Vaeth, Patrice A C; Caetano, Raul; Rodriguez, Lori A
Acculturation to U.S. society has been associated with an increase in drinking and binge drinking among Hispanics. This paper examines the association between acculturation and three drinking-related outcomes: average number of drinks consumed, binge drinking, and drinking 12 drinks or more in a single day in four major Hispanic national groups. The 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey used a multistage cluster sample design to interview 5224 adult Hispanics (18+ years) in five selected U.S. metropolitan areas: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. The four national groups interviewed were: Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, Mexican Americans, and South/Central Americans. The survey response rate was 76%. Data on drinking behavior were collected and the analyses include bivariate and multivariate regression techniques. Multivariate analysis did not show an association between acculturation and volume of drinking, binge drinking, or drinking 12 or more drinks in a single day among men. Acculturation stress, however, was associated with drinking 12 or more in a day among men. Among women, high acculturation was associated with a higher volume of drinking, and it also interacted with national group to increase the likelihood of binge drinking. Acculturation does not have a homogeneous effect on drinking across gender and Hispanic national groups. The results confirm that acculturation has a more consistent association with increased drinking and binge drinking among women than among men. The effect of acculturation is therefore gender-specific. This heterogeneity across Hispanic national groups must be considered in future research, treatment, and prevention efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Asthma Asthma and Hispanic Americans In 2015, 2.2 million Hispanics reported that they currently have asthma. Puerto Rican Americans have almost twice the asthma ...
... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 percent are overweight ... inhqrdr/data/query At a Glace – Risk Factors: Obesity is a risk ... Americans Heart Disease – See Heart Disease and Hispanic Americans ...
Lopez, Josue; Safrit, R. Dale
Hispanic Americans in Cleveland, Ohio were interviewed about volunteerism. Six themes were identified: (1) influence of family and friends; (2) importance of volunteering to benefit youth; (3) importance of church and religious beliefs; (4) volunteering as a requirement; (5) connections between volunteerism and the community; and (6) personal…
Arnold, Jodi Gonzalez; Miller, Alexander L; Cañive, José M; Rosenheck, Robert A; Swartz, Marvin S; Mintz, Jim
Medication outcome literature in schizophrenia across racial-ethnic groups is sparse, with inconsistent findings. The Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study provided an opportunity for exploratory analyses of racial-ethnic outcomes. The study objective was to examine race-ethnicity outcomes for CATIE's main outcome (study discontinuation) and secondary outcomes. CATIE participants included whites (non-Hispanic) (N=722), African Americans (N=506), and Hispanics (N=170). Survival analyses and mixed-effects regression modeling were conducted, with adjustment for baseline sociodemographic differences and baseline scores of the secondary outcomes. Racial-ethnic groups had unique patterns of outcomes. Hispanics were much more likely to discontinue for lack of efficacy from perphenazine (64% versus 42% non-Hispanic whites and 24% African Americans) and ziprasidone (71% versus 40% non-Hispanic whites and 24% African Americans); Hispanics' quality of life also declined on these medications. Non-Hispanic whites were more likely to discontinue for lack of efficacy in general (averaging olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone discontinuation rates). African Americans were less likely to continue after the first phase (32% continuing versus 40% for non-Hispanic whites and 41% Hispanics). Discontinuations were driven by research burden, personal issues, and unspecified loss to follow-up. Non-Hispanic whites had higher depression scores during the follow-up period. African Americans had fewer side effects. CATIE results did not show disparities favoring non-Hispanic whites. CATIE may have provided state-of-the-art treatment and thus reduced disparate treatments observed in community clinics. African Americans discontinued even after consideration of socioeconomic differences. Why perphenazine and ziprasidone may be less effective with Hispanics should be explored.
... Hispanic whites have a bachelor's degree or higher. Economics: According to a 2015 U.S. Census Bureau report, ... non-Hispanic whites, Puerto Ricans have a low birth weight rate that twice that of non-Hispanic whites. Also, ...
Lawrence, Jean M.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Reynolds, Kristi; Beyer, Jennifer; Pettitt, David J.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Marcovina, Santica M.; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Hamman, Richard F.
OBJECTIVE—To report the 2001 prevalence and 2002–2005 incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Hispanic American youth and to describe the demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of these youth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study, a population-based multicenter observational study of youth aged 0–19 years with physician-diagnosed diabetes, were used to estimate the prevalence and incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Information obtained by questionnaire, physical examination, and blood and urine collection was analyzed to describe the characteristics of youth who completed a study visit. RESULTS—Among Hispanic American youth, type 1 diabetes was more prevalent than type 2 diabetes, including in youth aged 10–19 years. There were no significant sex differences in type 1 or type 2 diabetes prevalence. The incidence of type 2 diabetes for female subjects aged 10–14 years was twice that of male subjects (P < 0.005), while among youth aged 15–19 years the incidence of type 2 diabetes exceeded that of type 1 diabetes for female subjects (P < 0.05) but not for male subjects. Poor glycemic control, defined as A1C ≥9.5%, as well as high LDL cholesterol and triglycerides were common among youth aged ≥15 years with either type of diabetes. Forty-four percent of youth with type 1 diabetes were overweight or obese. CONCLUSIONS—Factors such as poor glycemic control, elevated lipids, and a high prevalence of overweight and obesity may put Hispanic youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes at risk for future diabetes-related complications. PMID:19246577
Rakow, Steven J.; Bermudez, Andrea B.
Reviews some of the factors known to influence the achievement and retention of Hispanic Americans in technologically related fields. Discusses directions in which research should focus to meet the needs of Hispanic-American students. (PR)
Nino, Miguel A.
The Hispanic-American, because he or she is bilingual and bicultural, could play an important role in the future economic development of the United States. Declines in steel, automotive, and electronics industries due to foreign competition and market saturation have caused industrial displacement and unemployment. The Maquiladora or Twin Plant…
Turk, Judy VanSlyke; And Others
Examines how Hispanic Americans and Hispanic issues were covered by daily newspapers in New Mexico and Texas, two states where complaints relating to media coverage were investigated by state human rights commissions. Reports that Hispanics appear to be receiving ample and fair coverage in San Antonio, Texas, and Albuquerque, New Mexico. (MM)
literature on Hispanic Americans (Lisansky, 1981), make this need for empirical clarification especially unequivocal. The economic, educational, and...money/dinero respect/respecto advancement/avance dignity/dignidad education/ educacion ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION LEADERSHIP VALUES duty/obi lgac ion boss...although interestingly, the Anglo Americans gave more attention to Hispanic origin than the Mexican Americans ( especially the Los Angeles Mexicans). There
Aberson, Christopher L.; Porter, Michael K.; Gaffney, Amber M.
This study examined the role of Hispanic students' friendships with White non-Hispanics (n-Hs) and African Americans (AAs) in predicting implicit and explicit prejudices toward these groups. Participants (N = 73) completed implicit and explicit attitude measures and a friendship questionnaire. Friendships were associated with implicit attitudes…
16th and that of Chile on September 18th. Presidential Proclamation Background * Legislative History of Virginia to enable Hispanic* immigrants to more fully participate in and contribute to American society
Romero, Patricia Ann; Zancanella, Don
Notes that less than 1% of the new Prentice Hall American literature textbook, "The American Experience," is devoted to works by writers with Hispanic surnames. Offers two guidelines for the selection of literature outside the anthology: independent choice by students and teachers; and indigenous literature which arises from students'…
Bello, Mariel S; Pang, Raina D; Cropsey, Karen L; Zvolensky, Michael J; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M
Persistent tobacco use among racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States is a critical public health concern. Yet, potential sources of racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco use remain unclear. The present study examined racial/ethnic differences in tobacco withdrawal-a clinically-relevant underpinning of tobacco use that has received sparse attention in the disparities literature-utilizing a controlled laboratory design. Daily smokers (non-Hispanic African American [n = 178], non-Hispanic white [n = 118], and Hispanic [n = 28]) attended two counterbalanced sessions (non-abstinent vs. 16-hour abstinent). At both sessions, self-report measures of urge, nicotine withdrawal, and affect were administered and performance on an objective behavioral task that assessed motivation to reinstate smoking was recorded. Abstinence-induced changes (abstinent scores vs. non-abstinent scores) were analyzed as a function of race/ethnicity. Non-Hispanic African American smokers reported greater abstinence-induced declines in several positive affect states in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups. Relative to Hispanic smokers, non-Hispanic African American and non-Hispanic white smokers displayed larger abstinence-provoked increases in urges to smoke. No racial/ethnic differences were detected for a composite measure of nicotine withdrawal symptomatology, negative affect states, and motivation to reinstate smoking behavior. These results suggest qualitative differences in the expression of some components of tobacco withdrawal across three racial/ethnic groups. This research helps shed light on bio-behavioral sources of tobacco-related health disparities, informs the application of smoking cessation interventions across racial/ethnic groups, and may ultimately aid the overall effort towards reducing the public health burden of tobacco addiction in minority populations. The current study provides some initial evidence that there may be qualitative differences in the
Mulvaney, F D; Brown, L S; Alterman, A I; Sage, R E; Cnaan, A; Cacciola, J; Rutherford, M
Six-month methadone-maintenance response and outcome were examined for African-American and Hispanic men and women in a large urban sample. A consistent pattern of improvement was indicated for both races and genders on the addiction severity index (ASI). There were virtually no statistically significant differences in ASI outcomes between Hispanics and African-Americans and men and women using conventional analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures. Results from an additional equivalence analysis, however, indicated that baseline to 6-month changes for the different groups were generally not similar enough to consider them equivalent. Urine toxicologies obtained during the 6-month treatment period were also not statistically equivalent by race and gender. Evaluating outcomes by gender and race are discussed, as are the implications of using equivalence tests when examining group differences.
Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew
This article investigates levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income non-Hispanic African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican and non-Hispanic White women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. Hispanics' overall levels of distrust are found to be higher than levels for either African Americans or…
Allan Marsinko; John Dwyer
Public forest managers need an awareness and understanding of their clients in order to better address their needs for recreational uses of forest lands. This study examines and characterizes African American and Hispanic American sportsmen (hunters and anglers) in the North Central Region of the United Stares (IA, IL, IN, MI, MN, MO, WI) and compares them to African...
Miyawaki, Christina E
This study is a cross-sectional investigation of caregiving practice patterns among Asian, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White American family caregivers of older adults across three immigrant generations. The 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) dataset was used, and 591 Asian, 989 Hispanic and 6537 non-Hispanic White American caregivers of older adults were selected. First, descriptive analyses of caregivers' characteristics, caregiving situations and practice patterns were examined by racial/ethnic groups and immigrant generations. Practice patterns measured were respite care use, hours and length of caregiving. Three hypotheses on caregiving patterns based on assimilation theory were tested and analyzed using logistic regression and generalized linear models by racial/ethnic groups and generations. Caregiving patterns of non-Hispanic White caregivers supported all three hypotheses regarding respite care use, caregiving hours and caregiving duration, showing less caregiving involvement in later generations. However, Asian and Hispanic counterparts showed mixed results. Third generation Asian and Hispanic caregivers used respite care the least and spent the most caregiving hours per week and had the longest caregiving duration compared to earlier generations. These caregiving patterns revealed underlying cultural values related to filial responsibility, even among later generations of caregivers of color. Findings suggest the importance of considering the cultural values of each racial/ethnic group regardless of generation when working with racially and ethnically diverse populations of family caregivers of older adults.
Bean, Meghan G.; Focella, Elizabeth S.; Covarrubias, Rebecca; Stone, Jeff; Moskowitz, Gordon B.; Badger, Terry A.
Objective Hispanic Americans and American Indians face significant health disparities compared with White Americans. Research suggests that stereotyping of minority patients by members of the medical community is an important antecedent of race and ethnicity-based health disparities. This work has primarily focused on physicians’ perceptions, however, and little research has examined the stereotypes healthcare personnel associate with Hispanic and American Indian patients. The present study assesses: 1) the health-related stereotypes both nursing and medical students hold about Hispanic and American Indian patients, and 2) nursing and medical students’ motivation to treat Hispanic and American Indian patients in an unbiased manner. Design Participants completed a questionnaire assessing their awareness of stereotypes that healthcare professionals associate with Hispanic and American Indian patients then completed measures of their motivation to treat Hispanics and American Indians in an unbiased manner. Results Despite being highly motivated to treat Hispanic and American Indian individuals fairly, the majority of participants reported awareness of stereotypes associating these patient groups with noncompliance, risky health behavior, and difficulty understanding and/or communicating health-related information. Conclusion This research provides direct evidence for negative health-related stereotypes associated with two understudied minority patient groups—Hispanics and American Indians—among both nursing and medical personnel. PMID:26504671
Dalencour, Michelle; Wong, Eunice C; Tang, Lingqi; Dixon, Elizabeth; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Wells, Kenneth; Miranda, Jeanne
This study examined use of depression care provided by faith-based organizations (FBOs) by African Americans and Hispanics and factors associated with the receipt of such care, including mental illness severity and use of traditional mental health services. The study used baseline data from the Community Partners in Care study, a group-randomized trial comparing a community-partnered approach with a technical-assistance approach to improving depression care in underresourced communities in Los Angeles. A sample of 947 individuals (48% African American, 27% non-U.S.-born Hispanic, 15% U.S.-born Hispanic, and 10% non-Hispanic white) were surveyed about recent visits to a religious or spiritual place and receipt of FBO depression care. Descriptive analyses compared racial-ethnic, sociodemographic, and health service use variables for three groups: those who did not attend a religious place, those who attended a religious place and did not receive FBO depression services, and those who received FBO depression services. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify predictors of receipt of FBO depression care. A larger proportion of African Americans and non-U.S.-born Hispanics received FBO faith-based depression services compared with non-Hispanic whites and with U.S.-born Hispanics. Receipt of FBO depression services was associated with younger age, lifetime diagnosis of mania, use of primary care depression services, and receipt of a mental health service from a substance abuse agency. FBO depression services were used in the community, especially by persons from racial-ethnic minority groups. Collaborative efforts between FBOs and traditional health services may increase access to depression services for African Americans and Latinos.
Bailey, Rahn K; Fileti, Cecelia Pozo; Keith, Jeanette; Tropez-Sims, Susanne; Price, Winston; Allison-Ottey, Sharon Denise
Dairy foods contribute nine essential nutrients to the diet including calcium, potassium and vitamin D; nutrients identified by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as being "of public health concern" within the U.S. population. Milk and milk product intake is associated with better diet quality and has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases or conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and osteoporosis. Some research also indicates dairy food intake may be linked to reduced body fat, when accompanied by energy-restriction. On average, both African Americans and Hispanic Americans consume less than the recommended levels of dairy foods, and perceived or actual lactose intolerance can be a primary reason for limiting or avoiding dairy intake. True lactose intolerance prevalence is not known because healthcare providers do not routinely measure for it, and no standardized assessment method exists. Avoiding dairy may lead to shortfalls of essential nutrients and increased susceptibility to chronic disease. This updated Consensus Statement aims to provide the most current information about lactose intolerance and health, with specific relevance to the African American and Hispanic American communities. Topics covered include diagnostic considerations, actual and recommended dairy food intake and levels of consumption of key dairy nutrients among African Americans and Hispanic Americans; prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance among various racial/ethnic groups; the association between dairy food intake, lactose intolerance and chronic disease; and research-based management recommendations for those with lactose intolerance.
Bartlett, Robin; Buck, Raymond; Shattell, Mona M
African-Americans and Hispanics are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS in the United States. HIV infection is often acquired during adolescence, a time when risky sexual behaviors are at their peak. This study explored relationships among selected risk factors, protective factors, and risky sexual behaviors among African-American, Hispanic, and White adolescents, from a sample of adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. African-Americans and Hispanics were more likely to have sexual intercourse without the use of birth control than were Whites. African-Americans were more likely to have sexual behavior with multiple sexual partners than either Hispanics or Whites were, and African-Americans had higher self-esteem than did Hispanics and Whites. In order to develop culturally sensitive, effective interventions to prevent HIV/AIDS in adolescents, racial differences in risk and protective factors must be examined.
Champagne, Brian R; Fox, Rina S; Mills, Sarah D; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Malcarne, Vanessa L
Latent profile analysis identified health locus of control profiles among 436 Hispanic Americans who completed the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scales. Results revealed four profiles: Internally Oriented-Weak, -Moderate, -Strong, and Externally Oriented. The profile groups were compared on sociocultural and demographic characteristics, health beliefs and behaviors, and physical and mental health outcomes. The Internally Oriented-Strong group had less cancer fatalism, religiosity, and equity health attributions, and more alcohol consumption than the other three groups; the Externally Oriented group had stronger equity health attributions and less alcohol consumption. Deriving multidimensional health locus of control profiles through latent profile analysis allows examination of the relationships of health locus of control subtypes to health variables. © The Author(s) 2015.
Reid, M J; Webster-Stratton, C; Beauchaine, T P
The effectiveness of the Incredible Years Parenting Program was evaluated in a low-income sample of Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, and Asian mothers whose children were enrolled in Head Start. Data from two prior intervention studies [Webster-Stratton (1998) Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(5), 715-730; Webster-Stratton et al. (in press) Journal of Clinical Child Psychology] were combined, yielding a sample of 634 families (370 Caucasian, 120 African American, 73 Asian, 71 Hispanic) across 23 Head Start centers. Centers were matched and assigned randomly to either an experimental condition (8-12 weeks of weekly 2-hr parenting classes), or a control condition (the regular Head Start Program without parenting groups). Families in both conditions were assessed using home observations of parent-child interactions and parent reports of parenting style and discipline strategies and child behavior problems in the fall (baseline) and spring (postintervention) of the children's Head Start year. Families were reassessed 1 year later. Following treatment, intervention mothers were observed to be more positive, less critical, more consistent, and more competent in their parenting than were control mothers. Additionally, children of intervention parents were observed to exhibit fewer behavior problems than were control children. Differences in treatment response across ethnic groups were few, and did not exceed the number expected by chance. Parents from all groups reported high satisfaction levels following the parenting program. Results indicate that the Incredible Years Program is accepted by and effective with diverse populations.
This article explores Hispanics' concepts of cultural and linguistic identity. It is based on the findings of a recent study conducted by the author in Iglesia hispana de Cristo, a Hispanic church community in Western New York. Data come from ethnographic interviews conducted with 48 participants aged 13 to 80 years and with church leaders and…
Phillips, Linda R; Crist, Janice
Sometimes, clinicians assume caregivers in cultural groups believed to have large social networks and strong social support need little intervention from health professionals. This longitudinal study tests five hypotheses about the social relationships of Mexican American compared to non-Hispanic White caregivers and whether negative changes in social support affect perceived health. The sample includes 66 Mexican American and 92 non-Hispanic White caregivers. Findings show that social networks and social support are similar at baseline and similarly stable for 1 year. Negative changes in social support are correlated with poorer health perceptions. Findings underscore the importance of designing interventions that are culturally competent based on what the caregiver is experiencing rather than cultural stereotypes.
Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Ung, Danielle; Montiel-Ishino, F Alejandro; Nelson, Alison; Canales, Jorge; Quinn, Gwendolyn P
Few studies have reported on African American and Hispanic (AA and H) populations' informational needs when seeking cancer care at an institution that offers clinical trials. Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC) sought to identify and examine the decision making process, the perceptions, and the preferred channels of communication about cancer care services for AA and H communities in order to develop a list of marketing recommendations. Five focus groups (N = 45) consisting of two AA and three H were conducted in four counties of the MCC catchment area in Tampa, FL. Participants were asked about their perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about cancer care and MCC. Focus groups were audio-recorded and verbatim transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Similarities in responses were found between AA and H participants. Participants received general health and cancer information from media sources and word of mouth and preferred to hear patient testimonials. There were concerns about costs, insurance coverage, and the actual geographic location of the cancer center. In general, H participants were not opposed to participating in cancer clinical trials/research, whereas, AA participants were more hesitant. A majority of participants highly favored an institution that offered standard care and clinical trials. AA and H participants shared similar concerns and preferences in communication channels, but each group had specific informational needs. The perceptions and preferences of AA and H must be explored in order to successfully and efficiently increase cancer clinical trial participation.
... Health of Black or African American non-Hispanic Population Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Source: Summary Health Statistics Tables for the U.S. Population: National Health Interview Survey, 2015, Table P-1c [ ...
Compares the culture, sociology, politics, and economics of African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americans in the United States. Describes increased racial-ethnic national pluralism, the increased possibility of conflict between groups, and the need for dialogue and work toward coalition among these groups. (JB)
Choi, Eunsoo; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E
Cultural differences in the emphasis on positive and negative emotions suggest that the impact of these emotions on well-being may differ across cultural contexts. The present study utilised a momentary sampling method to capture average momentary emotional experiences. We found that for participants from cultural contexts that foster positive emotions (European Americans and Hispanic Americans), average momentary positive emotions predicted well-being better than average momentary negative emotions. In contrast, average momentary negative emotions were more strongly associated with well-being measures for Asian Americans, the group from a cultural context that emphasises monitoring of negative emotions. Furthermore, we found that acculturation to American culture moderated the association between average momentary positive emotions and well-being for Asian Americans. These findings suggest the importance of culture in studying the impact of daily emotional experiences on well-being.
Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Bean, Roy A.
The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06,…
Meaney, Karen S.; Hart, Melanie A.; Griffin, L. Kent
Fun & Fit is a program designed to create positive physical activity experiences and to promote healthy lifestyle choices among overweight children from low-income African American and Hispanic American families. The program is a collaborative project between Texas Tech University and the Lubbock Independent School District funded through a…
Wang, Chiachih D. C.; Scalise, Dominick A.; Barajas-Munoz, I. Alejandro; Julio, Kathy; Gomez, Ayleen
This study investigated adult attachment and acculturation frameworks of reported psychosomatic complaints related to perceived discrimination among a sample of Latino/Hispanic university students (N = 160). The model supported by the data suggests that attachment anxiety, acculturation toward the dominant cultural norms, and adherence to…
Karno, M; Golding, J M; Burnam, M A; Hough, R L; Escobar, J I; Wells, K M; Boyer, R
This report from the Los Angeles site of the NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area study reveals significant ethnic and national origin differences in lifetime prevalence rates for three out of six specific, DSM-III-defined anxiety disorders. In the case of simple phobia, United States-born Mexican Americans report higher rates than native non-Hispanic whites or immigrant Mexican Americans, the latter two groups having similar rates. Mexican Americans born in the United States had higher rates of agoraphobia than immigrant Mexican Americans, and non-Hispanic whites reported higher lifetime rates of generalized anxiety disorder compared with both immigrant and native Mexican Americans. Neither ethnic nor national origin differences in lifetime prevalence rates were found for panic disorder, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Selective migration is postulated as a potential factor influencing prevalence differences between native and immigrant Mexican Americans.
Chan, Isabella; Corvin, Jaime A
Hispanic Americans are the fastest growing minority group in the United States. They face a distinct set of health challenges, resulting in persistent health disparities. Chronic disease self-management programs hold promise in addressing individual-level, behavioral risks factors, such as dietary habits and physical activity patterns. In light of the unique barriers Hispanic men face, including low participation in evidence-based health intervention research, this article argues for a gendered perspective when approaching Hispanic men's physical and mental health needs. Through the analysis of data collected from male-only focus groups (N = 3, n = 15) with Hispanic Americans in west central Florida, this study identified that masculine identity is influenced by chronic disease and comorbid depression status. Diagnosis with a chronic disease and/or depression is accompanied by lifestyle adaptations, activity restrictions, and changes in income and health care demands that can undermine traditional notions of Hispanic masculinity. Consequently, masculine identity is associated with self-management strategies in complex ways. Public health interventions aimed at addressing comorbid chronic disease and depression among Hispanic men must take into consideration the role of gender identity and relevant conceptualizations of masculinity in order to better serve this underserved and understudied population. © The Author(s) 2015.
James, Gary D; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Hill, Leah A
The purpose of this study was to compare the daily inter- and intra-situational ambulatory blood pressure (BP) variation by ethnicity in women. The African-American (N = 82; Age = 39.7 + 8.9), Hispanic-American (N = 25; age = 37.5 + 9.4), Asian-American (N = 22; Age = 35.2 + 8.6), and European-American (N = 122; Age = 37.2+ 9.4) women in this study all worked in similar positions at two major medical centers in NYC. Each wore an ambulatory monitor during the course of one mid-week workday. Proportional BP changes from work or home to sleep, intra-situational BP variation (standard deviation [SD]) and mean situational BP levels were compared among the groups using ANOVA models. African-American and Asian-American women had significantly smaller proportional work-sleep systolic changes than either European- (P women, but the Asian-American women's changes tended to be smallest. The variability (SD) of diastolic BP at work was significantly greater among African- and Hispanic-American women compared to Asian- and European-American women (all P women had greater sleep variability than European-American women (P Asian-American women had the highest level of sleep diastolic pressure (all comparisons P Asian-American women have an attenuated proportional BP decline from waking environments to sleep compared to European-American and Hispanic-American women. Asian-American nocturnal BP may be elevated relative to all other groups. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:932-935, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Morgenstern, Lewis B; Sais, Emma; Fuentes, Michael; Ifejika, Nneka L; Jiang, Xiaqing; Horn, Susan D; Case, Erin; Lisabeth, Lynda D
Mexican Americans (MAs) have worse neurological, functional, and cognitive outcomes after stroke. Stroke rehabilitation is important for good outcome. In a population-based study, we sought to determine whether allocation of stroke rehabilitation services differed by ethnicity. Patients with stroke were identified as part of the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project, TX, USA. Cases were validated by physicians using source documentation. Patients were followed prospectively for 3 months after stroke to determine rehabilitation services and transitions. Descriptive statistics were used to depict the study population. Continuous baseline variables were compared using 2 sample t tests or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests by ethnicity. Categorical baseline variables were compared using χ 2 tests. Ethnic comparisons of rehabilitation services were compared using χ 2 tests, Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. Seventy-two subjects (50 MA and 22 non-Hispanic white [NHW]) were followed. Mean age, NHW-69 (SD 13), MA-66 (SD 11) years, sex (NHW 55% male, MA 50% male) and median presenting National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale did not differ significantly. There were no ethnic differences among the proportion of patients who were sent home without any rehabilitation services ( P =0.9). Among those who received rehabilitation, NHWs were more likely to get inpatient rehabilitation (73%) compared with MAs (30%), P =0.016. MAs (51%) were much more likely to receive home rehabilitation services compared with NHWs (0%) ( P =0.0017). In this population-based study, MAs were more likely to receive home-based rehabilitation, whereas NHWs were more likely to get inpatient rehabilitation. This disparity may, in part, explain the worse stroke outcome in MAs. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Aghaian, Elsa; Choe, Joyce E; Lin, Shan; Stamper, Robert L
To characterize the central corneal thickness (CCT) of Asian (Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino), Caucasian, Hispanic, and African American patients in a multiethnic glaucoma practice. Retrospective study (chart review). Glaucomatous (n = 600) and nonglaucomatous (n = 201) eyes of 801 patients examined in a San Francisco glaucoma clinic from June 2002 to April 2004 who met inclusion criteria were included in the study. The 6 racial (ethnic) groups represented in the study were Caucasian (n = 186, 23.2%), Chinese (n = 157, 19.6%), Japanese (n = 121, 15.1%), Hispanic (n = 116, 14.5%), Filipino (n = 114, 14.2%), and African American (n = 107, 13.4%). Central corneal thickness was measured by means of ultrasound pachymetry in Asian (Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino), Caucasian, Hispanic, and African American participants with glaucomatous and normal eyes. The relationship between CCT and race was investigated using multivariate regression analyses, controlling for confounders. One eye of each of 801 participants was included for analysis. Correlation of mean CCT with race, glaucoma diagnosis, age, spherical equivalent, gender, and history of ocular surgery. The mean CCT of all participants was 542.9 mum. Central corneal thicknesses of Chinese (555.6 microm), Caucasian (550.4 microm), Filipino (550.6 microm), and Hispanic (548.1 microm) participants did not significantly differ. The CCT of Japanese participants (531.7 microm) was significantly less than that of Caucasians, Chinese, Filipinos, and Hispanics (all, Pvalues of CCT were significantly related to older age (PFilipinos. Caucasians, Chinese, Hispanics, and Filipinos have comparable CCT measurements, whereas the corneas of African Americans are significantly thinner. Additionally, older individuals; glaucoma suspects; and participants with NTG, POAG, PEX, and CACG have thinner corneas. Ocular hypertensives, however, have thicker corneas.
Storch, Eric A.; Nock, Matthew K.; Masia-Warner, Carrie; Barlas, Mitchell E.
We examined the relation of overt and relational victimization to depressive symptoms, fear of negative evaluation (FNE), social avoidance, and loneliness in a sample of Hispanic and African-American children. The Social Experience Questionnaire, Children's Depression Inventory, Social Anxiety Scale for Children--Revised, and Asher Loneliness…
Discusses the history of problems encountered by Hispanic writers, who can enrich the English language and American literature and instill pride in the written words of Spanish and its many dialects by embracing two different philosophies, two different languages, and two different cultures. (AN)
Smith, Jacqueline A.
The mixed method research study was designed to evaluate the effects on a mentoring initiative on 40 African American and Hispanic males in an urban high school. The study took place over a three-month period in a traditional public school with 2,000 students. Data collection methods used included individual interview with student mentees, surveys…
Rounds-Bryant, Jennifer L.; Staab, Jennifer
Compared background, pre-treatment characteristics, and post-treatment outcomes of African American, Hispanic, and white adolescent substance abusers participating in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies for Adolescents (DATOS-A). Found that patients were similar with respect to basic pre-treatment demographics. Compared to white adolescents,…
Mason, Paula K.
The purpose of this mixed methods study was to describe the motivation to read of elementary African American and Hispanic boys and explore the possible differences in reading motivation using the constructs of self-perceptions as a reader and value of reading. Educational research has repeatedly shown that students from disadvantaged minority…
Pan, Tonya M; Mills, Sarah D; Fox, Rina S; Baik, Sharon H; Harry, Kadie M; Roesch, Scott C; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Malcarne, Vanessa L
The Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) is a widely used measure of optimism and pessimism, with three positively worded and three negatively worded content items. This study examined the structural validity and invariance, internal consistency reliability, and convergent and divergent validity of the English and Spanish versions of the LOT-R among Hispanic Americans. A community sample of Hispanic Americans ( N = 422) completed self-report measures, including the LOT-R, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, in their preferred language of English or Spanish. Based on the literature, four structural models were tested: one-factor , oblique two-factor , orthogonal two-factor method effects with positive specific factor , and orthogonal two-factor method effects with negative specific factor . Baseline support for both of the English and Spanish versions was not achieved for any model; in all models, the negatively worded items in Spanish had non-significant factor loadings. Therefore, the positively worded three-item optimism subscale of the LOT-R was examined separately and fit the data, with factor loadings equivalent across language-preference groups. Coefficient alphas for the optimism subscale were consistent across both language-preference groups (αs = .61 [English] and .66 [Spanish]). In contrast, the six-item total score and three-item pessimism subscale demonstrated extremely low or inconsistent alphas. Convergent and divergent validity were established for the optimism subscale in both languages. In sum, the optimism subscale of the LOT-R demonstrated minimally acceptable to good psychometric properties across English and Spanish language-preference groups. However, neither the total score nor the pessimism subscale showed adequate psychometric properties for Spanish-speaking Hispanic Americans, likely due to translation and cultural adaptation issues, and thus are not supported for use with this population.
Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Sais, Emma; Fuentes, Michael; Ifejika, Nneka L.; Jiang, Xiaqing; Horn, Susan D.; Case, Erin; Lisabeth, Lynda D.
Background and Purpose Mexican Americans (MAs) have worse neurologic, functional and cognitive outcomes after stroke. Stroke rehabilitation is important for good outcome. In a population-based study, we sought to determine if allocation of stroke rehabilitation services differed by ethnicity. Methods Stroke patients were identified as part of the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project, Texas, USA. Cases were validated by physicians using source documentation. Patients were followed prospectively for three months following stroke to determine rehabilitation services and transitions. Descriptive statistics were used to depict the study population. Continuous baseline variables were compared using two sample t-tests or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests by ethnicity. Categorical baseline variables were compared using chi-squared tests. Ethnic comparisons of rehabilitation services were compared using chi-squared tests, Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression. Results Seventy-two subjects (50 MA and 22 non-Hispanic white [NHW]) were followed. Mean age, NHW-69 (sd-13), MA-66 (sd-11) years, sex (NHW 55% male, MA 50% male) and median presenting NIHSS did not differ significantly. There were no ethnic differences among the proportion of patients who were sent home without any rehabilitation services (p=0.9). Among those who received rehabilitation NHWs were more likely to get inpatient rehabilitation (73%) compared with MAs (30%), p=0.016. MAs (51%) were much more likely to receive home rehabilitation services compared with NHWs (0%) (p=0.0017). Conclusions In this population-based study, MAs were more likely to receive home-based rehabilitation while NHWs more likely to get inpatient rehabilitation. This disparity may, in part, explain the worse stroke outcome in MAs. PMID:28386042
Ruth E Zambrana
Full Text Available Depression and depressive symptoms are risk factors for hypertension (HTN and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Hispanic women have higher rates of depressive symptoms compared to other racial/ethnic groups yet few studies have investigated its association with incident prehypertension and hypertension among postmenopausal Hispanic women. This study aims to assess if an association exists between baseline depression and incident hypertension at 3 years follow-up among postmenopausal Hispanic women.Prospective cohort study, Women's Health Initiative (WHI, included 4,680 Hispanic women who participated in the observational and clinical trial studies at baseline and at third-year follow-up. Baseline current depressive symptoms and past depression history were measured as well as important correlates of depression-social support, optimism, life events and caregiving. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate prevalent and incident prehypertension and hypertension in relation to depressive symptoms.Prevalence of current baseline depression ranged from 26% to 28% by hypertension category and education moderated these rates. In age-adjusted models, women with depression were more likely to be hypertensive (OR = 1.25; 95% CI 1.04-1.51, although results were attenuated when adjusting for covariates. Depression at baseline in normotensive Hispanic women was associated with incident hypertension at year 3 follow-up (OR = 1.74; 95% CI 1.10-2.74 after adjustment for insurance and behavioral factors. However, further adjustment for clinical covariates attenuated the association. Analyses of psychosocial variables correlated with depression but did not alter findings. Low rates of antidepressant medication usage were also reported.In the largest longitudinal study to date of older Hispanic women which included physiologic, behavioral and psychosocial moderators of depression, there was no association between baseline depressive symptoms and prevalent nor
Shulman, Eric; Aagaard, Philip; Kargoli, Faraj; Hoch, Ethan; Zheng, Laura; Di Biase, Luigi; Fisher, John; Gross, Jay; Kim, Soo; Ferrick, Kevin; Krumerman, Andrew
PR interval prolongation on electrocardiogram (ECG) increases the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). Non-Hispanic Whites are at higher risk of AF compared to African Americans and Hispanics. However, it remains unknown if prolongation of the PR interval for the development of AF varies by race/ethnicity. Therefore, we determined whether race affects the PR interval length's ability to predict AF and if the commonly used criterion of 200 ms in AF prediction models can continue to be used for non-White cohorts. This is a retrospective epidemiological study of consecutive inpatient and outpatients. An ECG database was initially interrogated. Patients were included if their initial ECG demonstrated sinus rhythm and had two or more electrocardiograms and declared a race and/or ethnicity as non-Hispanic White, African American or Hispanic. Development of AF was stratified by race/ethnicity along varying PR intervals. Cox models controlled for age, gender, race/ethnicity, systolic blood pressure, BMI, QRS, QTc, heart rate, murmur, treatment for hypertension, heart failure and use of AV nodal blocking agents to assess PR interval's predictive ability for development of AF. 50,870 patients met inclusion criteria of which 5,199 developed AF over 3.72 mean years of follow-up. When the PR interval was separated by quantile, prolongation of the PR interval to predict AF first became significant in Hispanic and African Americans at the 92.5th quantile of 196-201 ms (HR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.09-1.86, p=0.01; HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.07-1.64, p=0.01, respectively) then in non-Hispanic Whites at the 95th quantile at 203-212 ms (HR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.24-1.53, p=0.04). For those with a PR interval above 200 ms, African Americans had a lower risk than non-Hispanic Whites to develop AF (HR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.64-0.95, p=0.012), however, no significant difference was demonstrated in Hispanics. This is the first study to validate a PR interval value of 200 ms as a criterion in African Americans and
Lee, Rebecca E; Mama, Scherezade K; Medina, Ashley V; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y; Banda, Jorge A; Layne, Charles S; Baxter, Meggin; O'Connor, Daniel P; McNeill, Lorna; Estabrooks, Paul A
Compared measures of physical activity and dietary habits used in the Health Is Power (HIP) study, and described the associations of physical activity and dietary habits among African American and Hispanic or Latino women, adjusted for weight status. Cross-sectional baseline data were compared for community dwelling, healthy African American (N = 262) and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 148) who participated in HIP. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) long form, the Check And Line Questionnaire (CALQ) log and accelerometry. Dietary habits were measured using NCI 24-h recall screeners, vegetable and fruit (VF) logs and the NCI Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Differences in physical activity and dietary habits were assessed using simultaneous 2 (ethnicity) × 3 (weight status) ANCOVAs adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women (M age = 44.4 ± 10.9 years) were obese (M = 34.0 ± 9.7 kg/m(2)), did not meet physical activity guidelines as measured by accelerometry (M = 19.4 ± 19.1 min MVPA/day) and ate few VF (M = 2.8 ± 2.7 servings/day). DHQ variables differed by weight status. IPAQ was associated with CALQ, and CALQ with accelerometry (P habits depending on measure used.
Edward F, II Byrne; Ellen B. Drogin Rodgers
The purpose of this study is to investigate the constraints to use of outdoor recreation resources and participation in leisure activities among Hispanic restaurant workers in Northern Virginia; specifically, the relationship of socioeconomic status and acculturation to leisure constraints. The dramatic rate of increase of Hispanic-Americans, the group's low...
Kang, Hannah Soo; Chang, Kyle Edward; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen
Past research has shown that locus of control plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors, such as academic achievement and positive social behaviors. However, little is known about whether locus of control plays the same role in minority adolescents' peer relationships. The current study examined ethnic differences in the associations between locus of control and peer relationships in early adolescence using samples from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K: 5,612 Caucasian, 1,562 Hispanic, 507 Asian, and 908 African-American adolescents) and the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS: 8,484 Caucasian, 1,604 Hispanic, and 860 Asian, and 1,228 African American adolescents). Gender was approximately evenly split in both samples. The results from the two datasets were highly consistent. Significant interactions between ethnicity and locus of control indicated that having a more internal locus of control was particularly important for Caucasian students' peer relationships (ECLS-K) and social status (NELS), but less so for Asian, Hispanic, and African American students. Our findings suggest that the role of locus of control in peer relationship is contingent upon culture.
Fox, Molly; Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; DeHaene, Jessica
We propose a transdisciplinary, life span framework for examining the underlying cause of the observed intergenerational decline in health among Hispanic Americans. We focus on acculturation, and we posit that acculturation-related processes in first-generation Hispanic immigrant mothers may affect the intrauterine development of an unborn child, via the process of fetal programming, to produce phenotypic effects that may alter the susceptibility for noncommunicable chronic diseases. In this manner, an intergenerational cascade of perpetuation may become established. Our framework may shed light on the biological, behavioral, and social causes of intergenerational cycles of vulnerability among immigrant minority groups, with public health and policy implications for primary prevention and intervention. PMID:25905831
Michael S. Lewis-Beck
Full Text Available In their classic 1960 work, Angus Campbell and his colleagues offer a model to explain political behavior. They posit a funnel of causality, whereby the causal flow moved from remote long-term forces, such as socio-demographics and party identification, to more immediate short-term forces, such as issues and candidates, finally arriving at the vote choice itself. This explanation has withstood the test of time in studies of the United States and other democracies. The question at hand in this article is how Latin American immigrants comport themselves in the national political environment of the United States. Can the political preferences of Hispanic immigrants be explained pretty much the way the political preferences of native-born Americans can be explained? In other words, does the funnel of causality apply to them? Our findings, based on analysis of 2012 American National Election Study and Latino Immigrant National Election Study survey data, indicate that it does.
Wang, Judy H; Sheppard, Vanessa B; Schwartz, Marc D; Liang, Wenchi; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S
Asian American women have higher cervical cancer mortality rates than non-Hispanic White women, yet have lower Pap screening rates than their White counterparts. This study examined whether ethnic differences in the use of Pap screening were associated with differences in cultural views, controlling for demographic and access factors. Cross-sectional survey data from the Commonwealth 2001 Health Care Quality Survey were used. Non-Hispanic White (n = 2,146) and Asian American women (including Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean, Filipino, and Japanese; n = 259) were included in this study. Eastern cultural views were measured by beliefs in the role of self-care and luck. Access factors (having health insurance, regular providers, and communication with providers) and demographics of patients and providers were measured. The outcome was receipt of a Pap test in the past 2 years. Asian American women had a lower rate of obtaining a recent Pap test (70%) than non-Hispanic White women (81%; P = 0.001). More Asians believed in the role of luck and self-care and experienced access barriers than Whites (P cultural views are more likely to be recently screened than women with more (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.16; P Asian subgroups, Vietnamese women had lower screening rates (55%) and greater Eastern cultural views than their Asian counterparts. More research is needed to understand cultural and other barriers to Pap screening in high-risk Asian women, and attention should be paid to within-group differences.
Fox, Molly; Thayer, Zaneta M; Ramos, Isabel F; Meskal, Sarah J; Wadhwa, Pathik D
Hispanic Americans consistently exhibit an intergenerational increase in the prevalence of many noncommunicable chronic physical and mental disorders. We review and synthesize evidence suggesting that a constellation of prenatal and postnatal factors may play crucial roles in explaining this trend. We draw from relevant literature across several disciplines, including epidemiology, anthropology, psychology, medicine (obstetrics, neonatology), and developmental biology. Our resulting model is based on evidence that among women, the process of postmigration cultural adjustment (i.e., acculturation) is associated, during pregnancy and after delivery, with psychological and behavioral states that can affect offspring development in ways that may alter susceptibility to noncommunicable chronic disease risk in subsequent-generation Hispanic Americans. We propose one integrated process model that specifies the biological, behavioral, psychological, and sociocultural pathways by which maternal acculturation may influence the child's long-term health. We synthesize evidence from previous studies to describe how acculturation among Hispanic American mothers is associated with alterations to the same biobehavioral systems known to participate in the processes of prenatal and postnatal developmental programming of disease risk. In this manner, we focus on the concepts of biological and cultural mother-to-child transmission across the prenatal and postnatal life phases. We critique and draw from previous hypotheses that have sought to explain this phenomenon (of declining health across generations). We offer recommendations for examining the transgenerational effects of acculturation. A life course model with a greater focus on maternal health and well-being may be key to understanding transgenerational epidemiological trends in minority populations, and interventions that promote women's wellness may contribute to the elimination or reduction of health disparities.
Powe, Barbara D
This cross-sectional study examines health information-seeking behaviors and access to and use of technology among rural African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics. There was a low level of health information seeking across the sample. Few used smartphones or tablets and did not endorse receiving health information from their health care provider by e-mail. Printed materials remained a source of health information as did friends and family. Information should be shared using multiple platforms including more passive methods such as television and radio. More research is needed to ensure the health literacy, numeracy, and ability to navigate the online environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kearney, Lisa K.; Gilbert, Lucia Albino
This study explored dimensions of a social phenomenon not often investigated among Mexican American college students, namely sexual harassment. Mexican American (n = 261) and non-Hispanic White female students (n = 111) from three southwestern universities responded to scales assessing experiences of sexually harassing behaviors, harassment…
Lawton, Deborah M; Gasquoine, Philip G; Weimer, Amy A
Bilingualism has been reported to delay the age of retrospective report of first symptom in dementia. This study determined if the age of clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia occurred later for bilingual than monolingual, immigrant and U.S. born, Hispanic Americans. It involved a secondary analysis of the subset of 81 bi/monolingual dementia cases identified at yearly follow-up (1998 through 2008) using neuropsychological test results and objective diagnostic criteria from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging that involved a random sampling of community dwelling Hispanic Americans (N = 1789). Age of dementia diagnosis was analyzed in a 2 × 2 (bi/monolingualism × immigrant/U.S. born) ANOVA that space revealed both main effects and the interaction were non-significant. Mean age of dementia diagnosis was descriptively (but not significantly) higher in the monolingual (M = 81.10 years) than the bilingual (M = 79.31) group. Overall, bilingual dementia cases were significantly better educated than monolinguals, but U.S. born bilinguals and monolinguals did not differ significantly in education. Delays in dementia symptomatology pertaining to bilingualism are less likely to be found in studies: (a) that use age of clinical diagnosis vs. retrospective report of first dementia symptom as the dependent variable; and (b) involve clinical cases derived from community samples rather than referrals to specialist memory clinics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marjana Šifrar Kalan
Full Text Available Traditionally Slovene secondary schools teach national and international literature as part of the study of Slovene. The article examines the presence and the selection of Spanish and Hispanic American literature in Slovene secondary schools between 1945 and 2017, taking into account sociopolitical, cultural and didactic factors. The analysis is based on all syllabuses for Slovene during this period and all text books for literature used and edited since the end of the second world war in Slovenia. Therefore the role of literature written in Spanish is analysed for two different sociopolitical contexts: Yugoslavia and the independent Republic of Slovenia. The aim of the article is to find out whether the presence and the role of Spanish language literature in Spanish has increased or decreased during this period and which are the authors and literary works which 19-year-old Slovenes who complete grammar school and continue their studies at the university are/were acquainted with. The article enumerates all writers and texts in Spanish from the analysed documents and textbooks, identifies drawbacks in the selection of the literature and concludes that experts from different fields, teachers of Slovene, Spanish, experts in literature and didactics should work on a well-balanced selection of Spanish and Hispanic American literature within the teaching of world literature.
Full Text Available The purposes of this descriptive study were to (1 describe nutrition knowledge, attitudes, beliefs (KAB, and self-efficacy among low-income African American and Hispanic women; (2 identify the associations these variables have on diet quality and weight status; (3 identify barriers to healthy eating. Data from three separate studies were combined and analyzed. The total sample included African Americans ( and Hispanics (. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to identify associations between KAB and body mass index (BMI and diet quality. The majority of African Americans had good knowledge in nutrition while Hispanics had fair knowledge. Attitudes toward eating a healthy diet were significantly associated with high fiber intake among African Americans and low fat consumption among Hispanics. A computed KAB score showed no significant relation to individuals' weight status or diet quality. However, attitudes and beliefs about healthy foods strongly correlated with participants' weight or diet consumption among Hispanics. The most common barrier to consuming a healthy diet reported by both groups was the cost of healthy foods. It is therefore recommended to address these variables when addressing obesity and poor dietary intake among low-income minority groups.
Rodriguez, Rosalía; Marchand, Erica; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric
This study explored the effects of participating in a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program on changes in thin ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, and eating symptoms among White, Asian American, and Hispanic participants. Participants were (n = 394), 13 to 20-year-old adolescent girls and young women who reported being White (n = 311), Hispanic/Latina (n = 61), or Asian-American/Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 33). The current study used data drawn from the pre- and post assessments of an efficacy trial and an effectiveness trial of this eating disorder prevention program. The intervention reduced disordered eating behaviors and eating disorder risk factors for all three ethnic groups at post-intervention assessment; there was no evidence of significantly stronger effects in any particular ethnic group. Results suggest that a cognitive dissonance-based prevention program for eating disorders may be equally effective for Asian American, Hispanic, and White adolescent women.
Panitz, Daniel R.; And Others
Discusses alcohol abuse among Hispanic males of Mexican and Puerto Rican origin and the cultural and familial factors which both enable alocholism and serve as tools in overcoming it. The positive ideals of machismo may be enlisted in family therapy through supportive rather than reconstructive therapies. (Author/JAC)
Gil, Andrés G; Wagner, Eric F; Tubman, Jonathan G
This study presents preliminary analyses examining the effects of an alcohol and other drug use (AOD) intervention with minority juvenile offenders. Furthermore, the study investigates the impact of cultural factors on baseline AOD use among Hispanic and African American youth, as well as on treatment outcome. Participants were 213 juvenile offenders referred for treatment (mean age = 15.7 years), 97 of whom have completed treatment to date. The intervention was carried out in clinics placed within the neighborhoods in which the participants resided. Intervention Alcohol Treatment Targeting Adolescents in Need (ATTAIN) is a controlled clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of a brief motivational, cognitive behavioral intervention, guided self-change (GSC). Participants are assigned randomly to the individual format of guided self-change (I-GSC), the family involved format of guided self-Change (F-GSC), choice of one of these two, or a waiting list control condition. Only participants involved in active intervention are included in the present report. Data were collected via structured face-to-face interviews. Alcohol and marijuana use measures were collected using the Time-line Follow-back interview (TLFB). There were significant reductions in alcohol and marijuana use for all ethnic groups from baseline to post-intervention. Cultural factors (discrimination, acculturation, ethnic pride and cultural mistrust) were associated with pre-intervention levels of alcohol and marijuana use. Among Hispanics, pre-intervention level of substance use were higher among foreign-born than US-born youth. Analyses conducted with the US-born Hispanic group showed that ethnic orientation and ethnic pride were associated positively with greater reductions in alcohol use. The intervention provided through ATTAIN appears to be effective with a multi-ethnic population of juvenile delinquents. Cultural factors, such as ethnic orientation and ethnic mistrust, appear to constitute
Luz Sobong Porter
Full Text Available Overweight and obesity among children and adults is well-documented as an escalating problem. The purpose of this study is to determine the blood pressure, self-esteem, and eating and physical activity practices among African Americans, Filipino Americans, and Hispanic Americans; and project implications for development of childhood obesity prevention programs. This descriptive study was conducted in a convenience sample of 110 mothers recruited in health clinics and community centers located in Southeast Florida: 19% African Americans, 26% Filipino Americans, and 55% Hispanic Americans. The data, collected via self-administered questionnaires and a guided interview (Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire, Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale, Background Information Questionnaire, were analyzed via descriptive and inferential statistics with findings significant at p < .05. Results revealed differences and similarities in eating and activity practices between Filipinos and Blacks or Hispanics. Blood pressure and self-esteem did not differ by ethnicity; however, overweight mothers tended to have overweight children. The results point clearly to the importance of the mothers’ role modeling in eating and physical activity practices of families, reflecting the influence of mothers’ behaviors in children’s healthy behaviors, albeit family health. Given that mothers own physical exercise and eating habits could influence their children’s physical activity levels and food choices, a parental advice strategy could be disseminated directly to parents by health professionals. Study findings may raise public awareness of the increasing prevalence and consequences of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, particularly among vulnerable ethnic groups. The findings provide a database for nurse practitioners and other health service providers for the development of culturally sensitive focused public health education programs to prevent
Liu, Yushi; Thomas, Cynthia L.; Gauderman, W. James; Picchi, Maria A.; Bruse, Shannon E.; Zhang, Xiequn; Flores, Kristina G.; Van Den Berg, David; Stidley, Christine A.; Gilliland, Frank D.
Rationale: Gene promoter methylation detected in sputum predicts lung cancer risk in smokers. Compared with non-Hispanic whites (NHW), Hispanics have a lower age-standardized incidence for lung cancer. Objectives: This study compared the methylation prevalence in sputum of NHWs with Hispanics using the Lovelace Smokers cohort (n = 1998) and evaluated the effect of Native American ancestry (NAA) and diet on biomarkers for lung cancer risk. Methods: Genetic ancestry was estimated using 48 ancestry markers. Diet was assessed by the Harvard University Dietary Assessment questionnaire. Methylation of 12 genes was measured in sputum using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. The association between NAA and risk for methylation was assessed using generalized estimating equations. The ethnic difference in the association between pack-years and risk for lung cancer was assessed in the New Mexico lung cancer study. Measurements and Main Results: Overall Hispanics had a significantly increased risk for methylation across the 12 genes analyzed (odds ratio, 1.18; P = 0.007). However, the risk was reduced by 32% (P = 0.032) in Hispanics with high versus low NAA. In the New Mexico lung cancer study, Hispanic non–small cell lung cancer cases have significantly lower pack-years than NHW counterparts (P = 0.007). Furthermore, compared with NHW smokers, Hispanic smokers had a more rapidly increasing risk for lung cancer as a function of pack-years (P = 0.058). Conclusions: NAA may be an important risk modifier for methylation in Hispanic smokers. Smoking intensity may have a greater impact on risk for lung cancer in Hispanics compared with NHWs. PMID:24032348
Qi, Cathy H.; Marley, Scott C.
The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the "Preschool Language Scale-4" (PLS-4) with a sample of English-speaking Hispanic and European American children who attended Head Start programs. Participants were 440 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years (52% male; 86% Hispanic and 14% European American).…
McTigue, Kathleen M; Chang, Yue-Fang; Eaton, Charles; Garcia, Lorena; Johnson, Karen C; Lewis, Cora E; Liu, Simin; Mackey, Rachel H; Robinson, Jennifer; Rosal, Milagros C; Snetselaar, Linda; Valoski, Alice; Kuller, Lewis H
To compare mortality, nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD), and congestive heart failure (CHF) risk across BMI categories in white, African American, and Hispanic women, with a focus on severe obesity (BMI ≥ 40), and examine heterogeneity in weight-related CHD risk. Among 156,775 Women's Health Initiative observational study and clinical trial participants (September 1993-12 September 2005), multivariable Cox models estimated relative risk for mortality, CHD, and CHF. CHD incidence was calculated by anthropometry, race, and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). Mortality, nonfatal CHD, and CHF incidence generally rose with BMI category. For severe obesity versus normal BMI, hazard ratios (HRs, 95% confidence interval) for mortality were 1.97 (1.77-2.20) in white, 1.55 (1.20-2.00) in African American, and 2.59 (1.55-4.31) in Hispanic women; for CHD, HRs were 2.05 (1.80-2.35), 2.24 (1.57-3.19), and 2.95 (1.60-5.41) respectively; for CHF, HRs were 5.01 (4.33-5.80), 3.60 (2.30-5.62), and 6.05 (2.49-14.69). CVRF variation resulted in substantial variation in CHD rates across BMI categories, even in severe obesity. CHD incidence was similar by race/ethnicity when differences in BMI or CVRF were accounted for. Severe obesity increases mortality, nonfatal CHD, and CHF risk in women of diverse race/ethnicity. CVRF heterogeneity contributes to variation in CHD incidence even in severe obesity. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.
Durà-Vilà, Glòria; Hodes, Matthew
Susto (fright), nervios (nerves) and ataque de nervios (attack of nerves) are idioms of distress widely experienced amongst Hispanic Americans, often associated with psychiatric disorders. This study explores understanding of these idioms of distress and attitudes to help seeking amongst indigenous Spanish and Hispanic American residents in Spain. A population survey was undertaken in four adult education centres in Spain. Hypothetical case vignettes of individuals suffering from the idioms of distress were used to investigate understanding and help seeking by a Spanish sample compared with Hispanic American migrants to Spain. 350 questionnaires were obtained (94.6% response rate). The idioms ataque de nervios and nervios were recognised by the majority of the Spanish group but by significantly more of the Hispanic American migrants. However, susto was infrequently recognised by the Spanish group but it was recognised by half of the Hispanic Americans. Hispanic Americans were also more likely to recommend consultation with a psychiatrist/psychologist than Spanish respondents for ataque de nervios and nervios. The Spanish group were more likely to recommend non-medical sources of support such as relatives and priest than Hispanic Americans. Hispanic Americans, more recently arrived, did not show greater recognition of the three idioms than those who have been in Spain longer. Regression analysis showed that being Hispanic American and having lower educational attainment was associated with greater use of susto. The study suggests that people hold multiple models of distress and disorder. This may influence clinical presentations and help seeking behaviour in Spanish as well as Hispanic American populations.
New Mexico Higher Education Department, 2005
New Mexicans of Native American and Hispanic ancestry participate less often and less successfully in the higher education system than do other groups. This fact has been demonstrated repeatedly in various studies and is exacerbated by a cycle of poverty, inadequate academic and financial preparation for college, and other issues related to…
Haxton, Clarisse L.; Harknett, Kristen
This article uses qualitative and quantitative data for a recent birth cohort from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study to compare kin support patterns between African Americans and Hispanics. It focuses on financial and housing support from grandparents and other kin during the transition to parenthood. Qualitative analysis (n = 122…
Horton, E. Gail; Gil, Andres
This study examined the longitudinal effects of five family factors (familism, parent derogation, parent-child communication, family alcohol problems, and family drug problems) on intensity of alcohol use among a sample of 451 African American and White non-Hispanic males from early to mid-adolescence (sixth through eighth grades). Results…
Rodriguez, Christina M.
Recent attention to multicultural issues has sparked recognition that parenting is also a culturally construed phenomenon. The present study involved a diverse sample of 90 Anglo-American and Hispanic parents examining predictors based on distal/proximal levels as conceptualized in the ecological model. The study examined background…
Trinidad, Dennis R.; Xie, Bin; Fagan, Pebbles; Pulvers, Kim; Romero, Devan R.; Blanco, Lyzette; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K.
Purpose: To examine disparities and changes over time in the population-level distribution of smokers along a cigarette quitting continuum among African American smokers compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Methods: Secondary data analyses of the 1999, 2002, 2005, and 2008 California Tobacco Surveys (CTS). The CTS are large, random-digit-dialed,…
Black, Carolyn Bicknell; Crawley, Frank E.
This research examined the effects of belief-based messages on the intentions of ninth and tenth grade, Hispanic-American students to enroll in their first elective science course at the pre-college level, chemistry. The design of the study was guided by the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1989) and the Elaboration Likelihood Model of…
Whiting, Basil J.
Considers the position of Hispanic Americans in the work force, centering on the emerging concept of diversity management and special problems of bilingual workforce education. Issues highlighted in the "Workforce 2000" report (by the U.S. Department of Labor) are examined. Diversity management means tapping the human resource potential…
Scott, Clarissa S.; And Others
Explored the level of scientific knowledge regarding sexuality and contraception of Black and Hispanic inner-city adolescents. Results indicated that Hispanic males were the most knowledgeable, Hispanic females the least, and Black males and females were intermediate. A cultural basis for this difference is considered, and the need to design…
Blanco, Lyzette; Nydegger, Liesl A; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K; Tong, Elisa K; White, Martha M; Trinidad, Dennis R
Asian Americans are the fastest growing immigrant group in the United States and are more likely to be light and intermittent smokers (LITS) compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). LITS experience adverse health effects related to smoking. Previous research has aggregated Asian American ethnic groups, masking important differences between groups. We sought to compare LITS rates among Asian American subgroups before and after the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) with NHWs in California utilizing data from the California Tobacco Surveys (CTS). We combined 1990, 1992, and 1996 CTS (pre-MSA) and the 1999, 2002, 2005, and 2008 CTS (post-MSA) to examine changes in LITS (Filipino, Japanese, and Korean ethnic groups were compared with NHWs. Pre-MSA logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, education level, language spoken at home, and use of other tobacco products found that Chinese (odds ratio [OR] = 3.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.19, 5.21), Filipinos (OR = 3.55, 95% CI = 2.73, 4.63), Japanese (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.22, 3.27), and Koreans (OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 2.06, 5.03) were significantly more likely to be LITS compared with NHWs. Post-MSA, all Asian American subgroups experienced an increase in LITS (11.7%-37.8%); however, only Chinese (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.16, 4.13) and Filipinos (OR = 3.33, 95% CI = 2.26, 4.91) remained significantly more likely to be LITS compared with NHWs. Our results highlight the need for tobacco control efforts that address the growing group of LITS among Asian Americans and NHWs.
Full Text Available Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, has been heavily influenced by anthropogenic nutrients for more than 200 years. Recent efforts to improve water quality have cut sewage nitrogen (N loads to this point source estuary by more than half. Given that the bay has been heavily fertilized for longer than monitoring programs have been in place, we sought additional insight into how N dynamics in the system have historically changed. To do this, we measured the N stable isotope (δ15N values in clam shells from as early as 3000 BP to the present. Samples from Native American middens were compared with those collected locally from museums, an archaeological company, and graduate student thesis projects, during a range of time periods. Overall, δ15N values in clam shells from Narragansett Bay have increased significantly over time, reflecting known patterns of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. Pre-colonization midden shell δ15N values were significantly lower than those post-European contact. While there were no statistical differences among shells dated from the late 15th Century to 2005, there was a significant difference between 2005 and 2015 shells, which we attribute to the higher δ15N values in the effluent associated with recent sewage treatment upgrades. In contrast, the δ15N values of shells from the southern Rhode Island coast remained constant through time; while influenced by human activities, these areas are not directly influenced by point-source sewage discharge. Overall, our results show that this isotope technique for measuring δ15N values in clam shells provides useful insight into how N dynamics in coastal ecosystems have changed during thousands of years, providing managers vital historical information when setting goals for N reduction.
M Keith Rawlings
Full Text Available M Keith Rawlings1, Jennifer Klein1, Edna P Toubes Klingler1, Ejeanée Queen1, Lauren Rogers1, Linda H Yau2, Keith A Pappa2, Gary E Pakes21AIDS Arms Peabody Health Clinic, Dallas, Texas; 2GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USAPurpose: Renal impairment in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients could potentially be caused by many factors. HIV-related renal impairment risks have been little studied in African Americans and Hispanics. We investigated the impact of HIV itself, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, comorbidities, and non-HIV-related drug treatment on glomerular filtration rate in a predominantly African American/Hispanic HIV-infected population who had received HAART for at least one year. This study was a retrospective electronic medical record database evaluation of renal impairment risks in a largely African American/Hispanic HIV population obtaining medical care at an HIV clinic in Dallas, Texas.Methods: Proportional hazards models were used to investigate an association between an estimated glomerular filtration rate decrease >25% from baseline (ie, renal impairment and demographics, antiretroviral/nonantiretroviral medications, comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hepatitis C virus [HCV] infection, hepatitis B virus [HBV] infection, CD4+ counts, viral load, and duration patients were monitored at the clinic (time on study.Results: In total, 323 patients were evaluated: 82% males; 61% African American/12% Hispanic/19% Caucasian; mean age 37.9 years (standard deviation [SD] 8.5; 6% HBV-positive; 34% HCV-positive; 29% hypertensive; 3% diabetic; 52% tenofovir-treated; mean weight 75.4 kg (SD, 15.4; mean estimated glomerular filtration 114.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 (SD, 36.7 using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD calculation method; mean creatinine clearance (from which estimated glomerular filtration was extrapolated by the Cockcroft-Gault calculation method 120.6 mL/min/1
Perez, Marisol; Ohrt, Tara K; Hoek, Hans W
We reviewed the recent literature on prevalence rates, and application of evidence-based treatments for eating disorders among Hispanics/Latinos residing in the United States. Lifetime prevalence rates of anorexia nervosa are lower among Hispanic/Latinos than non-Hispanic Whites. There are comparable rates of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (BED) among Hispanic/Latinos and non-Hispanic Whites. BED is the most common eating disorder among Hispanic/Latinos. Evidence-based treatments have begun to be implemented with Hispanics/Latinos. The core concepts of cognitive behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa and BED apply to this population. Culture-specific adaptations include strengthening the collectivistic framework within an individualistic treatment, psychoeducation of immediate and extended family, and adjustment of meal plans that incorporated cultural foods. There are more similarities than differences in the prevalence of eating disorders across Hispanics/Latinos and non-Hispanic Whites. However, the social context such as immigration status and acculturation is important to consider in the development of eating disorders. In addition, the Westernization of Latin America may change the future relationship of immigration status and development of eating disorder within the United States. Overall, cultural adaptations of evidence-based treatments involved the inclusion of family within treatment, acculturation-related issues, and managing family conflicts that arise because of the changes in eating patterns.
Baik, Sharon H; Fox, Rina S; Mills, Sarah D; Roesch, Scott C; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Klonoff, Elizabeth A; Malcarne, Vanessa L
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 among 436 community-dwelling Hispanic Americans with English or Spanish language preference. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis examined the factorial invariance of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 across language groups. Results supported a two-factor model (negative, positive) with equivalent response patterns and item intercepts but different factor covariances across languages. Internal consistency reliability of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 total and subscale scores was good in both language groups. Convergent validity was supported by expected relationships of Perceived Stress Scale-10 scores to measures of anxiety and depression. These results support the use of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 among Hispanic Americans.
Warren, Jacob C; Fernández, M Isabel; Harper, Gary W; Hidalgo, Marco A; Jamil, Omar B; Torres, Rodrigo Sebastián
Despite the recognized need for culturally tailored HIV prevention interventions for gay, bisexual, and questioning youth, few studies have examined if predictors of unprotected sex vary for youth from different ethnic groups. This study reports on a sample of 189 gay, bisexual, and questioning youth (age 15-22) from three racial/ethnic backgrounds (African American, Hispanic, and White) recruited in Chicago, IL and Miami-Dade and Broward Counties, Florida. For African American youth, being in a long-term relationship, having been kicked out of the home for having sex with men, and younger age at initiation of sexual behavior were associated with unprotected sex. For Hispanic youth, higher ethnic identification and older age at initiation of sexual behavior were associated with unprotected sex. For White youth, no predictors were associated with unprotected sex. Our findings point to the importance of understanding the varying predictors of unprotected sex and integrating them into tailored prevention interventions.
Perez, Marisol; Ohrt, Tara K.; Hoek, Hans W.
Purpose of reviewWe reviewed the recent literature on prevalence rates, and application of evidence-based treatments for eating disorders among Hispanics/Latinos residing in the United States.Recent findingsLifetime prevalence rates of anorexia nervosa are lower among Hispanic/Latinos than
Perez, Marisol; Ohrt, Tara K.; Hoek, Hans W.
Purpose of reviewWe reviewed the recent literature on prevalence rates, and application of evidence-based treatments for eating disorders among Hispanics/Latinos residing in the United States.Recent findingsLifetime prevalence rates of anorexia nervosa are lower among Hispanic/Latinos than
Full Text Available Edgar Ramos Vieira,1,2 Ruth Tappen,3 Gabriella Engstrom,3 Bruno R da Costa11Department of Physical Therapy, 2Department of Neuroscience, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 3Christine E. Lynn College of Nursing, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USAPurpose: To evaluate rates and factors associated with older adult falls in different ethnic groups.Participants and methods: Information on demographics, medical and falls history, and pain and physical activity levels was collected from 550 community-dwelling older adults (75±9 years old, 222 European Americans, 109 Afro-Caribbeans, 106 African-Americans, and 113 Hispanics.Results: Taking medications for anxiety (risk ratio [RR] =1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.1–2.0, having incontinence (RR =1.4, 95% CI =1.1–1.8, P=0.013, back pain (RR =1.4, 95% CI =1.0–1.8, feet swelling (RR =1.3, 95% CI =1.1–1.7, and age ≥75 years (RR =1.3, 95% CI =1.0–1.6 were associated with falls. The associations were stronger for Afro-Caribbeans, but they presented approximately 40% lower prevalence of falls than the other groups.Conclusion: Taking anxiety medication, incontinence, back pain, feet swelling, and age ≥75 years were associated with falls, and Afro-Caribbeans presented lower prevalence of falls. These findings need to be taken into consideration in clinical interventions in aging.Keywords: ethnicity, falls, risks, community dwelling, older adults
Mills, Sarah D; Fox, Rina S; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Roesch, Scott C; Champagne, Brian R; Sadler, Georgia Robins
The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale (GAD-7) is a self-report questionnaire that is widely used to screen for anxiety. The GAD-7 has been translated into numerous languages, including Spanish. Previous studies evaluating the structural validity of the English and Spanish versions indicate a unidimensional factor structure in both languages. However, the psychometric properties of the Spanish language version have yet to be evaluated in samples outside of Spain, and the measure has not been tested for use among Hispanic Americans. This study evaluated the reliability, structural validity, and convergent validity of the English and Spanish language versions of the GAD-7 for Hispanic Americans in the United States. A community sample of 436 Hispanic Americans with an English (n = 210) or Spanish (n = 226) language preference completed the GAD-7. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the goodness-of-fit of the unidimensional factor structure of the GAD-7 across language-preference groups. Results from the multiple-group CFA indicated a similar unidimensional factor structure with equivalent response patterns and item intercepts, but different variances, across language-preference groups. Internal consistency was good for both English and Spanish language-preference groups. The GAD-7 also evidenced good convergent validity as demonstrated by significant correlations in expected directions with the Perceived Stress Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Physical Health domain of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF assessment. The unidimensional GAD-7 is suitable for use among Hispanic Americans with an English or Spanish language preference.
Public criticism of bilingual education or bilingualism in the United States has been growing since the early 1990s. As part of the argument against bilingual education, Hispanic immigrants have been portrayed as a monolithic group clinging to their own language and culture and reluctant to assimilate into American society. Proposition 227, which officially ended bilingual education programs in California public schools, was passed on June 2, 1998. Race and ethnicity were reflected in the ...
Scherezade K. Mama
Conclusion: PA is more heavily influenced by intrapersonal factors related to weight. Improving intrapersonal factors related to weight and perceptions of the environment may lead to increased PA in African American and Hispanic women.
Fisher, Jennifer O; Arreola, Angeles; Birch, Leann L; Rolls, Barbara J
Portion size influences children's energy intakes at meals, but effects on daily intake are unknown. Effects of large portions on daily energy intake were tested in 5-y-old Hispanic and African American children from low-income families. Maternal food intake data were collected to evaluate familial susceptibility to portion size. A within-subjects experimental design with reference and large portion sizes was used in a study of 59 low-income Hispanic and African American preschool-aged children and their mothers. The portion size of 3 entrées (lunch, dinner, and breakfast) and an afternoon snack served during a 24-h period were of a reference size in one condition and doubled in the other condition. Portion sizes of other foods and beverages did not vary across conditions. Weighed food intake, anthropometric measures, and self-reported data were obtained. Doubling the portion size of several entrées and a snack served during a 24-h period increased energy intake from those foods by 23% (180 kcal) among children (P kcal) among mothers (P daily intakes among Hispanic and African American children.
Coley, Rebekah Levine; Kull, Melissa A.; Carrano, Jennifer
This study assessed prospective, bidirectional associations between maternal endorsement of spanking and children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in low-income urban African American and Hispanic (N = 592) families drawn from the Three City Study. Children in sample families were followed from early childhood through middle childhood with three sets of interviews and assessments at ages 3, 4, and 9 years. Cross-lagged path analyses tested longitudinal bidirectional associations between parental endorsement of spanking and children’s internalizing and externalizing problems, with multi-group comparisons employed to test group differences between race/ethnic groups. African American and Hispanic mothers showed similar endorsements of spanking. Results suggest that associations between spanking endorsement and child functioning were due primarily to parenting effects, with spanking predicting changes in children’s behaviors, rather than child evocative effects, with limited evidence of child behaviors predicting changes in parental spanking. Maternal spanking endorsement predicted short-term decreases in children’s internalizing problems in early childhood, but over the longer term spanking was associated with increased internalizing and externalizing problems for both African American and Hispanic children in middle childhood among economically disadvantaged families. PMID:24364363
Davis, Sally M; Myers, Orrin B; Cruz, Theresa H; Morshed, Alexandra B; Canaca, Glenda F; Keane, Patricia C; O'Donald, Elena R
We examined the outcomes of the Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) study, a group randomized controlled trial to design, implement, and test the efficacy of a trans-community intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in Head Start centers in rural American Indian and Hispanic communities in New Mexico. CHILE was a 5-year evidence-based intervention that used a socioecological approach to improving dietary intake and increasing physical activity of 1898 children. The intervention included a classroom curriculum, teacher and food service training, family engagement, grocery store participation, and healthcare provider support. Height and weight measurements were obtained four times (fall of 2008, spring and fall of 2009, and spring of 2010), and body mass index (BMI) z-scores in the intervention and comparison groups were compared. At baseline, demographic characteristics in the comparison and intervention groups were similar, and 33% of all the children assessed were obese or overweight. At the end of the intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups in BMI z-scores. Obesity prevention research among Hispanic and AI preschool children in rural communities is challenging and complex. Although the CHILE intervention was implemented successfully, changes in overweight and obesity may take longer than 2years to achieve. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chung, Grace Y; Brown, Gina; Gibson, Desmond
Melanoma incidence is increasing among Hispanics/Latinos in California. This community-based project reached out to a rural Hispanic/Latino community in North San Diego County to provide melanoma prevention and screening education. At a local community health fair, bilingual volunteer lay health workers led 10- to 15-minute-long information sessions on melanoma disease, risk factors, and skin self-examination techniques. Pearson chi-square analyses of participants' (N = 34) responses to pre- and postintervention evaluation surveys indicate significant increases in knowledge, risk awareness, and self-efficacy for self-screening. The results revealed that Hispanics/Latinos in a low socioeconomic stratum might be at moderate to high risk for developing melanoma. Their low annual income, low level of education, occupational sun-exposure, and lack of access to health care are likely factors that deter at-risk Hispanics/Latinos from seeking health care. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Hunt, Kelly J; Gonzalez, Maria Elena; Lopez, Ruy; Haffner, Steve M; Stern, Michael P; Gonzalez-Villalpando, Clicerio
Purpose To examine the mortality risk associated with diabetes in the Mexico City Diabetes Study (MCDS) and the San Antonio Heart Study (SAHS). Methods Prospective cohorts conducted 1990-2007 in MCDS and 1979-2000 in SAHS. Mortality risk was examined using Cox proportional hazard models in 1,402 non-Hispanic whites (NHW), 1,907 U.S.-born Mexican Americans (MA), 444 Mexican-born MA, 2,281 Mexico City residents (MCR) between the ages of 35 and 64. Results Age- and sex-adjusted mortality HRs comparing U.S.-born MA, Mexican-born MA and MCR to NHW were 1.09 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.37), 1.23 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.76) and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.23), respectively, in non-diabetic individuals; in contrast, mortality risk varied in diabetic individuals with respective HRs of 1.77 (95% CI: 1.20, 2.61), 1.08 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.97) and 2.27 (95% CI: 1.53, 3.35) (interaction p-value=0.0003). Excluding Mexican-born MA and non-diabetic individuals, controlling for medication use, insulin use, fasting glucose levels and duration of diabetes explained a significant proportion of the mortality differential (HRs relative to NHW were 1.31 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.98) in U.S.-born MA and 1.38 (95% CI: 0.89, 2.12) in MCR). Conclusions This study provides evidence that diabetes is more lethal in U.S.-born MA and MCR than in NHW. PMID:21840730
Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo
Obesity is a pandemic disease in Latin America. The purpose of this review was to analyze the studies exploring food advertising in TV conducted in Latin-American countries and in the USA geared to Hispanics. An electronic literature search was conducted in the MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, SCIELO, and CINAHL, databases and open access internet, of food advertising directed to children in TV in Latin American countries and Hispanics living in the USA, published from 1985 to January, 2015 RESULTS: Twenty three studies were found, six were conducted in Chile, five in Mexico, four in Brazil, three among Hispanics in the USA, and one in each of the following countries: Argentina, Peru, Colombia, Honduras and Venezuela. A high exposure of TV food advertised is geared toward children and their family. This exposure has been shown to be associated with the preference and purchase of those foods by adults and children with a high BMI, overweight and obesity. An alarming high exposure of the TV food advertised directed toward children was reported, which warrants effective regulations, supervision and accountability. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Michael G. Bisciglia
As the overall population of Hispanics within the United States has eclipsed that of African Americans, a mounting concern has developed regarding the rise in Hispanic lethal violence as a result of social and economic inequality. One means to measure this inequality is in the form of segregation. Research indicates that in many Hispanic communities, their levels of segregation from the White non-Hispanic population ar...
Park, Hyunjeong; Choi, Eunsuk; Wenzel, Jennifer A
Despite their vastly different historical backgrounds, unique languages and variable pre- and post-immigration experiences, Asian-Americans are considered to share stressors surrounding immigration, but there is a gap in describing manifestations of possible mental distress. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore and compare differences in factors associated with psychological distress among Asian subgroups including Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean, Japanese, and non-Hispanic Whites. Using a cross-sectional study design, California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) 2011/2012 data were analyzed. The sample consisted of 29,142 participants: 25,645 non-Hispanic Whites, 3497 non-Hispanic Asian-Americans, 1156 Chinese, 471 Filipinos, 864 Vietnamese, 704 Koreans, and 302 Japanese. Sociodemographic characteristics included gender, age group, marital status, education, poverty level, working status, health insurance, level of acculturation, social cohesion, neighborhood safety, and civic engagement. Physical health status included disability and chronic illness. Psychological distress was evaluated using the Kessler 6 (K6) scale. Results showed that psychological distress levels ranged between 1.96 and 4.52 (p < .05) out of 24 and associated factors were significantly different among the five Asian subgroups and non-Hispanic Whites. The current study highlights the differences in characteristics of psychological distress among Asian subgroups. It underscores the significance of understanding individualized cultural and historical background in each Asian subgroup and subsequently developing and applying appropriate interventions for those groups. In addition, different influencing factors should be applied to assess and prioritize the needs of Asian subgroups to improve psychological distress. The study also warrants further investigation and careful description of each Asian subgroups.
Cheref, Soumia; Talavera, David; Walker, Rheeda L
Suicide is a leading cause of death for vulnerable ethnic minority emerging adults in the United States (Web-based injury statistics query and reporting system [WISQARS], 2015). Perceived discrimination (Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 2011, 1465) and anxiety symptoms (Asian American Journal of Psychology, 1, 2010, 18) are two predictors that are theoretically and conceptually related, but have yet to be examined in a simultaneous model for suicide ideation. Existing theory and research suggest that these variables activate similar pathways (American Behavioral Scientist, 51, 2007, 551). This study sought to address this gap in the literature by examining the simultaneous relationship between perceived discrimination and anxiety symptoms as predictors of suicide ideation. The moderating effect of anxiety symptoms on the relationship between perceived discrimination and suicide ideation was examined in a multiethnic sample of emerging adults. Results indicated that anxiety symptoms moderated the perceived discrimination-suicide ideation relationship for Hispanic emerging adults, but not for their Asian American and African American counterparts. Furthermore, ethnic identity has been shown to mitigate suicide risk in the face of other stressors (Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 14, 2008, 75). Ethnic identity emerged as a protective factor for Hispanic emerging adults by further interacting with perceived discrimination and anxiety symptoms to negatively predict suicide ideation. The implications of these findings are discussed. © 2018 The American Association of Suicidology.
Diep, Cassandra S; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Lutsey, Pamela L; Manichaikul, Ani W; Rich, Stephen S; St-Jules, David E; Steffen, Brian T; Tsai, Michael Y; Siscovick, David S; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C
Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may represent one pathway underlying the association between acculturation and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids in a diverse sample of Hispanic- and Chinese-American adults. Participants included 377 Mexican, 320 non-Mexican Hispanic, and 712 Chinese adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, who had full plasma phospholipid assays and acculturation information. Acculturation was determined from three proxy measures: nativity, language spoken at home, and years in the U.S., with possible scores ranging from 0 (least acculturated) to 5 (most acculturated) points. α-Linolenic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid were measured in fasting plasma. Linear regression models were conducted in race/ethnicity-stratified analyses, with acculturation as the predictor and plasma phospholipid fatty acids as the outcome variables. We ran secondary analyses to examine associations between acculturation and dietary fatty acids for comparison. Covariates included age, gender, education, and income. Contrary to our hypothesis, no statistically significant associations were detected between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids for Chinese, non-Mexican Hispanic, or Mexican participants. However, acculturation was related to dietary total n-6 fatty acids and dietary n-3/n-6 ratios in expected directions for Mexican, non-Mexican Hispanic, and combined Hispanic participants. In Chinese individuals, acculturation was unexpectedly associated with lower arachidonic acid intake. Absence of associations between acculturation and
Sarkissyan, Marianna; Wu, Yanyuan; Vadgama, Jaydutt V
Obesity is considered a risk factor for breast cancer. Modifying life styles that reduce obesity offers the potential for prevention and improved outcomes from cancer. The effects of obesity and breast cancer among African-American women and Hispanic women have been explored in a limited number of studies. The objective of the current study was to investigate the association of obesity with breast cancer in a minority cohort. This was a cross-sectional study of 471 African-American and Hispanic women with and without breast cancer in South Los Angeles. Data regarding body mass index (BMI) and clinical factors were obtained by medical record abstraction. Data were assessed using logistic regression with multivariate analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to assess disease-free survival. Women with breast cancer were more likely to be obese (BMI >30 kg/m(2)) than women without breast cancer (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; P = .01). There was a significant association of being overweight or obese and breast cancer among postmenopausal women (OR, 2.3 [P = .03] and 2.9 [P obesity and breast cancer was significant only among African-American women (OR, 2.70; P American women (OR, 4.8; P obesity and later disease stage at diagnosis (P = .06). An association also was observed between higher BMI (for cutoff points of both 30 kg/m(2) and 28 kg/m(2)) and poorer disease-free survival (P = .045 and P = .019, respectively). The current data suggested an association between obesity and breast cancer, especially among postmenopausal women and most significantly in the African-American cohort. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.
Martínez Lirola, María
We are going to analyse the main syntactical processes of thematization and postponement in English in four short stories written by four different Hispanic American writers who wrote around the seventies: Rudolfo Anaya's The Force of Luck, Denise Chávez's Evening in Paris, Alberto Álvaro Ríos' My Father and the Snow and Ana Castillo's My Mother's Mexico. The main purpose of this article is to show that presenting certain important facts in the short stories using several marked syntactical s...
The purpose of this study is to identify the critical events and support systems that have contributed to the attainment of an academic doctorate by Hispanics and to discern the similarities that existed in their parental educational level, socioeconomic status, and cultural background. The study will furthermore seek to identify major obstacles…
Perez, Maria L.; Zanger, Virginia Vogel
Based on a successful high school student exchange program, a curriculum was designed to bring together Hispanic students learning English and Anglo students learning Spanish for intercultural experiences. The flexible curriculum includes over 40 activities that students can participate in while meeting together once a week for either a brief…
Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Cook, Michael; Strassfeld, Natasha M.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Pun, Wik Hung; Wang, Yangyang; Schussler, Deborah L.
We conducted a best-evidence synthesis of 22 studies to examine whether systemic bias explained minority disproportionate overrepresentation in special education. Of the total regression model estimates, only 7/168 (4.2%), 14/208 (6.7%), 2/37 (5.4%), and 6/91 (6.6%) indicated statistically significant overrepresentation for Hispanic, Asian, Native…
Nuño, Tomas; Gerald, Joe K; Harris, Robin; Martinez, Maria Elena; Estrada, Antonio; García, Francisco
Rural Hispanic and American Indian (AI) women are at risk of non-participation in cancer screening programs. The objective of this study was to compare breast and cervical cancer screening utilization among Hispanic and AI women that reside in rural areas of the Southwestern United States to their urban counterparts and to assess characteristics that influence cancer screening. This study utilizes Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from 2006 to 2008 for Arizona and New Mexico. The BRFSS is a federally funded telephone survey to collect data on risk factors contributing to the leading causes of death and chronic diseases. Rural Hispanic and AI populations reported some differences in screening rates compared with their urban counterparts. Among Hispanic women, 58 % of rural residents reported having had a mammogram within the past year, compared with 66 % of urban residents. Among AI women, 81 % of rural residents had ever had a mammogram, compared with 89 % of urban residents. Rural AI women were less likely to have ever had a mammogram (OR = 0.5; 95 % CI = 0.3-0.9) compared with urban AI women. Rural Hispanic women were less likely to have had a mammogram within 1 year (OR = 0.7; 95 % CI = 0.5-0.9) compared with urban Hispanic women. Results suggest that rural Hispanic women were less likely to have had a Pap smear within 3 years (OR = 0.7; 95 % CI = 0.4-1.3) compared with urban Hispanic women. Our results provide some evidence that Hispanic and AI women that reside in rural areas of the Southwestern United States have lower rates of breast and cervical cancer screening use compared with their urban counterparts. Special efforts are needed to identify ways to overcome barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening for rural Hispanic and AI women.
Tatiana M. Davidson
Full Text Available African Americans and Hispanics have disproportionate rates of uncontrolled essential hypertension (EH compared to Non-Hispanic Whites. Medication non-adherence (MNA is the leading modifiable behavior to improved blood pressure (BP control. The Smartphone Medication Adherence Stops Hypertension (SMASH program was developed using a patient-centered, theory-guided, iterative design process. Electronic medication trays provided reminder signals, and Short Message Service [SMS] messaging reminded subjects to monitor BP with Bluetooth-enabled monitors. Motivational and reinforcement text messages were sent to participants based upon levels of adherence. Thirty-eight African-American (18 and Hispanic (20 uncontrolled hypertensives completed clinic-based anthropometric and resting BP evaluations prior to randomization, and again at months 1, 3 and 6. Generalized linear mixed modeling (GLMM revealed statistically significant time-by-treatment interactions (p < 0.0001 indicating significant reductions in resting systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP for the SMASH group vs. the standard care (SC control group across all time points. 70.6% of SMASH subjects vs. 15.8% of the SC group reached BP control (< 140/90 mmH at month 1 (p < 0.001. At month 6, 94.4% of the SMASH vs. 41.2% of the SC group exhibited controlled BP (p < 0.003. Our findings provide encouraging evidence that efficacious mHealth, chronic disease, medical regimen, self-management programs can be developed following principles of patient-centered, theory-guided design.
Kindratt, Tiffany B; Dallo, Florence J; Roddy, Juliette
Using 15 years (2000-2014) of restricted cross-sectional National Health Interview Survey data (n = 276,914), we estimated and compared the age-adjusted and sex-specific prevalence of cigarette smoking between US- and foreign-born Europeans and Arab Americans and examined associations between ethnicity and current smoking. Arab Americans were categorized as non-Hispanic Whites born in 15 countries located in the Middle East. Current smoking, average cigarettes per day, and quit attempts were compared. Collectively, we found that current smoking was highest among males compared to females. Prevalence was highest among Arab American males (26%) compared to other US-born (24%) and foreign-born European males (21%). US-born males smoked more cigarettes per day (20.2) yet more Arab American males (61%) tried to quit in the last year compared to European (41%) and US-born (42%) counterparts. Arab American females were least likely to smoke compared to other groups. In crude analyses, Arab American males had greater odds (OR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.74) of smoking compared to US-born White males. After adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic status, health insurance, comorbidity, and acculturation effects, Arab American males had lower odds (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.46, 0.88) of current smoking compared to US-born males. Arab American females had lower odds (OR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.15, 0.53) of current smoking compared to US-born White females. This is the first national study to examine smoking among Arab Americans. Our study was limited to cigarette smoking behaviors as opposed to other forms of tobacco consumption. More studies are needed to explore smoking among US- and foreign-born Europeans and Arab Americans.
Córdova, David; Mendoza Lua, Frania; Ovadje, Lauretta; Hong, Ethan; Castillo, Berenice; Salas-Wright, Christopher P
HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and drug abuse remain significant public health concerns in the United States, and African American and Hispanic youth are disproportionately affected. Although technology-based interventions are efficacious in preventing and reducing HIV/STI and licit/illicit drug use behaviors, relatively little is known regarding the state of the science of these interventions among African American and Hispanic youth. The aim of this review is to identify and examine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of technology-based HIV/STI and/or drug abuse preventive interventions for African American and Hispanic youth. We searched electronic databases (ie, PubMed, Proquest, PsycINFO, Ebscohost, Google Scholar) to identify studies between January 2006 and October 2016. RCTs of technology-based interventions targeting African American and Hispanic youth HIV/STI risk behaviors, including sexual risk, licit and illicit drug use, and HIV/STI testing were included. Our search revealed a total of three studies that used an RCT design and included samples comprised of >50% African American and/or Hispanic youth. The follow-up assessments ranged from two weeks to six months and the number of participants in each trial ranged from 72 to 141. The three interventions were theory-driven, interactive, and tailored. The long-term effects of the interventions were mixed, and outcomes included reductions in sex partners, licit drug use, and condomless anal sex acts. Although technology-based interventions seem promising in the prevention of HIV/STI and drug abuse among African American and Hispanic youth, more research is needed. ©David Córdova, Frania Mendoza Lua, Lauretta Ovadje, Ethan Hong, Berenice Castillo, Christopher P Salas-Wright. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 13.12.2017.
Mercado-Martínez, Francisco J; Urias-Vázquez, Jorge E
Describe the use of online social networks by people with chronic kidney disease, their caregivers, and family members, living in Hispanic American countries, and identify the most frequent topics and subtopics in their postings. A qualitative study was conducted of postings by chronic kidney patients, their caregivers, and family members, living in Hispanic America, on five social networks: Blogger, Facebook, Twitter, WordPress, and YouTube, from 2010 to 2012. The internal search engines of each network were used with medical and lay terms in Spanish: chronic kidney disease, renal failure, peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, renal transplant, renal patient, nephropathy, and kidney patients association. An analysis was carried out of the thematic content of 1 846 postings on Facebook, Blogger, and WordPress. A total of 162 social network accounts were identified (97 individuals and 65 groups); the majority was in Mexico (46), with others in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, and Peru (44 accounts). The most frequent topics were exchange of information (46.0%), descriptions of experiences as patients (17.9%), support (15.6%), descriptions of experiences with health services (8.5%), interaction with peers (3.5%), and promotion of behavior change (3.4%). Chronic kidney patients living in Hispanic America use online social networks to inform and to be informed, describe their experiences with the disease and health services, and as a support mechanism. This produces knowledge that is different from and complementary to knowledge conveyed by health professionals. There is a pressing need to promote studies of the opportunities that these technologies offer in the Americas, a region characterized by enormous social inequality.
Daniels, Nicholas A; Gildengorin, Ginny; Nguyen, Tung T; Liao, Youlian; Luong, Thien-Nhien; McPhee, Stephen J
Vaccination data for Asian Americans are comparable to those for whites, possibly because they are reported in aggregate rather than for subgroups. We compared influenza and pneumococcal vaccination rates among eligible Asian Americans and white Americans, and for Vietnamese Americans as a subgroup, and assessed factors associated with these vaccinations. Cross-sectional study of data collected from three ethnic groups over 4 years by telephone survey. Data were weighted for selection probability and population estimates and analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Vietnamese Americans had a higher rate of influenza vaccination (61%) than Asian Americans (45%) and white Americans (52%), and lower rate of pneumococcal vaccination (41%) than Asian Americans (56%), both lower than white Americans (67%). When analyzed as a subgroup, Vietnamese Americans had a higher influenza vaccination rate, but a lower pneumococcal vaccination rate, compared to Asian Americans and white Americans, which may indicate that health behaviors and outcomes can differ widely among Asian subgroups. Analyses of preventive care measures in Asian Americans should focus on subgroups to ensure accuracy and quality of assessments.
Carrasco, Marc A; Barnosky, Anthony D; Graham, Russell W
Earth has experienced five major extinction events in the past 450 million years. Many scientists suggest we are now witnessing a sixth, driven by human impacts. However, it has been difficult to quantify the real extent of the current extinction episode, either for a given taxonomic group at the continental scale or for the worldwide biota, largely because comparisons of pre-anthropogenic and anthropogenic biodiversity baselines have been unavailable. Here, we compute those baselines for mammals of temperate North America, using a sampling-standardized rich fossil record to reconstruct species-area relationships for a series of time slices ranging from 30 million to 500 years ago. We show that shortly after humans first arrived in North America, mammalian diversity dropped to become at least 15%-42% too low compared to the "normal" diversity baseline that had existed for millions of years. While the Holocene reduction in North American mammal diversity has long been recognized qualitatively, our results provide a quantitative measure that clarifies how significant the diversity reduction actually was. If mass extinctions are defined as loss of at least 75% of species on a global scale, our data suggest that North American mammals had already progressed one-fifth to more than halfway (depending on biogeographic province) towards that benchmark, even before industrialized society began to affect them. Data currently are not available to make similar quantitative estimates for other continents, but qualitative declines in Holocene mammal diversity are also widely recognized in South America, Eurasia, and Australia. Extending our methodology to mammals in these areas, as well as to other taxa where possible, would provide a reasonable way to assess the magnitude of global extinction, the biodiversity impact of extinctions of currently threatened species, and the efficacy of conservation efforts into the future.
Marc A Carrasco
Full Text Available Earth has experienced five major extinction events in the past 450 million years. Many scientists suggest we are now witnessing a sixth, driven by human impacts. However, it has been difficult to quantify the real extent of the current extinction episode, either for a given taxonomic group at the continental scale or for the worldwide biota, largely because comparisons of pre-anthropogenic and anthropogenic biodiversity baselines have been unavailable. Here, we compute those baselines for mammals of temperate North America, using a sampling-standardized rich fossil record to reconstruct species-area relationships for a series of time slices ranging from 30 million to 500 years ago. We show that shortly after humans first arrived in North America, mammalian diversity dropped to become at least 15%-42% too low compared to the "normal" diversity baseline that had existed for millions of years. While the Holocene reduction in North American mammal diversity has long been recognized qualitatively, our results provide a quantitative measure that clarifies how significant the diversity reduction actually was. If mass extinctions are defined as loss of at least 75% of species on a global scale, our data suggest that North American mammals had already progressed one-fifth to more than halfway (depending on biogeographic province towards that benchmark, even before industrialized society began to affect them. Data currently are not available to make similar quantitative estimates for other continents, but qualitative declines in Holocene mammal diversity are also widely recognized in South America, Eurasia, and Australia. Extending our methodology to mammals in these areas, as well as to other taxa where possible, would provide a reasonable way to assess the magnitude of global extinction, the biodiversity impact of extinctions of currently threatened species, and the efficacy of conservation efforts into the future.
Tracey A. Ledoux
Full Text Available Background. Mediating and moderating variables may interfere with the association between neighborhood availability of grocery stores (NAG and supermarkets (NAS and fruit and vegetable (FV intake. Objective. The purpose of this study was to test mediation of home availability of FV (HAFV and moderation of impact of weekly stressful events (IWSE on the association between NAG and NAS with FV consumption among African American (AA and Hispanic/Latina (HL women. Methods. Three hundred nine AA and HL, 25–60 year old women in the Health Is Power (HIP randomized controlled trial completed validated measures of HAFV, IWSE, and FV intake at baseline. Trained field assessors coded NAG and NAS. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained. Results. NAG and NAS were not associated with FV intake or HAFV, so HAFV was not a mediator. HAFV (std. Beta = .29, P<0.001 and IWSE (std. Beta = .17; P<0.05 were related to FV intake (R2 =0.17; P<0.001, but IWSE was not a moderator. Conclusion. Increasing HAFV and decreasing the IWSE should increase FV consumption. The extent to which the neighborhood environment is related to the home food environment and diet, and the mechanisms for the association between IWSE and diet should be examined in future research.
Garrett Park Press, MD.
This resource guide provides data on minorities enrolled in 500 colleges and universities. Descriptions of each institution are followed by total student enrollment and the percentage of students from four minority groups: Asian, Black, Hispanic, and Native American. The types of academic programs offered by the institution are illustrated by…
Ivie, Rachel; Anderson, Garrett; White, Susan
The United States is becoming more and more diverse, but the representation of some minority groups in physics and astronomy lags behind. Although 13% of the US population is African American or black, and 17% is Hispanic (US Census), the representation of these two groups in physics and astronomy is much lower. For this reason, African Americans…
Tam, Chick; Janeke, Emilia; Chan, Oi Ling; Xi, Emily; Sarkissian-Pakachet, Ivet; Banchi, Waka
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of age and gender on the consumption of fruits and vegetables, lutein/zeaxanthin (lut+zea) and lycopene (lyc) in Hispanic-American college students living in the same household with their respective parents. There were 160 subjects (42 males and 118 females) including 80 young (ages 18-49) and 80…
Crawley, Frank E.; Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.
The study sought to: (1) identify the determinants that motivate Hispanic-American students to enroll in high school chemistry; and (2) determine if providing belief-based information to students and their parents/guardians increases chemistry registration. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) guided the…
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Henry, David B.
The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of physical and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration reported by inner-city African American and Hispanic adolescent girls as well as associated risky sexual behaviors among this population. Participants in this study were 10th- and 11th-grade female students from seven…
Scott, Sarah M; Wallander, Jan L; Depaoli, Sarah; Elliott, Marc N; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Tortolero, Susan R; Cuccaro, Paula M; Schuster, Mark A
This study examined the association between gender role orientation (GRO) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in youth, and how this relationship may differ between males and females as well as among African-American, White, and Hispanic individuals. GRO has been reported to influence serious health outcomes including cancer, heart disease, mental illness, and mortality rates. However, few studies have examined the link between GRO and health outcomes for children, even though gender identity is formed in childhood. Data were examined from 4824 participants in the Healthy Passages™ project, a population-based survey of fifth-grade children in three US metropolitan areas. Children reported their own HRQOL using the PedsQL and degree of female, male, and androgynous GRO using the Children's Sex Role Inventory. Based on structural equations analysis, male GRO was positively associated with HRQOL for all racial/ethnic groups, regardless of sex, whereas female GRO was associated with better HRQOL for Hispanic and White females and poorer HRQOL for Hispanic males. Androgynous GRO was associated with better HRQOL among Hispanic and White females, but not males nor African-Americans of either sex. Racial/ethnic differences emerged for female and androgynous, but not male, GROs. Hispanic males are the only group for which GRO (female) was associated with poorer HRQOL. Future research should find ways to help youth overcome negative effects on health from gender beliefs and behavior patterns with sensitivity to racial/ethnic membership.
Coca-Cola USA, Atlanta, GA.
This is a corporate policy statement of the Hispanic business agenda of Coca Cola USA, and the results of a community survey conducted to inform that agenda. The statement outlines several areas of company policy as they relate to Hispanic Americans. These areas include regional marketing, promotion, and community relations strategies, a…
Brok, den P.J.; Levy, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Wubbels, Th.
The study investigated the relationship of teacher and student ethnic background to their perceptions of teacher interpersonal behaviour. It is theoretically linked to research on multicultural education and teacher interpersonal communication styles. Perceptions of 27 Asian-American and
Gkourogianni, Alexandra; Sinaii, Ninet; Jackson, Sharon H; Karageorgiadis, Alexander S; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Belyavskaya, Elena; Keil, Margaret F; Zilbermint, Mihail; Chittiboina, Prashant; Stratakis, Constantine A; Lodish, Maya B
BackgroundLittle is known about the contribution of racial and socioeconomic disparities to severity and outcomes in children with Cushing disease (CD).MethodsA total of 129 children with CD, 45 Hispanic/Latino or African-American (HI/AA) and 84 non-Hispanic White (non-HW), were included in this study. A 10-point index for rating severity (CD severity) incorporated the degree of hypercortisolemia, glucose tolerance, hypertension, anthropomorphic measurements, disease duration, and tumor characteristics. Race, ethnicity, age, gender, local obesity prevalence, estimated median income, and access to care were assessed in regression analyses of CD severity.ResultsThe mean CD severity in the HI/AA group was worse than that in the non-HW group (4.9±2.0 vs. 4.1±1.9, P=0.023); driving factors included higher cortisol levels and larger tumor size. Multiple regression models confirmed that race (P=0.027) and older age (P=0.014) were the most important predictors of worse CD severity. When followed up a median of 2.3 years after surgery, the relative risk for persistent CD combined with recurrence was 2.8 times higher in the HI/AA group compared with that in the non-HW group (95% confidence interval: 1.2-6.5).ConclusionOur data show that the driving forces for the discrepancy in severity of CD are older age and race/ethnicity. Importantly, the risk for persistent and recurrent CD was higher in minority children.
Nahleh, Zeina; Otoukesh, Salman; Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Mallawaarachchi, Indika; Sanchez, Luis; Saldivar, J Salvador; Cataneda, Kayla; Heydarian, Rosalinda
Hispanics in El Paso, TX, a large American-Mexican border city constitute 85% of the population. Limited cancer research has been conducted in this population. We sought to study the prevalence of BRCA mutations among Hispanic patients of Mexican origin, identify reported Mexican founder or recurrent mutations, and study the breast cancer characteristics in mutation carriers. Hispanic women of Mexican descent with a personal history of breast cancer, who presented consecutively for genetic cancer risk assessment, were enrolled in an Institutional Review Board-approved registry and underwent BRCA testing based on national guidelines. The characteristics of tumors and patients with positive BRCA mutation were analyzed. 88 patients were screened; 18 patients (20%) were BRCA carriers. Among BRCA carriers, 72% were diagnosed with breast cancer at younger than 50 years, 61% had "Triple negative disease". BRCA carriers had a significantly higher Body Mass Index (BMI) than non-carriers. Thirteen patients had BRCA1 mutations and five had BRCA2 mutations. A total of 17 deleterious BRCA Mutations were observed. Seven have been previously reported as specific genes from Mexico as country of origin. Five new mutations in BRCA carriers of Mexican descent were identified. Hispanic breast cancer patients of Mexican origin present at a younger age, and have predominantly triple negative tumors and high BMI. We identified 5 new mutations not reported previously in Hispanic BRCA carriers of Mexican descent. Interestingly, 41% of BRCA mutations identified have been reported as recurrent mutations in Hispanic individuals from Mexico as the country of origin. A more cost-effective approach to initial screening of Hispanic individuals based on country of origin is desirable and would potentially decrease the number of cases requiring complete sequencing.
Nguyen, Ann W
This study examined race differences in the probability of belonging to a specific social network typology of family, friends, and church members. Samples of African Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites aged 55+ were drawn from the National Survey of American Life. Typology indicators related to social integration and negative interactions with family, friendship, and church networks were used. Latent class analysis was used to identify typologies, and latent class multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the influence of race, and interactions between race and age, and race and education on typology membership. Four network typologies were identified: optimal (high social integration, low negative interaction), family-centered (high social integration within primarily the extended family network, low negative interaction), strained (low social integration, high negative interaction), and ambivalent (high social integration and high negative interaction). Findings for race and age and race and education interactions indicated that the effects of education and age on typology membership varied by race. Overall, the findings demonstrate how race interacts with age and education to influence the probability of belonging to particular network types. A better understanding of the influence of race, education, and age on social network typologies will inform future research and theoretical developments in this area. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
François De Vleeschouwer
Full Text Available Metallurgical activities have been undertaken in northern South America (NSA for millennia. However, it is still unknown how far atmospheric emissions from these activities have been transported. Since the timing of metallurgical activities is currently estimated from scarce archaeological discoveries, the availability of reliable and continuous records to refine the timing of past metal deposition in South America is essential, as it provides an alternative to discontinuous archives, as well as evidence for global trace metal transport. We show in a peat record from Tierra del Fuego that anthropogenic metals likely have been emitted into the atmosphere and transported from NSA to southern South America (SSA over the last 4200 yrs. These findings are supported by modern time back-trajectories from NSA to SSA. We further show that apparent anthropogenic Cu and Sb emissions predate any archaeological evidence for metallurgical activities. Lead and Sn were also emitted into the atmosphere as by-products of Inca and Spanish metallurgy, whereas local coal-gold rushes and the industrial revolution contributed to local contamination. We suggest that the onset of pre-Hispanic metallurgical activities is earlier than previously reported from archaeological records and that atmospheric emissions of metals were transported from NSA to SSA.
De Vleeschouwer, François; Vanneste, Heleen; Mauquoy, Dmitri; Piotrowska, Natalia; Torrejón, Fernando; Roland, Thomas; Stein, Ariel; Le Roux, Gaël
Metallurgical activities have been undertaken in northern South America (NSA) for millennia. However, it is still unknown how far atmospheric emissions from these activities have been transported. Since the timing of metallurgical activities is currently estimated from scarce archaeological discoveries, the availability of reliable and continuous records to refine the timing of past metal deposition in South America is essential, as it provides an alternative to discontinuous archives, as well as evidence for global trace metal transport. We show in a peat record from Tierra del Fuego that anthropogenic metals likely have been emitted into the atmosphere and transported from NSA to southern South America (SSA) over the last 4200 yrs. These findings are supported by modern time back-trajectories from NSA to SSA. We further show that apparent anthropogenic Cu and Sb emissions predate any archaeological evidence for metallurgical activities. Lead and Sn were also emitted into the atmosphere as by-products of Inca and Spanish metallurgy, whereas local coal-gold rushes and the industrial revolution contributed to local contamination. We suggest that the onset of pre-Hispanic metallurgical activities is earlier than previously reported from archaeological records and that atmospheric emissions of metals were transported from NSA to SSA.
Barrington, Wendy E; Schenk, Jeannette M; Etzioni, Ruth; Arnold, Kathryn B; Neuhouser, Marian L; Thompson, Ian M; Lucia, M Scott; Kristal, Alan R
African American men have the highest rates of prostate cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. Understanding underlying reasons for this disparity could identify preventive interventions important to African American men. To determine whether the association of obesity with prostate cancer risk differs between African American and non-Hispanic white men and whether obesity modifies the excess risk associated with African American race. Prospective study of 3398 African American and 22,673 non-Hispanic white men who participated in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (2001-2011) with present analyses completed in 2014. Total, low-grade (Gleason score American men and a corresponding 1453, 898, and 441 cases in non-Hispanic white men, respectively. Although not associated with risk among non-Hispanic white men, BMI was positively associated with an increase in risk among African American men (BMI, American race increased from 28% (HR, 1.28 [95% CI, 0.91-1.80]) among men with BMI less than 25 to 103% (HR, 2.03 [95% CI, 1.38-2.98]) among African American men with BMI at least 35 (P for trend = .03). Body mass index was inversely associated with low-grade prostate cancer risk within non-Hispanic white men (BMI, American men (BMI, American men, although the increase may be larger within African American men, albeit the racial interaction was not statistically significant (BMI, Obesity is more strongly associated with increased prostate cancer risk among African American than non-Hispanic white men and reducing obesity among African American men could reduce the racial disparity in cancer incidence. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differential effects of obesity in African American and non-Hispanic white men.
Full Text Available Obesity is growing epidemic affecting 35% of adults in the United States. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified numerous loci associated with obesity. However, the majority of studies have been completed in Caucasians focusing on total body measures of adiposity. Here we report the results from genome-wide and exome chip association studies focusing on total body measures of adiposity including body mass index (BMI, percent body fat (PBF and measures of fat deposition including waist circumference (WAIST, waist-hip ratio (WHR, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT in Hispanic Americans (nmax = 1263 from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS. Five SNPs from two novel loci attained genome-wide significance (P<5.00x10-8 in IRASFS. A missense SNP in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1 was associated with WAIST (rs34218846, MAF = 6.8%, PDOM = 1.62x10-8. This protein is postulated to play an important role in fat and cholesterol biosynthesis as demonstrated in cell and knock-out animal models. Four correlated intronic SNPs in the Zinc finger, GRF-type containing 1 gene (ZGRF1; SNP rs1471880, MAF = 48.1%, PDOM = 1.00x10-8 were strongly associated with WHR. The exact biological function of ZGRF1 and the connection with adiposity remains unclear. SNPs with p-values less than 5.00x10-6 from IRASFS were selected for replication. Meta-analysis was computed across seven independent Hispanic-American cohorts (nmax = 4156 and the strongest signal was rs1471880 (PDOM = 8.38x10-6 in ZGRF1 with WAIST. In conclusion, a genome-wide and exome chip association study was conducted that identified two novel loci (IDH1 and ZGRF1 associated with adiposity. While replication efforts were inconclusive, when taken together with the known biology, IDH1 and ZGRF1 warrant further evaluation.
Son, Mary Beth F; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Kim, Susan; Tang, Alexander; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Fulton, David R; Lo, Mindy S; Baker, Annette L; Sundel, Robert P; Newburger, Jane W
Accurate risk prediction of coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) in North American children with Kawasaki disease remains a clinical challenge. We sought to determine the predictive utility of baseline coronary dimensions adjusted for body surface area ( z scores) for future CAAs in Kawasaki disease and explored the extent to which addition of established Japanese risk scores to baseline coronary artery z scores improved discrimination for CAA development. We explored the relationships of CAA with baseline z scores; with Kobayashi, Sano, Egami, and Harada risk scores; and with the combination of baseline z scores and risk scores. We defined CAA as a maximum z score (zMax) ≥2.5 of the left anterior descending or right coronary artery at 4 to 8 weeks of illness. Of 261 patients, 77 patients (29%) had a baseline zMax ≥2.0. CAAs occurred in 15 patients (6%). CAAs were strongly associated with baseline zMax ≥2.0 versus Baseline zMax ≥2.0 had a C statistic of 0.77, good sensitivity (80%), and excellent negative predictive value (98%). None of the risk scores alone had adequate discrimination. When high-risk status per the Japanese risk scores was added to models containing baseline zMax ≥2.0, none were significantly better than baseline zMax ≥2.0 alone. In a North American center, baseline zMax ≥2.0 in children with Kawasaki disease demonstrated high predictive utility for later development of CAA. Future studies should validate the utility of our findings. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.
Sullivan, Samaah M; Brashear, Meghan M; Broyles, Stephanie T; Rung, Ariane L
To examine possible associations between perceived neighborhood environments and obesity among a U.S. nationally representative sample of Afro-Caribbean, African American, and Non-Hispanic white adults. Data was used from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life (NSAL). All measures including neighborhood characteristics, height, and weight were self-reported. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) of obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) based on perceived neighborhood physical and social characteristics. The odds of obesity were significantly lower for adults who reported involvement in clubs, associations, or help groups (odds ratio (OR): 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44, 0.85) and perceived that they had a park, playground, or open space in their neighborhood (odds ratio (OR): 0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47, 0.98). These associations remained significant after adjusting for leisure-time physical activity. Race/ethnicity appeared to modify the association between involvement in clubs, associations, or help groups and obesity. Providing parks, playgrounds, or open space or increasing the perception of those amenities may assist in the prevention of obesity, especially in ethnically diverse neighborhoods in the United States. More research is needed to investigate how perceptions of the neighborhood environment influence obesity and whether perceptions of the neighborhood environment differ between individuals within the same neighborhoods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Effectiveness of combined physician and patient-level interventions for blood pressure (BP control in low-income, hypertensive African Americans with multiple co-morbid conditions remains largely untested in community-based primary care practices. Demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics of participants in the Counseling African American to Control Hypertension (CAATCH Trial are described. CAATCH evaluates the effectiveness of a multi-level, multi-component, evidence-based intervention compared with usual care (UC in improving BP control among poorly controlled hypertensive African Americans who receive primary care in Community Health Centers (CHCs. Methods Participants included 1,039 hypertensive African Americans receiving care in 30 CHCs in the New York Metropolitan area. Baseline data on participant demographic, clinical (e.g., BP, anti-hypertensive medications, psychosocial (e.g., depression, medication adherence, self-efficacy, and behavioral (e.g., exercise, diet characteristics were gathered through direct observation, chart review, and interview. Results The sample was primarily female (71.6%, middle-aged (mean age = 56.9 ± 12.1 years, high school educated (62.4%, low-income (72.4% reporting less than $20,000/year income, and received Medicaid (35.9% or Medicare (12.6%. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 150.7 ± 16.7 mm Hg and 91.0 ± 10.6 mm Hg, respectively. Participants were prescribed an average of 2.5 ± 1.9 antihypertensive medications; 54.8% were on a diuretic; 33.8% were on a beta blocker; 41.9% were on calcium channel blockers; 64.8% were on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs. One-quarter (25.6% of the sample had resistant hypertension; one-half (55.7% reported medication non-adherence. Most (79.7% reported one or more co-morbid medical conditions. The majority of the patients had a Charlson Co-morbidity score ≥ 2. Diabetes
Vincent, Wilson; Gordon, Derrick M; Campbell, Christina; Ward, Nadia L; Albritton, Tashuna; Kershaw, Trace
Although studies have shown that adherence to traditional masculine norms (i.e., Status, Toughness, Antifemininity) affect men's attitudes toward sexual health, there is little research on how men's adherence to these norms affect them in the context of heterosexual, dyadic relationships. Among 296 young pregnant couples, we investigated the extent to which adherence to traditional masculine norms affected male and female partners' own condom-related beliefs (i.e., condom self-efficacy, positive condom attitudes) and that of their partners. We tested an interdependence model using a dyadic-analytic approach to path analysis. We also tested for differences across gender and race-ethnicity (i.e., African American, Hispanic). Results showed that adherence to the Antifemininity and Toughness masculine norms predicted negative condom-related beliefs, whereas, overall, adherence to the Status norm predicted positive condom-related beliefs. Men's and women's adherence to traditional norms about masculinity were associated with their partner's condom self-efficacy, and moderated associations based on gender and race-ethnicity were detected. In contrast, each dyad member's traditional masculine norms were not associated with his or her partner's positive condom attitudes. Taken together, findings indicated that the roles of traditional masculinity and condom-related beliefs in sexual health should be addressed within the context of relationships and associations between masculine norms and condom-related beliefs are not uniformly negative.
Evans, Bronwynne C
Hispanic/Latino and American Indian students receiving services from a 3-year Nursing Workforce Diversity Grant called ALCANCE responded every semester to a semistructured interview protocol about their program experiences. Eighteen Anglo student volunteers also participated in one such interview. Comparison of the transcribed interview sets using methods outlined by (Miles, M. Huberman, A. (1994). Qualitative data analysis (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.) revealed differences in perceptions of (1) potential occupations other than nursing, (2) barriers to educational success, (3) welcome and peer relationships, (4) service to family and community after graduation, and (5) fear of academic failure. ALCANCE students were less likely than the Anglo students to (1) come from well-educated families, (2) view their future in terms of a profession, (3) rely on friends in preference to their family, and (4) complain about curricular issues. They were more likely to recognize issues of power and privilege, and they also worried more about academic failure and their family and community obligations than Anglo students did. A "caring curriculum" could be used as a framework for establishing communities with an ever-developing understanding of culture among faculty and students. Faculty development in cultural issues is the foundation for such a caring curriculum because if faculty do not understand such differences, the curriculum cannot change.
Peterson, L; Soliman, A; Ruterbusch, J J; Smith, N; Schwartz, K
Arab American (ArA) women may be at greater risk for thyroid cancer (TC) than White women. This case-case comparison explored differences in known and proposed risk factors of TC among ArA and non-Hispanic White (NHW) female TC cases in metropolitan Detroit. Cases of invasive TC identified from a population-based registry responded to a telephone survey regarding potential TC risk factors. Thirty ArA women (response rate 52%) and 70 NHW women (67%) participated. NHW women reported significantly more prior thyroid disease (TD), family history of TD, hormone use, cumulative years of hormone use, cigarette and alcohol consumption. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, ArA women had significantly higher odds of exposure to dental x-rays (OR = 3.48, CI 1.01-12.00) and medical radiation (OR = 13.58, CI 1.49-124.04) than NHW women. Risk factors for TC may differ among ArA women and their NHW counterparts.
Full Text Available Abstract Osteoporosis is a major public health problem with low bone mass affecting nearly half the women aged 50 years or older. Evidence from various studies has shown that higher body mass index (BMI is a protective factor for bone mineral density (BMD. Most of the evidence, however, is from studies with Caucasian women and it is unclear to what extent ethnicity plays a role in modifying the effect of BMI on BMD. A cross sectional study was performed in which records of postmenopausal women who presented for screening for osteoporosis at 2 urban medical centres were reviewed. Using logistic regression, we examined the interaction of race and BMI after adjusting for age, family history of osteoporosis, maternal fracture, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle on BMD. Low BMD was defined as T-score at the lumbar spine Among 3,206 patients identified, the mean age of the study population was 58.3 ± 0.24 (Years ± SEM and the BMI was 30.6 kg/m2. 2,417 (75.4% were African Americans (AA, 441(13.6% were Whites and 348 (10.9% were Hispanics. The AA women had lower odds of having low BMD compared to Whites [Odds ratio (OR = 0.079 (0.03–0.24 (95% CI, p There is thus a race-dependent effect of BMI on BMD. With each unit increase in BMI, BMD increases for White women, while a slight but significant decrease in BMD occurs in African American women.
Fisher, Holly H; Patel-Larson, A; Green, K; Shapatava, E; Uhl, G; Kalayil, E J; Moore, A; Williams, W; Chen, B
There is limited knowledge about whether the delivery of evidence-based, HIV prevention interventions in 'real world' settings will produce outcomes similar to efficacy trial outcomes. In this study, we describe longitudinal changes in sexual risk outcomes among African American and Hispanic participants in the Video Opportunities for Innovative Condom Education and Safer Sex (VOICES/VOCES) program at four CDC-funded agencies. VOICES/VOCES was delivered to 922 high-risk individuals in a variety of community settings such as substance abuse treatment centers, housing complex centers, private residences, shelters, clinics, and colleges. Significant risk reductions were consistently observed at 30- and 120-days post-intervention for all outcome measures (e.g., unprotected sex, self-reported STD infection). Risk reductions were strongest for African American participants, although Hispanic participants also reported reducing their risky behaviors. These results suggest that, over a decade after the first diffusion of VOICES/VOCES across the U.S. by CDC, this intervention remains an effective tool for reducing HIV risk behaviors among high-risk African American and Hispanic individuals.
Fischer, Michael J; Hsu, Jesse Y; Lora, Claudia M; Ricardo, Ana C; Anderson, Amanda H; Bazzano, Lydia; Cuevas, Magdalena M; Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Kusek, John W; Renteria, Amada; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Raj, Dominic S; Rosas, Sylvia E; Pan, Qiang; Yaffe, Kristine; Go, Alan S; Lash, James P
Although recommended approaches to CKD management are achieved less often in Hispanics than in non-Hispanics, whether long-term outcomes differ between these groups is unclear. In a prospective longitudinal analysis of participants enrolled into the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC Studies, we used Cox proportional hazards models to determine the association between race/ethnicity, CKD progression (50% eGFR loss or incident ESRD), incident ESRD, and all-cause mortality, and linear mixed-effects models to assess differences in eGFR slope. Among 3785 participants, 13% were Hispanic, 43% were non-Hispanic white (NHW), and 44% were non-Hispanic black (NHB). Over a median follow-up of 5.1 years for Hispanics and 6.8 years for non-Hispanics, 27.6% of all participants had CKD progression, 21.3% reached incident ESRD, and 18.3% died. Hispanics had significantly higher rates of CKD progression, incident ESRD, and mean annual decline in eGFR than did NHW (P<0.05) but not NHB. Hispanics had a mortality rate similar to that of NHW but lower than that of NHB (P<0.05). In adjusted analyses, the risk of CKD progression did not differ between Hispanics and NHW or NHB. However, among nondiabetic participants, compared with NHB, Hispanics had a lower risk of CKD progression (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.39 to 0.95) and incident ESRD (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.84). At higher levels of urine protein, Hispanics had a significantly lower risk of mortality than did non-Hispanics (P<0.05). Thus, important differences in CKD progression and mortality exist between Hispanics and non-Hispanics and may be affected by proteinuria and diabetes. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Rodriguez, Carlos J; Allison, Matthew; Daviglus, Martha L; Isasi, Carmen R; Keller, Colleen; Leira, Enrique C; Palaniappan, Latha; Piña, Ileana L; Ramirez, Sarah M; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Sims, Mario
This American Heart Association (AHA) scientific statement provides a comprehensive overview of current evidence on the burden cardiovascular disease (CVD) among Hispanics in the United States. Hispanics are the largest minority ethnic group in the United States, and their health is vital to the public health of the nation and to achieving the AHA's 2020 goals. This statement describes the CVD epidemiology and related personal beliefs and the social and health issues of US Hispanics, and it identifies potential prevention and treatment opportunities. The intended audience for this statement includes healthcare professionals, researchers, and policy makers. Writing group members were nominated by the AHA's Manuscript Oversight Committee and represent a broad range of expertise in relation to Hispanic individuals and CVD. The writers used a general framework outlined by the committee chair to produce a comprehensive literature review that summarizes existing evidence, indicate gaps in current knowledge, and formulate recommendations. Only English-language studies were reviewed, with PubMed/MEDLINE as our primary resource, as well as the Cochrane Library Reviews, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the US Census data as secondary resources. Inductive methods and descriptive studies that focused on CVD outcomes incidence, prevalence, treatment response, and risks were included. Because of the wide scope of these topics, members of the writing committee were responsible for drafting individual sections selected by the chair of the writing committee, and the group chair assembled the complete statement. The conclusions of this statement are the views of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official view of the AHA. All members of the writing group had the opportunity to comment on the initial drafts and approved the final version of this document. The manuscript underwent extensive AHA internal peer review before consideration and approval by the
Grau Martín, Armand; Flichtentrei, Daniel; Suñer, Rosa; Prats, María; Braga, Florencia
Burnout syndrome is related to cultural and individual factors. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of burnout and the scores for its three components with the perceptions and the demographic and professional characteristics of the workers. Burnout syndrome was studied in 11,530 Hispanic Americans and Spanish healthcare professionals (51% male, mean age 41.7 years). The Maslach Burnout Inventory and a previously drawn up questionnaire were administered online from the Intramed website from December 2006 to September 2007. Associations were tested using multiple logistic regression. The frequency of burnout in professionals resident in Spain was 14.9%, in Argentina 14.4%, and in Uruguay 7.9% whereas professionals in Mexico, Ecuador, Peru, Columbia, Uruguay, Guatemala and El Salvador presented frequencies of burnout of between 2.5% and 5.9%. By professions, doctors had a prevalence of burnout of 12.1%, nurses 7.2%, and dentists, psychologists and nutritionists of burnout predominated amongst doctors working in emergency departments (17%) and internal medicine departments (15.5%) whereas anaesthetists and dermatologists had the lowest prevalence (5% and 5.3%, respectively). Older age (OR=0.96), having children (OR=0.93), the perception of feeling valued (OR=0.53), optimism (OR=0.80), job satisfaction (OR=0.80), and satisfaction with salary (OR=0.91) are variables which protect against burnout. The expression of burnout varies among nations and professions. Age (older age), having children, the perception of feeling valued, optimism, job satisfaction and satisfaction with salary are protective variables of burnout.
Sugita, Bruna; Gill, Mandeep; Mahajan, Akanskha; Duttargi, Anju; Kirolikar, Saurabh; Almeida, Rodrigo; Regis, Kenny; Oluwasanmi, Olusayo L; Marchi, Fabio; Marian, Catalin; Makambi, Kepher; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Sheahan, Laura; Cavalli, Iglenir J; Ribeiro, Enilze M; Madhavan, Subha; Boca, Simina; Gusev, Yuriy; Cavalli, Luciane R
Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC), a clinically aggressive subtype of breast cancer, disproportionately affects African American (AA) women when compared to non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). MiRNAs(miRNAs) play a critical role in these tumors, through the regulation of cancer driver genes. In this study, our goal was to characterize and compare the patterns of miRNA expression in TNBC of AA (n = 27) and NHW women (n = 30). A total of 256 miRNAs were differentially expressed between these groups, and distinct from the ones observed in their respective non-TNBC subtypes. Fifty-five of these miRNAs were mapped in cytobands carrying copy number alterations (CNAs); 26 of them presented expression levels concordant with the observed CNAs. Receiving operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed a good power (AUC ≥ 0.80; 95% CI) for over 65% of the individual miRNAs and a high combined power with superior sensitivity and specificity (AUC = 0.88 (0.78-0.99); 95% CI) of the 26 miRNA panel in discriminating TNBC between these populations. Subsequent miRNA target analysis revealed their involvement in the interconnected PI3K/AKT, MAPK and insulin signaling pathways. Additionally, three miRNAs of this panel were associated with early age at diagnosis. Altogether, these findings indicated that there are different patterns of miRNA expression between TNBC of AA and NHW women and that their mapping in genomic regions with high levels of CNAs is not merely physical, but biologically relevant to the TNBC phenotype. Once validated in distinct cohorts of AA women, this panel can potentially represent their intrinsic TNBC genome signature.
Braun, Ursula K; Beyth, Rebecca J; Ford, Marvella E; McCullough, Laurence B
End-of-life decisions are frequently made by patients' surrogates. Race and ethnicity may affect such decision making. Few studies have described how different racial/ethnic groups experience end-of-life surrogate decision making. To describe the self-reported experience the self-reported experience of African-American, Caucasian, and Hispanic surrogate decision makers of seriously ill patients and to examine the relationship of race, ethnicity, and culture to that experience. Purposive sample to include racial/ethnic minorities in a qualitative study using focus group interviews. The participants of the study were 44 experienced, mostly female, surrogate decision makers for older veterans. Transcripts were qualitatively analyzed to identify major themes, with particular attention to themes that might be unique to each of the three groups. The experience of burden of end-of-life decision making was similar in all three groups. This burden in its medical, personal, and familial dimensions is compounded by uncertainty about prognosis and the patient's preferences. Racial/ethnic variations of responses to this burden concerned the physician-family relationship, religion and faith, and past experiences with race/ethnicity concordant versus non-concordant physicians. Regardless of race/ethnicity, surrogates for seriously ill patients appeared to experience increased significant, multidimensional burdens of decision making under conditions of uncertainty about a patient's preferences. This aspect of the burden of surrogate decision making may not be fully appreciated by physicians. Physicians should identify and be especially attentive to strategies used by surrogates, which may vary by race/ethnicity, to reduce the uncertainty about a patient's preferences and thus the burden of surrogate decision making to assist them in this difficult process.
... 1 The following hypotheses have been presented regarding suicidal behavior among Hispanics: • Family needs are placed above individual ... the parents and elders is of major importance • Suicidal behavior among Hispanic femails may be related to the ...
Michael G. Bisciglia
Full Text Available As the overall population of Hispanics within the United States has eclipsed that of African Americans, a mounting concern has developed regarding the rise in Hispanic lethal violence as a result of social and economic inequality. One means to measure this inequality is in the form of segregation. Research indicates that in many Hispanic communities, their levels of segregation from the White non-Hispanic population are similar to that of African Americans. Although a multitude of previous studies have looked at the impact of segregation among African Americans, the literature remains under-represented in terms of multi-city macro-level analyses among Hispanics. This current study extends the analysis of segregation’s effects on lethal violence to this population. To this end, two measures of segregation were used, the index of dissimilarity and exposure. Using data from the census and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC mortality files, negative binominal regression models were created using a sample of 236 U.S. cities. The results indicated that both measures of segregation show a strong positive influence on rates of Hispanic homicides.
Jeon, Haesang; Lubben, James
The current cross-cultural study examines the pathways underlying different formations of social networks and social support systems, which affect depression symptoms among older Korean immigrants and non-Hispanic Whites in the United States. Data for this study came from a panel survey of 223 older Korean American immigrants and 201 non-Hispanic White older adults 65 years of age and older living in Los Angeles. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is used to test the proposed conceptual model designed to explain the direct and indirect relationships between social networks and social support on depression symptoms. Empirical evidence from this study indicated different effect of one's social networks and social support on depression by race/ethnicity. The work discussed in this article pointed to the need to recognize the role of culture in assessing the relationships between social networks, social support, and health among older adults.
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Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Sexton, Holly R.; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Sameroff, Arnold J.
This study examined whether the longitudinal links between mothers' use of spanking and children's externalizing behaviors are moderated by family race/ethnicity, as would be predicted by cultural normativeness theory, once mean differences in frequency of use are controlled. A nationally representative sample of White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian…
Tao, Li; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Keegan, Theresa H M; Kurian, Allison W; Clarke, Christina A
Higher breast cancer mortality rates for African-American than non-Hispanic White women are well documented; however, it remains uncertain if this disparity occurs in disease subgroups defined by tumor molecular markers and stage at diagnosis. We examined racial differences in outcome according to subtype and stage in a diverse, population-based series of 103,498 patients. We obtained data for all invasive breast cancers diagnosed between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012, and followed through December 31, 2012, among 93,760 non-Hispanic White and 9,738 African-American women in California. Molecular subtypes were categorized according to tumor expression of hormone receptor (HR, based on estrogen and progesterone receptors) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate relative hazard (RH) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for breast cancer-specific mortality. After adjustment for patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics, outcomes were comparable by race for stage I or IV cancer regardless of subtype, and HR(+)/HER2(+) or HR(-)/HER2(+) cancer regardless of stage. We found substantially higher hazards of breast cancer death among African-American women with stage II/III HR(+)/HER2(-) (RH, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.03-1.65; and RH, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.10-1.75, respectively) and stage III triple-negative cancers relative to Whites. There are substantial racial/ethnic disparities among patients with stages II/III HR(+)/HER2(-) and stage III triple-negative breast cancers but not for other subtype and stage. These data provide insights to assess barriers to targeted treatment (e.g., trastuzumab or endocrine therapy) of particular subtypes of breast cancer among African-American patients. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
Bassford, T L
Hispanic elders living in the United States compose a rapidly increasing population. They are underinsured and more likely to be living in poverty. Health care is hindered in this population by lower access to health services and less use of preventive services. Barriers to access are primarily socioeconomic. Acculturation exerts an effect, primarily through its association with language skills, employment, and education. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality for Hispanics, who have a higher prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Although neoplasia is the second most frequent cause of death among Hispanics, as it is in whites who are not Hispanic, Hispanics have an overall lower cancer rate. Cancer rates are increasing, however. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the Hispanic population, affecting nearly a quarter of adult Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans. Although higher prevalence of obesity in the Hispanic population accounts for some of this difference, some data suggest the possibility of a genetic component as well. Assessment of psychological health in Hispanic elders is impeded by the lack of instruments designed for this population. Distress is often expressed as somatic symptoms. Values traditional to Hispanic culture, such as respeto, allocentrism, and familialism, are important to US Hispanic elders, many of whom were born in rural Mexico. Our knowledge of determinants of healthy aging in this population is still preliminary, but rapidly expanding, in part, because of increased attention to ethnicity in health reporting.
... Injury Prevention & Control Gateway to Health Communication & Social Marketing Practice On Other Web Sites MedlinePlus – Hispanic American ... MB] en Español [PDF – 1.61 MB] CDC Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Language: ...
Dunn, Erin C.; Wiste, Anna; Radmanesh, Farid; Almli, Lynn M.; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Sofer, Tamar; Faul, Jessica D.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Weir, David R.; Zhao, Wei; Soare, Thomas W.; Mirza, Saira S.; Hek, Karin; Tiemeier, Henning W.; Goveas, Joseph S.; Sarto, Gloria E.; Snively, Beverly M.; Cornelis, Marilyn; Koenen, Karestan C.; Kraft, Peter; Purcell, Shaun; Ressler, Kerry J.; Rosand, Jonathan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Smoller, Jordan W.
Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been unable to identify variants linked to depression. We hypothesized that examining depressive symptoms and considering gene-environment interaction (G×E) might improve efficiency for gene discovery. We therefore conducted a GWAS and genome-wide environment interaction study (GWEIS) of depressive symptoms. Methods Using data from the SHARe cohort of the Women’s Health Initiative, comprising African Americans (n=7179) and Hispanics/Latinas (n=3138), we examined genetic main effects and G×E with stressful life events and social support. We also conducted a heritability analysis using genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA). Replication was attempted in four independent cohorts. Results No SNPs achieved genome-wide significance for main effects in either discovery sample. The top signals in African Americans were rs73531535 (located 20kb from GPR139, p=5.75×10−8) and rs75407252 (intronic to CACNA2D3, p=6.99×10−7). In Hispanics/Latinas, the top signals were rs2532087 (located 27kb from CD38, p=2.44×10−7) and rs4542757 (intronic to DCC, p=7.31×10−7). In the GWEIS with stressful life events, one interaction signal was genome-wide significant in African Americans (rs4652467; p=4.10×10−10; located 14kb from CEP350). This interaction was not observed in a smaller replication cohort. Although heritability estimates for depressive symptoms and stressful life events were each less than 10%, they were strongly genetically correlated (rG=0.95), suggesting that common variation underlying depressive symptoms and stressful life event exposure, though modest on their own, were highly overlapping in this sample. Conclusions Our results underscore the need for larger samples, more GWEIS, and greater investigation into genetic and environmental determinants of depressive symptoms in minorities. PMID:27038408
ASPIRA Association, Inc., Washington, DC. National Office.
This publication offers an overview of the health of Hispanic Americans in the United States. Topics covered include the following: (1) Hispanic representation in health fields; (2) access to health care; (3) maternal and child health; (4) substance abuse; (5) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Hispanics; (6) Hispanic elderly; (7) migrant…
Mullany, Britta; Barlow, Allison; Neault, Nicole; Billy, Trudy; Jones, Tanya; Tortice, Iralene; Lorenzo, Sherilynn; Powers, Julia; Lake, Kristin; Reid, Raymond; Walkup, John
The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale, design, methods and baseline results of the Family Spirit trial. The goal of the trial is to evaluate the impact of the paraprofessional-delivered "Family Spirit" home-visiting intervention to reduce health and behavioral risks for American Indian teen mothers and their children. A community based participatory research (CBPR) process shaped the design of the current randomized controlled trial of the Family Spirit intervention. Between 2006 and 2008, 322 pregnant teens were randomized to receive the Family Spirit intervention plus Optimized Standard Care, or Optimized Standard Care alone. The Family Spirit intervention is a 43-session home-visiting curriculum administered by American Indian paraprofessionals to teen mothers from 28 weeks gestation until the baby's third birthday. A mixed methods assessment administered at nine intervals measures intervention impact on parental competence, mother's and children's social, emotional and behavioral risks for drug use, and maladaptive functioning. Participants are young (mean age = 18.1 years), predominantly primiparous, unmarried, and challenged by poverty, residential instability and low educational attainment. Lifetime and pregnancy drug use were ~2-4 times higher and ~5-6 times higher, respectively, than US All Races. Baseline characteristics were evenly distributed between groups, except for higher lifetime cigarette use and depressive symptoms among intervention mothers. If study aims are achieved, the public health field will have new evidence supporting multi-generational prevention of behavioral health disparities affecting young American Indian families and the utility of indigenous paraprofessional interventionists in under-resourced communities.
Chin, Alexander L; Negash, Selam; Xie, Sharon; Arnold, Steven E; Hamilton, Roy
The effect of race on cognitive test performance in the evaluation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains controversial. One factor that may contribute substantially to differences in cognitive test performance in diverse populations is education. The current study examined the extent to which quality of education, even after controlling for formal years of education, accounts for differences in cognitive performance between African Americans and White Non-Hispanics (WNHs). The retrospective cohort included 244 patients diagnosed with AD who self-identified as African Americans (n = 51) or WNHs (n = 193). The Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR) was used as an estimate of quality of education. In an analysis that controlled for traditional demographics, including age, sex, and years of formal education, African Americans scored significantly lower than WNHs on the Mini-Mental State Examination, as well as on neuropsychological tests of memory, attention, and language. However, after also adjusting for reading level, all previously observed differences were significantly attenuated. The attenuating effect remained even after controlling for disease severity, indicating that reading scores are not confounded by severity of dementia. These findings suggest that quality, and not just quantity, of education needs to be taken into account when assessing cognitive performance in African Americans with AD.
Gucciardi, Enza; Chan, Vivian Wing-Sheung; Manuel, Lisa; Sidani, Souraya
This systematic literature review aims to identify diabetes self-management education (DSME) features to improve diabetes education for Black African/Caribbean and Hispanic/Latin American women with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We conducted a literature search in six health databases for randomized controlled trials and comparative studies. Success rates of intervention features were calculated based on effectiveness in improving glycosolated hemoglobin (HbA1c), anthropometrics, physical activity, or diet outcomes. Calculations of rate differences assessed whether an intervention feature positively or negatively affected an outcome. From 13 studies included in our analysis, we identified 38 intervention features in relation to their success with an outcome. Five intervention features had positive rate differences across at least three outcomes: hospital-based interventions, group interventions, the use of situational problem-solving, frequent sessions, and incorporating dietitians as interventionists. Six intervention features had high positive rate differences (i.e. ≥50%) on specific outcomes. Different DSME intervention features may influence broad and specific self-management outcomes for women of African/Caribbean and Hispanic/Latin ethnicity. With the emphasis on patient-centered care, patients and care providers can consider options based on DSME intervention features for its broad and specific impact on outcomes to potentially make programming more effective. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jain, Ram B
Starting with the 2007-2008 cycle, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) also oversampled Hispanics other than Mexicans (OHISP) making it possible to treat OHISP as a separate demographic group along with Mexican Americans (MAs), non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), and non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs). Yet, more often than not, OHISP have been merged with MA to form an all-Hispanic demographic group (HISP) thus limiting comparisons between NHW, NHB, and HISP. Consequently, for the first time, this study was undertaken to evaluate differences in the observed levels of selected environmental contaminants between MA and OHISP from five groups of environmental contaminants, namely, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), iodine uptake inhibitors (IUIs), environmental phenols (EPHs), priority pesticides (PPs), and perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Data for 2007-2010 from NHANES were used to conduct this study. OHISP children born in USA had higher levels of selected PAH metabolites than USA-born MA, and Mexican-born MA adolescents had higher levels of selected PAH metabolites than USA-born MA adolescents. USA-born adolescent MA had higher levels of selected parabens than USA-born adolescent OHISP, and OHISP adults born in another Spanish-speaking country had higher levels of selected parabens than USA-born OHISP adults. USA-born MA adults and seniors had higher levels of selected dichlorophenols than Mexico-born MA adults and seniors, respectively. Females had higher levels of selected PAH metabolites, EPHs, and PPs than males among children, adolescents, adults, and seniors, but the reverse was true for the levels of selected IUIs and PFAAs among adolescents and seniors. Smokers had higher levels of almost all PAH metabolites than non-smokers for adolescents, adults, and seniors. The same was true for urinary thiocynate for adolescents, adults, and seniors. OHISP is a multiracial multiethnic demographic group substantially different from MA with possibly
Renteria, Laura; Li, Susan Tinsley; Pliskin, Neil H
The utility of the Spanish WAIS-III was investigated by examining its reliability and validity among 100 Spanish-speaking participants. Results indicated that the internal consistency of the subtests was satisfactory, but inadequate for Letter Number Sequencing. Criterion validity was adequate. Convergent and discriminant validity results were generally similar to the North American normative sample. Paired sample t-tests suggested that the WAIS-III may underestimate ability when compared to the criterion measures that were utilized to assess validity. This study provides support for the use of the Spanish WAIS-III in urban Hispanic populations, but also suggests that caution be used when administering specific subtests, due to the nature of the Latin America alphabet and potential test bias.
Exploring the Effect of Mentoring in the Degree Attainment and Career Paths of First Generation Mexican American Women Employed in Senior Administrative Leadership Roles at Hispanic-Serving Institutions
Medrano, Vivian A.
Purpose: This qualitative, phenomenological study explored the effect of mentoring in the degree attainment and career paths of first generation Mexican American women who are employed in senior administrative leadership roles at Hispanic-serving institutions (HSIs). Methodology: This exploratory study employed a phenomenological research…
Perla, M E; Rue, Tessa; Cheadle, Allen; Krieger, James; Karr, Catherine J; Karr, C K
Differences in cultural and economic status may place ethnic subgroups of children at higher risk for exposure, leading to heightened health risks, and health inequities. Although Latino-Americans represent 22% of all children in the United States, few studies have explored within-group differences in their exposure to toxicants. Using socio-demographic and biomarker data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2008, we characterized determinants of health and estimated geometric means of environmental contaminant biomarkers (blood concentrations of lead and mercury, serum concentrations of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE] and cotinine, and urinary metabolites of organophosphate [OP] pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]) among 4,257 Mexican American (MA), 677 Other Latino-American (OL), and 3,370 Non-Hispanic White (NHW) children. MAs had the lowest levels of health insurance coverage and regular access to health care, and largest household size compared to NHWs and OLs. MAs had higher levels of p,p'-DDE, lead, and cadmium while OLs had higher estimates of mercury relative to other groups. MAs had higher urinary metabolite concentrations of 2-hydroxynaphthalene; otherwise MAs and OLs had lower concentrations of PAHs. NHWs had higher levels of cotinine and dimethylthiophosphate. For other OP metabolites, differences among groups were less clear. Lead and p,p'-DDE exposure differences likely reflect later and less regulatory control of these chemicals in Latin America. Additionally, poor quality housing with lead paint is more common in economically disadvantaged subpopulations. Dietary habits are possible sources of differential cadmium, mercury, and organophosphate exposure. Cotinine exposure differences by income and U.S.- vs. foreign-born may represent increased acculturation. These results, coupled with additional research on exposure sources may contribute to refinement of environmental health
Choi, Won S; Nazir, Niaman; Pacheco, Christina M; Filippi, Melissa K; Pacheco, Joseph; White Bull, Julia; Nance, Christi; Faseru, Babalola; Greiner, K Allen; Daley, Christine Makosky
American Indians (AIs) have the highest cigarette smoking rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. Although the overall smoking prevalence in the United States for nonminority populations has decreased over the past several decades, the same pattern is not observed among AIs. The purpose of this observational study was to collect cigarette smoking and related information from American Indian tribal college students to inform tailored interventions. We conducted a repeated cross-sectional survey of American Indian tribal college students, Tribal College Tobacco and Behavior Survey (TCTABS), with a focus on recruiting all incoming freshman at three participating tribal colleges in the Midwest and Northern Plains regions. A total of 1256 students participated in the baseline surveys between April 2011 and October 2014. The overall smoking prevalence of this sample was 34.7%, with differences by region (Northern Plains-44.0% and Midwest-28%). The majority, 87.5% of current smokers reported smoking 10 or less cigarettes per day, 41% reported smoking menthol cigarettes, 52% smoked Marlboro brand, and the mean age of their first cigarette was 14 years. The majority, 62% had made at least one quit attempt in the past year. The overwhelming majority of respondents, regardless of their smoking status, thought that the current smoking prevalence on campus was greater than 41% and approximately one-third believed that it was as high as 61%. Very few studies of smoking have been conducted in this population and results from our study confirm the need for effective interventions. AIs have the highest cigarette smoking rates compared to other racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Furthermore, limited studies have examined the epidemiology of cigarette smoking among tribal college students. This study addresses health disparities related to smoking among college students by examining the demographic, cultural, and environmental characteristics of smoking and
Lampard, Amy M; Nishi, Akihiro; Baskin, Monica L; Carson, Tiffany L; Davison, Kirsten K
This study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of a child-report, multidimensional measure of physical activity (PA) parenting, the Activity Support Scale for Multiple Groups (ACTS-MG), in African American and non-Hispanic white families. The ACTS-MG was administered to children aged 5 to 12 years. A three factor model of PA parenting (Modeling of PA, Logistic Support, and Restricting Access to Screen-based Activities) was tested separately for mother's and fathers' PA parenting. The proposed three-factor structure was supported in both racial groups for mothers' PA parenting and in the African American sample for fathers' PA parenting. Factorial invariance between racial groups was demonstrated for mother's PA parenting. Building on a previous study examining the ACTS-MG parent-report, this study supports the use of the ACTS-MG child-report for mothers' PA parenting. However, further research is required to investigate the measurement of fathers' PA parenting across racial groups.
Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; Vermeesch, Amber L.; Florom-Smith, Aubrey L.; McCabe, Brian E.; Peragallo, Nilda P.
The purpose of this study was to explore variations in demographics, culture, self-esteem and intimate partner violence among Hispanic women according to birthplace, and to identify factors that are associated with these differences in intimate partner violence. Baseline data from a randomized control trial testing the efficacy of an HIV prevention program was used. Path analyses identified differences in intimate partner violence between Colombian women and women from other Central/South American. Self-esteem was the only factor that was associated with these differences. Interventions that address the unique needs of Hispanic women from different subgroups are needed. PMID:23363655
Cassandra Y. Johnson; J. Michael Bowker; Gary Green; H. Kenneth Cordell
Recent data from the US Forest Serviceâs onsite National Visitor Use Monitoring Survey (National Visitor Use Monitoring Survey, 2004. Unpublished demographic results for 2002â2003. Data on file with Donald English, Program Manager, Visitor Use Monitoring Project, Washington, DC) shows that visits made by African Americans account for very low percentages of visits to...
Darling, Natalie J; Barker, Lawrence E; Shefer, Abigail M; Chu, Susan Y
The Hispanic population is increasing and heterogeneous (Hispanic refers to persons of Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino descent). The objective was to examine immunization rates among Hispanic ancestry for the 4:3:1:3:3 series (> or = 4 doses diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and pertussis vaccine; > or = 3 doses poliovirus vaccine; > or = 1 doses measles-containing vaccine; > or = 3 doses Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; and > or = 3 doses hepatitis B vaccine). The National Immunization Survey measures immunization coverage among 19- to 35-month-old U.S. children. Coverage was compared from combined 2001-2003 data among Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites using t-tests, and among Hispanic ancestry using a chi-square test. Hispanics were categorized as Mexican, Mexican American, Central American, South American, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Spanish Caribbean (primarily Dominican Republic), other, and multiple ancestry. Children of Hispanic ancestry increased from 21% in 1999 to 25% in 2003. These Hispanic children were less well immunized than non-Hispanic whites (77.0%, +/-2.1% [95% confidence interval] compared to 82.5%, +/-1.1% (95% CI) > in 2003). Immunization coverage did not vary significantly among Hispanics of varying ancestries (p=0.26); however, there was substantial geographic variability. In some areas, immunization coverage among Hispanics was significantly higher than non-Hispanic whites. Hispanic children were less well immunized than non-Hispanic whites; however, coverage varied notably by geographic area. Although a chi-square test found no significant differences in coverage among Hispanic ancestries, the range of coverage, 79.2%, +/-5.1% for Cuban Americans to 72.1%, +/-2.4% for Mexican descent, may suggest a need for improved and more localized monitoring among Hispanic communities.
Wu, Carrie; Chiang, Mathew; Harrington, Amy; Kim, Sun; Ziedonis, Douglas; Fan, Xiaoduo
The present study sought to examine the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders comparing Asian American (AA) and non-Hispanic Whites (WNH) drawn from a population accessing a large general hospital for any reason. Socio-demographic predictors of diagnosis and treatment were also explored. Data were obtained from de-identified medical records in the Partner Health Care System's Research Patient Data Registry. The final sample included 345,070 self-identified WNH and 16,418 self-identified AA's between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2009. WNH patients were more likely than AA patients to carry a diagnosis of a mental disorder (18.1% vs. 8.6%, p mental disorder or use of psychotropic medication. Our findings on the racial disparity in mental disorder diagnosis and treatment between AA and WNH patients suggest that mental disorders are under-recognized and mental health services are under-utilized in the AA community. There remains a need for health care providers to improve screening services and to gain a better understanding of the cultural barriers that hinder mental health care among AA patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mahdi, Haider; Schlick, Cary Jo; Kowk, Li-Lian; Moslemi-Kebria, Mehdi; Michener, Chad
The objective of this study is to compare survival of Asian (AS), American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women with endometrial adenocarcinoma (EC). Patients with EC were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program from 1988 to 2009. Kaplan-Meier survival methods and Cox proportional hazards regression were performed. Of the 105,083 women, 97,763 (93%) were NHW, 6699 (6.4%) were AS and 621 (0.6%) were AI/AN. AS and AI/AN were younger than NHW with mean age of 57.7 and 56.5 vs. 64.3 years (p Asian immigrants were younger than Asian natives (mean age 57 vs. 60.5 years, p Asian immigrants had better OS (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.73-0.94, p = 0.002) and CSS (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.54-0.80, p Asian natives. In contrast, AI/AN had worse OS (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.15-1.59, p Asians were younger at presentation, more likely to have lymphadenectomy and had an improved outcome compared to NHW. Interestingly, Asian immigrants had more favorable outcome than Asians born in the US. Further studies are warranted to find possible explanations for such a difference. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sterling, K; Fryer, C; Pagano, I; Jones, D; Fagan, P
Flavour additives in cigarettes and little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs), which influence smokers' risk perceptions, may reinforce dual flavoured tobacco use. We examined the association among mentholated cigarette use, risk perceptions for flavour additives in LCCs and flavoured LCC smoking behaviour. Data from a national probability sample of 964 young and middle-aged adult current cigarette smokers were analysed. Multinomial logistic regression models examined the relationship among mentholated cigarette smoking, risk perceptions and current flavoured LCC use for the analytic sample and gender and race/ethnicity. Daily menthol cigarette smokers, compared to occasional, non-menthol smokers, had increased odds of flavoured LCC smoking (OR=1.75, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.98). This relationship was found for males, blacks/African-Americans and Hispanics/Latinos (psmokers, specifically those from vulnerable populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
The high percentage and the steady growth of Hispanic/Latino students in Arizona demand that special attention be placed on improving academic achievement and attainment. The need to support Hispanic/Latino parents in becoming meaningful positive contributors to their children's schooling continues to surface as a critical issue in school…
Dallo, Florence J; Kindratt, Tiffany B
We estimated and compared the sex- and age-adjusted prevalence of chronic diseases (diagnosis only and comorbidity) among US- and foreign-born whites from Europe and the Arab Nations and examined associations between region of birth and chronic disease. We evaluated 213,644 adults using restricted data from the National Health Interview Survey (2000-2011) by (1) chronic disease diagnosis only (heart disease, asthma, cancer, diabetes, ulcer, or obesity) and (2) comorbidity (none, diagnosis only, comorbid). We used logistic regression to examine associations between region of birth and chronic disease while controlling for confounders. Foreign-born whites from the Arab Nations had a higher prevalence of being diagnosed with ulcer (4 %) compared to US- and European-born whites (2 %). Foreign-born whites from the Arab Nations had a lower prevalence of comorbid cancer (1 %) and ulcer (3 %) yet had higher estimates of comorbid heart disease (18 %), asthma (5 %), and obesity (13 %) when compared to European-born whites (all ps Arab Americans had the highest prevalence of comorbid diabetes (8 %) compared to both European- (5 %) and US-born whites (6 %). In multivariate logistic regression models, Arab Americans had a lower odds of reporting cancer, heart disease, and asthma before and after controlling for covariates. Our study builds on existing literature for Arab Americans as the first study evaluating chronic disease prevalence among foreign-born whites from countries in the Arab League of Nations geographically located in the Middle East. Methodologically robust studies are needed to better understand the influence of acculturation, country of origin, and other characteristics influencing health among foreign-born whites.
Cross-Sectional Relationships Between Household Food Insecurity and Child BMI, Feeding Behaviors, and Public Assistance Utilization Among Head Start Children From Predominantly Hispanic and American Indian Communities in the CHILE Study
Trappmann, Jessica L.; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Keane, Patricia C.; Cohen, Deborah A.; Davis, Sally M.
Associations between food insecurity and overweight/obesity, feeding behaviors, and public food assistance utilization have been explored to a greater extent among adults and adolescents than among young children. This cross-sectional study examines a subset of pre-intervention implementation data (n = 347) among families participating in the Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) study conducted in rural New Mexico among predominantly Hispanic and American Indian He...
Serafin, Ana Gil
This paper discusses issues related to the recruitment of Hispanic-American educational leaders, focusing on the El Centro de Recursos Educativos outreach center at Northeastern Illinois University in Chicago, which began operation in Fall 1997. It examines the characteristics of successful programs for Hispanic recruitment and retention and the…
Vaccaro Joan A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, particularly among minorities, and if improperly managed can lead to medical complications and death. Healthcare providers play vital roles in communicating standards of care, which include guidance on diabetes self-management. The background of the client may play a role in the patient-provider communication process. The aim of this study was to determine the association between medical advice and diabetes self care management behaviors for a nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes. Moreover, we sought to establish whether or not race/ethnicity was a modifier for reported medical advice received and diabetes self-management behaviors. Methods We analyzed data from 654 adults aged 21 years and over with diagnosed diabetes [130 Mexican-Americans; 224 Black non-Hispanics; and, 300 White non-Hispanics] and an additional 161 with 'undiagnosed diabetes' [N = 815(171 MA, 281 BNH and 364 WNH] who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2008. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether medical advice to engage in particular self-management behaviors (reduce fat or calories, increase physical activity or exercise, and control or lose weight predicted actually engaging in the particular behavior and whether the impact of medical advice on engaging in the behavior differed by race/ethnicity. Additional analyses examined whether these relationships were maintained when other factors potentially related to engaging in diabetes self management such as participants' diabetes education, sociodemographics and physical characteristics were controlled. Sample weights were used to account for the complex sample design. Results Although medical advice to the patient is considered a standard of care for diabetes, approximately one-third of the sample reported not receiving dietary, weight management, or physical
Peña-Purcell, Ninfa C; Cutchen, Lauren; McCoy, Traechel
Health disparities persist among African Americans (AAs) and Latino adults with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this research was to use PhotoVoice to examine AAs and Latinos' daily experiences of managing diabetes. An exploratory, descriptive study using PhotoVoice and focus groups was conducted over a 3-week period: Week 1 orientation session, Week 2 photo taking and returning cameras, and Week 3 focus group to share and discuss photos. Ten AAs and nine Latino adults were enrolled, forming four focus groups. Four categories emerged: (1) daily life living with type 2 diabetes mellitus, (2) negative and positive emotions, (3) supports and barriers, and (4) needs. The social determinants of health influencing diabetes self-care were observed in discussions and photos-this included the built environment to promote a healthy lifestyle, social support, and education. PhotoVoice promotes culturally congruent care to better understand AA and Latinos' experience living with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Examines impact of different definitions of Hispanic ethnicity on sociodemographic characteristics, drinking patterns, and rate of alcohol problems among 1,453 Hispanic-American respondents. Defines Hispanic ethnicity by ethnicity of family of origin, national group, country most ancestors came from, and birthplace. Finds major differences between…
... Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women It is a common misconception that osteoporosis only ... seizures. Are There Any Special Issues for Hispanic Women Regarding Bone Health? Several studies indicate a number ...
Benziger, Catherine P; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Smeeth, Liam; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J Jaime
We aimed to characterize metabolic status by body mass index (BMI) status. The CRONICAS longitudinal study was performed in an age-and-sex stratified random sample of participants aged 35 years or older in four Peruvian settings: Lima (Peru's capital, costal urban, highly urbanized), urban and rural Puno (both high-altitude), and Tumbes (costal semirural). Data from the baseline study, conducted in 2010, was used. Individuals were classified by BMI as normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥30 kg/m2), and as metabolically healthy (0-1 metabolic abnormality) or metabolically unhealthy (≥2 abnormalities). Abnormalities included individual components of the metabolic syndrome, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and insulin resistance. A total of 3088 (age 55.6±12.6 years, 51.3% females) had all measurements. Of these, 890 (28.8%), 1361 (44.1%) and 837 (27.1%) were normal weight, overweight and obese, respectively. Overall, 19.0% of normal weight in contrast to 54.9% of overweight and 77.7% of obese individuals had ≥3 risk factors (poverweight and 3.9% of obese individuals were metabolically healthy and, compared to Lima, the rural and urban sites in Puno were more likely to have a metabolically healthier profile. Most Peruvians with overweight and obesity have additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, as well as a majority of those with a healthy weight. Prevention programs aimed at individuals with a normal BMI, and those who are overweight and obese, are urgently needed, such as screening for elevated fasting cholesterol and glucose.
... Injury Prevention & Control Gateway to Health Communication & Social Marketing Practice On Other Web Sites MedlinePlus – Hispanic American ... MB] en Español [PDF – 1.61 MB] CDC Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Language: ...
Wang, Judy Huei-yu; Adams, Inez F; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Allen, Laura; Huang, Ellen; Wang, Yiru; Pasick, Rena J
Cancer-related stress is heavily influenced by culture. This study explored similarities and differences in survivorship care concerns among Chinese American and non-Hispanic White (NHW) breast cancer survivors. A sequential, mixed-method design (inductive/qualitative research-phase I and deductive/quantitative research-phase II) was employed. Eligible women identified from the Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry were age ≥21, diagnosed with stage 0-IIa breast cancer between 2006 and 2011, and had no recurrence or other cancers. In phase I, we conducted 4 Chinese (n = 19) and 4 NHW (n = 22) focus groups, and 31 individual telephone interviews (18 Chinese immigrants, 7 Chinese US-born, and 6 NHW). Content analysis was conducted to examine qualitative data. In phase II, another 296 survivors (148 NHW age-matched to 148 Chinese cases) completed a cross-sectional survey. Descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis were conducted to examine quantitative data. Qualitative data revealed "socioeconomic well-being" (SWB) as a dominant survivorship concern, which was operationalized as a cancer survivor's perceived economic and social resources available to access care. Quantitative data showed that low-acculturated Chinese immigrants reported the poorest SWB, controlling for covariates. Highly acculturated Chinese immigrants and the US-born Chinese/NHW group reported similar SWB. Women who had low-income levels or chemotherapy had poorer SWB. SWB emerged as an important aspect of breast cancer survivorship. Immigration stress, cancer care costs, and cultural values all contributed to immigrants' socioeconomic distress. Immigrant and US-born breast cancer survivors experienced different socioeconomic circumstances and well-being following treatment. Our findings warrant further investigation of socioeconomic distress and survivorship outcomes.
Wang, Judy Huei-yu; Adams, Inez F.; Pasick, Rena J.; Gomez, Scarlett L.; Allen, Laura; Ma, Grace X.; Lee, Michael X.; Huang, Ellen
Purpose Asian Americans have consistently reported poorer communication with physicians compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). This qualitative study sought to elucidate the similarities and differences in communication with physicians between Chinese and NHW breast cancer survivors. Methods Forty-four Chinese and 28 NHW women with early-stage breast cancer (stage 0-IIa) from the Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry participated in focus group discussions or individual interviews. We oversampled Chinese women because little is known about their cancer care experiences. In both interview formats, questions explored patients’ experiences and feelings when communicating with physicians about their diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up care. Results Physician empathy at the time of diagnosis was important to both ethnic groups; however, during treatment and follow-up care, physicians’ ability to treat cancer and alleviate physical symptoms was a higher priority. NHW and US-born Chinese survivors were more likely to assert their needs, whereas Chinese immigrants accepted physician advice even when it did not alleviate physical problems (e.g., pain). Patients viewed all physicians as the primary source for information about cancer care. Many Chinese immigrants sought additional information from primary care physicians and stressed optimal communication over language concordance. Conclusions Physician empathy and precise information were important for cancer patients. Cultural differences such as the Western emphasis on individual autonomy vs. Chinese emphasis on respect and hierarchy can be the basis for the varied approaches to physician communication we observed. Interventions based on cultural understanding can foster more effective communication between immigrant patients and physicians ultimately improving patient outcomes. PMID:23903797
Morote, Roxanna; Hjemdal, Odin; Martinez Uribe, Patricia; Corveleyn, Jozef
Resilience is a multi-dimensional construct associated with health and well-being. At present, we do not yet have a valid, scientific instrument that is designed to evaluate adult resilience in Spanish-speaking countries and that accounts for family, social and individual components. This study aimed at investigating the construct and cross-cultural validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) by combining Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) and Hierarchical Regression models in a Hispanic Latin-American group. A community sample of 805 adults answered the RSA, Spanish Language Stressful Life-Events checklist (SL-SLE), and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25). First-order CFA verified the six factors structure for the RSA (RMSEA = .037, SRMR = .047, CFI = .91, TLI = .90). Five RSA scales and total score have good internal consistency (scales α > .70; total score α = .90). Two second-order CFA verified the intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions of the protector factors of resilience, as well as their commonality and uniqueness with affective symptoms (anxiety and depression). An exploratory MDS reproduced the relations of RSA items and factors at first and second-order levels against random simulated data, thereby providing initial evidence of its cross-cultural validity in a Spanish-speaking group. The Four-steps hierarchical model showed that the RSA scales are the strongest predictors of anxiety and depression-greater than gender, age, education and stressful life-events. Three RSA scales are significant unique predictors of affective symptoms. In addition, similar to findings in diverse cultural settings, resilience is positively associated with age but not with education. Women report higher scores of Social Resources and Social Competence and lower scores of Perception of the Self. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the construct and criterion-related validity of the RSA in broad, diverse and Spanish speaking
Kocarnik, Beverly M; Boyko, Edward J; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Leonetti, Donna L; Page, Stephanie T
The role of plasma estradiol in the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat (IAF) in men is uncertain. Cross-sectional studies using imaging of IAF have shown either a positive or no association. In contrast, a randomised controlled trial using an aromatase inhibitor to suppress estradiol production found an association between oestrogen deficiency and short-term IAF accumulation. No longitudinal study has been conducted to examine the relationship between plasma estradiol concentration and the change in IAF area measured using direct imaging. This is a longitudinal observational study in community-dwelling Japanese-American men (n=215, mean age 52 years, BMI 25.4kg/m 2 ). IAF and subcutaneous fat areas were assessed using computerized tomography (CT) at baseline, 5 and 10 years. Baseline plasma estradiol concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Univariate analysis found no association between baseline estradiol concentration and baseline IAF, or 5- or 10-year changes in IAF area (r=-0.05 for both time points, p=0.45 and p=0.43, respectively). Multivariate linear regression analysis of the change in IAF area by baseline estradiol concentration adjusted for age, baseline IAF area, and weight change found no association with either the 5- or 10-year IAF area change (p=0.52 and p=0.55, respectively). Plasma estradiol concentration was not associated with baseline IAF nor with change in IAF area over 5 or 10 years based on serial CT scans in community-dwelling Japanese-American men. These results do not support a role for oestrogen deficiency in IAF accumulation in men. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. All rights reserved.
Darabi, Katherine F.; And Others
Discusses fertility of Hispanic adolescents in the United States. Summarizes what is known about sexuality, contraception, pregnancy, and childbearing among male and female Hispanics of various countries of origin. Indicates Hispanic adolescent birthrates fall between those of non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks, but there is considerable within-group…
... Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table 5. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_09.pdf [PDF | 994KB] Infant deaths and mortality rates for the top 4 leading cause of death ...
Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Wei, Pengxiao C; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Lu, Shelly C; Monroe, Kristine R; Le Marchand, Loic; Yuan, Jian Min
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic liver disease (CLD) are major causes of morbidity and mortality among Hispanics. Disparities in the incidence of HCC and in CLD deaths by nativity in Hispanics have been reported. Whether individual-level risk factors could explain these disparities was assessed in a prospective study of 36,864 Hispanics (18,485 US-born and 18,379 foreign-born) in the Multiethnic Cohort. Risk factors were assessed with a baseline questionnaire and Medicare claim files. During a 19.6-year follow-up, 189 incident cases of HCC and 298 CLD deaths were identified. The HCC incidence rate was almost twice as high for US-born Hispanic men versus foreign-born Hispanic men (44.7 vs 23.1), but the rates were comparable for women (14.5 vs 13.4). The CLD mortality rate was about twice as high for US-born Hispanics versus foreign-born Hispanics (66.3 vs 35.1 for men and 42.2 vs 19.7 for women). Heavy alcohol consumption was associated with HCC and CLD in foreign-born individuals, whereas the current smoking status, hepatitis B/C viral infection, and diabetes were associated with both HCC and CLD. After adjustments for these risk factors, the hazard rate ratios for HCC and CLD death were 1.58 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-2.51) and 1.85 (95% confidence interval, 1.25-2.73), respectively, for US-born Hispanics versus foreign-born Hispanics. US-born Hispanics, particularly males, are at greater risk for HCC and death from CLD than foreign-born Hispanics. Overall known differences in risk factors do not account for these disparities. Future studies are warranted to identify factors that contribute to the elevated risk of HCC development and CLD death in US-born Hispanics. Cancer 2016;122:1444-1452. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
Full Text Available The consequences of starting smoking by age 18 are significant. Early smoking initiation is associated with higher tobacco dependence, increased difficulty in smoking cessation and more negative health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine how closely smoking initiation in a well-defined population of American Indians (AI resembles a group of Non-Hispanic white (NHW populations born over an 80 year period. We obtained data on age of smoking initiation among 7,073 AIs who were members of 13 tribes in Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota from the 1988 Strong Heart Study (SHS and the 2001 Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS and 19,747 NHW participants in the 2003 National Health Interview Survey. The participants were born as early as 1904 and as late as 1985. We classified participants according to birth cohort by decade, sex, and for AIs, according to location. We estimated the cumulative incidence of smoking initiation by age 18 in each sex and birth cohort group in both AIs and NHWs and used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios for the association of birth cohort, sex and region with the age at smoking initiation. We found that the cumulative incidence of smoking initiation by age 18 was higher in males than females in all SHS regions and in NHWs (p < 0.001. Our results show regional variation of age of initiation significant in the SHS (p < 0.001. Our data showed that not all AIs (in this sample showed similar trends toward increased earlier smoking. For instance, Oklahoma SHS male participants born in the 1980s initiated smoking before age 18 less often than those born before 1920 by a ratio of 0.7. The results showed significant variation in age of initiation across sex, birth cohort, and location. Our preliminary analyses suggest that AI smoking trends are not uniform across region or gender but are likely shaped by local context. If tobacco prevention and control programs depend in part on addressing the origin of AI
Richardson, Safiya I.; Freedman, Barry I.; Ellison, David H.; Rodriguez, Carlos J.
The purpose of this review is to summarize the available information regarding salt sensitivity particularly as it relates to non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics and to clarify possible etiologies, especially those that might shed light on potential treatment options. In non-Hispanic blacks, there is evidence that endothelial dysfunction, reduced potassium intake, decreased urinary kallikrein excretion, upregulation of sodium channel activity, dysfunction in atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) production, and APOL1 gene nephropathy risk variants may cause or contribute to salt sensitivity. Supported treatment avenues include diets high in potassium and soybean protein, the components of which stimulate nitric oxide production. Racial heterogeneity complicates the study of salt sensitivity in Hispanic populations. Caribbean Hispanics, who have a higher proportion of African ancestry, may respond to commonly prescribed anti-hypertensive agents in a way that is characteristic of non-Hispanic black hypertensives. The low-renin hypertensive phenotype commonly seen in non-Hispanic blacks has been linked to salt sensitivity and may indicate an increased risk for salt sensitivity in a portion of the Hispanic population. In conclusion, increased morbidity and mortality associated with salt sensitivity mandates further studies evaluating the efficacy of tailored dietary and pharmacologic treatment in non-Hispanic blacks and determining the prevalence of low renin hypertension and salt sensitivity within the various subgroups of Hispanic Americans. PMID:23428408
Marin, B V; Perez-Stable, E J; Marin, G; Sabogal, F; Otero-Sabogal, R
The smoking behavior of Hispanics, especially Mexican Americans, has been reported to differ from that of non-Hispanic whites, in both large gender differences in prevalence as well as a lower self-reported number of cigarettes smoked per day. This study compared the responses of a convenience sample of 263 Hispanic (44% Mexican American and 38% Central American) and 150 non-Hispanic white smokers, in order to identify other ethnic; gender, and acculturation differences in smoking behaviors. Hispanic women smoked fewer cigarettes and initiated smoking at a comparatively later age than Hispanic men; they were also less likely to smoke during pregnancy than non-Hispanic white women. Hispanics smoked more cigarettes on Saturday than other days, but this was not true for non-Hispanic whites. Will power (voluntad propia) and knowing the negative effects of smoking were considered the most helpful techniques for quitting by Hispanics. Considering that light smokers are able to quit with less intensive cessation techniques, these data suggest that a properly developed health education community intervention may have an impact on smoking rates among Hispanics.
The objective of this paper was to identify the relationships and associations between child and parent characteristics with child fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in an online obesity prevention program for 8-10 year old African American girls. Girls and a parent (n=342 child-parent pairs) in t...
Sutton, Madeline Y; Lasswell, Sarah M; Lanier, Yzette; Miller, Kim S
We reviewed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI)- behavioral interventions implemented with disproportionately affected black/African-American and Hispanic/Latino youth and designed to improve parent-child communications about sex. We compared their effectiveness in improving sex-related behavior or cognitive outcomes. A search of electronic databases identified peer-reviewed studies published between 1988 and 2012. Eligible studies were U.S.-based parent-child communication interventions with active parent components, experimental and quasiexperimental designs, measurement of youth sexual health outcomes, and enrollment of ≥ 50% black/African-American or Hispanic/Latino youth. We conducted systematic, primary reviews of eligible papers to abstract data on study characteristics and youth outcomes. Fifteen studies evaluating 14 interventions were eligible. Although youth outcome measures and follow-up times varied, 13 of 15 studies (87%) showed at least one significantly improved youth sexual health outcome compared with controls (p communication skills with their youth. Parent-child communication interventions that include parents of youth disproportionately affected by HIV/STIs can effectively reduce sexual risk for youth. These interventions may help reduce HIV/STI-related health disparities and improve sexual health outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Background Mobile health (mHealth) interventions are promising avenues to promote cardiovascular (CV) health among African-Americans (AAs) and culturally tailored technology-based interventions are emerging for this population. Objective The objectives of this study were to use a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to recruit AAs into a pilot intervention study of an innovative mHealth CV health promotion program and to characterize technology use patterns and eHealth literacy (EHL). Methods Community partners from five predominately AA churches in southeast Minnesota collaborated with our academic institution to recruit AA congregants into the pilot study. Field notes as well as communications between the study team and community partners were used to design the recruitment strategy and its implementation with a goal of enrolling 50 participants. At its core, the recruitment strategy included community kickoff events to detail the state-of-the-art nature of the mHealth intervention components, the utility of CV health assessments (physical examination, laboratory studies and surveys) and the participants’ role in advancing our understanding of the efficacy of mHealth interventions among racial/ethnic minority groups. Detailed recruitment data were documented throughout the study. A self-administered, electronic survey measured sociodemographics, technology use and EHL (eHEALS scale). Results A total of 50 participants (70% women) from five AA churches were recruited over a one-month period. The majority (>90%) of participants reported using some form of mobile technology with all utilizing these technologies within their homes. Greater than half (60% [30/50]) reported being “very comfortable” with mobile technologies. Overall, participants had high EHL (84.8% [39/46] with eHEALS score ≥26) with no differences by sex. Conclusions This study illustrates the feasibility and success of a CBPR approach in recruiting AAs into m
Sliwa, Sarah A; Must, Aviva; Peréa, Flavia; Economos, Christina D
Employment is a major factor underlying im/migration patterns. Unfortunately, lower diet quality and higher rates of obesity appear to be unintended consequences of moving to the US. Changes in food preparation practices may be a factor underlying dietary acculturation. The relationships between employment, acculturation, and food-related time use in Hispanic families have received relatively little attention. We used cross-sectional data collected from Hispanic mothers (ages 18-65) with at least one child employment, acculturation (US-born vs. im/migrant), and time spent in food preparation and family dinner. Regression models were estimated separately for the employed and the non-working and were adjusted for Hispanic origin group, socio-demographic and household characteristics. Working an eight-hour day was associated with spending 38 fewer minutes in food preparation (-38.0 ± SE 4.8, p < 001). Although being US-born was associated with spending fewer minutes in food preparation, this relationship varied by origin group. Acculturation did not appear to modify the relationship between hours worked and time spent in food preparation or family dinner. Mothers who worked late hours spent less time eating the evening meal with their families (-9.8 ± SE 1.3). Although an eight-hour workday was associated with a significant reduction in food preparation time, an unexpected result is that, for working mothers, additional time spent in paid work is not associated with the duration of family dinner later that day. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...
Hartlieb, Kathryn Brogan; Naar, Sylvie; Ledgerwood, David M; Templin, Thomas N; Ellis, Deborah A; Donohue, Bradley; Cunningham, Phillippe B
Contingency management (CM) interventions, which use operant conditioning principles to encourage completion of target behavioral goals, may be useful for improving adherence to behavioral skills training (BST). Research-to-date has yet to explore CM for weight loss in minority adolescents. To examine the effects of CM in improving adolescent weight loss when added to BST. The study utilized an innovative experimental design that builds upon multiple baseline approaches as recommended by the National Institutes of Health. Six obese African-American youth and their primary caregivers living in Detroit, Michigan, USA. Adolescents received between 4 and 12 weeks of BST during a baseline period and subsequently received CM targeting weight loss. Youth weight. Linear mixed effects modeling was used in the analysis. CM did not directly affect adolescent weight loss above that of BST (p=0.053). However, when caregivers were involved in CM session treatment, contingency management had a positive effect on adolescent weight loss. The estimated weight loss due to CM when caregivers also attended was 0.66 kg/week (pcontingency management for minority youth weight loss. Lessons learned from contingency management program implementation are also discussed in order to inform practice.
Yankelovich, Daniel; And Others
This report summarizes results of a 1984 study of the lifestyles, values, buying behavior, and media habits of the Hispanic American market. First, a number of shifts in U.S. political, social, and economic life (since 1981, when the first study of this type was conducted) which are changing the orientation of Hispanics are discussed. These shifts…
Serafin, Ana Gil
Describes a graduate program in school leadership at Northeastern Illinois University that is intended to meet the administrative and leadership needs of Hispanic teachers in Chicago. The master's degree program is offered as part of the university's El Centro outreach center for the Hispanic-American community and offers collaborative…
Barr, R Graham; Avilés-Santa, Larissa; Davis, Sonia M; Aldrich, Tom K; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Henderson, Ashley G; Kaplan, Robert C; LaVange, Lisa; Liu, Kiang; Loredo, Jose S; Mendes, Eliana S; Ni, Ai; Ries, Andrew; Salathe, Matthias; Smith, Lewis J
Asthma has been reported to be more prevalent among Hispanics of Puerto Rican heritage than among other Hispanics and among Hispanics born in the United States or who immigrated as children than among those who came as adults; however, direct comparisons across Hispanic groups are lacking. To test whether asthma is more prevalent among Hispanics of Puerto Rican heritage than among other Hispanic groups, whether asthma is associated with age of immigration, and whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease varies by heritage in a large, population-based cohort of Hispanics in the United States. The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos researchers recruited a population-based probability sample of 16,415 Hispanics/Latinos, 18-74 years of age, in New York City, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. Participants self-reported Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Central American, or South American heritage; birthplace; and, if relevant, age at immigration. A respiratory questionnaire and standardized spirometry were performed with post-bronchodilator measures for those with airflow limitation. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma among Puerto Ricans (36.5%; 95% confidence interval, 33.6-39.5%) was higher than among other Hispanics (odds ratio, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 3.3-4.6). Hispanics who were born in the mainland United States or had immigrated as children had a higher asthma prevalence than those who had immigrated as adults (19.6, 19.4, and 14.1%, respectively; P immigration. Asthma was more prevalent among Puerto Ricans, other Hispanics born in the United States, and those who had immigrated as children than among other Hispanics. In contrast, the higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among Puerto Ricans and Cubans was largely reflective of differential smoking patterns and asthma.
Cortes-Bergoderi, Mery; Goel, Kashish; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Allison, Thomas; Somers, Virend K; Erwin, Patricia J; Sochor, Ondrej; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco
Hispanics, the largest minority in the U.S., have a higher prevalence of several cardiovascular (CV) risk factors than non-Hispanic whites (NHW). However, some studies have shown a paradoxical lower rate of CV events among Hispanics than NHW. To perform a systematic review and a meta-analysis of cohort studies comparing CV mortality and all-cause mortality between Hispanic and NHW populations in the U.S. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Scopus databases from 1950 through May 2013, using terms related to Hispanic ethnicity, CV diseases and cohort studies. We pooled risk estimates using the least and most adjusted models of each publication. We found 341 publications of which 17 fulfilled the inclusion criteria; data represent 22,340,554 Hispanics and 88,824,618 NHW, collected from 1950 to 2009. Twelve of the studies stratified the analysis by gender, and one study stratified people by place of birth (e.g. U.S.-born, Mexican-born, and Central/South American-born). There was a statistically significant association between Hispanic ethnicity and lower CV mortality (OR 0.67; 95% CI, 0.57-0.78; pvalue value 0.06. These results confirm the existence of a Hispanic paradox regarding CV mortality. Further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms mediating this protective CV effect in Hispanics. © 2013.
Green, R; Santoro, N F; McGinn, A P; Wildman, R P; Derby, C A; Polotsky, A J; Weiss, G
To test the hypothesis that psychosocial symptomatology differs by country of origin and acculturation among Hispanic women, we examined 419 women, aged 42-52 years at baseline, enrolled in the New Jersey site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Women were categorized into six groups: Central (CA, n = 29) or South American (SA, n = 106), Puerto Rican (PR, n = 56), Dominican (D, n = 42), Cuban (Cu, n = 44) and non-Hispanic Caucasian (NHC, n = 142). Acculturation, depressive symptoms, hostility/cynicism, mistreatment/discrimination, sleep quality, social support, and perceived stress were assessed at baseline. Physical functioning, trait anxiety and anger were assessed at the fourth annual follow-up. Comparisons between Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasians used χ², t test or non-parametric alternatives; ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis testing examined differences among the five Hispanic sub-groups. Multivariable regression models used PR women as the reference group. Hispanic women were overall less educated, less acculturated (p stress, and less mistreatment/discrimination than NHCs. Along with D women, PR women reported worse sleep than Cu women (p acculturated (21.4% highly acculturated vs. CA (0.0%), D (4.8%), SA (4.8%) and Cu (2.3%) women; p acculturation was associated with more favorable psychosocial status, but PR ethnicity was negatively related to psychosocial status. Psychosocial symptomatology among Hispanic women differs by country of origin and the relatively adverse profile of Puerto Rican women is not explained by acculturation.
Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Sussman, Steve
It is unclear how acculturation is related to self-control characteristics and whether part of the effect of acculturation on Hispanic adolescents’ substance use behavior is mediated through lower self-control. We tested social self-control, peer substance use, and baseline substance use as mediators of the effect of Hispanic (predominantly Mexican or Mexican American) adolescents’ level of U.S. acculturation on their substance use behavior 1 year later. In addition, we tested gender as a possible moderator of the pathways involved in the mediation model. Participants included 1,040 self-identified Hispanic/Latino adolescents (M = 14.7; SD = 0.90; 89% Mexican/Mexican American) recruited from nine public high schools. Acculturation was measured in terms of adolescents’ extent of English language use in general, at home, with friends, and their use of the English-language entertainment media. Analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling and controlled for potential confounders such as age and parental education. Results indicated a statistically significant three-path mediation in which poor social self-control and peer substance use mediated the effects of acculturation on prospective substance use. Paths in the mediation model were not found to differ by gender. Our findings suggest that acculturation may influence adolescents’ self-control characteristics related to interpersonal functioning, which may in turn influence their affiliation with substance-using friends and substance use behavior. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of future research and prevention programming. PMID:23772765
... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...
Bilal, Usama; Knapp, Emily A; Cooper, Richard S
Understanding the effects of widespread disruption of the social fabric on public health outcomes can provide insight into the forces that drive major political realignment. Our objective was to estimate the association between increases in mortality in middle-aged non-Hispanic white adults from 1999 to 2005 to 2009-2015, health inequalities in life expectancy by income, and the surge in support for the Republican Party in pivotal US counties in the 2016 presidential election. We conducted a longitudinal ecological study in 2764 US counties from 1999 to 2016. Increases in mortality were measured using age-specific (45-54 years of age) all-cause mortality from 1999 to 2005 to 2009-2015 at the county level. Support for the Republican Party was measured as the party's vote share in the presidential election in 2016 adjusted for results in 2008 and 2012. We found a significant up-turn in mortality from 1999 to 2005 to 2009-2015 in counties where the Democratic Party won twice (2008 and 2012) but where the Republican Party won in 2016 (+10.7/100,000), as compared to those in which the Democratic Party won in 2016 (-15.7/100,000). An increase in mortality of 15.2/100,000 was associated with a significant (p general population can inform social policy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Worthington, Debra L.; Keaton, Shaughan; Cook, John; Fitch-Hauser, Margaret; Powers, William G.
The Watson-Barker Listening Test (WBLT) is one of the most popular measures of listening comprehension. However, participants in studies utilizing this scale have been almost exclusively Anglo-American. At the same time, previous research questions the psychometric properties of the test. This study addressed both of these issues by testing the…
Mahoney, Melissa M.
The increased demand for qualified STEM workers, necessitates addressing the bachelor's science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) degree achievement among African Americans and other underrepresented populations. Using inquiry derived from Harper's (2010) Anti-Deficit Achievement Framework, this study sought to explore the factors that contribute to the successful degree completion of African American STEM students within a large comprehensive university system. Coding of the twelve semi-structured interviews revealed six major themes: a) K-12/precollege educational experiences, b) motivation to complete a STEM degree, c) systems of social support, d) extracurricular activities and out-of-class experiences, e) addressing stereotyping and discrimination, and f) faculty behaviors and dispositions. All themes were intertwined at each phase of participants' academic careers, thereby, highlighting the complexity of this population's experience and what is needed to address their low STEM degree attainment. Findings indicated that this student population benefits from positive, sustained faculty-student interactions, holistic STEM success programming, and genuine networks of social support. Furthermore, Harper's framework can be modified to explore the motivation of African American STEM students as well as the African American student's relationship with disability support services.
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. About one in six people living in the U.S. are Hispanic. The two leading causes of death in this group are heart disease and cancer, accounting for two out of five deaths. Unfortunately, many Hispanics face considerable barriers to getting high quality health care, including language and low income. Learn what can be done to reduce the barriers.
Burnham, Joy J.; Lomax, Richard G.
The American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-AM; J. J. Burnham, 1995, 2005) has been used to measure fears of children and adolescents. The FSSC-AM is based on the 2nd revision of a psychometrically sound and well-known fear scale (i.e., FSSC-II; E. Gullone & N. J. King, 1992). In this study, age and gender differences, fear intensity…
Ness, Maria; Barradas, Danielle T.; Irving, Jennifer; Manning, Susan E.
Risk factors for overweight and obesity may be different for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children compared to children of other racial/ethnic backgrounds, as obesity prevalence among AI/AN children remains much higher. Using data from the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health, behavioral (child’s sport team participation, vigorous physical activity, television viewing, and computer use), household (parental physical activity, frequency of family meals, rules limiting televis...
Justice-Gardiner, Haley; Nutt, Stephanie; Rechis, Ruth; McMillan, Brooke; Warf, Rainy
In the USA, cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and premature death among the Hispanic/Latino population. It is estimated that one in two Hispanic men and one in three Hispanic women will be diagnosed with cancer during their lifetime (American Cancer Society 2010). Despite this significant cancer burden, few innovative strategies for communication and outreach to this population currently exist. In 2009, LIVESTRONG launched a national outreach campaign, which utilized social marketing, specifically targeting Hispanics with the goal of increasing awareness and usage of LIVESTRONG's Spanish-language cancer navigation resources. This campaign, one of the first undertaken by a national cancer-related organization, led to increased awareness and utilization of resources, including a 238% increase in traffic over traditional marketing campaigns which focused on radio alone. The success of this campaign highlights the use of social media as a cost-effective method to raise awareness of cancer resources among Hispanics.
David F. Briones
Full Text Available We investigated the prevalence of “high” levels of depressive symptomatology and 13 health-related medical conditions in elderly Mexican American (MA and non-Hispanic white (NHW residents of El Paso County, Texas. We analyzed the extent to which depressive symptoms in this population are associated with these conditions. Elderly MA residents possessed a higher prevalence of current depression, a relatively unique health-related condition profile, and were more likely to experience a set of conditions that impede participation in daily life—conditions that we found to be strongly associated with high depressive symptomatology in the elderly. After adjusting for educational attainment, using multiple regression analyses, depression was not associated with ethnicity and only six of the health related conditions showed significant differences between MA and NHW subjects. We believe these results provide an important insight into the mechanism of health-related conditions and depressive symptomatology in a large sample of elderly MAs; and how conditions typically attributed to MA ethnicity may in actuality be an artifact of socioeconomic status variables such as educational-attainment.
Dallo, Florence J; Kindratt, Tiffany B
Disparities in vaccinations and cancer screening exist when comparing foreign-born and U.S.-born women collectively and disaggregated by race and ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to estimate and compare the age-adjusted prevalence of not receiving a flu or pneumonia vaccine, clinical breast examination, mammogram or Pap smear among U.S.- and foreign-born White women by region of birth and examine associations while controlling for potential confounders. We pooled 12 years of National Health Interview Survey data (n = 117,893). To approximate an "Arab-American" ethnicity, we identified 15 "Arab" countries from the Middle East region that comprise the Arab Nations. Data was requested from the National Center for Health Statistics Research Data Center. We used the χ(2) statistic to compare descriptive statistics and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were used for inferential statistics. Compared to U.S.-born, foreign-born Whites from the Arab Nations had higher estimates of not receiving recommended vaccinations and cancer screenings. In crude and adjusted analyses, foreign-born Arab-American women were less likely to report receiving a flu vaccine (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.21-0.58), pneumonia vaccine (OR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.06-0.32), Pap smear (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.05-0.31), or clinical breast examination (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.07-0.37) compared with U.S.-born White women. There were no differences for mammography. This national study examining uptake of flu and pneumonia vaccines and preventive cancer screenings suggests that estimates are lower for foreign-born Arab-American women compared with U.S.-born White women. Future studies should collect qualitative data that assess the cultural context surrounding prevention and screening behaviors among Arab-American women. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave
The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims...... to international protocols for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, or water distribution in drought periods. We define a family of allocation methods for such general rationing problems - called baseline rationing rules - and provide an axiomatic characterization for it. Any baseline rationing rule within...... the family is associated with a standard rule and we show that if the latter obeys some properties reflecting principles of impartiality, priority and solidarity, the former obeys them too....
Pang, Raina D; Bello, Mariel S; Liautaud, Madalyn M; Weinberger, Andrea H; Leventhal, Adam M
Prior studies have found heightened negative affect following tobacco abstinence in women compared to men. However, experimental work addressing whether these findings generalize across racial groups is scarce. The current study investigated whether race (Non-Hispanic White vs. Non-Hispanic African American) moderated gender differences in abstinence-induced negative affect and smoking behavior. Data were collected from 2010 to 2017 from two separate laboratory studies investigating experimentally manipulated tobacco abstinence. Following a baseline session, adult daily smokers (10 cigarettes per day; women: n=297, 83.8% Non-Hispanic African American; men: n=492, 86.2% Non-Hispanic African American) attended two counterbalanced lab sessions (16 hours abstinent vs. non-abstinent) and completed self-report measures of negative affect followed by a laboratory analogue smoking reinstatement task. We found a gender race interaction for several negative affect states and composite negative affect (ßs=-.12 to -.16, psNon-Hispanic White women compared to Non-Hispanic White men exhibited greater abstinence-induced increases in anger, anxiety, and composite negative affect (ßs=-.20 to -.29, psNon-Hispanic African American smokers (ßs=.00 to -.04, ps>.05). These findings suggest that negative affect during acute tobacco abstinence may be a clinically important and intervenable factor that can inform cessation interventions specifically for Non-Hispanic White women smokers. Further empirical exploration of mechanisms underlying interactions of gender and race in tobacco addiction may benefit smoking cessation efforts in Non-Hispanic African American women smokers. The current study contributes to a scant body of research examining the intersectional influence of race and gender on abstinence-induced negative affect-a central, motivationally prepotent feature of tobacco withdrawal. Using a laboratory-based design to experimentally manipulate abstinence, we provide evidence
Nancy J. Karlin; Joyce Weil; James Gould
This study focuses on understanding similarities and differences between non-Hispanic White and Hispanic informal caregivers of those with Alzheimer’s disease. Comparisons take place between caregivers reporting high levels of burden as indicated by the Zarit Burden Inventory. Data suggest similarities and differences between Hispanic (n = 17) and non-Hispanic White (n = 17) caregivers in this study in several areas. H...
Baroque Poetics and the Logic of Hispanic Exceptionalismby Allen YoungIn this dissertation I study the how the baroque is used to understand aesthetic modernity in twentieth-century Spain and Latin America. My argument is that the baroque, in contemporary Hispanic and Latin American studies, functions as a myth of cultural exceptionalism, letting critics recast avant-garde and postmodern innovation as fidelity to a timeless essence or identity. That is, by viewing much contemporary Spanish-la...
... Heart Disease in Women Heart Disease in Hispanic Women “I thought it couldn’t be true,” says ... disease is their No. 1 killer. Why Hispanic women? While heart disease doesn’t discriminate, you could ...
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. About one in six people living in the U.S. are Hispanic. The two leading causes of death in this group are heart disease and cancer, accounting for two out of five deaths. Unfortunately, many Hispanics face considerable barriers to getting high quality health care, including language and low income. Learn what can be done to reduce the barriers. Created: 5/5/2015 by Office of Minority Health & Health Equity (OMHHE). Date Released: 5/5/2015.
Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore
A study examined the employment of Hispanics in the fast-food industry. Data were obtained from a national survey of employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies in which 194 (4.2 percent) of the 4,660 respondents reported being Hispanic. Compared with the total sample, Hispanic fast-food employees were slightly less likely to be…
Tsai, Wan-Hsiu Sunny; Li, Cong
This study examined the moderating effects of acculturation modes (assimilated, integrated, and separated) on Hispanic consumers' responses to three advertising targeting strategies (Caucasian targeted, bicultural, and Hispanic targeted). The hypotheses were empirically tested in a 3 x 3 factorial experiment with 155 self-identified Hispanic adult…
Rationale, design, and baseline findings from HIPP: A randomized controlled trial testing a home-based, individually-tailored physical activity print intervention for African American women in the Deep South.
Pekmezi, Dori; Ainsworth, Cole; Joseph, Rodney; Bray, Molly S; Kvale, Elizabeth; Isaac, Shiney; Desmond, Renee; Meneses, Karen; Marcus, Bess; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy
African American women report high rates of physical inactivity and related health disparities. In our previous formative research, we conducted a series of qualitative assessments to examine physical activity barriers and intervention preferences among African American women in the Deep South. These data were used to inform a 12-month Home-based, Individually-tailored Physical activity Print (HIPP) intervention, which is currently being evaluated against a wellness contact control condition among 84 post-menopausal African American women residing in the metropolitan area of Birmingham, Alabama. This paper reports the rationale, design and baseline findings of the HIPP trial. The accrued participants had an average age of 57 (SD=4.7), a BMI of 32.1 kg/m(2) (SD=5.16) with more than half (55%) having a college education and an annual household income under $50,000 (53.6%). At baseline, participants reported an average of 41.5 min/week (SD=49.7) of moderate intensity physical activity, and 94.1% were in the contemplation or preparation stages of readiness for physical activity. While social support for exercise from friends and family was low, baseline levels of self-efficacy, cognitive and behavioral processes of change, decisional balance, outcome expectations, and enjoyment appeared promising. Baseline data indicated high rates of obesity and low levels of physical activity, providing strong evidence of need for intervention. Moreover, scores on psychosocial measures suggested that such efforts may be well received. This line of research in technology-based approaches for promoting physical activity in African American women in the Deep South has great potential to address health disparities and impact public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The androgen receptor (AR remains an important contributor to the neoplastic evolution of prostate cancer (CaP. CaP progression is linked to several somatic AR mutational changes that endow upon the AR dramatic gain-of-function properties. One of the most common somatic mutations identified is Thr877-to-Ala (T877A, located in the ligand-binding domain, that results in a receptor capable of promiscuous binding and activation by a variety of steroid hormones and ligands including estrogens, progestins, glucocorticoids, and several anti-androgens. In an attempt to further define somatic mutated AR gain-of-function properties, as a consequence of its promiscuous ligand binding, we undertook a proteomic/network analysis approach to characterize the protein interactome of the mutant T877A-AR in LNCaP cells under eight different ligand-specific treatments (dihydrotestosterone, mibolerone, R1881, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, dexamethasone, and cyproterone acetate. In extending the analysis of our multi-ligand complexes of the mutant T877A-AR we observed significant enrichment of specific complexes between normal and primary prostatic tumors, which were furthermore correlated with known clinical outcomes. Further analysis of certain mutant T877A-AR complexes showed specific population preferences distinguishing primary prostatic disease between white (non-Hispanic vs. African-American males. Moreover, these cancer-related AR-protein complexes demonstrated predictive survival outcomes specific to CaP, and not for breast, lung, lymphoma or medulloblastoma cancers. Our study, by coupling data generated by our proteomics to network analysis of clinical samples, has helped to define real and novel biological pathways in complicated gain-of-function AR complex systems.
Bruse, Shannon; Sood, Akshay; Petersen, Hans; Liu, Yushi; Leng, Shuguang; Celedón, Juan C; Gilliland, Frank; Celli, Bartolomé; Belinsky, Steven A; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes
The epidemiology of cigarette smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well characterized in Hispanics in the United States. Understanding how ethnicity influences COPD is important for a number of reasons, from informing public health policies to dissecting the genetic and environmental effects that contribute to disease. The present study assessed differences in risk between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites for longitudinal and cross-sectional COPD phenotypes. Genetic ancestry was used to verify findings based on self-reported ethnicity. Hispanics in New Mexico are primarily differentiated from non-Hispanic whites by their proportion of Native American ancestry. The study was performed in a New Mexican cohort of current and former smokers. Self-reported Hispanic and non-Hispanic white ethnicity was validated by defining genetic ancestry proportions at the individual level using 48 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers. Self-reported ethnicity and genetic ancestry were independently used to assess associations with cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of lung function. Multivariable models were adjusted for indicators of smoking behavior. Self-reported Hispanic ethnicity was significantly associated with lower odds of COPD (odds ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.35-0.71; P = 0.007), and this protection was validated by the observation that Hispanic smokers have reduced risk of rapid decline in lung function (odds ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-0.78; P = 0.003). Similar findings were noted when Native American genetic ancestry proportions were used as predictors instead of self-report of Hispanic ethnicity. Hispanic ethnicity is inversely associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal spirometric COPD phenotypes even after adjustment for smoking. Native American genetic ancestry may account for this "Hispanic protection."
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Daviglus, Martha L; Pirzada, Amber; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Chen, Jinsong; Allison, Matthew; Avilés-Santa, Larissa; Cai, Jianwen; González, Hector M; Kaplan, Robert C; Schneiderman, Neil; Sorlie, Paul D; Talavera, Gregory A; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Stamler, Jeremiah
Favorable levels of all readily measurable major cardiovascular disease risk factors (ie, low risk [LR]) are associated with lower risks of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Data are not available on LR prevalence among Hispanic/Latino adults of diverse ethnic backgrounds. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of a low cardiovascular disease risk profile among Hispanic/Latino adults in the United States and to examine cross-sectional associations of LR with measures of acculturation. The multicenter, prospective, population-based Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos examined 16 415 men and women aged 18 to 74 years at baseline (2008-2011) with diverse Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. Analyses involved 14 757 adults (mean age 41.3 years; 60.6% women). LR was defined using national guidelines for favorable levels of serum cholesterol, blood pressure, and body mass index and by not having diabetes mellitus and not currently smoking. Age-adjusted LR prevalence was low (8.4% overall; 5.1% for men, 11.2% for women) and varied by background (4.2% in men of Mexican heritage versus 15.0% in women of Cuban heritage). Lower acculturation (assessed using proxy measures) was significantly associated with higher odds of a LR profile among women only: Age-adjusted odds ratios of having LR were 1.64 (95% CI 1.24-2.17) for foreign-born versus US-born women and 1.96 (95% CI 1.49-2.58) for women residing in the United States profile is low. Lower acculturation is associated with higher odds of a LR profile among women but not men. Comprehensive public health strategies are needed to improve the cardiovascular health of US Hispanic/Latino adults. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
Power, Eric J; Chin, Megan L; Haq, Mohamed M
Breast cancer is the most common non-skin cancer amongst women worldwide and is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related mortality overall. It is also the foremost reason for cancer-related mortality in Hispanic females in the United States (US). Although the current incidence of breast cancer is significantly lower in Hispanics compared to that of non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) and Blacks, (91.9, 128.1, and 124.3 per 100,000, respectively, annually), this may increase if Hispanics develop similar lifestyle behaviors to other American women, in categories such as weight management, age at first birth, number of children, and breastfeeding habits. Stage-for-stage mortality for Hispanics is similar to NHWs, but the mortality rate is not declining as rapidly in this ethnic group. Hispanic women share many of the same risk factors for developing breast cancer as NHWs and Blacks. This suggests that many of the risk reduction strategies used in other racial populations may also benefit this group. Providing education about breast cancer and implementing risk reduction strategies in culturally-aware environments could help keep incidence low and reduce cancer-related mortality. Since Hispanics are the largest minority group in the US, this could have a significant impact on the incidence and mortality nationally.
Full Text Available Introduction: Many factors influence women’s decisions to participate in guideline recommended screening mammography. We evaluated the influence of women’s socioeconomic characteristics, healthcare access, and cultural and psychological healthcare preferences on timely mammography screening participation.Materials and methods: A random digit dial survey of United States non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White, and Hispanic women ages 40-75, from January-August 2009 determined self- reported time of most recent mammogram. Screening rates were assessed based on receipt of a screening mammogram within the prior 12 months, the interval recommended at the time by the American Cancer Society.Results: Thirty-nine percent of women reported not having a mammogram within the last 12 months. The odds of not having had a screening mammography was higher for non-Hispanic White women than for non-Hispanic Black (OR=2.16, 95% CI=0.26, 0.82, p=0.009 or Hispanic (OR=4.17, 95% CI=0.12, 0.48, p=0.01 women. Lack of health insurance (OR=3.22, 95% CI=1.54, 6.73, p=0.002 and lack of usual source of medical care (OR=3.37, 95% CI=1.43, 7.94, p=0.01 were associated with not being screened as were lower self-efficacy to obtain screening (OR=2.43, 95% CI=1.26, 4.73, p=0.01 and greater levels of religiosity and spirituality (OR=1.42, 95% CI=1.00, 2.00, p=0.05. Neither perceived risk nor present temporal orientation was significant.Discussion: Odds of not having a mammogram increased if women were uninsured, without medical care, non-Hispanic white, older in age, not confident in their ability to obtain screening, or held passive or external religious/spiritual values. Results are encouraging given racial disparities in healthcare participation and suggest that efforts to increase screening among minority women may be working.
Nollen, Nicole L; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Yu, Qing; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Benowitz, Neal L; Tyndale, Rachel F; Mayo, Matthew S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S
African-Americans smoke fewer cigarettes per day than Whites but experience greater smoking attributable morbidity and mortality. African-American-White differences may also exist in cessation but rigorously designed studies have not been conducted to empirically answer this question. Quit2Live is, to our knowledge, the first head-to-head trial designed with the primary aim of examining African-American-White disparities in quitting smoking. Secondary aims are to identify mechanisms that mediate and/or moderate the relationship between race and quitting. The study is ongoing. Study aims are accomplished through a 5-year prospective cohort intervention study designed to recruit equal numbers of African-Americans (n=224) and Whites (n=224) stratified on age (White disparities in quitting smoking exist but, more importantly, will examine mechanisms underlying the difference. Attention to proximal, modifiable mechanisms (e.g., adherence, response to treatment, depression, stress) maximizes Quit2Live's potential to inform practice. Findings will provide an empirically-derived approach that will guide researchers and clinicians in identifying specific factors to address to improve cessation outcomes and reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality in African-American and White smokers. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01836276. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rodriguez, Carlos J; Dharod, Ajay; Allison, Matthew A; Shah, Sanjiv J; Hurwitz, Barry; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Kitzman, Dalane; Gillam, Linda; Spevack, Daniel; Dadhania, Rupal; Langdon, Sarah; Kaplan, Robert
Information regarding the prevalence and determinants of cardiac structure and function (systolic and diastolic) among the various Hispanic background groups in the United States is limited. The Echocardiographic Study of Latinos (ECHO-SOL) ancillary study recruited 1,824 participants through a stratified-sampling process representative of the population-based Hispanic Communities Health Study - Study of Latinos (HCHS-SOL) across four sites (Bronx, NY; Chicago, Ill; San Diego, Calif; Miami, Fla). The HCHS-SOL baseline cohort did not include an echo exam. ECHO-SOL added the echocardiographic assessment of cardiac structure and function to an array of existing HCHS-SOL baseline clinical, psychosocial, and socioeconomic data and provides sufficient statistical power for comparisons among the Hispanic subgroups. Standard two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography protocol, including M-mode, spectral, color and tissue Doppler study was performed. The main objectives were to: 1) characterize cardiac structure and function and its determinants among Hispanics and Hispanic subgroups; and 2) determine the contributions of specific psychosocial factors (acculturation and familismo) to cardiac structure and function among Hispanics. We describe the design, methods and rationale of currently the largest and most comprehensive study of cardiac structure and function exclusively among US Hispanics. ECHO-SOL aims to enhance our understanding of Hispanic cardiovascular health as well as help untangle the relative importance of Hispanic subgroup heterogeneity and sociocultural factors on cardiac structure and function.
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Nancy J. Karlin
Full Text Available This study focuses on understanding similarities and differences between non-Hispanic White and Hispanic informal caregivers of those with Alzheimer’s disease. Comparisons take place between caregivers reporting high levels of burden as indicated by the Zarit Burden Inventory. Data suggest similarities and differences between Hispanic (n = 17 and non-Hispanic White (n = 17 caregivers in this study in several areas. Hispanic caregivers indicated fewer sources of income, had less investment money for family member’s treatment, reported caregiving as a greater interference with life’s accomplishments, and indicated a lesser percentage of the total care cost provided by the family member. Non-Hispanic White caregivers reported having completed a higher level of formal education and that organized religion’s importance prior to becoming a caregiver was not quite as important as compared with the Hispanic care provider. With current trends, of demographic and cultural changes, it is crucial to fully understand the changing role and needs of both Hispanic and non-Hispanic White caregivers.
Critical race theory as a tool for understanding poor engagement along the HIV care continuum among African American/Black and Hispanic persons living with HIV in the United States: a qualitative exploration.
Freeman, Robert; Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Silverman, Elizabeth; Kutnick, Alexandra; Leonard, Noelle R; Ritchie, Amanda S; Reed, Jennifer; Martinez, Belkis Y
African American/Black and Hispanic persons living with HIV (AABH-PLWH) in the U.S. evidence insufficient engagement in HIV care and low uptake of HIV antiretroviral therapy, leading to suboptimal clinical outcomes. The present qualitative study used critical race theory, and incorporated intersectionality theory, to understand AABH-PLWH's perspectives on the mechanisms by which structural racism; that is, the macro-level systems that reinforce inequities among racial/ethnic groups, influence health decisions and behaviors. Participants were adult AABH-PLWH in New York City who were not taking antiretroviral therapy nor well engaged in HIV care (N = 37). Participants were purposively sampled for maximum variation from a larger study, and engaged in semi-structured in-depth interviews that were audio-recorded and professionally transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using a systematic content analysis approach. We found AABH-PLWH experienced HIV care and medication decisions through a historical and cultural lens incorporating knowledge of past and present structural racism. This contextual knowledge included awareness of past maltreatment of people of color in medical research. Further, these understandings were linked to the history of HIV antiretroviral therapy itself, including awareness of the first HIV antiretroviral regimen; namely, AZT (zidovudine) mono-therapy, which was initially prescribed in unacceptably high doses, causing serious side effects, but with only modest efficacy. In this historical/cultural context, aspects of structural racism negatively influenced health care decisions and behavior in four main ways: 1) via the extent to which healthcare settings were experienced as overly institutionalized and, therefore, dehumanizing; 2) distrust of medical institutions and healthcare providers, which led AABH-PLWH to feel pressured to take HIV antiretroviral therapy when it was offered; 3) perceptions that patients are excluded from the health
Jones, Wash A.; Larke, Jr., Alvin
With the rapid population increase of Hispanic (Spanish, Latin American, or Spanish Indian heritage) individuals in the United States, ensuring economic prosperity and stability of this group is critical. This should include increasing their dwindling participation in agriculture-related fields. Hispanic youths often overlook an…
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Postsecondary Education; Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institutions (AANAPISI), Native American-Serving Nontribal Institutions (NASNTI), Hispanic Serving Institutions-STEM and Articulation (HSI-STEM), and Predominantly Black Institutions (PBI...
Ott, Summer; Schatz, Philip; Solomon, Gary; Ryan, Joseph J
This study documented baseline neurocognitive performance of 23,815 athletes on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) test. Specifically, 9,733 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking athletes who completed the ImPACT test in English and 2,087 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking athletes who completed the test in Spanish were compared with 11,955 English-speaking athletes who completed the test in English. Athletes were assigned to age groups (13-15, 16-18). Results revealed a significant effect of language group (p Spanish-speaking athletes completing the test in Spanish scored more poorly than Spanish-speaking and English-speaking athletes completing the test in English, on all Composite scores and Total Symptom scores. Spanish-speaking athletes completing the test in English also performed more poorly than English-speaking athletes completing the test in English on three Composite scores. These differences in performance and reported symptoms highlight the need for caution in interpreting ImPACT test data for Hispanic Americans.
Race, Ethnicity and Participation in the Arts: Patterns of Participation by Black, Hispanic and White Americans in Selected Activities from the 1982 and 1985 Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts.
DiMaggio, Paul; Ostrower, Francie
This report utilizes data from the 1982 and 1985 Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts to describe differences in patterns of participation in selected arts related activities by Black, Hispanic, and White respondents. Arts participation by Whites is greatest for all selected activities, except for Black attendance at jazz music activities.…
Bean, Meghan G.; Stone, Jeff; Badger, Terry A.; Focella, Elizabeth S.; Moskowitz, Gordon B.
Background Current research on nonconscious stereotyping in health care is limited by an emphasis on practicing physicians’ beliefs about African American patients and by heavy reliance on a measure of nonconscious processes that allows participants to exert control over their behavior if they are motivated to appear nonbiased. Objectives The present research examined whether nursing and medical students exhibit nonconscious activation of stereotypes about Hispanic patients using a task that subliminally primes patient ethnicity. It was hypothesized that participants would exhibit greater activation of noncompliance and health risk stereotypes following subliminal exposure to Hispanic faces compared with non-Hispanic White faces and, because ethnicity was primed outside of conscious awareness, that explicit motivations to control prejudice would not moderate stereotype activation. Methods Nursing and medical students completed a sequential priming task that measured the speed with which they recognized words related to noncompliance and health risk following subliminal exposure to Hispanic and non-Hispanic White faces. They then completed explicit measures of their motivation to control prejudice against Hispanics. Results Both nursing and medical students exhibited greater activation of noncompliance and health risk words after subliminal exposure to Hispanic faces, compared with non-Hispanic White faces. Explicit motivations to control prejudice did not moderate stereotype activation. Discussion These findings show that, regardless of their motivation to treat Hispanics fairly, nursing and medical students exhibit nonconscious activation of negative stereotypes when they encounter Hispanics. Implications are discussed. PMID:23995470
Statistical Fact Sheet 2013 Update Hispanics/Latinos & Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (ICD/10 codes I00-I99, Q20-Q28) (ICD/9 codes 390-459, 745-747) Among Mexican-American adults age 20 ...
Miller, Holly Ventura; Barnes, J. C.; Hartley, Richard D.
Previous qualitative research has suggested that Hispanic gang membership is linked to the process of acculturation. Specifically, studies have indicated that those who are less assimilated into mainstream American or "Anglo" society are at greater risk for joining gangs. Building on these observations, this study examines the relationship between…
Park, Toby J.; Flores, Stella M.; Ryan, Christopher J., Jr.
Latinos have become the largest minority group in American postsecondary education, a majority of whom attend two- or four-year Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs). However, little is known about labor market outcomes as result of attending these institutions. Using a unique student-level administrative database in Texas, and accounting for…
Conclusions: The results tended to differ slightly from previous studies of this topic perhaps owing to the different hormonal milieu among Hispanics relative to Caucasians, African Americans and Asians in whom all previous studies of this topic have been conducted. Confirmation of these findings in larger studies may assist in determining how hormonal mechanisms responsible for breast cancer differ by ethnicity.
Full Text Available This report on a male head revealed biologic rhythms, as gleaned from hydrogen isotope ratios in hair, consistent with a South-American origin and Atomic Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon dating (AMS compatible with the last pre-Hispanic period (1418-1491 AD, 95.4% probability. Biopsies showed exceptionally well-preserved tissues. The hair contained high levels of toxic elements (lead, arsenic and mercury incompatible with life. There was no evidence for lead deposition in bone consistent with post-mortem accumulation of this toxic element in the hair. We propose that the high content of metals in hair was the result of metabolic activity of bacteria leading to metal complexation in extra cellular polymeric substances (EPS. This is a recognized protective mechanism for bacteria that thrive in toxic environments. This mechanism may account for the tissues preservation and gives a hint at soil composition where the head was presumably buried. Our results have implications for forensic toxicology which has, hitherto, relied on hair analyses as one means to reconstruct pre-mortem metabolism and for detecting toxic elements accumulated during life. Our finding also has implications for other archaeological specimens where similar circumstances may distort the results of toxicological studies.
Bianucci, Raffaella; Jeziorska, Maria; Lallo, Rudy; Mattutino, Grazia; Massimelli, Massimo; Phillips, Genevieve; Appenzeller, Otto
This report on a male head revealed biologic rhythms, as gleaned from hydrogen isotope ratios in hair, consistent with a South-American origin and Atomic Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon dating (AMS) compatible with the last pre-Hispanic period (1418-1491 AD, 95.4% probability). Biopsies showed exceptionally well-preserved tissues. The hair contained high levels of toxic elements (lead, arsenic and mercury) incompatible with life. There was no evidence for lead deposition in bone consistent with post-mortem accumulation of this toxic element in the hair. We propose that the high content of metals in hair was the result of metabolic activity of bacteria leading to metal complexation in extra cellular polymeric substances (EPS). This is a recognized protective mechanism for bacteria that thrive in toxic environments. This mechanism may account for the tissues preservation and gives a hint at soil composition where the head was presumably buried. Our results have implications for forensic toxicology which has, hitherto, relied on hair analyses as one means to reconstruct pre-mortem metabolism and for detecting toxic elements accumulated during life. Our finding also has implications for other archaeological specimens where similar circumstances may distort the results of toxicological studies.
Lumley, Risa; Newman, Eric; Brown, Haakon T.
This study looks at undergraduate Hispanic students' interpretations and current perceptions of the academic library's purpose, usefulness and value. What are the reasons to use the library? What are the barriers to use? This study will examine academic libraries' move toward electronic library materials and what it means for Hispanic students.…
Thomas C. Swearingen; Robert E. Pfister
In a preliminary investigation of environmental reasoning, Hispanic and Anglo-American visitors were interviewed during the summer of 1991 in two National Forests near Los Angeles. A bilingual research technician approached parties visiting the sample sites and, after a brief introduction, requested that they participate in the study. No more than two persons from each...
J.W., and Guzman, R.C., The Mexican-American .Peopl 1970. Guzman, R.C., The Political Socialization of the Mexican American &" People, 1976.". Hispanic...the political socialization process will not operate as it would for members of the larger community. Those with more education and other attributes...by C. Cortes, et al. New York: Putnam, 1976. This is a unique reference in that such information is difficult to obtain. Guzman, Ralph C. The Political
Landrau-Cribbs, Erica; Cabriales, José Alonso; Cooper, Theodore V
This study assessed general and cessation related weight concerns in a Hispanic sample of light (≤10 cigarettes per day) and intermittent (non-daily smoking) smokers (LITS) participating in a brief smoking cessation intervention. Three hundred and fifty-four Hispanic LITS (Mage=34.2, SD=14; 51.1% male; 57.9% Mexican American; 59.0% daily light, 41.0% intermittent) completed baseline measures assessing demographics, tobacco use/history, stage of change (SOC), general weight concern, and cessation related weight concern. Three multiple logistic regression models examined potential predictors (i.e., age, gender, SOC, cigarettes per month, smoking status [daily vs non-daily], weight, cessation related weight concern, general weight concern) of general weight concern, cessation related weight concern, and past 30day abstinence (controlling for the intervention). Study results indicated that a majority of participants reported general weight concern (59.6%), and slightly more than a third (35.6%) reported post cessation weight gain concern (mean and median weight tolerated before relapse were within the 10-12lb range). Lower weight and endorsing general weight concern were associated with cessation related weight concern. Female gender, higher weight, and endorsing cessation related weight concern were associated with general weight concern. Monthly cigarette use was associated with smoking cessation at the three-month follow-up. The results indicate a substantial prevalence of general weight concern and non-trivial rates of cessation related weight concern in Hispanic LITS attempting to quit, and greater success in quitting among those who reported lower rates of cigarettes smoked per month. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ana Lucia Trevisan
Full Text Available O trabalho estuda as formas de representação do sagrado no romance hispano-americano do século XX e propõe uma reflexão sobre algumas formas de utilização das mitologias e tradições religiosas pela literatura. A presença das narrativas sagradas no texto literário do século XX surge marcada por uma renovada experiência estética, pois não se trata apenas de utilizar ou reutilizar uma temática exótica, mas, sim, perceber um potencial tradutor de verdades universais, imanentes aos textos religiosos ou mitologias ancestrais. O artigo propõe uma reflexão sobre as particularidades da produção literária europeia e hispano-americana, que utilizam os temas sagrados, a fim de perceber as consonâncias e dissonâncias estéticas e históricas. O fenômeno estético denominado “mitologismo”, estudado por E.M. Mielietinski, pode ser entendido como um modus operandi da estruturação do romance que conjuga literatura e relatos sagrados e, neste estudo, fundamenta a discussão sobre a heterogeneidade cultural dos povos hispânicos expressa em suas representações literárias. Palavras-chave: Romance . Mitologias. Religião. Hispano-América. Abstract This article studies the forms of representation of the sacred in the Hispanic-American novel of the 20th century and proposes a reflection on some ways of using the mythological and religious traditions by literature. The presence of sacred narratives in the literary texts of the 20th century is marked by a renewed aesthetic experience, once it does not only refer to using or re-using an exotic theme, but perceiving a potential translator of universal truths, immanent to religious texts or mythological ancestors. The present proposal offers a reflection on the peculiarities of European and Hispanic-American productions which make use of sacred themes, meaning to understand the aesthetic and historical consonances and dissonances. The aesthetic phenomenon named “mythologism”, studied
Baker, Elizabeth; Balistreri, Kelly Stamper; Van Hook, Jennifer
This research examines the relationship between maternal employment and child overweight among fifth grade Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten (ECLS-K) cohort fifth grade sample (N = 4,360) were analyzed. OLS regression models were estimated predicting percentile BMI as a function of maternal employment, ethnicity, parental nativity status, income, and the interactions of employment, ethnicity/nativity, and income. Among Hispanic children of immigrants, maternal employment is associated with lower percentile BMI and this association strengthens at higher levels of income. Among Hispanic children of natives and non-Hispanic whites, maternal employment is beneficial (i.e. associated with lower percentile BMI) among low-income children but detrimental among high-income children, but this pattern is significantly greater in strength for Hispanics than non-Hispanic whites. Thus, maternal employment is associated with worse health outcomes only in the case of Hispanic children of natives, and maternal employment is associated with the best outcomes for Hispanic children of mothers from high-income families. We speculate that among children of immigrants, maternal employment may signify and/or accelerate assimilation towards middle- or upper-class American values of healthy weight and body size. Diet, meal regularity and supervision, and childcare did not mediate the relationship between maternal employment and overweight.
Suarez-Sarmiento, Alfredo; Yao, Xiaopan; Hofmann, Jonathan N; Syed, Jamil S; Zhao, Wei K; Purdue, Mark P; Chow, Wong-Ho; Corley, Douglas; Shuch, Brian
To investigate differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites diagnosed with and treated for renal cell carcinoma in an equal access healthcare system. We carried out a retrospective cohort study within the Kaiser Permanente healthcare system using records from renal cell carcinoma cases. Ethnicity was identified as Hispanic or non-Hispanic whites. Patient characteristics, comorbidities, tumor characteristics and treatment were compared. Overall and disease-specific survival was calculated, and a Cox proportion hazard model estimated the association of ethnicity and survival. A total of 2577 patients (2152 non-Hispanic whites, 425 Hispanic) were evaluated. Hispanics were diagnosed at a younger age (59.6 years vs 65.3 years). Clear cell renal cell carcinoma was more prevalent, whereas papillary renal cell carcinoma was less common among Hispanics. Hispanics had a lower American Joint Committee on Cancer stage (I/II vs III/IV) than non-Hispanic whites (67.4% vs 62.2%). Hispanics were found to have a greater frequency of comorbidities, such as chronic kidney disease and diabetes, but were more likely to receive surgery. The presence of metastases, nodal involvement, increased tumor size, non-surgical management, increasing age and Hispanic ethnicity were independent predictors of worse cancer-specific outcome. Within an equal access healthcare system, Hispanics seem to be diagnosed at younger ages, to have greater comorbidities and to present more frequently with clear cell renal cell carcinoma compared with non-Hispanic white patients. Despite lower stage and greater receipt of surgery, Hispanic ethnicity seems to be an independent predictor of mortality. Further work is necessary to confirm these findings. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.
Mancera, Bibiana M; Dorgo, Sandor; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias
The literature review analyzed 24 studies that explored male intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration risk factors among men, in particular Hispanics, using the socioecological model framework composed of four socioecological levels for violence prevention. Six databases were reviewed within the EBSCO search engine for articles published from 2000 to 2014. Articles reviewed were specific to risk factors for IPV perpetration among Hispanic men, focusing particularly on Mexican American men. Many key factors have previously been associated with risk for IPV perpetration; however, certain determinants are unique to Hispanics such as acculturation, acculturation stress, and delineated gender roles that include Machismo and Marianismo. These risk factors should be incorporated in future targeted prevention strategies and efforts and capitalize on the positive aspects of each to serve as protective factors.
... American Indian/Alaska Native > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska ... as compared to non-Hispanic white mothers. Infant Mortality Rate: Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...
Sofer, Tamar; Wong, Quenna; Hartwig, Fernando P.; Taylor, Kent; Warren, Helen R.; Evangelou, Evangelos; Cabrera, Claudia P.; Levy, Daniel; Kramer, Holly; Lange, Leslie A.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Liang, Jingjing; Le, Thu H.; Edwards, Digna R. Velez; Tayo, Bamidele O.
Hypertension prevalence varies between ethnic groups, possibly due to differences in genetic, environmental, and cultural determinants. Hispanic/Latino Americans are a diverse and understudied population. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of blood pressure (BP) traits in 12,278 participants from the Hispanics Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). In the discovery phase we identified eight previously unreported BP loci. In the replication stage, we tested these ...
... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Lupus among Asians and Hispanics Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... compared with white women. Signs and Symptom of Lupus Lupus can affect people of all ages. However, ...
Diaz, Alejandro A; Petersen, Hans; Meek, Paula; Sood, Akshay; Celli, Bartolome; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes
Smoking is associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQL) across all populations. Because decline in lung function and risk for COPD are lower in New Mexican Hispanic smokers compared with their non-Hispanic white (NHW) counterparts, the goal of this study was to ascertain whether HRQL differs between these two racial/ethnic groups and determine the factors that contribute to this difference. We compared the score results of the Medical Outcomes Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) in 378 Hispanic subjects and 1,597 NHW subjects enrolled in the Lovelace Smokers' Cohort (LSC) from New Mexico. The associations of race/ethnicity with SGRQ and SF-36 were assessed by using multivariable regression. Physical functioning (difference, -4.5; P = .0008) but not mental health or role emotional domains of the SF-36 was worse in Hispanic smokers than in their NWH counterparts in multivariable analysis. SGRQ total score and its activity and impact subscores were worse in Hispanic (vs NHW) smokers after adjustment for education level, current smoking, pack-years smoked, BMI, number of comorbidities, and FEV 1 % predicted (difference range, 2.9-5.0; all comparisons, P ≤ .001). Although the difference in the SGRQ activity domain was above the clinically important difference of four units, the total score was not. New Mexican Hispanic smokers have clinically relevant, lower HRQL than their NHW counterparts. A perception of diminished physical functioning and impairment in daily life activities contribute to the poorer HRQL among Hispanic subjects. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schriber, Jeffrey R; Hari, Parameswaran N; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Fei, Mingwei; Costa, Luciano J; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamad A; Angel-Diaz, Miguel; Gale, Robert P; Ganguly, Siddharatha; Girnius, Saulius K; Hashmi, Shahrukh; Pawarode, Attaphol; Vesole, David H; Wiernik, Peter H; Wirk, Baldeep M; Marks, David I; Nishihori, Taiga; Olsson, Richard F; Usmani, Saad Z; Mark, Tomer M; Nieto, Yago L; D'Souza, Anita
Race/ethnicity remains an important barrier in clinical care. The authors investigated differences in the receipt of autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) among patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and outcomes based on race/ethnicity in the United States. The Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database was used to identify 28,450 patients who underwent AHCT for MM from 2008 through 2014. By using data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18 registries, the incidence of MM was calculated, and a stem cell transplantation utilization rate (STUR) was derived. Post-AHCT outcomes were analyzed among patients ages 18 to 75 years who underwent melphalan-conditioned peripheral cell grafts (N = 24,102). The STUR increased across all groups from 2008 to 2014. The increase was substantially lower among Hispanics (range, 8.6%-16.9%) and non-Hispanic blacks (range, 12.2%-20.5%) compared with non-Hispanic whites (range, 22.6%-37.8%). There were 18,046 non-Hispanic whites, 4123 non-Hispanic blacks, and 1933 Hispanic patients. The Hispanic group was younger (P blacks (42%) compared with non-Hispanic whites (56%). A Karnofsky score 3 were more common in non-Hispanic blacks compared with Hispanic and non-Hispanic whites (P blacks (54%) and non-Hispanic whites (52%; P blacks (45%) and non-Hispanic whites (44%) had a very good partial response or better before transplantation (P = .005). Race/ethnicity did not impact post-AHCT outcomes. Although the STUR increased, it remained low and was significantly lower among Hispanics followed by non-Hispanic blacks compared with non-Hispanic whites. Race/ethnicity did not impact transplantation outcomes. Efforts to increase the rates of transplantation for eligible patients who have MM, with an emphasis on groups that underuse transplantation, are warranted. Cancer 2017;123:3141-9. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
This volume, fourth in a series, is devoted to a study of the depression years of the 1930s, a crucial period in the history of the Hispanic land-grant-villages. It places northern New Mexico in a broad regional and national context, examining the major currents of social and political thought in American society that influenced Hispanic New Deal…
Zamboanga, Byron L.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez; Van Tyne, Kathryne
We examined the extent to which Hispanic orientation and American orientation are associated with substance use (cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana) both directly and indirectly through acculturative stress and self-esteem. Participants were 347 Hispanic early adolescents (50.7% male; mean age = 12.57, SD = 0.92, range 11-15) from two middle…
Cain, Virginia S; Johannes, Catherine B; Avis, Nancy E; Mohr, Beth; Schocken, Miriam; Skurnick, Joan; Ory, Marcia
This study examined the sexual practices and function of midlife women by ethnicity (African American, Caucasian, Chinese, Hispanic, Japanese) and menopausal status. Sexual behavior was compared in 3,262 women in the baseline cohort of SWAN. Participants were 42 to 52 years old, premenopausal or early perimenopausal, and not hysterectomized or using hormones. Analysis used multivariate proportional odds regression. In our sample, 79% had engaged in sex with a partner in the last 6 months, and a third considered sex to be very important. Common reasons for no sex (n = 676) were lack of partner (67%), lack of interest (33%), and fatigue (16%). Compared with Caucasians, Japanese and Chinese women were less likely, and African Americans more likely, to report sex as very important (p practices. Perimenopause status was associated only with higher frequencies of masturbation and pain during intercourse.
A review of the literature shows that there is much evidence to suggest the challenges facing Hispanic students in American public schools. Hispanic enrollment in K--12 public schools has increased from 6 to 19% in the last thirty years, yet schools have not made adequate adjustments to accommodate this changing population. Issues such as remedial tracking and cultural differences have led to low high school graduate rates for Hispanic students and inequities in schooling experiences (Gay, 2000). Particularly in the area of science, Hispanic students struggle with academic success (Cole & Espinoza, 2008). Despite these obstacles, some Hispanic students are academically successful (Rochin & Mello, 2007; Merisotis & Kee, 2006). This dissertation tells the stories of these Hispanic students who have been successful in science in secondary public schools. This study followed a grounded theory methodology and utilized individual interviews to collect data about Hispanics who have demonstrated achievement in the area of science. Through the analysis of these interviews, factors were identified which may have contributed to the success of these Hispanics in the field of science. Implications for future practice in public schools are also discussed.
Molina, M; Romaguera, R A; Valentine, J; Tao, G
To examine the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) among Hispanics in the USA, we used the cross-sectional, nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to compare the seroprevalence of HSV-2 between Hispanic persons of Mexican heritage and non-Mexican heritage aged 14-44 years, from survey years 2007-2008. The overall HSV-2 seroprevalence among Hispanics aged 14-44 years was 17.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.2, 20.1) in the USA. HSV-2 seroprevalence was significantly lower among Mexican Americans than among other Hispanics (11.7% vs. 27.8%, P heritage and non-Mexican heritage suggested that targeting specific subgroups of Hispanics for preventive interventions may be a strategy to reduce the transmission of HSV-2 and HIV among Hispanics in the USA.
Mobile Phone and Internet Use Mostly for Sex-Seeking and Associations with Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sample Characteristics among Black/African American and Hispanic/Latino Men who have Sex with Men in Three U.S. Cities
Allen, Jacob E.; Mansergh, Gordon; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Holman, Jeremy; Herbst, Jeffrey H.
Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) have a relatively high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study examines the association of self-reported STIs and use of mobile phones and/or computer-based Internet to meet sexual partners among black and Hispanic/Latino MSM in the U.S. Methods Black and Hispanic/Latino MSM (N=853) were recruited from three U.S. cities (Chicago, IL, Kansas City, MO, and Fort Lauderdale, FL) via online and community outreach. Men completed a computer-assisted, self-interview assessment on demographics, use of mobile phones and computer-based Internet for sex-seeking, sexual risk behavior, and self-reported bacterial STIs in the past year. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model independent associations of STIs and use of these technologies to meet sexual partners. Results 23% of the sample reported having an STI in the past year; 29% reported using a mobile phone and 28% a computer-based Internet mostly for sex-seeking; and 22% reported using both. Number of male sexual partners (past year) was associated with any STI (AOR=1.03, 95% CI =1.01–1.06). Adjusting for HIV status, number of male sexual partners (past year), and demographic variables, men who reported use of both mobile phones and computer-based Internet for sex-seeking had increased odds of reporting an STI (AOR=2.59, 95% CI=1.75–3.83), as well as with separate reports of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis (p’smobile phone application sites. PMID:28407644
Cortina, Lilia M
Bridging the social support, sexual victimization, and cultural psychology literatures, this study examines social-support processes in the context of sexual harassment and Hispanic American culture. Surveys were administered to a community sample of Hispanic American working women, 249 of whom described some encounter with sexual harassment at work. Regression results provided mixed backing for hypotheses about support-seeking behavior, which appeared largely dependent on the social power of the harassment perpetrator. Additional findings upheld predictions about support-perception patterns; harassed women perceived more supportive social reactions when they turned to informal networks of friends and family, but responses were less positive when they turned to formal, organizational sources. Finally, as expected, perceived support and acculturation interacted to moderate relations between sexual harassment and job satisfaction. The article concludes with implications for research and interventions related to social support and sexual harassment.
Calderon Galdeano, Emily; Flores, Antonio R.; Moder, John
The relationship between the Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) and the recognition of Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) occurs at the federal level. HACU's origins and the legislative history of the HSI designation in federal law are explored. The demographic growth and corresponding importance of Hispanics in the…
The purpose of this report is to explore the issue of Hispanic propensity in more depth than has previously been available, and to identify possible causes of Hispanic youths' declining interest in military service...
Knouse, Stephanie M.; Gupton, Timothy; Abreau, Laurel
Even though many post-secondary institutions offer a variety of Hispanic linguistics classes (Hualde 2006; Lipski 2006), research on the pedagogy of Hispanic linguistics is an underdeveloped or non-existent area of the discipline. Courses in Hispanic linguistics can present not only linguistic challenges for non-native speakers of Spanish, but…
Ferrari, Joseph R.
The present study assessed self-reported religiosity, spirituality, faith-related behaviors, leadership styles, and personality dimensions of 156 Hispanic Catholic deacons, based on varied educational degrees assisting in Hispanic (n = 91) or non-Hispanic (n = 65) parishes. Results found no significant differences on any self-reported variables…
A major concern to anyone involved in the alcoholism field is the basic understanding of alcoholism as a disease that Hispanics have not yet completely accepted. Hispanics have usually labeled the use of alcoholic beverages as being embedded into Hispanic culture and have viewed alcoholism as an individual weakness to be endured in silence. (NQ)
Bova, Breda Murphy
Interviews with 20 Hispanic female faculty and administrators revealed mentoring to be important to career development but difficult to obtain. Barriers included limited opportunities for informal contact, compounded stereotypes of women and of Hispanic women, and conflicting values of Hispanic and academic cultures. (SK)
Herrera, Antoinette Navalta
Hispanics continue to be the fastest growing minority population in the Nation. According to U.S. Census Bureau (2011; 2008), the Hispanic or Latino population was 16.3 percent in 2010 and is projected to be over 30 percent in 2050. However, only 3.6% of the RN population is Hispanic indicating an unrealistic representation of today's…
Altieri, Lisa; Miller, Kimberly A; Huh, Jimi; Peng, David H; Unger, Jennifer B; Richardson, Jean L; Allen, Martin W; Cockburn, Myles
Although rates of late-stage melanoma are rising in Hispanics, particularly those living in high ultraviolet light environments, little is known about the prevalence of sun protective behaviors in Hispanic children. We analyzed baseline data including frequency of sunburn, sun protective behaviors, level of U.S. acculturation, and skin phototype from a cross-sectional survey of 2003 Hispanic elementary school children in Los Angeles, California, who participated in a skin cancer prevention intervention. Although the Hispanic children reported frequently engaging in some sun protective behaviors, they also had a high rate of sunburn (59%) that exceeded previous national estimates for non-Hispanic white children (43%). Fewer U.S.-acculturated children reported more frequent shade-seeking at home (P = .02), along with less shade-seeking at school (P = .001) and more sunscreen use at school (P = .02). The surprisingly high rate of sunburn in Hispanic children suggests that the way in which they are practicing sun protection is not preventing sunburns. Sun safety interventions should be targeted toward Hispanic youth to provide them with practical methods of effective sun protection, in addition to education on the risks of high sun exposure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
deRosset, Leslie; Mullenix, Amy; Flores, Alina; Mattia-Dewey, Daniel; Mai, Cara T
The U.S. Public Health Service recommends that all women in the United States capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 μg of folic acid daily to reduce their risk of having a pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect (NTD). However, disparities exist in the consumption of folic acid, with Hispanic women having lower rates of folic acid consumption than non-Hispanic white women. A community-based feasibility study was designed to assess the utility of the promotora de salud model to promote consumption of multivitamins containing folic acid for the prevention of NTDs among Spanish-speaking Hispanic women in North Carolina. The study consisted of an educational intervention given by a promotora (a lay, community health worker), with data collection occurring at baseline and four months post-intervention to measure changes in knowledge and behavior. Overall, 52% (n=303) of participants completed all components of the study. Self-reported daily multivitamin consumption increased from 24% at baseline to 71% four months post-intervention. During the same time frame, awareness of folic acid increased from 78% to 98% and knowledge of the role of folic acid in the prevention of birth defects increased from 82% to 92%. The results of this study indicate that the promotora de salud model may be effective in reaching a subpopulation of women with the folic acid message. Additional studies with larger population sizes are warranted to validate these findings.
Full Text Available Purpose. We hypothesized that socioeconomic factors and a language barrier would impact adherence with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP among Hispanics with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Methods. Patients with OSA who were prescribed CPAP for at least 1 year and completed a questionnaire evaluating demographic data, socioeconomic status, and CPAP knowledge and adherence participated in the study. Results. Seventy-nine patients (26 males; 53±11 yrs; body mass index (BMI=45±9 kg/m2 with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI 33±30 events/hr completed the study. Included were 25 Hispanics, 39 African Americans, and 15 Caucasians, with no difference in age, AHI, CPAP use, or BMI between the groups. While there was a difference in educational level (P=0.006, income level (P<0.001, and employment status (P=0.03 between the groups, these did not influence CPAP adherence. Instead, overall improvement in quality of life and health status and perceived benefit from CPAP influenced adherence, both for the group as a whole (P=0.03, P=0.004, and P=0.001, resp., as well as in Hispanics (P=0.02, P=0.02, P=0.03, resp.. Conclusion. In Hispanic patients with OSA, perceived benefit with therapy, rather than socioeconomic status or a language barrier, appears to be the most important factor in determining CPAP adherence.
Ramirez, Amelie G; Talavera, Gregory A; Marti, Jose; Penedo, Frank J; Medrano, Martha A; Giachello, Aida L; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J
Hispanics are affected by many health care disparities. The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through its Special Populations Branch, is supporting networking and capacity-building activities designed to increase Hispanic participation and leadership in cancer research. Redes En Acción established a national network of cancer research centers, community-based organizations, and federal partners to facilitate opportunities for junior Hispanic scientists to participate in training and research projects on cancer control. Since 2000, Redes En Acción has established a network of more than 1800 Hispanic leaders involved in cancer research and education. The project has sustained 131 training positions and submitted 29 pilot projects to NCI for review, with 16 awards for a total of $800,000, plus an additional $8.8 million in competing grant funding based on pilot study results to date. Independent research has leveraged an additional $32 million in non-Redes funding, and together the national and regional network sites have participated in more than 1400 community and professional awareness events. In addition, the program conducted extensive national survey research that provided the basis for the Redes En Acción Latino Cancer Report, a national agenda on Hispanic cancer issues. Redes En Acción has increased participation in cancer control research, training, and awareness among Hispanic scientists and within Hispanic communities. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
Unzueta, Caridad H.; Barbetta, Patricia M.
A multiple baseline design investigated the effects of computer graphic organizers on the persuasive composition writing skills of four Hispanic students with specific learning disabilities. Participants reviewed the elements of persuasive writing and then developed compositions using a word processing program. Baseline planning was done with a…
Hazard, Cambria Jones; Callister, Lynn Clark; Birkhead, Ana; Nichols, Lisa
To evaluate the qualitative aspects of the Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative. "Hispanic Labor Friends," bilingual Hispanic community women who were themselves mothers, were recruited by clinic and hospital personnel. Women who agreed were educated, received translation certification, and were oriented to the initiative. Pregnant Hispanic immigrant women seen in the health center who met criteria set by the multidisciplinary health care team were assigned a Hispanic Labor Friend by 32 weeks' gestation. Hispanic Labor Friends assisted women with communication with healthcare providers and provided social support. Qualitative evaluation of the program consisted of interviews with several groups: (1) Hispanic immigrant women who had a Hispanic Labor Friend, (2) Hispanic immigrant women who were not in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, (3) Hispanic Labor Friends, (4) healthcare providers for Hispanic women. Data saturation was reached, and data were analyzed by the research team using descriptive qualitative inquiry. The Hispanic immigrant women described positive outcomes from being involved in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, including feeling supported and comforted. "I felt as though my family were at my side." One woman who had standard care said, "It is hard for me to communicate. When I gave birth, the nurses asked me things, and I didn't understand anything. I stayed quiet." One of the nurses who was interviewed said: "I think they [the HLF patients] get better care. Sometimes we think we can communicate with them with their little bit of English and our little bit of Spanish. But you get an HLF and it's a totally different story. We can more adequately tell what's going on with them...They end up getting better care." One Hispanic Labor Friend said, "The women are very appreciative that I was there to help them through a critical time." Women who participated in the study identified the need to have a continuing association with Hispanic Labor Friends in
Correa, Amor A; Rogers, Richard; Hoersting, Raquel
Psychologists are faced with formidable challenges in making their assessment methods relevant to growing numbers of Hispanic clients for whom English is not the primary or preferred language. Among other clinical issues, the determination of malingering has profound consequences for clients. In this investigation, we evaluated a Spanish translation of the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1992) with 80 Spanish-speaking Hispanic American outpatients. Using a between-subjects simulation design, the Spanish SIRS was found to produce reliable results with small standard errors of measurement. Regarding validity, very large effect sizes (mean Cohen's d= 2.00) were observed between feigners and honest responders for the SIRS primary scales. We consider the potential role of the Spanish SIRS with reference to Spanish translations for other assessment instruments.
Pownall Henry J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated triglyceride levels are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4 is a metabolic factor that raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL. In non-diabetic individuals, the ANGPTL4 coding variant E40K has been associated with lower plasma triglyceride levels while the T266M variant has been associated with more modest effects on triglyceride metabolism. The objective of this study was to determine whether ANGPTL4 E40K and T266M are associated with triglyceride levels in the setting of obesity and T2D, and whether modification of triglyceride levels by these genetic variants is altered by a lifestyle intervention designed to treat T2D. Methods The association of ANGPTL4 E40K and T266M with fasting triglyceride levels was investigated in 2,601 participants from the Look AHEAD Clinical Trial, all of whom had T2D and were at least overweight. Further, we tested for an interaction between genotype and treatment effects on triglyceride levels. Results Among non-Hispanic White Look AHEAD participants, ANGPTL4 K40 carriers had mean triglyceride levels of 1.61 ± 0.62 mmol/L, 0.33 mmol/L lower than E40 homozygotes (p = 0.001. Individuals homozygous for the minor M266 allele (MAF 30% had triglyceride levels of 1.75 ± 0.58 mmol/L, 0.24 mmol/L lower than T266 homozygotes (p = 0.002. The association of the M266 with triglycerides remained significant even after removing K40 carriers from the analysis (p = 0.002. There was no interaction between the weight loss intervention and genotype on triglyceride levels. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that the ANGPTL4 E40K and T266M variants are associated with lower triglyceride levels in the setting of T2D. In addition, our findings demonstrate that ANGPTL4 genotype status does not alter triglyceride response to a lifestyle intervention in the Look AHEAD study.
Royall, Donald R; Espino, David V; Polk, Marsha J; Verdeja, Regina; Vale, Sandra; Gonzales, Hector; Palmer, Raymond R; Markides, Kyriakos P
Clock drawing tests (CDT) appear to be less vulnerable to linguistic, cultural, or educational bias than traditional dementia screening instruments. We investigated a Spanish language translation of CLOX: an executive CDT, in a community sample of Hispanic elders. In-home CLOX evaluations of 1309 Mexican-American elders were reviewed. Both CLOX1 (an executive CDT) and CLOX2 (a constructional CDT) showed good internal consistency (Chronbach's alpha; both alpha = 0.82). Cultural-demographic variables had little effect on CLOX scores. Although language had a significant effect on CLOX1 failure rates, this was not mediated by age, education, acculturation or income. These results suggest that the Spanish CLOX can be validly administered to community-based Hispanic elder samples regardless of education or acculturation. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Munoz, Eric; And Others
The health conditions and health status of Hispanic Americans will assume increased importance as their population increases. The goal of this book of charts is to present data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) on Puerto Ricans. The Puerto Rican HHANES sampling procedure is a multi-stage probability sample of…
Barton, Amy J; Gilbert, Lynn; Baramee, Julaluk; Granger, Theresa
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States for both men and women among all racial and ethnic groups. Identifying risk factors early in life can facilitate use of preventive strategies to reduce risk and improve health status across the life span. The aim of this study was to identify modifiable (tobacco smoke exposure, physical inactivity, dietary fat intake, overweight, and high blood pressure [BP]) and nonmodifiable (family history, gender, and age) cardiovascular risk factors in low-income preschool children. Low-income preschool children (N = 205) 3-5 years old were recruited to participate. Parents completed a multigenerational cardiovascular health history form and a 24-hour dietary recall for themselves and their child. The children's height, weight, and BP were obtained. Of the 205 children, 61% reported ethnicity as Latino or Hispanic, 31.7% non-Hispanic White, 1% non-Hispanic Black, 3.9% Asian, and 2.4% mixed race. The number of males (50.7%) and females (49.3%) was similar. Only 22 (10.7%) children had no identified cardiovascular risk factors. At least one modifiable risk factor was present in 179 (87.3%) children. Fifty-two (25.5%) children had a body mass index (BMI) > or = 85th percentile for gender and age; 44 (22.3%) had a systolic or diastolic BP over the 90th percentile for gender, age, and height; 128 (66.3%) had a dietary fat intake of > 30%; 77 (37.6%) watched TV or played video games more than 2 hr/day; and 48 (23.4%) were exposed to passive tobacco smoke. The identification of cardiovascular risk factors in almost 90% of presumably healthy preschoolers provides evidence to support testing of interventions that can improve health behaviors and reduce risks.
Hernandez, Jack; Slate, John R.; Joyner, Sheila A.
In this literature review, Hispanic demographic changes in the United States and in Texas are examined. Hispanics have accounted for large changes in population, population change, and proportion of population. Accordingly, the literature was reviewed regarding Hispanic immigrants, both authorized and non-authorized immigrants. The issue of…
Fisher, Patti J.; Hsu, Chungwen
This study uses the 2007 Survey of Consumer Finances to empirically explore differences in saving behavior between Hispanic (N = 533) and non-Hispanic White (N = 2,473) households. The results of the logistic regression model show that self-employed Hispanics were more likely to save, while self-employment was not significant for Whites. Being…
This Program Reference Schedule Baseline (PRSB) provides the baseline Program-level milestones and associated schedules for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. It integrates all Program-level schedule-related activities. This schedule baseline will be used by the Director, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and his staff to monitor compliance with Program objectives. Chapter 1 includes brief discussions concerning the relationship of the PRSB to the Program Reference Cost Baseline (PRCB), the Mission Plan, the Project Decision Schedule, the Total System Life Cycle Cost report, the Program Management Information System report, the Program Milestone Review, annual budget preparation, and system element plans. Chapter 2 includes the identification of all Level 0, or Program-level, milestones, while Chapter 3 presents and discusses the critical path schedules that correspond to those Level 0 milestones
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Long Baseline Observatory (LBO) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It's the world's largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye...
LaVange, Lisa; Davis, Sonia M; Hankinson, John; Enright, Paul; Wilson, Rebbecca; Barr, R Graham; Aldrich, Thomas K; Kalhan, Ravi; Lemus, Hector; Ni, Ai; Smith, Lewis J; Talavera, Gregory A
Accurate reference values for spirometry are important because the results are used for diagnosing common chronic lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, estimating physiologic impairment, and predicting all-cause mortality. Reference equations have been established for Mexican Americans but not for others with Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. To develop spirometry reference equations for adult Hispanic/Latino background groups in the United States. The HCHS/SOL (Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos) recruited a population-based probability sample of 16,415 Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 years living in the Bronx, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. Participants self-identified as being of Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, or Central or South American background. Spirometry was performed using standardized methods with central quality control monitoring. Spirometric measures from a subset of 6,425 never-smoking participants without respiratory symptoms or disease were modeled as a function of sex, age, height, and Hispanic/Latino background to produce background-specific reference equations for the predicted value and lower limit of normal. Dominican and Puerto Rican Americans had substantially lower predicted and lower limit of normal values for FVC and FEV 1 than those in other Hispanic/Latino background groups and also than Mexican American values from NHANES III (Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). For patients of Dominican and Puerto Rican background who present with pulmonary symptoms in clinical practice, use of background-specific spirometry reference equations may provide more appropriate predicted and lower limit of normal values, enabling more accurate diagnoses of abnormality and physiologic impairment.
Christian R. Salazar
Full Text Available Allostatic load (AL, an index of biological “wear and tear” on the body from cumulative exposure to stress, has been little studied in US Hispanics/Latinos. We investigated AL accumulation patterns by age, sex, and nativity in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. We studied 15,830 Hispanic/Latinos of Mexican, Cuban, Dominican, Puerto Rican, Central and South American descent aged 18–74 years, 77% of whom were foreign-born. Consistent with the conceptualization of AL, we developed an index based upon 16 physiological markers that spanned the cardiometabolic, parasympathetic, and inflammatory systems. We computed mean adjusted AL scores using log-linear models across age-groups (18–44, 45–54, 55–74 years, by sex and nativity status. Among foreign-born individuals, differences in AL by duration of residence in the US (<10, ≥10 years and age at migration (<24, ≥24 years were also examined. In persons younger than 55 years old, after controlling for socioeconomic and behavioral factors, AL was highest among US-born individuals, intermediate in foreign-born Hispanics/Latinos with longer duration in the US (≥10 years, and lowest among those with shorter duration in the US (<10 years (P<0.0001 for increasing trend. Similarly, AL increased among the foreign-born with earlier age at immigration. These trends were less pronounced among individuals ≥55 years of age. Similar patterns were observed across all Hispanic/Latino heritage groups (P for interaction=0.5. Our findings support both a “healthy immigrant” pattern and a loss of health advantage over time among US Hispanics/Latinos of diverse heritages. Keywords: Allostatic load, Physiological dysregulation, Hispanic ethnicity, Nativity, Age patterns
Hispanic Youth--Dropout Prevention. Report of the Task Force on the Participation of Hispanic Students in Vocational Education Programs = La Joventud Hispana. Reporte del Grupo Especial. La Investigacion de la Participacion de los Estudiantes Hispanos en la Educacion Relativa a la Vocacion.
Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.
An Idaho task force of Hispanic Americans, industry representatives, and education leaders studied the reasons Hispanic students were not enrolling in and completing vocational education programs. The task force sponsored a series of community meetings to identify reasons and solutions. Approximately 40-60 parents, students, and other interested…
Schinke, Steven P.; Schwinn, Traci M.; Hursh, Hilary A.
Intervention research is essential to help Hispanic American adolescents avoid drug use. This article describes an intervention research program aimed at preventing drug use among these youths. Grounded in salient epidemiological data, the program is informed by bicultural competence, social learning, and motivational interviewing theories. The…
Berney, Tomi D.; Mohagdam, Val
In its fifth year, the Hispanic Orientation to Life in America Project (Project HOLA) served 472 Spanish-speaking students of limited English proficiency. The aim of the program was to help students develop English language skills, enter mainstream classes, and understand Spanish and American culture. The program provided instruction in English as…
Bodey, Kimberly J.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Steward, Marshall; Gobel, Tamara
With buying power exceeding $850 billion and tendencies toward brand loyalty, Hispanic consumers are a desirable market. Yet, at a time when North American professional sport leagues and teams have expanded to international territories to increase revenue, market share, and fan base, it is worthwhile to study the extent leagues and teams reach…
Yezer, Anthony; Limmer, Ruth
This report provides statistical information regarding the quality and cost of housing occupied by Hispanic Americans throughout the United States. Some of the findings include: (1) Hispanos occupy older and worse dwellings than the general U.S. population, with a significant number of dwellings lacking heat and adequate electricity and plumbing…
Gudino, Omar G.; Lau, Anna S.
This study examined associations between parental cultural orientation, childhood shyness, and anxiety symptoms in a sample of Hispanic American children (N = 127). Parents completed measures of their level of acculturation, collectivism, and socialization goals, while children provided self-reports of anxiety symptoms and both parents and…
Rodríguez, Bryan A.
The present study examines whether the recognition of stereotypes undermines the academic performance of Hispanic students, a phenomenon known as "stereotype threat." With regard to race, stereotype threat has been examined predominately between African American and White students, yet limited research has investigated how Hispanic…
Saint-Germain, Michelle A.; Longman, Alice J.
Data from 409 Hispanic-American and 138 Anglo older women in Tucson identified few differences in their use of breast cancer screening and low levels of risk knowledge. Both groups fell well below recommended frequency of screening. Clinical examination and self-examination were used more than mammography. (SK)
Beecham, Ashley; Dong, Chuanhui; Wright, Clinton B; Dueker, Nicole; Brickman, Adam M; Wang, Liyong; DeCarli, Charles; Blanton, Susan H; Rundek, Tatjana; Mayeux, Richard; Sacco, Ralph L
To investigate genetic variants influencing white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) in the understudied Hispanic population. Using 6.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify SNPs associated with WMH volume (WMHV) in 922 Hispanics who underwent brain MRI as a cross-section of 2 community-based cohorts in the Northern Manhattan Study and the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project. Multiple linear modeling with PLINK was performed to examine the additive genetic effects on ln(WMHV) after controlling for age, sex, total intracranial volume, and principal components of ancestry. Gene-based tests of association were performed using VEGAS. Replication was performed in independent samples of Europeans, African Americans, and Asians. From the SNP analysis, a total of 17 independent SNPs in 7 genes had suggestive evidence of association with WMHV in Hispanics ( p < 1 × 10 -5 ) and 5 genes from the gene-based analysis with p < 1 × 10 -3 . One SNP (rs9957475 in GATA6 ) and 1 gene ( UBE2C ) demonstrated evidence of association ( p < 0.05) in the African American sample. Four SNPs with p < 1 × 10 -5 were shown to affect binding of SPI1 using RegulomeDB. This GWAS of 2 community-based Hispanic cohorts revealed several novel WMH-associated genetic variants. Further replication is needed in independent Hispanic samples to validate these suggestive associations, and fine mapping is needed to pinpoint causal variants.
Explores Afra-Hispanic literature, the writing of black Spanish-speaking women of the Caribbean and Central and South America. The literary texts of Afra-Hispanic women reveal an emerging feminist consciousness. A more detailed analysis is given of the poetry of Virginia Brindis de Salas and Aida Cartagena Portalatin. (SLD)
Parrado, Emilio A.; Kandel, William A.
We analyze the relationship between Hispanic population growth and changes in U.S. rural income inequality from 1990 through 2000. Applying comparative approaches used for urban areas we disentangle Hispanic population growth's contribution to inequality by comparing and statistically modeling changes in the family income Gini coefficient across…
Marin, Gerardo; And Others
A random sample of 100 Hispanic women waiting to receive birth control services at a low-cost community health center in East Los Angeles was interviewed to learn more about the fertility behavior, attitudes toward family size, and contraceptive use of barrio Hispanic women. The respondents were: young (averaging 27 years old), poorly educated…
McHaney, Roger; Martin, Dawne
This paper provides several suggestions Hispanic student recruitment and retention in MIS or other business curricula. Cultural considerations like allocentrism and familialism are discussed along with the situation at K-State. It is believed that the recruitment and retention of Hispanic students can be influenced positively by considering…
As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17…
Centro De La Comunidad, Inc., New London, CT.
During its second year, the Hispanic Vocational Exploration Project recruited eighth and ninth grade Hispanic youth for a four-week cycle, after-school, career exploratory program at Southeastern Regional Vocational Technical School, Groton, Connecticut. A series of career education workshops was the other major project activity. Supportive…
Connor, Avonne E; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Baumgartner, Richard N; Pinkston, Christina M; Boone, Stephanie D; John, Esther M; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Hines, Lisa M; Giuliano, Anna R; Wolff, Roger K; Slattery, Martha L
Few epidemiological studies have included Hispanics with the evaluation of the effects of cigarette smoking and breast cancer. We examined the relationship between cigarette smoking, ethnicity, and breast cancer risk using data from the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study (BCHDS). The BCHDS is a consortium of three population-based case-control studies, including U.S. non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) (1,525 cases; 1,593 controls), U.S. Hispanics/Native Americans (1,265 cases; 1,495 controls), and Mexican women (990 cases; 1,049 controls). Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Breast cancer risk was elevated among Mexican former smokers (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.04-1.96) and among those who smoked ≥ 31 years (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.13-3.35), compared to never smokers. In addition, Mexican former smokers with a history of alcohol consumption had increased breast cancer risk (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.01-5.21). Among NHW premenopausal women, breast cancer risk was increased for smoking ≥ 20 cigarettes per day (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.07-2.41). Our findings suggest the possibility of ethnic differences with the associations between cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk.
José Luis Bendicho Beired
Full Text Available Este artigo trata da configuração de uma rede intelectual de dimensão internacional que uniu a América Latina e a Península Ibérica, a partir de meados do século XIX. Objetivamos analisar o papel dos intelectuais e órgãos de imprensa na formação dessa rede e discutir suas idéias e projetos, à luz do contexto político e do debate cultural. Consideramos que a ação dos intelectuais e da imprensa contribuiu para a configuração de um espaço singular de circulação de idéias e de formação de uma opinião pública ibero-americana.This article deals with the development of an intellectual network of international dimension that joined Latin America and Iberian Peninsula, from mid-nineteenth century. We aimed to analyze the role of intellectuals and the media in the formation of this network and discuss their ideas and political projects, in the light of the political and cultural debate. We consider that the action of intellectuals and the press contributed to the setting of a singular espace of circulation of ideas and the formation of Ibero-American public opinion.
Greenlee, Heather; Ogden Gaffney, Ann; Aycinena, A Corina; Koch, Pam; Contento, Isobel; Karmally, Wahida; Richardson, John M; Shi, Zaixing; Lim, Emerson; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Santella, Regina M; Blaner, William S; Clugston, Robin D; Cremers, Serge; Pollak, Susan; Sirosh, Iryna; Crew, Katherine D; Maurer, Matthew; Kalinsky, Kevin; Hershman, Dawn L
Among Hispanic breast cancer survivors, we examined the long-term effects of a short-term culturally based dietary intervention on increasing fruits/vegetables (F/V), decreasing fat, and changing biomarkers associated with breast cancer recurrence risk. Spanish-speaking women (n = 70) with a history of stage 0-III breast cancer who completed treatment were randomized to ¡Cocinar Para Su Salud! (n = 34), a culturally based 9-session program (24 hours over 12 weeks, including nutrition education, cooking classes, and food-shopping field trips), or a control group (n = 36, written dietary recommendations for breast cancer survivors). Diet recalls, fasting blood, and anthropometric measures were collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months. We report changes between groups at 12 months in dietary intake and biomarkers using 2-sample Wilcoxon t tests and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. At 12 months, the intervention group compared with the control group reported higher increases in mean daily F/V servings (total: +2.0 vs. -0.4; P Salud! program was effective at increasing long-term F/V intake in Hispanic breast cancer survivors and changed biomarkers associated with breast cancer recurrence risk. It is possible for short-term behavioral interventions to have long-term effects on behaviors and biomarkers in minority cancer patient populations. Results can inform future study designs. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(11); 1491-502. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.
Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013
The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…
Murimi, Mary; Chrisman, Matthew S.; McAllister, Tiffany; McDonald, Olevia D.
Approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population (25.8 million people) is affected by type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes is disproportionately greater in the African American community. Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian adults, the risk of diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 77% higher among non-Hispanic Blacks, who are 27% more likely to die of…
Cersosimo, Eugenio; Musi, Nicolas
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is higher in Hispanic/Latino individuals living in the United States compared with their non-Hispanic white counterparts. Many factors contribute to the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, including biological characteristics, socioeconomic conditions, and cultural aspects. The contribution of genetics to the risk of type 2 diabetes in Hispanic/Latino patients is becoming increasingly clear, but this inherent risk factor cannot be modified. However, certain socioeconomic and cultural factors, such as reduced access to healthcare, language barriers, cultural beliefs, and lack of cultural competence by the healthcare provider, are modifiable and should be overcome in order to improve the management of type 2 diabetes in Hispanic/Latino patients. At the healthcare system level, policies should be put into place to reduce disparities between Hispanics/Latinos and non-Hispanic whites regarding health insurance coverage and access to healthcare. At the healthcare provider and patient level, cultural beliefs should be taken into consideration when selecting adequate treatment. Overall, type 2 diabetes management should be individualized by identifying the preferred language and level of acculturation for each patient. These considerations are necessary to further improve communication through culturally appropriate educational materials and programs. These strategies may help to overcome the barriers in the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Hispanic/Latino patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mansyur, Carol L; Rustveld, Luis O; Nash, Susan G; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L
To explore quantitatively the extent to which social support, social norms and barriers are associated with self-efficacy and self-care adherence in Hispanic patients with diabetes and the extent to which these differ for men and women. Baseline survey data were collected from 248 low-SES, Hispanic men and women who were participants in a randomized controlled trial of a culturally targeted intervention for diabetes management. Student's t, Pearson correlations and multiple regression were used to analyze the data. Compared to men, women were less likely to receive support, faced more barriers, reported less self-efficacy and had lower levels of self-care adherence. Perceived support was consistently correlated with better self-efficacy in women but not men, even though men reported higher levels of support. The lack of adequate support seems to be a fundamental barrier for Hispanic women with diabetes. Health care providers should be sensitive to sociocultural influences in Hispanic groups that may facilitate men's self-care adherence, but could potentially hamper women's efforts. Interventions designed for Hispanics should augment women's support needs and address culture and social factors that may differentially impact the ability of men and women to manage their diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave
We introduce a new operator for general rationing problems in which, besides conflicting claims, individual baselines play an important role in the rationing process. The operator builds onto ideas of composition, which are not only frequent in rationing, but also in related problems...... such as bargaining, choice, and queuing. We characterize the operator and show how it preserves some standard axioms in the literature on rationing. We also relate it to recent contributions in such literature....
Allshouse, Amanda A; Santoro, Nanette; Green, Robin; Wong, Jason Y Y; Upchurch, Dawn M; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Thurston, Rebecca C; Derby, Carol A
We investigated whether faith was associated with a difference in time to incident metabolic syndrome (MetS) among midlife Hispanic women vs women of other ethnicities. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) is a community-based, longitudinal study of a cohort of midlife women. Social, demographic, psychosocial, anthropometric, medical, and physiological measures, and incident MetS were assessed in near-annual intervals using questionnaires and assays. Each participant answered key questions related to religion and meaning in her life. Differences in time to MetS were modeled by Hispanic ethnicity (vs. otherwise) among women reporting low and high levels of faith. Incident MetS in the 7 years after the SWAN baseline assessment. Among 2371 women, average baseline age 46, Hispanic women (n = 168) were more likely to have higher perceived stress and financial strain than non-Hispanic women (n = 2203). Nevertheless, Hispanic women were far more likely than non-Hispanic women to report that faith brought them strength and comfort in times of adversity, that they prayed often, and that their faith was sustaining for them. Hispanic women had the highest incidence rate of MetS of any racial/ethnic group. However, among women with high levels of faith, the incidence rate of MetS was similar in the Hispanic and non-Hispanic groups. Conversely, among women with low levels of faith, Hispanic women had a faster progression to MetS than did non-Hispanic women. Faith might be associated with a different risk of MetS among women of Hispanic vs other ethnicities. Among women who are not part of a faith community, Hispanic ethnicity might be a risk factor for MetS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wickens, F J
The Trigger-DAQ community is currently busy preparing material for the DAQ, HLT and DCS TDR. Over the last few weeks a very important step has been a series of meetings to complete agreement on the baseline architecture. An overview of the architecture indicating some of the main parameters is shown in figure 1. As reported at the ATLAS Plenary during the February ATLAS week, the main area where the baseline had not yet been agreed was around the Read-Out System (ROS) and details in the DataFlow. The agreed architecture has: Read-Out Links (ROLs) from the RODs using S-Link; Read-Out Buffers (ROB) sited near the RODs, mounted in a chassis - today assumed to be a PC, using PCI bus at least for configuration, control and monitoring. The baseline assumes data aggregation, in the ROB and/or at the output (which could either be over a bus or in the network). Optimization of the data aggregation will be made in the coming months, but the current model has each ROB card receiving input from 4 ROLs, and 3 such c...
Square OPMEO Office of Diversity Management & Equal Opportunity PES Performance Evaluation System PI Performance Index PLC Platoon Leaders Class...to the Hispanic service members. According to U.S. census estimates, Hispanics or Latinos compose 16.9 percent of the total U.S. population and this...census estimates, Hispanics or Latinos compose 16.9 percent of the total U.S. population which accounted for half the U.S. population growth between
NHSDG Non-High School Diploma Graduates OccFld Occupational Field OMB Office of Management and Budget OLS Ordinary Least Squares PC ASVAB Paragraph...and the te1m "Hispanic" be replaced by "Hispanic or Latino " (Federal Register, 1997). Although this changed how data was collected and stored, the...U.S. Census Bureau still uses the 1977 OMB definition of Hispanic or Latino (Humes et al., 2011). B. REPRESENTATION As indicated in Table 1, Panel 1
Rucinski, Dianne; Jones, Risé; Reyes, Brenda; Tidwell, Lawon; Phillips, RoiAnn; Delves, Denise
Despite higher birth rates among non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, the availability of umbilical cord blood from these groups is lower due to lower donation rates than that of non-Hispanic whites. Similar racial and ethnic disparities in donation rates have been found for blood and organ donation. This study is among the first to explore beliefs and attitudes toward umbilical cord blood donation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women. Five focus groups composed of Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women were conducted to explore how women conceptualize information needs about umbilical cord blood donation and from whom women want to receive information about donation. Participants were adult women who had given birth within the past year or were pregnant. Lack of basic information regarding umbilical cord blood, its harvesting and use, and the steps and conditions necessary to donate were primary barriers to donation. Women expressed confusion over the differences between "donation" and "banking." The social value of donation was explicitly weighed in terms of the cost of the donation effort. Doctors were viewed as critical sources for information about donation, although women expressed skepticism about doctors' ability to convey sufficient information during short office visits. Efforts to increase donation rates among Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women should include information about both the technical aspects and the social value of donation. The specific terms "umbilical" and "donation" should be used consistently to prevent misunderstanding. Information should be provided by physicians with follow-up by other health providers.
Cervantes, Richard C; Fisher, Dennis G; Padilla, Amado M; Napper, Lucy E
This article reports on a 2-phase study to revise the Hispanic Stress Inventory (HSI; Cervantes, Padilla, & Salgado de Snyder, 1991). The necessity for a revised stress-assessment instrument was determined by demographic and political shifts affecting Latin American immigrants and later-generation Hispanics in the United States in the 2 decades since the development of the HSI. The data for the revision of the HSI (termed the HSI2) was collected at 4 sites: Los Angeles, El Paso, Miami, and Boston, and included 941 immigrants and 575 U.S.-born Hispanics and a diverse population of Hispanic subgroups. The immigrant version of the HSI2 includes 10 stress subscales, whereas the U.S.-born version includes 6 stress subscales. Both versions of the HSI2 are shown to possess satisfactory Cronbach's alpha reliabilities and demonstrate expert-based content validity, as well as concurrent validity when correlated with subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis, 1993) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (Kroenke, Spitzer, & Williams, 2001). The new HSI2 instruments are recommended for use by clinicians and researchers interested in assessing psychosocial stress among diverse Hispanic populations of various ethnic subgroups, age groups, and geographic location. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
This podcast is based on the May 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. About one in six people living in the U.S. are Hispanic. The two leading causes of death in this group are heart disease and cancer, accounting for two out of five deaths. Unfortunately, many Hispanics face considerable barriers to getting high quality health care, including language and low income. Learn what can be done to reduce the barriers.
... all older Americans (10.2 percent). *Income and poverty estimates are based on redesigned income questions from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement. SELF-RATED ...
Rice, Whitney S; Goldfarb, Samantha S; Brisendine, Anne E; Burrows, Stevie; Wingate, Martha S
U.S.-born Hispanic infants have a well-documented health advantage relative to other minority groups. However, little published research has examined racial heterogeneity within the Hispanic population, in relation to health outcomes. The current study aims to explore possible implications of racial identification for the health of U.S. born Hispanic compared to non-Hispanic infants. Methods Data were drawn from 2007 to 2008 NCHS Cohort Linked Live Birth-Infant Death Files, restricted to deliveries of Hispanic black, Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black (NHB) and non-Hispanic white mothers (NHW) (n = 7,901,858). Adjusted odds ratios for first week mortality, neonatal, postneonatal, and overall infant mortality were calculated for each group, using NHW as the reference group. A distinct health gradient was observed in which NHB infants (n = 1,250,222) had the highest risk of first week (aOR 2.29, CI 2.21-2.37), neonatal (aOR 2.23, CI 2.17-2.30), postneonatal (aOR 1.74, CI 1.68-1.81), and infant mortality (aOR 2.05, CI 2.00-2.10) compared to NHW infants (n = 4,578,150). Hispanic black infants (n = 84,377) also experienced higher risk of first-week (aOR 1.28 (1.12-1.47), neonatal (aOR .27, CI 1.13-1.44), postneonatal (aOR 1.34, CI 1.15-1.56), and infant mortality (aOR 1.30, CI 1.18-1.43) compared to both NHW and Hispanic white infants (n = 1,989,109). Conclusions for Practice: Risk of infant mortality varies among Hispanic infants by race, with poorer outcomes experienced by Hispanic black infants. Compared to non-Hispanic infants of the same race, Hispanic black infants experience a smaller health disadvantage and Hispanic white infants have better or similar infant health outcomes. Our findings suggest implications of racial heterogeneity on infant health outcomes, and provide insight into the role of race as a social construct.
M. Larissa Avilés-Santa
Full Text Available The past two decades have witnessed many advances in the prevention, treatment, and control of diabetes mellitus (DM and its complications. Increased screening has led to a greater recognition of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM and prediabetes; however, Hispanics/Latinos, the largest minority group in the US, have not fully benefited from these advances. The Hispanic/Latino population is highly diverse in ancestries, birth places, cultures, languages, and socioeconomic backgrounds, and it populates most of the Western Hemisphere. In the US, the prevalence of DM varies among Hispanic/Latino heritage groups, being higher among Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominicans, and lower among South Americans. The risk and prevalence of diabetes among Hispanics/Latinos are significantly higher than in non-Hispanic Whites, and nearly 40% of Hispanics/Latinos with diabetes have not been formally diagnosed. Despite these striking facts, the representation of Hispanics/Latinos in pharmacological and non-pharmacological clinical trials has been suboptimal, while the prevalence of diabetes in these populations continues to rise. This review will focus on the epidemiology, etiology and prevention of type 2 DM in populations of Latin American origin. We will set the stage by defining the terms Hispanic, Latino, and Latin American, explaining the challenges identifying Hispanics/Latinos in the scientific literature and databases, describing the epidemiology of diabetes—including type 2 DM and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM—and cardiovascular risk factors in Hispanics/Latinos in the US and Latin America, and discussing trends, and commonalities and differences across studies and populations, including methodology to ascertain diabetes. We will discuss studies on mechanisms of disease, and research on prevention of type 2 DM in Hispanics/Latinos, including women with GDM, youth and adults; and finalize with a discussion on lessons learned and opportunities
Avilés-Santa, M. Larissa; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Lindberg, Nangel M.; Mattei, Josiemer; Pasquel, Francisco J.; Pérez, Cynthia M.
The past two decades have witnessed many advances in the prevention, treatment, and control of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. Increased screening has led to a greater recognition of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) and prediabetes; however, Hispanics/Latinos, the largest minority group in the US, have not fully benefited from these advances. The Hispanic/Latino population is highly diverse in ancestries, birth places, cultures, languages, and socioeconomic backgrounds, and it populates most of the Western Hemisphere. In the US, the prevalence of DM varies among Hispanic/Latino heritage groups, being higher among Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominicans, and lower among South Americans. The risk and prevalence of diabetes among Hispanics/Latinos are significantly higher than in non-Hispanic Whites, and nearly 40% of Hispanics/Latinos with diabetes have not been formally diagnosed. Despite these striking facts, the representation of Hispanics/Latinos in pharmacological and non-pharmacological clinical trials has been suboptimal, while the prevalence of diabetes in these populations continues to rise. This review will focus on the epidemiology, etiology and prevention of type 2 DM in populations of Latin American origin. We will set the stage by defining the terms Hispanic, Latino, and Latin American, explaining the challenges identifying Hispanics/Latinos in the scientific literature and databases, describing the epidemiology of diabetes—including type 2 DM and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)—and cardiovascular risk factors in Hispanics/Latinos in the US and Latin America, and discussing trends, and commonalities and differences across studies and populations, including methodology to ascertain diabetes. We will discuss studies on mechanisms of disease, and research on prevention of type 2 DM in Hispanics/Latinos, including women with GDM, youth and adults; and finalize with a discussion on lessons learned and opportunities to enhance
Avilés-Santa, M Larissa; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Lindberg, Nangel M; Mattei, Josiemer; Pasquel, Francisco J; Pérez, Cynthia M
The past two decades have witnessed many advances in the prevention, treatment, and control of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. Increased screening has led to a greater recognition of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) and prediabetes; however, Hispanics/Latinos, the largest minority group in the US, have not fully benefited from these advances. The Hispanic/Latino population is highly diverse in ancestries, birth places, cultures, languages, and socioeconomic backgrounds, and it populates most of the Western Hemisphere. In the US, the prevalence of DM varies among Hispanic/Latino heritage groups, being higher among Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominicans, and lower among South Americans. The risk and prevalence of diabetes among Hispanics/Latinos are significantly higher than in non-Hispanic Whites, and nearly 40% of Hispanics/Latinos with diabetes have not been formally diagnosed. Despite these striking facts, the representation of Hispanics/Latinos in pharmacological and non-pharmacological clinical trials has been suboptimal, while the prevalence of diabetes in these populations continues to rise. This review will focus on the epidemiology, etiology and prevention of type 2 DM in populations of Latin American origin. We will set the stage by defining the terms Hispanic, Latino , and Latin American , explaining the challenges identifying Hispanics/Latinos in the scientific literature and databases, describing the epidemiology of diabetes-including type 2 DM and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)-and cardiovascular risk factors in Hispanics/Latinos in the US and Latin America, and discussing trends, and commonalities and differences across studies and populations, including methodology to ascertain diabetes. We will discuss studies on mechanisms of disease, and research on prevention of type 2 DM in Hispanics/Latinos, including women with GDM, youth and adults; and finalize with a discussion on lessons learned and opportunities to enhance research
Poverty and Hunger in Hispanic America: The Inadequacy of Data for Policy Planning. Hearing before the Select Committee on Hunger. United States House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session (March 30, 1988).
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Hunger.
This hearing addresses issues of health, hunger, and malnutrition among Hispanic Americans. Health and poverty agency officials made statements before the committee and expressed difficulty in examining the health- and poverty-related problems among Hispanics because of a lack of data. Testimony indicated that previous data regarding the health of…
updated and may no longer be applicable as a result of changes in law, regulation and/or administration automation and enabling technologies into the ammunition logistics lifecycle business processes. Peer began B.S. in Business Administration from the University of New Orleans and is a graduate of the 2002 DoD
Cibik, Margaret A.; Chambers, Stephen L.
Assessed current status of minority education by surveying college students (n=423). Gathered information about the barriers and contributors to persistence and academic success. Determined finances and and availability of financial aid were first-order concerns of minority students. Found differences in motivation for college attendance between…
in communication and environmental studies and a law degree from Tulane Law School with a , ethics determinations, operational law, military justice, and legal assistance support to the Coast Media Sites Register A Site Unified Combatant Commands Resources Additional Links Home Today in DOD
Morgan, Bobbette M.
The purpose of the study is to share reflections from 140 non-Hispanic undergraduate students and 83 Hispanic students who have participated in cooperative written examinations for group grades. Reflections are clustered by themes identified from the students' comments using Van Manen's (1990) hermeneutic phenomonological approach, which is how…
Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, M. M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eberle, Annika [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feldman, David J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Augustine, Chad R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maness, Michael [Formerly NREL; O' Connor, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory annually provides an organized and centralized set of such cost and performance data. The ATB uses the best information from the Department of Energy national laboratories' renewable energy analysts as well as information from the Energy Information Administration for fuel-based technologies. The ATB has been reviewed by experts and it includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind, offshore wind, utility-scale solar photovoltaics (PV), commercial-scale solar PV, residential-scale solar PV, concentrating solar power, geothermal power, hydropower, coal, natural gas, nuclear, and conventional biopower. This webinar presentation introduces the 2017 ATB.
Roberts, Megan E; Colby, Suzanne M; Lu, Bo; Ferketich, Amy K
Compared to the majority of non-Hispanic white ("white") cigarette smokers, many African American smokers demonstrate a later age of initiation. The goal of the present study was to examine African American late-onset smoking (ie, regular smoking beginning at age 18 or later) and determine whether late-onset (vs. early-onset) smoking is protective in terms of quit rates and health outcomes. We used data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) because the wide age range of participants (20-75 at baseline) allowed the examination of smoking cessation and mortality incidence across the lifespan. Consistent with previous research, results indicated a later average age of smoking onset among African Americans, compared to whites. Disentangling effects of race from age-of-onset, we found that the cessation rate among late-onset African American smokers was 33%, whereas rates for early-onset African American smokers and early- and late-onset white smokers ranged from 52% to 57%. Finally, results showed that among white, low-socioeconomic status (SES) smokers, the hazard rate for mortality was greater among early- versus late-onset smokers; in contrast, among African American smokers (both low- and high-SES) hazard rates for mortality did not significantly differ among early- versus late-onset smokers. Although late (vs. early) smoking onset may be protective for whites, the present results suggest that late-onset may not be similarly protective for African Americans. Tobacco programs and regulatory policies focused on prevention should expand their perspective to include later ages of initiation, in order to avoid widening tobacco-related health disparities. This study indicates that late-onset smoking is not only the norm among African American adult smokers, but that late- versus early-onset smoking (ie, delaying onset) does not appear to afford any benefits for African Americans in terms of cessation or mortality. These results
Nuñez, Alicia; González, Patricia; Talavera, Gregory A; Sanchez-Johnsen, Lisa; Roesch, Scott C; Davis, Sonia M; Arguelles, William; Womack, Veronica Y; Ostrovsky, Natania W; Ojeda, Lizette; Penedo, Frank J; Gallo, Linda C
There is limited research on the traditional Hispanic male and female gender roles of machismo and marianismo, respectively, in relation to negative cognitions and emotions. Given the vulnerability of Hispanics to negative cognitions and emotions, it is important to examine sociocultural correlates of emotional distress. Therefore, we examined associations of machismo and marianismo with negative cognitive-emotional factors (i.e., depression symptoms; cynical hostility; and trait anxiety and anger) in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study, a cross-sectional cohort study of sociocultural and psychosocial correlates of cardiometabolic health. Participants were aged 18-74 years and self-identified as Hispanic of Central American, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South American, and other Hispanic background ( N = 4,426). Results revealed that specific components of machismo (traditional machismo) and marianismo (family and spiritual pillar dimensions) were associated with higher levels of negative cognitions and emotions after adjusting for socio-demographic factors ( p < .05); these associations remained consistent across sex, Hispanic background group, and acculturation. Findings can inform mental health interventions and contribute to our understanding of the importance of gender role socialization in the context of self-reported negative cognitive-emotional factors in Hispanics.
The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) in cooperation with the Self Reliance Foundation (SRF) is conducting the Hispanic Environmental and Waste Management Outreach Project (HEWMO) to increase science and environmental literacy, specifically that related to nuclear engineering and waste management in the nuclear industry, among the US Hispanic population. The project will encourage Hispanic youth and young adults to pursue careers through the regular presentation of Spanish-speaking scientists and engineers and other role models, as well as career information on nationally broadcast radio programs reaching youth and parents. This project will encourage making science, mathematics, and technology a conscious part of the everyday life experiences of Hispanic youth and families. The SRF in collaboration with the Hispanic Radio Network (HRN) produces and broadcasts radio programs to address the topics and meet the objectives as outlined in the Environmental Literacy Plan and DOE-EM Communications Plan in this document. The SRF has in place a toll-free ''800'' number Information and Resource Referral (I and RR) service that national radio program listeners can call to obtain information and resource referrals as well as give their reactions to the radio programs that will air. HRN uses this feature to put listeners in touch with local organizations and resources that can provide them with further information and assistance on the related program topics.
Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs can be reduced by 50% to 70% with sufficient periconceptional intake of folic acid. Hispanic women are up to 3 times more likely than non-Hispanics to have a child affected by NTDs. This disparity is complicated by health literacy, as women impacted by this disparity are also at-risk for low health literacy. The purpose of this project was to pilot advertisements to promote multivitamins, increasing folic acid consumption, among Hispanic adolescents. The advertisements for Hispanic adolescents and their mothers focused on broad benefits of a multivitamin, downplaying folic acid’s role in prenatal health. Participants were Hispanic mothers (n = 25 and adolescents (n = 25 at a clinic in the Southwestern United States. Likert-type survey items and an open-ended question were used to assess attitudes toward multivitamins and advertisements. The Newest Vital Sign (NVS was used to assess participants’ health literacy. Participants’ impressions of the ads were positive. Both groups expressed the intent to start taking a daily multivitamin after viewing the ads—adolescents for themselves and mothers to start their daughters on a daily multivitamin. There was no relationship between participants’ health literacy and perceptions of the advertisements or intentions to begin a multivitamin habit. This research illustrates the potential of messages that rely on peripheral health benefits to overcome communication barriers posed by health literacy and address serious health problems such as NTDs.
The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) in cooperation with the Self Reliance Foundation (SRF) is conducting the Hispanic Environmental and Waste Management Outreach Project (HEWMO) to increase science and environmental literacy, specifically that related to nuclear engineering and waste management in the nuclear industry, among the US Hispanic population. The project will encourage Hispanic youth and young adults to pursue careers through the regular presentation of Spanish-speaking scientists and engineers and other role models, as well as career information on nationally broadcast radio programs reaching youth and parents. This project will encourage making science, mathematics, and technology a conscious part of the everyday life experiences of Hispanic youth and families. The SRF in collaboration with the Hispanic Radio Network (HRN) produces and broadcasts radio programs to address the topics and meet the objectives as outlined in the Environmental Literacy Plan and DOE-EM Communications Plan in this document. The SRF has in place a toll-free ''800'' number Information and Resource Referral (I and RR) service that national radio program listeners can call to obtain information and resource referrals as well as give their reactions to the radio programs that will air. HRN uses this feature to put listeners in touch with local organizations and resources that can provide them with further information and assistance on the related program topics
Hamelinck, C.; Koper, M.; Berndes, G.; Englund, O.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Kunen, E.; Walden, D.
The European Union is promoting the use of biofuels and other renewable energy in transport. In April 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) was adopted that set a 10% target for renewable energy in transport in 2020. The directive sets several requirements to the sustainability of biofuels marketed in the frame of the Directive. The Commission is required to report to the European Parliament on a regular basis on a range of sustainability impacts resulting from the use of biofuels in the EU. This report serves as a baseline of information for regular monitoring on the impacts of the Directive. Chapter 2 discusses the EU biofuels market, the production and consumption of biofuels and international trade. It is derived where the feedstock for EU consumed biofuels originally come from. Chapter 3 discusses the biofuel policy framework in the EU and major third countries of supply. It looks at various policy aspects that are relevant to comply with the EU sustainability requirements. Chapter 4 discusses the environmental and social sustainability aspects associated with EU biofuels and their feedstock. Chapter 5 discusses the macro-economic effects that indirectly result from increased EU biofuels consumption, on commodity prices and land use. Chapter 6 presents country factsheets for main third countries that supplied biofuels to the EU market in 2008.
Hamilton, Tod G; Palermo, Tia; Green, Tiffany L
A large literature has documented that Hispanic immigrants have a health advantage over their U.S.-born counterparts upon arrival in the United States. Few studies, however, have disentangled the effects of immigrants' arrival cohort from their tenure of U.S. residence, an omission that could produce imprecise estimates of the degree of health decline experienced by Hispanic immigrants as their U.S. tenure increases. Using data from the 1996-to-2014 waves of the March Current Population Survey, we show that the health (i.e., self-rated health) of Hispanic immigrants varies by both arrival cohort and U.S. tenure for immigrants hailing from most of the primary sending countries/regions of Hispanic immigrants. We also find evidence that acculturation plays an important role in determining the health trajectories of Hispanic immigrants. With respect to self-rated health, however, our findings demonstrate that omitting arrival-cohort measures from health assimilation models may result in overestimates of the degree of downward health assimilation experienced by Hispanic immigrants. © American Sociological Association 2015.
Taverno, Sharon E; Rollins, Brandi Y; Francis, Lori A
The acculturation hypothesis proposes an overall disadvantage in health outcomes for Hispanic immigrants with more time spent living in the U.S., but little is known about how generational status and language may influence Hispanic children's relative weight and activity patterns. To investigate associations among generation and language with relative weight (BMI z-scores), physical activity, screen time, and participation in extracurricular activities (i.e., sports, clubs) in a U.S.-based, nationally representative sample of Hispanic children. Participants included 2012 Hispanic children aged 6-11 years from the cross-sectional 2003 National Survey of Children's Health. Children were grouped according to generational status (first, second, or third), and the primary language spoken in the home (English versus non-English). Primary analyses included adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic regression to examine the relationships among variables; all analyses were conducted between 2008 and 2009. Compared to third-generation, English speakers, first- and second-generation, non-English speakers were more than two times more likely to be obese. Moreover, first-generation, non-English speakers were half as likely to engage in regular physical activity and sports. Both first- and second-generation, non-English speakers were less likely to participate in clubs compared to second- and third-generation, English speakers. Overall, non-English-speaking groups reported less screen time compared to third-generation, English speakers. The hypothesis that Hispanics lose their health protection with more time spent in the U.S. was not supported in this sample of Hispanic children. Copyright 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schinke, Steven P; Schwinn, Traci M; Hursh, Hilary A
Intervention research is essential to help Hispanic American adolescents avoid drug use. This article describes an intervention research program aimed at preventing drug use among these youths. Grounded in salient epidemiological data, the program is informed by bicultural competence, social learning, and motivational interviewing theories. The program, called Vamos, is aimed at the risk and protective factors as well as the cultural prerogatives that demark the adolescent years of Hispanic American youths. Innovative in its approach, the program is delivered through a smartphone application (app). By interacting with engaging content presented via the app, youths can acquire the cognitive-behavioral skills necessary to avoid risky situations, urges, and pressures associated with early drug use. The intervention development process is presented in detail, and an evaluation plan to determine the program's efficacy is outlined. Lessons for practice and intervention programming are discussed.
Farrelly, Colleen; Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Estrada, Yannine; Prado, Guillermo
The present study examined the relationship between Berry's acculturation typology and HIV risk behaviors and whether family functioning mediated any such effects. A total of 235 high risk Hispanic adolescents were categorized into one of Berry's four acculturation typologies through the use of cut-off scores on measures of Hispanicism and Americanism. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors and the indirect effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors through family functioning. Acculturation typology was related to HIV risk behaviors. Family functioning partially mediated the effects of acculturation typology on the HIV risk behavior outcomes. These findings suggest that both Americanism and Hispanicism play an important role in the etiology of HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and that both, along with family functioning, are important to consider when designing preventive interventions for this population.
Mama, Scherezade K; Song, Jaejoon; Ortiz, Alexis; Tirado-Gomez, Maribel; Palacios, Cristina; Hughes, Daniel C; Basen-Engquist, Karen
This study evaluated the effect of two home-based exercise interventions (one culturally adapted and one standard) on changes in social cognitive theory (SCT) variables, physical activity (PA), and sedentary time (ST), and determined the association between changes in SCT variables and changes in PA and ST in Hispanic breast cancer survivors. Project VIVA! was a 16-week randomized controlled pilot study to test the effectiveness and feasibility of a culturally adapted exercise intervention for Mexican American and Puerto Rican breast cancer survivors in Houston, Texas and San Juan, Puerto Rico, respectively. Women (N = 89) completed questionnaires on SCT variables, PA, and ST and were then randomized to a 16-week culturally adapted exercise program, a non-culturally adapted standard exercise intervention or a wait-list control group. Multiple regression models were used to determine associations between changes in SCT variables and changes in PA and ST. Participants were in their late 50s (58.5 ± 9.2 years) and obese (31.0 ± 6.5 kg/m 2 ). Women reported doing roughly 34.5 min/day of PA and spending over 11 h/day in sedentary activities. Across groups, women reported significant increases in exercise self-efficacy and moderate-intensity, vigorous-intensity, and total PA from baseline to follow-up (p cancer survivors benefit from PA interventions that focus on increasing social support from family and friends and social modeling. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available This study used the Eccles et al. expectancy-value (E-V theory to test the influence of motivation on mathematics achievement and enrollment using data from a cohort of 926 seventh-grade prealgebra students (49% male, 76% Hispanic, 76% low income, and 55% English learner. E-V beliefs were assessed in seventh grade along with achievement, and enrollment was measured in eighth grade. Differential associations of motivation, achievement, and enrollment were examined across Hispanic and non-Hispanic populations. Expectancy for success and task value uniquely predicted seventh-grade achievement and eighth-grade algebra enrollment after controlling for prior achievement and a full set of demographic controls, including low socioeconomic status and English fluency. The association of interest value and achievement differentiated across Hispanic and non-Hispanic youth, suggesting that the effect of interest value on mathematics achievement was weaker for Hispanic youth than for non-Hispanics after accounting for success expectations and prior achievement.
Ugarte-Gil, Manuel F; Pons-Estel, Guillermo J; Molineros, Julio; Wojdyla, Daniel; McGwin, Gerald; Nath, Swapan K; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta; Alarcón, Graciela S
To evaluate disease features and outcomes in two populations with significant Amerindian ancestry. Hispanic patients (from Texas) from the Lupus in Minorities: Nature versus Nurture (LUMINA) cohort and Mestizo patients from the Grupo Latino Americano De Estudio del Lupus or Latin American Group for the Study of Lupus (GLADEL) cohort were included. Disease features and outcomes were evaluated at baseline and last visit. Admixture informative markers of Mestizo Genoma de Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico Network consortium (GENLES) patients and Hispanic LUMINA patients were compared. Univariable analyses were performed using Chi square or Student's t test as appropriate. Multivariable analyses adjusting for possible confounders were carried out using Poisson, logistic or Cox regression models as appropriate. A total of 114 LUMINA and 619 GLADEL patients were included. GLADEL patients had accrued more damage at baseline, but the opposite was the case at last visit. Being from LUMINA was a risk factor for damage accrual, even after adjusting for possible confounders [relative risk (RR) 1.33, 95% CI 1.12, 1.58]. Also, LUMINA patients have a higher risk of mortality than GLADEL patients [hazard ratio (HR) 2.37, 95% CI 1.10, 5.15], having 5-year survival of 85.6% and 94.5%, respectively. In addition, 79 LUMINA patients and 744 Mestizo GENLES patients were evaluated in order to compare genetic ancestry between the two groups; GENLES patients had a higher proportion of European ancestry (48.5% vs 43.3%, P = 0.003) and a lower proportion of Asian ancestry (3.7% vs 4.9%, P = 0.048), but the proportions of Amerindian and African ancestry were comparable in both. USA Hispanic patients seemed to have a poorer prognosis than their counterparts from Latin America, despite having a comparable genetic background. Socioeconomic factors may account for these observations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights
The main purpose of this report is to establish a reference point - defined as the data collected up until the end of year 2002 - for the coming phases of the Finnish spent nuclear fuel disposal programme. The focus is: to define the current surface and underground conditions at the site, both as regards the properties for which a change is expected and for the properties which are of particular interest for long-term safety or environmental impact; to establish, as far as possible, the natural fluctuation of properties that are potentially affected by construction of the underground laboratory, the ONKALO, and to provide references to data on parameters or use in model development and testing and to use models to assist in understanding and interpreting the data. The emphasis of the baseline description is on bedrock characteristics that are relevant to the long-term safety of a spent fuel repository and, hence, to include the hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, rock mechanical, tectonic and seismic conditions of the site. The construction of the ONKALO will also affect some conditions on the surface, and, therefore, a description of the main characteristics of the nature and the man-made constructions at Olkiluoto is also given. This report is primarily a road map to the available information on the prevailing conditions at the Olkiluoto site and a framework for understanding of data collected. Hence, it refers to numerous available background reports and other archived information produced over the past 20 years or more, and forms a recapitulation and revaluation of the characterisation data of the Olkiluoto site. (orig.)
Cucciare, Michael A; Gray, Heather; Azar, Armin; Jimenez, Daniel; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores
The present study examined the relationship between self-reported physical health, depressive symptoms, and the occurrence of depression diagnosis in Hispanic female dementia caregivers. Participants were 89 Hispanic female dementia caregivers. This study used a cross-sectional design. Baseline depression and physical health data were collected from participants enrolled in the 'Reducing Stress in Hispanic Anglo Dementia Caregivers' study sponsored by the National Institute on Aging. Physical health was assessed using the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), a one-item self-report health rating, body mass index, and the presence or history of self-reported physical illness. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). The occurrence of depression diagnosis was assessed using the Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID). Multiple linear and logistic regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which indices of physical health and depressive symptoms accounted for variance in participants' depressive symptoms and depressive diagnoses. Self-reported indices of health (e.g., SF-36) accounted for a significant portion of variance in both CES-D scores and SCID diagnoses. Caregivers who reported worsened health tended to report increased symptoms of depression on the CES-D and increased likelihood of an SCID diagnosis of a depressive disorder. Self-reported health indices are helpful in identifying Hispanic dementia caregivers at risk for clinical levels of depression.
Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; O'Haver, Judith; Small, Leigh; Mays, Mary Z.
Background: Obesity and mental health disorders are 2 major public health problems in American adolescents, with prevalence even higher in Hispanic teens. Despite the rapidly increasing incidence and adverse health outcomes associated with overweight and mental health problems, very few intervention studies have been conducted with adolescents to…
This podcast is based on the May 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. About one in six people living in the U.S. are Hispanic. The two leading causes of death in this group are heart disease and cancer, accounting for two out of five deaths. Unfortunately, many Hispanics face considerable barriers to getting high quality health care, including language and low income. Learn what can be done to reduce the barriers. Created: 5/5/2015 by Office of Minority Health & Health Equity (OMHHE). Date Released: 5/5/2015.
Individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) appear to be at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) due at least in part to an increased prevalence of risk factors. We evaluated lipid, lipoprotein, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) levels at study entry in the largest multiethnic cohort of participants with IGT described, namely in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). Measurements were performed at the baseline visit of 3,819 randomized participants of the DPP. Among 3,622 participants who were not taking lipid-lowering medicines, cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed in relation to demographic, anthropometric, and metabolic measures. Major determinants of risk factors were assessed in multivariate analysis. Over 40% of participants had elevated triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and CRP levels and reduced HDL cholesterol levels. Men had higher triglyceride and tPA and lower HDL cholesterol concentrations and smaller LDL particle size than women, whereas women had higher CRP and fibrinogen levels. African Americans had less dyslipidemia but higher fibrinogen levels, and Asian Americans had lower CRP and fibrinogen levels than Caucasians and Hispanics. The surrogate measure of insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) had the strongest association with HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and tPA levels and LDL particle size. BMI had the greatest influence on CRP and fibrinogen levels. Using median splits of indexes of insulin resistance and insulin secretion (insulin-to-glucose ratio), participants with greater insulin resistance had a more adverse CVD risk-factor profile, whereas insulin secretion had little influence on risk factors. The pattern of CVD risk factors in participants with IGT in the DPP exhibits substantial heterogeneity and is significantly influenced by race, sex, and age, as well as by obesity, glucose, and insulin measures. The degree of insulin
Gurantz, Oded; Hurwitz, Michael; Smith, Jonathan
Hispanics are the largest minority group in the United States, increasing almost six-fold from 1970 to 2014. Although Hispanics youth in the U.S. have traditionally had lower college attendance rates, some sources suggest a narrowing of the White-Hispanic postsecondary attendance gap over the last fifteen years. A key question is whether altering…
Kinders, Mark A.; Pope, Myron L.
The University of Central Oklahoma's new strategic plan sought to increase its connection to the emerging Hispanic community in Oklahoma City. Simultaneously, the Greater Oklahoma City Hispanic Chamber of Commerce was seeking a higher education partner. This case study describes resulting new programs for Hispanic students and businesses. The…
Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Córdova, David; Mason, Craig A.; Huang, Shi; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Soto, Daniel W.; Villamar, Juan A.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Lizzi, Karina M.; Szapocznik, José
The present study was designed to examine acculturative changes, and their effects on mental health and family functioning, in recent-immigrant Hispanic adolescents. A sample of 302 Hispanic adolescents was assessed five times over a 2½-year period. Participants completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. practices, collectivist and individualist values, and ethnic and U.S. identity at each timepoint. Baseline and Time 5 levels of mental health and family functioning were also assessed. Latent class growth analyses produced two-class solutions for practices, values, and identifications. Adolescents who increased over time in practices and values reported the most adaptive mental health and family functioning. Adolescents who did not change in any acculturation domain reported the least favorable mental health and family functioning. PMID:25644262
Anderson, Cheryl; Strickland, Sarah
Many studies have explored the role of acculturation on health outcomes; however, no studies to date have examined relationships between acculturation and the traumatic stress of childbirth among Hispanic adolescents. A convenience sample of 66 Hispanic adolescents 13 to 19 years of age completed the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II (ARSMA-II), a demographic sheet, birth appraisal scale, and the Impact of Event Scale within 72 hours of birth. Significant associations were found between the ARSMA-II subscales and acculturation proxy variables, excluding language; however, only the Mexican Orientation Subscale and generation proxy variable influenced the birth experience. The study findings showed that Hispanic adolescents reporting a more traumatic childbirth identified closer with the Mexican culture and reported fewer family generations residing in the United States. As an overlooked area of research, our findings support the need for additional research related to the traumatic stress of birth among Hispanic adolescents. Using multiple acculturation measurements, including the ARSMA-II, with larger, more diverse samples of adolescents, equally balanced between all categories of acculturation and placement within the five-tier generation matrix, can provide some insightful information and directed health care.
De La Cruz-Muñoz, Nestor; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Arheart, Kristopher L; Miller, Tracie L; Lipshultz, Steven E; Messiah, Sarah E
Ethnic minority adolescents, Hispanics in particular, are disproportionately affected by extreme obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Bariatric surgery is one of the few effective treatments for morbid obesity, yet little information about weight outcomes after surgery in this demographic are available. We determined the effectiveness of bariatric surgery in reducing weight and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents, a majority of whom were non-Mexican American Hispanic and originated from Central and/or South America and the Caribbean Basin region. Adolescents (16-to-19 years old) who had undergone gastric bypass or adjustable gastric band surgery between 2001 and 2010 and who had complete follow-up data available (91 %) were included in the analysis. Mean weight and BMI before and 1-year after surgery were compared. Among 71 adolescents (80 % Hispanic, 77 % female), mean BMI and weight, and z-scores and percentile transformations were all significantly lower after surgery for the entire sample (P surgery showed significantly better weight loss outcomes for all anthropometric measures versus adjustable gastric band surgery (P surgery. Our results show that bariatric surgery, gastric bypass procedure in particular, can markedly reduce weight among a predominantly Hispanic adolescent patient sample. These findings indicate that bariatric surgery has the potential to be safe and effective in substantially reducing weight in a group of adolescents who are at a particularly high risk for obesity-related health consequences.
Because problems such as rape are often viewed as personal concerns of "la familia" there is great tendency on the part of Hispanics to accept this crime as something that must be resolved without intervention from the police, the hospitals or the courts. Seldom will much needed therapy and auxillary type services be sought due to the extreme…
Traditional personality theories do not consider the impact of culture on personality development. Yet, to provide culturally relevant services to the increasing Hispanic population in the U.S., more culturally relevant theories must be identified. This paper presents Relational Cultural Theory (RCT) as an alternative model to understanding…
Sissons, Peter L.
This monograph explores the Hispanic experience of the criminal justice system by examining statistics provided by Federal, State, and local agencies. A review of the literature provides a theoretical perspective from which to view the data. Examination of the first set of data begins with a description of the experiences of Puerto Ricans in the…
Yazedjian, Ani; Toews, Michelle L.
The purpose of this study is to assess personal and interpersonal predictors of college adjustment among a sample of 190 first-year Hispanic students. Specifically, we examined the extent to which personal factors such as self-esteem, acculturation, and ethnic identity and interpersonal factors such as parental education and parental attachment…
National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2016
The innovative and culturally responsive teaching practices provided in high-quality charter schools are not only providing Hispanic students with an excellent alternative to district public schools, but they are also yielding academic results that show neither race/ethnicity nor income level must determine a child's future. The compilation of…
Edwards, Kelcey; Sawtell, Ellen
Presented at the Advanced Placement Annual Conference (APAC) in Las Vegas, NV in July 2013. This presentation reviews new research examining the AP® experience of Hispanic graduates over the past decade. Topics include an in-depth look at the AP Spanish Language and Culture gateway hypothesis and trends in family characteristics such as parent…
Johnston Polacek, Georgia N. L.; Rojas, Viviana; Levitt, Steven; Mika, Virginia Seguin
Little is known about Hispanic teens' sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors and their relationship to media influences. Information about this relationship could contribute to an understanding of the early onset of sexual behavior and early teen pregnancy. This paper reports preliminary findings from a pilot project conducted to determine…
Nayssan Safavian; AnneMarie Conley
This study used the Eccles et al. expectancy-value (E-V) theory to test the influence of motivation on mathematics achievement and enrollment using data from a cohort of 926 seventh-grade prealgebra students (49% male, 76% Hispanic, 76% low income, and 55% English learner). E-V beliefs were assessed in seventh grade along with achievement, and enrollment was measured in eighth grade. Differential associations of motivation, achievement, and enrollment were examined across Hispanic and non-His...
McMahan, Shari; Cathorall, Michelle; Romero, Devan R.
There are clear health conditions that disproportionately affect the Hispanic population. One hundred twenty-four (45%) Hispanic and 153 (55%) White college students completed a questionnaire on cardiovascular disease (CVD) awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of risk. Results indicated that Hispanic students rated themselves as poorer in health,…
Sandi L. Pruitt
Full Text Available To test the Hispanic and Immigrant Paradoxes—i.e., survival advantages despite a worse risk factor profile—and the modifying role of neighborhood context, we examined associations between patient ethnicity, birthplace, neighborhood Hispanic density and neighborhood poverty among 166,254 female breast cancer patients diagnosed 1995–2009 in Texas, U.S. Of all, 79.9% were non-Hispanic White, 15.8% Hispanic U.S.-born, and 4.2% Hispanic foreign-born. We imputed birthplace for the 60.7% of Hispanics missing birthplace data using multiple imputation. Shared frailty Cox proportional hazard models (patients nested within census tracts adjusted for age, diagnosis year, stage, grade, histology, urban/rural residence, and local mammography capacity. Whites (vs. U.S.-born Hispanics had increased all-cause and breast cancer mortality. Foreign-born (vs. U.S.-born Hispanics had increased all-cause and breast cancer mortality. Living in higher Hispanic density neighborhoods was generally associated with increased mortality, although associations differed slightly in magnitude and significance by ethnicity, birthplace, and neighborhood poverty. We found no evidence of an Immigrant Paradox and some evidence of a Hispanic Paradox where protective effects were limited to U.S.-born Hispanics. Contrary to prior studies, foreign birthplace and residence in higher Hispanic density neighborhoods were associated with increased mortality. More research on intersections between ethnicity, birthplace and neighborhood context are needed.
Sabogal, Fabio; And Others
Finds that, among 263 Hispanic and 150 non-Hispanic White smokers, Hispanics smoked fewer cigarettes, had lower levels of perceived addiction to nicotine, and had higher perceived self-efficacy to avoid smoking, but these differences shrank with greater acculturation. Discusses implications for smoking cessation programs. Contains 27 references.…
Swenson, Carolyn J; Marshall, Julie A; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Baxter, Judith; Morgenstern, Nora
Understanding variations in physical activity patterns is important for planning health interventions. This study describes age-related change in physical activity in 903 rural Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) adults age 55-80. The Physical Activity History assessed 13 categories of productive and recreational activity during the past year with up to four assessments per participant from 1987 to 1998. The most common activities were walking and home maintenance/gardening. Productive and recreational physical activity levels were lower in women than men (P productive activity steadily declined with age in NHW and Hispanics. Recreational activity increased slightly until age 63, then decreased after age 70. In women, productive activity initially stayed stable then decreased in NHW after age 63, and in Hispanics it decreased at younger ages before stabilizing after age 70. Recreational activity levels decreased steadily with age in all women, with a steeper rate of decline in NHW than Hispanics. In both ethnic groups, activity levels were lower in diabetics than nondiabetics, except for recreational activity in women where levels did not differ by diabetes status. The most common activities were similar to other studies of older adults, both recreational and productive activities contributed to total activity, and physical activity decreased in all gender-ethnic subgroups with age. Hispanic women reported the lowest activity levels. Interventions to maintain or increase recreational activity may need to target women at an earlier age than men.
Full Text Available Background: Although various types of intimate partner violence (IPV tend to co-occur, risk factors of each type of IPV may differ. At the same time, most of the existing literature on risk factors of IPV among minorities has used a cross-sectional design and has focused on physical rather than sexual IPV. We conducted the current study to compare Black and Hispanic women for psychological predators of change in sexual IPV over time. Methods: Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS, this study followed 561 Black and 475 Hispanic women with their male partners for four years. Independent variables included male partners’ depression, anxiety, problem alcohol use, and male-to-female physical and psychological IPV perpetration. The dependent variable was sexual IPV reported by female partners, measured at baseline, two years, and four years later. Covariates included age, income, marital status and educational level. We used a multi-group latent growth curve model (LGCM to explain intercept, linear, and quadratic slopes, which represent the baseline, and linear and curvilinear trajectories of male-to-female sexual IPV, where groups were defined based on ethnicity. Results: Psychological IPV was associated with sexual IPV at baseline among both ethnic groups. The male partner’s depression was a risk factor for an increase in sexual IPV over time among Black but not Hispanic women. Anxiety, problem alcohol use and physical IPV did not have an effect on the baseline or change in sexual IPV over time. Psychological IPV was not associated with an increase in sexual IPV over time in either ethnic groups. Conclusions: There is a need for screening of sexual IPV in the presence of psychological IPV among minority women. There is also a need for screening and treatment of male partners’ depression as a strategy to reduce sexual IPV among Black women.
Preiser, Brianna; Assari, Shervin
Background: Although various types of intimate partner violence (IPV) tend to co-occur, risk factors of each type of IPV may differ. At the same time, most of the existing literature on risk factors of IPV among minorities has used a cross-sectional design and has focused on physical rather than sexual IPV. We conducted the current study to compare Black and Hispanic women for psychological predators of change in sexual IPV over time. Methods: Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), this study followed 561 Black and 475 Hispanic women with their male partners for four years. Independent variables included male partners' depression, anxiety, problem alcohol use, and male-to-female physical and psychological IPV perpetration. The dependent variable was sexual IPV reported by female partners, measured at baseline, two years, and four years later. Covariates included age, income, marital status and educational level. We used a multi-group latent growth curve model (LGCM) to explain intercept, linear, and quadratic slopes, which represent the baseline, and linear and curvilinear trajectories of male-to-female sexual IPV, where groups were defined based on ethnicity. Results: Psychological IPV was associated with sexual IPV at baseline among both ethnic groups. The male partner's depression was a risk factor for an increase in sexual IPV over time among Black but not Hispanic women. Anxiety, problem alcohol use and physical IPV did not have an effect on the baseline or change in sexual IPV over time. Psychological IPV was not associated with an increase in sexual IPV over time in either ethnic groups. Conclusions: There is a need for screening of sexual IPV in the presence of psychological IPV among minority women. There is also a need for screening and treatment of male partners' depression as a strategy to reduce sexual IPV among Black women.
Social Security Administration — The Performance Measurement Baseline Change Request template is used to document changes to scope, cost, schedule, or operational performance metrics for SSA's Major...
Sánchez, John Paul; Sola, Orlando; Ramallo, Jorge; Sánchez, Nelson Felix; Dominguez, Kenneth; Romero-Leggott, Valerie
Hispanics represent the fastest growing ethnic segment of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community in the United States and are disproportionately burdened by LGBT-related health issues and limited political support from Hispanic medical organizations. Recently, the Latino Medical Student Association, the National Hispanic Medical Association, and the Hispanic Serving Health Professions Schools, representing over 60,000 Hispanic students and providers and 35 institutions, collaborated to support a resolution opposing discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity and recognizing the obstacles encountered by LGBTQ Hispanics. The resolution provides an important framework for organizational members and leaders to address LGBT health issues and serve to support a more positive sociopolitical climate for the Hispanic LGBT community nationally and internationally.
Full Text Available Excessive sedentary behavior is associated with negative health outcomes independent of physical activity. Objective estimates of time spent in sedentary behaviors are lacking among adults from diverse Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. The objective of this study was to describe accelerometer-assessed sedentary time in a large, representative sample of Hispanic/Latino adults living in the United States, and compare sedentary estimates by Hispanic/Latino background, sociodemographic characteristics and weight categories. This study utilized baseline data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL that included adults aged 18–74 years from four metropolitan areas (N = 16,415. Measured with the Actical accelerometer over 6 days, 76.9% (n = 12,631 of participants had >10 h/day and >3 days of data. Participants spent 11.9 h/day (SD 3.0, or 74% of their monitored time in sedentary behaviors. Adjusting for differences in wear time, adults of Mexican background were the least (11.6 h/day, whereas adults of Dominican background were the most (12.3 h/day, sedentary. Women were more sedentary than men, and older adults were more sedentary than younger adults. Household income was positively associated, whereas employment was negatively associated, with sedentary time. There were no differences in sedentary time by weight categories, marital status, or proxies of acculturation. To reduce sedentariness among these populations, future research should examine how the accumulation of various sedentary behaviors differs by background and region, and which sedentary behaviors are amenable to intervention.
Avilés-Santa, M Larissa; Pérez, Cynthia M; Schneiderman, Neil; Savage, Peter J; Kaplan, Robert C; Teng, Yanping; Suárez, Erick L; Cai, Jianwen; Giachello, Aida L; Talavera, Gregory A; Cowie, Catherine C
The objectives of this analysis were to compare the ability of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), post oral load plasma glucose (2hPG), and hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) to identify U.S. Hispanic/Latino individuals with prediabetes, and to assess its cardiovascular risk factor correlates. This is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 15,507 adults without self-reported diabetes mellitus from six Hispanic/Latino heritage groups, enrolled in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, which takes place in four U.S. communities. The prevalence of prediabetes was determined according to individual or combinations of ADA-defined cut points: FPG=5.6-7.0mmol/L, 2hPG=7.8-11.1mmol/L, and HbA 1c =5.7%-6.4% (39-46mmol/mol). The sensitivity of these criteria to detect prediabetes was estimated. The prevalence ratios (PRs) for selected cardiovascular risk factors were compared among alternative categories of prediabetes versus normoglycemia [FPGprediabetes criteria. Using 2hPG as the gold standard, the sensitivity of FPG was 40.1%, HbA 1c was 45.6%, and that of HbA 1c +FPG was 62.2%. The number of significant PRs for cardiovascular risk factors was higher among individuals with isolated 2hPG=7.8-11.1mmol/L, FPG=5.6-7.0mmol/L+HbA 1c =5.7%-6.4%, or those who met the three prediabetes criteria. Assessing FPG, HbA 1c , and cardiovascular risk factors in Hispanics/Latinos at risk might enhance the early prevention of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular complications in this young and growing population, independent of their heritage group. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Herrera, A L; Pasch, K E
Although some research has focused on the food environment and food marketing, little has examined outdoor food and beverage (FB) advertising, particularly its relationship to the Hispanic composition in schools. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if the prevalence of outdoor FB advertising was greater around middle and high schools with a majority Hispanic population as compared to schools with a lower Hispanic population. All FB advertisements located within a half-mile of 47 schools in Central Texas were documented. Advertisements were coded as free standing or on establishments. Advertisements were coded for theme including price (emphasizing price) and deals/value meals (promoting discounted price/meal deals). These two themes were combined to create an overall price promotion variable. In order to determine if the prevalence of FB advertising varied by the Hispanic composition of the students in the school, data from the Texas Education Agency was used to create a variable which dichotomized the schools into two groups: schools that reported ≥60% Hispanic students or 'Hispanic schools' (n = 21) and schools that reported advertising was greater around Hispanic schools as compared to non-Hispanic schools. Hispanic schools had more overall outdoor FB advertisements as compared to non-Hispanic schools (p = 0.02). Similarly, we found significantly more outdoor FB establishment (p = 0.02) and price promotion (p = 0.05) around Hispanic schools as compared to non-Hispanic schools. Differences in freestanding advertisements by school type approached significance (p = 0.07) with Hispanic schools having more freestanding FB advertisements on average. Further research is needed that documents the content of these advertisements and determines the extent to which these advertisements affect Hispanic and other racial/ethnic minority youth's attitudes and behaviors toward the consumption of these products.
Young, Kendra A; Fingerlin, Tasha E; Langefeld, Carl D; Lorenzo, Carlos; Haffner, Steven M; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Norris, Jill M
The census classification of Hispanic origin is used in epidemiological studies to group individuals, even though there is geographical, cultural, and genetic diversity within Hispanic Americans of purportedly similar backgrounds. We observed differences in our measures of adiposity between our two Mexican American populations, and examined whether these differences were attributed to social, behavioral, physiologic or genetic differences between the two populations. In the IRAS Family Study, we examined 478 Hispanics from San Antonio, Texas and 447 Hispanics from the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Associations with body mass index (BMI), visceral adipose tissue area (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue area (SAT) using social, behavioral, physiologic and genetic variables were examined. Hispanics of Mexican origin in our clinic population in San Antonio had significantly higher mean BMI (31.09 vs. 28.35 kg/m2), VAT (126.3 vs. 105.5 cm2), and SAT (391.6 vs. 336.9 cm2), than Hispanics of Mexican origin in the San Luis Valley. The amount of variation in adiposity explained by clinic population was 4.5% for BMI, 2.8% for VAT, and 2.7% for SAT. After adjustment, clinic population was no longer associated with VAT and SAT, but remained associated with BMI, although the amount of variation explained by population was substantially less (1.0% for BMI). Adiposity differences within this population of Mexican origin can be largely explained by social, behavioral, physiologic and genetic differences.
Buizer, N.N.; Berhanu, Tinsae; Murutse, Girmay; Vugt, van S.M.
This baseline report of the Dairy Business Information Service and Support (DairyBISS) project presents the findings of a baseline survey among 103 commercial farms and 31 firms and advisors working in the dairy value chain. Additional results from the survey among commercial dairy farms are
Varma, Rohit; Bressler, Neil M; Doan, Quan V; Danese, Mark; Dolan, Chantal M; Lee, Abraham; Turpcu, Adam
legal blindness 2 years after initiating treatment among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white individuals in the United States with central-involved DME that has caused vision loss. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sedjo, Rebecca L; Li, Yaqiang; Levinson, Arnold H
Most smokers who try to quit do not use an evidence-based treatment (EBT), and in 2001, Hispanic/Latino quit-attempters were about half as likely as non-Hispanic white (NHW) quit-attempters to use one. This study analyzed the patterns of EBT use in Colorado across a recent decade, 2001-2012. Data were from The Attitudes and Behaviors Survey, a random cross-sectional population-level telephone survey. Data included NHW and English-speaking Hispanic/Latino respondents from 2001 (n=11,872), 2005 (n=10,952), 2008 (n=12,323), and 2012 (n=13,265). Statistical analyses were conducted in 2014-2015. EBT measures included nicotine-replacement therapy, prescription cessation medication, telephone quit-line coaching, and other counseling. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses evaluated associations across years between EBT use and ethnicity, adjusting for covariates. Any EBT use increased with each successive survey year, and the relative increase from 2001 to 2012 was greater among Hispanic/Latino than NHW quit-attempters (75.7% vs 38.7%). However, adjusted for covariates, Hispanic/Latino quit-attempters in 2012 were still 54% less likely to use any EBT (AOR=0.46, 95% CI=0.34, 0.63), 45% less likely to use nicotine-replacement therapy (AOR=0.55, 95% CI=0.39, 0.77), and 50% less likely to use a prescription cessation medication (AOR=0.50, 95% CI=0.30, 0.85). Ethnicity was unrelated to use of a quit-line or other counseling service. EBT use for smoking cessation has increased over the past decade, with more rapid increase among English-speaking Hispanics/Latinos compared with NHWs, but a large use gap remains. Healthcare and public health efforts are needed to clarify and overcome factors contributing to this ongoing disparity. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hartley, Chelsey M; Barroso, Nicole; Rey, Yasmin; Pettit, Jeremy W; Bagner, Daniel M
Although a number of studies have examined the factor structure of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in predominately White or African American samples, no published research has reported on the factor structure among Hispanic women who reside in the United States. The current study examined the factor structure of the EPDS among Hispanic mothers in the United States. Among 220 Hispanic women, drawn from a pediatric primary care setting, with an infant aged 0 to 10 months, 6 structural models guided by the empirical literature were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Results supported a 2-factor model of depression and anxiety as the best fitting model. Multigroup models supported the factorial invariance across women who completed the EDPS in English and Spanish. These findings provide initial support for the 2-factor structure of the EPDS among Hispanic women in the United States. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ana Patricia Ortiz
Full Text Available Introduction: Research on the association between periodontitis and oral human papilloma virus (HPV infection is inconsistent. The cross-sectional association of severe periodontitis with oral HPV infection was investigated in a sample of Hispanic adults. Methods: Data from the 2014–2016 San Juan Overweight Adults Longitudinal Study (n = 740 was analyzed. Periodontitis assessment and self-collection of oral HPV samples followed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey methodology. Periodontitis was defined using the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention/American Academy of Periodontology definition. HPV typing was performed using polymerase chain reaction. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results: 5.7% of participants had oral HPV infection and 20.3% had severe periodontitis. Adults with severe periodontitis had higher odds of oral HPV infection than those with none/mild disease (OR=2.9, 95% CI: 1.0–8.4, p < 0.05 in multivariable analysis. Adults with clinical attachment loss≥ 7 mm and pocket depth PD≥ 6 mm had 2- to 3-fold higher odds of HPV infection. Conclusions: Severe periodontitis was positively associated to oral HPV infection. Longitudinal evaluation of periodontal inflammation's role in acquisition and persistence of oral HPV infection is needed, as periodontitis screening could identify individuals at increased risk of HPV-related oral malignancies. Keywords: Periodontitis, Oral HPV, Hispanics, Adults, Oral health, Puerto Rico
Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Chen, Pan
Background: Findings on disproportionate minority contact remain mixed. Few empirical studies have examined to what extent entry risk into juvenile justice varies across ethnic/racial groups, and to what extent childhood aggressive behaviors foretell later deviance and entry risk. In the current study, we sought to address these shortcomings by…
Pujana, I.; Stern, R. J.; Ledbetter, C. E.
With NSF-CCLI funding, we have developed, taught, and evaluated a new lower-division science course for non-majors, entitled "Geography, Resources, and Environment of Hispanic America" (GRELA). This is an adaptation of a similar course, "Geology and Development of Modern Africa" developed by Barbara Tewksbury (Hamilton College), to attract African American students to science by highlighting cultural ties with their ancestral lands. We think that a similar approach focusing on Latin America may attract Hispanic undergraduates, at the same time that it increases awareness among non-Hispanic students about challenges facing our neighbors to the south. GRELA is an interdisciplinary exploration of how the physical and biological environment of Mexico, Central America, and South America have influenced the people who live there. The course consists of 20 lectures and requires the student to present a report partnering with correspondents in Latin American universities. GRELA begins with an overview of Latin American physical and cultural geography and geologic evolution followed by a series of modules that relate the natural resources and environment of Latin America to the history, economy, and culture of the region. This is followed by an exploration of pre-Columbian cultures. The use of metals by pre-Columbian, colonial, and modern cultures is presented next. We then discuss hydrocarbon resources, geothermal energy, and natural hazards of volcanoes and earthquakes. The last half of the course focuses on Earth System Science themes, including El Nino, glaciers, the Amazon river and rainforest, and coral reefs. The final presentation concerns population growth and water resources along the US-Mexico border. Grades are based on two midterms, one final, and a project which requires that groups of students communicate with scientists in Latin America to explore some aspect of geography, natural resources, or the environment of a Latin American region of common interest
This procedure establishes the responsibilities and process for approving initial issues of and changes to the technical, cost, and schedule baselines, and selected management documents developed by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System. This procedure implements the OCRWM Baseline Management Plan and DOE Order 4700.1, Chg 1. It streamlines the change control process to enhance integration, accountability, and traceability of Level 0 and Level I decisions through standardized Baseline Change Proposal (BCP) forms to be used by the Level 0, 1, 2, and 3 Baseline Change Control Boards (BCCBs) and to be tracked in the OCRWM-wide Configuration Information System (CIS) Database.This procedure applies to all technical, cost, and schedule baselines controlled by the Energy System Acquisition Advisory Board (ESAAB) BCCB (Level 0) and, OCRWM Program Baseline Control Board (PBCCB) (Level 1). All baseline BCPs initiated by Level 2 or lower BCCBs, which require approval from ESAAB or PBCCB, shall be processed in accordance with this procedure. This procedure also applies to all Program-level management documents controlled by the OCRWM PBCCB
PNNL developed a new tool for oscillation analysis and baselining. This tool has been developed under a new DOE Grid Modernization Laboratory Consortium (GMLC) Project (GM0072 - “Suite of open-source applications and models for advanced synchrophasor analysis”) and it is based on the open platform for PMU analysis. The Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool (OBAT) performs the oscillation analysis and identifies modes of oscillations (frequency, damping, energy, and shape). The tool also does oscillation event baselining (fining correlation between oscillations characteristics and system operating conditions).
Lopez, Veronica; Sanchez, Katherine; Killian, Michael O; Eghaneyan, Brittany H
Mental health literacy consists of knowledge of a mental disorder and of the associated stigma. Barriers to depression treatment among Hispanic populations include persistent stigma which is primarily perpetuated by inadequate disease literacy and cultural factors. U.S.-born Hispanics are more likely to have depression compared to Hispanics born in Latin America and are less likely to follow a treatment plan compared to non-Hispanic whites. Hispanic women are more likely to access treatment through a primary care provider, making it an ideal setting for early mental health interventions. Baseline data from 319 female Hispanic patients enrolled in Project DESEO: Depression Screening and Education: Options to Reduce Barriers to Treatment, were examined. The study implemented universal screening with a self-report depression screening tool (the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and took place at one federally qualified health center (FQHC) over a 24-month period. The current analysis examined the relationship between four culturally adapted stigma measures and depression knowledge, and tested whether mental health literacy was comparable across education levels in a sample of Hispanic women diagnosed with depression. Almost two-thirds of the sample had less than a high school education. Depression knowledge scores were significantly, weakly correlated with each the Stigma Concerns About Mental Health Care (ρ = - .165, p = .003), Latino Scale for Antidepressant Stigma (p = .124, p = .028), and Social Distance scores (p = .150, p = .007). Depression knowledge (F[2, 312] = 11.82, p stigma scores (F[2, 312] = 3.33, p = .037, partial η 2 = .015) significantly varied by education category. Participants with at least some college education reported significantly greater depression knowledge and less stigma surrounding depression and medication than participants with lower education levels. Primary care settings are
R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper
This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.
Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Allison, Matthew; Daviglus, Martha L.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Keller, Colleen; Leira, Enrique C.; Palaniappan, Latha; Piña, Ileana L.; Ramirez, Sarah M.; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Sims, Mario
Background and Purpose This American Heart Association (AHA) scientific statement provides a comprehensive overview of current evidence on the burden cardiovascular disease (CVD) among Hispanics in the United States. Hispanics are the largest minority ethnic group in the United States, and their health is vital to the public health of the nation and to achieving the AHA’s 2020 goals. This statement describes the CVD epidemiology and related personal beliefs and the social and health issues of US Hispanics, and it identifies potential prevention and treatment opportunities. The intended audience for this statement includes healthcare professionals, researchers, and policy makers. Methods Writing group members were nominated by the AHA’s Manuscript Oversight Committee and represent a broad range of expertise in relation to Hispanic individuals and CVD. The writers used a general framework outlined by the committee chair to produce a comprehensive literature review that summarizes existing evidence, indicate gaps in current knowledge, and formulate recommendations. Only English-language studies were reviewed, with PubMed/MEDLINE as our primary resource, as well as the Cochrane Library Reviews, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the US Census data as secondary resources. Inductive methods and descriptive studies that focused on CVD outcomes incidence, prevalence, treatment response, and risks were included. Because of the wide scope of these topics, members of the writing committee were responsible for drafting individual sections selected by the chair of the writing committee, and the group chair assembled the complete statement. The conclusions of this statement are the views of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official view of the AHA. All members of the writing group had the opportunity to comment on the initial drafts and approved the final version of this document. The manuscript underwent extensive AHA internal peer review before
Arriaza, Pablo; Martin, Shadi S; Csikai, Ellen L
Hispanics are the fastest growing minority group in the United States, numbering over 42 million and comprising 15% of the total population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2008 ). Hispanics are a heterogeneous group that experience disparities in accessing health care, including at the end of life. Specific gaps can be identified in the care of bereaved Hispanic individuals and families. This exploratory study examined bereavement services available and perceived needs for Hispanics in Florida. Hospice bereavement coordinators indicated that limited services were available specifically for Spanish-speakers and that language and cultural barriers were challenges when communicating, offering, and delivering bereavement services to Hispanics. Implications for social workers include the need to increase access to and evaluate the effectiveness of bereavement services for Hispanics.
Morgado, A.M.L.S.; Simoes, J.B.; Correia, C.M.
A good performance of high resolution nuclear spectrometry systems, at high pulse rates, demands restoration of baseline between pulses, in order to remove rate dependent baseline shifts. This restoration is performed by circuits named baseline restorers (BLRs) which also remove low frequency noise, such as power supply hum and detector microphonics. This paper presents simple circuits for baseline restoration based on a commercial current conveyor (CCII01). Tests were performed, on two circuits, with periodic trapezoidal shaped pulses in order to measure the baseline restoration for several pulse rates and restorer duty cycles. For the current conveyor based Robinson restorer, the peak shift was less than 10 mV, for duty cycles up to 60%, at high pulse rates. Duty cycles up to 80% were also tested, being the maximum peak shift 21 mV. The peak shift for the current conveyor based Grubic restorer was also measured. The maximum value found was 30 mV at 82% duty cycle. Keeping the duty cycle below 60% improves greatly the restorer performance. The ability of both baseline restorer architectures to reject low frequency modulation is also measured, with good results on both circuits
Marquine, María J.; Segawa, Eisuke; Wilson, Robert S.; Bennett, David A.; Barnes, Lisa L.
There is limited research on the association between participation in cognitively stimulating activity and cognitive function in older Hispanics. The main purpose of the present study was to explore whether frequency of cognitive activity and its association with cognitive function in Hispanics is comparable to that of non-Hispanics. In a multiethnic cohort of 1571 non-demented older adults, we assessed past and current cognitive activity, availability of cognitive resources in the home in ch...
Cipriano, Gabriela C; Andrews, Carlota O
Objective: To highlight the added value of bilingual Hispanic pharmacists in the care of Hispanic patients by sharing their patients’ language and culture. Summary: Inability to speak and/or write in the patients’ native language severely impairs our best efforts to deliver good health care. This is a widely recognized cause of non-compliance or less than favorable possible health outcomes in Hispanic patients. What has received less attention, however, is that the ability to speak Spanish al...
Martin, Chantel L; Tate, Deborah F; Schaffner, Andrew; Brannen, Anna; Hatley, Karen Erickson; Diamond, Molly; Munoz-Christian, Karen; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Sanchez, Teresa; Mercado, Adrian; Hagobian, Todd; Phelan, Suzanne
Low-income Hispanic women experience elevated rates of high postpartum weight retention (PPWR), which is an independent risk factor for lifetime obesity. Sociocultural factors might play an important role among Hispanic women; however, very few studies have examined this association. The purpose of our study was to examine the associations between acculturation and maternal diet, physical activity, and PPWR. This is a cross-sectional study of baseline data from 282 Hispanic women participating in the FitMoms/Mamás Activas study, a randomized controlled trial examining the impact of primarily an internet-based weight control program, in reducing PPWR among low-income women. We performed multivariable linear regression to examine the association of acculturation with diet quality, physical activity, and PPWR at study entry. A total of 213 (76%) women had acculturation scores reflecting Mexican orientation or bicultural orientation, whereas 69 (24%) had scores that represented assimilation to Anglo culture. Women who were more acculturated had lower intakes of fruits and vegetables, lower HEI scores, and lower physical activity levels than women who were less acculturated (p acculturation and PPWR in that for every 1-unit increase in acculturation score, PPWR increased, on average, by 0.80 kg. Higher acculturation was associated with poorer diet and physical activity behaviors and greater PPWR.
Mansyur, Carol L; Rustveld, Luis O; Nash, Susan G; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L
The purpose of this study was to determine whether perceived support, social norms, and their association with self-efficacy varied by gender and language-based acculturation in Hispanic men and women with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A cross-sectional, secondary analysis of baseline survey data from a randomized control trial. Participants were 248 Hispanic patients from 4 community health centers who participated in a culturally targeted intervention for diabetes management. Quantitative statistical methods were used, including chi-square analyses, one-way ANOVA, and multiple regression. Gender and language both moderated the relationship between social factors and self-efficacy. Regardless of language, better perceived support was associated with improved self-efficacy in women but not men. Dietary norms were associated with self-efficacy in English-speaking men and women, while physical activity norms were associated with self-efficacy for Spanish-speaking women only. This study builds on previous research by exploring the extent to which the social context of diabetes self-management may vary in its effects depending on gender and acculturation. The findings revealed potentially important differences based on both gender and language, suggesting that interventions must be designed with these differences in mind. Diabetes-specific support from family members, especially spouses, may be especially important for Hispanic women. For both men and women, it may be effective to find creative ways of involving the family in creating healthier social norms and expectations. © 2016 The Author(s).
... and the Assistant Secretary for Human Resources and Administration at the Department of Veterans... Personnel Management on matters involving the recruitment, hiring, and advancement of Hispanics in the...
... and the Assistant Secretary for Human Resources and Administration at the Department of Veterans... Personnel Management on matters involving the recruitment, hiring, and advancement of Hispanics in the...
... and the Assistant Secretary for Human Resources and Administration at the Department of Veterans... Personnel Management on matters involving the recruitment, hiring, and advancement of Hispanics in the...
... Assistant Secretary for Human Resources and Administration at the Department of Veterans Affairs. The... Management on matters involving the recruitment, hiring, and advancement of Hispanics in the Federal...
Katz, Jeffrey N; Lyons, Nancy; Wolff, Lisa S; Silverman, Jodie; Emrani, Parastu; Holt, Holly L; Corbett, Kelly L; Escalante, Agustin; Losina, Elena
Musculoskeletal disorders affect all racial and ethnic groups, including Hispanics. Because these disorders are not life-threatening, decision-making is generally preference-based. Little is known about whether Hispanics in the U.S. differ from non-Hispanic Whites with respect to key decision making preferences. We assembled six focus groups of Hispanic and non-Hispanic White patients with chronic back or knee pain at an urban medical center to discuss management of their conditions and the roles they preferred in medical decision-making. Hispanic groups were further stratified by socioeconomic status, using neighborhood characteristics as proxy measures. Discussions were led by a moderator, taped, transcribed and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. The analysis revealed ethnic differences in several areas pertinent to medical decision-making. Specifically, Hispanic participants were more likely to permit their physician to take the predominant role in making health decisions. Also, Hispanics of lower socioeconomic status generally preferred to use non-internet sources of health information to make medical decisions and to rely on advice obtained by word of mouth. Hispanics emphasized the role of faith and religion in coping with musculoskeletal disability. The analysis also revealed broad areas of concordance across ethnic strata including the primary role that pain and achieving pain relief play in patients' experiences and decisions. These findings suggest differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites in preferred information sources and decision-making roles. These findings are hypothesis-generating. If confirmed in further research, they may inform the development of interventions to enhance preference-based decision-making among Hispanics.
RESRAD-BASELINE is a computer code developed at Argonne developed at Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform both radiological and chemical risk assessments. The code implements the baseline risk assessment guidance of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1989). The computer code calculates (1) radiation doses and cancer risks from exposure to radioactive materials, and (2) hazard indexes and cancer risks from exposure to noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic chemicals, respectively. The user can enter measured or predicted environmental media concentrations from the graphic interface and can simulate different exposure scenarios by selecting the appropriate pathways and modifying the exposure parameters. The database used by PESRAD-BASELINE includes dose conversion factors and slope factors for radionuclides and toxicity information and properties for chemicals. The user can modify the database for use in the calculation. Sensitivity analysis can be performed while running the computer code to examine the influence of the input parameters. Use of RESRAD-BASELINE for risk analysis is easy, fast, and cost-saving. Furthermore, it ensures in consistency in methodology for both radiological and chemical risk analyses
Onorato, Suzanne; Musoba, Glenda Droogsma
Institutions of higher education are uniquely positioned to educate tomorrow's leaders and initiate change in the number and ethnic diversity of women in leadership roles. The purpose of our study was to understand the essence of Hispanic college women's leadership identity development with participants and researchers co-constructing meaning. We…
...). These women have a relatively low incidence of breast cancer compared with non-Hispanic white women, but in comparison with Hispanic women in the rest of the United States, the Hispanic women...
Guendelman, Sylvia; Nussbaum, Juliet; Soliday, Ann; Lahiff, Maureen
Objectives Fathering is known to foster child development and health, yet evidence on Hispanic immigrant fathers' involvement with their young children is sparse. This study assessed disparities in pregnancy intendedness and father involvement with children ages 0-4 among Hispanic immigrant co-resident fathers versus two reference groups: US-born Hispanic and US-born White fathers. We hypothesized that differentials in involvement were associated with socioeconomic and cultural factors. Methods Using 2011-2013 data from the National Survey of Family Growth (N = 598), we performed bivariate, logistic and linear regression analyses to assess disparities in pregnancy intendedness and five father involvement outcomes (physical care, warmth, outings, reading and discipline). The models controlled for socio-economic, structural, health and cultural covariates. Results Pregnancy intendedness did not differ significantly between Hispanic immigrant fathers and the two reference groups. Compared with US-born Hispanics, unadjusted models showed that immigrant fathers were less likely to engage in physical care, warmth and reading, (p ≤ 0.05) though the differences were attenuated when controlling for covariates. Hispanic immigrant fathers were less likely than US-born White fathers to engage in each of the father involvement outcomes (p ≤ 0.05), with the disparity in reading to their child persisting even after controlling for all covariates. Conclusions for Practice We found marked socio-economic and cultural differences between Hispanic immigrant and US-born Hispanic and White fathers which contribute to disparities in father involvement with their young children. Hispanic immigrant status is an important determinant of involved fathering and should be taken into account when planning public health policies and programs.
Bridges, Ana J; Karlsson, Marie E; Jackson, Jennifer C; Andrews, Arthur R; Villalobos, Bianca T
This study examined strategies Hispanic and non-Hispanic White victims of domestic violence use to manage violence and leave their relationships. Participants ( N = 76, 41% Hispanic) completed self-report questionnaires and a semistructured interview with a language-congruent research assistant. Hispanics reported child care needs and fears of social embarrassment as barriers to leaving, while non-Hispanic Whites reported fewer social supports as a barrier. Hispanics were more likely to use legal resources for help, while non-Hispanic Whites used more informal resources. Recognizing unique barriers to leaving abusive relationships and accessing help can guide service providers and others to target vulnerable populations more effectively.
McClendon, Eric E; Musani, Solomon K; Samdarshi, Tandaw E; Khaire, Sushant; Stokes, Donny; Hamburg, Naomi M; Sheffy, Koby; Mitchell, Gary F; Taylor, Herman R; Benjamin, Emelia J; Fox, Ervin R
Digital vascular tone and function, as measured by peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), are associated with cardiovascular risk and events in non-Hispanic whites. There are limited data on relations between PAT and cardiovascular risk in African-Americans. PAT was performed on a subset of Jackson Heart Study participants using a fingertip tonometry device. Resting digital vascular tone was assessed as baseline pulse amplitude. Hyperemic vascular response to 5 minutes of ischemia was expressed as the PAT ratio (hyperemic/baseline amplitude ratio). Peripheral augmentation index (AI), a measure of relative wave reflection, also was estimated. The association of baseline pulse amplitude (PA), PAT ratio, and AI to risk factors was assessed using stepwise multivariable models. The study sample consisted of 837 participants from the Jackson Heart Study (mean age, 54 ± 11 years; 61% women). In stepwise multivariable regression models, baseline pulse amplitude was related to male sex, body mass index, and diastolic blood pressure (BP), accounting for 16% of the total variability of the baseline pulse amplitude. Age, male sex, systolic BP, diastolic BP, antihypertensive medication, and prevalent cardiovascular disease contributed to 11% of the total variability of the PAT ratio. Risk factors (primarily age, sex, and heart rate) explained 47% of the total variability of the AI. We confirmed in our cohort of African-Americans, a significant relation between digital vascular tone and function measured by PAT and multiple traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Further studies are warranted to investigate the utility of these measurements in predicting clinical outcomes in African-Americans. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oh, Hyunsung; Ell, Kathleen
This study examined whether changes in depressive symptoms and social support prospectively predicted diabetes management among Hispanic patients with probable depression in patient-centered medical homes at safety-net clinics in East Los Angeles, CA. Data were collected from 251 patients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial testing the effectiveness of a promotora-assisted self-management intervention. Cross-lagged analyses examined associations between changes in depression symptoms and social support between baseline and 6-month follow-up and self-efficacy and adherence to diabetes management at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Changes in depressive symptoms predicted self-efficacy and level of adherence at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Changes in total social support and emotional social support were correlated only with self-efficacy regarding diabetes management at 6-month follow-up. Decline in depressive symptoms is a reliable predictor of improvement in self-efficacy and adherence to diabetes management. Further studies are recommended to study psychosocial mechanisms related to social relationships other than social support that affect diabetes management. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.
Feng, Du; Song, Huaxin; Esperat, M Christina; Black, Ipuna
This study aimed to examine the effect of a multicomponent intervention program on consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and lifestyle factors associated with SSB intake, in Hispanic children from low-income families. A five-wave longitudinal study using a quasi-experimental design was conducted. Five elementary schools in West Texas served as the setting. Participants included 555 predominantly Hispanic children (ages 5-9 years) from low-income families and their parents (n = 525). A multicomponent intervention program was implemented. Children's anthropometric measures were obtained. Their weight status was determined based on body mass index for age and gender. Parents responded to a demographic questionnaire, a shelf inventory, an acculturation scale, and a family survey. Growth curve analyses were used to test differences between intervention and comparison participants' SSB intake and to examine potential covariates. Comparison group children's daily SSB intake significantly increased over time (B = 1.06 ± .40 ounces per month, p food intake, and more types of SSBs available at home were associated with higher SSB intake. Risk factors of childhood obesity were associated with each other. The intervention program produced a modest reduction in SSB consumed by economically disadvantaged and predominantly Hispanic children. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.
Vilchez, Gustavo; Chelliah, Anushka; Bratley, Elaine; Bahado-Singh, Ray; Sokol, Robert
The current recommendation is to delay elective repeat cesarean deliveries (ERCD) until 39 weeks to decrease prematurity risks. Prior reports suggest accelerated maturity of fetuses according to race (African-Americans and Asians). To analyze the effect of the Hispanic ethnicity on the prematurity risk after ERCD. The US Natality Database from 2004 to 2008 was reviewed. Inclusion criteria were singleton delivery, no trial of labor, repeat cesarean. Exclusion criteria were fetal anomalies, history of diabetes/hypertension related disorders. Outcomes analyzed were Apgar score, assisted ventilation, intensive care admission, surfactant/antibiotic use and seizures. Two groups were identified: non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) and Hispanic Whites (HW). Regression analysis was performed to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Deliveries at 36-40 weeks were studied with 40 weeks as the reference group. A total of 930421 ERCDs were identified, 396823 NHW and 236733 HW. For NHW, the risk of prematurity was lower at 39 weeks. For HW, there was no difference in the risks of prematurity at/beyond 38 weeks. There appears to be accelerated maturity with no increase in prematurity risk at 38 weeks in HW delivered by ERCD. Ethnicity can be considered for patient counseling and decision making regarding optimal timing of elective interventions.
Barker, Kristin K; Vasquez Guzman, Cirila Estela
Hispanic Americans use prescription medications at markedly lower rates than do non-Hispanic whites. At the same time, Hispanics are the largest racial-ethnic minority in the USA. In a recent effort to reach this underdeveloped market, the pharmaceutical industry has begun to create Spanish-language direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) campaigns. The substantive content of these campaigns is being tailored to appeal to the purported cultural values, beliefs and identities of Latino consumers. We compare English-language and Spanish-language television commercials for two prescription medications. We highlight the importance of selling medicine to a medically under-served population as a key marketing element of Latino-targeted DTCA. We define selling medicine as the pharmaceutical industry's explicit promotion of medicine's cultural authority as a means of expanding its markets and profits. We reflect on the prospects of this development in terms of promoting medicalisation in a US subgroup that has heretofore eluded the pharmaceutical industry's marketing influence. Our analysis draws on Nikolas Rose's insights concerning variations in the degree to which certain groups of people are more medically made up than others, by reflecting on the racial and ethnic character of medicalisation in the USA and the role DTCA plays in shaping medicalisation trends. A video abstract of this article can be found at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZabCle9-jHw&feature=youtu.be. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Sood, Akshay; Stidley, Christine A; Picchi, Maria A; Celedón, Juan C; Gilliland, Frank; Crowell, Richard E; Belinsky, Steven A; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes
Smoking-related respiratory diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. However, the relationship between smoking and respiratory disease has not been well-studied among ethnic minorities in general and among women in particular. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the risk of airflow obstruction and to assess lung function among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) female smokers in a New Mexico cohort. Participants completed a questionnaire detailing smoking history and underwent spirometry testing. Outcomes studied included airflow obstruction, selected lung function parameters, and chronic mucus hyper-secretion. Chi square, logistic, and linear regression techniques were utilized. Of the 1,433 eligible women participants, 248 (17.3%) were Hispanic; and 319 had airflow obstruction (22.3%). Hispanic smokers were more likely to be current smokers, and report lower pack-years of smoking, compared to NHW smokers (p smokers were at a reduced risk of airflow obstruction compared to NHW smokers, with an O.R. of 0.51, 95% C.I. 0.34, 0.78 (p = 0.002) after adjustment for age, BMI, pack-years and duration of smoking, and current smoking status. Following adjustment for covariates, Hispanic smokers also had a higher mean absolute and percent predicted post-bronchodilator FEV(1)/FVC ratio, as well as higher mean percent predicted FEV(1) (p smokers in this New Mexico-based cohort had lower risk of airflow obstruction and better lung function than NHW female smokers. Further, smoking history did not completely explain these associations.
Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Billimek, John
Older Hispanic Americans are a rapidly growing minority group who are disproportionately affected by diabetes mellitus and obesity. Given the importance of physical activity, particularly leisure-time activity, in the management of diabetes mellitus and obesity, the current study examined ethnic and sex differences in walking for transportation, leisure-time walking, moderate activity (not including walking), and vigorous activity between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) older adults (age 55 and older) using the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, a population-based survey representative of California's noninstitutionalized population. The total sample consisted of 21,702 participants (20,148 NHW (7,968 men, 12,180 women) and 1,554 Hispanic (609 men, 945 women)). Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. The findings revealed that Hispanic men and women were significantly less likely to engage in self-reported leisure-time walking and vigorous activity than NHW men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.51-0.99) and women (aOR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.42-0.87). Regardless of ethnic group, men were more likely than women to engage in self-reported walking for transportation (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.58-0.87), moderate activity (aOR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.57-0.81), and vigorous activity (aOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.50-0.68). All types of self-reported physical activity were associated with lower body mass index (BMI; P activity (P activity (P activities reported the lowest BMIs. The findings highlight the importance of emphasizing walking in efforts to increase moderate and vigorous activity, particularly for older women. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.
Ward, Dianne S; Vaughn, Amber E; Hales, Derek; Viera, Anthony J; Gizlice, Ziya; Bateman, Lori A; Grummon, Anna H; Arandia, Gabriela; Linnan, Laura A
Low-wage workers suffer disproportionately high rates of chronic disease and are important targets for workplace health and safety interventions. Child care centers offer an ideal opportunity to reach some of the lowest paid workers, but these settings have been ignored in workplace intervention studies. Caring and Reaching for Health (CARE) is a cluster-randomized controlled trial evaluating efficacy of a multi-level, workplace-based intervention set in child care centers that promotes physical activity and other health behaviors among staff. Centers are randomized (1:1) into the Healthy Lifestyles (intervention) or the Healthy Finances (attention control) program. Healthy Lifestyles is delivered over six months including a kick-off event and three 8-week health campaigns (magazines, goal setting, behavior monitoring, tailored feedback, prompts, center displays, director coaching). The primary outcome is minutes of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA); secondary outcomes are health behaviors (diet, smoking, sleep, stress), physical assessments (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, fitness), and workplace supports for health and safety. In total, 56 centers and 553 participants have been recruited and randomized. Participants are predominately female (96.7%) and either Non-Hispanic African American (51.6%) or Non-Hispanic White (36.7%). Most participants (63.4%) are obese. They accumulate 17.4 (±14.2) minutes/day of MVPA and consume 1.3 (±1.4) and 1.3 (±0.8) servings/day of fruits and vegetables, respectively. Also, 14.2% are smokers; they report 6.4 (±1.4) hours/night of sleep; and 34.9% are high risk for depression. Baseline data demonstrate several serious health risks, confirming the importance of workplace interventions in child care. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dawe, Annica Meza
Purpose: The U.S. Hispanic population is on the rise and will continue to be an important thread in the fabric of American society as a whole. However, in the midst of this burgeoning group lies its male subpopulation which faces its own unique challenges. One outlet that has demonstrated success for minorities is mentoring. Mentoring can provide…
Below, Jennifer E.; Parra, Esteban J.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Torres, Jason; Krithika, S.; Candille, Sophie; Lu, Yingchang; Manichakul, Ani; Peralta-Romero, Jesus; Duan, Qing; Li, Yun; Morris, Andrew P.; Gottesman, Omri; Bottinger, Erwin; Wang, Xin-Qun; Taylor, Kent D.; Ida Chen, Y.-D.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rich, Stephen S.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Tang, Hua; Cox, Nancy J.; Cruz, Miguel; Hanis, Craig L.; Valladares-Salgado, Adan
We performed genome-wide meta-analysis of lipid traits on three samples of Mexican and Mexican American ancestry comprising 4,383 individuals, and followed up significant and highly suggestive associations in three additional Hispanic samples comprising 7,876 individuals. Genome-wide significant
Deville, Curtiland; Chapman, Christina H; Burgos, Ramon; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Both, Stefan; Thomas, Charles R
To assess the medical oncology (MO) physician workforce diversity by race, Hispanic ethnicity, and sex, with attention to trainees. Public registries were used to assess 2010 differences among MO practicing physicians, academic faculty, and fellows; internal medicine (IM) residents; and the US population, using binomial tests with P diversity remains unchanged. For Blacks alone, representation as MO fellows is decreased compared with IM residents, suggesting greater disparity in MO training. Copyright © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Smith, Teresa M; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L
An estimated 78% of Hispanics in the United States (US) are overweight or obese. Household food insecurity, a condition of limited or uncertain access to adequate food, has been associated with obesity rates among Hispanic adults in the US. However, the Hispanic group is multi-ethnic and therefore associations between obesity and food insecurity may not be constant across Hispanic country of origin subgroups. This study sought to determine if the association between obesity and food insecurity among Hispanics is modified by Hispanic ancestry across low-income (≤200% of poverty level) adults living in California. Data are from the cross-sectional 2011-12 California Health Interview Survey (n = 5498). Rates of overweight or obesity (BMI ≥ 25), Calfresh receipt (California's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program), and acculturation were examined for differences across subgroups. Weighted multiple logistic regressions examined if household food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity and modified by country of origin after controlling for age, education, marital status, country of birth (US vs. outside of US), language spoken at home, and Calfresh receipt (P obesity, food security, Calfresh receipt, country of birth, and language spoken at home. Results from the adjusted logistic regression models found that food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity among Mexican-American women (β (SE) = 0.22 (0.09), p = .014), but not Mexican-American men or Non-Mexican groups, suggesting Hispanic subgroups behave differently in their association between food insecurity and obesity. By highlighting these factors, we can promote targeted obesity prevention interventions, which may contribute to more effective behavior change and reduced chronic disease risk in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In this paper I will review briefly the experimental results which established the existence of neutrino mixing, the current generation of long baseline accelerator experiments, and the prospects for the future. In particular I will focus on the recent analysis of the MINOS experiment. (author)
State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, 2015
Staff provides this baseline report as a summary of its preliminary considerations and initial research in fulfillment of the requirements of HB2320 from the 2015 session of the General Assembly. Codified as § 23-7.4:7, this legislation compels the Education Secretary and the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia (SCHEV) Director, in…
Last month's "Case in Point" presented AMI Parkway Regional Medical Center, a 412-bed acute care hospital in North Miami Beach, Fla. The hospital's administration has recognized the ethnic make-up of the South Florida market (white, black and Hispanic) and wants to increase its penetration into the large and potentially lucrative Latin market. The hospital is one of six in South Florida that are owned by American Medical International Inc., Los Angeles. Parkway recently completed a modernization and development program that resulted in an expanded emergency department, state-of-the-art critical care units, a cost-saving ambulatory unit and facilities for outpatient and community education programs. Positioned in a fiercely competitive market, Parkway has adopted an aggressive marketing posture. The marketing function has been elevated to one of six hospital divisions, sharing equal footing with finance, professional services, administrative services, nursing and human resources. Given the hospital's reputation for action and the previous success of programs based on market research, the assistant administrator for marketing and business development secured support for research on the Latin market.
Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Palloni, Alberto; Riosmena, Fernando; Wong, Rebeca
Recent empirical findings have suggested the existence of a twist in the Hispanic paradox, in which Mexican and other Hispanic foreign-born migrants living in the United States experience shallower socioeconomic status (SES) health disparities than those in the U.S. In this article, we seek to replicate this finding and test conjectures that could explain this new observed phenomenon using objective indicators of adult health by educational attainment in several groups: (1) Mexican-born individuals living in Mexico and in the United States, (2) U.S.-born Mexican Americans, and (3) non-Hispanic American whites. Our analytical strategy improves upon previous research on three fronts. First, we derive four hypotheses from a general framework that has also been used to explain the standard Hispanic paradox. Second, we study biomarkers rather than self-reported health and related conditions. Third, we use a binational data platform that includes both Mexicans living in Mexico (Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006) and Mexican migrants to the United States (NHANES 1999-2010). We find steep education gradients among Mexicans living in Mexico's urban areas in five of six biomarkers of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and in the overall MetS score. Mexican migrants living in the United States experience similar patterns to Mexicans living in Mexico in glucose and obesity biomarkers. These results are inconsistent with previous findings, suggesting that Mexican migrants in the United States experience significantly attenuated health gradients relative to the non-Hispanic white U.S. Our empirical evidence also contradicts the idea that SES-health gradients in Mexico are shallower than those in the United States and could be invoked to explain shallower gradients among Mexicans living in the United States.
O'Connor, Noga; Hammack, Floyd M.; Scott, Marc A.
Hispanic students are significantly over-represented in community colleges compared to White and Black students. This paper uses a powerful but underutilized statistical technique, the Oaxaca decomposition, to explore the impact of social capital, as manifested through college financial information, on Hispanic student enrollment in 4-year and…
Coca Cola Bottling Co. of Los Angeles, CA.
The Coca-Cola Hispanic Education Fund was created in response to the high school dropout problem in Los Angeles. The Fund enables the Coca-Cola Bottling Company of Los Angeles to build upon the successful relationship it has developed in the Hispanic community and maximizes the effectiveness of existing student support programs by directing needy…
Gonyea, Nathan E.
The present study investigated the impact of acculturation on the learning styles of 151 Hispanic students enrolled in a Hispanic Serving Institution in South Texas, controlling for age, gender, and country of origin. Acculturation did not significantly predict learning style when controlling for these three variables. These results may be because…
Lopez, Barbara; Huang, Shi; Wang, Wei; Prado, Guillermo; Brown, C. Hendricks; Zeng, Guang; Flavin, Kathryn; Pantin, Hilda
We examined how relationships among intrapersonal (i.e., attitudes and beliefs about smoking) and ecodevelopmental (i.e., family, school, and peer) factors influence risk for lifetime smoking in immigrant Hispanic adolescents. Our sample was comprised of 223 immigrant Hispanic adolescents and their families and was drawn from 3 middle schools in a…
... National Hispanic-Serving Institutions Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A... compete and thrive. Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) are key members of our higher education system... prosperous tomorrow for our Nation. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of...
Xie, Bin; Unger, Jennifer B.; Gallaher, Peggy; Johnson, C. Anderson; Wu, Qiaobing; Chou, Chih-Ping
Objectives: To prospectively investigate associations between overweight and depressive symptoms in Asian and Hispanic adolescents. Methods: Data included 780 Hispanic and 375 Asian students. Structural equation model was used to prospectively explore moderation effects of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation on associations of overweight, body…
This study explores the relationship between parental SES, ethnicity, and college enrollment. Parental SES is found to translate into a significantly smaller advantage for Hispanics compared to Blacks and Whites. This statistical interaction suggests that high-SES Hispanics are at a unique disadvantage, most likely due to limited access to…
Sosa, Alicia Salinas
Traditionally, school personnel have expressed concern about the relatively poor record of involving Hispanic parents in schools. The root of the problem is that many immigrant and migrant Hispanic parents cherish beliefs and expectations different from those held by schools and by the parents whom schools most frequently engage. This chapter…
Wilson-Figueroa, Maria; And Others
The research investigated whether poor Hispanic youth exhibited less migration than nonpoor Hispanic youth. The hypothesis was that migration is a means to escape poverty, although poverty acts as an inhibitor to migration. The data for the study were derived from The Youth Cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS/Y) and the 1988 County and…
Though hidden from view by being considered "non-existent", the meager evidence indicates that Hispanics have an unusually high arrest and incarceration rate. Hispanic background is rarely asked on the six major sources of criminal justice statistics--statistics of arrests, courts, prisoners, juvenile delinquency, crime victimization, and public…
Parent involvement has been shown to be one of the keys to student educational success, their ability to perform at a high level and persevere. The latest government statistics reveal that 53 million Hispanics now reside in the United States and 75 % of this population speaks Spanish at home [Cooper, M. (2014). "Hispanics in America and in…
... Proclamation To win the future and restore our position as the global leader in education, we must ensure all... Hispanic leaders. The hundreds of HSIs across our country are helping Hispanic students gain access to a... necessary to thrive in the 21st century. Graduates of HSIs are leaders in science, technology, engineering...
Allison, Barbara N.; Bencomo, Angelina
Hispanic children constitute the largest population of racial/ethnic minority students in the nation's public schools. By the year 2023, the Hispanic enrollment is expected to increase to 30% of the total school population (pre-K through 12) in the United States. Because cultural background affects student learning, family and consumer sciences…
... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Hispanic Council on Federal Employment AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Scheduling of Council Meeting. SUMMARY: The Hispanic Council on Federal Employment (HCFE) will hold a meeting on Monday, December 13th, at the time and location shown below. The Council is an...
... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Hispanic Council on Federal Employment AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Cancelling and re-scheduling of Council meetings. SUMMARY: The Hispanic Council on Federal Employment (Council) is cancelling the August 29, 2013 Council meeting and will hold its remaining...
... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Hispanic Council on Federal Employment AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Cancelling and Re-Scheduling of Council Meetings. SUMMARY: The Hispanic Council on Federal Employment (Council) is cancelling the October 31, 2013 Council meeting and will hold its...
... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Hispanic Council on Federal Employment AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Scheduling of Council Meetings. SUMMARY: The Hispanic Council on Federal Employment will hold its 2013 Council meetings on the dates and location shown below. The Council is an advisory...
..., 2012 Proclamation 8865--National Farm Safety and Health Week, 2012 Proclamation 8866--National Hispanic... promoting job creation and ensuring Hispanics are represented in the Federal workforce to reshaping our education system to meet the demands of the 21st century, my Administration has built ladders of opportunity...
Yennurajalingam, Sriram; Noguera, Antonio; Parsons, Henrique Afonseca; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Duarte, Eva Rosina; Palma, Alejandra; Bunge, Sofia; Palmer, J. Lynn; Delgado-Guay, Marvin Omar; Bruera, Eduardo
Background Understanding family caregivers’ decisional role preferences is important for communication, quality of care, and patient and family satisfaction. The family caregiver has an important role in a patient’s decisional role preferences. There are limited studies on family caregivers’ preferences of the patient’s decisional control at the end of life among Hispanics. Aims To identify Hispanic caregivers’ preferences of the decision control of patients with advanced cancer and to compare the preferences of caregivers in Latin America (HLA) and Hispanic American (HUSA) caregivers. Design We surveyed patients and their family caregivers referred to outpatient palliative care clinics in the United States, Chile, Argentina, and Guatemala. Caregiver preferences of patient’s decisional control were evaluated using the Control Preference Scale. Caregivers’ and patients’ socio-demographic variables, patient performance status, and HUSA patient acculturation level was also collected. Participants A total of 387 caregivers were surveyed: 100 (26%) in Chile, 99 (26%) in Argentina, 97 (25%) in Guatemala, and 91 (24%) in the United States. The median age was 56 years, and 59% were female. Results Caregiver preference of patients decisions control was passive, shared, and active by 10 (11%), 45 (52%) and 32 (37%) HUSA caregivers and 54 (19%), 178 (62%) and 55 (19%) HLA caregivers (p=0.0023). Caregiver acculturation level did not affect the preferences of the HUSA sample (p=0.60). Conclusions Most Hispanic family caregivers preferred the patient to make shared decisions. HLA caregivers preferred more frequently patients to assume a passive decisional role. Acculturation did not influence the preferences of HUSA caregivers. PMID:23670718
Ulku S. Karabulut
Full Text Available Objectives This study examined the overweight, obesity, dietary habits, and physical activity among Hispanic college students. Methods Eighty seven (n=87, age= 24.03 ± 5.69 Hispanic college students participated in the study. Descriptive and anthropometric measurements including resting heart rate (RHR, resting blood pressure (RBP, height, weight, body mass index (BMI, circumference measurements [waist at narrowest point (Xiphoid, and hip at widest point (Hip, body composition (BC were collected. Subjects completed the Dietary Screener Questionnaire (DSQ. PA was estimated via Godin’s (2011 Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. Results The mean BMI was 27.29±6.20 kg/m2, in the overweight range. The mean WC for males was 90.86±13.23 and for females was 82.35±14.61. Independent t-test showed that males had significantly higher values in height (p<0.01, weight (p<0.01, WC (p<0.01, and PA (p<0.01 compared to females. DSQ data indicated that participants consumed fruits, green leafy or lettuce salad, and milk less than recommended amount. It also showed high intake of sugary food. Conclusions Hispanic young adults are in a poorest condition regarding the level of obesity as opposed to White and African American counterparts. This may be due to the decrease in PA. Diet behavior; less consumption of dairy, fruits and vegetable but frequent consumption of high sugary might be related to obesity in Hispanic young adults.
Cackler, Christina J J; Shapiro, Valerie B; Lahiff, Maureen
To describe the reproductive and mental health of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women, an understudied population. Data from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey were analyzed to determine the 1) prevalence of female sterilization among a nationally representative sample of reproductive age AI/AN women and 2) the association of female sterilization and poor mental health among AI/AN women compared with non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic women. Nearly 25% of AI/AN women reported female sterilization, a prevalence higher than the comparison racial/ethnic groups (p women reporting female sterilization had nearly 2.5 times the odds of poor mental health compared with AI/AN women not reporting female sterilization (p = .001). The same magnitude of relationship between female sterilization and poor mental health was not found for non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic women. The prevalence of female sterilization is greater among AI/AN women compared with non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic women, and AI/AN women reporting female sterilization have higher odds of reporting poor mental health. Common cultural experiences, such as a shared ancestral history of forced sterilizations, may be relevant, and could be considered when providing reproductive and mental health services to AI/AN women. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Savage, Brittany; Foli, Karen J; Edwards, Nancy E; Abrahamson, Kathleen
The Hispanic older adult population's rapid growth calls for an awareness of values that can affect the rendering and receipt of care. Familism, or familismo, a traditional Hispanic value, places importance of family over the self and can potentially affect health care perceptions and practices for Hispanic older adults. The current article discusses familism, which is upheld by some Hispanic older adults, and the potential for underuse of health care services. The traditional feminine role, marianismo, and masculine role, machismo, are considered, as well as implications for how decision making may be made by family members rather than the patient. Clinical implications for the provision of health care to Hispanic older adults are provided, along with the importance of considering acculturation and ethnic heterogeneity. Health care management strategies that reflect recognition and respect of familism, yet emphasize optimization of adherence and self-care, are described. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Hymowitz, Norman; Schwab, Joseph; Haddock, Christopher keith; Pyle, Sara; Moore, Glenisha; Meshberg, Sarah
Pediatricians have an important and unique role to play in the anti-tobacco arena. They may prevent relapse to smoking in women who stopped smoking during pregnancy, encourage parents to protect infants and young children from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), prevent the onset of smoking in children and adolescents, and help patients and parents who smoke or use other forms of tobacco to quit. Unfortunately, few pediatricians intervene on tobacco use or ETS, and few pediatric residency training programs prepare residents to address tobacco. The Pediatric Residency Training on Tobacco Project is a 4-year randomized prospective study of the effectiveness of training pediatric residents to intervene on tobacco in patients and parents. In this paper, we present findings from the Baseline Parent/Guardian Tobacco Survey. Fifteen pediatric residency training programs participated in the Pediatric Residency Training on Tobacco Project, and they were assigned randomly to special and standard training conditions. The Baseline Parent/Guardian Tobacco Survey was administered to 1770 participants, a minimum of 100 from each site. The Parent/Guardian Survey was designed to describe the population under study. It addressed demographic information, family tobacco use, rules concerning smoking in the home and elsewhere, smoking behavior and beliefs, and parent/guardian reports of resident intervention on tobacco. Data analyses described the population served by Continuity Clinics associated with the pediatric residency training programs and determined the degree to which residents addressed tobacco in parents/guardians. The parents/guardians were primarily low-income African American and Hispanic females. Approximately 20% reported that they smoked cigarettes, and about 60% prohibited smoking in their home. Seventy percent of the parents reported that the resident asked about cigarette smoking, and about half indicated that the resident talked with them about ETS. However, only
Myers, Mark G; Edland, Steven D; Hofstetter, C Richard; Al-Delaimy, Wael K
Little is currently known about price sensitivity across ethnic groups as well as for non-daily smokers. To address this issue, this study compared perceived price sensitivity across smoking status (daily and non-daily) and within ethnicity (Hispanic and non-Hispanic White) in a recent representative population survey of California smokers. This study employed data from the 2008 California Tobacco Survey (CTS), a large population-based random-digit-dialed telephone survey. Participants were 1,777 non-Hispanic White and 450 Hispanic respondents who had smoked at least 100 cigarettes and currently smoked daily or on some days. Differences in perceived price sensitivity were found by ethnicity when controlling for age, gender, and cigarette consumption. Comparisons across ethnic groups indicated that Hispanic smokers, in general, have more price-sensitive perceptions than non-Hispanic White smokers. However, daily versus non-daily status had no effect on price sensitivity when controlling for cigarette quantity. These findings indicate that pricing increases may be differentially influential for Hispanic compared with non-Hispanic White smokers across smoking status categories.
Handlos DeVoe, Debra Jean
The Hispanic population in the United States is changing and will constitute 30% of the population in 2050; however, the Hispanic registered nurse population is less than 3%. Cultural differences between patients and nurses may cause harm and a mistrust that can affect patient outcomes. A mixed methods convergent research study was done by an…
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel
The risk for depression increases as Hispanic youth acculturate to U.S. society. This association is stronger for Hispanic girls than boys. To better understand the influence of culture and family on depressive symptoms, we tested a process-oriented model of acculturation, cultural values, and family functioning. The data came from Project RED,…
Kind, Amy J H; Smith, Maureen A; Liou, Jinn-Ing; Pandhi, Nancy; Frytak, Jennifer R; Finch, Michael D
To determine whether racial and ethnic effects on bounce-back risk (ie, movement to settings of higher care intensity within 30 d of hospital discharge) in acute stroke patients vary depending on initial posthospital discharge destination. Retrospective analysis of administrative data. Four hundred twenty-two hospitals, southern/eastern United States. All Medicare beneficiaries 65 years or more with hospitalization for acute ischemic stroke within one of the 422 target hospitals during the years 1999 or 2000 (N=63,679). Not applicable. Adjusted predicted probabilities for discharge to and for bouncing back from each initial discharge site (ie, home, home with home health care, skilled nursing facility [SNF], or rehabilitation center) by race (ie, black, white, and Hispanic). Models included sociodemographics, comorbidities, stroke severity, and length of stay. Blacks and Hispanics were significantly more likely to be discharged to home health care (blacks=21% [95% confidence interval (CI), 19.9-22.8], Hispanic=19% [17.1-21.7] vs whites=16% [15.5-16.8]) and less likely to be discharged to SNFs (blacks=26% [95% CI, 23.6-29.3], Hispanics=28% [25.4-31.6] vs whites=33% [31.8-35.1]) than whites. However, blacks and Hispanics were significantly more likely to bounce back when discharged to SNFs than whites (blacks=26% [95% CI, 24.2-28.6], Hispanics=28% [24-32.6] vs whites=21% [20.3-21.9]). Hispanics had a lower risk of bouncing back when discharged home than either blacks or whites (Hispanics=14% [95% CI, 11.3-17] vs blacks=20% [18.4-22.2], whites=18% [16.8-18.3]). Patients discharged to home health care or rehabilitation centers demonstrated no significant differences in bounce-back risk. Racial/ethnic bounce-back risk differs depending on initial discharge destination. Additional research is needed to fully understand this variation in effect. Copyright 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ziegler, Paula; Hanson, Charlotte; Ponza, Michael; Novak, Timothy; Hendricks, Kristy
To describe meal and snack patterns of Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers. A cross-sectional telephone survey in which mothers or other primary caregivers reported their infants' and toddlers' food and beverage intake for a 24-hour period. Subjects were a subset of the national random sample of children aged 4-24 months who participated in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study. The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study includes a stratified random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers aged 4-24 months. Three hundred seventy-one Hispanic and 2,637 non-Hispanic children who had 24-hour dietary recalls are included in the subset. Means+/-standard errors of daily intakes of energy, nutrients, and nutrient densities were calculated, as were percentages of children consuming foods at each eating occasion. Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers, on average, were fed seven times per day. Overall, the percentages of children who ate snacks increased with age, and more than 80% of toddlers aged 12-24 months consumed afternoon snacks, with more than 90% of Hispanic children consuming an afternoon snack. In each age group, there were significant differences between ethnic groups in nutrient intakes by eating occasion. No significant difference was seen for energy across all meal occasions. At age 6-11 months, Hispanic children had a significantly lower intake of carbohydrate at dinner and lower intake of saturated fat at afternoon snacks compared with non-Hispanic children (Pchildren's and non-Hispanic children's intakes by eating occasion is at age 12-24 months. Hispanics aged 12-24 months had significantly (Pchildren. For dinner, Hispanic toddlers had significantly (Pcomplement meals by including additional fruits, vegetables, and whole grains that are culturally appropriate rather than fruit drinks, cookies, and crackers. This will increase fiber intake and limit fat and sugar intakes. To develop healthful eating patterns, introduce toddlers to foods
Castellanos, Daniel; Kosoy, Jennifer Ellyn; Ayllon, Karla Diaz; Acuna, Juan
This study examines the association between the presence of drugs and alcohol at time of suicide in Hispanic versus non-Hispanic youth suicide victims in Miami-Dade County, Florida. The Medical Examiner's records of 435 persons aged 24 years or younger classified as suicides in Miami-Dade County, Florida, from 1990 to 2011 were reviewed. Hispanic youth in Miami-Dade County, Florida were 1.62 times more likely than non-Hispanic youth to have used drugs and alcohol at time of suicide (OR 1.62; 95 % CI 1.07-2.04; p = 0.049). Firearm use was significantly associated with drug and alcohol use at time of death. Use of drugs and alcohol at the time of death are important risk factors for suicide in Hispanic youth.
Kilty, G L
This article is designed to introduce the techniques used to convert traditionally maintained department budgets to baseline budgets. This entails identifying key activities, evaluating for value-added, and implementing continuous improvement opportunities. Baseline Budgeting for Continuous Improvement was created as a result of a newly named company president's request to implement zero-based budgeting. The president was frustrated with the mind-set of the organization, namely, "Next year's budget should be 10 to 15 percent more than this year's spending." Zero-based budgeting was not the answer, but combining the principles of activity-based costing and the Just-in-Time philosophy of eliminating waste and continuous improvement did provide a solution to the problem.
Warner, Lynn A; Alegría, Margarita; Canino, Glorisa
Prevalence rates of childhood maltreatment among Hispanic women in the United States are presented separately for nativity status and ethnic origin subgroups, and the associations between different types of maltreatment and the development of anxiety and depressive disorders are examined. Analyses used self-report data from 1,427 Hispanic women who participated in the National Latino and Asian American Survey. Foreign-born Hispanic women compared to U.S.-born Hispanic women reported significantly lower rates of sexual assault and witnessing interpersonal violence, and a significantly higher rate of being beaten. Ethnic subgroups reported similar rates of maltreatment, with the exception of rape. Bivariate analyses were remarkably consistent in that regardless of nativity status or ethnic subgroup, each type of maltreatment experience increased the risk of psychiatric disorder. In multivariate models controlling for all types of victimization and proxies of acculturation, having been beaten and witnessing interpersonal violence remained significant predictors of both disorders, but sexual abuse increased risk of anxiety only. A significant interaction effect of family cultural conflict and witnessing violence on anxiety provided very limited support for the hypothesis that acculturation moderates the influence of maltreatment on mental health outcomes. Implications for culturally relevant prevention and intervention approaches are presented.
Cohn, Tanya; Miller, Arlene; Fogg, Louis; Braun, Lynne T; Coke, Lola
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality for adults in the US, regardless of ethnicity. A cross-sectional correlational design was used to describe and compare CVD risk and cardiac mortality in White Hispanic and non-Hispanic women and men. Data from 3,317 individuals (1,523 women and 1,794 men) hospitalized for non-cardiac causes during 2012-2013, and data from the 2010 United States Census were included. The sex-specific 10-year Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Score (FRS-10) was used to estimate long-term risk for major cardiac events. Approximately three-quarters of the sample was White Hispanic. FRS-10 scores were generally low, but a high prevalence of risk factors not included in the standard FRS-10 scoring formula was seen. White Hispanic women had significantly lower estimated CVD risk scores compared to White Hispanic and non-Hispanic men despite higher non-FRS-10 risks. Neighborhood median household income had a significant negative relationship and Hispanic neighborhood concentration had a significant positive relationship with cardiac mortality. Hispanic concentration was the only predictor of estimated CVD risk in a multilevel model. CVD risk assessment tools that are calibrated for ethnic groups and socioeconomic status may be more appropriate for Hispanic individuals than the FRS-10. Neighborhood-level factors should be included in clinical cardiac assessment in addition to individual characteristics and behavioral risks. Researchers should continue to seek additional risk factors that may contribute to or protect against CVD in order to close the gap between estimated CVD risk and actual cardiac mortality for Hispanics in the US. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pu, Jia; Hastings, Katherine G; Boothroyd, Derek; Jose, Powell O; Chung, Sukyung; Shah, Janki B; Cullen, Mark R; Palaniappan, Latha P; Rehkopf, David H
There are well-documented geographical differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality for non-Hispanic whites. However, it remains unknown whether similar geographical variation in CVD mortality exists for Asian American subgroups. This study aims to examine geographical differences in CVD mortality among Asian American subgroups living in the United States and whether they are consistent with geographical differences observed among non-Hispanic whites. Using US death records from 2003 to 2011 (n=3 897 040 CVD deaths), age-adjusted CVD mortality rates per 100 000 population and age-adjusted mortality rate ratios were calculated for the 6 largest Asian American subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese) and compared with non-Hispanic whites. There were consistently lower mortality rates for all Asian American subgroups compared with non-Hispanic whites across divisions for CVD mortality and ischemic heart disease mortality. However, cerebrovascular disease mortality demonstrated substantial geographical differences by Asian American subgroup. There were a number of regional divisions where certain Asian American subgroups (Filipino and Japanese men, Korean and Vietnamese men and women) possessed no mortality advantage compared with non-Hispanic whites. The most striking geographical variation was with Filipino men (age-adjusted mortality rate ratio=1.18; 95% CI, 1.14-1.24) and Japanese men (age-adjusted mortality rate ratio=1.05; 95% CI: 1.00-1.11) in the Pacific division who had significantly higher cerebrovascular mortality than non-Hispanic whites. There was substantial geographical variation in Asian American subgroup mortality for cerebrovascular disease when compared with non-Hispanic whites. It deserves increased attention to prioritize prevention and treatment in the Pacific division where approximately 80% of Filipinos CVD deaths and 90% of Japanese CVD deaths occur in the United States. © 2017 The Authors
McCrory, Megan A; Jaret, Charles L; Kim, Jung Ha; Reitzes, Donald C
Immigrants in the U.S. may encounter challenges of acculturation, including dietary habits, as they adapt to new surroundings. We examined Vietnamese and Hispanic immigrant children's American food consumption patterns in a convenience sample of 63 Vietnamese and Hispanic children in grades four to six who were attending an after school program. Children indicated the number of times they consumed each of 54 different American foods in the past week using a food frequency questionnaire. We ranked each food according to frequency of consumption, compared the intake of foods to the USDA Healthy Eating Pattern, and performed dietary pattern analysis. Since the data were not normally distributed we used two nonparametric tests to evaluate statistical significance: the Kruskal-Wallis tested for significant gender and ethnicity differences and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test evaluated the food consumption of children compared with the USDA recommended amounts. We found that among USDA categories, discretionary food was most commonly consumed, followed by fruit. The sample as a whole ate significantly less than the recommended amount of grains, protein foods, and dairy, but met the recommended amount of fruit. Boys ate significantly more grains, proteins, and fruits than did girls. Dietary pattern analysis showed a very high sweet snack consumption among all children, while boys ate more fast food and fruit than girls. Foods most commonly consumed were cereal, apples, oranges, and yogurt. Ethnicity differences in food selection were not significant. The high intake of discretionary/snack foods and fruit, with low intake of grains, vegetables, protein, and dairy in our sample suggests Vietnamese and Hispanic immigrant children may benefit from programs to improve diet quality.
O'Neil, Patrick M; Garvey, W Timothy; Gonzalez-Campoy, J Michael; Mora, Pablo; Ortiz, Rafael Violante; Guerrero, German; Claudius, Birgitte; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier
Scarce data exist on pharmacotherapy for obesity in Hispanic individuals. This post hoc analysis of pooled data from 4 phase 3a trials compared the efficacy and safety of liraglutide 3.0 mg versus placebo, as adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and physical activity, in Hispanic versus non-Hispanic subgroups. We conducted the double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled trials in adults with a minimum body mass index (BMI) of 27 kg/m 2 with at least 1 comorbidity, or a minimum BMI of 30 kg/m 2 , at clinical research sites worldwide. In this analysis, we investigated possible differences in treatment effects between 534 Hispanics (10.4% of the population) and 4,597 non-Hispanics (89.6%) through statistical tests of interaction between subgroups and treatment. Variables examined included mean and categorical weight change, cardiovascular risk markers, and safety data. Both subgroups achieved clinically significant mean weight loss at end-of-treatment with liraglutide 3.0 mg versus placebo: Hispanics 7.0% versus 1.5%, treatment difference -5.1% (95% CI, -6.2 to -4.0); non-Hispanics 7.5% versus 2.3%, -5.2% (95% CI, -5.5 to -4.8). More individuals in both subgroups lost ≥5%, >10%, and >15% of their baseline weight with liraglutide 3.0 mg than with placebo. Efficacy endpoints generally did not vary with ethnicity (P>.05). Adverse events were comparable between ethnic subgroups, with more gastrointestinal disorders reported with liraglutide 3.0 mg than placebo. Efficacy and safety were largely similar between Hispanic and non-Hispanic subgroups. Results support that liraglutide 3.0 mg, used with a reduced-calorie diet and physical activity, can facilitate weight loss in Hispanic individuals. A1c = glycated hemoglobin BMI = body mass index CI = confidence interval FPG = fasting plasma glucose GLP-1 = glucagon-like peptide-1 hsCRP = high-sensitivity C-reactive protein SCALE = Satiety and Clinical Adiposity - Liraglutide Evidence in individuals with and without diabetes T2DM
Vermeesch, Amber L; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Hall, Rosemary; McCabe, Brian E; Cianelli, Rosina; Peragallo, Nilda P
U.S. Hispanics, especially women, experience a disproportionate amount of disease burden for depression. This disparity among Hispanic women necessitates examination of factors associated with depression. The objective of this study was to use an adaptation of the Stress Process Model to test whether self-esteem mediated the relationship between Hispanic stress and depressive symptoms. Data for this secondary analysis were from a previous randomized-control HIV prevention trial. Participants were 548 Hispanic women (19-52 years). Data collection measures included the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Hispanic Stress Scale. The bootstrap method in Mplus 6 was used to test mediation. Results indicated that self-esteem was inversely related to depression, and Hispanic stress was found to be positively related to depression. Self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between stress and depression. Strategies to improve/maintain self-esteem should be considered in future interventions for Hispanic women with depression.
Moceri, Joane T
The continuing issue of health inequity for Hispanics highlights the importance of retaining Hispanic nurses in the workplace. This article describes the use of short answers such as "Describe the bias you experienced" and "If a patient refused care, what was the reason given?" to increase understandings about bias through the descriptions of Hispanic nurses. In this study, bias was defined as those implicit negative stereotypes and attitudes that negatively affect judgments about, evaluations of, and actions toward others. For this qualitative component of a descriptive study employing both qualitative and quantitative methods, 111 Hispanic nurses responded to open-ended questions about experiences of bias that were included with a survey tool and demographic questionnaire. Three themes emerged: being overlooked and undervalued, having to prove competency, and living with "only-ness." Respect was an overarching concept. The written descriptions of bias provided depth and understanding to the quantitative findings. Nurse leaders are well positioned to develop and implement strategies to more effectively support Hispanic nurses and to promote nonbiased interactions in the workplace. Retaining Hispanic nurses is a vital component to address issues of health inequity for Hispanic patients.
Qian, Feng; Fonarow, Gregg C; Krim, Selim R; Vivo, Rey P; Cox, Margueritte; Hannan, Edward L; Shaw, Benjamin A; Hernandez, Adrian F; Eapen, Zubin J; Yancy, Clyde W; Bhatt, Deepak L
Because little was previously known about Asian-American patients with heart failure (HF), we compared clinical profiles, quality of care, and outcomes between Asian-American and non-Hispanic white HF patients using data from the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF) program. We analyzed 153,023 HF patients (149,249 whites, 97.5%; 3774 Asian-Americans, 2.5%) from 356 U.S. centers participating in the GWTG-HF program (2005-2012). Baseline characteristics, quality of care metrics, in-hospital mortality, discharge to home, and length of stay were examined. Relative to white patients, Asian-American HF patients were younger, more likely to be male, uninsured or covered by Medicaid, and recruited in the western region. They had higher prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and renal insufficiency, but similar ejection fraction. Overall, Asian-American HF patients had comparable quality of care except that they were less likely to receive aldosterone antagonists at discharge (relative risk , 0.88; 95% confidence interval , 0.78-0.99), and anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation (RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85-0.97) even after risk adjustment. Compared with white patients, Asian-American patients had comparable risk adjusted in-hospital mortality (RR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.91-1.35), length of stay>4 days (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.95-1.08), and were more likely to be discharged to home (RR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.06-1.11). Despite some differences in clinical profiles, Asian-American patients hospitalized with HF receive very similar quality of care and have comparable health outcomes to their white counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Masinter, Lisa M; Feinglass, Joe; Simon, Melissa A
Both unintended and adolescent childbearing disproportionately impact the Hispanic population of the United States. We used the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) to provide the most recent, nationally representative description of pregnancy, childbearing, and contraception for Hispanic females aged 15-44. We determined baseline fertility data for self-identified Hispanic female respondents. Among those reporting a pregnancy history, we calculated the proportion of pregnancies identified as unintended and their association with sociodemographic variables. We also assessed outcomes and estimates of relative risk for unintended pregnancy. Finally, we examined contraceptive use prior to self-reported unintended pregnancies. Approximately 70% of Hispanic women reported ever being pregnant, including 18% of teenagers. Over half (51%) of those pregnancies were unintended, including 81% among teenagers. The adjusted risk of unintended pregnancy was highest in women 15 to 19 years old and those with three or more pregnancies (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.44-1.88 and IRR 1.77, 95% CI: 1.53-2.06, respectively). Half of unintended pregnancies were preceded by no contraception. The most common reason for unintended pregnancy preceded by contraception was "improper use" (45%) and among pregnancies without use, the most common response (37%) was "I did not think I could get pregnant." There is a high frequency of unintended pregnancy and lack of contraceptive use among Hispanic women. These findings highlight the need for improved reproductive education and contraceptive counseling in this population.
Goyal, Deepika; Wang, Elsie J; Shen, Jeremy; Wong, Eric C; Palaniappan, Latha P
To identify the clinical diagnosis rate of postpartum depression (PPD) in Asian American subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese) compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Cross-sectional study using electronic health records (EHR). A large, outpatient, multiservice clinic in Northern California. A diverse clinical population of non-Hispanic White (N = 4582), Asian Indian (N = 1264), Chinese (N = 1160), Filipino (N = 347), Japanese (N = 124), Korean (N = 183), and Vietnamese (N = 147) mothers. Cases of PPD were identified from EHRs using physician diagnosis codes, medication usage, and age standardized for comparison. The relationship between PPD and other demographic variables (race/ethnicity, maternal age, delivery type, marital status, and infant gender) were examined in a multivariate logistic regression model. The PPD diagnosis rate for all Asian American mothers in aggregate was significantly lower than the diagnosis rate in non-Hispanic White mothers. Moreover, of the six Asian American subgroups, PPD diagnosis rates for Asian Indian, Chinese, and Filipino mothers were significantly lower than non-Hispanic White mothers. In multivariate analyses, race/ethnicity, age, and cesarean were significant predictors of PPD. In this insured population, PPD diagnosis rates were lower among Asian Americans, with variability in rates across the individual Asian American subgroups. It is unclear whether these lower rates are due to underreporting, underdiagnosis, or underutilization of mental health care in this setting. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Diana Cuy Castellanos
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to explore dietary acculturation in Hispanic males in the context of the Operant Theory of Acculturation. This was a qualitative study using grounded theory to guide methodological procedures. Semi-structured interviews, a focus group, the Acculturation-Rating Scale for Mexican-Americans-II and the Marginality Scale, and photovoice with follow-up interviews were used to explore dietary acculturation in the participant sample. Thirty-five first- and second-generation Hispanic males residing in Mississippi were recruited and categorized into one of three different bidimensional acculturation groups as determined by the Acculturation-Rating Scale for Mexican-Americans-II and the Marginality Scale. Main dietary influencing themes identified were intrapersonal and environmental dietary factors. The subthemes included values, attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and preference for the intrapersonal factors and availability; living structure; accessibility; food preparation skill; and time for the environmental factors. The factors are not mutually exclusive and show the complexity of the dietary acculturation process. This research can be used to guide future research and inform nutrition intervention development for this population.
Fleming, Jon F.; Terrell, Stefanie M.
The purpose of this handbook is intended to be a how-to guide to prepare for, conduct, and close-out an Integrated Baseline Review (IBR). It discusses the steps that should be considered, describes roles and responsibilities, tips for tailoring the IBR based on risk, cost, and need for management insight, and provides lessons learned from past IBRs. Appendices contain example documentation typically used in connection with an IBR. Note that these appendices are examples only, and should be tailored to meet the needs of individual projects and contracts.
This Environmental Baseline File summarizes and consolidates information related to the national-level transportation of commercial spent nuclear fuel. Topics addressed include: shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel based on mostly truck and mostly rail shipping scenarios; transportation routing for commercial spent nuclear fuel sites and DOE sites; radionuclide inventories for various shipping container capacities; transportation routing; populations along transportation routes; urbanized area population densities; the impacts of historical, reasonably foreseeable, and general transportation; state-level food transfer factors; Federal Guidance Report No. 11 and 12 radionuclide dose conversion factors; and national average atmospheric conditions
Francey, R.J.; Dick, A.L.; Derek, N.
This publication reports activities, program summaries and data from the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station in Tasmania, during the calendar year 1993. These activities represent Australia's main contribution to the Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network (BAPMoN), part of the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW). The report includes 5 research reports covering trace gas sampling, ozone and radon interdependence, analysis of atmospheric dimethylsulfide and carbon-disulfide, sampling of trace gas composition of the troposphere, and sulfur aerosol/CCN relationship in marine air. Summaries of program reports for the calendar year 1993 are also included. Tabs., figs., refs
Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Pegg, Ian L.; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan Tao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Gan, Hao; Muller, Isabelle S.; Cecil, Richard
The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements
Piedra, Lissette M; Andrade, Flavia C D; Hernandez, Rosalba; Boughton, Seth William; Trejo, Laura; Sarkisian, Catherine A
We examined the prospective effect of an evidence-based exercise intervention (¡Caminemos!) on cognitive function among older Hispanic/Latino adults and the potential synergistic effects (if any) of an attribution-retraining intervention given to a random sample to counter negative ascriptions of the aging process. We analyzed baseline and follow-up (1- and 2-year) data collected from Hispanics/Latinos ≥60 years (N = 571) who participated in ¡Caminemos! across 27 senior centers. All participants were randomly assigned to either (a) the treatment group-a 1-hr attribution-retraining session plus a 1-hr exercise class or (b) the control group-health education plus a 1-hr exercise class. Mixed-effects linear regression was used to determine the effects of the exercise class and the attribution-retraining component on longitudinal changes in cognitive functioning, as measured by the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) examination. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, education, income, and medical comorbidities, participants in both trial arms displayed higher cognitive functioning scores at the 1-year (β = 1.76, p = .001) and 2-year (β = 1.37, p = .013) follow-ups when compared with original baseline scores. However, we found no significant difference in cognitive function between the treatment versus control conditions (β = 0.41, p = .582), nor were any differences found across groups over time. The exercise intervention improved cognitive function in older Hispanics/Latinos, regardless of whether it was supplemented with the age-related attribution retraining. These findings suggest that limited access to exercise programs may be a greater obstacle in forestalling cognitive decline in older Hispanics/Latinos than the negative beliefs they might hold of the aging process. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Jones, Sande Gracia; Fenkl, Eric A; Patsdaughter, Carol A; Chadwell, Katherine; Valdes, Beatriz
Heterosexual transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is increasing in older adult populations around the world. This study compares Hispanic and non-Hispanic men ages 50 years and older currently using prescribed erectile dysfunction medications in relation to their perception of the effect of condoms on sexual experience. A sample of 86 men (40 Hispanic and 46 non-Hispanic men) ages 50-79 years completed the 10-item Effect on Sexual Experience (ESE) subscale. Although there was no difference between the 2 groups on the subscale mean score, t(84) = 1.449, p = .151, analysis of the subscale items found 1 item that was significantly different (p = .005) between the 2 groups, although this difference could have been related to different perceptions of the word disgusting. Hispanic men were also less concerned than non-Hispanic men about condom-related loss of erection. This study adds to the literature on HIV and STD prevention for older Hispanic/Latinos.
Karmon, Anatte; Hailpern, Susan M; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Green, Robin R; Santoro, Nanette; Polotsky, Alex J
To evaluate whether ethnicity is associated with involuntary childlessness and perceived reasons for difficulties in becoming pregnant. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a longitudinal cohort. Multiethnic, community-based observational study of US women. Women in midlife (3,149), aged 42-52 years. None. Involuntary childlessness and perceived etiology of infertility. One hundred thirty-three subjects (4.2%) were involuntarily childless, defined by a reported history of infertility and nulliparity. Ethnicity was significantly associated with self-reported involuntary childlessness. After controlling for economic and other risk factors, African American (odds ratio [OR] 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15-0.59) and Chinese women (OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.14-0.90) were less likely to suffer from involuntary childlessness compared with non-Hispanic white women. In addition, 302 subjects reported a perceived etiology of infertility. An unexpectedly large proportion of these women (24.5%, 74 of 302) reported etiologies not known to cause infertility (i.e., tipped uterus, ligaments for tubes were stretched), with African American women having been most likely to report these etiologies (OR 2.81; 95% CI 1.26-6.28) as the reason for not becoming pregnant. Ethnicity is significantly associated with involuntary childlessness and perceived etiology of infertility. Misattribution of causes of infertility is common and merits further consideration with respect to language or cultural barriers, as well as possible physician misattribution. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.
Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept
Thomas, Tami L; Stephens, Dionne P; Johnson-Mallard, Versie; Higgins, Melinda
This exploratory descriptive study examined perceived vulnerabilities to human papillomavirus (HPV) and the correlation to factors influencing vaccine beliefs and vaccine decision making in young Hispanic males attending a large public urban university. Only 24% of participants believed that the HPV vaccine could prevent future problems, and 53% said they would not be vaccinated. The best predictors of HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men were agreement with doctor recommendations and belief in the vaccine's efficacy. Machismo cultural norms influence young Hispanic men's HPV-related decision making, their perceptions of the vaccine, and how they attitudinally act on what little HPV information they have access to. This study provides culturally relevant information for the development of targeted health education strategies aimed at increasing HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men. © The Author(s) 2014.
... United States carrying nothing but hope for a better life, Hispanics have always been integral to our... and public servants, and brave service members who defend our way of life at home and abroad. My...
... Management and the Assistant Secretary for Human Resources and Administration at the Department of Veterans... Office of Personnel Management on matters involving the recruitment, hiring, and advancement of Hispanics...
... Management and the Assistant Secretary for Human Resources and Administration at the Department of Veterans... Office of Personnel Management on matters involving the recruitment, hiring, and advancement of Hispanics...
... Management and the Assistant Secretary for Human Resources and Administration at the Department of Veterans... Office of Personnel Management on matters involving the recruitment, hiring, and advancement of Hispanics...
... Office of Personnel Management and the Assistant Secretary for Human Resources and Administration at the... Office of Personnel Management on matters involving the recruitment, hiring, and advancement of Hispanics...
Bergmans, Rachel; Soliman, Amr S; Ruterbusch, Julie; Meza, Rafael; Hirko, Kelly; Graff, John; Schwartz, Kendra
We calculated cancer incidence for Arab Americans in California; Detroit, Michigan; and New Jersey, and compared rates with non-Hispanic, non-Arab Whites (NHNAWs); Blacks; and Hispanics. We conducted a study using population-based data. We linked new cancers diagnosed in 2000 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) to an Arab surname database. We used standard SEER definitions and methodology for calculating rates. Population estimates were extracted from the 2000 US Census. We calculated incidence and rate ratios. Arab American men and women had similar incidence rates across the 3 geographic regions, and the rates were comparable to NHNAWs. However, the thyroid cancer rate was elevated among Arab American women compared with NHNAWs, Hispanics, and Blacks. For all sites combined, for prostate and lung cancer, Arab American men had a lower incidence than Blacks and higher incidence than Hispanics in all 3 geographic regions. Arab American male bladder cancer incidence was higher than that in Hispanics and Blacks in these regions. Our results suggested that further research would benefit from the federal recognition of Arab Americans as a specified ethnicity to estimate and address the cancer burden in this growing segment of the population.
Kenneth K Poon
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the treatment outcomes of undocumented Hispanic immigrants with HIV infection. We sought to compare the treatment outcomes of undocumented and documented patients 12-months after entering HIV care. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of antiretroviral-naive patients 18 years and older attending their first visit at Thomas Street Health Center in Houston, Texas, between 1/1/2003 and 6/30/2008. The study population of 1,620 HIV-infected adults included 186 undocumented Hispanic, 278 documented Hispanic, 986 Black, and 170 White patients. The main outcome measures were retention in care (quarter years with at least one completed HIV primary care provider visit and HIV suppression (HIV RNA <400 copies/mL, both measured 12-months after entering HIV care. RESULTS: Undocumented Hispanic patients had lower median initial CD4 cell count (132 cells/mm(3 than documented Hispanic patients (166 cells/mm(3; P = 0.186, Black patients (226 cells/mm(3; P<0.001, and White patients (264 cells/mm(3; P = 0.001. However, once in care, undocumented Hispanic patients did as well or better than their documented counterparts. One year after entering HIV care, undocumented Hispanics achieved similar rates of retention in care and HIV suppression as documented Hispanic and White patients. Of note, black patients were significantly less likely to have optimal retention in care (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.65, CI = 0.45-0.94 or achieve HIV suppression (aOR 0.32, CI = 0.17-0.61 than undocumented Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS: Undocumented Hispanic persons with HIV infection enter care with more advanced disease than documented persons, suggesting testing and/or linkage to care efforts for this difficult-to-reach population need intensification. Once diagnosed, however, undocumented Hispanics have outcomes as good as or better than other racial/ethnic groups. Safety net providers for undocumented immigrants are vital for maintaining
Flores, Alina L; Isenburg, Jennifer; Hillard, Christina L; deRosset, Leslie; Colen, Lisa; Bush, Troy; Mai, Cara T
Although rates of neural tube defects (NTDs) have declined in the United States since fortification, disparities still exist with Hispanic women having the highest risk of giving birth to a baby with a NTD. The Promotora de Salud model using community lay health workers has been shown to be an effective tool for reaching Hispanics for a variety of health topics; however, literature on its effectiveness in folic acid interventions is limited. An intervention using the Promotora de Salud model was implemented in four U.S. counties with large populations of Hispanic women. The study comprised the following: (1) a written pretest survey to establish baseline levels of folic acid awareness, knowledge, and consumption; (2) a small group education intervention along with a 90-day supply of multivitamins; and (3) a postintervention (posttest) assessment conducted 4 months following the intervention. Statistically significant differences in pre- and posttests were observed for general awareness about folic acid and vitamins and specific knowledge about the benefits of folic acid. Statistically significant changes were also seen in vitamin consumption and multivitamin consumption. Folic acid supplement consumption increased dramatically by the end of the study. The Promotora de Salud model relies on interpersonal connections forged between promotoras and the communities they serve to help drive positive health behaviors. The findings underscore the positive impact that these interpersonal connections can have on increasing awareness, knowledge, and consumption of folic acid. Utilizing the Promotora de Salud model to reach targeted populations might help organizations successfully implement their programs in a culturally appropriate manner.
The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.
Fleming, Jon F.; Kehrer, Kristen C.
The purpose of this handbook is intended to be a how-to guide to prepare for, conduct, and close-out an Integrated Baseline Review (IBR). It discusses the steps that should be considered, describes roles and responsibilities, tips for tailoring the IBR based on risk, cost, and need for management insight, and provides lessons learned from past IBRs. Appendices contain example documentation typically used in connection with an IBR. Note that these appendices are examples only, and should be tailored to meet the needs of individual projects and contracts. Following the guidance in this handbook will help customers and suppliers preparing for an IBR understand the expectations of the IBR, and ensure that the IBR meets the requirements for both in-house and contract efforts.
We have studied CP violation originating from the phase of the neutrino-mixing matrix in the long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. The direct measurement of CP violation is the difference of the transition probabilities between CP-conjugate channels. In those experiments, the CP-violating effect is not suppressed if the highest neutrino mass scale is taken to be 1 endash 5 eV, which is appropriate for the cosmological hot dark matter. Assuming the hierarchy for the neutrino masses, the upper bounds of CP violation have been calculated for three cases, in which mixings are constrained by the recent short baseline ones. The calculated upper bounds are larger than 10 -2 , which will be observable in the long baseline accelerator experiments. The matter effect, which is not CP invariant, has been also estimated in those experiments. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Cipriano, Gabriela C; Andrews, Carlota O
To highlight the added value of bilingual Hispanic pharmacists in the care of Hispanic patients by sharing their patients' language and culture. Inability to speak and/or write in the patients' native language severely impairs our best efforts to deliver good health care. This is a widely recognized cause of non-compliance or less than favorable possible health outcomes in Hispanic patients. What has received less attention, however, is that the ability to speak Spanish alone may not remove completely the barrier for non-compliance among Hispanics. Bilingual Spanish-English pharmacists do not have the language barrier, but if they do not recognize and accept cultural differences, their impact in their patients' response may still be limited. It is time to recognize the added value of Hispanic pharmacists to Hispanic patients' health outcomes. Understanding and sharing a culture allows the pharmacist to make medication education and interventions relevant to the patient and spark interest in their own health care. Thus, in caring for the health of our patients, cultural barriers may be more challenging to conquer than language barriers; deep appreciation and acceptance of our patients' belief system cannot be acquired by just reading about it, having a computerized program, or hiring an interpreter.
Gabriela C Cipriano
Full Text Available Objective: To highlight the added value of bilingual Hispanic pharmacists in the care of Hispanic patients by sharing their patients’ language and culture. Summary: Inability to speak and/or write in the patients’ native language severely impairs our best efforts to deliver good health care. This is a widely recognized cause of non-compliance or less than favorable possible health outcomes in Hispanic patients. What has received less attention, however, is that the ability to speak Spanish alone may not remove completely the barrier for non-compliance among Hispanics. Bilingual Spanish–English pharmacists do not have the language barrier, but if they do not recognize and accept cultural differences, their impact in their patients’ response may still be limited. Conclusion: It is time to recognize the added value of Hispanic pharmacists to Hispanic patients’ health outcomes. Understanding and sharing a culture allows the pharmacist to make medication education and interventions relevant to the patient and spark interest in their own health care. Thus, in caring for the health of our patients, cultural barriers may be more challenging to conquer than language barriers; deep appreciation and acceptance of our patients’ belief system cannot be acquired by just reading about it, having a computerized program, or hiring an interpreter.
Hollifield, Michael; Finley, M Rosina; Skipper, Betty
The epidemiology of panic disorder is well known, but data about some phenomenological aspects are sparse. The symptom criteria for panic disorder were developed largely from rational expert consensus methods and not from empirical research. This fact calls attention to the construct validity of the panic disorder diagnosis, which may affect accuracy of epidemiological findings. Seventy self-identified Non-Hispanic-Caucasian (Anglo) and Hispanic-Caucasian (Hispanic) people who were diagnosed with DSM-III-R panic disorder with or without agoraphobia were invited to complete a Panic Phenomenological Questionnaire (PPQ), which was constructed for this study from the Hamilton Anxiety Scale Items and The DSM-III-R panic symptoms. Fifty (71%) subjects agreed to participate, and there was no response bias detected. Seven symptoms on the PPQ that are not in the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were reported to occur with a high prevalence in this study. Furthermore, many symptoms that occurred with a high frequency and were reported to be experienced as severe are also not included in current nosology. A few of the DSM-IV criterion symptoms occurred with low prevalence, frequency, and severity. Cognitive symptoms were reported to occur with higher frequency and severity during attacks than autonomic or other symptoms. There were modest differences between ethnic groups with regard to panic attack phenomena. Further research using multiple empirical methods aimed at improving the content validity of the panic disorder diagnosis is warranted. This includes utilizing consistent methods to collect data that will allow for rational decisions about how to construct valid panic disorder criteria across cultures. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Green, Robin R; Santoro, Nanette; Allshouse, Amanda A; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Derby, Carol
To investigate the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use, including botanical/herbal remedies, among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), New Jersey site. We also examined whether attitudes toward CAM and communication of its use to providers differed for Hispanic and non-Hispanic women. SWAN is a community-based, multiethnic cohort study of midlife women. At the 13th SWAN follow-up, women at the New Jersey site completed both a general CAM questionnaire and a culturally sensitive CAM questionnaire designed to capture herbal products commonly used in Hispanic/Latina communities. Prevalence of and attitudes toward CAM use were compared by race/ethnicity and demographic characteristics. Among 171 women (average age 61.8 years), the overall prevalence of herbal remedy use was high in both Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women (88.8% Hispanic and 81.3% non-Hispanic white), and prayer and herbal teas were the most common modalities used. Women reported the use of multiple herbal modalities (mean 6.6 for Hispanic and 4.0 for non-Hispanic white women; p = 0.001). Hispanic women were less likely to consider herbal treatment drugs (16% vs. 37.5%; p = 0.005) and were less likely to report sharing the use of herbal remedies with their doctors (14.4% Hispanic vs. 34% non-Hispanic white; p = 0.001). The number of modalities used was similar regardless of the number of prescription medications used. High prevalence of herbal CAM use was observed for both Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women. Results highlight the need for healthcare providers to query women regarding CAM use to identify potential interactions with traditional treatments and to determine whether CAM is used in lieu of traditional medications.
El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M.; Tracy, Melissa; Scarborough, Peter; Galea, Sandro
Background Although nearly 112 million residents of the United States belong to a non-white ethnic group, the literature about differences in health indicators across ethnic groups is limited almost exclusively to Hispanics. Features of the social experience of many ethnic groups including immigration, discrimination, and acculturation may plausibly influence mortality risk. We explored life expectancy and age-adjusted mortality risk of Arab-Americans (AAs), relative to non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites in Michigan, the state with the largest per capita population of AAs in the US. Methodology/Principal Findings Data were collected about all deaths to AAs and non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites in Michigan between 1990 and 2007, and year 2000 census data were collected for population denominators. We calculated life expectancy, age-adjusted all-cause, cause-specific, and age-specific mortality rates stratified by ethnicity and gender among AAs and non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites. Among AAs, life expectancies among men and women were 2.0 and 1.4 years lower than among non-Arab and non-Hispanic White men and women, respectively. AA men had higher mortality than non-Arab and non-Hispanic White men due to infectious diseases, chronic diseases, and homicide. AA women had higher mortality than non-Arab and non-Hispanic White women due to chronic diseases. Conclusions/Significance Despite better education and higher income, AAs have higher age-adjusted mortality risk than non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites, particularly due to chronic diseases. Features specific to AA culture may explain some of these findings. PMID:22216204
The ancient cultures of the Americas were separated by thousands of miles and thousand of years. There was a long history of trade over the miles and the years with many shared cultural ideals and artifacts, as evidenced by their musical instruments. Flutes were the most prevalent instruments found throughout the ancient Americas. Some types are unique to the pre-Hispanic world. Although flutes were constructed from a variety of materials, including bone, cane, seed pods, skulls, it is primarily the ceramic ones that survived, and it is ceramic flutes which form the bulk of this writer's work and research. This paper includes musical demonstrations to show how ancient flutemakers could have manipulated timbre during construction. Clay's plasticity enabled the construction of some instruments, and limited the development of others. Pitch jump flutes, certain Veracruzano whistles, and chamberduct flutes and whistles all share the addition of clay flaps or chambers around the aperture, as do hooded pipes. Some instruments exhibit a seemingly cultural predilection for complex tones that are windy, raspy, or animalistic. Simple adjustments of the airduct promote these timbres. Also included will be samples of the original sounds of ancient flutes.
Byrd, Marquita L.
One of the main problems with higher education is that curriculums, both past and present, objectify and marginalize the experiences of people of color and thus reduce diversity in the graduate and professional school populations. African American, Asians, Hispanics, and other minorities are studied in many college-level classes only as an…
Garza, Christelle Fabiola; Gasquoine, Philip Gerard
Implicit race/ethnic prejudice was assessed using Spanish- and English-language versions of an Implicit Association Test that used Hispanic/Anglo first names and pleasant/unpleasant words as stimuli. This test was administered to a consecutive sample of Mexican American adults residing in the Rio Grande Valley region of Texas of whom about…
Coups Elliot J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin cancer prevention interventions that target the growing number of U.S. Hispanics are lacking. The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of sun protection and exposure behaviors (i.e., sunscreen use, shade seeking, use of sun protective clothing, and sunburns among U.S. Hispanics with sun sensitive skin, with a focus on potential differences according to acculturation and Hispanic origin. Methods The sample consisted of 1676 Hispanic adults who reported having sun sensitive skin (i.e., they would experience a sunburn if they went out in the sun for one hour without protection after several months of not being in the sun. Participants completed survey questions as part of the nationally representative 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Analyses were conducted in August 2012. Results Greater acculturation was linked with both risky (i.e., not wearing sun protective clothing and protective (i.e., using sunscreen sun-related practices and with an increased risk of sunburns. Sun protection and exposure behaviors also varied according to individuals’ Hispanic origin, with for example individuals of Mexican heritage having a higher rate of using sun protective clothing and experiencing sunburns than several other subgroups. Conclusions Several Hispanic subpopulations (e.g., those who are more acculturated or from certain origins represent important groups to target in skin cancer prevention interventions. Future research is needed to test culturally relevant, tailored interventions to promote sun protection behaviors among U.S. Hispanics. Such initiatives should focus on public health education and increasing healthcare provider awareness of the importance of skin cancer prevention among Hispanics.
Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities, 2011
With support from the Lumina Foundation, the Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) has launched HACU's Hispanic Higher Education Research Collective (H3ERC). The first major task of this virtual gathering of researchers and practitioners in Hispanic higher education has been to assess the state of our knowledge of the key issues…
Holliday, Ryan; Anderson, Elizabeth; Williams, Rush; Bird, Jessica; Matlock, Alyse; Ali, Sania; Edmondson, Christine; Morris, E. Ellen; Mullen, Kacy; Surís, Alina
Differences in four adjustment stressors (family, interpersonal, career, and academic), and depression and anxiety symptoms were examined between White, non-Hispanic and White, Hispanic undergraduate college female students. White, Hispanic female college students reported significantly greater academic and family adjustment stressors than White,…
Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José
Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo
Although growing research focuses on breast cancer screenings, little is known about breast cancer prevention with risk reduction awareness for ethnic differences among college-age women. This study examined breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women. Using a cross-sectional study, women at a university in the Southwest completed a 51-item survey about breast cancer risk factors, beliefs, and media and interpersonal information sources. The study was guided by McGuire's Input Output Persuasion Model. Of the 546 participants, non-Hispanic college women (n = 277) and Hispanic college women (n = 269) reported similar basic knowledge levels of modifiable breast cancer risk factors for alcohol consumption (52 %), obesity (72 %), childbearing after age 35 (63 %), and menopausal hormone therapy (68 %) using bivariate analyses. Most common information sources were Internet (75 %), magazines (69 %), provider (76 %) and friends (61 %). Least common sources were radio (44 %), newspapers (34 %), and mothers (36 %). Non-Hispanic college women with breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from providers, friends, and mothers. Hispanic college women with a breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from their mothers. Breast cancer prevention education for college women is needed to include risk reduction for modifiable health behavior changes as a new focus. Health professionals may target college women with more information sources including the Internet or apps.
Assessment of the Human Kynurenine Pathway: Comparisons and Clinical Implications of Ethnic and Gender Differences in Plasma Tryptophan, Kynurenine Metabolites, and Enzyme Expressions at Baseline and after Acute Tryptophan Loading and Depletion
Abdulla A.-B. Badawy
Full Text Available Tryptophan (Trp metabolism via the kynurenine pathway (KP was assessed in normal healthy US volunteers at baseline and after acute Trp depletion (ATD and acute Trp loading (ATL using amino acid formulations. The hepatic KP accounts for ~90% of overall Trp degradation. Liver Trp 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO contributes ~70% toward Trp oxidation, with the remainder achieved by subsequent rate-limiting enzymes in the KP. TDO is not influenced by a 1.15 g Trp load, but is maximally activated by a 5.15 g dose. We recommend a 30 mg/kg dose for future ATL studies. ATD activates TDO and enhances the Trp flux down the KP via its leucine component. Higher plasma free [Trp] and lower total [Trp] are observed in women, with no gender differences in kynurenines. Kynurenic acid is lower in female Caucasians, which may explain their lower incidence of schizophrenia. African-American and Hispanic women have a lower TDO and Trp oxidation relative to free Trp than the corresponding men. African-American women have a potentially higher 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid/anthranilic acid ratio, which may protect them against osteoporosis. Future studies of the KP in relation to health and disease should focus on gender and ethnic differences.
Yazicioglu, Iffet; Jones, Judith A; Cortés, Dharma; Rich, Sharron; Garcia, Raul
This study compared scores and psychometric properties from self-identified Hispanic parents who completed Pediatric Oral Health-related Quality of life (POQL) parent report-on-child questionnaires in Spanish or English. The study hypothesized that there were no differences in psychometric properties or POQL scores by parent reading language preference, controlling for dental needs, child's place of birth, age, insurance and use of care. POQL scores were computed, and the internal consistency, feasibility, factor structure and construct validity of the Spanish language version assessed. Hispanic parents (N = 387) of 8-14 year old children (mean age 10.2) completed the survey; 237 in Spanish and 150 in English. Internal consistency scores were higher (Cronbach α range = .86-.93) among Hispanic parents who completed the questionnaire in Spanish than in English (.66-.86). POQL scores from parents who completed questionnaires in Spanish were higher (worse) overall (6.03 vs. 3.82, P = 0.022), as were physical (11.61 vs. 6.54, P = 0.001) and role functioning domains (1.87 vs. 0.82, P = 0.029). Items for crying, pain, and eating were higher (P parent reports of dental visit in the last year (P = 0.05) and worse oral health than a year ago (P = 0.002), controlling for reading language (not significant) and visit in last year in the final multivariate linear regression. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Leung, Cindy W; Williams, David R; Villamor, Eduardo
A high prevalence of food insecurity has persisted in the USA for the past two decades. Previous studies suggest that the association between food insecurity and obesity may vary by gender and race/ethnicity. We examined whether food insecurity was associated with BMI and obesity within gender and racial/ethnic groups in a large, diverse sample of low-income adults. A cross-sectional analysis of a large population-based health survey. We compared the distribution of BMI and obesity by food security levels within gender and racial/ethnic categories. Data were derived from the 2003-2009 waves of the California Health Interview Survey. The study sample included 35 747 non-elderly adults with households ≤200 % of the federal poverty level. Among Hispanic men, very low food security was associated with a 1.0 kg/m2 higher BMI (95 % CI 0.3, 1.7 kg/m2) and a 36 % higher prevalence of obesity (95 % CI 17, 58 %) after multivariate adjustment. Among Hispanic women, very low food security was associated with a 1.1 kg/m2 higher BMI (95 % CI 0.4, 1.9 kg/m2) and a 22 % higher prevalence of obesity (95 % CI 8, 38 %). Positive associations were also observed for Asian women and multi-racial men. No significant associations were observed for non-Hispanic whites, African Americans, Asian men or multi-racial women. Our results suggest that the association of food insecurity and obesity is limited to individuals of certain low-income, minority racial/ethnic groups. Whether targeted interventions to address food insecurity in these individuals may also decrease obesity risk deserves further investigation.
Duren, R. M.; Thorpe, A. K.; Hopkins, F. M.; Rafiq, T.; Bue, B. D.; Prasad, K.; Mccubbin, I.; Miller, C. E.
The California Baseline Methane Survey is the first systematic, statewide assessment of methane point source emissions. The objectives are to reduce uncertainty in the state's methane budget and to identify emission mitigation priorities for state and local agencies, utilities and facility owners. The project combines remote sensing of large areas with airborne imaging spectroscopy and spatially resolved bottom-up data sets to detect, quantify and attribute emissions from diverse sectors including agriculture, waste management, oil and gas production and the natural gas supply chain. Phase 1 of the project surveyed nearly 180,000 individual facilities and infrastructure components across California in 2016 - achieving completeness rates ranging from 20% to 100% per emission sector at < 5 meters spatial resolution. Additionally, intensive studies of key areas and sectors were performed to assess source persistence and variability at times scales ranging from minutes to months. Phase 2 of the project continues with additional data collection in Spring and Fall 2017. We describe the survey design and measurement, modeling and analysis methods. We present initial findings regarding the spatial, temporal and sectoral distribution of methane point source emissions in California and their estimated contribution to the state's total methane budget. We provide case-studies and lessons learned about key sectors including examples where super-emitters were identified and mitigated. We summarize challenges and recommendations for future methane research, inventories and mitigation guidance within and beyond California.
A baseline hydrogeologic study was conducted in the area of Syncrude's proposed Aurora Mine in order to develop a conceptual regional hydrogeologic model for the area that could be used to understand groundwater flow conditions. Geologic information was obtained from over 2,000 coreholes and from data obtained between 1980 and 1996 regarding water level for the basal aquifer. A 3-D numerical groundwater flow model was developed to provide quantitative estimates of the potential environmental impacts of the proposed mining operations on the groundwater flow system. The information was presented in the context of a regional study area which encompassed much of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, and a local study area which was defined by the lowlands of the Muskeg River Basin. Characteristics of the topography, hydrology, climate, geology, and hydrogeology of the region are described. The conclusion is that groundwater flow in the aquifer occurs mostly in a westerly direction beneath the Aurora Mine towards its inferred discharge location along the Athabasca River. Baseflow in the Muskeg River is mostly related to discharge from shallow surficial aquifers. Water in the river under baseflow conditions was fresh, of calcium-carbonate type, with very little indication of mineralization associated with deeper groundwater in the Aurora Mine area. 44 refs., 5 tabs., 31 figs
Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor
Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.
Mitchell, Felicia M.
American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) experience some of the greatest health inequities of any group within the United States. AI/ANs are diagnosed with diabetes more than twice as often as non-Hispanic white Americans. Diabetes is a chronic preventable disease often associated with individual risk factors and behaviors that indicate what…
Tijerina, Mary S.
Mexican Americans have as much as a six-times greater risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) than non-Hispanic white Americans, and women show a faster rate of decline in diabetic renal functioning. The leading treatment for ESRD is hemodialysis, an intensive, complex treatment regimen associated with high levels of patient nonadherence. Previous…
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the US, Hispanic women have a higher incidence of, and mortality from, cervical cancer than non-Hispanic white women. The reason for this disparity may be attributable to both low rates of screening and poor adherence to recommended diagnostic follow-up after an abnormal Pap test. The 'Cervical Cancer Screening and Adherence to Follow-up Among Hispanic Women' study is a collaboration between a research institution and community partners made up of members from community based organizations, the Yakima Valley Farm Workers Clinic and the Breast, Cervical, and Colon Health Program of the Yakima District . The study will assess the efficacy of two culturally-appropriate, tailored educational programs designed to increase cervical cancer screening among Hispanic women, based in the Yakima Valley, Washington, US. Methods/design A parallel randomized-controlled trial of 600 Hispanic women aged 21–64, who are non-compliant with Papanicolau (Pap test screening guidelines. Participants will be randomized using block randomization to (1 a control arm (usual care; (2 a low-intensity information program, consisting of a Spanish-language video that educates women on the importance of cervical cancer screening; or (3 a high-intensity program consisting of the video plus a ‘promotora’ or lay-community health educator-led, home based intervention to encourage cervical cancer screening. Participants who attend cervical cancer screening, and receive a diagnosis of an abnormal Pap test will be assigned to a patient navigator who will provide support and information to promote adherence to follow-up tests, and any necessary surgery or treatment. Primary endpoint: Participants will be tracked via medical record review at community-based clinics, to identify women who have had a Pap test within 7 months of baseline assessment. Medical record reviewers will be blinded to randomization arm. Secondary endpoint: An evaluation of the patient
Linares, Ana Maria; Rayens, Mary K; Dozier, Ann; Wiggins, Amanda; Dignan, Mark B
Although Hispanic mothers in the United States have slightly higher rates of breastfeeding initiation than the national average, they are more likely to supplement with formula. To describe infant feeding decisions in a sample of 72 urban Hispanic mothers and assess whether demographic and personal factors influence exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) status at 4 months postpartum. The study was longitudinal and included assessments during pregnancy, in the hospital following childbirth, and monthly up to 4 months following birth. Nearly all of the 72 mothers were breastfeeding at discharge after the birth of their infant (94%); half of these were EBF. By 2 months postpartum, the rate of EBF had declined to 26%, dropping to 22% by 4 months. Significant predictors of EBF status at 4 months included the baseline indicator for mother's partner as the most important person in life (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 5.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-28.66) and breastfeeding self-efficacy score at 1 month (AOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07-1.34). These findings have particular relevance in this population, given the high rate of breastfeeding initiation coupled with breastfeeding self-efficacy being a modifiable factor. Support during pregnancy and postpartum, including consultation with a lactation consultant, may increase the self-efficacy of EBF in this low-income population, leading to higher rates of extended EBF among Hispanics. © The Author(s) 2015.
Ko, Linda K; Rillamas-Sun, Eileen; Bishop, Sonia; Cisneros, Oralia; Holte, Sarah; Thompson, Beti
Hispanic children are disproportionally overweight and obese compared to their non-Hispanic white counterparts in the US. Community-wide, multi-level interventions have been successful to promote healthier nutrition, increased physical activity (PA), and weight loss. Using community-based participatory approach (CBPR) that engages community members in rural Hispanic communities is a promising way to promote behavior change, and ultimately weight loss among Hispanic children. Led by a community-academic partnership, the Together We STRIDE (Strategizing Together Relevant Interventions for Diet and Exercise) aims to test the effectiveness of a community-wide, multi-level intervention to promote healthier diets, increased PA, and weight loss among Hispanic children. The Together We STRIDE is a parallel quasi-experimental trial with a goal of recruiting 900 children aged 8-12 years nested within two communities (one intervention and one comparison). Children will be recruited from their respective elementary schools. Components of the 2-year multi-level intervention include comic books (individual-level), multi-generational nutrition and PA classes (family-level), teacher-led PA breaks and media literacy education (school-level), family nights, a farmer's market and a community PA event (known as ciclovia) at the community-level. Children from the comparison community will receive two newsletters. Height and weight measures will be collected from children in both communities at three time points (baseline, 6-months, and 18-months). The Together We STRIDE study aims to promote healthier diet and increased PA to produce healthy weight among Hispanic children. The use of CBPR approach and the engagement of the community will springboard strategies for intervention' sustainability. Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT02982759 Retrospectively registered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; Porro, Gian; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor
This deck was presented for the 2016 Annual Technology Baseline Webinar. The presentation describes the Annual Technology Baseline, which is a compilation of current and future cost and performance data for electricity generation technologies.