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Sample records for histamine-induced itch reveal

  1. Noxious heat and scratching decrease histamine-induced itch and skin blood flow.

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    Yosipovitch, Gil; Fast, Katharine; Bernhard, Jeffrey D

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of thermal stimuli or distal scratching on skin blood flow and histamine-induced itch in healthy volunteers. Twenty-one healthy volunteers participated in the study. Baseline measurements of skin blood flow were obtained on the flexor aspect of the forearm. These measurements were compared with skin blood flow after various stimuli: heating the skin, cooling the skin, noxious cold 2 degrees C, noxious heat 49 degrees C, and scratching via a brush with controlled pressure. Afterwards histamine iontophoresis was performed and skin blood flow and itch intensity were measured immediately after the above-mentioned stimuli. Scratching reduced mean histamine-induced skin blood flow and itch intensity. Noxious heat pain increased basal skin blood flow but reduced histamine-induced maximal skin blood flow and itch intensity. Cold pain and cooling reduced itch intensity, but neither affected histamine-induced skin blood flow. Sub-noxious warming the skin did not affect the skin blood flow or itch intensity. These findings suggest that heat pain and scratching may inhibit itch through a neurogenic mechanism that also affects skin blood flow.

  2. Different perception levels of histamine-induced itch sensation in young adult mice.

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    Ji, Yeounjung; Jang, Yongwoo; Lee, Wook Joo; Yang, Young Duk; Shim, Won-Sik

    2018-05-01

    Itch is an unpleasant sensation that evokes behavioral responses such as scratching the skin. Interestingly, it is conceived that the perception of itch sensation is influenced by age. Indeed, accumulating evidence supports the idea that even children or younger adults show distinctive itch sensation depending on age. This evidence implies the presence of a mechanism that regulates the perception of itch sensation in an age-dependent fashion. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate a putative mechanism for the age-dependent perception of itch sensation by comparing histamine-induced scratching behaviors in 45-day old (D45) and 75-day old male "young adult" mice. The results indicated that, following histamine administration, the D75 mice spent a longer time scratching than D45 mice. However, the intensity of the calcium influx induced by histamine in primary culture of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons was not different between D45 and D75 mice. Moreover, no apparent difference was observed in mRNA levels of a characteristic His-related receptor and ion channel. In contrast, the mRNA levels of Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) were increased approximately by two-fold in D75 DRG compared with D45 DRG. Additionally, D75-derived DRG neurons exhibited enhanced intracellular calcium increase by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a TLR4 agonist) than those of D45 mice. Furthermore, intensities of calcium influx induced by histamine were significantly potentiated when co-treated with LPS in D75 DRG neurons, but not in those of D45 mice. Thus, it appears that D75 mice showed enhanced histamine-induced scratching behaviors not by increased expression levels of histamine-related genes, but probably due to augmented TLR4 expression in DRG neurons. Consequently, the current study found that different perception levels of histamine-induced itch sensation are present in different age groups of young adult mice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Absence of histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat and "rescue" by Substance P.

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    Smith, Ewan St John; Blass, Gregory R C; Lewin, Gary R; Park, Thomas J

    2010-05-24

    Recent research has proposed a pathway in which sensory neurons expressing the capsaicin activated ion channel TRPV1 are required for histamine-induced itch and subsequent scratching behavior. We examined histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and found that although naked mole-rats display innate scratching behavior, histamine was unable to evoke increased scratching as is observed in most mouse strains. Using calcium imaging, we examined the histamine sensitivity of naked mole-rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and identified a population of small diameter neurons activated by histamine, the majority of which are also capsaicin-sensitive. This suggested that naked mole-rat sensory neurons are activated by histamine, but that spinal dorsal horn processing of sensory information is not the same as in other rodents. We have previously shown that naked mole-rats naturally lack substance P (SP) in cutaneous C-fibers, but that the neurokinin-1 receptor is expressed in the superficial spinal cord. This led us to investigate if SP deficiency plays a role in the lack of histamine-induced scratching in this species. After intrathecal administration of SP into the spinal cord we observed robust scratching behavior in response to histamine injection. Our data therefore support a model in which TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons are important for histamine-induced itch. In addition, we demonstrate a requirement for active, SP-induced post-synaptic drive to enable histamine sensitive afferents to drive itch-related behavior in the naked mole-rat. These results illustrate that it is altered dorsal horn connectivity of nociceptors that underlies the lack of itch and pain-related behavior in the naked mole-rat.

  4. Absence of histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat and "rescue" by Substance P

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    Lewin Gary R

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent research has proposed a pathway in which sensory neurons expressing the capsaicin activated ion channel TRPV1 are required for histamine-induced itch and subsequent scratching behavior. We examined histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber and found that although naked mole-rats display innate scratching behavior, histamine was unable to evoke increased scratching as is observed in most mouse strains. Using calcium imaging, we examined the histamine sensitivity of naked mole-rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons and identified a population of small diameter neurons activated by histamine, the majority of which are also capsaicin-sensitive. This suggested that naked mole-rat sensory neurons are activated by histamine, but that spinal dorsal horn processing of sensory information is not the same as in other rodents. We have previously shown that naked mole-rats naturally lack substance P (SP in cutaneous C-fibers, but that the neurokinin-1 receptor is expressed in the superficial spinal cord. This led us to investigate if SP deficiency plays a role in the lack of histamine-induced scratching in this species. After intrathecal administration of SP into the spinal cord we observed robust scratching behavior in response to histamine injection. Our data therefore support a model in which TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons are important for histamine-induced itch. In addition, we demonstrate a requirement for active, SP-induced post-synaptic drive to enable histamine sensitive afferents to drive itch-related behavior in the naked mole-rat. These results illustrate that it is altered dorsal horn connectivity of nociceptors that underlies the lack of itch and pain-related behavior in the naked mole-rat.

  5. Cowhage-induced itch as an experimental model for pruritus. A comparative study with histamine-induced itch.

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    Alexandru D P Papoiu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Histamine is the prototypical pruritogen used in experimental itch induction. However, in most chronic pruritic diseases, itch is not predominantly mediated by histamine. Cowhage-induced itch, on the other hand, seems more characteristic of itch occurring in chronic pruritic diseases.We tested the validity of cowhage as an itch-inducing agent by contrasting it with the classical itch inducer, histamine, in healthy subjects and atopic dermatitis (AD patients. We also investigated whether there was a cumulative effect when both agents were combined.Fifteen healthy individuals and fifteen AD patients were recruited. Experimental itch induction was performed in eczema-free areas on the volar aspects of the forearm, using different itch inducers: histamine, cowhage and their combination thereof. Itch intensity was assessed continuously for 5.5 minutes after stimulus application using a computer-assisted visual analogue scale (COVAS.In both healthy and AD subjects, the mean and peak intensity of itch were higher after the application of cowhage compared to histamine, and were higher after the combined application of cowhage and histamine, compared to histamine alone (p<0.0001 in all cases. Itch intensity ratings were not significantly different between healthy and AD subjects for the same itch inducer used; however AD subjects exhibited a prolonged itch response in comparison to healthy subjects (p<0.001.Cowhage induced a more intense itch sensation compared to histamine. Cowhage was the dominant factor in itch perception when both pathways were stimulated in the same time. Cowhage-induced itch is a suitable model for the study of itch in AD and other chronic pruritic diseases, and it can serve as a new model for testing antipruritic drugs in humans.

  6. Neurophysiology and itch pathways.

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    Schmelz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    As we all can easily differentiate the sensations of itch and pain, the most straightforward neurophysiologic concept would consist of two specific pathways that independently encode itch and pain. Indeed, a neuronal pathway for histamine-induced itch in the peripheral and central nervous system has been described in animals and humans, and recently several non-histaminergic pathways for itch have been discovered in rodents that support a dichotomous concept differentiated into a pain and an itch pathway, with both pathways being composed of different "flavors." Numerous markers and mediators have been found that are linked to itch processing pathways. Thus, the delineation of neuronal pathways for itch from pain pathways seemingly proves that all sensory aspects of itch are based on an itch-specific neuronal pathway. However, such a concept is incomplete as itch can also be induced by the activation of the pain pathway in particular when the stimulus is applied in a highly localized spatial pattern. These opposite views reflect the old dispute between specificity and pattern theories of itch. Rather than only being of theoretic interest, this conceptual problem has key implication for the strategy to treat chronic itch as key therapeutic targets would be either itch-specific pathways or unspecific nociceptive pathways.

  7. Withdrawal of repeated morphine enhances histamine-induced scratching responses in mice.

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    Abe, Kenji; Kobayashi, Kanayo; Yoshino, Saori; Taguchi, Kyoji; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    An itch is experientially well known that the scratching response of conditions such as atopic dermatitis is enhanced under psychological stress. Morphine is typical narcotic drug that induces a scratching response upon local application as an adverse drug reaction. Although long-term treatment with morphine will cause tolerance and dependence, morphine withdrawal can cause psychologically and physiologically stressful changes in humans. In this study, we evaluated the effects of morphine withdrawal on histamine-induced scratching behavior in mice. Administration of morphine with progressively increasing doses (10-50 mg/kg, i.p.) was performed for 5 consecutive days. At 3, 24, 48, and 72 hr after spontaneous withdrawal from the final morphine dose, histamine was intradermally injected into the rostral part of the back and then the number of bouts of scratching in 60 min was recorded and summed. We found that at 24 hr after morphine withdrawal there was a significant increase in histamine-induced scratching behavior. The spinal c-Fos positive cells were also significantly increased. The relative adrenal weight increased and the relative thymus weight decreased, both significantly. Moreover, the plasma corticosterone levels changed in parallel with the number of scratching bouts. These results suggest that morphine withdrawal induces a stressed state and enhances in histamine-induced scratching behavior. Increased reaction against histamine in the cervical vertebrae will participate in this stress-induced itch enhancement.

  8. Jock Itch

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    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Jock Itch ... jock itch because it's commonly seen in active people who sweat a lot while playing sports. But anyone can get this infection. What Are ...

  9. A central neural circuit for itch sensation.

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    Mu, Di; Deng, Juan; Liu, Ke-Fei; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Shi, Yu-Feng; Guo, Wei-Min; Mao, Qun-Quan; Liu, Xing-Jun; Li, Hui; Sun, Yan-Gang

    2017-08-18

    Although itch sensation is an important protective mechanism for animals, chronic itch remains a challenging clinical problem. Itch processing has been studied extensively at the spinal level. However, how itch information is transmitted to the brain and what central circuits underlie the itch-induced scratching behavior remain largely unknown. We found that the spinoparabrachial pathway was activated during itch processing and that optogenetic suppression of this pathway impaired itch-induced scratching behaviors. Itch-mediating spinal neurons, which express the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor, are disynaptically connected to the parabrachial nucleus via glutamatergic spinal projection neurons. Blockade of synaptic output of glutamatergic neurons in the parabrachial nucleus suppressed pruritogen-induced scratching behavior. Thus, our studies reveal a central neural circuit that is critical for itch signal processing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  10. Conditioning pain stimulation does not affect itch induced by intra-epidermal histamine pricks but aggravates neurogenic inflammation in healthy volunteers

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    Andersen, Hjalte Holm; Imai, Yosuke; Petersen, Kristian Kjær

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether itch induced by intra-epidermal histamine is subjected to modulation by a standardized conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigm in 24 healthy volunteers. CPM was induced by computer-controlled cuff pressure algometry and histamine was introduced to the volar...... forearm by skin prick test punctures. Moreover, neurogenic inflammation and wheal reactions induced by histamine and autonomic nervous system responses (heart rate variability and skin conductance) were monitored. CPM did not modulate the intensity of histamine-induced itch suggesting that pruriceptive...... signaling is not inhibited by pain-recruited endogenous modulation, however, CPM was found to aggravate histamine-induced neurogenic inflammation, likely facilitated by efferent sympathetic fibers....

  11. [Itch and psyche].

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    Schut, C; Kupfer, J

    2013-06-01

    Itch is as an unpleasant sensation that is considered as unique, although many similarities to pain exist. Itch is a cardinal symptom in skin diseases like atopic dermatitis or urticaria, but itch is also frequently observed in the general population. Often itch is associated with a decrease in quality of life. Additionally associations between itch and psychological variables like psychological stress, the emotional state and personality factors are shown. In experimental studies itch can be induced not only by the use of pruritogens (e.g. histamine), but also by the presentation of audiovisual stimuli. Because of these factors a biopsychosocial model is postulated regarding the occurrence of itch. In addition to medical treatments, psychological interventions like habit-reversal training or relaxation techniques are used to successfully treat itch. These interventions have positive effects, not only on the psychological well-being, but also on the skin status of patients.

  12. Vaginal itching and discharge - child

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    Pruritus vulvae; Itching - vaginal area; Vulvar itching; Yeast infection - child ... Common causes of vaginal itching and discharge in young girls include: Chemicals such as perfumes and dyes in detergents, fabric softeners, creams, ointments, ...

  13. Cercarial Dermatitis (Swimmer's Itch) FAQs

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    ... Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Parasites - Cercarial Dermatitis (also known as Swimmer's Itch) Note: Javascript is ... is swimmer’s itch? Swimmer’s itch, also called cercarial dermatitis, appears as a skin rash caused by an ...

  14. Fenspiride inhibits histamine-induced responses in a lung epithelial cell line.

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    Quartulli, F; Pinelli, E; Broué-Chabbert, A; Gossart, S; Girard, V; Pipy, B

    1998-05-08

    Using the human lung epithelial WI26VA4 cell line, we investigated the capacity of fenspiride, an anti-inflammatory drug with anti-bronchoconstrictor properties, to interfere with histamine-induced intracellular Ca2+ increase and eicosanoid formation. Histamine and a histamine H1 receptor agonist elicited a rapid and transient intracellular Ca2+ increase (0-60 s) in fluo 3-loaded WI26VA4 cells. This response was antagonized by the histamine H1 receptor antagonist, diphenhydramine, the histamine H2 receptor antagonist, cimetidine, having no effect. Fenspiride (10(-7)-10(-5) M) inhibited the histamine H1 receptor-induced Ca2+ increase. In addition, histamine induced a biphasic increase in arachidonic acid release. The initial rise (0-30 s), a rapid and transient arachidonic acid release, was responsible for the histamine-induced intracellular Ca2+ increase. In the second phase release (15-60 min), a sustained arachidonic acid release appeared to be associated with the formation of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase metabolites. Fenspiride (10(-5) M) abolished both phases of histamine-induced arachidonic acid release. These results suggest that anti-inflammatory and antibronchoconstrictor properties of fenspiride may result from the inhibition of these effects of histamine.

  15. Itch Management: General Principles.

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    Misery, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Like pain, itch is a challenging condition that needs to be managed. Within this setting, the first principle of itch management is to get an appropriate diagnosis to perform an etiology-oriented therapy. In several cases it is not possible to treat the cause, the etiology is undetermined, there are several causes, or the etiological treatment is not effective enough to alleviate itch completely. This is also why there is need for symptomatic treatment. In all patients, psychological support and associated pragmatic measures might be helpful. General principles and guidelines are required, yet patient-centered individual care remains fundamental. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Spinal dorsal horn astrocytes: New players in chronic itch

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    Makoto Tsuda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic itch is a debilitating symptom of inflammatory skin conditions, such as atopic dermatitis, and systemic diseases, for which existing treatment is largely ineffective. Recent studies have revealed the selective neuronal pathways that are involved in itch sensations; however, the mechanisms by which itch turns into a pathological chronic state are poorly understood. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms producing chronic itch have been made by defining causal roles for astrocytes in the spinal dorsal horn in mouse models of chronic itch including atopic dermatitis. Understanding the key roles of astrocytes may provide us with exciting insights into the mechanisms for itch chronicity and lead to a previously unrecognized target for treating chronic itch.

  17. Swimmer's itch (image)

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    Swimmer's itch is caused by parasites found in contaminated water. The parasite enters through the skin and a rash appears at the site of entry. In some tropical countries, the parasite found in the contaminated water is capable of producing a severe disease.

  18. The Effect of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) Bark Extract on Histamine-Induced Paw Edema and Ileum Smooth Muscle Contraction.

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    Nunes-Neto, Paulo Alexandre; Peixoto-Sobrinho, Tadeu José da Silva; da Silva Júnior, Edilson Dantas; Leopoldina da Silva, Jamilka; Rodrigo da Silva Oliveira, Alisson; Pupo, André Sampaio; Araújo, Alice Valença; da Costa-Silva, João Henrique; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves

    2017-01-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as red aroeira, is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory, gastric, and respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihistaminic activity of S. terebinthifolius (St) bark extract by using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. The effects of St were investigated on contractions induced by histamine, carbachol, and potassium chloride in isolated guinea pig ileum. St was also studied in response to hind paw edema induced by histamine in rats. Experiments revealed that although St (250, 500, and 1,000  µ g/mL) reduced the histamine-induced contractions by 9.1 ± 1.8, 50.2 ± 2.0, and 68.9 ± 2.0%, respectively, it did not inhibit contractions induced by carbachol or KCl. The association of St (250 and 500  µ g/mL) with hydroxyzine, an H 1 -antihistamine (0.125 and 0.250  µ M), increased the inhibitory effect to 67.0 ± 3.2 and 85.1 ± 2.1%, respectively. Moreover, St (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) decreased paw edema from its peak by 33.9, 48.4, and 54.8%, respectively, whereas hydroxyzine (70 mg/kg) inhibited the peak edema by 56.5%. Altogether, the results suggest that the bark extract of S. terebinthifolius has an antihistaminic effect (H 1 ).

  19. In vitro study of acetylcholine and histamine induced contractions in colon and rectum of adult and neonate rats.

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    Singh, Shuchita; Mandal, Maloy B

    2013-01-01

    Contractile mechanisms of different parts of the gut in adult and neonate may not be identical due to developmental processes. The present study was undertaken to investigate acetylcholine (ACh) and histamine induced contractile responses of colon and rectum in adult and neonatal albino rats. Contractile responses were recorded from isolated in vitro preparations. The dose-response curve for ACh (0.001-100 microM) revealed dose dependent increase in contractile responses. A significantly (P pheniramine (100 microM) in adult rectum. This potentiating response of pheniramine was absent in neonate rectum. Such effect was also not seen in colon of both adult and neonate. The present investigation indicates that the contractile responses induced by ACh are similar in both adult and neonate, excepting that the blocking effect of atropine in colon was more pronounced in adult as compared to neonate. Further, the results also indicated different mechanism of histamine action in adults and neonates as evidenced by the significant enhancement of contractions by pheniramine only in adult rectum. Therefore, the present results indicate the existence of a different cholinergic and histaminergic activity in adult and neonate as well as in rectal and colonic tissue.

  20. The effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on histamine induced headache and arterial dilatation in migraineurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, L H; Christiansen, I; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    2003-01-01

    -decrease in MCA blood velocity, or dilatation of neither the temporal nor the radial artery. L-NMMA constricted the temporal artery by 8% before histamine infusion, whereas the radial artery was unaffected. The temporal artery dilated 4-5 times more than the radial artery during histamine infusion. In conclusion...... the use of a NOS inhibitor in the highest possible dose did not block the histamine-induced headache response or arterial dilatation. Either the concentration of L-NMMA reaching the smooth muscle cell was insufficient or, histamine dilates arteries and causes headache via NO independent mechanisms. Our...... results showed for the first time a craniospecificity for the vasodilating effect of histamine and for the arterial effects of NOS inhibition....

  1. Histamine Induces Bovine Rumen Epithelial Cell Inflammatory Response via NF-κB Pathway

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    Xudong Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA is a common disease in high-producing lactating cows. Rumenitis is the initial insult of SARA and is associated with the high concentrations of histamine produced in the rumen of dairy cows during SARA. However, the exact mechanism remains unclear. The objective of the current study is to investigate whether histamine induces inflammation of rumen epithelial cells and the underlying mechanism of this process. Methods: Bovine rumen epithelial cells were cultured and treated with different concentrations of histamine and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-κB inhibitor cultured in different pH medium (pH 7.2 or 5.5. qRT-PCR, Western-blotting, ELISA and immunocytofluorescence were used to evaluate whether histamine activated the NF-κB pathway and inflammatory cytokines. Results: The results showed that histamine significantly increased the activity of IKK β and the phosphorylation levels of IκB α, as well as upregulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of NF-κB p65 in the rumen epithelial cells cultured in neutral (pH=7.2 and acidic (pH=5.5 medium. Furthermore, histamine treatment also significantly increased the transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65. High expression and transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65 significantly increased the mRNA expressions and concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β, thereby inducing the inflammatory response in bovine rumen epithelial cells. However, inhibition of NF-κB p65 by PDTC significantly decreased the expressions and concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines induced by histamine in the rumen epithelial cells cultured in the neutral and acidic medium. Conclusion: The present data indicate that histamine induces the inflammatory response of bovine rumen epithelial cells through the NF-κB pathway.

  2. Histamine Induces Bovine Rumen Epithelial Cell Inflammatory Response via NF-κB Pathway.

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    Sun, Xudong; Yuan, Xue; Chen, Liang; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Zhe; Sun, Guoquan; Li, Xiaobing; Li, Xinwei; Liu, Guowen

    2017-01-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a common disease in high-producing lactating cows. Rumenitis is the initial insult of SARA and is associated with the high concentrations of histamine produced in the rumen of dairy cows during SARA. However, the exact mechanism remains unclear. The objective of the current study is to investigate whether histamine induces inflammation of rumen epithelial cells and the underlying mechanism of this process. Bovine rumen epithelial cells were cultured and treated with different concentrations of histamine and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-κB inhibitor) cultured in different pH medium (pH 7.2 or 5.5). qRT-PCR, Western-blotting, ELISA and immunocytofluorescence were used to evaluate whether histamine activated the NF-κB pathway and inflammatory cytokines. The results showed that histamine significantly increased the activity of IKK β and the phosphorylation levels of IκB α, as well as upregulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of NF-κB p65 in the rumen epithelial cells cultured in neutral (pH=7.2) and acidic (pH=5.5) medium. Furthermore, histamine treatment also significantly increased the transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65. High expression and transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65 significantly increased the mRNA expressions and concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), thereby inducing the inflammatory response in bovine rumen epithelial cells. However, inhibition of NF-κB p65 by PDTC significantly decreased the expressions and concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines induced by histamine in the rumen epithelial cells cultured in the neutral and acidic medium. The present data indicate that histamine induces the inflammatory response of bovine rumen epithelial cells through the NF-κB pathway. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Histamine induces microglia activation and dopaminergic neuronal toxicity via H1 receptor activation.

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    Rocha, Sandra M; Saraiva, Tatiana; Cristóvão, Ana C; Ferreira, Raquel; Santos, Tiago; Esteves, Marta; Saraiva, Cláudia; Je, Goun; Cortes, Luísa; Valero, Jorge; Alves, Gilberto; Klibanov, Alexander; Kim, Yoon-Seong; Bernardino, Liliana

    2016-06-04

    Histamine is an amine widely known as a peripheral inflammatory mediator and as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Recently, it has been suggested that histamine acts as an innate modulator of microglial activity. Herein, we aimed to disclose the role of histamine in microglial phagocytic activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and to explore the consequences of histamine-induced neuroinflammation in dopaminergic (DA) neuronal survival. The effect of histamine on phagocytosis was assessed both in vitro by using a murine N9 microglial cell line and primary microglial cell cultures and in vivo. Cells were exposed to IgG-opsonized latex beads or phosphatidylserine (PS) liposomes to evaluate Fcγ or PS receptor-mediated microglial phagocytosis, respectively. ROS production and protein levels of NADPH oxidases and Rac1 were assessed as a measure of oxidative stress. DA neuronal survival was evaluated in vivo by counting the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) of mice. We found that histamine triggers microglial phagocytosis via histamine receptor 1 (H1R) activation and ROS production via H1R and H4R activation. By using apocynin, a broad NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor, and Nox1 knockout mice, we found that the Nox1 signaling pathway is involved in both phagocytosis and ROS production induced by histamine in vitro. Interestingly, both apocynin and annexin V (used as inhibitor of PS-induced phagocytosis) fully abolished the DA neurotoxicity induced by the injection of histamine in the SN of adult mice in vivo. Blockade of H1R protected against histamine-induced Nox1 expression and death of DA neurons in vivo. Overall, our results highlight the relevance of histamine in the modulation of microglial activity that ultimately may interfere with neuronal survival in the context of Parkinson's disease (PD) and, eventually, other neurodegenerative diseases which are accompanied by microglia

  4. Sex differences in itch perception and modulation by distraction--an FMRI pilot study in healthy volunteers.

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    Astrid Stumpf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Even though itch is a common syndrome of many diseases there is only little knowledge about sex and gender differences in pruritus, especially in central itch perception and modulation. To our knowledge, this is the first fMRI study examining sex differences in perception and its modulation by distraction. METHODS: Experimental itch was induced by application of histamine (0.1 mM via microdialysis fibers twice at the left forearm and twice at the left lower leg in 33 healthy volunteers (17 females, 16 males. The brain activation patterns were assessed by fMRI during itch without and with distraction (Stroop task. Between the various conditions, subjects were asked to rate itch intensity, desire to scratch and pain intensity. In a second experiment in 10 of the 33 volunteers histamine was replaced by saline solution to serve as control for the 'Stroop' condition. RESULTS: Women generally presented higher itch intensities compared to men during itch over the course of the experiment. A more specific analysis revealed higher itch intensities and desire to scratch in women during experimental induced itch that can be reduced by distraction at the lower legs when itch is followed by 'Stroop'. In contrast, men depicted significant reduction of 'itch' by 'Stroop' at the forearms. Women depicted higher brain activation of structures responsible for integration of sensory, affective information and motor integration/planning during 'itch' and 'Stroop' condition when compared to men. No sex differences were seen in the saline control condition. CONCLUSION: Women and men exhibited localisation dependent differences in their itch perception with women presenting higher itch intensities and desire to scratch. Our findings parallel clinical observations of women reporting higher itch intensities depending on itch localisation and suffering more from itch as compared to men.

  5. Antipruritic Effect of Cold-induced and Transient Receptor Potential-agonist-induced Counter-irritation on Histaminergic Itch in Humans.

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    Andersen, Hjalte H; Melholt, Camilla; Hilborg, Sigurd D; Jerwiarz, Anne; Randers, Amalie; Simoni, Amalie; Elberling, Jesper; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-01-04

    A frequent empirical observation is that cold-induced counter-irritation may attenuate itch. The aim of this randomized, single-blinded, exploratory study was to evaluate the counter-irritation effects of cold-stimulation and topical application of transient receptor potential TRPA1/M8-agonists (trans-cinnamaldehyde/L-menthol, respectively), on histamine-induced itch, wheals and neurogenic inflammation in 13 healthy volunteers. Histamine 1% was applied to the volar forearms using skin prick-test lancets. Recorded outcome-parameters were itch intensity, wheal reactions, and neurogenic inflammation (measured by laser-speckle perfusion-imaging). Homotopic thermal counter-irritation was performed with 6 temperatures, ranging from 4°C to 37°C, using a 3 × 3-cm thermal stimulator. Chemical "cold-like" counter-irritation was conducted with 40% L-menthol and 10% trans-cinnamaldehyde, while 5% doxepin was used as a positive antipruritic control/comparator. Cold counter-irritation stimuli from 4°C to 22°C inhibited itch in a stimulus-intensity-dependent manner (p cold-like" counter-irritation with both L-menthol and trans-cinnamaldehyde had antipruritic efficacy similar to doxepin (p Cold-induced counter-irritation had an inhibitory effect on histaminergic itch, suggesting that agonists of cold transduction receptors could be of potential antipruritic value.

  6. TRPV1 and PLC Participate in Histamine H4 Receptor-Induced Itch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Tunyu; Yang, Niuniu; Yang, Yan; Zhu, Chan; Yuan, Xiaolin; Yu, Guang; Wang, Changming; Wang, Zhongli; Shi, Hao; Tang, Min; He, Qian; Lan, Lei; Wu, Guanyi; Tang, Zongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Histamine H4 receptor has been confirmed to play a role in evoking peripheral pruritus. However, the ionic and intracellular signaling mechanism of activation of H4 receptor on the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons is still unknown. By using cell culture and calcium imaging, we studied the underlying mechanism of activation of H4 receptor on the DRG neuron. Immepip dihydrobromide (immepip)-a histamine H4 receptor special agonist under cutaneous injection-obviously induced itch behavior of mice. Immepip-induced scratching behavior could be blocked by TRPV1 antagonist AMG9810 and PLC pathway inhibitor U73122. Application of immepip (8.3-50 μM) could also induce a dose-dependent increase in intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) of DRG neurons. We found that 77.8% of the immepip-sensitized DRG neurons respond to the TRPV1 selective agonist capsaicin. U73122 could inhibit immepip-induced Ca(2+) responses. In addition, immepip-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase could be blocked by ruthenium red, capsazepine, and AMG9810; however it could not be blocked by TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. These results indicate that TRPV1 but not TRPA1 is the important ion channel to induce the DRG neurons' responses in the downstream signaling pathway of histamine H4 receptor and suggest that TRPV1 may be involved in the mechanism of histamine-induced itch response by H4 receptor activation.

  7. TRPV1 and PLC Participate in Histamine H4 Receptor-Induced Itch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunyu Jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Histamine H4 receptor has been confirmed to play a role in evoking peripheral pruritus. However, the ionic and intracellular signaling mechanism of activation of H4 receptor on the dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons is still unknown. By using cell culture and calcium imaging, we studied the underlying mechanism of activation of H4 receptor on the DRG neuron. Immepip dihydrobromide (immepip—a histamine H4 receptor special agonist under cutaneous injection—obviously induced itch behavior of mice. Immepip-induced scratching behavior could be blocked by TRPV1 antagonist AMG9810 and PLC pathway inhibitor U73122. Application of immepip (8.3–50 μM could also induce a dose-dependent increase in intracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+i of DRG neurons. We found that 77.8% of the immepip-sensitized DRG neurons respond to the TRPV1 selective agonist capsaicin. U73122 could inhibit immepip-induced Ca2+ responses. In addition, immepip-induced Ca2+i increase could be blocked by ruthenium red, capsazepine, and AMG9810; however it could not be blocked by TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. These results indicate that TRPV1 but not TRPA1 is the important ion channel to induce the DRG neurons’ responses in the downstream signaling pathway of histamine H4 receptor and suggest that TRPV1 may be involved in the mechanism of histamine-induced itch response by H4 receptor activation.

  8. Modulation of Itch by Conditioning Itch and Pain Stimulation in Healthy Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Hjalte H; van Laarhoven, Antoinette I M; Elberling, Jesper; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about endogenous descending control of itch. In chronic pain, descending pain inhibition is reduced as signified by lowered conditioned pain modulation. There are indications that patients with chronic itch may also exhibit reduced endogenous descending inhibition of itch and pain. This study aimed to investigate whether and the extent to which itch can be modulated by conditioning itch and pain stimuli. Twenty-six healthy volunteers participated. The study consisted of 5 conditions designed to systematically assess endogenous modulation of itch or pain: 1) itch-induced modulation of contralateral itch, 2) pain-induced modulation of contralateral itch, 3) pain-induced modulation of ipsilateral itch, 4) pain-induced modulation of contralateral pain, and 5) itch-induced modulation of contralateral pain. Conditioning stimuli were cold pressor-induced pain and histamine-evoked itch, whereas the test stimuli were electrical stimulation paradigms designed to evoke itch or pain. Pain was significantly reduced (conditioned pain modulation-effect) by the conditioning pain stimulus (P modulation-effect) by contra- as well as ipsilateral applied conditioning pain (both P modulation of itch as well as pain in humans. Future studies addressing potential aberrations in pain-evoked descending modulation of itch in chronic itch patients are warranted. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modulation of itch by conditioning itch and pain stimulation in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hjalte Holm; van Laarhoven, Antoinette I. M.; Elberling, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about endogenous descending control of itch. In chronic pain, descending pain inhibition is reduced as signified by lowered conditioned pain modulation (CPM). There are indications that patients with chronic itch may also exhibit reduced endogenous descending inhibition of itch......-evoked itch, while the test stimuli were electrical stimulation paradigms designed to evoke itch or pain. Pain was significantly reduced (CPM-effect) by the conditioning pain stimulus (p

  10. Itching

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dry skin Irritating chemicals, cosmetics, and other substances Parasites such as pinworms, scabies, head and body lice Pregnancy Liver, kidney, or thyroid diseases Certain cancers or cancer treatments Diseases that can affect the ...

  11. Effects of Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata SCHERFF treated with enzyme on histamine-induced contraction of guinea pig ileum and on histamine release from mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takayuki; Horiuchi, Masako; Kamata, Katsuo; Seyama, Yoshiyuki

    2009-06-01

    The medical mechanism against type I allergies is to block the release or production of chemical mediators from mast cells or to block the H(1)-receptor signaling. We previously reported that the anti-allergic action of the dry powder from Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata SCHERFF treated with the enzyme cellulosine (eMMBP) was dependent on the inhibition of histamine release from mast cells. Here, we investigate that the effect of fractions in eMMBP on the histamine-induced contraction in guinea pig ileum and on the release of histamine in rat peritoneal mast cells. The histamine-induced contraction in guinea pig ileum is dose-dependently inhibited by ketotifen, an antagonist of H(1)-receptor. Fractions contained caffeic acid, caffeoylquinic acid and fractions contained flavonoids such as hyperin and isoquercitrin in eMMBP inhibit histamine release from mast cells, but only flavonoids such as hyperin, isoquercitrin and rutin suppress the histamine-induced contraction in guinea pig ileum. Moreover, the histamine-induced contraction was not affected by caffeic acid, however, such contraction was significantly inhibited by rutin. These results suggest that the primary antagonists of H(1)- receptor are different from the components in eMMBP that inhibit histamine release, and that these components participate in the anti-allergic activity of eMMBP.

  12. Mechano-sensitive nociceptors are required to detect heat pain thresholds and cowhage itch in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinkauf, B; Dusch, M; van der Ham, J; Benrath, J; Ringkamp, M; Schmelz, M; Rukwied, R

    2016-02-01

    Mechano-sensitive and mechano-insensitive C-nociceptors in human skin differ in receptive field sizes and electrical excitation thresholds, but their distinct functional roles are yet unclear. After blocking the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (NCFL) in eight healthy male subjects (3-mL Naropin(®) 1%), we mapped the skin innervation territory being anaesthetic to mechanical pin prick but sensitive to painful transcutaneous electrical stimuli. Such 'differentially anaesthetic zones' indicated that the functional innervation with mechano-sensitive nociceptors was absent but the innervation with mechano-insensitive nociceptors remained intact. In these areas, we explored heat pain thresholds, low pH-induced pain, cowhage- and histamine-induced itch, and axon reflex flare. In differentially anaesthetic skin, heat pain thresholds were above the cut-off of 50°C (non-anaesthetized skin 47 ± 0.4°C). Pain ratings to 30 μL pH 4 injections were reduced compared to non-anaesthetized skin (48 ± 9 vs. 79 ± 6 VAS; p pain. The mechano-sensitive nociceptors are crucial for cowhage-induced itch and for the assessment of heat pain thresholds. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  13. Vaginal itching and discharge - Adult and adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 003158.htm Vaginal itching and discharge - adult and adolescent To use the sharing features on this page, ... fabric softeners, feminine sprays, ointments, creams, douches, and contraceptive foams or jellies or creams. This may irritate ...

  14. The effects of thermal stimulation on clinical and experimental itch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruhstorfer, H; Hermanns, M; Latzke, L

    1986-02-01

    In order to substantiate accidental observations on the influence of skin temperature on itch, and to elucidate a possible involvement of thermoreceptors in itch generation, the effects of thermostimulation on clinical and experimental itch were studied. Eighteen patients with atopic dermatitis rated the intensity of spontaneous itch on one of their forearms before, during, and after its immersion in a waterbath of either 10 degrees C or 45 degrees C. In 40 normal subjects itch was elicited by histamine topically applied to a 7 cm2 skin area of the volar forearm. Before and after histamine application thermal thresholds were recorded. Then the skin area was heated or cooled at a rate of 0.5 degrees C/sec and itch intensity was continuously rated. Cooling abolished itch in all patients and in most of the normal subjects. Heating produced less clear effects: in two-thirds of both patients and normal subjects itch disappeared or was reduced whereas in the others itch was aggravated. Usually after the end of thermostimulation the opposite changes in itch intensity occurred. In the normal subjects thermal thresholds were not significantly influenced by histamine. Over a certain temperature range itch and thermal sensations could coexist as separate modalities. The results indicate that changes in skin temperature have a marked influence on itch intensity. Whereas cooling seems to act directly on the sensory receptors mediating itch, warm stimuli could have a central inhibitory effect. A direct role of thermoreceptors in the generation of itch is improbable.

  15. Tlx3 Function in the Dorsal Root Ganglion is Pivotal to Itch and Pain Sensations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcheng Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Itch, a sensation eliciting a desire to scratch, is distinct from but not completely independent of pain. Inspiring achievements have been made in the characterization of itch-related receptors and neurotransmitters, but the molecular mechanisms controlling the development of pruriceptors remain poorly understood. Here, our RNAseq and in situ hybridization data show that the transcription factor Tlx3 is required for the expression of a majority of itch-related molecules in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG. As a result, Tlx3F/F;Nav1.8-cre mice exhibit significantly attenuated acute and dry skin-induced chronic itch. Furthermore, our study indicates that TRPV1 plays a pivotal role in the chronic itch evoked by dry skin and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD. The mutants also display impaired response to cold and inflammatory pain and elevated response to capsaicin, whereas the responses to acute mechanical, thermal stimuli and neuropathic pain remain normal. In Tlx3F/F;Nav1.8-cre mice, TRPV1 is derepressed and expands predominantly into IB4+ non-peptidergic (NP neurons. Collectively, our data reveal a molecular mechanism in regulating the development of pruriceptors and controlling itch and pain sensations.

  16. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Astaxanthin on Histamine Induced Lesions in the Gizzard and Proventriculus of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-hyang Ohh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin (ASX is a xanthophyll pigment isolated from crustaceans and salmonids. Owing to its powerful antioxidant activity, ASX has been reported to have the potential to protect against gastric ulcers and a variety of other illnesses. Histamine (His is a dietary factor that causes gastric erosion and ulceration in young chicks. In this study, we examined whether ASX had protective effects on dietary histamine-induced lesions in the gizzard and proventriculus of broiler chickens. Four experimental treatment groups were planned: basal diet (BD, BD+His, BD+ASX, and BD+ASX+His, with four chicks (5 days old in each group and three replications (i.e., a total of 12 chicks per group. The BD was supplemented with either 0.4% His or 100 ppm ASX. The birds were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks, and diets contained no antimicrobial compounds. Supplementing the diet with His significantly decreased body weight gain, but increased the weights of the gizzard and proventriculus of the chicks as compared with those of chicks in the BD group (p<0.05. ASX did not affect His-dependent changes in chick body weight or weights of the gizzard and proventriculus. The loss of gastric glands in the proventriculus, which was observed in His-treated chicks, was not prevented by ASX administration. The frequency of proventricular ulceration, however, was lowered by treatment with ASX, without significant differences between the two supplementation levels. In conclusion, our data showed that ASX might be helpful for alleviating structural damage to the digestive system in poultry under certain stressful conditions.

  17. Effectiveness of the nursing programme 'Coping with itch': a randomized controlled study in adults with chronic pruritic skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os-Medendorp, H; Ros, W J G; Eland-de Kok, P C M; Kennedy, C; Thio, B H; van der Schuur-van der Zande, A; Grypdonck, M H F; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M

    2007-06-01

    The nursing programme 'Coping with Itch' aims at reducing itch and at helping patients with chronic pruritic skin diseases cope with itch. The programme consists of educational and cognitive behavioural interventions. Dermatology nurses carry out the programme, which supplements standard medical treatment given by a dermatologist, in individual sessions at a nurse clinic organized by the dermatology outpatient department. To evaluate the effectiveness of the nursing programme 'Coping with Itch' in patients with chronic pruritic skin diseases. A randomized controlled study was carried out. Patients with chronic pruritic skin diseases were randomly assigned to the intervention group or the control group. The intervention group received standard care from a dermatologist and nursing care according to the programme 'Coping with Itch' for a mean of 2.9 visits. The control group received usual care from a dermatologist. Data collection took place at baseline, at 3 months (t1) and at 9 months (t2) after baseline. Most visits to the nurse clinic took place during the first 3 months of the study. Main outcome measures were the frequency and intensity of itching and scratching, itch-related coping, and skin-related and general psychosocial morbidity. Secondary outcome measures were the number of visits to the dermatologist and the use of medication and ointments. Mann-Whitney tests and analyses of covariance were used to analyse differences between the two groups. Data on 29 patients in the intervention group and 36 patients in the control group were used in the analyses. A trend to significance (P = 0.07) was shown in the difference between the two groups in the frequency of itching and scratching at t1. A significant difference (P = 0.04) was shown between the two groups in catastrophizing and helpless itch-related coping at t1. No significant differences were revealed at t2 between the groups. Patients in the intervention group visited the dermatologist significantly less

  18. Pain, Itch, Quality of Life, and Costs after Herpes Zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijck, Albert J M; Aerssens, Yannick R

    2017-07-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia are known to have a profound effect on the patient's quality of life, but the incidence and severity of itch and its relation with pain and quality of life in the long term are still relatively unknown. The aim of this study was to measure the presence and severity of pain and itch and impact on quality of life in patients over 50 years old with HZ. We enrolled 661 patients with HZ in this 12-month observational study. Patient data were collected via a web-based questionnaire. Outcomes were pain, itch, burden of illness, impact on patient's daily life, impact on quality of life, and healthcare costs. At inclusion, 94% of patients reported any pain, 74.3% significant pain, and 26% severe pain. After 3 months, 18.8% of patients suffered from postherpetic neuralgia. At inclusion, 70.8% of patients had any itch, 39.2% significant itch, and 7.3% severe itch. The occurrence of pain increases costs and has a high impact on the quality of life, lowering EQ-5D scores by an average of 18%. In contrast, itch has little effect on the quality of life. Pain and itch are highly prevalent months after HZ. Pain caused by HZ has a large impact on quality of life, burden of illness, impact on daily life, and health care costs for these patients. The impact of itch on quality of life is relatively small. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  19. Holistic approach to treatment of intractable central neuropathic itch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ashley R; Tegeler, Charles; Burdette, Jonathan; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2011-05-01

    Central neuropathic itch can be a lifelong debilitating condition and treatment challenge. We report a patient with a traumatic brain injury with severe intractable pruritus who failed extensive pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment but responded to a holistic approach using healing touch. We discuss the complexity of this type of neuropathic itch and present a holistic approach as an adjunct to therapy in reducing itch intensity. This case presentation along with the literature discussed suggests a therapeutic strategy for the management of complicated central neuropathic itch. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A lost world disease: Copra itch outbreak caused by Tyrophagus longior mite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakit Sarathep

    Full Text Available An outbreak investigation of copra itch revealed a cluster of six suspected cases with skin dermatitis, with 11–32 years of age, belonging to a single family, between June and July 2016 in Phang Nga province, Southern Thailand. Epidemiologic investigation of these suspected cases revealed five probable cases developing multiple discrete erythematous papules with intense pruritus on the body rather than the extremities and one confirmed case whose skin was infested with domestic mite, Tyrophagus longior (Gervais (Ascari: Ascaridae. This mite was also found in unused coir mattresses outside their bedrooms. Household infestation with T. longior mites rendered these family members to become more susceptible to expose indoor biting of T. longior adult mites that were adapted well to the domestic environments with poor hygienic conditions. Human exposure to mite bites was more likely to be a direct contact than an indirect contact. Findings from this copra itch outbreak investigation provided understanding of natural disease of copra itch and factors that favored the outbreak, and could guide diagnosis for physicians, surveillance and response for surveillance and rapid response teams (SRRTs, and prevention and control for entomologists and public health personnel. Keywords: Copra itch, Tyrophagus longior, Erythematous papules, Domestic environments

  1. Placebo and nocebo effects on itch: effects, mechanisms, and predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, D.J.P.; Laarhoven, A.I. van; Kerkhof, P.C. van de; Evers, A.W.

    2016-01-01

    Placebo and nocebo effects have been extensively studied in the field of pain and more recently also on itch. In accordance with placebo research on pain, expectancy learning via verbal suggestion or conditioning has shown to induce placebo and nocebo effects on itch, in which the combination of

  2. Paraneoplastic itch: an expert position statement from the Special Interest Group (SIG) of the International Forum on the Study of Itch (IFSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, Elke; Weiss, Melanie; Mettang, Thomas; Yosipovitch, Gil; Zylicz, Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    In clinical practice, the term "paraneoplastic itch" is used to describe itch in patients with cancer. Patients with hematological or solid tumor malignancies can be affected. In general, paraneoplastic itch is considered a rare disorder. However, paraneoplastic itch in hematological malignancies such as polycythemia vera and lymphoma are relatively frequent while other forms of paraneoplastic itch are in fact extremely rare. The true frequency of this symptom is unclear, epidemiological data in this field are limited. Itch in malignant disease may additionally impair patients' quality of life. A population-based cohort study showed that chronic itch without concomitant skin changes is a risk factor for having undiagnosed hematologic and bile duct malignancies. Paraneoplastic itch is rather resistant to treatment. In 2012, an interdisciplinary interest group of physicians and researchers was founded, aiming to generate a clear definition of paraneoplastic itch. In this paper we briefly review the current knowledge and aim to define what can be summarized under the term "paraneoplastic itch".

  3. Down-regulation of histamine-induced endothelial cell activation as potential anti-atherosclerotic activity of peptides from Spirulina maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Thanh-Sang; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-10-09

    Histamine, a potent inflammatory mediator, has been known to cause the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this sense, two bioactive peptides P1 (LDAVNR; 686Da) and P2 (MMLDF; 655Da) purified from gastric enzymatic hydrolysate of Spirulina maxima were examined for their protective effects against early atherosclerotic responses induced by histamine in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. Interestingly, both P1 and P2 exhibited inhibitory activities on the production and expression of IL-6 and MCP-1. Furthermore, P1 and P2 inhibited the production of adhesion molecules including P-selectin and E-selectin, and thus reducing in vitro cell adhesion of monocyte onto endothelial cells. In addition, the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species was observed to reduce in the presence of P1 or P2. Notably, the inhibitory activities of P1 and P2 were found due to down-regulating Egr-1 expression via histamine receptor and PKCδ-dependent MAPKs activation pathway. These results suggest that peptides P1 and P2 from S. maxima are effective to suppress histamine-induced endothelial cell activation that may contribute to the prevention of early atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Interplay of Itch and Psyche in Psoriasis: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Adam; Mędrek, Karolina; Szepietowski, Jacek C

    2016-08-23

    Itch or pruritus is defined as an unpleasant subjective sensation leading to the need or to the idea of scratching. A number of studies have shown that pruritus is often responsible for marked morbidity, quality of life impairment, and even for increased mortality. Patients suffering from chronic pruritus had also decreased self-esteem, suffer from anxiety or depression and have problems to cope with negative feelings. Several studies documented that itching is a very prevalent symptom of psoriasis affecting more than 70% of individuals and for many patient it is the most bothersome symptom of the disease. While assessing various aspects of itch in psoriatic patients it was found that individuals with pruritus had a significantly lower health-related QoL; patients with pruritus, moreover, were more depressed than those without itching. In conclusion, pruritus is closely related to decreased psychosocial well-being of patients with chronic pruritic skin diseases, including psoriasis. It is important to underscore that itch may interfere with various aspects of patient functioning, emotions and social status and should therefore be adequately addressed while treating patients with psoriasis.

  5. Endothelial Regulator of Calcineurin 1 Promotes Barrier Integrity and Modulates Histamine-Induced Barrier Dysfunction in Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Ballesteros-Martinez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis, the most serious and life-threatening allergic reaction, produces the release of inflammatory mediators by mast cells and basophils. Regulator of calcineurin 1 (Rcan1 is a negative regulator of mast-cell degranulation. The action of mediators leads to vasodilation and an increase in vascular permeability, causing great loss of intravascular volume in a short time. Nevertheless, the molecular basis remains unexplored on the vascular level. We investigated Rcan1 expression induced by histamine, platelet-activating factor (PAF, and epinephrine in primary human vein (HV-/artery (HA-derived endothelial cells (ECs and human dermal microvascular ECs (HMVEC-D. Vascular permeability was analyzed in vitro in human ECs with forced Rcan1 expression using Transwell migration assays and in vivo using Rcan1 knockout mice. Histamine, but neither PAF nor epinephrine, induced Rcan1-4 mRNA and protein expression in primary HV-ECs, HA-ECs, and HMVEC-D through histamine receptor 1 (H1R. These effects were prevented by pharmacological inhibition of calcineurin with cyclosporine A. Moreover, intravenous histamine administration increased Rcan1 expression in lung tissues of mice undergoing experimental anaphylaxis. Functional in vitro assays showed that overexpression of Rcan1 promotes barrier integrity, suggesting a role played by this molecule in vascular permeability. Consistent with these findings, in vivo models of subcutaneous and intravenous histamine-mediated fluid extravasation showed increased response in skin, aorta, and lungs of Rcan1-deficient mice compared with wild-type animals. These findings reveal that endothelial Rcan1 is synthesized in response to histamine through a calcineurin-sensitive pathway and may reduce barrier breakdown, thus contributing to the strengthening of the endothelium and resistance to anaphylaxis. These new insights underscore its potential role as a regulator of sensitivity to anaphylaxis in humans.

  6. Infrared Thermography in Serotonin-Induced Itch Model in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasemian, Yousef; Gazerani, Parisa; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The study validated the application of infrared thermography in a serotonin-induced itch model in rats since the only available method in animal models of itch is the count of scratching bouts. Twenty four adult Sprague-Dawley male rats were used in 3 experiments: 1) local vasomotor response...... with no scratching reflex was investigated. Serotonin elicited significant scratching and lowered the local temperature at the site of injection. A negative dose-temperature relationship of serotonin was found by thermography. Vasoregulation at the site of serotonin injection took place in the absence of scratching...

  7. Jaundice and an itch following a fall | Nghona | Continuing Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jaundice and an itch following a fall. N Nghona, MW Sonderup, CWN Spearman. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  8. Marriage duration and divorce: the seven-year itch or a lifelong itch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulu, Hill

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the risk of divorce is low during the first months of marriage; it then increases, reaches a maximum, and thereafter begins to decline. Some researchers consider this pattern consistent with the notion of a "seven-year itch," while others argue that the rising-falling pattern of divorce risk is a consequence of misspecification of longitudinal models because of omitted covariates or unobserved heterogeneity. The aim of this study is to investigate the causes of the rising-falling pattern of divorce risk. Using register data from Finland and applying multilevel hazard models, the analysis supports the rising-falling pattern of divorce by marriage duration: the risk of marital dissolution increases, reaches its peak, and then gradually declines. This pattern persists when I control for the sociodemographic characteristics of women and their partners. The inclusion of unobserved heterogeneity in the model leads to some changes in the shape of the baseline risk; however, the rising-falling pattern of the divorce risk persists.

  9. Itching Papules in a child; Scabies or Henoch Schonlein Purpura?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Soheili Rad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Henoch schonlein purpura (HSP is a self-limited systemic disease with multiorgan involvement. While cutaneous involvement may wary, presenting as itching papules is not a common manifestation. In this report we discuss a case of HSP which was presented solely with itching papules; mistaken for scabies. Case presentation: A 7 year old boy presented with itchy palpable papules without any gastrointestinal or urinary problem which was primary taught to be an ectoparasitic infestation. During the hospitalization the patient developed abdominal pain as well as hematuria and the diagnosis became more evident. The skin biopsy showed perivascular inflammatory cells infiltration in epidermis, perivascular fibrinoid necrosis and leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The patient received corticosteroids and discharged healthy.Conclusion: While HSP may have different cutaneous manifestation, presenting as only itchy papules may complicate the diagnosis and physicians should always keep in mind that HSP might be presented as other common infestations unresponsive to treatment.

  10. Costs and cost-effectiveness of the nursing programme 'Coping with itch' for patients with chronic pruritic skin disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os-Medendorp, H.; Guikers, C. L. H.; Eland-de Kok, P. C. M.; Ros, W. J. G.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C. A. F. M.; Buskens, E.

    Background Itch, a major symptom of many skin diseases, has a great impact on quality of life. The nursing programme 'Coping with itch' aims at reducing itch and at helping patients to cope with itch. Objectives To explore costs and cost-effectiveness of the programme. Methods A randomized

  11. 12-Item Pruritus Severity Scale: Development and Validation of New Itch Severity Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Reich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A validated assessment of pruritus intensity is an important but still difficult clinical problem due to a subjective nature of this sensation. Objective. The aim of this study was the creation and validation of new itch severity questionnaire assessing pruritus intensity. Material and Methods. A total of 148 patients with pruritic dermatoses were asked to assess pruritus intensity using 12-Item Pruritus Severity Score (12-PSS and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Patients were also asked to complete the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI and Hospitality Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Test-retest comparison of 12-PSS was conducted in 102 subjects who completed the itch questionnaire twice with the 3- to 5-day interval. Results. We have created the 12-PSS assessing pruritus intensity (two questions, pruritus extent (one question and duration (one question, influence of pruritus on concentration and patient psyche (four questions, and scratching as a response to pruritus stimuli (four questions. A maximum scoring was 22 points. The results showed strong consistency (Cronbach α coefficient 0.81. A significant correlation was observed with VAS (r=0.58, p<0.001 and quality of life level according to DLQI (r=0.53, p<0.001. Test-retest comparison in 102 subjects revealed a satisfactory reproducibility of achieved results (ICC = 0,72. Conclusions. The newly developed pruritus severity questionnaire may be used in daily clinical practice in the future.

  12. The Relationship Between Ocular Itch, Ocular Pain, and Dry Eye Symptoms (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Anat; Small, Leslie; Feuer, William; Levitt, Roy C; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate associations between sensations of ocular itch and dry eye (DE) symptoms, including ocular pain, and DE signs. A cross-sectional study of 324 patients seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic was performed. The evaluation consisted of questionnaires regarding ocular itch, DE symptoms, descriptors of neuropathic-like ocular pain (NOP), and evoked pain sensitivity testing on the forehead and forearm, followed by a comprehensive ocular surface examination including corneal mechanical sensitivity testing. Analyses were performed to examine for differences between those with and without subjective complaints of ocular itch. The mean age was 62 years with 92% being male. Symptoms of DE and NOP were more frequent in patients with moderate-severe ocular itch compared to those with no or mild ocular itch symptoms. With the exception of ocular surface inflammation (abnormal matrix metalloproteinase 9 testing) which was less common in those with moderate-severe ocular itch symptoms, DE signs were not related to ocular itch. Individuals with moderate-severe ocular itch also demonstrated greater sensitivity to evoked pain on the forearm and had higher non-ocular pain, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorders scores, compared to those with no or mild itch symptoms. Subjects with moderate-severe ocular itch symptoms have more severe symptoms of DE, NOP, non-ocular pain and demonstrate abnormal somatosensory testing in the form of increased sensitivity to evoked pain at a site remote from the eye, consistent with generalized hypersensitivity.

  13. Immunoregulatory T cells in man. Histamine-induced suppressor T cells are derived from a Leu 2+ (T8+) subpopulation distinct from that which gives rise to cytotoxic T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoni, P.; Silverman, E.D.; Khan, M.M.; Melmon, K.L.; Engleman, E.G.

    1985-01-01

    One mechanism of histamine-mediated inhibition of the immune response in man is to activate T suppressor cells that bear the Leu 2 (OKT8) marker. The current study was undertaken to characterize the histamine-induced suppressor cell using a monoclonal antibody (9.3) shown previously to distinguish cytotoxic T cells from antigen-specific suppressor T cells. Leu 2+ cells isolated from peripheral blood were further separated with antibody 9.3 into Leu 2+, 9.3+, and Leu 2+, 9.3- subsets and each subset was incubated with different concentrations of histamine before determining their ability to suppress immune responses in vitro. The results indicate that the Leu 2+, 9.3- subpopulation includes all histamine-induced suppressor cells, that 10(-4) M histamine is the optimal concentration for suppressor cell induction, and that exposure of Leu 2+, 9.3- cells to histamine for 30 s is sufficient to initiate the induction process. After treatment with histamine these cells inhibit both phytohemagglutinin-induced T cell proliferation and pokeweed mitogen-induced B cell differentiation. The suppression of phytohemagglutinin-induced proliferation was resistant to x-irradiation with 1,200 rad, either before or after histamine exposure, suggesting that Leu 2+, 9.3- cells need not proliferate to become suppressor cells or exert suppression. Moreover, suppression by these cells was not due to altered kinetics of the response. Finally, a histamine type 2 receptor antagonist (cimetidine) but not a type 1 receptor antagonist (mepyramine) blocked the induction of suppressor cells. On the basis of these results and our previous studies of antigen specific suppressor cells, we conclude that Leu 2+ suppressor cells in man are derived from a precursor pool that is phenotypically distinct from cells that can differentiate into cytotoxic T cells

  14. Assessing the itching intensity using visual analogue scales in atopic dermatitis patients against the background of a therapy with calcineurin inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chikin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal. To assess the effect of topical treatment of atopic dermatitis patients with the 0.1% tacrolimus ointment on the itching intensity and skin expression level of growth factor proteins affecting the intensity of cutaneous innervation. Materials and methods. Fifteen patients suffering from atopic dermatitis underwent treatment with the 0.1% tacrolimus ointment. The SCORAD index was calculated to assess the severity of clinical manifestations. The itching intensity was assessed using a visual analogue scale. The skin expression of nerve growth factors, amphiregulin, semaphorin 3A and PGP9.5 protein (a nerve fiber marker was assessed by the indirect immunofluorescence method. Results. An increased expression of the nerve growth factor and reduced semaphorin 3A expression levels were noted in the patients’ epidermis; there was an increase in the quantity, mean length and fluorescence intensity of PGP9.5+ nerve fibers. As a result of the treatment, the disease severity and itching intensity were reduced, the nerve growth factor expression level was reduced while semaphorin 3A expression level increased in the epidermis, and the mean length and fluorescence intensity of PGP9.5+ nerve fibers was also reduced. A positive correlation among the itching intensity and nerve growth factor expression level, quantity and mean length of PGP9.5+ nerve fibers in the epidermis was revealed, and negative correlation between the itching intensity and semaphorin 3A expression level in the epidermis was established. Conclusion. Topical treatment with the 0.1% Tacrolimus ointment reduces the itching intensity in atopic dermatitis patients, which is related to the therapy-mediated reduction in the epidermis innervation level, decreased expression of epidermal nerve growth factor and increased semaphorin 3A expression level.

  15. Nocebo-induced modulation of cerebral itch processing - An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sand, Missanga F; Menz, Mareike M; Sprenger, Christian; Büchel, Christian

    2018-02-01

    It has been shown repeatedly that perceiving itch-related pictures or listening to a lecture on itch can enhance itch sensation and scratching behaviour (Niemeier and Gieler, 2000; Holle et al., 2012; Lloyd et al., 2013), indicating that itch is strongly influenced by expectations. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural correlates of the itch-related nocebo effect in healthy male and female human subjects. Itch sensation on the left forearm was induced by cutaneous histamine application and thermally modulated, with cooling leading to higher itch. Nocebo-induced aggravation of histaminergic itch was achieved by ostensibly treating volunteers with "transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)" about which subjects were instructed that it would increase itch. During a conditioning phase subjects indeed experienced stronger itch due to slightly altered cooling and histamine concentrations, but attributed it to the alleged "TENS stimulation". Importantly, in the subsequent test phase where no "TENS" or electrical stimulation was applied, volunteers significantly reported stronger itch during the nocebo as compared to the control condition. Comparing BOLD responses during nocebo in contrast to control, we observed increased activity in contralateral (right) rolandic operculum. Opercular involvement was repeatedly reported in studies related to the expectation of stimulus intensification and might thus represent an early area integrating expectation information with somatosensory information. Finally, functional coupling between the insula and the periaqueductal gray (PAG) was enhanced specifically in the nocebo condition. This cortex-PAG interaction indicates that context-dependent top-down modulation during itch might represent a shared mechanism with other modalities such as pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Itch and burning pain in women with partial vaginismus with or without vulvar vestibulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engman, Maria; Wijma, Klaas; Wijma, Barbro

    2007-01-01

    Fifty-three women with partial vaginismus with or without vulvar vestibulitis and 27 asymptomatic women estimated sensations of burning pain and itch at 20 standardized moments during a standardized penetration situation, including vaginal muscle contractions. Forty-three women with partial vaginismus (81.1%) reported burning pain, 23 (43.4%) itch, and 22 (41.5%) both complaints, compared to 0% of the asymptomatic women. In 17 of 22 cases, burning pain preceded the appearance of itch and in four cases the two complaints coincided. The median time from the moment when burning pain started until itch appeared was 150 seconds.

  17. Generalized and symptom-specific sensitization of chronic itch and pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, A.I.M. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Cats, H.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physicians are frequently confronted with patients reporting severe itch and pain. Particularly in patients suffering from persistent itch and pain, central and peripheral sensitization processes are assumed to be involved in the long-term maintenance and aggravation of the symptoms. The

  18. Validation of infrared thermography in serotonin-induced itch model in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Jasemian, Yousef; Gazerani, Parisa

    The number of scratching bouts is generally used as a standard method in animal models of itch. The aim of the present study was to validate the application of infrared thermography (IR-Th) in a serotonin-induced itch model in rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley male rats (n = 24) were used in 3 consecuti...

  19. Glutamate acts as a neurotransmitter for gastrin releasing peptide-sensitive and insensitive itch-related synaptic transmission in mammalian spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Jennifer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Itch sensation is one of the major sensory experiences of human and animals. Recent studies have proposed that gastrin releasing peptide (GRP is a key neurotransmitter for itch in spinal cord. However, no direct evidence is available to indicate that GRP actually mediate responses between primary afferent fibers and dorsal horn neurons. Here we performed integrative neurobiological experiments to test this question. We found that a small population of rat dorsal horn neurons responded to GRP application with increases in calcium signaling. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that a part of superficial dorsal horn neurons responded to GRP application with the increase of action potential firing in adult rats and mice, and these dorsal horn neurons received exclusively primary afferent C-fiber inputs. On the other hands, few Aδ inputs receiving cells were found to be GRP positive. Finally, we found that evoked sensory responses between primary afferent C fibers and GRP positive superficial dorsal horn neurons are mediated by glutamate but not GRP. CNQX, a blocker of AMPA and kainate (KA receptors, completely inhibited evoked EPSCs, including in those Fos-GFP positive dorsal horn cells activated by itching. Our findings provide the direct evidence that glutamate is the principal excitatory transmitter between C fibers and GRP positive dorsal horn neurons. Our results will help to understand the neuronal mechanism of itch and aid future treatment for patients with pruritic disease.

  20. Patients with tattoo reactions have reduced quality of life and suffer from itch: Dermatology Life Quality Index and Itch Severity Score measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Serup, J

    2015-02-01

    Tattoos are a trend with increasing side-effects. The burden of local reaction with swelling, itching and discomfort may impel sufferers to consult medical assistance. To assess tattoo reactions and their influence on quality of life and itching by utilizing the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scoring system and Itch Severity Scale (ISS). Patients attending the 'Tattoo Clinic' at Bispebjerg University Hospital, Denmark with tattoo problems spanning more than 3 months were invited. Forty patients participated during September-November 2012. Patients attending their routine consultations completed the ISS and DLQI questionnaires. Patients with tattoo reactions experienced reduced quality of life, DLQI score 7.4 and were burdened by itch, ISS score 7.2. Both DLQI and ISS results attained the level of discomfort of known skin diseases such as psoriasis, pruritus and eczema albeit the typical tattooed affected areas are smaller. Sufferers of tattoo reactions have reduced quality of life and are often burdened by itching attaining the level of other cumbersome afflictions recognized as dermatological diseases associated with itch. Tattoo reactions warrant diagnosis and treatment with same professional intent shared with other skin diseases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Do Tonic Itch and Pain Stimuli Draw Attention towards Their Location?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette I. M. van Laarhoven

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although itch and pain are distinct experiences, both are unpleasant, may demand attention, and interfere with daily activities. Research investigating the role of attention in tonic itch and pain stimuli, particularly whether attention is drawn to the stimulus location, is scarce. Methods. In the somatosensory attention task, fifty-three healthy participants were exposed to 35-second electrical itch or pain stimuli on either the left or right wrist. Participants responded as quickly as possible to visual targets appearing at the stimulated location (ipsilateral trials or the arm without stimulation (contralateral trials. During control blocks, participants performed the visual task without stimulation. Attention allocation at the itch and pain location is inferred when responses are faster ipsilaterally than contralaterally. Results. Results did not indicate that attention was directed towards or away from the itch and pain location. Notwithstanding, participants were slower during itch and pain than during control blocks. Conclusions. In contrast with our hypotheses, no indications were found for spatial attention allocation towards the somatosensory stimuli. This may relate to dynamic shifts in attention over the time course of the tonic sensations. Our secondary finding that itch and pain interfere with task performance is in-line with attention theories of bodily perception.

  2. A Clinical Report of Localized Itching After Treatment with Sweet Bee Venom

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    Choi Seok-woo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study is to report the percentage of localized itching which occurred, when we injected to patients with Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV. Methods : We investigated 374 patients who had injected with Sweet BV in our clinic from February 15. 2009 to April 30, 2010. We checked the number and percentage of patients who occured localized itching on injection area. Then we analyzed those according to times in treatment, the body parts of injection and treatment dosage. Results and Conclusion : Localized itching was lower by 1.60% in the first treatment with Sweet BV. However localized itching was 12.83% in the whole course of treatment, which showed a similar incidence of 13% in Bee Venom. Therefore it can be interpreted that Sweet BV may help suppress the immune responses such as itching in the initial treatment, but the occurrence of local immune responses of Sweet BV may be similar to that of Bee Venom in continued treatment. We suppose that we should be careful of the occurrence of local immune responses as Bee Venom at least until the fourth treatment in clinical application with Sweet BV, although localized itching did not occur in the first treatment. Also we should be careful of treatment with Sweet BV in body parts, such as wrist, hand, chest and abdominal, because the percentage of localized itching was relatively high in those parts.

  3. Non-canonical Opioid Signaling Inhibits Itch Transmission in the Spinal Cord of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admire Munanairi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Chronic itch or pruritus is a debilitating disorder that is refractory to conventional anti-histamine treatment. Kappa opioid receptor (KOR agonists have been used to treat chronic itch, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we find that KOR and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR overlap in the spinal cord, and KOR activation attenuated GRPR-mediated histamine-independent acute and chronic itch in mice. Notably, canonical KOR-mediated Gαi signaling is not required for desensitizing GRPR function. In vivo and in vitro studies suggest that KOR activation results in the translocation of Ca2+-independent protein kinase C (PKCδ from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, which in turn phosphorylates and inhibits GRPR activity. A blockade of phospholipase C (PLC in HEK293 cells prevented KOR-agonist-induced PKCδ translocation and GRPR phosphorylation, suggesting a role of PLC signaling in KOR-mediated GRPR desensitization. These data suggest that a KOR-PLC-PKCδ-GRPR signaling pathway in the spinal cord may underlie KOR-agonists-induced anti-pruritus therapies. : Munanairi et al. show that the kappa opioid receptor (KOR agonists inhibit nonhistaminergic itch transmission by attenuating the function of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR, an itch receptor in the spinal cord. KOR activation causes the translocation of PKCδ from plasma to membrane, which phosphorylates GRPR to dampen itch transmission. Keywords: KOR, GRPR, itch, PKC, phosphorylation, GPCR cross-signaling, spinal cord, mouse

  4. Mast cell-neural interactions contribute to pain and itch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kalpna; Harvima, Ilkka T

    2018-03-01

    Mast cells are best recognized for their role in allergy and anaphylaxis, but increasing evidence supports their role in neurogenic inflammation leading to pain and itch. Mast cells act as a "power house" by releasing algogenic and pruritogenic mediators, which initiate a reciprocal communication with specific nociceptors on sensory nerve fibers. Consequently, nerve fibers release inflammatory and vasoactive neuropeptides, which in turn activate mast cells in a feedback mechanism, thus promoting a vicious cycle of mast cell and nociceptor activation leading to neurogenic inflammation and pain/pruritus. Mechanisms underlying mast cell differentiation, activation, and intercellular interactions with inflammatory, vascular, and neural systems are deeply influenced by their microenvironment, imparting enormous heterogeneity and complexity in understanding their contribution to pain and pruritus. Neurogenic inflammation is central to both pain and pruritus, but specific mediators released by mast cells to promote this process may vary depending upon their location, stimuli, underlying pathology, gender, and species. Therefore, in this review, we present the contribution of mast cells in pathological conditions, including distressing pruritus exacerbated by psychologic stress and experienced by the majority of patients with psoriasis and atopic dermatitis and in different pain syndromes due to mastocytosis, sickle cell disease, and cancer. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Scrub typhus en Scrub itch, in het bijzonder in Nieuw Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der L.

    1956-01-01

    INHOUD Pag. I. Inleiding.................. 1 II. Historisch overzicht............... 3 III. Epidemiologie en oecologie............. 13 IV. Klinische waarnemingen, pathologie, diagnose en behandeling .... 24 V. Aetiologie.................. 27 VI. Scrub itch.................. 28 VII. Preventieve

  6. Transmitters and pathways mediating inhibition of spinal itch-signaling neurons by scratching and other counterstimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasuku Akiyama

    Full Text Available Scratching relieves itch, but the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. We presently investigated a role for the inhibitory neurotransmitters GABA and glycine in scratch-evoked inhibition of spinal itch-signaling neurons in a mouse model of chronic dry skin itch. Superficial dorsal horn neurons ipsilateral to hindpaw dry skin treatment exhibited a high level of spontaneous firing that was significantly attenuated by cutaneous scratching, pinch and noxious heat. Scratch-evoked inhibition was nearly abolished by spinal delivery of the glycine antagonist, strychnine, and was markedly attenuated by respective GABA(A and GABA(B antagonists bicuculline and saclofen. Scratch-evoked inhibition was also significantly attenuated (but not abolished by interruption of the upper cervical spinal cord, indicating the involvement of both segmental and suprasegmental circuits that engage glycine- and GABA-mediated inhibition of spinal itch-signaling neurons by noxious counterstimuli.

  7. Development of resistance to serotonin-induced itch in bile duct ligated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostadhadi, Sattar; Haddadi, Nazgol-Sadat; Foroutan, Arash; Azimi, Ehsan; Elmariah, Sarina; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza

    2017-06-01

    Cholestatic itch can be severe and significantly impair the quality of life of patients. The serotonin system is implicated in cholestatic itch; however, the pruritogenic properties of serotonin have not been evaluated in cholestatic mice. Here, we investigated the serotonin-induced itch in cholestatic mice which was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Serotonin, sertraline or saline were administered intradermally to the rostral back area in BDL and sham operated (SHAM) mice, and the scratching behaviour was videotaped for 1 hour. Bile duct ligated mice had significantly increased scratching responses to saline injection on the seventh day after surgery. Additionally, serotonin or sertraline significantly induced scratching behaviour in BDL mice compared to saline at day 7 after surgery, while it did not induce itch at day 5. The scratching behaviour induced by serotonin or sertraline was significantly less in BDL mice compared to SHAM mice. Likewise, the locomotor activity of BDL or SHAM mice was not significantly different from unoperated (UNOP) mice on the fifth and seventh day, suggesting that the scratching behaviour was not affected by motor dysfunctions. Our data suggest that despite the potentiation of evoked itch, a resistance to serotonin-induced itch is developed in cholestatic mice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. The Itch-Producing Agents Histamine and Cowhage Activate Separate Populations of Primate Spinothalamic Tract Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Steve; Zhang, Xijing; Yoon, Chul H.; Khasabov, Sergey G.; Simone, Donald A.; Giesler, Glenn J.

    2010-01-01

    Itch is an everyday sensation, but when associated with disease or infection it can be chronic and debilitating. Several forms of itch can be blocked using antihistamines, but others cannot and these constitute an important clinical problem. Little information is available on the mechanisms underlying itch that is produced by nonhistaminergic mechanisms. We examined the responses of spinothalamic tract neurons to histaminergic and, for the first time, nonhistaminergic forms of itch stimuli. Fifty-seven primate spinothalamic tract (STT) neurons were identified using antidromic activation techniques and examined for their responses to histamine and cowhage, the nonhistaminergic itch-producing spicules covering the pod of the legume Mucuna pruriens. Each examined neuron had a receptive field on the hairy skin of the hindlimb and responded to noxious mechanical stimulation. STT neurons were tested with both pruritogens applied in a random order and we found 12 that responded to histamine and seven to cowhage. Each pruritogen-responsive STT neuron was activated by the chemical algogen capsaicin and two-thirds responded to noxious heat stimuli, demonstrating that these neurons convey chemical, thermal, and mechanical nociceptive information as well. Histamine or cowhage responsive STT neurons were found in both the marginal zone and the deep dorsal horn and were classified as high threshold and wide dynamic range. Unexpectedly, histamine and cowhage never activated the same cell. Our results demonstrate that the spinothalamic tract contains mutually exclusive populations of neurons responsive to histamine or the nonhistaminergic itch-producing agent cowhage. PMID:17855615

  9. Acidosis counteracts itch tachyphylaxis to consecutive pruritogen exposure dependent on acid-sensing ion channel 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chen; Peng, Zhong; Han, Shao-Ling; Li, Wei-Guang; Zhu, Michael Xi; Xu, Tian-Le

    2017-01-01

    Tachyphylaxis of itch refers to a markedly reduced scratching response to consecutive exposures of a pruritogen, a process thought to protect against tissue damage by incessant scratching and to become disrupted in chronic itch. Here, we report that a strong stimulation of the Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptor C11 by its agonist, Ser-Leu-Ile-Gly-Arg-Leu-NH 2 (SL-NH 2 ) or bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 peptide, via subcutaneous injection in mice induces tachyphylaxis to the subsequent application of SL-NH 2 to the same site. Notably, co-application of acid and SL-NH 2 following the initial injection of the pruritogen alone counteracted itch tachyphylaxis by augmenting the scratching behaviors in wild-type but not in acid-sensing ion channel 3-null, animals. Using an activity-dependent silencing strategy, we identified that acid-sensing ion channel 3-mediated itch enhancement mainly occurred via the Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptor C11-responsive sensory neurons. Together, our results indicate that acid-sensing ion channel 3, activated by concomitant acid and certain pruritogens, constitute a novel signaling pathway that counteracts itch tachyphylaxis to successive pruritogenic stimulation, which likely contributes to chronic itch associated with tissue acidosis.

  10. A central role for R7bp in the regulation of itch sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Mritunjay; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Mishra, Santosh K; Adikaram, Poorni R; Harris, Benjamin; Kahler, John F; Loshakov, Anna; Sholevar, Roxanne; Genis, Allison; Kittock, Claire; Kabat, Juraj; Ganesan, Sundar; Neubig, Richard R; Hoon, Mark A; Simonds, William F

    2017-05-01

    Itch is a protective sensation producing a desire to scratch. Pathologic itch can be a chronic symptom of illnesses such as uremia, cholestatic liver disease, neuropathies and dermatitis, however current therapeutic options are limited. Many types of cell surface receptors, including those present on cells in the skin, on sensory neurons and on neurons in the spinal cord, have been implicated in itch signaling. The role of G protein signaling in the regulation of pruriception is poorly understood. We identify here 2 G protein signaling components whose mutation impairs itch sensation. R7bp (a.k.a. Rgs7bp) is a palmitoylated membrane anchoring protein expressed in neurons that facilitates Gαi/o -directed GTPase activating protein activity mediated by the Gβ5/R7-RGS complex. Knockout of R7bp diminishes scratching responses to multiple cutaneously applied and intrathecally-administered pruritogens in mice. Knock-in to mice of a GTPase activating protein-insensitive mutant of Gαo (Gnao1 G184S/+) produces a similar pruriceptive phenotype. The pruriceptive defect in R7bp knockout mice was rescued in double knockout mice also lacking Oprk1, encoding the G protein-coupled kappa-opioid receptor whose activation is known to inhibit itch sensation. In a model of atopic dermatitis (eczema), R7bp knockout mice showed diminished scratching behavior and enhanced sensitivity to kappa opioid agonists. Taken together, our results indicate that R7bp is a key regulator of itch sensation and suggest the potential targeting of R7bp-dependent GTPase activating protein activity as a novel therapeutic strategy for pathological itch.

  11. Brain's reward circuits mediate itch relief. a functional MRI study of active scratching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru D P Papoiu

    Full Text Available Previous brain imaging studies investigating the brain processing of scratching used an exogenous intervention mimicking scratching, performed not by the subjects themselves, but delivered by an investigator. In real life, scratching is a conscious, voluntary, controlled motor response to itching, which is directed to the perceived site of distress. In this study we aimed to visualize in real-time by brain imaging the core mechanisms of the itch-scratch cycle when scratching was performed by subjects themselves. Secondly, we aimed to assess the correlations between brain patterns of activation and psychophysical ratings of itch relief or pleasurability of scratching. We also compared the patterns of brain activity evoked by self-scratching vs. passive scratching. We used a robust tridimensional Arterial Spin Labeling fMRI technique that is less sensitive to motion artifacts: 3D gradient echo and spin echo (GRASE--Propeller. Active scratching was accompanied by a higher pleasurability and induced a more pronounced deactivation of the anterior cingulate cortex and insula, in comparison with passive scratching. A significant involvement of the reward system including the ventral tegmentum of the midbrain, coupled with a mechanism deactivating the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG, suggests that itch modulation operates in reverse to the mechanism known to suppress pain. Our findings not only confirm a role for the central networks processing reward in the pleasurable aspects of scratching, but also suggest they play a role in mediating itch relief.

  12. Patients with tattoo reactions have reduced quality of life and suffer from itch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Serup, J

    2015-01-01

    Life Quality Index (DLQI) scoring system and Itch Severity Scale (ISS). METHODS: Patients attending the 'Tattoo Clinic' at Bispebjerg University Hospital, Denmark with tattoo problems spanning more than 3 months were invited. Forty patients participated during September-November 2012. Patients...... attending their routine consultations completed the ISS and DLQI questionnaires. RESULTS: Patients with tattoo reactions experienced reduced quality of life, DLQI score 7.4 and were burdened by itch, ISS score 7.2. Both DLQI and ISS results attained the level of discomfort of known skin diseases...... such as psoriasis, pruritus and eczema albeit the typical tattooed affected areas are smaller. CONCLUSION/DISCUSSION: Sufferers of tattoo reactions have reduced quality of life and are often burdened by itching attaining the level of other cumbersome afflictions recognized as dermatological diseases associated...

  13. [Efficacy of sweat-antigen-inactivating skin care products on itching of patients with atopic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Hajime; Takahagi, Shunsuke; Mihara, Shoji; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Ishii, Kaori; Hide, Michihiro; Suzuki, Shigeru; Kanatani, Hirotoshi; Yano, Shingo

    2011-01-01

    Many patients with atopic dermatitis showed immediate-type hypersensitivity against sweat antigen. Therefore, to deal with sweating is important to prevent itching and aggravations of dermatitis of patient with atopic dermatitis. We had searched a substance that inactivated sweat antigen adopting histamine release test. And we found that tannic acid which selected by screening various natural products inactivated sweat antigen. We evaluate skin care products (spray, after-bathing water and aerosol-spray) containing tannic acid for patients with atopic dermatitis. We administered in a tannic acid-containing spray and after-bathing water on 17 patients with atopic dermatitis. After treatment, total clinical assessment score and itching in the afternoon had significantly decreased from that on day 0. To evaluate the effect of tannic acid containing-aerosol spray on itching of patients with AD, we assessed symptoms of atopic dermatitis patients who used a tannic acid containing-aerosol spray every day for 4 weeks in a cross-over, double-blind study. Clinical severity of atopic dermatitis and degrees of itching in daily life of patients were evaluated by physicians and patients themselves, respectively. Degrees of itching in morning and those at night were significantly more largely improved by the use of tannic acid-containing aerosol spray than those by the use of placebo control aerosol spray. The overall efficacy of tannic acid-containing aerosol sprays was also significantly higher than those of tannic acid free spray. Sweat antigen inactivating skin care products may be effective to reduce itching of patients with atopic dermatitis.

  14. Creutzfeldt-Jacob’s Disease Presenting with Psychiatric Symptomsand Severe Itching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Rabia Koç

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal prion-like proteins in the central nervous system. Clinical features, electroencephalography, brain magnetic resonance imaging and protein 14.3.3 is useful in diagnosis. Protein 14.3.3 may be negative in the early or late stages of the disease. Presentation with psychiatric symptoms and itching is not typical in the beginning of the disease In this paper, we present a patient who was first accepted to the pschiatry ward because of his psychiatric symtpoms and had severe itching, resistant to antihistaminic drugs

  15. Acidosis counteracts itch tachyphylaxis to consecutive pruritogen exposure dependent on acid-sensing ion channel 3

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chen; Peng, Zhong; Han, Shao-Ling; Li, Wei-Guang; Zhu, Michael Xi; Xu, Tian-Le

    2017-01-01

    Tachyphylaxis of itch refers to a markedly reduced scratching response to consecutive exposures of a pruritogen, a process thought to protect against tissue damage by incessant scratching and to become disrupted in chronic itch. Here, we report that a strong stimulation of the Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptor C11 by its agonist, Ser-Leu-Ile-Gly-Arg-Leu-NH2 (SL-NH2) or bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 peptide, via subcutaneous injection in mice induces tachyphylaxis to the subsequent applicat...

  16. Antipruritic effect of pretreatment with topical capsaicin 8% on histamine- and cowhage-evoked itch in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hjalte Holm; Marker, Jens Broch; Hoeck, Emil A.

    2017-01-01

    capsaicin 8% pretreatment for 24 h reduced histaminergic and nonhistaminergic itch by about 75%, while a significant reduction (≈60%) was achieved for only nonhistaminergic itch in a standard 1-h treatment. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the clinical potential of high-concentration capsaicin...

  17. The relation of early experienced negative life events and current itch. A longitudinal study among adolescents in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Lars; Halvorsen, Jon Anders; Haavet, Ole Rikard; Dalgard, Florence

    2012-03-01

    Negative life events have impact on mental health and skin diseases among adults. Itch is a common, disabling skin symptom. The aim was to describe negative life events associated with current itch and to analyze the impact of number of negative life events on symptoms of itch, controlling for possible confounders. This school-based longitudinal survey was conducted among 15 and 18 years old high-school students in Oslo, Norway. From a baseline cohort of 3811 students, 2489 (65%) participants were followed-up after three years later. They completed questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Current itch was measured with a validated instrument asking for symptoms on a four point Likert scale at follow-up. More girls than boys reported itch. There were no gender differences in number of negative life events. Death among close relative/friend was the most common negative life event among boys and girls. All negative life experiences before 15 years of age were statistically significantly associated with itch, but after 15 years only half of the negative life events were associated with itch. The bivariate association between number of negative life events and itch was statistically significant, and only when adjusting for mental distress at baseline there was a considerable drop in the Odds Ratio. There is a clear association between number of negative life events at baseline and itch at follow-up three years later among adolescents. It is therefore important to discuss possible adverse experiences with adolescents presenting with severe symptoms of itch. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An aberrant parasympathetic response: a new perspective linking chronic stress and itch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hei Sung; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2013-04-01

    Perceived stress has long been known to alter the dynamic equilibrium established between the nervous, endocrine and immune system and is widely recognised to trigger or enhance pruritus. However, the exact mechanism of how the major stress response systems, such as the hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system induce or aggravate chronic itch, has not been elucidated. The limbic regions of the brain such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus are deeply involved in the regulation of the stress response and intersect with circuits that are responsible for memory and reward. According to the 'Polyvagal Theory', certain limbic structures that serve as a 'higher brain equivalent of the parasympathetic nervous system' play a foremost role in maintaining body homoeostasis by functioning as an active vagal brake. In addition, the limbic system has been postulated to regulate two distinct, yet related aspects of itch: (i) the sensory-discriminative aspect; and (ii) the affective-cognitive aspect. Chronic stress-induced itch is hypothesised to be caused by stress-related changes in limbic structure with subsequent rewiring of both the peripheral and central pruriceptive circuits. Herein, we review data suggesting that a dysfunctional parasympathetic nervous system associated with chronic stress may play a critical role in the regulatory control of key candidate molecules, receptors and brain structures involved in chronic itch. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Investigating the Causes of Chronic Itch: New Advances Could Bring Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... focuses on nerve cell involvement in chronic itch. His team was interested in a protein called BRAF, which is known to help convey pain signals from sensory nerves in the skin to the brain. Activated BRAF (represented in red), when introduced into ...

  20. Induction of nocebo and placebo effects on itch and pain by verbal suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, A.I.M. van; Vogelaar, M.L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Evers, A.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Physical complaints, such as pain, can be effectively reduced by placebo effects through induction of positive expectations, or increased by nocebo effects through induction of negative expectations. In the present study, verbally induced nocebo and placebo effects on itch were experimentally

  1. Validation of infrared thermography in serotonin-induced itch model in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Jasemian, Yousef; Gazerani, Parisa

    The number of scratching bouts is generally used as a standard method in animal models of itch. The aim of the present study was to validate the application of infrared thermography (IR-Th) in a serotonin-induced itch model in rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley male rats (n = 24) were used in 3 consecutive...... experiments. The first experiment evaluated vasomotor response (IR-Th) and scratching behavior (number of bouts) induced by intradermal serotonin (10 μl, 2%). Isotonic saline (control: 10 μl, 0.9%) and Methysergide (antagonist: 10 μl, 0.047 mg/ml) were used. The second experiment evaluated the dose......-response effect of intradermal serotonin (1%, 2% and 4%) on local temperature. The third experiment evaluated the anesthetized rats to test the local vasomotor responses in absent of scratching. Serotonin elicited significant scratching and lowered the local temperature at the site of injection. A dose...

  2. [About Itching and scabies. Pruritus in medical history--from ancient world to the French revolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, E; König, A; Diepgen, T L; Eckart, W U

    2008-12-01

    Pruritus (itching) as a disease state and especially as a disease symptom has been object of medical and scientific descriptions and examinations in all epochs since the antiquity and in different cultural periods. Antiquity was dominated by observations and descriptions but during the course of medical history and particularly since the establishment of dermatology, more and more emphasis has been placed on classification and etiologic research.

  3. A systems approach for discovering linoleic acid derivatives that potentially mediate pain and itch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsden, Christopher E.; Domenichiello, Anthony F.; Yuan, Zhi-Xin; Sapio, Matthew R.; Keyes, Gregory S.; Mishra, Santosh K.; Gross, Jacklyn R.; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon; Zamora, Daisy; Horowitz, Mark S.; Davis, John M.; Sorokin, Alexander V.; Dey, Amit; LaPaglia, Danielle M.; Wheeler, Joshua J.; Vasko, Michael R.; Mehta, Nehal N.; Mannes, Andrew J.; Iadarola, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    Chronic pain and itch are common hypersensitivity syndromes that are affected by endogenous mediators. We applied a systems-based, translational approach to predict, discover, and characterize mediators of pain and itch that are regulated by diet and inflammation. Profiling of tissue-specific precursor abundance and biosynthetic gene expression predicted that inflamed skin would be abundant in four previously unknown 11-hydroxy-epoxy-or 11-keto-epoxy-octadecenoate linoleic acid derivatives and four previously identified 9- or 13-hydroxy-epoxy- or 9- or 13-keto-epoxy-octadecenoate linoleic acid derivatives. All of these mediators were confirmed to be abundant in rat and human skin by mass spectrometry. However, only the two 11-hydroxy-epoxy-octadecenoates sensitized rat dorsal root ganglion neurons to release more calcitonin gene–related peptide (CGRP), which is involved in pain transmission, in response to low pH (which mimics an inflammatory state) or capsaicin (which activates ion channels involved in nociception). The two 11-hydroxy-epoxy-octadecenoates share a 3-hydroxy-Z-pentenyl-E-epoxide moiety, thus suggesting that this substructure could mediate nociceptor sensitization. In rats, intradermal hind paw injection of 11-hydroxy-12,13-trans-epoxy-(9Z)-octadecenoate elicited C-fiber–mediated sensitivity to thermal pain. In a randomized trial testing adjunctive strategies to manage refractory chronic headaches, reducing the dietary intake of linoleic acid was associated with decreases in plasma 11-hydroxy-12,13-trans-epoxy-(9Z)-octadecenoate, which correlated with clinical pain reduction. Human psoriatic skin had 30-fold higher 9-keto-12,13-trans-epoxy-(10E)-octadecenoate compared to control skin, and intradermal injection of this compound induced itch-related scratching behavior in mice. Collectively, these findings define a family of endogenous mediators with potential roles in pain and itch. PMID:28831021

  4. Swimmer’s itch: etiology, impact, and risk factors in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soldánová, Miroslava; Selbach, C.; Kalbe, M.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Sures, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2013), s. 65-74 ISSN 1471-4922 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bird schistosomes * Trichobilharzia * swimmer's itch * Lymnaeidae * ecological factors * risk factors * Europe Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 6.217, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1471492212002000

  5. Anal Itching

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has many possible causes, such as skin problems, hemorrhoids, and washing too much or not enough. If ... dermatitis. Other medical conditions. These include chronic diarrhea, hemorrhoids, anal tumors and diseases that affect the whole ...

  6. Cutting Itch

    OpenAIRE

    Zellweger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    “Cutting Itch” is a curatorial project by artists-duo Baltensperger-Siepert. An exhibition project about the essential need of art to be an active system that reflects, investigates social, cultural and political issues. It is about an existential necessity to shape ones environment, to think about relations, regulating structures and about how we can locate ourselves in a more and more globalised world. (from press material). \\ud \\ud Baltensperger & Siepert identified seven artists from Mexi...

  7. Prevalence of physical symptoms of itch, pain and fatigue in patients with skin diseases in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, E W M; Kraaimaat, F W; van de Kerkhof, P C M; van Weel, C; Duller, P; van der Valk, P G M; van den Hoogen, H J M; Bor, J H J; Schers, H J; Evers, A W M

    2007-06-01

    Physical symptoms of skin diseases have been shown to negatively affect patients' wellbeing. Although insight into physical symptoms accompanying skin diseases is relevant for the management and treatment of skin diseases, the prevalence of physical symptoms among patients with skin diseases is a rather unexplored territory. The goal of the present study was to examine the prevalence of physical symptoms of itch, pain and fatigue in patients with skin diseases. On the basis of a systematic morbidity registration system in primary care, questionnaires were sent to 826 patients with skin diseases. Eventually, questionnaires from 492 patients were suitable for our analyses. Results indicated that patients with skin diseases particularly experience symptoms of itch and fatigue. Approximately 50% of all patients report experiencing these symptoms and about 25% experience these symptoms as relatively severe. Pain was relatively less frequently reported by 23% of all patients, and was on average somewhat less intense. The physical symptoms showed relatively strong correlations with disease-related quality of life and self-reported disease severity. In contrast, only moderate correlations were found with comorbidity and demographic variables, which suggests that the physical symptoms of itch, pain and fatigue are consequences of the skin diseases. Itch and fatigue and, to a somewhat lesser extent, pain have a high prevalence among patients with skin diseases. Clinicians should be encouraged to carefully assess itch, pain and fatigue in patients with skin diseases, and where appropriate focus treatment to these symptoms.

  8. Level of use and safety of botanical products for itching vulvar dermatoses. Are patch tests useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Monica; Virgili, Annarosa; Toni, Giulia; Minghetti, Sara; Tiengo, Silvia; Borghi, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    Topical remedies based on botanical ingredients are popular. To assess: (i) the usage of botanical substances in subjects affected with itching and chronic vulvar complaints; (ii) the incidence of side-effects associated with their use and the frequency of contact allergy; (iii) the diagnostic usefulness of patch testing. Sixty-six patients were provided with a questionnaire to assess the prevalence and type of topical botanical preparations used and the occurrence of adverse reactions. Patients were patch tested with (i) the Italian baseline series, (ii) a topical medicament series, and (iii) a botanical series. Forty-two patients (63.6%) reported the use of natural topical products on the vulva. Seven (16.7%) noted adverse reactions; 27 showed positive reactions with the baseline series; 14 (21.2%) had at least one relevant reaction, mainly to allergens in topical products and cosmetics; and 2 (3%) showed positive reactions to the botanical series. Of the 7 patients complaining of adverse effects of botanical products, 3 (42.8%) showed relevant sensitization. The use of natural topical products is widespread among women affected with itching vulvar diseases. Contact dermatitis is a possible adverse effect. Botanical series are of questionable usefulness, owing to the wide variety of botanical ingredients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Maintenance of remission with low-dose olopatadine hydrochloride for itch in well-controlled chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makino T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Teruhiko Makino,1 Yoshiaki Takegami,1 Mati Ur Rehman,1 Yoko Yoshihisa,1 Waka Ishida,2 Takashi Toyomoto,3 Tadamichi Shimizu11Department of Dermatology, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan; 2Department of Dermatology, Niigata Central Hospital, Joetsu, Japan; 3Department of Dermatology, Saiseikai Takaoka Hospital, Takaoka, JapanBackground: The long-term follow-up of chronic urticaria (CU is important to ensure the adequate treatment of patients. Olopatadine hydrochloride is one of the second-generation nonsedating antihistamines.Methods: This study was designed to assess the optimal dose of olopatadine to suppress symptoms of chronic urticarial itch in well-controlled patients. After CU patients were treated with 10 mg olopatadine, patients having a visual analogue scale (VAS itch score of less than 20 were randomly allocated into one of three groups: 10 mg/day (n = 35, 5 mg/day (n = 30, or no medication (n = 32.Results: The suppressive effects of both the 5 mg and 10 mg olopatadine treatments on the VAS itch score were more significant and longer lasting over a period of 4 weeks than the no-medication treatment. Both the 5-mg group and the 10-mg group showed improved urticarial symptoms and maintained their VAS itch score within normal limits compared to the no-medication group. The differences between the 5-mg and 10-mg groups were not significant.Conclusion: These results demonstrate that treatment with olopatadine at a dose of 5 mg once daily is effective and safe for the management and prevention of CU symptoms for itch in well-controlled patients.Keywords: chronic urticaria, olopatadine, dose, antihistamine, itch, histamine

  10. Estimating the risk of swimmer's itch in surface waters A case study from Lake Baldeney, River Ruhr

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Selbach, C.; Soldánová, Miroslava; Sures, B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 219, č. 7 (2016), s. 693-699 ISSN 1438-4639 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Parasite * Trichobilharzia * Swimmer's itch * Cercarial dermatitis * Risk factors * Prevention Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2016

  11. Projected 24-hour post-dose ocular itching scores post-treatment with olopatadine 0.7% versus 0.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Matthew L; Ogundele, Abayomi; Covert, David; Sarangapani, Ramesh

    2018-04-21

    Olopatadine is an antihistamine and mast cell stabilizer used for treating allergic conjunctivitis. Olopatadine 0.7% has been recently approved for daily dosing in the US, which supersedes the previously approved 0.2% strength. The objective of this analysis was to characterize patients who have better itching relief at 24 h when taking olopatadine 0.7% treatment instead of olopatadine 0.2% (in terms of proportions of responses) and relate this to the severity of baseline itching as an indirect metric of a patient's sensitivity to antihistamines. A differential odds model was developed using data from two conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) studies to characterize individual-level and population-level response to ocular itching following olopatadine treatment and the data was analyzed retrospectively. This modeling analysis was designed to predict 24 h ocular itching scores and to quantify the differences in 24 h itching relief following treatment with olopatadine 0.2% versus 0.7% in patients with moderate-to-high baseline itching. A one-compartment kinetic-pharmacodynamic E max model was used to determine the effect of olopatadine. Impact of baseline itching severity, vehicle effect and the drug effect on the overall itching scores post-treatment were explicitly incorporated in the model. The model quantified trends observed in the clinical data with regards to both mean scores and the proportions of patients responding to olopatadine treatment. The model predicts a higher proportion of patients in the olopatadine 0.7% versus 0.2% group will experience relief within 24 h. This prediction was confirmed with retrospective clinical data analysis. The number of allergy patients relieved with olopatadine 0.7% increased with higher baseline itching severity scores, when compared to olopatadine 0.2%.

  12. Desloratadine citrate disodium injection, a potent histamine H(1) receptor antagonist, inhibits chemokine production in ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis guinea pig model and histamine-induced human nasal epithelial cells via inhibiting the ERK1/2 and NF-kappa B signal cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meiling; Xu, Shuhong; Zhou, Peipei; He, Guangwei; Jie, Qiong; Wu, Yulin

    2015-11-15

    Chemokines have chemotactic properties on leukocyte subsets whose modulation plays a pivotal role in allergic inflammatory processes. Our present study was designed to investigate the anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties of desloratadine citrate disodium injection (DLC) and elucidate the molecular mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory properties. The anti-allergic effects of DLC were evaluated based on allergic symptoms, serological marker production and histological changes of the nasal mucosa in guinea pigs model of allergic rhinitis. The anti-inflammatory properties and molecular mechanisms of DLC were explored by studying the regulation of a set of chemokines and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathways, after DLC treatment in guinea pigs model of allergic rhinitis in vivo and histamine-activated human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) in vitro. In vivo model in guinea pigs, DLC alleviated the rhinitis symptoms, inhibited inflammatory cells infiltration in nasal lavage fluid (NLF) and histamine, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, regulated on activation normal T cell expressed, and presumably secreted (RANTEs) and interleukin (IL)-8 release in sera and P-ERK1/2 and NF-κB activation in nasal mucosa. In vitro, DLC markedly inhibited histamine-induced production of MCP-1, RANTEs and IL-8 and suppressed c-Raf, mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) and ERK1/2 activation in HNECs. These results provide evidence that DLC possesses potent anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties. The mechanism of action underlying DLC in allergic inflammation appears to be inhibition of the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, in addition to blocking of the NF-κB pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of olopatadine 0.2% in the complete prevention of ocular itching in the conjunctival allergen challenge model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabat AG

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Alan G Kabat1, David B Granet2, Dina Amin3, Maria J Tort3, Michael S Blaiss41Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA; 2Shiley Eye Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; 3Alcon Research Ltd, Fort Worth, TX, USA; 4University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USABackground: Olopatadine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution 0.2% (PATADAY™; Alcon, Fort Worth, TX (olopatadine 0.2% is a formulation of a multi-action agent that has been approved for the treatment of ocular itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis when used once daily.Objective: To evaluate olopatadine 0.2% versus its vehicle in the complete prevention of ocular itching in adult patients with allergic conjunctivitis.Methods: This paper presents a post-hoc analysis of subgroup results from a single-center, double-masked, randomized, contralateral eye, conjunctival allergen challenge study. The post-hoc efficacy analysis, conducted with data from patients who instilled olopatadine 0.2% in a single eye and vehicle in the contralateral eye, compared the ability of each study formulation to completely prevent ocular itching at three assessment time points post-instillation. Safety was not reevaluated in the post-hoc analysis.Results: Overall, 40 patients received contralateral instillations of study drug and were included in the post-hoc analysis. At all three post-instillation time points, significantly greater proportions of patients reported itching scores of 0 in the olopatadine 0.2%-treated eye than in the vehicle-treated eye (63%–65% versus 3%–10%, respectively; P < 0.05 for each comparison. Within the previously reported results for the full study, no clinically relevant or statistically significant changes from baseline were observed for patients in regard to visual acuity, ocular signs, or fundus parameters.Conclusion: Olopatadine 0.2% is safe, well tolerated, and superior to vehicle in completely preventing ocular

  14. Opioid modulation of facial itch- and pain-related responses and grooming behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradley, Jessica M; Davoodi, Auva; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, Earl

    2012-09-01

    Intradermal facial injections of pruritogens or algogens elicit distinct behavioral hindlimb scratch or forelimb wiping responses in rodents. We systematically investigated the parameters and opioid modulation of these evoked behaviors and spontaneous facial grooming in rats. Serotonin (5-HT) elicited hindlimb scratch bouts with few wipes. Scratching was attenuated by the µ-opiate antagonist naltrexone but not morphine. In contrast, cheek injection of mustard oil (allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC)) elicited ipsilateral forelimb wipes but little hindlimb scratching. AITC-evoked wiping was significantly attenuated by morphine but not naltrexone. Spontaneous facial grooming by the forepaws was attenuated by naltrexone, whereas morphine did not affect grooming behavior before or after cheek injections of 5-HT or AITC. These data validate that the rodent "cheek" model discriminates between itch- and pain-related behaviors. Naltrexone sensitivity of facial grooming and 5-HT-evoked scratch-ing suggests a common functionality. Forelimb wipes may represent a nocifensive response akin to rubbing an injury to relieve pain.

  15. Nutritional and anti-nutritional potential of three accessions of itching bean (Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC var. pruriens): an under-utilized tribal pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Balasubiramanian Kamatchi; Mohan, Veerabahu Ramasamy

    2010-08-01

    Three accessions of the under-utilized legume itching bean (Mucuna pruriens var. pruriens) were analysed for proximate composition, mineral profiles, vitamins (niacin and ascorbic acid), fatty acid profiles, amino acid profiles of total seed protein, in vitro protein digestibility and certain anti-nutritional factors. All three accessions of M. pruriens var. pruriens contained higher amounts of crude protein and crude lipid when compared with most of the commonly consumed pulses. The fatty acid profiles revealed that the seed lipids contained a higher concentration of palmitic acid and linoleic acids. Amino acid profiles of M. pruriens var. pruriens revealed that the seed protein contained relatively higher levels of certain essential amino acids compared with the FAO/WHO requirement pattern. The investigated seeds are rich in minerals such as potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron and manganese. Anti nutritional substances such as total free phenolics, tannins, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, phytic acid, hydrogen cyanide, trypsin inhibitor activity, oligosaccharides and phytohaemagglutinating activity were investigated. The anti-nutritional fatty acid, behenic acid, also was detected in the present study.

  16. Translation of the 5D Itching Scale from English to Malay, and Its Validation among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inayat Ur Rehman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSeveral tools have been developed to assess the severity of pruritus. In Malaysia, no tool has been validated to assess pruritus in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Therefore, the aim of our study was to validate the Malay 5D itching scale (M5D-IS among patients with CKD in Malaysia.MethodThe English version of the 5D-IS was translated into Malay according to International Guidelines. Face and content validity was determined by an expert panel and pilot tested in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. The M5D-IS was then validated in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia from May to June 2016. We recruited patients with (i.e., patients with ESRD and without pruritus (i.e., patients with stage 1–3 CKD (to determine if the M5D-IS could discriminate between the two groups, and administered the M5D-IS at baseline and 2 weeks later. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the reliability of the instrument.ResultsA total of 70 participants were recruited (response rate = 100%. The majority were males (51.4% and Malay (67.1%. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that the 5D-IS had 2-factor loadings: “daily routine activity” and “pattern of itching,” which explained 77.7% of the variance. The overall score of the M5D-IS, as well as for each domain, was significantly worse in participants with pruritus (9.83 ± 0.35, compared to those without pruritus (5.51 ± 0.93, p < 0.001. The overall Cronbach’s alpha for the M5D-IS was (0.861, indicating adequate internal consistency. At test–retest, the intraclass correlation coefficient was significantly correlated.ConclusionThe M5D-IS was found to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess pruritus among patients with CKD in Malaysia.

  17. The effects of topical sodium cromoglicate on itch and flare in human skin induced by intradermal histamine: a randomised double-blind vehicle controlled intra-subject design trial

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Alan M; Stevens, Michael T; Church, Martin K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Itch is a prominent feature of many skin diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis and cutaneous mastocytosis. Sodium cromoglicate (SCG), a chromone developed for the treatment of allergic disease has been shown to reduce the severity of itch when applied topically to subjects with atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether topical sodium cromoglicate can reduce the severity of itch induced by intradermal histamine. Methods SCG was introduced into t...

  18. DUB3 Deubiquitylating Enzymes Regulate Hippo Pathway Activity by Regulating the Stability of ITCH, LATS and AMOT Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thanh Hung; Kugler, Jan-Michael; Cohen, Stephen Michael

    2017-01-01

    /TAZ, is regulated by ubiquitin mediated protein turnover and several ubiquitin ligase complexes have been implicated in human cancer. However, little is known about the deubiquitylating enzymes that counteract these ubiquitin ligases in regulation of the Hippo pathway. Here we identify the DUB3 family...... deubiquitylating enzymes as regulators of Hippo pathway activity. We provide evidence that DUB3 proteins regulate YAP/TAZ activity by controlling the stability of the E3 ligase ITCH, the LATS kinases and the AMOT family proteins. As a novel Hippo pathway regulator, DUB3 has the potential to act a tumor suppressor...

  19. HECT E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Itch Functions as a Novel Negative Regulator of Gli-Similar 3 (Glis3 Transcriptional Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary T ZeRuth

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Gli-similar 3 (Glis3 plays a critical role in the generation of pancreatic ß cells and the regulation insulin gene transcription and has been implicated in the development of several pathologies, including type 1 and 2 diabetes and polycystic kidney disease. However, little is known about the proteins and posttranslational modifications that regulate or mediate Glis3 transcriptional activity. In this study, we identify by mass-spectrometry and yeast 2-hybrid analyses several proteins that interact with the N-terminal region of Glis3. These include the WW-domain-containing HECT E3 ubiquitin ligases, Itch, Smurf2, and Nedd4. The interaction between Glis3 and the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligases was verified by co-immunoprecipitation assays and mutation analysis. All three proteins interact through their WW-domains with a PPxY motif located in the Glis3 N-terminus. However, only Itch significantly contributed to Glis3 polyubiquitination and reduced Glis3 stability by enhancing its proteasomal degradation. Itch-mediated degradation of Glis3 required the PPxY motif-dependent interaction between Glis3 and the WW-domains of Itch as well as the presence of the Glis3 zinc finger domains. Transcription analyses demonstrated that Itch dramatically inhibited Glis3-mediated transactivation and endogenous Ins2 expression by increasing Glis3 protein turnover. Taken together, our study identifies Itch as a critical negative regulator of Glis3-mediated transcriptional activity. This regulation provides a novel mechanism to modulate Glis3-driven gene expression and suggests that it may play a role in a number of physiological processes controlled by Glis3, such as insulin transcription, as well as in Glis3-associated diseases.

  20. Progression of itching intensity and expression of growth factor proteins in skin of people suffering from atopic dermatitis under the influence of ultraviolet phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kubanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of progression of itching intensity and expression of growth factor proteins in skin of people suffering from atopic dermatitis under the influence of narrowband (311Nm phototherapy. Material and methods. 30 patients with atopic dermatitis were treated by using narrowband (311Nm phototherapy. SCORAD index was used to assess the severity of the clinical responses. Itching intensity was assessed using visual analogue scale. Expression of growth factor of nerves, semaphorine-3A, amphiregulin, and PGP9.5, a protein marker for nerve fibers, was investigated by means of indirect immunofluorescence. Results. Increased expression level of nerves growth factor, decreased expression level of semaphorine-3A, and increase in the number, average length and luminous intensity of PGP9.5+ -nerve fibers were found in the patients’ epidermis. Course of narrowband (311 Nm phototherapy resulted in a decrease of the severity of the disease and itching intensity, and semaphorine-3A expression increase, reduction of number and average length of nerve fibers in the epidermis. A direct correlation relationship between the itching intensity and expression level of nerve growth factor, number and average length of PGP9.5+ -nerve fibers in the epidermis as well as an inverse correlation relationship between itching intensity and expression level of semaphorine-3A in the epidermis were found. Conclusion. Treating patients suffering from atopic dermatitis with narrowband (311 Nm phototherapy leads to a decrease of the itching intensity associated with a decreased intensity of innervation of the epidermis. This decrease in course of phototherapy is facilitated by decrease of nerve growth factor expression level and increase of semaphorine-3A expression.

  1. The effects of topical sodium cromoglicate on itch and flare in human skin induced by intradermal histamine: a randomised double-blind vehicle controlled intra-subject design trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Michael T

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Itch is a prominent feature of many skin diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis and cutaneous mastocytosis. Sodium cromoglicate (SCG, a chromone developed for the treatment of allergic disease has been shown to reduce the severity of itch when applied topically to subjects with atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether topical sodium cromoglicate can reduce the severity of itch induced by intradermal histamine. Methods SCG was introduced into the skin of healthy volunteers both by iontophoresis and by topical application using a new 4% cutaneous emulsion (Altoderm™. The skin was then challenged with intradermal histamine. Measurements were made of severity of itch, size of wheal and flare and change in blood flux Results SCG significantly reduced the severity of itch (P = 0.0045 and flare (P = 0.0143 when delivered by iontophoresis. SCG 4% cutaneous emulsion significantly reduced severity of itch (P = 0.024 and flare (P = 0.015 in atopic subjects. Trend analysis showed increasing effect on itch with increased concentrations of SCG, which was significant (P = 0.046. There were no effects on wheal or blood flux. Conclusions Topically applied SCG, administered in a new cutaneous emulsion base, significantly reduced the itch and flare caused by intradermal histamine. The effect was greatest in atopic subjects and increased with the concentration of SCG in the emulsion. Trial registration ISRCTN35671014

  2. The effects of topical sodium cromoglicate on itch and flare in human skin induced by intradermal histamine: a randomised double-blind vehicle controlled intra-subject design trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Itch is a prominent feature of many skin diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis and cutaneous mastocytosis. Sodium cromoglicate (SCG), a chromone developed for the treatment of allergic disease has been shown to reduce the severity of itch when applied topically to subjects with atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether topical sodium cromoglicate can reduce the severity of itch induced by intradermal histamine. Methods SCG was introduced into the skin of healthy volunteers both by iontophoresis and by topical application using a new 4% cutaneous emulsion (Altoderm™). The skin was then challenged with intradermal histamine. Measurements were made of severity of itch, size of wheal and flare and change in blood flux Results SCG significantly reduced the severity of itch (P = 0.0045) and flare (P = 0.0143) when delivered by iontophoresis. SCG 4% cutaneous emulsion significantly reduced severity of itch (P = 0.024) and flare (P = 0.015) in atopic subjects. Trend analysis showed increasing effect on itch with increased concentrations of SCG, which was significant (P = 0.046). There were no effects on wheal or blood flux. Conclusions Topically applied SCG, administered in a new cutaneous emulsion base, significantly reduced the itch and flare caused by intradermal histamine. The effect was greatest in atopic subjects and increased with the concentration of SCG in the emulsion. Trial registration ISRCTN35671014 PMID:21385340

  3. Evaluation of the impact of severity of itching symptoms on the level of depression in patients with allergic contact eczema (preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Czarny-Działak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the most frequent skin disorders in the general population as well as among people who work professionally. Allergic contact allergens are simple chemical compounds. The most common are nickel and fragrance substances. Aim of the research : To estimate if and how the degree of itching in allergic contact dermatitis influences the development of depression. Material and methods: The treatment was conducted on a group of 17 people with allergic contact dermatitis. Each person was treated in order to estimate the level of depression using Becks scale and the level of itching. Next, it was estimated if the level of itching had any influence on the development of depression. Results: All skin diseases, including allergic contact eczema affect the biological and psychosocial functioning, and the quality of human. Five patients out of 17 showed features of depression: 3 mild (2 men and 1 woman, which is the most common state of transition, and 2 (women moderately-severe depressive symptoms. Both patients with moderately-severe depressive symptoms had a significant degree of severity of pruritus. Conclusions: It was stated that the level of itching has no influence on the development of depression.

  4. Soothing and anti-itch effect of quercetin phytosome in human subjects: a single-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maramaldi G

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Giada Maramaldi,1 Stefano Togni,1 Ivan Pagin,1 Luca Giacomelli,2 Roberta Cattaneo,3 Roberto Eggenhöffner,2 Samuele E Burastero4 1Indena S.p.A, Milan, 2Department of Surgical Sciences and Integrated Diagnostics, School of Medicine, Genova University, Genoa, 3Abich Srl, Verbania, 4San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, ItalyBackground: We evaluated the ability of quercetin, a natural antioxidant formulated in a specific delivery system, to reduce skin inflammation induced by a variety of stimuli, including UV radiation, stimulation with a histamine solution, or contact with chemical irritants. In particular, we tested the soothing and anti-itch effect of Quercevita®, 1% cream for external use, a formulation characterized by a phospholipids-based delivery system.Patients and methods: The study was a monocentric, single blind trial that enrolled a group of 30 healthy volunteers. The back of each subject was examined to identify four quadrants with no previous skin damage or naevi that were treated in order to induce a controlled and reversible form of skin stress. The areas were treated as follows: no product; Quercevita® 1% cream, 2 mg/cm2; placebo; positive control (a commercially available topical formulation containing 1% dexchlorpheniramine.Results: Only quercetin phospholipids 1% and dexchlorpheniramine 1% achieved a significant reduction in erythema with comparable results: (–10.05% [P=0.00329] for quercetin phospholipids 1% vs –14.05% [P=0.00046] for the positive control. Moreover, quercetin phospholipids 1% and dexchlorpheniramine 1% were both associated with a significant decrease in mean wheal diameter: (–13.25% and –12.23% for dexchlorpheniramine 1%, respectively. Similar findings were reported for the other tested parameters.Conclusion: Quercetin has a skin protective effect against damage caused by a variety of insults, including UV radiation, histamine, or contact with toxic chemical compounds. Indeed, quercetin is able

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life in Chronic Pruritus: An Analysis Related to Disease Etiology, Clinical Skin Conditions and Itch Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlich, Benjamin; Fritz, Fleur; Osada, Nani; Bruland, Philipp; Stumpf, Astrid; Schneider, Gudrun; Dugas, Martin; Pfleiderer, Bettina; Ständer, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown if health-related quality of life (HRQoL) differs between diseases associated with chronic pruritus (CP). To analyze HRQoL in relation to age, gender, skin lesions (primary vs. scratch-induced secondary) and itch intensity. Consecutive patients of our itch clinic were assessed with the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and visual analogue scale (VAS). In 510 CP patients (282 females; median age, 61.4 years), DLQI scores and VAS values were highly correlated, irrespective of the type of skin lesion. Overall, women had a lower HRQoL compared to men (females: 10.7 ± 6.7, males: 8.9 ± 6.7), but female gender was only associated with worse quality of life in patients skin lesion or underlying cause. With limitations to item bias, DLQI is a suitable instrument for estimating quality of life impairment by CP. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Antipruritic Effect of Cold-induced and Transient Receptor Potential-agonist-induced Counter-irritation on Histaminergic Itch in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hjalte H.; Melholt, Camilla; Hilborg, Sigurd D.

    2017-01-01

    A frequent empirical observation is that cold-induced counter-irritation may attenuate itch. The aim of this randomized, single-blinded, exploratory study was to evaluate the counter-irritation effects of cold-stimulation and topical application of transient receptor potential TRPA1/M8-agonists...... and trans-cinnamaldehyde had antipruritic efficacy similar to doxepin (p Cold-induced counter-irritation had an inhibitory effect on histaminergic itch, suggesting that agonists of cold transduction receptors could be of potential antipruritic value....... (measured by laser-speckle perfusion-imaging). Homotopic thermal counter-irritation was performed with 6 temperatures, ranging from 4°C to 37°C, using a 3 × 3-cm thermal stimulator. Chemical “cold-like” counter-irritation was conducted with 40% L-menthol and 10% trans-cinnamaldehyde, while 5% doxepin...

  7. Lithium Suppresses Hedgehog Signaling via Promoting ITCH E3 Ligase Activity and Gli1–SUFU Interaction in PDA Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinshuo Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of Hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway is one of the hallmarks of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA. Lithium, a clinical mood stabilizer for the treatment of mental disorders, is known to suppress tumorigenic potential of PDA cells by targeting the Hh/Gli signaling pathway. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of lithium induced down-regulation of Hh/Gli1. Our data show that lithium promotes the poly-ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of Gli1 through activating E3 ligase ITCH. Additionally, lithium enhances interaction between Gli1 and SUFU via suppressing GSK3β, which phosphorylates SUFU and destabilizes the SUFU-Gli1 inhibitory complex. Our studies illustrate a novel mechanism by which lithium suppresses Hh signaling via simultaneously promoting ITCH-dependent Gli1 ubiquitination/degradation and SUFU-mediated Gli1 inhibition.

  8. IL-33/ST2 signaling excites sensory neurons and mediates itch response in a mouse model of poison ivy contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyi; Tai, Yan; Achanta, Satyanarayana; Kaelberer, Melanie M; Caceres, Ana I; Shao, Xiaomei; Fang, Jianqiao; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2016-11-22

    Poison ivy-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is the most common environmental allergic condition in the United States. Case numbers of poison ivy ACD are increasing due to growing biomass and geographical expansion of poison ivy and increasing content of the allergen, urushiol, likely attributable to rising atmospheric CO 2 Severe and treatment-resistant itch is the major complaint of affected patients. However, because of limited clinical data and poorly characterized models, the pruritic mechanisms in poison ivy ACD remain unknown. Here, we aim to identify the mechanisms of itch in a mouse model of poison ivy ACD by transcriptomics, neuronal imaging, and behavioral analysis. Using transcriptome microarray analysis, we identified IL-33 as a key cytokine up-regulated in the inflamed skin of urushiol-challenged mice. We further found that the IL-33 receptor, ST2, is expressed in small to medium-sized dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, including neurons that innervate the skin. IL-33 induces Ca 2+ influx into a subset of DRG neurons through neuronal ST2. Neutralizing antibodies against IL-33 or ST2 reduced scratching behavior and skin inflammation in urushiol-challenged mice. Injection of IL-33 into urushiol-challenged skin rapidly exacerbated itch-related scratching via ST2, in a histamine-independent manner. Targeted silencing of neuronal ST2 expression by intrathecal ST2 siRNA delivery significantly attenuated pruritic responses caused by urushiol-induced ACD. These results indicate that IL-33/ST2 signaling is functionally present in primary sensory neurons and contributes to pruritus in poison ivy ACD. Blocking IL-33/ST2 signaling may represent a therapeutic approach to ameliorate itch and skin inflammation related to poison ivy ACD.

  9. Validation of the Itch Severity Item as a Measurement Tool for Pruritus in Patients with Psoriasis: Results from a Phase 3 Tofacitinib Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Ständer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor. This post-hoc analysis aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Itch Severity Item (ISI, a numeric rating scale from 0 (no itching to 10 (worst possible itching for pruritus in psoriasis, and review the effect of tofacitinib on pruritus in patients with psoriasis participating in Phase 3 studies (N = 3,641. The ISI showed high test–retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient: 0.84. The clinically important difference was defined as a 1.48-point change, using Patient Global Assessment as an anchor. Mean changes from baseline in ISI scores with tofacitinib were significantly greater than placebo by Day 2 and exceeded the clinically important difference by Week 4 and Week 2 for tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg twice daily, respectively. The sound psychometric properties of the ISI as an assessment tool for pruritus in psoriasis were confirmed. Tofacitinib provided clinically meaningful improvements in psoriatic pruritus versus placebo.

  10. Physiological function of gastrin-releasing peptide and neuromedin B receptors in regulating itch scratching behavior in the spinal cord of mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devki D Sukhtankar

    Full Text Available Pruritus (itch is a severe side effect associated with the use of drugs as well as hepatic and hematological disorders. Previous studies in rodents suggest that bombesin receptor subtypes i.e. receptors for gastrin-releasing peptide (GRPr and neuromedin B (NMBr differentially regulate itch scratching. However, to what degree spinal GRPr and NMBr regulate scratching evoked by intrathecally administered bombesin-related peptides is not known. The first aim of this study was to pharmacologically compare the dose-response curves for scratching induced by intrathecally administered bombesin-related peptides versus morphine, which is known to elicit itch in humans. The second aim was to determine if spinal GRPr and NMBr selectively or generally mediate scratching behavior. Mice received intrathecal injection of bombesin (0.01-0.3 nmol, GRP (0.01-0.3 nmol, NMB (0.1-1 nmol or morphine (0.3-3 nmol and were observed for one hour for scratching activity. Bombesin elicited most profound scratching over one hour followed by GRP and NMB, whereas morphine failed to evoke scratching response indicating the insensitivity of mouse models to intrathecal opioid-induced itch. Intrathecal pretreatment with GRPr antagonist RC-3095 (0.03-0.1 nmol produced a parallel rightward shift in the dose response curve of GRP-induced scratching but not NMB-induced scratching. Similarly, PD168368 (1-3 nmol only attenuated NMB but not GRP-induced scratching. Individual or co-administration of RC-3095 and PD168368 failed to alter bombesin-evoked scratching. A higher dose of RC-3095 (0.3 nmol generally suppressed scratching induced by all three peptides but also compromised motor function in the rotarod test. Together, these data indicate that spinal GRPr and NMBr independently drive itch neurotransmission in mice and may not mediate bombesin-induced scratching. GRPr antagonists at functionally receptor-selective doses only block spinal GRP-elicited scratching but the suppression of

  11. Recent studies of cutaneous nociception in atopic and non-atopic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, G R; Hornstein, O P

    1999-02-01

    Itching reflects a distinct quality of cutaneous nociception elicited by chemical or other stimuli to neuronal receptors at the superficial layers of the skin and muco-cutaneous orifices. Although recent experimental studies of the conduction and perception of itch have yielded deeper insight into the physiology of this sensory quality, little is known about the neuromechanisms involved in pruritus accompanying many inflammatory skin diseases, in particular, in atopic eczema. Previous case-control studies of our research group with patients suffering from atopic eczema (AE) revealed significantly diminished itch perception after iontophoretic application of different doses of histamine as well as substance P (i.c. injected). Further experiments using acetylcholine (ACh, i.c.) clearly demonstrated that ACh elicits pruritus instead of pain in patients with AE. The first part of the present review deals with the results of our most recent case-control studies on histamine-induced itch perception in atopics devoid of eczema as well as in patients with urticaria or psoriasis compared to atopics with or without manifest eczema. We demonstrated that both focal itch and perifocal alloknesis (i.e., itch elicited by a slight mechanical, otherwise non-itching stimulus) were significantly reduced in eczema-free atopics yet were normal in non-atopics suffering from urticaria or psoriasis. In further studies using ACh i.c. injected into the uninvolved skin of patients with AE, lichen ruber, psoriasis, type IV contact eczema, or non-specific nummular eczema (n = 10/each group), all the atopics and 6/10 psoriatics felt itch instead of burning pain, but none of the others did. Different doses of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) i.c. applied to the controls and the atopics with or without eczema did not markedly increase the intensity of nociceptive sensations. However, ACh induced pain in the controls, pure pruritus in the atopics with acute eczema, and a 'mixture' of pain and

  12. What Makes Us Itch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  13. What Makes Us Itch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just for Kids Library School Tools Videos Virtual Allergist Education & Training Careers in ... Support the AAAAI Foundation Donate Utility navigation Español Journals Annual Meeting Member Login / My Membership Search navigation ...

  14. Four-Year Itch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Ohio's decision to let community colleges award four-year degrees is part of a growing national trend. When this article went to press, more than 90 community colleges across 19 states offered active four-year degree programs. Counting New York's Fashion Institute of Technology, which technically is a community college, but offers degrees as high…

  15. Scratch that itch: revisiting links between self-directed behaviour and parasitological, social and environmental factors in a free-ranging primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboscq, Julie; Romano, Valéria; Sueur, Cédric; MacIntosh, Andrew J J

    2016-11-01

    Different hypotheses explain variation in the occurrence of self-directed behaviour such as scratching and self-grooming: a parasite hypothesis linked with ectoparasite load, an environmental hypothesis linked with seasonal conditions and a social hypothesis linked with social factors. These hypotheses are not mutually exclusive but are often considered separately. Here, we revisited these hypotheses together in female Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata fuscata ) of Kōjima islet, Japan. We input occurrences of scratching and self-grooming during focal observations in models combining parasitological (lice load), social (dominance rank, social grooming, aggression received and proximity), and environmental (rainfall, temperature and season) variables. Using an information-theory approach, we simultaneously compared the explanatory value of models against each other using variation in Akaike's information criterion and Akaike's weights. We found that evidence for models with lice load, with or without environmental-social parameters, was stronger than that for other models. In these models, scratching was positively associated with lice load and social grooming whereas self-grooming was negatively associated with lice load and positively associated with social grooming, dominance rank and number of female neighbours. This study indicates that the study animals scratch primarily because of an immune/stimulus itch, possibly triggered by ectoparasite bites/movements. It also confirms that self-grooming could act as a displacement activity in the case of social uncertainty. We advocate that biological hypotheses be more broadly considered even when investigating social processes, as one does not exclude the other.

  16. Effect of systemic clarithromycin and prednisolone on histamine-induced otitis media in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozan, Günay; Aktan, Bülent; Sakat, Muhammed Sedat; Kurt, Sezgin; Öner, Fatih; Kara, Adem

    2015-01-01

    The results of the study showed that clarithromycin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and, when it is combined with prednisolone, those effects gain strength. The present study aims to investigate the effects that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of clarithromycin and/or prednisolone have on experimental otitis media in effusion-induced guinea-pigs. In this study, 35-male guinea pigs were randomly divided into five-groups. For the experimental otitis media, intra-tympanic histamine (0.1 ml) was injected into the guinea pigs in all of the groups except the control group. Then, 24-h after the intra-tympanic injections, clarithromycin (15 mg/kg/day) and/or prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day) were applied intraperitoneally to the guinea-pigs for 7-days. The biochemical analysis showed an increase in antioxidant capacity and a decrease in oxidant status and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the clarithromycin group and the prednisolone group and especially in the clarithromycin+prednisolone group, as compared to the experimental group (p < 0.05). In the cytokine analysis, lower levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-17A and higher IL-10 were found in the clarithromycin, prednisolone, and clarithromycin+prednisolone groups than in the experimental group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the histologic analyses showed histopathologic changes in the middle ear mucosa of the experimental group, but comparatively fewer-histopathologic changes were observed in the clarithromycin, prednisolone, and clarithromycin+prednisolone groups.

  17. Nascent histamine induces α-synuclein and caspase-3 on human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro-Astorga, Joaquín; Fajardo, Ignacio; Ruiz-Pérez, María Victoria; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Urdiales, José Luis, E-mail: jlurdial@uma.es

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Nascent histamine alters cyclin expression pattern. • Nascent histamine increases expression of α-synuclein. • Nascent histamine activates caspase-3. - Abstract: Histamine (Hia) is the most multifunctional biogenic amine. It is synthetized by histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in a reduced set of mammalian cell types. Mast cells and histaminergic neurons store Hia in specialized organelles until the amine is extruded by exocytosis; however, other immune and cancer cells are able to produce but not store Hia. The intracellular effects of Hia are still not well characterized, in spite of its physiopathological relevance. Multiple functional relationships exist among Hia metabolism/signaling elements and those of other biogenic amines, including growth-related polyamines. Previously, we obtained the first insights for an inhibitory effect of newly synthetized Hia on both growth-related polyamine biosynthesis and cell cycle progression of non-fully differentiated mammalian cells. In this work, we describe progress in this line. HEK293 cells were transfected to express active and inactive versions of GFP-human HDC fusion proteins and, after cell sorting by flow cytometry, the relative expression of a large number of proteins associated with cell signaling were measured using an antibody microarray. Experimental results were analyzed in terms of protein–protein and functional interaction networks. Expression of active HDC induced a cell cycle arrest through the alteration of the levels of several proteins such as cyclin D1, cdk6, cdk7 and cyclin A. Regulation of α-synuclein and caspase-3 was also observed. The analyses provide new clues on the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory effects of intracellular newly synthetized Hia on cell proliferation/survival, cell trafficking and protein turnover. This information is especially interesting for emergent and orphan immune and neuroinflammatory diseases.

  18. Histamine induces postprandian tachycardia through a direct effect on cardiac H2-receptors in pythons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nini Skovgaard; Møller, Kate; Gesser, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The intrinsic heart rate of most vertebrates studied, including humans, is elevated during digestion, suggesting that a non-adrenergic-non-cholinergic factor contributes to the postprandial tachycardia. The regulating factor, however, remains elusive and difficult to identify. Pythons can ingest...... very large meals and digestion is associated with a marked rise in metabolism that is sustained for several days. The metabolic rise causes more than a doubling of heart rate and a four-fold rise in cardiac output. This makes the python an interesting model to investigate the postprandial tachycardia....... We measured blood pressure and heart rate in fasting Python regius, and at 24 and 48h after ingestion of a meal amounting to 25% of body weight. Digestion caused heart rate to increase from 25 to 56 min-1 while blood pressure was unchanged. The postprandial rise in heart rate was partially due...

  19. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  20. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  1. Anal itching -- self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 129. Ansari P. Pruritus ani. Clin Colon Rectal Surg . 2016;29(1):38-42. PMID: 26929750 ... Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing ...

  2. The efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream for dry skin and itch relief: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial--study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hyo; Seo, Eun-Sung; Hong, Jin-Tae; Lee, Gang-Tai; You, Young-Kyoung; Lee, Kun-Kook; Jo, Ga-Won; Kim, Nam-Kwen

    2013-11-25

    Moisturisers prevent and treat dry skin. They can also protect sensitive skin, improve skin tone and texture, and mask imperfections. Herbal medicines or their extracts have been available as topical formulations and cosmetics. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) has been used to treat inflammatory disorders and various skin problems. It could be a candidate herbal medicine for treating dry skin condition.This study aims to establish the efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract, which has been approved by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety for use in cosmetics. This study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with two parallel groups (proposed herbal moisturising cream vs. placebo cream). We will recruit 66 healthy male and female participants, aged 20 to 65 years, who have been diagnosed with dry skin conditions. Participants will be randomly allocated to receive either the proposed herbal moisturising cream or a placebo cream for four weeks. Each participant will be examined for signs and symptoms before and after using the cream. Skin hydration, sebum (oily secretion) levels and transepidermal water loss (TEWL; constitutive loss of water from the skin surface) will be assessed. Participants will also be asked to fill out a health-related quality of life questionnaire. Safety will be assessed using blood tests, urine analysis, a pregnancy test, and the assessment of vital signs. This trial will utilise high-quality methodologies in accordance with both consolidated standards for reporting trials guidelines and the guidelines for clinical trials of cosmetics products that are aimed at expressions and advertisement approval in Korea. It will evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract to treat dry skin conditions and provide itch relief. Moreover, we will also employ health-related quality of life

  3. The efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream for dry skin and itch relief: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial- study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Moisturisers prevent and treat dry skin. They can also protect sensitive skin, improve skin tone and texture, and mask imperfections. Herbal medicines or their extracts have been available as topical formulations and cosmetics. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) has been used to treat inflammatory disorders and various skin problems. It could be a candidate herbal medicine for treating dry skin condition. This study aims to establish the efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract, which has been approved by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety for use in cosmetics. Methods/Designs This study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with two parallel groups (proposed herbal moisturising cream vs. placebo cream). We will recruit 66 healthy male and female participants, aged 20 to 65 years, who have been diagnosed with dry skin conditions. Participants will be randomly allocated to receive either the proposed herbal moisturising cream or a placebo cream for four weeks. Each participant will be examined for signs and symptoms before and after using the cream. Skin hydration, sebum (oily secretion) levels and transepidermal water loss (TEWL; constitutive loss of water from the skin surface) will be assessed. Participants will also be asked to fill out a health-related quality of life questionnaire. Safety will be assessed using blood tests, urine analysis, a pregnancy test, and the assessment of vital signs. Discussion This trial will utilise high-quality methodologies in accordance with both consolidated standards for reporting trials guidelines and the guidelines for clinical trials of cosmetics products that are aimed at expressions and advertisement approval in Korea. It will evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract to treat dry skin conditions and provide itch relief. Moreover, we will also employ

  4. Female genital schistosomiasis--a differential diagnosis to sexually transmitted disease: genital itch and vaginal discharge as indicators of genital Schistosoma haematobium morbidity in a cross-sectional study in endemic rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke; Kurewa, Edith Nyaradzai; Ndhlovu, Patricia D; Midzi, Nicholas; Gwanzura, Lovemore; Mason, Peter R; Gomo, Exnevia; Sandvik, Leiv; Mduluza, Takafira; Friis, Henrik; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar

    2008-12-01

    To examine the association between schistosomiasis and reproductive tract symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Schistosoma haematobium-endemic area of rural Zimbabwe. A total of 483 permanently resident adult women of Mupfure Ward aged 20-49 were interviewed and examined clinically, each providing three consecutive urine samples. Logistic regression analysis was used to control for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Women with genital sandy patches had significantly more genital itch (P = 0.009) and perceived their discharge as abnormal (P = 0.003). Eighty percent of the women who had genital itch, yellow discharge, and childhood or current waterbody contact had sandy patches. Fifty-two percent of the women with genital sandy patches did not have detectable S. haematobium ova in urine. Genital schistosomiasis was associated with stress incontinence and pollakisuria, but not with menstrual irregularities, current or previous ulcers, or tumours. Genital schistosomiasis may be a differential diagnosis to the STDs in women who have been exposed to fresh water in endemic areas. Because of the chronic nature of the disease in adults, we suggest to pay special attention to the prevention of morbidity.

  5. Unilateral proptosis revealing a fronto-ethmoidal mucocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajmi, Houda; Hmaied, Wassim; Ben Jalel, Wady; Ben Romdhane, Khaoula; Chelly, Zied; El Fekih, Lamia

    2017-06-01

    Backgroud: The fronto-ethmoidal mucocele is a benign condition leading commonly to limited eye movement or ocular pain but it could also induce visual acuity impairment by compressing the optic nerve Aim: To discuss, through a case report, different ophthalmologic manifestations of the fronto-ethmoidalmucocele. Reported case: A 46-years-old man with no general history consulted for a bilateral ocular redness and itching. He reported, however, a mild protrusion of his left globe evolving for oneyear. The clinical examination revealed a unilateral proptosis in the left eye with a discrete limitation of theadduction. A brain and orbital computer tomography (CT)and a magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)revealed a grade I exophthalmos caused by an oval formation of fluid density in the left anterior and posterior ethmoidal cells in addition to the frontal sinus,driving theeyeball and internal oculomotor muscles back and out.The patient was referred to otorhinolaryngology department for a precocious surgical management. The ophtalmologic manifestations of the disease depend on the location, the size of the formation and involvement of adjacent structures. The loss of vision and the apex syndrome due to the compressionof the ocular globe are the most serious complications.

  6. Endothelial Regulator of Calcineurin 1 Promotes Barrier Integrity and Modulates Histamine-Induced Barrier Dysfunction in Anaphylaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballesteros-Martinez, Constanza; Mendez-Barbero, Nerea; Montalvo-Yuste, Alma

    2017-01-01

    Anaphylaxis, the most serious and life-threatening allergic reaction, produces the release of inflammatory mediators by mast cells and basophils. Regulator of calcineurin 1 (Rcan1) is a negative regulator of mast-cell degranulation. The action of mediators leads to vasodilation and an increase in...

  7. Histamine-induced paradoxical GH response to TRH/GnRH in men and women: dependence on gonadal steroid hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U; Thuesen, B; Dejgaard, A

    1990-01-01

    .025), but not during the early follicular phase of the cycle (GH peak: 1.7 +/- 0.5 vs 1.6 +/- 0.3 micrograms/l). In luteal-phase women the GH response to TRH/GnRH correlated with the serum estradiol-17 beta level (GH area/E2: r = 0.98; p less than 0.005) and the serum estrone level (GH area/E1: r = 0.81; p less than 0...

  8. Airlines itching to shuttle tourists to islands

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Soome ja Rootsi lennufirmad alustavad suvel lende Helsingist ja Stockholmist Kuressaarde. Saaremaa Laevakompanii Ventspilsi laevaliin hakkab plaanitud Mõntu sadama asemel väljuma Roomassaare sadamast

  9. Untangling the Source of Ouch and Itch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from a complicated process involving many types of neurotransmitters, chemicals that transfer nerve signals to the brain, ... Human Services National Institutes of Health: NIH...Turning Discovery Into Health ® USA.gov National Institute of General ...

  10. Tinea Infections (Ringworm, Athlete's Foot, Jock Itch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... using a special blue light called a Wood’s lamp, it will have a fluorescent appearance. Not all ... Give your youngster clean socks and underwear every day. Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Immunizations & Infectious ...

  11. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...

  12. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  13. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  14. Android Emotions Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a method for designing facial interfaces for sociable android robots with respect to the fundamental rules of human affect expression. Extending the work of Paul Ekman towards a robotic direction, we follow the judgment-based approach for evaluating facial expressions to test...... findings are based on the results derived from a number of judgments, and suggest that before programming the facial expressions of a Geminoid, the Original should pass through the proposed procedure. According to our recommendations, the facial expressions of an android should be tested by judges, even...... in which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...

  15. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in

  16. Histamine Induces Alzheimer’s Disease-Like Blood Brain Barrier Breach and Local Cellular Responses in Mouse Brain Organotypic Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C. Sedeyn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the top ten causes of death in the United States, Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the only one that cannot be cured, prevented, or even slowed down at present. Significant efforts have been exerted in generating model systems to delineate the mechanism as well as establishing platforms for drug screening. In this study, a promising candidate model utilizing primary mouse brain organotypic (MBO cultures is reported. For the first time, we have demonstrated that the MBO cultures exhibit increased blood brain barrier (BBB permeability as shown by IgG leakage into the brain parenchyma, astrocyte activation as evidenced by increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, and neuronal damage-response as suggested by increased vimentin-positive neurons occur upon histamine treatment. Identical responses—a breakdown of the BBB, astrocyte activation, and neuronal expression of vimentin—were then demonstrated in brains from AD patients compared to age-matched controls, consistent with other reports. Thus, the histamine-treated MBO culture system may provide a valuable tool in combating AD.

  17. A double-blind, randomized clinical study to determine the efficacy of benzocaine 10% on histamine-induced pruritus and UVB-light induced slight sunburn pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Martin; Schwameis, Richard; Scherzer, Thomas; Lang-Zwosta, Isabelle; Nishino, Kanako; Zeitlinger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the efficacy of the topical application of 10% benzocaine for treating pruritus and pain as compared to vehicle ointment. Twenty male subjects were treated in a randomized double-blind fashion with the investigational medicinal product (IMPD) and vehicle. Immediately after the injection of 100 µg histamine on both arms, subjects received topical treatment and pruritus was subsequently assessed with visual analogue scale (VASpruritus) and Eppendorfer questionnaire. Ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) was administered on the back to induce slight sunburn. Twelve hours after UVB application again the IMPD was applied on the right or left upper back and vehicle on the other side and pain related to sunburn was measured with VASpain and pressure algometry. A trend towards better reduction of pruritus was shown for benzocaine in VASpruritus. For the VASpain significant differences in group comparison (p = 0.02) were observed. Algometer measurements showed onset of pain reduction in the verum group after 20 min whereas in the vehicle-treated area pain relief occurred only after 60 min after application. The topically administered ointment containing 10% benzocaine was found superior over vehicle for treating pain, but not pruritus.

  18. Effect of membrane hyperpolarization induced by a K+ channel opener on histamine-induced Ca2+ mobilization in rabbit arterial smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Y; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, H; Itoh, T

    1996-03-01

    1. The role of membrane hyperpolarization on agonist-induced contraction was investigated in intact and alpha-toxin-skinned smooth muscles of rabbit mesenteric artery by use of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel opener, (-)-(3S,4R)-4-(N-acetyl-N-hydroxyamino)-6-cyano-3,4-dihydro-2,2- dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-3-ol (Y-26763), and either histamine (Hist) or noradrenaline (NA). 2. Hist (3 microM) and NA (10 microM) both produced a phasic, followed by a tonic increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and force. Y-26763 (10 microM) potently inhibited the NA-induced phasic and tonic increase in [Ca2+]i and force. In contrast, Y-26763 attenuated the Hist-induced phasic increase in [Ca2+]i and force but had almost no effect on the tonic response. However, ryanodine-treatment of muscles in order to inhibit the function of intracellular Ca2+ storage sites altered the action of Y-26763 which now attenuated the Hist-induced tonic increase in [Ca2+]i and force in a concentration-dependent manner (at concentrations > 1 microM). Glibenclamide (10 microM) attenuated the inhibitory action of Y-26763. 3. Hist (3 microM) depolarized the smooth muscle cells to the same extent as NA (10 microM). In the absence of either agonist, Y-26763 (over 30 nM) hyperpolarized the membrane and glibenclamide inhibited this hyperpolarization. Y-26763 (10 microM) almost abolished the NA-induced membrane depolarization, but only slightly attenuated the Hist-induced membrane depolarization in which the delta (delta) value (the difference before and after application of Hist) was not modified by any concentration of Y-26763. In ryanodine-treated smooth muscle cells, Y-26763 hyperpolarized the membrane and potently inhibited the membrane depolarization induced by Hist. 4. In ryanodine-treated muscle, Y-26763 had no measurable effect on the Hist-induced [Ca2+]i-force relationship. Y-26763 also had no apparent effect on the myofilament Ca(2+)-sensitivity in the presence of Hist in alpha-toxin-skinned smooth muscles. 5. It is concluded that the membrane hyperpolarization induced by Y-26763 may not be enough to inhibit the Hist-activated Ca2+ influx. It is also suggested that Hist prevents the membrane hyperpolarization induced by Y-26763, activating an unknown mechanism which is thought to depend on the function of intracellular Ca2+ storage sites.

  19. The clinical effects observation of He-Ne laser combined with dryness itching capsules for treating herpes zoster%氦氖激光联合润燥止痒胶囊治疗带状疱疹的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂丽; 单玉珍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effects of He-Ne laser combined with dryness itching capsules for treating herpes zoster.Methods 140 patients with herpes zoster based on the random lottery principle were equally divided into the treatment group of 70 patients and 70 patients in the control group.140 patients were given the acyclovir oral and helium-neon laser therapy,on the basis of these,the treatment group were added treated with oral dryness itching capsules therapy.Results The response rate was 98.6% in the treatment group and 90.0% in the control group.The response rate of the treatment group was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of the control group.The pain scores before treatment was not statistically significant between the two groups while the pain scores of the treatment group after treatment were significantly lower than the control group (P < 0.05).The analgesic immediately onset time,crusting time and pain began to ease time of the treatment group were significantly less than the control group (P < 0.05).Followed-up eight weeks after treatment,the recurrence rate in the treatment group was 4.3% and 20.0% in the control group,the recurrence rate in the treatment group was significantly lower than the control group (P < 0.05).Conclusions He-Ne laser combined with itching dryness capsule in the treatment of herpes zoster can effectively relieve pain,improve clinical symptoms,thus improve the overall efficacy and recurrence rate that should be widely applied.%目的 探讨氦氖激光联合润燥止痒胶囊治疗带状疱疹的临床疗效.方法 根据随机抽签原则,将带状疱疹患者140例分为治疗组70例与对照组70例,两组都选择阿昔洛韦口服与氦氖激光治疗,治疗组在此基础上加用口服润燥止痒胶囊治疗,都治疗14天.结果 治疗组的有效率为98.6%,对照组的有效率为90.0%,治疗组的有效率经明显高于对照组(P<0.05).两组治疗前的疼痛评分对比

  20. Revealed preference with limited consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.; Seel, C.

    2014-01-01

    We derive revealed preference tests for models where individuals use consideration sets to simplify their consumption problem. Our basic test provides necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of observed choices with the existence of consideration set restrictions. The same conditions can

  1. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  2. Transparency masters for mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Transparency Masters for Mathematics Revealed focuses on master diagrams that can be used for transparencies for an overhead projector or duplicator masters for worksheets. The book offers information on a compilation of master diagrams prepared by John R. Stafford, Jr., audiovisual supervisor at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. Some of the transparencies are designed to be shown horizontally. The initial three masters are number lines and grids that can be used in a mathematics course, while the others are adaptations of text figures which are slightly altered in some instances. The

  3. C-terminal of human histamine H1 receptors regulates their agonist-induced clathrin-mediated internalization and G-protein signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishinuma, Shigeru; Nozawa, Hiroki; Akatsu, Chizuru; Shoji, Masaru

    2016-11-01

    It has been suggested that the agonist-induced internalization of G-protein-coupled receptors from the cell surface into intracellular compartments regulates cellular responsiveness. We previously reported that G q/11 -protein-coupled human histamine H 1 receptors internalized via clathrin-dependent mechanisms upon stimulation with histamine. However, the molecular determinants of H 1 receptors responsible for agonist-induced internalization remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the roles of the intracellular C-terminal of human histamine H 1 receptors tagged with hemagglutinin (HA) at the N-terminal in histamine-induced internalization in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The histamine-induced internalization was evaluated by the receptor binding assay with [ 3 H]mepyramine and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy with an anti-HA antibody. We found that histamine-induced internalization was inhibited under hypertonic conditions or by pitstop, a clathrin terminal domain inhibitor, but not by filipin or nystatin, disruptors of the caveolar structure and function. The histamine-induced internalization was also inhibited by truncation of a single amino acid, Ser487, located at the end of the intracellular C-terminal of H 1 receptors, but not by its mutation to alanine. In contrast, the receptor-G-protein coupling, which was evaluated by histamine-induced accumulation of [ 3 H]inositol phosphates, was potentiated by truncation of Ser487, but was lost by its mutation to alanine. These results suggest that the intracellular C-terminal of human H 1 receptors, which only comprises 17 amino acids (Cys471-Ser487), plays crucial roles in both clathrin-dependent internalization of H 1 receptors and G-protein signaling, in which truncation of Ser487 and its mutation to alanine are revealed to result in biased signaling toward activation of G-proteins and clathrin-mediated internalization, respectively. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  4. Communication Games Reveal Preparation Contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameedi, Alley; Tavakoli, Armin; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    A communication game consists of distributed parties attempting to jointly complete a task with restricted communication. Such games are useful tools for studying limitations of physical theories. A theory exhibits preparation contextuality whenever its predictions cannot be explained by a preparation noncontextual model. Here, we show that communication games performed in operational theories reveal the preparation contextuality of that theory. For statistics obtained in a particular family of communication games, we show a direct correspondence with correlations in spacelike separated events obeying the no-signaling principle. Using this, we prove that all mixed quantum states of any finite dimension are preparation contextual. We report on an experimental realization of a communication game involving three-level quantum systems from which we observe a strong violation of the constraints of preparation noncontextuality.

  5. The chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity of plutonium chemistry was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were aqueous solution based, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, it was found that an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element will be reported

  6. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  7. Hubble Images Reveal Jupiter's Auroras

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    These images, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal changes in Jupiter's auroral emissions and how small auroral spots just outside the emission rings are linked to the planet's volcanic moon, Io. The images represent the most sensitive and sharply-detailed views ever taken of Jovian auroras.The top panel pinpoints the effects of emissions from Io, which is about the size of Earth's moon. The black-and-white image on the left, taken in visible light, shows how Io and Jupiter are linked by an invisible electrical current of charged particles called a 'flux tube.' The particles - ejected from Io (the bright spot on Jupiter's right) by volcanic eruptions - flow along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which thread through Io, to the planet's north and south magnetic poles. This image also shows the belts of clouds surrounding Jupiter as well as the Great Red Spot.The black-and-white image on the right, taken in ultraviolet light about 15 minutes later, shows Jupiter's auroral emissions at the north and south poles. Just outside these emissions are the auroral spots. Called 'footprints,' the spots are created when the particles in Io's 'flux tube' reach Jupiter's upper atmosphere and interact with hydrogen gas, making it fluoresce. In this image, Io is not observable because it is faint in the ultraviolet.The two ultraviolet images at the bottom of the picture show how the auroral emissions change in brightness and structure as Jupiter rotates. These false-color images also reveal how the magnetic field is offset from Jupiter's spin axis by 10 to 15 degrees. In the right image, the north auroral emission is rising over the left limb; the south auroral oval is beginning to set. The image on the left, obtained on a different date, shows a full view of the north aurora, with a strong emission inside the main auroral oval.The images were taken by the telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 between May 1994 and September 1995.This image and other images and data

  8. Skin diseases: prevalence and predictors of itch and disease severity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, E.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic skin diseases are known to be common among the general population. Nevertheless, little research attention has been paid to patients with skin diseases in the general population, and consequently, little is known about the impact of skin diseases on daily life within this population. General

  9. Skin diseases: prevalence and predictors of itch and disease severity.

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoeven, E.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic skin diseases are known to be common among the general population. Nevertheless, little research attention has been paid to patients with skin diseases in the general population, and consequently, little is known about the impact of skin diseases on daily life within this population. General definitions of health encompass different dimensions of disease outcome divided in disease severity, accompanying physical symptoms, and psychosocial well-being. These dimensions of disease outcom...

  10. Placebo and nocebo effects in itch and pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.W.M.; Bartels, D.J.P.; Laarhoven, A.I.M. van

    2014-01-01

    Physical complaints, such as pain, can be effectively altered by placebo and nocebo effects due to induction of positive or negative expectations. While verbal suggestion and conditioning are recognized as playing a key role in placebo and nocebo effects on pain, these mechanisms have barely been

  11. Profilaxia do prurido causado pela administração subaracnóidea de sufentanil: efeitos do droperidol, da nalbufina, do ondansetron e da combinação deles Profilaxis del prurito inducido por la administración subaracnoidea de sufentanil: influencia do droperidol, da nalbufina, do ondansetron y da combinacion de elles Prevention of itching after spinal sufentanil: effects of droperidol, nalbuphine, ondansetron and the association of them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Kolm

    2006-02-01

    ; droperidol 2,5 mg (grupo D; nalbufina 10 mg (grupo N; asociación de los medicamentos anteriores (grupo DN y ondansetron 8 mg (grupo O. El prurito fue evaluado en forma cuantitativa 30 minutos, 1, 2 y 3 horas después de la administración subaracnoidea de sufentanil. RESULTADOS: Los grupos C y O presentaron incidencia de prurito significativamente mayor comparados con los grupos D, N y DN. No obstante, no hubo diferencia entre los grupos en relación al uso de naloxona como tratamiento específico. CONCLUSIONES: El tratamiento preventivo del prurito usado en este estudio, independiente del fármaco empleado, disminuyó la intensidad y limitó la necesidad de tratamiento con naloxona.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Spinal opioids may cause some undesirable effects, the most frequent of which is itching. In spite of its low morbidity rate, itching may cause severe discomfort to patients in addition to prolonging hospital stay. This study aimed at evaluating different therapeutic options to prevent itching after spinal sufentanil. METHODS: Participated in these study 100 patients scheduled for non-obstetric procedures, who were randomly distributed in five groups: control (no treatment - C; 2.5 mg droperidol (D; 10 mg nalbuphine (N; association of previous drugs (DN; and 8 mg ondansetron (O. Pruritus was quantitatively evaluated at 30 minutes, 1, 2 and 3 hours after spinal sufentanil. RESULTS: Groups C and O had significantly higher incidence of itching as compared to groups D, N and DN. However, there has been no significant difference in the need for specific treatment with naloxone among groups. CONCLUSIONS: Itching prevention in our study, regardless of the drug used, has decreased its severity and has limited the need for specific treatment with naloxone.

  12. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  13. Revealing conceptual understanding of international business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sue Ashley; Dr. Harmen Schaap; Prof.Dr. Elly de Bruijn

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students’ conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual

  14. Puerto Rico Revealed Preference Survey Data 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. Revealed preference data is...

  15. Associations between sexual habits, menstrual hygiene practices, demographics and the vaginal microbiome as revealed by Bayesian network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Noelle; Cho, Kyu-Chul; Ravel, Jacques; Forney, Larry J; Abdo, Zaid

    2018-01-01

    The vaginal microbiome plays an influential role in several disease states in reproductive age women, including bacterial vaginosis (BV). While demographic characteristics are associated with differences in vaginal microbiome community structure, little is known about the influence of sexual and hygiene habits. Furthermore, associations between the vaginal microbiome and risk symptoms of bacterial vaginosis have not been fully elucidated. Using Bayesian network (BN) analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence results, demographic and extensive questionnaire data, we describe both novel and previously documented associations between habits of women and their vaginal microbiome. The BN analysis approach shows promise in uncovering complex associations between disparate data types. Our findings based on this approach support published associations between specific microbiome members (e.g., Eggerthella, Gardnerella, Dialister, Sneathia and Ruminococcaceae), the Nugent score (a BV diagnostic) and vaginal pH (a risk symptom of BV). Additionally, we found that several microbiome members were directly connected to other risk symptoms of BV (such as vaginal discharge, odor, itch, irritation, and yeast infection) including L. jensenii, Corynebacteria, and Proteobacteria. No direct connections were found between the Nugent Score and risk symptoms of BV other than pH, indicating that the Nugent Score may not be the most useful criteria for assessment of clinical BV. We also found that demographics (i.e., age, ethnicity, previous pregnancy) were associated with the presence/absence of specific vaginal microbes. The resulting BN revealed several as-yet undocumented associations between birth control usage, menstrual hygiene practices and specific microbiome members. Many of these complex relationships were not identified using common analytical methods, i.e., ordination and PERMANOVA. While these associations require confirmatory follow-up study, our findings strongly suggest that future

  16. Associations between sexual habits, menstrual hygiene practices, demographics and the vaginal microbiome as revealed by Bayesian network analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle Noyes

    Full Text Available The vaginal microbiome plays an influential role in several disease states in reproductive age women, including bacterial vaginosis (BV. While demographic characteristics are associated with differences in vaginal microbiome community structure, little is known about the influence of sexual and hygiene habits. Furthermore, associations between the vaginal microbiome and risk symptoms of bacterial vaginosis have not been fully elucidated. Using Bayesian network (BN analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence results, demographic and extensive questionnaire data, we describe both novel and previously documented associations between habits of women and their vaginal microbiome. The BN analysis approach shows promise in uncovering complex associations between disparate data types. Our findings based on this approach support published associations between specific microbiome members (e.g., Eggerthella, Gardnerella, Dialister, Sneathia and Ruminococcaceae, the Nugent score (a BV diagnostic and vaginal pH (a risk symptom of BV. Additionally, we found that several microbiome members were directly connected to other risk symptoms of BV (such as vaginal discharge, odor, itch, irritation, and yeast infection including L. jensenii, Corynebacteria, and Proteobacteria. No direct connections were found between the Nugent Score and risk symptoms of BV other than pH, indicating that the Nugent Score may not be the most useful criteria for assessment of clinical BV. We also found that demographics (i.e., age, ethnicity, previous pregnancy were associated with the presence/absence of specific vaginal microbes. The resulting BN revealed several as-yet undocumented associations between birth control usage, menstrual hygiene practices and specific microbiome members. Many of these complex relationships were not identified using common analytical methods, i.e., ordination and PERMANOVA. While these associations require confirmatory follow-up study, our findings strongly

  17. Associations between sexual habits, menstrual hygiene practices, demographics and the vaginal microbiome as revealed by Bayesian network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Noelle; Cho, Kyu-Chul; Ravel, Jacques; Forney, Larry J.

    2018-01-01

    The vaginal microbiome plays an influential role in several disease states in reproductive age women, including bacterial vaginosis (BV). While demographic characteristics are associated with differences in vaginal microbiome community structure, little is known about the influence of sexual and hygiene habits. Furthermore, associations between the vaginal microbiome and risk symptoms of bacterial vaginosis have not been fully elucidated. Using Bayesian network (BN) analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence results, demographic and extensive questionnaire data, we describe both novel and previously documented associations between habits of women and their vaginal microbiome. The BN analysis approach shows promise in uncovering complex associations between disparate data types. Our findings based on this approach support published associations between specific microbiome members (e.g., Eggerthella, Gardnerella, Dialister, Sneathia and Ruminococcaceae), the Nugent score (a BV diagnostic) and vaginal pH (a risk symptom of BV). Additionally, we found that several microbiome members were directly connected to other risk symptoms of BV (such as vaginal discharge, odor, itch, irritation, and yeast infection) including L. jensenii, Corynebacteria, and Proteobacteria. No direct connections were found between the Nugent Score and risk symptoms of BV other than pH, indicating that the Nugent Score may not be the most useful criteria for assessment of clinical BV. We also found that demographics (i.e., age, ethnicity, previous pregnancy) were associated with the presence/absence of specific vaginal microbes. The resulting BN revealed several as-yet undocumented associations between birth control usage, menstrual hygiene practices and specific microbiome members. Many of these complex relationships were not identified using common analytical methods, i.e., ordination and PERMANOVA. While these associations require confirmatory follow-up study, our findings strongly suggest that future

  18. The 'revealed preferences' theory: Assumptions and conjectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, C.H.

    1983-01-01

    Being kind of intuitive psychology the 'Revealed-Preferences'- theory based approaches towards determining the acceptable risks are a useful method for the generation of hypotheses. In view of the fact that reliability engineering develops faster than methods for the determination of reliability aims the Revealed-Preferences approach is a necessary preliminary help. Some of the assumptions on which the 'Revealed-Preferences' theory is based will be identified and analysed and afterwards compared with experimentally obtained results. (orig./DG) [de

  19. Revealing Conceptual Understanding of International Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Sue; Schaap, Harmen; de Bruijn, Elly

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students' conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual understanding in higher education. Essays and concept…

  20. REVEAL: Software Documentation and Platform Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Veibell, Victoir T.; Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2008-01-01

    The Research Environment for Vehicle Embedded Analysis on Linux (REVEAL) is reconfigurable data acquisition software designed for network-distributed test and measurement applications. In development since 2001, it has been successfully demonstrated in support of a number of actual missions within NASA s Suborbital Science Program. Improvements to software configuration control were needed to properly support both an ongoing transition to operational status and continued evolution of REVEAL capabilities. For this reason the project described in this report targets REVEAL software source documentation and deployment of the software on a small set of hardware platforms different from what is currently used in the baseline system implementation. This report specifically describes the actions taken over a ten week period by two undergraduate student interns and serves as a final report for that internship. The topics discussed include: the documentation of REVEAL source code; the migration of REVEAL to other platforms; and an end-to-end field test that successfully validates the efforts.

  1. REVEAL: Software Documentation and Platform Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Veibell, Victoir T.

    2011-01-01

    The Research Environment for Vehicle Embedded Analysis on Linux (REVEAL) is reconfigurable data acquisition software designed for network-distributed test and measurement applications. In development since 2001, it has been successfully demonstrated in support of a number of actual missions within NASA's Suborbital Science Program. Improvements to software configuration control were needed to properly support both an ongoing transition to operational status and continued evolution of REVEAL capabilities. For this reason the project described in this report targets REVEAL software source documentation and deployment of the software on a small set of hardware platforms different from what is currently used in the baseline system implementation. This presentation specifically describes the actions taken over a ten week period by two undergraduate student interns and serves as an overview of the content of the final report for that internship.

  2. Omics strategies for revealing Yersinia pestis virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruifu; Du, Zongmin; Han, Yanping; Zhou, Lei; Song, Yajun; Zhou, Dongsheng; Cui, Yujun

    2012-01-01

    Omics has remarkably changed the way we investigate and understand life. Omics differs from traditional hypothesis-driven research because it is a discovery-driven approach. Mass datasets produced from omics-based studies require experts from different fields to reveal the salient features behind these data. In this review, we summarize omics-driven studies to reveal the virulence features of Yersinia pestis through genomics, trascriptomics, proteomics, interactomics, etc. These studies serve as foundations for further hypothesis-driven research and help us gain insight into Y. pestis pathogenesis. PMID:23248778

  3. Revealed Preference Theory, Rationality, and Neoclassical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revealed Preference Theory (Samuelson 1938) is an attempt to establish economic theory as a genuine empirical science by ridding it of nonempirical psychological concepts. Samuelson's goal was to rid economic theory of the last vestiges of utility analysis. Samuelson structured his theory on a set of preference axioms ...

  4. [Mastitis revealing Churg-Strauss syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannepond, C; Le Fourn, E; de Muret, A; Ouldamer, L; Carmier, D; Machet, L

    2014-01-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome often involves the skin, and this may sometimes reveal the disease. A 25-year-old woman was referred to a gynaecologist for inflammation of the right breast with breast discharge. Cytological analysis of the liquid showed numerous inflammatory cells, particularly polymorphonuclear eosinophils and neutrophils. Ultrasound examination of the breast was consistent with galactophoritis. CRP was normal, and hypereosinophilia was seen. The patient was subsequently referred to a dermatology unit. Skin examination revealed inflammation of the entire breast, which was painful, warm and erythematous; the border was oedematous with blisters. Necrotic lesions were also present on the thumbs and knees. Skin biopsy of the breast showed a dermal infiltrate with abundant infiltrate of polymorphonuclear eosinophils, including patchy necrosis and intraepidermal vesicles. Histological examination of a biopsy sample from a thumb revealed eosinophilic granuloma and leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The patient was also presenting asthma, pulmonary infiltrates and mononeuropathy at L3, consistent with Churg-Strauss syndrome. Breast involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome is very rare (only one other case has been reported). This is the first case in which the breast condition revealed the disease. Cutaneous involvement of the breast is, however, also compatible with Wells' cellulitis. The lesions quickly disappeared with 1mg/kg/d oral prednisolone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Revealed preference tests for collective household behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; de Rock, B.; Vermeulen, F.M.P.; Verriest, E.; Molina, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter contains a state of the art of revealed preference tests for consistency of observed household behavior with Pareto efficiency. These tests are entirely nonparametric, since they do not require any assumptions regarding the parametric form of individual preferences or the intrahousehold

  6. Reveal quantum correlation in complementary bases

    OpenAIRE

    Shengjun Wu; Zhihao Ma; Zhihua Chen; Sixia Yu

    2014-01-01

    An essential feature of genuine quantum correlation is the simultaneous existence of correlation in complementary bases. We reveal this feature of quantum correlation by defining measures based on invariance under a basis change. For a bipartite quantum state, the classical correlation is the maximal correlation present in a certain optimum basis, while the quantum correlation is characterized as a series of residual correlations in the mutually unbiased bases. Compared with other approaches ...

  7. Mediastinal Mature Teratoma Revealed by Empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Raoufi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratomas are germ cell tumors, manifested with a great variety of clinical features; the most common extragonadal site is the anterior mediastinum. In this case, we report the patient with a large mature mediastinal teratoma with several components of ectodermal and endothermal epithelium. A 24-year-old female patient presented with history of persistent chest pain and progressively aggravating dyspnea for the previous 3 months. A chest X-ray showed a large opacity of the entire left hemithorax. Transcutaneous needle aspiration revealed a purulent fluid. The tube thoracostomy was introduced and the effusion was evacuated. Some weeks later, patient was seen in emergency for persistent cough and lateral chest pain. CT scan revealed a mass of the left hemithorax. The mass showed heterogeneous density, without compressing mediastinum great vessels and left hilar structures. Lipase value was elevated in needle aspiration. The patient underwent a total resection of the mediastinum mass via a left posterolateral thoracotomy. Microscopy revealed a mature teratoma with cystic structures. The patient subsequently made a full recovery. This case provide benign mediastinal teratoma with total atelectasis of left lung and elevated lipase value in needle transcutaneous aspiration; this event is explained by pancreatic component in the cystic tumor. Total removal of the tumor is adequate treatment for this type of teratoma and the prognosis is excellent.

  8. Midface swelling reveals nasofrontal dermal sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houneida, Zaghouani Ben Alaya; Manel, Limeme; Latifa, Harzallah; Habib, Amara; Dejla, Bakir; Chekib, Kraiem

    2012-01-01

    Nasofrontal dermal sinuses are very rare and generally occur in children. This congenital malformation can be revealed by midface swelling, which can be complicated by local infection or neuromeningitis. Such complications make the dermal sinus a life-threatening disease. Two cases of nasofrontal dermal sinuses are reported in this work. The first case is an 11-month-old girl who presented with left orbitonasal soft tissue swelling accompanied by inflammation. Physical examination found fever, left orbitonasal thickening, and a puncture hole letting out pus. Computed tomography revealed microabscesses located at the left orbitonasal soft tissues, a frontal bone defect, and an intracranial cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the transosseous tract between the glabella and the brain and affirmed the epidermoid nature of the intracranial cyst. The second case is a 7-year-old girl who presented with a nasofrontal non-progressive mass that intermittently secreted a yellow liquid through an external orifice located at the glabella. MRI revealed a cystic mass located in the deep layer of the glabellar skin related to an epidermoid cyst with a nasofrontal dermal sinus tract. In both cases, surgical excision was performed, and pathological confirmation was made for the diagnoses of dermal sinuses. The postoperative course was favorable. Through these cases, the authors stress the role of imaging methods in confirming the diagnosis and looking for associated cysts (dermoid and epidermoid) to improve recognition of this rare disease. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentations, imaging manifestations, and most common sites of occurrence of this malformation are needed to formulate a differential diagnosis.

  9. Structures of Astromaterials Revealed by EBSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M.

    2018-01-01

    Groups at the Johnson Space Center and the University of Tokyo have been using electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) to reveal the crystal structures of extraterrestrial minerals for many years. Even though we also routinely use transmission electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD), and conventional electron diffraction, we find that EBSD is the most powerful technique for crystal structure elucidation in many instances. In this talk I describe a few of the cases where we have found EBSD to provide crucial, unique information. See attachment.

  10. [Encopresis revealing myotonic dystrophy in 2 children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avez-Couturier, J; Michaud, L; Cuisset, J-M; Lamblin, M-D; Dolhem, P; Turck, D; Vallée, L; Gottrand, F

    2009-05-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are very frequent in myotonic dystrophy but largely unrecognized. They can be the revealing factors of the disease. We report 2 cases of 10 and 17-year-old children with persistent encopresis starting at the age of 3 and 5 years in spite of laxative treatment. Neurological examination and anorectal manometry provided the diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy. Procainamide treatment was introduced and the digestive symptoms improved. Any child with encopresis should have complete evaluation to rule out the diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy and physicians should look for upper and/or lower gastrointestinal symptoms in every patient with myotonic dystrophy.

  11. Transcriptome classification reveals molecular subtypes in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainali Chrysanthi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psoriasis is an immune-mediated disease characterised by chronically elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, leading to aberrant keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Although certain clinical phenotypes, such as plaque psoriasis, are well defined, it is currently unclear whether there are molecular subtypes that might impact on prognosis or treatment outcomes. Results We present a pipeline for patient stratification through a comprehensive analysis of gene expression in paired lesional and non-lesional psoriatic tissue samples, compared with controls, to establish differences in RNA expression patterns across all tissue types. Ensembles of decision tree predictors were employed to cluster psoriatic samples on the basis of gene expression patterns and reveal gene expression signatures that best discriminate molecular disease subtypes. This multi-stage procedure was applied to several published psoriasis studies and a comparison of gene expression patterns across datasets was performed. Conclusion Overall, classification of psoriasis gene expression patterns revealed distinct molecular sub-groups within the clinical phenotype of plaque psoriasis. Enrichment for TGFb and ErbB signaling pathways, noted in one of the two psoriasis subgroups, suggested that this group may be more amenable to therapies targeting these pathways. Our study highlights the potential biological relevance of using ensemble decision tree predictors to determine molecular disease subtypes, in what may initially appear to be a homogenous clinical group. The R code used in this paper is available upon request.

  12. [Severe pulmonary embolism revealed by status epilepticus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allou, N; Coolen-Allou, N; Delmas, B; Cordier, C; Allyn, J

    2016-12-01

    High-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with high mortality rate (>50%). In some cases, diagnosis of PE remains a challenge with atypical presentations like in this case report with a PE revealed by status epilepticus. We report the case of a 40-year-old man without prior disease, hospitalized in ICU for status epilepticus. All paraclinical examinations at admission did not show any significant abnormalities (laboratory tests, cardiologic and neurological investigations). On day 1, he presented a sudden circulatory collapse and echocardiography showed right intra-auricular thrombus. He was treated by thrombolysis and arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After stabilization, computed tomography showed severe bilateral PE. He developed multi-organ failure and died 4days after admission. Pulmonary embolism revealed by status epilepticus has rarely been reported and is associated with poor prognosis. Physicians should be aware and think of the possibility of PE in patients with status epilepticus without any history or risk factors of seizure and normal neurological investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. [Localized purpura revealing vascular prosthetic graft infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boureau, A S; Lescalie, F; Cassagnau, E; Clairand, R; Connault, J

    2013-07-01

    Prosthetic graft infection after vascular reconstruction is a rare but serious complication. We report a case of infection occurring late after implantation of an iliofemoral prosthetic vascular graft. The Staphylococcus aureus infection was revealed by vascular purpura localized on the right leg 7 years after implantation of a vascular prosthesis. This case illustrates an uncommonly late clinical manifestation presenting as an acute infection 7 years after the primary operation. In this situation, the presentation differs from early infection, which generally occurs within the first four postoperative months. Diagnosis and treatment remain a difficult challenge because prosthetic graft infection is a potentially life-threatening complication. Morbidity and mortality rates are high. Here we detail specific aspects of the clinical and radiological presentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Chain networking revealed by molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yexin; Tsige, Mesfin; Wang, Shi-Qing

    Based on Kremer-Grest model for entangled polymer melts, we demonstrate how the response of a polymer glass depends critically on the chain length. After quenching two melts of very different chain lengths (350 beads per chain and 30 beads per chain) into deeply glassy states, we subject them to uniaxial extension. Our MD simulations show that the glass of long chains undergoes stable necking after yielding whereas the system of short chains is unable to neck and breaks up after strain localization. During ductile extension of the polymer glass made of long chain significant chain tension builds up in the load-bearing strands (LBSs). Further analysis is expected to reveal evidence of activation of the primary structure during post-yield extension. These results lend support to the recent molecular model 1 and are the simulations to demonstrate the role of chain networking. This work is supported, in part, by a NSF Grant (DMR-EAGER-1444859)

  15. Social patterns revealed through random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Camellia; Jalan, Sarika

    2014-11-01

    Despite the tremendous advancements in the field of network theory, very few studies have taken weights in the interactions into consideration that emerge naturally in all real-world systems. Using random matrix analysis of a weighted social network, we demonstrate the profound impact of weights in interactions on emerging structural properties. The analysis reveals that randomness existing in particular time frame affects the decisions of individuals rendering them more freedom of choice in situations of financial security. While the structural organization of networks remains the same throughout all datasets, random matrix theory provides insight into the interaction pattern of individuals of the society in situations of crisis. It has also been contemplated that individual accountability in terms of weighted interactions remains as a key to success unless segregation of tasks comes into play.

  16. Neutron Imaging Reveals Internal Plant Hydraulic Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Horita, Jusuke [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Many terrestrial ecosystem processes are constrained by water availability and transport within the soil. Knowledge of plant water fluxes is thus critical for assessing mechanistic processes linked to biogeochemical cycles, yet resolution of root structure and xylem water transport dynamics has been a particularly daunting task for the ecologist. Through neutron imaging, we demonstrate the ability to non-invasively monitor individual root functionality and water fluxes within Zea mays L. (maize) and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) seedlings growing in a sandy medium. Root structure and growth were readily imaged by neutron radiography and neutron computed tomography. Seedlings were irrigated with water or deuterium oxide and imaged through time as a growth lamp was cycled on to alter leaf demand for water. Sub-millimeter scale resolution reveals timing and magnitudes of root water uptake, redistribution within the roots, and root-shoot hydraulic linkages, relationships not well characterized by other techniques.

  17. Revealing effective classifiers through network comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallos, Lazaros K.; Fefferman, Nina H.

    2014-11-01

    The ability to compare complex systems can provide new insight into the fundamental nature of the processes captured, in ways that are otherwise inaccessible to observation. Here, we introduce the n-tangle method to directly compare two networks for structural similarity, based on the distribution of edge density in network subgraphs. We demonstrate that this method can efficiently introduce comparative analysis into network science and opens the road for many new applications. For example, we show how the construction of a “phylogenetic tree” across animal taxa according to their social structure can reveal commonalities in the behavioral ecology of the populations, or how students create similar networks according to the University size. Our method can be expanded to study many additional properties, such as network classification, changes during time evolution, convergence of growth models, and detection of structural changes during damage.

  18. Hidden acoustic information revealed by intentional nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, David R.

    2017-11-01

    Acoustic waves are omnipresent in modern life and are well described by the linearized equations of fluid dynamics. Once generated, acoustic waves carry and collect information about their source and the environment through which they propagate, respectively, and this information may be retrieved by analyzing recordings of these waves. Because of this, acoustics is the primary means for observation, surveillance, reconnaissance, and remote sensing in otherwise opaque environments, such as the Earth's oceans and crust, and the interior of the human body. For such information-retrieval tasks, acoustic fields are nearly always interrogated within their recorded frequency range or bandwidth. However, this frequency-range restriction is not general; acoustic fields may also carry (hidden) information at frequencies outside their bandwidth. Although such a claim may seem counter intuitive, hidden acoustic-field information can be revealed by re-introducing a marquee trait of fluid dynamics: nonlinearity. In particular, an intentional quadratic nonlinearity - a form of intra-signal heterodyning - can be used to obtain acoustic field information at frequencies outside a recorded acoustic field's bandwidth. This quadratic nonlinearity enables a variety of acoustic remote sensing applications that were long thought to be impossible. In particular, it allows the detrimental effects of sparse recordings and random scattering to be suppressed when the original acoustic field has sufficient bandwidth. In this presentation, the topic is developed heuristically, with a just brief exposition of the relevant mathematics. Hidden acoustic field information is then revealed from simulated and measured acoustic fields in simple and complicated acoustic environments involving frequencies from a few Hertz to more than 100 kHz, and propagation distances from tens of centimeters to hundreds of kilometers. Sponsored by ONR, NAVSEA, and NSF.

  19. Ceres Revealed in a Grain of Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Bodnar, R. J.; Fries, M.; Chan, Q. H.-S.; Kebukawa, Y.; Mikouchi, T.; Hagiya, K.; Komatsu, M.; Ohsumi, K.; Steele, A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Zag and Monahans (1998) are H chondrite regolith breccias containing 4.5 giga-year-old halite crystals which contain abundant inclusions of aqueous fluids, solids and organics. These all originated on a cryo-volcanically-active C class asteroid, probably 1 Ceres; the halite was transported to the regolith of the H chondrite parent asteroid, potentially 6 Hebe. Detailed analysis of these solids will thus potentially reveal the mineralogy of Ceres. Mineralogy of solids in the Monahans Halite Solid grains are present in the halites, which were entrained within the mother brines during eruption, including material from the interior and surface of the erupting body. The solids include abundant, widely variable organics that could not have been significantly heated (which would have resulted in the loss of fluids from the halite). Our analyses by Raman microprobe, SEM/EDX, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, UPLC-FD/QToF-MS, C-XANES and TEM reveal that these trapped grains include macromolecular carbon (MMC) similar in structure to CV3 chondrite matrix carbon, aliphatic carbon compounds, olivine (Fo99-59), high- and low-Ca pyroxene, feldspars, phyllosilicates, magnetite, sulfides, metal, lepidocrocite, carbonates, diamond, apatite and zeolites. Conclusions: The halite in Monahans and Zag derive from a water and carbon-rich object that was cryo-volcanically active in the early solar system, probably Ceres. The Dawn spacecraft found that Ceres includes C chondrite materials. Our samples include both protolith and aqueously-altered samples of the body, permitting understanding of alteration conditions. Whatever the halite parent body, it was rich in a wide variety of organics and warm, liquid water at the solar system's dawn.

  20. ERYTHEMA NODOSUM REVEALING ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chebbi Wafa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Erythema nodosum (EN is the most common type of panniculitis. It may be idiopathic or secondary to various etiologies. However, the occurrence of erythema nodosum in malignant hemopathy had rarely been reported. Case report: A 42 year-old woman presented with a four week history of recurrent multiple painful erythematous nodules developed on the lower limbs associated with arthralgia of the ankles and fever. The clinical features of skin lesions with contusiform color evolution allowed establishing the diagnosis of EN. No underlying cause was found. The skin lesions were improved with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine. Three months later, the patient consulted for recurrence of EN associated with fever, inflammatory polyarthralgia and hepatosplenomegaly. The peripheral blood count revealed pancytopenia. A bone marrow examination confirmed the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia type 2. Initiation of chemotherapy was followed by the complete disappearance of skin lesions of EN. Conclusion: Paraneoplastic erythema nodosum is a rare entity. In the literature, a few cases of association with leukemia have been reported. Exploration for solid neoplasms or hemopathy in case of recurrent EN or resistance to conventional treatment should be systematic

  1. Revealing the values behind convenience food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botonaki, Anna; Mattas, Konstadinos

    2010-12-01

    The increasing importance of convenience in consumer food choices has attracted researchers' interest. In the effort to understand how convenience affects consumers' food preferences, values are believed to play an important role. The present study attempts to examine the way personal values suggested by Schwartz (1992) are associated with behaviour and attitudes regarding convenience food. A number of constructs describing food related attitudes and behaviours were developed and their relationship with personal values was analyzed following the methodology proposed by Brunsø, Scholderer, and Grunert (2004). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey from a random sample of consumers in Thessaloniki city, Greece. The results reveal that convenience food consumption and convenience orientation in the food domain are mainly connected with values that motivate people to seek new experiences, act independently and enhance their own personal interests, while are in conflict with values of conservation and self-transcendence. The opposite holds for other food related attitudes and behaviours like involvement with cooking and variety in diet. The findings seem to be of particular interest not only for marketers of food products, but also for food policy makers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Revealing source signatures in ambient BTEX concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalel, Amir; Yuval; Broday, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Management of ambient concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) is essential for maintaining low ozone levels in urban areas where its formation is under a VOC-limited regime. The significant decrease in traffic-induced VOC emissions in many developed countries resulted in relatively comparable shares of traffic and non-traffic VOC emissions in urban airsheds. A key step for urban air quality management is allocating ambient VOC concentrations to their pertinent sources. This study presents an approach that can aid in identifying sources that contribute to observed BTEX concentrations in areas characterized by low BTEX concentrations, where traditional source apportionment techniques are not useful. Analysis of seasonal and diurnal variations of ambient BTEX concentrations from two monitoring stations located in distinct areas reveal the possibility to identify source categories. Specifically, the varying oxidation rates of airborne BTEX compounds are used to allocate contributions of traffic emissions and evaporative sources to observed BTEX concentrations. - BTEX sources are identified from temporal variations of ambient concentration

  3. VISTA Reveals the Secret of the Unicorn

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    A new infrared image from ESO's VISTA survey telescope reveals an extraordinary landscape of glowing tendrils of gas, dark clouds and young stars within the constellation of Monoceros (the Unicorn). This star-forming region, known as Monoceros R2, is embedded within a huge dark cloud. The region is almost completely obscured by interstellar dust when viewed in visible light, but is spectacular in the infrared. An active stellar nursery lies hidden inside a massive dark cloud rich in molecules and dust in the constellation of Monoceros. Although it appears close in the sky to the more familiar Orion Nebula it is actually almost twice as far from Earth, at a distance of about 2700 light-years. In visible light a grouping of massive hot stars creates a beautiful collection of reflection nebulae where the bluish starlight is scattered from parts of the dark, foggy outer layers of the molecular cloud. However, most of the new-born massive stars remain hidden as the thick interstellar dust strongly absorbs their ultraviolet and visible light. In this gorgeous infrared image taken from ESO's Paranal Observatory in northern Chile, the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA [1], eso0949) penetrates the dark curtain of cosmic dust and reveals in astonishing detail the folds, loops and filaments sculpted from the dusty interstellar matter by intense particle winds and the radiation emitted by hot young stars. "When I first saw this image I just said 'Wow!' I was amazed to see all the dust streamers so clearly around the Monoceros R2 cluster, as well as the jets from highly embedded young stellar objects. There is such a great wealth of exciting detail revealed in these VISTA images," says Jim Emerson, of Queen Mary, University of London and leader of the VISTA consortium. With its huge field of view, large mirror and sensitive camera, VISTA is ideal for obtaining deep, high quality infrared images of large areas of the sky, such as the Monoceros R2 region

  4. On revealing graph cycles via boundary measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belishev, M I; Wada, N

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with boundary value inverse problems on a metric graph, the structure of the graph being assumed unknown. The question under consideration is how to detect from the dynamical and/or spectral inverse data whether the graph contains cycles (is not a tree). For any graph Ω, the dynamical as well as spectral boundary inverse data determine the so-called wave diameter d w : H -1 (Ω) → R defined on functionals supported in the graph. The known fact is that if Ω is a tree then d w ≥ 0 holds and, in this case, the inverse data determine Ω up to isometry. A graph Ω is said to be coordinate if the functions {dist Ω (., γ)} γin∂Ω constitute a coordinate system on Ω. For such graphs, we propose a procedure, which reveals the presence/absence of cycles. The hypothesis is that Ω contains cycles if and only if d w takes negative values. We do not justify this hypothesis in the general case but reduce it to a certain special class of graphs (suns)

  5. Sequence tagging reveals unexpected modifications in toxicoproteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Surendra; Chambers, Matthew C.; Codreanu, Simona G.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Collins, Ben C.; Pennington, Stephen R.; Gallagher, William M.; Tabb, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Toxicoproteomic samples are rich in posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of proteins. Identifying these modifications via standard database searching can incur significant performance penalties. Here we describe the latest developments in TagRecon, an algorithm that leverages inferred sequence tags to identify modified peptides in toxicoproteomic data sets. TagRecon identifies known modifications more effectively than the MyriMatch database search engine. TagRecon outperformed state of the art software in recognizing unanticipated modifications from LTQ, Orbitrap, and QTOF data sets. We developed user-friendly software for detecting persistent mass shifts from samples. We follow a three-step strategy for detecting unanticipated PTMs in samples. First, we identify the proteins present in the sample with a standard database search. Next, identified proteins are interrogated for unexpected PTMs with a sequence tag-based search. Finally, additional evidence is gathered for the detected mass shifts with a refinement search. Application of this technology on toxicoproteomic data sets revealed unintended cross-reactions between proteins and sample processing reagents. Twenty five proteins in rat liver showed signs of oxidative stress when exposed to potentially toxic drugs. These results demonstrate the value of mining toxicoproteomic data sets for modifications. PMID:21214251

  6. Featured Image: Revealing Hidden Objects with Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    Stunning color astronomical images can often be the motivation for astronomers to continue slogging through countless data files, calculations, and simulations as we seek to understand the mysteries of the universe. But sometimes the stunning images can, themselves, be the source of scientific discovery. This is the case with the below image of Lynds Dark Nebula 673, located in the Aquila constellation, that was captured with the Mayall 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory by a team of scientists led by Travis Rector (University of Alaska Anchorage). After creating the image with a novel color-composite imaging method that reveals faint H emission (visible in red in both images here), Rector and collaborators identified the presence of a dozen new Herbig-Haro objects small cloud patches that are caused when material is energetically flung out from newly born stars. The image adapted above shows three of the new objects, HH 118789, aligned with two previously known objects, HH 32 and 332 suggesting they are driven by the same source. For more beautiful images and insight into the authors discoveries, check out the article linked below!Full view of Lynds Dark Nebula 673. Click for the larger view this beautiful composite image deserves! [T.A. Rector (University of Alaska Anchorage) and H. Schweiker (WIYN and NOAO/AURA/NSF)]CitationT. A. Rector et al 2018 ApJ 852 13. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa9ce1

  7. Feather corticosterone reveals developmental stress in seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Alexis P; Suzuki, Yuya; Elliott, Kyle H; Hatch, Scott A; Watanuki, Yutaka; Kitaysky, Alexander S

    2014-07-01

    In nest-bound avian offspring, food shortages typically trigger a release of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT). Recent studies indicate that CORT is passively deposited in the tissue of growing feathers and thus may provide an integrated measure of stress incurred during development in the nest. The current hypothesis predicts that, assuming a constant rate of feather growth, elevated CORT circulating in the blood corresponds to higher levels of CORT in feather tissue, but experimental evidence for nutritionally stressed chicks is lacking. Here, we examined how food limitation affects feather CORT content in the rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca moncerata). We (i) used captive chicks reared on control versus restricted diets, and (ii) applied this technique to free-living chicks with unknown nutritional histories that fledged at three separate colonies. We found that (i) feather growth was not affected by experimentally induced nutritional stress; (ii) captive chicks raised on a restricted diet had higher levels of CORT in their primary feathers; (iii) feather CORT deposition is a sensitive method of detecting nutritional stress; and (iv) free-living fledglings from the colony with poor reproductive performance had higher CORT in their primary feathers. We conclude that feather CORT is a sensitive integrated measure revealing the temporal dynamics of food limitations experienced by rhinoceros auklet nestlings. The use of feather CORT may be a powerful endocrine tool in ecological and evolutionary studies of bird species with similar preferential allocation of limited resources to feather development. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. [Polymyalgia rheumatica revealing a lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocquempot, K; Defuentes, G; Duron-Martineau, S; Berets, O; Vaylet, F; Margery, J

    2013-01-01

    Polymyalgia rheumatica is an inflammatory condition belonging to the connective tissue diseases, which occurs quite frequently in the elderly. Previously, cases have been reported in association with malignant tumours, in a synchronous fashion or prior to the appearance of the cancer. In these cases, the polymyalgia rheumatica is considered to be a paraneoplastic syndrome. We report the cases of a 63-year-old woman and a 58-year-old man with severe proximal girdle pain associated to a high-level of systemic inflammatory markers and a diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica was made. In the face of a lack of ineffectiveness of analgesic and anti-inflammatory treatments, an intensive investigation was undertaken which in both cases revealed an adenocarcinoma of the lung. The rheumatic manifestations responded well to chemotherapy targeting the lung tumour. We present here a review of the literature to give prominence to the diagnostic pitfalls that can occur around paraneoplastic polymyalgia rheumatica. The presence of therapeutic resistance at the onset of treatment and other atypical features may suggest the presence of an occult malignancy. Copyright © 2012 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Radio Telescopes Reveal Unseen Galactic Cannibalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Radio-telescope images have revealed previously-unseen galactic cannibalism -- a triggering event that leads to feeding frenzies by gigantic black holes at the cores of galaxies. Astronomers have long suspected that the extra-bright cores of spiral galaxies called Seyfert galaxies are powered by supermassive black holes consuming material. However, they could not see how the material is started on its journey toward the black hole. Optical/Radio Comparison Visible-light (left) and radio (right) image of galaxy pair: Radio image shows gas streaming between galaxies. CREDIT: Kuo et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for more graphics. One leading theory said that Seyfert galaxies have been disturbed by close encounters with neighboring galaxies, thus stirring up their gas and bringing more of it within the gravitational reach of the black hole. However, when astronomers looked at Seyferts with visible-light telescopes, only a small fraction showed any evidence of such an encounter. Now, new images of hydrogen gas in Seyferts made using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope show the majority of them are, in fact, disturbed by ongoing encounters with neighbor galaxies. "The VLA lifted the veil on what's really happening with these galaxies," said Cheng-Yu Kuo, a graduate student at the University of Virginia. "Looking at the gas in these galaxies clearly showed that they are snacking on their neighbors. This is a dramatic contrast with their appearance in visible starlight," he added. The effect of the galactic encounters is to send gas and dust toward the black hole and produce energy as the material ultimately is consumed. Black holes, concentrations of matter so dense that not even light can escape their gravitational pull, reside at the cores of many galaxies. Depending on how rapidly the black hole is eating, the galaxy can show a wide range of energetic activity. Seyfert galaxies have the mildest version of this activity, while

  10. Revealing household characteristics from smart meter data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckel, Christian; Sadamori, Leyna; Staake, Thorsten; Santini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Utilities are currently deploying smart electricity meters in millions of households worldwide to collect fine-grained electricity consumption data. We present an approach to automatically analyzing this data to enable personalized and scalable energy efficiency programs for private households. In particular, we develop and evaluate a system that uses supervised machine learning techniques to automatically estimate specific “characteristics” of a household from its electricity consumption. The characteristics are related to a household's socio-economic status, its dwelling, or its appliance stock. We evaluate our approach by analyzing smart meter data collected from 4232 households in Ireland at a 30-min granularity over a period of 1.5 years. Our analysis shows that revealing characteristics from smart meter data is feasible, as our method achieves an accuracy of more than 70% over all households for many of the characteristics and even exceeds 80% for some of the characteristics. The findings are applicable to all smart metering systems without making changes to the measurement infrastructure. The inferred knowledge paves the way for targeted energy efficiency programs and other services that benefit from improved customer insights. On the basis of these promising results, the paper discusses the potential for utilities as well as policy and privacy implications. - Highlights: • Many household characteristics can be automatically inferred from smart meter data. • We develop a system to infer employment status and number of occupants, for instance. • We evaluate our system analyzing data collected from 4232 households in Ireland. • The insights enable personalized and scalable efficiency campaigns for utilities. • Energy efficiency measures must be complemented by privacy protection

  11. Microradiometers Reveal Ocean Health, Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    When NASA researcher Stanford Hooker is in the field, he pays close attention to color. For Hooker, being in the field means being at sea. On one such research trip to the frigid waters of the Arctic, with a Coast Guard icebreaker looming nearby and the snow-crusted ice shelf a few feet away, Hooker leaned over the edge of his small boat and lowered a tethered device into the bright turquoise water, a new product devised by a NASA partner and enabled by a promising technology for oceanographers and atmospheric scientists alike. Color is a function of light. Pure water is clear, but the variation in color observed during a visit to the beach or a flight along a coastline depends on the water s depth and the constituents in it, how far down the light penetrates and how it is absorbed and scattered by dissolved and suspended material. Hooker cares about ocean color because of what it can reveal about the health of the ocean, and in turn, the health of our planet. "The main thing we are interested in is the productivity of the water," Hooker says. The seawater contains phytoplankton, microscopic plants, which are the food base for the ocean s ecosystems. Changes in the water s properties, whether due to natural seasonal effects or human influence, can lead to problems for delicate ecosystems such as coral reefs. Ocean color can inform researchers about the quantities and distribution of phytoplankton and other materials, providing clues as to how the world ocean is changing. NASA s Coastal Zone Color Scanner, launched in 1978, was the first ocean color instrument flown on a spacecraft. Since then, the Agency s ocean color research capabilities have become increasingly sophisticated with the launch of the SeaWiFS instrument in 1997 and the twin MODIS instruments carried into orbit on NASA s Terra (1999) and Aqua (2002) satellites. The technology provides sweeping, global information on ocean color on a scale unattainable by any other means. One issue that arises from

  12. Abrasive supply for ancient Egypt revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltz, C.; Bichler, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the major research scheme 'Synchronization of Civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in the 2nd Millennium B.C' instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine 30 elements in pumice from archaeological excavations to reveal their specific volcanic origin. In ancient time, the widespread pumiceous products of several eruptions in the Aegean region have been used as abrasive tools and were therefore popular trade objects. The correlation of such archaeological findings to a specific eruption of known age would therefore allow to certify a maximum age of the respective stratum ('dating by first appearance'). Pumices from the Aegean region can easily be distinguished by their trace element distribution patterns. This has been shown by previous studies of the group. The elements Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zr and Zn were determined in 16 samples of pumice lumps from excavations in Tell-el-Dab'a and Tell-el-Herr (Egypt). Two irradiation cycles and five measurement runs were applied. To show the accuracy of the results obtained, typical samples of the most important pumice sources in the Aegean region, particularly from Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Thera were analyzed together with the Egyptian samples of unknown origin. A reliable identification of the samples is achieved by comparing these results to the database compiled in previous studies. The geographical positions of these islands are shown. Within the error range, most of the elements determined in typical representatives of Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Santorini were in perfect agreement with values from the literature. On the basis of the Cluster graphics presented, it is possible to relate unknown pumice to its primary source, just by comparing the relation of a few elements, like Ta-Eu and Th-Hf. One concludes that all samples except one can be related to the Minoan eruption of Thera

  13. Dramatic Outburst Reveals Nearest Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Sgr. The radio observations revealed the presence of a jet escaping from the system at mind-boggling speeds. Only three other galactic X-ray stellar systems have been found to eject material at such speeds. They have been dubbed "microquasars" because, on a smaller scale, they resemble quasars, which lie at the hearts of distant galaxies and also spew out high-velocity jets of particles. In galaxy-core quasars, the black holes are millions of times more massive than the Sun; in the more nearby microquasars the black holes are roughly three to twenty times more massive than the Sun. The extremely high velocity of the jets suggests that their origin lies close to the event horizon of a black hole. Microquasar activity is thought to arise when the black hole in the binary system draws material away from its companion star. The material surrounding the black hole forms a rapidly spinning disk called an accretion disk. This disk is heated by friction to millions of degrees, causing it to emit X-rays. As spiralling gas moves into the gravity well of the black hole, it moves faster and faster. Magnetic fields in the disk are believed to expel the charged subatomic particles at speeds close to that of light. As the charged particles interact with the magnetic fields, they emit radio waves. If some of the material escapes by being magnetically expelled into space, the matter may continue moving at the tremendous speed it had attained near the black hole. After their ejection, the jets of particles expand and cool, fading from astronomers' view. V4641 Sgr excites astronomers because it is close and because it acted so differently from other microquasars. In other microquasars, outbursts have dimmed more slowly over weeks or months rather than hours. "There's something fundamentally different about this one; it's more extreme than any other example," Hjellming said. "And because this system happens to be so close to us, `it is very likely that there are more objects like V4641

  14. Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A new study using results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory provides one of the best pieces of evidence yet that many supermassive black holes are spinning extremely rapidly. The whirling of these giant black holes drives powerful jets that pump huge amounts of energy into their environment and affects galaxy growth. A team of scientists compared leading theories of jets produced by rotating supermassive black holes with Chandra data. A sampling of nine giant galaxies that exhibit large disturbances in their gaseous atmospheres showed that the central black holes in these galaxies must be spinning at near their maximum rates. People Who Read This Also Read... NASA’s Swift Satellite Catches First Supernova in The Act of Exploding Black Holes Have Simple Feeding Habits Jet Power and Black Hole Assortment Revealed in New Chandra Image Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself "We think these monster black holes are spinning close to the limit set by Einstein's theory of relativity, which means that they can drag material around them at close to the speed of light," said Rodrigo Nemmen, a visiting graduate student at Penn State University, and lead author of a paper on the new results presented at American Astronomical Society in Austin, Texas. The research reinforces other, less direct methods previously used which have indicated that some stellar and supermassive black holes are spinning rapidly. According to Einstein's theory, a rapidly spinning black hole makes space itself rotate. This effect, coupled with gas spiraling toward the black hole, can produce a rotating, tightly wound vertical tower of magnetic field that flings a large fraction of the inflowing gas away from the vicinity of the black hole in an energetic, high-speed jet. Computer simulations by other authors have suggested that black holes may acquire their rapid spins when galaxies merge, and through the accretion of gas from their surroundings. "Extremely fast spin might be very common for large

  15. Facial cellulitis revealing choreo-acanthocytosis: A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a 62 year-old-man with facial cellulitis revealing choreo-acanthocytosis (ChAc). He showed chorea that started 20 years ago. The orofacial dyskinisia with tongue and cheek biting resulted in facial cellulitis. The peripheral blood smear revealed acanthocytosis of 25%. The overall of chorea, orofacial dyskinetic ...

  16. Beta-lactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in Cambodia: The four-year itch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Caron

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although antibiotics are too often used inappropriately in Cambodia, published data on antimicrobial resistance in this country are scarce. Epidemic dissemination and the transfer of resistance genes to other bacterial species put the population at risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E isolated in consecutive samples tested at Institut Pasteur du Cambodge over a 4-year period (2012–2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion on agar technique and the results were read automatically using an OSIRIS system. The Etest was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for some resistance phenotypes. The strain most commonly identified was Escherichia coli (63.9%. The proportion of ESBL-E increased gradually over the study period, from 23.8% to 38.4%. ESBL was detected in 42.7% of the E. coli strains and 33.7% of all Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated. The proportion of ESBL-producing E. coli increased significantly from 28.9% in 2012 to 48.2% in 2015, while the increase for K. pneumoniae remained non-significant. Multidrug resistance was high in this Cambodian series, with some strains displaying resistance to all antibiotics available in the country. There is currently no established system for the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Cambodia. Collecting samples from clinical settings throughout the country is critical to assess the impact of antimicrobial drug use in patients in Cambodia and in the Mekong Region.

  17. Beta-lactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in Cambodia: The four-year itch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Yannick; Chheang, Rattanak; Puthea, Nop; Soda, Meng; Boyer, Sébastien; Tarantola, Arnaud; Kerléguer, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Although antibiotics are too often used inappropriately in Cambodia, published data on antimicrobial resistance in this country are scarce. Epidemic dissemination and the transfer of resistance genes to other bacterial species put the population at risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) isolated in consecutive samples tested at Institut Pasteur du Cambodge over a 4-year period (2012-2015). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion on agar technique and the results were read automatically using an OSIRIS system. The Etest was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for some resistance phenotypes. The strain most commonly identified was Escherichia coli (63.9%). The proportion of ESBL-E increased gradually over the study period, from 23.8% to 38.4%. ESBL was detected in 42.7% of the E. coli strains and 33.7% of all Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated. The proportion of ESBL-producing E. coli increased significantly from 28.9% in 2012 to 48.2% in 2015, while the increase for K. pneumoniae remained non-significant. Multidrug resistance was high in this Cambodian series, with some strains displaying resistance to all antibiotics available in the country. There is currently no established system for the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Cambodia. Collecting samples from clinical settings throughout the country is critical to assess the impact of antimicrobial drug use in patients in Cambodia and in the Mekong Region. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. A Practical Hybrid Model of Application, Integration, and Competencies at Interactive Table Conferences in Histology (ITCH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettarh, Rajunor

    2016-01-01

    Significant changes have been implemented in the way undergraduate medical education is structured. One of the challenges for component courses such as histology in medical and dental curricula is to restructure and deliver training within new frameworks. This article describes the process of aligning the purpose and experience in histology…

  19. Comparative mapping reveals similar linkage of functional genes to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    genes between O. sativa and B. napus may have consistent function and control similar traits, which may be ..... acea chromosomes reveals islands of conserved organization. ... 1998 Conserved structure and function of the Arabidopsis flow-.

  20. Paraneoplastic syndromes revealing ovarian teratoma in young and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paraneoplastic syndromes revealing ovarian teratoma in young and menopausal women: report of two cases. Majdouline Boujoual, Ihsan Hakimi, Farid Kassidi, Youssef Akhoudad, Nawal Sahel, Adil Rkiouak, Mohamed Allaoui, Hafsa Chahdi, Mohamed Oukabli, Jaouad Kouach, Driss Rahali Moussaoui, Mohamed ...

  1. DNA markers reveal genetic structure and localized diversity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uqhdesma

    2016-10-12

    Oct 12, 2016 ... STRUCTURE analysis revealed 4 clusters of genetically ..... 10000 cycles and 50000 Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) iterations and 10 replicate runs performed for each K value to ..... WL, Lee M, Porter K (2000). Genetic ...

  2. Demand effects of consumers’ stated and revealed preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Per; Forsell, Eskil

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of how consumers react to different quality signals is fundamental for understanding how markets work. We study the online market- place for Android apps where we compare the causal effects on demand from two quality related signals; other consumers' stated and revealed preferences toward an app. Our main result is that consumers are much more responsive to other consumers' revealed preferences, compared to others' stated preferences. A 10 percentile increase in displayed average ra...

  3. Characteristics of the tomato chromoplast revealed by proteomic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Barsan, Cristina; Sanchez-Bel, Paloma; Rombaldi, César Valmor; Egea, Isabel; Rossignol, Michel; Kuntz, Marcel; Zouine, Mohamed; Latché, Alain; Bouzayen, Mondher; Pech, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    Chromoplasts are non-photosynthetic specialized plastids that are important in ripening tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum) since, among other functions, they are the site of accumulation of coloured compounds. Analysis of the proteome of red fruit chromoplasts revealed the presence of 988 proteins corresponding to 802 Arabidopsis unigenes, among which 209 had not been listed so far in plastidial databanks. These data revealed several features of the chromoplast. Proteins of lipid metabolism ...

  4. UTV Expansion Pack: Special-Purpose Rank-Revealing Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fierro, Ricardo D.; Hansen, Per Christian

    2005-01-01

    This collection of Matlab 7.0 software supplements and complements the package UTV Tools from 1999, and includes implementations of special-purpose rank-revealing algorithms developed since the publication of the original package. We provide algorithms for computing and modifying symmetric rank-r...... values of a sparse or structured matrix. These new algorithms have applications in signal processing, optimization and LSI information retrieval.......This collection of Matlab 7.0 software supplements and complements the package UTV Tools from 1999, and includes implementations of special-purpose rank-revealing algorithms developed since the publication of the original package. We provide algorithms for computing and modifying symmetric rank......-revealing VSV decompositions, we expand the algorithms for the ULLV decomposition of a matrix pair to handle interference-type problems with a rank-deficient covariance matrix, and we provide a robust and reliable Lanczos algorithm which - despite its simplicity - is able to capture all the dominant singular...

  5. Camelid genomes reveal evolution and adaptation to desert environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huiguang; Guang, Xuanmin; Al-Fageeh, Mohamed B; Cao, Junwei; Pan, Shengkai; Zhou, Huanmin; Zhang, Li; Abutarboush, Mohammed H; Xing, Yanping; Xie, Zhiyuan; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Zhang, Yanru; Yao, Qiulin; Al-Shomrani, Badr M; Zhang, Dong; Li, Jiang; Manee, Manee M; Yang, Zili; Yang, Linfeng; Liu, Yiyi; Zhang, Jilin; Altammami, Musaad A; Wang, Shenyuan; Yu, Lili; Zhang, Wenbin; Liu, Sanyang; Ba, La; Liu, Chunxia; Yang, Xukui; Meng, Fanhua; Wang, Shaowei; Li, Lu; Li, Erli; Li, Xueqiong; Wu, Kaifeng; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Junyi; Yin, Ye; Yang, Huanming; Al-Swailem, Abdulaziz M; Wang, Jun

    2014-10-21

    Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are economically important livestock. Although the Bactrian camel and dromedary are large, typically arid-desert-adapted mammals, alpacas are adapted to plateaus. Here we present high-quality genome sequences of these three species. Our analysis reveals the demographic history of these species since the Tortonian Stage of the Miocene and uncovers a striking correlation between large fluctuations in population size and geological time boundaries. Comparative genomic analysis reveals complex features related to desert adaptations, including fat and water metabolism, stress responses to heat, aridity, intense ultraviolet radiation and choking dust. Transcriptomic analysis of Bactrian camels further reveals unique osmoregulation, osmoprotection and compensatory mechanisms for water reservation underpinned by high blood glucose levels. We hypothesize that these physiological mechanisms represent kidney evolutionary adaptations to the desert environment. This study advances our understanding of camelid evolution and the adaptation of camels to arid-desert environments.

  6. Burned-out seminoma revealed by solitary rib bone metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishisho, Toshihiko; Miyagi, Ryo; Sairyo, Koichi [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Orthopedics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima-city, Tokushima (Japan); Sakaki, Mika [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Hidaka-city, Saitama (Japan); Takao, Shoichiro [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Radiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima-city, Tokushima (Japan)

    2017-10-15

    Burned-out tumor is a rare phenomenon in which a testicular tumor regresses in the primary lesion and progresses in a metastatic lesion. We report the case of a 30-year-old male with burned-out seminoma revealed by open biopsy of solitary 10th rib bone metastasis. He underwent inguinal orchiectomy, which revealed hyalinization, indicating a spontaneously regressed testicular tumor. Chemotherapy for seminoma was administered in three cycles of bleomycin + etoposide + cisplatin therapy. The chemotherapy was effective, and wide resection of the rib was subsequently performed. No postoperative chemotherapy was performed, and there has been no evidence of recurrence for 3 years postoperatively. (orig.)

  7. [Postnatal diagnosis of gastric volvulus revealing congenital diaphragmatic hernia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprahamian, A; Nouyrigat, V; Grévent, D; Hervieux, E; Chéron, G

    2017-05-01

    Postnatally diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernias (CDH) are rare and have a better prognosis than those diagnosed prenatally. Postnatal symptoms can be respiratory, digestive, or mixed. Gastric volvulus can reveal CDH. Symptoms are pain, abdominal distension, and/or vomiting. Upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography provides the diagnosis. Prognosis is related to early surgical management in complicated forms with intestinal occlusion or sub-occlusion. We report on an infant who presented with vomiting, which revealed gastric volvulus associated with a CDH. Progression was favorable after surgical treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. ID-check: Online concealed information test reveals true identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuere, B.; Kleinberg, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has already changed people's lives considerably and is likely to drastically change forensic research. We developed a web-based test to reveal concealed autobiographical information. Initial studies identified a number of conditions that affect diagnostic efficiency. By combining these

  9. Intratumor Heterogeneity and Branched Evolution Revealed by Multiregion Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlinger, Marco; Rowan, Andrew J.; Horswell, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    .RESULTS: Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed branched evolutionary tumor growth, with 63 to 69% of all somatic mutations not detectable across every tumor region. Intratumor heterogeneity was observed for a mutation within an autoinhibitory domain of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase, correlating with S6...

  10. Revealing gene action for production characteristics by inbreeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revealing gene action for production characteristics by inbreeding, based on a long-term selection ... The gene action involved in the expression of production characters was investigated, using the effect of the theoretical inbreeding ..... and predicted selection responses for growth, fat and lean traits in mice. J. Anim. Sci.

  11. An acute adrenal insufficiency revealing pituitary metastases of lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 69-year-old men presented with vomiting, low blood pressure and hypoglycemia. Hormonal exploration confirmed a hypopituitarism. Appropriate therapy was initiated urgently. The hypothalamic-pituitary MRI showed a pituitary hypertrophy, a nodular thickening of the pituitary stalk. The chest X Rays revealed pulmonary ...

  12. The microbiome of Brazilian mangrove sediments as revealed by metagenomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreote, Fernando Dini; Jiménez Avella, Diego; Chaves, Diego; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Luvizotto, Danice Mazzer; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Fasanella, Cristiane Cipola; Lopez, Maryeimy Varon; Baena, Sandra; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; de Melo, Itamar Soares

    2012-01-01

    Here we embark in a deep metagenomic survey that revealed the taxonomic and potential metabolic pathways aspects of mangrove sediment microbiology. The extraction of DNA from sediment samples and the direct application of pyrosequencing resulted in approximately 215 Mb of data from four distinct

  13. Species Richness and Diversity Reveal that Human-Modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family diversity and richness showed no significant differences across the sites. The spider species consisted of primarily three functional groups: ground wanderers, web builders and plant wanderers, and showed no within-group differences in abundance between sites. Similarity index between the study sites revealed a ...

  14. Landmark Study Reveals Antarctic Glacier's Long History of Retreat

    OpenAIRE

    Kuska, Dale M.

    2016-01-01

    Faculty Showcase Archive Article Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A major study, released in late November in the journal “Nature,” reveals the history of retreat of the massive Pine Island Glacier (PIG) in western Antarctica, widely considered one of the largest contributors to global sea-level rise.

  15. Extensive translational regulation during seed germination revealed by polysomal profiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Bing; Peviani, Alessia; Horst, van der Sjors; Gamm, Magdalena; Snel, Berend; Bentsink, Leónie; Hanson, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    This work investigates the extent of translational regulation during seed germination. The polysome occupancy of each gene is determined by genome-wide profiling of total mRNA and polysome-associated mRNA. This reveals extensive translational regulation during Arabidopsis thaliana seed

  16. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals widespread full phosphorylation site occupancy during mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Martin Lee; Brunak, Søren; Olsen, JV

    2010-01-01

    and phosphorylation sites were grouped according to their cell cycle kinetics and compared to publicly available messenger RNA microarray data. Most detected phosphorylation sites and more than 20% of all quantified proteins showed substantial regulation, mainly in mitotic cells. Kinase-motif analysis revealed global...

  17. Chemical milling solution reveals stress corrosion cracks in titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braski, D. N.

    1967-01-01

    Solution of hydrogen flouride, hydrogen peroxide, and water reveals hot salt stress corrosion cracks in various titanium alloys. After the surface is rinsed in water, dried, and swabbed with the solution, it can be observed by the naked eye or at low magnification.

  18. Structure defects in malachite revealed by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geffroy, B.; Diallo, I.; Paulin, R.

    1984-01-01

    Positron lifetime is measured between 77 and 400 K in two malachite samples with different mineralogical structures. The complex spectrum found in zoned malachite reveals a microporosity which remains stable in this range of temperature. Besides, above 200 K, equilibrium defects appear. Their formation energy is estimated to be Esub(f) = 0.27 +- 0.02 eV [fr

  19. Structure defects in malachite revealed by positron annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffroy, B; Diallo, I; Paulin, R [Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires, CEN/Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1984-01-01

    Positron lifetime is measured between 77 and 400 K in two malachite samples with different mineralogical structures. The complex spectrum found in zoned malachite reveals a microporosity which remains stable in this range of temperature. Besides, above 200 K, equilibrium defects appear. Their formation energy is estimated to be Esub(f) = 0.27 +- 0.02 eV.

  20. Seasonal succession in zooplankton feeding traits reveals trophic trait coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenitz, Kasia; Visser, Andre; Mariani, Patrizio

    2017-01-01

    non-motile cells flourishing in spring and motile community dominating during summer. The zooplankton community is dominated by active feeding-current feeders with peak biomass in the late spring declining during summer. The model reveals how zooplankton grazing reinforces protist plankton seasonal...

  1. Integrated genomics of Mucorales reveals novel therapeutic targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection caused by Mucorales fungi. We sequenced 30 fungal genomes and performed transcriptomics with three representative Rhizopus and Mucor strains with human airway epithelial cells during fungal invasion to reveal key host and fungal determinants contributing ...

  2. Adaptation to High Ethanol Reveals Complex Evolutionary Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Voordeckers

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance to high levels of ethanol is an ecologically and industrially relevant phenotype of microbes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex trait remain largely unknown. Here, we use long-term experimental evolution of isogenic yeast populations of different initial ploidy to study adaptation to increasing levels of ethanol. Whole-genome sequencing of more than 30 evolved populations and over 100 adapted clones isolated throughout this two-year evolution experiment revealed how a complex interplay of de novo single nucleotide mutations, copy number variation, ploidy changes, mutator phenotypes, and clonal interference led to a significant increase in ethanol tolerance. Although the specific mutations differ between different evolved lineages, application of a novel computational pipeline, PheNetic, revealed that many mutations target functional modules involved in stress response, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and respiration. Measuring the fitness effects of selected mutations introduced in non-evolved ethanol-sensitive cells revealed several adaptive mutations that had previously not been implicated in ethanol tolerance, including mutations in PRT1, VPS70 and MEX67. Interestingly, variation in VPS70 was recently identified as a QTL for ethanol tolerance in an industrial bio-ethanol strain. Taken together, our results show how, in contrast to adaptation to some other stresses, adaptation to a continuous complex and severe stress involves interplay of different evolutionary mechanisms. In addition, our study reveals functional modules involved in ethanol resistance and identifies several mutations that could help to improve the ethanol tolerance of industrial yeasts.

  3. Genetic and biochemical evidences reveal novel insights into the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 41; Issue 4. Genetic and biochemical evidences reveal novel insights into the mechanism underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sae2-mediated abrogation of DNA replication stress. INDRAJEET GHODKE K MUNIYAPPA. ARTICLE Volume 41 Issue 4 December 2016 pp ...

  4. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA reveals a complete lineage sorti ng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glossogobius callidus exhibits broad salinity tolerance and is distributed in both estuarine and freshwater environments in southern Africa. Previous studies revealed substantial morphological and molecular variation among populations, suggesting they constitute a species complex. The present study utilised phylogenetic ...

  5. Intracranial Hemorrhage Revealing Pseudohypoparathyroidism as a Cause of Fahr Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Swami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudohypoparathyroidism is an infrequently encountered disease. It is one of the causes of Fahr syndrome which also is a rare clinical entity caused by multiple diseases. A 4-year-old man hospitalized for sudden onset left hemiparesis and hypertension was diagnosed to have right thalamic and midbrain hemorrhage on plain CT scan of the head which also revealed co-existent extensive intracranial calcifications involving the basal ganglia and cerebellum bilaterally. General physical examination revealed features of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, goitre, hypertension, left hemiparesis, and signs of cerebellar dysfunction. Laboratory findings suggested hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia along with high TSH, low FT4, low FT3, and high anti-TPO antibody. Though bilateral intracranial calcifications are usually encountered as an incidental radiological finding in the CT scan of brain, in this case, the patient admitted for thalamic and midbrain hemorrhage was on investigation for associated intracranial calcification, and goitre was also found to have coexisting pseudohypoparathyroidism and autoimmune hypothyroidism.

  6. Tax Policy Trends: Republicans Reveal Proposed Tax Overhaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bazel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available REPUBLICANS REVEAL PROPOSED TAX OVERHAUL The White House and Congressional Republicans have revealed their much-anticipated proposal for reform of the U.S. personal and corporate tax systems. The proposal titled, “UNIFIED FRAMEWORK FOR FIXING OUR BROKEN TAX CODE” outlines a number of central policy changes, which will significantly alter the U.S. corporate tax system. The proposal includes a top federal marginal rate reduction for the sole proprietorships, partnerships and S corporation—small business equivalents— from 39.6% to 25% (state income tax rates would no longer be deductible. Large corporations would also see a meaningful federal rate reduction given the proposed drop in the federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 20%. Additionally, the proposal includes a generous temporary measure intended to stimulate investment, full capital expensing for machinery with a partial limitation of interest deductions.

  7. Obscure pulmonary masses: bronchial impaction revealed by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugatch, R.D.; Gale, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Dilated bronchi impacted with mucus or tumor are recognized on standard chest radiographs because they are surrounded by aerated pulmonary parenchyma. When imaged in different projections, these lesions produce a variety of appearances that are generally familiar. This report characterizes less familiar computed tomographic (CT) findings in eight patients with pathologic bronchial distension of congenital, neoplastic, or infectious etiologies and correlates them with chest films. In seven patients, CT readily revealed dilated bronchi and/or regional lung hypodensity. In four of these cases, CT led to the initial suspicion of dilated bronchi. CT should be used early in the evaluation of atypical pulmonary mass lesions or to confirm suspected bronchial impaction because of the high probability it will reveal diagnostic features

  8. What proverb understanding reveals about how people think.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, R W; Beitel, D

    1995-07-01

    The ability to understand proverbial sayings, such as a rolling stone gathers no moss, has been of great interest to researchers in many areas of psychology. Most psychologists assume that understanding the figurative meanings of proverbs requires various kinds of higher order cognitive abilities. The authors review the findings on proverb interpretation to examine the question of what proverb use and understanding reveals about the ways normal and dysfunctional individuals think. The widely held idea that failure to provide a figurative interpretation of a proverb necessarily reflects a deficit in specialized abstract thinking is rejected. Moreover, the ability to correctly explain what a proverb means does not necessarily imply that an individual can think abstractly. Various empirical evidence, nonetheless, suggests that the ability to understand many proverbs reveals the presence of metaphorical schemes that are ubiquitous in everyday thought.

  9. Acting without seeing: eye movements reveal visual processing without awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-04-01

    Visual perception and eye movements are considered to be tightly linked. Diverse fields, ranging from developmental psychology to computer science, utilize eye tracking to measure visual perception. However, this prevailing view has been challenged by recent behavioral studies. Here, we review converging evidence revealing dissociations between the contents of perceptual awareness and different types of eye movement. Such dissociations reveal situations in which eye movements are sensitive to particular visual features that fail to modulate perceptual reports. We also discuss neurophysiological, neuroimaging, and clinical studies supporting the role of subcortical pathways for visual processing without awareness. Our review links awareness to perceptual-eye movement dissociations and furthers our understanding of the brain pathways underlying vision and movement with and without awareness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Digital tissue and what it may reveal about the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Josh L; Lichtman, Jeff W

    2017-10-30

    Imaging as a means of scientific data storage has evolved rapidly over the past century from hand drawings, to photography, to digital images. Only recently can sufficiently large datasets be acquired, stored, and processed such that tissue digitization can actually reveal more than direct observation of tissue. One field where this transformation is occurring is connectomics: the mapping of neural connections in large volumes of digitized brain tissue.

  11. Focus Groups to Reveal Parents' Needs for Prenatal Education

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Louise

    2002-01-01

    Focus group interviews are a useful qualitative research technique to obtain data from small groups about their opinions, attitudes, and/or feelings on a given subject. This particular technique has been used in Western Quebec in order to reveal the opinions, needs, and feelings of health professionals and future parents concerning prenatal education. As part of the region's priorities for 2002, all future parents in this part of the province were to be offered prenatal, government-paid, comm...

  12. Parascapular mass revealing primary tuberculosis of the posterior arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbault, Anais; Ornetti, Paul; Chevallier, Olivier; Avril, Julien; Pottecher, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a parascapular abscess revealing primary tuberculosis of the posterior arch in a 31-year-old man. Sectional imaging is essential in order to detect the different lesions of this atypical spinal tuberculosis as osteolysis of the posterior arch extendible to vertebral body, osteocondensation, epidural extension which is common in this location, and high specificity of a zygapophysial, costo-vertebral or transverse arthritis. PMID:27709081

  13. [Colonic duplication revealed by intestinal obstruction due to fecal impaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azahouani, A; Hida, M; Benhaddou, H

    2015-12-01

    Colonic duplications are very rare in children. With rectal duplications, they are the rarest locations of alimentary tract duplications, most often diagnosed in the first years of life. We report an unusual case of colic duplication with fecal impaction in a 9-month-old boy revealed by intestinal obstruction. We discuss the main diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this malformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. 'Big bang' of B-cell development revealed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murre, Cornelis

    2018-01-15

    Earlier studies have identified transcription factors that specify B-cell fate, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be revealed. Two new studies by Miyai and colleagues (pp. 112-126) and Li and colleagues (pp. 96-111) in this issue of Genes & Development provide new and unprecedented insights into the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that establish B-cell identity. © 2018 Murre; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Transient light-induced intracellular oxidation revealed by redox biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolossov, Vladimir L., E-mail: viadimer@illinois.edu [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Beaudoin, Jessica N. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hanafin, William P. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); DiLiberto, Stephen J. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Kenis, Paul J.A. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Rex Gaskins, H. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 S. Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 905 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Time-resolved live cell imaging revealed light-induced oxidation. •Only the roGFP probe fused with glutaredoxin reveals photooxidation. •The transient oxidation is rapidly reduced by the cytosolic antioxidant system. •Intracellular photooxidation is media-dependent. •Oxidation is triggered exclusively by exposure to short wavelength excitation. -- Abstract: We have implemented a ratiometric, genetically encoded redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein fused to human glutaredoxin (Grx1-roGFP2) to monitor real time intracellular glutathione redox potentials of mammalian cells. This probe enabled detection of media-dependent oxidation of the cytosol triggered by short wavelength excitation. The transient nature of light-induced oxidation was revealed by time-lapse live cell imaging when time intervals of less than 30 s were implemented. In contrast, transient ROS generation was not observed with the parental roGFP2 probe without Grx1, which exhibits slower thiol-disulfide exchange. These data demonstrate that the enhanced sensitivity of the Grx1-roGFP2 fusion protein enables the detection of short-lived ROS in living cells. The superior sensitivity of Grx1-roGFP2, however, also enhances responsiveness to environmental cues introducing a greater likelihood of false positive results during image acquisition.

  16. Transient light-induced intracellular oxidation revealed by redox biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolossov, Vladimir L.; Beaudoin, Jessica N.; Hanafin, William P.; DiLiberto, Stephen J.; Kenis, Paul J.A.; Rex Gaskins, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Time-resolved live cell imaging revealed light-induced oxidation. •Only the roGFP probe fused with glutaredoxin reveals photooxidation. •The transient oxidation is rapidly reduced by the cytosolic antioxidant system. •Intracellular photooxidation is media-dependent. •Oxidation is triggered exclusively by exposure to short wavelength excitation. -- Abstract: We have implemented a ratiometric, genetically encoded redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein fused to human glutaredoxin (Grx1-roGFP2) to monitor real time intracellular glutathione redox potentials of mammalian cells. This probe enabled detection of media-dependent oxidation of the cytosol triggered by short wavelength excitation. The transient nature of light-induced oxidation was revealed by time-lapse live cell imaging when time intervals of less than 30 s were implemented. In contrast, transient ROS generation was not observed with the parental roGFP2 probe without Grx1, which exhibits slower thiol-disulfide exchange. These data demonstrate that the enhanced sensitivity of the Grx1-roGFP2 fusion protein enables the detection of short-lived ROS in living cells. The superior sensitivity of Grx1-roGFP2, however, also enhances responsiveness to environmental cues introducing a greater likelihood of false positive results during image acquisition

  17. Revealed Comparative Advantage of Services in Cariforum Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Freckleton

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la importancia de las exportaciones de servicios a los países del CARIFORUM no hay muchos estudios sobre de la competitividad de las exportaciones. Este artículo examina la ventaja comparativa revelada de las exportaciones de servicios de los países del CARIFORUM. El análisis muestra que la mayoría de los países del CARIFORUM han puesto de manifiesto las ventajas comparativas en el turismo, pero también hay casos de ventaja comparativa revelada en otros servicios como transporte, seguros y servicios empresariales, servicios personales, culturales y recreativos. Los resultados sugieren que existe un potencial de CARIFORUM para diversificar las exportaciones de servicios con el fin de pro-mover el crecimiento económico y reducir la vulnerabilidad. Sin embargo, en la medida en que los países del CARIFORUM pueden tomar ventaja de las oportunidades existentes de acceso al Mercado de los servicios depende de su capacidad de mejorar la capacidad de oferta de servicios y promover la competitividad de los servicios. English: Despite the importance of services ex-ports to CARIFORUM countries there is limited research on the competitiveness of such exports. This article examines the revealed comparative advantage of services exports in CARIFORUM countries. The analysis shows that most CARIFORUM countries have revealed comparative advantage in tourism but there are also cases of revealed comparative advantage in other services including transport, insurance, business services and personal, cultural and recreational services. The results suggest that there is potential for CARIFORUM to diversify exports of services in order to promote economic growth and reduce vulnerability. However, the extent to which CARIFORUM countries can take advantage of existing market access opportunities for services depends on their ability to improve the capacity to supply services and to promote the competitiveness of services.

  18. Dislocation Interactions in Olivine Revealed by HR-EBSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, David; Hansen, Lars N.; Britton, T. Ben; Wilkinson, Angus J.

    2017-10-01

    Interactions between dislocations potentially provide a control on strain rates produced by dislocation motion during creep of rocks at high temperatures. However, it has been difficult to establish the dominant types of interactions and their influence on the rheological properties of creeping rocks due to a lack of suitable observational techniques. We apply high-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction to map geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) density, elastic strain, and residual stress in experimentally deformed single crystals of olivine. Short-range interactions are revealed by cross correlation of GND density maps. Spatial correlations between dislocation types indicate that noncollinear interactions may impede motion of proximal dislocations at temperatures of 1000°C and 1200°C. Long-range interactions are revealed by autocorrelation of GND density maps. These analyses reveal periodic variations in GND density and sign, with characteristic length scales on the order of 1-10 μm. These structures are spatially associated with variations in elastic strain and residual stress on the order of 10-3 and 100 MPa, respectively. Therefore, short-range interactions generate local accumulations of dislocations, leading to heterogeneous internal stress fields that influence dislocation motion over longer length scales. The impacts of these short- and/or long-range interactions on dislocation velocities may therefore influence the strain rate of the bulk material and are an important consideration for future models of dislocation-mediated deformation mechanisms in olivine. Establishing the types and impacts of dislocation interactions that occur across a range of laboratory and natural deformation conditions will help to establish the reliability of extrapolating laboratory-derived flow laws to real Earth conditions.

  19. Genes but not genomes reveal bacterial domestication of Lactococcus lactis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Passerini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The population structure and diversity of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, a major industrial bacterium involved in milk fermentation, was determined at both gene and genome level. Seventy-six lactococcal isolates of various origins were studied by different genotyping methods and thirty-six strains displaying unique macrorestriction fingerprints were analyzed by a new multilocus sequence typing (MLST scheme. This gene-based analysis was compared to genomic characteristics determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The MLST analysis revealed that L. lactis subsp. lactis is essentially clonal with infrequent intra- and intergenic recombination; also, despite its taxonomical classification as a subspecies, it displays a genetic diversity as substantial as that within several other bacterial species. Genome-based analysis revealed a genome size variability of 20%, a value typical of bacteria inhabiting different ecological niches, and that suggests a large pan-genome for this subspecies. However, the genomic characteristics (macrorestriction pattern, genome or chromosome size, plasmid content did not correlate to the MLST-based phylogeny, with strains from the same sequence type (ST differing by up to 230 kb in genome size. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The gene-based phylogeny was not fully consistent with the traditional classification into dairy and non-dairy strains but supported a new classification based on ecological separation between "environmental" strains, the main contributors to the genetic diversity within the subspecies, and "domesticated" strains, subject to recent genetic bottlenecks. Comparison between gene- and genome-based analyses revealed little relationship between core and dispensable genome phylogenies, indicating that clonal diversification and phenotypic variability of the "domesticated" strains essentially arose through substantial genomic flux within the dispensable

  20. Malar Bone Metastasis Revealing a Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsen Slim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common form of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. It is generally confined to the neck with or without spread to regional lymph nodes. Metastatic thyroid carcinomas are uncommon and mainly include lung and bone. Metastases involving oral and maxillofacial region are extremely rare. We described a case of malar metastasis revealing a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, presenting with pain and swelling of the left cheek in a 67-years-old female patient with an unspecified histological left lobo-isthmectomy medical history. To our knowledge, this is the first recorded instance of a malar metastasis from a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  1. [Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage revealed by jaundice: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulmaati, A; Hays, S; Mory-Thomas, N; Bretones, P; Bensaid, M; Jordan, I; Bonfils, M; Godbert, I; Picaud, J-C

    2012-04-01

    The clinical presentation of adrenal hemorrhage varies, depending on the extent of hemorrhage as well as the amount of adrenal cortex involved by the hemorrhage. We report here a case of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage revealed by late onset of neonatal jaundice. This adrenal hemorrhage most probably resulted from shoulder dystocia. The aim of this work was to focus on the fact that jaundice can be caused by adrenal hemorrhage and to emphasize the crucial importance of abdominal ultrasound in cases of persistent jaundice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. A Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pleura Revealed by Hiccups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chafik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura are rare and benign primary localized tumors; they possess a malignant potential and thus should be excised. We report a case of a 43-year-old woman, who had suffered for 5 years from right basithoracic pain associated with progressive dyspnea and persistent hiccups during the last 6 months. We have not found any similar case in the literature. Further testing after excision by thoracotomy revealed a solitary fibrous pleural tumor. A brief discussion of the clinical presentation and incidence of these tumors is included.

  3. [Suicide -- an essay trying to reveal the theme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, M A; Boemer, M R

    2000-12-01

    This essay proposes to reveal facets of the suicide through the discourse of different authors treating this theme as well as through contacts that I was able to have in my nursing training, through my academic trajectory. This trajectory includes an incursion by phenomenological ideas, mainly by the ideas of Heidegger and his existential analysis of the man as being-there. In this way, the understanding of a person who decides to finalize his/her existence, can be, by the existential analysis perspective, a way to reconstruct and redimension his/her existential perspectives.

  4. Windows PowerShell desired state configuration revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Chaganti, Ravikanth

    2014-01-01

    Desired State Configuration (DSC) is a powerful new configuration management platform that makes it easier than ever to perform cross-platform configuration management of your infrastructure, whether on-premise or in the cloud. DSC provides the management platform and Application Programming Interface (API) that can be used with any programming language. Windows PowerShell Desired State Configuration Revealed will take you through this new technology from start to finish and demonstrates the DSC interfaces through Windows PowerShell. DSC allows you to manage target devices by simply declarin

  5. Desipramine inhibits histamine H1 receptor-induced Ca2+ signaling in rat hypothalamic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ah Kang

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus in the brain is the main center for appetite control and integrates signals from adipose tissue and the gastrointestinal tract. Antidepressants are known to modulate the activities of hypothalamic neurons and affect food intake, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which antidepressants modulate hypothalamic function remain unclear. Here we have investigated how hypothalamic neurons respond to treatment with antidepressants, including desipramine and sibutramine. In primary cultured rat hypothalamic cells, desipramine markedly suppressed the elevation of intracellular Ca(2+ evoked by histamine H1 receptor activation. Desipramine also inhibited the histamine-induced Ca(2+ increase and the expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone in hypothalamic GT1-1 cells. The effect of desipramine was not affected by pretreatment with prazosin or propranolol, excluding catecholamine reuptake activity of desipramine as an underlying mechanism. Sibutramine which is also an antidepressant but decreases food intake, had little effect on the histamine-induced Ca(2+ increase or AMP-activated protein kinase activity. Our results reveal that desipramine and sibutramine have different effects on histamine H1 receptor signaling in hypothalamic cells and suggest that distinct regulation of hypothalamic histamine signaling might underlie the differential regulation of food intake between antidepressants.

  6. Megacity precipitationsheds reveal tele-connected water security challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line J.

    2018-01-01

    Urbanization is a global process that has taken billions of people from the rural countryside to concentrated urban centers, adding pressure to existing water resources. Many cities are specifically reliant on renewable freshwater regularly refilled by precipitation, rather than fossil groundwater or desalination. A precipitationshed can be considered the “watershed of the sky” and identifies the origin of precipitation falling in a given region. In this paper, we use this concept to determine the sources of precipitation that supply renewable water in the watersheds of the largest cities of the world. We quantify the sources of precipitation for 29 megacities and analyze their differences between dry and wet years. Our results reveal that 19 of 29 megacities depend for more than a third of their water supply on evaporation from land. We also show that for many of the megacities, the terrestrial dependence is higher in dry years. This high dependence on terrestrial evaporation for their precipitation exposes these cities to potential land-use change that could reduce the evaporation that generates precipitation. Combining indicators of water stress, moisture recycling exposure, economic capacity, vegetation-regulated evaporation, land-use change, and dry-season moisture recycling sensitivity reveals four highly vulnerable megacities (Karachi, Shanghai, Wuhan, and Chongqing). A further six megacities were found to have medium vulnerability with regard to their water supply. We conclude that understanding how upwind landscapes affect downwind municipal water resources could be a key component for understanding the complexity of urban water security. PMID:29534109

  7. The new galaxy evolution paradigm revealed by the Herschel surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eales, Stephen; Smith, Dan; Bourne, Nathan; Loveday, Jon; Rowlands, Kate; van der Werf, Paul; Driver, Simon; Dunne, Loretta; Dye, Simon; Furlanetto, Cristina; Ivison, R. J.; Maddox, Steve; Robotham, Aaron; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Taylor, Edward N.; Valiante, Elisabetta; Wright, Angus; Cigan, Philip; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Jarvis, Matt J.; Marchetti, Lucia; Michałowski, Michał J.; Phillipps, Steven; Viaene, Sebastien; Vlahakis, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory has revealed a very different galaxyscape from that shown by optical surveys which presents a challenge for galaxy-evolution models. The Herschel surveys reveal (1) that there was rapid galaxy evolution in the very recent past and (2) that galaxies lie on a single Galaxy Sequence (GS) rather than a star-forming 'main sequence' and a separate region of 'passive' or 'red-and-dead' galaxies. The form of the GS is now clearer because far-infrared surveys such as the Herschel ATLAS pick up a population of optically red star-forming galaxies that would have been classified as passive using most optical criteria. The space-density of this population is at least as high as the traditional star-forming population. By stacking spectra of H-ATLAS galaxies over the redshift range 0.001 high stellar masses, high star-formation rates but, even several billion years in the past, old stellar populations - they are thus likely to be relatively recent ancestors of early-type galaxies in the Universe today. The form of the GS is inconsistent with rapid quenching models and neither the analytic bathtub model nor the hydrodynamical EAGLE simulation can reproduce the rapid cosmic evolution. We propose a new gentler model of galaxy evolution that can explain the new Herschel results and other key properties of the galaxy population.

  8. The microbiome of Brazilian mangrove sediments as revealed by metagenomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dini Andreote

    Full Text Available Here we embark in a deep metagenomic survey that revealed the taxonomic and potential metabolic pathways aspects of mangrove sediment microbiology. The extraction of DNA from sediment samples and the direct application of pyrosequencing resulted in approximately 215 Mb of data from four distinct mangrove areas (BrMgv01 to 04 in Brazil. The taxonomic approaches applied revealed the dominance of Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria in the samples. Paired statistical analysis showed higher proportions of specific taxonomic groups in each dataset. The metabolic reconstruction indicated the possible occurrence of processes modulated by the prevailing conditions found in mangrove sediments. In terms of carbon cycling, the sequences indicated the prevalence of genes involved in the metabolism of methane, formaldehyde, and carbon dioxide. With respect to the nitrogen cycle, evidence for sequences associated with dissimilatory reduction of nitrate, nitrogen immobilization, and denitrification was detected. Sequences related to the production of adenylsulfate, sulfite, and H(2S were relevant to the sulphur cycle. These data indicate that the microbial core involved in methane, nitrogen, and sulphur metabolism consists mainly of Burkholderiaceae, Planctomycetaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and Desulfobacteraceae. Comparison of our data to datasets from soil and sea samples resulted in the allotment of the mangrove sediments between those samples. The results of this study add valuable data about the composition of microbial communities in mangroves and also shed light on possible transformations promoted by microbial organisms in mangrove sediments.

  9. The microbiome of Brazilian mangrove sediments as revealed by metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreote, Fernando Dini; Jiménez, Diego Javier; Chaves, Diego; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Luvizotto, Danice Mazzer; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Fasanella, Cristiane Cipola; Lopez, Maryeimy Varon; Baena, Sandra; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; de Melo, Itamar Soares

    2012-01-01

    Here we embark in a deep metagenomic survey that revealed the taxonomic and potential metabolic pathways aspects of mangrove sediment microbiology. The extraction of DNA from sediment samples and the direct application of pyrosequencing resulted in approximately 215 Mb of data from four distinct mangrove areas (BrMgv01 to 04) in Brazil. The taxonomic approaches applied revealed the dominance of Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria in the samples. Paired statistical analysis showed higher proportions of specific taxonomic groups in each dataset. The metabolic reconstruction indicated the possible occurrence of processes modulated by the prevailing conditions found in mangrove sediments. In terms of carbon cycling, the sequences indicated the prevalence of genes involved in the metabolism of methane, formaldehyde, and carbon dioxide. With respect to the nitrogen cycle, evidence for sequences associated with dissimilatory reduction of nitrate, nitrogen immobilization, and denitrification was detected. Sequences related to the production of adenylsulfate, sulfite, and H(2)S were relevant to the sulphur cycle. These data indicate that the microbial core involved in methane, nitrogen, and sulphur metabolism consists mainly of Burkholderiaceae, Planctomycetaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and Desulfobacteraceae. Comparison of our data to datasets from soil and sea samples resulted in the allotment of the mangrove sediments between those samples. The results of this study add valuable data about the composition of microbial communities in mangroves and also shed light on possible transformations promoted by microbial organisms in mangrove sediments.

  10. [Research reveals a market for a veterinary behaviour clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheer-Sheehy, Valerie; Endenburg, Nienke

    2009-11-01

    An enquiry into the requirement of a university veterinary behaviour clinic in The Netherlands revealed that there is a clear call for such a service. The specific demands and wishes of first line practicing veterinarians and companion animal owners were investigated. The research revealed that veterinarians are regular confronted with behaviour problems in companion animals and that they are willing to refer these cases to the University. They also expressed their need for access to continuing professional development opportunities in the field of veterinary behavioural medicine (which is something that most veterinary behaviour clinics associated with veterinary faculties provide). The demand from companion animal owners was also examined. It can be concluded that a large number of them had animals with behaviour problems and that they were willing to seek veterinary advice on these matters. In response to the above mentioned demands the University of Utrecht will open a veterinary behaviour clinic, providing high quality service for animals, their owners and the referring veterinarians. This service will be based on sound scientific practice and delivered by both veterinarians specialised in this field and recognised animal behaviour therapists.

  11. King Lear Reveals the Tragic Pattern of Shakespeare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Eflih Al-Ibia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rather than focusing on the obvious traditions of evaluating Shakespearean tragic heroes, this paper presents a groundbreaking approach to unfold the pattern William Shakespeare follows as he designed his unique characters. This pattern applies to most, if not all, Shakespearean tragic heroes. I argue that Shakespeare himself reveals a great portion of this pattern on the tongue of Lear as the latter disowns Goneril and Regan promising to have “such revenges on [them] both” in King Lear. Lear’s threats bestow four unique aspects that apply not only to his character but they also apply to Shakespearean tragic heroes. Lear’s speech tells us that he is determined to have an awful type of revenge on his daughters. However, the very same speech tells us that he seems uncertain about the method through which he should carry out this revenge. Lear does not express any type of remorse as he pursues his vengeful plans nor should he aim at amnesty. He also admits his own madness as he closes his revealing speech. This research develops these facts about Lear to unfold the unique pattern Shakespeare follows as he portrayed his major tragic figures. This pattern is examined, described and analyzed in King Lear, Othello, and Hamlet. We will find out that the pattern suggested in this study helps us better understand Shakespeare’s tragedies and enables us to provide better explanations for some controversial scenes in the tragedies discussed.

  12. Gaussian graphical modeling reveals specific lipid correlations in glioblastoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Nikola S.; Krumsiek, Jan; Theis, Fabian J.; Böhm, Christian; Meyer-Bäse, Anke

    2011-06-01

    Advances in high-throughput measurements of biological specimens necessitate the development of biologically driven computational techniques. To understand the molecular level of many human diseases, such as cancer, lipid quantifications have been shown to offer an excellent opportunity to reveal disease-specific regulations. The data analysis of the cell lipidome, however, remains a challenging task and cannot be accomplished solely based on intuitive reasoning. We have developed a method to identify a lipid correlation network which is entirely disease-specific. A powerful method to correlate experimentally measured lipid levels across the various samples is a Gaussian Graphical Model (GGM), which is based on partial correlation coefficients. In contrast to regular Pearson correlations, partial correlations aim to identify only direct correlations while eliminating indirect associations. Conventional GGM calculations on the entire dataset can, however, not provide information on whether a correlation is truly disease-specific with respect to the disease samples and not a correlation of control samples. Thus, we implemented a novel differential GGM approach unraveling only the disease-specific correlations, and applied it to the lipidome of immortal Glioblastoma tumor cells. A large set of lipid species were measured by mass spectrometry in order to evaluate lipid remodeling as a result to a combination of perturbation of cells inducing programmed cell death, while the other perturbations served solely as biological controls. With the differential GGM, we were able to reveal Glioblastoma-specific lipid correlations to advance biomedical research on novel gene therapies.

  13. Membrane Protein Properties Revealed through Data-Rich Electrostatics Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoline, Frank V; Bethel, Neville; Guerriero, Christopher J; Brodsky, Jeffrey L; Grabe, Michael

    2015-08-04

    The electrostatic properties of membrane proteins often reveal many of their key biophysical characteristics, such as ion channel selectivity and the stability of charged membrane-spanning segments. The Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation is the gold standard for calculating protein electrostatics, and the software APBSmem enables the solution of the PB equation in the presence of a membrane. Here, we describe significant advances to APBSmem, including full automation of system setup, per-residue energy decomposition, incorporation of PDB2PQR, calculation of membrane-induced pKa shifts, calculation of non-polar energies, and command-line scripting for large-scale calculations. We highlight these new features with calculations carried out on a number of membrane proteins, including the recently solved structure of the ion channel TRPV1 and a large survey of 1,614 membrane proteins of known structure. This survey provides a comprehensive list of residues with large electrostatic penalties for being embedded in the membrane, potentially revealing interesting functional information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Economic choices reveal probability distortion in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, William R; Lak, Armin; Bossaerts, Peter; Schultz, Wolfram

    2015-02-18

    Economic choices are largely determined by two principal elements, reward value (utility) and probability. Although nonlinear utility functions have been acknowledged for centuries, nonlinear probability weighting (probability distortion) was only recently recognized as a ubiquitous aspect of real-world choice behavior. Even when outcome probabilities are known and acknowledged, human decision makers often overweight low probability outcomes and underweight high probability outcomes. Whereas recent studies measured utility functions and their corresponding neural correlates in monkeys, it is not known whether monkeys distort probability in a manner similar to humans. Therefore, we investigated economic choices in macaque monkeys for evidence of probability distortion. We trained two monkeys to predict reward from probabilistic gambles with constant outcome values (0.5 ml or nothing). The probability of winning was conveyed using explicit visual cues (sector stimuli). Choices between the gambles revealed that the monkeys used the explicit probability information to make meaningful decisions. Using these cues, we measured probability distortion from choices between the gambles and safe rewards. Parametric modeling of the choices revealed classic probability weighting functions with inverted-S shape. Therefore, the animals overweighted low probability rewards and underweighted high probability rewards. Empirical investigation of the behavior verified that the choices were best explained by a combination of nonlinear value and nonlinear probability distortion. Together, these results suggest that probability distortion may reflect evolutionarily preserved neuronal processing. Copyright © 2015 Stauffer et al.

  15. Enhanced limonene production in cyanobacteria reveals photosynthesis limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Wei; Xin, Changpeng; Zheng, Yi; Cheng, Yanbing; Sun, Su; Li, Runze; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Dai, Susie Y; Rentzepis, Peter M; Yuan, Joshua S

    2016-12-13

    Terpenes are the major secondary metabolites produced by plants, and have diverse industrial applications as pharmaceuticals, fragrance, solvents, and biofuels. Cyanobacteria are equipped with efficient carbon fixation mechanism, and are ideal cell factories to produce various fuel and chemical products. Past efforts to produce terpenes in photosynthetic organisms have gained only limited success. Here we engineered the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to efficiently produce limonene through modeling guided study. Computational modeling of limonene flux in response to photosynthetic output has revealed the downstream terpene synthase as a key metabolic flux-controlling node in the MEP (2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate) pathway-derived terpene biosynthesis. By enhancing the downstream limonene carbon sink, we achieved over 100-fold increase in limonene productivity, in contrast to the marginal increase achieved through stepwise metabolic engineering. The establishment of a strong limonene flux revealed potential synergy between photosynthate output and terpene biosynthesis, leading to enhanced carbon flux into the MEP pathway. Moreover, we show that enhanced limonene flux would lead to NADPH accumulation, and slow down photosynthesis electron flow. Fine-tuning ATP/NADPH toward terpene biosynthesis could be a key parameter to adapt photosynthesis to support biofuel/bioproduct production in cyanobacteria.

  16. Ananke: temporal clustering reveals ecological dynamics of microbial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Hall

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic markers such as the 16S ribosomal RNA gene are widely used in microbial community analysis. A common first step in marker-gene analysis is grouping genes into clusters to reduce data sets to a more manageable size and potentially mitigate the effects of sequencing error. Instead of clustering based on sequence identity, marker-gene data sets collected over time can be clustered based on temporal correlation to reveal ecologically meaningful associations. We present Ananke, a free and open-source algorithm and software package that complements existing sequence-identity-based clustering approaches by clustering marker-gene data based on time-series profiles and provides interactive visualization of clusters, including highlighting of internal OTU inconsistencies. Ananke is able to cluster distinct temporal patterns from simulations of multiple ecological patterns, such as periodic seasonal dynamics and organism appearances/disappearances. We apply our algorithm to two longitudinal marker gene data sets: faecal communities from the human gut of an individual sampled over one year, and communities from a freshwater lake sampled over eleven years. Within the gut, the segregation of the bacterial community around a food-poisoning event was immediately clear. In the freshwater lake, we found that high sequence identity between marker genes does not guarantee similar temporal dynamics, and Ananke time-series clusters revealed patterns obscured by clustering based on sequence identity or taxonomy. Ananke is free and open-source software available at https://github.com/beiko-lab/ananke.

  17. [Mutism and acute behavioral disorders revealing MELAS syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomans, H; Barroso, B; Bertandeau, E; Bonnan, M; Dakar, A; Demasles, S; Garraud, S; Krim, E; Martin-Négrier, M-L

    2011-11-01

    MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) is a rare genetic mitochondrial disease which can cause cerebral (cerebrovascular accident, migraine, mental deterioration..), sensorial (bilateral symmetrical deafness) and peripheral (muscular involvement, neuropathy) disorders potentially associated with diabetes, renal or cardiac disorders, or growth retardation. Eighty percent of the patients have the 3243 A>G mutation in the leucine RNA transfer gene. Clinical manifestations leading to discovery of the mutation can be extremely varied, affecting patients of different age groups. We report the case of a 49-year-old man who presented acute fits of confusion followed by mutism and praxic disorders. History taking revealed recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes, axonal neuropathy, and bilateral symmetrical deafness requiring hearing aids. The initial MRI showed FLAIR sequences with bi-parietal abnormalities, no signs of recent stroke on the DW/B10000 sequences, and basal ganglia calcifications. Blood tests and morphological findings ruled out a vascular origin. Search for lactic acidosis remained constantly negative in blood samples despite positive cerebrospinal fluid samples (N×3). The 3243 A>G mitochondrial DNA mutation was identified. The neuropsychological evaluation revealed a serious dysexecutive syndrome with a major impact on the patient's self sufficiency. Neurocognitive disorders are not common in MELAS syndrome. Brain MRI results and the presence of extra-neurological signs can be helpful for diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Differential metabolism of Mycoplasma species as revealed by their genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio B.M. Arraes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The annotation and comparative analyses of the genomes of Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma hyopneumonie, as well as of other Mollicutes (a group of bacteria devoid of a rigid cell wall, has set the grounds for a global understanding of their metabolism and infection mechanisms. According to the annotation data, M. synoviae and M. hyopneumoniae are able to perform glycolytic metabolism, but do not possess the enzymatic machinery for citrate and glyoxylate cycles, gluconeogenesis and the pentose phosphate pathway. Both can synthesize ATP by lactic fermentation, but only M. synoviae can convert acetaldehyde to acetate. Also, our genome analysis revealed that M. synoviae and M. hyopneumoniae are not expected to synthesize polysaccharides, but they can take up a variety of carbohydrates via the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PEP-PTS. Our data showed that these two organisms are unable to synthesize purine and pyrimidine de novo, since they only possess the sequences which encode salvage pathway enzymes. Comparative analyses of M. synoviae and M. hyopneumoniae with other Mollicutes have revealed differential genes in the former two genomes coding for enzymes that participate in carbohydrate, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism and host-pathogen interaction. The identification of these metabolic pathways will provide a better understanding of the biology and pathogenicity of these organisms.

  19. NeuCode Proteomics Reveals Bap1 Regulation of Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Baughman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce neutron-encoded (NeuCode amino acid labeling of mice as a strategy for multiplexed proteomic analysis in vivo. Using NeuCode, we characterize an inducible knockout mouse model of Bap1, a tumor suppressor and deubiquitinase whose in vivo roles outside of cancer are not well established. NeuCode proteomics revealed altered metabolic pathways following Bap1 deletion, including profound elevation of cholesterol biosynthetic machinery coincident with reduced expression of gluconeogenic and lipid homeostasis proteins in liver. Bap1 loss increased pancreatitis biomarkers and reduced expression of mitochondrial proteins. These alterations accompany a metabolic remodeling with hypoglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, hepatic lipid loss, and acinar cell degeneration. Liver-specific Bap1 null mice present with fully penetrant perinatal lethality, severe hypoglycemia, and hepatic lipid deficiency. This work reveals Bap1 as a metabolic regulator in liver and pancreas, and it establishes NeuCode as a reliable proteomic method for deciphering in vivo biology.

  20. A Survey of Electronic Serials Managers Reveals Diversity in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Costello

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Branscome, B. A. (2013. Management of electronic serials in academic libraries: The results of an online survey. Serials Review, 39(4, 216-226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.serrev.2013.10.004 Abstract Objective – To examine industry standards for the management of electronic serials and measure the adoption of electronic serials over print. Design – Survey questionnaire. Setting – Email lists aimed at academic librarians working in serials management. Subjects – 195 self-selected subscribers to serials email lists. Methods – The author created a 20 question survey that consisted primarily of closed-ended questions pertaining to the collection demographics, staff, budget, and tools of serials management groups in academic libraries. The survey was conducted via Survey Monkey and examined using the analytical features of the tool. Participants remained anonymous and the survey questions did not ask them to reveal identifiable information about their libraries. Main Results – Collection demographics questions revealed that 78% of surveyed librarians estimated that print-only collections represented 40% or fewer of their serials holdings. The author observed diversity in the factors that influence print to digital transitions in academic libraries. However 71.5% of participants indicated that publisher technology support like IP authentication was required before adopting digital subscriptions. A lack of standardization also marked serials workflows, department responsibilities, and department titles. The author did not find a correlation between serials budget and the enrollment size of the institution. Participants reported that they used tools from popular serials management vendors like Serials Solutions, Innovative Interfaces, EBSCO, and Ex Libris, but most indicated that they used more than one tool for serials management. Participants specified 52 unique serials management products used in their libraries. Conclusion

  1. Diffusion Tensor Tractography Reveals Disrupted Structural Connectivity during Brain Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan; Tian, Miao; Wang, Qi; Wu, Shuicai

    2017-10-01

    Brain aging is one of the most crucial biological processes that entail many physical, biological, chemical, and psychological changes, and also a major risk factor for most common neurodegenerative diseases. To improve the quality of life for the elderly, it is important to understand how the brain is changed during the normal aging process. We compared diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based brain networks in a cohort of 75 healthy old subjects by using graph theory metrics to describe the anatomical networks and connectivity patterns, and network-based statistic (NBS) analysis was used to identify pairs of regions with altered structural connectivity. The NBS analysis revealed a significant network comprising nine distinct fiber bundles linking 10 different brain regions showed altered white matter structures in young-old group compare with middle-aged group (p < .05, family-wise error-corrected). Our results might guide future studies and help to gain a better understanding of brain aging.

  2. Principles of Chromosome Architecture Revealed by Hi-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagen, Kyle P

    2018-06-01

    Chromosomes are folded and compacted in interphase nuclei, but the molecular basis of this folding is poorly understood. Chromosome conformation capture methods, such as Hi-C, combine chemical crosslinking of chromatin with fragmentation, DNA ligation, and high-throughput DNA sequencing to detect neighboring loci genome-wide. Hi-C has revealed the segregation of chromatin into active and inactive compartments and the folding of DNA into self-associating domains and loops. Depletion of CTCF, cohesin, or cohesin-associated proteins was recently shown to affect the majority of domains and loops in a manner that is consistent with a model of DNA folding through extrusion of chromatin loops. Compartmentation was not dependent on CTCF or cohesin. Hi-C contact maps represent the superimposition of CTCF/cohesin-dependent and -independent folding states. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The hand of birds revealed by early ostrich embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduccia, Alan; Nowicki, Julie

    2002-08-01

    The problem of resolving the homology of the digits of the avian hand has been framed as a conflict between paleontological and embryological evidence, the former thought to support a hand composed of digits I, II, III, because of similarity of the phalangeal formulae of the earliest known bird Archaeopteryx to that of Mesozoic pentadactyl archosaurs, while embryological evidence has traditionally favored a II, III, IV avian hand. We have identified the critical developmental period for the major features of the avian skeleton in a primitive bird, the ostrich. Analysis of digit anlagen in the avian hand has revealed those for digits/metacarpals I and V, thus confirming previous embryological studies that indirectly suggested that the avian hand comprises digits II, III, IV, and was primitively pentadactyl.

  4. Dinosaurs reveal the geographical signature of an evolutionary radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Ciara; Meade, Andrew; Venditti, Chris

    2018-03-01

    Dinosaurs dominated terrestrial ecosystems across the globe for over 100 million years and provide a classic example of an evolutionary radiation. However, little is known about how these animals radiated geographically to become globally distributed. Here, we use a biogeographical model to reconstruct the dinosaurs' ancestral locations, revealing the spatial mechanisms that underpinned this 170-million-year-long radiation. We find that dinosaurs spread rapidly initially, followed by a significant continuous and gradual reduction in their speed of movement towards the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary (66 million years ago). This suggests that the predominant mode of dinosaur speciation changed through time with speciation originally largely driven by geographical isolation-when dinosaurs speciated more, they moved further. This was gradually replaced by increasing levels of sympatric speciation (species taking advantage of ecological opportunities within their existing environment) as terrestrial space became a limiting factor. Our results uncover the geographical signature of an evolutionary radiation.

  5. Bibliometric Analyses Reveal Patterns of Collaboration between ASMS Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmblad, Magnus; van Eck, Nees Jan

    2018-03-01

    We have explored the collaborative network of the current American Society for Mass Spectrometry (ASMS) membership using bibliometric methods. The analysis shows that 4249 members are connected in a single, large, co-authorship graph, including the majority of the most published authors in the field of mass spectrometry. The map reveals topographical differences between university groups and national laboratories, and that the co-authors with the strongest links have long worked together at the same location. We have collected and summarized information on the geographical distribution of members, showing a high coverage of active researchers in North America and Western Europe. Looking at research fields, we could also identify a number of new or `hot' topics among ASMS members. Interactive versions of the maps are available on-line at https://goo.gl/UBNFMQ (collaborative network) and https://goo.gl/WV25vm (research topics). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. [Clinical case of acute renal failure revealing an autoimmune hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montasser, Dina Ibrahim; Hassani, Mohamed; Zajjari, Yassir; Bahadi, Abdelali; Alayoud, Ahmed; Hamzi, Amine; Hassani, Kawtar; Moujoud, Omar; Asseraji, Mohamed; Kadiri, Moncif; Aatif, Taoufik; El Kabbaj, Driss; Benyahia, Mohamed; Allam, Mustapha; Akhmouch, Ismail; Oualim, Zouhir

    2010-04-01

    Although the clinic picture is often indicative of muscle manifestations in patients with hypothyroidism, signs and symptoms of this condition are variable from simple elevation of serum muscle enzymes with myalgia, muscle weakness, cramps to rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure which remains a rare event. Thyroid hormones affect the function of almost every body organ, and thyroid dysfunction produces a wide range of metabolic disturbances. Hypothyroidism is associated with significant effects on the kidney which the pathophysiology seems to be multifactorial, but the exact mechanisms remain poorly understood. Hypothyroidism as a cause of renal impairment is usually overlooked, leading to unnecessary diagnostic procedures. The main objective of our observation is to report a case of acute renal failure revealing an autoimmune hypothyroidism in which thyroid hormone substitution led to a significant improvement in muscular, thyroid and renal disorders. Copyright 2010 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Deciphering CAPTCHAs: what a Turing test reveals about human cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hannagan

    Full Text Available Turning Turing's logic on its head, we used widespread letter-based Turing Tests found on the internet (CAPTCHAs to shed light on human cognition. We examined the basis of the human ability to solve CAPTCHAs, where machines fail. We asked whether this is due to our use of slow-acting inferential processes that would not be available to machines, or whether fast-acting automatic orthographic processing in humans has superior robustness to shape variations. A masked priming lexical decision experiment revealed efficient processing of CAPTCHA words in conditions that rule out the use of slow inferential processing. This shows that the human superiority in solving CAPTCHAs builds on a high degree of invariance to location and continuous transforms, which is achieved during the very early stages of visual word recognition in skilled readers.

  8. Adipsic diabetes insipidus revealing a bifocal intracranial germinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, Julie; Potorac, Iulia; Lutteri, Laurence; Gennigens, Christine; Martin, Didier; Daly, Adrian F; Bonneville, Jean-Francois; Tshibanda, Luaba; Beckers, Albert

    2017-07-01

    Adipsic diabetes insipidus is a rare complication of intracranial tumors in which impaired antidiuretic hormone secretion is associated with the loss of thirst sensation. Here, we present the case of a patient with bifocal intracranial germinoma, diagnosed due to symptoms mainly caused by adipsic diabetes insipidus. This is, to our knowledge, the first case of adipsic diabetes insipidus revealing an intracranial germinoma reported in the literature. We describe the diagnostic procedures and the three-year follow-up of this patient. Management of intracranial germ-cell tumors is made complex by the wide range of histological features. Although germinomas have a generally better prognosis than most nongerminomatous tumors, they can have severe or even life-threatening presentations. Adipsic diabetes insipidus is one such severe presentation and its rarity can make it difficult to recognize and manage. Awareness of this potential entity is therefore important for clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye; Li, Bo; Larkin, Denis M.; Lee, Chul; Storz, Jay F.; Antunes, Agostinho; Greenwold, Matthew J.; Meredith, Robert W.; Ödeen, Anders; Cui, Jie; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Luohao; Pan, Hailin; Wang, Zongji; Jin, Lijun; Zhang, Pei; Hu, Haofu; Yang, Wei; Hu, Jiang; Xiao, Jin; Yang, Zhikai; Liu, Yang; Xie, Qiaolin; Yu, Hao; Lian, Jinmin; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Fang; Li, Hui; Zeng, Yongli; Xiong, Zijun; Liu, Shiping; Zhou, Long; Huang, Zhiyong; An, Na; Wang, Jie; Zheng, Qiumei; Xiong, Yingqi; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Bo; Wang, Jingjing; Fan, Yu; da Fonseca, Rute R.; Alfaro-Núñez, Alonzo; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic; Mourier, Tobias; Howard, Jason T.; Ganapathy, Ganeshkumar; Pfenning, Andreas; Whitney, Osceola; Rivas, Miriam V.; Hara, Erina; Smith, Julia; Farré, Marta; Narayan, Jitendra; Slavov, Gancho; Romanov, Michael N; Borges, Rui; Machado, João Paulo; Khan, Imran; Springer, Mark S.; Gatesy, John; Hoffmann, Federico G.; Opazo, Juan C.; Håstad, Olle; Sawyer, Roger H.; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Li, Ning; Huang, Yinhua; Bruford, Michael W.; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Dixon, Andrew; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Derryberry, Elizabeth; Warren, Wesley; Wilson, Richard K; Li, Shengbin; Ray, David A.; Green, Richard E.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Griffin, Darren; Johnson, Warren E.; Haussler, David; Ryder, Oliver A.; Willerslev, Eske; Graves, Gary R.; Alström, Per; Fjeldså, Jon; Mindell, David P.; Edwards, Scott V.; Braun, Edward L.; Rahbek, Carsten; Burt, David W.; Houde, Peter; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Jarvis, Erich D.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits. PMID:25504712

  10. Heat islands over Mumbai as revealed by autorecorded thermograph data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A. K.; Voogt, James; Kshirsagar, S. R.; Srivastava, Kavita

    2016-02-01

    This study examined hourly temperature data of two locations of Mumbai metropolitan city. One data point (Coloba, Mumbai) is in centre of the city and the other one (Santacruz, Mumbai) is at the airport. The study finds that there were many occasions when night-time hourly temperatures over the city centre were considerably higher than that of the airport, even though temperature at the time of sunset at both the places was nearly same. In this study, the occasions, when hourly night-time temperature over city was more than that of the airport by objectively defined threshold value (3.0 ∘C in this study) for most of the hours in the night, were termed as heat island events. Analysis of the study reveals that these events are mostly confined to November-February months. The study also found that frequency of such events has doubled in recent two decades in comparison to the earlier two decades.

  11. High-frequency microrheology reveals cytoskeleton dynamics in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigato, Annafrancesca; Miyagi, Atsushi; Scheuring, Simon; Rico, Felix

    2017-08-01

    Living cells are viscoelastic materials, dominated by an elastic response on timescales longer than a millisecond. On shorter timescales, the dynamics of individual cytoskeleton filaments are expected to emerge, but active microrheology measurements on cells accessing this regime are scarce. Here, we develop high-frequency microrheology experiments to probe the viscoelastic response of living cells from 1 Hz to 100 kHz. We report the viscoelasticity of different cell types under cytoskeletal drug treatments. On previously inaccessible short timescales, cells exhibit rich viscoelastic responses that depend on the state of the cytoskeleton. Benign and malignant cancer cells revealed remarkably different scaling laws at high frequencies, providing a unique mechanical fingerprint. Microrheology over a wide dynamic range--up to the frequency characterizing the molecular components--provides a mechanistic understanding of cell mechanics.

  12. Biosensor reveals multiple sources for mitochondrial NAD⁺.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambronne, Xiaolu A; Stewart, Melissa L; Kim, DongHo; Jones-Brunette, Amber M; Morgan, Rory K; Farrens, David L; Cohen, Michael S; Goodman, Richard H

    2016-06-17

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is an essential substrate for sirtuins and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerases (PARPs), which are NAD(+)-consuming enzymes localized in the nucleus, cytosol, and mitochondria. Fluctuations in NAD(+) concentrations within these subcellular compartments are thought to regulate the activity of NAD(+)-consuming enzymes; however, the challenge in measuring compartmentalized NAD(+) in cells has precluded direct evidence for this type of regulation. We describe the development of a genetically encoded fluorescent biosensor for directly monitoring free NAD(+) concentrations in subcellular compartments. We found that the concentrations of free NAD(+) in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondria approximate the Michaelis constants for sirtuins and PARPs in their respective compartments. Systematic depletion of enzymes that catalyze the final step of NAD(+) biosynthesis revealed cell-specific mechanisms for maintaining mitochondrial NAD(+) concentrations. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. [Thoracic aortic dissection revealed by systemic cholesterol embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braem, L; Paule, P; Héno, P; Morand, J J; Mafart, B; La Folie, T; Varlet, P; Mioulet, D; Fourcade, L

    2006-10-01

    Systemic cholesterol embolism is a rare complication of atherosclerosis, and has various presentations. Arterial catheterisms are a common cause. However, the association with an aortic dissection has been exceptionally reported. We report the observation of a 70 year-old man, with coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. Six months before hospitalization, a coronary angioplasty was performed due to recurrent angina. The association of purpuric lesions on the feet, with acute renal failure confirmed cholesterol embolism syndrome. Transoesophageal echocardiography showed a dissection of the descending thoracic aorta associated with complex atheroma. The evolution was marked by the pulpar necrosis of a toe and by a worsening of the renal failure, requiring definitive hemodialysis. Further echographic control highlighted the rupture of the intimal veil of the dissection. Cholesterol embolism syndrome may reveal an aortic dissection in patients without thoracic symptoms. In such cases, transoesophageal echocardiography is a useful and non-invasive examination.

  14. Between Concealing and Revealing Intersexed Bodies: Parental Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danon, Limor Meoded; Krämer, Anike

    2017-08-01

    Parents of intersex children are perceived in many studies as hopeless, highly dependent on the medical system, and as gate keepers of normative gendered bodies. In this article, we challenge these perceptions and argue that parents of intersex children are problematically positioned between their children's needs for care and well-being and the socialmedical forces that aim to "normalize" them. Their in-between position leads them to establish different parental strategies within and outside of traditional sex/gender norms. We focus on three intertwined parental strategy frameworks: bodily dialogue, sex/gender framing, and concealing/revealing practices, and describe how, in each of these strategic frameworks, the parents maneuver, act in accordance with or against, react to, and challenge the medical system, social interactions, and the sex/gender paradigm. This is a comparative study based on narrative interviews with 22 parents of intersex children in Germany and Israel.

  15. Metabolomics reveals metabolic biomarkers of Crohn's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, J.K.; Willing, B.; Lucio, M.; Fekete, A.; Dicksved, J.; Halfvarson, J.; Tysk, C.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.

    2009-06-01

    The causes and etiology of Crohn's disease (CD) are currently unknown although both host genetics and environmental factors play a role. Here we used non-targeted metabolic profiling to determine the contribution of metabolites produced by the gut microbiota towards disease status of the host. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (ICR-FT/MS) was used to discern the masses of thousands of metabolites in fecal samples collected from 17 identical twin pairs, including healthy individuals and those with CD. Pathways with differentiating metabolites included those involved in the metabolism and or synthesis of amino acids, fatty acids, bile acids and arachidonic acid. Several metabolites were positively or negatively correlated to the disease phenotype and to specific microbes previously characterized in the same samples. Our data reveal novel differentiating metabolites for CD that may provide diagnostic biomarkers and/or monitoring tools as well as insight into potential targets for disease therapy and prevention.

  16. Revealing low-energy part of the beta spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, S.; Celiktas, C.

    2002-01-01

    An effective method is proposed to separate electronic noise from the beta-particle spectra revealing lower energy part of the spectra. The available methods for reducing the noise problem cut the noise along with the low-energy part of the beta spectra by using a discriminator. Our setup eliminates this undesirable effect by shifting the noise toward the lowest energy scale leaving the low-energy part of spectra undisturbed. We achieved this noise-pulse-separation by treating the noise as a pulse so that we can exploit the application of the pulse-shape analyzer equipment used for pulse shape identification of particles and rejection of defective pulses. To the best of our knowledge this method of the noise separation is a novel approach

  17. Tyrannosauroid integument reveals conflicting patterns of gigantism and feather evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Phil R; Campione, Nicolás E; Persons, W Scott; Currie, Philip J; Larson, Peter L; Tanke, Darren H; Bakker, Robert T

    2017-06-01

    Recent evidence for feathers in theropods has led to speculations that the largest tyrannosaurids, including Tyrannosaurus rex , were extensively feathered. We describe fossil integument from Tyrannosaurus and other tyrannosaurids ( Albertosaurus, Daspletosaurus, Gorgosaurus and Tarbosaurus ), confirming that these large-bodied forms possessed scaly, reptilian-like skin. Body size evolution in tyrannosauroids reveals two independent occurrences of gigantism; specifically, the large sizes in Yutyrannus and tyrannosaurids were independently derived. These new findings demonstrate that extensive feather coverings observed in some early tyrannosauroids were lost by the Albian, basal to Tyrannosauridae. This loss is unrelated to palaeoclimate but possibly tied to the evolution of gigantism, although other mechanisms exist. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; Skoglund, Pontus; Graf, Kelly E.

    2014-01-01

    ,000-year-old individual (MA-1), from Mal'ta in south-central Siberia, to an average depth of 1×. To our knowledge this is the oldest anatomically modern human genome reported to date. The MA-1 mitochondrial genome belongs to haplogroup U, which has also been found at high frequency among Upper Palaeolithic......The origins of the First Americans remain contentious. Although Native Americans seem to be genetically most closely related to east Asians, there is no consensus with regard to which specific Old World populations they are closest to. Here we sequence the draft genome of an approximately 24...... that the region was continuously occupied by humans throughout the Last Glacial Maximum. Our findings reveal that western Eurasian genetic signatures in modern-day Native Americans derive not only from post-Columbian admixture, as commonly thought, but also from a mixed ancestry of the First Americans....

  19. Core-level photoemission revealing the Mott transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeong-Do; Noh, Han-Jin; Kim, K.H.; Oh, S.-J.

    2005-01-01

    Ru 3d core-level X-ray photoemission spectra of various ruthenates are examined. They show in general two-peak structures, which can be assigned as the screened and unscreened peaks. The screened peak is absent in a Mott insulator, but develops into a main peak as the correlation strength becomes weak. This spectral behavior is well explained by the dynamical mean-field theory calculation for the single-band Hubbard model with the on-site core-hole potential using the exact diagonalization method. The new mechanism of the core-level photoemission satellite can be utilized to reveal the Mott transition phenomenon in various strongly correlated electron systems

  20. Revealing Tripartite Quantum Discord with Tripartite Information Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ting Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A new measure based on the tripartite information diagram is proposed for identifying quantum discord in tripartite systems. The proposed measure generalizes the mutual information underlying discord from bipartite to tripartite systems, and utilizes both one-particle and two-particle projective measurements to reveal the characteristics of the tripartite quantum discord. The feasibility of the proposed measure is demonstrated by evaluating the tripartite quantum discord for systems with states close to Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger, W, and biseparable states. In addition, the connections between tripartite quantum discord and two other quantum correlations—namely genuine tripartite entanglement and genuine tripartite Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen steering—are briefly discussed. The present study considers the case of quantum discord in tripartite systems. However, the proposed framework can be readily extended to general N-partite systems.

  1. Single Turnover at Molecular Polymerization Catalysts Reveals Spatiotemporally Resolved Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Quinn T; Blum, Suzanne A

    2017-10-23

    Multiple active individual molecular ruthenium catalysts have been pinpointed within growing polynorbornene, thereby revealing information on the reaction dynamics and location that is unavailable through traditional ensemble experiments. This is the first single-turnover imaging of a molecular catalyst by fluorescence microscopy and allows detection of individual monomer reactions at an industrially important molecular ruthenium ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) catalyst under synthetically relevant conditions (e.g. unmodified industrial catalyst, ambient pressure, condensed phase, ca. 0.03 m monomer). These results further establish the key fundamentals of this imaging technique for characterizing the reactivity and location of active molecular catalysts even when they are the minor components. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. ID-Check: Online Concealed Information Test Reveals True Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuere, Bruno; Kleinberg, Bennett

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has already changed people's lives considerably and is likely to drastically change forensic research. We developed a web-based test to reveal concealed autobiographical information. Initial studies identified a number of conditions that affect diagnostic efficiency. By combining these moderators, this study investigated the full potential of the online ID-check. Participants (n = 101) tried to hide their identity and claimed a false identity in a reaction time-based Concealed Information Test. Half of the participants were presented with personal details (e.g., first name, last name, birthday), whereas the others only saw irrelevant details. Results showed that participants' true identity could be detected with high accuracy (AUC = 0.98; overall accuracy: 86-94%). Online memory detection can reliably and validly detect whether someone is hiding their true identity. This suggests that online memory detection might become a valuable tool for forensic applications. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. The ecological origins of snakes as revealed by skull evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Filipe O; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Savriama, Yoland; Ollonen, Joni; Mahlow, Kristin; Herrel, Anthony; Müller, Johannes; Di-Poï, Nicolas

    2018-01-25

    The ecological origin of snakes remains amongst the most controversial topics in evolution, with three competing hypotheses: fossorial; marine; or terrestrial. Here we use a geometric morphometric approach integrating ecological, phylogenetic, paleontological, and developmental data for building models of skull shape and size evolution and developmental rate changes in squamates. Our large-scale data reveal that whereas the most recent common ancestor of crown snakes had a small skull with a shape undeniably adapted for fossoriality, all snakes plus their sister group derive from a surface-terrestrial form with non-fossorial behavior, thus redirecting the debate toward an underexplored evolutionary scenario. Our comprehensive heterochrony analyses further indicate that snakes later evolved novel craniofacial specializations through global acceleration of skull development. These results highlight the importance of the interplay between natural selection and developmental processes in snake origin and diversification, leading first to invasion of a new habitat and then to subsequent ecological radiations.

  4. Inheritance Patterns in Citation Networks Reveal Scientific Memes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Kuhn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Memes are the cultural equivalent of genes that spread across human culture by means of imitation. What makes a meme and what distinguishes it from other forms of information, however, is still poorly understood. Our analysis of memes in the scientific literature reveals that they are governed by a surprisingly simple relationship between frequency of occurrence and the degree to which they propagate along the citation graph. We propose a simple formalization of this pattern and validate it with data from close to 50 million publication records from the Web of Science, PubMed Central, and the American Physical Society. Evaluations relying on human annotators, citation network randomizations, and comparisons with several alternative approaches confirm that our formula is accurate and effective, without a dependence on linguistic or ontological knowledge and without the application of arbitrary thresholds or filters.

  5. Inheritance Patterns in Citation Networks Reveal Scientific Memes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Tobias; Perc, Matjaž; Helbing, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    Memes are the cultural equivalent of genes that spread across human culture by means of imitation. What makes a meme and what distinguishes it from other forms of information, however, is still poorly understood. Our analysis of memes in the scientific literature reveals that they are governed by a surprisingly simple relationship between frequency of occurrence and the degree to which they propagate along the citation graph. We propose a simple formalization of this pattern and validate it with data from close to 50 million publication records from the Web of Science, PubMed Central, and the American Physical Society. Evaluations relying on human annotators, citation network randomizations, and comparisons with several alternative approaches confirm that our formula is accurate and effective, without a dependence on linguistic or ontological knowledge and without the application of arbitrary thresholds or filters.

  6. Conformational changes in DNA gyrase revealed by limited proteolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampranis, S C; Maxwell, A

    1998-01-01

    We have used limited proteolysis to identify conformational changes in DNA gyrase. Gyrase exhibits a proteolytic fingerprint dominated by two fragments, one of approximately 62 kDa, deriving from the A protein, and another of approximately 25 kDa from the B protein. Quinolone binding to the enzyme......-DNA intermediate by calcium ions does not reveal any protection, suggesting that the quinolone-induced conformational change is different from an "open-gate" state of the enzyme. A quinolone-resistant mutant of gyrase fails to give the characteristic quinolone-associated proteolytic signature. The ATP...... does not prevent dimerization since incubation of the enzyme-DNA complex with both ADPNP and quinolones gives rise to a complex whose proteolytic pattern retains the characteristic signature of dimerization but has lost the quinolone-induced protection. As a result, the quinolone-gyrase complex can...

  7. Transcriptomic variation in a coral reveals pathways of clonal organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    K Bay, Line; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard

    2009-01-01

    A microarray study was undertaken to examine the potential for clonal gene expression variation in a branching reef building coral, Acropora millepora. The role of small-scale gradients in light and water flow was examined by comparing gene expression levels between branch elevation (tip and base......) and position (centre and edge) of replicate coral colonies (n=3). Analyses of variance revealed that almost 60% of variation in gene expression was present between colonies and 34 genes were considered differentially expressed between colonies (minimum P=6.5 x 10(-4)). These genes are associated with energy...... of corymbose-like branching coral colonies such as A. millepora. Four genes were differentially expressed between the tip and base of branches (P=3.239 x 10(-4)) and were associated with lysosome lipase activity and fluorescence, suggesting that branch tips may encounter higher pathogen loads or levels...

  8. CW EPR parameters reveal cytochrome P450 ligand binding modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockart, Molly M; Rodriguez, Carlo A; Atkins, William M; Bowman, Michael K

    2018-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monoxygenses utilize heme cofactors to catalyze oxidation reactions. They play a critical role in metabolism of many classes of drugs, are an attractive target for drug development, and mediate several prominent drug interactions. Many substrates and inhibitors alter the spin state of the ferric heme by displacing the heme's axial water ligand in the resting enzyme to yield a five-coordinate iron complex, or they replace the axial water to yield a nitrogen-ligated six-coordinate iron complex, which are traditionally assigned by UV-vis spectroscopy. However, crystal structures and recent pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies find a few cases where molecules hydrogen bond to the axial water. The water-bridged drug-H 2 O-heme has UV-vis spectra similar to nitrogen-ligated, six-coordinate complexes, but are closer to "reverse type I" complexes described in older liteature. Here, pulsed and continuous wave (CW) EPR demonstrate that water-bridged complexes are remarkably common among a range of nitrogenous drugs or drug fragments that bind to CYP3A4 or CYP2C9. Principal component analysis reveals a distinct clustering of CW EPR spectral parameters for water-bridged complexes. CW EPR reveals heterogeneous mixtures of ligated states, including multiple directly-coordinated complexes and water-bridged complexes. These results suggest that water-bridged complexes are under-represented in CYP structural databases and can have energies similar to other ligation modes. The data indicates that water-bridged binding modes can be identified and distinguished from directly-coordinated binding by CW EPR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cyp1a reporter zebrafish reveals target tissues for dioxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun-Hee [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hye-Jeong [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hee [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suhyun [Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Williams, Darren R. [New Drug Targets Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myeong-Kyu [Department of Neurology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young Do [Department of Biochemistry, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Teraoka, Hiroki [School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu (Japan); Park, Hae-Chul [Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Choy, Hyon E., E-mail: hyonchoy@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Boo Ahn, E-mail: bashin@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seok-Yong, E-mail: zebrafish@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); School of Biological Sciences and Technology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: •2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the most toxic anthropogenic substance ever identified. •Transgenic cyp1a reporter zebrafish reveals target tissues for TCDD. •The retinal bipolar cells, otic vesicle, lateral line, pancreas, cloaca and pectoral fin bud are novel targets in zebrafish for TCDD. •Our findings will further understanding of human health risks by TCDD. -- Abstract: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the unintentional byproduct of various industrial processes, is classified as human carcinogen and could disrupt reproductive, developmental and endocrine systems. Induction of cyp1a1 is used as an indicator of TCDD exposure. We sought to determine tissues that are vulnerable to TCDD toxicity using a transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. We inserted a nuclear enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (EGFP) into the start codon of a zebrafish cyp1a gene in a fosmid clone using DNA recombineering. The resulting recombineered fosmid was then used to generate cyp1a reporter zebrafish, embryos of which were exposed to TCDD. Expression pattern of EGFP in the reporter zebrafish mirrored that of endogenous cyp1a mRNA. In addition, exposure of the embryos to TCDD at as low as 10 pM for 72 h, which does not elicit morphological abnormalities of embryos, markedly increased GFP expression. Furthermore, the reporter embryos responded to other AhR ligands as well. Exposure of the embryos to TCDD revealed previously reported (the cardiovascular system, liver, pancreas, kidney, swim bladder and skin) and unreported target tissues (retinal bipolar cells, otic vesicle, lateral line, cloaca and pectoral fin bud) for TCDD. Transgenic cyp1a reporter zebrafish we have developed can further understanding of ecotoxicological relevance and human health risks by TCDD. In addition, they could be used to identify agonists of AhR and antidotes to TCDD toxicity.

  10. Eye movement monitoring reveals differential influences of emotion on memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Riggs

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that memory for emotional aspects of an event may be enhanced at the cost of impaired memory for surrounding peripheral details. However, this has only been assessed directly via verbal reports which reveal the outcome of a long stream of processing but cannot shed light on how/when emotion may affect the retrieval process. In the present experiment, eye movement monitoring was used as an indirect measure of memory as it can reveal aspects of online memory processing. For example, do emotions modulate the nature of memory representations or the speed with which such memories can be accessed? Participants viewed central negative and neutral scenes surrounded by three neutral objects and after a brief delay, memory was assessed indirectly via eye movement monitoring and then directly via verbal reports. Consistent with the previous literature, emotion enhanced central and impaired peripheral memory as indexed by eye movement scanning and verbal reports. This suggests that eye movement scanning may contribute and/or is related to conscious access of memory. However, the central/peripheral tradeoff effect was not observed in an early measure of eye movement behavior, i.e. participants were faster to orient to a critical region of change in the periphery irrespective of whether it was previously studied in a negative or neutral context. These findings demonstrate emotion’s differential influences on different aspects of retrieval. In particular, emotion appears to affect the detail within, and/or the evaluation of, stored memory representations, but it may not affect the initial access to those representations.

  11. Comparative genomics of neuroglobin reveals its early origins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Dröge

    Full Text Available Neuroglobin (Ngb is a hexacoordinated globin expressed mainly in the central and peripheral nervous system of vertebrates. Although several hypotheses have been put forward regarding the role of neuroglobin, its definite function remains uncertain. Ngb appears to have a neuro-protective role enhancing cell viability under hypoxia and other types of oxidative stress. Ngb is phylogenetically ancient and has a substitution rate nearly four times lower than that of other vertebrate globins, e.g. hemoglobin. Despite its high sequence conservation among vertebrates Ngb seems to be elusive in invertebrates.We determined candidate orthologs in invertebrates and identified a globin of the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens that is most likely orthologous to vertebrate Ngb and confirmed the orthologous relationship of the polymeric globin of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus to Ngb. The putative orthologous globin genes are located next to genes orthologous to vertebrate POMT2 similarly to localization of vertebrate Ngb. The shared syntenic position of the globins from Trichoplax, the sea urchin and of vertebrate Ngb strongly suggests that they are orthologous. A search for conserved transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs in the promoter regions of the Ngb genes of different vertebrates via phylogenetic footprinting revealed several TFBSs, which may contribute to the specific expression of Ngb, whereas a comparative analysis with myoglobin revealed several common TFBSs, suggestive of regulatory mechanisms common to globin genes.Identification of the placozoan and echinoderm genes orthologous to vertebrate neuroglobin strongly supports the hypothesis of the early evolutionary origin of this globin, as it shows that neuroglobin was already present in the placozoan-bilaterian last common ancestor. Computational determination of the transcription factor binding sites repertoire provides on the one hand a set of transcriptional factors that are

  12. A Network Based Methodology to Reveal Patterns in Knowledge Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando López-Cruz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper motivates, presents and demonstrates in use a methodology based in complex network analysis to support research aimed at identification of sources in the process of knowledge transfer at the interorganizational level. The importance of this methodology is that it states a unified model to reveal knowledge sharing patterns and to compare results from multiple researches on data from different periods of time and different sectors of the economy. This methodology does not address the underlying statistical processes. To do this, national statistics departments (NSD provide documents and tools at their websites. But this proposal provides a guide to model information inferences gathered from data processing revealing links between sources and recipients of knowledge being transferred and that the recipient detects as main source to new knowledge creation. Some national statistics departments set as objective for these surveys the characterization of innovation dynamics in firms and to analyze the use of public support instruments. From this characterization scholars conduct different researches. Measures of dimensions of the network composed by manufacturing firms and other organizations conform the base to inquiry the structure that emerges from taking ideas from other organizations to incept innovations. These two sets of data are actors of a two- mode-network. The link between two actors (network nodes, one acting as the source of the idea. The second one acting as the destination comes from organizations or events organized by organizations that “provide” ideas to other group of firms. The resulting demonstrated design satisfies the objective of being a methodological model to identify sources in knowledge transfer of knowledge effectively used in innovation.

  13. Vibrio cholerae classical biotype strains reveal distinct signatures in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Munirul; Islam, M Tarequl; Rashed, Shah Manzur; Johura, Fatema-tuz; Bhuiyan, Nurul A; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales, Rosario; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Watanabe, Haruo; Hasan, Nur-A; Colwell, Rita R; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2012-07-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 classical (CL) biotype caused the fifth and sixth pandemics, and probably the earlier cholera pandemics, before the El Tor (ET) biotype initiated the seventh pandemic in Asia in the 1970s by completely displacing the CL biotype. Although the CL biotype was thought to be extinct in Asia and although it had never been reported from Latin America, V. cholerae CL and ET biotypes, including a hybrid ET, were found associated with areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1991 and 1997. In this study, CL biotype strains isolated from areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1983 and 1997 were characterized in terms of major phenotypic and genetic traits and compared with CL biotype strains isolated in Bangladesh between 1962 and 1989. According to sero- and biotyping data, all V. cholerae strains tested had the major phenotypic and genotypic characteristics specific for the CL biotype. Antibiograms revealed the majority of the Bangladeshi strains to be resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, furazolidone, ampicillin, and gentamicin, while the Mexican strains were sensitive to all of these drugs, as well as to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of NotI-digested genomic DNA revealed characteristic banding patterns for all of the CL biotype strains although the Mexican strains differed from the Bangladeshi strains in 1 to 2 DNA bands. The difference was subtle but consistent, as confirmed by the subclustering patterns in the PFGE-based dendrogram, and can serve as a regional signature, suggesting the pre-1991 existence and evolution of the CL biotype strains in the Americas, independent from Asia.

  14. Comparative Genomics Reveals High Genomic Diversity in the Genus Photobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Vibrionaceae is a large marine bacterial family, which can constitute up to 50% of the prokaryotic population in marine waters. Photobacterium is the second largest genus in the family and we used comparative genomics on 35 strains representing 16 of the 28 species described so far, to understand the genomic diversity present in the Photobacterium genus. Such understanding is important for ecophysiology studies of the genus. We used whole genome sequences to evaluate phylogenetic relationships using several analyses (16S rRNA, MLSA, fur , amino-acid usage, ANI), which allowed us to identify two misidentified strains. Genome analyses also revealed occurrence of higher and lower GC content clades, correlating with phylogenetic clusters. Pan- and core-genome analysis revealed the conservation of 25% of the genome throughout the genus, with a large and open pan-genome. The major source of genomic diversity could be traced to the smaller chromosome and plasmids. Several of the physiological traits studied in the genus did not correlate with phylogenetic data. Since horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is often suggested as a source of genetic diversity and a potential driver of genomic evolution in bacterial species, we looked into evidence of such in Photobacterium genomes. Genomic islands were the source of genomic differences between strains of the same species. Also, we found transposase genes and CRISPR arrays that suggest multiple encounters with foreign DNA. Presence of genomic exchange traits was widespread and abundant in the genus, suggesting a role in genomic evolution. The high genetic variability and indications of genetic exchange make it difficult to elucidate genome evolutionary paths and raise the awareness of the roles of foreign DNA in the genomic evolution of environmental organisms.

  15. Four not six: Revealing culturally common facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Rachael E; Sun, Wei; Delis, Ioannis; Garrod, Oliver G B; Schyns, Philippe G

    2016-06-01

    As a highly social species, humans generate complex facial expressions to communicate a diverse range of emotions. Since Darwin's work, identifying among these complex patterns which are common across cultures and which are culture-specific has remained a central question in psychology, anthropology, philosophy, and more recently machine vision and social robotics. Classic approaches to addressing this question typically tested the cross-cultural recognition of theoretically motivated facial expressions representing 6 emotions, and reported universality. Yet, variable recognition accuracy across cultures suggests a narrower cross-cultural communication supported by sets of simpler expressive patterns embedded in more complex facial expressions. We explore this hypothesis by modeling the facial expressions of over 60 emotions across 2 cultures, and segregating out the latent expressive patterns. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we first map the conceptual organization of a broad spectrum of emotion words by building semantic networks in 2 cultures. For each emotion word in each culture, we then model and validate its corresponding dynamic facial expression, producing over 60 culturally valid facial expression models. We then apply to the pooled models a multivariate data reduction technique, revealing 4 latent and culturally common facial expression patterns that each communicates specific combinations of valence, arousal, and dominance. We then reveal the face movements that accentuate each latent expressive pattern to create complex facial expressions. Our data questions the widely held view that 6 facial expression patterns are universal, instead suggesting 4 latent expressive patterns with direct implications for emotion communication, social psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and social robotics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Next generation sequencing reveals the hidden diversity of zooplankton assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope K Lindeque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zooplankton play an important role in our oceans, in biogeochemical cycling and providing a food source for commercially important fish larvae. However, difficulties in correctly identifying zooplankton hinder our understanding of their roles in marine ecosystem functioning, and can prevent detection of long term changes in their community structure. The advent of massively parallel next generation sequencing technology allows DNA sequence data to be recovered directly from whole community samples. Here we assess the ability of such sequencing to quantify richness and diversity of a mixed zooplankton assemblage from a productive time series site in the Western English Channel. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Plankton net hauls (200 µm were taken at the Western Channel Observatory station L4 in September 2010 and January 2011. These samples were analysed by microscopy and metagenetic analysis of the 18S nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene using the 454 pyrosequencing platform. Following quality control a total of 419,041 sequences were obtained for all samples. The sequences clustered into 205 operational taxonomic units using a 97% similarity cut-off. Allocation of taxonomy by comparison with the National Centre for Biotechnology Information database identified 135 OTUs to species level, 11 to genus level and 1 to order, <2.5% of sequences were classified as unknowns. By comparison a skilled microscopic analyst was able to routinely enumerate only 58 taxonomic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Metagenetics reveals a previously hidden taxonomic richness, especially for Copepoda and hard-to-identify meroplankton such as Bivalvia, Gastropoda and Polychaeta. It also reveals rare species and parasites. We conclude that Next Generation Sequencing of 18S amplicons is a powerful tool for elucidating the true diversity and species richness of zooplankton communities. While this approach allows for broad diversity assessments of plankton it may

  17. Compartmentation of glycogen metabolism revealed from 13C isotopologue distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin de Mas Igor

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stable isotope tracers are used to assess metabolic flux profiles in living cells. The existing methods of measurement average out the isotopic isomer distribution in metabolites throughout the cell, whereas the knowledge of compartmental organization of analyzed pathways is crucial for the evaluation of true fluxes. That is why we accepted a challenge to create a software tool that allows deciphering the compartmentation of metabolites based on the analysis of average isotopic isomer distribution. Results The software Isodyn, which simulates the dynamics of isotopic isomer distribution in central metabolic pathways, was supplemented by algorithms facilitating the transition between various analyzed metabolic schemes, and by the tools for model discrimination. It simulated 13C isotope distributions in glucose, lactate, glutamate and glycogen, measured by mass spectrometry after incubation of hepatocytes in the presence of only labeled glucose or glucose and lactate together (with label either in glucose or lactate. The simulations assumed either a single intracellular hexose phosphate pool, or also channeling of hexose phosphates resulting in a different isotopic composition of glycogen. Model discrimination test was applied to check the consistency of both models with experimental data. Metabolic flux profiles, evaluated with the accepted model that assumes channeling, revealed the range of changes in metabolic fluxes in liver cells. Conclusions The analysis of compartmentation of metabolic networks based on the measured 13C distribution was included in Isodyn as a routine procedure. The advantage of this implementation is that, being a part of evaluation of metabolic fluxes, it does not require additional experiments to study metabolic compartmentation. The analysis of experimental data revealed that the distribution of measured 13C-labeled glucose metabolites is inconsistent with the idea of perfect mixing of hexose

  18. Architecture of cognitive flexibility revealed by lesion mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K.; Colom, Roberto; Grafman, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience has made remarkable progress in understanding the architecture of human intelligence, identifying a distributed network of brain structures that support goal-directed, intelligent behavior. However, the neural foundations of cognitive flexibility and adaptive aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 149) that investigates the neural bases of key competencies of cognitive flexibility (i.e., mental flexibility and the fluent generation of new ideas) and systematically examine their contributions to a broad spectrum of cognitive and social processes, including psychometric intelligence (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality (Neuroticism–Extraversion–Openness Personality Inventory). Latent variable modeling was applied to obtain error-free indices of each factor, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping to elucidate their neural substrates. Regression analyses revealed that latent scores for psychometric intelligence reliably predict latent scores for cognitive flexibility (adjusted R2 = 0.94). Lesion mapping results further indicated that these convergent processes depend on a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts, which bind these areas into an integrated system. A targeted analysis of the unique variance explained by cognitive flexibility further revealed selective damage within the right superior temporal gyrus, a region known to support insight and the recognition of novel semantic relations. The observed findings motivate an integrative framework for understanding the neural foundations of adaptive behavior, suggesting that core elements of cognitive flexibility emerge from a distributed network of brain regions that support specific competencies for human intelligence. PMID:23721727

  19. Memory functions reveal structural properties of gene regulatory networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Carrasco, Ruben

    2018-01-01

    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) control cellular function and decision making during tissue development and homeostasis. Mathematical tools based on dynamical systems theory are often used to model these networks, but the size and complexity of these models mean that their behaviour is not always intuitive and the underlying mechanisms can be difficult to decipher. For this reason, methods that simplify and aid exploration of complex networks are necessary. To this end we develop a broadly applicable form of the Zwanzig-Mori projection. By first converting a thermodynamic state ensemble model of gene regulation into mass action reactions we derive a general method that produces a set of time evolution equations for a subset of components of a network. The influence of the rest of the network, the bulk, is captured by memory functions that describe how the subnetwork reacts to its own past state via components in the bulk. These memory functions provide probes of near-steady state dynamics, revealing information not easily accessible otherwise. We illustrate the method on a simple cross-repressive transcriptional motif to show that memory functions not only simplify the analysis of the subnetwork but also have a natural interpretation. We then apply the approach to a GRN from the vertebrate neural tube, a well characterised developmental transcriptional network composed of four interacting transcription factors. The memory functions reveal the function of specific links within the neural tube network and identify features of the regulatory structure that specifically increase the robustness of the network to initial conditions. Taken together, the study provides evidence that Zwanzig-Mori projections offer powerful and effective tools for simplifying and exploring the behaviour of GRNs. PMID:29470492

  20. Impaired Phosphate Tolerance Revealed With an Acute Oral Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mandy E; White, Christine A; Hopman, Wilma M; Ward, Emilie C; Jeronimo, Paul S; Adams, Michael A; Holden, Rachel M

    2018-01-01

    Elevated serum phosphate is consistently linked with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality in the setting of normal and impaired kidney function. However, serum phosphate does not often exceed the upper limit of normal until glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls below 30 mL/min/m 2 . It was hypothesized that the response to an oral, bioavailable phosphate load will unmask impaired phosphate tolerance, a maladaptation not revealed by baseline serum phosphate concentrations. In this study, rats with varying kidney function as well as normo-phosphatemic human subjects, with inulin-measured GFR (13.2 to 128.3mL/min), received an oral phosphate load. Hormonal and urinary responses were evaluated over 2 hours. Results revealed that the more rapid elevation of serum phosphate was associated with subjects and rats with higher levels of kidney function, greater responsiveness to acute changes in parathyroid hormone (PTH), and significantly more urinary phosphate at 2 hours. In humans, increases in urinary phosphate to creatinine ratio did not correlate with baseline serum phosphate concentrations but did correlate strongly to early increase of serum phosphate. The blunted rise in serum phosphate in rats with CKD was not the result of altered absorption. This result suggests acute tissue deposition may be altered in the setting of kidney function impairment. Early recognition of impaired phosphate tolerance could translate to important interventions, such as dietary phosphate restriction or phosphate binders, being initiated at much higher levels of kidney function than is current practice. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  1. Astronomers Reveal Extinct Extra-Terrestrial Fusion Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    An international team of astronomers, studying the left-over remnants of stars like our own Sun, have found a remarkable object where the nuclear reactor that once powered it has only just shut down. This star, the hottest known white dwarf, H1504+65, seems to have been stripped of its entire outer regions during its death throes leaving behind the core that formed its power plant. Scientists from the United Kingdom, Germany and the USA focused two of NASA's space telescopes, the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), onto H1504+65 to probe its composition and measure its temperature. The data revealed that the stellar surface is extremely hot, 200,000 degrees, and is virtually free of hydrogen and helium, something never before observed in any star. Instead, the surface is composed mainly of carbon and oxygen, the 'ashes' of the fusion of helium in a nuclear reactor. An important question we must answer is why has this unique star lost the hydrogen and helium, which usually hide the stellar interior from our view? Professor Martin Barstow (University of Leicester) said. 'Studying the nature of the ashes of dead stars give us important clues as to how stars like the Sun live their lives and eventually die. The nuclear waste of carbon and oxygen produced in the process are essential elements for life and are eventually recycled into interstellar space to form new stars, planets and, possibly, living beings.' Professor Klaus Werner (University of Tübingen) said. 'We realized that this star has, on astronomical time scales, only very recently shut down nuclear fusion (about a hundred years ago). We clearly see the bare, now extinct reactor that once powered a bright giant star.' Dr Jeffrey Kruk (Johns Hopkins University) said: 'Astronomers have long predicted that many stars would have carbon-oxygen cores near the end of their lives, but I never expected we would actually be able to see one. This is a wonderful opportunity to

  2. The rumen microbial metaproteome as revealed by SDS-PAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Timothy J; Wallace, R John

    2017-01-07

    Ruminal digestion is carried out by large numbers of bacteria, archaea, protozoa and fungi. Understanding the microbiota is important because ruminal fermentation dictates the efficiency of feed utilisation by the animal and is also responsible for major emissions of the greenhouse gas, methane. Recent metagenomic and metatranscriptomic studies have helped to elucidate many features of the composition and activity of the microbiota. The metaproteome provides complementary information to these other -omics technologies. The aim of this study was to explore the metaproteome of bovine and ovine ruminal digesta using 2D SDS-PAGE. Digesta samples were taken via ruminal fistulae and by gastric intubation, or at slaughter, and stored in glycerol at -80 °C. A protein extraction protocol was developed to maximise yield and representativeness of the protein content. The proteome of ruminal digesta taken from dairy cows fed a high concentrate diet was dominated by a few very highly expressed proteins, which were identified by LC-MS/MS to be structural proteins, such as actin and α- and β-tubulins, derived from ciliate protozoa. Removal of protozoa from digesta before extraction of proteins revealed the prokaryotic metaproteome, which was dominated by enzymes involved in glycolysis, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, phosphoglycerate kinase and triosephosphate isomerase. The enzymes were predominantly from the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. Enzymes from methanogenic archaea were also abundant, consistent with the importance of methane formation in the rumen. Gels from samples from dairy cows fed a high proportion of grass silage were consistently obscured by co-staining of humic compounds. Samples from beef cattle and fattening lambs receiving a predominantly concentrate diet produced clearer gels, but the pattern of spots was inconsistent between samples, making comparisons difficult. This work demonstrated for the

  3. Episodic sexual transmission of HIV revealed by molecular phylodynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Lewis

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure of sexual contact networks plays a key role in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections, and their reconstruction from interview data has provided valuable insights into the spread of infection. For HIV, the long period of infectivity has made the interpretation of contact networks more difficult, and major discrepancies have been observed between the contact network and the transmission network revealed by viral phylogenetics. The high rate of HIV evolution in principle allows for detailed reconstruction of links between virus from different individuals, but often sampling has been too sparse to describe the structure of the transmission network. The aim of this study was to analyze a high-density sample of an HIV-infected population using recently developed techniques in phylogenetics to infer the short-term dynamics of the epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM.Sequences of the protease and reverse transcriptase coding regions from 2,126 patients, predominantly MSM, from London were compared: 402 of these showed a close match to at least one other subtype B sequence. Nine large clusters were identified on the basis of genetic distance; all were confirmed by Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC phylogenetic analysis. Overall, 25% of individuals with a close match with one sequence are linked to 10 or more others. Dated phylogenies of the clusters using a relaxed clock indicated that 65% of the transmissions within clusters took place between 1995 and 2000, and 25% occurred within 6 mo after infection. The likelihood that not all members of the clusters have been identified renders the latter observation conservative.Reconstruction of the HIV transmission network using a dated phylogeny approach has revealed the HIV epidemic among MSM in London to have been episodic, with evidence of multiple clusters of transmissions dating to the late 1990s, a period when HIV prevalence is known to have doubled in this

  4. Comprehensive Genomic Profiling of Esthesioneuroblastoma Reveals Additional Treatment Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Laurie M; Kim, Sungeun; Fedorchak, Kyle; Kundranda, Madappa; Odia, Yazmin; Nangia, Chaitali; Battiste, James; Colon-Otero, Gerardo; Powell, Steven; Russell, Jeffery; Elvin, Julia A; Vergilio, Jo-Anne; Suh, James; Ali, Siraj M; Stephens, Philip J; Miller, Vincent A; Ross, Jeffrey S

    2017-07-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB), also known as olfactory neuroblastoma, is a rare malignant neoplasm of the olfactory mucosa. Despite surgical resection combined with radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, ENB often relapses with rapid progression. Current multimodality, nontargeted therapy for relapsed ENB is of limited clinical benefit. We queried whether comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) of relapsed or refractory ENB can uncover genomic alterations (GA) that could identify potential targeted therapies for these patients. CGP was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from 41 consecutive clinical cases of ENBs using a hybrid-capture, adaptor ligation based next-generation sequencing assay to a mean coverage depth of 593X. The results were analyzed for base substitutions, insertions and deletions, select rearrangements, and copy number changes (amplifications and homozygous deletions). Clinically relevant GA (CRGA) were defined as GA linked to drugs on the market or under evaluation in clinical trials. A total of 28 ENBs harbored GA, with a mean of 1.5 GA per sample. Approximately half of the ENBs (21, 51%) featured at least one CRGA, with an average of 1 CRGA per sample. The most commonly altered gene was TP53 (17%), with GA in PIK3CA , NF1 , CDKN2A , and CDKN2C occurring in 7% of samples. We report comprehensive genomic profiles for 41 ENB tumors. CGP revealed potential new therapeutic targets, including targetable GA in the mTOR, CDK and growth factor signaling pathways, highlighting the clinical value of genomic profiling in ENB. Comprehensive genomic profiling of 41 relapsed or refractory ENBs reveals recurrent alterations or classes of mutation, including amplification of tyrosine kinases encoded on chromosome 5q and mutations affecting genes in the mTOR/PI3K pathway. Approximately half of the ENBs (21, 51%) featured at least one clinically relevant genomic alteration (CRGA), with an average of 1 CRGA per sample. The most commonly altered

  5. Distributed neural system for emotional intelligence revealed by lesion mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive neuroscience has made considerable progress in understanding the neural architecture of human intelligence, identifying a broadly distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that support goal-directed, intelligent behavior. However, the contributions of this network to social and emotional aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here we investigated the neural basis of emotional intelligence in 152 patients with focal brain injuries using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Latent variable modeling was applied to obtain measures of emotional intelligence, general intelligence and personality from the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Inventory, respectively. Regression analyses revealed that latent scores for measures of general intelligence and personality reliably predicted latent scores for emotional intelligence. Lesion mapping results further indicated that these convergent processes depend on a shared network of frontal, temporal and parietal brain regions. The results support an integrative framework for understanding the architecture of executive, social and emotional processes and make specific recommendations for the interpretation and application of the MSCEIT to the study of emotional intelligence in health and disease.

  6. Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Li Jun; van der Does, H. C.; Borkovich, Katherine A.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Daboussi, Marie-Jose; Di Pietro, Antonio; Dufresne, Marie; Freitag, Michael; Grabherr, Manfred; Henrissat, Bernard; Houterman, Petra M.; Kang, Seogchan; Shim, Won-Bo; Wolochuk, Charles; Xie, Xiaohui; Xu, Jin Rong; Antoniw, John; Baker, Scott E.; Bluhm, Burton H.; Breakspear, Andrew; Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A.; Chapman, Sinead; Coulson, Richard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Danchin, Etienne G.; Diener, Andrew; Gale, Liane R.; Gardiner, Donald; Goff, Steven; Hammond-Kossack, Kim; Hilburn, Karen; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kazan, Kemal; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Koehrsen, Michael; Kumar, Lokesh; Lee, Yong Hwan; Li, Liande; Manners, John M.; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Mukherjee, Mala; Park, Gyungsoon; Park, Jongsun; Park, Sook Young; Proctor, Robert H.; Regev, Aviv; Ruiz-Roldan, M. C.; Sain, Divya; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Sykes, Sean; Schwartz, David C.; Turgeon, Barbara G.; Wapinski, Ilan; Yoder, Olen; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Zhou, Shiguo; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A.; Kistler, H. Corby; Rep, Martijn

    2010-03-18

    Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi, having significant impact on crop production and animal health. Distinctively, members of the F. oxysporum species complex exhibit wide host range but discontinuously distributed host specificity, reflecting remarkable genetic adaptability. To understand the molecular underpinnings of diverse phenotypic traits and their evolution in Fusarium, we compared the genomes of three economically important and phylogenetically related, yet phenotypically diverse plant-pathogenic species, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Our analysis revealed greatly expanded lineage-specific (LS) genomic regions in F. oxysporum that include four entire chromosomes, accounting for more than one-quarter of the genome. LS regions are rich in transposons and genes with distinct evolutionary profiles but related to pathogenicity. Experimentally, we demonstrate for the first time the transfer of two LS chromosomes between strains of F. oxysporum, resulting in the conversion of a non-pathogenic strain into a pathogen. Transfer of LS chromosomes between otherwise genetically isolated strains explains the polyphyletic origin of host specificity and the emergence of new pathogenic lineages in the F. oxysporum species complex, putting the evolution of fungal pathogenicity into a new perspective.

  7. Opto-acoustic microscopy reveals adhesion mechanics of single cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi Ghanem, Maroun; Dehoux, Thomas; Liu, Liwang; Le Saux, Guillaume; Plawinski, Laurent; Durrieu, Marie-Christine; Audoin, Bertrand

    2018-01-01

    Laser-generated GHz-ultrasonic-based technologies have shown the ability to image single cell adhesion and stiffness simultaneously. Using this new modality, we here demonstrate quantitative indicators to investigate contact mechanics and adhesion processes of the cell. We cultured human cells on a rigid substrate, and we used an inverted pulsed opto-acoustic microscope to generate acoustic pulses containing frequencies up to 100 GHz in the substrate. We map the reflection of the acoustic pulses at the cell-substrate interface to obtain images of the acoustic impedance of the cell, Zc, as well as of the stiffness of the interface, K, with 1 μm lateral resolution. Our results show that the standard deviation ΔZc reveals differences between different cell types arising from the multiplicity of local conformations within the nucleus. From the distribution of K-values within the nuclear region, we extract a mean interfacial stiffness, Km, that quantifies the average contact force in areas of the cell displaying weak bonding. By analogy with classical contact mechanics, we also define the ratio of the real to nominal contact areas, Sr/St. We show that Km can be interpreted as a quantitative indicator of passive contact at metal-cell interfaces, while Sr/St is sensitive to active adhesive processes in the nuclear region. The ability to separate the contributions of passive and active adhesion processes should allow gaining insight into cell-substrate interactions, with important applications in tissue engineering.

  8. Subfield profitability analysis reveals an economic case for cropland diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, E.; McNunn, G. S.; Schulte, L. A.; Bonner, I. J.; Muth, D. J.; Babcock, B. A.; Sharma, B.; Heaton, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    Public agencies and private enterprises increasingly desire to achieve ecosystem service outcomes in agricultural systems, but are limited by perceived conflicts between economic and ecosystem service goals and a lack of tools enabling effective operational management. Here we use Iowa—an agriculturally homogeneous state representative of the Maize Belt—to demonstrate an economic rationale for cropland diversification at the subfield scale. We used a novel computational framework that integrates disparate but publicly available data to map ˜3.3 million unique potential management polygons (9.3 Mha) and reveal subfield opportunities to increase overall field profitability. We analyzed subfield profitability for maize/soybean fields during 2010-2013—four of the most profitable years in recent history—and projected results for 2015. While cropland operating at a loss of US 250 ha-1 or more was negligible between 2010 and 2013 at 18 000-190 000 ha (profitable areas, incorporating conservation management that breaks even (e.g., planting low-input perennials), into low-yielding portions of fields could increase overall cropland profitability by 80%. This approach is applicable to the broader region and differs substantially from the status quo of ‘top-down’ land management for conservation by harnessing private interest to align profitability with the production of ecosystem services.

  9. Functional metabolomics reveals novel active products in the DHA metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu eShinohara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous mechanisms for successful resolution of an acute inflammatory response and the local return to homeostasis are of interest because excessive inflammation underlies many human diseases. In this review, we provide an update and overview of functional metabolomics that identified a new bioactive metabolome of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Systematic studies revealed that DHA was converted to DHEA-derived novel bioactive products as well as aspirin-triggered (AT forms of protectins. The new oxygenated DHEA derived products blocked PMN chemotaxis, reduced P-selectin expression and platelet-leukocyte adhesion, and showed organ protection in ischemia/reperfusion injury. These products activated cannabinoid receptor (CB2 receptor and not CB1 receptors. The AT-PD1 reduced neutrophil (PMN recruitment in murine peritonitis. With human cells, AT-PD1 decreased transendothelial PMN migration as well as enhanced efferocytosis of apoptotic human PMN by macrophages. The recent findings reviewed here indicate that DHEA oxidative metabolism and aspirin-triggered conversion of DHA produce potent novel molecules with anti-inflammatory and organ-protective properties, opening the DHA metabolome functional roles.

  10. [Necrotic leg ulcer revealing vasculitis induced by vitamin K antagonists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabli, H; Hocar, O; Akhdari, N; Amal, S; Hakkou, M; Hamdaoui, A

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin K antagonists are widely used in thromboembolic diseases. Hemorrhagic complications related to drug overdose represent their main side effect. We report a rare side effect, a severe and unexpected type of skin vasculitis - necrotic leg ulcer - induced by vitamin K antagonist. A 63-year-old female with a history of diabetes developed hyperalgesic necrotic ulcerations on the lower limbs one month after starting an acenocoumarol-based treatment for ischemic heart disease. Histological examination revealed lymphocytic vasculitis with fibrinoid necrosis. Etiological explorations searching for vasculitis were negative. In the absence of a precise etiology, drug-induced ulcer was suspected. Low molecular weight heparin was prescribed to replace acenocoumarol. The lesions slowly resolved with topical treatment. The chronological criteria and the negativity of etiological explorations allowed the diagnosis of vitamin K antagonist-induced necrotic skin ulcer. Clinicians should be aware of this rare complication induced by oral anticoagulants because of its practical therapeutic implications. This is the first case of necrotic leg ulcer induced by acenocoumarol corresponding histologically to necrotising lymphocytic vasculitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  12. [Prostatic granulomas revealing a peripheral T-cell lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foguem, C; Curlier, E; Rouamba, M-M; Regent, A; Philippe, P

    2009-02-01

    The presence of granulomas on tissue biopsie has been reported in a wide range of disorders. The clinical presentation and the diagnostic work-up of granulomatosis can be difficult as it is illustrated in the following report. A 59-year-old patient was referred in 2002 for a granulomatous prostatitis. Physical examination was normal. Except for the increase of prostate-specific antigen (which motivated a biopsy), the laboratory results were normal. Thoracic CT-scan disclosed mediastinal lymph nodes. A minor salivary gland biopsy was consistent with the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. In 2004, the patient presented an epidermal necrolysis, and in 2005 the deterioration of general status raised suspicion of a lymphoproliferative disorder. Liver and bone marrow biopsies revealed a granulomatous process. Despite steroid therapy, the patient died. Autopsy discloses a anaplasic T cell lymphoma. This report illustrates the relationship between sarcoidosis and lymphoma as a mode of presentation, a complication, or an accidental but misleading association? The association between anaplastic lymphoma and sarcoidosis is exceptional.

  13. CRISPR loci reveal networks of gene exchange in archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodt Avital

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CRISPR (Clustered, Regularly, Interspaced, Short, Palindromic Repeats loci provide prokaryotes with an adaptive immunity against viruses and other mobile genetic elements. CRISPR arrays can be transcribed and processed into small crRNA molecules, which are then used by the cell to target the foreign nucleic acid. Since spacers are accumulated by active CRISPR/Cas systems, the sequences of these spacers provide a record of the past "infection history" of the organism. Results Here we analyzed all currently known spacers present in archaeal genomes and identified their source by DNA similarity. While nearly 50% of archaeal spacers matched mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids or viruses, several others matched chromosomal genes of other organisms, primarily other archaea. Thus, networks of gene exchange between archaeal species were revealed by the spacer analysis, including many cases of inter-genus and inter-species gene transfer events. Spacers that recognize viral sequences tend to be located further away from the leader sequence, implying that there exists a selective pressure for their retention. Conclusions CRISPR spacers provide direct evidence for extensive gene exchange in archaea, especially within genera, and support the current dogma where the primary role of the CRISPR/Cas system is anti-viral and anti-plasmid defense. Open peer review This article was reviewed by: Profs. W. Ford Doolittle, John van der Oost, Christa Schleper (nominated by board member Prof. J Peter Gogarten

  14. Effective connectivity reveals strategy differences in an expert calculator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Minati

    Full Text Available Mathematical reasoning is a core component of cognition and the study of experts defines the upper limits of human cognitive abilities, which is why we are fascinated by peak performers, such as chess masters and mental calculators. Here, we investigated the neural bases of calendrical skills, i.e. the ability to rapidly identify the weekday of a particular date, in a gifted mental calculator who does not fall in the autistic spectrum, using functional MRI. Graph-based mapping of effective connectivity, but not univariate analysis, revealed distinct anatomical location of "cortical hubs" supporting the processing of well-practiced close dates and less-practiced remote dates: the former engaged predominantly occipital and medial temporal areas, whereas the latter were associated mainly with prefrontal, orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate connectivity. These results point to the effect of extensive practice on the development of expertise and long term working memory, and demonstrate the role of frontal networks in supporting performance on less practiced calculations, which incur additional processing demands. Through the example of calendrical skills, our results demonstrate that the ability to perform complex calculations is initially supported by extensive attentional and strategic resources, which, as expertise develops, are gradually replaced by access to long term working memory for familiar material.

  15. Shared memories reveal shared structure in neural activity across individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Leong, Y.C.; Honey, C.J.; Yong, C.H.; Norman, K.A.; Hasson, U.

    2016-01-01

    Our lives revolve around sharing experiences and memories with others. When different people recount the same events, how similar are their underlying neural representations? Participants viewed a fifty-minute movie, then verbally described the events during functional MRI, producing unguided detailed descriptions lasting up to forty minutes. As each person spoke, event-specific spatial patterns were reinstated in default-network, medial-temporal, and high-level visual areas. Individual event patterns were both highly discriminable from one another and similar between people, suggesting consistent spatial organization. In many high-order areas, patterns were more similar between people recalling the same event than between recall and perception, indicating systematic reshaping of percept into memory. These results reveal the existence of a common spatial organization for memories in high-level cortical areas, where encoded information is largely abstracted beyond sensory constraints; and that neural patterns during perception are altered systematically across people into shared memory representations for real-life events. PMID:27918531

  16. Ecoinformatics reveals effects of crop rotational histories on cotton yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Matthew H; Rosenheim, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity.

  17. Ecoinformatics reveals effects of crop rotational histories on cotton yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H Meisner

    Full Text Available Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity.

  18. With neutrino masses revealed, proton decay is the missing link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pati, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    By way of paying tribute to Abdus Salam, I recall the ideas of higher unification that he and I initiated. I discuss the current status of those ideas in the light of recent developments, including those of: (a) gauge coupling unification, (b) discovery of neutrino-oscillation at SuperKamiokande, and (c) ongoing searches for proton decay. It is noted that the mass of ν τ (∼ 1/20 eV), suggested by the SuperK result, provides clear support for the route to higher unification based on the ideas of (i) SU(4)-color, (ii) left-right symmetry and (iii) supersymmetry. The change in perspective, pertaining to both gauge coupling unification and proton decay, brought forth by supersymmetry and superstrings, is noted. And, the beneficial roles of string-symmetries in addressing certain naturalness problems of supersymmetry, including that of rapid proton decay, are emphasized. Further, it is noted that with neutrino masses and coupling unification revealed, proton decay is the missing link. Following recent joint work with K. Babu and F. Wilczek, based on supersymmetric unification, it is remarked that the SuperKamiokande result on neutrino oscillation in fact enhances the expected rate of proton decay compared to prior estimates. Thus, assuming supersymmetric unification, one expects that the discovery of proton decay should not be far behind. (author)

  19. Acoustic telemetry reveals cryptic residency of whale sharks

    KAUST Repository

    Cagua, Edgar F.

    2015-04-01

    Althoughwhale sharks (Rhincodon typus) have beendocumentedtomove thousands of kilometres, they are most frequently observed at a few predictable seasonal aggregation sites. The absence of sharks at the surface during visual surveys has led to the assumption that sharks disperse to places unknown during the long \\'off-seasons\\' at most of these locations. Here we compare 2 years of R. typus visual sighting records from Mafia Island in Tanzania to concurrent acoustic telemetry of tagged individuals. Sightings revealed a clear seasonal pattern with a peak between October and February and no sharks observed at other times. By contrast, acoustic telemetry demonstrated yearround residency of R. typus. The sharks use a different habitat in the offseason, swimming deeper and further away from shore, presumably in response to prey distributions. This behavioural change reduces the sharks\\' visibility, giving the false impression that they have left the area.We demonstrate, for the first timeto our knowledge, year-roundresidencyofunprovisioned, individual R. typus at an aggregation site, and highlight the importance of using multiple techniques to study the movement ecology of marine megafauna. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel assay reveals hygrotactic behavior in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiteng Ji

    Full Text Available Humidity is one of the most important factors that determines the geographical distribution and survival of terrestrial animals. The ability to detect variation in humidity is conserved across many species. Here, we established a novel behavioral assay that revealed the thirsty Drosophila exhibits strong hygrotactic behavior, and it can locate water by detecting humidity gradient. In addition, exposure to high levels of moisture was sufficient to elicit proboscis extension reflex behavior in thirsty flies. Furthermore, we found that the third antennal segment was necessary for hygrotactic behavior in thirsty flies, while arista was required for the avoidance of moist air in hydrated flies. These results indicated that two types of hygroreceptor cells exist in Drosophila: one located in the third antennal segment that mediates hygrotactic behavior in thirst status, and the other located in arista which is responsible for the aversive behavior toward moist air in hydration status. Using a neural silencing screen, we demonstrated that synaptic output from the mushroom body α/β surface and posterior neurons was required for both hygrotactic behavior and moisture-aversive behavior.

  1. Kinematics of Mass Transport Deposits revealed by magnetic fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, R.; Levi, T.; Alsop, G. I.; Marco, S.

    2017-08-01

    The internal deformation and movement directions of Mass Transport Deposits (MTDs) are key factors in understanding the kinematics and dynamics of their emplacement. Although these are relatively easy to recover from well-bedded sediments, they are more difficult to deduce from massive beds without visible strain markers. In order to test the applicability of using anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) to determine MTD movement, we compare AMS fabrics, with structural measurements of visible kinematic indicators. Our case study involves the structural analysis of slumped lake sediments extensively exposed in MTDs within the Dead Sea Basin. Structural analyses of MTDs outcropping for >100 km reveal radial transport directions toward the basin depocenter. We show that the AMS fabrics display the same transport directions as inferred from structural analyses. Based on this similarity, we outline a robust procedure to obtain the transport direction of slumped MTDs from AMS fabrics. Variations in the magnetic fabrics and anisotropies in fold-thrust systems within the slumps match the various structural domains. We therefore suggest that magnetic fabrics and anisotropy variations in drill cores may reflect internal deformation within the slumps rather than different slumps. Obtaining magnetic fabrics from MTDs provides a viable way to infer the transport directions and internal deformation of MTDs and reconstruct the basin depocenter in ancient settings. The present results also have implications beyond the kinematics of MTDs, as their geometry resembles fold-thrust systems in other geological settings, scales, and tectonic environments.

  2. Statistical universals reveal the structures and functions of human music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Patrick E; Brown, Steven; Sakai, Emi; Currie, Thomas E

    2015-07-21

    Music has been called "the universal language of mankind." Although contemporary theories of music evolution often invoke various musical universals, the existence of such universals has been disputed for decades and has never been empirically demonstrated. Here we combine a music-classification scheme with statistical analyses, including phylogenetic comparative methods, to examine a well-sampled global set of 304 music recordings. Our analyses reveal no absolute universals but strong support for many statistical universals that are consistent across all nine geographic regions sampled. These universals include 18 musical features that are common individually as well as a network of 10 features that are commonly associated with one another. They span not only features related to pitch and rhythm that are often cited as putative universals but also rarely cited domains including performance style and social context. These cross-cultural structural regularities of human music may relate to roles in facilitating group coordination and cohesion, as exemplified by the universal tendency to sing, play percussion instruments, and dance to simple, repetitive music in groups. Our findings highlight the need for scientists studying music evolution to expand the range of musical cultures and musical features under consideration. The statistical universals we identified represent important candidates for future investigation.

  3. Geometric Mechanics Reveals Optimal Complex Terrestrial Undulation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chaohui; Astley, Henry; Schiebel, Perrin; Dai, Jin; Travers, Matthew; Goldman, Daniel; Choset, Howie; CMU Team; GT Team

    Geometric mechanics offers useful tools for intuitively analyzing biological and robotic locomotion. However, utility of these tools were previously restricted to systems that have only two internal degrees of freedom and in uniform media. We show kinematics of complex locomotors that make intermittent contacts with substrates can be approximated as a linear combination of two shape bases, and can be represented using two variables. Therefore, the tools of geometric mechanics can be used to analyze motions of locomotors with many degrees of freedom. To demonstrate the proposed technique, we present studies on two different types of snake gaits which utilize combinations of waves in the horizontal and vertical planes: sidewinding (in the sidewinder rattlesnake C. cerastes) and lateral undulation (in the desert specialist snake C. occipitalis). C. cerastes moves by generating posteriorly traveling body waves in the horizontal and vertical directions, with a relative phase offset equal to +/-π/2 while C. occipitalismaintains a π/2 offset of a frequency doubled vertical wave. Geometric analysis reveals these coordination patterns enable optimal movement in the two different styles of undulatory terrestrial locomotion. More broadly, these examples demonstrate the utility of geometric mechanics in analyzing realistic biological and robotic locomotion.

  4. Artemin Crystal Structure Reveals Insights into Heparan Sulfate Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvian,L.; Jin, P.; Carmillo, P.; Boriack-Sjodin, P.; Pelletier, C.; Rushe, M.; Gong, B.; Sah, D.; Pepinsky, B.; Rossomando, A.

    2006-01-01

    Artemin (ART) promotes the growth of developing peripheral neurons by signaling through a multicomponent receptor complex comprised of a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor (cRET) and a specific glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked co-receptor (GFR{alpha}3). Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signals through a similar ternary complex but requires heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) for full activity. HSPG has not been demonstrated as a requirement for ART signaling. We crystallized ART in the presence of sulfate and solved its structure by isomorphous replacement. The structure reveals ordered sulfate anions bound to arginine residues in the pre-helix and amino-terminal regions that were organized in a triad arrangement characteristic of heparan sulfate. Three residues in the pre-helix were singly or triply substituted with glutamic acid, and the resulting proteins were shown to have reduced heparin-binding affinity that is partly reflected in their ability to activate cRET. This study suggests that ART binds HSPGs and identifies residues that may be involved in HSPG binding.

  5. Artificial spatiotemporal touch inputs reveal complementary decoding in neocortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Calogero M; Mazzoni, Alberto; Spanne, Anton; Enander, Jonas M D; Mogensen, Hannes; Bengtsson, Fredrik; Camboni, Domenico; Micera, Silvestro; Jörntell, Henrik

    2017-04-04

    Investigations of the mechanisms of touch perception and decoding has been hampered by difficulties in achieving invariant patterns of skin sensor activation. To obtain reproducible spatiotemporal patterns of activation of sensory afferents, we used an artificial fingertip equipped with an array of neuromorphic sensors. The artificial fingertip was used to transduce real-world haptic stimuli into spatiotemporal patterns of spikes. These spike patterns were delivered to the skin afferents of the second digit of rats via an array of stimulation electrodes. Combined with low-noise intra- and extracellular recordings from neocortical neurons in vivo, this approach provided a previously inaccessible high resolution analysis of the representation of tactile information in the neocortical neuronal circuitry. The results indicate high information content in individual neurons and reveal multiple novel neuronal tactile coding features such as heterogeneous and complementary spatiotemporal input selectivity also between neighboring neurons. Such neuronal heterogeneity and complementariness can potentially support a very high decoding capacity in a limited population of neurons. Our results also indicate a potential neuroprosthetic approach to communicate with the brain at a very high resolution and provide a potential novel solution for evaluating the degree or state of neurological disease in animal models.

  6. Comparative metatranscriptomics reveals decline of a neustonic planktonic population

    KAUST Repository

    Mojib, Nazia; Thimma, Manjula; Kumaran, M.; Sougrat, Rachid; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-01-01

    The neuston layer in tropical seas provides a good model to study the effects of increased levels of different stressors (e.g., temperature, ultraviolet radiation and Trichodesmium blooms). Here, we use a comparative in situ metatranscriptomics approach to reveal the functional genomic composition of metabolically active neustonic mesozooplankton community in response to the summer conditions in the Red Sea. The neustonic population exhibited changes in composition and abundance with a significant decline in copepods and appendicularia in July, when Trichodesmium cells were more abundant along with high temperatures and UV-B radiation. Nearly 23,000 genes were differentially expressed at the community level when the metatranscriptomes of the neustonic zooplankton were compared in April, July, and October. On a wider Phylum level, the genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, carbon, nucleotides, amino acids, and lipids were significantly overrepresented in both arthropods and chordates in April and October. On organism level for copepods, expression of genes responsive to oxidative stress, defense against bacteria, immune response, and virus reproduction were increased along with the observed increased appearance of copepod carcasses in the samples collected during July. The differences in expression correspond either to secondary effects of the Trichodesmium bloom or more likely to the increased UV-B radiation in July. Given the dearth of information on the zooplankton gene expression in response to environmental stimuli, our study provides the first transcriptome landscape of the mesozooplankton community during a period of increased mortality of the copepod and appendicularia population.

  7. Metabonomics reveals metabolite changes in biliary atresia infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kejun; Xie, Guoxiang; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Aihua; Liu, Jiajian; Su, Mingming; Ni, Yan; Zhou, Ying; Pan, Weihua; Che, Yanran; Zhang, Ting; Xiao, Yongtao; Wang, Yang; Wen, Jie; Jia, Wei; Cai, Wei

    2015-06-05

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a rare neonatal cholestatic disorder caused by obstruction of extra- and intra-hepatic bile ducts. If untreated, progressive liver cirrhosis will lead to death within 2 years. Early diagnosis and operation improve the outcome significantly. Infants with neonatal hepatitis syndrome (NHS) present similar symptoms, confounding the early diagnosis of BA. The lack of noninvasive diagnostic methods to differentiate BA from NHS greatly delays the surgery of BA infants, thus deteriorating the outcome. Here we performed a metabolomics study in plasma of BA, NHS, and healthy infants using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Scores plots of orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis clearly separated BA from NHS and healthy infants. Eighteen metabolites were found to be differentially expressed between BA and NHS, among which seven (l-glutamic acid, l-ornithine, l-isoleucine, l-lysine, l-valine, l-tryptophan, and l-serine) were amino acids. The altered amino acids were quantitatively verified using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed the network of "Cellular Function and Maintenance, Hepatic System Development and Function, Neurological Disease" was altered most significantly. This study suggests that plasma metabolic profiling has great potential in differentiating BA from NHS, and amino acid metabolism is significantly different between the two diseases.

  8. Urine Metabonomics Reveals Early Biomarkers in Diabetic Cognitive Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lili; Zhuang, Pengwei; Lin, Mengya; Kang, Mingqin; Liu, Hongyue; Zhang, Yuping; Yang, Zhen; Chen, Yunlong; Zhang, Yanjun

    2017-09-01

    Recently, increasing attention has been paid to diabetic encephalopathy, which is a frequent diabetic complication and affects nearly 30% of diabetics. Because cognitive dysfunction from diabetic encephalopathy might develop into irreversible dementia, early diagnosis and detection of this disease is of great significance for its prevention and treatment. This study is to investigate the early specific metabolites biomarkers in urine prior to the onset of diabetic cognitive dysfunction (DCD) by using metabolomics technology. An ultra-high performance liquid-chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS) platform was used to analyze the urine samples from diabetic mice that were associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and nonassociated with MCI in the stage of diabetes (prior to the onset of DCD). We then screened and validated the early biomarkers using OPLS-DA model and support vector machine (SVM) method. Following multivariate statistical and integration analysis, we found that seven metabolites could be accepted as early biomarkers of DCD, and the SVM results showed that the prediction accuracy is as high as 91.66%. The identities of four biomarkers were determined by mass spectrometry. The identified biomarkers were largely involved in nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, glutathione metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, and sphingolipid metabolism. The present study first revealed reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis of DCD. It provides new insight and strategy for the early diagnosis and treatment of DCD.

  9. Revealing the hidden structural phases of FeRh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinwoong; Ramesh, R.; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2016-11-01

    Ab initio electronic structure calculations reveal that tetragonal distortion has a dramatic effect on the relative stability of the various magnetic structures (C-, A-, G-, A'-AFM, and FM) of FeRh giving rise to a wide range of novel stable/metastable structures and magnetic phase transitions between these states. We predict that the cubic G-AFM structure, which was believed thus far to be the ground state, is metastable and that the tetragonally expanded G-AFM is the stable structure. The low energy barrier separating these states suggests phase coexistence at room temperature. We propose an A'-AFM phase to be the global ground state among all magnetic phases which arises from the strain-induced tuning of the exchange interactions. The results elucidate the underlying mechanism for the recent experimental findings of electric-field control of magnetic phase transition driven via tetragonal strain. The magnetic phase transitions open interesting prospects for exploiting strain engineering for the next-generation memory devices.

  10. A Global Synthesis Reveals Gaps in Coastal Habitat Restoration Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Stacy Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystems have drastically declined in coverage and condition across the globe. To combat these losses, marine conservation has recently employed habitat restoration as a strategy to enhance depleted coastal ecosystems. For restoration to be a successful enterprise, however, it is necessary to identify and address potential knowledge gaps and review whether the field has tracked scientific advances regarding best practices. This enables managers, researchers, and practitioners alike to more readily establish restoration priorities and goals. We synthesized the peer-reviewed, published literature on habitat restoration research in salt marshes, oyster reefs, and seagrasses to address three questions related to restoration efforts: (i How frequent is cross-sector authorship in coastal restoration research? (ii What is the geographic distribution of coastal restoration research? and (iii Are abiotic and biotic factors equally emphasized in the literature, and how does this vary with time? Our vote-count survey indicated that one-third of the journal-published studies listed authors from at least two sectors, and 6% listed authors from all three sectors. Across all habitat types, there was a dearth of studies from Africa, Asia, and South America. Finally, despite many experimental studies demonstrating that species interactions can greatly affect the recovery and persistence of coastal foundation species, only one-fourth of the studies we examined discussed their effects on restoration. Combined, our results reveal gaps and discrepancies in restoration research that should be addressed in order to further propel coastal restoration science.

  11. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals Ecological Differentiation in the Genus Carnobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Christelle F; Borges, Frédéric; Taminiau, Bernard; Daube, Georges; Zagorec, Monique; Remenant, Benoît; Leisner, Jørgen J; Hansen, Martin A; Sørensen, Søren J; Mangavel, Cécile; Cailliez-Grimal, Catherine; Revol-Junelles, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) differ in their ability to colonize food and animal-associated habitats: while some species are specialized and colonize a limited number of habitats, other are generalist and are able to colonize multiple animal-linked habitats. In the current study, Carnobacterium was used as a model genus to elucidate the genetic basis of these colonization differences. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene meta-barcoding data showed that C. maltaromaticum followed by C. divergens are the most prevalent species in foods derived from animals (meat, fish, dairy products), and in the gut. According to phylogenetic analyses, these two animal-adapted species belong to one of two deeply branched lineages. The second lineage contains species isolated from habitats where contact with animal is rare. Genome analyses revealed that members of the animal-adapted lineage harbor a larger secretome than members of the other lineage. The predicted cell-surface proteome is highly diversified in C. maltaromaticum and C. divergens with genes involved in adaptation to the animal milieu such as those encoding biopolymer hydrolytic enzymes, a heme uptake system, and biopolymer-binding adhesins. These species also exhibit genes for gut adaptation and respiration. In contrast, Carnobacterium species belonging to the second lineage encode a poorly diversified cell-surface proteome, lack genes for gut adaptation and are unable to respire. These results shed light on the important genomics traits required for adaptation to animal-linked habitats in generalist Carnobacterium .

  12. Nicotinamide riboside kinase structures reveal new pathways to NAD+.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Tempel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The eukaryotic nicotinamide riboside kinase (Nrk pathway, which is induced in response to nerve damage and promotes replicative life span in yeast, converts nicotinamide riboside to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ by phosphorylation and adenylylation. Crystal structures of human Nrk1 bound to nucleoside and nucleotide substrates and products revealed an enzyme structurally similar to Rossmann fold metabolite kinases and allowed the identification of active site residues, which were shown to be essential for human Nrk1 and Nrk2 activity in vivo. Although the structures account for the 500-fold discrimination between nicotinamide riboside and pyrimidine nucleosides, no enzyme feature was identified to recognize the distinctive carboxamide group of nicotinamide riboside. Indeed, nicotinic acid riboside is a specific substrate of human Nrk enzymes and is utilized in yeast in a novel biosynthetic pathway that depends on Nrk and NAD+ synthetase. Additionally, nicotinic acid riboside is utilized in vivo by Urh1, Pnp1, and Preiss-Handler salvage. Thus, crystal structures of Nrk1 led to the identification of new pathways to NAD+.

  13. Comparative metatranscriptomics reveals decline of a neustonic planktonic population

    KAUST Repository

    Mojib, Nazia

    2016-10-20

    The neuston layer in tropical seas provides a good model to study the effects of increased levels of different stressors (e.g., temperature, ultraviolet radiation and Trichodesmium blooms). Here, we use a comparative in situ metatranscriptomics approach to reveal the functional genomic composition of metabolically active neustonic mesozooplankton community in response to the summer conditions in the Red Sea. The neustonic population exhibited changes in composition and abundance with a significant decline in copepods and appendicularia in July, when Trichodesmium cells were more abundant along with high temperatures and UV-B radiation. Nearly 23,000 genes were differentially expressed at the community level when the metatranscriptomes of the neustonic zooplankton were compared in April, July, and October. On a wider Phylum level, the genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, carbon, nucleotides, amino acids, and lipids were significantly overrepresented in both arthropods and chordates in April and October. On organism level for copepods, expression of genes responsive to oxidative stress, defense against bacteria, immune response, and virus reproduction were increased along with the observed increased appearance of copepod carcasses in the samples collected during July. The differences in expression correspond either to secondary effects of the Trichodesmium bloom or more likely to the increased UV-B radiation in July. Given the dearth of information on the zooplankton gene expression in response to environmental stimuli, our study provides the first transcriptome landscape of the mesozooplankton community during a period of increased mortality of the copepod and appendicularia population.

  14. Revealing Amphiphilic Nanodornains of Anti-Biofouling Polymer Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amadei, CA; Yang, R; Chiesa, M; Gleason, KK; Santos, S

    2014-04-09

    Undesired bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on wetted surfaces leads to significant economic and environmental costs in various industries. Amphiphilic coatings with molecular hydrophilic and hydrophobic patches can mitigate such biofouling effectively in an environmentally friendly manner. The coatings are synthesized by copolymerizing (Hydroxyethyl)methacrylate and perfluorodecylacrylate via initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). In previous studies, the size of the patches was estimated to be similar to 1.4-1.75 nm by fitting protein adsorption data to a theoretical model. However, no direct observations of the molecular heterogeneity exist and therefore the origin of the fouling resistance of amphiphilic coatings remains unclear. Here, the amphiphilic nature is investigated by amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM). High-resolution images obtained by penetrating and oscillating the AFM tip under the naturally present water layer with sub-nanometer amplitudes reveal, for the first time, the existence of amphiphilic nanodomains (1-2 nm(2)). Compositional heterogeneity at the nanoscale is further corroborated by a statistical analysis on the data obtained with dynamic AM-AFM force spectroscopy. Variations in the long range attractive forces, responsible for water affinity, are also identified. These nanoscopic results on the polymers wettability are also confirmed by contact angle measurements (i.e., static and dynamic). The unprecedented ability to visualize the amphiphilic nanodomains as well as sub-nanometer crystalline structures provides strong evidence for the existence of previously postulated nanostructures, and sheds light on the underlying antifouling mechanism of amphiphilic chemistry.

  15. Polymyalgia Rheumatica Revealing a Lymphoma: A Two-Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Verhoeven

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR is one of the most common inflammatory rheumatism types in elderly population. The link between cancer and PMR is a matter of debate. Methods. We report two cases of PMR leading to the diagnosis of lymphoma and the growing interest of PET-TDM in this indication. Results. A 84-year-old man known for idiopathic neutropenia presented an inflammatory arthromyalgia of the limb girdle since one month. Blood exams highlighted the presence of a monoclonal B cell clone. Bone marrow concluded to a B cell lymphoma of the marginal zone. He was successfully treated with 0.3 mg/kg/d of prednisone, and response was sustained after 6 months. A 73-year-old man known for prostatic neoplasia in remission for 5 years presented arthromyalgia of the limb girdle since one month. PET-CT revealed bursitis of the hips and the shoulders, no prostatic cancer recurrence, and a metabolically active iliac lymphadenopathy whose pathologic exam concluded to a low grade follicular lymphoma. He was successfully treated with 0.3 mg/kg/d of prednisone. Conclusion. These observations may imply that lymphoma is sometimes already present when PMR is diagnosed and PET-CT is a useful tool in the initial assessment of PMR to avoid missing neoplasia.

  16. Beyond Contagion: Reality Mining Reveals Complex Patterns of Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshamsi, Aamena; Pianesi, Fabio; Lepri, Bruno; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad

    2015-01-01

    Contagion, a concept from epidemiology, has long been used to characterize social influence on people's behavior and affective (emotional) states. While it has revealed many useful insights, it is not clear whether the contagion metaphor is sufficient to fully characterize the complex dynamics of psychological states in a social context. Using wearable sensors that capture daily face-to-face interaction, combined with three daily experience sampling surveys, we collected the most comprehensive data set of personality and emotion dynamics of an entire community of work. From this high-resolution data about actual (rather than self-reported) face-to-face interaction, a complex picture emerges where contagion (that can be seen as adaptation of behavioral responses to the behavior of other people) cannot fully capture the dynamics of transitory states. We found that social influence has two opposing effects on states: adaptation effects that go beyond mere contagion, and complementarity effects whereby individuals' behaviors tend to complement the behaviors of others. Surprisingly, these effects can exhibit completely different directions depending on the stable personality or emotional dispositions (stable traits) of target individuals. Our findings provide a foundation for richer models of social dynamics, and have implications on organizational engineering and workplace well-being.

  17. Analysis reveals potential rangeland impacts if Williamson Act eliminated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Wetzel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available California budget cuts have resulted in dramatic reductions in state funding for the Williamson Act, a land protection program that reduces property taxes for the owners of 15 million acres of California farms and rangeland. With state reimbursements to counties eliminated, the decision to continue Williamson Act contracts lies with individual counties. We investigated the consequences of eliminating the Williamson Act, using a geospatial analysis and a mail questionnaire asking ranchers for plans under a hypothetical elimination scenario. The geospatial analysis revealed that 72% of rangeland parcels enrolled in Williamson Act contracts contained habitat important for statewide conservation goals. Presented with the elimination scenario, survey respondents reported an intention to sell 20% of their total 496,889 acres. The tendency of survey participants to respond that they would sell land was highest among full-time ranchers with low household incomes and without off-ranch employment. A majority (76% of the ranchers who reported that they would sell land predicted that the buyers would develop it for nonagricultural uses, suggesting substantial changes to California's landscape in a future without the Williamson Act.

  18. THE SUICIDE IN ITS TO REVEAL IT PROFESSIONAL OF HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Picinato da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The number of suicide case and attempting are increasing at last decades and became a great concern in many countries. In front to my observations and literature consulting, an important question emerged from: Do the professional who care people with attempting suicide history are prepared to deal with this situation? This study was conduced on a Phenomenological Inquiry method with medicine doctors, nurses and nursing staff professionals Psychiatric Clinic at the Emergency Unity of the Sao Paulo – Ribeirão Preto Clinical Hospital, from July to August 2003. The following guiding question was proposed: How suicide shows for you? From interviewing answers analysis, thematic categories was constructed revealing, thus, that the suicide is shown to these professionals as something that occurs at a desperation moment, which people appeals to call attention and something that awakes to them a diversity of feelings. From speeches analysis was possible to understand that the study evidences the necessity of introducing, in mental health area, specialized professionals. The specialization makes possible to the professionals to better deal with the preconceptions and difficulties, thus opening, perspectives for a better care to the people whom do not perceive sense in their own lives. KEYWORDS: Suicide, Suicide, Attempted; Mental Health.

  19. THE SUICIDE IN ITS TO REVEAL IT PROFESSIONAL OF HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Roseira Boemer

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of suicide case and attempting are increasing at last decades and became a great concernin many countries. In front to my observations and literature consulting, an important question emerged from: Do theprofessional who care people with attempting suicide history are prepared to deal with this situation? This study wasconduced on a Phenomenological Inquiry method with medicine doctors, nurses and nursing staff professionalsPsychiatric Clinic at the Emergency Unity of the Sao Paulo – Ribeirão Preto Clinical Hospital, from July to August2003. The following guiding question was proposed: How suicide shows for you? From interviewing answers analysis,thematic categories was constructed revealing, thus, that the suicide is shown to these professionals as something thatoccurs at a desperation moment, which people appeals to call attention and something that awakes to them a diversityof feelings. From speeches analysis was possible to understand that the study evidences the necessity of introducing,in mental health area, specialized professionals. The specialization makes possible to the professionals to better dealwith the preconceptions and difficulties, thus opening, perspectives for a better care to the people whom do notperceive sense in their own lives.

  20. Genomic analysis of primordial dwarfism reveals novel disease genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Ranad; Faqeih, Eissa; Ansari, Shinu; Abdel-Salam, Ghada; Al-Hassnan, Zuhair N; Al-Shidi, Tarfa; Alomar, Rana; Sogaty, Sameera; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2014-02-01

    Primordial dwarfism (PD) is a disease in which severely impaired fetal growth persists throughout postnatal development and results in stunted adult size. The condition is highly heterogeneous clinically, but the use of certain phenotypic aspects such as head circumference and facial appearance has proven helpful in defining clinical subgroups. In this study, we present the results of clinical and genomic characterization of 16 new patients in whom a broad definition of PD was used (e.g., 3M syndrome was included). We report a novel PD syndrome with distinct facies in two unrelated patients, each with a different homozygous truncating mutation in CRIPT. Our analysis also reveals, in addition to mutations in known PD disease genes, the first instance of biallelic truncating BRCA2 mutation causing PD with normal bone marrow analysis. In addition, we have identified a novel locus for Seckel syndrome based on a consanguineous multiplex family and identified a homozygous truncating mutation in DNA2 as the likely cause. An additional novel PD disease candidate gene XRCC4 was identified by autozygome/exome analysis, and the knockout mouse phenotype is highly compatible with PD. Thus, we add a number of novel genes to the growing list of PD-linked genes, including one which we show to be linked to a novel PD syndrome with a distinct facial appearance. PD is extremely heterogeneous genetically and clinically, and genomic tools are often required to reach a molecular diagnosis.

  1. Can strong correlations be experimentally revealed for Ҡ -mesons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiesmayr Beatrix C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1964 the physicists John St. Bell working at CERN took the 1935-idea of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen seriously and found that all theories based on local realism have to satisfy a certain inequality, nowadays dubbed Bell’s inequality. Experiments with ordinary matter systems or light show violations of Bell’s inequality favouring the quantum theory though a loophole free experiment has not yet been performed. This contribution presents an experimentally feasible Bell inequality for systems at higher energy scales, i.e. entangled neutral Ҡ -meson pairs that are typically produced in Φ -mesons decays or proton-antiproton annihilation processes. Strong requirements have to be overcome in order to achieve a conclusive tests, such a proposal was recently published. Surprisingly, this new Bell inequality reveals new features for weakly decaying particles, in particular, a strong sensitivity to the combined charge-conjugation-parity (CP symmetry. Here-with, a puzzling relation between a symmetry breaking for mesons and Bell’s inequality—which is a necessary and sufficient condition for the security of quantum cryptography protocols— is established. This becomes the more important since CP symmetry is related to the cosmological question why the antimatter disappeared after the Big Bang.

  2. CRISPR loci reveal networks of gene exchange in archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodt, Avital; Lurie-Weinberger, Mor N; Gophna, Uri

    2011-12-21

    CRISPR (Clustered, Regularly, Interspaced, Short, Palindromic Repeats) loci provide prokaryotes with an adaptive immunity against viruses and other mobile genetic elements. CRISPR arrays can be transcribed and processed into small crRNA molecules, which are then used by the cell to target the foreign nucleic acid. Since spacers are accumulated by active CRISPR/Cas systems, the sequences of these spacers provide a record of the past "infection history" of the organism. Here we analyzed all currently known spacers present in archaeal genomes and identified their source by DNA similarity. While nearly 50% of archaeal spacers matched mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids or viruses, several others matched chromosomal genes of other organisms, primarily other archaea. Thus, networks of gene exchange between archaeal species were revealed by the spacer analysis, including many cases of inter-genus and inter-species gene transfer events. Spacers that recognize viral sequences tend to be located further away from the leader sequence, implying that there exists a selective pressure for their retention. CRISPR spacers provide direct evidence for extensive gene exchange in archaea, especially within genera, and support the current dogma where the primary role of the CRISPR/Cas system is anti-viral and anti-plasmid defense. This article was reviewed by: Profs. W. Ford Doolittle, John van der Oost, Christa Schleper (nominated by board member Prof. J Peter Gogarten).

  3. Symbolic joint entropy reveals the coupling of various brain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaofei; Huang, Xiaolin; Du, Sidan; Liu, Hongxing; Ning, Xinbao

    2018-01-01

    The convergence and divergence of oscillatory behavior of different brain regions are very important for the procedure of information processing. Measurements of coupling or correlation are very useful to study the difference of brain activities. In this study, EEG signals were collected from ten subjects under two conditions, i.e. eyes closed state and idle with eyes open. We propose a nonlinear algorithm, symbolic joint entropy, to compare the coupling strength among the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes and between two different states. Instead of decomposing the EEG into different frequency bands (theta, alpha, beta, gamma etc.), the novel algorithm is to investigate the coupling from the entire spectrum of brain wave activities above 4Hz. The coupling coefficients in two states with different time delay steps are compared and the group statistics are presented as well. We find that the coupling coefficient of eyes open state with delay consistently lower than that of eyes close state across the group except for one subject, whereas the results without delay are not consistent. The differences between two brain states with non-zero delay can reveal the intrinsic inter-region coupling better. We also use the well-known Hénon map data to validate the algorithm proposed in this paper. The result shows that the method is robust and has a great potential for other physiologic time series.

  4. Multiple skeletal muscle metastases revealing a cardiac intimal sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crombe, Amandine [Institut Bergonie, Department of Radiology, Bordeaux (France); Lintingre, Pierre-Francois; Dallaudiere, Benjamin [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux-Merignac, Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Merignac (France); Le Loarer, Francois [Institut Bergonie, Department of Pathology, Bordeaux (France); Lachatre, Denis [Dupuytren University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Limoges (France)

    2018-01-15

    We report the case of a 59-year-old female with progressive bilateral painful swelling of the thighs. MRI revealed multiple intramuscular necrotic masses with similar morphologic patterns. Whole-body CT and 18-FDG PET-CT scans demonstrated additional hypermetabolic muscular masses and a lobulated lesion within the left atrial cavity. As biopsy of a muscular mass was compatible with a poorly differentiated sarcoma with MDM2 oncogene amplification, two diagnoses were discussed: a dedifferentiated liposarcoma with muscle and heart metastases or a primary cardiac sarcoma, mainly a cardiac intimal sarcoma, with muscular metastases, which was finally confirmed by array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in a sarcoma reference center. This case emphasizes the potential for intimal sarcoma to disseminate in skeletal muscle prior to any other organ and the need for a genomic approach in addition to classical radiopathologic analyses to distinguish primary from secondary locations facing simultaneous tumors of the heart and skeletal muscles with MDM2 amplification. (orig.)

  5. Molecular analysis of sourdough reveals Lactobacillus mindensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Matthias A; Müller, Martin R A; Vogel, Rudi F

    2003-01-01

    Genotypic fingerprinting to analyse the bacterial flora of an industrial sourdough revealed a coherent group of strains which could not be associated with a valid species. Comparative 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed that these strains formed a homogeneous cluster distinct from their closest relatives, Lactobacillus farciminis, Lactobacillus alimentarius and Lactobacillus kimchii. To characterize them further, physiological (sugar fermentation, formation of DL-lactate, hydrolysis of arginine, growth temperature, CO2 production) and chemotaxonomic properties have been determined. The DNA G +C content was 37.5 0.2 mol%. The peptidoglycan was of the lysine-D-iso-asparagine (L-Lys-D-Asp) type. The strains were homofermentative, Gram-positive, catalase-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile rods. They were found as a major stable component of a rye flour sourdough fermentation. Physiological, biochemical as well as genotypic data suggested them to be a new species of the genus Lactobacillus. This was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization of genomic DNA, and the name Lactobacillus mindensis is proposed. The type strain of this species is DSM 14500T (=LMG 21508T).

  6. Strategy revealing phenotypic differences among synthetic oscillator designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A

    2014-09-19

    Considerable progress has been made in identifying and characterizing the component parts of genetic oscillators, which play central roles in all organisms. Nonlinear interaction among components is sufficiently complex that mathematical models are required to elucidate their elusive integrated behavior. Although natural and synthetic oscillators exhibit common architectures, there are numerous differences that are poorly understood. Utilizing synthetic biology to uncover basic principles of simpler circuits is a way to advance understanding of natural circadian clocks and rhythms. Following this strategy, we address the following questions: What are the implications of different architectures and molecular modes of transcriptional control for the phenotypic repertoire of genetic oscillators? Are there designs that are more realizable or robust? We compare synthetic oscillators involving one of three architectures and various combinations of the two modes of transcriptional control using a methodology that provides three innovations: a rigorous definition of phenotype, a procedure for deconstructing complex systems into qualitatively distinct phenotypes, and a graphical representation for illuminating the relationship between genotype, environment, and the qualitatively distinct phenotypes of a system. These methods provide a global perspective on the behavioral repertoire, facilitate comparisons of alternatives, and assist the rational design of synthetic gene circuitry. In particular, the results of their application here reveal distinctive phenotypes for several designs that have been studied experimentally as well as a best design among the alternatives that has yet to be constructed and tested.

  7. Substrate channel in nitrogenase revealed by a molecular dynamics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dayle; Danyal, Karamatullah; Raugei, Simone; Seefeldt, Lance C

    2014-04-15

    Mo-dependent nitrogenase catalyzes the biological reduction of N2 to two NH3 molecules at FeMo-cofactor buried deep inside the MoFe protein. Access of substrates, such as N2, to the active site is likely restricted by the surrounding protein, requiring substrate channels that lead from the surface to the active site. Earlier studies on crystallographic structures of the MoFe protein have suggested three putative substrate channels. Here, we have utilized submicrosecond atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to allow the nitrogenase MoFe protein to explore its conformational space in an aqueous solution at physiological ionic strength, revealing a putative substrate channel. The viability of this observed channel was tested by examining the free energy of passage of N2 from the surface through the channel to FeMo-cofactor, resulting in the discovery of a very low energy barrier. These studies point to a viable substrate channel in nitrogenase that appears during thermal motions of the protein in an aqueous environment and that approaches a face of FeMo-cofactor earlier implicated in substrate binding.

  8. Initiation process of a thrust fault revealed by analog experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro; Dotare, Tatsuya; Adam, Juergen; Hori, Takane; Sakaguchi, Hide

    2016-04-01

    We conducted 2D (cross-sectional) analog experiments with dry sand using a high resolution digital image correlation (DIC) technique to reveal initiation process of a thrust fault in detail, and identified a number of "weak shear bands" and minor uplift prior to the thrust initiation. The observations suggest that the process can be divided into three stages. Stage 1: characterized by a series of abrupt and short-lived weak shear bands at the location where the thrust will be generated later. Before initiation of the fault, the area to be the hanging wall starts to uplift. Stage 2: defined by the generation of the new thrust and its active displacement. The location of the new thrust seems to be constrained by its associated back-thrust, produced at the foot of the surface slope (by the previous thrust). The activity of the previous thrust turns to zero once the new thrust is generated, but the timing of these two events is not the same. Stage 3: characterized by a constant displacement along the (new) thrust. Similar minor shear bands can be seen in the toe area of the Nankai accretionary prism, SW Japan and we can correlate the along-strike variations in seismic profiles to the model results that show the characteristic features in each thrust development stage.

  9. Beyond Contagion: Reality Mining Reveals Complex Patterns of Social Influence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamena Alshamsi

    Full Text Available Contagion, a concept from epidemiology, has long been used to characterize social influence on people's behavior and affective (emotional states. While it has revealed many useful insights, it is not clear whether the contagion metaphor is sufficient to fully characterize the complex dynamics of psychological states in a social context. Using wearable sensors that capture daily face-to-face interaction, combined with three daily experience sampling surveys, we collected the most comprehensive data set of personality and emotion dynamics of an entire community of work. From this high-resolution data about actual (rather than self-reported face-to-face interaction, a complex picture emerges where contagion (that can be seen as adaptation of behavioral responses to the behavior of other people cannot fully capture the dynamics of transitory states. We found that social influence has two opposing effects on states: adaptation effects that go beyond mere contagion, and complementarity effects whereby individuals' behaviors tend to complement the behaviors of others. Surprisingly, these effects can exhibit completely different directions depending on the stable personality or emotional dispositions (stable traits of target individuals. Our findings provide a foundation for richer models of social dynamics, and have implications on organizational engineering and workplace well-being.

  10. Multilocus analysis reveals three candidate genes for Chinese migraine susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, X-K; Fang, J; Yu, Z-Z; Lin, Q; Lu, C-X; Qu, H-L; Ma, Q-L

    2017-08-01

    Several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in Caucasian populations have identified 12 loci that are significantly associated with migraine. More evidence suggests that serotonin receptors are also involved in migraine pathophysiology. In the present study, a case-control study was conducted in a cohort of 581 migraine cases and 533 ethnically matched controls among a Chinese population. Eighteen polymorphisms from serotonin receptors and GWASs were selected, and genotyping was performed using a Sequenom MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry iPLEX platform. The genotypic and allelic distributions of MEF2D rs2274316 and ASTN2 rs6478241 were significantly different between migraine patients and controls. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed significant associations of polymorphisms in the MEF2D and ASTN2 genes with migraine susceptibility. MEF2D, PRDM16 and ASTN2 were also found to be associated with migraine without aura (MO) and migraine with family history. And, MEF2D and ASTN2 also served as genetic risk factors for the migraine without family history. The generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis identified that MEF2D and HTR2E constituted the two-factor interaction model. Our study suggests that the MEF2D, PRDM16 and ASTN2 genes from GWAS are associated with migraine susceptibility, especially MO, among Chinese patients. It appears that there is no association with serotonin receptor related genes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Revealing the Determinants of Widespread Alternative Splicing Perturbation in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly appreciated that alternative splicing plays a key role in generating functional specificity and diversity in cancer. However, the mechanisms by which cancer mutations perturb splicing remain unknown. Here, we developed a network-based strategy, DrAS-Net, to investigate more than 2.5 million variants across cancer types and link somatic mutations with cancer-specific splicing events. We identified more than 40,000 driver variant candidates and their 80,000 putative splicing targets deregulated in 33 cancer types and inferred their functional impact. Strikingly, tumors with splicing perturbations show reduced expression of immune system-related genes and increased expression of cell proliferation markers. Tumors harboring different mutations in the same gene often exhibit distinct splicing perturbations. Further stratification of 10,000 patients based on their mutation-splicing relationships identifies subtypes with distinct clinical features, including survival rates. Our work reveals how single-nucleotide changes can alter the repertoires of splicing isoforms, providing insights into oncogenic mechanisms for precision medicine.

  12. Pyrosequencing Reveals Fungal Communities in the Rhizosphere of Xinjiang Jujube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are important soil components as both decomposers and plant symbionts and play a major role in ecological and biogeochemical processes. However, little is known about the richness and structure of fungal communities. DNA sequencing technologies allow for the direct estimation of microbial community diversity, avoiding culture-based biases. We therefore used 454 pyrosequencing to investigate the fungal communities in the rhizosphere of Xinjiang jujube. We obtained no less than 40,488 internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA reads, the number of each sample was 6943, 6647, 6584, 6550, 6860, and 6904, and we used bioinformatics and multivariate statistics to analyze the results. The index of diversity showed greater richness in the rhizosphere fungal community of a 3-year-old jujube than in that of an 8-year-old jujube. Most operational taxonomic units belonged to Ascomycota, and taxonomic analyses identified Hypocreales as the dominant fungal order. Our results demonstrated that the fungal orders are present in different proportions in different sampling areas. Redundancy analysis (RDA revealed a significant correlation between soil properties and the abundance of fungal phyla. Our results indicated lower fungal diversity in the rhizosphere of Xinjiang jujube than that reported in other studies, and we hope our findings provide a reference for future research.

  13. Fine-scaled human genetic structure revealed by SNP microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jinchuan; Watkins, W Scott; Witherspoon, David J; Zhang, Yuhua; Guthery, Stephen L; Thara, Rangaswamy; Mowry, Bryan J; Bulayeva, Kazima; Weiss, Robert B; Jorde, Lynn B

    2009-05-01

    We report an analysis of more than 240,000 loci genotyped using the Affymetrix SNP microarray in 554 individuals from 27 worldwide populations in Africa, Asia, and Europe. To provide a more extensive and complete sampling of human genetic variation, we have included caste and tribal samples from two states in South India, Daghestanis from eastern Europe, and the Iban from Malaysia. Consistent with observations made by Charles Darwin, our results highlight shared variation among human populations and demonstrate that much genetic variation is geographically continuous. At the same time, principal components analyses reveal discernible genetic differentiation among almost all identified populations in our sample, and in most cases, individuals can be clearly assigned to defined populations on the basis of SNP genotypes. All individuals are accurately classified into continental groups using a model-based clustering algorithm, but between closely related populations, genetic and self-classifications conflict for some individuals. The 250K data permitted high-level resolution of genetic variation among Indian caste and tribal populations and between highland and lowland Daghestani populations. In particular, upper-caste individuals from Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh form one defined group, lower-caste individuals from these two states form another, and the tribal Irula samples form a third. Our results emphasize the correlation of genetic and geographic distances and highlight other elements, including social factors that have contributed to population structure.

  14. Comparative analysis reveals the underlying mechanism of vertebrate seasonal reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Animals utilize photoperiodic changes as a calendar to regulate seasonal reproduction. Birds have highly sophisticated photoperiodic mechanisms and functional genomics analysis in quail uncovered the signal transduction pathway regulating avian seasonal reproduction. Birds detect light with deep brain photoreceptors. Long day (LD) stimulus induces secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary gland. PT-derived TSH locally activates thyroid hormone (TH) in the hypothalamus, which induces gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and hence gonadotropin secretion. However, during winter, low temperatures increase serum TH for adaptive thermogenesis, which accelerates germ cell apoptosis by activating the genes involved in metamorphosis. Therefore, TH has a dual role in the regulation of seasonal reproduction. Studies using TSH receptor knockout mice confirmed the involvement of PT-derived TSH in mammalian seasonal reproduction. In addition, studies in mice revealed that the tissue-specific glycosylation of TSH diversifies its function in the circulation to avoid crosstalk. In contrast to birds and mammals, one of the molecular machineries necessary for the seasonal reproduction of fish are localized in the saccus vasculosus from the photoreceptor to the neuroendocrine output. Thus, comparative analysis is a powerful tool to uncover the universality and diversity of fundamental properties in various organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Frustration-guided motion planning reveals conformational transitions in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budday, Dominik; Fonseca, Rasmus; Leyendecker, Sigrid; van den Bedem, Henry

    2017-10-01

    Proteins exist as conformational ensembles, exchanging between substates to perform their function. Advances in experimental techniques yield unprecedented access to structural snapshots of their conformational landscape. However, computationally modeling how proteins use collective motions to transition between substates is challenging owing to a rugged landscape and large energy barriers. Here, we present a new, robotics-inspired motion planning procedure called dCC-RRT that navigates the rugged landscape between substates by introducing dynamic, interatomic constraints to modulate frustration. The constraints balance non-native contacts and flexibility, and instantaneously redirect the motion towards sterically favorable conformations. On a test set of eight proteins determined in two conformations separated by, on average, 7.5 Å root mean square deviation (RMSD), our pathways reduced the Cα atom RMSD to the goal conformation by 78%, outperforming peer methods. We then applied dCC-RRT to examine how collective, small-scale motions of four side-chains in the active site of cyclophilin A propagate through the protein. dCC-RRT uncovered a spatially contiguous network of residues linked by steric interactions and collective motion connecting the active site to a recently proposed, non-canonical capsid binding site 25 Å away, rationalizing NMR and multi-temperature crystallography experiments. In all, dCC-RRT can reveal detailed, all-atom molecular mechanisms for small and large amplitude motions. Source code and binaries are freely available at https://github.com/ExcitedStates/KGS/. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Towards revealing the structure of bacterial inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei

    2009-01-01

    Protein aggregation is a widely observed phenomenon in human diseases, biopharmaceutical production, and biological research. Protein aggregates are generally classified as highly ordered, such as amyloid fibrils, or amorphous, such as bacterial inclusion bodies. Amyloid fibrils are elongated filaments with diameters of 6-12 nm, they are comprised of residue-specific cross-beta structure, and display characteristic properties, such as binding with amyloid-specific dyes. Amyloid fibrils are associated with dozens of human pathological conditions, including Alzheimer disease and prion diseases. Distinguished from amyloid fibrils, bacterial inclusion bodies display apparent amorphous morphology. Inclusion bodies are formed during high-level recombinant protein production, and formation of inclusion bodies is a major concern in biotechnology. Despite of the distinctive morphological difference, bacterial inclusion bodies have been found to have some amyloid-like properties, suggesting that they might contain structures similar to amyloid-like fibrils. Recent structural data further support this hypothesis, and this review summarizes the latest progress towards revealing the structural details of bacterial inclusion bodies.

  17. Widespread alternative and aberrant splicing revealed by lariat sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepankiw, Nicholas; Raghavan, Madhura; Fogarty, Elizabeth A.; Grimson, Andrew; Pleiss, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing is an important and ancient feature of eukaryotic gene structure, the existence of which has likely facilitated eukaryotic proteome expansions. Here, we have used intron lariat sequencing to generate a comprehensive profile of splicing events in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, amongst the simplest organisms that possess mammalian-like splice site degeneracy. We reveal an unprecedented level of alternative splicing, including alternative splice site selection for over half of all annotated introns, hundreds of novel exon-skipping events, and thousands of novel introns. Moreover, the frequency of these events is far higher than previous estimates, with alternative splice sites on average activated at ∼3% the rate of canonical sites. Although a subset of alternative sites are conserved in related species, implying functional potential, the majority are not detectably conserved. Interestingly, the rate of aberrant splicing is inversely related to expression level, with lowly expressed genes more prone to erroneous splicing. Although we validate many events with RNAseq, the proportion of alternative splicing discovered with lariat sequencing is far greater, a difference we attribute to preferential decay of aberrantly spliced transcripts. Together, these data suggest the spliceosome possesses far lower fidelity than previously appreciated, highlighting the potential contributions of alternative splicing in generating novel gene structures. PMID:26261211

  18. Musculoskeletal networks reveal topological disparity in mammalian neck evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Patrick; Esteve-Altava, Borja; Fischer, Martin S

    2017-12-13

    The increase in locomotor and metabolic performance during mammalian evolution was accompanied by the limitation of the number of cervical vertebrae to only seven. In turn, nuchal muscles underwent a reorganization while forelimb muscles expanded into the neck region. As variation in the cervical spine is low, the variation in the arrangement of the neck muscles and their attachment sites (i.e., the variability of the neck's musculoskeletal organization) is thus proposed to be an important source of neck disparity across mammals. Anatomical network analysis provides a novel framework to study the organization of the anatomical arrangement, or connectivity pattern, of the bones and muscles that constitute the mammalian neck in an evolutionary context. Neck organization in mammals is characterized by a combination of conserved and highly variable network properties. We uncovered a conserved regionalization of the musculoskeletal organization of the neck into upper, mid and lower cervical modules. In contrast, there is a varying degree of complexity or specialization and of the integration of the pectoral elements. The musculoskeletal organization of the monotreme neck is distinctively different from that of therian mammals. Our findings reveal that the limited number of vertebrae in the mammalian neck does not result in a low musculoskeletal disparity when examined in an evolutionary context. However, this disparity evolved late in mammalian history in parallel with the radiation of certain lineages (e.g., cetartiodactyls, xenarthrans). Disparity is further facilitated by the enhanced incorporation of forelimb muscles into the neck and their variability in attachment sites.

  19. Early Neolithic water wells reveal the world's oldest wood architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegel, Willy; Elburg, Rengert; Hakelberg, Dietrich; Stäuble, Harald; Büntgen, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The European Neolithization ~6000-4000 BC represents a pivotal change in human history when farming spread and the mobile style of life of the hunter-foragers was superseded by the agrarian culture. Permanent settlement structures and agricultural production systems required fundamental innovations in technology, subsistence, and resource utilization. Motivation, course, and timing of this transformation, however, remain debatable. Here we present annually resolved and absolutely dated dendroarchaeological information from four wooden water wells of the early Neolithic period that were excavated in Eastern Germany. A total of 151 oak timbers preserved in a waterlogged environment were dated between 5469 and 5098 BC and reveal unexpectedly refined carpentry skills. The recently discovered water wells enable for the first time a detailed insight into the earliest wood architecture and display the technological capabilities of humans ~7000 years ago. The timbered well constructions made of old oak trees feature an unopened tree-ring archive from which annually resolved and absolutely dated environmental data can be culled. Our results question the principle of continuous evolutionary development in prehistoric technology, and contradict the common belief that metal was necessary for complex timber constructions. Early Neolithic craftsmanship now suggests that the first farmers were also the first carpenters.

  20. Early Neolithic water wells reveal the world's oldest wood architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Tegel

    Full Text Available The European Neolithization ~6000-4000 BC represents a pivotal change in human history when farming spread and the mobile style of life of the hunter-foragers was superseded by the agrarian culture. Permanent settlement structures and agricultural production systems required fundamental innovations in technology, subsistence, and resource utilization. Motivation, course, and timing of this transformation, however, remain debatable. Here we present annually resolved and absolutely dated dendroarchaeological information from four wooden water wells of the early Neolithic period that were excavated in Eastern Germany. A total of 151 oak timbers preserved in a waterlogged environment were dated between 5469 and 5098 BC and reveal unexpectedly refined carpentry skills. The recently discovered water wells enable for the first time a detailed insight into the earliest wood architecture and display the technological capabilities of humans ~7000 years ago. The timbered well constructions made of old oak trees feature an unopened tree-ring archive from which annually resolved and absolutely dated environmental data can be culled. Our results question the principle of continuous evolutionary development in prehistoric technology, and contradict the common belief that metal was necessary for complex timber constructions. Early Neolithic craftsmanship now suggests that the first farmers were also the first carpenters.

  1. Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Behrenfeld

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton photosynthesis links global ocean biology and climate-driven fluctuations in the physical environment. These interactions are largely expressed through changes in phytoplankton physiology, but physiological status has proven extremely challenging to characterize globally. Phytoplankton fluorescence does provide a rich source of physiological information long exploited in laboratory and field studies, and is now observed from space. Here we evaluate the physiological underpinnings of global variations in satellite-based phytoplankton chlorophyll fluorescence. The three dominant factors influencing fluorescence distributions are chlorophyll concentration, pigment packaging effects on light absorption, and light-dependent energy-quenching processes. After accounting for these three factors, resultant global distributions of quenching-corrected fluorescence quantum yields reveal a striking consistency with anticipated patterns of iron availability. High fluorescence quantum yields are typically found in low iron waters, while low quantum yields dominate regions where other environmental factors are most limiting to phytoplankton growth. Specific properties of photosynthetic membranes are discussed that provide a mechanistic view linking iron stress to satellite-detected fluorescence. Our results present satellite-based fluorescence as a valuable tool for evaluating nutrient stress predictions in ocean ecosystem models and give the first synoptic observational evidence that iron plays an important role in seasonal phytoplankton dynamics of the Indian Ocean. Satellite fluorescence may also provide a path for monitoring climate-phytoplankton physiology interactions and improving descriptions of phytoplankton light use efficiencies in ocean productivity models.

  2. Wetland Microtopographic Structure is Revealed with Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, J.; Stovall, A. E.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Slesak, R.

    2017-12-01

    Wetland microtopographic structure and its function has been the subject of research for decades, and several investigations suggest that microtopography is generated by autogenic ecohydrologic processes. But due to the difficulty of capturing the true spatial variability of wetland microtopography, many of the hypotheses for self-organization have remained elusive to test. We employ a novel method of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) that reveals an unprecedented high-resolution (structure of wetland microtopography in 10 black ash (Fraxinus nigra) stands of northern Minnesota, USA. Here we present the first efforts to synthesize this information and show that TLS provides a good representation of real microtopographic structure, where TLS accurately measured hummock height, but occlusion of low points led to a slight negative bias. We further show that TLS can accurately locate microtopographic high points (hummocks), as well as estimate their height and area. Using these new data, we estimate distributions in both microtopographic elevation and hummock area in each wetland and relate these to monitored hydrologic regime; in doing so, we test hypotheses linking emergent microtopographic patterns to putative hydrologic controls. Finally, we discuss future efforts to enumerate consequent influences of microtopography on wetland systems (soil properties and vegetation composition).

  3. Network motif frequency vectors reveal evolving metabolic network organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearcy, Nicole; Crofts, Jonathan J; Chuzhanova, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    At the systems level many organisms of interest may be described by their patterns of interaction, and as such, are perhaps best characterised via network or graph models. Metabolic networks, in particular, are fundamental to the proper functioning of many important biological processes, and thus, have been widely studied over the past decade or so. Such investigations have revealed a number of shared topological features, such as a short characteristic path-length, large clustering coefficient and hierarchical modular structure. However, the extent to which evolutionary and functional properties of metabolism manifest via this underlying network architecture remains unclear. In this paper, we employ a novel graph embedding technique, based upon low-order network motifs, to compare metabolic network structure for 383 bacterial species categorised according to a number of biological features. In particular, we introduce a new global significance score which enables us to quantify important evolutionary relationships that exist between organisms and their physical environments. Using this new approach, we demonstrate a number of significant correlations between environmental factors, such as growth conditions and habitat variability, and network motif structure, providing evidence that organism adaptability leads to increased complexities in the resultant metabolic networks.

  4. Spatial Congruity Effects Reveal Metaphorical Thinking, not Polarity Correspondence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolscheid, Sarah; Casasanto, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Spatial congruity effects have often been interpreted as evidence for metaphorical thinking, but an alternative account based on polarity correspondence (a.k.a. markedness) has challenged this view. Here we compared metaphor- and polarity-correspondence-based explanations for spatial congruity effects, using musical pitch as a testbed. In one experiment, English speakers classified high- and low-frequency pitches as "high" and "low," or as "front" and "back," to determine whether space-pitch congruity effects could be elicited by any marked spatial continuum. Although both pairs of terms describe bipolar spatial continuums, we found congruity effects only for high/low judgments, indicating that markedness is not sufficient to produce space-pitch congruity effects. A second experiment confirmed that there were no space-pitch congruity effects for another pair of terms that have clear markedness (big/small), but which do not denote spatial height. By contrast, this experiment showed congruity effects for words that cued an appropriate vertical spatial schema (tall/short), even though these words are not used conventionally in English to describe pitches, ruling out explanations for the observed pattern of results based on verbal polysemy. Together, results suggest that space-pitch congruity effects reveal metaphorical uses of spatial schemas, not polarity correspondence effects.

  5. Spatial congruity effects reveal metaphorical thinking, not polarity correspondence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eDolscheid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatial congruity effects have often been interpreted as evidence for metaphorical thinking, but an alternative account based on polarity correspondence (a.k.a. markedness has challenged this view. Here we compared metaphor- and polarity-correspondence-based explanations for spatial congruity effects, using musical pitch as a testbed. In one experiment, English speakers classified high- and low-frequency pitches as high and low, or as front and back, to determine whether space-pitch congruity effects could be elicited by any marked spatial continuum. Although both pairs of terms describe bipolar spatial continuums, we found congruity effects only for high/low judgments, indicating that markedness is not sufficient to produce space-pitch congruity effects. A second experiment confirmed that there were no space-pitch congruity effects for another pair of terms that have clear markedness (big/small, but which do not denote spatial height. By contrast, this experiment showed congruity effects for words that cued an appropriate vertical spatial schema (tall/short, even though these words are not used conventionally in English to describe pitches, ruling out explanations for the observed pattern of results based on verbal polysemy. Together, results suggest that space-pitch congruity effects reveal metaphorical uses of spatial schemas, not polarity correspondence effects.

  6. Revealing physical education students’ misconception in sport biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartiko, D. C.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this research is reveal Physical Education students’ misconception in several concepts of Sport Biomechanics. The Data of misconception collected by standard question of Diagnostic Test that given to 30 students of Physical Education, Faculty of Sport, State University of Surabaya in academic year 2017/2018. Diagnostic Test completed with CRI (Certainty of Response Index) in order to collect data of students’ certain in answered test. The data result of diagnostic test analysed through compilation graph of CRI right, CRI wrong and right fraction in every single question. Furthermore, students’ answer result of diagnostic test categorized in to 4 quadrants, these: correct concepts, lucky guess, misconceptions, and lack of knowledge. Its categorizing data to know percentage of misconceptions that arise in every concept tested. These sport biomechanics concepts tested are limited on frictional force, deference of distance and displacement, deference of velocity and acceleration, and free fall motion. The result obtained arise misconception in frictional force 52,78%; deference of distance and displacement 36,67%; deference of velocity and acceleration 56,67%; and free fall motion 53,33%. Result of t-test in diagnostic test misconception percentage showed that percentage of misconception arises in every student above 50%.

  7. Algal genomes reveal evolutionary mosaicism and the fate of nucleomorphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Bruce A.; Tanifuji, Goro; Burki, Fabien; Gruber, Ansgar; Irimia, Manuuel; Maruyama, Shinichiro; Arias, Maria C.; Ball, Steven G.; Gile, Gillian H.; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Hopkins, Julia F.; Kuo, Alan; Rensing, Stefan A.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Symeonidi, Aikaterini; Elias, Marek; Eveleigh, Robert J. M.; Herman, Emily K.; Klute, Mary J.; Nakayama, Takuro; Obornik, Miroslav; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Armbrust, E. Virginia; Aves, Stephen J.; Beiko, Robert G.; Coutinho, Pedro; Dacks, Joel B.; Durnford, Dion G.; Fast, Naomi M.; Green, Beverley R.; Grisdale, Cameron J.; Hempel, Franziska; Henrissat, Bernard; Hoppner, Marc P.; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Kim, Eunsoo; Koreny, Ludek; Kroth, Peter G.; Liu, Yuan; Malik, Shehre-Banoo; Maier, Uwe G.; McRose, Darcy; Mock, Thomas; Neilson, Jonathan A. D.; Onodera, Naoko T.; Poole, Anthony M.; Pritham, Ellen J.; Richards, Thomas A.; Rocap, Gabrielle; Roy, Scott W.; Sarai, Chihiro; Schaack, Sarah; Shirato, Shu; Slamovits, Claudio H.; Spencer, Davie F.; Suzuki, Shigekatsu; Worden, Alexandra Z.; Zauner, Stefan; Barry, Kerrie; Bell, Callum; Bharti, Arvind K.; Crow, John A.; Grimwood, Jane; Kramer, Robin; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Salamov, Asaf; McFadden, Geoffrey I.; Lane, Christopher E.; Keeling, Patrick J.; Gray, Michael W.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Archibald, John M.

    2012-08-10

    Cryptophyte and chlorarachniophyte algae are transitional forms in the widespread secondary endosymbiotic acquisition of photosynthesis by engulfment of eukaryotic algae. Unlike most secondary plastid-bearing algae, miniaturized versions of the endosymbiont nuclei (nucleomorphs) persist in cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes. To determine why, and to address other fundamental questions about eukaryote eukaryote endosymbiosis, we sequenced the nuclear genomes of the cryptophyte Guillardia theta and the chlorarachniophyte Bigelowiella natans. Both genomes have 21,000 protein genes and are intron rich, and B. natans exhibits unprecedented alternative splicing for a single-celled organism. Phylogenomic analyses and subcellular targeting predictions reveal extensive genetic and biochemical mosaicism, with both host- and endosymbiont-derived genes servicing the mitochondrion, the host cell cytosol, the plastid and the remnant endosymbiont cytosol of both algae. Mitochondrion-to-nucleus gene transfer still occurs in both organisms but plastid-to-nucleus and nucleomorph-to-nucleus transfers do not, which explains why a small residue of essential genes remains locked in each nucleomorph.

  8. Symbiotic polydnavirus and venom reveal parasitoid to its hyperparasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Cusumano, Antonino; Bloem, Janneke; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Villela, Alexandre; Fatouros, Nina E; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Vogel, Heiko; Poelman, Erik H

    2018-05-15

    Symbiotic relationships may provide organisms with key innovations that aid in the establishment of new niches. For example, during oviposition, some species of parasitoid wasps, whose larvae develop inside the bodies of other insects, inject polydnaviruses into their hosts. These symbiotic viruses disrupt host immune responses, allowing the parasitoid's progeny to survive. Here we show that symbiotic polydnaviruses also have a downside to the parasitoid's progeny by initiating a multitrophic chain of interactions that reveals the parasitoid larvae to their enemies. These enemies are hyperparasitoids that use the parasitoid progeny as host for their own offspring. We found that the virus and venom injected by the parasitoid during oviposition, but not the parasitoid progeny itself, affected hyperparasitoid attraction toward plant volatiles induced by feeding of parasitized caterpillars. We identified activity of virus-related genes in the caterpillar salivary gland. Moreover, the virus affected the activity of elicitors of salivary origin that induce plant responses to caterpillar feeding. The changes in caterpillar saliva were critical in inducing plant volatiles that are used by hyperparasitoids to locate parasitized caterpillars. Our results show that symbiotic organisms may be key drivers of multitrophic ecological interactions. We anticipate that this phenomenon is widespread in nature, because of the abundance of symbiotic microorganisms across trophic levels in ecological communities. Their role should be more prominently integrated in community ecology to understand organization of natural and managed ecosystems, as well as adaptations of individual organisms that are part of these communities.

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Hylocereus polyrhizus Reveals Metabolic Pathway Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhu Hua

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Red dragon fruit or red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus is the only edible fruit that contains betalains. The color of betalains ranges from red and violet to yellow in plants. Betalains may also serve as an important component of health-promoting and disease-preventing functional food. Currently, the biosynthetic and regulatory pathways for betalain production remain to be fully deciphered. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ-based proteomic analyses were used to reveal the molecular mechanism of betalain biosynthesis in H. polyrhizus fruits at white and red pulp stages, respectively. A total of 1946 proteins were identified as the differentially expressed between the two samples, and 936 of them were significantly highly expressed at the red pulp stage of H. polyrhizus. RNA-seq and iTRAQ analyses showed that some transcripts and proteins were positively correlated; they belonged to “phenylpropanoid biosynthesis”, “tyrosine metabolism”, “flavonoid biosynthesis”, “ascorbate and aldarate metabolism”, “betalains biosynthesis” and “anthocyanin biosynthesis”. In betalains biosynthesis pathway, several proteins/enzymes such as polyphenol oxidase, CYP76AD3 and 4,5-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (DOPA dioxygenase extradiol-like protein were identified. The present study provides a new insight into the molecular mechanism of the betalain biosynthesis at the posttranscriptional level.

  10. Modelling reveals kinetic advantages of co-transcriptional splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Aitken

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Messenger RNA splicing is an essential and complex process for the removal of intron sequences. Whereas the composition of the splicing machinery is mostly known, the kinetics of splicing, the catalytic activity of splicing factors and the interdependency of transcription, splicing and mRNA 3' end formation are less well understood. We propose a stochastic model of splicing kinetics that explains data obtained from high-resolution kinetic analyses of transcription, splicing and 3' end formation during induction of an intron-containing reporter gene in budding yeast. Modelling reveals co-transcriptional splicing to be the most probable and most efficient splicing pathway for the reporter transcripts, due in part to a positive feedback mechanism for co-transcriptional second step splicing. Model comparison is used to assess the alternative representations of reactions. Modelling also indicates the functional coupling of transcription and splicing, because both the rate of initiation of transcription and the probability that step one of splicing occurs co-transcriptionally are reduced, when the second step of splicing is abolished in a mutant reporter.

  11. Modelling reveals kinetic advantages of co-transcriptional splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Stuart; Alexander, Ross D; Beggs, Jean D

    2011-10-01

    Messenger RNA splicing is an essential and complex process for the removal of intron sequences. Whereas the composition of the splicing machinery is mostly known, the kinetics of splicing, the catalytic activity of splicing factors and the interdependency of transcription, splicing and mRNA 3' end formation are less well understood. We propose a stochastic model of splicing kinetics that explains data obtained from high-resolution kinetic analyses of transcription, splicing and 3' end formation during induction of an intron-containing reporter gene in budding yeast. Modelling reveals co-transcriptional splicing to be the most probable and most efficient splicing pathway for the reporter transcripts, due in part to a positive feedback mechanism for co-transcriptional second step splicing. Model comparison is used to assess the alternative representations of reactions. Modelling also indicates the functional coupling of transcription and splicing, because both the rate of initiation of transcription and the probability that step one of splicing occurs co-transcriptionally are reduced, when the second step of splicing is abolished in a mutant reporter.

  12. Acoustic telemetry reveals cryptic residency of whale sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagua, E Fernando; Cochran, Jesse E M; Rohner, Christoph A; Prebble, Clare E M; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane H; Pierce, Simon J; Berumen, Michael L

    2015-04-01

    Although whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) have been documented to move thousands of kilometres, they are most frequently observed at a few predictable seasonal aggregation sites. The absence of sharks at the surface during visual surveys has led to the assumption that sharks disperse to places unknown during the long 'off-seasons' at most of these locations. Here we compare 2 years of R. typus visual sighting records from Mafia Island in Tanzania to concurrent acoustic telemetry of tagged individuals. Sightings revealed a clear seasonal pattern with a peak between October and February and no sharks observed at other times. By contrast, acoustic telemetry demonstrated year-round residency of R. typus. The sharks use a different habitat in the off-season, swimming deeper and further away from shore, presumably in response to prey distributions. This behavioural change reduces the sharks' visibility, giving the false impression that they have left the area. We demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, year-round residency of unprovisioned, individual R. typus at an aggregation site, and highlight the importance of using multiple techniques to study the movement ecology of marine megafauna. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrative modelling reveals mechanisms linking productivity and plant species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, James B; Anderson, T Michael; Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Adler, Peter B; Harpole, W Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M; Pärtel, Meelis; Bakker, Jonathan D; Buckley, Yvonne M; Crawley, Michael J; Damschen, Ellen I; Davies, Kendi F; Fay, Philip A; Firn, Jennifer; Gruner, Daniel S; Hector, Andy; Knops, Johannes M H; MacDougall, Andrew S; Melbourne, Brett A; Morgan, John W; Orrock, John L; Prober, Suzanne M; Smith, Melinda D

    2016-01-21

    How ecosystem productivity and species richness are interrelated is one of the most debated subjects in the history of ecology. Decades of intensive study have yet to discern the actual mechanisms behind observed global patterns. Here, by integrating the predictions from multiple theories into a single model and using data from 1,126 grassland plots spanning five continents, we detect the clear signals of numerous underlying mechanisms linking productivity and richness. We find that an integrative model has substantially higher explanatory power than traditional bivariate analyses. In addition, the specific results unveil several surprising findings that conflict with classical models. These include the isolation of a strong and consistent enhancement of productivity by richness, an effect in striking contrast with superficial data patterns. Also revealed is a consistent importance of competition across the full range of productivity values, in direct conflict with some (but not all) proposed models. The promotion of local richness by macroecological gradients in climatic favourability, generally seen as a competing hypothesis, is also found to be important in our analysis. The results demonstrate that an integrative modelling approach leads to a major advance in our ability to discern the underlying processes operating in ecological systems.

  14. Two independent modes of chromatin organization revealed by cohesin removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Wibke; Abdennur, Nezar; Goloborodko, Anton; Pekowska, Aleksandra; Fudenberg, Geoffrey; Loe-Mie, Yann; Fonseca, Nuno A; Huber, Wolfgang; H Haering, Christian; Mirny, Leonid; Spitz, Francois

    2017-11-02

    Imaging and chromosome conformation capture studies have revealed several layers of chromosome organization, including segregation into megabase-sized active and inactive compartments, and partitioning into sub-megabase domains (TADs). It remains unclear, however, how these layers of organization form, interact with one another and influence genome function. Here we show that deletion of the cohesin-loading factor Nipbl in mouse liver leads to a marked reorganization of chromosomal folding. TADs and associated Hi-C peaks vanish globally, even in the absence of transcriptional changes. By contrast, compartmental segregation is preserved and even reinforced. Strikingly, the disappearance of TADs unmasks a finer compartment structure that accurately reflects the underlying epigenetic landscape. These observations demonstrate that the three-dimensional organization of the genome results from the interplay of two independent mechanisms: cohesin-independent segregation of the genome into fine-scale compartments, defined by chromatin state; and cohesin-dependent formation of TADs, possibly by loop extrusion, which helps to guide distant enhancers to their target genes.

  15. Submillisecond elastic recoil reveals molecular origins of fibrin fiber mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nathan E; Ding, Feng; Bucay, Igal; O'Brien, E Timothy; Gorkun, Oleg V; Superfine, Richard; Lord, Susan T; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Falvo, Michael R

    2013-06-18

    Fibrin fibers form the structural scaffold of blood clots. Thus, their mechanical properties are of central importance to understanding hemostasis and thrombotic disease. Recent studies have revealed that fibrin fibers are elastomeric despite their high degree of molecular ordering. These results have inspired a variety of molecular models for fibrin's elasticity, ranging from reversible protein unfolding to rubber-like elasticity. An important property that has not been explored is the timescale of elastic recoil, a parameter that is critical for fibrin's mechanical function and places a temporal constraint on molecular models of fiber elasticity. Using high-frame-rate imaging and atomic force microscopy-based nanomanipulation, we measured the recoil dynamics of individual fibrin fibers and found that the recoil was orders of magnitude faster than anticipated from models involving protein refolding. We also performed steered discrete molecular-dynamics simulations to investigate the molecular origins of the observed recoil. Our results point to the unstructured αC regions of the otherwise structured fibrin molecule as being responsible for the elastic recoil of the fibers. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Submillisecond Elastic Recoil Reveals Molecular Origins of Fibrin Fiber Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nathan E.; Ding, Feng; Bucay, Igal; O’Brien, E. Timothy; Gorkun, Oleg V.; Superfine, Richard; Lord, Susan T.; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Falvo, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrin fibers form the structural scaffold of blood clots. Thus, their mechanical properties are of central importance to understanding hemostasis and thrombotic disease. Recent studies have revealed that fibrin fibers are elastomeric despite their high degree of molecular ordering. These results have inspired a variety of molecular models for fibrin’s elasticity, ranging from reversible protein unfolding to rubber-like elasticity. An important property that has not been explored is the timescale of elastic recoil, a parameter that is critical for fibrin’s mechanical function and places a temporal constraint on molecular models of fiber elasticity. Using high-frame-rate imaging and atomic force microscopy-based nanomanipulation, we measured the recoil dynamics of individual fibrin fibers and found that the recoil was orders of magnitude faster than anticipated from models involving protein refolding. We also performed steered discrete molecular-dynamics simulations to investigate the molecular origins of the observed recoil. Our results point to the unstructured αC regions of the otherwise structured fibrin molecule as being responsible for the elastic recoil of the fibers. PMID:23790375

  17. Distributed neural system for emotional intelligence revealed by lesion mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Roberto; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience has made considerable progress in understanding the neural architecture of human intelligence, identifying a broadly distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that support goal-directed, intelligent behavior. However, the contributions of this network to social and emotional aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here we investigated the neural basis of emotional intelligence in 152 patients with focal brain injuries using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Latent variable modeling was applied to obtain measures of emotional intelligence, general intelligence and personality from the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Inventory, respectively. Regression analyses revealed that latent scores for measures of general intelligence and personality reliably predicted latent scores for emotional intelligence. Lesion mapping results further indicated that these convergent processes depend on a shared network of frontal, temporal and parietal brain regions. The results support an integrative framework for understanding the architecture of executive, social and emotional processes and make specific recommendations for the interpretation and application of the MSCEIT to the study of emotional intelligence in health and disease. PMID:23171618

  18. Revealing the structure of the world airline network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, T.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-07-01

    Resilience of most critical infrastructures against failure of elements that appear insignificant is usually taken for granted. The World Airline Network (WAN) is an infrastructure that reduces the geographical gap between societies, both small and large, and brings forth economic gains. With the extensive use of a publicly maintained data set that contains information about airports and alternative connections between these airports, we empirically reveal that the WAN is a redundant and resilient network for long distance air travel, but otherwise breaks down completely due to removal of short and apparently insignificant connections. These short range connections with moderate number of passengers and alternate flights are the connections that keep remote parts of the world accessible. It is surprising, insofar as there exists a highly resilient and strongly connected core consisting of a small fraction of airports (around 2.3%) together with an extremely fragile star-like periphery. Yet, in spite of their relevance, more than 90% of the world airports are still interconnected upon removal of this core. With standard and unconventional removal measures we compare both empirical and topological perceptions for the fragmentation of the world. We identify how the WAN is organized into different classes of clusters based on the physical proximity of airports and analyze the consequence of this fragmentation.

  19. Identifying and annotating human bifunctional RNAs reveals their versatile functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Geng; Yang, Juan; Chen, Jiwei; Song, Yunjie; Cao, Ruifang; Shi, Tieliu; Shi, Leming

    2016-10-01

    Bifunctional RNAs that possess both protein-coding and noncoding functional properties were less explored and poorly understood. Here we systematically explored the characteristics and functions of such human bifunctional RNAs by integrating tandem mass spectrometry and RNA-seq data. We first constructed a pipeline to identify and annotate bifunctional RNAs, leading to the characterization of 132 high-confidence bifunctional RNAs. Our analyses indicate that bifunctional RNAs may be involved in human embryonic development and can be functional in diverse tissues. Moreover, bifunctional RNAs could interact with multiple miRNAs and RNA-binding proteins to exert their corresponding roles. Bifunctional RNAs may also function as competing endogenous RNAs to regulate the expression of many genes by competing for common targeting miRNAs. Finally, somatic mutations of diverse carcinomas may generate harmful effect on corresponding bifunctional RNAs. Collectively, our study not only provides the pipeline for identifying and annotating bifunctional RNAs but also reveals their important gene-regulatory functions.

  20. Revealing Bell's nonlocality for unstable systems in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Gabriel, Andreas; Huber, Marcus; Di Domenico, Antonio; Curceanu, Catalina; Larsson, Jan-Aake; Moskal, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Entanglement and its consequences - in particular the violation of Bell inequalities, which defies our concepts of realism and locality - have been proven to play key roles in Nature by many experiments for various quantum systems. Entanglement can also be found in systems not consisting of ordinary matter and light, i.e. in massive meson-antimeson systems. Bell inequalities have been discussed for these systems, but up to date no direct experimental test to conclusively exclude local realism was found. This mainly stems from the fact that one only has access to a restricted class of observables and that these systems are also decaying. In this Letter we put forward a Bell inequality for unstable systems which can be tested at accelerator facilities with current technology. Herewith, the long awaited proof that such systems at different energy scales can reveal the sophisticated ''dynamical'' nonlocal feature of Nature in a direct experiment gets feasible. Moreover, the role of entanglement and CP violation, an asymmetry between matter and antimatter, is explored, a special feature offered only by these meson-antimeson systems. (orig.)

  1. New View of Distant Galaxy Reveals Furious Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    A furious rate of star formation discovered in a distant galaxy shows that galaxies in the early Universe developed either much faster or in a different way from what astronomers have thought. "This galaxy is forming stars at an incredible rate," said Wei-Hao Wang, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico. The galaxy, Wang said, is forming the equivalent of 4,000 Suns a year. This is a thousand times more violent than our own Milky Way Galaxy. Location of Distant Galaxy Visible-light, left (from HST) and Infrared, right, (from Spitzer) Images: Circles indicate location of GOODS 850-5. CREDIT: Wang et al., STScI, Spitzer, NASA, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for high-resolution file (1 MB) The galaxy, called GOODS 850-5, is 12 billion light-years from Earth, and thus is seen as it was only about 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang. Wang and his colleagues observed it using the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Submillimeter Array (SMA) on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. Young stars in the galaxy were enshrouded in dust that was heated by the stars and radiated infrared light strongly. Because of the galaxy's great distance from Earth, the infrared light waves have been stretched out to submillimeter-length radio waves, which are seen by the SMA. The waves were stretched or "redshifted," as astronomers say, by the ongoing expansion of the Universe. "This evidence for prolific star formation is hidden by the dust from visible-light telescopes," Wang explained. The dust, in turn, was formed from heavy elements that had to be built up in the cores of earlier stars. This indicates, Wang said, that significant numbers of stars already had formed, then spewed those heavy elements into interstellar space through supernova explosions and stellar winds. "Seeing the radiation from this heated dust revealed star formation we could have found in no other way," Wang said. Similar dusty galaxies in the early Universe may contain most of the

  2. Fish mucus metabolome reveals fish life-history traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverter, M.; Sasal, P.; Banaigs, B.; Lecchini, D.; Lecellier, G.; Tapissier-Bontemps, N.

    2017-06-01

    Fish mucus has important biological and ecological roles such as defense against fish pathogens and chemical mediation among several species. A non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomic approach was developed to study gill mucus of eight butterflyfish species in Moorea (French Polynesia), and the influence of several fish traits (geographic site and reef habitat, species taxonomy, phylogeny, diet and parasitism levels) on the metabolic variability was investigated. A biphasic extraction yielding two fractions (polar and apolar) was used. Fish diet (obligate corallivorous, facultative corallivorous or omnivorous) arose as the main driver of the metabolic differences in the gill mucus in both fractions, accounting for 23% of the observed metabolic variability in the apolar fraction and 13% in the polar fraction. A partial least squares discriminant analysis allowed us to identify the metabolites (variable important in projection, VIP) driving the differences between fish with different diets (obligate corallivores, facultative corallivores and omnivorous). Using accurate mass data and fragmentation data, we identified some of these VIP as glycerophosphocholines, ceramides and fatty acids. Level of monogenean gill parasites was the second most important factor shaping the gill mucus metabolome, and it explained 10% of the metabolic variability in the polar fraction and 5% in the apolar fraction. A multiple regression tree revealed that the metabolic variability due to parasitism in the polar fraction was mainly due to differences between non-parasitized and parasitized fish. Phylogeny and butterflyfish species were factors contributing significantly to the metabolic variability of the apolar fraction (10 and 3%, respectively) but had a less pronounced effect in the polar fraction. Finally, geographic site and reef habitat of butterflyfish species did not influence the gill mucus metabolome of butterflyfishes.

  3. Reveal genes functionally associated with ACADS by a network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulong; Su, Zhiguang

    2015-09-15

    Establishing a systematic network is aimed at finding essential human gene-gene/gene-disease pathway by means of network inter-connecting patterns and functional annotation analysis. In the present study, we have analyzed functional gene interactions of short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase gene (ACADS). ACADS plays a vital role in free fatty acid β-oxidation and regulates energy homeostasis. Modules of highly inter-connected genes in disease-specific ACADS network are derived by integrating gene function and protein interaction data. Among the 8 genes in ACADS web retrieved from both STRING and GeneMANIA, ACADS is effectively conjoined with 4 genes including HAHDA, HADHB, ECHS1 and ACAT1. The functional analysis is done via ontological briefing and candidate disease identification. We observed that the highly efficient-interlinked genes connected with ACADS are HAHDA, HADHB, ECHS1 and ACAT1. Interestingly, the ontological aspect of genes in the ACADS network reveals that ACADS, HAHDA and HADHB play equally vital roles in fatty acid metabolism. The gene ACAT1 together with ACADS indulges in ketone metabolism. Our computational gene web analysis also predicts potential candidate disease recognition, thus indicating the involvement of ACADS, HAHDA, HADHB, ECHS1 and ACAT1 not only with lipid metabolism but also with infant death syndrome, skeletal myopathy, acute hepatic encephalopathy, Reye-like syndrome, episodic ketosis, and metabolic acidosis. The current study presents a comprehensible layout of ACADS network, its functional strategies and candidate disease approach associated with ACADS network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ancient Chinese literature reveals pathways of eggplant domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Xiu; Gao, Tian-Gang; Knapp, Sandra

    2008-12-01

    Changes in key traits occurring during the processes of plant domestication have long been subjects of debate. Only in the case of genetic analysis or with extensive plant remains can specific sets of changes be documented. Historical details of the plant domestication processes are rare and other evidence of morphological change can be difficult to obtain, especially for those vegetables that lack a substantial body of archaeological data. Botanical records chronicled in the ancient literature of established ancient civilizations, such as that of China, are invaluable resources for the study and understanding of the process of plant domestication. Here, the considerable body of ancient Chinese literature is used to explore the domestication process that has occurred with the eggplant (Solanum melongena), an important vegetable in Old World. Information about eggplant domestication in the ancient Chinese literature was retrieved using a variety of methods. The information obtained was then sorted by taxon, examined and taxonomic identifications verified. It was found that the earliest record of the eggplant documented in ancient Chinese literature was in a work from 59 bc. As far as is known, this is the earliest reliable and accurately dated record of eggplant in cultivation. The analysis reveals that the process of domestication of the eggplant in China involved three principal aspects of fruit quality: size, shape and taste. These traits were actively and gradually selected; fruit size changed from small to large, taste changed from not palatable to what was termed at the time sweetish, and that over time, a wider variety of fruit shapes was cultivated. The results indicate that, in addition to data gleaned from archaeology and genetics, evidence as to changes in key traits occurring during the process of plant domestication and selective forces responsible for these changes can be traced through the ancient literature in some civilizations.

  5. A fifth major genetic group among honeybees revealed in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Bertrand, Bénédicte; Legout, Hélène; Moulin, Sibyle; Alburaki, Ali; Sheppard, Walter Steven; Garnery, Lionel

    2013-12-06

    Apiculture has been practiced in North Africa and the Middle-East from antiquity. Several thousand years of selective breeding have left a mosaic of Apis mellifera subspecies in the Middle-East, many uniquely adapted and survived to local environmental conditions. In this study we explore the genetic diversity of A. mellifera from Syria (n = 1258), Lebanon (n = 169) and Iraq (n = 35) based on 14 short tandem repeat (STR) loci in the context of reference populations from throughout the Old World (n = 732). Our data suggest that the Syrian honeybee Apis mellifera syriaca occurs in both Syrian and Lebanese territories, with no significant genetic variability between respective populations from Syria and Lebanon. All studied populations clustered within a new fifth independent nuclear cluster, congruent with an mtDNA Z haplotype identified in a previous study. Syrian honeybee populations are not associated with Oriental lineage O, except for sporadic introgression into some populations close to the Turkish and Iraqi borders. Southern Syrian and Lebanese populations demonstrated high levels of genetic diversity compared to the northern populations. This study revealed the effects of foreign queen importations on Syrian bee populations, especially for the region of Tartus, where extensive introgression of A. m. anatolica and/or A. m. caucasica alleles were identified. The policy of creating genetic conservation centers for the Syrian subspecies should take into consideration the influence of the oriental lineage O from the northern Syrian border and the large population of genetically divergent indigenous honeybees located in southern Syria.

  6. Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Droog, Wouter; Murphy, Kevin; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Schenberg, Eduardo E; Nest, Timothy; Orban, Csaba; Leech, Robert; Williams, Luke T; Williams, Tim M; Bolstridge, Mark; Sessa, Ben; McGonigle, John; Sereno, Martin I; Nichols, David; Hellyer, Peter J; Hobden, Peter; Evans, John; Singh, Krish D; Wise, Richard G; Curran, H Valerie; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J

    2016-04-26

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the prototypical psychedelic drug, but its effects on the human brain have never been studied before with modern neuroimaging. Here, three complementary neuroimaging techniques: arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measures, and magnetoencephalography (MEG), implemented during resting state conditions, revealed marked changes in brain activity after LSD that correlated strongly with its characteristic psychological effects. Increased visual cortex cerebral blood flow (CBF), decreased visual cortex alpha power, and a greatly expanded primary visual cortex (V1) functional connectivity profile correlated strongly with ratings of visual hallucinations, implying that intrinsic brain activity exerts greater influence on visual processing in the psychedelic state, thereby defining its hallucinatory quality. LSD's marked effects on the visual cortex did not significantly correlate with the drug's other characteristic effects on consciousness, however. Rather, decreased connectivity between the parahippocampus and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) correlated strongly with ratings of "ego-dissolution" and "altered meaning," implying the importance of this particular circuit for the maintenance of "self" or "ego" and its processing of "meaning." Strong relationships were also found between the different imaging metrics, enabling firmer inferences to be made about their functional significance. This uniquely comprehensive examination of the LSD state represents an important advance in scientific research with psychedelic drugs at a time of growing interest in their scientific and therapeutic value. The present results contribute important new insights into the characteristic hallucinatory and consciousness-altering properties of psychedelics that inform on how they can model certain pathological states and potentially treat others.

  7. Saturn's Internal Magnetic Field Revealed by Cassini Grand Finale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, H.; Dougherty, M. K.; Khurana, K. K.; Hunt, G. J.; Provan, G.; Kellock, S.; Burton, M. E.; Burk, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Saturn's internal magnetic field has been puzzling since the first in-situ measurements during the Pioneer 11 Saturn flyby. Cassini magnetometer measurements prior to the Grand Finale phase established 1) the highly axisymmetric nature of Saturn's internal magnetic field with a dipole tilt smaller than 0.06 degrees, 2) at least an order of magnitude slower secular variation rate compared to that of the current geomagnetic field, and 3) expulsion of magnetic fluxes from the equatorial region towards high latitude. The highly axisymmetric nature of Saturn's intrinsic magnetic field not only challenges dynamo theory but also makes an accurate determination of the interior rotation rate of Saturn extremely difficult. The Cassini spacecraft entered the Grand Finale phase in April 2017, during which time the spacecraft dived through the gap between Saturn's atmosphere and the inner edge of the D-ring 22 times before descending into the deep atmosphere of Saturn. The unprecedented proximity to Saturn (reaching 2500 km above the cloud deck) and the highly inclined nature of the Grand Finale orbits provided an ideal opportunity to decode Saturn's internal magnetic field. The fluxgate magnetometer onboard Cassini made precise vector measurements during the Grand Finale phase. Magnetic signals from the interior of the planet, the magnetospheric ring current, the high-latitude field-aligned current (FAC) modulated by the 10.7 hour planetary period oscillation, and low-latitude FACs were observed during the Grand Finale phase. Here we report the magnetometer measurements during the Cassini Grand Finale phase, new features of Saturn's internal magnetic field revealed by these measurements (e.g., the high degree magnetic moments of Saturn, the level of axisymmetry beyond dipole), and implications for the deep interior of Saturn.

  8. Opto-acoustic microscopy reveals adhesion mechanics of single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi Ghanem, Maroun; Dehoux, Thomas; Liu, Liwang; Le Saux, Guillaume; Plawinski, Laurent; Durrieu, Marie-Christine; Audoin, Bertrand

    2018-01-01

    Laser-generated GHz-ultrasonic-based technologies have shown the ability to image single cell adhesion and stiffness simultaneously. Using this new modality, we here demonstrate quantitative indicators to investigate contact mechanics and adhesion processes of the cell. We cultured human cells on a rigid substrate, and we used an inverted pulsed opto-acoustic microscope to generate acoustic pulses containing frequencies up to 100 GHz in the substrate. We map the reflection of the acoustic pulses at the cell-substrate interface to obtain images of the acoustic impedance of the cell, Z c , as well as of the stiffness of the interface, K, with 1 μm lateral resolution. Our results show that the standard deviation ΔZ c reveals differences between different cell types arising from the multiplicity of local conformations within the nucleus. From the distribution of K-values within the nuclear region, we extract a mean interfacial stiffness, K m , that quantifies the average contact force in areas of the cell displaying weak bonding. By analogy with classical contact mechanics, we also define the ratio of the real to nominal contact areas, S r /S t . We show that K m can be interpreted as a quantitative indicator of passive contact at metal-cell interfaces, while S r /S t is sensitive to active adhesive processes in the nuclear region. The ability to separate the contributions of passive and active adhesion processes should allow gaining insight into cell-substrate interactions, with important applications in tissue engineering.

  9. Revealing driving factors of China's PM2.5 pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Zhao, H.; Zhang, Q.; Geng, G.; Tong, D.; Peng, L.; He, K.

    2017-12-01

    China's rapid economic development and intensive energy consumption are deteriorating the air quality significantly. Understanding the key driving factors behind China's growing emissions of air pollutants and the accompanying PM2.5 pollution is critical for the development of China's clean air policies and also provides insight into how other emerging economies may develop a clear sky future. Here we reveal the socioeconomic drivers of the variations of China's PM2.5 concentrations during 2002-2012 by using an interdisciplinary framework that integrates an emission inventory model, an index decomposition analysis model, and a regional air quality model. The decomposition results demostrate that the improvements in emission efficiency and energy efficiency failed to offset the increased emissions of both primary PM2.5 and gaseous PM2.5 precursors (including SO2 NOx, and volatile organic compounds) triggered by the surging economic growth during 2002-2012. During the same time, the effects of energy structure, production structure and population growth were relatively less significant to all pollutants, which indicates the potential of large emission abatements through energy structure and production structure adjustment. Sensitivity simulations by the air quality model based on the provincial decomposition results also show that the economic growth have outpaced efficiency improvements in the increments of PM2.5 concentrations during the study years. As China continues to develop rapidly, future policies should promote further improvements in efficiency and accelerate the adjustments toward clean energy and production structures, which are critical for reducing China's emissions and alleviating the severe PM2.5 pollution.

  10. Polylox barcoding reveals haematopoietic stem cell fates realized in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Weike; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Rössler, Jens; Wang, Xi; Postrach, Daniel; Busch, Katrin; Rode, Immanuel; Klapproth, Kay; Dietlein, Nikolaus; Quedenau, Claudia; Chen, Wei; Sauer, Sascha; Wolf, Stephan; Höfer, Thomas; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2017-08-24

    Developmental deconvolution of complex organs and tissues at the level of individual cells remains challenging. Non-invasive genetic fate mapping has been widely used, but the low number of distinct fluorescent marker proteins limits its resolution. Much higher numbers of cell markers have been generated using viral integration sites, viral barcodes, and strategies based on transposons and CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing; however, temporal and tissue-specific induction of barcodes in situ has not been achieved. Here we report the development of an artificial DNA recombination locus (termed Polylox) that enables broadly applicable endogenous barcoding based on the Cre-loxP recombination system. Polylox recombination in situ reaches a practical diversity of several hundred thousand barcodes, allowing tagging of single cells. We have used this experimental system, combined with fate mapping, to assess haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) fates in vivo. Classical models of haematopoietic lineage specification assume a tree with few major branches. More recently, driven in part by the development of more efficient single-cell assays and improved transplantation efficiencies, different models have been proposed, in which unilineage priming may occur in mice and humans at the level of HSCs. We have introduced barcodes into HSC progenitors in embryonic mice, and found that the adult HSC compartment is a mosaic of embryo-derived HSC clones, some of which are unexpectedly large. Most HSC clones gave rise to multilineage or oligolineage fates, arguing against unilineage priming, and suggesting coherent usage of the potential of cells in a clone. The spreading of barcodes, both after induction in embryos and in adult mice, revealed a basic split between common myeloid-erythroid development and common lymphocyte development, supporting the long-held but contested view of a tree-like haematopoietic structure.

  11. Drought sensitivity of Amazonian carbon balance revealed by atmospheric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, L. V.; Gloor, M.; Miller, J. B.; Doughty, C. E.; Malhi, Y.; Domingues, L. G.; Basso, L. S.; Martinewski, A.; Correia, C. S. C.; Borges, V. F.; Freitas, S.; Braz, R.; Anderson, L. O.; Rocha, H.; Grace, J.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-02-01

    Feedbacks between land carbon pools and climate provide one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our predictions of global climate. Estimates of the sensitivity of the terrestrial carbon budget to climate anomalies in the tropics and the identification of the mechanisms responsible for feedback effects remain uncertain. The Amazon basin stores a vast amount of carbon, and has experienced increasingly higher temperatures and more frequent floods and droughts over the past two decades. Here we report seasonal and annual carbon balances across the Amazon basin, based on carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide measurements for the anomalously dry and wet years 2010 and 2011, respectively. We find that the Amazon basin lost 0.48+/-0.18 petagrams of carbon per year (PgCyr-1) during the dry year but was carbon neutral (0.06+/-0.1PgCyr-1) during the wet year. Taking into account carbon losses from fire by using carbon monoxide measurements, we derived the basin net biome exchange (that is, the carbon flux between the non-burned forest and the atmosphere) revealing that during the dry year, vegetation was carbon neutral. During the wet year, vegetation was a net carbon sink of 0.25+/-0.14PgCyr-1, which is roughly consistent with the mean long-term intact-forest biomass sink of 0.39+/-0.10PgCyr-1 previously estimated from forest censuses. Observations from Amazonian forest plots suggest the suppression of photosynthesis during drought as the primary cause for the 2010 sink neutralization. Overall, our results suggest that moisture has an important role in determining the Amazonian carbon balance. If the recent trend of increasing precipitation extremes persists, the Amazon may become an increasing carbon source as a result of both emissions from fires and the suppression of net biome exchange by drought.

  12. Antarctic krill 454 pyrosequencing reveals chaperone and stress transcriptome.

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    Melody S Clark

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Antarctic krill Euphausia superba is a keystone species in the Antarctic food chain. Not only is it a significant grazer of phytoplankton, but it is also a major food item for charismatic megafauna such as whales and seals and an important Southern Ocean fisheries crop. Ecological data suggest that this species is being affected by climate change and this will have considerable consequences for the balance of the Southern Ocean ecosystem. Hence, understanding how this organism functions is a priority area and will provide fundamental data for life history studies, energy budget calculations and food web models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The assembly of the 454 transcriptome of E. superba resulted in 22,177 contigs with an average size of 492bp (ranging between 137 and 8515bp. In depth analysis of the data revealed an extensive catalogue of the cellular chaperone systems and the major antioxidant proteins. Full length sequences were characterised for the chaperones HSP70, HSP90 and the super-oxide dismutase antioxidants, with the discovery of potentially novel duplications of these genes. The sequence data contained 41,470 microsatellites and 17,776 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs/INDELS, providing a resource for population and also gene function studies. CONCLUSIONS: This paper details the first 454 generated data for a pelagic Antarctic species or any pelagic crustacean globally. The classical "stress proteins", such as HSP70, HSP90, ferritin and GST were all highly expressed. These genes were shown to be over expressed in the transcriptomes of Antarctic notothenioid fish and hypothesized as adaptations to living in the cold, with the associated problems of decreased protein folding efficiency and increased vulnerability to damage by reactive oxygen species. Hence, these data will provide a major resource for future physiological work on krill, but in particular a suite of "stress" genes for studies understanding

  13. A parts list for fungal cellulosomes revealed by comparative genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haitjema, Charles H.; Gilmore, Sean P.; Henske, John K.; Solomon, Kevin V.; de Groot, Randall; Kuo, Alan; Mondo, Stephen J.; Salamov, Asaf A.; LaButti, Kurt; Zhao, Zhiying; Chiniquy, Jennifer; Barry, Kerrie; Brewer, Heather M.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Wright, Aaron T.; Hainaut, Matthieu; Boxma, Brigitte; van Alen, Theo; Hackstein, Johannes H. P.; Henrissat, Bernard; Baker, Scott E.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; O' Malley, Michelle A.

    2017-05-26

    Cellulosomes are large, multi-protein complexes that tether plant biomass degrading enzymes together for improved hydrolysis1. These complexes were first described in anaerobic bacteria where species specific dockerin domains mediate assembly of enzymes onto complementary cohesin motifs interspersed within non-catalytic protein scaffolds1. The versatile protein assembly mechanism conferred by the bacterial cohesin-dockerin interaction is now a standard design principle for synthetic protein-scale pathways2,3. For decades, analogous structures have been reported in the early branching anaerobic fungi, which are known to assemble by sequence divergent non-catalytic dockerin domains (NCDD)4. However, the enzyme components, modular assembly mechanism, and functional role of fungal cellulosomes remain unknown5,6. Here, we describe the comprehensive set of proteins critical to fungal cellulosome assembly, including novel, conserved scaffolding proteins unique to the Neocallimastigomycota. High quality genomes of the anaerobic fungi Anaeromyces robustus, Neocallimastix californiae and Piromyces finnis were assembled with long-read, single molecule technology to overcome their repeat-richness and extremely low GC content. Genomic analysis coupled with proteomic validation revealed an average 320 NCDD-containing proteins per fungal strain that were overwhelmingly carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes), with 95 large fungal scaffoldins identified across 4 genera that contain a conserved amino acid sequence repeat that binds to NCDDs. Fungal dockerin and scaffoldin domains have no similarity to their bacterial counterparts, yet several catalytic domains originated via horizontal gene transfer with gut bacteria. Though many catalytic domains are shared with bacteria, the biocatalytic activity of anaerobic fungi is expanded by the inclusion of GH3, GH6, and GH45 enzymes in the enzyme complexes. Collectively, these findings suggest that the fungal cellulosome is an evolutionarily

  14. Genome size analyses of Pucciniales reveal the largest fungal genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Sílvia; Ramos, Ana Paula; Pires, Ana Sofia; Azinheira, Helena G; Caldeirinha, Patrícia; Link, Tobias; Abranches, Rita; Silva, Maria do Céu; Voegele, Ralf T; Loureiro, João; Talhinhas, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales) are biotrophic plant pathogens which exhibit diverse complexities in their life cycles and host ranges. The completion of genome sequencing of a few rust fungi has revealed the occurrence of large genomes. Sequencing efforts for other rust fungi have been hampered by uncertainty concerning their genome sizes. Flow cytometry was recently applied to estimate the genome size of a few rust fungi, and confirmed the occurrence of large genomes in this order (averaging 225.3 Mbp, while the average for Basidiomycota was 49.9 Mbp and was 37.7 Mbp for all fungi). In this work, we have used an innovative and simple approach to simultaneously isolate nuclei from the rust and its host plant in order to estimate the genome size of 30 rust species by flow cytometry. Genome sizes varied over 10-fold, from 70 to 893 Mbp, with an average genome size value of 380.2 Mbp. Compared to the genome sizes of over 1800 fungi, Gymnosporangium confusum possesses the largest fungal genome ever reported (893.2 Mbp). Moreover, even the smallest rust genome determined in this study is larger than the vast majority of fungal genomes (94%). The average genome size of the Pucciniales is now of 305.5 Mbp, while the average Basidiomycota genome size has shifted to 70.4 Mbp and the average for all fungi reached 44.2 Mbp. Despite the fact that no correlation could be drawn between the genome sizes, the phylogenomics or the life cycle of rust fungi, it is interesting to note that rusts with Fabaceae hosts present genomes clearly larger than those with Poaceae hosts. Although this study comprises only a small fraction of the more than 7000 rust species described, it seems already evident that the Pucciniales represent a group where genome size expansion could be a common characteristic. This is in sharp contrast to sister taxa, placing this order in a relevant position in fungal genomics research.

  15. Mesoscopic organization reveals the constraints governing Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system.

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    Raj Kumar Pan

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges in biology is to understand how activity at the cellular level of neurons, as a result of their mutual interactions, leads to the observed behavior of an organism responding to a variety of environmental stimuli. Investigating the intermediate or mesoscopic level of organization in the nervous system is a vital step towards understanding how the integration of micro-level dynamics results in macro-level functioning. The coordination of many different co-occurring processes at this level underlies the command and control of overall network activity. In this paper, we have considered the somatic nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, for which the entire neuronal connectivity diagram is known. We focus on the organization of the system into modules, i.e., neuronal groups having relatively higher connection density compared to that of the overall network. We show that this mesoscopic feature cannot be explained exclusively in terms of considerations such as, optimizing for resource constraints (viz., total wiring cost and communication efficiency (i.e., network path length. Even including information about the genetic relatedness of the cells cannot account for the observed modular structure. Comparison with other complex networks designed for efficient transport (of signals or resources implies that neuronal networks form a distinct class. This suggests that the principal function of the network, viz., processing of sensory information resulting in appropriate motor response, may be playing a vital role in determining the connection topology. Using modular spectral analysis we make explicit the intimate relation between function and structure in the nervous system. This is further brought out by identifying functionally critical neurons purely on the basis of patterns of intra- and inter-modular connections. Our study reveals how the design of the nervous system reflects several constraints, including

  16. Isotope analysis reveals foraging area dichotomy for atlantic leatherback turtles.

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    Stéphane Caut

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea has undergone a dramatic decline over the last 25 years, and this is believed to be primarily the result of mortality associated with fisheries bycatch followed by egg and nesting female harvest. Atlantic leatherback turtles undertake long migrations across ocean basins from subtropical and tropical nesting beaches to productive frontal areas. Migration between two nesting seasons can last 2 or 3 years, a time period termed the remigration interval (RI. Recent satellite transmitter data revealed that Atlantic leatherbacks follow two major dispersion patterns after nesting season, through the North Gulf Stream area or more eastward across the North Equatorial Current. However, information on the whole RI is lacking, precluding the accurate identification of feeding areas where conservation measures may need to be applied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using stable isotopes as dietary tracers we determined the characteristics of feeding grounds of leatherback females nesting in French Guiana. During migration, 3-year RI females differed from 2-year RI females in their isotope values, implying differences in their choice of feeding habitats (offshore vs. more coastal and foraging latitude (North Atlantic vs. West African coasts, respectively. Egg-yolk and blood isotope values are correlated in nesting females, indicating that egg analysis is a useful tool for assessing isotope values in these turtles, including adults when not available. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results complement previous data on turtle movements during the first year following the nesting season, integrating the diet consumed during the year before nesting. We suggest that the French Guiana leatherback population segregates into two distinct isotopic groupings, and highlight the urgent need to determine the feeding habitats of the turtle in the Atlantic in order to protect this species from incidental take by

  17. Polylox barcoding reveals haematopoietic stem cell fates realized in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Jens; Wang, Xi; Postrach, Daniel; Busch, Katrin; Rode, Immanuel; Klapproth, Kay; Dietlein, Nikolaus; Quedenau, Claudia; Chen, Wei; Sauer, Sascha; Wolf, Stephan; Höfer, Thomas; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2017-01-01

    Developmental deconvolution of complex organs and tissues at the level of individual cells remains challenging. Non-invasive genetic fate mapping1 has been widely used, but the low number of distinct fluorescent marker proteins limits its resolution. Much higher numbers of cell markers have been generated using viral integration sites2, viral barcodes3, and strategies based on transposons4 and CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing5; however, temporal and tissue-specific induction of barcodes in situ has not been achieved. Here we report the development of an artificial DNA recombination locus (termed Polylox) that enables broadly applicable endogenous barcoding based on the Cre-loxP recombination system6,7. Polylox recombination in situ reaches a practical diversity of several hundred thousand barcodes, allowing tagging of single cells. We have used this experimental system, combined with fate mapping, to assess haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) fates in vivo. Classical models of haematopoietic lineage specification assume a tree with few major branches. More recently, driven in part by the development of more efficient single-cell assays and improved transplantation efficiencies, different models have been proposed, in which unilineage priming may occur in mice and humans at the level of HSCs8–10. We have introduced barcodes into HSC progenitors in embryonic mice, and found that the adult HSC compartment is a mosaic of embryo-derived HSC clones, some of which are unexpectedly large. Most HSC clones gave rise to multilineage or oligolineage fates, arguing against unilineage priming, and suggesting coherent usage of the potential of cells in a clone. The spreading of barcodes, both after induction in embryos and in adult mice, revealed a basic split between common myeloid-erythroid development and common lymphocyte development, supporting the long-held but contested view of a tree-like haematopoietic structure. PMID:28813413

  18. Evolutionary pets: offspring numbers reveal speciation process in domesticated chickens.

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    Inga Tiemann

    Full Text Available Since Darwin, the nature of the relationship between evolution and domestication has been debated. Evolution offers different mechanisms of selection that lead to adaptation and may end in the origin of new species as defined by the biological species concept. Domestication has given rise to numerous breeds in almost every domesticated species, including chickens. At the same time, so-called artificial selection seems to exclude mechanisms of sexual selection by the animals themselves. We want to forward the question to the animal itself: With whom do you reproduce successfully? This study focused on the sexual behavior of the domestic chicken Gallus gallus f.dom., particularly the White Crested Polish breed. Experiments on mate choice and the observation of fertilization and hatching rates of mixed-breeding groups revealed breed-specific preferences. In breeding groups containing White Crested Polish and a comparative breed, more purebred chicks hatched than hybrids (number of eggs collected: 1059. Mating was possible in equal shares, but in relation to the number of eggs collected, purebred offspring (62.75% ± 7.10%, M ± SE hatched to a greater extend compared to hybrid offspring (28.75% ± 15.32%, M ± SE. These data demonstrate that the mechanism of sexual selection is still present in domestic chicken breeds, which includes the alteration of gene frequencies typical for domestication and evolutionary speciation. Due to selection and mate choice we state that breeding in principle can generate new species. Therefore, we see domestication as an evolutionary process that integrates human interests of animal breeding with innate mate choice by the animal.

  19. Can technology improve intershift report? What the research reveals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strople, Bernadette; Ottani, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Shift report is a multifaceted process that serves to provide nurses with vital patient information to facilitate clinical decisions and patient care planning. A shift report also provides nurses with a forum for functions, such as patient problem solving and collaboration. The authors conducted a literature review, which indicates that current methodologies used to collect and convey patient information are ineffective and may contribute to negative patient outcomes. Data incongruence, legal implications, time constraints augmented by the nursing shortage, and the financial impact of shift report are also addressed. The literature reveals significant rationale for pioneering new and innovative methods of shift-to-shift communication. In the report To Err is Human: Building a Safe Health System, the Institute of Medicine attributes the deaths of up to 98,000 hospitalized Americans to medical errors, including communication failures [Institute of Medicine. (1999). To err is human: Building a safe health system. Report by the Committee on Quality of Health Care in America. Washington, DC: National Academy Press]. As a result, government policy makers and health care agencies have focused their attention on determining the root cause of errors to identify preventative measures, including the use of information technology [Institute of Medicine. (2004). Keeping patients safe: Transforming the work environment of nurses. Report by the Committee on Quality of Health Care in America. Washington, DC: National Academy Press]. Under these premises, the authors examined the process of nursing shift report and how it impacts patient outcomes. The use of computer technology and wireless modes of communication is explored as a means of improving the shift report process and, subsequently, health care outcomes and patient safety.

  20. Metabolomic Profiling of the Malaria Box Reveals Antimalarial Target Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Erik L.; Painter, Heather J.; Samra, Jasmeet; Carrasquilla, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    The threat of widespread drug resistance to frontline antimalarials has renewed the urgency for identifying inexpensive chemotherapeutic compounds that are effective against Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite species responsible for the greatest number of malaria-related deaths worldwide. To aid in the fight against malaria, a recent extensive screening campaign has generated thousands of lead compounds with low micromolar activity against blood stage parasites. A subset of these leads has been compiled by the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) into a collection of structurally diverse compounds known as the MMV Malaria Box. Currently, little is known regarding the activity of these Malaria Box compounds on parasite metabolism during intraerythrocytic development, and a majority of the targets for these drugs have yet to be defined. Here we interrogated the in vitro metabolic effects of 189 drugs (including 169 of the drug-like compounds from the Malaria Box) using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). The resulting metabolic fingerprints provide information on the parasite biochemical pathways affected by pharmacologic intervention and offer a critical blueprint for selecting and advancing lead compounds as next-generation antimalarial drugs. Our results reveal several major classes of metabolic disruption, which allow us to predict the mode of action (MoA) for many of the Malaria Box compounds. We anticipate that future combination therapies will be greatly informed by these results, allowing for the selection of appropriate drug combinations that simultaneously target multiple metabolic pathways, with the aim of eliminating malaria and forestalling the expansion of drug-resistant parasites in the field. PMID:27572391

  1. Intersubject information mapping: revealing canonical representations of complex natural stimuli

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    Nikolaus Kriegeskorte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Real-world time-continuous stimuli such as video promise greater naturalism for studies of brain function. However, modeling the stimulus variation is challenging and introduces a bias in favor of particular descriptive dimensions. Alternatively, we can look for brain regions whose signal is correlated between subjects, essentially using one subject to model another. Intersubject correlation mapping (ICM allows us to find brain regions driven in a canonical manner across subjects by a complex natural stimulus. However, it requires a direct voxel-to-voxel match between the spatiotemporal activity patterns and is thus only sensitive to common activations sufficiently extended to match up in Talairach space (or in an alternative, e.g. cortical-surface-based, common brain space. Here we introduce the more general approach of intersubject information mapping (IIM. For each brain region, IIM determines how much information is shared between the subjects' local spatiotemporal activity patterns. We estimate the intersubject mutual information using canonical correlation analysis applied to voxels within a spherical searchlight centered on each voxel in turn. The intersubject information estimate is invariant to linear transforms including spatial rearrangement of the voxels within the searchlight. This invariance to local encoding will be crucial in exploring fine-grained brain representations, which cannot be matched up in a common space and, more fundamentally, might be unique to each individual – like fingerprints. IIM yields a continuous brain map, which reflects intersubject information in fine-grained patterns. Performed on data from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of subjects viewing the same television show, IIM and ICM both highlighted sensory representations, including primary visual and auditory cortices. However, IIM revealed additional regions in higher association cortices, namely temporal pole and orbitofrontal cortex. These

  2. Raman spectroscopy reveals biophysical markers in skin cancer surgical margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xu; Moy, Austin J.; Nguyen, Hieu T. M.; Zhang, Yao; Fox, Matthew C.; Sebastian, Katherine R.; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Markey, Mia K.; Tunnell, James W.

    2018-02-01

    The recurrence rate of nonmelanoma skin cancer is highly related to the residual tumor after surgery. Although tissueconserving surgery, such as Mohs surgery, is a standard method for the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer, they are limited by lengthy and costly frozen-section histopathology. Raman spectroscopy (RS) is proving to be an objective, sensitive, and non-destructive tool for detecting skin cancer. Previous studies demonstrated the high sensitivity of RS in detecting tumor margins of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). However, those studies rely on statistical classification models and do not elucidate the skin biophysical composition. As a result, we aim to discover the biophysical differences between BCC and primary normal skin structures (including epidermis, dermis, hair follicle, sebaceous gland and fat). We obtained freshly resected ex vivo skin samples from fresh resection specimens from 14 patients undergoing Mohs surgery. Raman images were acquired from regions containing one or more structures using a custom built 830nm confocal Raman microscope. The spectra were grouped using K-means clustering analysis and annotated as either BCC or each of the five normal structures by comparing with the histopathology image of the serial section. The spectral data were then fit by a previously established biophysical model with eight primary skin constituents. Our results show that BCC has significant differences in the fit coefficients of nucleus, collagen, triolein, keratin and elastin compared with normal structures. Our study reveals RS has the potential to detect biophysical changes in resection margins, and supports the development of diagnostic algorithms for future intraoperative implementation of RS during Mohs surgery.

  3. Calreticulin reveals a critical Ca2+ checkpoint in cardiac myofibrillogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Pucéat, Michel; Perez-Terzic, Carmen; Mery, Annabelle; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Michalak, Marek; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Jaconi, Marisa E.

    2002-01-01

    Calreticulin (crt) is an ubiquitously expressed and multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein that regulates diverse vital cell functions, including Ca2+ storage in the ER and protein folding. Calreticulin deficiency in mice is lethal in utero due to defects in heart development and function. Herein, we used crt − / − embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiated in vitro into cardiac cells to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying heart failure of knockout embryos. After 8 d of differentiation, beating areas were prominent in ES-derived wild-type (wt) embryoid bodies (EBs), but not in ES-derived crt − / − EBs, despite normal expression levels of cardiac transcription factors. Crt − / − EBs exhibited a severe decrease in expression and a lack of phosphorylation of ventricular myosin light chain 2 (MLC2v), resulting in an impaired organization of myofibrils. Crt − / − phenotype could be recreated in wt cells by chelating extracellular or cytoplasmic Ca2+ with EGTA or BAPTA, or by inhibiting Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMKs). An imposed ionomycin-triggered cystolic-free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) elevation restored the expression, phosphorylation, and insertion of MLC2v into sarcomeric structures and in turn the myofibrillogenesis. The transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor C2 failed to accumulate into nuclei of crt − / − cardiac cells in the absence of ionomycin-triggered [Ca2+]c increase. We conclude that the absence of calreticulin interferes with myofibril formation. Most importantly, calreticulin deficiency revealed the importance of a Ca2+-dependent checkpoint critical for early events during cardiac myofibrillogenesis. PMID:12105184

  4. Environmental barcoding reveals massive dinoflagellate diversity in marine environments.

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    Rowena F Stern

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are an ecologically important group of protists with important functions as primary producers, coral symbionts and in toxic red tides. Although widely studied, the natural diversity of dinoflagellates is not well known. DNA barcoding has been utilized successfully for many protist groups. We used this approach to systematically sample known "species", as a reference to measure the natural diversity in three marine environments.In this study, we assembled a large cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI barcode database from 8 public algal culture collections plus 3 private collections worldwide resulting in 336 individual barcodes linked to specific cultures. We demonstrate that COI can identify to the species level in 15 dinoflagellate genera, generally in agreement with existing species names. Exceptions were found in species belonging to genera that were generally already known to be taxonomically challenging, such as Alexandrium or Symbiodinium. Using this barcode database as a baseline for cultured dinoflagellate diversity, we investigated the natural diversity in three diverse marine environments (Northeast Pacific, Northwest Atlantic, and Caribbean, including an evaluation of single-cell barcoding to identify uncultivated groups. From all three environments, the great majority of barcodes were not represented by any known cultured dinoflagellate, and we also observed an explosion in the diversity of genera that previously contained a modest number of known species, belonging to Kareniaceae. In total, 91.5% of non-identical environmental barcodes represent distinct species, but only 51 out of 603 unique environmental barcodes could be linked to cultured species using a conservative cut-off based on distances between cultured species.COI barcoding was successful in identifying species from 70% of cultured genera. When applied to environmental samples, it revealed a massive amount of natural diversity in dinoflagellates. This highlights

  5. Rheology of transgenic switchgrass reveals practical aspects of biomass processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Guigui; Frazier, Taylor; Jorgensen, Julianne; Zhao, Bingyu; Frazier, Charles E

    2018-01-01

    Mechanical properties of transgenic switchgrass have practical implications for biorefinery technologies. Presented are fundamentals for simple (thermo)mechanical measurements of genetically transformed switchgrass. Experimental basics are provided for the novice, where the intention is to promote collaboration between plant biologists and materials scientists. Stem sections were subjected to two stress modes: (1) torsional oscillation in the linear response region, and (2) unidirectional torsion to failure. Specimens were analyzed while submerged/saturated in ethylene glycol, simulating natural hydration and allowing experimental temperatures above 100 °C for an improved view of the lignin glass transition. Down-regulation of the 4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase gene (reduced lignin content and altered monomer composition) generally resulted in less stiff and weaker stems. These observations were associated with a reduction in the temperature and activation energy of the lignin glass transition, but surprisingly with no difference in the breadth and intensity of the tan  δ signal. The results showed promise in further investigations of how rheological methods relate to stem lignin content, composition, and functional properties in the field and in bioprocessing. Measurements such as these are complicated by small specimen size; however, torsional rheometers (relatively common in polymer laboratories) are well suited for this task. As opposed to the expense and complication of relative humidity control, solvent-submersion rheological methods effectively reveal fundamental structure/property relationships in plant tissues. Demonstrated are low-strain linear methods, and also nonlinear yield and failure analysis; the latter is very uncommon for typical rheological equipment.

  6. Genetic Diversity of Aromatic Rice Germplasm Revealed By SSR Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Jasim Aljumaili

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic rice cultivars constitute a small but special group of rice and are considered the best in terms of quality and aroma. Aroma is one of the most significant quality traits of rice, and variety with aroma has a higher price in the market. This research was carried out to study the genetic diversity among the 50 aromatic rice accessions from three regions (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak with 3 released varieties as a control using the 32 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. The objectives of this research were to quantify the genetic divergence of aromatic rice accessions using SSR markers and to identify the potential accessions for introgression into the existing rice breeding program. Genetic diversity index among the three populations such as Shannon information index (I ranged from 0.25 in control to 0.98 in Sabah population. The mean numbers of effective alleles and Shannon’s information index were 0.36 and 64.90%, respectively. Similarly, the allelic diversity was very high with mean expected heterozygosity (He of 0.60 and mean Nei’s gene diversity index of 0.36. The dendrogram based on UPGMA and Nei’s genetic distance classified the 53 rice accessions into 10 clusters. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA revealed that 89% of the total variation observed in this germplasm came from within the populations, while 11% of the variation emanated among the populations. These results reflect the high genetic differentiation existing in this aromatic rice germplasm. Using all these criteria and indices, seven accessions (Acc9993, Acc6288, Acc6893, Acc7580, Acc6009, Acc9956, and Acc11816 from three populations have been identified and selected for further evaluation before introgression into the existing breeding program and for future aromatic rice varietal development.

  7. Genetic Diversity of Aromatic Rice Germplasm Revealed By SSR Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim Aljumaili, Saba; Rafii, M Y; Latif, M A; Sakimin, Siti Zaharah; Arolu, Ibrahim Wasiu; Miah, Gous

    2018-01-01

    Aromatic rice cultivars constitute a small but special group of rice and are considered the best in terms of quality and aroma. Aroma is one of the most significant quality traits of rice, and variety with aroma has a higher price in the market. This research was carried out to study the genetic diversity among the 50 aromatic rice accessions from three regions (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak) with 3 released varieties as a control using the 32 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The objectives of this research were to quantify the genetic divergence of aromatic rice accessions using SSR markers and to identify the potential accessions for introgression into the existing rice breeding program. Genetic diversity index among the three populations such as Shannon information index ( I ) ranged from 0.25 in control to 0.98 in Sabah population. The mean numbers of effective alleles and Shannon's information index were 0.36 and 64.90%, respectively. Similarly, the allelic diversity was very high with mean expected heterozygosity ( H e ) of 0.60 and mean Nei's gene diversity index of 0.36. The dendrogram based on UPGMA and Nei's genetic distance classified the 53 rice accessions into 10 clusters. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 89% of the total variation observed in this germplasm came from within the populations, while 11% of the variation emanated among the populations. These results reflect the high genetic differentiation existing in this aromatic rice germplasm. Using all these criteria and indices, seven accessions (Acc9993, Acc6288, Acc6893, Acc7580, Acc6009, Acc9956, and Acc11816) from three populations have been identified and selected for further evaluation before introgression into the existing breeding program and for future aromatic rice varietal development.

  8. Heterogeneity in Neutrophil Microparticles Reveals Distinct Proteome and Functional Properties*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalli, Jesmond; Montero-Melendez, Trinidad; Norling, Lucy V; Yin, Xiaoke; Hinds, Charles; Haskard, Dorian; Mayr, Manuel; Perretti, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Altered plasma neutrophil microparticle levels have recently been implicated in a number of vascular and inflammatory diseases, yet our understanding of their actions is very limited. Herein, we investigate the proteome of neutrophil microparticles in order to shed light on their biological actions. Stimulation of human neutrophils, either in suspension or adherent to an endothelial monolayer, led to the production of microparticles containing >400 distinct proteins with only 223 being shared by the two subsets. For instance, postadherent microparticles were enriched in alpha-2 macroglobulin and ceruloplasmin, whereas microparticles produced by neutrophils in suspension were abundant in heat shock 70 kDa protein 1. Annexin A1 and lactotransferrin were expressed in both microparticle subsets. We next determined relative abundance of these proteins in three types of human microparticle samples: healthy volunteer plasma, plasma of septic patients and skin blister exudates finding that these proteins were differentially expressed on neutrophil microparticles from these samples reflecting in part the expression profiles we found in vitro. Functional assessment of the neutrophil microparticles subsets demonstrated that in response to direct stimulation neutrophil microparticles produced reactive oxygen species and leukotriene B4 as well as locomoted toward a chemotactic gradient. Finally, we investigated the actions of the two neutrophil microparticles subsets described herein on target cell responses. Microarray analysis with human primary endothelial cells incubated with either microparticle subset revealed a discrete modulation of endothelial cell gene expression profile. These findings demonstrate that neutrophil microparticles are heterogenous and can deliver packaged information propagating the activation status of the parent cell, potentially exerting novel and fundamental roles both under homeostatic and disease conditions. PMID:23660474

  9. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS REVEAL ANOMALOUS MOLECULAR ABUNDANCES TOWARD THE GALACTIC CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnentrucker, P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Neufeld, D. A.; Indriolo, N. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gerin, M.; De Luca, M. [LERMA-LRA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, Ecole Normale Superieure, UPMC and UCP, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Lis, D. C. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Goicoechea, J. R., E-mail: sonnentr@stsci.edu [Centro de Astrobiologia, CSIC/INTA, E-28850, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-01-20

    We report the Herschel detections of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and para-water (p-H{sub 2}O) in gas intercepting the sight lines to two well-studied molecular clouds in the vicinity of the Sgr A complex: G-0.02-0.07 (the {sup +}50 km s{sup -1} cloud{sup )} and G-0.13-0.08 (the {sup +}20 km s{sup -1} cloud{sup )}. Toward both sight lines, HF and water absorption components are detected over a wide range of velocities covering {approx}250 km s{sup -1}. For all velocity components with V{sub LSR} > -85 km s{sup -1}, we find that the HF and water abundances are consistent with those measured toward other sight lines probing the Galactic disk gas. The velocity components with V{sub LSR} {<=} -85 km s{sup -1}, which are known to trace gas residing within {approx}200 pc of the Galactic center, however, exhibit water vapor abundances with respect to HF at least a factor three higher than those found in the Galactic disk gas. Comparison with CH data indicates that our observations are consistent with a picture where HF and a fraction of the H{sub 2}O absorption arise in diffuse molecular clouds showing Galactic disk-like abundances while the bulk of the water absorption arises in warmer (T {>=} 400 K) diffuse molecular gas for V{sub LSR} {<=} -85 km s{sup -1}. This diffuse Interstellar Medium (ISM) phase has also been recently revealed through observations of CO, HF, H{sup +}{sub 3}, and H{sub 3}O{sup +} absorption toward other sight lines probing the Galactic center inner region.

  10. Genetic Diversity of Aromatic Rice Germplasm Revealed By SSR Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim Aljumaili, Saba; Sakimin, Siti Zaharah; Arolu, Ibrahim Wasiu; Miah, Gous

    2018-01-01

    Aromatic rice cultivars constitute a small but special group of rice and are considered the best in terms of quality and aroma. Aroma is one of the most significant quality traits of rice, and variety with aroma has a higher price in the market. This research was carried out to study the genetic diversity among the 50 aromatic rice accessions from three regions (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak) with 3 released varieties as a control using the 32 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The objectives of this research were to quantify the genetic divergence of aromatic rice accessions using SSR markers and to identify the potential accessions for introgression into the existing rice breeding program. Genetic diversity index among the three populations such as Shannon information index (I) ranged from 0.25 in control to 0.98 in Sabah population. The mean numbers of effective alleles and Shannon's information index were 0.36 and 64.90%, respectively. Similarly, the allelic diversity was very high with mean expected heterozygosity (He) of 0.60 and mean Nei's gene diversity index of 0.36. The dendrogram based on UPGMA and Nei's genetic distance classified the 53 rice accessions into 10 clusters. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 89% of the total variation observed in this germplasm came from within the populations, while 11% of the variation emanated among the populations. These results reflect the high genetic differentiation existing in this aromatic rice germplasm. Using all these criteria and indices, seven accessions (Acc9993, Acc6288, Acc6893, Acc7580, Acc6009, Acc9956, and Acc11816) from three populations have been identified and selected for further evaluation before introgression into the existing breeding program and for future aromatic rice varietal development. PMID:29736396

  11. Quantitative flux analysis reveals folate-dependent NADPH production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jing; Ye, Jiangbin; Kamphorst, Jurre J.; Shlomi, Tomer; Thompson, Craig B.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.

    2014-06-01

    ATP is the dominant energy source in animals for mechanical and electrical work (for example, muscle contraction or neuronal firing). For chemical work, there is an equally important role for NADPH, which powers redox defence and reductive biosynthesis. The most direct route to produce NADPH from glucose is the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, with malic enzyme sometimes also important. Although the relative contribution of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to ATP production has been extensively analysed, similar analysis of NADPH metabolism has been lacking. Here we demonstrate the ability to directly track, by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the passage of deuterium from labelled substrates into NADPH, and combine this approach with carbon labelling and mathematical modelling to measure NADPH fluxes. In proliferating cells, the largest contributor to cytosolic NADPH is the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. Surprisingly, a nearly comparable contribution comes from serine-driven one-carbon metabolism, in which oxidation of methylene tetrahydrofolate to 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate is coupled to reduction of NADP+ to NADPH. Moreover, tracing of mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism revealed complete oxidation of 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate to make NADPH. As folate metabolism has not previously been considered an NADPH producer, confirmation of its functional significance was undertaken through knockdown of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD) genes. Depletion of either the cytosolic or mitochondrial MTHFD isozyme resulted in decreased cellular NADPH/NADP+ and reduced/oxidized glutathione ratios (GSH/GSSG) and increased cell sensitivity to oxidative stress. Thus, although the importance of folate metabolism for proliferating cells has been long recognized and attributed to its function of producing one-carbon units for nucleic acid synthesis, another crucial function of this pathway is generating reducing power.

  12. The Physical Mechanism of Frictional Aging Revealed by Nanoindentation Creep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, C.; Carpick, R. W.; Goldsby, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    A classical observation from rock friction experiments is that friction increases linearly with the logarithm of the time of stationary contact, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as aging. Aging is most often attributed to an increase in the real area of contact due to asperity creep. However, recent atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that time-dependent siloxane (Si—O—Si) bonding gives rise to aging in silica-silica contacts in the absence of plastic deformation. Determining whether an increase in contact `quantity' (due to creep), contact `quality' (due to chemical bonding), or another unknown mechanism causes aging is a challenging experimental task, despite its importance for developing a physical basis for rate and state friction laws. An intriguing observation is that aging is absent in friction experiments on quartz rocks and gouge at humidities water on asperity creep (via hydrolytic weakening) or on the adhesive strength of contacts. To discern between these possibilities, we have conducted nanoindentation experiments on single crystals of quartz to measure their indentation hardness and creep behavior at humidities of 2% to 50%, and in vacuum. Samples were loaded at 1000 mN/s to a peak load of 15, 40, or 400 mN, which was then held constant for 10 s. After the peak load is reached, the tip sinks into the material with time due to creep of the indentation contact. Our experiments reveal that there is no effect of varying humidity on either indentation hardness or indentation creep behavior over the full range of humidities investigated. If asperity creep were the dominant mechanism of frictional aging for quartz in the experiments cited above, then significant increases in hardness and decreases in the growth rate of indentation contacts at low humidities is expected, in stark contrast with our nanoindentation data. Our experiments indicate that asperity creep cannot be the cause of aging in quartz

  13. PRIVATE INFORMATION REVEALED BY ROMANIAN FACEBOOK USERS - AN EXPLORATORY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VEGHES Calin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of online social networks has become part of our lives. More and more people join networks, create their online profile, add pictures with themselves, add personal information about them, find people they know and connect with them, share and like posts, comments, pictures or movies and many more. The social networks allow more and more features and people are open and willing to try them. In this context, it is important for those who own such a profile to be aware of how their personal information is handled, who can view the data they publish in the social network and how they can protect the information they post, by granting access to it only to those persons they want to. The objective of this research was to study what type of information Romanian Facebook users are revealing on their profiles. We have conducted an empirical research, based on an online questionnaire which was available to be accessed in March 2013. 42,5% of the respondents, aged between 21 and 40, formed mostly my employees, managers and students, have not shared on their profiles neither their phone number, their home address, nor their messenger ID. Even though we have considered that the email address was also considered personal and very private information, our assumption did not confirmed, about 30% of the respondents have their email address shown on their profile. At the opposite side, it was confirmed that the gender, real name, personal pictures, birthday and current town are information published by more than 80% the respondents. The respondents do know and do make a difference between having their profile shown when searched on Facebook and allowing their profile to be visualised by whomever they want. Even though most of the respondents have their profile public when searched for it, the great majority have set that only their friends to be able to see the information they post online. Only about 10% of the respondents have added or have accepted

  14. Comparative genomics reveals diversity among xanthomonads infecting tomato and pepper

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Potnis, Neha

    2011-03-11

    Abstract Background Bacterial spot of tomato and pepper is caused by four Xanthomonas species and is a major plant disease in warm humid climates. The four species are distinct from each other based on physiological and molecular characteristics. The genome sequence of strain 85-10, a member of one of the species, Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xcv) has been previously reported. To determine the relationship of the four species at the genome level and to investigate the molecular basis of their virulence and differing host ranges, draft genomic sequences of members of the other three species were determined and compared to strain 85-10. Results We sequenced the genomes of X. vesicatoria (Xv) strain 1111 (ATCC 35937), X. perforans (Xp) strain 91-118 and X. gardneri (Xg) strain 101 (ATCC 19865). The genomes were compared with each other and with the previously sequenced Xcv strain 85-10. In addition, the molecular features were predicted that may be required for pathogenicity including the type III secretion apparatus, type III effectors, other secretion systems, quorum sensing systems, adhesins, extracellular polysaccharide, and lipopolysaccharide determinants. Several novel type III effectors from Xg strain 101 and Xv strain 1111 genomes were computationally identified and their translocation was validated using a reporter gene assay. A homolog to Ax21, the elicitor of XA21-mediated resistance in rice, and a functional Ax21 sulfation system were identified in Xcv. Genes encoding proteins with functions mediated by type II and type IV secretion systems have also been compared, including enzymes involved in cell wall deconstruction, as contributors to pathogenicity. Conclusions Comparative genomic analyses revealed considerable diversity among bacterial spot pathogens, providing new insights into differences and similarities that may explain the diverse nature of these strains. Genes specific to pepper pathogens, such as the O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide cluster

  15. Revealing Invisible Water: Moisture Recycling as an Ecosystem Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Patrick W; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line J

    2016-01-01

    An ecosystem service is a benefit derived by humanity that can be traced back to an ecological process. Although ecosystem services related to surface water have been thoroughly described, the relationship between atmospheric water and ecosystem services has been mostly neglected, and perhaps misunderstood. Recent advances in land-atmosphere modeling have revealed the importance of terrestrial ecosystems for moisture recycling. In this paper, we analyze the extent to which vegetation sustains the supply of atmospheric moisture and precipitation for downwind beneficiaries, globally. We simulate land-surface evaporation with a global hydrology model and track changes to moisture recycling using an atmospheric moisture budget model, and we define vegetation-regulated moisture recycling as the difference in moisture recycling between current vegetation and a hypothetical desert world. Our results show that nearly a fifth of annual average precipitation falling on land is from vegetation-regulated moisture recycling, but the global variability is large, with many places receiving nearly half their precipitation from this ecosystem service. The largest potential impacts for changes to this ecosystem service are land-use changes across temperate regions in North America and Russia. Likewise, in semi-arid regions reliant on rainfed agricultural production, land-use change that even modestly reduces evaporation and subsequent precipitation, could significantly affect human well-being. We also present a regional case study in the Mato Grosso region of Brazil, where we identify the specific moisture recycling ecosystem services associated with the vegetation in Mato Grosso. We find that Mato Grosso vegetation regulates some internal precipitation, with a diffuse region of benefit downwind, primarily to the south and east, including the La Plata River basin and the megacities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. We synthesize our global and regional results into a generalized

  16. Cardiac c-Kit Biology Revealed by Inducible Transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Natalie A; Firouzi, Fareheh; Broughton, Kathleen M; Ilves, Kelli; Nguyen, Kristine P; Payne, Christina R; Sacchi, Veronica; Monsanto, Megan M; Casillas, Alexandria R; Khalafalla, Farid G; Wang, Bingyan J; Ebeid, David E; Alvarez, Roberto; Dembitsky, Walter P; Bailey, Barbara A; van Berlo, Jop; Sussman, Mark A

    2018-06-22

    Biological significance of c-Kit as a cardiac stem cell marker and role(s) of c-Kit+ cells in myocardial development or response to pathological injury remain unresolved because of varied and discrepant findings. Alternative experimental models are required to contextualize and reconcile discordant published observations of cardiac c-Kit myocardial biology and provide meaningful insights regarding clinical relevance of c-Kit signaling for translational cell therapy. The main objectives of this study are as follows: demonstrating c-Kit myocardial biology through combined studies of both human and murine cardiac cells; advancing understanding of c-Kit myocardial biology through creation and characterization of a novel, inducible transgenic c-Kit reporter mouse model that overcomes limitations inherent to knock-in reporter models; and providing perspective to reconcile disparate viewpoints on c-Kit biology in the myocardium. In vitro studies confirm a critical role for c-Kit signaling in both cardiomyocytes and cardiac stem cells. Activation of c-Kit receptor promotes cell survival and proliferation in stem cells and cardiomyocytes of either human or murine origin. For creation of the mouse model, the cloned mouse c-Kit promoter drives Histone2B-EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein; H2BEGFP) expression in a doxycycline-inducible transgenic reporter line. The combination of c-Kit transgenesis coupled to H2BEGFP readout provides sensitive, specific, inducible, and persistent tracking of c-Kit promoter activation. Tagging efficiency for EGFP+/c-Kit+ cells is similar between our transgenic versus a c-Kit knock-in mouse line, but frequency of c-Kit+ cells in cardiac tissue from the knock-in model is 55% lower than that from our transgenic line. The c-Kit transgenic reporter model reveals intimate association of c-Kit expression with adult myocardial biology. Both cardiac stem cells and a subpopulation of cardiomyocytes express c-Kit in uninjured adult heart

  17. Using qubits to reveal quantum signatures of an oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shantanu

    In this thesis, we seek to study the qubit-oscillator system with the aim to identify and quantify inherent quantum features of the oscillator. We show that the quantum signatures of the oscillator get imprinted on the dynamics of the joint system. The two key features which we explore are the quantized energy spectrum of the oscillator and the non-classicality of the oscillator's wave function. To investigate the consequences of the oscillator's discrete energy spectrum, we consider the qubit to be coupled to the oscillator through the Rabi Hamiltonian. Recent developments in fabrication technology have opened up the possibility to explore parameter regimes which were conventionally inaccessible. Motivated by these advancements, we investigate in this thesis a parameter space where the qubit frequency is much smaller than the oscillator frequency and the Rabi frequency is allowed to be an appreciable fraction of the bare frequency of the oscillator. We use the adiabatic approximation to understand the dynamics in this quasi-degenerate qubit regime. By deriving a dressed master equation, we systematically investigate the effects of the environment on the system dynamics. We develop a spectroscopic technique, using which one can probe the steady state response of the driven and damped system. The spectroscopic signal clearly reveals the quantized nature of the oscillator's energy spectrum. We extend the adiabatic approximation, earlier developed only for the single qubit case, to a scenario where multiple qubits interact with the oscillator. Using the extended adiabatic approximation, we study the collapse and revival of multi-qubit observables. We develop analytic expressions for the revival signals which are in good agreement with the numerically evaluated results. Within the quantum restriction imposed by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, the uncertainty in the position and momentum of an oscillator is minimum and shared equally when the oscillator is prepared

  18. Gas Velocities Reveal Newly Born Planets in a Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-06-01

    Occasionally, science comes together beautifully for a discovery and sometimes this happens for more than one team at once! Today we explore how two independent collaborations of scientists simultaneously found the very first kinematic evidence for young planets forming in a protoplanetary disk. Though they explored the same disk, the two teams in fact discovered different planets.Evidence for PlanetsALMAs view of the dust in the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young star HD 163296. Todays studies explore not the dust, but the gas of this disk. [ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO); A. Isella; B. Saxton (NRAO/AUI/NSF)]Over the past three decades, weve detected around 4,000 fully formed exoplanets. Much more elusive, however, are the young planets still in the early stages of formation; only a handful of these have been discovered. More observations of early-stage exoplanets are needed in order to understand how these worlds are born in dusty protoplanetary-disk environments, how they grow their atmospheres, and how they evolve.Recent observations by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) have produced stunning images of protoplanetary disks. The unprecedented resolution of these images reveals substructure in the form of gaps and rings, hinting at the presence of planets that orbit within the disk and clear out their paths as they move. But there are also non-planet mechanisms that could produce such substructure, like grain growth around ice lines, or hydrodynamic instabilities in the disk.How can we definitively determine whether there are nascent planets embedded in these disks? Direct direction of a point source in a dust gap would be a strong confirmation, but now we have the next best thing: kinematic evidence for planets, from the motion of a disks gas.Observations of carbon monoxide line emission at +1km/s from the systemic velocity (left) vs. the outcome of a computer simulation (right) in the Pinte et al. study. A visible kink occurs in the flow

  19. Space Movie Reveals Shocking Secrets Of The Crab Pulsa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Just when it seemed like the summer movie season had ended, two of NASA's Great Observatories have produced their own action movie. Multiple observations made over several months with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope captured the spectacle of matter and antimatter propelled to near the speed of light by the Crab pulsar, a rapidly rotating neutron star the size of Manhattan. "Through this movie, the Crab Nebula has come to life," said Jeff Hester of Arizona State University in Tempe, lead author of a paper in the September 20th issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "We can see how this awesome cosmic generator actually works." The Crab was first observed by Chinese astronomers in 1054 A.D. and has since become one of the most studied objects in the sky. By combining the power of both Chandra and Hubble, the movie reveals features never seen in still images. By understanding the Crab, astronomers hope to unlock the secrets of how similar objects across the universe are powered. Crab Nebula Composite Image Crab Nebula Composite Image Bright wisps can be seen moving outward at half the speed of light to form an expanding ring that is visible in both X-ray and optical images. These wisps appear to originate from a shock wave that shows up as an inner X-ray ring. This ring consists of about two dozen knots that form, brighten and fade, jitter around, and occasionally undergo outbursts that give rise to expanding clouds of particles, but remain in roughly the same location. "These data leave little doubt that the inner X-ray ring is the location of the shock wave that turns the high-speed wind from the pulsar into extremely energetic particles," said Koji Mori of Penn State University in University Park, a coauthor of the paper. Another dramatic feature of the movie is a turbulent jet that lies perpendicular to the inner and outer rings. Violent internal motions are obvious, as is a slow motion outward into the surrounding nebula of

  20. Cosmic "Dig" Reveals Vestiges of the Milky Way's Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Peering through the thick dust clouds of our galaxy's "bulge" (the myriads of stars surrounding its centre), and revealing an amazing amount of detail, a team of astronomers has unveiled an unusual mix of stars in the stellar grouping known as Terzan 5. Never observed anywhere in the bulge before, this peculiar "cocktail" of stars suggests that Terzan 5 is in fact one of the bulge's primordial building blocks, most likely the relic of a proto-galaxy that merged with the Milky Way during its very early days. "The history of the Milky Way is encoded in its oldest fragments, globular clusters and other systems of stars that have witnessed the entire evolution of our galaxy," says Francesco Ferraro from the University of Bologna, lead author of a paper appearing in this week's issue of the journal Nature. "Our study opens a new window on yet another piece of our galactic past." Like archaeologists, who dig through the dust piling up on top of the remains of past civilisations and unearth crucial pieces of the history of mankind, astronomers have been gazing through the thick layers of interstellar dust obscuring the bulge of the Milky Way and have unveiled an extraordinary cosmic relic. The target of the study is the star cluster Terzan 5. The new observations show that this object, unlike all but a few exceptional globular clusters, does not harbour stars which are all born at the same time - what astronomers call a "single population" of stars. Instead, the multitude of glowing stars in Terzan 5 formed in at least two different epochs, the earliest probably some 12 billion years ago and then again 6 billion years ago. "Only one globular cluster with such a complex history of star formation has been observed in the halo of the Milky Way: Omega Centauri," says team member Emanuele Dalessandro. "This is the first time we see this in the bulge." The galactic bulge is the most inaccessible region of our galaxy for astronomical observations: only infrared light can

  1. SOHO reveals violent action on the quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    One instrument in SOHO avoids looking at the Sun, because it would be dazzled. Instead, SWAN surveys the sky all around and sees an ultraviolet glow from hydrogen atoms lit by the Sun. These atoms come on a breeze from the stars that blows through the Solar System. But the competing wind of charged particles from the Sun breaks the incoming atoms, so that they no longer emit their characteristic wavelength. The result is a hole in the pattern of emissions downstream from the Sun. The surviving emissions are brightest upstream, and far above the plane of the Sun's equator. The scientists conclude that the solar wind blowing from high-latitude regions of Sun is less strong, at least during the present quiet phase of the eleven-year cycle of activity. The Earth is also visible in the maps, because a cloud of hydrogen gas called the geocorona envelops it and glows in the ultraviolet. The geocorona would hamper observations of the interstellar glow by satellites close to the Earth. SOHO sees the geocorona from the outside, and will be able to monitor effects of solar activity on the Earth's outer atmosphere. "At the present time of a quiet Sun, our sky maps clearly indicate a situation of increased solar wind around the Sun's equator," says Jean-Loup Bertaux of the Service d'Aéronomie near Paris, who has prime responsibility for SWAN. "We are anxious to see what will happen when the Sun becomes stormier. Then we shall see important changes in the solar wind's impact on the interstellar gas, revealed by the changes in the sky maps. Meanwhile we use alternate days for special investigations, and at present we are tracking Comet Hyakutake as it approaches the Sun. When colleagues ask me why a solar spacecraft should look at comets, I remind them that the solar wind was discovered by studying comet tails." Sub-surface currents mapped SOHO is successfully probing the Sun's interior. It does so with several instruments that observe oscillations of the Sun's surface. They detect

  2. Motions in Nearby Galaxy Cluster Reveal Presence of Hidden Superstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    A nearby galaxy cluster is facing an intergalactic headwind as it is pulled by an underlying superstructure of dark matter, according to new evidence from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. Astronomers think that most of the matter in the universe is concentrated in long large filaments of dark matter and that galaxy clusters are formed where these filaments intersect. A Chandra survey of the Fornax galaxy cluster revealed a vast, swept-back cloud of hot gas near the center of the cluster. This geometry indicates that the hot gas cloud, which is several hundred thousand light years in length, is moving rapidly through a larger, less dense cloud of gas. The motion of the core gas cloud, together with optical observations of a group of galaxies racing inward on a collision course with it, suggests that an unseen, large structure is collapsing and drawing everything toward a common center of gravity. X-ray Image of Fornax with labels X-ray Image of Fornax with labels "At a relatively nearby distance of about 60 million light years, the Fornax cluster represents a crucial laboratory for studying the interplay of galaxies, hot gas and dark matter as the cluster evolves." said Caleb Scharf of Columbia University in New York, NY, lead author of a paper describing the Chandra survey that was presented at an American Astronomical Society meeting in New Orleans, LA. "What we are seeing could be associated directly with the intergalactic gas surrounding a very large scale structure that stretches over millions of light years." The infalling galaxy group, whose motion was detected by Michael Drinkwater of the University of Melbourne in Australia, and colleagues, is about 3 million light years from the cluster core, so a collision with the core will not occur for a few billion years. Insight as to how this collision will look is provided by the elliptical galaxy NGC 1404 that is plunging into the core of the cluster for the first time. As discussed by Scharf and another group

  3. VLBA Reveals Closest Pair of Supermassive Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope have found the closest pair of supermassive black holes ever discovered in the Universe -- a duo of monsters that together are more than 150 million times more massive than the Sun and closer together than the Earth and the bright star Vega. The VLBA The VLBA CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF "These two giant black holes are only about 24 light-years apart, and that's more than 100 times closer than any pair found before," said Cristina Rodriguez, of the University of New Mexico (UNM) and Simon Bolivar University in Venezuela. Black holes are concentrations of mass with gravity so strong that not even light can escape them. The black hole pair is in the center of a galaxy called 0402+379, some 750 million light-years from Earth. Astronomers presume that each of the supermassive black holes was once at the core of a separate galaxy, then the two galaxies collided, leaving the black holes orbiting each other. The black holes orbit each other about once every 150,000 years, the scientists say. "If two black holes like these were to collide, that event would create the type of strong gravitational waves that physicists hope to detect with instruments now under construction," said Gregory Taylor, of UNM. The physicists will need to wait, though: the astronomers calculate that the black holes in 0402+379 won't collide for about a billion billion years. "There are some things that might speed that up a little bit," Taylor remarked. An earlier VLBA study of 0402+379, an elliptical galaxy, showed the pair of radio-wave-emitting objects near its core. Further studies using the VLBA and the Hobby-Eberly Telescope in Texas, revealed that the pair of objects is indeed a pair of supermassive black holes. "We needed the ultra-sharp radio 'vision' of the VLBA, particularly at the high radio frequencies of 22 and 43 GigaHertz, to get the detail needed to show that those objects are a pair of

  4. Tremendous Mass Concentration in Strange Galaxy Revealed by VLBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A dense whirling mass orbiting what almost certainly is a black hole of truly Brobdingnagian proportions has been discovered at the heart of an active galaxy some 21 million light years from Earth. The astronomical observations were made by an international team of Japanese and American astronomers using a continent-wide radio telescope funded by the National Science Foundation. The work is reported in the January 12th issue of Nature. The tremendous concentration of mass, equivalent to 40 million suns, in the center of the galaxy NGC4258 in the constellation Canes Venatici, was revealed by the apparent rotation of a molecular disk that surrounds it. The observations showed that the disk of dense material is orbiting within the galaxy's nucleus at velocities -- up to 650 miles per second -- that require the gravitational pull of such a massive object. The high angular resolution and sensitivity of the Very Long Baseline Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory allowed precise measurements of the differential rotation of the material in the disk, which provides the most direct and definitive evidence to date for the presence of a supermassive black hole in the center of another galaxy. Black holes, so dense that nothing -- not even light -- can escape their gravitational fields, have long been thought to be present in the centers of active galaxies, where they would act as central engines driving a variety of exotic and energetic phenomena that are seen on much larger scales, such as jets and powerful X ray emission. NGC 4258, a spiral some 90,000 light-years across, is known to have jets of gas that are twisted into the shape of a helix emerging from the nucleus at speeds of 400 miles per second. Makoto Miyoshi of Japan's Mizusawa Astrogeodymanics Observatory; James Moran, James Herrnstein and Lincoln Greenhill of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA; Naomasa Nakai of Japan's Nobeyama Radio Observatory; Philip Diamond of the

  5. Salvinorin A analogues PR-37 and PR-38 attenuate compound 48/80-induced itch responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaga, M; Polepally, P R; Zielinska, M; Marynowski, M; Fabisiak, A; Murawska, N; Sobczak, K; Sacharczuk, M; Do Rego, J C; Roth, B L; Zjawiony, J K; Fichna, J

    2015-09-01

    The opioid system plays a crucial role in several physiological processes in the CNS and in the periphery. It has also been shown that selective opioid receptor agonists exert potent inhibitory action on pruritus and pain. In this study we examined whether two analogues of Salvinorin A, PR-37 and PR-38, exhibit antipruritic properties in mice. To examine the antiscratch effect of PR-37 and PR-38 we used a mouse model of compound 48/80-induced pruritus. In order to elucidate the mechanism of action of tested compounds, specific antagonists of opioid and cannabinoid receptors were used. The effect of PR-37 on the CNS was assessed by measuring motor parameters and exploratory behaviours in mice. PR-37 and PR-38, jnjected s.c., significantly reduced the number of compound 48/80-induced scratching behaviours in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. PR-38 was also active when orally administered. The antiscratch activity of PR-37 was blocked by the selective κ opioid receptor antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine, and that of PR-38 by the selective μ opioid receptor antagonist, β-funaltrexamine. In conclusion, a novel framework for the development of new antipruritic drugs derived from salvinorin A has been validated. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Serum vascular endothelial growth factor A levels reflect itch severity in mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Minami; Miyagaki, Tomomitsu; Kamijo, Hiroaki; Oka, Tomonori; Takahashi, Naomi; Suga, Hiraku; Yoshizaki, Ayumi; Asano, Yoshihide; Sugaya, Makoto; Sato, Shinichi

    2018-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an important step to support progression of malignancies, including mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, a key player in angiogenesis, is secreted by tumor cells of MF/SS and its expression levels in lesional skin correlated with disease severity. In this study, we examined serum VEGF-A levels in MF/SS patients. Serum VEGF-A levels were elevated in patients with erythrodermic MF/SS and the levels decreased after treatment. Importantly, serum VEGF-A levels positively correlated with markers for pruritus. We also found that VEGF-A upregulated mRNA expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin by keratinocytes. Taken together, our study suggests that VEGF-A can promote progression and pruritus in MF/SS. Inhibition of VEGF-A signaling can be a therapeutic strategy for patients with erythrodermic MF/SS. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  7. Prevalence of physical symptoms of itch, pain and fatigue in patients with skin diseases in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, E.W.M.; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Weel, C. van; Duller, P.; Valk, P.G.M. van der; Hoogen, H.J.M. van den; Bor, J.H.J.; Schers, H.J.; Evers, A.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical symptoms of skin diseases have been shown to negatively affect patients' wellbeing. Although insight into physical symptoms accompanying skin diseases is relevant for the management and treatment of skin diseases, the prevalence of physical symptoms among patients with skin

  8. Itching for nail fashion: chronic urticaria and chronic hand dermatitis secondary to acrylate and methacrylate allergy in gel nail varnish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickison, P; Smith, S D

    2018-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) secondary to acrylates and methacrylates is a well- described occurrence, particularly in those who wear or handle gel nail varnish. Management involves avoidance of the identified allergen. The cause of chronic urticaria (CI) is often not identified, and CU is not known to be associated with acrylates or methacrylates. We report a case of a 50-year-old woman who initially presented with hand dermatitis exacerbated by gel nail varnish on a background of CU. Avoiding all nail varnishes because of her ACD also resulted in improvement of her CU. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of CU secondary to the acrylates and methacrylates found in nail cosmetics. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. Revealing Hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saghaug, Kristin Falck; Pattison, George; Lindgren, Peter

    2014-01-01

    with reference to Tillich’s account of the meaning of revelation through culture and art, summed up in the statement that “(...) revelation is the manifestation of the ground of being for human knowledge” (Tillich, 1951, p.94), which, we argue, can be extended to everyday experiences, for example, in business......Some small business owners want to balance personal values as well as economic values. “I have to follow my heart” or “it must be meaningful” some of them say. But how might they be able to know what gives meaning to the heart? The philosophical theologian Paul Tillich finds that the problem...... life. In Tillich’s own terms, even preliminary concerns may point at an ultimate concern (Tillich, 1964), which can also be understood as ‘knowledge of the heart’. Our account is also connected to wider discussions concerning the nature of intuition....

  10. Revealing roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2018-01-01

    against the motorway’s grain. Based on moving with selected walkers who conduct ‘deliberately slow travelling’, and tracing the narratives of time-based civic art projects, the chapter explores the spectral dimensions of motorways in the UK. The chapter ends by positioning their streams of traffic as much...

  11. Geometry Revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    Both classical geometry and modern differential geometry have been active subjects of research throughout the 20th century and lie at the heart of many recent advances in mathematics and physics. The underlying motivating concept for the present book is that it offers readers the elements of a modern geometric culture by means of a whole series of visually appealing unsolved (or recently solved) problems that require the creation of concepts and tools of varying abstraction. Starting with such natural, classical objects as lines, planes, circles, spheres, polygons, polyhedra, curves, surfaces,

  12. CREST Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Hermann; Parisi, Cristiana; Bridgeman, Alfia

    This report covers the period from 1993 when the CREST project was initiated, to its launch in 1996, and considers the environment that prompted its instigation. The report looks at the massive cooperation of Government, industry and a range of different service providers that all came together......, under the central control of the CREST project team. It proposes five reasons why the CREST project was successful and examines why the CREST system continues to be at the heart of UK settlement, 20 years on....

  13. On combining revealed and stated preferences to forecast customer behaviour: three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); P.C. Verhoef (Peter)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMany companies collect stated preference data (SP) like intentions and satisfaction as well as revealed preference data (RP) like actual purchasing behavior. It seems relevant to examine the predictive usefulness of this information for future revealed preferences, that is, customer

  14. Metatranscriptomics reveals the molecular mechanism of large granule formation in granular anammox reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Bagchi, Samik; Lamendella, Regina; Strutt, Steven; Van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    to formation of large granules. Size distribution analysis revealed the spatial distribution of granules in which large granules having higher abundance of anammox bacteria (genus Brocadia) dominated the bottom biomass. Metatranscriptomics analysis detected all

  15. Diffuse correlation tomography reveals spatial and temporal difference in blood flow changes among murine femoral grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Songfeng; Proctor, Ashley R.; Benoit, Danielle S. W.; Choe, Regine

    2017-07-01

    Diffuse correlation tomography was utilized to noninvasively monitor 3D blood flow changes in three types of healing mouse femoral grafts. Results reveal the spatial and temporal difference among the groups.

  16. New Genetic Susceptibility Factors for Sjögren's Syndrome Revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spotlight on Research Spotlight on Research New Genetic Susceptibility Factors for Sjögren’s Syndrome Revealed By Kirstie Saltsman, ... swallowing and speaking. “The identification of these genetic susceptibility factors opens up new avenues for understanding how ...

  17. What a Decade of Experiments Reveals about Factors that Influence the Sense of Presence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Youngblut, Christine

    2006-01-01

    ...? Will behavior learned in a virtual-world transfer to a corresponding real scenario? This document reviews what experimental results reveal about technical factors and task characteristics that may influence the sense of presence...

  18. A systems level approach reveals new gene regulatory modules in the developing ear

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jingchen; Tambalo, Monica; Barembaum, Meyer; Ranganathan, Ramya; Simões-Costa, Marcos; Bronner, Marianne E.; Streit, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The inner ear is a complex vertebrate sense organ, yet it arises from a simple epithelium, the otic placode. Specification towards otic fate requires diverse signals and transcriptional inputs that act sequentially and/or in parallel. Using the chick embryo, we uncover novel genes in the gene regulatory network underlying otic commitment and reveal dynamic changes in gene expression. Functional analysis of selected transcription factors reveals the genetic hierarchy underlying the transition ...

  19. A Filtering Method to Reveal Crystalline Patterns from Atom Probe Microscopy Desorption Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-26

    reveal crystalline patterns from atom probe microscopy desorption maps Lan Yao Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann...reveal the crystallographic information present in Atom Probe Microscopy (APM) data is presented. Themethod filters atoms based on the time difference...between their evaporation and the evaporation of the previous atom . Since this time difference correlates with the location and the local structure of

  20. High rates of hybridisation reveal fragile reproductive barriers between endangered Australian sea snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Kate L; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Guinea, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    designations, but revealed high frequencies of hybrids on all four reefs and individuals of pure A. fuscus ancestry only at Scott and (historically) Ashmore. Most unexpectedly, 95% of snakes sampled at Hibernia were hybrids that resembled A. laevis in phenotype, revealing a collapse of reproductive barriers...... (‘reverse speciation’) at this reef. These results have dire implications for the conservation status of A. fuscus, and highlight the fragility of reproductive barriers in a recent marine radiation....

  1. Unitary Root Music and Unitary Music with Real-Valued Rank Revealing Triangular Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TP-2010-1213 UNITARY ROOT MUSIC AND UNITARY MUSIC WITH REAL-VALUED RANK REVEALING TRIANGULAR FACTORIZATION (Postprint) Nizar...DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2010 Journal Article Postprint 08 September 2006 – 31 August 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UNITARY ROOT MUSIC AND...UNITARY MUSIC WITH REAL-VALUED RANK REVEALING TRIANGULAR FACTORIZATION (Postprint) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8650-05-D-1912-0007 5c

  2. Acting without seeing: Eye movements reveal visual processing without awareness Miriam Spering & Marisa Carrasco

    OpenAIRE

    Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Visual perception and eye movements are considered to be tightly linked. Diverse fields, ranging from developmental psychology to computer science, utilize eye tracking to measure visual perception. However, this prevailing view has been challenged by recent behavioral studies. We review converging evidence revealing dissociations between the contents of perceptual awareness and different types of eye movements. Such dissociations reveal situations in which eye movements are sensitive to part...

  3. Virtually naked: virtual environment reveals sex-dependent nature of skin disclosure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Lomanowska

    Full Text Available The human tendency to reveal or cover naked skin reflects a competition between the individual propensity for social interactions related to sexual appeal and interpersonal touch versus climatic, environmental, physical, and cultural constraints. However, due to the ubiquitous nature of these constraints, isolating on a large scale the spontaneous human tendency to reveal naked skin has remained impossible. Using the online 3-dimensional virtual world of Second Life, we examined spontaneous human skin-covering behavior unhindered by real-world climatic, environmental, and physical variables. Analysis of hundreds of avatars revealed that virtual females disclose substantially more naked skin than virtual males. This phenomenon was not related to avatar hypersexualization as evaluated by measurement of sexually dimorphic body proportions. Furthermore, analysis of skin-covering behavior of a population of culturally homogeneous avatars indicated that the propensity of female avatars to reveal naked skin persisted despite explicit cultural norms promoting less revealing attire. These findings have implications for further understanding how sex-specific aspects of skin disclosure influence human social interactions in both virtual and real settings.

  4. Gene expression profiling in equine polysaccharide storage myopathy revealed inflammation, glycogenesis inhibition, hypoxia and mitochondrial dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benech Philippe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several cases of myopathies have been observed in the horse Norman Cob breed. Muscle histology examinations revealed that some families suffer from a polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM. It is assumed that a gene expression signature related to PSSM should be observed at the transcriptional level because the glycogen storage disease could also be linked to other dysfunctions in gene regulation. Thus, the functional genomic approach could be conducted in order to provide new knowledge about the metabolic disorders related to PSSM. We propose exploring the PSSM muscle fiber metabolic disorders by measuring gene expression in relationship with the histological phenotype. Results Genotypying analysis of GYS1 mutation revealed 2 homozygous (AA and 5 heterozygous (GA PSSM horses. In the PSSM muscles, histological data revealed PAS positive amylase resistant abnormal polysaccharides, inflammation, necrosis, and lipomatosis and active regeneration of fibers. Ultrastructural evaluation revealed a decrease of mitochondrial number and structural disorders. Extensive accumulation of an abnormal polysaccharide displaced and partially replaced mitochondria and myofibrils. The severity of the disease was higher in the two homozygous PSSM horses. Gene expression analysis revealed 129 genes significantly modulated (p Conclusion The main disorders observed in PSSM muscles could be related to mitochondrial dysfunctions, glycogenesis inhibition and the chronic hypoxia of the PSSM muscles.

  5. Self-disclosure on Facebook: How much do we really reveal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Day

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of the social networking site Facebook to self-disclose and analyses the responses of a small group of Facebook users surveyed about their own willingness to self-disclose. An online survey was used to ask Facebook users about their level of Facebook use, what types of personal information they are willing to reveal and the frequency of these personal revelations. The survey also asked the participants to take a look at their publicly viewable profile and the types of information revealed there. Results indicated that overall, most people tended to be cautious about the types of information they revealed, posted mainly positive statements about themselves and were aware of personal privacy issues.

  6. The γ Dor stars as revealed by Kepler: A key to reveal deep-layer rotation in A and F stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmon S. J. A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The γ Dor pulsating stars present high-order gravity modes, which make them important targets in the intermediate-and low-mass main-sequence region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Whilst we have only access to rotation in the envelope of the Sun, the g modes of γ Dor stars can in principle deliver us constraints on the inner layers. With the puzzling discovery of unexpectedly low rotation rates in the core of red giants, the γ Dor stars appear now as unique targets to explore internal angular momentum transport in the progenitors of red giants. Yet, the γ Dor pulsations remain hard to detect from the ground for their periods are close to 1 day. While the CoRoT space mission first revealed intriguing frequency spectra, the almost uninterrupted 4-year photometry from the Kepler mission eventually shed a new light on them. It revealed regularities in the spectra, expected to bear signature of physical processes, including rotation, in the shear layers close to the convective core. We present here the first results of our effort to derive exploitable seismic diagnosis for mid- to fast rotators among γ Dor stars. We confirm their potential to explore the rotation history of this early phase of stellar evolution.

  7. Qualification of a new defect revealing etch for CdTe using cathodoluminescence microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, C.C.R.; Durose, K. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Durham (United Kingdom)); Banister, A.J. (Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Durham (United Kingdom)); O' Keefe, E.; Bains, S.K. (Philips Infrared Defence Components, Southampton (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-30

    The action of a new defect revealing etch comprising a saturated FeCl[sub 3] solution has been investigated. The etch was found suitable for use on (111)A, (anti 1anti 1anti 1)B and other surface orientations of CdTe, and (111)A and (anti 1anti 1anti 1)B surfaces of Cd[sub 0.96]Zn[sub 0.04] Te. Direct correlations with cathodoluminescence and infra-red microscopy have shown the etch to successfully reveal twin boundaries, precipitates and dislocations. A background etch rate of approximately 2 [mu]m min[sup -1] has been measured. (orig.).

  8. REVEAL II: Seasonality and spatial variability of particle and visibility conditions in the Fraser Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents data collected during a year-long field experiment (REVEAL II) in the Fraser Valley, British Columbia. The data are used to provide information regarding ambient visibility conditions and fine particle concentrations in the valley. Although average fine mass measured during RE...... taken at a number of sites during REVEAL II are used to evaluate a simple method for obtaining (classed) quantitative estimates of visual range from this medium without requiring access to specialized instrumentation. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  9. Two cases of hyperparathyroidism revealed by /sup 201/Tl-chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Kokichi; Asano, Haruko; Moriyama, Shigeharu (Okayama Red Cross Hospital (Japan))

    1983-08-01

    /sup 201/Tl scintigraphy at 15 min and 120 min after intravenous injection of /sup 201/TlCl revealed a parathyroidal adenoma (1.7g) in a 49-year-old female patient with hyperthyroidism complicated by renal calculi and that (1.8g) in a 58-year-old female patient without symptoms. /sup 75/Se could be substituted by /sup 201/Tl which was useful for localizing parathyroidal adenoma in hyperparathyroidism. /sup 201/Tl scintigraphy revealed the adenoma which was not palpable. The smallest adenoma detected by it was 0.9g.

  10. MicroRNA sequence motifs reveal asymmetry between the stem arms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Havgaard, Jakob Hull; Ensterö, M.

    2006-01-01

    The processing of micro RNAs (miRNAs) from their stemloop precursor have revealed asymmetry in the processing of the mature and its star sequence. Furthermore, the miRNA processing system between organism differ. To assess this at the sequence level we have investigated mature miRNAs in their gen......The processing of micro RNAs (miRNAs) from their stemloop precursor have revealed asymmetry in the processing of the mature and its star sequence. Furthermore, the miRNA processing system between organism differ. To assess this at the sequence level we have investigated mature mi...

  11. Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma Revealed by Renal Traumatism: A Case Report in Lomé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchilabalo Matchonna Kpatcha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is a report on a case of papillary carcinoma of the kidney revealed by an abdominal contusion. The results of radiological investigations were discordant with the low intensity of the shock. The treatment consisted of radical nephrectomy because of the suspicion of a pre-existing malignancy. Histological analysis revealed a papillary carcinoma pT3N0M0. We focus on the need for performing diagnostic tests in order to avoid missing a pre-existing anomaly to the kidney trauma.

  12. LD-aminopterin in the canine homologue of human atopic dermatitis: a randomized, controlled trial reveals dosing factors affecting optimal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebala, John A; Mundell, Alan; Messinger, Linda; Griffin, Craig E; Schuler, Aaron D; Kahn, Stuart J

    2014-01-01

    Options are limited for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) who do not respond to topical treatments. Antifolate therapy with systemic methotrexate improves the disease, but is associated with adverse effects. The investigational antifolate LD-aminopterin may offer improved safety. It is not known how antifolate dose and dosing frequency affect efficacy in AD, but a primary mechanism is thought to involve the antifolate-mediated accumulation of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR). However, recent in vitro studies indicate that AICAR increases then decreases as a function of antifolate concentration. To address this issue and understand how dosing affects antifolate efficacy in AD, we examined the efficacy and safety of different oral doses and schedules of LD-aminopterin in the canine model of AD. This was a multi-center, double-blind trial involving 75 subjects with canine AD randomized to receive up to 12 weeks of placebo, once-weekly (0.007, 0.014, 0.021 mg/kg) or twice-weekly (0.007 mg/kg) LD-aminopterin. The primary efficacy outcome was the Global Score (GS), a composite of validated measures of disease severity and itch. GS improved in all once-weekly cohorts, with 0.014 mg/kg being optimal and significant (43%, P<0.01). The majority of improvement was seen by 8 weeks. In contrast, GS in the twice-weekly cohort was similar to placebo and worse than all once-weekly cohorts. Adverse events were similar across all treated cohorts and placebo. Once-weekly LD-aminopterin was safe and efficacious in canine AD. Twice-weekly dosing negated efficacy despite having the same daily and weekly dose as effective once-weekly regimens. Optimal dosing in this homologue of human AD correlated with the concentration-selective accumulation of AICAR in vitro, consistent with AICAR mediating LD-aminopterin efficacy in AD.

  13. LD-aminopterin in the canine homologue of human atopic dermatitis: a randomized, controlled trial reveals dosing factors affecting optimal therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Zebala

    Full Text Available Options are limited for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD who do not respond to topical treatments. Antifolate therapy with systemic methotrexate improves the disease, but is associated with adverse effects. The investigational antifolate LD-aminopterin may offer improved safety. It is not known how antifolate dose and dosing frequency affect efficacy in AD, but a primary mechanism is thought to involve the antifolate-mediated accumulation of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR. However, recent in vitro studies indicate that AICAR increases then decreases as a function of antifolate concentration. To address this issue and understand how dosing affects antifolate efficacy in AD, we examined the efficacy and safety of different oral doses and schedules of LD-aminopterin in the canine model of AD.This was a multi-center, double-blind trial involving 75 subjects with canine AD randomized to receive up to 12 weeks of placebo, once-weekly (0.007, 0.014, 0.021 mg/kg or twice-weekly (0.007 mg/kg LD-aminopterin. The primary efficacy outcome was the Global Score (GS, a composite of validated measures of disease severity and itch. GS improved in all once-weekly cohorts, with 0.014 mg/kg being optimal and significant (43%, P<0.01. The majority of improvement was seen by 8 weeks. In contrast, GS in the twice-weekly cohort was similar to placebo and worse than all once-weekly cohorts. Adverse events were similar across all treated cohorts and placebo.Once-weekly LD-aminopterin was safe and efficacious in canine AD. Twice-weekly dosing negated efficacy despite having the same daily and weekly dose as effective once-weekly regimens. Optimal dosing in this homologue of human AD correlated with the concentration-selective accumulation of AICAR in vitro, consistent with AICAR mediating LD-aminopterin efficacy in AD.

  14. Opening the Big Black Box: European study reveals visitors' impressions of science laboratories

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "On 29 - 30 March the findings of 'Inside the Big Black Box'- a Europe-wide science and society project - will be revealed during a two-day seminar hosted by CERN*. The principle aim of Inside the Big Black Box (IN3B) is to determine whether a working scientific laboratory can capture the curiosity of the general public through visits" (1 page)

  15. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering reveals adsorption of mitoxantrone on plasma membrane of living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuzard, G.; Angiboust, J.-F.; Jeannesson, P.; Manfait, M.; Millot, J.-M.

    2004-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy was applied to analyze mitoxantrone (MTX) adsorption on the plasma membrane microenvironment of sensitive (HCT-116 S) or BCRP/MXR-type resistant (HCT-116 R) cells. The addition of silver colloid to MTX-treated cells revealed an enhanced Raman scattering of MTX. Addition of extracellular DNA induced a total extinction of MTX Raman intensity for both cell lines, which revealed an adsorption of MTX on plasma membrane. A threefold higher MTX Raman intensity was observed for HCT-116 R, suggesting a tight MTX adsorption in the plasma membrane microenvironment. Fluorescence confocal microscopy confirmed a relative MTX emission around plasma membrane for HCT-116 R. After 30 min at 4 deg. C, a threefold decrease of the MTX Raman scattering was observed for HCT-116 R, contrary to HCT-116 S. Permeation with benzyl alcohol revealed a threefold decrease of membrane MTX adsorption on HCT-116 R, exclusively. This additional MTX adsorption should correspond to the drug bound to an unstable site on the HCT-116 R membrane. This study showed that SERS spectroscopy could be a direct method to reveal drug adsorption to the membrane environment of living cells

  16. Investigation of pancreas indocrine function in order to reveal subclinical insulin resistence in women with acne

    OpenAIRE

    Filippova, T.; Rudykh, N.; Shevchuk, A.

    2008-01-01

    Changed glycemic curves and indices of insulin resistance, the increase of insulin basal level in comparison with healthy persons, presence of antibodies to insulin antigen, decrease of level sex hormone bilding globulin were revealed in patients with acne. It can be considered as sign of formation of subclinical insulin resistance.

  17. Electron Tomography Reveals the Active Phase–Support Interaction in Sulfidic Hydroprocessing Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsbouts, Sonja; Li, Xuang; Juan-Alcaniz, Jana; van den Oetelaar, Leon C A; Bergwerff, Jaap; Loos, Joachim; Carlsson, Anna; Vogt, E.T.C.

    2017-01-01

    Conventional two-dimensional (2D) transmission electron microscopy of sulfidic hydroprocessing catalysts can be deceiving and give the impression that parts of the support are overloaded with active phase. High-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy tomography reveals

  18. ‘Candidatus Competibacter’-lineage genomes retrieved from metagenomes reveal functional metabolic diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Albertsen, Mads; Andresen, Eva Kammer

    2014-01-01

    as for denitrification, nitrogen fixation, fermentation, trehalose synthesis and utilisation of glucose and lactate. Genetic comparison of P metabolism pathways with sequenced PAOs revealed the absence of the Pit phosphate transporter in the Competibacter-lineage genomes—identifying a key metabolic difference...

  19. Comparative transcriptomics reveal host-specific nucleotide variation in entomophthoralean fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    of toxins that interfere with the host immune response. Phylogenetic comparison with the nonobligate generalist insect-pathogenic fungus Conidiobolus coronatus revealed a gene-family expansion of trehalase enzymes in E. muscae. The main sugar in insect haemolymph is trehalose, and efficient sugar...

  20. A Method to Reveal Fine-Grained and Diverse Conceptual Progressions during Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, François; Merminod, Marie; Widmer, Vincent; Schneider, Daniel K.

    2018-01-01

    Empirical data on learners' conceptual progression is required to design curricula and guide students. In this paper, we present the Reference Map Change Coding (RMCC) method for revealing students' progression at a fine-grained level. The method has been developed and tested through the analysis of successive versions of the productions of eight…

  1. Seismic tomography with P and S data reveals lateral variations in the rigidity of slabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widiyantoro, S.; Kennett, B.L.N.; Hilst, R.D. van der

    1999-01-01

    Regional seismic tomography of the northwest Pacific island arcs using P- and S-wave arrival time data with similar path coverage reveals an oceanic lithospheric slab deflected in the mantle transition zone beneath the Izu Bonin region in good agreement with the results of earlier tomographic and

  2. 41 CFR 102-81.30 - What information must job applicants at child care centers reveal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information must... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 81-SECURITY Security § 102-81.30 What information must job applicants at child care centers reveal...

  3. The genome of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, Jeanine; Rouzé, Pierre; Verhelst, Bram; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Bayer, Till; Collen, Jonas; Dattolo, Emanuela; De Paoli, Emanuele; Dittami, Simon; Maumus, Florian; Michel, Gurvan; Kersting, Anna; Lauritano, Chiara; Lohaus, Rolf; Töpel, Mats; Tonon, Thierry; Vanneste, Kevin; Amirebrahimi, Mojgan; Brakel, Janina; Boström, Christoffer; Chovatia, Mansi; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry W; Jueterbock, Alexander; Mraz, Amy; Stam, Wytze T; Tice, Hope; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Green, Pamela J; Pearson, Gareth A; Procaccini, Gabriele; Duarte, Carlos M; Schmutz, Jeremy; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Van de Peer, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Seagrasses colonized the sea on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals

  4. Mitochondrial DNA analyses reveal low genetic diversity in Culex quinquefasciatus from residential areas in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, V L; Lim, P E; Chen, C D; Lim, Y A L; Tan, T K; Norma-Rashid, Y; Lee, H L; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2014-06-01

    The present study explored the intraspecific genetic diversity, dispersal patterns and phylogeographic relationships of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) in Malaysia using reference data available in GenBank in order to reveal this species' phylogenetic relationships. A statistical parsimony network of 70 taxa aligned as 624 characters of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and 685 characters of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene revealed three haplotypes (A1-A3) and four haplotypes (B1-B4), respectively. The concatenated sequences of both COI and COII genes with a total of 1309 characters revealed seven haplotypes (AB1-AB7). Analysis using tcs indicated that haplotype AB1 was the common ancestor and the most widespread haplotype in Malaysia. The genetic distance based on concatenated sequences of both COI and COII genes ranged from 0.00076 to 0.00229. Sequence alignment of Cx. quinquefasciatus from Malaysia and other countries revealed four haplotypes (AA1-AA4) by the COI gene and nine haplotypes (BB1-BB9) by the COII gene. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that Malaysian Cx. quinquefasciatus share the same genetic lineage as East African and Asian Cx. quinquefasciatus. This study has inferred the genetic lineages, dispersal patterns and hypothetical ancestral genotypes of Cx. quinquefasciatus. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. Natural mummies from Predynastic Egypt reveal the world's earliest figural tattoos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedman, Renée; Antoine, Daniel; Talamo, Sahra

    2018-01-01

    amongst the bearers of some of the oldest preserved tattoos in the world. At over five thousand years of age, they push back the evidence for tattooing in Africa by a millennium and provide new insights into the range of potential uses of tattoos in pre-literate societies by both sexes, revealing new...

  6. Puzzles in modern biology. I. Male sterility, failure reveals design [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Frank

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many human males produce dysfunctional sperm. Various plants frequently abort pollen. Hybrid matings often produce sterile males. Widespread male sterility is puzzling. Natural selection prunes reproductive failure. Puzzling failure implies something that we do not understand about how organisms are designed. Solving the puzzle reveals the hidden processes of design.

  7. Proteomic analysis of lysine acetylation sites in rat tissues reveals organ specificity and subcellular patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Alicia; Hansen, Kasper Lage; Weinert, Brian Tate

    2012-01-01

    ,541 proteins and provide the data set as a web-based database. We demonstrate that lysine acetylation displays site-specific sequence motifs that diverge between cellular compartments, with a significant fraction of nuclear sites conforming to the consensus motifs G-AcK and AcK-P. Our data set reveals...

  8. Whole-genome sequencing reveals a potential causal mutation for dwarfism in the Miniature Shetland pony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Julia; Gast, Alana Christina; Schrimpf, Rahel; Rau, Janina; Eikelberg, Deborah; Beineke, Andreas; Hellige, Maren; Distl, Ottmar

    2017-04-01

    The Miniature Shetland pony represents a horse breed with an extremely small body size. Clinical examination of a dwarf Miniature Shetland pony revealed a lowered size at the withers, malformed skull and brachygnathia superior. Computed tomography (CT) showed a shortened maxilla and a cleft of the hard and soft palate which protruded into the nasal passage leading to breathing difficulties. Pathological examination confirmed these findings but did not reveal histopathological signs of premature ossification in limbs or cranial sutures. Whole-genome sequencing of this dwarf Miniature Shetland pony and comparative sequence analysis using 26 reference equids from NCBI Sequence Read Archive revealed three probably damaging missense variants which could be exclusively found in the affected foal. Validation of these three missense mutations in 159 control horses from different horse breeds and five donkeys revealed only the aggrecan (ACAN)-associated g.94370258G>C variant as homozygous wild-type in all control samples. The dwarf Miniature Shetland pony had the homozygous mutant genotype C/C of the ACAN:g.94370258G>C variant and the normal parents were heterozygous G/C. An unaffected full sib and 3/5 unaffected half-sibs were heterozygous G/C for the ACAN:g.94370258G>C variant. In summary, we could demonstrate a dwarf phenotype in a miniature pony breed perfectly associated with a missense mutation within the ACAN gene.

  9. Phylogenetic variation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans serotype e reveals an aberrant distinct evolutionary stable lineage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Reijden, Wil A.; Brunner, Jorg; Bosch-Tijhof, Carolien J.; van Trappen, Stefanie; Rijnsburger, Martine C.; de Graaff, Marcel P. W.; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.; Cleenwerck, Ilse; de Vos, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans that comprises six serotypes (a-f), is often identified by PCR-based techniques targeting the 16S rRNA gene. In this study, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed an aberrant cluster of 19 strains within serotype e, denoted as serotype

  10. Cerebral H-1 MR spectroscopy revealing white matter NAA decreases in glutaric aciduria type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijens, P. E.; Smit, G. P. A.; Meiners, L. C.; Oudkerk, M.; van Spronsen, F. J.

    MR spectroscopy in two patients with glutaric aciduria type I revealed reductions in the white matter N-acetylaspartate signal, in the more severe case accompanied by a loss of glutamate and the appearance of lactate signals. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ligand induced structural isomerism in phosphine coordinated gold clusters revealed by ion mobility mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligare, Marshall R.; Baker, Erin M.; Laskin, Julia; Johnson, Grant E.

    2017-01-01

    Structural isomerism in ligated gold clusters is revealed using electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometry mass spectrometry. Phosphine ligated Au8 clusters are shown to adopt more “extended” type structures with increasing exchange of methyldiphenylphosphine (MePPh2) for triphenylphosphine (PPh3). These ligand-dependant structure-property relationships are critical to applications of clusters in catalysis.

  12. Linguistic Landscape in Singapore: What Shop Names Reveal about Singapore's Multilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Guowen; Guo, Libo

    2017-01-01

    The visibility and salience of specific languages in public spaces are important parameters of their ethnolinguistic vitality in a society. Drawing upon data from first-hand fieldwork, this paper explores the display of multiple languages in shop names presented in Singapore's neighbourhood centres in order to reveal how local shop owners address…

  13. Survey reveals public open to ban on hand-held cell phone use and texting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A study performed by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) reveals that the public is open to a ban on hand-held cell phone use while driving. The study is based on data from 2009s Omnibus Household Survey (OHS), which is administered by B...

  14. Revealing the Differences Between Free and Complexed Enzyme Mechanisms and Factors Contributing to Cell Wall Recalcitrance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resch, Michael G.; Donohoe, Byron; Ciesielski, Peter; Nill, Jennifer; McKinney, Kellene; Mittal, Ashutosh; Katahira, Rui; Himmel, Michael; Biddy, Mary; Beckham, Gregg; Decker, Steve

    2014-09-08

    Enzymatic depolymerization of polysaccharides is a key step in the production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass, and discovery of synergistic biomass-degrading enzyme paradigms will enable improved conversion processes. Historically, revealing insights into enzymatic saccharification mechanisms on plant cell walls has been hindered by uncharacterized substrates and low resolution.

  15. Revealing barriers and facilitators to use a new genetic test: comparison of three user involvement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhebergen, Martijn D F; Visser, Maaike J; Verberk, Maarten M; Lenderink, Annet F; van Dijk, Frank J H; Kezic, Sanja; Hulshof, Carel T J

    2012-10-01

    We compared three common user involvement methods in revealing barriers and facilitators from intended users that might influence their use of a new genetic test. The study was part of the development of a new genetic test on the susceptibility to hand eczema for nurses. Eighty student nurses participated in five focus groups (n = 33), 15 interviews (n = 15) or questionnaires (n = 32). For each method, data were collected until saturation. We compared the mean number of items and relevant remarks that could influence the use of the genetic test obtained per method, divided by the number of participants in that method. Thematic content analysis was performed using MAXQDA software. The focus groups revealed 30 unique items compared to 29 in the interviews and 21 in the questionnaires. The interviews produced more items and relevant remarks per participant (1.9 and 8.4 pp) than focus groups (0.9 and 4.8 pp) or questionnaires (0.7 and 2.3 pp). All three involvement methods revealed relevant barriers and facilitators to use a new genetic test. Focus groups and interviews revealed substantially more items than questionnaires. Furthermore, this study suggests a preference for the use of interviews because the number of items per participant was higher than for focus groups and questionnaires. This conclusion may be valid for other genetic tests as well.

  16. Degrees of Cooperation in Household Consumption Models : A Revealed Preference Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; Demuynck, T.; de Rock, B.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a revealed preference approach to analyze non-unitary con- sumption models with intrahousehold allocations deviating from the cooper- ative (or Pareto e¢ cient) solution. At a theoretical level, we establish re- vealed preference conditions of household consumption models with varying

  17. The imidazopyridine derivative JK184 reveals dual roles for microtubules in Hedgehog signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupido, Tommaso; Rack, Paul G; Firestone, Ari J; Hyman, Joel M; Han, Kyuho; Sinha, Surajit; Ocasio, Cory A; Chen, James K

    2009-01-01

    Eradicating hedgehogs: The title molecule has been previously identified as a potent inhibitor of the Hedgehog signaling pathway, which gives embryonic cells information needed to develop properly. This molecule is shown to modulate Hedgehog target gene expression by depolymerizing microtubules, thus revealing dual roles of the cytoskeleton in pathway regulation (see figure).

  18. Environmentally sensitive molecular probes reveal mutations and epigenetic 5-methyl cytosine in human oncogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskova, M.; Barducci, M. C.; Astakhova, K.

    2017-01-01

    There is currently an unmet need for reliable tools that allow for direct detection and quantification of modifications in genomic DNA. For example, in cancer research and clinical diagnostics, target DNA has to be amplified and sequenced in order to reveal mutations. For 5-methylcytosine detecti...

  19. Predator-prey interaction reveals local effects of high-altitude insect migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-altitude nocturnal insect migrations represent significant pulses of resources, yet are difficult to study and poorly understood. Predator-prey interactions, specifically migratory moth consumption by high-flying bats, potentially reveal flows of migratory insects across a landscape. In North...

  20. Cell kinetics of the marine sponge Halisarca caerulea reveal rapid cell turnover and shedding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goeij, de J.M.; Kluijver, de A.; Duyl, van F.C.; Vacelet, J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Goeij, de A.F.P.M.; Cleutjens, J.P.M.; Schutte, B.

    2009-01-01

    This study reveals the peculiar in vivo cell kinetics and cell turnover of the marine sponge Halisarca caerulea under steady-state conditions. The tropical coral reef sponge shows an extremely high proliferation activity, a short cell cycle duration and massive cell shedding. Cell turnover is

  1. A Simple Exercise Reveals the Way Students Think about Scientific Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruebush, Laura; Sulikowski, Michelle; North, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Scientific modeling is an integral part of contemporary science, yet many students have little understanding of how models are developed, validated, and used to predict and explain phenomena. A simple modeling exercise led to significant gains in understanding key attributes of scientific modeling while revealing some stubborn misconceptions.…

  2. Stem cankers on sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Australia reveal a complex of pathogenic Diaporthe (Phomopsis) species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, S.M.; Tan, Y.P.; Young, A.J.; Neate, S.M.; Aitken, E.A.B.; Shivas, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of Diaporthe (anamorph Phomopsis) species associated with stem canker of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Australia was studied using morphology, DNA sequence analysis and pathology. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three clades that did not correspond with known taxa, and these are

  3. Working in Separate Silos? What Citation Patterns Reveal about Higher Education Research Internationally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tight, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Higher education research is a growing, inter-disciplinary and increasingly international field of study. This article examines the citation patterns of articles published in six leading higher education journals--three published in the United States and three published elsewhere in the world--for what they reveal about the development of this…

  4. 78 FR 55772 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Beauty Revealed: Images of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ..., 1965 (79 Stat. 985; 22 U.S.C. 2459), Executive Order 12047 of March 27, 1978, the Foreign Affairs...). The mailing address is U.S. Department of State, SA-5, L/PD, Fifth Floor (Suite 5H03), Washington, DC... Determinations: ``Beauty Revealed: Images of Women in Qing Dynasty Chinese Painting'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby...

  5. Hyperspectral imaging technology for revealing the original handwritings covered by the same inks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Lian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript presents a preliminary investigation on the applicability of hyperspectral imaging technology for nondestructive and rapid analysis to reveal covered original handwritings. The hyperspectral imager Nuance-Macro was used to collect the reflected light signature of inks from the overlapping parts. The software Nuance1p46 was used to analyze the reflected light signature of inks which shows the covered original handwritings. Different types of black/blue ballpoint pen inks and black/blue gel pen inks were chosen for sample preparation. From the hyperspectral images examined, the covered original handwritings of application were revealed in 90.5%, 69.1%, 49.5%, and 78.6% of the cases. Further, the correlation between the revealing effect and spectral characteristics of the reflected light of inks at the overlapping parts was interpreted through theoretical analysis and experimental verification. The results indicated that when the spectral characteristics of the reflected light of inks at the overlapping parts were the same or very similar to that of the ink that was used to cover the original handwriting, the original handwriting could not be shown. On the contrary, when the spectral characteristics of the reflected light of inks at the overlapping parts were different to that of the ink that was used to cover the original handwriting, the original handwriting was revealed.

  6. Gravity and magma induces spreading of Mount Etna volcano revealed by satellite radar interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungren, P.; Casu, F.; Manzo, M.; Pepe, A.; Berardino, P.; Sansosti, E.; Lanari, R.

    2004-01-01

    Mount Etna underwent a cycle of eruptive activity over the past ten years. Here we compute ground displacement maps and deformation time series from more than 400 radar interferograms to reveal Mount Etna's average and time varying surface deformation from 1992 to 2001.

  7. 77 FR 34121 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Revealing the African...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... exhibition ``Revealing the African Presence in Renaissance Europe'' imported from abroad for temporary... exhibit objects at The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, MD, from on or about October 14, 2012, until on or about January 21, 2013; at the Princeton University Art Museum, Princeton, NJ, from on or about February...

  8. MODIS-Aqua Reveals Evolving Phytoplankton Community Structure During the Arabian Sea Northeast Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy; Roesler, Collin S.; Goes, Joaquim I.

    2016-01-01

    Applying a bio-optical model designed to identify the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca miliaris to MODIS-Aqua revealed (1) patterns in its spatial distribution not previously seen (including its appearance in places not previously sampled), and (2) the surprising disassociation of total chlorophyll biomass with the presence of N. miliaris.

  9. Meaning Making: What Reflective Essays Reveal about Biology Students' Conceptions about Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgopal, Meena M.; Montplaisir, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    The process of reflective writing can play a central role in making meaning as learners process new information and connect it to prior knowledge. An examination of the written discourse can therefore be revealing of learners' cognitive understanding and affective (beliefs, feelings, motivation to learn) responses to concepts. Despite reflective…

  10. Revealing the equivalence of two clonal survival models by principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachet, Bernard; Dufour, Jacques

    1976-01-01

    The principal component analysis of 21 chlorella cell survival curves, adjusted by one-hit and two-hit target models, lead to quite similar projections on the principal plan: the homologous parameters of these models are linearly correlated; the reason for the statistical equivalence of these two models, in the present state of experimental inaccuracy, is revealed [fr

  11. Patterns and processes of Mycobacterium bovis evolution revealed by phylogenomic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis is an important animal pathogen worldwide that parasitizes wild and domesticated vertebrate livestock as well as humans. A comparison of the five M. bovis complete genomes from UK, South Korea, Brazil and USA revealed four novel large-scale structural variations of at least 2,000...

  12. Prostate cancer revealed by skin metastasis: A case report in black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Prostate cancer is the most common male malignancy in Togo. Most patients present with advanced and metastatic disease. Skin metastasis from prostate cancer is very rare and it occurs late and often with a poor prognosis. We report a case in a 52-year-old Togolese man where the skin lesions reveal the ...

  13. Genetic variation in Phoca vitulina (the harbour seal) revealed by DNA fingerprinting and RAPDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappe, A.L.; van de Zande, L.; Vedder, E.J.; Bijlsma, R.; van Delden, Wilke

    Genetic variation in two harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations from the Dutch Wadden Sea and Scotland was examined by RAPD analysis and DNA fingerprinting. For comparison a population of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) was studied. The RAPD method revealed a very low number of polymorphic bands.

  14. Kinds of access: Different methods for report reveal different kinds of metacognitive access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Sandberg, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    that there is not only a theoretical, but also an empirical difference between different methods of reporting. We hypothesize that differences in the sensitivity of different scales may reveal that different types of access are used to issue direct reports about experiences and metacognitive reports about...

  15. Humor Ability Reveals Intelligence, Predicts Mating Success, and Is Higher in Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greengross, Gil; Miller, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    A good sense of humor is sexually attractive, perhaps because it reveals intelligence, creativity, and other "good genes" or "good parent" traits. If so, intelligence should predict humor production ability, which in turn should predict mating success. In this study, 400 university students (200 men and 200 women) completed…

  16. Revealing the Relationship between Reading Interest and Critical Thinking Skills through Remap GI and Remap Jigsaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaidah, Siti; Corebima, Aloysius Duran; Mahanal, Susriyati; Mistianah

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research was to reveal the relationship between student's reading interest and critical thinking skills through Reading Concept Map Group Investigation (Remap GI) and Reading Concept Map Jigsaw (Remap Jigsaw) learning models. To do so, two science classes from first grade of two Senior High Schools in Malang, Indonesia were…

  17. Revealing the Mind of the Sage: The Narrative Rhetoric of the "Chuang Tzu."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, William G.

    1992-01-01

    Argues that one of the formative texts of Taoism, the "Chuang Tzu," is worthy of study by rhetoric scholars because it reveals a unique approach to rhetoric in its attempt to disclose the mind of the sage not through logic but through intuition, and it shows how storytelling can acquaint people with previously unsuspected possibilities of thought…

  18. Phylogeographic analysis reveals significant spatial genetic structure of Incarvillea sinensis as a product of mountain building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shaotian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incarvillea sinensis is widely distributed from Southwest China to Northeast China and in the Russian Far East. The distribution of this species was thought to be influenced by the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Quaternary glaciation. To reveal the imprints of geological events on the spatial genetic structure of Incarvillea sinensis, we examined two cpDNA segments ( trnH- psbA and trnS- trnfM in 705 individuals from 47 localities. Results A total of 16 haplotypes was identified, and significant genetic differentiation was revealed (GST =0.843, NST = 0.975, P  Conclusions The results revealed that the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau likely resulted in the significant divergence between the lineage in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the other one outside this area. The diverse niches in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau created a wide spectrum of habitats to accumulate and accommodate new mutations. The features of genetic diversity of populations outside the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau seemed to reveal the imprints of extinction during the Glacial and the interglacial and postglacial recolonization. Our study is a typical case of the significance of the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Quaternary Glacial in spatial genetic structure of eastern Asian plants, and sheds new light on the evolution of biodiversity in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau at the intraspecies level.

  19. Toward accountable land use mapping: Using geocomputation to improve classification accuracy and reveal uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhuizen, J.; Clarke, K.C.

    2010-01-01

    The classification of satellite imagery into land use/cover maps is a major challenge in the field of remote sensing. This research aimed at improving the classification accuracy while also revealing uncertain areas by employing a geocomputational approach. We computed numerous land use maps by

  20. Thermal, Thermophysical, and Compositional Properties of the Moon Revealed by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhagen, B. T.; Paige, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    The Diviner Lunar Radiometer is the first multispectral thermal instrument to globally map the surface of the Moon. After over three years in operation, this unprecedented dataset has revealed the extreme nature of the Moon's thermal environment, thermophysical properties, and surface composition.