossreacted with deglycosylated tomato extensins P1 P2, suggesting possible homology between HHRGP and tomato extensin. Chymotryptic digestion of deglycosylated HHRGP gave a peptide map with 12 peptides rich in His, Ala and Hyp and confirming that both protein bands resolving on SDS-PAGE were HHRGPs.

  12. Molecular cloning and differential IgG responses to a histidine-rich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to further investigate host-parasite interactions in onchocerciasis, a major Onchocerca volvulus histidine rich antigen termed OvL3.C1 was isolated from an O. volvulus cDNA library using antibodies from putatively immune subjects living in onchocerciasis endemic communities in Cameroon. Analysis of its ...

  13. Deep-vein thrombosis is not associated with the P/S186 polymorphism of histidine-rich glycoprotein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rattink, A.P.; Hennis, B.C.; Lievers, C.J.A.; Maat, M.P.M. de; Bertina, R.; Mennen, L.I.; Rosendaal, F.R.

    1999-01-01

    Background: In several studies, higher plasma levels of histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) have been observed in patients with venous thrombosis than in healthy subjects. Apart from environmental factors, such as the use of oral contraceptives, the plasma HRG levels are mainly determined genetically.

  14. Resonance Raman investigation of the effects of copper binding to iron-mesoporphyrin.histidine-rich glycoprotein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, R W; Nunez, D J; Morgan, W T; Muhoberac, B B; Ondrias, M R

    1992-04-01

    Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) binds both hemes and metal ions simultaneously with evidence for interaction between the two. This study uses resonance Raman and optical absorption spectroscopies to examine the heme environment of the 1:1 iron-mesoporphyrin.HRG complex in its oxidized, reduced and CO-bound forms in the absence and presence of copper. Significant perturbation of Fe(3+)-mesoporphyrin.HRG is induced by Cu2+ binding to the protein. Specifically, high frequency heme resonance Raman bands indicative of low-spin, six-coordinate iron before Cu2+ binding exhibit monotonic intensity shifts to bands representing high-spin, five-coordinate iron. The latter coordination is in contrast to that found in hemoglobin and myoglobin, and explains the Cu(2+)-induced decrease and broadening of the Fe(3+)-mesoporphyrin.HRG Soret band concomitant with the increase in the high-spin marker band at 620 nm. After dithionite reduction, the Fe(2+)-mesoporphyrin.HRG complex displays high frequency resonance Raman bands characteristic of low-spin heme and no iron-histidine stretch, which together suggest six-coordinate iron. Furthermore, the local heme environment of the complex is not altered by the binding of Cu1+. CO-bound Fe(2+)-mesoporphyrin.HRG exhibits bands in the high and low frequency regions similar to those of other CO-bound heme proteins except that the iron-CO stretch at 505 cm-1 is unusually broad with delta nu approximately 30 cm-1. The dynamics of CO photolysis and rebinding to Fe(2+)-mesoporphyrin.HRG are also distinctive. The net quantum yield for photolysis at 10 ns is low relative to most heme proteins, which may be attributed to very rapid geminate recombination. A similar low net quantum yield and broad iron-CO stretch have so far only been observed in a dimeric cytochrome c' from Chromatium vinosum. Furthermore, the photolytic transient of Fe(2+)-mesoporphyrin.HRG lacks bands corresponding to high-spin, five-coordinate iron as is found in hemoglobin and

  15. Histidine-Rich Glycoprotein Uptake and Turnover Is Mediated by Mononuclear Phagocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugues, Sònia; Orlova, Anna; Bhoi, Sujata; Padhan, Narendra; Åkerud, Peter; Honjo, Satoshi; Selvaraju, Ram Kumar; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Claesson-Welsh, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is implicated in tumor growth and metastasis by regulation of angiogenesis and inflammation. HRG is produced by hepatocytes and carried to tissues via the circulation. We hypothesized that HRG's tissue distribution and turnover may be mediated by inflammatory cells. Biodistribution parameters were analyzed by injection of radiolabeled, bioactive HRG in the circulation of healthy and tumor-bearing mice. 125I-HRG was cleared rapidly from the blood and taken up in tissues of healthy and tumor-bearing mice, followed by degradation, to an increased extent in the tumor-bearing mice. Steady state levels of HRG in the circulation were unaffected by the tumor disease both in murine tumor models and in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Importantly, stromal pools of HRG, detected in human CRC microarrays, were associated with inflammatory cells. In agreement, microautoradiography identified 125I-HRG in blood vessels and on CD45-positive leukocytes in mouse tissues. Moreover, radiolabeled HRG bound in a specific, heparan sulfate-independent manner, to differentiated human monocytic U937 cells in vitro. Suppression of monocyte differentiation by systemic treatment of mice with anti-colony stimulating factor-1 neutralizing antibodies led to reduced blood clearance of radiolabeled HRG and to accumulation of endogenous HRG in the blood. Combined, our data show that mononuclear phagocytes have specific binding sites for HRG and that these cells are essential for uptake of HRG from blood and distribution of HRG in tissues. Thereby, we confirm and extend our previous report that inflammatory cells mediate the effect of HRG on tumor growth and metastatic spread. PMID:25243896

  16. The functional dissection of the plasma corona of SiO₂-NPs spots histidine rich glycoprotein as a major player able to hamper nanoparticle capture by macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedeli, Chiara; Segat, Daniela; Tavano, Regina; Bubacco, Luigi; De Franceschi, Giorgia; de Laureto, Patrizia Polverino; Lubian, Elisa; Selvestrel, Francesco; Mancin, Fabrizio; Papini, Emanuele

    2015-11-14

    A coat of strongly-bound host proteins, or hard corona, may influence the biological and pharmacological features of nanotheranostics by altering their cell-interaction selectivity and macrophage clearance. With the goal of identifying specific corona-effectors, we investigated how the capture of amorphous silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs; Ø = 26 nm; zeta potential = -18.3 mV) by human lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages is modulated by the prominent proteins of their plasma corona. LC MS/MS analysis, western blotting and quantitative SDS-PAGE densitometry show that Histidine Rich Glycoprotein (HRG) is the most abundant component of the SiO2-NP hard corona in excess plasma from humans (HP) and mice (MP), together with minor amounts of the homologous Kininogen-1 (Kin-1), while it is remarkably absent in their Foetal Calf Serum (FCS)-derived corona. HRG binds with high affinity to SiO2-NPs (HRG Kd ∼2 nM) and competes with other plasma proteins for the NP surface, so forming a stable and quite homogeneous corona inhibiting nanoparticles binding to the macrophage membrane and their subsequent uptake. Conversely, in the case of lymphocytes and monocytes not only HRG but also several common plasma proteins can interchange in this inhibitory activity. The depletion of HRG and Kin-1 from HP or their plasma exhaustion by increasing NP concentration (>40 μg ml(-1) in 10% HP) lead to a heterogeneous hard corona, mostly formed by fibrinogen (Fibr), HDLs, LDLs, IgGs, Kallikrein and several minor components, allowing nanoparticle binding to macrophages. Consistently, the FCS-derived SiO2-NP hard corona, mainly formed by hemoglobin, α2 macroglobulin and HDLs but lacking HRG, permits nanoparticle uptake by macrophages. Moreover, purified HRG competes with FCS proteins for the NP surface, inhibiting their recruitment in the corona and blocking NP macrophage capture. HRG, the main component of the plasma-derived SiO2-NPs' hard corona, has antiopsonin characteristics and

  17. The functional dissection of the plasma corona of SiO2-NPs spots histidine rich glycoprotein as a major player able to hamper nanoparticle capture by macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedeli, Chiara; Segat, Daniela; Tavano, Regina; Bubacco, Luigi; de Franceschi, Giorgia; de Laureto, Patrizia Polverino; Lubian, Elisa; Selvestrel, Francesco; Mancin, Fabrizio; Papini, Emanuele

    2015-10-01

    A coat of strongly-bound host proteins, or hard corona, may influence the biological and pharmacological features of nanotheranostics by altering their cell-interaction selectivity and macrophage clearance. With the goal of identifying specific corona-effectors, we investigated how the capture of amorphous silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs; Ø = 26 nm; zeta potential = -18.3 mV) by human lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages is modulated by the prominent proteins of their plasma corona. LC MS/MS analysis, western blotting and quantitative SDS-PAGE densitometry show that Histidine Rich Glycoprotein (HRG) is the most abundant component of the SiO2-NP hard corona in excess plasma from humans (HP) and mice (MP), together with minor amounts of the homologous Kininogen-1 (Kin-1), while it is remarkably absent in their Foetal Calf Serum (FCS)-derived corona. HRG binds with high affinity to SiO2-NPs (HRG Kd ~2 nM) and competes with other plasma proteins for the NP surface, so forming a stable and quite homogeneous corona inhibiting nanoparticles binding to the macrophage membrane and their subsequent uptake. Conversely, in the case of lymphocytes and monocytes not only HRG but also several common plasma proteins can interchange in this inhibitory activity. The depletion of HRG and Kin-1 from HP or their plasma exhaustion by increasing NP concentration (>40 μg ml-1 in 10% HP) lead to a heterogeneous hard corona, mostly formed by fibrinogen (Fibr), HDLs, LDLs, IgGs, Kallikrein and several minor components, allowing nanoparticle binding to macrophages. Consistently, the FCS-derived SiO2-NP hard corona, mainly formed by hemoglobin, α2 macroglobulin and HDLs but lacking HRG, permits nanoparticle uptake by macrophages. Moreover, purified HRG competes with FCS proteins for the NP surface, inhibiting their recruitment in the corona and blocking NP macrophage capture. HRG, the main component of the plasma-derived SiO2-NPs' hard corona, has antiopsonin characteristics and uniquely

  18. Protein (Viridiplantae): 167119 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1124 3803:11124 ... 3814:11124 ... 163722:5049 ... 3826:5049 ... 3827:5049 ... PREDICTED: cysteine and histidine-rich dom...ain-containing protein RAR1-like Cicer arietinum MEKTVVKVRCQRIGCDAMFSEDDNSDGSCRYH

  19. Protein (Viridiplantae): 167121 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5818 4070:5818 ... 424551:5818 ... 424574:5818 ... 4107:5818 ... 4113:2845 ... PREDICTED: cysteine and histidine-rich dom...ain-containing protein RAR1-like isoform X1 Solanum tuberosum MERLRCQRIGCNATFTEDD

  20. Serine-stretch protein (SERP) of Plasmodium falciparum corresponds to the exoantigen Ag2, a target of antibodies associated with protection against malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Hundt, E; Hansen, Morten Bagge

    1994-01-01

    A mixture of Plasmodium falciparum exoantigens inducing lymphocyte activation and cytokine production was shown to contain the malaria vaccine candidate, the serine-stretch protein. This protein was shown serologically to correspond to Ag2, an exoantigen recognized by antibodies linked...... with protection against malaria. The glycophorin-binding protein, the histidine-rich protein II, the S-antigen, the heat shock protein 70, the ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen, and the apical membrane antigen-1 were also shown serologically to be present in the mixture of exoantigens....

  1. Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein-2 diversity and the implications for PfHRP 2: based malaria rapid diagnostic tests in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoah, Linda Eva; Abankwa, Joana; Oppong, Akua

    2016-02-18

    Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) play a key role in malaria management and control. The PfHRP-2 based RDT is the most widely used RDT for malaria diagnosis in Ghana. Deletion of pfhrp2 in Plasmodium falciparum parasites affect the diagnostic accuracy of PfHRP-2 based RDT kits. Identifying the prevalence and distribution of P. falciparum parasites with deleted pfhrp2 is important for malaria control. The purpose of this study was to identify and confirm the prevalence of pfhrp2 deletant P. falciparum parasites circulating within different regions of Ghana. DNA was extracted from the membrane of spent CareStart™ PfHRP-2 RDT kits and dried filter paper blood blots using Chelex-100. Exon 2 of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), resolved by agarose gel electrophoresis and visualized under UV light. Microscopic analysis of blood smears from samples that were PfHRP-2 RDT positive revealed a parasite prevalence of 54/114 (47.4 %) and 2/26 (7.7 %) in Accra and Cape Coast, respectively. PCR analysis increased parasite prevalence in the RDT positive samples to 94/114 (82.5 %) and 6/26 (23.1 %) in Accra and Cape Coast respectively. The exon 2 of the pfhrp2 gene was deleted in 18/54 (33.3 %) of the microscopy confirmed and 36.2 % (34/94) of the PCR confirmed RDT positive samples collected in Accra. No RDT sample, confirmed to contain parasites by either PCR or microscopy was negative by pfhrp2 exon 2 PCR in Cape Coast. A survey of an additional 558 DBS revealed that 22.4 % (46/205) and 40 % (44/110) of PCR positive samples in Accra and Cape Coast, respectively, lacked the exon 2 region of pfhrp2 and possibly the entire pfhrp2 gene. A high number of P. falciparum parasites, which lack pfhrp2 exon 2 gene have been identified in two communities in Ghana. Continuous nationwide monitoring of the prevalence of pfhrp2 deletant parasites would be essential to malaria control. The use of RDT kits that are effective at malaria diagnosis despite deletion of pfhrp2, such as the PfHRP-2/PfLDH combo RDT kit could enhance the diagnosis of clinical malaria in Ghana.

  2. Ex vivo drug sensitivity profiles of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Cambodia and Thailand, 2005 to 2010, determined by a histidine-rich protein-2 assay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tyner, Stuart D; Lon, Chanthap; Se, Youry; Bethell, Delia; Socheat, Doung; Noedl, Harald; Sea, Darapiseth; Satimai, Wichai; Schaecher, Kurt; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Fukuda, Mark M; Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Chaichana, Panjaporn; Saingam, Piyaporn; Buathong, Nillawan; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Chann, Soklyda; Timmermans, Ans; Saunders, David L; Walsh, Douglas S

    2012-01-01

    .... From 2005 to 2010, a HRP-2 in vitro assay assessed 451 P. falciparum field isolates obtained from subjects with malaria in western and northern Cambodia, and eastern Thailand, processed IEV, for 50...

  3. Comparison of the binding behavior of several histidine-containing proteins with immobilized copper(II) complexes of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane and 1,4-bis(1,4,7-triazacyclononan-1-yl)butane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Bim; Spiccia, Leone; Hearn, Milton T W

    2011-04-15

    The protein binding characteristics of the immobilized binucleating chelate system, 1,4-bis(1,4,7-triazacyclononan-1-yl)butane (tacn(2)butane), complexed with Cu(2+) ions have been investigated with hen egg white lysozyme, horse skeletal muscle myoglobin and horse heart cytochrome C, as well as three histidine-rich proteins, serum albumin, transferrin, and α(2)-macroglobulin, present in partially fractionated human serum. The effects of pH, ionic strength and elution buffers on protein binding have been examined and compared with those of the analogous immobilized mononuclear copper complex of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (tacn). The Cu(2+)-tacn(2)butane system was generally found to exhibit higher protein binding affinities than the Cu(2+)-tacn system, suggesting that the presence of immobilized binuclear copper(II) species leads to enhanced coordinative interaction with surface-exposed amino acid residues of the studied proteins. However, under some buffer conditions the dependencies of protein binding and elution on pH and ionic strength with these immobilized metal ion affinity chromatographic (IMAC) systems were consistent with electrostatic, hydrophobic and π-bonding interactions playing a significant secondary role in addition to the dominant coordinative interactions. As such, the results indicated that the selectivities were not solely dependent on the histidine content of the protein. In accord with this conclusion, differences in the selectivities of the Cu(2+)-tacn and Cu(2+)-tacn(2)butane adsorbents for serum albumin, transferrin, and α(2)-macroglobulin were observed depending on the choice of elution buffer. This attribute suggests that additional selectivity features can be realised for the separation of specific proteins with this new class of adsorbent. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Dynamic Nucleotide-dependent Interactions of Cysteine- and Histidine-rich Domain (CHORD)-containing Hsp90 Cochaperones Chp-1 and Melusin with Cochaperones PP5 and Sgt1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tae-Joon; Kim, Sangkyu; Wi, Ah Ram; Lee, Peter; Kang, Miae; Jeong, Jae-Hoon; Hahn, Ji-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Mammals have two cysteine- and histidine-rich domain (CHORD)-containing Hsp90 cochaperones, Chp-1 and melusin, which are homologs of plant Rar1. It has been shown previously that Rar1 CHORD directly interacts with ADP bound to the nucleotide pocket of Hsp90. Here, we report that ADP and ATP can bind to Hsp90 cochaperones Chp-1 and PP5, inducing their conformational changes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Chp-1 and melusin can interact with cochaperones PP5 and Sgt1 and with each other in an ATP-dependent manner. Based on the known structure of the Rar1-Hsp90 complex, His-186 has been identified as an important residue of Chp-1 for ADP/ATP binding. His-186 is necessary for the nucleotide-dependent interaction of Chp-1 not only with Hsp90 but also with Sgt1. In addition, Ca2+, which is known to bind to melusin, enhances the interactions of melusin with Hsp90 and Sgt1. Furthermore, melusin acquires the ADP preference for Hsp90 binding in the presence of Ca2+. Our newly discovered nucleotide-dependent interactions between cochaperones might provide additional complexity to the dynamics of the Hsp90 chaperone system, also suggesting potential Hsp90-independent roles for these cochaperones. PMID:23184943

  5. The MORPHEUS II protein crystallization screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorrec, Fabrice, E-mail: fgorrec@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-27

    MORPHEUS II is a 96-condition initial crystallization screen formulated de novo. The screen incorporates reagents selected from the Protein Data Bank to yield crystals that are not observed in traditional conditions. In addition, the formulation facilitates the optimization and cryoprotection of crystals. High-quality macromolecular crystals are a prerequisite for the process of protein structure determination by X-ray diffraction. Unfortunately, the relative yield of diffraction-quality crystals from crystallization experiments is often very low. In this context, innovative crystallization screen formulations are continuously being developed. In the past, MORPHEUS, a screen in which each condition integrates a mix of additives selected from the Protein Data Bank, a cryoprotectant and a buffer system, was developed. Here, MORPHEUS II, a follow-up to the original 96-condition initial screen, is described. Reagents were selected to yield crystals when none might be observed in traditional initial screens. Besides, the screen includes heavy atoms for experimental phasing and small polyols to ensure the cryoprotection of crystals. The suitability of the resulting novel conditions is shown by the crystallization of a broad variety of protein samples and their efficiency is compared with commercially available conditions.

  6. The MORPHEUS II protein crystallization screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrec, Fabrice

    2015-07-01

    High-quality macromolecular crystals are a prerequisite for the process of protein structure determination by X-ray diffraction. Unfortunately, the relative yield of diffraction-quality crystals from crystallization experiments is often very low. In this context, innovative crystallization screen formulations are continuously being developed. In the past, MORPHEUS, a screen in which each condition integrates a mix of additives selected from the Protein Data Bank, a cryoprotectant and a buffer system, was developed. Here, MORPHEUS II, a follow-up to the original 96-condition initial screen, is described. Reagents were selected to yield crystals when none might be observed in traditional initial screens. Besides, the screen includes heavy atoms for experimental phasing and small polyols to ensure the cryoprotection of crystals. The suitability of the resulting novel conditions is shown by the crystallization of a broad variety of protein samples and their efficiency is compared with commercially available conditions.

  7. Mammalian CHORD-containing protein 1 is a novel heat shock protein 90-interacting protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianchun; Luo, Shouqing; Jiang, Hai; Li, Honglin

    2005-01-17

    With two tandem repeated cysteine- and histidine-rich domains (designated as CHORD), CHORD-containing proteins (CHPs) are a novel family of highly conserved proteins that play important roles in plant disease resistance and animal development. Through interacting with suppressor of the G2 allele of Skp1 (SGT1) and Hsp90, plant CHORD-containing protein RAR1 (required for Mla resistance 1) plays a critical role in disease resistance mediated by multiple R genes. Yet, the physiological function of vertebrate CHORD-containing protein-1 (Chp-1) has been poorly investigated. In this study, we provide the first biochemical evidence demonstrating that mammalian Chp-1 is a novel Hsp90-interacting protein. Mammalian Chp-1 contains two CHORD domains (I and II) and one CS domain (a domain shared by CHORD-containing proteins and SGT1). With sequence and structural similarity to Hsp90 co-chaperones p23 and SGT1, Chp-1 binds to the ATPase domain of Hsp90, but the biochemical property of the interaction is unique. The Chp-1-Hsp90 interaction is independent of ATP and ATPase-coupled conformational change of Hsp90, a feature that distinguishes Chp-1 from p23. Furthermore, it appears that multiple domains of Chp-1 are required for stable Chp-1-Hsp90 interaction. Unlike SGT1 whose CS domain is sufficient for Hsp90 binding, the CS domain of Chp-1 is essential but not sufficient for Hsp90 binding. While the CHORD-I domain of Chp-1 is dispensable for Hsp90 binding, the CHORD-II domain and the linker region are essential. Interestingly, the CHORD-I domain of plant RAR1 protein is solely responsible for Hsp90 binding. The unique Chp-1-Hsp90 interaction may be indicative of a distinct biological activity of Chp-1 and functional diversification of CHORD-containing proteins during evolution.

  8. Accuracy of a Plasmodium falciparum specific histidine-rich protein 2 rapid diagnostic test in the context of the presence of non-malaria fevers, prior anti-malarial use and seasonal malaria transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiemde, Francois; Bonko, Massa Dit Achille; Tahita, Marc Christian; Lompo, Palpouguini; Rouamba, Toussaint; Tinto, Halidou; Boele van Hensbroek, Michael; Mens, Petra F.; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.

    2017-01-01

    It remains challenging to distinguish malaria from other fever causing infections, as a positive rapid diagnostic test does not always signify a true active malaria infection. This study was designed to determine the influence of other causes of fever, prior anti-malarial treatment, and a possible

  9. Direct Comparison of the Histidine-rich Protein-2 Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and Malaria SYBR Green I Fluorescence (MSF) Drug Sensitivity Tests in Plasmodium falciparum Reference Clones and Fresh ex vivo Field Isolates from Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests in Plasmodium falciparum reference clones and fresh ex vivo field isolates from Cambodia Suwanna...assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests were directly compared using Plasmodium falciparum reference... Plasmodium falciparum reference clones and fresh ex vivo field isolates from Cambodia Suwanna Chaorattanakawee 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  10. Combining parasite lactate dehydrogenase-based and histidine-rich protein 2-based rapid tests to improve specificity for diagnosis of malaria Due to Plasmodium knowlesi and other Plasmodium species in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Matthew J; William, Timothy; Barber, Bridget E; Parameswaran, Uma; Bird, Elspeth; Piera, Kim; Aziz, Ammar; Dhanaraj, Prabakaran; Yeo, Tsin W; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2014-06-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi causes severe and fatal malaria in Malaysia. Microscopic misdiagnosis is common and may delay appropriate treatment. P. knowlesi can cross-react with "species-specific" parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) monoclonal antibodies used in rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to detect P. falciparum and P. vivax. At one tertiary-care hospital and two district hospitals in Sabah, we prospectively evaluated two combination RDTs for malaria diagnosis by using both a pan-Plasmodium-pLDH (pan-pLDH)/P. falciparum-specific-pLDH (Pf-pLDH) RDT (OptiMAL-IT) and a non-P. falciparum VOM-pLDH/Pf-HRP2 RDT (CareStart). Differential cross-reactivity among these combinations was hypothesized to differentiate P. knowlesi from other Plasmodium monoinfections. Among 323 patients with PCR-confirmed P. knowlesi (n = 193), P. falciparum (n = 93), and P. vivax (n = 37) monoinfections, the VOM-pLDH individual component had the highest sensitivity for nonsevere (35%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 27 to 43%) and severe (92%; CI, 81 to 100%) P. knowlesi malaria. CareStart demonstrated a P. knowlesi sensitivity of 42% (CI, 34 to 49%) and specificity of 74% (CI, 65 to 82%), a P. vivax sensitivity of 83% (CI, 66 to 93%) and specificity of 71% (CI, 65 to 76%), and a P. falciparum sensitivity of 97% (CI, 90 to 99%) and specificity of 99% (CI, 97 to 100%). OptiMAL-IT demonstrated a P. knowlesi sensitivity of 32% (CI, 25 to 39%) and specificity of 21% (CI, 15 to 29%), a P. vivax sensitivity of 60% (CI, 42 to 75%) and specificity of 97% (CI, 94 to 99%), and a P. falciparum sensitivity of 82% (CI, 72 to 89%) and specificity of 39% (CI, 33 to 46%). The combination of CareStart plus OptiMAL-IT for P. knowlesi using predefined criteria gave a sensitivity of 25% (CI, 19 to 32%) and specificity of 97% (CI, 92 to 99%). Combining two RDT combinations was highly specific for P. knowlesi malaria diagnosis; however, sensitivity was poor. The specificity of pLDH RDTs was decreased for P. vivax and P. falciparum because of P. knowlesi cross-reactivity and cautions against their use alone in areas where P. knowlesi malaria is endemic. Sensitive P. knowlesi-specific RDTs and/or alternative molecular diagnostic tools are needed in areas where P. knowlesi malaria is endemic. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Computational design of binding proteins to EGFR domain II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Sup Choi

    Full Text Available We developed a process to produce novel interactions between two previously unrelated proteins. This process selects protein scaffolds and designs protein interfaces that bind to a surface patch of interest on a target protein. Scaffolds with shapes complementary to the target surface patch were screened using an exhaustive computational search of the human proteome and optimized by directed evolution using phage display. This method was applied to successfully design scaffolds that bind to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR domain II, the interface of EGFR dimerization, with high reactivity toward the target surface patch of EGFR domain II. One potential application of these tailor-made protein interactions is the development of therapeutic agents against specific protein targets.

  12. Lead(II) Binding in Natural and Artificial Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangelosi, Virginia; Ruckthong, Leela; Pecoraro, Vincent L

    2017-04-10

    This article describes recent attempts to understand the biological chemistry of lead using a synthetic biology approach. Lead binds to a variety of different biomolecules ranging from enzymes to regulatory and signaling proteins to bone matrix. We have focused on the interactions of this element in thiolate-rich sites that are found in metalloregulatory proteins such as Pbr, Znt, and CadC and in enzymes such as δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD). In these proteins, Pb(II) is often found as a homoleptic and hemidirectic Pb(II)(SR)3- complex. Using first principles of biophysics, we have developed relatively short peptides that can associate into three-stranded coiled coils (3SCCs), in which a cysteine group is incorporated into the hydrophobic core to generate a (cysteine)3 binding site. We describe how lead may be sequestered into these sites, the characteristic spectral features may be observed for such systems and we provide crystallographic insight on metal binding. The Pb(II)(SR)3- that is revealed within these α-helical assemblies forms a trigonal pyramidal structure (having an endo orientation) with distinct conformations than are also found in natural proteins (having an exo conformation). This structural insight, combined with 207Pb NMR spectroscopy, suggests that while Pb(II) prefers hemidirected Pb(II)(SR)3- scaffolds regardless of the protein fold, the way this is achieved within α-helical systems is different than in β-sheet or loop regions of proteins. These interactions between metal coordination preference and protein structural preference undoubtedly are exploited in natural systems to allow for protein conformation changes that define function. Thus, using a design approach that separates the numerous factors that lead to stable natural proteins allows us to extract fundamental concepts on how metals behave in biological systems.

  13. Quantificational analysis of NPT-II protein from genetically modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Widely distributed inhibitors in grapevine extracts make it difficult to improve analytical procedures for protein detection. In this study, acidity in grapevine extracts was one of the major factors inhibiting the detection of neomycin phosphotransferase II via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Leaf and berry extracts with low ...

  14. Expression Profiles of Cellular Retinol-binding Protein, Type II (CRBP II) in Erlang Mountainous Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H D; Tian, K; Li, D Y; Gilbert, E R; Xiao, L H; Chen, S Y; Wang, Y; Liu, Y P; Zhao, X L; Zhu, Q

    2014-03-01

    Cellular retinol-binding protein II (CRBP II) belongs to the family of cellular retinol-binding proteins and plays a major role in absorption, transport, and metabolism of vitamin A. In addition, because vitamin A is correlated with reproductive performance, we measured CRBP II mRNA abundance in erlang mountainous chickens by real-time PCR using the relative quantification method. The expression of CRBP II showed a tissue-specific pattern and egg production rate-dependent changes. The expression was very high (p<0.05) in jejunum and liver, intermediate in kidney, ovary, and oviduct, and lowest (p<0.05) in heart, hypothalamus, and pituitary. In the hypothalamus, oviduct, ovary, and pituitary, CRBP II mRNA abundance were correlated to egg production rate, which increased from 12 wk to 32 wk, peaked at 32 wk relative to the other time points, and then decreased from 32 wk to 45 wk. In contrast, the expression of CRBP II mRNA in heart, jejunum, kidney, and liver was not different at any of the ages evaluated in this study. These data may help to understand the genetic basis of vitamin A metabolism, and suggest that CRBP II may be a candidate gene to affect egg production traits in chickens.

  15. Expression Profiles of Cellular Retinol-binding Protein, Type II (CRBP II in Erlang Mountainous Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Yin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellular retinol-binding protein II (CRBP II belongs to the family of cellular retinol-binding proteins and plays a major role in absorption, transport, and metabolism of vitamin A. In addition, because vitamin A is correlated with reproductive performance, we measured CRBP II mRNA abundance in erlang mountainous chickens by real-time PCR using the relative quantification method. The expression of CRBP II showed a tissue-specific pattern and egg production rate-dependent changes. The expression was very high (p<0.05 in jejunum and liver, intermediate in kidney, ovary, and oviduct, and lowest (p<0.05 in heart, hypothalamus, and pituitary. In the hypothalamus, oviduct, ovary, and pituitary, CRBP II mRNA abundance were correlated to egg production rate, which increased from 12 wk to 32 wk, peaked at 32 wk relative to the other time points, and then decreased from 32 wk to 45 wk. In contrast, the expression of CRBP II mRNA in heart, jejunum, kidney, and liver was not different at any of the ages evaluated in this study. These data may help to understand the genetic basis of vitamin A metabolism, and suggest that CRBP II may be a candidate gene to affect egg production traits in chickens.

  16. Digital Assays Part II: Digital Protein and Cell Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Amar S

    2017-08-01

    A digital assay is one in which the sample is partitioned into many containers such that each partition contains a discrete number of biological entities (0, 1, 2, 3, . . .). A powerful technique in the biologist's toolkit, digital assays bring a new level of precision in quantifying nucleic acids, measuring proteins and their enzymatic activity, and probing single-cell genotype and phenotype. Where part I of this review focused on the fundamentals of partitioning and digital PCR, part II turns its attention to digital protein and cell assays. Digital enzyme assays measure the kinetics of single proteins with enzymatic activity. Digital enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISAs) quantify antigenic proteins with 2 to 3 log lower detection limit than conventional ELISA, making them well suited for low-abundance biomarkers. Digital cell assays probe single-cell genotype and phenotype, including gene expression, intracellular and surface proteins, metabolic activity, cytotoxicity, and transcriptomes (scRNA-seq). These methods exploit partitioning to 1) isolate single cells or proteins, 2) detect their activity via enzymatic amplification, and 3) tag them individually by coencapsulating them with molecular barcodes. When scaled, digital assays reveal stochastic differences between proteins or cells within a population, a key to understanding biological heterogeneity. This review is intended to give a broad perspective to scientists interested in adopting digital assays into their workflows.

  17. G protein-independent effects of the Angiotensin II type I receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gitte Lund

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptoren (AT1R) er en syv transmembranreceptor (7TMR) og et vigtigt terapeutisk target indenfor kardiovaskulær medicin. AT1R er gennem de seneste år blevet en model for det concept, at 7TMRer kan signalere via andre og mindre velbeskrevne signalveje end de G protein...... SII Angiotensin II (SII Ang II). På baggrund af massespektrometrianalyse fremlægger vi data som giver ny indsigt i Angotensin II’s (Ang II) signaltransduktion og som samtidig viser forskellen mellem fuld AT1R aktivering med Ang II og G protein uafhængig aktivering med SII Ang II. Resultaterne viser...

  18. LHC II protein phosphorylation in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants deficient in non-photochemical quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitholtz, Hanna-Leena; Srivastava, Renu; Tyystjärvi, Esa; Rintamäki, Eevi

    2005-06-01

    Phosphorylation of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complex II (LHC II) proteins is induced in light via activation of the LHC II kinase by reduction of cytochrome b(6)f complex in thylakoid membranes. We have recently shown that, besides this activation, the LHC II kinase can be regulated in vitro by a thioredoxin-like component, and H2O2 that inserts an inhibitory loop in the regulation of LHC II protein phosphorylation in the chloroplast. In order to disclose the complex network for LHC II protein phosphorylation in vivo, we studied phosphorylation of LHC II proteins in the leaves of npq1-2 and npq4-1 mutants of Arabidopis thaliana. In comparison to wild-type, these mutants showed reduced non-photochemical quenching and increased excitation pressure of Photosystem II (PS II) under physiological light intensities. Peculiar regulation of LHC II protein phosphorylation was observed in mutant leaves under illumination. The npq4-1 mutant was able to maintain a high amount of phosphorylated LHC II proteins in thylakoid membranes at light intensities that induced inhibition of phosphorylation in wild-type leaves. Light intensity-dependent changes in the level of LHC II protein phosphorylation were smaller in the npq1-2 mutant compared to the wild-type. No significant differences in leaf thickness, dry weight, chlorophyll content, or the amount of LHC II proteins were observed between the two mutant and wild-type lines. We propose that the reduced capacity of the mutant lines to dissipate excess excitation energy induces changes in the production of reactive oxygen species in chloroplasts, which consequently affects the regulation of LHC II protein phosphorylation.

  19. The coat protein complex II, COPII, protein Sec13 directly interacts with presenilin-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Anders Lade, E-mail: aln@humgen.au.dk [Department of Human Genetics, The Bartholin Building, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2009-10-23

    Mutations in the human gene encoding presenilin-1, PS1, account for most cases of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. PS1 has nine transmembrane domains and a large loop orientated towards the cytoplasm. PS1 locates to cellular compartments as endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, vesicular structures, and plasma membrane, and is an integral member of {gamma}-secretase, a protein protease complex with specificity for intra-membranous cleavage of substrates such as {beta}-amyloid precursor protein. Here, an interaction between PS1 and the Sec13 protein is described. Sec13 takes part in coat protein complex II, COPII, vesicular trafficking, nuclear pore function, and ER directed protein sequestering and degradation control. The interaction maps to the N-terminal part of the large hydrophilic PS1 loop and the first of the six WD40-repeats present in Sec13. The identified Sec13 interaction to PS1 is a new candidate interaction for linking PS1 to secretory and protein degrading vesicular circuits.

  20. Functional and Structural Properties of a Novel Protein and Virulence Factor (Protein sHIP) in Streptococcus pyogenes *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewska, Magdalena; Happonen, Lotta; Kahn, Fredrik; Varjosalo, Markku; Malmström, Lars; Rosenberger, George; Karlsson, Christofer; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Pozdnyakova, Irina; Frick, Inga-Maria; Björck, Lars; Streicher, Werner; Malmström, Johan; Wikström, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a significant bacterial pathogen in the human population. The importance of virulence factors for the survival and colonization of S. pyogenes is well established, and many of these factors are exposed to the extracellular environment, enabling bacterial interactions with the host. In the present study, we quantitatively analyzed and compared S. pyogenes proteins in the growth medium of a strain that is virulent to mice with a non-virulent strain. Particularly, one of these proteins was present at significantly higher levels in stationary growth medium from the virulent strain. We determined the three-dimensional structure of the protein that showed a unique tetrameric organization composed of four helix-loop-helix motifs. Affinity pull-down mass spectrometry analysis in human plasma demonstrated that the protein interacts with histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), and the name sHIP (streptococcal histidine-rich glycoprotein-interacting protein) is therefore proposed. HRG has antibacterial activity, and when challenged by HRG, sHIP was found to rescue S. pyogenes bacteria. This and the finding that patients with invasive S. pyogenes infection respond with antibody production against sHIP suggest a role for the protein in S. pyogenes pathogenesis. PMID:24825900

  1. Functional and structural properties of a novel protein and virulence factor (Protein sHIP) in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewska, Magdalena; Happonen, Lotta; Kahn, Fredrik; Varjosalo, Markku; Malmström, Lars; Rosenberger, George; Karlsson, Christofer; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Pozdnyakova, Irina; Frick, Inga-Maria; Björck, Lars; Streicher, Werner; Malmström, Johan; Wikström, Mats

    2014-06-27

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a significant bacterial pathogen in the human population. The importance of virulence factors for the survival and colonization of S. pyogenes is well established, and many of these factors are exposed to the extracellular environment, enabling bacterial interactions with the host. In the present study, we quantitatively analyzed and compared S. pyogenes proteins in the growth medium of a strain that is virulent to mice with a non-virulent strain. Particularly, one of these proteins was present at significantly higher levels in stationary growth medium from the virulent strain. We determined the three-dimensional structure of the protein that showed a unique tetrameric organization composed of four helix-loop-helix motifs. Affinity pull-down mass spectrometry analysis in human plasma demonstrated that the protein interacts with histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), and the name sHIP (streptococcal histidine-rich glycoprotein-interacting protein) is therefore proposed. HRG has antibacterial activity, and when challenged by HRG, sHIP was found to rescue S. pyogenes bacteria. This and the finding that patients with invasive S. pyogenes infection respond with antibody production against sHIP suggest a role for the protein in S. pyogenes pathogenesis. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Quality control of Photosystem II: reversible and irreversible protein aggregation decides the fate of Photosystem II under excessive illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasusi eYamamoto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In response to excessive light, the thylakoid membranes of higher plant chloroplasts show dynamic changes including the degradation and reassembly of proteins, a change in the distribution of proteins, and large-scale structural changes such as unstacking of the grana. Here, we examined the aggregation of light-harvesting chlorophyll-protein complexes and Photosystem II core subunits of spinach thylakoid membranes under light stress with 77K chlorophyll fluorescence; aggregation of these proteins was found to proceed with increasing light intensity. Measurement of changes in the fluidity of thylakoid membranes with fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene showed that membrane fluidity increased at a light intensity of 500–1,000 µmol photons m-2 s-1, and decreased at very high light intensity (1,500 µmol photons m-2 s-1. The aggregation of light-harvesting complexes at moderately high light intensity is known to be reversible, while that of Photosystem II core subunits at extremely high light intensity is irreversible. It is likely that the reversibility of protein aggregation is closely related to membrane fluidity: increases in fluidity should stimulate reversible protein aggregation, whereas irreversible protein aggregation might decrease membrane fluidity. When spinach leaves were pre-illuminated with moderately high light intensity, the qE component of non-photochemical quenching and the optimum quantum yield of Photosystem II increased, indicating that Photosystem II/ light-harvesting complexes rearranged in the thylakoid membranes to optimize Photosystem II activity. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the thylakoids underwent partial unstacking under these light stress conditions. Thus, protein aggregation is involved in thylakoid dynamics and regulates photochemical reactions, thereby deciding the fate of Photosystem II.

  3. Cloning, expression and functional characterization of heme detoxification protein (HDP) from the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium vinckei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Awakash; Goyal, Manish; Prakash, Kirtika; Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Siddiqui, Arif Jamal; Puri, Sunil K

    2015-07-15

    Malaria parasite resides within the host red blood cells, where it degrades vast amount of haemoglobin. During haemoglobin degradation, toxic free heme is liberated which subsequently gets converted into hemozoin. This process is facilitated by action of various proteins viz. heme detoxification protein (HDP), and histidine rich proteins II and III (HRP II & III). Out of these, HDP is the most potent in hemozoin formation and plays indispensible role for parasite survival. Despite this, the detailed study of HDP from rodent and simian parasite has not been performed till date. Here, we have cloned and sequenced hdp gene from different malaria parasites Plasmodium vinckei, Plasmodium yoelii, Plasmodium knowlesi, and Plasmodium cynomolgi. Furthermore, HDP from P. vinckei (PvHDP) was over-expressed and purified for detailed characterization. The PvHDP is cytosolic, expressed throughout the intra erythrocytic stages and its expression is higher in late trophozoite and schizont stages of parasite. The PvHDP interacts with free heme (KD=89 nM) and efficiently converts heme into hemozoin in a time and concentration dependent manner. Moreover, PvHDP showed activity in acidic pH and over a broad range of temperature. Histidine modification of PvHDP using DEPC showed reduction in heme binding and hemozoin formation, thus emphasizing the importance of histidine residues in heme binding and subsequent hemozoin production. Furthermore, applicability of PvHDP to screen anti-plasmodial agents (targeting heme to hemozoin conversion) was also determined using chloroquine, and mefloquine as reference antimalarials. Results showed that these drugs inhibit heme polymerization effectively in a concentration dependent manner. In conclusion, our study identified and biochemically characterized HDP from rodent malaria parasite P. vinckei and this will help to develop a high throughput assay to evaluate new antimalarials targeting hemozoin pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  4. Amide I'-II' 2D IR spectroscopy provides enhanced protein secondary structural sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deflores, Lauren P; Ganim, Ziad; Nicodemus, Rebecca A; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2009-03-11

    We demonstrate how multimode 2D IR spectroscopy of the protein amide I' and II' vibrations can be used to distinguish protein secondary structure. Polarization-dependent amide I'-II' 2D IR experiments on poly-l-lysine in the beta-sheet, alpha-helix, and random coil conformations show that a combination of amide I' and II' diagonal and cross peaks can effectively distinguish between secondary structural content, where amide I' infrared spectroscopy alone cannot. The enhanced sensitivity arises from frequency and amplitude correlations between amide II' and amide I' spectra that reflect the symmetry of secondary structures. 2D IR surfaces are used to parametrize an excitonic model for the amide I'-II' manifold suitable to predict protein amide I'-II' spectra. This model reveals that the dominant vibrational interaction contributing to this sensitivity is a combination of negative amide II'-II' through-bond coupling and amide I'-II' coupling within the peptide unit. The empirically determined amide II'-II' couplings do not significantly vary with secondary structure: -8.5 cm(-1) for the beta sheet, -8.7 cm(-1) for the alpha helix, and -5 cm(-1) for the coil.

  5. BINDING OF A BZIP PROTEIN TO THE ESTROGEN-INDUCIBLE APOVLDL-II PROMOTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMIDT, MP; WIJNHOLDS, J; SNIPPE, L; VANKEULEN, G; AB, G

    1994-01-01

    Activation of the very low density apolipoprotein II (apoVLDL II) gene in chicken liver by estrogen results in the binding of a variety of nuclear proteins including members of the steroid receptor superfamily and the bZip superfamily to the immediate 5' flanking region. In the present study, we

  6. Spectroscopic properties of the CP43 core antenna protein of photosystem II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, ML; Frese, RN; de Weerd, FL; Bromek, K.; Pettersson, A.; Peterman, EJG; van Stokkum, IHM; van Grondelle, R; Dekker, JP

    1999-01-01

    CP43 is a chlorophyll-protein complex that funnels excitation energy from the main light-harvesting system of photosystem II to the photochemical reaction center. We purified CP43 from spinach photosystem II membranes in the presence of the nonionic detergent n-dodecyl-β,d-maltoside and recorded its

  7. Manganese binding to the 23 kDa extrinsic protein of Photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarava, Natallia; Un, Sun; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja

    2007-06-01

    The recombinant form of the extrinsic 23 kDa protein (psbP) of Photosystem II (PSII) was studied with respect to its capability to bind Mn. The stoichiometry was determined to be one manganese bound per protein. A very high binding constant, K(A)=10(-17) M(-1), was determined by dialysis of the Mn containing protein against increasing EDTA concentration. High Field EPR spectroscopy was used to distinguish between specific symmetrically ligated Mn(II) from those non-specifically Mn(II) attached to the protein surface. Upon Mn binding PsbP exhibited fluorescence emission with maxima at 415 and 435 nm when tryptophan residues were excited. The yield of this blue fluorescence was variable from sample to sample. It was likely that different conformational states of the protein were responsible for this variability. The importance of Mn binding to PsbP in the context of photoactivation of PSII is discussed.

  8. Quantificational analysis of NPT-II protein from genetically modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... contents in transgenic grapevine tissues possessing a NPT-II gene were successfully measured. ... the food industry (Mouщcoucou et al., 2003; Weinbreck et .... Statistical analysis. Data are presented as means with standard errors for each treatment. Means of all data were subjected to standard ANOVA ...

  9. Zn(II)-Coordinated Quantum Dot-FRET Nanosensors for the Detection of Protein Kinase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Butaek; Park, Ji-In; Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin-Won; Kim, Tae-Wuk; Kim, Young-Pil

    2015-07-23

    We report a simple detection of protein kinase activity using Zn(II)-mediated fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) between quantum dots (QDs) and dye-tethered peptides. With neither complex chemical ligands nor surface modification of QDs, Zn(II) was the only metal ion that enabled the phosphorylated peptides to be strongly attached on the carboxyl groups of the QD surface via metal coordination, thus leading to a significant FRET efficiency. As a result, protein kinase activity in intermixed solution was efficiently detected by QD-FRET via Zn(II) coordination, especially when the peptide substrate was combined with affinity-based purification. We also found that mono- and di-phosphorylation in the peptide substrate could be discriminated by the Zn(II)-mediated QD-FRET. Our approach is expected to find applications for studying physiological function and signal transduction with respect to protein kinase activity.

  10. Does protein binding modulate the effect of angiotensin II receptor antagonists?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc P Maillard

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAngiotensin II AT 1-receptor antagonists are highly bound to plasma proteins (≥ 99%. With some antagonists, such as DuP-532, the protein binding was such that no efficacy of the drug could be demonstrated clinically. Whether protein binding interferes with the efficacy of other antagonists is not known. We have therefore investigated in vitro how plasma proteins may affect the antagonistic effect of different AT1-receptor antagonists.MethodsA radio-receptor binding assay was used to analyse the interaction between proteins and the ability of various angiotensin II (Ang II antagonists to block AT1-receptors. In addition, the Biacore technology, a new technique which enables the real-time monitoring of binding events between two molecules, was used to evaluate the dissociation rate constants of five AT1-receptor antagonists from human serum albumin.ResultsThe in vitro AT 1-antagonistic effects of different Ang II receptor antagonists were differentially affected by the presence of human plasma, with rightward shifts of the IC50 ranging from one to several orders of magnitude. The importance of the shift correlates with the dissociation rate constants of these drugs from albumin. Our experiments also show that the way that AT1-receptor antagonists bind to proteins differs from one compound to another. These results suggest that the interaction with plasma proteins appears to modulate the efficacy of some Ang II antagonists.ConclusionAlthough the high binding level of Ang II receptor antagonist to plasma proteins appears to be a feature common to this class of compounds, the kinetics and characteristics of this binding is of great importance. With some antagonists, protein binding interferes markedly with their efficacy to block AT1-receptors.

  11. A rare polyglycine type II-like helix motif in naturally occurring proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warkentin, Eberhard; Weidenweber, Sina; Schühle, Karola; Demmer, Ulrike; Heider, Johann; Ermler, Ulrich

    2017-11-01

    Common structural elements in proteins such as α-helices or β-sheets are characterized by uniformly repeating, energetically favorable main chain conformations which additionally exhibit a completely saturated hydrogen-bonding network of the main chain NH and CO groups. Although polyproline or polyglycine type II helices (PP II or PG II ) are frequently found in proteins, they are not considered as equivalent secondary structure elements because they do not form a similar self-contained hydrogen-bonding network of the main chain atoms. In this context our finding of an unusual motif of glycine-rich PG II -like helices in the structure of the acetophenone carboxylase core complex is of relevance. These PG II -like helices form hexagonal bundles which appear to fulfill the criterion of a (largely) saturated hydrogen-bonding network of the main-chain groups and therefore may be regarded in this sense as a new secondary structure element. It consists of a central PG II -like helix surrounded by six nearly parallel PG II -like helices in a hexagonal array, plus an additional PG II -like helix extending the array outwards. Very related structural elements have previously been found in synthetic polyglycine fibers. In both cases, all main chain NH and CO groups of the central PG II -helix are saturated by either intra- or intermolecular hydrogen-bonds, resulting in a self-contained hydrogen-bonding network. Similar, but incomplete PG II -helix patterns were also previously identified in a GTP-binding protein and an antifreeze protein. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Iron(II) Initiation of Lipid and Protein Oxidation in Pork: The Role of Oxymyoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feibai; Jongberg, Sisse; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Weizheng; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-06-08

    Iron(II), added as FeSO4·7H2O, was found to increase the rate of oxygen depletion as detected electrochemically in a pork homogenate from Longissimus dorsi through an initial increase in metmyoglobin formation from oxymyoglobin and followed by formation of primary and secondary lipid oxidation products and protein oxidation as detected as thiol depletion in myofibrillar proteins. Without added iron(II), under the same conditions at 37 °C, oxygen consumption corresponded solely to the slow oxymyoglobin autoxidation. Long-lived myofibrillar protein radicals as detected by ESR spectroscopy in the presence of iron(II) were formed subsequently to oxymyoglobin oxidation, and their level was increased by lipid oxidation when oxygen was completely depleted. Similarly, the time profile for formation of lipid peroxide indicated that oxymyoglobin oxidation initiates both protein oxidation and lipid oxidation.

  13. Alveolar type II cell transplantation restores pulmonary surfactant protein levels in lung fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillamat-Prats, Raquel; Gay-Jordi, Gemma; Xaubet, Antoni; Peinado, Victor I; Serrano-Mollar, Anna

    2014-07-01

    Alveolar Type II cell transplantation has been proposed as a cell therapy for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Its long-term benefits include repair of lung fibrosis, but its success partly depends on the restoration of lung homeostasis. Our aim was to evaluate surfactant protein restoration after alveolar Type II cell transplantation in an experimental model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in rats. Lung fibrosis was induced by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin. Alveolar Type II cells were obtained from healthy animals and transplanted 14 days after bleomycin was administered. Furthermore, one group transplanted with alveolar macrophages and another group treated with surfactant were established to evaluate the specificity of the alveolar Type II cell transplantation. The animals were euthanized at 21 days after bleomycin instillation. Lung fibrosis was confirmed by a histologic study and an evaluation of the hydroxyproline content. Changes in surfactant proteins were evaluated by mRNA expression, Western blot and immunofluorescence studies. The group with alveolar Type II cell transplantation was the only one to show a reduction in the degree of lung fibrosis and a complete recovery to normal levels of surfactant proteins. One of the mechanisms involved in the beneficial effect of alveolar Type II cell transplantation is restoration of lung surfactant protein levels, which is required for proper respiratory function. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cross-Specificities between cII-like Proteins and pRE-like Promoters of Lambdoid Bacteriophages

    OpenAIRE

    Wulff, Daniel L.; Mahoney, Michael E.

    1987-01-01

    We have investigated the activation of transcription from the pRE promoters of phages λ, 21 and P22 by the λ and 21 cII proteins and the P22 c1 (cII-like) protein, using an in vivo system in which cII protein from a derepressed prophage activates transcription from a pRE DNA fragment on a multicopy plasmid. We find that each protein is highly specific for its own cognate pRE promoter, although measureable cross-reactions are observed. The primary recognition sequence for cII protein on λ pR...

  15. Protein kinase C contributes to desensitization of ANG II signaling in adult rat cardiac fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, J G; Raphael, R; Lio, F M; Brunton, L L

    2000-12-01

    We have studied G(q)-linked ANG II signaling [inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation, Ca(2+) mobilization] in primary cultures of rat cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and have found that ANG II initiates a protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated negative feedback loop that rapidly terminates the ANG II response. Pharmacological inhibition of PKC by staurosporine and GF-109203X doubled IP production over that achieved in response to ANG II alone. Inhibition of PKC also led to larger Ca(2+) transients in response to ANG II, suggesting that Ca(2+) mobilization was proportional to G(q)-phospholipase C-IP(3) activity under the conditions studied. Depletion of cellular PKC by overnight treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) similarly augmented ANG II-induced IP production. Acute activation of PKC by PMA halved IP formation, with an EC(50) approximately 1 nM; 4alpha-PMA was inactive. Time course data demonstrated that ANG II-mediated IP production fully desensitized within 30 s; PKC inhibition reduced the rate and extent of this desensitization. In cells desensitized to ANG II, a purinergic agonist still mobilized intracellular Ca(2+), indicating that desensitization was homologous. The ANG II-induced Ca(2+) signal was fully resensitized within 30 min. The data demonstrate that a large portion of the IP-Ca(2+) responses of rat CFs to ANG II are short-lived because of rapid, PKC-mediated desensitization.

  16. Aldosterone and angiotensin II induced protein aggregation in renal proximal tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheema, Muhammad Umar; Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Enghild, Jan J

    2013-01-01

    systems in the kidney from control rats and rats receiving aldosterone or angiotensin II treatment for 7 days. Control rats formed both aggresomes and autophagosomes specifically in the proximal tubules, indicating a need for these structures even under baseline conditions. Fluorescence sorted aggresomes...... contained various rat keratins known to be expressed in renal tubules as assessed by protein mass spectrometry. Aldosterone administration increased the abundance of the proximal tubular aggresomal protein keratin 5, the ribosomal protein RPL27, ataxin-3, and the chaperone heat shock protein 70......-4 with no apparent change in the aggresome-autophagosome markers. Angiotensin II induced aggregation of RPL27 specifically in proximal tubules, again without apparent change in antiaggregating proteins or the aggresome-autophagosome markers. Albumin endocytosis was unaffected by the hormone administration. Taken...

  17. Structure of catabolite activator protein with cobalt(II) and sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Ramya R.; Lawson, Catherine L., E-mail: cathy.lawson@rutgers.edu [Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    The crystal structure of E. coli catabolite activator protein with bound cobalt(II) and sulfate ions at 1.97 Å resolution is reported. The crystal structure of cyclic AMP–catabolite activator protein (CAP) from Escherichia coli containing cobalt(II) chloride and ammonium sulfate is reported at 1.97 Å resolution. Each of the two CAP subunits in the asymmetric unit binds one cobalt(II) ion, in each case coordinated by N-terminal domain residues His19, His21 and Glu96 plus an additional acidic residue contributed via a crystal contact. The three identified N-terminal domain cobalt-binding residues are part of a region of CAP that is important for transcription activation at class II CAP-dependent promoters. Sulfate anions mediate additional crystal lattice contacts and occupy sites corresponding to DNA backbone phosphate positions in CAP–DNA complex structures.

  18. Life without double-headed non-muscle myosin II motor proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkaiah eBetapudi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-muscle myosin II motor proteins (myosin IIA, myosin IIB, and myosin IIC belong to a class of molecular motor proteins that are known to transduce cellular free-energy into biological work more efficiently than man-made combustion engines. Nature has given a single myosin II motor protein for lower eukaryotes and multiple for mammals but none for plants in order to provide impetus for their life. These specialized nanomachines drive cellular activities necessary for embryogenesis, organogenesis, and immunity. However, these multifunctional myosin II motor proteins are believed to go awry due to unknown reasons and contribute for the onset and progression of many autosomal-dominant disorders, cataract, deafness, infertility, cancer, kidney, neuronal, and inflammatory diseases. Many pathogens like HIV, Dengue, hepatitis C, and Lymphoma viruses as well as Salmonella and Mycobacteria are now known to take hostage of these dedicated myosin II motor proteins for their efficient pathogenesis. Even after four decades since their discovery, we still have a limited knowledge of how these motor proteins drive cell migration and cytokinesis. We need to enrich our current knowledge on these fundamental cellular processes and develop novel therapeutic strategies to fix mutated myosin II motor proteins in pathological conditions. This is the time to think how to relieve the hijacked myosins from pathogens in order to provide a renewed impetus for patients’ life. Understanding how to steer these molecular motors in proliferating and differentiating stem cells will improve stem cell based-therapeutics development. Given the plethora of cellular activities non-muscle myosin motor proteins are involved in, their importance is apparent for human life.

  19. Life without double-headed non-muscle myosin II motor proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betapudi, Venkaiah

    2014-07-01

    Non-muscle myosin II motor proteins (myosin IIA, myosin IIB, and myosin IIC) belong to a class of molecular motor proteins that are known to transduce cellular free-energy into biological work more efficiently than man-made combustion engines. Nature has given a single myosin II motor protein for lower eukaryotes and multiple for mammals but none for plants in order to provide impetus for their life. These specialized nanomachines drive cellular activities necessary for embryogenesis, organogenesis, and immunity. However, these multifunctional myosin II motor proteins are believed to go awry due to unknown reasons and contribute for the onset and progression of many autosomal-dominant disorders, cataract, deafness, infertility, cancer, kidney, neuronal, and inflammatory diseases. Many pathogens like HIV, Dengue, hepatitis C, and Lymphoma viruses as well as Salmonella and Mycobacteria are now known to take hostage of these dedicated myosin II motor proteins for their efficient pathogenesis. Even after four decades since their discovery, we still have a limited knowledge of how these motor proteins drive cell migration and cytokinesis. We need to enrich our current knowledge on these fundamental cellular processes and develop novel therapeutic strategies to fix mutated myosin II motor proteins in pathological conditions. This is the time to think how to relieve the hijacked myosins from pathogens in order to provide a renewed impetus for patients’ life. Understanding how to steer these molecular motors in proliferating and differentiating stem cells will improve stem cell based-therapeutics development. Given the plethora of cellular activities non-muscle myosin motor proteins are involved in, their importance is apparent for human life.

  20. Class II G Protein-Coupled Receptors and Their Ligands in Neuronal Function and Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Bronwen; de Maturana, Rakel Lopez; Brenneman, Randall; Walent, Tom; Mattson, Mark P.; Maudsley, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play pivotal roles in regulating the function and plasticity of neuronal circuits in the nervous system. Among the myriad of GPCRs expressed in neural cells, class II GPCRs which couples predominantly to the Gs–adenylate cyclase–cAMP signaling pathway, have recently received considerable attention for their involvement in regulating neuronal survival. Neuropeptides that activate class II GPCRs include secretin, glucagon-like peptides (GLP-1 and GLP-2), grow...

  1. Copper(II) Binding to ?-Synuclein, the Parkinson?s Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jennifer C.; Gray, Harry B.; Winkler, Jay R.

    2008-01-01

    Variations in tryptophan fluorescence intensities confirm that copper(II) interacts with α-synuclein, a protein implicated in Parkinson’s disease. Trp4 fluorescence decay kinetics measured for the F4W protein show that Cu(II) binds tightly (K_d ∼ 100 nM) near the N-terminus at pH 7. Work on a F4W/H50S mutant indicates that a histidine imidazole is not a ligand in this high-affinity site.

  2. A sulfhydryl-reactive ruthenium (II complex and its conjugation to protein G as a universal reagent for fluorescent immunoassays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Tang Lin

    Full Text Available To develop a fluorescent ruthenium complex for biosensing, we synthesized a novel sulfhydryl-reactive compound, 4-bromophenanthroline bis-2,2'-dipyridine Ruthenium bis (hexafluorophosphate. The synthesized Ru(II complex was crosslinked with thiol-modified protein G to form a universal reagent for fluorescent immunoassays. The resulting Ru(II-protein G conjugates were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The emission peak wavelength of the Ru(II-protein G conjugate was 602 nm at the excitation of 452 nm which is similar to the spectra of the Ru(II complex, indicating that Ru(II-protein G conjugates still remain the same fluorescence after conjugation. To test the usefulness of the conjugate for biosensing, immunoglobulin G (IgG binding assay was conducted. The result showed that Ru(II-protein G conjugates were capable of binding IgG and the more cross-linkers to modify protein G, the higher conjugation efficiency. To demonstrate the feasibility of Ru(II-protein G conjugates for fluorescent immunoassays, the detection of recombinant histidine-tagged protein using the conjugates and anti-histidine antibody was developed. The results showed that the histidine-tagged protein was successfully detected with dose-response, indicating that Ru(II-protein G conjugate is a useful universal fluorescent reagent for quantitative immunoassays.

  3. Investigation of protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions in type II non-ribosomal peptide synthetases

    OpenAIRE

    Jaremko, Matt J.

    2017-01-01

    Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of many pharmaceutically relavant compounds. Type II NRPSs are an emerging subfamily of NRPSs that form hybrid pathways with type I fatty acid synthases (FAS), polyketide synthases (PKS), type I NRPSs, or others. The type II NRPSs commonly contain tailoring enzymes that generate unique substrate modifications, such as dehydrogenations and halogenation. Unlike type I NRPSs, the type II systems consists of standalone...

  4. Analysis of a collagen II degradation protein C2C and a collagen II formation protein CP II in serum of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgallon, Conor P; Larsen, Scott; Wong, Alice; Yellowley, Clare

    2015-03-01

    Osteoarthritis is a major cause of chronic lameness in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in captivity worldwide. Radiology and other imaging technologies are of limited use in the early diagnosis of this condition in elephants. Collagen II is a major component of articular cartilage. The degradation and formation of collagen II can be monitored by the measurement of specific biomarkers in biologic fluids such as serum. It is possible that these biomarkers could also prove useful in identifying disease in elephants. In this study two commercially available immunoassays which measure a marker of collagen II degradation (C2C) and a marker of collagen II formation (CPII) were evaluated in Asian elephants. The ability of the assays to detect and measure C2C and CPII in the serum of Asian elephants was confirmed. Median serum concentration of C2C was 148 ng/L in nonlame elephants (n=33) and 91.2 ng/L in lame elephants (n=7). The difference was statistically significant (P=0.0002). Median serum concentration of CPII was 519.3 ng/L in nonlame elephants and 318.7 ng/L in lame elephants. The difference was also statistically significant (P=0.039). Whereas CPII concentrations in lame elephants mirrored findings from human and animal osteoarthritis studies, C2C concentrations did not. Further studies which evaluate these and other similar biomarkers are necessary to elucidate their usefulness in the diagnosis of osteoarthritis in proboscidae.

  5. Pharmacological inhibition of dynamin II reduces constitutive protein secretion from primary human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike Kockx

    Full Text Available Dynamins are fission proteins that mediate endocytic and exocytic membrane events and are pharmacological therapeutic targets. These studies investigate whether dynamin II regulates constitutive protein secretion and show for the first time that pharmacological inhibition of dynamin decreases secretion of apolipoprotein E (apoE and several other proteins constitutively secreted from primary human macrophages. Inhibitors that target recruitment of dynamin to membranes (MiTMABs or directly target the GTPase domain (Dyngo or Dynole series, dose- and time- dependently reduced the secretion of apoE. SiRNA oligo's targeting all isoforms of dynamin II confirmed the involvement of dynamin II in apoE secretion. Inhibition of secretion was not mediated via effects on mRNA or protein synthesis. 2D-gel electrophoresis showed that inhibition occurred after apoE was processed and glycosylated in the Golgi and live cell imaging showed that inhibited secretion was associated with reduced post-Golgi movement of apoE-GFP-containing vesicles. The effect was not restricted to macrophages, and was not mediated by the effects of the inhibitors on microtubules. Inhibition of dynamin also altered the constitutive secretion of other proteins, decreasing the secretion of fibronectin, matrix metalloproteinase 9, Chitinase-3-like protein 1 and lysozyme but unexpectedly increasing the secretion of the inflammatory mediator cyclophilin A. We conclude that pharmacological inhibitors of dynamin II modulate the constitutive secretion of macrophage apoE as a class effect, and that their capacity to modulate protein secretion may affect a range of biological processes.

  6. Copper(II) binding to the human Doppel protein may mark its functional diversity from the prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereghetti, Grazia M; Negro, Alessandro; Vinck, Evi; Massimino, Maria L; Sorgato, Maria C; Van Doorslaer, Sabine

    2004-08-27

    Doppel (Dpl) is the first described homologue of the prion protein, the main constituent of the agent responsible for prion diseases. The cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is predominantly present in the central nervous system. Although its role is not yet completely clarified, PrP(C) seems to be involved in Cu(2+) recycling from synaptic clefts and in preventing neuronal oxidative damage. Conversely, Dpl is expressed in heart and testis and has been shown to regulate male fertility by intervening in gametogenesis and sperm-egg interactions. Therefore, despite a high sequence homology and a similar three-dimensional fold, the functions of PrP(C) and Dpl appear unrelated. Here we show by electron paramagnetic resonance and fluorescence spectroscopy that the in vitro binding of copper(II) to human recombinant Dpl occurs with a different pattern from that observed for recombinant PrP. At physiological pH values, two copper(II)-binding sites with different affinities were found in Dpl. At lower pH values, two additional copper(II)-binding sites can be identified as follows: one complex is present only at pH 4, and the other is observed in the pH range 5-6. As derived from the electron paramagnetic resonance characteristics, all Dpl-copper(II) complexes have a different coordination sphere from those present in PrP. Furthermore, in contrast to the effect shown previously for PrP(C), addition of Cu(2+) to Dpl-expressing cells does not cause Dpl internalization. These results suggest that binding of the ion to PrP(C) and Dpl may contribute to the different functional roles ascribed to these highly homologous proteins.

  7. Amplified degradation of photosystem II D1 and D2 proteins under a mixture of photosynthetically active radiation and UVB radiation : dependence on redox status of photosystem II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babu, T.S.; Jansen, M.A.K.; Greenberg, B.M.; Gaba, V.; Malkin, S.; Mattoo, A.K.; Edelman, M.

    1999-01-01

    Plants exposed to a mixture of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UVB radiation exhibit a marked boost in degradation of the D1 and D2 photosystem II (PS II) reaction center proteins beyond that predicted by the sum of rates in PAR and UVB alone (amplified degradation). Becausee

  8. Purification and Characterization of the Manganese(II) Oxidizing Protein from Erythrobacter sp. SD-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakama, K. R.; Lien, A.; Johnson, H. A.

    2013-12-01

    The manganese(II) oxidizing protein (Mop) found in the alpha-proteobacterium Erythrobacter sp. SD-21 catalyzes the formation of insoluble Mn(III/IV) oxides from soluble Mn(II). These Mn(III/IV) oxides formed are one of the strongest naturally occurring oxides, next to oxygen, and can be used to adsorb and oxidize toxic chemicals from the surrounding environment. Because of the beneficial use in the treatment of contaminated sources, the mechanism and biochemical properties of this novel enzyme are being studied. Due to low expression levels in the native host strain, purification of Mop has been problematic. To overcome this problem the gene encoding Mop, mopA, was cloned from the native host into a C-terminal histidine tag vector and expressed in Escherichia coli cells. Affinity chromatography under denaturing conditions have been applied in attempts to purify an active Mop. Western blots have confirmed that the protein is being expressed and is at the expected size of 250 kDa. Preliminary characterization on crude extract containing Mop has shown a Km and vmax value of 2453 uM and 0.025 uM min-1, respectively. Heme and pyrroloquinoline quinone can stimulate Mn(II) oxidizing activity, but hydrogen peroxide does not affect activity, despite the sequence similarity to animal heme peroxidase proteins. Research has been shown that calcium is essential for Mop activity. Purifying an active Mn(II) oxidizing protein will allow for a better understanding behind the enigmatic process of Mn(II) oxidation.

  9. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I and MHC Class II Proteins: Conformational Plasticity in Antigen Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Marek; Abualrous, Esam T; Sticht, Jana; Álvaro-Benito, Miguel; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Noé, Frank; Freund, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins is essential for adaptive immunity. Prior to presentation, peptides need to be generated from proteins that are either produced by the cell's own translational machinery or that are funneled into the endo-lysosomal vesicular system. The prolonged interaction between a T cell receptor and specific pMHC complexes, after an extensive search process in secondary lymphatic organs, eventually triggers T cells to proliferate and to mount a specific cellular immune response. Once processed, the peptide repertoire presented by MHC proteins largely depends on structural features of the binding groove of each particular MHC allelic variant. Additionally, two peptide editors-tapasin for class I and HLA-DM for class II-contribute to the shaping of the presented peptidome by favoring the binding of high-affinity antigens. Although there is a vast amount of biochemical and structural information, the mechanism of the catalyzed peptide exchange for MHC class I and class II proteins still remains controversial, and it is not well understood why certain MHC allelic variants are more susceptible to peptide editing than others. Recent studies predict a high impact of protein intermediate states on MHC allele-specific peptide presentation, which implies a profound influence of MHC dynamics on the phenomenon of immunodominance and the development of autoimmune diseases. Here, we review the recent literature that describe MHC class I and II dynamics from a theoretical and experimental point of view and we highlight the similarities between MHC class I and class II dynamics despite the distinct functions they fulfill in adaptive immunity.

  10. Growth factors II: insuline-like growth binging proteins (GFBPs Factores de crecimiento II: factores insulinoides de crecimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Norha Jaramillo Londoño

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent knowledge concerning Insulin.like growth factors I and II, with emphasis on their biochemical structure, concentrations, binding proteins, receptors, mechanisms of action, biological effects, and alterations of their concentrations in biological fluids. Se revisan los Factores Insulinoides de Crecimiento, también denominados ";Factores de Crecimiento Similares a la Insulina";, sobre los cuales se dispone de abundante información. Se sintetizan conocimientos recientes sobre dichos factores con énfasis en los siguientes aspectos: estructura bioquímica, concentraciones y sus cambios en los líquidos biológicos, proteínas fijadoras, receptores, mecanismos de acción y efectos biológicos.

  11. Comparison of Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Microscopy for Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presumptive treatment of malaria results in significant overuse of antimalarials. This study compared the diagnostic accuracy of Histidine Rich Protein II and plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH)-based Rapid Kits( RDTs)and using expert microscopy as the gold standard for the detection of falciparum and ...

  12. Enzyme II of the Escherichia coli Phosphoenolpyruvate-Dependent Phosphotransferase System : Protein-Protein and Protein-Phospholipid Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robillard, George T.; Blaauw, Mieke

    1987-01-01

    The mannitol-specific enzyme II (EII), purified free of phospholipid, exhibits a concentration dependence in its specific activity with P-HPr and mannitol as the donor and acceptor substrates, respectively. This concentration dependence, previously observed only in the case of the mannitol ↔

  13. Information theory in systems biology. Part II: protein-protein interaction and signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavian, Zaynab; Díaz, José; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2016-03-01

    By the development of information theory in 1948 by Claude Shannon to address the problems in the field of data storage and data communication over (noisy) communication channel, it has been successfully applied in many other research areas such as bioinformatics and systems biology. In this manuscript, we attempt to review some of the existing literatures in systems biology, which are using the information theory measures in their calculations. As we have reviewed most of the existing information-theoretic methods in gene regulatory and metabolic networks in the first part of the review, so in the second part of our study, the application of information theory in other types of biological networks including protein-protein interaction and signaling networks will be surveyed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II/cAMP Response Element-binding Protein/Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Cascade Regulates Angiotensin II-induced Podocyte Injury and Albuminuria*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Xu, Lingling; Song, Yuxian; Li, Jianzhong; Mao, Junhua; Zhao, Allan Zijian; He, Weichun; Yang, Junwei; Dai, Chunsun

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a pivotal role in promoting podocyte dysfunction and albuminuria, however, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully delineated. In this study, we found that Ang II induced Wnt1 expression and β-catenin nuclear translocation in cultured mouse podocytes. Blocking Wnt signaling with Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) or β-catenin siRNA attenuated Ang II-induced podocyte injury. Ang II could also induce the phosphorylation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) II and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in cultured podocytes. Blockade of this pathway with CK59 or CREB siRNA could significantly inhibit Ang II-induced Wnt/β-catenin signaling and podocyte injury. In in vivo studies, administration of Ang II promoted Wnt/β-catenin signaling, aggregated podocyte damage, and albuminuria in mice. CK59 could remarkably ameliorate Ang II-induced podocyte injury and albuminuria. Furthermore, ectopic expression of exogenous Dkk1 also attenuated Ang II-induced podocytopathy in mice. Taken together, this study demonstrates that the CaMK II/CREB/Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade plays an important role in regulating Ang II-induced podocytopathy. Targeting this signaling pathway may offer renal protection against the development of proteinuric kidney diseases. PMID:23803607

  15. Protein immobilization on Ni(II) ion patterns prepared by microcontact printing and dip-pen nanolithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Chien-Ching; Reinhoudt, David N; Otto, Cees; Velders, Aldrik H; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2010-01-01

    An indirect method of protein patterning by using Ni(II) ion templates for immobilization via a specific metal-protein interaction is described. A nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)-terminated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) allows oriented binding of histidine-tagged proteins via complexation with late

  16. Determination of the structure of P II protein from H. seropedicae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benelli, M.; Souza, E.M.; Delboni, F.; Pedrosa, F.O. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica; Buck, M. [Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology; Moore, M.; Harper, A. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    Full text. The P II protein, the product of the glnB gene is involved in a signal transducing cascade that controls nitrogen fixation in diazotrophs. The PII protein of H. seropedicae was over-produced in Escherichia coli RB9065 (glnB, glnD mutant), as PII-His from the plasmid pEMB101.7 and native PII from the plasmid pEMB101.8. Both plasmids yielded soluble proteins which were purified, the PII protein was crystallized and its structure solved at 3.0 A resolution by molecular replacement, using the E. coli PII structure as a model. The protein is a trimer and the monomer has a double bab motif. Comparison of the PII proteins of both organisms showed that the main structural difference was in the C-terminal. The T loop that contains the Tyr 51 residue was not visible in the H. seropedicae PII crystal structure. To determine the T loop structure and improve the resolution, the PII protein from H. seropedicae is being co-crystallized in the presence of small ligands, ATP and 2-ketoglutarate. (author)

  17. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I and MHC Class II Proteins: Conformational Plasticity in Antigen Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Marek; Abualrous, Esam T.; Sticht, Jana; Álvaro-Benito, Miguel; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Noé, Frank; Freund, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins is essential for adaptive immunity. Prior to presentation, peptides need to be generated from proteins that are either produced by the cell’s own translational machinery or that are funneled into the endo-lysosomal vesicular system. The prolonged interaction between a T cell receptor and specific pMHC complexes, after an extensive search process in secondary lymphatic organs, eventually triggers T cells to proliferate and to mount a specific cellular immune response. Once processed, the peptide repertoire presented by MHC proteins largely depends on structural features of the binding groove of each particular MHC allelic variant. Additionally, two peptide editors—tapasin for class I and HLA-DM for class II—contribute to the shaping of the presented peptidome by favoring the binding of high-affinity antigens. Although there is a vast amount of biochemical and structural information, the mechanism of the catalyzed peptide exchange for MHC class I and class II proteins still remains controversial, and it is not well understood why certain MHC allelic variants are more susceptible to peptide editing than others. Recent studies predict a high impact of protein intermediate states on MHC allele-specific peptide presentation, which implies a profound influence of MHC dynamics on the phenomenon of immunodominance and the development of autoimmune diseases. Here, we review the recent literature that describe MHC class I and II dynamics from a theoretical and experimental point of view and we highlight the similarities between MHC class I and class II dynamics despite the distinct functions they fulfill in adaptive immunity. PMID:28367149

  18. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity regulates the proliferative potential of growth plate chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuwei; Ahrens, Molly J; Wu, Amy; Liu, Jennifer; Dudley, Andrew T

    2011-01-01

    For tissues that develop throughout embryogenesis and into postnatal life, the generation of differentiated cells to promote tissue growth is at odds with the requirement to maintain the stem cell/progenitor cell population to preserve future growth potential. In the growth plate cartilage, this balance is achieved in part by establishing a proliferative phase that amplifies the number of progenitor cells prior to terminal differentiation into hypertrophic chondrocytes. Here, we show that endogenous calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamkII, also known as Camk2) activity is upregulated prior to hypertrophy and that loss of CamkII function substantially blocks the transition from proliferation to hypertrophy. Wnt signaling and Pthrp-induced phosphatase activity negatively regulate CamkII activity. Release of this repression results in activation of multiple effector pathways, including Runx2- and β-catenin-dependent pathways. We present an integrated model for the regulation of proliferation potential by CamkII activity that has important implications for studies of growth control and adult progenitor/stem cell populations.

  19. Class II G protein-coupled receptors and their ligands in neuronal function and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bronwen; Lopez de Maturana, Rakel; Brenneman, Randall; Walent, Tom; Mattson, Mark P; Maudsley, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play pivotal roles in regulating the function and plasticity of neuronal circuits in the nervous system. Among the myriad of GPCRs expressed in neural cells, class II GPCRs which couples predominantly to the Gs-adenylate cyclase-cAMP signaling pathway, have recently received considerable attention for their involvement in regulating neuronal survival. Neuropeptides that activate class II GPCRs include secretin, glucagon-like peptides (GLP-1 and GLP-2), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcitonin-related peptides. Studies of patients and animal and cell culture models, have revealed possible roles for class II GPCRs signaling in the pathogenesis of several prominent neurodegenerative conditions including stroke, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Many of the peptides that activate class II GPCRs promote neuron survival by increasing the resistance of the cells to oxidative, metabolic, and excitotoxic injury. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which class II GPCRs signaling modulates neuronal survival and plasticity will likely lead to novel therapeutic interventions for neurodegenerative disorders.

  20. Structural and bioinformatic characterization of an Acinetobacter baumannii type II carrier protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, C. Leigh; Gulick, Andrew M., E-mail: gulick@hwi.buffalo.edu [University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14203 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The high-resolution crystal structure of a free-standing carrier protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that belongs to a larger NRPS-containing operon, encoded by the ABBFA-003406–ABBFA-003399 genes of A. baumannii strain AB307-0294, that has been implicated in A. baumannii motility, quorum sensing and biofilm formation, is presented. Microorganisms produce a variety of natural products via secondary metabolic biosynthetic pathways. Two of these types of synthetic systems, the nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), use large modular enzymes containing multiple catalytic domains in a single protein. These multidomain enzymes use an integrated carrier protein domain to transport the growing, covalently bound natural product to the neighboring catalytic domains for each step in the synthesis. Interestingly, some PKS and NRPS clusters contain free-standing domains that interact intermolecularly with other proteins. Being expressed outside the architecture of a multi-domain protein, these so-called type II proteins present challenges to understand the precise role they play. Additional structures of individual and multi-domain components of the NRPS enzymes will therefore provide a better understanding of the features that govern the domain interactions in these interesting enzyme systems. The high-resolution crystal structure of a free-standing carrier protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that belongs to a larger NRPS-containing operon, encoded by the ABBFA-003406–ABBFA-003399 genes of A. baumannii strain AB307-0294, that has been implicated in A. baumannii motility, quorum sensing and biofilm formation, is presented here. Comparison with the closest structural homologs of other carrier proteins identifies the requirements for a conserved glycine residue and additional important sequence and structural requirements within the regions that interact with partner proteins.

  1. Cross-reconstitution of the extrinsic proteins and photosystem II complexes from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Spinacia oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Ohta, H; Enami, I

    2005-06-01

    Cross-reconstitution of the extrinsic proteins and Photosystem II (PS II) from a green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and a higher plant,Spinacia oleracea, was performed to clarify the differences of binding properties of the extrinsic proteins between these two species of organisms. (1) Chlamydomonas PsbP and PsbQ directly bound to Chlamydomonas PS II independent of the other extrinsic proteins but not to spinach PS II. (2) Chlamydomonas PsbP and PsbQ directly bound to the functional sites of Chlamydomonas PS II independent of the origins of PsbO, while spinach PsbP and PsbQ only bound to non-functional sites on Chlamydomonas PS II. (3) Both Chlamydomonas PsbP and spinach PsbP functionally bound to spinach PS II in the presence of spinach PsbO. (4) While Chlamydomonas PsbP functionally bound to spinach PS II in the presence of Chlamydomonas PsbO, spinach PsbP bound loosely to spinach PS II in the presence of Chlamydomonas PsbO with no concomitant restoration of oxygen evolution. (5) Chlamydomonas PsbQ bound to spinach PS II in the presence of Chlamydomonas PsbP and PsbO or spinach PsbO but not to spinach PS II in the presence of spinach PsbP and Chlamydomonas PsbO or spinach PsbO. (6) Spinach PsbQ did not bind to spinach PS II in the presence of Chlamydomonas PsbO and PsbP. On the basis of these results, we showed a simplified scheme for binding patterns of the green algal and higher plant extrinsic proteins with respective PS II.

  2. Thermal bleaching induced changes in photosystem II function not reflected by changes in photosystem II protein content of Stylophora pistillata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeans, J.; Szabó, M.; Campbell, D. A.; Larkum, A. W. D.; Ralph, P. J.; Hill, R.

    2014-03-01

    Scleractinian corals exist in a symbiosis with marine dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium that is easily disrupted by changes in the external environment. Increasing seawater temperatures cause loss of pigments and expulsion of the symbionts from the host in a process known as coral bleaching; though, the exact mechanism and trigger of this process has yet to be elucidated. We exposed nubbins of the coral Stylophora pistillata to bleaching temperatures over a period of 14 daylight hours. Fifty-nine percent of the symbiont population was expelled over the course of this short-term treatment. Maximum quantum yield ( F V/ F M) of photosystem (PS) II for the in hospite symbiont population did not change significantly over the treatment period, but there was a significant decline in the quantity of PSII core proteins (PsbA and PsbD) at the onset of the experimental increase in temperature. F V/ F M from populations of expelled symbionts dropped sharply over the first 6 h of temperature treatment, and then toward the end of the experiment, it increased to an F V/ F M value similar to that of the in hospite population. This suggests that the symbionts were likely damaged prior to expulsion from the host, and the most damaged symbionts were expelled earlier in the bleaching. The quantity of PSII core proteins, PsbA and PsbD, per cell was significantly higher in the expelled symbionts than in the remaining in hospite population over 6-10 h of temperature treatment. We attribute this to a buildup of inactive PSII reaction centers, likely caused by a breakdown in the PSII repair cycle. Thus, thermal bleaching of the coral S. pistillata induces changes in PSII content that do not follow the pattern that would be expected based on the results of PSII function.

  3. An RNA polymerase II- and AGO4-associated protein acts in RNA-directed DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhihuan; Liu, Hai-Liang; Daxinger, Lucia; Pontes, Olga; He, Xinjian; Qian, Weiqiang; Lin, Huixin; Xie, Mingtang; Lorkovic, Zdravko J; Zhang, Shoudong; Miki, Daisuke; Zhan, Xiangqiang; Pontier, Dominique; Lagrange, Thierry; Jin, Hailing; Matzke, Antonius J M; Matzke, Marjori; Pikaard, Craig S; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2010-05-06

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark in many eukaryotes. In plants, 24-nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) bound to the effector protein, Argonaute 4 (AGO4), can direct de novo DNA methylation by the methyltransferase DRM2 (refs 2, 4-6). Here we report a new regulator of RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) in Arabidopsis: RDM1. Loss-of-function mutations in the RDM1 gene impair the accumulation of 24-nucleotide siRNAs, reduce DNA methylation, and release transcriptional gene silencing at RdDM target loci. RDM1 encodes a small protein that seems to bind single-stranded methyl DNA, and associates and co-localizes with RNA polymerase II (Pol II, also known as NRPB), AGO4 and DRM2 in the nucleus. Our results indicate that RDM1 is a component of the RdDM effector complex and may have a role in linking siRNA production with pre-existing or de novo cytosine methylation. Our results also indicate that, although RDM1 and Pol V (also known as NRPE) may function together at some RdDM target sites in the peri-nucleolar siRNA processing centre, Pol II rather than Pol V is associated with the RdDM effector complex at target sites in the nucleoplasm.

  4. Spectrophotometric total protein assay with copper(II)-neocuproine reagent in alkaline medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sözgen, Kevser; Cekic, Sema Demirci; Tütem, Esma; Apak, Resat

    2006-02-28

    Total protein assay was made using copper(II)-neocuproine (Nc) reagent in alkaline medium (with the help of a hydroxide-carbonate-tartarate solution) after 30min incubation at 40 degrees C. The absorbance of the reduction product, Cu(I)-Nc complex, was recorded at 450nm against a reagent blank. The absorptivity of the developed method for bovine serum albumin (BSA) was 0.023lmg(-1)cm(-1), greater than that of Lowry assay (0.0098), and much greater than that of Cu(II)-bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay (0.00077). The linear range of the developed method (8-100mgl(-1) BSA) was as wide as that of Lowry, and much wider than that of BCA (200-1000mgl(-1) BSA) assay. The sensitivity of the method was greater than those of Cu-based assays (biuret, Lowry, and BCA) with a LOD of 1mgl(-1) BSA. The within-run and between-run precisions as RSD were 0.73 and 1.01%, respectively. The selectivity of the proposed method for protein was much higher than those of dye-binding and Lowry assays: Most common interferents to other protein assays such as tris, ethanolamine, deoxycholate, CsCl, citrate, and triton X-100 were tolerated at 100-fold concentrations in the analysis of 10mgl(-1) BSA, while the tolerance limits for other interferents, e.g., (NH(4))(2)SO(4) and acetylsalicylic acid (50-fold), SDS (25-fold), and glycerol (20-fold) were at acceptable levels. The redox reaction of Cu(II)-Nc as an outer-sphere electron transfer agent with the peptide bond and with four amino acid residues (cystine, cysteine, tryptophan, and tyrosine) was kinetically more favourable than that of Cu(II) alone in the biuret assay. Since the reduction product of Cu(II) with protein, i.e., Cu(I), was coordinatively saturated with Nc in the stable Cu(Nc)(2)(+) chelate, re-oxidation of the formed Cu(I) with Fenton-like reactions was not possible, thereby preventing a loss of chromophore. After conventional protein extraction, precipitation, and redissolution procedures, the protein contents of the minced meat

  5. A high quantum yield molecule-protein complex fluorophore for near-infrared II imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antaris, Alexander L.; Chen, Hao; Diao, Shuo; Ma, Zhuoran; Zhang, Zhe; Zhu, Shoujun; Wang, Joy; Lozano, Alexander X.; Fan, Quli; Chew, Leila; Zhu, Mark; Cheng, Kai; Hong, Xuechuan; Dai, Hongjie; Cheng, Zhen

    2017-05-01

    Fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II) allows visualization of deep anatomical features with an unprecedented degree of clarity. NIR-II fluorophores draw from a broad spectrum of materials spanning semiconducting nanomaterials to organic molecular dyes, yet unfortunately all water-soluble organic molecules with >1,000 nm emission suffer from low quantum yields that have limited temporal resolution and penetration depth. Here, we report tailoring the supramolecular assemblies of protein complexes with a sulfonated NIR-II organic dye (CH-4T) to produce a brilliant 110-fold increase in fluorescence, resulting in the highest quantum yield molecular fluorophore thus far. The bright molecular complex allowed for the fastest video-rate imaging in the second NIR window with ~50-fold reduced exposure times at a fast 50 frames-per-second (FPS) capable of resolving mouse cardiac cycles. In addition, we demonstrate that the NIR-II molecular complexes are superior to clinically approved ICG for lymph node imaging deep within the mouse body.

  6. Alternative splicing of a group II intron in a surface layer protein gene in Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Bonnie A; Simon, Dawn M; Zimmerly, Steven

    2014-02-01

    Group II introns are ribozymes and retroelements found in bacteria, and are thought to have been the ancestors of nuclear pre-mRNA introns. Whereas nuclear introns undergo prolific alternative splicing in some species, group II introns are not known to carry out equivalent reactions. Here we report a group II intron in the human pathogen Clostridium tetani, which undergoes four alternative splicing reactions in vivo. Together with unspliced transcript, five mRNAs are produced, each encoding a distinct surface layer protein isoform. Correct fusion of exon reading frames requires a shifted 5' splice site located 8 nt upstream of the canonical boundary motif. The shifted junction is accomplished by an altered IBS1-EBS1 pairing between the intron and 5' exon. Growth of C. tetani under a variety of conditions did not result in large changes in alternative splicing levels, raising the possibility that alternative splicing is constitutive. This work demonstrates a novel type of gene organization and regulation in bacteria, and provides an additional parallel between group II and nuclear pre-mRNA introns.

  7. Muscarinic stimulation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in isolated rat pancreatic acini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Z J

    1997-05-01

    To study whether M3 receptor occupation would lead to activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II). In this study, we isolated rat pancreatic acini by collagenase digestion; measured the Ca2+/calmodulin-independent activity of autophosphorylated form of the CaM kinase II both before and after stimulation of the acini with muscarinic secretagogue bethanechol (Bet). Bet stimulated the activation of, or generation of Ca(2+)-independent activity of, this kinase, in a concentration (0.0001-1 mmol.L-1) and time (5-300 s)-dependent manner; with Bet of 100 mumol.L-1, Ca(2+)-independent activity increased from an unstimulated level of 4.5 +/- 0.3 (n = 4) to 8.9 +/- 1.3 (n = 4, P Ca2+ mobilizing secretagogue cholecystokinin (CCK) also activated the kinase; at 1 mumol.L-1, CCK increased Ca(2+)-independent kinase activity to 12.9 +/- 0.5 (n = 6, P -independent kinase activity (from control 3.90 +/- 0.28 to 4.53 +/- 0.47, n = 6, P > 0.05). Atropine completely blocked Bet activation of the kinase. CaM kinase II plays a pivotal role in digestive enzyme secretion, especially during the initial phase of amylase secretion.

  8. DNA topoisomerase II is involved in regulation of cyst wall protein genes and differentiation in Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bo-Chi; Su, Li-Hsin; Weng, Shih-Che; Pan, Yu-Jiao; Chan, Nei-Li; Li, Tsai-Kun; Wang, Hsin-Chih; Sun, Chin-Hung

    2013-01-01

    The protozoan Giardia lamblia differentiates into infectious cysts within the human intestinal tract for disease transmission. Expression of the cyst wall protein (cwp) genes increases with similar kinetics during encystation. However, little is known how their gene regulation shares common mechanisms. DNA topoisomerases maintain normal topology of genomic DNA. They are necessary for cell proliferation and tissue development as they are involved in transcription, DNA replication, and chromosome condensation. A putative topoisomerase II (topo II) gene has been identified in the G. lamblia genome. We asked whether Topo II could regulate Giardia encystation. We found that Topo II was present in cell nuclei and its gene was up-regulated during encystation. Topo II has typical ATPase and DNA cleavage activity of type II topoisomerases. Mutation analysis revealed that the catalytic important Tyr residue and cleavage domain are important for Topo II function. We used etoposide-mediated topoisomerase immunoprecipitation assays to confirm the binding of Topo II to the cwp promoters in vivo. Interestingly, Topo II overexpression increased the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. Microarray analysis identified up-regulation of cwp and specific vsp genes by Topo II. We also found that the type II topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide has growth inhibition effect on Giardia. Addition of etoposide significantly decreased the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. Our results suggest that Topo II has been functionally conserved during evolution and that Topo II plays important roles in induction of the cwp genes, which is key to Giardia differentiation into cysts.

  9. Antibody production by injection of living cells expressing non self antigens as cell surface type II transmembrane fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizet, Yannick; Gillet, Laurent; Schroeder, Hélène; Lecuivre, Corinne; Louahed, J; Renauld, J-C; Gianello, Pierre; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2011-03-31

    Antigen expression and purification are laborious, time consuming and frequently difficult steps in the process of antibody production. In the present study, we developed a method avoiding these two steps. This method relies on the injection of histocompatible living cells stably expressing the antigen as a cell surface type II transmembrane fusion protein. A vector, nicknamed pCD1-CD134L, was constructed to express the antigen fused at the carboxyterminal end of the human CD134 ligand (CD134L) type II transmembrane protein on the surface of eucaryotic cells. This vector was shown to induce cell surface expression of epitopes from human c-Myc (soluble protein), uterogloblin-related protein 1 (secreted protein) and CD94 (type II transmembrane protein). Using this vector, we developed a method to produce antibodies without antigen production. The flowchart of this method is as follows: (i) cloning of the antigen in the pCD1-CD134L vector; (ii) production of a histocompatible cell line stably expressing the CD134L-antigen fusion protein; (iii) testing for cell surface expression of the fusion protein by targeting the CD134L carrier; and (iv) prime-boost immunisation with living cells expressing the fusion protein. This method was successfully used for production of polyclonal antibodies raised against Ixodes ricinus calreticulin (secreted protein) in mice and for production of monoclonal antibodies raised against an epitope of Vaccinia virus A56 (type I transmembrane protein) protein in rat. The present study is the first to demonstrate the use of a type II transmembrane protein as a carrier for cell surface display of antigens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Coupling Protein Dynamics with Proton Transport in Human Carbonic Anhydrase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraphder, Srabani; Maupin, C Mark; Swanson, Jessica M J; Voth, Gregory A

    2016-08-25

    The role of protein dynamics in enzyme catalysis is one of the most highly debated topics in enzymology. The main controversy centers around what may be defined as functionally significant conformational fluctuations and how, if at all, these fluctuations couple to enzyme catalyzed events. To shed light on this debate, the conformational dynamics along the transition path surmounting the highest free energy barrier have been herein investigated for the rate limiting proton transport event in human carbonic anhydrase (HCA) II. Special attention has been placed on whether the motion of an excess proton is correlated with fluctuations in the surrounding protein and solvent matrix, which may be rare on the picosecond and subpicosecond time scales of molecular motions. It is found that several active site residues, which do not directly participate in the proton transport event, have a significant impact on the dynamics of the excess proton. These secondary participants are shown to strongly influence the active site environment, resulting in the creation of water clusters that are conducive to fast, moderately slow, or slow proton transport events. The identification and characterization of these secondary participants illuminates the role of protein dynamics in the catalytic efficiency of HCA II.

  11. In situ determination of manganese(II) speciation in Deinococcus radiodurans by high magnetic field EPR: detection of high levels of Mn(II) bound to proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabares, Leandro C; Un, Sun

    2013-02-15

    High magnetic field high frequency electron paramagnetic resonance techniques were used to measure in situ Mn(II) speciation in Deinococcus radiodurans, a radiation-resistant bacteria capable of accumulating high concentrations of Mn(II). It was possible to identify and quantify the evolution of Mn(II) species in intact cells at various stages of growth. Aside from water, 95-GHz high field electron nuclear double resonance showed that the Mn(II) ions are bound to histidines and phosphate groups, mostly from fructose-1,6-bisphosphate but also inorganic phosphates and nucleotides. During stationary growth phase, 285-GHz continuous wave EPR measurements showed that histidine is the most common ligand to Mn(II) and that significant amounts of cellular Mn(II) in D. radiodurans are bound to peptides and proteins. As much as 40% of the total Mn(II) was in manganese superoxide dismutase, and it is this protein and not smaller manganese complexes, as has been suggested recently, that is probably the primary defense against superoxide.

  12. A novel copper(II) coordination at His186 in full-length murine prion protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yasuko [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan); Hiraoka, Wakako [Laboratory of Biophysics, School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan); Igarashi, Manabu; Ito, Kimihito [Department of Global Epidemiology, Hokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Sapporo 001-0020 (Japan); Shimoyama, Yuhei [Soft-Matter Physics Laboratory, Graduate School of Emergent Science, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran 050-8585 (Japan); Horiuchi, Motohiro [Laboratory of Prion Diseases, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan); Yamamori, Tohru; Yasui, Hironobu; Kuwabara, Mikinori [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan); Inagaki, Fuyuhiko [Laboratory of Structural Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Inanami, Osamu, E-mail: inanami@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan)

    2010-04-09

    To explore Cu(II) ion coordination by His{sup 186} in the C-terminal domain of full-length prion protein (moPrP), we utilized the magnetic dipolar interaction between a paramagnetic metal, Cu(II) ion, and a spin probe introduced in the neighborhood of the postulated binding site by the spin labeling technique (SDSL technique). Six moPrP mutants, moPrP(D143C), moPrP(Y148C), moPrP(E151C), moPrP(Y156C), moPrP(T189C), and moPrP(Y156C,H186A), were reacted with a methane thiosulfonate spin probe and a nitroxide residue (R1) was created in the binding site of each one. Line broadening of the ESR spectra was induced in the presence of Cu(II) ions in moPrP(Y148R1), moPrP(Y151R1), moPrP(Y156R1), and moPrP(T189R1) but not moPrP(D143R1). This line broadening indicated the presence of electron-electron dipolar interaction between Cu(II) and the nitroxide spin probe, suggesting that each interspin distance was within 20 A. The interspin distance ranges between Cu(II) and the spin probes of moPrP(Y148R1), moPrP(Y151R1), moPrP(Y156R1), and moPrP(T189R1) were estimated to be 12.1 A, 18.1 A, 10.7 A, and 8.4 A, respectively. In moPrP(Y156R1,H186A), line broadening between Cu(II) and the spin probe was not observed. These results suggest that a novel Cu(II) binding site is involved in His186 in the Helix2 region of the C-terminal domain of moPrP{sup C}.

  13. Does unpaired adenosine-66 from helix II of Escherichia coli 5S RNA bind to protein L18?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J; Douthwaite, S R; Christensen, A

    1985-01-01

    Adenosine-66 is unpaired within helix II of Escherichia coli 5S RNA and lies in the binding site of ribosomal protein L18. It has been proposed as a recognition site for protein L18. We have investigated further the structural importance of this nucleotide by deleting it. The 5S RNA gene of the r...

  14. Ligand-induced protein mobility in complexes of carbonic anhydrase II and benzenesulfonamides with oligoglycine chains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay M Krishnamurthy

    Full Text Available This paper describes a biophysical investigation of residual mobility in complexes of bovine carbonic anhydrase II (BCA and para-substituted benzenesulfonamide ligands with chains of 1-5 glycine subunits, and explains the previously observed increase in entropy of binding with chain length. The reported results represent the first experimental demonstration that BCA is not the rigid, static globulin that has been typically assumed, but experiences structural fluctuations upon binding ligands. NMR studies with (15N-labeled ligands demonstrated that the first glycine subunit of the chain binds without stabilization or destabilization by the more distal subunits, and suggested that the other glycine subunits of the chain behave similarly. These data suggest that a model based on ligand mobility in the complex cannot explain the thermodynamic data. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange studies provided a global estimate of protein mobility and revealed that the number of exchanged hydrogens of BCA was higher when the protein was bound to a ligand with five glycine subunits than when bound to a ligand with only one subunit, and suggested a trend of increasing number of exchanged hydrogens with increasing chain length of the BCA-bound ligand, across the series. These data support the idea that the glycine chain destabilizes the structure of BCA in a length-dependent manner, causing an increase in BCA mobility. This study highlights the need to consider ligand-induced mobility of even "static" proteins in studies of protein-ligand binding, including rational ligand design approaches.

  15. A family of insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding proteins represses translation in late development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Christiansen, J; Lykke-Andersen, J

    1999-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a major fetal growth factor. The IGF-II gene generates multiple mRNAs with different 5' untranslated regions (5' UTRs) that are translated in a differential manner during development. We have identified a human family of three IGF-II mRNA-binding proteins...... and are homologous to the Xenopus Vera and chicken zipcode-binding proteins. IMP localizes to subcytoplasmic domains in a growth-dependent and cell-specific manner and causes a dose-dependent translational repression of IGF-II leader 3 -luciferase mRNA. Mouse IMPs are produced in a burst at embryonic day 12...

  16. Hydroxychloroquine induces inhibition of collagen type II and oligomeric matrix protein COMP expression in chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydroxychloroquine on the level of collagen type II and oligomeric matrix protein COMP expression in chondrocytes of knee osteoarthritis. The rate of growth in cartilage cells was analyzed using MTT assay whereas the Col-2 and COMP expression levels were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses. For the determination of MMP-13 expression, ELISA test was used. The results revealed no significant change in the rate of cartilage cell proliferation in hydroxychloroquine-treated compared to untreated cells. Hydroxychloro-quine treatment exhibited concentration- and time-dependent effect on the inhibition of collagen type II and COMP expression in chondrocytes. However, its treatment caused a significant enhancement in the expression levels of MMP-13 compared to the untreated cells. Therefore, hydroxychloro-quine promotes expression of MMP-13 and reduces collagen type II and COMP expression levels in chondrocytes without any significant change in the growth of cells.

  17. Arsenic trioxide and angiotensin II have inhibitory effects on HERG protein expression: Evidence for the role of PML SUMOylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Li, Duo; Nie, Dan; Liu, Shang-Kun; Qiu, Fang; Liu, Mei-Tong; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Jia-Xin; Liu, Yan-Xin; Dong, Chang-Jiang; Wu, Di; Tian, Wei; Yang, Jia; Mu, Wei; Li, Jia-Tong; Zhao, Dan; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Chu, Wen-Feng; Yang, Bao-Feng

    2017-07-11

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) channel is a novel target for the treatment of drug-induced long QT syndrome, which causes lethal cardiotoxicity. This study is designed to explore the possible role of PML SUMOylation and its associated nuclear bodies (NBs) in the regulation of HERG protein expression. Both arsenic trioxide (ATO) and angiotensin II (Ang II) were able to significantly reduce HERG protein expression, while also increasing PML SUMOylation and accelerating the formation of PML-NBs. Pre-exposure of cardiomyocytes to a SUMOylation chemical inhibitor, ginkgolic acid, or the silencing of UBC9 suppressed PML SUMOylation, subsequently preventing the downregulation of HERG induced by ATO or Ang II. Conversely, knockdown of RNF4 led to a remarkable increase in PML SUMOylation and the function of PML-NBs, further promoting ATO- or Ang II-induced HERG protein downregulation. Mechanistically, an increase in PML SUMOylation by ATO or Ang II dramatically enhanced the formation of PML and Pin1 complexes in PML-NBs, leading to the upregulation of TGF-β1 protein, eventually inhibiting HERG expression through activation of protein kinase A. The present work uncovered a novel molecular mechanism underlying HERG protein expression and indicated that PML SUMOylation is a critical step in the development of drug-acquired arrhythmia.

  18. The RNA-binding protein Spo5 promotes meiosis II by regulating cyclin Cdc13 in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Mayumi; Sato, Masamitsu; Yamashita, Akira; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2014-03-01

    Meiosis comprises two consecutive nuclear divisions, meiosis I and II. Despite this unique progression through the cell cycle, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the sequential divisions. In this study, we carried out a genetic screen to identify factors that regulate the initiation of meiosis II in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We identified mutants deficient in meiosis II progression and repeatedly isolated mutants defective in spo5, which encodes an RNA-binding protein. Using fluorescence microscopy to visualize YFP-tagged protein, we found that spo5 mutant cells precociously lost Cdc13, the major B-type cyclin in fission yeast, before meiosis II. Importantly, the defect in meiosis II was rescued by increasing CDK activity. In wild-type cells, cdc13 transcripts increased during meiosis II, but this increase in cdc13 expression was weaker in spo5 mutants. Thus, Spo5 is a novel regulator of meiosis II that controls the level of cdc13 expression and promotes de novo synthesis of Cdc13. We previously reported that inhibition of Cdc13 degradation is necessary to initiate meiosis II; together with the previous information, the current findings indicate that the dual control of Cdc13 by de novo synthesis and suppression of proteolysis ensures the progression of meiosis II. © 2014 The Authors Genes to Cells © 2014 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. A collapsin response mediator protein 2 isoform controls myosin II-mediated cell migration and matrix assembly by trapping ROCK II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoneda, Atsuko; Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wait, Robin

    2012-01-01

    nonneuronal cells, regulates myosin II-mediated cellular functions, including cell migration. While the CRMP-2 short form (CRMP-2S) is recognized as a substrate of the Rho-GTP downstream kinase ROCK in neuronal cells, a CRMP-2 complex containing 2L not only bound the catalytic domain of ROCK II through two...... binding domains but also trapped and inhibited the kinase. CRMP-2L protein levels profoundly affected haptotactic migration and the actin-myosin cytoskeleton of carcinoma cells as well as nontransformed epithelial cell migration in a ROCK activity-dependent manner. Moreover, the ectopic expression of CRMP......-2L but not -2S inhibited fibronectin matrix assembly in fibroblasts. Underlying these responses, CRMP-2L regulated the kinase activity of ROCK II but not ROCK I, independent of GTP-RhoA levels. This study provides a new insight into CRMP-2 as a controller of myosin II-mediated cellular functions...

  20. Functional and Structural Properties of a Novel Protein and Virulence Factor (sHIP) in Streptococcus pyogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewska, Magdalena; Happonen, Lotta; Kahn, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a significant bacterial pathogen in the human population. The importance of virulence factors for the survival and colonization of S. pyogenes is well established, and many of these factors are exposed to the extracellular environment enabling bacterial interactions...... with the host. In the present study we quantitatively analyzed and compared S. pyogenes proteins in the growth medium of a strain that is virulent to mice, with a non-virulent strain. Particularly one of these proteins was present at significantly higher levels in stationary growth medium from the virulent......), and the name sHIP (streptococcal Histidine-rich glycoprotein Interacting Protein) is therefore proposed. HRG has antibacterial activity, and when challenged by HRG, sHIP was found to rescue S. pyogenes bacteria. This and the finding that patients with invasive S. pyogenes infection respond with antibody...

  1. Prx II and CKBB proteins interaction under physiological and thermal stress conditions in A549 and HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Rakhmetov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Peroxiredoxins (Prxs are versatile enzymes that demonstrate various cell functions as peroxidases, protein chaperones, functions of signal modulators and binding partners. It is well established that Prxs can interact with multiple proteins in cells, such as ASK1, Cdk5-p35, JNK, MIF, PDGF, TKR4 and others. In this study, we attempted to evaluate a possible association between ubiquitous Prx II and ATP/ADP buffering enzyme – brain-type creatine kinase (CKBB. Our co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP results from the A549 and HeLa cell lysates with overexpressed HA-Prx II and Flag-CKBB have demonstrated strong association between two proteins under non-stressed conditions. This protein interaction was enhanced by the heat treatment with further HA-Prx II precipitation to the immobilized Flag-CKBB depending on the temperature increase. Temperature induced oligomerization of Prx II may contribute to the formation of Prx II conglomera­tes, which in turn, can associate with CKBB and increase signal intensities on the blotted membranes. Thus, such association and oligomerization of Prx II could take part in recovery and protection of the CKBB enzyme activity from inactivation during heat-induced stress.

  2. Generic tags for Mn(ii) and Gd(iii) spin labels for distance measurements in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yin; Gong, Yan-Jun; Litvinov, Aleksei; Liu, Hong-Kai; Yang, Feng; Su, Xun-Cheng; Goldfarb, Daniella

    2017-10-11

    High-affinity chelating tags for Gd(iii) and Mn(ii) ions that provide valuable high-resolution distance restraints for biomolecules were used as spin labels for double electron-electron resonance (DEER) measurements. The availability of a generic tag that can bind both metal ions and provide a narrow and predictable distance distribution for both ions is attractive owing to their different EPR-related characteristics. Herein we introduced two paramagnetic tags, 4PSPyMTA and 4PSPyNPDA, which are conjugated to cysteine residues through a stable thioether bond, forming a short and, depending on the metal ion coordination mode, a rigid tether with the protein. These tags exhibit high affinity for both Mn(ii) and Gd(iii) ions. The DEER performance of the 4PSPyMTA and 4PSPyNPDA tags, in complex with Gd(iii) or Mn(ii), was evaluated for three double cysteine mutants of ubiquitin, and the Gd(iii)-Gd(iii) and Mn(ii)-Mn(ii) distance distributions they generated were compared. All three Gd(iii) complexes of the ubiquitin-PyMTA and ubiquitin-PyNPDA conjugates produced similar and expected distance distributions. In contrast, significant variations in the maxima and widths of the distance distributions were observed for the Mn(ii) analogs. Furthermore, whereas PyNPDA-Gd(iii) and PyNPDA-Mn(ii) delivered similar distance distributions, appreciable differences were observed for two mutants with PyMTA, with the Mn(ii) analog exhibiting a broader distance distribution and shorter distances. ELDOR (electron-electron double resonance)-detected NMR measurements revealed some distribution in the Mn(ii) coordination environment for the protein conjugates of both tags but not for the free tags. The broader distance distributions generated by 4PSPyMTA-Mn(ii), as compared with Gd(iii), were attributed to the distributed location of the Mn(ii) ion within the PyMTA chelate owing to its smaller size and lower coordination number that leave the pyridine nitrogen uncoordinated. Accordingly, in

  3. Determination of proteins with tetracarboxy manganese(II) phthalocyanine by resonance light scattering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning-Li; Peng, Jin-Yun

    2008-12-01

    A novel method for the determination of proteins by using tetracarboxy manganese(II) phthalocyanine (MnC 4Pc) as a resonance light scattering (RLS) probe has been developed. At pH 3.0 Britton-Robinson (B-R) buffer solution, the RLS intensity of MnC 4Pc at 385 nm is greatly enhanced in the presence of proteins. The effects of pH, reaction time, concentration of MnC 4Pc and interfering substances on the enhanced RLS intensity are investigated, respectively. Under optimal conditions, the linear ranges of the calibration curves are 0-2.00 μg mL -1 for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA), 0.0-1.75 μg mL -1 for human-IgG and ovalbumin, with a detection limit of 16.37 ng mL -1 BSA, 17.62 ng mL -1 HSA, 19.41 ng mL -1 human-IgG and 20.72 ng mL -1 ovalbumin. The method has been applied to the determination of total proteins in human serum samples collected from a hospital and the results are in good agreement with those reported by the hospital.

  4. Resonance assignment of PsbP: an extrinsic protein from photosystem II of Spinacia oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathner, Adriana; Chandra, Kousik; Rathner, Petr; Horničáková, Michaela; Schlagnitweit, Judith; Kohoutová, Jaroslava; Ettrich, Rüdiger; Müller, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    PsbP (23 kDa) is an extrinsic eukaryotic protein of photosystem II found in the thylakoid membrane of higher plants and green algae. It has been proven to be indispensable for proper functioning of the oxygen evolving complex. By interaction with other extrinsic proteins (PsbQ, PsbO and PsbR), it modulates the concentration of two cofactors of the water splitting reaction, Ca(2+) and Cl(-). The crystallographic structure of PsbP from Spinacia oleracea lacks the N-terminal part as well as two inner regions which were modelled as loops. Those unresolved parts are believed to be functionally crucial for the binding of PsbP to the thylakoid membrane. In this NMR study we report (1)H, (15)N and (13)C resonance assignments of the backbone and side chain atoms of the PsbP protein. Based on these data, an estimate of the secondary structure has been made. The structural motifs found fit the resolved parts of the crystallographic structure very well. In addition, the complete assignment set provides preliminary insight into the dynamic regions.

  5. Study of autophagy-related protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II expression levels in thyroid diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Li, Lechen; Wang, Jun; Cao, Mingming; Liu, Guodong; Xie, Guangying; Yang, Zhenyu; Li, Yanbo

    2015-02-01

    Thyroid cancers are the most common malignant tumors of the endocrine system. The survival-promoting role of autophagy in tumor cells has been received universally. This study aimed to explore autophagy-related protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II expression levels in thyroid diseases including papillary thyroid cancer. A total of 45 thyroid samples, including 19 samples of papillary thyroid cancer, 7 samples of nodular goiter, 8 samples of Hashimoto thyroiditis and 11 samples of normal thyroid tissue resected during surgery, were selected and divided into pathological groups using light microscope. Levels of autophagy-related protein LC3-II in four different types of thyroid tissue were tested through Western blot. SPSS19 software was utilized to analyze the research data statistically. LC3-II protein levels in papillary thyroid cancer tissues were lower than that in normal thyroid tissues significantly (Pthyroid tissue, expression levels of LC3-II protein were higher in samples of Hashimoto thyroiditis and nodular goiter (Pthyroid cancer, while there was significant variation between patients with and without lymph node metastasis. Compared with patients of thyroid cancer without lymph node metastasis, the level of LC3-II protein was lower in patients of thyroid cancer with lymph node metastasis (Pthyroid diseases may contribute to the clinical diagnosis and provide theoretic basis for the therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. A Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 2 Isoform Controls Myosin II-Mediated Cell Migration and Matrix Assembly by Trapping ROCK II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wait, Robin; Couchman, John R.; Wewer, Ulla M.

    2012-01-01

    Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) is known as a regulator of neuronal polarity and differentiation through microtubule assembly and trafficking. Here, we show that CRMP-2 is ubiquitously expressed and a splice variant (CRMP-2L), which is expressed mainly in epithelial cells among nonneuronal cells, regulates myosin II-mediated cellular functions, including cell migration. While the CRMP-2 short form (CRMP-2S) is recognized as a substrate of the Rho-GTP downstream kinase ROCK in neuronal cells, a CRMP-2 complex containing 2L not only bound the catalytic domain of ROCK II through two binding domains but also trapped and inhibited the kinase. CRMP-2L protein levels profoundly affected haptotactic migration and the actin-myosin cytoskeleton of carcinoma cells as well as nontransformed epithelial cell migration in a ROCK activity-dependent manner. Moreover, the ectopic expression of CRMP-2L but not -2S inhibited fibronectin matrix assembly in fibroblasts. Underlying these responses, CRMP-2L regulated the kinase activity of ROCK II but not ROCK I, independent of GTP-RhoA levels. This study provides a new insight into CRMP-2 as a controller of myosin II-mediated cellular functions through the inhibition of ROCK II in nonneuronal cells. PMID:22431514

  7. SECRET domain of variola virus CrmB protein can be a member of poxviral type II chemokine-binding proteins family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchelkunov Sergei N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variola virus (VARV the causative agent of smallpox, eradicated in 1980, have wide spectrum of immunomodulatory proteins to evade host immunity. Recently additional biological activity was discovered for VARV CrmB protein, known to bind and inhibit tumour necrosis factor (TNF through its N-terminal domain homologous to cellular TNF receptors. Besides binding TNF, this protein was also shown to bind with high affinity several chemokines which recruit B- and T-lymphocytes and dendritic cells to sites of viral entry and replication. Ability to bind chemokines was shown to be associated with unique C-terminal domain of CrmB protein. This domain named SECRET (Smallpox virus-Encoded Chemokine Receptor is unrelated to the host proteins and lacks significant homology with other known viral chemokine-binding proteins or any other known protein. Findings De novo modelling of VARV-CrmB SECRET domain spatial structure revealed its apparent structural homology with cowpox virus CC-chemokine binding protein (vCCI and vaccinia virus A41 protein, despite low sequence identity between these three proteins. Potential ligand-binding surface of modelled VARV-CrmB SECRET domain was also predicted to bear prominent electronegative charge which is characteristic to known orthopoxviral chemokine-binding proteins. Conclusions Our results suggest that SECRET should be included into the family of poxviral type II chemokine-binding proteins and that it might have been evolved from the vCCI-like predecessor protein.

  8. The BDLF2 protein of Epstein-Barr virus is a type II glycosylated envelope protein whose processing is dependent on coexpression with the BMRF2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Mindy; Hutt-Fletcher, Lindsey M

    2009-01-05

    Epstein-Barr virus has been documented to encode for ten envelope glycoproteins, gB, gH, gL, gM, gN, gp350, gp42, gp78, gp150 and BMRF2. The BDLF2 open reading frame is also predicted to encode a type II membrane protein but, although found in the virion, it has been described as a component of the tegument. We show here that, as predicted, it is the eleventh envelope glycoprotein of the virus. The full length 65 kDa glycoprotein formed a complex with BMRF2 and, as its homologs in other gammaherpesviruses, was dependent on BMRF2, for authentic processing and transport. Two cleavage products of BDLF2 were also identified in cells and in purified virion particles, one corresponding approximately to the aminoterminal half of the protein, that remained associated with the full length form, and one corresponding to the carboxyterminal glycosylated portion of the protein which did not.

  9. Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II in Vascular Smooth Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddouk, F Z; Ginnan, R; Singer, H A

    2017-01-01

    Ca2+-dependent signaling pathways are central regulators of differentiated vascular smooth muscle (VSM) contractile function. In addition, Ca2+ signals regulate VSM gene transcription, proliferation, and migration of dedifferentiated or "synthetic" phenotype VSM cells. Synthetic phenotype VSM growth and hyperplasia are hallmarks of pervasive vascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, postangioplasty/in-stent restenosis, and vein graft failure. The serine/threonine protein kinase Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a ubiquitous mediator of intracellular Ca2+ signals. Its multifunctional nature, structural complexity, diversity of isoforms, and splice variants all characterize this protein kinase and make study of its activity and function challenging. The kinase has unique autoregulatory mechanisms, and emerging studies suggest that it can function to integrate Ca2+ and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species signaling. Differentiated VSM expresses primarily CaMKIIγ and -δ isoforms. CaMKIIγ isoform expression correlates closely with the differentiated phenotype, and some studies link its function to regulation of contractile activity and Ca2+ homeostasis. Conversely, synthetic phenotype VSM cells primarily express CaMKIIδ and substantial evidence links it to regulation of gene transcription, proliferation, and migration of VSM in vitro, and vascular hypertrophic and hyperplastic remodeling in vivo. CaMKIIδ and -γ isoforms have opposing functions at the level of cell cycle regulation, proliferation, and VSM hyperplasia in vivo. Isoform switching following vascular injury is a key step in promoting vascular remodeling. Recent availability of genetically engineered mice with smooth muscle deletion of specific isoforms and transgenics expressing an endogenous inhibitor protein (CAMK2N) has enabled a better understanding of CaMKII function in VSM and should facilitate future studies. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. DNA Topoisomerase II Is Involved in Regulation of Cyst Wall Protein Genes and Differentiation in Giardia lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bo-Chi; Pan, Yu-Jiao; Chan, Nei-Li; Li, Tsai-Kun; Wang, Hsin-Chih; Sun, Chin-Hung

    2013-01-01

    The protozoan Giardia lamblia differentiates into infectious cysts within the human intestinal tract for disease transmission. Expression of the cyst wall protein (cwp) genes increases with similar kinetics during encystation. However, little is known how their gene regulation shares common mechanisms. DNA topoisomerases maintain normal topology of genomic DNA. They are necessary for cell proliferation and tissue development as they are involved in transcription, DNA replication, and chromosome condensation. A putative topoisomerase II (topo II) gene has been identified in the G. lamblia genome. We asked whether Topo II could regulate Giardia encystation. We found that Topo II was present in cell nuclei and its gene was up-regulated during encystation. Topo II has typical ATPase and DNA cleavage activity of type II topoisomerases. Mutation analysis revealed that the catalytic important Tyr residue and cleavage domain are important for Topo II function. We used etoposide-mediated topoisomerase immunoprecipitation assays to confirm the binding of Topo II to the cwp promoters in vivo. Interestingly, Topo II overexpression increased the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. Microarray analysis identified up-regulation of cwp and specific vsp genes by Topo II. We also found that the type II topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide has growth inhibition effect on Giardia. Addition of etoposide significantly decreased the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. Our results suggest that Topo II has been functionally conserved during evolution and that Topo II plays important roles in induction of the cwp genes, which is key to Giardia differentiation into cysts. PMID:23696909

  11. Mechanism of interaction of Al3+ with the proteins composition of photosystem II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imed Hasni

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effect of Al3+on photosystem II (PSII electron transport was investigated using several biophysical and biochemical techniques such as oxygen evolution, chlorophyll fluorescence induction and emission, SDS-polyacrylamide and native green gel electrophoresis, and FTIR spectroscopy. In order to understand the mechanism of its inhibitory action, we have analyzed the interaction of this toxic cation with proteins subunits of PSII submembrane fractions isolated from spinach. Our results show that Al 3+, especially above 3 mM, strongly inhibits oxygen evolution and affects the advancement of the S states of the Mn4O5Ca cluster. This inhibition was due to the release of the extrinsic polypeptides and the disorganization of the Mn4O5Ca cluster associated with the oxygen evolving complex (OEC of PSII. This fact was accompanied by a significant decline of maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm together with a strong damping of the chlorophyll a fluorescence induction. The energy transfer from light harvesting antenna to reaction centers of PSII was impaired following the alteration of the light harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHCII. The latter result was revealed by the drop of chlorophyll fluorescence emission spectra at low temperature (77 K, increase of F0 and confirmed by the native green gel electrophoresis. FTIR measurements indicated that the interaction of Al 3+ with the intrinsic and extrinsic polypeptides of PSII induces major alterations of the protein secondary structure leading to conformational changes. This was reflected by a major reduction of α-helix with an increase of β-sheet and random coil structures in Al 3+-PSII complexes. These structural changes are closely related with the functional alteration of PSII activity revealed by the inhibition of the electron transport chain of PSII.

  12. Highly efficient visual detection of trace copper(II) and protein by the quantum photoelectric effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Lei, Jianping; Su, Mengqi; Liu, Yueting; Hao, Qing; Ju, Huangxian

    2013-09-17

    This work presented a photocurrent response mechanism of quantum dots (QDs) under illumination with the concept of a quantum photoelectric effect. Upon irradiation, the photoelectron could directly escape from QDs. By using nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) to capture the photoelectron, a new visual system was proposed due to the formation of an insoluble reduction product, purple formazan, which could be used to visualize the quantum photoelectric effect. The interaction of copper(II) with QDs could form trapping sites to interfere with the quantum confinement and thus blocked the escape of photoelectron, leading to a "signal off" visual method for sensitive copper(II) detection. Meanwhile, by using QDs as a signal tag to label antibody, a "signal on" visual method was also proposed for immunoassay of corresponding protein. With meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic-capped CdTe QDs and carcino-embryonic antigen as models, the proposed visual detection methods showed high sensitivity, low detection limit, and wide detectable concentration ranges. The visualization of quantum photoelectric effect could be simply extended for the detection of other targets. This work opens a new visual detection way and provides a highly efficient tool for bioanalysis.

  13. The Cockayne syndrome group A gene encodes a WD repeat protein that interacts with CSB protein and a subunit of RNA polymerase II TFIIH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, K A; Li, L; Iyer, N; McDaniel, L D; Reagan, M S; Legerski, R; Schultz, R A; Stefanini, M; Lehmann, A R; Mayne, L V; Friedberg, E C

    1995-08-25

    The hereditary disease Cockayne syndrome (CS) is characterized by a complex clinical phenotype. CS cells are abnormally sensitive to ultraviolet radiation and are defective in the repair of transcriptionally active genes. The cloned CSB gene encodes a member of a protein family that includes the yeast Snf2 protein, a component of the transcriptional regulator Swi/Snf. We report the cloning of the CSA cDNA, which can encode a WD repeat protein. Mutations in the cDNA have been identified in CS-A cell lines. CSA protein interacts with CSB protein and with p44 protein, a subunit of the human RNA polymerase II transcription factor IIH. These observations suggest that the products of the CSA and CSB genes are involved in transcription.

  14. Acyl carrier protein (ACP) inhibition and other differences between b-ketoacyl synthase (KAS) I and II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGuire, Kirsten Arnvig; McGuire, J.N.; Wettstein-Knowles, Penny von

    2000-01-01

    , whereas KAS I also forms higher multimers. The binding affinities for KAS I and KAS II to C14-acyl carrier protein (ACP) as well as for C14-ACP to KAS I and KAS II were determined. KAS I is sensitive to the ACP released during the transfer reaction, with 50% inhibition at 0.17 µM ACP close...... to the physiological concentration of ACP (0.13 µM). KAS I and II also differ in carrying out the decarboxylation step of the elongation reaction....

  15. Angiotensin AT1 Receptor-associated protein Arap1 in the Kidney Vasculature is Suppressed by Angiotensin II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doblinger, Elisabeth; Hoecherl, Klaus; Mederle, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Arap1 is a protein that interacts with angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptors and facilitates increased AT1 receptor surface expression in vitro. In the present study we assessed the tissue localization and regulation of Arap1 in vivo. Arap1 was found in various mouse organs with highest expression...... in the heart, kidney, aorta, and adrenal gland. Renal Arap1 protein was restricted to the vasculature and to glomerular mesangial cells and was absent from tubular epithelia. A similar localization was found in human kidneys. To test the hypothesis that angiotensin II may control renal Arap1 expression, mice...

  16. Type II cGMP‑dependent protein kinase inhibits EGF‑induced JAK/STAT signaling in gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Wu, Yan; Lan, Ting; Jiang, Lu; Qian, Hai; Chen, Yongchang

    2016-08-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that type II cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG II) inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)‑initiated signal transduction of MAPK‑mediated, PI3K/Akt‑mediated and PLCγ1‑mediated pathways through blocking EGF‑induced phosphorylation/activation of EGF receptor (EGFR). As EGF/EGFR signaling also initiated signal transduction of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)‑mediated pathway, the present study was performed to investigate whether PKG II exerts an inhibitory effect this pathway. AGS human gastric cancer cell line was infected with adenoviral constructs encoding the cDNA of PKG II (Ad‑PKG II), to increase the expression of PKG II, and treated with 8‑pCPT‑cGMP to activate the kinase. Western blotting was performed to detect the phosphorylation/activation of EGFR, JAK1, JAK2, STAT1 and STAT3 and the expression of cell cycle‑associated proteins, including cyclin D1 and cyclin E. EGF‑induced cell cycle changes were detected by flow cytometry. Transcriptional activity was determined by a reporter gene assay. The results demonstrated that EGF treatment increased the phosphorylation of EGFR, JAK1, JAK2, STAT1 and STAT3, increased the expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin E, promoted the cells to enter S phase, and stimulated transcriptional activity in the cells. Increased PKG II activity through infecting the cells with Ad‑PKG II and activating the kinase with 8‑pCPT‑cGMP efficiently reversed the changes caused by EGF. The results suggest that PKG II inhibits EGF‑induced signal transduction of the JAK/STAT‑mediated pathway and further confirms that PKG II may be a cancer inhibitor.

  17. Environmental pH and the requirement for the extrinsic proteins of Photosystem II in the function of cyanobacterial photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaz N Morris

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In one of the final stages of cyanobacterial Photosystem II (PS II assembly, binding of up to four extrinsic proteins to PS II stabilizes the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC. Growth of cyanobacterial mutants deficient in certain combinations of these thylakoid-lumen-associated polypeptides is sensitive to changes in environmental pH, despite the physical separation of the membrane-embedded PS II complex from the external environment. In this perspective, we discuss the effect of environmental pH on OEC function and photoautotrophic growth in cyanobacteria, with reference to pH-sensitive PS II mutants lacking extrinsic proteins. We consider the possibilities that, compared to pH 10.0, pH 7.5 increases susceptibility to PS II-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS, causing photoinhibition and reducing PS II assembly in some mutants and that perturbations to channels in the lumenal regions of PS II might alter the accessibility of water to the active site, and egress of oxygen and protons to the thylakoid lumen. Reduced levels of PS II in these mutants and reduced OEC activity arising from the disruption of substrate/product channels could reduce the trans-thylakoid pH gradient (ΔpH, leading to the impairement of photosynthesis. Growth of some PS II mutants at pH 7.5 can be rescued by elevating CO2 levels, suggesting that the pH-sensitive phenotype might primarily be an indirect result of back-pressure in the electron transport chain that results in heightened production of ROS by the impaired photosystem.

  18. A CRM domain protein functions dually in group I and group II intron splicing in land plant chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Yukari; Barkan, Alice

    2007-12-01

    The CRM domain is a recently recognized RNA binding domain found in three group II intron splicing factors in chloroplasts, in a bacterial protein that associates with ribosome precursors, and in a family of uncharacterized proteins in plants. To elucidate the functional repertoire of proteins with CRM domains, we studied CFM2 (for CRM Family Member 2), which harbors four CRM domains. RNA coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that CFM2 in maize (Zea mays) chloroplasts is associated with the group I intron in pre-trnL-UAA and group II introns in the ndhA and ycf3 pre-mRNAs. T-DNA insertions in the Arabidopsis thaliana ortholog condition a defective-seed phenotype (strong allele) or chlorophyll-deficient seedlings with impaired splicing of the trnL group I intron and the ndhA, ycf3-int1, and clpP-int2 group II introns (weak alleles). CFM2 and two previously described CRM proteins are bound simultaneously to the ndhA and ycf3-int1 introns and act in a nonredundant fashion to promote their splicing. With these findings, CRM domain proteins are implicated in the activities of three classes of catalytic RNA: group I introns, group II introns, and 23S rRNA.

  19. Expression of IGF-II mRNA-binding proteins (IMPs) in gonads and testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Niels A; Hansen, Thomas v O; Byskov, Anne Grete

    2005-01-01

    in resting and growing oocytes and in the granulosa cells. In testis, IMP1 and IMP3 were found mainly in the spermatogonia, whereas IMP2 was expressed in the immature Leydig cells. Moreover, all three IMPs were detected in human semen. The developmental expression pattern of IMP1 and IMP3 in the human testis......Insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding proteins 1, 2 and 3 (IMP1, IMP2 and IMP3) belong to a family of RNA-binding proteins implicated in mRNA localization, turnover and translational control. We examined their expression pattern during development of murine and human testis and ovaries....... In the mouse, IMPs were expressed in male and female gonadal cells at embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5). From E16.5, IMP1 and IMP3 became restricted to the developing germ cells, whereas IMP2 expression persisted in the interstitial cells. In mature mouse and human ovaries, IMP1, IMP2 and IMP3 were detected...

  20. Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant S. Nichols

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile barn owls readily adapt to prismatic spectacles, whereas adult owls living under standard aviary conditions do not. We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of the cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB provides a readout of the instructive signals that guide plasticity in juveniles. Here we investigated phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKII in both juveniles and adults. In contrast to CREB, we found no differences in pCaMKII expression between prism-wearing and control juveniles within the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX, the major site of plasticity. For prism-wearing adults that hunted live mice and are capable of adaptation, expression of pCaMKII was increased relative to prism-wearing adults that fed passively on dead mice and are not capable of adaptation. This effect did not bear the hallmarks of instructive information: it was not localized to rostral ICX and did not exhibit a patchy distribution reflecting discrete bimodal stimuli. These data are consistent with a role for CaMKII as a permissive rather than an instructive factor. In addition, the paucity of pCaMKII expression in passively fed adults suggests that the permissive default setting is “off” in adults.

  1. Interaction of protein C inhibitor with the type II transmembrane serine protease enteropeptidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Prohaska

    Full Text Available The serine protease inhibitor protein C inhibitor (PCI is expressed in many human tissues and exhibits broad protease reactivity. PCI binds glycosaminoglycans and certain phospholipids, which modulate its inhibitory activity. Enteropeptidase (EP is a type II transmembrane serine protease mainly found on the brush border membrane of epithelial cells in the duodenum, where it activates trypsinogen to initiate the digestion of food proteins. Some active EP is also present in duodenal fluid and has been made responsible for causing pancreatitis in case of duodeno-pancreatic reflux. Together with its substrate trypsinogen, EP is furthermore present in the epidermis and in some cancer cells. In this report, we show that PCI inhibited EP with an apparent 2nd order rate constant of 4.48 × 10(4 M(-1 s(-1. Low molecular weight (LMWH and unfractionated heparin (UFH slightly reduced the inhibitory effect of PCI. The SI (stoichiometry of inhibition value for the inhibition of EP by PCI was 10.8 in the absence and 17.9 in the presence of UFH (10 U/ml. By inhibiting trypsin, chymotrypsin, and additionally EP, PCI might play a role in the protection of the pancreas from autodigestion. Furthermore the interaction of PCI with EP may influence the regulation of epithelial differentiation.

  2. The Ancient Gamete Fusogen HAP2 Is a Eukaryotic Class II Fusion Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fédry, Juliette; Liu, Yanjie; Péhau-Arnaudet, Gérard; Pei, Jimin; Li, Wenhao; Tortorici, M Alejandra; Traincard, François; Meola, Annalisa; Bricogne, Gérard; Grishin, Nick V; Snell, William J; Rey, Félix A; Krey, Thomas

    2017-02-23

    Sexual reproduction is almost universal in eukaryotic life and involves the fusion of male and female haploid gametes into a diploid cell. The sperm-restricted single-pass transmembrane protein HAP2-GCS1 has been postulated to function in membrane merger. Its presence in the major eukaryotic taxa-animals, plants, and protists (including important human pathogens like Plasmodium)-suggests that many eukaryotic organisms share a common gamete fusion mechanism. Here, we report combined bioinformatic, biochemical, mutational, and X-ray crystallographic studies on the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii HAP2 that reveal homology to class II viral membrane fusion proteins. We further show that targeting the segment corresponding to the fusion loop by mutagenesis or by antibodies blocks gamete fusion. These results demonstrate that HAP2 is the gamete fusogen and suggest a mechanism of action akin to viral fusion, indicating a way to block Plasmodium transmission and highlighting the impact of virus-cell genetic exchanges on the evolution of eukaryotic life. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Purification and characterization of recombinant supersweet protein thaumatin II from tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firsov, Aleksey; Shaloiko, Lyubov; Kozlov, Oleg; Vinokurov, Leonid; Vainstein, Alexander; Dolgov, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    Thaumatin, a supersweet protein from the African plant katemfe (Thaumatococcus daniellii Benth.), is a promising zero-calorie sweetener for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Due to limited natural sources of thaumatin, its production using transgenic plants is an advantageous alternative. We report a simple protocol for purification of recombinant thaumatin II from transgenic tomato. Thaumatin was extracted from ripe tomato fruit in a low-salt buffer and purified on an SP-Sephacryl column. Recombinant thaumatin yield averaged 50 mg/kg fresh fruit. MALDI-MS analysis showed correct processing of thaumatin in tomato plants. The recombinant thaumatin was indistinguishable from the native protein in a taste test. The purified tomato-derived thaumatin had an intrinsic sweetness with a threshold value in taste tests of around 50 nM. These results demonstrate the potential of an expression system based on transgenic tomato plants for production of recombinant thaumatin for the food and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of peptides in wheat germ hydrolysate that demonstrate calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumrungsee, Thanutchaporn; Akiyama, Sayaka; Guo, Jian; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Matsui, Toshiro

    2016-12-15

    Hydrolysis of wheat germ by proteases resulted in bioactive peptides that demonstrated an inhibitory effect against the vasoconstrictive Ca(2+)-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II). The hydrolysate by thermolysin (1.0wt%, 5h) showed a particularly potent CaMK II inhibition. As a result of mixed mode high-performance liquid chromatography of thermolysin hydrolysate with pH elution gradient ranging between 4.8 and 8.9, the fraction eluted at pH 8.9 was the most potent CaMK II inhibitor. From this fraction, Trp-Val and Trp-Ile were identified as CaMK II inhibitors. In Sprague-Dawley rats, an enhanced aortic CaMK II activity by 1μM phenylephrine was significantly (pCaMK II activity assays, it was concluded that Trp-Val and Trp-Ile competed with Ca(2+)-CaM complex to bind to CaMK II with Ki values of 5.4 and 3.6μM, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Can Hg(II) be determined via quenching of the emission of green fluorescent protein from Anemonia sulcata var. smaragdina?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Serap Seyhan; Cavas, Levent

    2009-07-01

    Anemonia sulcata var. smaragdina is a widely distributed Cnidarian species along Turkish coastlines. It is also a well-known example of a facultative symbiotic life form in sea ecosystems. Green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) in Anemonia sulcata var. smaragdina have vital roles in this symbiotic form. The fluorescence quenching by Hg(II) in the supernatants obtained from A. sulcata var. smaragdina was shown in this study. According to results, there was a statistical significant relationship (R(2) = 0.9913) between increased Hg(II) concentration and decreased fluorescence intensity of GFP supernatants obtained from A. sulcata var. smaragdina. Mn(II), Fe(II), and Al(II) showed no interference effect and did not change the fluorescence intensity of GFP supernatants obtained from A. sulcata var. smaragdina. In conclusion, the fluorescence quenching of GFPs by Hg(II) can be a novel method to determine the Hg(II) levels in aqueous solution. Therefore, further researches are strongly warranted because of the possible potential applications of the fluorescence quenching of GFPs by Hg(II).

  6. Comparing prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II) with the oncofetal proteins glypican-3, Alpha feto protein and carcinoembryonic antigen in diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma among Egyptian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Gawad, Iman A; Mossallam, Ghada I; Radwan, Noha H; Elzawahry, Heba M; Elhifnawy, Niveen M

    2014-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is usually asymptomatic in the early stage and does not show elevated alpha-feto protein (AFP). AFP shows 60-80% sensitivity in diagnosing HCC. Glypican3 (GPC-3) is an oncofetal protein that is only detected in HCC cells but not in benign liver tissues, while Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is expressed in various neoplasms including HCC. Although, it is not specific for HCC. Prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II) is an abnormal prothrombin protein that is increased in the serum of HCC patients. It has higher sensitivity and specificity compared to AFP. The aim of this study is to compare the clinical utility of PIVKA-II with GPC-3, AFP and CEA in diagnosing HCC. This study included 40 patients with HCC, 10 patients with cirrhosis as a benign control group, and 10 apparently healthy volunteers as normal controls. Serum samples were subjected to routine laboratory investigations, measurement of CEA, AFP using MEIA technique (Axsym), glypican3, and PIVKA-II using ELISA technique in the sera of all patients and controls. All markers showed the highest results in the HCC group. Higher concentrations of PIVKA-II were detected in patients with splenomegaly, and in tumors with size (>3cm). Combination of Glypican-3 and PIVKA-II showed the highest sensitivity, while GPC-3 alone and combination of GPC-3 and AFP showed the highest specificity to differentiate HCC from liver cirrhosis and normal controls. GPC-3, PIVKAII, and combination of both showed the highest sensitivity, while GPC-3 alone showed the highest specificity to differentiate HCC from liver cirrhosis. Glypican-3 is the only oncofetal antigen that showed comparable high diagnostic accuracy as PIVKA-II in diagnosing HCC among Egyptian patients. Copyright © 2014. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockade abolishes brain microvascular inflammation and heat shock protein responses in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Ando, Hiromichi; Macova, Miroslava; Dou, Jingtao; Saavedra, Juan M

    2005-07-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and inflammation enhance vulnerability to hypertensive brain damage. To explore the participation of Angiotensin II (Ang II) in the mechanism of vulnerability to cerebral ischemia during hypertension, we examined the expression of inflammatory factors and the heat shock protein (HSP) response in cerebral microvessels from spontaneously hypertensive rats and their normotensive controls, Wistar Kyoto rats. We treated animals with vehicle or the Ang II AT(1) receptor antagonist candesartan, 0.3 mg/kg/day, via subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps for 4 weeks. Spontaneously hypertensive rats expressed higher Angiotensin II AT(1) receptor protein and mRNA than normotensive controls. Candesartan decreased the macrophage infiltration and reversed the enhanced tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta mRNA and nuclear factor-kappaB in microvessels in hypertensive rats. The transcription of many HSP family genes, including HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90, and heat shock factor-1 was higher in hypertensive rats and was downregulated by AT(1) receptor blockade. Our results suggest a proinflammatory action of Ang II through AT(1) receptor stimulation in cerebral microvessels during hypertension, and very potent antiinflammatory effects of the Ang II AT(1) receptor antagonist. These compounds might be considered as potential therapeutic agents against ischemic and inflammatory diseases of the brain.

  8. N-terminal myristoylation is required for membrane localization of cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Vaandrager (Arie); E.M.E. Ehlert (Ehrich); T. Jarchau; S.M. Lohmann (Suzanne); H.R. de Jonge (Hugo)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe apical membrane of intestinal epithelial cells harbors a unique isozyme of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK type II) which acts as a key regulator of ion transport systems, including the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

  9. Class II members of the poly(A) binding protein family exhibit distinct functions during Arabidopsis growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallie, Daniel R

    2017-01-01

    The poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) binds to the poly(A) tail of eukaryotic cellular mRNAs and contributes to their stability and translational efficiency. In plants, PABP is expressed from an unusually large gene family grouped into 3 classes that expanded during the evolution of land plants. Subsequent to expansion of the family, members diverged in their primary sequence and in expression. Further expansion of the family and divergence of its members in the Brassicaceae demonstrate the continued dynamic evolution of PABP in plants. In this study, the function of the widely-expressed class II PABP family members was examined to determine how individual class II members contribute to plant growth and development. Of the 3 class II PABP members, PAB2 and PAB4 contribute most to vegetative growth and vegetative-to-floral transition whereas PAB2, and the recently-evolved third class II member, PAB8, contribute to inflorescence and silique growth. Interestingly, although class I and class III PABP members are expressed specifically in reproductive organs, class II PABP members are also necessary for fertility in that the combinatorial loss of PAB2 and either PAB4 or PAB8 expression resulted in reduced fertility. Although all 3 class II members are required for protein expression, PAB4 contributes most to the steady-state level of a reporter mRNA and to protein expression. These findings suggest that class II PABP members are partially overlapping in function but also involved in distinct aspects of plant growth and development.

  10. G-protein coupled receptor 83 (GPR83 signaling determined by constitutive and zinc(II-induced activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Müller

    Full Text Available The G-protein coupled receptor 83 (GPR83 is an orphan G-protein coupled receptor for which the natural ligand(s and signaling pathway(s remain to be identified. Previous studies suggest a role of GPR83 in the regulation of thermogenesis and the control of circulating adiponectin. The aim of this study was to gain insights into the molecular underpinnings underlying GPR83 signaling. In particular, we aimed to assess the underlying G-protein activated signaling pathway of GPR83 and how this pathway is affected by mutational activation and zinc(II challenge. Finally, we assessed the capacity of GPR83 for homodimerization. Our results show for the first time that mouse (m GPR83 has high basal Gq/11 activity without affecting Gi or Gs signaling. Furthermore, we found that, under physiological conditions, zinc(II (but not calcium(II and magnesium(II potently activates mGPR83, thus identifying zinc(II as an endogenous molecule with agonistic capability to activate mGPR83. In line with the observation that zinc(II-ions activate mGPR83, we identified a cluster of ion-binding sensitive amino acids (e.g. His145, His204, Cys207, Glu217 in an activation sensitive receptor region of mGPR83. The occurrence of a constitutive activating mutant and a zinc(II-binding residue at the N-terminal part corroborate the importance of this region in mGPR83 signal regulation. Finally, our results indicate that mGPR83 forms homodimers, which extend the current knowledge and molecular facets of GPR83 signaling.

  11. Interactions involving the human RNA polymerase II transcription/nucleotide excision repair complex TFIIH, the nucleotide excision repair protein XPG, and Cockayne syndrome group B (CSB) protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, N; Reagan, M S; Wu, K J; Canagarajah, B; Friedberg, E C

    1996-02-20

    The human basal transcription factor TFIIH plays a central role in two distinct processes. TFIIH is an obligatory component of the RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) transcription initiation complex. Additionally, it is believed to be the core structure around which some if not all the components of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) machinery assemble to constitute a nucleotide excision repairosome. At least two of the subunits of TFIIH (XPB and XPD proteins) are implicated in the disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). We have exploited the availability of the cloned XPB, XPD, p62, p44, and p34 genes (all of which encode polypeptide subunits of TFIIH) to examine interactions between in vitro-translated polypeptides by co-immunoprecipitation. Additionally we have examined interactions between TFIIH components, the human NER protein XPG, and the CSB protein which is implicated in Cockayne syndrome (CS). Our analyses demonstrate that the XPB, XPD, p44, and p62 proteins interact with each other. XPG protein interacts with multiple subunits of TFIIH and with CSB protein.

  12. Structure of the C-terminal domain of AspA (antigen I/II-family protein from Streptococcus pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hall

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes can cause an array of diseases in humans, including moderate infections such as pharyngitis (strep throat as well as life threatening conditions such as necrotizing fasciitis and puerperal fever. The antigen I/II family proteins are cell wall anchored adhesin proteins found on the surfaces of most oral streptococci and are involved in host colonization and biofilm formation. In the present study we have determined the crystal structure of the C2–3-domain of the antigen I/II type protein AspA from S. pyogenes M type 28. The structure was solved to 1.8 Å resolution and shows that the C2–3-domain is comprised of two structurally similar DEv-IgG motifs, designated C2 and C3, both containing a stabilizing covalent isopeptide bond. Furthermore a metal binding site is identified, containing a bound calcium ion. Despite relatively low sequence identity, interestingly, the overall structure shares high similarity to the C2–3-domains of antigen I/II proteins from Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans, although certain parts of the structure exhibit distinct features. In summary this work constitutes the first step in the full structure determination of the AspA protein from S. pyogenes.

  13. Cloning and quantitative determination of the human Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) isoforms in human beta cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlitz, H; Voigt, A; Lankat-Buttgereit, B; Göke, B; Heimberg, H; Nauck, M A; Schiemann, U; Schatz, H; Pfeiffer, A F

    2000-04-01

    The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) is highly expressed in pancreatic islets and associated with insulin secretion vesicles. The suppression of CaMK II disturbs insulin secretion and insulin gene expression. There are four isoforms of CaMK II, alpha to delta, that are expressed from different genes in mammals. Our aim was to identify the isoforms of CaMK II expressed in human beta cells by molecular cloning from a human insulinoma cDNA library and to assess its distribution in humans. The previously unknown complete coding sequences of human CaMK IIbeta and the kinase domain of CaMK IIdelta were cloned from a human insulinoma cDNA library. Quantitative determination of CaMK II isoform mRNA was carried out in several tissues and beta cells purified by fluorescence activated cell sorting and compared to the housekeeping enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase. We found CaMK IIbeta occurred in three splice variants and was highly expressed in endocrine tissues such as adrenals, pituitary and beta cells. Liver showed moderate expression but adipose tissue or lymphocytes had very low levels of CaMK IIbeta-mRNA. In human beta cells CaMK IIbeta and delta were expressed equally with pyruvate dehydrogenase whereas tenfold lower expression of CaMK IIgamma and no expression of CaMK IIalpha were found. Although CaMK IIdelta is ubiquitously expressed, CaMK IIbeta shows preferential expression in neuroendocrine tissues. In comparison with the expression of a key regulatory enzyme in glucose oxidation, pyruvate dehydrogenase, two of the four CaM kinases investigated are expressed at equally high levels, which supports an important role in beta-cell physiology. These results provide the basis for exploring the pathophysiological relevance of CaMK IIbeta in human diabetes.

  14. Highly efficient one-step scarless protein tagging by type IIS restriction endonuclease-mediated precision cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Rui, Yan-Ning; Balzeau, Julien; Menezes, Miriam R; Niu, Airu; Hagan, John P; Kim, Dong H

    2017-08-12

    Protein tagging with a wide variety of epitopes and/or fusion partners is used routinely to dissect protein function molecularly. Frequently, the required DNA subcloning is inefficient, especially in cases where multiple constructs are desired for a given protein with unique tags. Additionally, the generated clones have unwanted junction sequences introduced. To add versatile tags into the extracellular domain of the transmembrane protein THSD1, we developed a protein tagging technique that utilizes non-classical type IIS restriction enzymes that recognize non-palindromic DNA sequences and cleave outside of their recognition sites. Our results demonstrate that this method is highly efficient and can precisely fuse any tag into any position of a protein in a scarless manner. Moreover, this method is cost-efficient and adaptable because it uses commercially available type IIS restriction enzymes and is compatible with the traditional cloning system used by many labs. Therefore, precision tagging technology will benefit a number of researchers by providing an alternate method to integrate an array of tags into protein expression constructs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic deletion of the p66Shc adaptor protein protects from angiotensin II-induced myocardial damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graiani, Gallia; Lagrasta, Costanza; Migliaccio, Enrica; Spillmann, Frank; Meloni, Marco; Madeddu, Paolo; Quaini, Federico; Padura, Ines Martin; Lanfrancone, Luisa; Pelicci, PierGiuseppe; Emanueli, Costanza

    2005-08-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II), acting through its G protein-coupled AT1 receptor (AT1), contributes to the precocious heart senescence typical of patients with hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. AT1 was suggested to transactivate an intracellular signaling controlled by growth factors and their tyrosin-kinase receptors. In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, this downstream mechanism comprises the p66Shc adaptor protein, previously recognized to play a role in vascular cell senescence and death. The aim of the present study was 2-fold: (1) to characterize the cardiovascular phenotype of p66Shc knockout mice (p66Shc(-/-)), and (2) to test the novel hypothesis that disrupting the p66Shc might protect the heart from the damaging action of elevated Ang II levels. Compared with wild-type littermates (p66Shc(+/+)), p66Shc(-/-) showed similar blood pressure, heart rate, and left ventricular wall thickness. However, cardiomyocyte number was increased in mutant animals, indicating a condition of myocardial hyperplasia. In p66Shc(+/+), infusion of a sub-pressor dose of Ang II (300 nmol/kg body weight [BW] daily for 28 days) caused left ventricular hypertrophy and apoptotic death of cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. In contrast, p66Shc(-/-) were resistant to the proapoptotic/hypertrophic action of Ang II. Consistently, in vitro experiments showed that Ang II causes apoptotic death of cardiomyocytes isolated from p66Shc(+/+) hearts to a greater extent as compared with p66Shc(-/-) cardiomyocytes. Our results indicate a fundamental role of p66Shc in Ang II-mediated myocardial remodeling. In perspective, p66Shc inhibition may be envisioned as a novel way to prevent the deleterious effects of Ang II on the heart.

  16. The Adaptor Protein SAP Regulates Type II NKT Cell Development, Cytokine Production and Cytotoxicity Against Lymphoma1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiufang; Liao, Chia-Min; Bagchi, Sreya; Cardell, Susanna L.; Stein, Paul L.; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2014-01-01

    CD1d-restricted NKT cells represent a unique lineage of immunoregulatory T cells that are divided into two groups, type I and type II, based on their TCR usage. Because there are no specific tools to identify type II NKT cells, little is known about their developmental requirements and functional regulation. In our previous study, we showed that signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) is essential for the development of type II NKT cells. Here, using a type II NKT cell TCR transgenic mouse model (24αβTg), we demonstrated that CD1d-expressing hematopoietic cells but not thymic epithelial cells meditate efficient selection of type II NKT cells. Further, we showed that SAP regulates type II NKT cell development by controlling Egr2 and PLZF expression. SAP-deficient 24αβ transgenic T cells (24αβ T cells) exhibited an immature phenotype with reduced Th2 cytokine-producing capacity and diminished cytotoxicity to CD1d-expressing lymphoma cells. The impaired IL-4 production by SAP-deficient 24αβ T cells was associated with reduced IRF4 and GATA-3 induction following TCR stimulation. Collectively, these data suggest that SAP is critical for regulating type II NKT cell responses. Aberrant responses of these T cells may contribute to the immune dysregulation observed in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease caused by mutations in SAP. PMID:25236978

  17. Transcription activation by Escherichia coli Rob at class II promoters: protein-protein interactions between Rob's N-terminal domain and the σ(70) subunit of RNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lanyn P; Keen, Edward F; Sanchez-Alberola, Neus; Wolf, Richard E

    2012-06-08

    Bacterial transcription activators regulate transcription by making essential protein-protein interactions with RNA polymerase, for example, with region 4 of the σ(70) subunit (σ(70) R4). Rob, SoxS, and MarA comprise a closely related subset of members of the AraC/XylS family of transcription factors that activate transcription of both class I and class II promoters. Recently, we showed that interactions between SoxS and σ(70) R4 occlude the binding of σ(70) R4 to the -35 promoter element of class II promoters. Although Rob shares many similarities with SoxS, it contains a C-terminal domain (CTD) that the other paralogs do not. Thus, a goal of this study was to determine whether Rob makes protein-protein interactions with σ(70) R4 at class II promoters and, if so, whether the interactions occlude the binding of σ(70) R4 to the -35 hexamer despite the presence of the CTD. We found that although Rob makes fewer interactions with σ(70) R4 than SoxS, the two proteins make the same, unusual, position-dependent interactions. Importantly, we found that Rob occludes σ(70) R4 from binding the -35 hexamer, just as does SoxS. Thus, the CTD does not substantially alter the way Rob interacts with σ(70) R4 at class II promoters. Moreover, in contrast to inferences drawn from the co-crystal structure of Rob bound to robbox DNA, which showed that only one of Rob's dual helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA binding motifs binds a recognition element of the promoter's robbox, we determined that the two HTH motifs each bind a recognition element in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of type II protein arginine methyltransferase 5 in the regulation of Circadian Per1 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungtae Na

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks are the endogenous oscillators that regulate rhythmic physiological and behavioral changes to correspond to daily light-dark cycles. Molecular dissections have revealed that transcriptional feedback loops of the circadian clock genes drive the molecular oscillation, in which PER/CRY complexes inhibit the transcriptional activity of the CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer to constitute a negative feedback loop. In this study, we identified the type II protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5 as an interacting molecule of CRY1. Although the Prmt5 gene was constitutively expressed, increased interaction of PRMT5 with CRY1 was observed when the Per1 gene was repressed both in synchronized mouse liver and NIH3T3 cells. Moreover, rhythmic recruitment of PRMT5 and CRY1 to the Per1 gene promoter was found to be associated with an increased level of histone H4R3 dimethylation and Per1 gene repression. Consistently, decreased histone H4R3 dimethylation and altered rhythmic Per1 gene expression were observed in Prmt5-depleted cells. Taken together, these findings provide an insight into the link between histone arginine methylation by PRMT5 and transcriptional regulation of the circadian Per1 gene.

  19. Mechanism of copper(II)-induced misfolding of Parkinson's disease protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Frisco; Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    α-synuclein (aS) is a natively unfolded pre-synaptic protein found in all Parkinson's disease patients as the major component of fibrillar plaques. Metal ions, and especially Cu(II), have been demonstrated to accelerate aggregation of aS into fibrillar plaques, the precursors to Lewy bodies. In this work, copper binding to aS is investigated by a combination of quantum and molecular mechanics simulations. Starting from the experimentally observed attachment site, several optimized structures of Cu-binding geometries are examined. The most energetically favorable attachment results in significant allosteric changes, making aS more susceptible to misfolding. Indeed, an inverse kinematics investigation of the configuration space uncovers a dynamically stable β-sheet conformation of Cu-aS that serves as a nucleation point for a second β-strand. Based on these findings, we propose an atomistic mechanism of copper-induced misfolding of aS as an initial event in the formation of Lewy bodies and thus in PD pathogenesis.

  20. UCS protein Rng3p is essential for myosin-II motor activity during cytokinesis in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C Stark

    Full Text Available UCS proteins have been proposed to operate as co-chaperones that work with Hsp90 in the de novo folding of myosin motors. The fission yeast UCS protein Rng3p is essential for actomyosin ring assembly and cytokinesis. Here we investigated the role of Rng3p in fission yeast myosin-II (Myo2p motor activity. Myo2p isolated from an arrested rng3-65 mutant was capable of binding actin, yet lacked stability and activity based on its expression levels and inactivity in ATPase and actin filament gliding assays. Myo2p isolated from a myo2-E1 mutant (a mutant hyper-sensitive to perturbation of Rng3p function showed similar behavior in the same assays and exhibited an altered motor conformation based on limited proteolysis experiments. We propose that Rng3p is not required for the folding of motors per se, but instead works to ensure the activity of intrinsically unstable myosin-II motors. Rng3p is specific to conventional myosin-II and the actomyosin ring, and is not required for unconventional myosin motor function at other actin structures. However, artificial destabilization of myosin-I motors at endocytic actin patches (using a myo1-E1 mutant led to recruitment of Rng3p to patches. Thus, while Rng3p is specific to myosin-II, UCS proteins are adaptable and can respond to changes in the stability of other myosin motors.

  1. Simultaneous purification of biotin-binding proteins-I and -II from chicken egg yolk and their characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, N; Adiga, P R

    1995-06-01

    Chicken egg yolk biotin-binding protein-I (BBP-I) has been purified to homogeneity along with the tetrameric BBP-II by a common protocol. The purification includes delipidation of egg yolk by butanol extraction, DEAE-Sephacel chromatography, treatment with guanidinium chloride and biotin-aminohexyl-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The identity of purified BBP-I was ascertained by its physicochemical properties as well as by its immunological cross-reactivity and precursor-product relationship with BBP-II.

  2. The adaptor protein SAP regulates type II NKT-cell development, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity against lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiufang; Liao, Chia-Min; Bagchi, Sreya; Cardell, Susanna L; Stein, Paul L; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2014-12-01

    CD1d-restricted NKT cells represent a unique lineage of immunoregulatory T cells that are divided into two groups, type I and type II, based on their TCR usage. Because there are no specific tools to identify type II NKT cells, little is known about their developmental requirements and functional regulation. In our previous study, we showed that signaling lymphocytic activation molecule associated protein (SAP) is essential for the development of type II NKT cells. Here, using a type II NKT-cell TCR transgenic mouse model, we demonstrated that CD1d-expressing hematopoietic cells, but not thymic epithelial cells, meditate efficient selection of type II NKT cells. Furthermore, we showed that SAP regulates type II NKT-cell development by controlling early growth response 2 protein and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger expression. SAP-deficient 24αβ transgenic T cells (24αβ T cells) exhibited an immature phenotype with reduced Th2 cytokine-producing capacity and diminished cytotoxicity to CD1d-expressing lymphoma cells. The impaired IL-4 production by SAP-deficient 24αβ T cells was associated with reduced IFN regulatory factor 4 and GATA-3 induction following TCR stimulation. Collectively, these data suggest that SAP is critical for regulating type II NKT cell responses. Aberrant responses of these T cells may contribute to the immune dysregulation observed in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease caused by mutations in SAP. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Adsorption of plasma proteins on uncoated PLGA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempf, Karim; Arrey, Tabiwang; Gelperina, Svetlana; Schorge, Tobias; Meyer, Björn; Karas, Michael; Kreuter, Jörg

    2013-09-01

    The biodistribution of nanoparticles is significantly influenced by their interaction with plasma proteins. In order to optimize and possibly monitor the delivery of drugs bound to nanoparticles across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the protein adsorption pattern of uncoated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles after their incubation in human plasma was studied by mass spectrometry. After washing of the particles with water, the proteins were directly digested on the nanoparticle surface using trypsin and then analyzed by nLC MALDI-TOF/TOF. Up to now, the standard method for investigation into the plasma protein adsorption to the particles was 2D gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), in certain cases followed by mass spectrometry. The non-gel-based method proposed in the present study provides novel insights into the protein corona surrounding the nanoparticles. The proteins adsorbed on the PLGA nanoparticles after incubation that gave the best signal in terms of quality (high MASCOT score) in human plasma were apolipoprotein E, vitronectin, histidine-rich glycoprotein and kininogen-1. These proteins also are constituents of HDL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Adsorption of proteins from plasma at polyester non-wovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomp, A J; Engbers, G H; Mol, J; Terlingen, J G; Feijen, J

    1999-07-01

    Polyester non-wovens in filters for the removal of leukocytes from platelet concentrates (PCs) must be platelet compatible. In PC filtration, the adsorption of proteins at the plasma-non-woven interface can be of great importance with respect to the yield of platelets. Unmodified and radio frequency glow discharge (RFGD) treated poly(ethylene terephthalate) non-woven (NW-PET) and two commercial surface-modified non-wovens were contacted with human plasma. Protein desorption by sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The desorbed proteins were characterized by gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Compared to the commercial surface-modified non-wovens, unmodified and RFGD-treated NW-PETs adsorbed a relatively high amount of protein. Significantly more protein was removed from the hydrophobic NW-PET by SDS than from the hydrophilic RFGD-treated non-wovens. RFGD treatment of NW-PET reduces the reversibility of protein adsorption. Less albumin and fibrinogen were removed from the RFGD-treated non-wovens than from NW-PET. In addition, a large amount of histidine-rich glycoprotein was removed from RFGD-treated non-wovens, but not from NW-PET. The different behaviour of RFGFD-treated non-wovens towards protein adsorption is probably caused by differences in the chemical reactivity of the non-woven surfaces.

  5. Characterisation of ribosomal proteins from HeLa and Krebs II mouse ascites tumor cells by different two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G; Beier, H

    1978-01-01

    Electrophoresis of ribosomal proteins according to Kaltschmidt and Wittmann, 1970a, b (pH 8.6/pH 4.5 urea system) yielded 29 proteins for the small subunits and 35 and 37 proteins for the large subunits of Krebs II ascites and HeLa ribosomes, respectively. Analysis of the proteins according...... to a modified technique by Mets and Bogorad (1974) (pH 4.5/pH 8.6 SDS system) revealed 28 and 29 proteins in the small subunits and 37 and 38 proteins in the large subunits of Krebs II ascites and HeLa ribosomes. The molecular weights of the individual proteins were determined by: 1. "three-dimensional" gel...... using the pH 4.5/pH 8.6 SDS system. The molecular weights Krebs II ascites and HeLa ribosomal proteins are compared with those obtained by other authors for different mammalian species....

  6. Does high C-reactive protein concentration increase atherosclerosis? The Whitehall II Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Kivimäki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP, a marker of systemic inflammation, is associated with risk of coronary events and sub-clinical measures of atherosclerosis. Evidence in support of this link being causal would include an association robust to adjustments for confounders (multivariable standard regression analysis and the association of CRP gene polymorphisms with atherosclerosis (Mendelian randomization analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We genotyped 3 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs [+1444T>C (rs1130864; +2303G>A (rs1205 and +4899T>G (rs 3093077] in the CRP gene and assessed CRP and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT, a structural marker of atherosclerosis, in 4941 men and women aged 50-74 (mean 61 years (the Whitehall II Study. The 4 major haplotypes from the SNPs were consistently associated with CRP level, but not with other risk factors that might confound the association between CRP and CIMT. CRP, assessed both at mean age 49 and at mean age 61, was associated both with CIMT in age and sex adjusted standard regression analyses and with potential confounding factors. However, the association of CRP with CIMT attenuated to the null with adjustment for confounding factors in both prospective and cross-sectional analyses. When examined using genetic variants as the instrument for serum CRP, there was no inferred association between CRP and CIMT. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both multivariable standard regression analysis and Mendelian randomization analysis suggest that the association of CRP with carotid atheroma indexed by CIMT may not be causal.

  7. The human respiratory syncytial virus nonstructural protein 1 regulates type I and type II interferon pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Marcus L; Headlam, Madeleine J; Patel, Nirav B; Bukreyev, Alexander A; Buchholz, Ursula J; Dave, Keyur A; Norris, Emma L; Wright, Cassandra L; Spann, Kirsten M; Collins, Peter L; Gorman, Jeffrey J

    2012-05-01

    Respiratory syncytial viruses encode a nonstructural protein (NS1) that interferes with type I and III interferon and other antiviral responses. Proteomic studies were conducted on human A549 type II alveolar epithelial cells and type I interferon-deficient Vero cells (African green monkey kidney cells) infected with wild-type and NS1-deficient clones of human respiratory syncytial virus to identify other potential pathway and molecular targets of NS1 interference. These analyses included two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and quantitative Western blotting. Surprisingly, NS1 was found to suppress the induction of manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) expression in A549 cells and to a much lesser degree Vero cells in response to infection. Because SOD2 is not directly inducible by type I interferons, it served as a marker to probe the impact of NS1 on signaling of other cytokines known to induce SOD2 expression and/or indirect effects of type I interferon signaling. Deductive analysis of results obtained from cell infection and cytokine stimulation studies indicated that interferon-γ signaling was a potential target of NS1, possibly as a result of modulation of STAT1 levels. However, this was not sufficient to explain the magnitude of the impact of NS1 on SOD2 induction in A549 cells. Vero cell infection experiments indicated that NS1 targeted a component of the type I interferon response that does not directly induce SOD2 expression but is required to induce another initiator of SOD2 expression. STAT2 was ruled out as a target of NS1 interference using quantitative Western blot analysis of infected A549 cells, but data were obtained to indicate that STAT1 was one of a number of potential targets of NS1. A label-free mass spectrometry-based quantitative approach is proposed as a means of more definitive identification of NS1 targets.

  8. Angiotensin II Induces C-Reactive Protein Expression via AT1-ROS-MAPK-NF-κB Signal Pathway in Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zhao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: C-reactive protein (CRP participates in development of inflammatory diseases. Hepatocytes are a major contributor of circulating CRP. Although angiotensin II (Ang II is known to evoke inflammatory response, it remains unknown whether Ang II induces CRP expression in hepatocytes. The present study observed effect of Ang II on CRP expression and the related signal pathway in hepatocytes. Methods: mRNA and protein expressions in human hepatocytes were determined with RT-PCR and Western blot respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS was measured using a fluorescence probe. CRP in liver and serum of rats was determined by immunohistochemistry and ELISA respectively. Results: Ang II induced mRNA and protein expression of CRP in hepatocytes and increased CRP production in liver and CRP level in serum. Losartan reduced Ang II- induced CRP expression in hepatocytes. Losartan and thenoyltrifluoroacetone decreased Ang II-stimulated ROS production. N-acetylcysteine antagonized Ang II-induced CRP expression. Losartan and N-acetylcysteine inhibited Ang II-activated ERK1/2. Unlike ERK1/2, only losartan inhibited Ang II-activated JNK. Furthermore, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate abolished Ang II-induced CRP expression. Conclusion: Ang II has ability to induce CRP expression in hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo through AT1 receptor followed by ROS, MAPK and NF-κB signal pathway.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of the extrinsic PsbP protein of photosystem II from Spinacia oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohoutová, J; Kutá Smatanová, I; Brynda, J; Lapkouski, M; Revuelta, J L; Arellano, J B; Ettrich, R

    2009-02-01

    Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the extrinsic PsbP protein of photosystem II from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) was performed using N-terminally His-tagged recombinant PsbP protein overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant PsbP protein (thrombin-digested recombinant His-tagged PsbP) stored in bis-Tris buffer pH 6.00 was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique with PEG 550 MME as a precipitant and zinc sulfate as an additive. SDS-PAGE analysis of a dissolved crystal showed that the crystals did not contain the degradation products of recombinant PsbP protein. PsbP crystals diffracted to 2.06 A resolution in space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 38.68, b = 46.73, c = 88.9 A.

  10. Alternative splicing of a group II intron in a surface layer protein gene in Clostridium tetani

    OpenAIRE

    McNeil, Bonnie A.; Simon, Dawn M; Zimmerly, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Group II introns are ribozymes and retroelements found in bacteria, and are thought to have been the ancestors of nuclear pre-mRNA introns. Whereas nuclear introns undergo prolific alternative splicing in some species, group II introns are not known to carry out equivalent reactions. Here we report a group II intron in the human pathogen Clostridium tetani, which undergoes four alternative splicing reactions in vivo. Together with unspliced transcript, five mRNAs are produced, each encoding a...

  11. Nonclassical Mechanisms of Progesterone Action in the Brain: II. Role of Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II in Progesterone-Mediated Signaling in the Hypothalamus of Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Bhuvana; Portillo, Wendy; Reyna, Andrea; Chen, Jian Zhong; Moore, Anthony N.; Dash, Pramod K.; Mani, Shaila K.

    2008-01-01

    In addition to the activation of classical progestin receptor-dependent genomic pathway, progesterone (P) can activate nonclassical, membrane-initiated signaling pathways in the brain. We recently demonstrated rapid P activation of second-messenger kinases, protein kinase A, and protein kinase C in the ventromedial nucleus (VMN) and preoptic area (POA) of rat brain. To determine whether P can activate yet another Ca+2dependent kinase, we examined the rapid P modulation of calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in the VMN and POA in female rats. A rapid P-initiated activation of CaMKII basal activity was observed in the VMN but not the POA at 30 min. Estradiol benzoate (EB) priming enhanced this CaMKII basal activity in both the VMN and POA. CaMKII protein levels and phosphorylation of Thr-286 moiety on CaMKII, however, remained unchanged with EB and/or P treatments, suggesting that the changes in the CaMKII kinase activity are due to rapid P modulation of the kinase activity and not its synthesis or autoactivation. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of a CaMKII-specific inhibitor, KN-93, 30 min prior to the P infusion, in EB-primed, ovariectomized female rats inhibited CaMKII activation but not protein kinase A and protein kinase C activities. Interestingly, icv administration of KN-93 30 min prior to P infusion (icv) resulted in a reduction but not total inhibition of P-facilitated lordosis response in EB-primed female rats. These observations suggest a redundancy or, alternately, a hierarchy in the P-regulated activation of kinase signaling cascades in female reproductive behavior. PMID:18617607

  12. Emission solvatochromic behavior of a pentacoordinated Zn(II) complex: A viable tool for studying the metallodrug–protein interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciardi, Loredana, E-mail: loredana.ricciardi@unical.it [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Calabria, I-87036 Rende (CS) (Italy); Centre of Excellence “Functional Nanostructured Materials” CEMIF.CAL, LASCAMM and CR INSTM, INSTM Calabria Unit, and CNR-IPCF-UOS Cosenza - Licryl Laboratory, I-87036 Rende (CS) (Italy); Pucci, Daniela; Pirillo, Sante; La Deda, Massimo [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Calabria, I-87036 Rende (CS) (Italy); Centre of Excellence “Functional Nanostructured Materials” CEMIF.CAL, LASCAMM and CR INSTM, INSTM Calabria Unit, and CNR-IPCF-UOS Cosenza - Licryl Laboratory, I-87036 Rende (CS) (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    A metal complex with antitumoral activity, Zn(Curcumin)(bypiridine)Cl, was characterized from a photophysical point of view, showing a green emission and a positive solvatochromism. These characteristics can be conveniently used to study its interaction with Human Serum Albumin (HSA), a protein carrier of many non-aqueous biologically-active compounds in the blood stream. The intrinsic fluorescence of HSA was quenched by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer toward the Zn(II) complex, and the Stern–Volmer equation was applied to determine the bimolecular quenching rate constant of the interaction. - Highlights: • Albumin binding information is a key characteristic of drug pharmacology. • Fluorescence spectroscopy offers a simple method for revealing drug–protein interaction. • The fluorescence of the Zn(II) complex and its solvatochromisms has allowed studying the binding from a dual perspective.

  13. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase activity in the somatic cells of the seminiferous tubules. II. Effect of retinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdieri, M; Pezzotti, R; Nisticò, L

    1991-01-01

    The effect of retinol on cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase activity of Sertoli cells and peritubular cells isolated from prepubertal rats has been investigated. Treatments longer than six hours induced a significant inhibition of type I protein kinase activity of Sertoli cells without appreciable variation of type II protein kinase. Short time treatments with the vitamin did not affect the Sertoli cell protein kinase activity. The vitamin A addition did not induce any appreciable variation of peritubular cell protein kinase activity.

  14. Protein-Protein Interactions Inferred from Domain-Domain Interactions in Genogroup II Genotype 4 Norovirus Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Ching Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe gastroenteritis and foodborne illness caused by Noroviruses (NoVs during the winter are a worldwide phenomenon. Vulnerable populations including young children and elderly and immunocompromised people often require hospitalization and may die. However, no efficient vaccine for NoVs exists because of their variable genome sequences. This study investigates the infection processes in protein-protein interactions between hosts and NoVs. Protein-protein interactions were collected from related Pfam NoV domains. The related Pfam domains were accumulated incrementally from the protein domain interaction database. To examine the influence of domain intimacy, the 7 NoV domains were grouped by depth. The number of domain-domain interactions increased exponentially as the depth increased. Many protein-protein interactions were relevant; therefore, cloud techniques were used to analyze data because of their computational capacity. The infection relationship between hosts and NoVs should be used in clinical applications and drug design.

  15. Redesigning the type II' β-turn in green fluorescent protein to type I': implications for folding kinetics and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Bharat; Sokalingam, Sriram; Raghunathan, Govindan; Lee, Sun-Gu

    2014-10-01

    Both Type I' and Type II' β-turns have the same sense of the β-turn twist that is compatible with the β-sheet twist. They occur predominantly in two residue β-hairpins, but the occurrence of Type I' β-turns is two times higher than Type II' β-turns. This suggests that Type I' β-turns may be more stable than Type II' β-turns, and Type I' β-turn sequence and structure can be more favorable for protein folding than Type II' β-turns. Here, we redesigned the native Type II' β-turn in GFP to Type I' β-turn, and investigated its effect on protein folding and stability. The Type I' β-turns were designed based on the statistical analysis of residues in natural Type I' β-turns. The substitution of the native "GD" sequence of i+1 and i+2 residues with Type I' preferred "(N/D)G" sequence motif increased the folding rate by 50% and slightly improved the thermodynamic stability. Despite the enhancement of in vitro refolding kinetics and stability of the redesigned mutants, they showed poor soluble expression level compared to wild type. To overcome this problem, i and i + 3 residues of the designed Type I' β-turn were further engineered. The mutation of Thr to Lys at i + 3 could restore the in vivo soluble expression of the Type I' mutant. This study indicates that Type II' β-turns in natural β-hairpins can be further optimized by converting the sequence to Type I'. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Several Cytokines and Protein C Levels with the Apache II Scoring System for Evaluation of Patients with Sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Nurettin Erben; Saygın Nayman Alpat; Zafer Gülbaş; Emine Karkaç; Elif Doyuk Kartal; Ertuğrul Çolak

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether determination IL-6, IL-8, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha at baseline, total protein C (PC) levels at time of admission and 48 hours after initiation could complement the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scoring system to identify patients with sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock for clinical outcome. Material and Methods: The study was carried out prospectively. 60 consecutive patients with sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock were in...

  17. Several Cytokines and Protein C Levels with the Apache II Scoring System for Evaluation of Patients with Sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Kartal, Elif Doyuk; Karkaç, Emine; Gülbaş, Zafer; Alpat, Saygın Nayman; Çolak, Ertuğrul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether determination IL-6, IL-8, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha at baseline, total protein C (PC) levels at time of admission and 48 hours after initiation could complement the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scoring system to identify patients with sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock for clinical outcome. Material and Methods: The study was carried out prospectively. 60 consecutive patients with sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock were i...

  18. Simultaneous purification of biotin-binding proteins-I and -II from chicken egg yolk and their characterization.

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, N; Adiga, P R

    1995-01-01

    Chicken egg yolk biotin-binding protein-I (BBP-I) has been purified to homogeneity along with the tetrameric BBP-II by a common protocol. The purification includes delipidation of egg yolk by butanol extraction, DEAE-Sephacel chromatography, treatment with guanidinium chloride and biotin-aminohexyl-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The identity of purified BBP-I was ascertained by its physicochemical properties as well as by its immunological cross-reactivity and precursor-product relationsh...

  19. Kainic acid (KA)-induced Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) expression in the neurons, astrocytes and microglia of the mouse hippocampal CA3 region, and the phosphorylated CaMK II only in the hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hong-Won; Lee, Han-Kyu; Seo, Young-Jun; Kwon, Min-Soo; Shim, Eon-Jeong; Lee, Jin-Young; Choi, Seong-Soo; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2005-06-24

    In the present study, we investigated the role of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) and which types of neuronal cells contain CaMK II and phosphorylated CaMK II (p-CaMK II) in the CA3 hippocampal region of mice using confocal immunofluorescence study. KA increased the CaMK II, p-CaMK II, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and complement receptor type 3 (OX-42) immunoreactivities (IR) at 30 min after KA treatment in mouse hippocampal area. In studies, nevertheless KA-induced CaMK II is expressed in neurons or astrocytes or microglia, p-CaMK II is expressed only in neurons. Thus, our results suggest that the activated CaMK II in early time may be performed important roles only in neurons but not in the astrocytes and microglia.

  20. Design of a binuclear Ni(II)-iminodiacetic acid (IDA) complex for selective recognition and covalent labeling of His-tag fused proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahira, Ikuko; Fuchida, Hirokazu; Tabata, Shigekazu; Shindo, Naoya; Uchinomiya, Shohei; Hamachi, Itaru; Ojida, Akio

    2014-07-01

    Selective protein labeling with a small molecular probe is a versatile method for elucidating protein functions under live-cell conditions. In this Letter, we report the design of the binuclear Ni(II)-iminodiacetic acid (IDA) complex for selective recognition and covalent labeling of His-tag-fused proteins. We found that the Ni(II)-IDA complex 1-2Ni(II) binds to the His6-tag (HHHHHH) with a strong binding affinity (Kd=24 nM), the value of which is 16-fold higher than the conventional Ni(II)-NTA complex (Kd=390 nM). The strong binding affinity of the Ni(II)-IDA complex was successfully used in the covalent labeling and fluorescence bioimaging of a His-tag fused GPCR (G-protein coupled receptor) located on the surface of living cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Developing a genetically encoded green fluorescent protein mutant for sensitive light-up fluorescent sensing and cellular imaging of Hg(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Guo, Daiping; Wang, Qian; Wu, Xin; Li, Zhao; Zheng, Zhenhua; Yin, Boyuan; Xia, Lin; Tang, Jixian; Luo, Wenxin; Xia, Ningshao; Jiang, Yunbao

    2015-05-30

    Hg(II) is well-known for quenching fluorescence in a distance dependent manner. Nevertheless, when we exposed the fluorophore of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) toward Hg(II), through H148C mutation, the GFP fluorescence could be "lighted up" by Hg(II) down to sub-nM level. The detection linear range is 0.5-3.0 nM for protein solutions at 8.0 nM. The GFPH148C protein displayed a promising selectivity toward Hg(II) and also the cellular imaging capacity. Spectra measurements suggested that the ground-state redistribution of protein contributed to the fluorescence enhancement, which was found not limited to Hg(II), and thus presented an opening for building a pool of GFP-based chemosensors toward other heavy metal ions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Hole burning study of cyanobacterial Photosystem II complexes differing in the content of small putative chlorophyll-binding proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedic, R. E-mail: roman@kchf-43.karlov.mff.cuni.cz; Promnares, K.; Psencik, J.; Svoboda, A.; Korinek, M.; Tichy, M.; Komenda, J.; Funk, C.; Hala, J

    2004-05-01

    This contribution presents low-temperature absorption, both broad-band and site-selective excited fluorescence, and persistent hole burning spectra of Photosystem II complexes from the Photosystem I-lacking strains of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 differing in the content of small putative chlorophyll-binding proteins (Scps). These proteins are homologous to light-harvesting complex of higher plants and may bind pigments. The excited state lifetimes of the complexes were determined from zero-phonon hole widths extrapolated to zero-burning dose. The area and spectral position of a phonon side-band with respect to the zero-phonon hole provided additional information concerning chlorophyll-protein coupling and the Stokes shift. Decrease of three absorption subbands at (670.0, 672.9, and 675.7 nm) in the Photosystem II isolated from the strain lacking ScpC and ScpD is in agreement with a hypothesis about the role of Scps in the chlorophyll binding. In addition, narrowing of the zero-phonon hole in Photosystem II without both Scps indicates slowering of the excitation energy transfer which may be explained by the absence of a protective excitation energy quenching related to the presence of Scps.

  3. Pb(II) and Hg(II) binding to $\\textit{de novo}$ designed proteins studied by $^{204m}$Pb- and $^{199m}$Hg-Perturbed Angular Correlation of $\\gamma$-rays (PAC) spectroscopy : Clues to heavy metal toxicity

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    $\\textit{De novo}$ design of proteins combined with PAC spectroscopy offers a unique and powerful approach to the study of fundamental chemistry of heavy metal-protein interactions, and thus of the mechanisms underlying heavy metal toxicity. In this project we focus on Pb(II) and Hg(II) binding to designed three stranded coiled coil proteins with one or two binding sites, mimicking a variety of naturally occurring thiolate-rich metal ion binding sites in proteins. The $^{204m}$Pb- and $^{199m}$Hg-PAC experiments will complement data already recorded with EXAFS, NMR, UV-Vis and CD spectroscopies.

  4. Successful Conversion of the Bacillus subtilis BirA Group II Biotin Protein Ligase into a Group I Ligase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Sarah K.; Cronan, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Group II biotin protein ligases (BPLs) are characterized by the presence of an N-terminal DNA binding domain that allows transcriptional regulation of biotin biosynthetic and transport genes whereas Group I BPLs lack this N-terminal domain. The Bacillus subtilis BPL, BirA, is classified as a Group II BPL based on sequence predictions of an N-terminal helix-turn-helix motif and mutational alteration of its regulatory properties. We report evidence that B. subtilis BirA is a Group II BPL that regulates transcription at three genomic sites: bioWAFDBI, yuiG and yhfUTS. Moreover, unlike the paradigm Group II BPL, E. coli BirA, the N-terminal DNA binding domain can be deleted from Bacillus subtilis BirA without adverse effects on its ligase function. This is the first example of successful conversion of a Group II BPL to a Group I BPL with retention of full ligase activity. PMID:24816803

  5. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II mediates hippocampal glutamatergic plasticity during benzodiazepine withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guofu; Van Sickle, Bradley J; Tietz, Elizabeth I

    2010-08-01

    Benzodiazepine withdrawal anxiety is associated with potentiation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptor (AMPAR) currents in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons attributable to increased synaptic incorporation of GluA1-containing AMPARs. The contribution of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) to enhanced glutamatergic synaptic strength during withdrawal from 1-week oral flurazepam (FZP) administration was further examined in hippocampal slices. As earlier reported, AMPAR-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) amplitude increased in CA1 neurons from 1- and 2-day FZP-withdrawn rats, along with increased single-channel conductance in neurons from 2-day rats, estimated by non-stationary noise analysis. Input-output curve slope was increased without a change in paired-pulse facilitation, suggesting increased AMPAR postsynaptic efficacy rather than altered glutamate release. The increased mEPSC amplitude and AMPAR conductance were related to CaMKII activity, as intracellular inclusion of CaMKIINtide or autocamtide-2-related inhibitory peptide, but not scrambled peptide, prevented both AMPAR amplitude and conductance changes. mEPSC inhibition by 1-naphthyl acetyl spermine and the negative shift in rectification index at both withdrawal time points were consistent with functional incorporation of GluA2-lacking AMPARs. GluA1 but not GluA2 or GluA3 levels were increased in immunoblots of postsynaptic density (PSD)-enriched subcellular fractions of CA1 minislices from 1-day FZP-withdrawn rats, when mEPSC amplitude, but not conductance, was increased. Both GluA1 expression levels and CaMKII alpha-mediated GluA1 Ser(831) phosphorylation were increased in PSD-subfractions from 2-day FZP-withdrawn rats. As phospho-Thr(286)CaMKII alpha was unchanged, CaMKII alpha may be activated through an alternative signaling pathway. Synaptic insertion and subsequent CaMKII alpha-mediated Ser(831) phosphorylation of GluA1 homomers

  6. Loss-of-function of OsSTN8 suppresses the photosystem II core protein phosphorylation and interferes with the photosystem II repair mechanism in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Krishna; Poudyal, Roshan Sharma; Eom, Joon-Seob; Park, Yu Shin; Zulfugarov, Ismayil S; Mishra, Sujata R; Tovuu, Altanzaya; Ryoo, Nayeoon; Yoon, Ho-Sung; Nam, Hong Gil; An, Gynheung; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Lee, Choon-Hwan

    2013-11-01

    STN8 kinase is involved in photosystem II (PSII) core protein phosphorylation (PCPP). To examine the role of PCPP in PSII repair during high light (HL) illumination, we characterized a T-DNA insertional knockout mutant of the rice (Oryza sativa) STN8 gene. In this osstn8 mutant, PCPP was significantly suppressed, and the grana were thin and elongated. Upon HL illumination, PSII was strongly inactivated in the mutants, but the D1 protein was degraded more slowly than in wild-type, and mobilization of the PSII supercomplexes from the grana to the stromal lamellae for repair was also suppressed. In addition, higher accumulation of reactive oxygen species and preferential oxidation of PSII reaction center core proteins in thylakoid membranes were observed in the mutants during HL illumination. Taken together, our current data show that the absence of STN8 is sufficient to abolish PCPP in osstn8 mutants and to produce all of the phenotypes observed in the double mutant of Arabidopsis, indicating the essential role of STN8-mediated PCPP in PSII repair. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Structural basis of carbohydrate recognition by lectin II from Ulex europaeus, a protein with a promiscuous carbohydrate-binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loris, R; De Greve, H; Dao-Thi, M H; Messens, J; Imberty, A; Wyns, L

    2000-08-25

    Protein-carbohydrate interactions are the language of choice for inter- cellular communication. The legume lectins form a large family of homologous proteins that exhibit a wide variety of carbohydrate specificities. The legume lectin family is therefore highly suitable as a model system to study the structural principles of protein-carbohydrate recognition. Until now, structural data are only available for two specificity families: Man/Glc and Gal/GalNAc. No structural data are available for any of the fucose or chitobiose specific lectins. The crystal structure of Ulex europaeus (UEA-II) is the first of a legume lectin belonging to the chitobiose specificity group. The complexes with N-acetylglucosamine, galactose and fucosylgalactose show a promiscuous primary binding site capable of accommodating both N-acetylglucos amine or galactose in the primary binding site. The hydrogen bonding network in these complexes can be considered suboptimal, in agreement with the low affinities of these sugars. In the complexes with chitobiose, lactose and fucosyllactose this suboptimal hydrogen bonding network is compensated by extensive hydrophobic interactions in a Glc/GlcNAc binding subsite. UEA-II thus forms the first example of a legume lectin with a promiscuous binding site and illustrates the importance of hydrophobic interactions in protein-carbohydrate complexes. Together with other known legume lectin crystal structures, it shows how different specificities can be grafted upon a conserved structural framework. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  8. Improved process conditions for increasing expression of MHC class II protein from a stable Drosophila S2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao; Dojcinovic, Danijel; Baldi, Lucia; Hacker, David L; Luescher, Immanuel F; Wurm, Florian M

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the effects of operational process conditions on expression of MHC class II protein from a stable Drosophila S2 cell line. When the Drosophila S2 cells were grown in vented orbitally shaken TubeSpin bioreactor 600 containers, cell growth was improved three-fold and the yield of recombinant major histocompatibility (MHC) class II protein (HLA-DR1 2xHis ) increased four-fold over the levels observed for the same cells cultivated in roller bottles (RB) without vented caps. Culturing in RB with vented caps while increasing the rotation speed from 6 rpm to 18 rpm also improved cell growth five-fold and protein productivity three-fold which is comparable to the levels observed in the orbitally shaken containers. Protein activity was found to be almost identical between the two vessel systems tested. Optimized cell culture conditions and a more efficient vessel type can enhance gas transfer and mixing and lead to substantial improvement of recombinant product yields from S2 cells.

  9. Association of the Cytoplasmic Membrane Protein XpsN with the Outer Membrane Protein XpsD in the Type II Protein Secretion Apparatus of Xanthomonas campestris pv. Campestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsien-Ming; Wang, Kuan-Cheng; Liu, Yi-Ling; Yew, Hsin-Yan; Chen, Ling-Yun; Leu, Wei-Ming; Chen, David Chanhen; Hu, Nien-Tai

    2000-01-01

    An xps gene cluster composed of 11 open reading frames is required for the type II protein secretion in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Immediately upstream of the xpsD gene, which encodes an outer membrane protein that serves as the secretion channel by forming multimers, there exists an open reading frame (previously designated ORF2) that could encode a protein of 261 amino acid residues. Its N-terminal hydrophobic region is a likely membrane-anchoring sequence. Antibody raised against this protein could detect in the wild-type strain of X. campestris pv. campestris a protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 36 kDa by Western blotting. Its aberrant slow migration in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels might be due to its high proline content. We designated this protein XpsN. By constructing a mutant strain with an in-frame deletion of the chromosomal xpsN gene, we demonstrated that it is required for the secretion of extracellular enzyme by X. campestris pv. campestris. Subcellular fractionation studies indicated that the XpsN protein was tightly associated with the membrane. Sucrose gradient sedimentation followed by immunoblot analysis revealed that it primarily appeared in the cytoplasmic membrane fractions. Immune precipitation experiments indicated that the XpsN protein was coprecipitated with the XpsD protein. In addition, the XpsN protein was co-eluted with the (His)6-tagged XpsD protein from the metal affinity chromatography column. All observations suggested that the XpsN protein forms a stable complex with the XpsD protein. In addition, immune precipitation analysis of the XpsN protein with various truncated XpsD proteins revealed that the C-terminal region of the XpsD protein between residues 650 and 759 was likely to be involved in complex formation between the two. PMID:10692359

  10. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) protein expression in a cohort of stage II colorectal cancer patients with characterized tumor budding and mismatch repair protein status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevans, David; Wang, Lai Mun; Sheahan, Kieran; Hyland, John; O'Donoghue, Diarmuid; Mulcahy, Hugh; O'Sullivan, Jacintha

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between tumor budding, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) protein expression, and survival has not been closely examined in stage II colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to assess proteins implicated in EMT and to correlate their expression with tumor budding, microsatellite status, and survival. A total of 258 stage II CRCs were identified (tumor budding characterized in 122 cases). Immunohistochemistry for LAMC2, E cadherin, cathepsin L, and β catenin using tissue microarrays was performed. EMT and mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression were correlated with tumor budding and survival. LAMC2 positivity (P tumor budding. In a univariate survival analysis, tumor budding (P tumor budding to be the only variable independently associated with survival: hazard ratio = 7.9 (95% confidence interval = 3-21); P Tumor budding was more frequent in microsatellite-stable (MSS) versus microsatellite-instable (MSI) tumors: 48% versus 26%, respectively; P = .087. MSS cases exhibited reduced membranous β catenin (P = .002) and increased cytoplasmic and nuclear β catenin (P tumor budding and prognosis in early-stage colorectal cancer and requires further evaluation.

  11. Exploring Protein Interactions on a Minimal Type II Polyketide Synthase Using a Yeast Two-Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Castaldo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between proteins that form the ’minimal’ type II polyketide synthase in the doxorubicin producing biosynthetic pathway from Streptomyces peucetius were investigated using a yeast two-hybrid system (Y2H. Proteins that function as the so called ’chain length factor’ (DpsB and putative transacylase (DpsD were found to interact with the ketosynthase subunit (DpsA, which can also interact with itself. On the basis of these results we propose a head-to-tail homodimeric structure, which is consistent with previously published in vivo mutagenesis studies. No interactions were found between the acyl-carrier protein (DpsG and any of the other constituents of the complex, however, transient interactions, not detectable using the Y2H system, cannot be discounted and warrant further investigation.

  12. Regulation of cell adhesion by protein-tyrosine phosphatases: II. Cell-cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, Jennifer L; Wittchen, Erika S; Burridge, Keith

    2006-06-16

    Cell-cell adhesion is critical to the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. The stability of many adhesions is regulated by protein tyrosine phosphorylation of cell adhesion molecules and their associated components, with high levels of phosphorylation promoting disassembly. The level of tyrosine phosphorylation reflects the balance between protein-tyrosine kinase and protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity. Many protein-tyrosine phosphatases associate with the cadherin-catenin complex, directly regulating the phosphorylation of these proteins, thereby affecting their interactions and the integrity of cell-cell junctions. Tyrosine phosphatases can also affect cell-cell adhesions indirectly by regulating the signaling pathways that control the activities of Rho family G proteins. In addition, receptor-type tyrosine phosphatases can mediate outside-in signaling through both ligand binding and dimerization of their extracellular domains. This review will discuss the role of protein-tyrosine phosphatases in cell-cell interactions, with an emphasis on cadherin-mediated adhesions.

  13. Expression of RNA virus proteins by RNA polymerase II dependent expression plasmids is hindered at multiple steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Überla Klaus

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins of human and animal viruses are frequently expressed from RNA polymerase II dependent expression cassettes to study protein function and to develop gene-based vaccines. Initial attempts to express the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV and the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV by eukaryotic promoters revealed restrictions at several steps of gene expression. Results Insertion of an intron flanked by exonic sequences 5'-terminal to the open reading frames (ORF of VSV-G and RSV-F led to detectable cytoplasmic mRNA levels of both genes. While the exonic sequences were sufficient to stabilise the VSV-G mRNA, cytoplasmic mRNA levels of RSV-F were dependent on the presence of a functional intron. Cytoplasmic VSV-G mRNA levels led to readily detectable levels of VSV-G protein, whereas RSV-F protein expression remained undetectable. However, RSV-F expression was observed after mutating two of four consensus sites for polyadenylation present in the RSV-F ORF. Expression levels could be further enhanced by codon optimisation. Conclusion Insufficient cytoplasmic mRNA levels and premature polyadenylation prevent expression of RSV-F by RNA polymerase II dependent expression plasmids. Since RSV replicates in the cytoplasm, the presence of premature polyadenylation sites and elements leading to nuclear instability should not interfere with RSV-F expression during virus replication. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the destabilisation of the RSV-F and VSV-G mRNAs and the different requirements for their rescue by insertion of an intron remain to be defined.

  14. Efficient Activation of Human T Cells of Both CD4 and CD8 Subsets by Urease-Deficient Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG That Produced a Heat Shock Protein 70-M. tuberculosis-Derived Major Membrane Protein II Fusion Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Tetsu; Tsukamoto, Yumiko; Maeda, Yumi; Tamura, Toshiki

    2014-01-01

    For the purpose of obtaining Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) capable of activating human naive T cells, urease-deficient BCG expressing a fusion protein composed of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-derived major membrane protein II (MMP-II) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) of BCG (BCG-DHTM) was produced. BCG-DHTM secreted the HSP70-MMP-II fusion protein and effectively activated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) by inducing phenotypic changes and enhanced cytokine production. BCG-DHTM-infected DCs activated naive T cells of both CD4 and naive CD8 subsets, in an antigen (Ag)-dependent manner. The T cell activation induced by BCG-DHTM was inhibited by the pretreatment of DCs with chloroquine. The naive CD8+ T cell activation was mediated by the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP) and the proteosome-dependent cytosolic cross-priming pathway. Memory CD8+ T cells and perforin-producing effector CD8+ T cells were efficiently produced from the naive T cell population by BCG-DHTM stimulation. Single primary infection with BCG-DHTM in C57BL/6 mice efficiently produced T cells responsive to in vitro secondary stimulation with HSP70, MMP-II, and M. tuberculosis-derived cytosolic protein and inhibited the multiplication of subsequently aerosol-challenged M. tuberculosis more efficiently than did vector control BCG. These results indicate that the introduction of MMP-II and HSP70 into urease-deficient BCG may be useful for improving BCG for control of tuberculosis. PMID:24152387

  15. The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling Expedition: Expanding theUniverse of Protein Families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yooseph, Shibu; Sutton, Granger; Rusch, Douglas B.; Halpern,Aaron L.; Williamson, Shannon J.; Remington, Karin; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Heidelberg, Karla B.; Manning, Gerard; Li, Weizhong; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Cieplak, Piotr; Miller, Christopher S.; Li, Huiying; Mashiyama, Susan T.; Joachimiak, Marcin P.; van Belle, Christopher; Chandonia, John-Marc; Soergel, David A.; Zhai, Yufeng; Natarajan, Kannan; Lee, Shaun; Raphael,Benjamin J.; Bafna, Vineet; Friedman, Robert; Brenner, Steven E.; Godzik,Adam; Eisenberg, David; Dixon, Jack E.; Taylor, Susan S.; Strausberg,Robert L.; Frazier, Marvin; Venter, J.Craig

    2006-03-23

    Metagenomics projects based on shotgun sequencing of populations of micro-organisms yield insight into protein families. We used sequence similarity clustering to explore proteins with a comprehensive dataset consisting of sequences from available databases together with 6.12 million proteins predicted from an assembly of 7.7 million Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) sequences. The GOS dataset covers nearly all known prokaryotic protein families. A total of 3,995 medium- and large-sized clusters consisting of only GOS sequences are identified, out of which 1,700 have no detectable homology to known families. The GOS-only clusters contain a higher than expected proportion of sequences of viral origin, thus reflecting a poor sampling of viral diversity until now. Protein domain distributions in the GOS dataset and current protein databases show distinct biases. Several protein domains that were previously categorized as kingdom specific are shown to have GOS examples in other kingdoms. About 6,000 sequences (ORFans) from the literature that heretofore lacked similarity to known proteins have matches in the GOS data. The GOS dataset is also used to improve remote homology detection. Overall, besides nearly doubling the number of current proteins, the predicted GOS proteins also add a great deal of diversity to known protein families and shed light on their evolution. These observations are illustrated using several protein families, including phosphatases, proteases, ultraviolet-irradiation DNA damage repair enzymes, glutamine synthetase, and RuBisCO. The diversity added by GOS data has implications for choosing targets for experimental structure characterization as part of structural genomics efforts. Our analysis indicates that new families are being discovered at a rate that is linear or almost linear with the addition of new sequences, implying that we are still far from discovering all protein families in nature.

  16. The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling expedition: expanding the universe of protein families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibu Yooseph

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Metagenomics projects based on shotgun sequencing of populations of micro-organisms yield insight into protein families. We used sequence similarity clustering to explore proteins with a comprehensive dataset consisting of sequences from available databases together with 6.12 million proteins predicted from an assembly of 7.7 million Global Ocean Sampling (GOS sequences. The GOS dataset covers nearly all known prokaryotic protein families. A total of 3,995 medium- and large-sized clusters consisting of only GOS sequences are identified, out of which 1,700 have no detectable homology to known families. The GOS-only clusters contain a higher than expected proportion of sequences of viral origin, thus reflecting a poor sampling of viral diversity until now. Protein domain distributions in the GOS dataset and current protein databases show distinct biases. Several protein domains that were previously categorized as kingdom specific are shown to have GOS examples in other kingdoms. About 6,000 sequences (ORFans from the literature that heretofore lacked similarity to known proteins have matches in the GOS data. The GOS dataset is also used to improve remote homology detection. Overall, besides nearly doubling the number of current proteins, the predicted GOS proteins also add a great deal of diversity to known protein families and shed light on their evolution. These observations are illustrated using several protein families, including phosphatases, proteases, ultraviolet-irradiation DNA damage repair enzymes, glutamine synthetase, and RuBisCO. The diversity added by GOS data has implications for choosing targets for experimental structure characterization as part of structural genomics efforts. Our analysis indicates that new families are being discovered at a rate that is linear or almost linear with the addition of new sequences, implying that we are still far from discovering all protein families in nature.

  17. An RNA polymerase II-and AGO4-associated protein acts in RNA-directed DNA methylation

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Zhihuan

    2010-04-21

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark in many eukaryotes. In plants, 24-nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) bound to the effector protein, Argonaute 4 (AGO4), can direct de novo DNA methylation by the methyltransferase DRM2 (refs 2, 4-6). Here we report a new regulator of RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) in Arabidopsis: RDM1. Loss-of-function mutations in the RDM1 gene impair the accumulation of 24-nucleotide siRNAs, reduce DNA methylation, and release transcriptional gene silencing at RdDM target loci. RDM1 encodes a small protein that seems to bind single-stranded methyl DNA, and associates and co-localizes with RNA polymerase II (Pol II, also known as NRPB), AGO4 and DRM2 in the nucleus. Our results indicate that RDM1 is a component of the RdDM effector complex and may have a role in linking siRNA production with pre-existing or de novo cytosine methylation. Our results also indicate that, although RDM1 and Pol V (also known as NRPE) may function together at some RdDM target sites in the peri-nucleolar siRNA processing centre, Pol II rather than Pol V is associated with the RdDM effector complex at target sites in the nucleoplasm. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbial proteins produced from cannery wastes. II. Different cellulosic wastes used as substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.C.; Chen, S.H.; Chang, J.S.; Lee, S.C.

    1980-01-01

    The production of protein by the cultivation of Cellulomonas species 34 on cellulosic wastes was studied. Maximum protein production on bamboo shoot husks was 4.77 g/L in 48 h when aeration was 1 vol./min, stirring rate was 1000 rpm, and substrate concentration was 3%. The chemical compounds of asparagus peel and pineapple peel and the conditions for their treatment with NaOH for protein fermentation are given.

  19. Several Cytokines and Protein C Levels with the Apache II Scoring System for Evaluation of Patients with Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Elif Doyuk; Karkaç, Emine; Gülbaş, Zafer; Alpat, Saygın Nayman; Erben, Nurettin; Colak, Ertuğrul

    2012-06-01

    We investigated whether determination IL-6, IL-8, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha at baseline, total protein C (PC) levels at time of admission and 48 hours after initiation could complement the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scoring system to identify patients with sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock for clinical outcome. The study was carried out prospectively. 60 consecutive patients with sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock were included. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and 48 hours after initiation. Cytokines and PC levels in plasma were measured with an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). APACHE II score was calculated on admission. Baseline IL-6 levels and PC levels 48 hours after initiation were predictive of increased mortality (p=0.016, p=0.044 respectively). Baseline IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha baseline levels correlate with the severity of physiologic insult, as determined by the APACHE II score. However, our multiple logistic regression analysis of these did not reveal any predictive value in combination with the APACHE II score. Determination of baseline IL-6 and PC 48 hours after initiation were of predictive value for prognostic evaluation of septic patients, but did not significantly increase predictive power of the APACHE scoring system to identify patients with sepsis for fatal clinical outcome.

  20. Several Cytokines and Protein C Levels with the Apache II Scoring System for Evaluation of Patients with Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin Erben

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We investigated whether determination IL-6, IL-8, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha at baseline, total protein C (PC levels at time of admission and 48 hours after initiation could complement the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II scoring system to identify patients with sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock for clinical outcome.Material and Methods: The study was carried out prospectively. 60 consecutive patients with sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock were included. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and 48 hours after initiation. Cytokines and PC levels in plasma were measured with an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA. APACHE II score was calculated on admission.Results: Baseline IL-6 levels and PC levels 48 hours after initiation were predictive of increased mortality (p=0.016, p=0.044 respectively. Baseline IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha baseline levels correlate with the severity of physiologic insult, as determined by the APACHE II score. However, our multiple logistic regression analysis of these did not reveal any predictive value in combination with the APACHE II score.Conclusion: Determination of baseline IL-6 and PC 48 hours after initiation were of predictive value for prognostic evaluation of septic patients, but did not significantly increase predictive power of the APACHE scoring system to identify patients with sepsis for fatal clinical outcome.

  1. The phosphatidylserine receptor from Hydra is a nuclear protein with potential Fe(II dependent oxygenase activity

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    Stiening Beate

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptotic cell death plays an essential part in embryogenesis, development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis in metazoan animals. The culmination of apoptosis in vivo is the phagocytosis of cellular corpses. One morphological characteristic of cells undergoing apoptosis is loss of plasma membrane phospholipid asymmetry and exposure of phosphatidylserine on the outer leaflet. Surface exposure of phosphatidylserine is recognised by a specific receptor (phosphatidylserine receptor, PSR and is required for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages and fibroblasts. Results We have cloned the PSR receptor from Hydra in order to investigate its function in this early metazoan. Bioinformatic analysis of the Hydra PSR protein structure revealed the presence of three nuclear localisation signals, an AT-hook like DNA binding motif and a putative 2-oxoglutarate (2OG-and Fe(II-dependent oxygenase activity. All of these features are conserved from human PSR to Hydra PSR. Expression of GFP tagged Hydra PSR in hydra cells revealed clear nuclear localisation. Deletion of one of the three NLS sequences strongly diminished nuclear localisation of the protein. Membrane localisation was never detected. Conclusions Our results suggest that Hydra PSR is a nuclear 2-oxoglutarate (2OG-and Fe(II-dependent oxygenase. This is in contrast with the proposed function of Hydra PSR as a cell surface receptor involved in the recognition of apoptotic cells displaying phosphatidylserine on their surface. The conservation of the protein from Hydra to human infers that our results also apply to PSR from higher animals.

  2. IN SILICO EVALUATION OF ANGIOTENSIN II RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST’S PLASMA PROTEIN BINDING USING COMPUTED MOLECULAR DESCRIPTORS

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    Jadranka Odović

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of new pharmacologically active substances and drugs modeling led to necessity of predicting drugs properties and its ADME data. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists are a group of pharmaceuticals which modulate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and today represent the most commonly prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs. The aim of this study was to compare different molecular properties of seven angiotensin II receptor antagonists / blockers (ARBs, (eprosartan, irbesartan, losartan, olmesartan, telmisartan, valsartan and their plasma protein binding (PPB data. Several ARBs molecular descriptors were calculated using software package Molinspiration Depiction Software as well as Virtual Computational Chemistry Laboratory (electronic descriptor – PSA, constitutional parameter – Mw, geometric descriptor – Vol, lipophilicity descriptors - logP values, aqueous solubility data – logS. The correlations between all collected descriptors and plasma protein binding data obtained from relevant literature were established. In the simple linear regression poor correlations were obtained in relationships between PPB data and all calculated molecular descriptors. In the next stage of the study multiple linear regression (MLR was used for correlation of PPB data with two different descriptors as independent variables. The best correlation (R2=0.70 with P<0.05 was established between PPB data and molecular weight with addition of volume values as independent variables. The possible application of computed molecular descriptors in drugs protein binding evaluation can be of great importance in drug research.

  3. Endogenous type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase exists as a dimer in membranes and can Be functionally distinguished from the type I isoforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Vaandrager (Arie); M.J. Edixhoven (Marcel); A.G. Bot (Alice); M.A. Kroos (Marian); T. Jarchau; S. Lohmann; H.G. Genieser; H.R. de Jonge (Hugo)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn mammalian tissues two types of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK) have been identified. In contrast to the dimeric cGK I, cGK II purified from pig intestine was shown previously to behave as a monomer. However, recombinant rat cGK II was found to have

  4. Acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein is required for cooperation with the HTLV-1 p30{sup II} accessory protein and the induction of oncogenic cellular transformation by p30{sup II}/c-MYC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, Megan M.; Ko, Bookyung; Kim, Janice; Brady, Rebecca; Heatley, Hayley C.; He, Jeffrey; Harrod, Carolyn K.; Barnett, Braden [Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Biological Sciences, and The Dedman College Center for Drug Discovery, Design, and Delivery, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0376 (United States); Ratner, Lee [Departments of Medicine and Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Lairmore, Michael D. [University of California-Davis, School of Veterinary Medicine, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95618 (United States); Martinez, Ernest [Department of Biochemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Lüscher, Bernhard [Institute of Biochemistry, Klinikum, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Robson, Craig N. [Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Newcastle University, The Medical School, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Henriksson, Marie [Department of Microbiology, Cell and Tumor Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Harrod, Robert, E-mail: rharrod@smu.edu [Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Biological Sciences, and The Dedman College Center for Drug Discovery, Design, and Delivery, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0376 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    The human T-cell leukemia retrovirus type-1 (HTLV-1) p30{sup II} protein is a multifunctional latency-maintenance factor that negatively regulates viral gene expression and deregulates host signaling pathways involved in aberrant T-cell growth and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that p30{sup II} interacts with the c-MYC oncoprotein and enhances c-MYC-dependent transcriptional and oncogenic functions. However, the molecular and biochemical events that mediate the cooperation between p30{sup II} and c-MYC remain to be completely understood. Herein we demonstrate that p30{sup II} induces lysine-acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein. Acetylation-defective c-MYC Lys→Arg substitution mutants are impaired for oncogenic transformation with p30{sup II} in c-myc{sup −/−} HO15.19 fibroblasts. Using dual-chromatin-immunoprecipitations (dual-ChIPs), we further demonstrate that p30{sup II} is present in c-MYC-containing nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed HuT-102 T-lymphocytes. Moreover, p30{sup II} inhibits apoptosis in proliferating cells expressing c-MYC under conditions of genotoxic stress. These findings suggest that c-MYC-acetylation is required for the cooperation between p30{sup II}/c-MYC which could promote proviral replication and contribute to HTLV-1-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Acetylation of c-MYC is required for oncogenic transformation by HTLV-1 p30{sup II}/c-MYC. • Acetylation-defective c-MYC mutants are impaired for foci-formation by p30{sup II}/c-MYC. • The HTLV-1 p30{sup II} protein induces lysine-acetylation of c-MYC. • p30{sup II} is present in c-MYC nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed T-cells. • HTLV-1 p30{sup II} inhibits apoptosis in c-MYC-expressing proliferating cells.

  5. Structural zinc(II thiolate complexes relevant to the modeling of Ada repair protein: Application toward alkylation reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Ibrahim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The TtZn(II-bound perchlorate complex [TtZn–OClO3] 1 (Ttxyly = hydrotris[N-xylyl-thioimidazolyl]borate was used for the synthesis of zinc(II-bound ethanthiothiol complex [TtZn–SCH2CH3] 2 and its hydrogen-bond containing analog Tt–ZnSCH2CH2–NH(COOC(CH33 3. These thiolate complexes were examined as structural models for the active sites of Ada repair protein toward methylation reactions. The Zn[S3O] coordination sphere in complex 1 includes three thione donors from the ligand Ttixyl and one oxygen donor from the perchlorate coligand in ideally tetrahedral arrangement around the zinc center. The average Zn(1–S(thione bond length is 2.344 Å, and the Zn(1–O(1 bond length is 1.917 Å.

  6. Cockayne syndrome group B protein enhances elongation by RNA polymerase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, C P; Sancar, A

    1997-10-14

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is characterized by impaired physical and mental development. Two complementation groups, CSA and CSB, have been identified. Here we report that the CSB gene product enhances elongation by RNA polymerase II. CSB stimulated the rate of elongation on an undamaged template by a factor of about 3. A thymine-thymine cyclobutane dimer located in the template strand is known to be a strong block to transcription. Addition of CSB to the blocked polymerase resulted in addition of one nucleotide to the nascent transcript. Finally, addition of transcription factor IIS is known to cause polymerase blocked at a thymine-thymine cyclobutane dimer to digest its nascent transcript, and CSB counteracted this transcript shortening action of transcription factor IIS. Thus a deficiency in transcription elongation may contribute to the CS phenotype.

  7. The tetraspan protein CD82 is a resident of MHC class II compartments where it associates with HLA-DR, -DM, and -DO molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, C; Denzin, L K; Pan, M; Griffith, J M; Geuze, H J; Cresswell, P

    1998-10-01

    In specialized APCs, MHC class II molecules are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and transported through the Golgi apparatus to organelles of the endocytic pathway collectively called MHC class II compartments (MIICs). There, the class II-associated invariant chain is degraded, and peptides derived from internalized Ag bind to empty class II in a reaction that is facilitated by the class II-like molecule HLA-DM. An mAb raised to highly purified, immunoisolated MIICs from human B lymphoblastoid cells recognized CD82, a member of the tetraspan family of integral membrane proteins. Subcellular fractionation, immunofluorescence microscopy, and immunoelectron microscopy showed that CD82 is highly enriched in MIICs, particularly in their internal membranes. Coprecipitation analysis showed that CD82 associates in MIICs with class II, DM, and HLA-DO (an inhibitor of peptide loading that binds DM). Similar experiments showed CD63, another tetraspan protein found in MIICs, also associates with these molecules in the compartment and that CD82 and CD63 associate with each other. Preclearing experiments demonstrated that both CD82 and CD63 form complexes with DM-associated class II and DM-associated DO. The ability of CD82 and CD63 to form complexes with class II, DM, and DO in MIICs suggests that the tetraspan proteins may play an important role in the late stages of MHC class II maturation.

  8. Chromophore organization in the higher-plant photosystem II antenna protein CP26

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croce, Roberta; Canino, Giusy; Ros, Francesca; Bassi, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    The chlorophyll a/b-xanthophyll-protein CP26 complex belongs to the Lhc protein family. It binds nine chlorophylls and two xanthophylls per 26.6 kDa polypeptide. Determination of the characteristics of each binding site is needed for the understanding of functional organization of individual

  9. [Effect of iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism on the protein expressions of CaMK II in the hippocampus of pups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Dong, Jing; Liu, Wanyang; Wang, Yi; Chen, Jie

    2010-03-01

    To observe the effect of iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism on the protein expressions of CaMK II in the hippocampus of pups. Female Wistar rats (n=28) after pregnancy were randomly divided into control group, hypothyroid group and iodine deficient group. According to the dose of PTU in fed water, hypothyroid group was divided into 5 mg/L group and 15 mg/L group (7 in each). 5 pups from each group were sacrificed and perfused intracardially in PN7, PN14 and PN21. Brains were removed, fixed and sectioned coronally. All sections were observed and analyzed the protein exression of CaMK II by immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus CA1, CA3 and DG regions. Control group in CA1, CA3 and DG regions of the hippocampus had strong positive staining and the cytoplasm of neurons were filled with CaMK II. The distribution of the immune reaction product in hippocampus of 5 mg/L, 15 mg/L and iodine groups were in line with the control group, but the staining intensity as compared with the control group gradually decreased. In PN21 and PN14, integrated optical density average of CaMK II in CA1, CA3 and DG regions of the hippocampus in iodine deficient group [PN21: (26.05 +/- 4.98), (30.79 +/- 3.22), (26.40 +/- 2.63); PN14:(25.48 +/- 4.87), (44.17 +/- 5.91), (26.41 +/- 3.01)] and 15 mg/L groups [PN21: (17.02 +/- 2.68), (24.57 +/- 6.62), (20.18 +/- 4.05); PN14:(20.66 +/- 3.51), (34.94 +/- 5.09), (27.32 +/- 4.97)] were significantly lower than those of controls [PN21: (57.75 +/- 13.22), (65.03 +/- 6.20), (49.39 +/- 8.41), P CaMK II in CA1 region of the hippocampus in iodine deficient group (25.74 +/- 3.33) and 15 mg/L groups (26.89 +/- 5.25) were significantly lower than those of controls(40.53 +/- 3.65), P CaMK II.

  10. Dwarfism and impaired gut development in insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 1-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas V O; Hammer, Niels A; Nielsen, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    and twisted colon crypts. Analysis of target mRNAs and global expression profiling at E12.5 indicated that Igf2 translation was downregulated, whereas the postnatal intestine showed reduced expression of transcripts encoding extracellular matrix components, such as galectin- 1, lumican, tenascin......Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 1 (IMP1) belongs to a family of RNA-binding proteins implicated in mRNA localization, turnover, and translational control. Mouse IMP1 is expressed during early development, and an increase in expression occurs around embryonic day 12.5 (E12....... Moreover, Imp1(-/-) mice exhibited high perinatal mortality, and only 50% were alive 3 days after birth. In contrast to most other organs, intestinal epithelial cells continue to express IMP1 postnatally, and Imp1(-/-) mice exhibited impaired development of the intestine, with small and misshapen villi...

  11. Investigation of Neuronal Cell Type-Specific Gene Expression of Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mima Kazuko

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The promoter activity of the rat Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gene was analyzed using the luciferase reporter gene in neuronal and non-neuronal cell lines. Neuronal cell type-specific promoter activity was found in the 5'-flanking region of &agr; and &bgr; isoform genes of the kinase. Silencer elements were also found further upstream of promoter regions. A brain-specific protein bound to the DNA sequence of the 5'-flanking region of the gene was found by gel mobility shift analysis in the nuclear extract of the rat brain, including the cerebellum, forebrain, and brainstem, but not in that of non-neuronal tissues, including liver, kidney and spleen. The luciferase expression system and gel shift analysis can be used as an additional and better index by which to monitor gene expression in most cell types.

  12. Large-scale identification of human cerebrovascular proteins: Inter-tissue and intracerebral vascular protein diversity.

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    Soo Jung Lee

    Full Text Available The human cerebrovascular system is responsible for regulating demand-dependent perfusion and maintaining the blood-brain barrier (BBB. In addition, defects in the human cerebrovasculature lead to stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, vascular malformations, and vascular cognitive impairment. The objective of this study was to discover new proteins of the human cerebrovascular system using expression data from the Human Protein Atlas, a large-scale project which allows public access to immunohistochemical analysis of human tissues. We screened 20,158 proteins in the HPA and identified 346 expression patterns correlating to blood vessels in human brain. Independent experiments showed that 51/52 of these distributions could be experimentally replicated across different brain samples. Some proteins (40% demonstrated endothelial cell (EC-enriched expression, while others were expressed primarily in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC; 18%; 39% of these proteins were expressed in both cell types. Most brain EC markers were tissue oligospecific; that is, they were expressed in endothelia in an average of 4.8 out of 9 organs examined. Although most markers expressed in endothelial cells of the brain were present in all cerebral capillaries, a significant number (21% were expressed only in a fraction of brain capillaries within each brain sample. Among proteins found in cerebral VSMC, virtually all were also expressed in peripheral VSMC and in non-vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC. Only one was potentially brain specific: VHL (Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor. HRC (histidine rich calcium binding protein and VHL were restricted to VSMC and not found in non-vascular tissues such as uterus or gut. In conclusion, we define a set of brain vascular proteins that could be relevant to understanding the unique physiology and pathophysiology of the human cerebrovasculature. This set of proteins defines inter-organ molecular differences in the vasculature and

  13. Plasma proteins in a standardised skin mini-erosion (II: effects of extraction pressure

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    Ryan Terence J

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A standardised suction technique has been used to sample plasma proteins in dermal interstitial fluid (IF serially for 5 to 6 days from a suction-induced skin mini-erosion. Increased protein concentrations ascribed to inflammation have been shown from day 1 onward. In this study, we assessed the effect of two different extraction pressures on IF sample composition. Methods Total protein concentration and the concentrations of insulin, prealbumin, albumin, transferrin, IgG and alpha-2-macroglobulin were assessed daily in healthy volunteers. Samples were extracted at 50 mmHg and 200 mmHg below the atmospheric. Results At 0 h after forming the erosion, mean total IF protein content (relative to plasma was lower in the samples extracted at -200 mmHg than at -50 mmHg (26 +/-13% (SD vs 48 +/-9.8%; p Conclusions Samples of IF extracted at 0 h at -200 mmHg contained lower protein concentrations, indicating an increased water fraction and an intact sieve function of the vascular wall. The difference in protein concentration extracted at higher and lower pressure from 24 h onward was less pronounced. Lower pressure should be used to sample substances of greater molecular size.

  14. The identification of putative RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain associated proteins in red and green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunlin; Hager, Paul W; Stiller, John W

    2014-01-01

    A tandemly repeated C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II is functionally essential and strongly conserved in many organisms, including animal, yeast and plant models. Although present in simple, ancestral red algae, CTD tandem repeats have undergone extensive modifications and degeneration during the evolutionary transition to developmentally complex rhodophytes. In contrast, CTD repeats are conserved in both green algae and their more complex land plant relatives. Understanding the mechanistic differences that underlie these variant patterns of CTD evolution requires knowledge of CTD-associated proteins in these 2 lineages. To provide an initial baseline comparison, we bound potential phospho-CTD associated proteins (PCAPs) to artificially synthesized and phosphorylated CTD repeats from the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae and green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Our results indicate that red and green algae share a number of PCAPs, including kinases and proteins involved in mRNA export. There also are important taxon-specific differences, including mRNA splicing-related PCAPs recovered from Chlamydomonas but not Cyanidioschyzon, consistent with the relative intron densities in green and red algae. Our results also offer the first experimental indication that different proteins bind 2 distinct types of repeats in Cyanidioschyzon, suggesting a division of function between the proximal and distal CTD, similar to patterns identified in more developmentally complex model organisms.

  15. Editorial: Assembly of the Photosystem II Membrane-Protein Complex of Oxygenic Photosynthesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eaton-Rye, J.J.; Sobotka, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, May 26 (2017), s. 1-4, č. článku 884. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1416; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/19.0392 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Photosystem II * photosynthetic electron transport * cyanobacteria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  16. Right- and left-handed three-helix proteins. II. Similarity and differences in mechanical unfolding of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyakina, Anna V; Likhachev, Ilya V; Balabaev, Nikolay K; Galzitskaya, Oxana V

    2014-01-01

    Here, we study mechanical properties of eight 3-helix proteins (four right-handed and four left-handed ones), which are similar in size under stretching at a constant speed and at a constant force on the atomic level using molecular dynamics simulations. The analysis of 256 trajectories from molecular dynamics simulations with explicit water showed that the right-handed three-helix domains are more mechanically resistant than the left-handed domains. Such results are observed at different extension velocities studied (192 trajectories obtained at the following conditions: v = 0.1, 0.05, and 0.01 Å ps(-1) , T = 300 K) and under constant stretching force (64 trajectories, F = 800 pN, T = 300 K). We can explain this by the fact, at least in part, that the right-handed domains have a larger number of contacts per residue and the radius of cross section than the left-handed domains. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Expression of multidrug resistance-related protein (MRP-1), lung resistance-related protein (LRP) and topoisomerase-II (TOPO-II) in Wilms' tumor: immunohistochemical study using TMA methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Eduard; Skarda, Jozef; Pinthus, Jonatan H; Ramon, Jonathan; Mor, Yoran

    2008-06-01

    MRP-1, LRP and TOPO-II are all associated with protection of the cells from the adverse effects of various chemotherapeutics. The aim of this study was to measure the expression of these proteins in Wilms' tumor (WT). TMA block was constructed from 14 samples of WT's and from xenografts derived from them. Sections of the TMA were used for immunostaining against MRP-1, LRP and TOPO-IIa. All normal kidneys expressed MRP-1 but were either weakly or negatively stained for LRP and TOPO-IIa. In WT samples, MRP-1 was universally expressed, exclusively in the tubular component, while there was no expression of LRP and TOPO-IIa showed heterogeneous distribution. The xenografts varied in their MRP-1 and TOPO-IIa expression and exhibited weak/negative staining of LRP. This study shows that although all the proteins evaluated, had different expression patterns in the tumor samples, the most prominent changes in expression were found for MRP-1. The exact clinical implications of these changes in expression and their relevance to the resistance of these tumors to chemotherapy requires further investigation. The finding of different expression profiles for the multidrug resistance proteins in the original WT's and their xenografts suggests that the results of animal cancer models may be difficult to interpret.

  18. Capacity of intact proteins to bind to MHC class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sette, A; Adorini, L; Colon, S M

    1989-01-01

    Here we have demonstrated that denatured, but not native protein antigens can interact with Ia molecules. Thus, the failure of native antigens to be recognized as such by T cells appears to be at least in part due to a deficient antigen/Ia interaction. These results also support previous...

  19. Signal transduction underlying carbachol-induced contraction of rat urinary bladder. II. Protein kinases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleichman, Marina; Schneider, Tim; Fetscher, Charlotte; Michel, Martin C.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the role of several protein kinases in carbachol-stimulated, M-3 muscarinic receptor-mediated contraction of rat urinary bladder. Concentration-response curves for the muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol were generated in the presence of multiple concentrations of inhibitors

  20. Coxiella burnetii Nine Mile II proteins modulate gene expression of monocytic host cells during infection

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    Shaw Edward I

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes acute and chronic disease in humans. Bacterial replication occurs within enlarged parasitophorous vacuoles (PV of eukaryotic cells, the biogenesis and maintenance of which is dependent on C. burnetii protein synthesis. These observations suggest that C. burnetii actively subverts host cell processes, however little is known about the cellular biology mechanisms manipulated by the pathogen during infection. Here, we examined host cell gene expression changes specifically induced by C. burnetii proteins during infection. Results We have identified 36 host cell genes that are specifically regulated when de novo C. burnetii protein synthesis occurs during infection using comparative microarray analysis. Two parallel sets of infected and uninfected THP-1 cells were grown for 48 h followed by the addition of chloramphenicol (CAM to 10 μg/ml in one set. Total RNA was harvested at 72 hpi from all conditions, and microarrays performed using Phalanx Human OneArray™ slides. A total of 784 (mock treated and 901 (CAM treated THP-1 genes were up or down regulated ≥2 fold in the C. burnetii infected vs. uninfected cell sets, respectively. Comparisons between the complementary data sets (using >0 fold, eliminated the common gene expression changes. A stringent comparison (≥2 fold between the separate microarrays revealed 36 host cell genes modulated by C. burnetii protein synthesis. Ontological analysis of these genes identified the innate immune response, cell death and proliferation, vesicle trafficking and development, lipid homeostasis, and cytoskeletal organization as predominant cellular functions modulated by C. burnetii protein synthesis. Conclusions Collectively, these data indicate that C. burnetii proteins actively regulate the expression of specific host cell genes and pathways. This is in addition to host cell genes that respond to the presence of the

  1. GTP-dependent binding and nuclear transport of RNA polymerase II by Npa3 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staresincic, Lidija; Walker, Jane; Dirac-Svejstrup, A Barbara

    2011-01-01

    -dependent Npa3 depletion resulted in genome-wide transcription decreases, correlating with a loss of RNAPII from genes as measured by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Surprisingly, however, transcription in vitro was unaffected by Npa3, suggesting that it affects a process that is not required for transcription......We identified XAB1 in a proteomic screen for factors that interact with human RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Because XAB1 has a conserved Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue called Npa3, yeast genetics and biochemical analysis were used to dissect the significance of the interaction. Degron...

  2. Age-dependent targeting of protein phosphatase 1 to Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II by spinophilin in mouse striatum.

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    Anthony J Baucum

    Full Text Available Mechanisms underlying age-dependent changes of dendritic spines on striatal medium spiny neurons are poorly understood. Spinophilin is an F-actin- and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1-binding protein that targets PP1 to multiple downstream effectors to modulate dendritic spine morphology and function. We found that calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII directly and indirectly associates with N- and C-terminal domains of spinophilin, but F-actin can displace CaMKII from the N-terminal domain. Spinophilin co-localizes PP1 with CaMKII on the F-actin cytoskeleton in heterologous cells, and spinophilin co-localizes with synaptic CaMKII in neuronal cultures. Thr286 autophosphorylation enhances the binding of CaMKII to spinophilin in vitro and in vivo. Although there is no change in total levels of Thr286 autophosphorylation, maturation from postnatal day 21 into adulthood robustly enhances the levels of CaMKII that co-immunoprecipitate with spinophilin from mouse striatal extracts. Moreover, N- and C-terminal domain fragments of spinophilin bind more CaMKII from adult vs. postnatal day 21 striatal lysates. Total levels of other proteins that interact with C-terminal domains of spinophilin decrease during maturation, perhaps reducing competition for CaMKII binding to the C-terminal domain. In contrast, total levels of α-internexin and binding of α-internexin to the spinophilin N-terminal domain increases with maturation, perhaps bridging an indirect interaction with CaMKII. Moreover, there is an increase in the levels of myosin Va, α-internexin, spinophilin, and PP1 in striatal CaMKII immune complexes isolated from adult and aged mice compared to those from postnatal day 21. These changes in spinophilin/CaMKII interactomes may contribute to changes in striatal dendritic spine density, morphology, and function during normal postnatal maturation and aging.

  3. Interaction of LDL receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) with postsynaptic scaffold proteins via its C-terminal PDZ domain-binding motif, and its regulation by Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qing-Bao; Suzuki, Tatsuo; Yamauchi, Takashi; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Yoshiyuki; Miyazawa, Shoko; Nakayama, Kohzo; Saitoh, Fuminori; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Lu, Yonghao; Kondo, Hisatake; Endo, Shogo

    2006-06-01

    We cloned here a full-length cDNA of Dem26[Tian et al. (1999)Mol. Brain Res., 72, 147-157], a member of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene family from the rat brain. We originally named the corresponding protein synaptic LDL receptor-related protein (synLRP) [Tian et al. (2002) Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 28, 405] and have renamed it LRP4 to accord it systematic nomenclature (GenBank(TM) accession no. AB073317). LRP4 protein interacted with postsynaptic scaffold proteins such as postsynaptic density (PSD)-95 via its C-terminal tail sequence, and associated with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor subunit. The mRNA of LRP4 was localized to dendrites, as well as somas, of neuronal cells, and the full-length protein of 250 kDa was highly concentrated in the brain and localized to various subcellular compartments in the brain, including synaptic fractions. Immunocytochemical study using cultured cortical neurons suggested surface localization in the neuronal cells both in somas and dendrites. Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylated the C-terminal cytoplasmic region of LRP4 at Ser1887 and Ser1900, and the phosphorylation at the latter site suppressed the interaction of the protein with PSD-95 and synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP97). These findings suggest a postsynaptic role for LRP4, a putative endocytic multiligand receptor, and a mechanism in which CaMKII regulates PDZ-dependent protein-protein interactions and receptor dynamics.

  4. The octopamine receptor OAMB mediates ovulation via Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the Drosophila oviduct epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Gwan Lee

    Full Text Available Ovulation is an essential physiological process in sexual reproduction; however, the underlying cellular mechanisms are poorly understood. We have previously shown that OAMB, a Drosophila G-protein-coupled receptor for octopamine (the insect counterpart of mammalian norepinephrine, is required for ovulation induced upon mating. OAMB is expressed in the nervous and reproductive systems and has two isoforms (OAMB-AS and OAMB-K3 with distinct capacities to increase intracellular Ca2+ or intracellular Ca2+ and cAMP in vitro. Here, we investigated tissue specificity and intracellular signals required for OAMB's function in ovulation. Restricted OAMB expression in the adult oviduct epithelium, but not the nervous system, reinstated ovulation in oamb mutant females, in which either OAMB isoform was sufficient for the rescue. Consistently, strong immunoreactivities for both isoforms were observed in the wild-type oviduct epithelium. To delineate the cellular mechanism by which OAMB regulates ovulation, we explored protein kinases functionally interacting with OAMB by employing a new GAL4 driver with restricted expression in the oviduct epithelium. Conditional inhibition of Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII, but not protein kinase A or C, in the oviduct epithelium inhibited ovulation. Moreover, constitutively active CaMKII, but not protein kinase A, expressed only in the adult oviduct epithelium fully rescued the oamb female's phenotype, demonstrating CaMKII as a major downstream molecule conveying the OAMB's ovulation signal. This is consistent with the ability of both OAMB isoforms, whose common intracellular signal in vitro is Ca2+, to reinstate ovulation in oamb females. These observations reveal the critical roles of the oviduct epithelium and its cellular components OAMB and CaMKII in ovulation. It is conceivable that the OAMB-mediated cellular activities stimulated upon mating are crucial for secretory activities suitable for egg

  5. Differential Reovirus-Specific and Herpesvirus-Specific Activator Protein 1 Activation of Secretogranin II Leads to Altered Virus Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, Alicia R; Severini, Alberto; Coombs, Kevin M

    2015-12-01

    Viruses utilize host cell machinery for propagation and manage to evade cellular host defense mechanisms in the process. Much remains unknown regarding how the host responds to viral infection. We recently performed global proteomic screens of mammalian reovirus TIL- and T3D-infected and herpesvirus (herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1])-infected HEK293 cells. The nonenveloped RNA reoviruses caused an upregulation, whereas the enveloped DNA HSV-1 caused a downregulation, of cellular secretogranin II (SCG2). SCG2, a member of the granin family that functions in hormonal peptide sorting into secretory vesicles, has not been linked to virus infections previously. We confirmed SCG2 upregulation and found SCG2 phosphorylation by 18 h postinfection (hpi) in reovirus-infected cells. We also found a decrease in the amount of reovirus secretion from SCG2 knockdown cells. Similar analyses of cells infected with HSV-1 showed an increase in the amount of secreted virus. Analysis of the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) pathway indicated that each virus activates different pathways leading to activator protein 1 (AP-1) activation, which is the known SCG2 transcription activator. We conclude from these experiments that the negative correlation between SCG2 quantity and virus secretion for both viruses indicates a virus-specific role for SCG2 during infection. Mammalian reoviruses affect the gastrointestinal system or cause respiratory infections in humans. Recent work has shown that all mammalian reovirus strains (most specifically T3D) may be useful oncolytic agents. The ubiquitous herpes simplex viruses cause common sores in mucosal areas of their host and have coevolved with hosts over many years. Both of these virus species are prototypical representatives of their viral families, and investigation of these viruses can lead to further knowledge of how they and the other more pathogenic members of their respective families interact with the

  6. AN INTEGRATIVE WAY OF TEACHING MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY AND PROTEIN CHEMISTRY USING ACTIN IMMOBILIZATION ON CHITIN FOR PURIFYING MYOSIN II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Souza

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Our intent is to present our experience on teaching Molecular Cell Biology andProtein Chemistry at UNIRIO through an innovative approach that includes myosin IIextraction and purification. We took advantage of the properties of muscle contractionand propose a simple method for purifying myosin II by affinity chromatography. Thisoriginal method is based on the preparation of an affinity column containing actinmolecules covalently bound to chitin particles. We propose a three-week syllabus thatincludes lectures and bench experimental work. The syllabus favors the activelearning of protein extraction and purification, as well as, of scientific concepts suchas muscle contraction, cytoskeleton structure and its importance for the living cell. Italso promotes the learning of the biotechnological applications of chitin and theapplications of protein immobilization in different industrial fields. Furthermore, theactivities also target the development of laboratorial technical abilities, thedevelopment of problem solving skills and the ability to write up a scientific reportfollowing the model of a scientific article. It is very important to mention that thissyllabus can be used even in places where a facility such as ultra-centrifugation islacking.

  7. Complete identification of proteins responsible for human blood plasma fouling on poly(ethylene glycol)-based surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Tomáš; Riedelová-Reicheltová, Zuzana; Májek, Pavel; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, César; Houska, Milan; Dyr, Jan E; Brynda, Eduard

    2013-03-12

    The resistance of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) against protein adsorption is crucial and has been widely utilized in various biomedical applications. In this work, the complete protein composition of biofilms deposited on PEG-based surfaces from human blood plasma (BP) was identified for the first time using nanoLC-MS/MS, a powerful tool in protein analysis. The mass of deposited BP and the number of different proteins contained in the deposits on individual surfaces decreased in the order of self-assembling monolayers of oligo(ethylene glycol) alkanethiolates (SAM) > poly(ethylene glycol) end-grafted onto a SAM > poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) brushes prepared by surface initiated polymerization (poly(OEGMA)). The BP deposit on the poly(OEGMA) surface was composed only of apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein B-100, complement C3, complement C4-A, complement C4-B, histidine-rich glycoprotein, Ig mu chain C region, fibrinogen (Fbg), and serum albumin (HSA). The total resistance of the surface to the Fbg and HSA adsorption from single protein solutions suggested that their deposition from BP was mediated by some of the other proteins. Current theories of protein resistance are not sufficient to explain the observed plasma fouling. The research focused on the identified proteins, and the experimental approach used in this work can provide the basis for the understanding and rational design of plasma-resistant surfaces.

  8. Experimental induction of hemorrhagic-aplastic anemia in chickens. II. Serum protein changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqi, S A; Pugh, R; Glass, S E; Hall, C F

    1978-01-01

    The serologic response of chickens to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and inclusion body hepatitis virus (IBHV) was analyzed. Inoculation at one day old with either IBDV or IBHV significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced levels of serum gamma-globulins at 4 weeks postinoculation. This response was not elicited by inoculation of IBDV together with IBHV. Birds with experimentally induced or naturally occurring hemorrhagic anemia syndrome (HAS) had serum proteins quantitatively and qualitatively changed from those of controls. Serum protein profiles did not coincide, however, in experimentally infected and naturally infected chickens. Among naturally infected chickens, those that were IBHV-positive upon culture had significantly (P less than 0.05) lower hematocrit values.

  9. Kinetics of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and -10, and phospholipase A2-II in severely traumatized septic patients

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    Laušević Željko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Injury-induced anergy is one of the key factors contributing to trauma victims' high susceptibility to sepsis. This group of patients is mostly of young age and it is therefore essential to be able to predict as accurately as possible the development of septic complications, so appropriate treatment could be provided. The aim of this study was to assess kinetics of interleukin (IL -6 and -10, phospholipase A2- II and C-reactive protein (CRP in severely traumatized patients and explore the possibilities for early detection of potentially septic patients. Methods. This prospective study included 65 traumatized patients with injury severity score (ISS > 18, requiring treatment at surgical intensive care units, divided into two groups: 24 patients without sepsis and 41 patients with sepsis. C-reactive protein, IL-6 and -10 and phospholipase A2 group II, were determined within the first 24 hours, and on the second, third and seventh day of hospitalization. Results. Mean values of IL-6 and phospholipase A2-II in the patients with and without sepsis did not show a statistically significant difference on any assessed time points. In the septic patients with ISS 29-35 and > 35 on the days two and seven a statistically significantly lower level of IL-10 was found, compared with those without sepsis and with the same ISS. C-reactive protein levels were significantly higher in septic patients with ISS 18-28 on the first day. On the second, third and seventh day CRP levels were significantly lower in the groups of septic patients with ISS 29-35 and > 35, than in those with the same ISS but without sepsis. Conclusion. Mean levels of CRP on the first day after the injury may be useful predictor of sepsis development in traumatized patients with ISS score 18-28. Mean levels of CRP on the days two, three and seven after the injury may be a useful predictor of sepsis development in traumatized patients with ISS score more than 28. Mean levels of

  10. MHC class II protein turnover in vivo and its relevance for autoimmunity in nonobese diabetic mice

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    Robert eBusch

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available MHCII proteins are loaded with endosomal peptides and reside at the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs for a time before being degraded. In vitro, MHCII protein levels and turnover are affected by peptide loading and by rates of ubiquitin-dependent internalization from the cell surface, which is in turn affected by APC type and activation state. Prior work suggested that fast turnover of disease-associated MHCII alleles may contribute to autoimmunity. We recently developed novel stable isotope tracer techniques to test this hypothesis in vivo. In nonobese diabetic (NOD mice, a model of type 1 diabetes (T1D, MHCII turnover was affected by APC type, but unaffected by disease-associated structural polymorphism. Differences in MHCII turnover were observed between NOD colonies with high and low T1D incidence, but fast turnover was dispensable for autoimmunity. Moreover, NOD mice with gene knockouts of peptide loading cofactors do not develop T1D. Thus, fast turnover does not appear pathogenic, and conventional antigen presentation is critical for autoimmunity in NOD mice. However, shared environmental factors may underpin colony differences in MHCII protein turnover, immune regulation, and pathogenesis.

  11. The transmembrane domain and acidic lipid flip-flop regulates voltage-dependent fusion mediated by class II and III viral proteins.

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    Ruben M Markosyan

    Full Text Available Voltage dependence of fusion induced by class II and class III viral fusion proteins was investigated. Class II proteins from Ross River and Sindbus virus and a mutant class III protein from Epstein Barr virus were found to induce cell-cell fusion that is voltage dependent. Combined with previous studies, in all, four class II and two class III protein have now been shown to exhibit voltage-dependent fusion, demonstrating that this is probably a general phenomenon for these two classes of viral fusion proteins. In the present study, monitoring fusion of pseudovirus expressing Vesicular Stomatitis virus (VSV G within endosomes shows that here, too, fusion is voltage dependent. This supports the claim that voltage dependence of fusion is biologically relevant and that cell-cell fusion reliably models the voltage dependence. Fusion induced by class I viral proteins is independent of voltage; chimeras expressing the ectodomain of a class I fusion protein and the transmembrane domain of VSV G could therefore be used to explore the location within the protein responsible for voltage dependence. Results showed that the transmembrane domain is the region associated with voltage dependence. Experiments in which cells were enriched with acidic lipids led to the conclusion that it is the flip-flop of acidic lipids that carries the charge responsible for the observed voltage dependence of fusion. This flip-flop occurred downstream of hemifusion, in accord with previous findings that the voltage dependent steps of fusion occur at a stage subsequent to hemifusion.

  12. Study of the Mn-binding sites in photosystem II using antibodies raised against lumenal regions of the D1 and D2 reaction center proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmasso, E.A.

    1992-04-01

    The experiments discussed in this thesis focus on identifying the protein segments or specific amino acids which provide ligands to the Mn cluster of photosystem II (PS II). This Mn cluster plays a central role in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PS II. The Mn cluster is thought to be bound by lumenal regions of the PS II reaction center proteins known as D1 and D2. First, several peptides were synthesized which correspond to specific lumenal segments of the D1 and D2 proteins. Next, polyclonal antibodies were successfully elicited using three of these peptides. The peptides recognized by these antibodies correspond to protein segments of the spinach reaction center proteins: Ile-321 to Ala-344 of D1 (D1-a), Asp-319 to Arg-334 of D1 (D1-b), and Val-300 to Asn-319 of D2 (D2-a). These antibodies were then used in assays which were developed to structurally or functionally probe the potential Mn-binding regions of the D1 and D2 proteins.

  13. Phosphorylation and mRNA Splicing of Collapsin Response Mediator Protein-2 Determine Inhibition of Rho-associated Protein Kinase (ROCK) II Function in Carcinoma Cell Migration and Invasion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Couchman, John R.; Yoneda, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    The Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK I and II) are central regulators of important cellular processes such as migration and invasion downstream of the GTP-Rho. Recently, we reported collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP)-2 as an endogenous ROCK II inhibitor. To reveal how the CRMP-2-ROCK II interaction is controlled, we further mapped the ROCK II interaction site of CRMP-2 and examined whether phosphorylation states of CRMP-2 affected the interaction. Here, we show that an N-terminal fragment of the long CRMP-2 splice variant (CRMP-2L) alone binds ROCK II and inhibits colon carcinoma cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, the interaction of CRMP-2 and ROCK II is partially regulated by glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 phosphorylation of CRMP-2, downstream of PI3K. Inhibition of PI3K reduced interaction of CRMP-2 with ROCK II, an effect rescued by simultaneous inhibition of GSK3. Inhibition of PI3K also reduced colocalization of ROCK II and CRMP-2 at the cell periphery in human breast carcinoma cells. Mimicking GSK3 phosphorylation of CRMP-2 significantly reduced CRMP-2 binding of recombinant full-length and catalytic domain of ROCK II. These data implicate GSK3 in the regulation of ROCK II-CRMP-2 interactions. Using phosphorylation-mimetic and -resistant CRMP-2L constructs, it was revealed that phosphorylation of CRMP-2L negatively regulates its inhibitory function in ROCK-dependent haptotactic cell migration, as well as invasion of human colon carcinoma cells. Collectively, the presented data show that CRMP-2-dependent regulation of ROCK II activity is mediated through interaction of the CRMP-2L N terminus with the ROCK II catalytic domain as well as by GSK3-dependent phosphorylation of CRMP-2. PMID:24036111

  14. Acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein is required for cooperation with the HTLV-1 p30II accessory protein and the induction of oncogenic cellular transformation by p30II/c-MYC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Megan M.; Ko, Bookyung; Kim, Janice; Brady, Rebecca; Heatley, Hayley C.; He, Jeffrey; Harrod, Carolyn K.; Barnett, Braden; Ratner, Lee; Lairmore, Michael D.; Martinez, Ernest; Lüscher, Bernhard; Robson, Craig N.; Henriksson, Marie; Harrod, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The human T-cell leukemia retrovirus type-1 (HTLV-1) p30II protein is a multifunctional latency-maintenance factor that negatively regulates viral gene expression and deregulates host signaling pathways involved in aberrant T-cell growth and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that p30II interacts with the c-MYC oncoprotein and enhances c-MYC-dependent transcriptional and oncogenic functions. However, the molecular and biochemical events that mediate the cooperation between p30II and c-MYC remain to be completely understood. Herein we demonstrate that p30II induces lysine-acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein. Acetylation-defective c-MYC Lys→Arg substitution mutants are impaired for oncogenic transformation with p30II in c-myc−/− HO15.19 fibroblasts. Using dual-chromatin-immunoprecipitations (dual-ChIPs), we further demonstrate that p30II is present in c-MYC-containing nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed HuT-102 T-lymphocytes. Moreover, p30II inhibits apoptosis in proliferating cells expressing c-MYC under conditions of genotoxic stress. These findings suggest that c-MYC-acetylation is required for the cooperation between p30II/c-MYC which could promote proviral replication and contribute to HTLV-1-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:25569455

  15. Characterization of the thrombospondin (TSP)-II gene in Penaeus monodon and a novel role of TSP-like proteins in an induction of shrimp sperm acrosome reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magerd, Sirilug; Asuvapongpatana, Somluk; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana

    2013-05-01

    We have recently shown that water-soluble materials from the egg extracellular cortical rods (wsCRs) exert the ability to induce the sperm acrosome reaction in Penaeus monodon. In this study, we further demonstrated that the thrombospondin protein family (TSP) existed in wsCRs, and that their mRNA transcripts were detected in developing oocytes as early as stage I. Full sequence analysis revealed that our pmTSP sequence was considerably different from the recently reported pmTSP in the 5' nonconserved region and in many TSP signature domains, hence, the name pmTSP-II was given to our variant. The transcripts of pmTSP-II were detected only in early developing oocytes (stage-I and -II) while TSP-like proteins were detected in all developing oocytes, particularly at the outer rim of cortical rods situated in the extracellular crypts of the mature, stage-IV oocytes. In addition, wsCRs contained anti-TSP-reactive proteins, suggesting that TSP-like proteins are dissolved in and are part of the egg water during spawning. The functional importance of TSP-like proteins was evident by the interference of a wsCR-induced acrosome reaction response with anti-TSP in a concentration-dependent manner. In summary, we found that pmTSP-II transcripts were present in the developing oocytes and pmTSP-II protein accumulated in cortical rods, which are partly secreted and thus solubilized to produce dissolved TSP-like proteins that participate in induction of the sperm acrosome reaction-a novel reproductive role for TSP protein family. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Mutations in the VLGR1 Gene Implicate G-Protein Signaling in the Pathogenesis of Usher Syndrome Type II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Michael D.; Luijendijk, Mirjam W. J.; Humphrey, Kurt D.; Möller, Claes; Kimberling, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Usher syndrome type II (USH2) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder with at least three genetic subtypes (USH2A, USH2B, and USH2C) and is classified phenotypically as congenital hearing loss and progressive retinitis pigmentosa. The VLGR1 (MASS1) gene in the 5q14.3-q21.1 USH2C locus was considered a likely candidate on the basis of its protein motif structure and expressed-sequence-tag representation from both cochlear and retinal subtracted libraries. Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and direct sequencing of polymerase-chain-reaction products amplified from 10 genetically independent patients with USH2C and 156 other patients with USH2 identified four isoform-specific VLGR1 mutations (Q2301X, I2906FS, M2931FS, and T6244X) from three families with USH2C, as well as two sporadic cases. All patients with VLGR1 mutations are female, a significant deviation from random expectations. The ligand(s) for the VLGR1 protein is unknown, but on the basis of its potential extracellular and intracellular protein-protein interaction domains and its wide mRNA expression profile, it is probable that VLGR1 serves diverse cellular and signaling processes. VLGR1 mutations have been previously identified in both humans and mice and are associated with a reflex-seizure phenotype in both species. The identification of additional VLGR1 mutations to test whether a phenotype/genotype correlation exists, akin to that shown for other Usher syndrome disease genes, is warranted. PMID:14740321

  17. Antiproliferative effect of complexes of platinum (II) with plasmanyl-(N-acyl)-ethanolamine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaevich, I S; Vlasenkova, N K; Gerasimova, G K

    1992-10-01

    Antiproliferative activities of combinations of semisynthetic plasmanyl-(N-acyl)-ethanolamine [PNAE(s)], an inhibitor of protein kinase C, with two antitumor complexes of platinum (II) [cisplatin and ammine(cyclopentylamine)-S-(-)-malatoplatinum (cycloplatam)] were investigated. The exposure of human melanoma BRO cells in culture simultaneously with cisplatin (1-10 microM) and PNAE(s) (100 microM-1 mM) in a molar ratio of 1/100 for 24 h induced a considerable decrease in the ability of these cells to incorporate [3H]thymidine into DNA. A considerable antiproliferative synergism of these agents was observed. The effect of cycloplatam/PNAE(s) combination in similar experiments was significantly different from cisplatin/PNAE(s), i.e. interaction of these agents was complex and synergism was not found.

  18. Metallothionein 2A affects the cell respiration by suppressing the expression of mitochondrial protein cytochrome c oxidase subunit II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragina, Olga; Gurjanova, Karina; Krishtal, Jekaterina; Kulp, Maria; Karro, Niina; Tõugu, Vello; Palumaa, Peep

    2015-06-01

    Metallothioneins (MT) are involved in a broad range of cellular processes and play a major role in protection of cells towards various stressors. Two functions of MTs, namely the maintaining of the homeostasis of transition metal ions and the redox balance, are directly linked to the functioning of mitochondria. Dyshomeostasis of MTs is often related with malfunctioning of mitochondria; however, the mechanism by which MTs affect the mitochondrial respiratory chain is still unknown. We demonstrated that overexpression of MT-2A in HEK cell line decreased the oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the cells. HEK cells overexpressing MT-2A demonstrated reduced oxygen consumption and lower cellular ATP levels. MT-2A did not affect the number of mitochondria, but reduced specifically the level of cytochrome c oxidase subunit II protein, which resulted in lower activity of the complex IV.

  19. Web-based computational chemistry education with CHARMMing II: Coarse-grained protein folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Frank C; Miller, Benjamin T; Schalk, Vinushka; Lerner, Michael G; Woodcock, H Lee; Brooks, Bernard R

    2014-07-01

    A lesson utilizing a coarse-grained (CG) Gō-like model has been implemented into the CHARMM INterface and Graphics (CHARMMing) web portal (www.charmming.org) to the Chemistry at HARvard Macromolecular Mechanics (CHARMM) molecular simulation package. While widely used to model various biophysical processes, such as protein folding and aggregation, CG models can also serve as an educational tool because they can provide qualitative descriptions of complex biophysical phenomena for a relatively cheap computational cost. As a proof of concept, this lesson demonstrates the construction of a CG model of a small globular protein, its simulation via Langevin dynamics, and the analysis of the resulting data. This lesson makes connections between modern molecular simulation techniques and topics commonly presented in an advanced undergraduate lecture on physical chemistry. It culminates in a straightforward analysis of a short dynamics trajectory of a small fast folding globular protein; we briefly describe the thermodynamic properties that can be calculated from this analysis. The assumptions inherent in the model and the data analysis are laid out in a clear, concise manner, and the techniques used are consistent with those employed by specialists in the field of CG modeling. One of the major tasks in building the Gō-like model is determining the relative strength of the nonbonded interactions between coarse-grained sites. New functionality has been added to CHARMMing to facilitate this process. The implementation of these features into CHARMMing helps automate many of the tedious aspects of constructing a CG Gō model. The CG model builder and its accompanying lesson should be a valuable tool to chemistry students, teachers, and modelers in the field.

  20. Enhanced protective efficacy against tuberculosis provided by a recombinant urease deficient BCG expressing heat shock protein 70-major membrane protein-II having PEST sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Yumiko; Maeda, Yumi; Tamura, Toshiki; Mukai, Tetsu; Mitarai, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Saburo; Makino, Masahiko

    2016-12-07

    Enhancement of the T cell-stimulating ability of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG) is necessary to develop an effective tuberculosis vaccine. For this purpose, we introduced the PEST-HSP70-major membrane protein-II (MMPII)-PEST fusion gene into ureC-gene depleted recombinant (r) BCG to produce BCG-PEST. The PEST sequence is involved in the proteasomal processing of antigens. BCG-PEST secreted the PEST-HSP70-MMPII-PEST fusion protein and more efficiently activated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) in terms of phenotypic changes and cytokine productions than an empty-vector-introduced BCG or HSP70-MMPII gene-introduced ureC gene-depleted BCG (BCG-DHTM). Autologous human naïve CD8+ T cells and naïve CD4+ T cells were effectively activated by BCG-PEST and produced IFN-γ in an antigen-specific manner through DCs. These T cell activations were closely associated with phagosomal maturation and intraproteasomal protein degradation in antigen-presenting cells. Furthermore, BCG-PEST produced long-lasting memory-type T cells in C57BL/6 mice more efficiently than control rBCGs. Moreover, a single subcutaneous injection of BCG-PEST more effectively reduced the multiplication of subsequent aerosol-challenged Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the standard H37Rv strain and clinically isolated Beijing strain in the lungs than control rBCGs. The vaccination effect of BCG-PEST lasted for at least 6months. These results indicate that BCG-PEST may be able to efficiently control the spread of tuberculosis in human. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and APACHE II score for risk evaluation in patients with severe pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunkhorst, F M; Al-Nawas, B; Krummenauer, F; Forycki, Z F; Shah, P M

    2002-02-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) is a peptide that is found elevated in patients with sepsis and severe infections. In healthy persons PCT serum levels are below 0.1 ng/mL. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of serum PCT determination for risk evaluation in patients with pneumonia. We focused on the correlation of PCT with the clinical status of the patient and prognosis of the disease. In a prospective study, in a nonsurgical intensive care unit the following parameters were assessed regularly in 93 patients with documented pneumonia: C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count (WBC), body temperature, PCT and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score. At the onset of infection 50% of the patients had elevated PCT levels above 2 ng/mL. The model of multivariate analysis of all tested parameters on days 0-5 stratified for clinical outcome (change in clinical classification or death) showed local significance for APACHE II score only. None of the other parameters in this model serves as an isolated indicator for change of clinical status or death. An intra-individual change of body temperature or CRP was never significantly associated with a change in the clinical status of the patient. Change in PCT on admission and at the end of the observation period significantly indicated a clinical change.

  2. Interfacial protein engineering for spray-dried emulsions - part II: oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damerau, Annelie; Moisio, Timo; Partanen, Riitta; Forssell, Pirkko; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Piironen, Vieno

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate how the oxidative stability of encapsulated oil is affected by the humidity response of a Na-caseinate-maltodextrin matrix. Furthermore, the effect of modification of the interfacial Na-caseinate layer through cross-linking was studied. For this purpose, two model spray-dried emulsions containing sunflower oil, maltodextrin, and either non-cross-linked or cross-linked Na-caseinate were stored at different relative humidities (RHs; ∼0%, 11%, 33%, 54%, and 75%). Increasing RH improved the oxidative stability of the spray-dried emulsions. This behaviour was mainly linked to the loss of individual powder particles upon caking and collapsing of the matrix at RH 75%. Oxidation of non-encapsulated surface lipids with a proportion of ca. 5% of total lipids was only twofold compared to total lipids. Excess protein on particle surfaces may have delayed oxidation, e.g., by its radical scavenging activity. Under several storage conditions, cross-linking of the protein slightly improved the oxidative stability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of native 40 S particles from Krebs II mouse ascites tumor cells: resolution, nomenclature and molecular weights of the nonribosomal proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichert, G; Issinger, O G

    1981-01-01

    Native 40 S particles from Krebs II mouse ascites tumor cells were isolated on a large scale. A nonribosomal protein moiety of about 30 proteins could be removed from the ribosomal particles by treatment with 250 mM KCl. These proteins were analysed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel...... spots were excised from two-dimensional gels and transferred directly or after electrodialysis onto the third dimension gel. The proteins fell into a molecular weight range from about 20,000 to 300,000....

  4. HLA Class II Defects in Burkitt Lymphoma: Bryostatin-1-Induced 17 kDa Protein Restores CD4+ T-Cell Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azim Hossain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While the defects in HLA class I-mediated Ag presentation by Burkitt lymphoma (BL have been well documented, CD4+ T-cells are also poorly stimulated by HLA class II Ag presentation, and the reasons underlying this defect(s have not yet been fully resolved. Here, we show that BL cells are deficient in their ability to optimally stimulate CD4+ T cells via the HLA class II pathway. The observed defect was not associated with low levels of BL-expressed costimulatory molecules, as addition of external co-stimulation failed to result in BL-mediated CD4+ T-cell activation. We further demonstrate that BL cells express the components of the class II pathway, and the defect was not caused by faulty Ag/class II interaction, because antigenic peptides bound with measurable affinity to BL-associated class II molecules. Treatment of BL with broystatin-1, a potent modulator of protein kinase C, led to significant improvement of functional class II Ag presentation in BL. The restoration of immune recognition appeared to be linked with an increased expression of a 17 kDa peptidylprolyl-like protein. These results demonstrate the presence of a specific defect in HLA class II-mediated Ag presentation in BL and reveal that treatment with bryostatin-1 could lead to enhanced immunogenicity.

  5. Structural Properties of Human CaMKII Ca2+ /Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II using X-ray Crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yumeng Melody; McSpadden, Ethan; Kuriyan, John; Department of Molecular; Cell Biology; Department of Chemistry Team

    To this day, human memory storage remains a mystery as we can at most describe the process vaguely on a cellular level. Switch-like properties of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II make it a leading candidate in understanding the molecular basis of human memory. The protein crystal was placed in the beam of a synchrotron source and the x-ray crystallography data was collected as reflections on a diffraction pattern that undergo Fourier transform to obtain the electron density. We observed two drastic differences from our solved structure at 2.75Å to a similar construct of the mouse CaMKII association domain. Firstly, our structure is a 6-fold symmetric dodecamer, whereas the previously published construct was a 7-fold symmetric tetradecamer. This suggests the association domain of human CaMKII is a dynamic structure that is triggered subunit exchange process. Secondly, in our structure the N-terminal tag is docked as an additional beta-strand on an uncapped beta-sheet present in each association domain protomer. This is concrete evidence of the involvement of the polypeptide docking site in the molecular mechanism underlining subunit exchange. In the future, we would like to selectively inhibit the exchange process while not disrupting the other functionalities of CaMKII.

  6. High-Throughput Analysis of Age-Dependent Protein Changes in Layer II/III of the Human Orbitofrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Fenika

    Studies on the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) during normal aging have shown a decline in cognitive functions, a loss of spines/synapses in layer III and gene expression changes related to neural communication. Biological changes during the course of normal aging are summarized into 9 hallmarks based on aging in peripheral tissue. Whether these hallmarks apply to non-dividing brain tissue is not known. Therefore, we opted to perform large-scale proteomic profiling of the OFC layer II/III during normal aging from 15 young and 18 old male subjects. MaxQuant was utilized for label-free quantification and statistical analysis by the Random Intercept Model (RIM) identified 118 differentially expressed (DE) age-related proteins. Altered neural communication was the most represented hallmark of aging (54% of DE proteins), highlighting the importance of communication in the brain. Functional analysis showed enrichment in GABA/glutamate signaling and pro-inflammatory responses. The former may contribute to alterations in excitation/inhibition, leading to cognitive decline during aging.

  7. The low molecular weight protein PsaI stabilizes the light-harvesting complex II docking site of photosystem I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plöchinger, Magdalena; Torabi, Salar; Rantala, Marjaana

    2016-01-01

    PsaI represents one of three low molecular weight peptides of PSI. Targeted inactivation of the plastid PsaI gene in Nicotiana tabacum has no measurable effect on photosynthetic electron transport around PSI or on accumulation of proteins involved in photosynthesis. Instead, the lack of PsaI dest...... of mutant plants into state 2 in darkness represents a compensatory and/or protective metabolic mechanism. This involves an increased reduction and/or reduced oxidation of the PQ pool, presumably to sustain a balanced excitation of both photosystems upon the onset of light.......PsaI represents one of three low molecular weight peptides of PSI. Targeted inactivation of the plastid PsaI gene in Nicotiana tabacum has no measurable effect on photosynthetic electron transport around PSI or on accumulation of proteins involved in photosynthesis. Instead, the lack of Psa......I destabilizes the association of PsaL and PsaH to PSI, both forming the light-harvesting complex (LHC)II docking site of PSI. These alterations at the LHCII binding site surprisingly did not prevent state transition but led to an increased incidence of PSI-LHCII complexes, coinciding with an elevated...

  8. Caspase-6 Activation in Familial Alzheimer Disease Brains Carrying Amyloid Precursor Protein, Presenilin I or Presenilin II Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Steffen; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Ghetti, Bernardino; Winblad, Bengt; LeBlanc, Andréa C.

    2010-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the activation of Caspase-6 in the hippocampus and cortex in cases of mild, moderate, severe and very severe Alzheimer disease (AD). To determine whether Caspase-6 is also activated in familial AD, we performed an immunohistochemical analysis of active Caspase-6 and Tau cleaved by Caspase-6 in temporal cortex and hippocampal tissue sections from cases of familial AD. The cases included 5 carrying the amyloid precursor protein K670N, M671L Swedish mutation, 1 carrying the amyloid precursor protein E693G Arctic mutation, 2 each carrying the Presenilin I M146V, F105L, A431E, V261F, Y115C mutations, and 1 with the Presenilin II N141I mutation. Active Caspase-6 immunoreactivity was found in all cases. Caspase-6 immunoreactivity was observed in neuritic plaques or cotton wool plaques in some cases, neuropil threads and neurofibrillary tangles. These results indicate that Caspase-6 is activated in familial forms of AD, as previously observed in sporadic forms. Since sporadic and familial AD cases have similar pathological features, these results support a fundamental role of Caspase-6 in the pathophysiology of both familial and sporadic AD. PMID:19915487

  9. Quenching in Arabidopsis thaliana Mutants Lacking Monomeric Antenna Proteins of Photosystem II*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloslavina, Yuliya; de Bianchi, Silvia; Dall'Osto, Luca; Bassi, Roberto; Holzwarth, Alfred R.

    2011-01-01

    The minor light-harvesting complexes CP24, CP26, and CP29 have been proposed to play a key role in the zeaxanthin (Zx)-dependent high light-induced regulation (NPQ) of excitation energy in higher plants. To characterize the detailed roles of these minor complexes in NPQ and to determine their specific quenching effects we have studied the ultrafast fluorescence kinetics in knockout (ko) mutants koCP26, koCP29, and the double mutant koCP24/CP26. The data provide detailed insight into the quenching processes and the reorganization of the Photosystem (PS) II supercomplex under quenching conditions. All genotypes showed two NPQ quenching sites. Quenching site Q1 is formed by a light-induced functional detachment of parts of the PSII supercomplex and a pronounced quenching of the detached antenna parts. The antenna remaining bound to the PSII core was also quenched substantially in all genotypes under NPQ conditions (quenching site Q2) as compared with the dark-adapted state. The latter quenching was about equally strong in koCP26 and the koCP24/CP26 mutants as in the WT. Q2 quenching was substantially reduced, however, in koCP29 mutants suggesting a key role for CP29 in the total NPQ. The observed quenching effects in the knockout mutants are complicated by the fact that other minor antenna complexes do compensate in part for the lack of the CP24 and/or CP29 complexes. Their lack also causes some LHCII dissociation already in the dark. PMID:21844190

  10. Prediction of secondary structural content of proteins from their amino acid composition alone. II. The paradox with secondary structural class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhaber, F; Frömmel, C; Argos, P

    1996-06-01

    irregular proteins and other proteins without any class assignment (about 35% of all PDB entries); and (ii) that even for preselected representative test sets, the success rate drops to 60% and lower for a 4-type classification (alpha, beta, alpha + beta, alpha/beta). The prediction accuracies fall to about 50% if the secondary structural class definition of Nakashima et al. is applied and only few irregular proteins are preselected and removed from automatically generated, representative subsets of the PDB. We have applied two new vector decomposition methods for secondary structural content prediction from amino acid composition alone, with and without consideration of amino acid compositional coupling in the learning set of tertiary structures respectively, to the problem of class prediction and achieve about 60% correct assignment among four classes (alpha, beta, mixed, irregular) as well as single sequence-based secondary structure prediction methods like GORIII and COMBI. Our results demonstrate that 60% correctness is the upper limit for a 4-type class prediction from amino acid composition alone for an unknown query protein and that consideration of compositional coupling does not improve the prediction success. The prediction program SSCP offering secondary structural class assignment for query compositions and sequences has been made available as a World Wide Web and E-mail service.

  11. Genetic Diversity, Natural Selection and Haplotype Grouping of Plasmodium knowlesi Gamma Protein Region II (PkγRII): Comparison with the Duffy Binding Protein (PkDBPαRII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Mun Yik; Rashdi, Sarah A A; Yusof, Ruhani; Lau, Yee Ling

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi is a simian malaria parasite that has been reported to cause malaria in humans in Southeast Asia. This parasite invades the erythrocytes of humans and of its natural host, the macaque Macaca fascicularis, via interaction between the Duffy binding protein region II (PkDBPαRII) and the Duffy antigen receptor on the host erythrocytes. In contrast, the P. knowlesi gamma protein region II (PkγRII) is not involved in the invasion of P. knowlesi into humans. PkγRII, however, mediates the invasion of P. knowlesi into the erythrocytes of M. mulata, a non-natural host of P. knowlesi via a hitherto unknown receptor. The haplotypes of PkDBPαRII in P. knowlesi isolates from Peninsular Malaysia and North Borneo have been shown to be genetically distinct and geographically clustered. Also, the PkDBPαRII was observed to be undergoing purifying (negative) selection. The present study aimed to determine whether similar phenomena occur in PkγRII. Blood samples from 78 knowlesi malaria patients were used. Forty-eight of the samples were from Peninsular Malaysia, and 30 were from Malaysia Borneo. The genomic DNA of the samples was extracted and used as template for the PCR amplification of the PkγRII. The PCR product was cloned and sequenced. The sequences obtained were analysed for genetic diversity and natural selection using MEGA6 and DnaSP (version 5.10.00) programmes. Genetic differentiation between the PkγRII of Peninsular Malaysia and North Borneo isolates was estimated using the Wright's FST fixation index in DnaSP (version 5.10.00). Haplotype analysis was carried out using the Median-Joining approach in NETWORK (version 4.6.1.3). A total of 78 PkγRII sequences was obtained. Comparative analysis showed that the PkγRII have similar range of haplotype (Hd) and nucleotide diversity (π) with that of PkDBPαRII. Other similarities between PkγRII and PkDBPαRII include undergoing purifying (negative) selection, geographical clustering of haplotypes

  12. Casein kinase II induced polymerization of soluble TDP-43 into filaments is inhibited by heat shock proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Yari; Zhang, Yongjie; Davis, Mary; Lin, Wen-Lang; Cook, Casey; Dunmore, Judy; Tay, William; Menkosky, Kyle; Cao, Xiangkun; Petrucelli, Leonard; Deture, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Trans-activation Response DNA-binding Protein-43 (TDP-43) lesions are observed in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration with ubiquitin inclusions (FTLD-TDP) and 25-50% of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) cases. These abnormal protein inclusions are composed of either amorphous TDP-43 aggregates or highly ordered filaments. The filamentous TDP-43 accumulations typically contain clean 10-12 nm filaments though wider 18-20 nm coated filaments may be observed. The TDP-43 present within these lesions is phosphorylated, truncated and ubiquitinated, and these modifications appear to be abnormal as they are linked to both a cellular heat shock response and microglial activation. The mechanisms associated with this abnormal TDP-43 accumulation are believed to result in a loss of TDP-43 function, perhaps due to the post-translational modifications or resulting from physical sequestration of the TDP-43. The formation of TDP-43 inclusions involves cellular translocation and conversion of TDP-43 into fibrillogenic forms, but the ability of these accumulations to sequester normal TDP-43 and propagate this behavior between neurons pathologically is mostly inferred. The lack of methodology to produce soluble full length TDP-43 and recapitulate this polymerization into filaments as observed in disease has limited our understanding of these pathogenic cascades. The protocols described here generate soluble, full-length and untagged TDP-43 allowing for a direct assessment of the impact of various posttranslational modifications on TDP-43 function. We demonstrate that Casein Kinase II (CKII) promotes the polymerization of this soluble TDP-43 into 10 nm diameter filaments that resemble the most common TDP-43 structures observed in disease. Furthermore, these filaments are recognized as abnormal by Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) which can inhibit TDP-43 polymerization or directly promote TDP-43 filament depolymerization. These findings demonstrate CKII induces

  13. Rat vas deferens SERCA2 is modulated by Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.B.R.; Muzi-Filho, H. [Programa de Farmacologia e Inflamação, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Valverde, R.H.F. [Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Quintas, L.E.M. [Programa de Farmacologia e Inflamação, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Noel, F. [Programa de Desenvolvimento de Fármacos, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Einicker-Lamas, M. [Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Biologia Estrutural e Bioimagem, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cunha, V.M.N. [Programa de Farmacologia e Inflamação, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-03-19

    Ca{sup 2+} pumps are important players in smooth muscle contraction. Nevertheless, little information is available about these pumps in the vas deferens. We have determined which subtype of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase isoform (SERCA) is expressed in rat vas deferens (RVD) and its modulation by calmodulin (CaM)-dependent mechanisms. The thapsigargin-sensitive Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase from a membrane fraction containing the highest SERCA levels in the RVD homogenate has the same molecular mass (∼115 kDa) as that of SERCA2 from the rat cerebellum. It has a very high affinity for Ca{sup 2+} (Ca{sub 0.5} = 780 nM) and a low sensitivity to vanadate (IC{sub 50} = 41 µM). These facts indicate that SERCA2 is present in the RVD. Immunoblotting for CaM and Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) showed the expression of these two regulatory proteins. Ca{sup 2+} and CaM increased serine-phosphorylated residues of the 115-kDa protein, indicating the involvement of CaMKII in the regulatory phosphorylation of SERCA2. Phosphorylation is accompanied by an 8-fold increase of thapsigargin-sensitive Ca{sup 2+} accumulation in the lumen of vesicles derived from these membranes. These data establish that SERCA2 in the RVD is modulated by Ca{sup 2+} and CaM, possibly via CaMKII, in a process that results in stimulation of Ca{sup 2+} pumping activity.

  14. Accuracy of chimeric proteins in the serological diagnosis of chronic chagas disease - a Phase II study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Luciano Neves Santos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of current serologic tests for diagnosing chronic Chagas disease (CD is highly variable. The search for new diagnostic markers has been a constant challenge for improving accuracy and reducing the number of inconclusive results.Here, four chimeric proteins (IBMP-8.1 to -8.4 comprising immunodominant regions of different Trypanosoma cruzi antigens were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The proteins were used to detect specific anti-T. cruzi antibodies in the sera of 857 chagasic and 689 non-chagasic individuals to evaluate their accuracy for chronic CD diagnosis. The antigens were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by chromatographic methods. The sensitivity and specificity values ranged from 94.3% to 99.3% and 99.4% to 100%, respectively. The diagnostic odds ratio (DOR values were 6,462 for IBMP-8.1, 3,807 for IBMP-8.2, 32,095 for IBMP-8.3, and 283,714 for IBMP-8.4. These chimeric antigens presented DORs that were higher than the commercial test Pathozyme Chagas. The antigens IBMP-8.3 and -8.4 also showed DORs higher than the Gold ELISA Chagas test. Mixtures with equimolar concentrations were tested in order to improve the diagnosis accuracy of negative samples with high signal and positive samples with low signal. However, no gain in accuracy was observed relative to the individual antigens. A total of 1,079 additional sera were used to test cross-reactivity to unrelated diseases. The cross-reactivity rates ranged from 0.37% to 0.74% even for Leishmania spp., a pathogen showing relatively high genome sequence identity to T. cruzi. Imprecision analyses showed that IBMP chimeras are very stable and the results are highly reproducible.Our findings indicate that the IBMP-8.4 antigen can be safely used in serological tests for T. cruzi screening in blood banks and for chronic CD laboratory diagnosis.

  15. Both Met(109) and Met(112) are Utilized for Cu(II) Coordination to the Amyloidogenic Fragment of the Human Prion Protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, J.; Soh, P; Lentz, S

    2008-01-01

    The prion protein is a ubiquitous neuronal membrane protein. Misfolding of the prion protein has been implicated in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (prion diseases). It has been demonstrated that the human prion protein (PrP) is capable of coordinating at least five Cu{sup II} ions under physiological conditions; four copper binding sites can be found in the octarepeat domain between residues 61 and 91, while another copper binding site can be found in the unstructured 'amyloidogenic' domain between residues 91 and 126 PrP(91-126). Herein we expand upon a previous study (J. Shearer, P. Soh, Inorg. Chem. 46 (2007) 710-719) where we demonstrated that the physiologically relevant high affinity Cu{sup II} coordination site within PrP(91-126) is found between residues 106 and 114. It was shown that Cu{sup II} is contained within a square planar (N/O){sub 3}S coordination environment with one His imidazole ligand (H(111)) and one Met thioether ligand (either M(109) or M(112)). The identity of the Met thioether ligand was not identified in that study. In this study we perform a detailed investigation of the Cu{sup II} coordination environment within the PrP fragment containing residues 106-114 (PrP(106-114)) involving optical, X-ray absorption, EPR, and fluorescence spectroscopies in conjunction with electronic structure calculations. By using derivatives of PrP(106-114) with systematic Met {yields} Ile 'mutations' we show that the Cu{sup II} coordination environment within PrP(106-114) is actually comprised of a mixture of two major species; one CuII(N/O){sub 3}S center with the M(109) thioether coordinated to Cu{sup II} and another Cu{sup II}(N/O){sub 3}S center with the M(112) thioether coordinated to Cu{sup II}. Furthermore, deletion of one or more Met residues from the primary sequence of PrP(106-114) both reduces the Cu{sup II} affinity of the peptide by two to seven fold, and renders the resulting Cu{sup II} metallopeptides redox

  16. Electrostatics of proteins in dielectric solvent continua. II. Hamiltonian reaction field dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sebastian; Tavan, Paul; Mathias, Gerald

    2014-03-14

    In Paper I of this work [S. Bauer, G. Mathias, and P. Tavan, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 104102 (2014)] we have presented a reaction field (RF) method, which accurately solves the Poisson equation for proteins embedded in dielectric solvent continua at a computational effort comparable to that of polarizable molecular mechanics (MM) force fields. Building upon these results, here we suggest a method for linearly scaling Hamiltonian RF/MM molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, which we call "Hamiltonian dielectric solvent" (HADES). First, we derive analytical expressions for the RF forces acting on the solute atoms. These forces properly account for all those conditions, which have to be self-consistently fulfilled by RF quantities introduced in Paper I. Next we provide details on the implementation, i.e., we show how our RF approach is combined with a fast multipole method and how the self-consistency iterations are accelerated by the use of the so-called direct inversion in the iterative subspace. Finally we demonstrate that the method and its implementation enable Hamiltonian, i.e., energy and momentum conserving HADES-MD, and compare in a sample application on Ac-Ala-NHMe the HADES-MD free energy landscape at 300 K with that obtained in Paper I by scanning of configurations and with one obtained from an explicit solvent simulation.

  17. Bioinformatics Approach Based Research of Profile Protein Carbonic Anhydrase II Analysis as a Potential Candidate Cause Autism for The Variation of Learning Subjects Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Eka A. F. Ningrum

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the needs of learning variations on Biotechnology courses using bioinformatics approaches. One example of applied use of bioinformatics in biotechnology course is the analysis of protein profiles carbonic anhydrase II as a potential cause of autism candidate. This research is a qualitative descriptive study consisted of two phases. The first phase of the data obtained from observations of learning, student questionnaires, and questionnaires lecturer. Results from the first phase, namely the need for variations learning in Biotechnology course using bioinformatics. Collecting data on the second stage uses three webserver to predict the target protein and scientific articles. Visualization of proteins using PyMOL software. 3 based webserver which is used, the candidate of target proteins associated with autism is carbonic anhydrase II. The survey results revealed that the protein carbonic anhydrase II as a potential candidate for the cause of autism classified metaloenzim are able to bind with heavy metals. The content of heavy metals in autistic patients high that affect metabolism. This prediction of protein candidate cause autism is applied use to solve the problem in society, so that can achieve the learning outcome in biotechnology course.

  18. Polyclonal activation of naïve T cells by urease deficient-recombinant BCG that produced protein complex composed of heat shock protein 70, CysO and major membrane protein-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is known to be only partially effective in inhibiting M. tuberculosis (MTB) multiplication in human. A new recombinant (r) urease-deficient BCG (BCG-dHCM) that secretes protein composed of heat shock protein (HSP)70, MTB-derived CysO and major membrane protein (MMP)-II was produced for the efficient production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) which is an essential element for mycobacteriocidal action and inhibition of neutrophil accumulation in lungs. Methods Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages were differentiated from human monocytes, infected with BCG and autologous T cells-stimulating activity of different constructs of BCG was assessed. C57BL/6 mice were used to test the effectiveness of BCG for the production of T cells responsive to MTB-derived antigens (Ags). Results BCG-dHCM intracellularly secreted HSP70-CysO-MMP-II fusion protein, and activated DC by up-regulating Major Histcompatibility Complex (MHC), CD86 and CD83 molecules and enhanced various cytokines production from DC and macrophages. BCG-dHCM activated naïve T cells of both CD4 and CD8 subsets through DC, and memory type CD4+ T cells through macrophages in a manner dependent on MHC and CD86 molecules. These T cell activations were inhibited by the pre-treatment of Ag-presenting cells (APCs) with chloroquine. The single and primary BCG-dHCM-inoculation produced long lasting T cells responsive to in vitro secondarily stimulation with HSP70, CysO, MMP-II and H37Rv-derived cytosolic protein, and partially inhibited the replication of aerosol-challenged MTB. Conclusions The results indicate that introduction of different type of immunogenic molecules into a urease-deficient rBCG is useful for providing polyclonal T cell activating ability to BCG and for production of T cells responsive to secondary stimulation. PMID:24690183

  19. The lineshape of the electronic spectrum of the green fluorescent protein chromophore, part II: solution phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Ferrer, Francisco J; Davari, Mehdi D; Morozov, Dmitry; Groenhof, Gerrit; Santoro, Fabrizio

    2014-10-20

    The vibronic spectra of the green fluorescent protein chromophore analogues p-hydroxybenzylidene-2,3-dimethylimidazolinone (HBDI) and 3,5-tert-butyl-HBDI (35Bu) are similar in the vacuum, but very different in water or ethanol. To understand this difference, we have computed the vibrationally resolved solution spectra of these chromophores, using the polarizable continuum model (PCM) to account for solvent effects on the (harmonic) potential energy surfaces (PES). In agreement with experiment, we found that the vibrational progression increases with the polarity of the solvent, but we could neither reproduce the broadening, nor the large difference between the absorption spectra of HBDI and 35Bu. To account for the inhomogeneous broadening of the solution spectra, we used two approaches. In the first, we estimated the polar broadening from the solvent reorganization energy upon photo-excitation, using the state-specific PCM implementation. In the second, we estimated the broadening from the variance of the vertical excitation energies in molecular dynamics trajectories. Although we found good agreement for the lineshape of 35Bu in ethanol, and to a lesser extent in water, we highly underestimated the broadening for HBDI. To resolve this discrepancy, we explored the PES of HBDI in water and found that in contrast to the PCM result, the ground-state geometry is not planar in explicit solvent. We furthermore found that nonplanar geometries enhance the intramolecular charge transfer upon excitation. Therefore, the solvent reorganization and broadening are much larger and we speculate that the much broader spectrum of HBDI in water is due to the population of nonplanar geometries. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Apolipoprotein A-II influences apolipoprotein E-linked cardiovascular disease risk in women with high levels of HDL cholesterol and C-reactive protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Corsetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a previous report by our group, high levels of apolipoprotein E (apoE were demonstrated to be associated with risk of incident cardiovascular disease in women with high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP in the setting of both low (designated as HR1 subjects and high (designated as HR2 subjects levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. To assess whether apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II plays a role in apoE-associated risk in the two female groups. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL: Outcome event mapping, a graphical data exploratory tool; Cox proportional hazards multivariable regression; and curve-fitting modeling were used to examine apoA-II influence on apoE-associated risk focusing on HDL particles with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I without apoA-II (LpA-I and HDL particles with both apoA-I and apoA-II (LpA-I:A-II. Results of outcome mappings as a function of apoE levels and the ratio of apoA-II to apoA-I revealed within each of the two populations, a high-risk subgroup characterized in each situation by high levels of apoE and additionally: in HR1, by a low value of the apoA-II/apoA-I ratio; and in HR2, by a moderate value of the apoA-II/apoA-I ratio. Furthermore, derived estimates of LpA-I and LpA-I:A-II levels revealed for high-risk versus remaining subjects: in HR1, higher levels of LpA-I and lower levels of LpA-I:A-II; and in HR2 the reverse, lower levels of LpA-I and higher levels of LpA-I:A-II. Results of multivariable risk modeling as a function of LpA-I and LpA-I:A-II (dichotomized as highest quartile versus combined three lower quartiles revealed association of risk only for high levels of LpA-I:A-II in the HR2 subgroup (hazard ratio 5.31, 95% CI 1.12-25.17, p = 0.036. Furthermore, high LpA-I:A-II levels interacted with high apoE levels in establishing subgroup risk. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that apoA-II plays a significant role in apoE-associated risk of incident CVD in women with high levels of HDL-C and CRP.

  1. Novel Adjuvant Based on the Pore-Forming Protein Sticholysin II Encapsulated into Liposomes Effectively Enhances the Antigen-Specific CTL-Mediated Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde, Rady J; Sanchez-Ferras, Oraly; Luzardo, María C; Cruz-Leal, Yoelys; Fernández, Audry; Mesa, Circe; Oliver, Liliana; Canet, Liem; Abreu-Butin, Liane; Nogueira, Catarina V; Tejuca, Mayra; Pazos, Fabiola; Álvarez, Carlos; Alonso, María E; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda M; Starnbach, Michael N; Higgins, Darren E; Fernández, Luis E; Lanio, María E

    2017-04-01

    Vaccine strategies to enhance CD8 + CTL responses remain a current challenge because they should overcome the plasmatic and endosomal membranes for favoring exogenous Ag access to the cytosol of APCs. As a way to avoid this hurdle, sticholysin (St) II, a pore-forming protein from the Caribbean Sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus , was encapsulated with OVA into liposomes (Lp/OVA/StII) to assess their efficacy to induce a CTL response. OVA-specific CD8 + T cells transferred to mice immunized with Lp/OVA/StII experienced a greater expansion than when the recipients were injected with the vesicles without St, mostly exhibiting a memory phenotype. Consequently, Lp/OVA/StII induced a more potent effector function, as shown by CTLs, in vivo assays. Furthermore, treatment of E.G7-OVA tumor-bearing mice with Lp/OVA/StII significantly reduced tumor growth being more noticeable in the preventive assay. The contribution of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells to CTL and antitumor activity, respectively, was elucidated. Interestingly, the irreversibly inactive variant of the StI mutant StI W111C, encapsulated with OVA into Lp, elicited a similar OVA-specific CTL response to that observed with Lp/OVA/StII or vesicles encapsulating recombinant StI or the reversibly inactive StI W111C dimer. These findings suggest the relative independence between StII pore-forming activity and its immunomodulatory properties. In addition, StII-induced in vitro maturation of dendritic cells might be supporting these properties. These results are the first evidence, to our knowledge, that StII, a pore-forming protein from a marine eukaryotic organism, encapsulated into Lp functions as an adjuvant to induce a robust specific CTL response. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. Biodentine induces human dental pulp stem cell differentiation through mitogen-activated protein kinase and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhirong; Kohli, Meetu R; Yu, Qing; Kim, Syngcuk; Qu, Tiejun; He, Wen-xi

    2014-07-01

    Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossès, France), a new tricalcium silicate cement formulation, has been introduced as a bioactive dentine substitute to be used in direct contact with pulp tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to the material and whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signal pathways played a regulatory role in Biodentine-induced odontoblast differentiation. hDPCs obtained from impacted third molars were incubated with Biodentine. Odontoblastic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin red staining, and quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the analysis of messenger RNA expression of the following differentiation gene markers: osteocalcin (OCN), dentin sialophosprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), and bone sialoprotein (BSP). Cell cultures in the presence of Biodentine were exposed to specific inhibitors of MAPK (U0126, SB203580, and SP600125), NF-κB (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate), and CaMKII (KN-93) pathways to evaluate the regulatory effect on the expression of these markers and mineralization assay. Biodentine significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized nodule formation and the expression of OCN, DSPP, DMP1, and BSP. The MAPK inhibitor for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (U0126) and Jun N-terminal kinase (SP600125) significantly decreased the Biodentine-induced mineralized differentiation of hDPSCs and OCN, DSPP, DMP1, and BSP messenger RNA expression, whereas p38 MAPK inhibitors (SB203580) had no effect. The CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 significantly attenuated and the NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate further enhanced the up-regulation of Biodentine-induced gene expression and mineralization. Biodentine is a bioactive and biocompatible material capable

  3. Histidine-rich glycoprotein binds DNA and RNA and attenuates their capacity to activate the intrinsic coagulation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Trang T; Leslie, Beverly A; Stafford, Alan R; Zhou, Ji; Fredenburgh, James C; Weitz, Jeffrey I

    2016-01-01

    When triggered by factor (F) XII and nucleic acids, we showed that thrombosis in HRG-deficient mice is accelerated compared with that in wild-type mice. In this study, we set out to identify the mechanisms by which nucleic acids promote contact activation, and to determine whether HRG attenuates their effects. DNA or RNA addition to human plasma enhances thrombin generation via the intrinsic pathway and shortens the clotting time. Their effect on the clotting time is seven- to 14-fold greater in HRG-deficient plasma than in control plasma. Investigations into the mechanisms of activation reveal that nucleic acids a) promote FXII activation in the presence of prekallikrein- and high molecular weight kininogen (HK), and b) enhance thrombin-mediated FXI activation by 10- to 12-fold. Surface plasmon resonance studies show that DNA and RNA bind FXII, FXIIa, HK, FXI, FXIa and thrombin with high affinity. HRG attenuates DNA- and RNA-mediated FXII activation, and FXI activation by FXIIa or by thrombin, suggesting that HRG down regulates the capacity of DNA and RNA to activate the intrinsic pathway. Therefore, HRG attenuates the procoagulant activity of nucleic acids at multiple levels.

  4. Combined molecular docking and QSAR study of fused heterocyclic herbicide inhibitors of D1 protein in photosystem II of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funar-Timofei, Simona; Borota, Ana; Crisan, Luminita

    2017-05-01

    Cinnoline, pyridine, pyrimidine, and triazine herbicides were found be inhibitors of the D1 protein in photosystem II (D1 PSII) electron transport of plants. The photosystem II inhibitory activity of these herbicides, expressed by experimental [Formula: see text] values, was modeled by a docking and quantitative structure-activity relationships study. A conformer ensemble for each of the herbicide structure was generated using the MMFF94s force field. These conformers were further employed in a docking approach, which provided new information about the rational "active conformations" and various interaction patterns of the herbicide derivatives with D1 PSII. The most "active conformers" from the docking study were used to calculate structural descriptors, which were further related to the inhibitory experimental [Formula: see text] values by multiple linear regression (MLR). The dataset was divided into training and test sets according to the partition around medoids approach, taking 27% of the compounds from the entire series for the test set. Variable selection was performed using the genetic algorithm, and several criteria were checked for model performance. WHIM and GETAWAY geometrical descriptors (position of substituents and moieties in the molecular space) were found to contribute to the herbicidal activity. The derived MLR model is statistically significant, shows very good stability and was used to predict the herbicidal activity of new derivatives having cinnoline, indeno[1.2-c]cinnoline-ll-one, triazolo[1,5-a] pyridine, imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine, triazine and triazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidine scaffolds whose experimental inhibitory activity against D1 PSII had not been determined up to now.

  5. Interaction of alpha-conotoxin ImII and its analogs with nicotinic receptors and acetylcholine-binding proteins: additional binding sites on Torpedo receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasheverov, I.E.; Zhmak, M.N.; Fish, A.; Rucktooa, P.; Khruschov, A.Y.; Osipov, A.V.; Ziganshin, R.H.; D'Hoedt, D.; Bertrand, D.; Sixma, T.K.; Smit, A.B.; Tsetlin, V.I.

    2009-01-01

    α-Conotoxins interact with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBPs) at the sites for agonists/competitive antagonists. α-Conotoxins blocking muscle-type or α7 nAChRs compete with α-bungarotoxin. However, α-conotoxin ImII, a close homolog of the α7

  6. The DC1-domain protein VACUOLELESS GAMETOPHYTES is essential for development of female and male gametophytes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ippólito, Sebastián; Arias, Leonardo Agustín; Casalongué, Claudia Anahí; Pagnussat, Gabriela Carolina; Fiol, Diego Fernando

    2017-04-01

    In this work we identified VACUOLELESS GAMETOPHYTES (VLG) as a DC1 domain-containing protein present in the endomembrane system and essential for development of both female and male gametophytes. VLG was originally annotated as a gene coding for a protein of unknown function containing DC1 domains. DC1 domains are cysteine- and histidine-rich zinc finger domains found exclusively in the plant kingdom that have been named on the basis of similarity with the C1 domain present in protein kinase C (PKC). In Arabidopsis, both male and female gametophytes are characterized by the formation of a large vacuole early in development; this is absent in vlg mutant plants. As a consequence, development is arrested in embryo sacs and pollen grains at the first mitotic division. VLG is specifically located in multivesicular bodies or pre-vacuolar compartments, and our results suggest that vesicular fusion is affected in the mutants, disrupting vacuole formation. Supporting this idea, AtPVA12 - a member of the SNARE vesicle-associated protein family and previously related to a sterol-binding protein, was identified as a VLG interactor. A role for VLG is proposed mediating vesicular fusion in plants as part of the sterol trafficking machinery required for vacuole biogenesis in plants. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Staphylococcus aureus extracellular matrix protein (Emp) has a fibrous structure and binds to different extracellular matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Jennifer; Neubauer, Svetlana; Pöllath, Christine; Hansen, Uwe; Rizzo, Fabio; Krafft, Christoph; Westermann, Martin; Hussain, Muzaffar; Peters, Georg; Pletz, Mathias W; Löffler, Bettina; Makarewicz, Oliwia; Tuchscherr, Lorena

    2017-10-20

    The extracellular matrix protein Emp of Staphylococcus aureus is a secreted adhesin that mediates interactions between the bacterial surface and extracellular host structures. However, its structure and role in staphylococcal pathogenesis remain unknown. Using multidisciplinary approaches, including circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron (TEM) and immunogold transmission electron microscopy, functional ELISA assays and in silico techniques, we characterized the Emp protein. We demonstrated that Emp and its truncated forms bind to suprastructures in human skin, cartilage or bone, among which binding activity seems to be higher for skin compounds. The binding domain is located in the C-terminal part of the protein. CD spectroscopy revealed high contents of β-sheets (39.58%) and natively disordered structures (41.2%), and TEM suggested a fibrous structure consisting of Emp polymers. The N-terminus seems to be essential for polymerization. Due to the uncommonly high histidine content, we suggest that Emp represents a novel type of histidine-rich protein sharing structural similarities to leucine-rich repeats proteins as predicted by the I-TASSER algorithm. These new findings suggest a role of Emp in infections of deeper tissue and open new possibilities for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  8. Possible interrelationship between changes in F-actin and myosin II, protein phosphorylation, and cell volume regulation in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S F; Hoffmann, E K

    2002-01-01

    Osmotic shrinkage of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EATC) elicited translocation of myosin II from the cytosol to the cortical region, and swelling elicits concentration of myosin II in the Golgi region. Rho kinase and p38 both appeared to be involved in shrinkage-induced myosin II reorganization....... In contrast, the previously reported shrinkage-induced actin polymerization [Pedersen et al. (1999) Exp. Cell Res. 252, 63-74] was independent of Rho kinase, p38, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), and protein kinase C (PKC), which thus do not exert their effects on the shrinkage-activated transporters via...... by osmotic shrinkage and by the serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor Calyculin A (CL-A). Both stimuli caused Rho kinase-dependent myosin II relocation to the cortical cytoplasm, but in contrast to the shrinkage-induced F-actin polymerization, CL-A treatment elicited a slight F-actin depolymerization...

  9. H-ras deletion protects against angiotensin II-induced arterial hypertension and cardiac remodeling through protein kinase G-Iβ pathway activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sánchez, Paloma; Luengo, Alicia; Griera, Mercedes; Orea, María Jesús; López-Olañeta, Marina; Chiloeches, Antonio; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique; de Frutos, Sergio; Rodríguez-Puyol, Manuel; Calleros, Laura; Rodríguez-Puyol, Diego

    2017-10-20

    Ras proteins regulate cell survival, growth, differentiation, blood pressure, and fibrosis in some organs. We have demonstrated that H-ras gene deletion produces mice hypotension via a soluble guanylate cyclase-protein kinase G (PKG)-dependent mechanism. In this study, we analyzed the consequences of H-ras deletion on cardiac remodeling induced by continuous angiotensin II (AngII) infusion and the molecular mechanisms implied. Left ventricular posterior wall thickness and mass and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area were similar between AngII-treated H-Ras knockout (H-ras(-/-) ) and control wild-type (H-ras(+/+) ) mice, as were extracellular matrix protein expression. Increased cardiac PKG-Iβ protein expression in H-ras(-/-) mice suggests the involvement of this protein in heart protection. Ex vivo experiments on cardiac explants could support this mechanism, as PKG blockade blunted protection against AngII-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis markers in H-ras(-/-) mice. Genetic modulation studies in cardiomyocytes and cardiac and embryonic fibroblasts revealed that the lack of H-Ras down-regulates the B-RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, which induces the glycogen synthase kinase-3β-dependent activation of the transcription factor, cAMP response element-binding protein, which is responsible for PKG-Iβ overexpression in H-ras(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts. This study demonstrates that H-ras deletion protects against AngII-induced cardiac remodeling, possibly via a mechanism in which PKG-Iβ overexpression could play a partial role, and points to H-Ras and/or downstream proteins as potential therapeutic targets in cardiovascular disease.-Martín-Sánchez, P., Luengo, A., Griera, M., Orea, M. J., López-Olañeta, M., Chiloeches, A., Lara-Pezzi, E., de Frutos, S., Rodríguez-Puyol, M., Calleros, L., Rodríguez-Puyol, D. H-ras deletion protects against angiotensin II-induced arterial hypertension and cardiac remodeling through protein kinase G-Iβ pathway activation.

  10. Engineering multifunctional protein nanoparticles by in vitro disassembling and reassembling of heterologous building blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzueta, Ugutz; Serna, Naroa; Sánchez-García, Laura; Roldán, Mónica; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; Mangues, Ramón; Villaverde, Antonio; Vázquez, Esther

    2017-12-01

    The engineering of protein self-assembling at the nanoscale allows the generation of functional and biocompatible materials, which can be produced by easy biological fabrication. The combination of cationic and histidine-rich stretches in fusion proteins promotes oligomerization as stable protein-only regular nanoparticles that are composed by a moderate number of building blocks. Among other applications, these materials are highly appealing as tools in targeted drug delivery once empowered with peptidic ligands of cell surface receptors. In this context, we have dissected here this simple technological platform regarding the controlled disassembling and reassembling of the composing building blocks. By applying high salt and imidazole in combination, nanoparticles are disassembled in a process that is fully reversible upon removal of the disrupting agents. By taking this approach, we accomplish here the in vitro generation of hybrid nanoparticles formed by heterologous building blocks. This fact demonstrates the capability to generate multifunctional and/or multiparatopic or multispecific materials usable in nanomedical applications.

  11. Melanocortinergic activation by melanotan II inhibits feeding and increases uncoupling protein 1 messenger ribonucleic acid in the developing rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavas, Maria M; Joachim, Sandra E; Draper, Shin J; Smith, M Susan; Grove, Kevin L

    2007-07-01

    The hypothalamic neurocircuitry that regulates energy homeostasis in adult rats is not fully developed until the third postnatal week. In particular, fibers from the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, including both neuropeptide Y (NPY) and alpha-MSH fibers, do not begin to innervate downstream hypothalamic targets until the second postnatal week. However, alpha-MSH fibers from the brainstem and melanocortin receptors are present in the hypothalamus at birth. The present study investigated the melanocortin system in the early postnatal period by examining effects of the melanocortin receptor agonist melanotan II (MTII) on body weight, energy expenditure, and hypothalamic NPY expression. Rat pups were injected ip with MTII (3 mg/kg body weight) or saline on postnatal day (P) 5 to P6, P10-P11, or P15-P16 at 1700 and 0900 h and then killed at 1300 h. Stomach weight and brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein 1 mRNA were determined. In addition, we assessed central c-Fos activation 90 min after MTII administration and hypothalamic NPY mRNA after twice daily MTII administration from P5-P10 or P10-P15. MTII induced hypothalamic c-Fos activation as well as attenuating body weight gain in rat pups. Stomach weight was significantly decreased and uncoupling protein 1 mRNA was increased at all ages, indicating decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure, respectively. However, MTII had no effect on NPY mRNA levels in any hypothalamic region. These findings demonstrate that MTII can inhibit food intake and stimulate energy expenditure before the full development of hypothalamic feeding neurocircuitry. These effects do not appear to be mediated by changes in NPY expression.

  12. Effect of angiotensin II type 2 receptor-interacting protein on adipose tissue function via modulation of macrophage polarization.

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    Fei Jing

    Full Text Available We demonstrated that angiotensin II type 2 (AT2 receptor-interacting protein (ATIP 1 ameliorates inflammation-mediated vascular remodeling independent of the AT2 receptor, leading us to explore the possibility of whether ATIP1 could exert anti-inflammatory effects and play a role in other pathophysiological conditions. We examined the possible anti-inflammatory effects of ATIP1 in adipose tissue associated with amelioration of insulin resistance. In mice fed a high-cholesterol diet, adipose tissue macrophage (ATM infiltration and M1-to-M2 ratio were decreased in ATIP1 transgenic mice (ATIP1-Tg compared with wild-type mice (WT, with decreased expression of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in white adipose tissue (WAT, but an increase in interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, 2-[(3H]deoxy-d-glucose (2-[(3H]DG uptake was significantly increased in ATIP1-Tg compared with WT. Next, we examined the roles of ATIP1 in BM-derived hematopoietic cells, employing chimeric mice produced by BM transplantation into irradiated type 2 diabetic mice with obesity, KKAy, as recipients. ATM infiltration and M1-to-M2 ratio were decreased in ATIP1 chimera (ATIP1-tg as BM donor, with improvement of insulin-mediated 2-[(3H]DG uptake and amelioration of inflammation in WAT. Moreover, serum adiponectin concentration in ATIP1 chimera was significantly higher than that in WT chimera (WT as BM donor and KKAy chimera (KKAy as BM donor. These results indicate that ATIP1 could exert anti-inflammatory effects in adipose tissue via macrophage polarization associated with improvement of insulin resistance, and ATIP1 in hematopoietic cells may contribute to these beneficial effects on adipose tissue functions in type 2 diabetes.

  13. High-efficiency type II cell-enhanced green fluorescent protein expression facilitates cellular identification, tracking, and isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Jeff N; Gonzalez, Robert F; Allen, Lennell; Gillespie, AnneMarie; Leaffer, David; Dean, Willow B; Chapin, Cheryl; Dobbs, Leland G

    2015-07-01

    We have developed a transgenic mouse expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in virtually all type II (TII) alveolar epithelial cells. The CBG mouse (SPC-BAC-EGFP) contains a bacterial artificial chromosome modified to express EGFP within the mouse surfactant protein (SP)-C gene 3' untranslated region. EGFP mRNA expression is limited to the lung. EGFP fluorescence is both limited to and exhibited by all cells expressing pro-SP-C; fluorescence is uniform throughout all lobes of the lung and does not change as mice age. EGFP(+) cells also express SP-B but do not express podoplanin, a type I (TI) cell marker. CBG mice show no evidence of lung disease with aging. In 3 hours, TII cells can be isolated in >99% purity from CBG mice by FACS; the yield of 3.7 ± 0.6 × 10(6) cells represents approximately 25 to 60% of the TII cells in the lung. By FACS analysis, approximately 0.9% of TII cells are in mitosis in uninjured lungs; after bleomycin injury, 4.1% are in mitosis. Because EGFP fluorescence can be detected for >14 days in culture, at a time that SP-C mRNA expression is essentially nil, this line may be useful for tracking TII cells in culture and in vivo. When CBG mice are crossed to transgenic mice expressing rat podoplanin, TI and TII cells can be easily simultaneously identified and isolated. When bred to other strains of mice, EGFP expression can be used to identify TII cells without the need for immunostaining for SP-C. These mice should be useful in models of mouse pulmonary disease and in studies of TII cell biology, biochemistry, and genetics.

  14. Solution structure and interface-driven self-assembly of NC2, a new member of the Class II hydrophobin proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qin; Kwan, Ann H; Sunde, Margaret

    2014-06-01

    Hydrophobins are fungal proteins that self-assemble spontaneously to form amphipathic monolayers at hydrophobic:hydrophilic interfaces. Hydrophobin assemblies facilitate fungal transitions between wet and dry environments and interactions with plant and animal hosts. NC2 is a previously uncharacterized hydrophobin from Neurospora crassa. It is a highly surface active protein and is able to form protein layers on a water:air interface that stabilize air bubbles. On a hydrophobic substrate, NC2 forms layers consisting of an ordered network of protein molecules, which dramatically decrease the water contact angle. The solution structure and dynamics of NC2 have been determined using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The structure of this protein displays the same core fold as observed in other hydrophobin structures determined to date, including the Class II hydrophobins HFBI and HFBII from Trichoderma reesei, but certain features illuminate the structural differences between Classes I and II hydrophobins and also highlight the variations between structures of Class II hydrophobin family members. The unique properties of hydrophobins have attracted much attention for biotechnology applications. The insights obtained through determining the structure, biophysical properties and assembly characteristics of NC2 will facilitate the development of hydrophobin-based applications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Procalcitonin and BISAP score versus C-reactive protein and APACHE II score in early assessment of severity and outcome of acute pancreatitis.

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    Bezmarević, Mihailo; Kostić, Zoran; Jovanović, Miodrag; Micković, Sasa; Mirković, Darko; Soldatović, Ivan; Trifunović, Bratislav; Pejović, Janko; Vujanić, Svetlana

    2012-05-01

    Early assessment of severity and continuous monitoring of patients are the key factors for adequate treatment of acute pancreatitis (AP). The aim of this study was to determine the value of procalcitonin (PCT) and Bedside Index for Severity in Acute Pancreatitis (BISAP) scoring system as prognostic markers in early stages of AP with comparison to other established indicators such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score. This prospective study included 51 patients (29 with severe AP). In the first 24 h of admission in all patients the APACHE II score and BISAP score, CRP and PCT serum concentrations were determined. The values of PCT serum concentrations and BISAP score were compared with values of CRP serum concentrations and APACHE II score, in relation to the severity and outcome of the disease. Values of PCT, CRP, BISAP score and APACHE II score, measured at 24 h of admission, were significantly elevated in patients with severe form of the disease. In predicting severity of AP at 24 h of admission, sensitivity and specificity of the BISAP score were 74% and 59%, respectively, APACHE II score 89% and 69%, respectively, CRP 75% and 86%, respectively, and PCT 86% and 63%, respectively. It was found that PCT is highly significant predictor of the disease outcome (p APACHE II score. APACHE II score is a stronger predictor of the disease severity than BISAP score. PCT is a good predictor of AP outcome.

  16. Plasma concentrations of copeptin, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin are positively correlated with APACHE II scores in patients with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Feng, Bing; Gao, Dongna; Zhang, Yu

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the correlation between Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score and plasma concentrations of copeptin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin in patients with sepsis. Patients with sepsis were prospectively enrolled. APACHE II scores were determined during the first 24 h after admission to the intensive care unit. Plasma copeptin, CRP and procalcitonin were quantified at admission, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. Survival at 28 days after admission was recorded. APACHE II score was significantly positively correlated with plasma copeptin, CRP and procalcitonin concentrations. Survivors (n = 15) had significantly lower APACHE II scores and copeptin, CRP and procalcitonin concentrations than nonsurvivors (n = 26). APACHE II score, copeptin at 72 h, CRP at 48 h and procalcitonin at 24 h were independent risk factors for death. Plasma copeptin, CRP and procalcitonin concentrations were positively correlated with APACHE II score in patients with sepsis, and reflected disease severity. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Distinct genetic difference between the Duffy binding protein (PkDBPαII) of Plasmodium knowlesi clinical isolates from North Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Mun-Yik; Rashdi, Sarah A A; Yusof, Ruhani; Lau, Yee-Ling

    2015-02-21

    Plasmodium knowlesi is one of the monkey malaria parasites that can cause human malaria. The Duffy binding protein of P. knowlesi (PkDBPαII) is essential for the parasite's invasion into human and monkey erythrocytes. A previous study on P. knowlesi clinical isolates from Peninsular Malaysia reported high level of genetic diversity in the PkDBPαII. Furthermore, 36 amino acid haplotypes were identified and these haplotypes could be separated into allele group I and allele group II. In the present study, the PkDBPαII of clinical isolates from the Malaysian states of Sarawak and Sabah in North Borneo was investigated, and compared with the PkDBPαII of Peninsular Malaysia isolates. Blood samples from 28 knowlesi malaria patients were used. These samples were collected between 2011 and 2013 from hospitals in North Borneo. The PkDBPαII region of the isolates was amplified by PCR, cloned into Escherichia coli, and sequenced. The genetic diversity, natural selection and phylogenetics of PkDBPαII haplotypes were analysed using MEGA5 and DnaSP ver. 5.10.00 programmes. Forty-nine PkDBPαII sequences were obtained. Comparison at the nucleotide level against P. knowlesi strain H as reference sequence revealed 58 synonymous and 102 non-synonymous mutations. Analysis on these mutations showed that PkDBPαII was under purifying (negative) selection. At the amino acid level, 38 different PkDBPαII haplotypes were identified. Twelve of the 28 blood samples had mixed haplotype infections. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the haplotypes were in allele group I, but they formed a sub-group that was distinct from those of Peninsular Malaysia. Wright's FST fixation index indicated high genetic differentiation between the North Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia haplotypes. This study is the first to report the genetic diversity and natural selection of PkDBPαII of P. knowlesi from Borneo Island. The PkDBPαII haplotypes found in this study were distinct from those from

  18. Cu(II), Ni(II) complexes derived from chiral Schiff-base ligands: Synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity, protein and DNA-binding properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Yan, Hui; Chang, Guoliang; Hong, Min; Dou, Jianmin; Niu, Meiju

    2016-10-01

    A series of novel copper (II) and nickel (II) complexes derived from chiral Schiff-base ligands [(R)/(S)-H2L(1)=(R)/(S)-2-[(1-Hydroxymethyl-propylimino)-methyl]-5-methoxy-phenol and (R)/(S)-H2L(2)=(R)/(S)-2-[(1-Hydroxymethyl-2-phenyl-ethylimino)-methyl]-5-methoxy-phenol], were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, (1)H NMR spectra, FT-IR spectrum. The crystal structures of complexes 1-5 were determined through single crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD). The structures showed the ligands coordinated to the Cu/Ni (II) ion in a neutral manner via ONO donor atoms, and oxygen atoms of solvent molecules occupy the axial positions in Ni (II) complexes 3 and 4. The complexes interactions with BSA and CT-DNA were investigated by various spectroscopic methods (UV-Visible, circular dichroism spectrum, fluorescence spectroscopic and synchronous fluorescence spectra). Interactions of chiral copper (II) complexes are stronger than nickel (II) complexes. Further, the cytotoxicities of the complexes 1-6 towards three kinds of cancerous cell lines, were human lung adenocarcinoma (A549), human cervical carcinoma cell (HeLa) and human breast cancer cell (MCF-7) respectively, were evaluated by MTT assay. All complexes exhibited good cytotoxic activity. Furthermore, Cu (II) complex 5 derived from (R)-Schiff-base ligand was found to be more effective towards HeLa cancerous cell. The results showed that chirality and metal ion have important influence on their anticancer activities and interactions with DNA/BSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Combined EXAFS and DFT Structure Calculations Provide Structural Insights into the 1:1 Multi-Histidine Complexes of CuII, CuI and ZnII with the Tandem Octarepeats of the Mammalian Prion Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushie, M. Jake; Nienaber, Kurt H.; McDonald, Alex; Millhauser, Glenn L.; George, Graham N.

    2014-01-01

    The metal coordinating properties of the prion protein (PrP) have been the subject of intense focus and debate since the first reports of copper interaction with PrP just before the turn of the century. The picture of metal coordination to PrP has been improved and refined over the past decade, and yet the structural details of the various metal coordination modes have not been fully elucidated in some cases. Herein we employ X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy as well as extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to structurally characterize the dominant 1:1 coordination modes for CuII, CuI and ZnII with an N-terminal fragment of PrP. The PrP fragment constitutes four tandem repeats representative of the mammalian octarepeat domain, designated OR4, which is also the most studied PrP fragment for metal interactions, making our findings applicable to a large body of previous work. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations provide additional structural and thermodynamic data, and candidate structures are used to inform EXAFS data analysis. The optimized geometries from DFT calculations are used to identify potential coordination complexes for multi-histidine coordination of CuII, CuI and ZnII in an aqueous medium, modeled using 4-methylimidazole to represent the histidine side chain. Through a combination of in silico coordination chemistry as well as rigorous EXAFS curve fitting, using full multiple scattering on candidate structures from DFT calculations, we have characterized the predominant coordination modes for the 1:1 complexes of CuII, CuI and ZnII with the OR4 peptide at pH 7.4 at atomic resolution, which are best represented as a square planar [CuII(His)4]2+, digonal [CuI(His)2]+ and tetrahedral [ZnII(His)3(OH2)]2+, respectively. PMID:25042361

  20. Upregulation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Synthesis and Consequent Collagen II Expression in Leptin-stimulated Human Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shun-Fu; Hsieh, Rong-Ze; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Chang, Cheng Allen; Chiu, Fang-Yao; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Chen, Cheng-Nan; Su, Yu-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play positive roles in cartilage development, but they can barely be detected in healthy articular cartilage. However, recent evidence has indicated that BMPs could be detected in osteoarthritic and damaged cartilage and their precise roles have not been well defined. Extremely high amounts of leptin have been reported in obese individuals, which can be associated with osteoarthritis (OA) development. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BMPs could be induced in human primary chondrocytes during leptin-stimulated OA development and the underlying mechanism. We found that expression of BMP-2 mRNA, but not BMP-4, BMP-6, or BMP-7 mRNA, could be increased in human primary chondrocytes under leptin stimulation. Moreover, this BMP-2 induction was mediated through transcription factor-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 activation via JAK2-ERK1/2-induced Ser727-phosphorylation. Of note, histone deacetylases (HDACs) 3 and 4 were both involved in modulating leptin-induced BMP-2 mRNA expression through different pathways: HDAC3, but not HDAC4, associated with STAT3 to form a complex. Our results further demonstrated that the role of BMP-2 induction under leptin stimulation is to increase collagen II expression. The findings in this study provide new insights into the regulatory mechanism of BMP-2 induction in leptin-stimulated chondrocytes and suggest that BMP-2 may play a reparative role in regulating leptin-induced OA development.

  1. Upregulation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Synthesis and Consequent Collagen II Expression in Leptin-stimulated Human Chondrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Fu Chang

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs play positive roles in cartilage development, but they can barely be detected in healthy articular cartilage. However, recent evidence has indicated that BMPs could be detected in osteoarthritic and damaged cartilage and their precise roles have not been well defined. Extremely high amounts of leptin have been reported in obese individuals, which can be associated with osteoarthritis (OA development. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BMPs could be induced in human primary chondrocytes during leptin-stimulated OA development and the underlying mechanism. We found that expression of BMP-2 mRNA, but not BMP-4, BMP-6, or BMP-7 mRNA, could be increased in human primary chondrocytes under leptin stimulation. Moreover, this BMP-2 induction was mediated through transcription factor-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT 3 activation via JAK2-ERK1/2-induced Ser727-phosphorylation. Of note, histone deacetylases (HDACs 3 and 4 were both involved in modulating leptin-induced BMP-2 mRNA expression through different pathways: HDAC3, but not HDAC4, associated with STAT3 to form a complex. Our results further demonstrated that the role of BMP-2 induction under leptin stimulation is to increase collagen II expression. The findings in this study provide new insights into the regulatory mechanism of BMP-2 induction in leptin-stimulated chondrocytes and suggest that BMP-2 may play a reparative role in regulating leptin-induced OA development.

  2. Regulation of Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II Signaling within Hippocampal Glutamatergic Postsynapses during Flurazepam Withdrawal

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    Damien E. Earl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cessation of one-week oral administration of the benzodiazepine flurazepam (FZP to rats results in withdrawal anxiety after 1 day of withdrawal. FZP withdrawal is correlated with synaptic incorporation of homomeric GluA1-containing α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptors (AMPARs in the proximal stratum radiatum of CA1 neurons. After 2 days of withdrawal, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII phosphorylates GluA1 subunits at Ser831, increasing channel conductance. Secondary to AMPAR potentiation, GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs, known binding partners of CaMKII, are selectively removed from the postsynaptic density (PSD. While activation of synaptic CaMKII is known to involve translocation to the PSD, CaMKII bound to NMDARs may be removed from the PSD. To distinguish these possibilities, the current studies used postembedding immunogold electron microscopy to investigate alterations in CaMKII signaling at CA1 stratum radiatum synapses after 2 days of FZP withdrawal. These studies revealed decreased total, but not autophosphorylated (Thr286 CaMKIIα expression in CA1 PSDs. The removal of CaMKII-GluN2B complexes from the PSD during drug withdrawal may serve as a homeostatic mechanism to limit AMPAR-mediated CA1 neuron hyperexcitability and benzodiazepine withdrawal anxiety.

  3. Casein kinase II induced polymerization of soluble TDP-43 into filaments is inhibited by heat shock proteins.

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    Yari Carlomagno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trans-activation Response DNA-binding Protein-43 (TDP-43 lesions are observed in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration with ubiquitin inclusions (FTLD-TDP and 25-50% of Alzheimer's Disease (AD cases. These abnormal protein inclusions are composed of either amorphous TDP-43 aggregates or highly ordered filaments. The filamentous TDP-43 accumulations typically contain clean 10-12 nm filaments though wider 18-20 nm coated filaments may be observed. The TDP-43 present within these lesions is phosphorylated, truncated and ubiquitinated, and these modifications appear to be abnormal as they are linked to both a cellular heat shock response and microglial activation. The mechanisms associated with this abnormal TDP-43 accumulation are believed to result in a loss of TDP-43 function, perhaps due to the post-translational modifications or resulting from physical sequestration of the TDP-43. The formation of TDP-43 inclusions involves cellular translocation and conversion of TDP-43 into fibrillogenic forms, but the ability of these accumulations to sequester normal TDP-43 and propagate this behavior between neurons pathologically is mostly inferred. The lack of methodology to produce soluble full length TDP-43 and recapitulate this polymerization into filaments as observed in disease has limited our understanding of these pathogenic cascades. RESULTS: The protocols described here generate soluble, full-length and untagged TDP-43 allowing for a direct assessment of the impact of various posttranslational modifications on TDP-43 function. We demonstrate that Casein Kinase II (CKII promotes the polymerization of this soluble TDP-43 into 10 nm diameter filaments that resemble the most common TDP-43 structures observed in disease. Furthermore, these filaments are recognized as abnormal by Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs which can inhibit TDP-43 polymerization or directly promote TDP-43 filament depolymerization. CONCLUSION

  4. Apolipocrustacein, formerly vitellogenin, is the major egg yolk precursor protein in decapod crustaceans and is homologous to insect apolipophorin II/I and vertebrate apolipoprotein B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubzens Esther

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In animals, the biogenesis of some lipoprotein classes requires members of the ancient large lipid transfer protein (LLTP superfamily, including the cytosolic large subunit of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP, vertebrate apolipoprotein B (apoB, vitellogenin (Vtg, and insect apolipophorin II/I precursor (apoLp-II/I. In most oviparous species, Vtg, a large glycolipoprotein, is the main egg yolk precursor protein. Results This report clarifies the phylogenetic relationships of LLTP superfamily members and classifies them into three families and their related subfamilies. This means that the generic term Vtg is no longer a functional term, but is rather based on phylogenetic/structural criteria. In addition, we determined that the main egg yolk precursor protein of decapod crustaceans show an overall greater sequence similarity with apoLp-II/I than other LLTP, including Vtgs. This close association is supported by the phylogenetic analysis, i.e. neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods, of conserved sequence motifs and the presence of three common conserved domains: an N-terminal large lipid transfer module marker for LLTP, a DUF1081 domain of unknown function in their central region exclusively shared with apoLp-II/I and apoB, and a von Willebrand-factor type D domain at their C-terminal end. Additionally, they share a conserved functional subtilisin-like endoprotease cleavage site with apoLp-II/I, in a similar location. Conclusion The structural and phylogenetic data presented indicate that the major egg yolk precursor protein of decapod crustaceans is surprisingly closely related to insect apoLp-II/I and vertebrate apoB and should be known as apolipocrustacein (apoCr rather than Vtg. These LLTP may arise from an ancient duplication event leading to paralogs of Vtg sequences. The presence of LLTP homologs in one genome may facilitate redundancy, e.g. involvement in lipid metabolism and as

  5. Early changes of hypothalamic angiotensin II receptors expression in gestational protein-restricted offspring: effect on water intake, blood pressure and renal sodium handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Marcelo Cardoso; Scabora, José Eduardo; Lopes, Agnes; Mesquita, Flávia Fernandes; Torres, Daniele; Boer, Patrícia Aline; Gontijo, José Antonio Rocha

    2013-09-01

    The current study examines changes in the postnatal hypothalamic angiotensin receptors by maternal protein restriction (LP), and its impact on in uteri programming of hypertension in adult life. The data show that LP male pup body weight was significantly reduced when compared to that of control (NP) pups. Also, immunoblotting analysis demonstrated a significantly decreased expression of type 1 AngII receptors (AT1R) in the entire hypothalamic tissue extract of LP rats at 12 days of age compared to age-matched NP offspring. Conversely, the expression of the type 2 AngII (AT2R) receptors in 12-day- and 16-week-old LP hypothalamus was significantly increased. The current data show the influence of central AngII administration on water consumption in a concentration-dependent fashion, but also demonstrate that the water intake response to AngII was strikingly attenuated in 16-week-old LP. These results may be related to decreased brain arginine vasopressin (AVP) expression appearing in maternal protein-restricted offspring. The present investigation shows an early decrease in fractional urinary sodium excretion in maternal protein-restricted offspring. The decreased fractional sodium excretion was accompanied by a fall in proximal sodium excretion and occurred despite unchanged creatinine clearance. These effects were associated with a significant enhancement in arterial blood pressure in the LP group, but the precise mechanism of these phenomena remains unknown.

  6. Natural variation in phosphorylation of photosystem II proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana: is it caused by genetic variation in the STN kinases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Pádraic J.; Yin, Lan; Herdean, Andrei; Harbinson, Jeremy; Aarts, Mark G. M.; Spetea, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Reversible phosphorylation of photosystem II (PSII) proteins is an important regulatory mechanism that can protect plants from changes in ambient light intensity and quality. We hypothesized that there is natural variation in this process in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and that this results from genetic variation in the STN7 and STN8 kinase genes. To test this, Arabidopsis accessions of diverse geographical origins were exposed to two light regimes, and the levels of phospho-D1 and phospho-light harvesting complex II (LHCII) proteins were quantified by western blotting with anti-phosphothreonine antibodies. Accessions were classified as having high, moderate or low phosphorylation relative to Col-0. This variation could not be explained by the abundance of the substrates in thylakoid membranes. In genotypes with atrazine-resistant forms of the D1 protein, low D1 and LHCII protein phosphorylation was observed, which may be due to low PSII efficiency, resulting in reduced activation of the STN kinases. In the remaining genotypes, phospho-D1 levels correlated with STN8 protein abundance in high-light conditions. In growth light, D1 and LHCII phosphorylation correlated with longitude and in the case of LHCII phosphorylation also with temperature variability. This suggests a possible role of natural variation in PSII protein phosphorylation in the adaptation of Arabidopsis to diverse environments. PMID:24591726

  7. Preoperative prognostic values of α-fetoprotein (AFP) and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma for living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok-Hwan; Moon, Deok-Bog; Kim, Wan-Joon; Kang, Woo-Hyoung; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Jwa, Eun Kyung; Cho, Hwui-Dong; Ha, Su-Min; Chung, Yong-Kyu; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2016-12-01

    Adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is one of the best treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, when recurrence of HCC after LDLT occurs, the prognosis is poor because of rapid progression. Preoperative level of α-fetoprotein (AFP) and protein induced by vitamin K antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) reportedly correlate with recurrence of HCC after LDLT. We examined AFP and PIVKA-II preoperatively as predictors of HCC recurrence in 461 patients who underwent LDLT using right liver graft for HCC from May 2007 to December 2013. Among these, 77 patients (16.7%) who experienced recurrence were retrospectively reviewed. Multivariate analysis revealed tumor size >5 cm, AFP >150 nag/mol and PIVKA-II >100 maul/mol as significant independent risk factors for recurrence. The median time to recurrence was 10 months. The median survival time after recurrence was 26 months, and the 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates after recurrence were 80.5%, 58%, and 28.3% respectively. Preoperatively, not only morphology of the tumor but also AFP and PIVKA-II levels can offers important information for the recurrence after LDLT for HCC. Thus, combination of tumor markers might be used for expansion of pre-existing strict selection criteria of liver transplantation for HCC.

  8. PRB1, PRB2, and PRB4 coded polymorphisms among human salivary concanavalin-A binding, II-1, and Po proline-rich proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azen, E.A.; Amberger, E.; Niece, R.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    Six closely linked PRP (proline-rich protein) genes code for many salivary PRPs that show frequent length and null variants. From determined protein sequences and DNA sequence analysis of variant alleles, we here report the coding and molecular basis for Con (concanavalin A-binding) and Po (parotid {open_quotes}o{close_quotes}) protein polymorphisms. The Con1 glycoprotein is encoded in exon 3 of a PRB2 allele (PRB2L CON1+) with a potential N-linked glycosylation site. Because of a probable gene conversion encompassing {ge}684 bp of DNA, the {open_quotes}PRB2-like{close_quotes} Con2 glycoprotein is encoded in exon 3 of a PRB1 allele (PRB1M CON2+) with a potential glycosylation site. The PmF protein is also encoded in the PRB1M CON2+ allele, thus explaining the previously reported association between Con2 and PmF proteins. A PRB2L CON1-allele contains a single nt missense change [TCT(Ser){yields}CCT(Pro)] that abolishes the potential N-linked glycosylation site (NKS{yields}NKP) in the Con1 protein, and this explains the Con-type. The Po protein and a glycoprotein (II-1) are encoded in the PRB4 gene, and both proteins are absent in the presence of a mutation in the PRB4M PO- allele that contains a single nt change (G{yields}C) at the +1 invariant position of the intron 3 5{prime} donor splice site. The genetically determined absence of the II-1 glycoprotein leads to altered in vitro binding of Streptococcus sanguis 10556 to salivary proteins, which suggests a biological consequence for null mutations of the PRB4 gene. 33 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Synthesis of Bacteriophage M13-Specific Proteins in a DNA-Dependent Cell-Free System II. In Vitro Synthesis of Biologically Active Gene 5 Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konings, Ruud N. H.; Jansen, Josephine; Cuypers, Theo; Schoenmakers, John G. G.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that gene 5 protein of bacteriophage M13 is one of the major proteins synthesized in vitro under the direction of M13 replicative-form DNA. By means of DNA-cellulose chromatography, this protein has been purified to homogeneity and its biological characteristics have been compared with those of its native counterpart. Like native gene 5 protein, the purified, in vitro-synthesized protein binds tightly and selectively to single-stranded, but not to double-stranded, DNAs. These results suggest that truly functional gene 5 protein is made in the cell-free system. Images PMID:4586780

  10. Influence of Dual-Bt Protein Corn on Bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), Survivorship on Bollgard II Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, J.; Catchot, A.; Cook, D.; Musser, F.; Caprio, M.

    2016-01-01

    Similar Cry proteins are expressed in both Bt corn, Zea mays L., and cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), commercial production systems. At least one generation of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), completes development on field corn in the Mid-South before dispersing across the landscape into other crop hosts like cotton. A concern is that Bt corn hybrids may result in selection for H. zea populations with a higher probability of causing damage to Bt cotton. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of H. zea offspring from moths that developed on non-Bt and VT Triple Pro (VT3 PRO) field corn to lyophilized Bollgard II cotton tissue expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. Offspring of individuals reared on VT3 PRO expressing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab had a significantly higher LC50 two out of the three years this study was conducted. Excess larvae were placed on artificial diet and allowed to pupate to determine if there were any inheritable fitness costs associated with parental development on VT3 PRO corn. Offspring resulting from males collected from VT3 PRO had significantly lower pupal weight and longer pupal duration compared with offspring of individuals collected from non-Bt corn. However, offspring from females collected from VT3 PRO were not different from non-Bt offspring. Paternal influence on offspring in insects is not commonly observed, but illustrates the side effects of development on a transgenic plant expressing less than a high dose, 25 times the concentration needed to kill susceptible larvae. PMID:26809264

  11. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-dependent remodeling of Ca2+ current in pressure overload heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanggan; Tandan, Samvit; Cheng, Jun; Yang, Chunmei; Nguyen, Lan; Sugianto, Jessica; Johnstone, Janet L; Sun, Yuyang; Hill, Joseph A

    2008-09-12

    Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity is increased in heart failure (HF), a syndrome characterized by markedly increased risk of arrhythmia. Activation of CaMKII increases peak L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca)) and slows I(Ca) inactivation. Whether these events are linked mechanistically is unknown. I(Ca) was recorded in acutely dissociated subepicardial and subendocardial murine left ventricular (LV) myocytes using the whole cell patch clamp method. Pressure overload heart failure was induced by surgical constriction of the thoracic aorta. I(Ca) density was significantly larger in subepicardial myocytes than in subendocardial/myocytes. Similar patterns were observed in the cell surface expression of alpha1c, the channel pore-forming subunit. In failing LV, I(Ca) density was increased proportionately in both cell types, and the time course of I(Ca) inactivation was slowed. This typical pattern of changes suggested a role of CaMKII. Consistent with this, measurements of CaMKII activity revealed a 2-3-fold increase (p process could not be induced, suggesting already maximal activation. Internal application of active CaMKII in failing myocytes did not elicit changes in I(Ca). Finally, CaMKII inhibition by internal diffusion of a specific peptide inhibitor reduced I(Ca) density and inactivation time course to similar levels in control and HF myocytes. I(Ca) density manifests a significant transmural gradient, and this gradient is preserved in heart failure. Activation of CaMKII, a known pro-arrhythmic molecule, is a major contributor to I(Ca) remodeling in load-induced heart failure.

  12. A Single Protein Kinase A or Calmodulin Kinase II Site Does Not Control the Cardiac Pacemaker Ca2+ Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuejin; Valdivia, Héctor H.; Wehrens, Xander H.T.; Anderson, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fight or flight heart rate (HR) increases depend on protein kinase A (PKA) and calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) mediated enhancement of Ca2+ uptake and release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in sinoatrial nodal cells (SANC). However, the impact of specific PKA and CaMKII phosphorylation sites on HR is unknown. Methods and Results We systematically evaluated validated PKA and CaMKII target sites on phospholamban (PLN) and the ryanodine receptor (RyR2) using genetically modified mice. We found that knockin alanine replacement of RyR2 PKA (S2808) or CaMKII (S2814) target sites failed to affect HR responses to isoproterenol or spontaneous activity in vivo or in SANC. Similarly, selective mutation of PLN amino acids critical for enhancing SR Ca2+ uptake by PKA (S16) or CaMKII (T17) to alanines did not affect HR in vivo or in SANC. In contrast, CaMKII inhibition by expression of AC3-I has been shown to slow SANC rate responses to isoproterenol and decrease SR Ca2+ content. PLN deficiency rescued SR Ca2+ content and SANC rate responses to isoproterenol in mice with AC3-I expression, suggesting CaMKII affects HR by modulation of SR Ca2+ content. Consistent with this, mice expressing a superinhibitory PLN mutant had low SR Ca2+ content and slow HR in vivo and in SANC. Conclusions SR Ca2+ depletion reduces HR and SR Ca2+ repletion restores physiological SANC rate responses despite CaMKII inhibition. PKA and CaMKII do not affect HR by a unique target site governing SR Ca2+ uptake or release. HR acceleration may require an SR Ca2+ content threshold. PMID:26857906

  13. Influence of Dual-Bt Protein Corn on Bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), Survivorship on Bollgard II Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Kanel, M B; Gore, J; Catchot, A; Cook, D; Musser, F; Caprio, M

    2016-04-01

    Similar Cry proteins are expressed in both Bt corn, Zea mays L., and cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), commercial production systems. At least one generation of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), completes development on field corn in the Mid-South before dispersing across the landscape into other crop hosts like cotton. A concern is that Bt corn hybrids may result in selection for H. zea populations with a higher probability of causing damage to Bt cotton. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of H. zea offspring from moths that developed on non-Bt and VT Triple Pro (VT3 PRO) field corn to lyophilized Bollgard II cotton tissue expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. Offspring of individuals reared on VT3 PRO expressing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab had a significantly higher LC50 two out of the three years this study was conducted. Excess larvae were placed on artificial diet and allowed to pupate to determine if there were any inheritable fitness costs associated with parental development on VT3 PRO corn. Offspring resulting from males collected from VT3 PRO had significantly lower pupal weight and longer pupal duration compared with offspring of individuals collected from non-Bt corn. However, offspring from females collected from VT3 PRO were not different from non-Bt offspring. Paternal influence on offspring in insects is not commonly observed, but illustrates the side effects of development on a transgenic plant expressing less than a high dose, 25 times the concentration needed to kill susceptible larvae.

  14. Photosystem II repair and plant immunity: Lessons learned from Arabidopsis mutant lacking the THYLAKOID LUMEN PROTEIN 18.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari eJärvi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chloroplasts play an important role in the cellular sensing of abiotic and biotic stress. Signals originating from photosynthetic light reactions, in the form of redox and pH changes, accumulation of reactive oxygen and electrophile species or stromal metabolites are of key importance in chloroplast retrograde signaling. These signals initiate plant acclimation responses to both abiotic and biotic stresses. To reveal the molecular responses activated by rapid fluctuations in growth light intensity, gene expression analysis was performed with Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and the tlp18.3 mutant plants, the latter showing a stunted growth phenotype under fluctuating light conditions (Biochem. J, 406, 415-425. Expression pattern of genes encoding components of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain did not differ between fluctuating and constant light conditions, neither in wild type nor in tlp18.3 plants, and the composition of the thylakoid membrane protein complexes likewise remained unchanged. Nevertheless, the fluctuating light conditions repressed in wild-type plants a broad spectrum of genes involved in immune responses, which likely resulted from shade-avoidance responses and their intermixing with hormonal signaling. On the contrary, in the tlp18.3 mutant plants there was an imperfect repression of defense-related transcripts upon growth under fluctuating light, possibly by signals originating from minor malfunction of the photosystem II (PSII repair cycle, which directly or indirectly modulated the transcript abundances of genes related to light perception via phytochromes. Consequently, a strong allocation of resources to defense reactions in the tlp18.3 mutant plants presumably results in the stunted growth phenotype under fluctuating light.

  15. Mutations of photosystem II D1 protein that empower efficient phenotypes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under extreme environment in space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Giardi

    Full Text Available Space missions have enabled testing how microorganisms, animals and plants respond to extra-terrestrial, complex and hazardous environment in space. Photosynthetic organisms are thought to be relatively more prone to microgravity, weak magnetic field and cosmic radiation because oxygenic photosynthesis is intimately associated with capture and conversion of light energy into chemical energy, a process that has adapted to relatively less complex and contained environment on Earth. To study the direct effect of the space environment on the fundamental process of photosynthesis, we sent into low Earth orbit space engineered and mutated strains of the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which has been widely used as a model of photosynthetic organisms. The algal mutants contained specific amino acid substitutions in the functionally important regions of the pivotal Photosystem II (PSII reaction centre D1 protein near the QB binding pocket and in the environment surrounding Tyr-161 (YZ electron acceptor of the oxygen-evolving complex. Using real-time measurements of PSII photochemistry, here we show that during the space flight while the control strain and two D1 mutants (A250L and V160A were inefficient in carrying out PSII activity, two other D1 mutants, I163N and A251C, performed efficient photosynthesis, and actively re-grew upon return to Earth. Mimicking the neutron irradiation component of cosmic rays on Earth yielded similar results. Experiments with I163N and A251C D1 mutants performed on ground showed that they are better able to modulate PSII excitation pressure and have higher capacity to reoxidize the QA (- state of the primary electron acceptor. These results highlight the contribution of D1 conformation in relation to photosynthesis and oxygen production in space.

  16. Mutations of photosystem II D1 protein that empower efficient phenotypes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under extreme environment in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardi, Maria Teresa; Rea, Giuseppina; Lambreva, Maya D; Antonacci, Amina; Pastorelli, Sandro; Bertalan, Ivo; Johanningmeier, Udo; Mattoo, Autar K

    2013-01-01

    Space missions have enabled testing how microorganisms, animals and plants respond to extra-terrestrial, complex and hazardous environment in space. Photosynthetic organisms are thought to be relatively more prone to microgravity, weak magnetic field and cosmic radiation because oxygenic photosynthesis is intimately associated with capture and conversion of light energy into chemical energy, a process that has adapted to relatively less complex and contained environment on Earth. To study the direct effect of the space environment on the fundamental process of photosynthesis, we sent into low Earth orbit space engineered and mutated strains of the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which has been widely used as a model of photosynthetic organisms. The algal mutants contained specific amino acid substitutions in the functionally important regions of the pivotal Photosystem II (PSII) reaction centre D1 protein near the QB binding pocket and in the environment surrounding Tyr-161 (YZ) electron acceptor of the oxygen-evolving complex. Using real-time measurements of PSII photochemistry, here we show that during the space flight while the control strain and two D1 mutants (A250L and V160A) were inefficient in carrying out PSII activity, two other D1 mutants, I163N and A251C, performed efficient photosynthesis, and actively re-grew upon return to Earth. Mimicking the neutron irradiation component of cosmic rays on Earth yielded similar results. Experiments with I163N and A251C D1 mutants performed on ground showed that they are better able to modulate PSII excitation pressure and have higher capacity to reoxidize the QA (-) state of the primary electron acceptor. These results highlight the contribution of D1 conformation in relation to photosynthesis and oxygen production in space.

  17. Immunohistochemical study of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the Drosophila brain using a specific monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Yoshiki; Kishimoto, Yasuko; Ohsako, Shunji

    2003-06-06

    To analyze the distribution of Drosophila calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (dCaMKII) in the adult brain, we generated monoclonal antibodies against the bacterially expressed 490-amino acid (a.a.) form of dCaMKII. One of those, named #18 antibody, was used for this study. Western blot analysis of the adult head extracts showed that the antibody specifically detects multiple bands between 55 and 60 kDa corresponding to the molecular weights of the splicing isoforms of dCaMKII. Epitope mapping revealed that it was in the region between 199 and 283 a.a. of dCaMKII. Preferential dCaMKII immunoreactivity in the embryonic nervous system, adult thoracic ganglion and gut, and larval neuro-muscular junction (NMJ) was consistent with previous observations by in situ hybridization and immunostaining with a polyclonal antibody at the NMJ, indicating that the antibody is applicable to immunohistochemistry. Although dCaMKII immunoreactive signal was low in the retina, it was found at regular intervals in the outer margin of the compound eye. These signals were most likely to be interommatidial bristle mechanosensory neurons. dCaMKII immunoreactivity in the brain was observed in almost all regions and relatively higher staining was found in the neuropilar region than in the cortex. Higher dCaMKII immunoreactivity in the mushroom body (MB) was found in the entire gamma lobe including the heel, and dorsal tips of the alpha and alpha' lobes, while cores of alpha and beta lobes were stained light. Finding abundant dCaMKII accumulation in the gamma lobe suggested that this lobe might especially require high levels of dCaMKII expression to function properly among MB lobes.

  18. Diabetes mellitus affects activity of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha in rat trigeminal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerić, Milka; Vuica, Ana; Borić, Matija; Puljak, Livia; Jeličić Kadić, Antonia; Grković, Ivica; Filipović, Natalija

    2015-01-01

    The activity of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (CaMKIIα) may play a critical role in the modulation of nociceptor activity and plasticity of primary sensory trigeminal neurons. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunoreactivity of phosphorylated CaMKIIα (pCaMKIIα) in subpopulations of trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons in rat models of early diabetes type 1 (dm1) and 2 (dm2). DM1 model was induced with intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected streptozotocin (STZ) (55mg/kg). DM2 rats were fed with the high fat diet (HFD) for 2 weeks and then received 35mg/kg of STZ i.p. Two weeks and 2 months after the STZ-diabetes induction, rats were sacrificed and immunohistochemical analysis for detection of pCaMKIIα immunoreactivity and double immunofluorescence labelling with isolectin (IB4) was performed. Increased intensity of pCaMKIIα immunofluorescence, restricted to IB4-negative small-diameter neurons, was seen in TG neurons two months after STZ-DM1 induction. DM1 model, as well as the obesity (control dm2 groups) resulted in neuronal impaired growth while dm2 model led to neuron hypertrophy in TG. Observed changes may play a critical role in the modulation of nociceptor activity and plasticity of primary sensory trigeminal neurons. In future, innovative strategies for modulation of CaMKIIα activity in specific subpopulations of neurons could be a novel approach in therapy of diabetic trigeminal neuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficient and versatile one-step affinity purification of in vivo biotinylated proteins: Expression, characterization and structure analysis of recombinant human glutamate carboxypeptidase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tykvart, J.; Sacha, P.; Barinka, C.; Knedlik, T.; Starkova, J.; Lubkowski, J.; Konvalinka, J. (Gilead); (NCI); (Czech Academy)

    2012-02-07

    Affinity purification is a useful approach for purification of recombinant proteins. Eukaryotic expression systems have become more frequently used at the expense of prokaryotic systems since they afford recombinant eukaryotic proteins with post-translational modifications similar or identical to the native ones. Here, we present a one-step affinity purification set-up suitable for the purification of secreted proteins. The set-up is based on the interaction between biotin and mutated streptavidin. Drosophila Schneider 2 cells are chosen as the expression host, and a biotin acceptor peptide is used as an affinity tag. This tag is biotinylated by Escherichia coli biotin-protein ligase in vivo. We determined that localization of the ligase within the ER led to the most effective in vivo biotinylation of the secreted proteins. We optimized a protocol for large-scale expression and purification of AviTEV-tagged recombinant human glutamate carboxypeptidase II (Avi-GCPII) with milligram yields per liter of culture. We also determined the 3D structure of Avi-GCPII by X-ray crystallography and compared the enzymatic characteristics of the protein to those of its non-tagged variant. These experiments confirmed that AviTEV tag does not affect the biophysical properties of its fused partner. Purification approach, developed here, provides not only a sufficient amount of highly homogenous protein but also specifically and effectively biotinylates a target protein and thus enables its subsequent visualization or immobilization.

  20. Thromboplastin-thrombomodulin-mediated time: a new global test sensitive to protein S deficiency and increased levels of factors II, V, VII and X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Montserrat; Llobet, Dolors; Ortín, Rosa; Felices, Rosa; Vallvé, Cristina; Mateo, José; Souto, Joan; Fontcuberta, Jordi

    2002-04-01

    A new test for screening the procoagulant capacity of plasma is described and evaluated. This test is based on the coagulation of plasma initiated by thromboplastin (Tp) in the presence of thrombomodulin (TM). In a previous paper we reported that this test had a significant phenotypic and genetic correlation with thrombosis susceptibility. The present report describes the characteristics of the test and its sensitivity to the concentration of some hemostasis factors. Plasma from normal subjects, from individuals with various disorders of hemostasis and plasma with different concentrations of factors II, V, VII, VIII, X, fibrinogen, protein C and protein S were studied. The thromboplastin-thrombomodulin-mediated time (Tp-TMT) is measured after mixing 100 mL of plasma diluted 1/10 at 37 C with 100 mL of a solution composed of 2 parts of thromboplastin, 1 part of thrombomodulin at 30 U/mL and 1 part of Owren's buffer. The results are expressed as the ratio of the patient's clotting time to that of the control. Values were compared with Student's t test and the Mann-Whitney test. Differences were considered statistically significant when p<0.05. In the control group women showed significantly lower values than men. Raised levels of factors II, V, VII and X reduced the coagulation time obtained with Tp-TM. Elevated concentrations of fibrinogen and factor VIII did not influence the test. The Tp-TMT was sensitive to protein S deficiencies, but not to protein C deficiencies. These results indicate that the effect of protein S on the test is through its anti-prothrombinase activity. Tp-TMT, which is correlated with thrombosis susceptibility, is sensitive to raised levels of factors II, V, VII and X, as well as to low levels of protein S, and may be an indicator of thrombosis risk.

  1. Intracavernous delivery of synthetic angiopoietin-1 protein as a novel therapeutic strategy for erectile dysfunction in the type II diabetic db/db mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hai-Rong; Kim, Woo Jean; Song, Jae Sook; Piao, Shuguang; Tumurbaatar, Munkhbayar; Shin, Sun Hwa; Choi, Min Ji; Tuvshintur, Buyankhuu; Song, Kang-Moon; Kwon, Mi-Hye; Yin, Guo Nan; Koh, Gou Young; Ryu, Ji-Kan; Suh, Jun-Kyu

    2010-11-01

    Patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) associated with type II diabetes often have impaired endothelial function and tend to respond poorly to oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. Therefore, neovascularization is a promising strategy for curing diabetic ED. To determine the effectiveness of a soluble, stable, and potent angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) variant, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP)-Ang1, in promoting cavernous angiogenesis and erectile function in a mouse model of type II diabetic ED. Methods.  Sixteen-week-old male db/db mice (in which obesity and type II diabetes are caused by a mutation in the leptin receptor) and control C57BL/6J mice were used and divided into four groups (N=14 per group): age-matched controls; db/db mice receiving two successive intracavernous injections of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (days -3 and 0; 20 µL); db/db mice receiving a single intracavernous injection of COMP-Ang1 protein (day 0; 5.8 µg/20 µL); and db/db mice receiving two successive intracavernous injections of COMP-Ang1 protein (days -3 and 0; 5.8 µg/20 µL). Two weeks later, erectile function was measured by electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve. The penis was then harvested and stained with antibodies to platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) (endothelial cell marker), phosphohistone H3 (PH3, a nuclear protein indicative of cell proliferation), phospho-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and eNOS. Penis specimens from a separate group of animals were used for cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) quantification. Local delivery of COMP-Ang1 protein significantly increased eNOS phosphorylation and cGMP and cAMP expression compared with that in the group treated with PBS. Repeated intracavernous injections of COMP-Ang1 protein completely restored erectile function and cavernous endothelial content through enhanced cavernous neoangiogenesis as evaluated by PECAM-1 and PH3

  2. Phosphorylation of photosystem II components, CP43 apoprotein, D1, D2, and 10 to 11 kilodalton protein in chloroplast thylakoids of higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeuchi, M.; Plumley, F.G.; Inoue, Y.; Schmidt, G.W.

    1987-11-01

    Phosphorylated thylakoid proteins of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) were solubilized, fractionated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and analyzed by gel electrophoresis and crossed immunoelectrophoresis to identify the phosphoproteins. It was found that in addition to intense phosphorylation of light-harvesting chlorophyll complex II, four photosystem II components, CP43 apoprotein, D1, D2, and a 10 to 11 kilodalton protein, are substantially phosphorylated in the light. Furthermore, the CP43 apoprotein, D1 and D2 can be resolved into two electrophoretic subspecies, only one of which is phosphorylated. This indicates that only a fraction of the PSII polypeptides is phosphorylated. Finally, analysis of detergent procedures suggests that the 10 to 11 kilodalton phosphoprotein is a peripheral component of the O/sub 2/-evolving PSII reaction center complex.

  3. Involvement of FOXO transcription factors, TRAIL-FasL/Fas, and sirtuin proteins family in canine coronavirus type II-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Marfè

    Full Text Available n our previous study, we have shown that canine coronavirus type II (CCoV-II activates both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathway in a canine fibrosarcoma cell line (A-72 cells. Herein we investigated the role of Sirtuin and Forkhead box O (FOXO families in this experimental model using Nortern Blot and Western Blot analysis. Our results demonstrated that mitochondrial SIRT3 and SIRT4 protein expression increased from 12 and 24 h post infection (p.i. onwards, respectively, whereas the nuclear SIRT1 expression increased during the first 12 h p.i. followed by a decrease after 36 h p.i., reaching the same level of control at 48 h p.i. Sirtuins interact with/and regulate the activity of FOXO family proteins, and we herein observed that FOXO3A and FOXO1 expression increased significantly and stably from 12 h p.i. onwards. In addition, CCoV-II induces a remarkable increase in the expression of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, while we observed a slight up-regulation of FasL/Fas at 36 p.i. with a decrease of both proteins at the end of infection. Furthermore, we found that virus infection increased both bax translocation into mitochondria and decreased bcl-2 expression in cytosol in a time-dependent manner.These data suggest that FOXO transcription factors mediate pro-apoptotic effects of CCoV-II, in part due to activation of extrinsic apoptosis pathway, while some Sirtuin family members (such as SIRT3 and SIRT4 may be involved in intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Moreover, these results propose that TRAIL is an important mediator of cell death induced by CCoV-II during in vitro infection.

  4. Structural basis for assembly of Hsp90-Sgt1-CHORD protein complexes: implications for chaperoning of NLR innate immunity receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minghao; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Prodromou, Chrisostomos; Shirasu, Ken; Pearl, Laurence H

    2010-07-30

    Hsp90-mediated function of NLR receptors in plant and animal innate immunity depends on the cochaperone Sgt1 and, at least in plants, on a cysteine- and histidine-rich domains (CHORD)-containing protein Rar1. Functionally, CHORD domains are associated with CS domains, either within the same protein, as in the mammalian melusin and Chp1, or in separate but interacting proteins, as in the plant Rar1 and Sgt1. Both CHORD and CS domains are independently capable of interacting with the molecular chaperone Hsp90 and can coexist in complexes with Hsp90. We have now determined the structure of an Hsp90-CS-CHORD ternary complex, providing a framework for understanding the dynamic nature of Hsp90-Rar1-Sgt1 complexes. Mutational and biochemical analyses define the architecture of the ternary complex that recruits nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) by manipulating the structural elements to control the ATPase-dependent conformational cycle of the chaperone. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Procalcitonin and BISAP score versus c-reactive protein and APACHE II score in early assessment of severity and outcome of acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Bezmarević Mihailo; Kostić Zoran; Jovanović Miodrag; Micković Saša; Mirković Darko; Soldatović Ivan; Trifunović Bratislav; Pejović Janko; Vujanić Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim. Early assessment of severity and continuous monitoring of patients are the key factors for adequate treatment of acute pancreatitis (AP). The aim of this study was to determine the value of procalcitonin (PCT) and Bedside Index for Severity in Acute Pancreatitis (BISAP) scoring system as prognostic markers in early stages of AP with comparison to other established indicators such as Creactive protein (CRP) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II sc...

  6. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Mechanoactivation Involves RGS5 (Regulator of G Protein Signaling 5) in Skeletal Muscle Arteries: Impaired Trafficking of RGS5 in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kwangseok; Li, Min; Nourian, Zahra; Meininger, Gerald A; Hill, Michael A

    2017-12-01

    Studies suggest that arteriolar pressure-induced vasoconstriction can be initiated by GPCRs (G protein-coupled receptors), including the AT 1 R (angiotensin II type 1 receptor). This raises the question, are such mechanisms regulated by negative feedback? The present studies examined whether RGS (regulators of G protein signaling) proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells are colocalized with the AT 1 R when activated by mechanical stress or angiotensin II and whether this modulates AT 1 R-mediated vasoconstriction. To determine whether activation of the AT 1 R recruits RGS5, an in situ proximity ligation assay was performed in primary cultures of cremaster muscle arteriolar vascular smooth muscle cells treated with angiotensin II or hypotonic solution in the absence or presence of candesartan (an AT 1 R blocker). Proximity ligation assay results revealed a concentration-dependent increase in trafficking/translocation of RGS5 toward the activated AT 1 R, which was attenuated by candesartan. In intact arterioles, knockdown of RGS5 enhanced constriction to angiotensin II and augmented myogenic responses to increased intraluminal pressure. Myogenic constriction was attenuated to a higher degree by candesartan in RGS5 siRNA-transfected arterioles, consistent with RGS5 contributing to downregulation of AT 1 R-mediated signaling. Further, translocation of RGS5 was impaired in vascular smooth muscle cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats. This is consistent with dysregulated (RGS5-mediated) AT 1 R signaling that could contribute to excessive vasoconstriction in hypertension. In intact vessels, candesartan reduced myogenic vasoconstriction to a greater extent in spontaneously hypertensive rats compared with controls. Collectively, these findings suggest that AT 1 R activation results in translocation of RGS5 toward the plasma membrane, limiting AT 1 R-mediated vasoconstriction through its role in G q/11 protein-dependent signaling. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Crystallization of Mitochondrial Respiratory Complex II fromChicken Heart: A Membrane-Protein Complex Diffracting to 2.0Angstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li-shar; Borders, Toni M.; Shen, John T.; Wang, Chung-Jen; Berry, Edward A.

    2004-12-17

    Procedure is presented for preparation of diffraction-quality crystals of a vertebrate mitochondrial respiratory Complex II. The crystals have the potential to diffract to at least 2.0 Angstrom with optimization of post-crystal-growth treatment and cryoprotection. This should allow determination of the structure of this important and medically relevant membrane protein complex at near-atomic resolution and provide great detail of the mode of binding of substrates and inhibitors at the two substrate-binding sites.

  8. Berbamine inhibits the growth of liver cancer cells and cancer initiating cells by targeting Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Zhipeng; Li, Tao; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Xiaoqiong; Van Ness, Carl; Gan, Yichao; Zhou, Hong; Tang, Jinfen; Lou, Guiyu; Wang, Yafan; Wu, Jun; Yen, Yun; Xu, Rongzhen; Huang, Wendong

    2013-01-01

    Liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide but no effective treatment toward liver cancer is available so far. Therefore, there is an unmet medical need to identify novel therapies to efficiently treat liver cancer and improve the prognosis of this disease. Here we report that berbamine (BBM) and one of its derivatives, bbd24, potently suppressed liver cancer cell proliferation and induced cancer cell death by targeting Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK...

  9. Intraterminal injection of synapsin I or calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alters neurotransmitter release at the squid giant synapse.

    OpenAIRE

    Llinás, R.; McGuinness, T L; Leonard, C S; Sugimori, M; Greengard, P.

    1985-01-01

    Synapsin I and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II were pressure-injected into the preterminal digit of the squid giant synapse to test directly the possible regulation of neurotransmitter release by these substances. Neurotransmitter release was determined by measuring the amplitude, rate of rise, and latency of the postsynaptic potential generated in response to presynaptic depolarizing steps under voltage clamp conditions. Injection of dephosphosynapsin I decreased the amplitude...

  10. Enterovirus 71 VP1 activates calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and results in the rearrangement of vimentin in human astrocyte cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Haolong

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is one of the main causative agents of foot, hand and mouth disease. Its infection usually causes severe central nervous system diseases and complications in infected infants and young children. In the present study, we demonstrated that EV71 infection caused the rearrangement of vimentin in human astrocytoma cells. The rearranged vimentin, together with various EV71 components, formed aggresomes-like structures in the perinuclear region. Electron microscopy and viral RNA labeling indicated that the aggresomes were virus replication sites since most of the EV71 particles and the newly synthesized viral RNA were concentrated here. Further analysis revealed that the vimentin in the virus factories was serine-82 phosphorylated. More importantly, EV71 VP1 protein is responsible for the activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II which phosphorylated the N-terminal domain of vimentin on serine 82. Phosphorylation of vimentin and the formation of aggresomes were required for the replication of EV71 since the latter was decreased markedly after phosphorylation was blocked by KN93, a CaMK-II inhibitor. Thus, as one of the consequences of CaMK-II activation, vimentin phosphorylation and rearrangement may support virus replication by playing a structural role for the formation of the replication factories. Collectively, this study identified the replication centers of EV71 in human astrocyte cells. This may help us understand the replication mechanism and pathogenesis of EV71 in human.

  11. Enterovirus 71 VP1 Activates Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II and Results in the Rearrangement of Vimentin in Human Astrocyte Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haolong, Cong; Du, Ning; Hongchao, Tian; Yang, Yang; Wei, Zhang; Hua, Zhang; Wenliang, Zhang; Lei, Song; Po, Tien

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main causative agents of foot, hand and mouth disease. Its infection usually causes severe central nervous system diseases and complications in infected infants and young children. In the present study, we demonstrated that EV71 infection caused the rearrangement of vimentin in human astrocytoma cells. The rearranged vimentin, together with various EV71 components, formed aggresomes-like structures in the perinuclear region. Electron microscopy and viral RNA labeling indicated that the aggresomes were virus replication sites since most of the EV71 particles and the newly synthesized viral RNA were concentrated here. Further analysis revealed that the vimentin in the virus factories was serine-82 phosphorylated. More importantly, EV71 VP1 protein is responsible for the activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II) which phosphorylated the N-terminal domain of vimentin on serine 82. Phosphorylation of vimentin and the formation of aggresomes were required for the replication of EV71 since the latter was decreased markedly after phosphorylation was blocked by KN93, a CaMK-II inhibitor. Thus, as one of the consequences of CaMK-II activation, vimentin phosphorylation and rearrangement may support virus replication by playing a structural role for the formation of the replication factories. Collectively, this study identified the replication centers of EV71 in human astrocyte cells. This may help us understand the replication mechanism and pathogenesis of EV71 in human. PMID:24073199

  12. Immunocytochemical study of estrogen receptor activation factor (E-RAF and the proteins that interact with nuclear estrogen receptor II (nER II in epithelial endometrial cells, in the presence and in the absence of estradiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OM Echeverría

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The localization and abundance of the estrogen receptor activation factor (E-RAF and a small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP complex containing three proteins, p32, p55 and p60, which interact with the nuclear estrogen receptor II (nER II, have been studied in rat endometrial epithelial cells by means of immunofluorescence and high resolution quantitative immunocytochemistry. In the cytoplasm E-RAF is associated with the rough endoplasmic reticulum. In the nucleus it is mainly localized at the interchromatin space, and surrounding the clumps of compact or semi-condensed chromatin. Quantitative analyses show that the abundance of E-RAF in the nucleus increases after ovariectomy and decreases 3 minutes after estradiol administration. These results are in agreement with the currently available biochemical data. Double immunolocalizations demonstrate that p32, p55, p60 co-localize with other splicing-related protein. High resolution immunolocalization shows that p32, p55, p60 are associated with perichromatin fibrils (co-transcriptional splicing and with clusters of interchromatin granules (storage of splicing-related molecules. The nuclear abundance of the snRNP complex decreases with ovariectomy, increases within 3 minutes after estradiol administration and remains higher than that in ovariectomized animals for 27 minutes. These results strongly support the previous data on the role of nER-II in the regulation of mRNA transcription and its export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.

  13. A study of the coordination shell of aluminum(III) and magnesium(II) in model protein environments: thermodynamics of the complex formation and metal exchange reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezabal, Elixabete; Mercero, Jose M; Lopez, Xabier; Ugalde, Jesus M

    2006-03-01

    Al(III) toxicity in living organisms is based on competition with other metal cations. Mg(II) is one of the most affected cations, since the size similarity dominates over the charge identity. The slow ligand exchange rates for Al(III) render the ion useless as a metal ion at the active sites of enzymes and provide a mechanism by which Al(III) inhibits Mg(II) dependent biochemical processes. Al(III) cation interactions with relevant bioligands have been studied in a protein-model environment in gas and aqueous phases using density functional theory methods. The protein model consists of the metal cation bound to two chosen bioligands (functional groups of the amino acid side chains, one of them being always an acetate) and water molecules interacting with the cation to complete its first coordination shell. Analogous Mg(II) complexes are calculated and compared with the Al(III) ones. Formation energies of the complexes are calculated in both phases and magnesium/aluminum exchange energies evaluated. The effect of different dielectric media is also analyzed. The presence of an acetate ligand in the binding site is found to promote both, complex formation and metal exchange reactions. In addition, buried binding sites (with low dielectric constant) of the protein favor metal exchange, whereas fully solvated environments of high dielectric constant require the presence of two anionic ligands for metal exchange to occur.

  14. Synthesis, characterization, in silico ADMET prediction, and protein binding analysis of a novel zinc(II) Schiff-base complex: Application of multi-spectroscopic and computational techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Somaye; Shiri, Fereshteh; Saeidifar, Maryam

    2017-06-22

    By reaction of 1,2-diaminocyclohexane with the 2,3-butanedione monoxime in the presence of ZnCl2, a new Schiff base complex was obtained. This complex was characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR, (1)H NMR, UV-Vis, and conductivity measurements. The reactivity of this complex to human serum albumin (HSA) under simulative physiological conditions was studied by spectroscopic and molecular docking analysis. Experimental results at various temperatures indicated that the intrinsic fluorescence of protein was quenched through a static quenching mechanism. The negative value of enthalpy change and positive value of entropy change indicated that both hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic forces played a major role in the binding of Zn(II) complex to HSA. FT-IR, three-dimensional fluorescence, and UV-Vis absorption results showed that the secondary structure of HSA changed after Zn(II) complex bound to protein. The binding distance was calculated to be 4.96 nm, according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Molecular docking results confirmed the spectroscopic results and showed that above complex is embedded into subdomain IIA of protein. All these experimental and computational results clarified that Zn(II) complex could bind with HSA effectively, which could be a useful guideline for efficient Schiff-base drug design.

  15. MHC class II-associated proteins in B-cell exosomes and potential functional implications for exosome biogenesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschow, S.I.; Balkom, B.W.M. van; Aalberts, M.; Heck, A.J.R. van; Wauben, M.; Stoorvogel, W.

    2010-01-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells secrete major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) carrying exosomes with unclear physiological function(s). Exosomes are first generated as the intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of a specific type of multivesicular body, and are then secreted by fusion of

  16. Influence of the 33 kDa manganese-stabilizing protein on the structure and substrate accessibility of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, Wolfgang; Cinco, Roehl M; Yu, Hui; Yachandra, Vittal K; Britt, R David

    2005-06-21

    The 33 kDa manganese-stabilizing extrinsic protein binds to the lumenal side of photosystem II (PS II) close to the Mn(4)Ca cluster of the oxygen-evolving complex, where it limits access of small molecules to the metal site. Our previous finding that the removal of this protein did not alter the magnetic coupling regime within the manganese cluster, measured by electron spin-echo envelope modulation [Gregor, W., and Britt, R. D. (2000) Photosynth. Res. 65, 175-185], prompted us to examine whether this accessibility control is also true for substrate water, using the same pulsed EPR technique. Comparing the deuteron modulation of the S(2)-state multiline signal of PS II membranes, equilibrated with deuterated water (D(2)O) after removal or retention of the 33 kDa protein, we observed no change in the number and the distance of deuterons magnetically coupled to manganese, indicating that the number and distance of water molecules bound to the manganese cluster are independent of bound 33 kDa protein in the S(1) state, in which the sample was poised prior to cryogenic illumination. A simple modulation depth analysis revealed a distance of 2.5-2.6 A between the closest deuteron and manganese. These results are in agreement with our refined X-ray absorption analysis. The manganese K-edge positions, reflecting their oxidation states, and the extended X-ray absorption fine structure amplitudes and distances between the manganese ions and their oxygen and nitrogen ligands (1.8, 2.7, and 3.3-3.4 A) were independent of bound 33 kDa protein.

  17. Prolonged Survival in a Case of Chemotherapy-Sensitive Gastric Cancer That Produced Alpha-Fetoprotein and Protein Induced by Vitamin K Antagonist-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naotaka Ogasawara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of reported cases of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-producing gastric cancer has gradually increased, with a reported prevalence of 1.3-1.5% of all gastric cancer cases. However, reports of gastric cancer accompanied by elevated serum levels of both AFP and protein induced by vitamin K antagonist-II (PIVKA-II are rare. The prognosis of AFP- and PIVKA-II-producing gastric cancer has been reported to be very poor because the tumor cells were considered to have a high malignant potential and the cancer progressed rapidly. We described a case of gastric cancer producing AFP and PIVKA-II in which chemotherapy was effective and resulted in prolonged survival, and these two tumor markers were useful for monitoring the treatment response. Routine health screening using upper abdominal ultrasonography revealed hepatic tumors in an apparently healthy 65-year-old man. Whole-body computed tomography (CT revealed multiple hepatic tumors, and an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD revealed a Bormann type 3 tumor in the lower stomach. A biopsy specimen confirmed that the tumor was immunohistochemically positive for AFP, PIVKA-II, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. After chemotherapy, the gastric tumor appeared as a small elevated lesion on EGD, and CT revealed a remarkable reduction in the size of the metastatic liver tumors. The patient is still alive, 35 months after the initial chemotherapy.

  18. Brain protein metabolism and the acquisition of new behaviors. II. Immunological studies of the alpha, beta and gamma proteins of goldfish brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashoua, V E

    1977-02-11

    In a previous study, the labeling pattern of three proteins (alpha, beta and gamma) in goldfish brain was found to change after the animals successfully acquired a new pattern of behavior. In the present study, these proteins were isolated from the brain cytoplasmic fraction, purified by successive gel electrophoresis and used as antigent to immunize rabbits. Antisera containing antibodies to two of the proteins (beta and gamma) were obtained. These gave single precipitin bands when plated against the antigens and a mixture of the total cytoplasmic proteins. The distribution of beta and gamma in brain subcellular fractions and in a variety of goldfish tissues was determined by immunodiffusion methods. gamma was specific to brain. The beta protein cross-reacted but was not identical to a widely distributed substance in plasma, liver and kidney. Both beta and gamma appear to be species specific in that no cross-reactivity was obtained with mouse, chick or rat brain proteins. Immunological methods, in combination with double labeling experiments were used to establish that the beta and gamma antigens were proteins which were normally present in goldfish brain. Both the beta and gamma antisera were equally capable of specifically precipitating the proteins which were differentially labeled after training as well as purified proteins of the same molecular weight present in the brains of control animals. These results suggest that the acquisition of a new pattern of behavior can increase the demand for the synthesis of specific proteins (beta and gamma) normally present in goldfish brain.

  19. Partial dispensability of Djp1's J domain in peroxisomal protein import in Saccharomyces cerevisiae results from genetic redundancy with another class II J protein, Caj1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobriyal, Neha; Tripathi, Prerna; Sarkar, Susrita; Tak, Yogesh; Verma, Amit K; Sahi, Chandan

    2017-05-01

    J proteins are obligate co-chaperones of Hsp70s. Via their signature J domain, all J proteins interact with their partner Hsp70s and stimulate their weak ATPase activity, which is vital for Hsp70 functions. The dependency of J proteins on their J domain is such that mutations in critical amino acids in the J domain often results into a null phenotype for a particular J protein. Here, we show that the J domain of Djp1, a cytosolic J protein important for peroxisomal protein import in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is partially dispensable. A complete deletion of Djp1 J domain resulted into only partial loss in peroxisomal protein import function. Instead, the C-terminal domain of Djp1 was found to be essential for proper localization of the peroxisomal targeted GFP-PTS1. Furthermore, we show that Caj1, another cytosolic J protein, also has some role in peroxisomal protein import. Caj1 was found to be partially redundant with Djp1 as cells lacking both Djp1 and Caj1 resulted into a much more severe defect in GFP-PTS1 localization. Based on these results, we propose that dispensability of J domains could be attributed to genetic redundancy between different J proteins sharing common structural topology and cellular localization.

  20. Procalcitonin and BISAP score versus c-reactive protein and APACHE II score in early assessment of severity and outcome of acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezmarević Mihailo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Early assessment of severity and continuous monitoring of patients are the key factors for adequate treatment of acute pancreatitis (AP. The aim of this study was to determine the value of procalcitonin (PCT and Bedside Index for Severity in Acute Pancreatitis (BISAP scoring system as prognostic markers in early stages of AP with comparison to other established indicators such as Creactive protein (CRP and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score. Methods. This prospective study included 51 patients (29 with severe AP. In the first 24 h of admission in all patients the APACHE II score and BISAP score, CRP and PCT serum concentrations were determined. The values of PCT serum concentrations and BISAP score were compared with values of CRP serum concentrations and APACHE II score, in relation to the severity and outcome of the disease. Results. Values of PCT, CRP, BISAP score and APACHE II score, measured at 24 h of admission, were significantly elevated in patients with severe form of the disease. In predicting severity of AP at 24 h of admission, sensitivity and specificity of the BISAP score were 74% and 59%, respectively, APACHE II score 89% and 69%, respectively, CRP 75% and 86%, respectively, and PCT 86% and 63%, respectively. It was found that PCT is highly significant predictor of the disease outcome (p < 0,001. Conclusion. In early assessment of AP severity, PCT has better predictive value than CRP, and similar to the APACHE II score. APACHE II score is a stronger predictor of the disease severity than BISAP score. PCT is a good predictor of AP outcome.

  1. Three-dimensional (3D) structure prediction of the American and African oil-palms β-ketoacyl-[ACP] synthase-II protein by comparative modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Edina; Chinni, Suresh; Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

    2014-01-01

    The fatty-acid profile of the vegetable oils determines its properties and nutritional value. Palm-oil obtained from the African oil-palm [Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (Tenera)] contains 44% palmitic acid (C16:0), but, palm-oil obtained from the American oilpalm [Elaeis oleifera] contains only 25% C16:0. In part, the b-ketoacyl-[ACP] synthase II (KASII) [EC: 2.3.1.179] protein is responsible for the high level of C16:0 in palm-oil derived from the African oil-palm. To understand more about E. guineensis KASII (EgKASII) and E. oleifera KASII (EoKASII) proteins, it is essential to know its structures. Hence, this study was undertaken. The objective of this study was to predict three-dimensional (3D) structure of EgKASII and EoKASII proteins using molecular modelling tools. The amino-acid sequences for KASII proteins were retrieved from the protein database of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), USA. The 3D structures were predicted for both proteins using homology modelling and ab-initio technique approach of protein structure prediction. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed to refine the predicted structures. The predicted structure models were evaluated and root mean square deviation (RMSD) and root mean square fluctuation (RMSF) values were calculated. The homology modelling showed that EgKASII and EoKASII proteins are 78% and 74% similar with Streptococcus pneumonia KASII and Brucella melitensis KASII, respectively. The EgKASII and EoKASII structures predicted by using ab-initio technique approach shows 6% and 9% deviation to its structures predicted by homology modelling, respectively. The structure refinement and validation confirmed that the predicted structures are accurate. The 3D structures for EgKASII and EoKASII proteins were predicted. However, further research is essential to understand the interaction of EgKASII and EoKASII proteins with its substrates.

  2. TMEM165 deficiencies in Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation type II (CDG-II): Clues and evidences for roles of the protein in Golgi functions and ion homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulary, Eudoxie; Potelle, Sven; Legrand, Dominique; Foulquier, François

    2017-04-01

    Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG) are rare inherited diseases causing glycosylation defects responsible for severe growth and psychomotor retardations in patients. Whereas most genetic defects affect enzymes directly involved in the glycosylation process, like glycosyltransferases or sugar transporters, recent findings revealed the impact of gene mutations on proteins implicated in both Golgi vesicular trafficking and ion homeostasis. TMEM165 is one of these deficient Golgi proteins found in CDG patients whose function in the secretory pathway has been deduced from several recent studies using TMEM165 deficient mammalian cells or yeast cells deficient in Gtd1p, the yeast TMEM165 ortholog. These studies actually confirm previous observations based on both sequence and predicted topology of this transmembrane protein and the phenotypes of human and yeast cells, namely that TMEM165 is very probably a transporter involved in ion homeostasis. Whereas the exact function of TMEM165 remains to be fully characterized, several studies hypothesize that TMEM165 could be a Golgi localized Ca2+/H+ antiporter. However, recent data also support the role of TMEM165 in Golgi Mn2+ homeostasis then arguing for a putative role of Mn2+ transporter for TMEM165 essential to achieve the correct N-glycosylation process of proteins in the secretory pathway. This manuscript is a review of the current state of knowledge on TMEM165 deficiencies in Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation as well as new data on function of TMEM165 and some speculative models on TMEM165/Golgi functions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A laser ablation ICP-MS based method for multiplexed immunoblot analysis: applications to manganese-dependent protein dynamics of photosystem II in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bang, Thomas Christian; Petersen, Jørgen; Pedas, Pai Rosager

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) constitutes an essential co-factor in the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II (PSII). Consequently, Mn deficiency reduces photosynthetic efficiency and leads to changes in PSII composition. In order to study these changes, multiplexed protein assays are advantageous. Here, we...... analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), which allowed selective and relative quantitative analysis via the different lanthanides. The method was evaluated against established liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC......-ESI-MS/MS) methods, based on data-dependent acquisition (DDA) and selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Manganese deficiency resulted in a general decrease in PSII protein abundances, an effect that was shown to be reversible upon Mn re-supplementation. Specifically, the extrinsic proteins PsbP and PsbQ showed Mn...

  4. Ab initio structural modeling of and experimental validation for Chlamydia trachomatis protein CT296 reveal structural similarity to Fe(II) 2-oxoglutarate-dependent enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemege, Kyle E.; Hickey, John M.; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P.; Zhang, Yang; Hefty, P. Scott (Michigan); (Kansas); (HWMRI)

    2012-02-13

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a medically important pathogen that encodes a relatively high percentage of proteins with unknown function. The three-dimensional structure of a protein can be very informative regarding the protein's functional characteristics; however, determining protein structures experimentally can be very challenging. Computational methods that model protein structures with sufficient accuracy to facilitate functional studies have had notable successes. To evaluate the accuracy and potential impact of computational protein structure modeling of hypothetical proteins encoded by Chlamydia, a successful computational method termed I-TASSER was utilized to model the three-dimensional structure of a hypothetical protein encoded by open reading frame (ORF) CT296. CT296 has been reported to exhibit functional properties of a divalent cation transcription repressor (DcrA), with similarity to the Escherichia coli iron-responsive transcriptional repressor, Fur. Unexpectedly, the I-TASSER model of CT296 exhibited no structural similarity to any DNA-interacting proteins or motifs. To validate the I-TASSER-generated model, the structure of CT296 was solved experimentally using X-ray crystallography. Impressively, the ab initio I-TASSER-generated model closely matched (2.72-{angstrom} C{alpha} root mean square deviation [RMSD]) the high-resolution (1.8-{angstrom}) crystal structure of CT296. Modeled and experimentally determined structures of CT296 share structural characteristics of non-heme Fe(II) 2-oxoglutarate-dependent enzymes, although key enzymatic residues are not conserved, suggesting a unique biochemical process is likely associated with CT296 function. Additionally, functional analyses did not support prior reports that CT296 has properties shared with divalent cation repressors such as Fur.

  5. TP Atlas: integration and dissemination of advances in Targeted Proteins Research Program (TPRP)-structural biology project phase II in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwayanagi, Takao; Miyamoto, Sei; Konno, Takeshi; Mizutani, Hisashi; Hirai, Tomohiro; Shigemoto, Yasumasa; Gojobori, Takashi; Sugawara, Hideaki

    2012-09-01

    The Targeted Proteins Research Program (TPRP) promoted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan is the phase II of structural biology project (2007-2011) following the Protein 3000 Project (2002-2006) in Japan. While the phase I Protein 3000 Project put partial emphasis on the construction and maintenance of pipelines for structural analyses, the TPRP is dedicated to revealing the structures and functions of the targeted proteins that have great importance in both basic research and industrial applications. To pursue this objective, 35 Targeted Proteins (TP) Projects selected in the three areas of fundamental biology, medicine and pharmacology, and food and environment are tightly collaborated with 10 Advanced Technology (AT) Projects in the four fields of protein production, structural analyses, chemical library and screening, and information platform. Here, the outlines and achievements of the 35 TP Projects are summarized in the system named TP Atlas. Progress in the diversified areas is described in the modules of Graphical Summary, General Summary, Tabular Summary, and Structure Gallery of the TP Atlas in the standard and unified format. Advances in TP Projects owing to novel technologies stemmed from AT Projects and collaborative research among TP Projects are illustrated as a hallmark of the Program. The TP Atlas can be accessed at http://net.genes.nig.ac.jp/tpatlas/index_e.html .

  6. Severity and prognosis of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning are indicated by C-reactive protein and copeptin levels and APACHE II score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinkuan; Xie, Wei; Cheng, Yuelei; Guan, Qinglong

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and copeptin, in addition to the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) scores, in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). A total of 100 patients with AOPP were included and divided into mild, moderate and severe groups according to AOPP diagnosis and classification standards. Blood samples were collected from all patients on days 1, 3 and 7 following AOPP. The concentrations of CRP and copeptin in the plasma were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All AOPP patients underwent APACHE II scoring and the diagnostic value of these scores was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic curves (ROCs). On days 1, 3 and 7 after AOPP, the levels of CRP and copeptin were increased in correlation with the increase in AOPP severity, and were significantly higher compared with the control groups. Furthermore, elevated CRP and copeptin plasma levels were detected in patients with severe AOPP on day 7, whereas these levels were reduced in patients with mild or moderate AOPP. APACHE II scores, blood lactate level, acetylcholine esterase level, twitch disappearance time, reactivating agent dose and inability to raise the head were the high-risk factors that affected the prognosis of AOPP. Patients with plasma CRP and copeptin levels higher than median values had worse prognoses. The areas under curve for ROCs were 0.89, 0.75 and 0.72 for CRP levels, copeptin levels and APACHE II scores, respectively. In addition, the plasma contents of CRP and copeptin are increased according to the severity of AOPP. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that CRP and copeptin levels and APACHE II scores may be used for the determination of AOPP severity and the prediction of AOPP prognosis.

  7. The Duffy binding protein (PkDBPαII) of Plasmodium knowlesi from Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo show different binding activity level to human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Khai Lone; Amir, Amirah; Lau, Yee Ling; Fong, Mun Yik

    2017-08-11

    The zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi is a major cause of human malaria in Malaysia. This parasite uses the Duffy binding protein (PkDBPαII) to interact with the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) receptor on human and macaque erythrocytes to initiate invasion. Previous studies on P. knowlesi have reported distinct Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo PkDBPαII haplotypes. In the present study, the differential binding activity of these haplotypes with human and macaque (Macaca fascicularis) erythrocytes was investigated. The PkDBPαII of Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo were expressed on the surface of COS-7 cells and tested with human and monkey erythrocytes, with and without anti-Fy6 (anti-Duffy) monoclonal antibody treatment. Binding activity level was determined by counting the number of rosettes formed between the transfected COS-7 cells and the erythrocytes. Anti-Fy6 treatment was shown to completely block the binding of human erythrocytes with the transfected COS-7 cells, thus verifying the specific binding of human DARC with PkDBPαII. Interestingly, the PkDBPαII of Peninsular Malaysia displayed a higher binding activity with human erythrocytes when compared with the Malaysian Borneo PkDBPαII haplotype (mean number of rosettes formed = 156.89 ± 6.62 and 46.00 ± 3.57, respectively; P studies need to be carried out to determine whether this differential binding level can be associated with severity of knowlesi malaria in human.

  8. The prognostic value of polycomb group protein B-cell-specific moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site 1 in stage II colon cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espersen, Maiken L. M.; Linnemann, Dorte; Christensen, Ib J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of B-cell-specific moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site 1 (BMI1) protein expression in primary tumors of stage II colon cancer patients. BMI1 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in a retrospective patient...... cohort consisting of 144 stage II colon cancer patients. BMI1 expression at the invasive front of the primary tumors correlated with mismatch repair status of the tumors. Furthermore, BMI1 expression at the luminal surface correlated with T-stage, tumor location, and the histological subtypes....... Likewise, there was no association between 5-year overall survival and BMI1 expression at the invasive front (HR: 1.12; 95% CI 0.80–1.56; p = 0.46) or at the luminal surface of the tumor (HR: 1.16; 95% CI 0.86–1.60; p = 0.33). In conclusion, BMI1 expression in primary tumors of stage II colon cancer...

  9. Evaluation of protein C and protein S levels in patients with diabetes mellitus receiving therapy with statins and ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Şerife; Uçak, Sema; Kurt, Fatma; Taşdemir, Mehmet; Kutlu, Orkide; Eker, Pınar

    2017-11-15

    To evaluate protein C, protein S level in patients with diabetes mellitus receiving statin and ACE inhibitor/ARB therapy. 95 patients were included in the study and divided into four groups depending on the use of statin and ACE inhibitor/ARB therapy. Group 1 comprised of patients receiving statin therapy (n = 15), Group 2 comprised of patients receiving ACE inhibitor/ARB therapy (n = 31), Group 3 comprised of patients receiving statin and ACE inhibitor/ARB therapy (n = 23), and Group 4 comprised of patients who did not receive either statin or ACE inhibitor/ARB therapy (n = 26). These four groups were compared with respect to protein C, protein S, fibrinogen, D-dimer, INR, and aPTT levels. There were statistically significant differences with respect to protein C levels. Group 1 and group 2 had higher protein C levels compared with group 4. (p ACE inhibitor/ARB therapy had higher protein C levels. Use of statin and ACE inhibitor/ARB therapy in diabetic patients decrease hypercoagulability and therefore could reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Heterologous overexpression of membrane-anchored subunit II of spinach chloroplast ATP synthase and its detergent-free purification as a soluble protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburzy, H J; Zimmermann, M; Oworah-Nkruma, R; Berzborn, R J

    1999-01-01

    Subunit II is one of the four nonidentical subunits of the membrane integral, proton-transporting moiety (CFo) of the chloroplast ATP synthase. In chloroplasts of spinach leaves, it is the only nuclear-encoded CFo subunit. It has been deduced that CFoII is not an additional subunit typical for photosynthetic organisms with no counterpart in E. coli, but equivalent to E. coli subunit b (Tiburzy, H.-J. and Berzborn, R. J. (1997), Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 789-798). Heterologous expression of subunit II was achieved by using the bacterial expression vector pT7-7. Recombinant subunit II (IIrec) does not integrate into the bacterial membrane nor does it precipitate into inclusion bodies. Gel filtration chromatography indicates that IIrec forms higher order aggregates. In three chromatographic steps approx. 10 mg of soluble IIrec of electrophoretic homogeneity are obtained from one liter of bacterial culture without using detergents. Thus, a eukaryotic membrane-anchored protein has been overexpressed in E. coli and has been purified in a soluble form.

  11. Synthesis and Structure of a Ternary Copper(II) Complex with Mixed Ligands of Diethylenetriamine and Picrate: DNA/Protein-Binding Property and In Vitro Anticancer Activity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ya-Ning; Zheng, Kang; Zhu, Ling; Li, Yan-Tuan; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Yan, Cui-Wei

    2015-05-01

    Based on the importance of the design and synthesis of transition metal complexes with noncovalent DNA/protein-binding abilities in the field of metallo pharmaceuticals, a new mononuclear ternary copper(II) complex with mixed ligands of diethylenetriamine (dien) and picrate anion (pic), identified as [Cu(dien)(pic)](pic), was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity measurement, infrared spectrum, electronic spectral studies, and single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. The structure analysis reveals that the copper(II) complex crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21 /c, and the copper(II) ion has a distorted square pyramidal coordination geometry. A two-dimensional supramolecular structure is formed through hydrogen bonds. The DNA/bovine serum albumin (BSA)-binding properties of the complex are explored, indicating that the complex can interact with herring sperm DNA via intercalation mode and bind to BSA responsible for quenching of tryptophan fluorescence by static quenching mechanism. The in vitro anticancer activity shows that the copper(II) complex is active against the selected tumor cell lines. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II production is a strong predictive marker for extrahepatic metastases in early hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Jung-Hwan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinicians often experience extrahepatic metastases associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, even if no evidence of intrahepatic recurrence after treatment is observed. We investigated the pretreatment predictors of extrahepatic metastases in HCC patients. Methods Patients diagnosed with HCC without evidence of extrahepatic metastases were prospectively enrolled. We evaluated the correlation between extrahepatic metastases and pretreatment clinical variables, including serum tumor markers. Results A total of 354 patients were included. Seventy-six patients (21% had extrahepatic metastases during the observation period (median, 25.3 months; range, 0.6-51.3 months. Cox regression multivariate analysis showed that serum protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II production levels, the intrahepatic tumor stage, platelet count, and portal vein thrombosis were independent risk factors for extrahepatic metastases. Patients with a PIVKA-II production ≥ 300 mAU/mL had a 2.7-fold (95% confidence interval; 1.5-4.8; P Conclusion PIVKA-II production levels might be a good candidate predictive marker for extrahepatic HCC metastases, especially in patients with smaller and/or fewer tumors in the liver with in stages regardless of serum alpha-fetoprotein.

  13. The evolution of proteins from random amino acid sequences: II. Evidence from the statistical distributions of the lengths of modern protein sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S H

    1994-04-01

    This paper continues an examination of the hypothesis that modern proteins evolved from random heteropeptide sequences. In support of the hypothesis, White and Jacobs (1993, J Mol Evol 36:79-95) have shown that any sequence chosen randomly from a large collection of nonhomologous proteins has a 90% or better chance of having a lengthwise distribution of amino acids that is indistinguishable from the random expectation regardless of amino acid type. The goal of the present study was to investigate the possibility that the random-origin hypothesis could explain the lengths of modern protein sequences without invoking specific mechanisms such as gene duplication or exon splicing. The sets of sequences examined were taken from the 1989 PIR database and consisted of 1,792 "super-family" proteins selected to have little sequence identity, 623 E. coli sequences, and 398 human sequences. The length distributions of the proteins could be described with high significance by either of two closely related probability density functions: The gamma distribution with parameter 2 or the distribution for the sum of two exponential random independent variables. A simple theory for the distributions was developed which assumes that (1) protoprotein sequences had exponentially distributed random independent lengths, (2) the length dependence of protein stability determined which of these protoproteins could fold into compact primitive proteins and thereby attain the potential for biochemical activity, (3) the useful protein sequences were preserved by the primitive genome, and (4) the resulting distribution of sequence lengths is reflected by modern proteins. The theory successfully predicts the two observed distributions which can be distinguished by the functional form of the dependence of protein stability on length. The theory leads to three interesting conclusions. First, it predicts that a tetra-nucleotide was the signal for primitive translation termination. This prediction is

  14. The Cockayne syndrome B protein, involved in transcription-coupled DNA repair, resides in an RNA polymerase II-containing complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gool, A J; Citterio, E; Rademakers, S; van Os, R; Vermeulen, W; Constantinou, A; Egly, J M; Bootsma, D; Hoeijmakers, J H

    1997-10-01

    Transcription-coupled repair (TCR), a subpathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER) defective in Cockayne syndrome A and B (CSA and CSB), is responsible for the preferential removal of DNA lesions from the transcribed strand of active genes, permitting rapid resumption of blocked transcription. Here we demonstrate by microinjection of antibodies against CSB and CSA gene products into living primary fibroblasts, that both proteins are required for TCR and for recovery of RNA synthesis after UV damage in vivo but not for basal transcription itself. Furthermore, immunodepletion showed that CSB is not required for in vitro NER or transcription. Its central role in TCR suggests that CSB interacts with other repair and transcription proteins. Gel filtration of repair- and transcription-competent whole cell extracts provided evidence that CSB and CSA are part of large complexes of different sizes. Unexpectedly, there was no detectable association of CSB with several candidate NER and transcription proteins. However, a minor but significant portion (10-15%) of RNA polymerase II was found to be tightly associated with CSB. We conclude that within cell-free extracts, CSB is not stably associated with the majority of core NER or transcription components, but is part of a distinct complex involving RNA polymerase II. These findings suggest that CSB is implicated in, but not essential for, transcription, and support the idea that Cockayne syndrome is due to a combined repair and transcription deficiency.

  15. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-γ (CaMKIIγ) negatively regulates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and vascular remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddouk, Fatima Z.; Sun, Li-Yan; Liu, Yong Feng; Jiang, Miao; Singer, Diane V.; Backs, Johannes; Van Riper, Dee; Ginnan, Roman; Schwarz, John J.; Singer, Harold A.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle (VSM) expresses calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-δ and -γ isoforms. CaMKIIδ promotes VSM proliferation and vascular remodeling. We tested CaMKIIγ function in vascular remodeling after injury. CaMKIIγ protein decreased 90% 14 d after balloon injury in rat carotid artery. Intraluminal transduction of adenovirus encoding CaMKIIγC rescued expression to 35% of uninjured controls, inhibited neointima formation (>70%), inhibited VSM proliferation (>60%), and increased expression of the cell-cycle inhibitor p21 (>2-fold). Comparable doses of CaMKIIδ2 adenovirus had no effect. Similar dynamics in CaMKIIγ mRNA and protein expression were observed in ligated mouse carotid arteries, correlating closely with expression of VSM differentiation markers. Targeted deletion of CaMKIIγ in smooth muscle resulted in a 20-fold increase in neointimal area, with a 3-fold increase in the cell proliferation index, no change in apoptosis, and a 60% decrease in p21 expression. In cultured VSM, CaMKIIγ overexpression induced p53 mRNA (1.7 fold) and protein (1.8-fold) expression; induced the p53 target gene p21 (3-fold); decreased VSM cell proliferation (>50%); and had no effect on expression of apoptosis markers. We conclude that regulated CaMKII isoform composition is an important determinant of the injury-induced vasculoproliferative response and that CaMKIIγ and -δ isoforms have nonequivalent, opposing functions.—Saddouk, F. Z., Sun, L.-Y., Liu, Y. F., Jiang, M., Singer, D. V., Backs, J., Van Riper, D., Ginnan, R., Schwarz, J. J., Singer, H. A. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-γ (CaMKIIγ) negatively regulates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and vascular remodeling. PMID:26567004

  16. Autophagy Monitoring Assay II: Imaging Autophagy Induction in LLC-PK1 Cells Using GFP-LC3 Protein Fusion Construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiseshaiah, Pavan P; Skoczen, Sarah L; Rodriguez, Jamie C; Potter, Timothy M; Kota, Krishna; Stern, Stephan T

    2018-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic process involved in the degradation and recycling of long-lived proteins and damaged organelles for maintenance of cellular homeostasis, and it has also been proposed as a type II cell death pathway. The cytoplasmic components targeted for catabolism are enclosed in a double-membrane autophagosome that merges with lysosomes, to form autophagosomes, and are finally degraded by lysosomal enzymes. There is substantial evidence that several nanomaterials can cause autophagy and lysosomal dysfunction, either by prevention of autophagolysosome formation, biopersistence or inhibition of lysosomal enzymes. Such effects have emerged as a potential mechanism of cellular toxicity, which is also associated with various pathological conditions. In this chapter, we describe a method to monitor autophagy by fusion of the modifier protein MAP LC3 with green fluorescent protein (GFP; GFP-LC3). This method enables imaging of autophagosome formation in real time by fluorescence microscopy without perturbing the MAP LC3 protein function and the process of autophagy. With the GFP-LC3 protein fusion construct, a longitudinal study of autophagy can be performed in cells after treatment with nanomaterials.

  17. Novel Bioinformatics-Based Approach for Proteomic Biomarkers Prediction of Calpain-2 & Caspase-3 Protease Fragmentation: Application to βII-Spectrin Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Assaad, Atlal; Dawy, Zaher; Nemer, Georges; Kobeissy, Firas

    2017-01-01

    The crucial biological role of proteases has been visible with the development of degradomics discipline involved in the determination of the proteases/substrates resulting in breakdown-products (BDPs) that can be utilized as putative biomarkers associated with different biological-clinical significance. In the field of cancer biology, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have shown to result in MMPs-generated protein BDPs that are indicative of malignant growth in cancer, while in the field of neural injury, calpain-2 and caspase-3 proteases generate BDPs fragments that are indicative of different neural cell death mechanisms in different injury scenarios. Advanced proteomic techniques have shown a remarkable progress in identifying these BDPs experimentally. In this work, we present a bioinformatics-based prediction method that identifies protease-associated BDPs with high precision and efficiency. The method utilizes state-of-the-art sequence matching and alignment algorithms. It starts by locating consensus sequence occurrences and their variants in any set of protein substrates, generating all fragments resulting from cleavage. The complexity exists in space O(mn) as well as in O(Nmn) time, where N, m, and n are the number of protein sequences, length of the consensus sequence, and length per protein sequence, respectively. Finally, the proposed methodology is validated against βII-spectrin protein, a brain injury validated biomarker.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of two Streptococcus agalactiae proteins: the family II inorganic pyrophosphatase and the serine/threonine phosphatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantanen, Mika K.; Lehtiö, Lari [Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, PO Box 65, FIN-00014, Helsinki (Finland); Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Rubens, Craig E. [Division of Infectious Disease, Children’s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle, Washington 98105 (United States); Goldman, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.goldman@helsinki.fi [Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, PO Box 65, FIN-00014, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-09-01

    Two S. agalactiae proteins, the inorganic pyrophosphatase and the serine/threonine phosphatase, were crystallized and diffraction data were collected and processed from these crystals. The data from the two protein crystals extended to 2.80 and 2.65 Å, respectively. Streptococcus agalactiae, which infects human neonates and causes sepsis and meningitis, has recently been shown to possess a eukaryotic-like serine/threonine protein phosphorylation signalling cascade. Through their target proteins, the S. agalactiae Ser/Thr kinase and Ser/Thr phosphatase together control the growth as well as the morphology and virulence of this organism. One of the targets is the S. agalactiae family II inorganic pyrophosphatase. The inorganic pyrophosphatase and the serine/threonine phosphatase have therefore been purified and crystallized and diffraction data have been collected from their crystals. The data were processed using XDS. The inorganic pyrosphosphatase crystals diffracted to 2.80 Å and the Ser/Thr phosphatase crystals to 2.65 Å. Initial structure-solution experiments indicate that structure solution will be successful in both cases. Solving the structure of the proteins involved in this cascade is the first step towards understanding this phenomenon in atomic detail.

  19. Interaction of alpha-conotoxin ImII and its analogs with nicotinic receptors and acetylcholine-binding proteins: additional binding sites on Torpedo receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasheverov, Igor E; Zhmak, Maxim N; Fish, Alexander; Rucktooa, Prakash; Khruschov, Alexey Yu; Osipov, Alexey V; Ziganshin, Rustam H; D'hoedt, Dieter; Bertrand, Daniel; Sixma, Titia K; Smit, August B; Tsetlin, Victor I

    2009-11-01

    alpha-Conotoxins interact with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBPs) at the sites for agonists/competitive antagonists. alpha-Conotoxins blocking muscle-type or alpha7 nAChRs compete with alpha-bungarotoxin. However, alpha-conotoxin ImII, a close homolog of the alpha7 nAChR-targeting alpha-conotoxin ImI, blocked alpha7 and muscle nAChRs without displacing alpha-bungarotoxin (Ellison et al. 2003, 2004), suggesting binding at a different site. We synthesized alpha-conotoxin ImII, its ribbon isomer (ImIIiso), 'mutant' ImII(W10Y) and found similar potencies in blocking human alpha7 and muscle nAChRs in Xenopus oocytes. Both isomers displaced [(125)I]-alpha-bungarotoxin from human alpha7 nAChRs in the cell line GH(4)C(1) (IC(50) 17 and 23 microM, respectively) and from Lymnaea stagnalis and Aplysia californica AChBPs (IC(50) 2.0-9.0 microM). According to SPR measurements, both isomers bound to immobilized AChBPs and competed with AChBP for immobilized alpha-bungarotoxin (K(d) and IC(50) 2.5-8.2 microM). On Torpedo nAChR, alpha-conotoxin [(125)I]-ImII(W10Y) revealed specific binding (K(d) 1.5-6.1 microM) and could be displaced by alpha-conotoxin ImII, ImIIiso and ImII(W10Y) with IC(50) 2.7, 2.2 and 3.1 microM, respectively. As alpha-cobratoxin and alpha-conotoxin ImI displaced [(125)I]-ImII(W10Y) only at higher concentrations (IC(50)> or = 90 microM), our results indicate that alpha-conotoxin ImII and its congeners have an additional binding site on Torpedo nAChR distinct from the site for agonists/competitive antagonists.

  20. Dendritic spine changes in the development of alcohol addiction regulated by α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Mijakowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Alcohol has many adverse effects on the brain. Among them are dendritic spine morphology alterations, which are believed to be the basis of alcohol addiction. Autophosphorylation of α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (αCaMKII has been shown to regulate spine morphology in vitro. Here we show that αCaMKII can also regulate addiction related behaviour and dendritic spine morphology changes caused by alcohol consumption in vivo. Method 12 αCaMKII-autophosphorylation deficient female mice (T286A and 12 wild type littermates were used in the study. T286A strain was created by Giese et al. (1998. Mice were housed and tested in two IntelliCages from NewBehavior (www.newbehavior.com. IntelliCage is an automated learning system. After 95 days of alcohol drinking interrupted by tests for motivation, persistence in alcohol seeking and probability of relapse, mice were ascribed to ‘high’ or ‘low’ drinkers group according to their performance in the tests. Additional criterion was the amount of alcohol consumed during the whole experiment. Result of each test was evaluated separately. 1/3 of the mice that scored highest in each criterion were considered ‘positive’ for this trait. ‘Positive’ animals were given 1 point, negative 0 points. Mice that were positive in at least 2 criteria were ascribed to ‘high’ drinkers (‘+’ group. Remaining mice – to ‘low’ drinkers (‘–‘. This method of behavioral phenotyping, developed by Radwanska and Kaczmarek (2012, is inspired by DSM-IV. Since the results of this evaluation are discrete (i.e. by definition all the animals score between 0 to +4, we developed also a continuous method of addiction rating, which we call ‘addiction index’. The result of the second method is a sum of the standardized (z-score results of the above mentioned tests. We use it to examine the correlations between addiction-like behavior and spine parameters. Control group (12 WT, 8

  1. Phosphorylation of the PCNA binding domain of the large subunit of replication factor C by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibits DNA synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maga, G; Mossi, R; Fischer, R

    1997-01-01

    delta and epsilon. The DNA and PCNA binding domains of the large 140 kDa subunit of human RF-C have been recently cloned [Fotedar, R., Mossi, R., Fitzgerald, P., Rousselle, T., Maga, G., Brickner, H., Messier, H., Khastilba. S., Hübscher, U., & Fotedar, A. (1996) EMBO J. 15, 4423-4433]. Here we show...... that the PCNA binding domain is phosphorylated by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), an enzyme required for cell cycle progression in eukaryotic cells. The DNA binding domain, on the other hand, is not phosphorylated. Phosphorylation by CaMKII reduces the binding of PCNA to RF...

  2. Photosystem II recovery in the presence and absence of chloroplast protein repair in the symbionts of corals exposed to bleaching conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R.; Takahashi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Increased seawater temperature causes photoinhibition due to accumulation of photodamaged photosystem II (PSII) in symbiotic algae (genus Symbiodinium) within corals, and it is assumed to be associated with coral bleaching. To avoid photoinhibition, photosynthetic organisms repair the photodamaged PSII through replacing the PSII proteins, primarily the D1 protein, with newly synthesised proteins. However, in experiments using cultured Symbiodinium strains, the PSII repair of Symbiodinium has been suggested not to be related to the synthesis of the D1 protein. In this study, we examined the relationship between the recovery of PSII photochemical efficiency ( F V/ F M) and the content of D1 protein after high-light and high-temperature treatments using the bleaching-sensitive coral species, Pocillopora damicornis and Acropora millepora, and the bleaching-tolerant coral species, Montipora digitata and Pavona decussata. When corals were exposed to strong light (600 µmol photons m-2 s-1) at elevated temperature (32 °C) for 8 h, significant bleaching occurred in bleaching-sensitive coral species although an almost similar extent of reduced PSII function was found across all coral species tested. During a subsequent 15-h recovery under low light (10 µmol photons m-2 s-1) at optimal temperature (22 °C), the reduced F V/ F M recovered close to initial levels in all coral species, but the reduced D1 content recovered only in one coral species ( Pavona decussata). D1 content was therefore not strongly linked to chloroplast protein synthesis-dependent PSII repair. These results demonstrate that the recovery of photodamaged PSII does not always correspond with the recovery of D1 protein content in Symbiodinium within corals, suggesting that photodamaged PSII can be repaired by a unique mechanism in Symbiodinium within corals.

  3. A laser ablation ICP-MS based method for multiplexed immunoblot analysis: applications to manganese-dependent protein dynamics of photosystem II in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bang, Thomas Christian; Petersen, Jørgen; Pedas, Pai Rosager; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole Noerregaard; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod; Jensen, Poul Erik; Thelen, Jay J; Husted, Søren

    2015-08-01

    Manganese (Mn) constitutes an essential co-factor in the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II (PSII). Consequently, Mn deficiency reduces photosynthetic efficiency and leads to changes in PSII composition. In order to study these changes, multiplexed protein assays are advantageous. Here, we developed a multiplexed antibody-based assay and analysed selected PSII subunits in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). A selection of antibodies were labelled with specific lanthanides and immunoreacted with thylakoids exposed to Mn deficiency after western blotting. Subsequently, western blot membranes were analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), which allowed selective and relative quantitative analysis via the different lanthanides. The method was evaluated against established liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) methods, based on data-dependent acquisition (DDA) and selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Manganese deficiency resulted in a general decrease in PSII protein abundances, an effect that was shown to be reversible upon Mn re-supplementation. Specifically, the extrinsic proteins PsbP and PsbQ showed Mn-dependent changes in abundances. Similar trends in the response to Mn deficiency at the protein level were observed when comparing DDA, SRM and LA-ICP-MS results. A biologically important exception to this trend was the loss of PsbO in the SRM analysis, which highlights the necessity of validating protein changes by more than one technique. The developed method enables a higher number of proteins to be multiplexed in comparison to existing immunoassays. Furthermore, multiplexed protein analysis by LA-ICP-MS provides an analytical platform with high throughput appropriate for screening large collections of plants. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. MHC CLASS-II-RESTRICTED T-CELL HYBRIDOMAS RECOGNIZING THE NUCLEOCAPSID PROTEIN OF AVIAN CORONAVIUS IBV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOOTS, AMH; VANLIEROP, MJ; KUSTERS, JG; VANKOOTEN, PJS; VANDERZELIST, BAM; HENSEN, EJ; Boots, Annemieke

    Mice were immunized with purified infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), strain M41. Spleen cells, expanded in vitro by stimulation with M41, were immortalized by fusion to obtain T-cell hybridomas, and two major histocompatability complex (MHC) class II (I-E)-restricted T-cell hybridomas were selected

  5. Design of symmetric TIM barrel proteins from first principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Deepesh; Deka, Geeta; Rao, Megha

    2015-08-12

    Computational protein design is a rapidly maturing field within structural biology, with the goal of designing proteins with custom structures and functions. Such proteins could find widespread medical and industrial applications. Here, we have adapted algorithms from the Rosetta software suite to design much larger proteins, based on ideal geometric and topological criteria. Furthermore, we have developed techniques to incorporate symmetry into designed structures. For our first design attempt, we targeted the (α/β)8 TIM barrel scaffold. We gained novel insights into TIM barrel folding mechanisms from studying natural TIM barrel structures, and from analyzing previous TIM barrel design attempts. Computational protein design and analysis was performed using the Rosetta software suite and custom scripts. Genes encoding all designed proteins were synthesized and cloned on the pET20-b vector. Standard circular dichroism and gel chromatographic experiments were performed to determine protein biophysical characteristics. 1D NMR and 2D HSQC experiments were performed to determine protein structural characteristics. Extensive protein design simulations coupled with ab initio modeling yielded several all-atom models of ideal, 4-fold symmetric TIM barrels. Four such models were experimentally characterized. The best designed structure (Symmetrin-1) contained a polar, histidine-rich pore, forming an extensive hydrogen bonding network. Symmetrin-1 was easily expressed and readily soluble. It showed circular dichroism spectra characteristic of well-folded alpha/beta proteins. Temperature melting experiments revealed cooperative and reversible unfolding, with a Tm of 44 °C and a Gibbs free energy of unfolding (ΔG°) of 8.0 kJ/mol. Urea denaturing experiments confirmed these observations, revealing a Cm of 1.6 M and a ΔG° of 8.3 kJ/mol. Symmetrin-1 adopted a monomeric conformation, with an apparent molecular weight of 32.12 kDa, and displayed well resolved 1D-NMR spectra

  6. Molecular basis of multiple sulfatase deficiency, mucolipidosis II/III and Niemann-Pick C1 disease - Lysosomal storage disorders caused by defects of non-lysosomal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, Thomas; Schlotawa, Lars; Frese, Marc-André; Radhakrishnan, Karthikeyan; von Figura, Kurt; Schmidt, Bernhard

    2009-04-01

    Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD), mucolipidosis (ML) II/III and Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease are rare but fatal lysosomal storage disorders caused by the genetic defect of non-lysosomal proteins. The NPC1 protein mainly localizes to late endosomes and is essential for cholesterol redistribution from endocytosed LDL to cellular membranes. NPC1 deficiency leads to lysosomal accumulation of a broad range of lipids. The precise functional mechanism of this membrane protein, however, remains puzzling. ML II, also termed I cell disease, and the less severe ML III result from deficiencies of the Golgi enzyme N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphotransferase leading to a global defect of lysosome biogenesis. In patient cells, newly synthesized lysosomal proteins are not equipped with the critical lysosomal trafficking marker mannose 6-phosphate, thus escaping from lysosomal sorting at the trans Golgi network. MSD affects the entire sulfatase family, at least seven members of which are lysosomal enzymes that are specifically involved in the degradation of sulfated glycosaminoglycans, sulfolipids or other sulfated molecules. The combined deficiencies of all sulfatases result from a defective post-translational modification by the ER-localized formylglycine-generating enzyme (FGE), which oxidizes a specific cysteine residue to formylglycine, the catalytic residue enabling a unique mechanism of sulfate ester hydrolysis. This review gives an update on the molecular bases of these enigmatic diseases, which have been challenging researchers since many decades and so far led to a number of surprising findings that give deeper insight into both the cell biology and the pathobiochemistry underlying these complex disorders. In case of MSD, considerable progress has been made in recent years towards an understanding of disease-causing FGE mutations. First approaches to link molecular parameters with clinical manifestation have been described and even therapeutical options have been

  7. Temperature-dependent structural changes in intrinsically disordered proteins: formation of alpha-helices or loss of polyproline II?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Magnus; Nørholm, Ann-Beth; Hendus-Altenburger, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Structural characterization of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) is mandatory for deciphering their potential unique physical and biological properties. A large number of circular dichroism (CD) studies have demonstrated that a structural change takes place in IDPs with increasing temperat......Structural characterization of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) is mandatory for deciphering their potential unique physical and biological properties. A large number of circular dichroism (CD) studies have demonstrated that a structural change takes place in IDPs with increasing...

  8. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B. II. Substrate-Enzyme Interactions and Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Günther H.; Frimurer, Thomas M.; Andersen, Jannik N.; Olsen, Ole H.

    2000-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) complexed with the phosphorylated peptide substrate DADEpYL and the free substrate have been conducted to investigate 1) the physical forces involved in substrate-protein interactions, 2) the importance of enzyme and substrate flexibility for binding, 3) the electrostatic properties of the enzyme, and 4) the contribution from solvation. The simulations were performed for 1 ns, using explicit water molecules. The last 70...

  9. The small CAB-like proteins of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803: their involvement in chlorophyll biogenesis for Photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Prieto, Miguel A; Tibiletti, Tania; Abasova, Leyla; Kirilovsky, Diana; Vass, Imre; Funk, Christiane

    2011-09-01

    The five small CAB-like proteins (ScpA-E) of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 belong to the family of stress-induced light-harvesting-like proteins, but are constitutively expressed in a mutant deficient of Photosystem I (PSI). Using absorption, fluorescence and thermoluminescence measurements this PSI-less strain was compared with a mutant, in which all SCPs were additionally deleted. Depletion of SCPs led to structural rearrangements in Photosystem II (PSII): less photosystems were assembled; and in these, the Q(B) site was modified. Despite the lower amount of PSII, the SCP-deficient cells contained the same amount of phycobilisomes (PBS) as the control. Although the excess PBS were functionally disconnected, their fluorescence was quenched under high irradiance by the activated Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP). Additionally the amount of OCP, but not of the iron-stress induced protein (isiA), was higher in this SCP-depleted mutant compared with the control. As previously described, the lack of SCPs affects the chlorophyll biosynthesis (Vavilin, D., Brune, D. C., Vermaas, W. (2005) Biochim Biophys Acta 1708, 91-101). We demonstrate that chlorophyll synthesis is required for efficient PSII repair and that it is partly impaired in the absence of SCPs. At the same time, the amount of chlorophyll also seems to influence the expression of ScpC and ScpD. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Physiological comparisons of two soybean cultivars differing in canopy photosynthesis. II. Variation in specific leaf weight, nitrogen, and protein components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, R; Ashley, D A; Boerma, H R; Reger, B J

    1986-01-01

    Cultivar differences in canopy apparent photosynthesis (CAP) have been observed in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) but little is known about the physiological mechanisms which are responsible for such differences. This study was initiated to determine if variation in ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) and soluble protein exists among cultivars which differ in CAP during reproductive growth. In addition, the relationship between specific leaf weight (SLW) and leaf protein was examined. Two Maturity Group VI cultivars, 'Tracy' (high CAP) and 'Davis' (low CAP), were grown in the field during 1979, 1980, and 1981 and in a greenhouse experiment. Leaves located at two canopy positions (topmost, fully expanded leaf and eighth node from the top) in 1979 and three canopy positions (those mentioned, plus the fourth node from the top) in 1980 and 1981 were sampled. Leaves at the two upper canopy positions exhibited greater SLW, RuBPCase m(-2), and soluble protein m(-2) than found at the eighth node down. Photosynthetic capacity of leaves at inner canopy regions was therefore affected by both light penetration into the canopy and leaf protein status. Over the three year period, the SLW was 23 percent and the soluble protein m(-2) leaf 21 percent greater in Tracy than in Davis. Although the trend in RuBPCase m(-2) leaf was not significant, it was consistently greater in Tracy in the field and greenhouse. No cultivar differences were observed when the proteins were expressed on a unit of leaf dry weight. The quantity of RuBPCase per unit leaf area was positively correlated with SLW with significant partial correlation coefficients of 0.62, 0.67, 0.35, and 0.82 for 1979, 1980, 1981, and the greenhouse study, respectively. Since these cultivars have similar leaf area indices during September, the greater SLW of Tracy is translated into more photosynthetic proteins per unit ground area and higher CAP rate.

  11. The histone acetyltransferase domains of CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300/CBP-associated factor are not necessary for cooperativity with the class II transactivator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harton, J A; Zika, E; Ting, J P

    2001-10-19

    The class II transactivator (CIITA) is a transcriptional co-activator regulating the constitutive and interferon-gamma-inducible expression of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and related genes. Promoter remodeling occurs following CIITA induction, suggesting the involvement of chromatin remodeling factors. Transcription of numerous genes requires the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activities of CREB-binding protein (CBP), p300, and/or p300/CBP-associated factor (pCAF). These co-activators cooperate with CIITA and are hypothesized to promote class II major histocompatibility complex transcription through their HAT activity. To directly test this, we used HAT-defective CBP and pCAF. We demonstrate that cooperation between CIITA and CBP is independent of CBP HAT activity. Further, although pCAF enhances CIITA-mediated transcription, pCAF HAT domain dependence appears contingent upon the concentration of available CIITA. When HAT-defective CBP and pCAF are both present, cooperativity with CIITA is maintained. Consistent with a recent report, we show that nuclear localization of CIITA is enhanced by lysine 144, an in vitro target of pCAF-mediated HAT. Yet we find that neither mutation of lysine 144 nor deletion of residues 132-209 affects transcriptional cooperation with CBP or pCAF. Thus, acetylation of this residue may not be the primary mechanism for pCAF/CBP cooperation with CIITA. In conclusion, the HAT activities of the co-activators are not necessary for cooperation with CIITA.

  12. Host Factors Influencing the Retrohoming Pathway of Group II Intron RmInt1, Which Has an Intron-Encoded Protein Naturally Devoid of Endonuclease Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nisa-Martínez

    Full Text Available Bacterial group II introns are self-splicing catalytic RNAs and mobile retroelements that have an open reading frame encoding an intron-encoded protein (IEP with reverse transcriptase (RT and RNA splicing or maturase activity. Some IEPs carry a DNA endonuclease (En domain, which is required to cleave the bottom strand downstream from the intron-insertion site for target DNA-primed reverse transcription (TPRT of the inserted intron RNA. Host factors complete the insertion of the intron. By contrast, the major retrohoming pathway of introns with IEPs naturally lacking endonuclease activity, like the Sinorhizobium meliloti intron RmInt1, is thought to involve insertion of the intron RNA into the template for lagging strand DNA synthesis ahead of the replication fork, with possible use of the nascent strand to prime reverse transcription of the intron RNA. The host factors influencing the retrohoming pathway of such introns have not yet been described. Here, we identify key candidates likely to be involved in early and late steps of RmInt1 retrohoming. Some of these host factors are common to En+ group II intron retrohoming, but some have different functions. Our results also suggest that the retrohoming process of RmInt1 may be less dependent on the intracellular free Mg2+ concentration than those of other group II introns.

  13. One-step coating of silica capillaries for selective protein retention by Cu(II)-IDA IMAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehyou, Zeina; Lobinski, Ryszard; Hagège, Agnès

    2011-12-15

    A simple protocol to obtain Cu(II)-IDA (iminodiacetic acid)-modified capillaries was developed for immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). It consisted in the synthesis of IDA-silane used for a one-step coating of fused silica capillaries. The approach prevented the hydrolysis of silica potentially induced by two step coatings (γ-GPTMS, then IDA) employed in the conventional method of bonding iminodiacetic acid. The IDA content was quantified using a model relating the electroosmotic flow generated in IDA-modified capillaries to the charges induced by IDA species. The retention behavior of holotransferrin and bovine serum albumin on these IMAC columns was then investigated. Holotransferrin revealed a high affinity for Cu(II)-supports through a specific interaction with Cu(II) ions whereas albumin did not show any retention. The use of such columns for sample pretreatment before an HPLC analysis was proved to be successful. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Human YKL39 (chitinase 3-like protein 2), an osteoarthritis-associated gene, enhances proliferation and type II collagen expression in ATDC5 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyatake, Kazumasa [Department of Joint Surgery and Sports Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Tsuji, Kunikazu, E-mail: ktsuji.gcoe@tmd.ac.jp [International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases (Global Center of Excellence Program), Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Yamaga, Mika; Yamada, Jun; Matsukura, Yu; Abula, Kahaer [Department of Joint Surgery and Sports Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Sekiya, Ichiro [Section of Cartilage Regeneration, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Muneta, Takeshi [Department of Joint Surgery and Sports Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases (Global Center of Excellence Program), Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► hYKL-39 expression is increased in osteoarthritic articular chondrocytes. ► To examine the molecular functions of hYKL-39 in chondrocytes, we overexpressed hYKL-39 in chondrocytic ATDC5 cells. ► hYKL-39 enhanced proliferation and colony formation in ATDC5 cells. ► hYKL-39 increased type II collagen expression in ATDC5 cells treated with chondrogenic medium. -- Abstract: Human YKL39 (chitinase 3-like protein 2/CHI3L2) is a secreted 39 kDa protein produced by articular chondrocytes and synoviocytes. Recent studies showed that hYKL-39 expression is increased in osteoarthritic articular chondrocytes suggesting the involvement of hYKL-39 in the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). However little is known regarding the molecular function of hYKL-39 in joint homeostasis. Sequence analyses indicated that hYKL-39 has significant identity with the human chitotorisidase family molecules, although it is considered that hYKL-39 has no enzymatic activity since it lacks putative chitinase catalytic motif. In this study, to examine the molecular function of hYKL-39 in chondrocytes, we overexpressed hYKL-39 in ATDC5 cells. Here we report that hYKL-39 enhances colony forming activity, cell proliferation, and type II collagen expression in these cells. These data suggest that hYKL-39 is a novel growth and differentiation factor involved in cartilage homeostasis.

  15. Evolution of EF-hand calcium-modulated proteins. II. Domains of several subfamilies have diverse evolutionary histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, S.; Moncrief, N. D.; Kretsinger, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    In the first report in this series we described the relationships and evolution of 152 individual proteins of the EF-hand subfamilies. Here we add 66 additional proteins and define eight (CDC, TPNV, CLNB, LPS, DGK, 1F8, VIS, TCBP) new subfamilies and seven (CAL, SQUD, CDPK, EFH5, TPP, LAV, CRGP) new unique proteins, which we assume represent new subfamilies. The main focus of this study is the classification of individual EF-hand domains. Five subfamilies--calmodulin, troponin C, essential light chain, regulatory light chain, CDC31/caltractin--and three uniques--call, squidulin, and calcium-dependent protein kinase--are congruent in that all evolved from a common four-domain precursor. In contrast calpain and sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein (SARC) each evolved from its own one-domain precursor. The remaining 19 subfamilies and uniques appear to have evolved by translocation and splicing of genes encoding the EF-hand domains that were precursors to the congruent eight and to calpain and to SARC. The rates of evolution of the EF-hand domains are slower following formation of the subfamilies and establishment of their functions. Subfamilies are not readily classified by patterns of calcium coordination, interdomain linker stability, and glycine and proline distribution. There are many homoplasies indicating that similar variants of the EF-hand evolved by independent pathways.

  16. The role of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and calcineurin in TNF-α-induced myocardial hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Gui-Jun [Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang Liaoning Province (China); Liaoning Medical College, Jinzhou (China); Wang, Hong-Xin; Yao, Yu-Sheng; Guo, Lian-Yi [Liaoning Medical College, Jinzhou (China); Liu, Pei [Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang Liaoning Province (China)

    2012-07-27

    We investigated whether Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and calcineurin (CaN) are involved in myocardial hypertrophy induced by tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The cardiomyocytes of neonatal Wistar rats (1-2 days old) were cultured and stimulated by TNF-α (100 µg/L), and Ca{sup 2+} signal transduction was blocked by several antagonists, including BAPTA (4 µM), KN-93 (0.2 µM) and cyclosporin A (CsA, 0.2 µM). Protein content, protein synthesis, cardiomyocyte volumes, [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} transients, CaMKIIδ{sub B} and CaN were evaluated by the Lowry method, [{sup 3}H]-leucine incorporation, a computerized image analysis system, a Till imaging system, and Western blot analysis, respectively. TNF-α induced a significant increase in protein content in a dose-dependent manner from 10 µg/L (53.56 µg protein/well) to 100 µg/L (72.18 µg protein/well), and in a time-dependent manner from 12 h (37.42 µg protein/well) to 72 h (42.81 µg protein/well). TNF-α (100 µg/L) significantly increased the amplitude of spontaneous [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} transients, the total protein content, cell size, and [{sup 3}H]-leucine incorporation in cultured cardiomyocytes, which was abolished by 4 µM BAPTA, an intracellular Ca{sup 2+} chelator. The increases in protein content, cell size and [{sup 3}H]-leucine incorporation were abolished by 0.2 µM KN-93 or 0.2 µM CsA. TNF-α increased the expression of CaMKIIδ{sub B} by 35.21% and that of CaN by 22.22% compared to control. These effects were abolished by 4 µM BAPTA, which itself had no effect. These results suggest that TNF-α induces increases in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}, CaMKIIδ{sub B} and CaN and promotes cardiac hypertrophy. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Ca{sup 2+}/CaMKII- and CaN-dependent signaling pathways are involved in myocardial hypertrophy induced by TNF-α.

  17. Molecular dynamics simulations of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B: II. Substrate-enzyme interactions and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.j.; Frimurer, T. M.; Andersen, J. N.

    2000-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) complexed with the phosphorylated peptide substrate DADEpYL and the free substrate have been conducted to investigate 1) the physical forces involved in substrate-protein interactions, 2) the importance of enzyme...... to substrate binding. Based on essential dynamics analysis of the PTP1B/DADEpYL trajectory, it is shown that internal motions in the binding pocket occur in a subspace of only a few degrees of freedom. in particular, relatively large flexibilities are observed along several eigenvectors in the segments: Arg(24...... for catalysis. Analysis of the individual enzyme-substrate interaction energies revealed that mainly electrostatic forces contribute to binding. Indeed, calculation of the electrostatic field of the enzyme reveals that only the field surrounding the binding pocket is positive, while the remaining protein...

  18. Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Methionine on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens During Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohammadi Emarat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15% and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37% and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined at the end of each period. The increased in dietary protein significantly increased egg production from 54 to 59.4 %. Egg weight, egg mass and feed intake increased by 1.7 g, 3.4 g, and 2.8 g, respectively during the whole experimental period. As the dietary protein increased, feed conversion, egg component (as a percent of whale egg and egg albumin percent were improved. However, the egg breaking, specific gravity and eggshell were significantly decreased with increased dietary protein. The egg yolk percent was not influenced by dietary protein levels. The increased in dietary methionine from 0.25% to 0.37% caused the overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake and egg component to improve by about 8.2%, 4g, 6.6g, 8.7g, and 6.0g, respectively. Feed conversion, specific gravity, egg breakage, egg shell, and egg yolk and albumin percent were not influenced by dietary methionine levels.

  19. Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Methionine on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens During Phase II

    OpenAIRE

    H Mohammadi Emarat; A Golian; A Tahmasbi; H Kermanshahi

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15%) and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37%) and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age) each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed ...

  20. Machine learning can improve prediction of severity in acute pancreatitis using admission values of APACHE II score and C-reactive protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Callum B; Gunn, Steve R; Ahmed, Adil; Johnson, Colin D

    2006-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) has a variable course. Accurate early prediction of severity is essential to direct clinical care. Current assessment tools are inaccurate, and unable to adapt to new parameters. None of the current systems uses C-reactive protein (CRP). Modern machine-learning tools can address these issues. 370 patients admitted with AP in a 5-year period were retrospectively assessed; after exclusions, 265 patients were studied. First recorded values for physical examination and blood tests, aetiology, severity and complications were recorded. A kernel logistic regression model was used to remove redundant features, and identify the relationships between relevant features and outcome. Bootstrapping was used to make the best use of data and obtain confidence estimates on the parameters of the model. A model containing 8 variables (age, CRP, respiratory rate, pO2 on air, arterial pH, serum creatinine, white cell count and GCS) predicted a severe attack with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.82 (SD 0.01). The optimum cut-off value for predicting severity gave sensitivity and specificity of 0.87 and 0.71 respectively. The predictions were significantly better (p = 0.0036) than admission APACHE II scores in the same patients (AUC 0.74) and better than historical admission APACHE II data (AUC 0.68-0.75). This system for the first time combines admission values of selected components of APACHE II and CRP for prediction of severe AP. The score is simple to use, and is more accurate than admission APACHE II alone. It is adaptable and would allow incorporation of new predictive factors. 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel and IAP

  1. Mass Spectrometric Strategies to Improve the Identification of Pt(II)-Modification Sites on Peptides and Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huilin; Snelling, Jonathon R.; Barrow, Mark P.; Scrivens, James H.; Sadler, Peter J.; O'Connor, Peter B.

    2014-07-01

    To further explore the binding chemistry of cisplatin ( cis-Pt(NH3)2Cl2) to peptides and also establish mass spectrometry (MS) strategies to quickly assign the platinum-binding sites, a series of peptides with potential cisplatin binding sites (Met(S), His(N), Cys(S), disulfide, carboxyl groups of Asp and Glu, and amine groups of Arg and Lys, were reacted with cisplatin, then analyzed by electron capture dissociation (ECD) in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS). Radical-mediated side-chain losses from the charge-reduced Pt-binding species (such as CH3S• or CH3SH from Met, SH• from Cys, CO2 from Glu or Asp, and NH2 • from amine groups) were found to be characteristic indicators for rapid and unambiguous localization of the Pt-binding sites to certain amino acid residues. The method was then successfully applied to interpret the top-down ECD spectrum of an inter-chain Pt-crosslinked insulin dimer, insulin + Pt(NH3)2 + insulin (>10 kDa). In addition, ion mobility MS shows that Pt binds to multiple sites in Substance P, generating multiple conformers, which can be partially localized by collisionally activated dissociation (CAD). Platinum(II) (Pt(II)) was found to coordinate to amine groups of Arg and Lys, but not to disulfide bonds under the conditions used. The coordination of Pt to Arg or Lys appears to arise from the migration of Pt(II) from Met(S) as shown by monitoring the reaction products at different pH values by ECD. No direct binding of cisplatin to amine groups was observed at pH 3 ~ 10 unless Met residues were present in the sequence, but noncovalent interactions between cisplatin hydrolysis and amination [Pt(NH3)4]2+ products and these peptides were found regardless of pH.

  2. Students' Understanding of External Representations of the Potassium Ion Channel Protein Part II: Structure-Function Relationships and Fragmented Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harle, Marissa; Towns, Marcy H.

    2012-01-01

    Research that has focused on external representations in biochemistry has uncovered student difficulties in comprehending and interpreting external representations. This study focuses on students' understanding of three external representations (ribbon diagram, wireframe, and hydrophobic/hydrophilic) of the potassium ion channel protein. Analysis…

  3. Size and shape of the repetitive domain of high molecular weight wheat gluten proteins. II. Hydrodynamic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Swieten, E; Friesen, RR; de Kruif, CG; Robillard, GT; Kruif, Cees G. de

    This study describes the hydrodynamic properties of the repetitive domain of high molecular weight (HMW) wheat proteins, which complement the small-angle scattering (SANS) experiments performed in the first paper of this series. The sedimentation coefficients, so, and diffusion coefficients, D, were

  4. Surfactant protein D augments bacterial association but attenuates major histocompatibility complex class II presentation of bacterial antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren; Lo, Bernice; Evans, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    Development of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), is associated with lipid dysregulation and inflammation. As the host defense lectin surfactant protein D (SP-D) has multiple effects in lipid homeostasis and inflammation, the correlation between SP-D concentrations and development of d...

  5. The role of positively charged amino acids and electrostatic interactions in the complex of U1A protein and U1 hairpin II RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Michael J; Linde, Michael E; Chambers, Eric J; Oubridge, Chris; Katsamba, Phinikoula S; Nilsson, Lennart; Haworth, Ian S; Laird-Offringa, Ite A

    2006-01-01

    Previous kinetic investigations of the N-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain of spliceosomal protein U1A, interacting with its RNA target U1 hairpin II, provided experimental evidence for a 'lure and lock' model of binding in which electrostatic interactions first guide the RNA to the protein, and close range interactions then lock the two molecules together. To further investigate the 'lure' step, here we examined the electrostatic roles of two sets of positively charged amino acids in U1A that do not make hydrogen bonds to the RNA: Lys20, Lys22 and Lys23 close to the RNA-binding site, and Arg7, Lys60 and Arg70, located on 'top' of the RRM domain, away from the RNA. Surface plasmon resonance-based kinetic studies, supplemented with salt dependence experiments and molecular dynamics simulation, indicate that Lys20 predominantly plays a role in association, while nearby residues Lys22 and Lys23 appear to be at least as important for complex stability. In contrast, kinetic analyses of residues away from the RNA indicate that they have a minimal effect on association and stability. Thus, well-positioned positively charged residues can be important for both initial complex formation and complex maintenance, illustrating the multiple roles of electrostatic interactions in protein-RNA complexes.

  6. UV-induced proteolysis of RNA polymerase II is mediated by VCP/p97 segregase and timely orchestration by Cockayne syndrome B protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinshan; Zhu, Qianzheng; Wani, Gulzar; Wani, Altaf A

    2017-02-14

    RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) acts as a damage sensor for transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) and undergoes proteolytic clearance from damaged chromatin by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Here, we report that Valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97, a druggable oncotarget, is essential for RNAPII's proteolytic clearance in mammalian cells. We show that inhibition of VCP/p97, or siRNA-mediated ablation of VCP/p97 and its cofactors UFD1 and UBXD7 severely impairs ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced RNAPII degradation. VCP/p97 interacts with RNAPII, and the interaction is enhanced by Cockayne syndrome B protein (CSB). However, the VCP/p97-mediated RNAPII proteolysis occurs independent of CSB. Surprisingly, CSB enhances UVR-induced RNAPII ubiquitination but delays its turnover. Additionally, VCP/p97-mediated RNAPII turnover occurs with and without Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL), a known substrate receptor of Elongin E3 ubiquitin ligase for RNAPII. Moreover, pVHL re-expression improves cell viability following UVR. Whereas, VCP/p97 inhibition decreases cell viability and enhances a low-dose UVR killing in presence of pVHL. These findings reveal a function of VCP/p97 segregase in UVR-induced RNAPII degradation in mammalian cells, and suggest a role of CSB in coordinating VCP/p97-mediated extraction of ubiquitinated RNAPII and CSB itself from chromatin.

  7. RNA polymerase II components and Rrn7 form a preinitiation complex on the HomolD box to promote ribosomal protein gene expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Matías; Moreira-Ramos, Sandra; Rojas, Diego A; Urbina, Fabiola; Käufer, Norbert F; Maldonado, Edio

    2017-02-01

    In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, ribosomal protein gene (RPG) promoters contain a TATA box analog, the HomolD box, which is bound by the Rrn7 protein. Despite the importance of ribosome biogenesis for cell survival, the mechanisms underlying RPG transcription remain unknown. In this study, we found that components of the RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) system, consisting of the initiation or general transcription factors (GTFs) TFIIA, IIB, IIE, TATA-binding protein (TBP) and the RNAPII holoenzyme, interacted directly with Rrn7 in vitro, and were able to form a preinitiation complex (PIC) on the HomolD box. PIC complex formation follows an ordered pathway on these promoters. The GTFs and RNAPII can also be cross-linked to HomolD-containing promoters in vivo. In an in vitro reconstituted transcription system, RNAPII components and Rrn7 were necessary for HomolD-directed transcription. The Mediator complex was required for basal transcription from those promoters in whole cell extract (WCE). The Med17 subunit of Mediator also can be cross-linked to the promoter region of HomolD-containing promoters in vivo, suggesting the presence of the Mediator complex on HomolD box-containing promoters. Together, these data show that components of the RNAPII machinery and Rrn7 participate in the PIC assembly on the HomolD box, thereby directing RPG transcription. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  8. Interrogating and predicting tolerated sequence diversity in protein folds: application to E. elaterium trypsin inhibitor-II cystine-knot miniprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Lahti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cystine-knot miniproteins (knottins are promising molecular scaffolds for protein engineering applications. Members of the knottin family have multiple loops capable of displaying conformationally constrained polypeptides for molecular recognition. While previous studies have illustrated the potential of engineering knottins with modified loop sequences, a thorough exploration into the tolerated loop lengths and sequence space of a knottin scaffold has not been performed. In this work, we used the Ecballium elaterium trypsin inhibitor II (EETI as a model member of the knottin family and constructed libraries of EETI loop-substituted variants with diversity in both amino acid sequence and loop length. Using yeast surface display, we isolated properly folded EETI loop-substituted clones and applied sequence analysis tools to assess the tolerated diversity of both amino acid sequence and loop length. In addition, we used covariance analysis to study the relationships between individual positions in the substituted loops, based on the expectation that correlated amino acid substitutions will occur between interacting residue pairs. We then used the results of our sequence and covariance analyses to successfully predict loop sequences that facilitated proper folding of the knottin when substituted into EETI loop 3. The sequence trends we observed in properly folded EETI loop-substituted clones will be useful for guiding future protein engineering efforts with this knottin scaffold. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that the combination of directed evolution with sequence and covariance analyses can be a powerful tool for rational protein engineering.

  9. Partial IGF-1 deficiency is sufficient to reduce heart contractibility, angiotensin II sensibility, and alter gene expression of structural and functional cardiac proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis González-Guerra

    Full Text Available Circulating levels of IGF-1 may decrease under several circumstances like ageing, metabolic syndrome, and advanced cirrhosis. This reduction is associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, progression to type 2 diabetes, and increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. However, underlying mechanisms between IGF-1 deficiency and cardiovascular disease remain elusive. The specific aim of the present work was to study whether the partial IGF-1 deficiency influences heart and/or coronary circulation, comparing vasoactive factors before and after of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R. In addition, histology of the heart was performed together with cardiac gene expression for proteins involved in structure and function (extracellular matrix, contractile proteins, active peptides; carried out using microarrays, followed by RT-qPCR confirmation of the three experimental groups. IGF-1 partial deficiency is associated to a reduction in contractility and angiotensin II sensitivity, interstitial fibrosis as well as altered expression pattern of genes involved in extracellular matrix proteins, calcium dynamics, and cardiac structure and function. Although this work is descriptive, it provides a clear insight of the impact that partial IGF-1 deficiency on the heart and establishes this experimental model as suitable for studying cardiac disease mechanisms and exploring therapeutic options for patients under IGF-1 deficiency conditions.

  10. Site-directed mutagenesis of surfactant protein A reveals dissociation of lipid aggregation and lipid uptake by alveolar type II cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunezawa, W; Sano, H; Sohma, H; McCormack, F X; Voelker, D R; Kuroki, Y

    1998-09-08

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) binds to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and induces phospholipid vesicle aggregation. It also regulates the uptake and secretion of surfactant lipids by alveolar type II cells. We introduced the single mutations Glu195-->Gln (rE195Q), Lys201-->Ala (rK201A) and Lys203-->Ala (rK203A) for rat SP-A, Arg199-->Ala (hR199A) and Lys201-->Ala (hK201A) for human SP-A, and the triple mutations Arg197, Lys201 and Lys203-->Ala (rR197A/K201A/K203A) for rat SP-A, into cDNAs for SP-A, and expressed the recombinant proteins using baculovirus vectors. All recombinant proteins avidly bound to DPPC liposomes. rE195Q, rK201A, rK203A, hR199A and hK201A function with activity comparable to wild type SP-A. Although rR197A/K201A/K203A was a potent inducer of phospholipid vesicle aggregation, it failed to stimulate lipid uptake. rR197A/K201A/K203A was a weak inhibitor for lipid secretion and did not competed with rat [125I]SP-A for receptor occupancy. From these results, we conclude that Lys201 and Lys203 of rat SP-A, and Arg199 and Lys201 of human SP-A are not individually critical for the interaction with lipids and type II cells, and that Glu195 of rat SP-A can be replaced with Gln without loss of SP-A functions. This study also demonstrates that the SP-A-mediated lipid uptake is not directly correlated with phospholipid vesicle aggregation, and that specific interactions of SP-A with type II cells are involved in the lipid uptake process.

  11. Type III Transforming Growth Factor-β Receptor Drives Cardiac Hypertrophy Through β-Arrestin2-Dependent Activation of Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jie; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Song, Shu-Ying; Li, Yan-Chao; Sun, Fei; Ding, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Chang-Jiang; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Mei-Tong; Dong, Chang-Jiang; Ji, Yong; Li, Hongliang; Chu, Wenfeng; Zhang, Zhi-Ren

    2016-09-01

    The role of type III transforming growth factor-β receptor (TβRIII) in the pathogenesis of heart diseases remains largely unclear. Here, we investigated the functional role and molecular mechanisms of TβRIII in the development of myocardial hypertrophy. Western blot and quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that the expression of TβRIII was significantly elevated in human cardiac hypertrophic samples. Consistently, TβRIII expression was substantially increased in transverse aortic constriction (TAC)- and isoproterenol-induced mouse cardiac hypertrophy in vivo and in isoproterenol-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. Overexpression of TβRIII resulted in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, whereas isoproterenol-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was greatly attenuated by knockdown of TβRIII in vitro. Cardiac-specific transgenic expression of TβRIII independently led to cardiac hypertrophy in mice, which was further aggravated by isoproterenol and TAC treatment. Cardiac contractile function of the mice was not altered in TβRIII transgenic mice; however, TAC led to significantly decreased cardiac contractile function in TβRIII transgenic mice compared with control mice. Conversely, isoproterenol- and TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy and TAC-induced cardiac contractile function impairment were partially reversed by suppression of TβRIII in vivo. Our data suggest that TβRIII mediates stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy through activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, which requires a physical interaction of β-arrestin2 with both TβRIII and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Our findings indicate that stress-induced increase in TβRIII expression results in cardiac hypertrophy through β-arrestin2-dependent activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and that transforming growth factor-β and β-adrenergic receptor signaling are not involved in spontaneous cardiac hypertrophy in cardiac

  12. DNA variants within the 5'-flanking region of milk-protein-encoding genes II. The β-lactoglobulin-encoding gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, V A; Schild, T A; Geldermann, H

    1994-09-01

    For the detection of polymorphisms within the 5'-flanking region of the β-lactoglobulin (-LG) -encoding gene a nucleotide sequence containing 795 bp of the promoter and 59 bp of exon I was cloned and sequenced. After comparing the sequence from the DNA of 11 diverse cows (different breeds and milk-protein yields), 14 singlebp substitutions were identified within the 5'-flanking region and two in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of exon I. Some of the variants are located in potential binding sites for trans-acting factors or in the 5'-UTR. A PCR-based RFLP analysis was performed, and the genotypes of an additional 60 cows were identified at five variable 5'-flanking sites. The results reveal three frequent combinations between the A and B alleles of the protein-coding region and the novel 5'-flanking DNA variants. This finding may explain the differences of the protein-variant-dependent β-LG synthesis (A>B) observed in vivo. A sequence comparison of the bovine and ovine promoters reveals an homology of 92.8% and shows a higher degree of conservation between positions -600 and -300.

  13. Pairwise additivity of energy components in protein-ligand binding: The HIV II protease-Indinavir case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucisik, Melek N.; Dashti, Danial S.; Faver, John C.; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2011-08-01

    An energy expansion (binding energy decomposition into n-body interaction terms for n ≥ 2) to express the receptor-ligand binding energy for the fragmented HIV II protease-Indinavir system is described to address the role of cooperativity in ligand binding. The outcome of this energy expansion is compared to the total receptor-ligand binding energy at the Hartree-Fock, density functional theory, and semiempirical levels of theory. We find that the sum of the pairwise interaction energies approximates the total binding energy to ˜82% for HF and to >95% for both the M06-L density functional and PM6-DH2 semiempirical method. The contribution of the three-body interactions amounts to 18.7%, 3.8%, and 1.4% for HF, M06-L, and PM6-DH2, respectively. We find that the expansion can be safely truncated after n = 3. That is, the contribution of the interactions involving more than three parties to the total binding energy of Indinavir to the HIV II protease receptor is negligible. Overall, we find that the two-body terms represent a good approximation to the total binding energy of the system, which points to pairwise additivity in the present case. This basic principle of pairwise additivity is utilized in fragment-based drug design approaches and our results support its continued use. The present results can also aid in the validation of non-bonded terms contained within common force fields and in the correction of systematic errors in physics-based score functions.

  14. Dihydrolipoic Acid Inhibits Lysosomal Rupture and NLRP3 Through Lysosome-Associated Membrane Protein-1/Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II/TAK1 Pathways After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Keren; Enkhjargal, Budbazar; Xie, Zhiyi; Sun, Chengmei; Wu, Lingyun; Malaguit, Jay; Chen, Sheng; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, Jianmin; Zhang, John H

    2018-01-01

    The NLRP3 (nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3) inflammasome is a crucial component of the inflammatory response in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this study, we investigated a role of dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) in lysosomal rupture, NLRP3 activation, and determined the underlying pathway. SAH was induced by endovascular perforation in male Sprague-Dawley rats. DHLA was administered intraperitoneally 1 hour after SAH. Small interfering RNA for lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 and CaMKIIα (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α) was administered through intracerebroventricular 48 hours before SAH induction. SAH grade evaluation, short- and long-term neurological function testing, Western blot, and immunofluorescence staining experiments were performed. DHLA treatment increased the expression of lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 and decreased phosphorylated CaMKIIα and NLRP3 inflammasome, thereby alleviating neurological deficits after SAH. Lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 small interfering RNA abolished the neuroprotective effects of DHLA and increased the level of phosphorylated CaMKIIα, p-TAK1 (phosphorylated transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase), p-JNK (phosphorylated c-Jun-N-terminal kinase), and NLRP3 inflammasome. CaMKIIα small interfering RNA downregulated the expression of p-TAK1, p-JNK, and NLRP3 and improved the neurobehavior after SAH. DHLA treatment improved neurofunction and alleviated inflammation through the lysosome-associated membrane protein-1/CaMKII/TAK1 pathway in early brain injury after SAH. DHLA may provide a promising treatment to alleviate early brain injury after SAH. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. A recombinant fusion protein displaying murine and human MHC class I- and II-specific epitopes protects against Leishmania amazonensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Vívian T; Lage, Daniela P; Duarte, Mariana C; Carvalho, Ana Maria R S; Costa, Lourena E; Mendes, Tiago A O; Vale, Danniele L; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Roatt, Bruno M; Tavares, Carlos A P; Soto, Manuel; Coelho, Eduardo A F

    2017-03-01

    Tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) constitutes a major public health problem with significant morbidity worldwide. Synthetic peptide-based vaccines are attractive candidates to protect against leishmaniasis, since T cell-specific epitopes can be delivery to antigen-presenting cells, leading to the generation of a Th1 cell-mediated immunity. In this context, the present study aims to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a vaccine composed of major histocompatibility complex class I and II-restricted epitopes derived from four Leishmania infantum proteins to protect mice against Leishmania amazonensis infection. This recombinant fusion protein was administered in BALB/c mice alone or with saponin. As controls, animals received saline or saponin. In the results, the administration of the recombinant protein plus saponin induced a specific IFN-γ, IL-12 and GM-CSF production, as well as high IgG2a isotype antibody levels, which protected mice against a challenge using L. amazonensis promastigotes. Lower parasite burden was found in the infected footpads, liver, spleen and draining lymph node of vaccinated mice, when compared to those from the control groups. In addition, protection was associated with a lower IL-4 and IL-10 response, which was accompanied by the antileishmanial nitrite production by spleen cells of the animals. Interestingly, the recombinant protein administered alone induced a partial protection against challenge. In conclusion, this study shows a new vaccine candidate based on T cell-specific epitopes that was able to induce protection against L. amazonensis infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Establishment of the first WHO International Standard for etanercept, a TNF receptor II Fc fusion protein: Report of an international collaborative study.

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    Wadhwa, Meenu; Bird, Chris; Dilger, Paula; Rigsby, Peter; Jia, Haiyan; Gross, Marie Emmanuelle Behr

    2017-08-01

    Etanercept, a recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor Fc fusion protein is an effective treatment option in adults with rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis or plaque psoriasis and paediatrics with juvenile idiotypic arthritis and plaque psoriasis. Patent expiration in Europe and intense development of various etanercept products worldwide triggered a need for an international reference standard to facilitate determination of biological activity. Therefore, three candidate preparations of etanercept were lyophilized and evaluated in a multi-centre collaborative study comprising twenty eight laboratories from 15 countries for their suitability to serve as an international standard for the bioactivity of TNF receptor II Fc fusion proteins (international nonproprietary name, Etanercept). The preparations were tested for neutralization activity against the third TNF-α international standard (IS) in different in vitro cell-based assays, e.g., cytotoxicity, apoptosis and reporter gene methods. Regardless of the assay and the amount of TNF-α IS used, potency estimates for the different preparations were very similar. An indication of the inhibitory activity of etanercept in terms of the biological activity of the TNF-α IS based on ED50 data derived from a limited number of laboratories using a cytotoxicity assay was also derived. Results indicated that the candidate preparation coded 13/204 was stable and suitable to serve as an international standard for the biological activity of etanercept. Therefore, the preparation coded 13/204 was established by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) in 2015 as the WHO first International Standard for TNF receptor II Fc fusion protein (INN, etanercept) with an assigned in vitro bioactivity of 10,000IU per ampoule. It should be noted that this first-in-class international standard for a Fc fusion protein, available from the National Institute for Biological

  17. Effect of glycosides of Cistanche on the expression of mitochondrial precursor protein and keratin type II cytoskeletal 6A in a rat model of vascular dementia

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    Yan-mei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycosides of Cistanche (GC is a preparation used extensively for its neuroprotective effect against neurological diseases, but its mechanisms of action remains incompletely understood. Here, we established a bilateral common carotid artery occlusion model of vascular dementia in rats and injected the model rats with a suspension of GC (10 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally for 14 consecutive days. Immunohistochemistry showed that GC significantly reduced p-tau and amyloid beta (Aβ immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of the model rats. Proteomic analysis demonstrated upregulation of mitochondrial precursor protein and downregulation of keratin type II cytoskeletal 6A after GC treatment compared with model rats that had received saline. Western blot assay confirmed these findings. Our results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of GC in vascular dementia occurs via the promotion of neuronal cytoskeleton regeneration.

  18. The effect of interleukin-13 (IL-13 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ on expression of surfactant proteins in adult human alveolar type II cells in vitro

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    Mason Robert J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surfactant proteins are produced predominantly by alveolar type II (ATII cells, and the expression of these proteins can be altered by cytokines and growth factors. Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance is suggested to be important in the pathogenesis of several adult lung diseases. Recently, we developed a culture system for maintaining differentiated adult human ATII cells. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of IL-13 and IFN-γ on the expression of surfactant proteins in adult human ATII cells in vitro. Additional studies were done with rat ATII cells. Methods Adult human ATII cells were isolated from deidentified organ donors whose lungs were not suitable for transplantation and donated for medical research. The cells were cultured on a mixture of Matrigel and rat-tail collagen for 8 d with differentiation factors and human recombinant IL-13 or IFN-γ. Results IL-13 reduced the mRNA and protein levels of surfactant protein (SP-C, whereas IFN-γ increased the mRNA level of SP-C and proSP-C protein but not mature SP-C. Neither cytokine changed the mRNA level of SP-B but IFN-γ slightly decreased mature SP-B. IFN-γ reduced the level of the active form of cathepsin H. IL-13 also reduced the mRNA and protein levels of SP-D, whereas IFN-γ increased both mRNA and protein levels of SP-D. IL-13 did not alter SP-A, but IFN-γ slightly increased the mRNA levels of SP-A. Conclusions We demonstrated that IL-13 and IFN-γ altered the expression of surfactant proteins in human adult ATII cells in vitro. IL-13 decreased SP-C and SP-D in human ATII cells, whereas IFN-γ had the opposite effect. The protein levels of mature SP-B were decreased by IFN-γ treatment, likely due to the reduction in active form cathpesin H. Similarly, the active form of cathepsin H was relatively insufficient to fully process proSP-C as IFN-γ increased the mRNA levels for SP-C and proSP-C protein, but there was no increase in mature SP-C. These observations

  19. [Hepatitis B virus X protein promotes insulin-like growth factor II gene expression by inducing hypomethylation of the P3 promoter in hepatocellular carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shaohui; Zhang, Shaohua; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Wu, Shenglan; Li, Junfeng; Jiang, Xiangwu; Zhou, Hongke; Luo, Yuhong; Cao, Mingrong

    2014-04-01

    To explore the involvement of hepatitis B X protein (HBx) in promoter 3 (P3)-driven mRNA overexpression of the insulin-like growth factor II gene (IGF-II) and investigate the underlying epigenetic mechanism. Levels of P3 and HBx mRNA and status of P3 methylation were analyzed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples, with and without hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and bisulfite sequencing. In addition, the levels of P3 mRNA and P3 methylation were examined in HepG2 cells stably overexpressing HBx (HepG2-HBx). Finally, P3 promoter-luciferase constructs were cotransfected into HepG2 cells along with an HBx-expressing plasmid, and the effects of HBx on transcriptional activity and methylation of P3 were analyzed. Statistical analyses of the data were conducted by chi square test, Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test, Marn-Whitney U test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient test. The HBV-positive HCC specimens had significantly higher levels of P3 mRNA than the HBV-negative HCC specimens (-9.59 ± 3.22 vs. -12.97 ± 3.08 delta CT; P=0.006) but significantly lower levels of P3 methylation (mean values for the 17 CpG sites (36.9% ± 15.5% vs. 52.1% ± 19.1%; P=0.025). The P3 transcript abundance was positively correlated with the level of HBx expression and negatively correlated with the level of P3 methylation. The epigenetic results from experiments with the HepG2-HBx cells were similar. Transfection of HBx significantly decreased P3 methylation level and increased its activity. HBx expression may promote IGF-II expression by inducing hypomethylation of its P3 promoter in hepatocellular carcinoma.

  20. Contribution of the C-terminal regions of promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) isoforms II and V to PML nuclear body formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yunyun; Monajembashi, Shamci; Shao, Anwen; Cui, Di; He, Weiyong; Chen, Zhongzhou; Hemmerich, Peter; Tang, Jun

    2012-08-31

    Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) nuclear bodies are dynamic and heterogeneous nuclear protein complexes implicated in various important functions, most notably tumor suppression. PML is the structural component of PML nuclear bodies and has several nuclear splice isoforms that share a common N-terminal region but differ in their C termini. Previous studies have suggested that the coiled-coil motif within the N-terminal region is sufficient for PML nuclear body formation by mediating homo/multi-dimerization of PML molecules. However, it has not been investigated whether any of the C-terminal variants of PML may contribute to PML body assembly. Here we report that the unique C-terminal domains of PML-II and PML-V can target to PML-NBs independent of their N-terminal region. Strikingly, both domains can form nuclear bodies in the absence of endogenous PML. The C-terminal domain of PML-II interacts transiently with unknown binding sites at PML nuclear bodies, whereas the C-terminal domain of PML-V exhibits hyperstable binding to PML bodies via homo-dimerization. This strong interaction is mediated by a putative α-helix in the C terminus of PML-V. Moreover, nuclear bodies assembled from the C-terminal domain of PML-V also recruit additional PML body components, including Daxx and Sp100. These observations establish the C-terminal domain of PML-V as an additional important contributor to the assembly mechanism(s) of PML bodies.

  1. Mechanical stretch stimulates protein kinase B/Akt phosphorylation in epidermal cells via angiotensin II type 1 receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor.

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    Kippenberger, Stefan; Loitsch, Stefan; Guschel, Maike; Müller, Jutta; Knies, Yvonne; Kaufmann, Roland; Bernd, August

    2005-01-28

    Mechanical stress is known to modulate fundamental events such as cell life and death. Mechanical stretch in particular has been identified as a positive regulator of proliferation in skin keratinocytes and other cell systems. In the present study it was investigated whether antiapoptotic signaling is also stimulated by mechanical stretch. It was demonstrated that mechanical stretch rapidly induced the phosphorylation of the proto-oncogene protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt at both phosphorylation sites (serine 473/threonine 308) in different epithelial cells (HaCaT, A-431, and human embryonic kidney-293). Blocking of phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase by selective inhibitors (LY-294002 and wortmannin) abrogated the stretch-induced PKB/Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore mechanical stretch stimulated phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the formation of EGFR membrane clusters. Functional blocking of EGFR phosphorylation by either selective inhibitors (AG1478 and PD168393) or dominant-negative expression suppressed stretch-induced PKB/Akt phosphorylation. Finally, the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) was shown to induce positive transactivation of EGFR in response to cell stretch. These findings define a novel signaling pathway of mechanical stretch, namely the activation of PKB/Akt by transactivation of EGFR via angiotensin II type 1 receptor. Evidence is provided that stretch-induced activation of PKB/Akt protects cells against induced apoptosis.

  2. Identification of Distinct Conformations of the Angiotensin-II Type 1 Receptor Associated with the Gq/11 Protein Pathway and the β-Arrestin Pathway Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabana, Jérôme; Holleran, Brian; Leduc, Richard; Escher, Emanuel; Guillemette, Gaétan; Lavigne, Pierre

    2015-06-19

    Biased signaling represents the ability of G protein-coupled receptors to engage distinct pathways with various efficacies depending on the ligand used or on mutations in the receptor. The angiotensin-II type 1 (AT1) receptor, a prototypical class A G protein-coupled receptor, can activate various effectors upon stimulation with the endogenous ligand angiotensin-II (AngII), including the Gq/11 protein and β-arrestins. It is believed that the activation of those two pathways can be associated with distinct conformations of the AT1 receptor. To verify this hypothesis, microseconds of molecular dynamics simulations were computed to explore the conformational landscape sampled by the WT-AT1 receptor, the N111G-AT1 receptor (constitutively active and biased for the Gq/11 pathway), and the D74N-AT1 receptor (biased for the β-arrestin1 and -2 pathways) in their apo-forms and in complex with AngII. The molecular dynamics simulations of the AngII-WT-AT1, N111G-AT1, and AngII-N111G-AT1 receptors revealed specific structural rearrangements compared with the initial and ground state of the receptor. Simulations of the D74N-AT1 receptor revealed that the mutation stabilizes the receptor in the initial ground state. The presence of AngII further stabilized the ground state of the D74N-AT1 receptor. The biased agonist [Sar(1),Ile(8)]AngII also showed a preference for the ground state of the WT-AT1 receptor compared with AngII. These results suggest that activation of the Gq/11 pathway is associated with a specific conformational transition stabilized by the agonist, whereas the activation of the β-arrestin pathway is linked to the stabilization of the ground state of the receptor. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Differential regulation of translation and endocytosis of alternatively spliced forms of the type II bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsalem, Ayelet R.; Marom, Barak; Shapira, Keren E.; Hirschhorn, Tal; Preisler, Livia; Paarmann, Pia; Knaus, Petra; Henis, Yoav I.; Ehrlich, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The expression and function of transforming growth factor-β superfamily receptors are regulated by multiple molecular mechanisms. The type II BMP receptor (BMPRII) is expressed as two alternatively spliced forms, a long and a short form (BMPRII-LF and –SF, respectively), which differ by an ∼500 amino acid C-terminal extension, unique among TGF-β superfamily receptors. Whereas this extension was proposed to modulate BMPRII signaling output, its contribution to the regulation of receptor expression was not addressed. To map regulatory determinants of BMPRII expression, we compared synthesis, degradation, distribution, and endocytic trafficking of BMPRII isoforms and mutants. We identified translational regulation of BMPRII expression and the contribution of a 3’ terminal coding sequence to this process. BMPRII-LF and -SF differed also in their steady-state levels, kinetics of degradation, intracellular distribution, and internalization rates. A single dileucine signal in the C-terminal extension of BMPRII-LF accounted for its faster clathrin-mediated endocytosis relative to BMPRII-SF, accompanied by mildly faster degradation. Higher expression of BMPRII-SF at the plasma membrane resulted in enhanced activation of Smad signaling, stressing the potential importance of the multilayered regulation of BMPRII expression at the plasma membrane. PMID:26739752

  4. Ni(II Complexes with Schiff Base Ligands: Preparation, Characterization, DNA/Protein Interaction and Cytotoxicity Studies

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    Hui Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two Ni(II complexes, namely [Ni(HL12(OAc2] (1 and [Ni(L22] (2 (where HL1 and HL2 are (E-1-((1-(2-hydroxyethyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yliminomethyl-naphthalen-2-ol and (E-ethyl-5-((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-ylmethyleneamino-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate, respectively, were synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS, elemental analysis, and IR. Their uptake in biological macromolecules and cancer cells were preliminarily investigated through electronic absorption (UV-Vis, circular dichroism (CD and fluorescence quenching measurements. Bovine serum albumin (BSA interaction experiments were investigated by spectroscopy which showed that the complexes and ligands could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA through an obvious static quenching process. The spectroscopic studies indicated that these complexes could bind to DNA via groove, non-covalent, and electrostatic interactions. Furthermore, in vitro methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT assays and Annexin V/PI flow cytometry experiments were performed to assess the antitumor capacity of the complexes against eight cell lines. The results show that both of the complexes possess reasonable cytotoxicities.

  5. Nickel(II) complexes with a flexible piperazinyl moiety: studies on DNA and protein binding and catecholase like properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mriganka; Nasani, Rajendar; Saha, Manideepa; Mobin, Shaikh M; Mukhopadhyay, Suman

    2015-02-07

    Four new mononuclear Ni(ii) complexes [Ni(L(1))]ClO4 (), [Ni(L(2))]ClO4(), [Ni(SCN)3(CH3OH)(aminoethylpiperazineH)] (), and [Ni(DMSO)4(aminoethylpiperazineH)](ClO4)3()have been synthesized from two Schiff base ligands [L(1) = 1-phenyl-3-((2-(piperidin-4-yl)ethyl)imino)but-1-en-1-ol and L(2) = 4-((2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethyl)imino)pent-2-en-2-ol] by exploiting the flexibility of the piperazinyl moiety. Structural analysis reveals that and are square planar complexes with piperazine rings in boat conformations whereas hydrolysis of Schiff bases (L(1) and L(2)) occurs during formation of octahedral complexes ( and ) with piperazine rings in chair conformations. Screening tests were conducted to quantify the binding ability of complexes (, and ) towards DNA, BSA and HSA and it was found that square planar complexes ( and ) showed more effective binding properties over octahedral complex (). Furthermore, enzyme kinetic studies reflect that square planar complexes ( and ) are also effective in mimicking catecholase like activities over octahedral complex (). Among all the complexes, was found to be the most promising molecule among the series due to its large binding affinity towards different bio-macromolecules and higher T.O.N in the catechol oxidation reaction.

  6. Enhanced expression of Gqα and PLC-β1 proteins contributes to vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy in SHR: role of endogenous angiotensin II and endothelin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atef, Mohammed Emehdi; Anand-Srivastava, Madhu B

    2014-07-01

    Vascular Gqα signaling has been shown to contribute to cardiac hypertrophy. In addition, angiotensin II (ANG II) was shown to induce vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy through Gqα signaling; however, the studies on the role of Gqα and PLC-β1 proteins in VSMC hypertrophy in animal model are lacking. The present study was therefore undertaken to examine the role of Gqα/PLC-β1 proteins and the signaling pathways in VSMC hypertrophy using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). VSMC from 16-wk-old SHR and not from 12-wk-old SHR exhibited enhanced levels of Gqα/PLC-β1 proteins compared with age-matched Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats as determined by Western blotting. However, protein synthesis as determined by [(3)H]leucine incorporation was significantly enhanced in VSMC from both 12- and 16-wk-old SHR compared with VSMC from age-matched WKY rats. Furthermore, the knockdown of Gqα/PLC-β1 in VSMC from 16-wk-old SHR by antisense and small interfering RNA resulted in attenuation of protein synthesis. In addition, the enhanced expression of Gqα/PLC-β1 proteins, enhanced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, and enhanced protein synthesis in VSMC from SHR were attenuated by the ANG II AT1 and endothelin-1 (ET-1) ETA receptor antagonists losartan and BQ123, respectively, but not by the ETB receptor antagonist BQ788. In addition, PD98059 decreased the enhanced expression of Gqα/PLC-β1 and protein synthesis in VSMC from SHR. These results suggest that the enhanced levels of endogenous ANG II and ET-1 through the activation of AT1 and ETA receptors, respectively, and MAP kinase signaling, enhanced the expression of Gqα/PLC-β1 proteins in VSMC from 16-wk-old SHR and result in VSMC hypertrophy. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Involvement of calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in endothelin receptor expression in rat cerebral arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldsee, Roya; Ahnstedt, Hilda; Eftekhari, Sajedeh; Edvinsson, Lars

    2010-03-01

    Experimental cerebral ischemia and organ culture of cerebral arteries result in the enhanced expression of endothelin ET(B) receptors in smooth muscle cells via increased transcription. The present study was designed to evaluate the involvement of calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CAMK) in the transcriptional expression of endothelin receptors after organ culture. Rat basilar arteries were incubated for 24 h with or without the CAMK inhibitor KN93 or ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126. The contractile responses to endothelin-1 (ET-1; ET(A) and ET(B) receptor agonist) and sarafotoxin 6c (S6c; ET(B) receptor agonist) were studied using a sensitive myograph. The mRNA levels of the ET(A) and ET(B) receptors and CAMKII were determined by real-time PCR, and their protein levels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The mRNA levels of CAMKII and the ET(B) receptor increased during organ culture, but there was no change in the expression of the ET(A) receptor. This effect was abolished by coincubation with KN93 or U0126. In functional studies, both inhibitors attenuated the S6c-induced contraction. Incubating the arteries with KN93, but not U0126, decreased the amount of phosphorylated CAMKII. The inhibitors had no effect on the levels of myosin light chain during organ culture, as measured by Western blot. CAMKII is involved in the upregulation of the endothelin ET(B) receptor and interacts with the ERK1/2 pathway to enhance receptor expression. CAMKII has no effect on the contractile apparatus in rat cerebral arteries.

  8. Burkholderia cenocepacia type VI secretion system mediates escape of type II secreted proteins into the cytoplasm of infected macrophages.

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    Roberto Rosales-Reyes

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that survives intracellularly in macrophages and causes serious respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. We have previously shown that bacterial survival occurs in bacteria-containing membrane vacuoles (BcCVs resembling arrested autophagosomes. Intracellular bacteria stimulate IL-1β secretion in a caspase-1-dependent manner and induce dramatic changes to the actin cytoskeleton and the assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex onto the BcCV membrane. A Type 6 secretion system (T6SS is required for these phenotypes but surprisingly it is not required for the maturation arrest of the BcCV. Here, we show that macrophages infected with B. cenocepacia employ the NLRP3 inflammasome to induce IL-1β secretion and pyroptosis. Moreover, IL-1β secretion by B. cenocepacia-infected macrophages is suppressed in deletion mutants unable to produce functional Type VI, Type IV, and Type 2 secretion systems (SS. We provide evidence that the T6SS mediates the disruption of the BcCV membrane, which allows the escape of proteins secreted by the T2SS into the macrophage cytoplasm. This was demonstrated by the activity of fusion derivatives of the T2SS-secreted metalloproteases ZmpA and ZmpB with adenylcyclase. Supporting this notion, ZmpA and ZmpB are required for efficient IL-1β secretion in a T6SS dependent manner. ZmpA and ZmpB are also required for the maturation arrest of the BcCVs and bacterial intra-macrophage survival in a T6SS-independent fashion. Our results uncover a novel mechanism for inflammasome activation that involves cooperation between two bacterial secretory pathways, and an unanticipated role for T2SS-secreted proteins in intracellular bacterial survival.

  9. Tripartite Motif-Containing Protein 22 Interacts with Class II Transactivator and Orchestrates Its Recruitment in Nuclear Bodies Containing TRIM19/PML and Cyclin T1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlani, Greta; Tosi, Giovanna; Turrini, Filippo; Poli, Guido; Vicenzi, Elisa; Accolla, Roberto S

    2017-01-01

    Among interferon (IFN) inducible antiviral factors both tripartite motif-containing protein 22 (TRIM22) and class II transactivator (CIITA) share the capacity of repressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proviral transcription. TRIM22 is constitutively expressed in a subset of U937 cell clones poorly permissive to HIV-1 replication, whereas CIITA has been shown to inhibit virus multiplication in both T lymphocytic and myeloid cells, including poorly HIV-1 permissive U937 cells, by suppressing Tat-mediated transactivation of HIV-1 transcription. Therefore, we tested whether TRIM22 and CIITA could form a nuclear complex potentially endowed with HIV-1 repressive functions. Indeed, we observed that TRIM22, independent of its E3 ubiquitin ligase domain, interacts with CIITA and promotes its recruitment into nuclear bodies. Importantly, TRIM19/promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein, another repressor of HIV-1 transcription also acting before proviral integration, colocalize in these nuclear bodies upon TRIM22 expression induced by IFN-γ. Finally, tTRIM22 nuclear bodies also contained CyclinT1, a crucial elongation factor of HIV-1 primary transcripts. These findings show that TRIM22 nuclear bodies are a site of recruitment of factors crucial for the regulation of HIV-1 transcription and highlight the potential existence of a concerted action between TRIM22, CIITA, and TRIM19/PML to maintain a state of proviral latency, at least in myeloid cells.

  10. H2-O, a MHC class II-like protein, sets a threshold for B-cell entry into germinal centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draghi, Nicole A; Denzin, Lisa K

    2010-09-21

    Upon antigen (Ag) encounter, B cells require T-cell help to enter the germinal center (GC). They obtain this help by presenting Ag-derived peptides on MHC class II (MHCII) for recognition by the T-cell receptor (TCR) of CD4(+) T cells. Peptides are loaded onto MHCII in endosomal compartments in a process catalyzed by the MHCII-like protein H2-M (HLA-DM in humans). This process is modulated by another MHCII-like protein, H2-O (HLA-DO in humans). H2-O is a biochemical inhibitor of peptide loading onto MHCII; however, on the cellular level, it has been shown to have varying effects on Ag presentation. Thus, the function of H2-O in the adaptive immune response remains unclear. Here, we examine the effect of H2-O expression on the ability of Ag-specific B cells to enter the GC. We show that when Ag specific WT and H2-O(-/-) B cells are placed in direct competition, H2-O(-/-) B cells preferentially populate the GC. This advantage is confined to Ag-specific B cells and is due to their superior ability to obtain Ag-specific T-cell help when T-cell help is limiting. Overall, our work shows that H2-O expression reduces the ability of B cells to gain T-cell help and participate in the GC reaction.

  11. Antisense reductions in the PsbO protein of photosystem II leads to decreased quantum yield but similar maximal photosynthetic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Simon A; Chow, Wah Soon; Yamori, Wataru; Evans, John R; Kaines, Sarah; Badger, Murray R; von Caemmerer, Susanne

    2012-08-01

    Photosystem (PS) II is the multisubunit complex which uses light energy to split water, providing the reducing equivalents needed for photosynthesis. The complex is susceptible to damage from environmental stresses such as excess excitation energy and high temperature. This research investigated the in vivo photosynthetic consequences of impairments to PSII in Arabidopsis thaliana (ecotype Columbia) expressing an antisense construct to the PsbO proteins of PSII. Transgenic lines were obtained with between 25 and 60% of wild-type (WT) total PsbO protein content, with the PsbO1 isoform being more strongly reduced than PsbO2. These changes coincided with a decrease in functional PSII content. Low PsbO (less than 50% WT) plants grew more slowly and had lower chlorophyll content per leaf area. There was no change in content per unit area of cytochrome b6f, ATP synthase, or Rubisco, whereas PSI decreased in proportion to the reduction in chlorophyll content. The irradiance response of photosynthetic oxygen evolution showed that low PsbO plants had a reduced quantum yield, but matched the oxygen evolution rates of WT plants at saturating irradiance. It is suggested that these plants had a smaller pool of PSII centres, which are inefficiently connected to antenna pigments resulting in reduced photochemical efficiency.

  12. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II mRNA-Binding Protein 3 Expression Correlates with Poor Prognosis in Acral Lentiginous Melanoma.

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    Yi-Shuan Sheen

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP-3 is an RNA-binding protein expressed in multiple cancers, including melanomas. However, the expression of IMP-3 has not been investigated in acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM. This study sought to elucidate its prognostic value in ALMs. IMP-3 expression was studied in 93 patients diagnosed with ALM via immunohistochemistry. Univariate and multivariate analyses for survival were performed, according to clinical and histologic parameters, using the Cox proportional hazard model. Survival curves were graphed using the Kaplan-Meier method. IMP-3 was over-expressed in 70 out of 93 tumors (75.3%. IMP-3 expression correlated with thick and high-stage tumor and predicted poorer overall, melanoma-specific, recurrence-free and distant metastasis-free survivals (P = 0.002, 0.006, 0.008 and 0.012, respectively. Further analysis showed that patients with tumor thickness ≤ 4.0 mm and positive IMP-3 expression had a significantly worse melanoma-specific survival than those without IMP-3 expression (P = 0.048. IMP-3 (hazard ratio 3.67, 95% confidence intervals 1.35-9.97, P = 0.011 was confirmed to be an independent prognostic factor for melanoma-specific survival in multivariate survival analysis. Positive IMP-3 expression was an important prognostic factor for ALMs.

  13. Detection of Nitric Oxide Induced by Angiotensin II Receptor Type 1 Using Soluble Guanylate Cyclase beta1 Subunit Fused to a Yellow Fluorescent Protein, Venus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yuichi; Ozawa, Kentaro; Komatsubara, Akira T; Zhao, Jing; Nishi, Mayumi; Yoshizumi, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important gaseous molecule involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes, including the regulation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Here, we report the development of a high-affinity method to detect NO using soluble guanylate cyclase beta1 subunit fused to Venus, a variant of yellow fluorescent protein (sGC-Venus). We measured the fluorescence intensity of sGC-Venus with and without an NO donor using purified probes. At 560 nm emission, the fluorescence intensity of sGC-Venus at 405 nm excitation was increased by approximately 2.5-fold by the NO donor, but the fluorescence intensities of sGC-Venus excited by other wavelengths showed much less of an increase or no significant increase. To measure NO in living cells, the fluorescence intensity of sGC-Venus at 405 nm excitation was normalized to that at 488 nm excitation because it showed no significant difference with or without the NO donor. In HEK293 cells overexpressing the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1 receptor), the production of NO induced by activation of the AT1 receptor was detected using sGC-Venus. These data indicate that sGC-Venus will be a useful tool for visualizing intracellular NO in living cells and that NO might be a common tool to regulate GPCRs.

  14. Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3 is overexpressed in prostate cancer and correlates with higher Gleason scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortezavi Ashkan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oncofetal protein insulin-like growth factor II mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3 is an important factor for cell-migration and adhesion in malignancies. Recent studies have shown a remarkable overexpression of IMP3 in different human malignant neoplasms and also revealed it as an important prognostic marker in some tumor entities. To our knowledge, IMP3 expression has not been investigated in prostate carcinomas so far. Methods Immunohistochemical stainings for IMP3 were performed on tissue microarray (TMA organized samples from 507 patients: 31 normal prostate tissues, 425 primary carcinomas and 51 prostate cancer metastases or castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPC. IMP3 immunoreactivity was semiquantitatively scored and correlated with clinical-pathologic parameters including survival. Results IMP3 is significantly stronger expressed in prostate carcinomas compared to normal prostate tissues (p Conclusions Although IMP3 is overexpressed in a significant proportion of prostate cancer cases, which might be of importance for novel therapeutic approaches, it does not appear to possess any immediate diagnostic or prognostic value, limiting its potential as a tissue biomarker for prostate cancer. These results might be corroborated by the fact, that two independent tumor cohorts were separately reviewed.

  15. Human Cytomegalovirus IE1 Protein Elicits a Type II Interferon-Like Host Cell Response That Depends on Activated STAT1 but Not Interferon-γ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblach, Theresa; Grandel, Benedikt; Seiler, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) is a highly prevalent pathogen that, upon primary infection, establishes life-long persistence in all infected individuals. Acute hCMV infections cause a variety of diseases in humans with developmental or acquired immune deficits. In addition, persistent hCMV infection may contribute to various chronic disease conditions even in immunologically normal people. The pathogenesis of hCMV disease has been frequently linked to inflammatory host immune responses triggered by virus-infected cells. Moreover, hCMV infection activates numerous host genes many of which encode pro-inflammatory proteins. However, little is known about the relative contributions of individual viral gene products to these changes in cellular transcription. We systematically analyzed the effects of the hCMV 72-kDa immediate-early 1 (IE1) protein, a major transcriptional activator and antagonist of type I interferon (IFN) signaling, on the human transcriptome. Following expression under conditions closely mimicking the situation during productive infection, IE1 elicits a global type II IFN-like host cell response. This response is dominated by the selective up-regulation of immune stimulatory genes normally controlled by IFN-γ and includes the synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory chemokines. IE1-mediated induction of IFN-stimulated genes strictly depends on tyrosine-phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and correlates with the nuclear accumulation and sequence-specific binding of STAT1 to IFN-γ-responsive promoters. However, neither synthesis nor secretion of IFN-γ or other IFNs seems to be required for the IE1-dependent effects on cellular gene expression. Our results demonstrate that a single hCMV protein can trigger a pro-inflammatory host transcriptional response via an unexpected STAT1-dependent but IFN-independent mechanism and identify IE1 as a candidate determinant of hCMV pathogenicity. PMID:21533215

  16. Critical assessment of protein cross-linking and molecular docking: an updated model for the interaction between photosystem II and Psb27

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    Kai U Cormann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Photosystem II (PSII is a large membrane-protein complex composed of about 20 subunits and various cofactors, which mediates the light-driven oxidation of water and reduction of plastoquinone, and is part of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain that is localized in the thylakoid membrane of cyanobacteria, algae and plants. The stepwise assembly of PSII is guided and facilitated by numerous auxiliary proteins that play specific roles in this spatiotemporal process. Psb27, a small protein localized in the thylakoid lumen, appears to associate with an intermediate PSII complex that is involved in assembly of the Mn4CaO5 cluster. Its precise binding position on the PSII intermediate remains elusive, as previous approaches to the localization of Psb27 on PSII have yielded contradictory results. This was our motivation for a critical assessment of previously used methods and the development of an improved analysis pipeline. The combination of chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry (CX-MS with isotope-coded cross-linkers was refined and validated with reference to the PSII crystal structure. Psb27 was localized on the PSII surface adjacent to the large lumenal domain of CP43 on the basis of a cross-link connecting Psb27-K91 to CP43-K381. Additional contacts associating Psb27 with CP47 and the C-termini of D1 and D2 were detected by surface plasmon resonance (SPR spectroscopy. This information was used to model the binding of Psb27 to the PSII surface in a region that is occupied by PsbV in the mature complex.

  17. Accuracy of chimeric proteins in the serological diagnosis of chronic chagas disease – a Phase II study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celedon, Paola Alejandra Fiorani; Zanchin, Nilson Ivo Tonin; de Souza, Wayner Vieira; da Silva, Edimilson Domingos; Foti, Leonardo; Krieger, Marco Aurélio; Gomes, Yara de Miranda

    2017-01-01

    Background The performance of current serologic tests for diagnosing chronic Chagas disease (CD) is highly variable. The search for new diagnostic markers has been a constant challenge for improving accuracy and reducing the number of inconclusive results. Methodology/Principal findings Here, four chimeric proteins (IBMP-8.1 to -8.4) comprising immunodominant regions of different Trypanosoma cruzi antigens were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The proteins were used to detect specific anti-T. cruzi antibodies in the sera of 857 chagasic and 689 non-chagasic individuals to evaluate their accuracy for chronic CD diagnosis. The antigens were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by chromatographic methods. The sensitivity and specificity values ranged from 94.3% to 99.3% and 99.4% to 100%, respectively. The diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) values were 6,462 for IBMP-8.1, 3,807 for IBMP-8.2, 32,095 for IBMP-8.3, and 283,714 for IBMP-8.4. These chimeric antigens presented DORs that were higher than the commercial test Pathozyme Chagas. The antigens IBMP-8.3 and -8.4 also showed DORs higher than the Gold ELISA Chagas test. Mixtures with equimolar concentrations were tested in order to improve the diagnosis accuracy of negative samples with high signal and positive samples with low signal. However, no gain in accuracy was observed relative to the individual antigens. A total of 1,079 additional sera were used to test cross-reactivity to unrelated diseases. The cross-reactivity rates ranged from 0.37% to 0.74% even for Leishmania spp., a pathogen showing relatively high genome sequence identity to T. cruzi. Imprecision analyses showed that IBMP chimeras are very stable and the results are highly reproducible. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that the IBMP-8.4 antigen can be safely used in serological tests for T. cruzi screening in blood banks and for chronic CD laboratory diagnosis. PMID:28273127

  18. Interaction of amphiphiles with integral membrane proteins. II. A simple, minimal model for the nonspecific interaction of amphiphiles with the anion exchanger of the erythrocyte membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, H J

    1988-10-20

    In a previous paper we have reported on the structural perturbation of the erythrocyte membrane anion exchanger by a regular series of model amphiphiles, as shown by differential scanning calorimetry (Gruber, H.J. and Low, P.S., Biochim. Biophys. Acta, preceding article). Now the data are interpreted by a model in which the effects of amphiphile structure upon buffer-membrane partitioning are well separated from the dependence of the intrinsic potencies of membrane-bound amphiphiles upon amphiphile structure. The buffer-membrane partitioning situation was demonstrated to regularly change between extremes within a series of homologous amphiphiles, i.e. from a negligible to a predominant fraction of total amphiphile in the sample residing in the membrane. Based upon this demonstration a large number of reports on the chain length dependence of apparent potency could be reinterpreted in terms of chain length profiles of intrinsic potency, allowing for a comparison of the responses of various membrane proteins to homologous series of amphiphiles. The response patterns for chain length variation could be divided into three distinct classes: the intrinsic potency (i) can be independent of chain length over a very wide range of length, (ii) it can be rather independent up to a critical length where a sudden cut-off in potency occurs, or (iii) it can drop monotonically over a wide range of chain length. The intrinsic potency values of saturated fatty acids in destabilizing the anion exchanger were interpreted by very simple assumptions: only direct interactions between amphiphiles and target proteins and a simple amphiphile partition equilibrium between a pool of equivalent low affinity sites on the protein and the bulk lipid matrix. The observed monotonic decay of the intrinsic potency of saturated fatty acids with increasing chain length from C8 to C20 was translated into a constant increment of free energy by which each additional CH2 favors the transfer away from sites

  19. Sp17 Protein Expression and Major Histocompatibility Class I and II Epitope Presentation in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Ait-Tahar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improved therapies are urgently needed for patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL. Success using immune checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor T cell technology has fuelled demand for validated cancer epitopes. Immunogenic cancer testis antigens (CTAs, with their widespread expression in many tumours but highly restricted normal tissue distribution, represent attractive immunotherapeutic targets that may improve treatment options for DLBCL and other malignancies. Sperm protein 17 (Sp17, a CTA reported to be immunogenic in ovarian cancer and myeloma patients, is expressed in DLBCL. The aim of the present study was to investigate Sp17 epitope presentation via the presence of a cytotoxic T cell (CTL and a CD4 T-helper (Th response in DLBCL patients. A significant γ-interferon CTL response was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 13/31 DLBCL patients following short-term cell stimulation with two novel HLA-A⁎0201 peptides and one previously reported HLA-A⁎0101-restricted nine-mer Sp17 peptide. No significant responses were detected in the HLA-A⁎0201-negative DLBCL patients or four healthy subjects. A novel immunogenic 20-mer CD4 Th Sp17 peptide was detected in 8/17 DLBCL patients. This is the first report of a CTL and a CD4 Th response to Sp17 in DLBCL and supports Sp17 as a potential immunotherapeutic target for DLBCL.

  20. The TRPM8 protein is a testosterone receptor: II. Functional evidence for an ionotropic effect of testosterone on TRPM8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Demirkhanyan, Lusine; Sun, Xiaohui; Elustondo, Pia A; Krishnan, Vivek; Baskaran, Padmamalini; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Thyagarajan, Baskaran; Pavlov, Evgeny V; Zakharian, Eleonora

    2015-01-30

    Testosterone is a key steroid hormone in the development of male reproductive tissues and the regulation of the central nervous system. The rapid signaling mechanism induced by testosterone affects numerous behavioral traits, including sexual drive, aggressiveness, and fear conditioning. However, the currently identified testosterone receptor(s) is not believed to underlie the fast signaling, suggesting an orphan pathway. Here we report that an ion channel from the transient receptor potential family, TRPM8, commonly known as the cold and menthol receptor is the major component of testosterone-induced rapid actions. Using cultured and primary cell lines along with the purified TRPM8 protein, we demonstrate that testosterone directly activates TRPM8 channel at low picomolar range. Specifically, testosterone induced TRPM8 responses in primary human prostate cells, PC3 prostate cancer cells, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and hippocampal neurons. Picomolar concentrations of testosterone resulted in full openings of the purified TRPM8 channel in planar lipid bilayers. Furthermore, acute applications of testosterone on human skin elicited a cooling sensation. Our data conclusively demonstrate that testosterone is an endogenous and highly potent agonist of TRPM8, suggesting a role of TRPM8 channels well beyond their well established function in somatosensory neurons. This discovery may further imply TRPM8 channel function in testosterone-dependent behavioral traits. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. The Carboxy Terminal Region of the Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate Early 1 (IE1 Protein Disrupts Type II Inteferon Signaling

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    Bindu Raghavan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interferons (IFNs activate the first lines of defense against viruses, and promote innate and adaptive immune responses to viruses. We report that the immediate early 1 (IE1 protein of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV disrupts signaling by IFNγ. The carboxyl-terminal region of IE1 is required for this function. We found no defect in the initial events in IFNγ signaling or in nuclear accumulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1 in IE1-expressing cells. Moreover, we did not observe an association between disruption of IFNγ signaling and nuclear domain 10 (ND10 disruption. However, there is reduced binding of STAT1 homodimers to target gamma activated sequence (GAS elements in the presence of IE1. Co-immunoprecipitation studies failed to support a direct interaction between IE1 and STAT1, although these studies revealed that the C-terminal region of IE1 was required for interaction with STAT2. Together, these results indicate that IE1 disrupts IFNγ signaling by interfering with signaling events in the nucleus through a novel mechanism.

  2. Partially crystalline systems in lyophilization: II. Withstanding collapse at high primary drying temperatures and impact on protein activity recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Koustuv; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2005-04-01

    In an accompanying article we have described the construction of the water-rich sections of raffinose-glycine-water and trehalose-glycine-water state diagrams. In this study, we use the information obtained from the state diagrams to identify the minimum weight fraction of the crystalline component in glycine-carbohydrate systems necessary to withstand collapse at high primary drying temperatures. We also determine the impact of primary drying, substantially above T'g, on the recovery of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. Ambient and variable temperature X-ray powder diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry were used to characterize the frozen and freeze-dried systems. Aqueous solutions with glycine to carbohydrate (raffinose pentahydrate or trehalose dihydrate) weight ratios ranging from 0.2 to 2.0 were freeze dried. The protein formulations contained 20 mM citrate buffer (pH 6.0) and LDH (20 microg/mL). A glycine to anhydrous raffinose weight ratio >or=1.18 and a glycine to anhydrous trehalose weight ratio >or=1.56 were necessary to withstand macroscopic collapse in the system, when the primary drying was carried out at a product temperature at least 10 degrees C above the T'g. The recovery of LDH activity was almost complete in the reconstituted lyophile whether the primary drying was carried out above T'g (-10 degrees C) or below T'g (-32 degrees C). Thus, by judiciously combining crystalline and amorphous components, it was possible to primary dry at temperatures substantially above the T'g. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Impact of supplemental protein source offered to primiparous heifers during gestation on II. Progeny performance and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, A F; Blair, A D; Funston, R N

    2015-04-01

    A 3-yr study using primiparous crossbred beef heifers (n = 114) was conducted to determine the effects of protein supplement during late gestation on progeny performance and carcass characteristics. Pregnant heifers were stratified by heifer development system, initial BW, and AI service sire and placed in an individual feeding system. Heifers were offered meadow hay (8 to 11% CP) from early November to mid-February and provided no supplement (CON; n = 37), 0.83 kg/d (DM basis) of a dried distillers grains with solubles-based supplement (HI; n = 39), or 0.83 kg/d (DM basis) of a dried corn gluten feed-based supplement (LO; n = 38). Supplements were designed to be isonitrogenous (28% CP) and isocaloric but to differ in RUP with HI (59% RUP) having greater levels of RUP than LO (34% RUP). After the individual feeding period, heifers were placed in a drylot for calving. All heifers were bred using a fixed-timed AI protocol and pairs were moved to a commercial ranch in the Nebraska Sandhills for summer grazing. Calf weaning BW did not differ (P = 0.14) based on maternal diet. However, feedlot entry BW was greater (P = 0.03) for HI compared with CON calves. Average daily gain during the initial feedlot phase tended (P = 0.10) to be greatest for calves born to CON dams and lowest for calves born to LO dams. However, overall ADG was similar (P = 0.50) for the entire feedlot period. Residual feed intake during the reimplant and total feeding period was improved in calves born to supplemented dams in yr 2 and 3 compared with calves born to CON dams. There was no difference in final BW among treatments (P = 0.71). Hot carcass weight was similar (P = 0.72) among treatments; however, steers had greater (P calves born to LO dams. Tenderness measured by Warner-Bratzler shear force was increased (P = 0.03) in longissimus samples from calves from CON dams compared to calves from LO dams. Similarly, crude fat levels tended to be greater (P = 0.07) for calves from CON dams compared

  4. Extracellular Protein Kinase A Modulates Intracellular Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II, Nitric Oxide Synthase, and the Glutamate-Nitric Oxide-cGMP Pathway in Cerebellum. Differential Effects in Hyperammonemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Llansola, Marta; Felipo, Vicente

    2016-12-21

    Extracellular protein kinases, including cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), modulate neuronal functions including N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent long-term potentiation. NMDA receptor activation increases calcium, which binds to calmodulin and activates nitric oxide synthase (NOS), increasing nitric oxide (NO), which activates guanylate cyclase, increasing cGMP, which is released to the extracellular fluid, allowing analysis of this glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway in vivo by microdialysis. The function of this pathway is impaired in hyperammonemic rats. The aims of this work were to assess (1) whether the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway is modulated in cerebellum in vivo by an extracellular PKA, (2) the role of phosphorylation and activity of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and NOS in the pathway modulation by extracellular PKA, and (3) whether the effects are different in hyperammonemic and control rats. The pathway was analyzed by in vivo microdialysis. The role of extracellular PKA was analyzed by inhibiting it with a membrane-impermeable inhibitor. The mechanisms involved were analyzed in freshly isolated cerebellar slices from control and hyperammonemic rats. In control rats, inhibiting extracellular PKA reduces the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway function in vivo. This is due to reduction of CaMKII phosphorylation and activity, which reduces NOS phosphorylation at Ser1417 and NOS activity, resulting in reduced guanylate cyclase activation and cGMP formation. In hyperammonemic rats, under basal conditions, CaMKII phosphorylation and activity are increased, increasing NOS phosphorylation at Ser847, which reduces NOS activity, guanylate cyclase activation, and cGMP. Inhibiting extracellular PKA in hyperammonemic rats normalizes CaMKII phosphorylation and activity, NOS phosphorylation, NOS activity, and cGMP, restoring normal function of the pathway.

  5. Identification of amino acids in antigen-binding site of class II HLA proteins independently associated with hepatitis B vaccine response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Aiko; Noguchi, Emiko; Fukushima, Takashi; Tagawa, Manabu; Iwabuchi, Atsushi; Kita, Masaki; Kakisaka, Keisuke; Miyasaka, Akio; Takikawa, Yasuhiro; Sumazaki, Ryo

    2017-01-23

    Genetic factors in class II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) have been reported to be associated with inter-individual variation in hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine response. However, the mechanism underlying the associations remains elusive. In particular, the broad linkage disequilibrium in HLA region complicates the localization of the independent effects of genetic variants. Thus, the present study aimed to identify the most probable causal variations in class II HLA loci involved in the immune response to HBV vaccine. We performed a case-control study to assess whether HLA-DRB1, -DQB1, and -DPB1 4-digit alleles were associated with the response to primary HBV vaccination in 574 healthy Japanese students. To identify causative variants, we next assessed independently associated amino acid variants in these loci using conditional logistic regression analysis. Furthermore, to clarify the functional effects of these variants on HLA proteins, we performed computational structural studies. HLA-DRB1∗01:01, HLA-DRB1∗08:03, HLA-DQB1∗05:01, and HLA-DPB1∗04:02 were significantly associated with sufficient response, whereas HLA-DPB1∗05:01 was associated with poor response. We then identified amino acids independently associated with sufficient response, namely, leucine at position 26 of HLA-DRβ1 and glycine-glycine-proline-methionine at positions 84-87 of HLA-DPβ1. These amino acids were located in antigen-binding pocket 4 of HLA-DR and pocket 1 of HLA-DP, respectively, which are important structures for selective binding of antigenic peptides. In addition, the detected variations in HLA-DP protein were responsible for the differences in the electrostatic potentials of the pocket, which can explain in part the sufficient/poor vaccine responses. HLA-DRβ1 position 26 and HLA-DPβ1 positions 84-87 are independently associated with anti-HBs production against HBV vaccine. Our results suggest that HBsAg presentation through these HLA pocket structures plays an

  6. Impact of cell type and epitope tagging on heterologous expression of G protein-coupled receptor: a systematic study on angiotensin type II receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Jiang

    Full Text Available Despite heterologous expression of epitope-tagged GPCR is widely adopted for functional characterization, there is lacking of systematic analysis of the impact of expression host and epitope tag on GPCR expression. Angiotensin type II (AT2 receptor displays agonist-dependent and -independent activities, coupling to a spectrum of signaling molecules. However, consensus has not been reached on the subcellular distributions, signaling cascades and receptor-mediated actions. To examine the contributions of host cell and epitope tag on receptor expression and activity, epitope-tagged AT2 receptor variants were transiently or stably expressed in HEK293, CHO-K1 and PC12 cells. The epitope-tagged AT2 receptor variants were detected both on the cell membrane and in the perinuclear region. In transiently transfected HEK293 cells, Myc-AT2 existed predominantly as monomer. Additionally, a ladder of ubiquitinated AT2 receptor proteins was detected. By contrast, stably expressed epitope-tagged AT2 receptor variants existed as both monomer and high molecular weight complexes, and the latter was enriched in cell surface. Glycosylation promoted cell surface expression of Myc-AT2 but had no effect on AT2-GFP in HEK293 cells. In cells that stably expressed Myc-AT2, serum starvation induced apoptosis in CHO-K1 cells but not in HEK293 or PC12 cells. Instead, HEK293 and PC12 cells stably expressing Myc-AT2 exhibited partial cell cycle arrest with cells accumulating at G1 and S phases, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that expression levels, subcellular distributions and ligand-independent constitutive activities of AT2 receptor were cell type-dependent while posttranslational processing of nascent AT2 receptor protein was modulated by epitope tag and mode of expression.

  7. Impact of cell type and epitope tagging on heterologous expression of G protein-coupled receptor: a systematic study on angiotensin type II receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lili; Teng, Gladys M K; Chan, Elaine Y M; Au, Shannon W N; Wise, Helen; Lee, Susanna S T; Cheung, Wing-Tai

    2012-01-01

    Despite heterologous expression of epitope-tagged GPCR is widely adopted for functional characterization, there is lacking of systematic analysis of the impact of expression host and epitope tag on GPCR expression. Angiotensin type II (AT2) receptor displays agonist-dependent and -independent activities, coupling to a spectrum of signaling molecules. However, consensus has not been reached on the subcellular distributions, signaling cascades and receptor-mediated actions. To examine the contributions of host cell and epitope tag on receptor expression and activity, epitope-tagged AT2 receptor variants were transiently or stably expressed in HEK293, CHO-K1 and PC12 cells. The epitope-tagged AT2 receptor variants were detected both on the cell membrane and in the perinuclear region. In transiently transfected HEK293 cells, Myc-AT2 existed predominantly as monomer. Additionally, a ladder of ubiquitinated AT2 receptor proteins was detected. By contrast, stably expressed epitope-tagged AT2 receptor variants existed as both monomer and high molecular weight complexes, and the latter was enriched in cell surface. Glycosylation promoted cell surface expression of Myc-AT2 but had no effect on AT2-GFP in HEK293 cells. In cells that stably expressed Myc-AT2, serum starvation induced apoptosis in CHO-K1 cells but not in HEK293 or PC12 cells. Instead, HEK293 and PC12 cells stably expressing Myc-AT2 exhibited partial cell cycle arrest with cells accumulating at G1 and S phases, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that expression levels, subcellular distributions and ligand-independent constitutive activities of AT2 receptor were cell type-dependent while posttranslational processing of nascent AT2 receptor protein was modulated by epitope tag and mode of expression.

  8. Antipsychotic drugs up-regulate tryptophan hydroxylase in ADF neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans: role of calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and transient receptor potential vanilloid channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Dallas R; Phan, Thang; Weeks, Kathrine; Aamodt, Eric J; Dwyer, Donard S

    2008-08-15

    Antipsychotic drugs produce acute behavioral effects through antagonism of dopamine and serotonin receptors, and long-term adaptive responses that are not well understood. The goal of the study presented here was to use Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the molecular mechanism or mechanisms that contribute to adaptive responses produced by antipsychotic drugs. First-generation antipsychotics, trifluoperazine and fluphenazine, and second-generation drugs, clozapine and olanzapine, increased the expression of tryptophan hydroxylase-1::green fluorescent protein (TPH-1::GFP) and serotonin in the ADF neurons of C. elegans. This response was absent or diminished in mutant strains lacking the transient receptor potential vanilloid channel (TRPV; osm-9) or calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII; unc-43). The role of calcium signaling was further implicated by the finding that a selective antagonist of calmodulin and a calcineurin inhibitor also enhanced TPH-1::GFP expression. The ADF neurons modulate foraging behavior (turns/reversals off food) through serotonin production. We found that short-term exposure to the antipsychotic drugs altered the frequency of turns/reversals off food. This response was mediated through dopamine and serotonin receptors and was abolished in serotonin-deficient mutants (tph-1) and strains lacking the SER-1 and MOD-1 serotonin receptors. Consistent with the increase in serotonin in the ADF neurons induced by the drugs, drug withdrawal after 24-hr treatment was accompanied by a rebound in the number of turns/reversals, which demonstrates behavioral adaptation in serotonergic systems. Characterization of the cellular, molecular, and behavioral adaptations to continuous exposure to antipsychotic drugs may provide insight into the long-term clinical effects of these medications.

  9. [The diagnostic value of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II in non-infant patients with acquired deficiency of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Tianqin; Ren, Chuanlu; Shen, Hongshi; Chen, Haifei; Yu, Ziqiang; Wang, Zhaoyue

    2014-02-01

    To explore the diagnostic value of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist -II(PIVKA-II) in non-infant with acquired deficiency of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors(ADVKCF). PIVKA-II levels were measured by ELISA in 50 patients with ADVKCF on day 0, 3, 7 after vitamin K treatment. Prothrombin time(PT), APTT, FII: C, FVII: C, FIX: C, and FX: C were analyzed simultaneously. Twenty healthy subjects were enrolled as controls. The average level of PIVKA-II in ADVKCF group was (3.83 ± 1.40)µg/L, while (1.30 ± 0.54) µg/L in the control group (P 0.05], but decreasing significantly on day 7 compared to the control group(P 0.05). Coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X activity which decreased significantly before treatment returned to normal range after one week use of vitamin K, leading to complete correction of prolonged APTT and PT (>100 seconds). The PIVKA-II level in ADVKCF patients is significantly higher than that of healthy subjects within one week treatment of vitamin K, which is not influenced by plasma transfusion. This study suggests that PIVKA-II is a more sensitive parameter than APTT, PT and the activity of coagulation factor, which could be a valuable factor in the early diagnosis of ADVKCF.

  10. Possible Interrelationship between Changes in F-actin and Myosin II, Protein Phosphorylation and Cell Volume Regulation in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine F.; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2002-01-01

    F-actin; myosin II; osmotic; Rho kinase; p38; PKC; MLCK; serine/threonine phosphatase; blebbing; NHE1......F-actin; myosin II; osmotic; Rho kinase; p38; PKC; MLCK; serine/threonine phosphatase; blebbing; NHE1...

  11. Insulin-like growth factor II messenger RNA-binding protein-3 is an indicator of malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Katsumi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Taguchi, Kenichi; Ohno, Shinji; Tokunaga, Eriko; Yamashita, Nami; Kubo, Makoto; Nakamura, Masafumi; Oda, Yoshinao

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of the expressions of insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein-3 (IMP3) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in phyllodes tumors (PTs). Immunohistochemical staining for IMP3 and EGFR was performed in 130 cases of primary PTs (83 benign, 28 borderline, 19 malignant), 34 recurrent/metastatic PTs, and 26 fibroadenomas (FAs). Among the primary tumors, a high expression of IMP3 was significantly more frequently present in malignant PTs (17/19, 89%) than in the FAs (0/26, 0%), benign PTs (0/83, 0%) and borderline PTs (3/28, 11%). The recurrent and metastatic lesions of malignant PTs also showed high IMP3 expression (3/5 [60%] and 6/6 [100%], respectively). Most malignant PTs showed strong IMP3 expression at the interductal area or more diffusely, whereas weak and focal (low) expression of IMP3 was limited to the periductal area in FAs and benign PTs. EGFR overexpression was significantly correlated with tumor grade and high IMP3 expression. Overexpressions of IMP3 and EGFR were significantly associated with shorter periods of metastasis-free and disease-free survival. The results suggest that high expressions of IMP3 and EGFR with a characteristic staining pattern may be helpful for both identifying malignant PT and predicting the prognosis of these tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. IGF-I, IGF-II, 'free' IGF-I and IGF-binding proteins-2 to -6 during high-dose oestrogen treatment in constitutionally tall girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooman, Raoul P A; De Beeck, Lieve Op; Martin, Manou; Van Doorn, Jaap; Mohan, Subburaman; Du Caju, Marc V L

    2002-06-01

    To investigate the effect of high-dose oestrogen treatment on IGF-I, IGF-II, free-dissociable IGF-I and the IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP)-2 to -6 in girls with constitutional tall stature. In patient cohort 1, blood samples were drawn before and after 3 months of daily oral treatment with 0.1 mg ethinyloestradiol. In cohort 2, samples were collected at the end of the treatment period and 3 to 6 months afterwards. IGFs and IGFBPs were analysed by specific immunoassays and by Western ligand blot. Total IGF-I decreased significantly on oestrogen treatment and increased again after oestrogen withdrawal. Ligand blot analysis showed a clear reduction in a 34 kDa band, corresponding to IGFBP-2, and a strong induction of a 24 kDa band, corresponding to the non-glycosylated form of IGFBP-4. These changes were confirmed by specific immunological methods. The serum levels of IGFBP-3, IGFBP-5 and IGFBP-6 remained unchanged during the first 3 months of treatment. In cohort 2, IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-6 increased after oestrogen withdrawal. Free-dissociable IGF-I fell to 35+/-4% during oestrogen therapy and rose again when the treatment was stopped. Oestrogens modulate the serum concentrations of several components of the IGF system. The fall in total IGF-I is not explained by a decrease in IGFBPs but probably results from a decreased synthesis.

  13. Role of exercise-induced calmodulin protein kinase (CAMK)II activation in the regulation of omega-6 fatty acids and lipid metabolism genes in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, J S; Ayeleso, A O; Mukwevho, E

    2017-09-22

    Activation of calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CaMK)II by exercise is beneficial in controlling membrane lipids associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity. Regulation of lipid metabolism is crucial in the improvement of type 2 diabetes and obesity associated symptoms. The role of CaMKII in membrane associated lipid metabolism was the focus of this study. Five to six weeks old male Wistar rats were used in this study. GC×GC-TOFMS technique was used to determine the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and 11,14-eicosadienoic acid). Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (Cpt-1) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Acc-1) genes expression were assessed using quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). From the results, CaMKII activation by exercise increased the levels of arachidonic acid and 11, 14-eicosadienoic acid while a decrease in the level of linolenic acid was observed in the skeletal muscle. The results indicated that exercise-induced CaMKII activation increased CPT-1 expression and decreased ACC-1 expression in rat skeletal muscle. All the observed increases with activation of CaMKII by exercise were aborted when KN93, an inhibitor of CaMKII was injected in exercising rats. This study demonstrated that CaMKII activation by exercise regulated lipid metabolism. This study suggests that CaMKII can be a vital target of therapeutic approach in the management of diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity that have increased to epidemic proportions recently.

  14. Phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase II at T286 enhances invasion and migration of human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Mengna; Evans, Hamish; Gilchrist, Jackson; Mayhew, Jack; Hoffman, Alexander; Pearsall, Elizabeth Ann; Jankowski, Helen; Brzozowski, Joshua Stephen; Skelding, Kathryn Anne

    2016-09-08

    Calcium/calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a multi-functional kinase that controls a range of cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The biological properties of CaMKII are regulated by multi-site phosphorylation. However, the role that CaMKII phosphorylation plays in cancer cell metastasis has not been examined. We demonstrate herein that CaMKII expression and phosphorylation at T286 is increased in breast cancer when compared to normal breast tissue, and that increased CAMK2 mRNA is associated with poor breast cancer patient prognosis (worse overall and distant metastasis free survival). Additionally, we show that overexpression of WT, T286D and T286V forms of CaMKII in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells increases invasion, migration and anchorage independent growth, and that overexpression of the T286D phosphomimic leads to a further increase in the invasive, migratory and anchorage independent growth capacity of these cells. Pharmacological inhibition of CaMKII decreases MDA-MB-231 migration and invasion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that overexpression of T286D, but not WT or T286V-CaMKII, leads to phosphorylation of FAK, STAT5a, and Akt. These results demonstrate a novel function for phosphorylation of CaMKII at T286 in the control of breast cancer metastasis, offering a promising target for the development of therapeutics to prevent breast cancer metastasis.

  15. Berbamine inhibits the growth of liver cancer cells and cancer-initiating cells by targeting Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhipeng; Li, Tao; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Xiaoqiong; Van Ness, Carl; Gan, Yichao; Zhou, Hong; Tang, Jinfen; Lou, Guiyu; Wang, Yafan; Wu, Jun; Yen, Yun; Xu, Rongzhen; Huang, Wendong

    2013-10-01

    Liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide but no effective treatment toward liver cancer is available so far. Therefore, there is an unmet medical need to identify novel therapies to efficiently treat liver cancer and improve the prognosis of this disease. Here, we report that berbamine and one of its derivatives, bbd24, potently suppressed liver cancer cell proliferation and induced cancer cell death by targeting Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII). Furthermore, berbamine inhibited the in vivo tumorigenicity of liver cancer cells in NOD/SCID mice and downregulated the self-renewal abilities of liver cancer-initiating cells. Chemical inhibition or short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of CAMKII recapitulated the effects of berbamine, whereas overexpression of CAMKII promoted cancer cell proliferation and increased the resistance of liver cancer cells to berbamine treatments. Western blot analyses of human liver cancer specimens showed that CAMKII was hyperphosphorylated in liver tumors compared with the paired peritumor tissues, which supports a role of CAMKII in promoting human liver cancer progression and the potential clinical use of berbamine for liver cancer therapies. Our data suggest that berbamine and its derivatives are promising agents to suppress liver cancer growth by targeting CAMKII. Mol Cancer Ther; 12(10); 2067-77. ©2013 AACR.

  16. DNA and protein binding, double-strand DNA cleavage and cytotoxicity of mixed ligand copper(II) complexes of the antibacterial drug nalidixic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Rangasamy; Ganeshpandian, Mani; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai S P; Palaniandavar, Mallayan; Muruganantham, Amsaveni; Ghosh, Swapan K; Riyasdeen, Anvarbatcha; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader

    2017-09-01

    The water soluble mixed ligand complexes [Cu(nal)(diimine)(H 2 O)](ClO 4 ) 1-4, where H(nal) is nalidixic acid and diimine is 2,2'-bipyridine (1), 1,10-phenanthroline (2), 5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (3), and 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (4), have been isolated. The coordination geometry around Cu(II) in 1 and that in the Density Functional Theory optimized structures of 1-4 has been assessed as square pyramidal. The trend in DNA binding constants (K b ) determined using absorption spectral titration (K b : 1, 0.79±0.1DNA base pair. In contrast, 3 and 4 are involved in intimate hydrophobic interaction with DNA through the methyl substituents on phen ring, which is supported by viscosity and protein binding studies. DNA docking studies imply that 4 is involved preferentially in DNA major groove binding while 1-3 in minor groove binding and that all the complexes, upon removing the axially coordinated water molecule, bind in the major groove. Interestingly, 3 and 4 display prominent double-strand DNA cleavage while 1 and 2 effect only single-strand DNA cleavage in the absence of an activator. The complexes 3 and 4 show cytotoxicity higher than 1 and 2 against human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7). The complex 4 induces apoptotic mode of cell death in cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of DNA/Protein interactions and cytotoxic studies of copper(II) complexes incorporated with N, N donor ligands and terpyridine ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummalapalli, Kiran; C S, Vasavi; Munusami, Punnagai; Pathak, Madhvesh; M M, Balamurali

    2017-02-01

    A series of four new copper(II) heteroleptic complexes, [Cu(2‴-pytpy) (L)] (NO 3 ) 2 ·2H 2 O (1-4), where 2‴-pytpy=4'-(2'''-Pyridyl)-2, 2':6', 2''-terpyridine, L=bipyridyl (bpy), 1, 10 phenanthroline(phen), dipyridoquinoxaline(dpq) and dipyridophenazine (dppz) were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic techniques. Further, the molecular structure of the complex (2) was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique and the data revealed a penta coordinated, distorted square-pyramidal geometry with triclinic system. The interactions of four complexes with calf thymus DNA and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated by electronic absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy techniques. Spectral studies substantiated an intercalative binding mode of metal complexes with ct-DNA. Significant binding interactions of the complexes with protein have been further revealed from fluorescence studies. Furthermore, all the four complexes show potential cytotoxicity towards the human liver carcinoma cell line (HepG-2). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II and Androgen Signaling Pathways Modulate MEF2 Activity in Testosterone-Induced Cardiac Myocyte Hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Duran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone is known to induce cardiac hypertrophy through androgen receptor (AR-dependent and -independent pathways, but the molecular underpinnings of the androgen action remain poorly understood. Previous work has shown that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII and myocyte-enhancer factor 2 (MEF2 play key roles in promoting cardiac myocyte growth. In order to gain mechanistic insights into the action of androgens on the heart, we investigated how testosterone affects CaMKII and MEF2 in cardiac myocyte hypertrophy by performing studies on cultured rat cardiac myocytes and hearts obtained from adult male orchiectomized (ORX rats. In cardiac myocytes, MEF2 activity was monitored using a luciferase reporter plasmid, and the effects of CaMKII and AR signaling pathways on MEF2C were examined by using siRNAs and pharmacological inhibitors targeting these two pathways. In the in vivo studies, ORX rats were randomly assigned to groups that were administered vehicle or testosterone (125 mg⋅kg-1⋅week-1 for 5 weeks, and plasma testosterone concentrations were determined using ELISA. Cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by measuring well-characterized hypertrophy markers. Moreover, western blotting was used to assess CaMKII and phospholamban (PLN phosphorylation, and MEF2C and AR protein levels in extracts of left-ventricle tissue from control and testosterone-treated ORX rats. Whereas testosterone treatment increased the phosphorylation levels of CaMKII (Thr286 and phospholambam (PLN (Thr17 in cardiac myocytes in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, testosterone-induced MEF2 activity and cardiac myocyte hypertrophy were prevented upon inhibition of CaMKII, MEF2C, and AR signaling pathways. Notably, in the hypertrophied hearts obtained from testosterone-administered ORX rats, both CaMKII and PLN phosphorylation levels and AR and MEF2 protein levels were increased. Thus, this study presents the first evidence indicating that

  19. Ni K-Edge XAS Suggests that Coordination of Ni II to the Unstructured Amyloidogenice Region of the Human Prion Protein Produces a Ni2 bis-u-hydroxo Dimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer,J.; Soh, P.

    2007-01-01

    Prion diseases are thought to be caused by the misfolding of the ubiquitous neuronal membrane prion protein (PrP) through an unknown mechanism that may involve Cu{sup II} coordination to the PrP. Previous work has utilized Ni{sup II} as a diamagnetic probe for Cu{sup II} coordination [C.E. Jones, M. Klewpatinond, S.R. Abdelraheim, D.R. Brown, J.H. Viles, J. Mol. Biol. 346 (2005) 1393-1407]. Herein we investigate Ni{sup II} coordination to the PrP fragment PrP(93-114) (AcN-GGTHSQWNKPSKPKTNMKHMAG) at pH = 10.0 by Ni K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). We find that two equivalents of Ni{sup II} will coordinate to PrP(93-114) by UV/Vis titrations and mass spectrometry. Ni K-edge XAS data is consistent with Ni{sup II} ligated by five N/O based ligands (three N/O ligands at 2.01(2) {angstrom} and two at 1.855(2) {angstrom}). We were also able to locate a Ni-Ni vector at 3.1(1) {angstrom}, which suggests the two Ni{sup II} centers are contained in a bis-{mu}-hydroxo dimer. We therefore suggest that Ni{sup II} may not be a suitable diamagnetic mimic for Cu{sup II} coordination within the PrP since differential coordination modes for the two metals exist.

  20. Altered Protein Expression of Cardiac CYP2J and Hepatic CYP2C, CYP4A, and CYP4F in a Mouse Model of Type II Diabetes—A Link in the Onset and Development of Cardiovascular Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Drolet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Arachidonic acid can be metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP450 enzymes in a tissue- and cell-specific manner to generate vasoactive products such as epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs-cardioprotective and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs-cardiotoxic. Type II diabetes is a well-recognized risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease. A mouse model of Type II diabetes (C57BLKS/J-db/db was used. After sacrifice, livers and hearts were collected, washed, and snap frozen. Total proteins were extracted. Western blots were performed to assess cardiac CYP2J and hepatic CYP2C, CYP4A, and CYP4F protein expression, respectively. Significant decreases in relative protein expression of cardiac CYP2J and hepatic CYP2C were observed in Type II diabetes animals compared to controls (CYP2J: 0.80 ± 0.03 vs. 1.05 ± 0.06, n = 20, p < 0.001; (CYP2C: 1.56 ± 0.17 vs. 2.21 ± 0.19, n = 19, p < 0.01. In contrast, significant increases in relative protein expression of both hepatic CYP4A and CYP4F were noted in Type II diabetes mice compared to controls (CYP4A: 1.06 ± 0.09 vs. 0.18 ± 0.01, n = 19, p < 0.001; (CYP4F: 2.53 ± 0.22 vs. 1.10 ± 0.07, n = 19, p < 0.001. These alterations induced by Type II diabetes in the endogenous pathway (CYP450 of arachidonic acid metabolism may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease by disrupting the fine equilibrium between cardioprotective (CYP2J/CYP2C-generated and cardiotoxic (CYP4A/CYP4F-generated metabolites of arachidonic acid.

  1. The Staphylococcus aureus group II biotin protein ligase BirA is an effective regulator of biotin operon transcription and requires the DNA binding domain for full enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Sarah K; Cronan, John E

    2016-11-01

    Group II biotin protein ligases (BPLs) are characterized by the presence of an N-terminal DNA binding domain that functions in transcriptional regulation of the genes of biotin biosynthesis and transport. The Staphylococcus aureus Group II BPL which is called BirA has been reported to bind an imperfect inverted repeat located upstream of the biotin synthesis operon. DNA binding by other Group II BPLs requires dimerization of the protein which is triggered by synthesis of biotinoyl-AMP (biotinoyl-adenylate), the intermediate in the ligation of biotin to its cognate target proteins. However, the S. aureus BirA was reported to dimerize and bind DNA in the absence of biotin or biotinoyl-AMP (Soares da Costa et al. (2014) Mol Microbiol 91: 110-120). These in vitro results argued that the protein would be unable to respond to the levels of biotin or acceptor proteins and thus would lack the regulatory properties of the other characterized BirA proteins. We tested the regulatory function of the protein using an in vivo model system and examined its DNA binding properties in vitro using electrophoretic mobility shift and fluorescence anisotropy analyses. We report that the S. aureus BirA is an effective regulator of biotin operon transcription and that the prior data can be attributed to artifacts of mobility shift analyses. We also report that deletion of the DNA binding domain of the S. aureus BirA results in loss of virtually all of its ligation activity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Synthesis and structure elucidation of new μ-oxamido-bridged dicopper(II) complex with in vitro anticancer activity: A combined study from experiment verification and docking calculation on DNA/protein-binding property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Zheng, Kang; Li, Yan-Tuan; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Yan, Cui-Wei

    2016-02-01

    A new oxamido-bridged dicopper(II) complex with formula of [Cu2(deap)(pic)2], where H2deap and pic represent N,N'-bis[3-(diethylamino)propyl]oxamide and picrate, respectively, was synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, IR and electronic spectral study, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structure analyses revealed that the two copper(II) atoms in the dicopper(II) complex are bridged by the trans-deap(2-) ligand with the distances of 5.2116(17)Å, and the coordination environment around the copper(II) atoms can be described as a square-planar geometry. Hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions link the dicopper(II) complex into a three-dimensional infinite network. The DNA/protein-binding properties of the complex are investigated by molecular docking and experimental assays. The results indicate that the dicopper(II) complex can interact with HS-DNA in the mode of intercalation and effectively quench the intrinsic fluorescence of protein BSA by 1:1 binding with the most possible binding site in the proximity of Trp134. The in vitro anticancer activities suggest that the complex is active against the selected tumor cell lines, and IC50 values for SMMC-7721 and HepG2 are lower than cisplatin. The effects of the electron density distribution of the terminal ligand and the chelate ring arrangement around copper(II) ions bridged by symmetric N,N'-bis(substituted)oxamides on DNA/BSA-binding ability and in vitro anticancer activity are preliminarily discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Suppression of human solid tumor growth in mice by intratumor and systemic inoculation of histidine-rich and pH-dependent host defense-like lytic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovitzki, Arik; Fink, Avner; Shai, Yechiel

    2009-04-15

    Previously, we reported that intratumor or systemic inoculation of a cationic 15-mer, innate immunity-like lytic peptide composed of d- and l-amino acids ([D]-K(6)L(9)) caused growth arrest of 22RV1 prostate carcinoma xenografts in a mouse model. However, despite its therapeutic potential, this peptide has significant systemic toxicity at concentrations slightly higher than the therapeutic one. Here, we used the acidic environment created by solid tumors as a trigger to activate anticancer lytic peptides by making them cationic only at low pH levels. We achieved this selectivity by substituting lysines (pKa, approximately 10.5) for histidines (pKa, approximately 6.1) in the parental peptide [D]-K(6)L(9). Histidine is protonated below pH 7. For that purpose, we replaced either three or all six lysines in the parental peptide with histidines to obtain the peptides [D]-K(3)H(3)L(9) and [D]-H(6)L(9). Interestingly, in vitro experiments showed pH-dependent activity only with [D]-H(6)L(9) mainly toward cancer cell lines. However, both peptides showed reduced systemic toxicity compared with the parental peptide. Intratumor and systemic inoculation of these peptides resulted in a significant decrease in the 22RV1 prostate cancer tumor volume and systemic secretion of prostate-specific antigen in a xenograft mice model. Moreover, histologic modifications revealed a significant reduction in new blood vessels selectively in tumor tissues after treatment with the peptides compared with the untreated tumors. The lytic mode of action of these new peptides, which makes it difficult for the cancer cells to develop resistance, and their selective and pH-dependent activity make them potential candidates for treatment of solid cancer tumors.

  4. The proline-histidine-rich CDK2/CDK4 interaction region of C/EBPalpha is dispensable for C/EBPalpha-mediated growth regulation in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porse, Bo Torben; Pedersen, Thomas Askov; Hasemann, Marie Sigurd

    2006-01-01

    The C/EBPalpha transcription factor regulates growth and differentiation of several tissues during embryonic development. Several hypotheses as to how C/EBPalpha inhibits cellular growth in vivo have been derived, mainly from studies of tissue culture cells. In fetal liver it has been proposed th...... is dispensable for proper embryonic development of, and cell cycle control in, the liver. Surprisingly, control experiments performed in C/EBPalpha null fetal livers yielded similar results....

  5. A dynamic model of interactions of Ca2+, calmodulin, and catalytic subunits of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Pepke

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available During the acquisition of memories, influx of Ca2+ into the postsynaptic spine through the pores of activated N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptors triggers processes that change the strength of excitatory synapses. The pattern of Ca2+influx during the first few seconds of activity is interpreted within the Ca2+-dependent signaling network such that synaptic strength is eventually either potentiated or depressed. Many of the critical signaling enzymes that control synaptic plasticity,including Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII, are regulated by calmodulin, a small protein that can bindup to 4 Ca2+ ions. As a first step toward clarifying how the Ca2+-signaling network decides between potentiation or depression, we have created a kinetic model of the interactions of Ca2+, calmodulin, and CaMKII that represents our best understanding of the dynamics of these interactions under conditions that resemble those in a postsynaptic spine. We constrained parameters of the model from data in the literature, or from our own measurements, and then predicted time courses of activation and autophosphorylation of CaMKII under a variety of conditions. Simulations showed that species of calmodulin with fewer than four bound Ca2+ play a significant role in activation of CaMKII in the physiological regime,supporting the notion that processing of Ca2+ signals in a spine involves competition among target enzymes for binding to unsaturated species of CaM in an environment in which the concentration of Ca2+ is fluctuating rapidly. Indeed, we showed that dependence of activation on the frequency of Ca2+ transients arises from the kinetics of interaction of fluctuating Ca2+with calmodulin/CaMKII complexes. We used parameter sensitivity analysis to identify which parameters will be most beneficial to measure more carefully to improve the accuracy of predictions. This model provides a quantitative base from which to build more complex dynamic

  6. Plasmodium simium, a Plasmodium vivax-related malaria parasite: genetic variability of Duffy binding protein II and the Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Camargos Costa

    Full Text Available Plasmodium simium is a parasite from New World monkeys that is most closely related to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax; it also naturally infects humans. The blood-stage infection of P. vivax depends on Duffy binding protein II (PvDBPII and its cognate receptor on erythrocytes, the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (hDARC, but there is no information on the P. simium erythrocytic invasion pathway. The genes encoding P. simium DBP (PsDBPII and simian DARC (sDARC were sequenced from Southern brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans naturally infected with P. simium because P. simium may also depend on the DBPII/DARC interaction. The sequences of DBP binding domains from P. vivax and P. simium were highly similar. However, the genetic variability of PsDBPII was lower than that of PvDBPII. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that these genes were strictly related and clustered in the same clade of the evolutionary tree. DARC from A. clamitans was also sequenced and contained three new non-synonymous substitutions. None of these substitutions were located in the N-terminal domain of DARC, which interacts directly with DBPII. The interaction between sDARC and PvDBPII was evaluated using a cytoadherence assay of COS7 cells expressing PvDBPII on their surfaces. Inhibitory binding assays in vitro demonstrated that antibodies from monkey sera blocked the interaction between COS-7 cells expressing PvDBPII and hDARC-positive erythrocytes. Taken together, phylogenetic analyses reinforced the hypothesis that the host switch from humans to monkeys may have occurred very recently in evolution, which sheds light on the evolutionary history of new world plasmodia. Further invasion studies would confirm whether P. simium depends on DBP/DARC to trigger internalization into red blood cells.

  7. Effect of electroacupuncture on the mRNA and protein expression of Rho-A and Rho-associated kinase II in spinal cord injury rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-jiang Min

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroacupuncture is beneficial for the recovery of spinal cord injury, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. The Rho/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK signaling pathway regulates the actin cytoskeleton by controlling the adhesive and migratory behaviors of cells that could inhibit neurite regrowth after neural injury and consequently hinder the recovery from spinal cord injury. Therefore, we hypothesized electroacupuncture could affect the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway to promote the recovery of spinal cord injury. In our experiments, the spinal cord injury in adult Sprague-Dawley rats was caused by an impact device. Those rats were subjected to electroacupuncture at Yaoyangguan (GV3, Dazhui (GV14, Zusanli (ST36 and Ciliao (BL32 and/or monosialoganglioside treatment. Behavioral scores revealed that the hindlimb motor functions improved with those treatments. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, fluorescence in situ hybridization and western blot assay showed that electroacupuncture suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of Rho-A and Rho-associated kinase II (ROCKII of injured spinal cord. Although monosialoganglioside promoted the recovery of hindlimb motor function, monosialoganglioside did not affect the expression of Rho-A and ROCKII. However, electroacupuncture combined with monosialoganglioside did not further improve the motor function or suppress the expression of Rho-A and ROCKII. Our data suggested that the electroacupuncture could specifically inhibit the activation of the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway thus partially contributing to the repair of injured spinal cord. Monosialoganglioside could promote the motor function but did not suppress expression of RhoA and ROCKII. There was no synergistic effect of electroacupuncture combined with monosialoganglioside.

  8. Synergistic antiproliferative effect of cis-diammine-dichloroplatinum (II) and a new anticancer agent, plasmanyl-(N-acyl)-ethanolamine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaevich, I S; Vlasenkova, N K; Gerasimova, G K

    1991-01-01

    The action of a new anticancer agent, the semisynthetic alkyl-phospholipid plasmanyl-(N-acyl)-ethanolamine (sPNAE), namely 1-O-octadecyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(N-palmitoyl)-ethanolamine, on protein kinase C (PKC) was investigated, and it was found to inhibit in a dose-dependent manner PKC isolated from mouse brain. The inhibition was competitive with respect to phosphatidylserine (K(i) = 20 microM). Lyso-PNAE, a possible cell metabolite of sPNAE, also inhibited PKC. A two-site model was used to calculate the binding affinity and the number of binding sites for phorbol ester in a culture of human melanoma BRO cells. The values of Kd, the dissociation constant, were K'd = 0.5 nM and K"d = 72 nM, whereas the values of Bmax, the number of binding sites, were B'max = 4.6 x 10(4) sites cell-1, and B"max = 2.9 x 10(5) sites cell-1. sPNAE was able to reduce the affinity of BRO cells for phorbol ester with almost no changes in the number of binding sites: K'd = 1.6 nM, K"d = 557 nM, and B'max = 4 x 10(4), B"max = 1.9 x 10(5). These data suggest that sPNAE may inhibit PKC in intact cells. Since various inhibitors of PKC may enhance the antiproliferative activity of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-DDP), we investigated the effect of the combination of sPNAE and cis-DDP on the proliferation of BRO cells. sPNAE synergistically enhanced the antiproliferative activity of cis-DDP.

  9. Plasmodium simium, a Plasmodium vivax-related malaria parasite: genetic variability of Duffy binding protein II and the Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos Costa, Daniela; Pereira de Assis, Gabriela Maíra; de Souza Silva, Flávia Alessandra; Araújo, Flávia Carolina; de Souza Junior, Júlio César; Braga Hirano, Zelinda Maria; Satiko Kano, Flora; Nóbrega de Sousa, Taís; Carvalho, Luzia Helena; Ferreira Alves de Brito, Cristiana

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium simium is a parasite from New World monkeys that is most closely related to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax; it also naturally infects humans. The blood-stage infection of P. vivax depends on Duffy binding protein II (PvDBPII) and its cognate receptor on erythrocytes, the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (hDARC), but there is no information on the P. simium erythrocytic invasion pathway. The genes encoding P. simium DBP (PsDBPII) and simian DARC (sDARC) were sequenced from Southern brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) naturally infected with P. simium because P. simium may also depend on the DBPII/DARC interaction. The sequences of DBP binding domains from P. vivax and P. simium were highly similar. However, the genetic variability of PsDBPII was lower than that of PvDBPII. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that these genes were strictly related and clustered in the same clade of the evolutionary tree. DARC from A. clamitans was also sequenced and contained three new non-synonymous substitutions. None of these substitutions were located in the N-terminal domain of DARC, which interacts directly with DBPII. The interaction between sDARC and PvDBPII was evaluated using a cytoadherence assay of COS7 cells expressing PvDBPII on their surfaces. Inhibitory binding assays in vitro demonstrated that antibodies from monkey sera blocked the interaction between COS-7 cells expressing PvDBPII and hDARC-positive erythrocytes. Taken together, phylogenetic analyses reinforced the hypothesis that the host switch from humans to monkeys may have occurred very recently in evolution, which sheds light on the evolutionary history of new world plasmodia. Further invasion studies would confirm whether P. simium depends on DBP/DARC to trigger internalization into red blood cells.

  10. Multifaceted interplay between lipophilicity, protein interaction and luminescence parameters of non-intercalative ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes controlling cellular imaging and cytotoxic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuryk, Olga; Magiera, Katarzyna; Rys, Barbara; Suzenet, Franck; Kieda, Claudine; Brindell, Małgorzata

    2014-12-01

    Here, we examine the photophysical properties of five ruthenium(II) complexes comprising two 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dip) ligands and functionalized bipyridine (R₁bpy-R₂, where R₁= H or CH3, R₂= H, CH₃, COO⁻,4-[3-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl] or 1,3-dicyclohexyl-1-carbonyl-urea) towards development of luminescence probes for cellular imaging. These complexes have been shown to interact with albumin and the formed adducts exhibited up to eightfold increase in the luminescence quantum yield as well as the average lifetime of emission. It was demonstrated that they cannot bind to DNA through the intercalation mode and its luminescence in the presence of DNA is quenching. Cell viability experiments indicated that all complexes possess significant dose-dependent cytotoxicity (with IC₅₀ 5-19 μM) on 4T1 breast cancer cell line and their anti-proliferative activity correlates very well with their lipophilicity. Cellular uptake was studied by measuring the ruthenium content in cells using ICP-MS technique. As expected, the better uptake is directly related to higher lipophilicity of doubly charged ruthenium complexes while uptake of monocationic one is much lower in spite of the highest lipophilicity. Additionally staining properties were assessed using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. These experiments showed that complex with 1,3-dicyclohexyl-1-carbonyl-urea substituent exhibits the best staining properties in spite of the lowest luminescence quantum yield in buffered solution (pH 7.4). Our results point out that both the imaging and cytotoxic properties of the studied ruthenium complexes are strongly influence by the level of internalization and protein interaction.

  11. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) augments insulin sensitivity in mice with type II diabetes mellitus by potentiating PI3K/AKT pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tandrika; Singh, Rajiv Ranjan; Gupta, Sarika; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2017-03-01

    A direct link between development of insulin resistance and the presence of chronic inflammation, in case of obesity exists, with cytokines playing an important role in glucose metabolism. Members of TGF-β superfamily, including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), have been shown to be involved in islet morphogenesis, establishment of β-cell mass and adipose cell fate determination. Here, we demonstrate a novel and direct role of BMP-4 and -7 in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance. An age-dependent increase in serum BMP-4 and decrease in serum BMP-7 levels was observed in animal models of type II diabetes. In this study, BMP-7 and -4 have been demonstrated to have antagonistic effects on insulin signaling and thereby on glucose homeostasis. BMP-7 augmented glucose uptake in the insulin sensitive tissues such as the adipose and muscle by increasing Glut4 translocation to the plasma membrane through phosphorylation and activation of PDK1 and Akt, and phosphorylation and translocation of FoxO1 to the cytoplasm in liver/HepG2 cells. Restoration of BMP-7 levels in serum of diabetic animals resulted in decreased blood glucose levels in contrast to age matched untreated control groups, opening up a new therapeutic avenue for diabetes. On the contrary, BMP-4 inhibited insulin signaling through activation of PKC-θ isoform, and resulted in insulin resistance through the attenuation of insulin signaling. BMP-7 therefore is an attractive candidate for tackling a multifaceted disease such as diabetes, since it not only reduces body fat, but also strengthens insulin signaling, causing improved glucose uptake and ameliorating peripheral insulin resistance. © 2017 BioFactors, 43(2):195-209, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. Inhibitory effects of KN-93, an inhibitor of Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, on light-regulated root gravitropism in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, L. J.; Hidaka, H.

    1993-01-01

    Light is essential for root gravitropism in Zea mays L., cultivar Merit. It is hypothesized that calcium mediates this light-regulated response. KN-93, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMK II), inhibits light-regulated root gravitropism but does not affect light perception. We hypothesize that CaMK II, or a homologue, operates late in the light/gravity signal transduction chain. Here we provide evidence suggesting a possible physiological involvement of CaMK II in root gravitropism in plants.

  13. Feasibility of protein-sparing modified fast by tube (ProMoFasT) in obesity treatment: a phase II pilot trial on clinical safety and efficacy (appetite control, body composition, muscular strength, metabolic pattern, pulmonary function test)

    OpenAIRE

    Sukkar, S. G.; Signori, A.; Borrini, C.; Barisione, G.; Ivaldi, C.; Romeo, C; Gradaschi, R.; Machello, N.; Nanetti, E.; Vaccaro, A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Anecdotal data in the last few years suggest that protein-sparing modified diet (PSMF) delivered by naso-gastric tube enteral (with continuous feeding) could attain an significant weight loss and control of appetite oral feeding, but no phase II studies on safety and efficacy have been done up to now. To verify the safety and efficacy of a protein-sparing modified fast administered by naso-gastric tube (ProMoFasT) for 10?days followed by 20?days of a low-calorie diet, in patients with morbid ...

  14. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II binding to an IGF binding protein. An investigation using chemical modification of tyrosine residues as a structural probe for the sites of interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, J A; Francis, G L; Ross, M; Wallace, J C; Ballard, F J

    1991-01-15

    We have investigated insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II binding to bovine insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (bIGFBP-2) using chemical modification to locate sites on the IGF involved in the binding interaction. bIGFBP-2 was incubated with either recombinant human (hIGF-I) or purified ovine (oIGF-II) to form a mixture of bound and free IGF. Sites of interaction between the binding protein and IGF were then probed by iodination of the available tyrosine residues. Subsequently, the mixture of free IGF and IGF.bIGFBP-2 complex was resolved by neutral chromatography, and the IGF component of the complex with bIGFBP-2 was recovered by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography at pH 2.1. The tyrosine labeling patterns of the two populations of IGF, one iodinated while free and the other iodinated while associated with binding protein, were determined following endoproteinase Glu-C peptide mapping. Binding of hIGF-I or oIGF-II to bIGFBP-2 resulted in reduced iodination of the tyrosines in both hIGF-I and oIGF-II that are near the carboxyl-terminal, Tyr-60 and Tyr-59, respectively. The reduction in labeling of these tyrosine residues was 2-fold and 6-fold for hIGF-I and oIGF-II, respectively. On the other hand, labeling of the other 2 tyrosines in hIGF-I and oIGF-II was not different between the free and complexed growth factors. From these results we conclude that Tyr-60 and Tyr-59 in the carboxyl-terminal regions of hIGF-I and oIGF-II, respectively, are either directly involved in the binding reaction or lie in a region of the IGF molecule encompassed by the association with bIGFBP-2. Conversely, the labeling pattern of the other tyrosines, Tyr-24 and Tyr-31 in hIGF-I and Tyr-2 and Tyr-27 in oIGF-II, implies that they are not involved in binding to bIGFBP-2. To examine the role of IGF tyrosine residues in the association with bIGFBP-2, we prepared nonradioactive 127I-labeled oIGF-II. In bIGFBP-2 competition binding assays, 127I-labeled oIGF-II

  15. Synthesis and crystal structure of binuclear copper(II) complex bridged by N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-N'-[3-(diethylamino)propyl]oxamide: in vitro anticancer activity and reactivity toward DNA and protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Li, Yan-Tuan; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Yan, Cui-Wei

    2013-08-01

    A new oxamido-bridged bicopper(II) complex, [Cu2(pdpox)(bpy)(CH3OH)](ClO4), where H3pdpox and bpy stand for N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-N'-[3-(diethylamino)propyl]oxamide and 2,2'-bipyridine, respectively, has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductivity measurements, infrared and electronic spectra studies, and X-ray single crystal diffraction. In the crystal structure, the pdpox(3-) ligand bridges two copper(II) ions as cisoid conformation. The inner copper(II) ion has a {N3O} square-planar coordination geometry, while the exo- one is in a {N2O3} square-pyramidal environment. There are two sets of interpenetrating two-dimensional hydrogen bonding networks parallel to the planes (2 1 0) and (21¯0), respectively, to form a three-dimensional supramolecular structure. The bicopper(II) complex exhibits cytotoxic activity against the SMMC7721 and A549 cell lines. The reactivity toward herring sperm DNA and bovine serum albumin revealed that the bicopper(II) complex can interact with the DNA by intercalation mode, and the complex binds to protein BSA responsible for quenching of tryptophan fluorescence by static quenching mechanism. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Low levels of activated protein C in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus do not relate to lupus anticoagulants but to low levels of factor II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmelink, Marleen J A; Fernández, José A; Derksen, Ronald H W M; Griffin, John H; de Groot, Philip G

    2002-06-01

    The presence of lupus anticoagulants (LAC) in plasma is a major risk factor for thrombosis. An attractive hypothesis to explain a LAC-mediated thrombotic tendency is that LAC interfere with activation of protein C, a natural antithrombotic in plasma. We investigated the relationship between LAC and protein C activation in vivo. We selected 20 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with LAC (and not using oral anticoagulants), 36 patients with SLE without LAC and 25 healthy volunteers. In these, we measured circulating levels of activated protein C (APC), prothrombin (FII), free protein S, C4BP, protein C, and antibodies to protein C, protein S, FII and beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI). In SLE patients (n = 56), mean levels of APC, FII and free protein S were significantly (P LAC. Levels of APC were correlated with both FII levels and protein C levels. Decreased levels of APC, FII, protein C and free protein S were related to the presence of anti-FII antibodies. None of the patients had antibodies against protein C or protein S. In conclusion, although the mean levels of APC, FII and free protein S were significantly decreased in SLE patients, no correlation with LAC was found. However, anti-FII antibodies were related to decreased levels of APC, FII, protein C, free protein S and C4BP. As FII levels, and not protein C levels, were decreased in SLE patients and correlated with APC levels, we conclude that the decreased FII levels are responsible for the low levels of APC.

  17. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity is related to insulin resistance : impaired acute lowering by insulin in obese Type II diabetic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, SC; van Tol, A; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) have important functions in high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. We determined the association of plasma CETP and PLTP activities (measured with exogenous' substrate assays) with insulin resistance, plasma

  18. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 inhibition and angiotensin II converting inhibition in mice with cardiomyopathy caused by lamin A/C gene mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muchir, Antoine, E-mail: a.muchir@institut-myologie.org [Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Wu, Wei [Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Sera, Fusako; Homma, Shunichi [Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Worman, Howard J., E-mail: hjw14@columbia.edu [Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Both ACE and MEK1/2 inhibition are beneficial on cardiac function in Lmna cardiomyopathy. • MEK1/2 inhibitor has beneficial effects beyond ACE inhibition for Lmna cardiomyopathy. • These results provide further preclinical rationale for a clinical trial of a MEK1/2 inhibitor. - Abstract: Background: Mutations in the LMNA gene encoding A-type nuclear lamins can cause dilated cardiomyopathy with or without skeletal muscular dystrophy. Previous studies have shown abnormally increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activity in hearts of Lmna{sup H222P/H222P} mice, a small animal model. Inhibition of this abnormal signaling activity with a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) inhibitor has beneficial effects on heart function and survival in these mice. However, such treatment has not been examined relative to any standard of care intervention for dilated cardiomyopathy or heart failure. We therefore examined the effects of an angiotensin II converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor on left ventricular function in Lmna{sup H222P/H222P} mice and assessed if adding a MEK1/2 inhibitor would provide added benefit. Methods: Male Lmna{sup H222P/H222P} mice were treated with the ACE inhibitor benazepril, the MEK1/2 inhibitor selumetinib or both. Transthoracic echocardiography was used to measure left ventricular diameters and fractional shortening was calculated. Results: Treatment of Lmna{sup H222P/H222P} mice with either benazepril or selumetinib started at 8 weeks of age, before the onset of detectable left ventricular dysfunction, lead to statistically significantly increased fractional shortening compared to placebo at 16 weeks of age. There was a trend towards a great value for fractional shortening in the selumetinib-treated mice. When treatment was started at 16 weeks of age, after the onset of left ventricular dysfunction, the addition of selumetinib treatment to benazepril lead to a statistically significant increase in left

  19. Intracellular translocation of calmodulin and Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II during the development of hypertrophy in neonatal cardiomyocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangopadhyay, Jaya Pal, E-mail: jaya@bbri.org [Boston Biomedical Research Institute, Watertown, MA 02472 (United States); Ikemoto, Noriaki [Boston Biomedical Research Institute, Watertown, MA 02472 (United States); Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2010-05-28

    We have recently shown that stimulation of cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes with endothelin-1 (ET-1) first produces conformational disorder within the ryanodine receptor (RyR2) and diastolic Ca{sup 2+} leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), then develops hypertrophy (HT) in the cardiomyocytes (Hamada et al., 2009 ). The present paper addresses the following question. By what mechanism does crosstalk between defective operation of RyR2 and activation of the HT gene program occur? Here we show that the immuno-stain of calmodulin (CaM) is localized chiefly in the cytoplasmic area in the control cells; whereas, in the ET-1-treated/hypertrophied cells, major immuno-staining is localized in the nuclear region. In addition, fluorescently labeled CaM that has been introduced into the cardiomyocytes using the BioPORTER system moves from the cytoplasm to the nucleus with the development of HT. The immuno-confocal imaging of Ca{sup 2+}/CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) also shows cytoplasm-to-nucleus shift of the immuno-staining pattern in the hypertrophied cells. In an early phase of hypertrophic growth, the frequency of spontaneous Ca{sup 2+} transients increases, which accompanies with cytoplasm-to-nucleus translocation of CaM. In a later phase of hypertrophic growth, further increase in the frequency of spontaneous Ca{sup 2+} transients results in the appearance of trains of Ca{sup 2+} spikes, which accompanies with nuclear translocation of CaMKII. The cardio-protective reagent dantrolene (the reagent that corrects the de-stabilized inter-domain interaction within the RyR2 to a normal mode) ameliorates aberrant intracellular Ca{sup 2+} events and prevents nuclear translocation of both CaM and CaMKII, then prevents the development of HT. These results suggest that translocation of CaM and CaMKII from the cytoplasm to the nucleus serves as messengers to transmit the pathogenic signal elicited in the surface membrane and in the RyR2 to the nuclear transcriptional

  20. Functional involvement of protein kinase C-betaII and its substrate, myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS), in insulin-stimulated glucose transport in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, D S; Patel, N A; Jiang, K; Li, P; Watson, J E; Byers, D M; Cooper, D R

    2009-05-01

    Insulin stimulates phosphorylation cascades, including phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), phosphatidylinositol-dependent kinase (PDK1), Akt, and protein kinase C (PKC). Myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS), a PKCbetaII substrate, could link the effects of insulin to insulin-stimulated glucose transport (ISGT) via phosphorylation of its effector domain since MARCKS has a role in cytoskeletal rearrangements. We examined phosphoPKCbetaII after insulin treatment of L6 myocytes, and cytosolic and membrane phosphoMARCKS, MARCKS and phospholipase D1 in cells pretreated with LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor), CG53353 (PKCbetaII inhibitor) or W13 (calmodulin inhibitor), PI3K, PKCbetaII and calmodulin inhibitors, respectively, before insulin treatment, using western blots. ISGT was examined after cells had been treated with inhibitors, small inhibitory RNA (siRNA) for MARCKS, or transfection with MARCKS mutated at a PKC site. MARCKS, PKCbetaII, GLUT4 and insulin receptor were immunoblotted in subcellular fractions with F-actin antibody immunoprecipitates to demonstrate changes following insulin treatment. GLUT4 membrane insertion was followed after insulin with or without CG53353. Insulin increased phosphoPKCbetaII(Ser660 and Thr641); LY294002 blocked this, indicating its activation by PI3K. Insulin treatment increased cytosolic phosphoMARCKS, decreased membrane MARCKS and increased membrane phospholipase D1 (PLD1), a protein regulating glucose transporter vesicle fusion resulted. PhosphoMARCKS was attenuated by CG53353 or MARCKS siRNA. MARCKS siRNA blocked ISGT. Association of PKCbetaII and GLUT4 with membrane F-actin was enhanced by insulin, as was that of cytosolic and membrane MARCKS. ISGT was attenuated in myocytes transfected with mutated MARCKS (Ser152Ala), whereas overproduction of wild-type MARCKS enhanced ISGT. CG53353 blocked insertion of GLUT4 into membranes of insulin treated cells. The results suggest that PKCbetaII is involved in mediating

  1. Transcription Activation by Escherichia coli Rob at Class II Promoters: Protein–Protein Interactions between Rob’s N-Terminal Domain and the σ70 Subunit of RNA Polymerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lanyn P.; Keen, Edward F.; Sanchez-Alberola, Neus; Wolf, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial transcription activators regulate transcription by making essential protein–protein interactions with RNA polymerase, for example, with region 4 of the σ70 subunit (σ70 R4). Rob, SoxS, and MarA comprise a closely related subset of members of the AraC/XylS family of transcription factors that activate transcription of both class I and class II promoters. Recently, we showed that interactions between SoxS and σ70 R4 occlude the binding of σ70 R4 to the −35 promoter element of class II promoters. Although Rob shares many similarities with SoxS, it contains a C-terminal domain (CTD) that the other paralogs do not. Thus, a goal of this study was to determine whether Rob makes protein–protein interactions with σ70 R4 at class II promoters and, if so, whether the interactions occlude the binding of σ70 R4 to the −35 hexamer despite the presence of the CTD. We found that although Rob makes fewer interactions with σ70 R4 than SoxS, the two proteins make the same, unusual, position-dependent interactions. Importantly, we found that Rob occludes σ70 R4 from binding the −35 hexamer, just as does SoxS. Thus, the CTD does not substantially alter the way Rob interacts with σ70 R4 at class II promoters. Moreover, in contrast to inferences drawn from the co-crystal structure of Rob bound to robbox DNA, which showed that only one of Rob’s dual helix–turn–helix (HTH) DNA binding motifs binds a recognition element of the promoter’s robbox, we determined that the two HTH motifs each bind a recognition element in vivo. PMID:22465792

  2. The Copper(II) Adduct of the Unstructured Region of the Amyloidogenic Fragment Derived from theHuman Prion Protein is Redox-Active at Physiological pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer,J.; Soh, P.

    2007-01-01

    Prion diseases are caused by the misfolding and aggregation of the prion protein (PrP). Herein we provide evidence that the Cu{sup II} adduct of the unstructured amyloidogenic fragment of the human PrP (PrP(91-126)) is redox active under physiological conditions. We have identified that the relevant high-affinity Cu{sup II} binding region of PrP(91-126) is contained between residues 106 and 114. Both [Cu{sup II}(PrP(91-126))] and [Cu{sup II}(PrP(106-114))] have Cu{sup II} K{sub d} values of {approx}90 {mu}M. Furthermore, the smaller PrP fragment PrP(106-114) coordinates Cu{sup II} producing an electronic absorption spectrum nearly identical with [Cu{sup II}(PrP(91-126))] ({lambda}{sub max} {approx}610 nm ({var_epsilon} {approx}125 M{sup -1} cm{sup -1})) suggesting a similar coordination environment for Cu{sup II}. Cu K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) reveals a nearly identical CuN(N/O){sub 2}S coordination environment for these two metallopeptides (2N/O at {approx}1.97 {angstrom}; 1S at {approx}2.30 {angstrom}; 1 imidazole N at {approx}1.95 {angstrom}). Both display quasireversible Cu{sup II}/Cu{sup I} redox couples at {approx}-350 mV vs Ag/AgCl. ESI-MS indicates that both peptides will coordinate Cu{sup I}. However, XAS indicates differential coordination environments between [Cu{sup I}(PrP(91-126))] and [Cu{sup I}(PrP(106-114))]. These data indicate that [Cu{sup I}(PrP(91-126))] contains Cu in a four coordinate (N/O){sub 2}S{sub 2} environment with similar (N/O)-Cu bond distances (Cu-(N/O) r = 2.048(4) {angstrom}), while [Cu{sup I}(PrP(106-114))] contains Cu in a four coordinate (N/O){sub 2}S{sub 2} environment with differential (N/O)-Cu bond distances (Cu-(N/O) r{sub 1} = 2.057(6) {angstrom}; r{sub 2} = 2.159(3) {angstrom}). Despite the differential coordination environments both Cu-metallopeptides will catalytically reduce O{sub 2} to O{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}-} at comparable rates.

  3. [The value of Ranson and APACHE II scoring systems, and serum levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein in the early diagnosis of the severity of acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürleyik, Günay; Zahidullahoğlu Cirpici, Oya; Aktekin, Ali; Sağlam, Abdullah

    2004-04-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of scoring systems, acute inflammation and acute phase responses in the early diagnosis of the severity of acute pancreatitis. In a prospective design, we determined Ranson and APACHE II scores, and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in 30 patients (21 females, 9 males; mean age 56 years; range 28 to 82 years) with acute pancreatitis. The patients were divided into two groups as mild and severe pancreatitis according to the clinical, biochemical, and computed tomography findings. Ranson and APACHE II scores were determined after 48 hours, IL-6 levels within 24 hours, and CRP levels after 24, 48, and 72 hours of admission. Ranson scores of 4 or above, APACHE II scores of 8 or above, baseline serum IL-6 and CRP levels of 50 pg/ml and 150 mg/L, respectively, were regarded as strong predictors of acute pancreatitis. Severe pancreatitis was diagnosed in six patients (20%), one of whom died due to multiple organ failure. Biliary symptoms were the most common presenting signs in both groups. The mean Ranson (p=0.004) and APACHE II (p=0.001) scores, serum IL-6 (p=0.001) and CRP levels at 24, 48, and 72 hours (p=0.02) were significantly high in patients with severe pancreatitis. The sensitivity was found as 66.6%, 83.3%, 100%, and 83.3%; the specificity as 87.5%, 91.7%, 87.5% and 71%; and the accuracy as 83.3%, 90%, 90%, and 73.3% for Ranson and APACHE II scores, IL-6 and CRP levels, respectively. Ranson and APACHE II scores, CRP and, in particular, serum IL-6 levels are strong predictors of severe pancreatitis.

  4. [Experimental studies on seborrheic alopecia. II. Determination of the structural differences between testosterone transported cytosol protein of the bald and hairy areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassas, E

    1975-01-01

    By previous isolation of the testosterone transport cytosol protein in bald and hairy areas in patients with male pattern baldness, the author studies the differences concerning the protein citosol-testosterone complex, after fixation by means of labelled testosterone and electrophoresis, measuring the corresponding radioactivity curves. The results show that there are important structural differences for the cytosol protein between the hairy and bald regions.

  5. Synthesis and structure of a new trinuclear nickel(II) complex bridged by N-[3-(Dimethylamino)propyl]-N'-(2-hydroxyphenyl)oxamido: in vitro anticancer activities, and reactivities toward DNA and protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ju-Ju; Wang, Ling-Yang; Zheng, Kang; Li, Yan-Tuan; Yan, Cui-Wei; Wu, Zhi-Yong

    2017-01-01

    A new trinickel(II) complex bridged by N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]- N'-(2-hydroxylphenyl)oxamido (H3 pdmapo), namely [Ni3 (pdmapo)2 (H2 O)2 ]⋅4CH3 OH, was synthesized and characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction and other methods. In the molecule, two symmetric cis-pdmapo(3-) mononickel(II) complexes as a "complex ligand" using the carbonyl oxygen atoms coordinate to the center nickel(II) ion situated on an inversion point. The Ni···Ni distance through the oxamido bridge is 5.2624(4) Å. The center nickel(II) ion and the lateral ones have octahedral and square-planar coordination geometries, respectively. In the crystal, a three-dimensional supramolecular network dominated by hydrogen bonds is observed. The reactivity toward DNA/protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) revealed that the complex could interact with herring sperm DNA (HS-DNA) through the intercalation mode and quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA via a static mechanism. The in vitro anticancer activities suggested that the complex is active against the selected tumor cell lines. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Phosphorylation in vivo of non-ribosomal proteins from native 40 S ribosomal particles of Krebs II mouse ascites-tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuck, J; Reichert, G; Issinger, O G

    1981-01-01

    Four non-ribosomal proteins from native 40 S ribosomal subunits with mol.wts. of 110 000, 84 000, 68 000 and 26 000 were phosphorylated in vivo when ascites cells were incubated in the presence of [32P]Pi. The 110 000-, 84 000- and 26 000-dalton proteins are identical with phosphorylated products...... from native 40 S subunits after phosphorylation in vitro by a cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. Phosphoserine was the major phosphorylated amino acid of the proteins phosphorylated in vivo and in vitro....

  7. Role of histidine for charge regulation of unstructured peptides at interfaces and in bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurut, Anıl; Henriques, João; Forsman, Jan; Skepö, Marie; Lund, Mikael

    2014-04-01

    Histidine-rich, unstructured peptides adsorb to charged interfaces such as mineral surfaces and microbial cell membranes. At a molecular level, we investigate the adsorption mechanism as a function of pH, salt, and multivalent ions showing that (1) proton charge fluctuations are-in contrast to the majority of proteins-optimal at neutral pH, promoting electrostatic interactions with anionic surfaces through charge regulation and (2) specific zinc(II)-histidine binding competes with protons and ensures an unusually constant charge distribution over a broad pH interval. In turn, this further enhances surface adsorption. Our analysis is based on atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, coarse grained Metropolis Monte Carlo, and classical polymer density functional theory. This multiscale modeling provides a consistent picture in good agreement with experimental data on Histatin 5, an antimicrobial salivary peptide. Biological function is discussed and we suggest that charge regulation is a significant driving force for the remarkably robust activity of histidine-rich antimicrobial peptides. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. RNA polymerase II elongation complexes containing the Cockayne syndrome group B protein interact with a molecular complex containing the transcription factor IIH components xeroderma pigmentosum B and p62.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantin, D

    1998-10-23

    Transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) is involved both in transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II and in nucleotide excision-repair. Nucleotide excision-repair occurs at higher rates in transcriptionally active regions of the genome. Genetic studies indicate that this transcription-coupled repair is dependent on the Cockayne syndrome group A and B proteins, as well as TFIIH subunits. Previous work indicated that Cockayne syndrome group B interacts with RNA polymerase II molecules engaged in ternary complexes containing DNA and RNA. Evidence presented here indicates that this complex can interact with a factor containing the TFIIH core subunits p62 and xeroderma pigmentosum subunit B/excision repair cross-complementing 3. The targeting of TFIIH or a TFIIH-like repair factor to transcriptionally active DNA indicates a potential mechanism for transcription-coupled repair in human cells.

  9. A casein kinase II phosphorylation site in the cytoplasmic domain of the cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor determines the