WorldWideScience

Sample records for hiroshima

  1. Neutron RBEs at Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The recent reassessment (DS86) of radiation doses at Hiroshima and Nagasaki will have a profound influence on radiation protection standards. One important aspect is the almost order of magnitude reduction in estimated neutron doses at Hiroshima: in the previous dosimetry, the generally increased (per dose) hazard at Hiroshima compared to Nagasaki was interpreted as being due to neutrons having a greater per dose effectiveness, and, on this basis, RBEs were estimated. For example, the RBE for all cancers except leukemia could be estimated to be between about 15 and 50 (80% confidence level). However, the corresponding estimate with the new dosimetry is between 0 and 90 (50% confidence level). Thus it appears, prima facie, that no useful RBE data can be derived from the epidemiological data at Hiroshima. An attempt is made in this study to generate RBEs at Hiroshima based on radiobiological considerations, but making as few assumptions as possible

  2. Chernobyl or Hiroshima. Tschernobyl oder Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deserno, H [Sigmund-Freud-Institut, Frankfurt am Main (Germany, F.R.)

    1987-07-01

    The so called peaceful use of atomic power is an ideology specifically apt for appeasement in an illusionary way: although everyone could know about the desastrous effects of radioactivity since Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the civil use of atomic power serves to demonstrate, that the incompatibility of radionuclides with health and life could be controlled and mastered. In this context the civil use of atomic power appears as an instrument of social control. (orig.).

  3. The Hiroshima Experience: Two Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enloe, Walter; Cogan, John

    1985-01-01

    The bombing of Hiroshima changed forever the concept of conflict and warfare in the human family. Two Americans, one having grown up in Hiroshima and the other having spent one year in the city as a Fullbright research scholar, reflect on the Hiroshima experience. (RM)

  4. The message of Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, S.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the research conducted during the Second World War by Japanese scientists and their in-situ experiences on the Hiroshima atomic bomb effects a week after the explosion is given. Details are presented on the activity data of samples from the site, on the results of half-life measurements and of chemical analyses. From these data the site of explosion and the neutron flux on the surface were computed. The damages caused by the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs were compared. Further, an account on the powder from the Bikini H-bomb explosion is given. Finally, the author protests against the military uses of nuclear energy. (R.P.)

  5. From Hiroshima to Harrisburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, J.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, as follows: (Part I): Hiroshima and the advent of the atomic bomb: the Manhattan Engineer District Project; the milieu of war; scientific opposition to the use of the atomic bomb; Trinity; Hiroshima; Nagasaki and surrender; Hibakusha; from trust to terror; the nuclear arms spiral; fallout; the rationale for nuclear weapons; nuclear proliferation; thinking the unthinkable; the age of overkill; (Part II):the road to Harrisburg: radiation; meltdown effects and probabilities; nuclear accidents; Harrisburg; the effects of low-level ionizing radiation; the nuclear fuel cycle (mining; milling; uranium conversion; uranium enrichment; fuel fabrication; nuclear reactors; reprocessing; transportation; waste management; summary); (Part III): Karen Silkwood - a life in death: (Part IV): our challenge - overcoming psychic numbing: (Part V): an alternative vision: the soft energy path; the way of nonviolence. (U.K.)

  6. Sulfur activation in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Pace, J.V. III.

    1987-01-01

    In 1979, we attempted to establish the validity of source terms for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs using experimental data on sulfur activation. Close agreement was observed between measured and calculated values for test firings of Nagasaki-type bombs. The calculated values were based on source terms developed by W.E. Preeg at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A discrepancy was found, however, when we compared calculated values for the two bombs because a 1956 report by R.R. Wilson stated that sulfur acitvation by fast neutrons in Hiroshima was approximately three times greater than in Nagasaki. Our calculations based on Preeg's source-term data predicted about equal sulfur activation in the two cities

  7. Chernobyl or Hiroshima?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deserno, H.

    1987-01-01

    The so called peaceful use of atomic power is an ideology specifically apt for appeasement in an illusionary way: although everyone could know about the desastrous effects of radioactivity since Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the civil use of atomic power serves to demonstrate, that the incompatibility of radionuclides with health and life could be controlled and mastered. In this context the civil use of atomic power appears as an instrument of social control. (orig.) [de

  8. The shadow of Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, Sharon.

    1990-01-01

    In light of the findings from a test carried out on 72216 children born from parents who felt the bomb radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, it appears that humans are less sensitive to genetic effects of radiation that previously thought. The new assessment of radiation's effect has not found an increase in birth defects, in chromosomal abnormalities in white blood cells or in cancer in the victim's children. However, it is assumed that as they enter their 50s, they may suffer the long-delayed consequences of the bomb. ills

  9. Hiroshima and ourselves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifton, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The author discusses his feelings and responses which he experienced from interviewing Hiroshima survivors. As survivors attempted to recall their feelings at the time of the bomb, they conveyed a sense of having been immersed in a sea of death. They remembered not only the expectation of their own death but also the sense that the whole world was dying. What impressed the author most was the survivor's lifelong encounter with death, which could be understood as taking place in four stages: the immersion in death at the time of the bomb; the experience of acute radiation effects (including extreme weakness, severe gastrointestinal symptoms, bleeding into the skin and from bodily orifices, high fever, low white blood cell counts, alopecia, and death); delayed radiation effects (increased incidence of leukemia and of many forms of cancer); and an eventual sense of permanent death taint associated with the identity of hibakusha, or explosion-affected person

  10. Deterrence before Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quester, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    The gap between studies of military history and military strategy is ever widening. The enormous destructive power of nuclear weapons has tended to persuade us that the military experience of the first half of this century is not relevant to more ''modern'' military questions. In Deterrence before Hiroshima, first published in 1966, George H. Quester analyzes pre-nuclear age theories of deterrence to equip us with a perspective and data by which current theories can be evaluated. Quester shows that from almost the time of the first military aircraft, air-power was believed to have the capacity for apocalyptic destruction. He points out that the modern terms deterrence, limited war, tacit agreement, and balance of terror, show up often in the literature from 1900-1945, coupled with war scenarios every bit as awesome as a nuclear holocaust.

  11. Teaching Hiroshima: Thinking about the Unthinkable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Reg

    1983-01-01

    Describes the instructional materials used in a sophomore literature course to deal with the topic of possible nuclear destruction, including John Hersey's "Hiroshima"; photographs of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; Carl Sagan's "Cosmos"; and specially prepared handouts and worksheets. (LAL)

  12. Environmental radiation in Higashi-Hiroshima Campus, Hiroshima University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, K.; Matsuhima, A.; Nakashima, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Shizuma, K.; Saito, T.; Iwatani, K.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental radiation of the water sample from the junction point to public sewerage system and from Kadowaki Chosetsu Pond in Higashi-Hiroshima Campus, Hiroshima University was measured. Time dependence of the total radiation from β-emitter in 40 K equivalent was checked from 1995 to 2005. Seasonal dependence of the environmental radiation for the junction point to public sewerage system was observed. There was no relation between this seasonal dependence and the data of discharge of the effluent from Radioisotope Center, suggesting that there was no radiation originated from the RI facilities. The seasonal dependence was closely related to the weight of residue of the water sample. The present results show an interesting seasonal dependence of the weight of residue of the water sample from the junction point to public sewerage system. (author)

  13. Japan - From Hiroshima to Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Philippe; Guillain, Robert; Pedroletti, Brice; Bouc, Alain; Vichney, Nicolas; Izraelewicz, Erik; Mesmer, Philippe; Fenoglio, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    This publication proposes a set of articles published by Le Monde and which addressed some important events of the history of the Japanese society since the destruction of Hiroshima by the first atomic bomb until the Fukushima accident. The addressed facts and events are: the destruction of Hiroshima, the surrender of Japan, the end of the peculiar status of the emperor, the strong growth period from the 1950's to the 1980's (the revival of Japanese trusts, industrial pollution in Minamata, the activists of Zengakuren, the Osaka exhibition, Mishima's suicide, nuclear and data processing are defined as national priorities), the lost decades 1990-2010 (a new emperor, the Kobe earthquake, the increasing gap between the society and the political class, life and death in Toyota, demographic decline, etc.). The last articles address the Fukushima accident, and propose some photos and an interview with the Japanese Prime Minister

  14. Hiroshima - the effects of the atom bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, M.

    1977-01-01

    The author, a nurse, describes her personal impressions of a visit to Hiroshima in 1977 and of the medical and nursing facilities available for atomic bomb survivors in Japan. The findings of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation are briefly summarized. Hiroshima's Red Cross Hospital, recently re-built, cares for some of the survivors. The problems of discrimination against the survivors in employment and in society are discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwell, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the events following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 and extrapolates from these experiences to further understand the possible consequences of detonations on a local area from weapons in the current world nuclear arsenal. The first section deals with a report of the events that occurred in Hiroshima and Nagasaki just after the 1945 bombings with respect to the physical conditions of the affected areas, the immediate effects on humans, the psychological response of the victims, and the nature of outside assistance. Because there can be no experimental data to validate the effects on cities and their populations of detonations from current weapons, the data from the actual explosions on Hiroshima and Nagasaki provide a point of departure. The second section examines possible extrapolations from and comparisons with the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences. The limitations of drawing upon the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences are discussed. A comparison is made of the scale of effects from other major disasters for urban systems, such as damages from the conventional bombings of cities during World War II, the consequences of major earthquakes, the historical effects of the Black Plague and widespread famines, and other extreme natural events. The potential effects of detonating a modern 1 MT warhead on the city of Hiroshima as it exists today are simulated. This is extended to the local effects on a targeted city from a global nuclear war, and attention is directed to problems of estimating the societal effects from such a war

  16. Current status of Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Masaki

    2000-01-01

    The Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center is a common facility for both research and education in the field of synchrotron radiation science. The role of the center is to promote original research, training of young scientists, international exchange and cooperative research with neighbouring universities, public organizations and industries. (author)

  17. Blood bactericidal activity in Hiroshima subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Hamilton, H B

    1961-03-07

    A simple screening method for blood bactericidal activity was developed for study of irradiated atomic bomb survivors and nonirradiated subjects in Hiroshima. Blood bactericidal activity was found to be a relatively constant biological phenomenon in all subjects studied. No differences in activity were detected in relationship to radiation exposure in 1945. 17 references, 6 tables.

  18. From Hiroshima to Harrisburg. The unholy alliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, J

    1980-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, as follows: (Part I): Hiroshima and the advent of the atomic bomb: the Manhattan Engineer District Project; the milieu of war; scientific opposition to the use of the atomic bomb; Trinity; Hiroshima; Nagasaki and surrender; Hibakusha; from trust to terror; the nuclear arms spiral; fallout; the rationale for nuclear weapons; nuclear proliferation; thinking the unthinkable; the age of overkill; (Part II):the road to Harrisburg: radiation; meltdown effects and probabilities; nuclear accidents; Harrisburg; the effects of low-level ionizing radiation; the nuclear fuel cycle (mining; milling; uranium conversion; uranium enrichment; fuel fabrication; nuclear reactors; reprocessing; transportation; waste management; summary); (Part III): Karen Silkwood - a life in death: (Part IV): our challenge - overcoming psychic numbing: (Part V): an alternative vision: the soft energy path; the way of nonviolence.

  19. 36Cl measurements of Hiroshima concrete samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhiro, T.; Nagashima, Y.; Seki, R.; Takahashi, T.

    2002-01-01

    The 36 Cl AMS studies are reported. A new steps of procedure of a sample preparation is developed and a tremendous reduction of sulphur background has been achieved. The 36 Cl contents of two atomic bombed concrete samples, old Hiroshima Bank one and Gokoku Shrine one, have been measured as a function of 36 Cl to Cl ratio by the Tsukuba AMS system. The 36 Cl to Cl ratio of the old Hiroshima Bank sample shows very nice agreement with the result of γ measurement of 152 Eu. Otherwise, the ratio is about 20% smaller than an estimation by the DS86 dosimetry system. A result of the Gokoku Shrine sample is also smaller than a depth profile estimation by the same DS86. It might be clear that the DS86 has a tendency of overestimation. It seems that a calculation method and/or the parameters used in the calculation are requested to be improved. (author)

  20. Doses from Hiroshima mass radiologic gastric surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoku, S; Sawada, S; Russell, W J [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1980-05-01

    Doses to examinees from mass radiologic surveys of the stomach in Hiroshima Perfecture were estimated by surveying for the frequency of the examinations, and for the technical factors used in them, and by phantom dosimetry. The average surface, active bone marrow and male and female gonad doses per examination were 5.73 rad, 231 mrad, and 20.6 and 140 mrad, respectively. These data will be used in estimating doses from medical X-rays among atomic bomb survivors. By applying them to the Hiroshima population, the genetically significant, per caput mean marrow, and leukemia significant doses were 0.14,8.6 and 7.4 mrad, respectively. There was a benefit-to risk ratio of about 50 for mass gastric surveys performed in 1976. However, the calculated risk was greater than the benefit for examinees under 29 years of age because of the lower incidence of gastric cancer in those under 29 years.

  1. Residual radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, E T

    1962-02-01

    These results show that the fission product fallout and neutron-induced radioactive isotopes can be separated very conveniently by locations in the city, i.e., the fallout occurred in the Koi-Takasu area of Hiroshima and the Nishiyama area of Nagasaki with negligible fallout in the hypocenter area. The activity in the hypocenter areas of both cities can be accounted for as due principally to neutron induced radioactive isotopes. The maximum exposure from fallout in Hiroshima is considered to have been a few r and in Nagasaki approximately 30 r. From one hour to infinite time after the detonations, the maximum possible neutron induced radiation exposure dose at the hypocenter in Hiroshima is estimated to be in the range from 183 r to 24 r, depending upon the method of calculation. Method III, which yileds 24 r appears to be subject to the least number of uncertainties and thus is the most reliable figure. The excellent agreement between these calculations and the measured activities also further supports the soundness of Method III. This method gives 4 r as the infinity dose at the hypocenter in Nagasaki. These values are considered to be of such loss magnitude as to be of negligible consequence. It should also be emphasized that even for the calculation which yields a maximum dose of 183 r, the probability of an individual being exposed to this dose is very small. These facts suggest that after the detonations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki radiation levels were such that very few individuals, if any, received significant amounts of residual radiation from external sources. 17 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Speech by the director of the Peace Memorial Museum, Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, H.

    1997-01-01

    The Peace Memorial Museum in Hiroshima, established in 1955, shows not only the scenes of the city after the explosion but its main task is to send the messages of peace to the world, from the citizens of Hiroshima who are appealing for abolition of nuclear weapons for 50 years

  3. Los Alamos, Hiroshima, Nagasaki - a personal recollection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, P.

    1995-01-01

    The author, a physicist participating in the Manhattan Project, recalls his experiences and work in the laboratories at the time which marked the onset of the nuclear era, the construction of the first uranium and plutonium bombs in Los Alamos, and the hidious effects shown to the world by the nuclear bombing of Japan. His thoughts and memories presented 50 years after the nuclear destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and now that the Cold War has ended, call for a global ban of nuclear weapons. (orig.) [de

  4. An explanation of the Hiroshima activation dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoades, W.A.; Barnes, J.M.; Santoro, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    A 1987 study of the radiation from the World War II nuclear weapons applied state-of-the-art data and computer techniques, providing an important advance in reliability of the results. Still, a disturbing disagreement remained between slow-neutron activation measurements and calculations for the Hiroshima event. Newer data have confirmed the validity of the discrepancy. This work examines various potential explanations. Of those examined, only an enhancement to the weapon neutron leakage spectrum in the vicinity of the 2.3 MeV oxygen cross section window can fit the data accurately

  5. Commemoration of the bombing of Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Shoji

    1999-01-01

    On the occasion of 52 anniversary of bombing Hiroshima this speech is given by one if the survivors, stating that it is obvious that using nuclear weapons is the cruelest and most inexcusable crime in human history. It never should be used against anyone, for any purpose, anywhere. In the Statement of the Pugwash Council, in 1995, the theory of nuclear deterrence was clearly rejected. This certainly played a significant role in the award of 1995 Nobel Prize to Pugwash Conferences. The close of 20th century provides the best occasion to affirm the international political will to prohibit nuclear weapons

  6. The Hiroshima neutron dosimetry enigma: Missing puzzle piece No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, Raymond

    1999-01-01

    More than a decade has elapsed since the serious nature of the discrepancy between neutron dosimetry experiments (E) and neutron transport calculations (C) for the Hiroshima site was identified. Since that time extensive efforts to resolve this Hiroshima neutron dosimetry enigma have not only failed, but now demonstrate that the magnitude of this discrepancy is much greater than initially estimated. The currently evaluated E/C ratio for thermal neutron fluence at the Hiroshima site increases rapidly with increasing slant range from the epicenter. In the slant range region beyond 1000 m, E/C exceeds unity by one to two orders of magnitude depending on the specific dosimetry data that are utilized. Principal features that characterize the Hiroshima neutron dosimetry enigma are summarized. Puzzle Piece No. 6: In-situ production and Prompt fallout of radionuclides from Little Boy is advanced as a possible contributory phenomenon to this enigma. (The atom bomb detonated over Hiroshima was called Little Boy.) Measurements of 60 Co and 152 Eu specific activity at the Hiroshima site are used to obtain order of magnitude numerical estimates that show this conjecture is plausible. Comparison of different 60 Co measurements at the Hiroshima site reveals that the variation of E/C with slant range depends on the method used to quantify 60 Co specific activity as well as the type of dosimetry samples that are employed. These 60 Co comparisons lend additional qualitative credence to this conjecture. Within the limits of presently available data, these assessments show that Puzzle Piece No. 6 qualitatively satisfies the principal features that characterize the Hiroshima neutron dosimetry enigma. Nevertheless, current lack of data prevent this conjecture from being conclusively confirmed or refuted. Consequently, specific recommendations are advanced to resolve the Hiroshima neutron dosimetry enigma with emphasis on experimental tests that can quantitatively evaluate Puzzle Piece

  7. Hiroshima to Fukushima biohazards of radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, Eiichiro

    2014-01-01

    Set against a backdrop of the recent disaster at the Fukushima nuclear power plant, "Hiroshima to Fukushima" examines the issue of radiation safety. The author provides important and accurate scientific information about the radioactive substances arising from nuclear power plants and weapons, including the effects of this radiation on living organisms. Currently, humankind is at a crossroads and must decide whether to phase out or increase its reliance on nuclear power as weapons and an energy source. Although a few countries, mostly European, have vowed to abolish nuclear power as an energy source, many other countries are about to increase their nuclear power programs. This book is written from a Japanese perspective and thus provides an alternative to views of Western writers. The author includes rigorous scientific analyses, however maintains a broad scope which allows the book to be accessible to decision-makers and non-specialists.

  8. Fifty years after Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The initial radiation was composed primarily of gamma rays and neutrons. Several estimates have in the past been advanced for the initial dose of radiation. The tentative T65D dose estimates (established in 1965) were revised in July 1987 by the US-Japan Committee for Reassessment of Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the new DS86 dosimetry system was adopted. However, there may still be various uncertainties involved. The uncertainties under emergency conditions, in particular, the uncertainties in estimating dose-effect, relationships in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been repeatedly discussed by professor Nishiwaki since the first meeting on the medical and pathological effects of atomic bombings held at the Department of Pathology of the late Professor Ryojun Kinoshita, the then Professor of pathology, Faculty of Medicine of Osaka University in 1945. The survivors and those who visited Hiroshima immediately after the atomic bombing could have been subjected in a number of other possible noxious effects in addition to atomic radiation. Hospitals, laboratories, drugstores, chemists, pharmaceutical works, storehouses of chemicals, factories, etc. that were situated close to the hypocenter were all completely destroyed and various mutagenic, carcinogenic or teratogenic substances must have been released. There was no medical care and no food in the region of high dose exposure and the drinking water was contaminated. There would have been various possibilities of infection. Mental stress would also have been much higher in the survivors closer to the hypocenter. It is confusing which factor played a dominant role. In addition, there would be problems in accurately recording the position of the exposed persons at the time of the atomic bombing and also in estimating the shielding factors. There may be considerable uncertainty in human memory under such conditions. It is also possible that there could have been a large storage of gasoline to

  9. Clinical survey to detect diabetes mellitus, Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnick, P A; Anderson, Jr, P S

    1961-07-19

    Data from this study are in agreement with the general observations that diabetes is not uncommon in Japan. In an adult study population in Hiroshima 108 patients with diabetes were detected, yielding the prevalence rate of 3.02 percent. Nearly one-half of the patients were diagnosed initially as a result of the routine detection program. Although in females a trend with exposure is suggested by the raw data no statistically significant differences could be demonstrated. However, the size of the sample involved does not permit confident negative conclusions. Additional clinical and laboratory observations were completed in order to characterize the manifestation of diabetes in these subjects. Late manifestations of diabetes frequently were found, but atherosclerotic complications were nonexistent. This is considered to be related to the low fat, high carbohydrate diet of the Japanese. The lack of ketosis, apparently low prevalence rate for juveniles, and male preponderance suggest that diabetes in Japan differs from the disease found in many Western countries. 69 references, 1 figure, 9 tables.

  10. Hiroshima to Fukushima. Biohazards of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochiai, Eiichiro

    2014-04-01

    Examines the issue of nuclear energy and nuclear weapons for a wide audience. Written from a Japanese perspective. Discusses one of the most important policy issues of the 21st Century. Set against a backdrop of the recent disaster at the Fukushima nuclear power plant, ''Hiroshima to Fukushima'' examines the issue of radiation safety. The author provides important and accurate scientific information about the radioactive substances arising from nuclear power plants and weapons, including the effects of this radiation on living organisms. Currently, humankind is at a crossroads and must decide whether to phase out or increase its reliance on nuclear power as weapons and an energy source. Although a few countries, mostly European, have vowed to abolish nuclear power as an energy source, many other countries are about to increase their nuclear power programs. This book is written from a Japanese perspective and thus provides an alternative to views of Western writers. The author includes rigorous scientific analyses, however maintains a broad scope which allows the book to be accessible to decision-makers and non-specialists.

  11. Hiroshima Diary - August 6-September 30, 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachiya, Michihiko; Duran, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Michihiko Hachiya was director of the Hiroshima Communications Hospital when the world's first atomic bomb was dropped on the city. Though his responsibilities in the appalling chaos of a devastated city were awesome, he found time to record the story daily, with compassion and tenderness. Hachiya's diary covers the period from Aug. 6, 1945 to Sept. 30, 1945. He described the effects of the atomic bomb blast from its first flash in the early morning as he rested from his night shift as an air warden at the hospital. The force of the blast stripped all the clothes from his body but he and his wife survived, however they both received serious burns to their bodies and had to journey to the hospital Michihiko worked at. He spent the night in the care of the hospital staff who were not seriously injured and started making his daily rounds that he would have normally made as a doctor. As time passes an understanding of what hit their city clears up, and historical events such as the surrender of Japan are brought up. The condition of the hospital also drastically improves as more medical supplies are brought into the city, allowing them to better treat patients

  12. Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, L R; Blackard, W G; Sagan, L A; Ishida, Morihiro; Hamilton, H B

    1965-06-10

    Data have been presented on the finding of glycosuria and the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus during four years of a long-term study of the health of population samples of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Diabetes and glycosuria are much more common in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki and in both cities these findings are more frequent in males than in females. The prevalence of diabetes appears to be increasing in Hiroshima males. Findings in diabetics were compared with nondiabetics. In general, Japanese diabetics are similar to diabetics in other countries concerning their increased risk of obesity, hypertension, proteinuria, hypercholesterolemia, and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diagnoses. This is of particular interest in the light of evidence that ketosis and severe abnormalities of carbohydrate metabolism are rare in Japan as compared to Western countries. Despite a lower prevalance of diabetes in Japanese females than in males, the abnormalities associated with diabetes appear to occur more commonly in female diabetics than in male diabetics.

  13. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections in Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, L R; Phair, J P; Seki, Masafumi; Hamilton, H B; Nefzger, M D

    1964-08-19

    The present study was conducted at ABCC on a sample of Hiroshima residents systematically seleced for determining the influence on general health status of exposure to the atomic bomb of 1945. A survey for urinary infections was taken on persons in the sample examined in the ABCC clinic over a 1-year period: approximately 3000 women and 2000 men. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of urinary infection and to study the relation between bacteriuria and various aspects of the general examination, particularly blood pressure. In addition, the rates of urinary tract infection in the clinic were compared with the rates of chronic pyelonephritis at autopsy. Results showed that infections were much more common in women than in men and rose with age in both sexes. The greatest increase in the prevalence was found in women age 60 years and over was due to coliform bacteria in all but a few instances. There was no difference in hematuria, glycosuria, diabetes, serum cholesterol, blood groups, electrocardiograms, audiometry, vibrometry, hemoglobin levels or height-weight ratios. Blood pressure is higher in infected women as compared with noninfected women and the finding of higher rates for cardiac enlargement suggests that this small difference in blood pressures may have biological significance. However, the data do not permit a conclusion as to whether the urinary infections were responsible for the higher blood pressure levels, or whether the higher blood pressure levels increased the frequency of detectable infection. The difference between the clinical rates of urinary infection in men and women, and the pathological diagnosis of pyelonephritis in the same population, supports a previous suggestion that much of what is called pyelonephritis at autopsy is not due to urinary tract infection. 27 references, 2 figures, 10 tables.

  14. Leukemia in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyssel, R; Brill, A B; Woodbury, L A; Nishimura, Edwin T; Ghose, Tarunendu; Hoshino, Takashi; Yamasaki, Mitsuru

    1959-03-01

    This report is intended to provide the basic data pertinent to the leukemia experience observed in the survivors of the Hiroshima atomic explosion. Many of the conclusions in this report are tentative. The one clear fact to emerge is that radiation increases the occurrence rate of leukemia and that the magnitude of increase is dependent on dose received. Additional observations can be made, which, while not definitive in themselves, seem to complement each other, and are corroborated by other experiences in radiation biology. From the data a linear relationship between dose and incidence of leukemia is found. The shape of the relation in the lower dose range is not known with certainty. An approximate minimum time for the appearance of leukemia following radiation is 3 years or less. The data suggest that the time of maximum risk of leukemia may be dependent on the dose of radiation received. In this group the mean latent period is found to lie in the interval between 4 and 8 years following exposure. The length of time during which the increased incidence of leukemia persists is not known. The incidence of the acute leukemias and of chronic granulocytic leukemia is increased in the exposed survivors. The chronic granulocytic variety is disproportionately increased in Japanese survivors of the atomic bomb. No effect of radiation on monocytic or chronic lymphatic leukemia incidence is noted. Aplastic anemia, polycythemia vera, and myelofibrosis have been investigated. Myelofibrosis is the only one of this group of diseases in which a suggestive relation to radiation exposure is apparent. The natural history of leukemia following radiation does not seem to differ from that of the spontaneously occurring variety. 17 references, 5 figures, 38 tables.

  15. Some aspects of readaptation of atomic survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of some aspects of psycho social readaptation of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima is presented. Reports from 31 survivors, 8 men and 23 women, were used as data for the analysis. The reports were collected individually through a structured interview, in one of the two hospitals in Hiroshima which deliver services to the survivors. The data were grouped according to the following areas: family, work, health and psychological readaptation. These data were analysed considering the psycho social aspects of disasters and the characteristics of the japanese culture. (M.A.C.)

  16. Under the Mushroom-Shaped Cloud in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1981-01-01

    In 1945 Shuntaro Hida was a young doctor. In a village at the periphery of Hiroshima he survived and he immediately began caring for victims. He has (recently?) written an eye-witness account, of which in a Western language apparently only a manuscript exists. I have extracted a few passages from the document of 41 pages. A few spelling and typing errors were corrected. - Be it added that many of the atomic weapons now in the arsenals of the powers are more than a thousand times stronger than the bomb of Hiroshima. Some 60.000 atomic weapons are thought to exist. (author)

  17. Hiroshima and Nagasaki: New doses, risks, and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.; Shimizu, Y.; Kato, H.

    1990-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the recent re-evaluations of the dose and risk of cancer among survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It addresses briefly their limitations, and describes some of their implications for the lifetime projection of the risk of a fatal cancer following exposure to ionizing radiation

  18. Statistical aspects of tumor registries, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, M

    1961-02-24

    Statistical considerations are presented on the tumor registries established for purpose of studying radiation induced carcinoma in Hiroshima and Nagasaki by observing tumors developing in the survivors of these cities. In addition to describing the background and purpose of the tumor registries the report consists of two parts: (1) accuracy of reported tumor cases and (2) statistical aspects of the incidence of tumors based both on a current population and on a fixed sample. Under the heading background, discussion includes the difficulties in attaining complete registration; the various problems associated with the tumor registries; and the special characteristics of tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Beye's a posteriori probability formula was applied to the Type I and Type II errors in the autopsy data of Hiroshima ABCC. (Type I, diagnosis of what is not cancer as cancer; Type II, diagnosis of what is cancer as noncancer.) Finally, the report discussed the difficulties in estimating a current population of survivors; the advantages and disadvantages of analyses based on a fixed sample and on an estimated current population; the comparison of incidence rates based on these populations using the 20 months' data of the tumor registry in Hiroshima; and the sample size required for studying radiation induced carcinoma. 10 references, 1 figure, 8 tables.

  19. Hiroshima: A City with Peace as Its Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Donna

    1998-01-01

    Employs a summary of the story "Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes" by Eleanor Coerr as an introduction to the city of Hiroshima's (Japan) quest for world peace, peace education, and strong opposition to nuclear warfare. Discusses various symbols of peace, such as paper cranes in Japanese culture, and offers five teaching activities.…

  20. Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: a test or tragedy ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faridah Mohd Idris

    2003-01-01

    Hiroshima and Nagasaki were left as monument by the history of the man civilization. This article discussed some of related issues i.e. the scenarios of the tragedy, the history of atomic bomb - starts with the discovery of neutrons to the day the tragedy happened

  1. Radon concentrations in residential housing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, Hidenori; Aoyama, Takashi; Radford, E.P.; Kato, Hiroo; Sakanoue, Masanobu.

    1992-01-01

    A measurement of indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was carried out to examine an effect of the exposure on atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. Two hundred dwellings (100 from each city), chiefly of members of the Life Span Study population which is a fixed cohort studied by Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), were selected for this survey. We used two types of alpha-track detector: a Terradex detector type SF and a bare-track detector improved by Yonehara et al. Comparative measurements showed that although there was an adequate correlation between the values obtained using the two detectors, the geometric mean value for the bare-track detector was 45% of that for the Terradex detector. This difference was considered to be due to differences in the calibration methods and sensitivities of the detectors to thoron ( 220 Rn). The arithmetic mean values of the radon concentrations for 193 locations in Hiroshima and 192 locations in Nagasaki measured by Terradex SF detector were 103 Bq m -3 and 40.6 Bq m -3 , respectively. The values at 100 locations in Hiroshima and at 93 locations in Nagasaki measured by the bare detector were 43.1. Bq m -3 and 13.6 Bq m -3 , respectively. The significant difference between the geometric mean values of the concentration in Hiroshima and Nagasaki measured by both methods was observed. The difference might be attributable to the different geological environments of the two cities. The difference between the estimated dose equivalents for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki over the last 30 years might amount to 0.4 or 0.8 Sv; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in lung cancer mortality in the low-dose range in either city. Nevertheless, the indoor-radon concentrations estimated in this survey could significantly influence the dose-response relationships for A-bomb exposure. (author)

  2. High incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintani, Takahiro; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Hoshi, Masaharu

    1999-01-01

    Since the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, high incidences of leukemia, thyroid cancer and other tumors have been reported as atomic bomb-induced tumors. We investigated the incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. Sixty-eight patients surgically treated for meningioma who had been within 2.0 km of the hypocenter of the explosion were identified. Six hundred and seven non-exposed patients with meningioma were also studied. Treatment dates were from 1975 to 1992. The incidences of meningioma among 68 subjects within 2.0 km and 607 non-exposed patients were 8.7 and 3.0 cases per 10 5 persons per year, respectively. The incidences of meningioma among the survivors of Hiroshima in 5-year intervals since 1975 were 5.3, 7.4, 10.1, and 14.9, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by distances from the hypocenter of 1.5-2.0 km, 1.0-1.5 km and less than 1.0 km were 6.3, 7.6 and 20.0, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by doses to the brain of 0-0.099 Sv, 0.1-0.99 Sv and more than 1.0 Sv were 7.7, 9.2 and 18.2, respectively. The incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors has increased since 1975. There was a significant correlation between the incidence and the dose of radiation to the brain. The present findings strongly suggest that meningioma is one of the tumors induced by atomic bombing in Hiroshima. (author)

  3. Measurement of the residual radiation intensity at the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb sites. Penetration of weapons radiation: application to the Hiroshima and Nagasaki studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, N; Smith, R E; Ritchie, R H; Hurst, G S

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 2 reports. The first is on the measurement of residual radiation intensity at the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bomb sites, the second is on the penetration of weapons radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each report for inclusion in the Energy Database. (DMC)

  4. Sequelae of radiation facial epilation (North American Hiroshima maiden syndrome)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, I.B.; Walfish, P.G.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation for benign problems of the head and neck area has been uniformly recognized as unacceptable practice. This includes epilation for facial hirsutism. Twelve such patients, recently encountered, have characteristic radiodermatitis facies and have demonstrated multisite neoplastic involvement--including skin, thyroid, parathyroid, salivary gland, oral cavity, facial skeleton, and breast--and have also undergone extensive dermatologic treatment of complications of radiodermatitis. There was one cancer death, and three patients are alive with cancer. Such patients have a superficial resemblance to the Hiroshima maiden group of young women who survived atomic bombing and experienced severe facial burns, necessitating extensive plastic surgery. As atomic survivors they are at increased risk for cancer of thyroid, salivary gland, lung, breast, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal tract. The North American Hiroshima maiden should warrant easy clinical recognition and require lifetime scrutiny for multisite neoplastic disease

  5. Literature, cinema and history in "Hiroshima Mon Amour"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nismária Alves David Barros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Hiroshima Mon Amour, realization by Alain Resnais divulged in 1959 and ciné-roman by Marguerite Duras published in 1960. Considering the Jeanne-Marie Clerc's theory (2004, we understand that the literature and the cinema are resources of expression that do not establish competition or subordination relations, but they establish complementary relations, they make mutual exchanges for their renewals. They are not the documents on the atomic tragedy of Hiroshima because they congregate historical facts, literary narrative and cinematographic techniques. This ciné-roman and this film displays a revolutionary position of the artistic form to express a critical vision on the world after war. They create a love history and a history of loss, focusing the individual anguish in the plot. Through  the return to the past, using a poetical language, they discloses the pains of the protagonist and the pains of the humanity. Therefore the receiver reflects on himself.

  6. Activation of cobalt by neutrons from the Hiroshima bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Dyer, F.F.; Emery, J.F.; Pace, J.V. III; Brodzinski, R.L.; Marcum, J.

    1990-02-01

    A study has been completed of cobalt activation in samples from two new locations in Hiroshima. The samples consisted of a piece of steel from a bridge located at a distance of about 1300 m from the hypocenter and pieces of both steel and concrete from a building located at approximately 700 m. The concrete was analyzed to obtain information needed to calculate the cobalt activation in the two steel samples. Close agreement was found between calculated and measured values for cobalt activation of the steel sample from the building at 700 m. It was found, however, that the measured values for the bridge sample at 1300 m were approximately twice the calculated values. Thus, the new results confirm the existence of a systematic error in the transport calculations for neutrons from the Hiroshima bomb. 52 refs., 32 figs., 16 tabs

  7. Hematological findings for children exposed in utero - Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamura, Tsugiso; Ueda, Shoichi

    1960-01-01

    For children irradiated in utero and nonirradiated children of Hiroshima hematologic findings between the years 1950 to 1957 have been compared, and no changes peculiar to the irradiated group were found. Despite several predisposing factors toward the development of iron deficiency in Japanese children, overt anemia was rare and distribution of hemoglobin levels was only slightly lower than reported for American and European children. Leukocyte levels, irrespective of age of the children, were found to be progressively falling in Hiroshima children so that by 1957 the values were distinctly lower than those reported for normal children in Japan and the United States. No cause for this change was apparent. 19 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima City. First report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Tomin; Ishida, Morihiro

    1960-04-01

    The 1957-1958 incidence of neoplasms among the survivors of the Hiroshima A-bomb, varies directly with radiation dose insofar as it may be inferred from distance from the hypocenter at exposure. The incidence of all malignant neoplasms among the survivors who were within 1000 meters is more than 4 times that of the non-exposed population. The incidence of benign neoplasms among the survivors exposed within 1500 meters is also significantly higher than that among the non-exposed. For survivors under 1500 meters significant differences are seen between the numbers of observed cancers of the lung, stomach, uterus and ovary and the expected cases calculated from the age-specific rates of the non-exposed portion of the Hiroshima population. The increased incidence among survivors within 1500 meters is not related to sex or age. 18 references, 2 figures, 14 tables.

  9. Hematological findings for children exposed in utero, Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamura, Tsugiso; Ueda, Shoichi

    1959-01-01

    For children irradiated in utero and nonirradiated children of Hiroshima hematologic findings between the years 1950 to 57 have been compared, and no changes peculiar to the irradiated group were found. Despite several predisposing factors toward the development of iron deficiency in Japanese children, overt anemia was rare and distribution of hemoglobin levels was only slightly lower than reported for American and European children. Leukocyte levels, irrespective of age of the children, were found to be progressively falling in Hiroshima children so that by 1957 the values were distinctly lower than those reported for normal children in Japan and the United States. No cause for this change was apparent. 19 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Radon concentrations in residential housing in hiroshima and nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Takashi; Radford, E.P.; Yonehara, Hidenori; Kato, Hiroo; Sakanoue, Masanobu.

    1993-05-01

    A survey of indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was carried out to assess the range of exposures expected among atomic-bomb survivors. Two hundred dwellings (100 from each city), chiefly of members of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study, were selected for this survey. We used two types of etched-track alpha-particle detectors: a Terradex detector (type SF) and an improved bare-track detector. Comparative measurements showed that although there was an adequate correlation between the values obtained using the two detectors, the geometric mean value for the bare-track detector was 45% lower than that for the Terradex detector. This difference was considered to be due to differences in the calibration methods and in the sensitivities of the detectors to thoron ( 220 Rn). The geometric mean values of the radon concentrations for 193 locations in Hiroshima and 192 locations in Nagasaki measured by Terradex SF detectors were 51.8 Bq/m 3 and 26.5 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The large difference is attributable to the different geological environments of the two cities. Factors correlating with the indoor radon concentrations were also studied. The geometric mean concentration was significantly higher in wooden houses with clay walls than in other types of house. This tendency was especially strong in Hiroshima. The difference between the estimated dose equivalents for exposure to radon decay products in dwellings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the last 30 years might amount to 0.8 Sv; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in lung-cancer mortality in the low-dose range in either city. Nevertheless, the indoor radon concentrations estimated in this survey could have a significant influence on the dose-response relationship for atomic-bomb exposure. (author)

  11. Dental radiography exposure of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoku, Shigetoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Russell, W.J.

    1987-04-01

    Dental radiography doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were estimated using doses measured by a thermoluminescent dosimeter and a phantom, and survey data from dental hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Doses to organs, including the lens, pituitary fossa, thyroid gland, and skin were calculated. Average doses per examination to these body sites were calculated using data obtained during a two-week survey in both cities. The mean caput doses were calculated from the data indicating frequency per year, and were tabulated by organ, age, teeth examined, type of examination, population, sex, and city. No significant difference was observed by age, population, sex, or city. Currently, the doses incurred during dental radiography may not be sufficiently high to cause bias in the assessments for late radiation effects among atomic bomb survivors. However, the mean caput thyroid doses of 62 mrad and 67 mrad in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively, cannot be ignored from the standpoint of their potential in contributing to radiation-induced carcinogenesis. (author)

  12. Cancer risks and neutron RBE's from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, R.L.; Straume, T.

    1982-01-01

    The new radiation dose estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki are here combined with epidemiologic data from the A-bomb survivors and examined radiobiologically for compatability with other human and experimental data. The new doses show certain improvements over the original T65 doses. However, they suggest for chronic granulocytic leukemia, total malignancies, and chromosome aberrations, at neutron doses of 1 rad, RBEs in excess of 100, higher than expected from other findings. This and other indications suggest that either there are unrecognized systematic problems with the various radiobiological data, or the new doses are deficient in neutrons for Hiroshima, by a factor of about five. If in fact there were actually some 5-fold more dose from neutrons at Hiroshima than estimated by the new calculations, the RBEs would agree well with laboratory results, and other inconsistencies would largely disappear. Cancer risks are estimated for neutrons from the new doses and are compared with those estimated from radiobiologically reconciled doses (the new doses adjusted by adding approximately 5-fold more neutrons). The latter estimates appear more reasonable. For low-LET radiation, cancer risk estimates are altered very little by the new dose estimates for Nagasaki

  13. Cancer risks and neutron RBE's from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, R.L.; Straume, T.

    1982-01-01

    The new radiation dose estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki are radiobiologically examined for compatability with other human and experimental data. The new doses show certain improvements over the original T65 doses. However, they suggest for chronic granulocytic leukemia, total malignancies, and chromosome aberrations, at neutron doses of 1 rad, RBEs in excess of 100, higher than expected from other findings. This and other indications suggest that either there are unrecognized systematic problems with the various radiobiological data, or the new doses are deficient in neutrons for Hiroshima, by a factor of about five. If in fact there were actually some 5-fold more dose from neutrons at Hiroshima than estimated by the new calculations, the RBEs would agree well with laboratory results, and other inconsistencies would largely disappear. Cancer risks are estimated for neutrons from the new doses and are compared with those estimated from radiobiologically reconciled doses (the new doses adjusted by adding approximately 5-fold more neutrons). The latter appear more reasonable. For low-LET radiation, cancer risk estimates are changed very little by the new dose estimates for Nagasaki

  14. Studies on population change of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima prefecture 1965-1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueoka, Hiroshi; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru

    1984-01-01

    Studies of population change of Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors from 1965 to 1979 in Hiroshima prefecture of which registered in Data Base of Atomic Bomb Survivors of RINMB were conducted, and following were obtained: 1. Population change of Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors showed increasing trend until 1976 and diminishing trend from 1977. It would be estimated that reason of increasing trend of Atomic Bomb Survivors was correlated the same trend to get register card of ''Atomic Bomb Treatment Law'', and decreasing trend of them was related so much death of the elderly generations. 2. Analysing by residential place the survivors who make a living in Hiroshima city was almost 110,000, and those who make a living in Hiroshima prefecture (except Hiroshima city) was 65,000. Considering exposed distance of the survivors in Hiroshima city, those survivors exposed within 2 km showed diminishing trend; and those who make a living in Hiroshima prefecture (except Hiroshima city), exposed within 2 km showed increasing trend. 3. In 1979, the ratio of male and female survivors by age level showed difference. Those male survivors over 50 years old in Hiroshima city showed much lower percentage than female. 4. In 1979, the population trends of survivors who get the ''card'' before 1964 showed rapid decrease, and those who get the ''card'' after 1965 showed mild decrease. (author)

  15. Rethinking the Concept of Sustainability: Hiroshima as a Subject of Peace Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Kanako

    2017-01-01

    The article discusses a sustainable educational approach for developing a moral value of peace by using a historical event, the bombing of Hiroshima. To make the case, the article uses the care theory of Nel Noddings to discuss the interpersonal aspects of peace education. The article asks how care theory handles tragedies like Hiroshima and it…

  16. August 2014 Hiroshima landslide disaster and its societal impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Sassa, Kyoji; Wang, Chunxiang

    2015-04-01

    In the early morning of August 20, 2014, Hiroshima city was hit by a number of debris flows along a linear rain band which caused extreme downpour. This disaster claimed 74 death, although this city experienced very similar disaster in 1999, claiming more than 30 residents lives. In the most severely affected debris flow torrent, more than 50 residents were killed. Most of the casualties arose in the wooden, vulnerable houses constructed in front of the exit of torrents. Points and lessons learnt from the disaster are as follows: 1. Extreme rainfall events : geology and geomorphology does not much affect the distribution of landslides initiation sites. 2. Area of causative extreme rainfall is localized in 2 km x 10 km along the rain band. 3. Authors collected two types of sands from the source scar of the initial debris slides which induced debris flows. Tested by the ring shear apparatus under pore-pressure control condition, clear "Sliding surface liquefaction" was confirmed for both samples even under small normal stress, representing the small thickness of the slides. These results shows even instant excess pore pressure could initiate the slides and trigger slide-induced debris flow by undrained loading onto the torrent deposits. 4. Apparently long-term land-use change affected the vulnerability of the community. Residential area had expanded into hill-slope (mountainous / semi-mountainous area) especially along the torrents. Those communities were developed on the past debris flow fan. 5. As the devastated area is very close to downtown of Hiroshima city, it gave gigantic societal impact to the Japanese citizens. After 1999 Hiroshima debris flow disaster, the Landslide disaster reduction law which intends to promote designation of landslide potential risk zones, was adopted in 2000. Immediately after 2014 disaster, national diet approved revision of the bill.

  17. Sensitivity/uncertainty analysis for the Hiroshima dosimetry reevaluation effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, B.L.; Lillie, R.A.; Pace, J.V. III; Cacuci, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    Uncertainty estimates and cross correlations by range/survivor location have been obtained for the free-in-air (FIA) tissue kerma for the Hiroshima atomic event. These uncertainties in the FIA kerma include contributions due to various modeling parameters and the basic cross section data and are given at three ground ranges, 700, 1000 and 1500 m. The estimated uncertainties are nearly constant over the given ground ranges and are approximately 27% for the prompt neutron kerma and secondary gamma kerma and 35% for the prompt gamma kerma. The total kerma uncertainty is dominated by the secondary gamma kerma uncertainties which are in turn largely due to the modeling parameter uncertainties

  18. Radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, E T

    1959-01-01

    This report summarizes the present state of knowledge in dosimetry of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. Data have been presented on the physical factors involved in the two cities and on attenuation of radiation by various shielding situations. This information is being used to estimate a tentative radiation dose to individual A-bomb survivors. It should be emphasized that many important problems remain to be solved before accurate doses can be assigned to individual survivors. Such information will greatly strengthen investigation of biological consequences of instantaneous doses of gamma and neutron irradiation in men. 18 references, 9 figures.

  19. Some thoughts on Hiroshima: 50 years after the bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shuichi

    1997-01-01

    Commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of Hiroshima, this paper covers three issues: Personal experience, concluding that the bomb was an extraordinary cruel weapon beyond imagination, Japanese experience, i.e. Japanese attitude against nuclear weapons and the actions to be undertaken in order to achieve nuclear-weapon-free world. The support of Non-proliferation Treaty, as well as the support of the protest against any kind of nuclear weapon experiments should be related to the understanding of the cause of the events against which one is protesting. The radical therapy would be the removal of the cause, i.e. the striking discrepancy of nuclear armaments

  20. Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center - An outline and scientific activities

    CERN Document Server

    Taniguchi, M

    2003-01-01

    High energy-resolution and low-temperature photoemission spectroscopies (DELTA E=4.5-20 meV and T=6-300 K) have been started on undulator beamlines at Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center with a compact light source. Beamlines for high energy-resolution photoemission spectroscopy and their application to direct observation of pseudogap formation in Kondo systems (CeRhAs, CeRhSb, CePtSn and CeNiSn, LaNiSn) are presented.

  1. Examination of human diaphragms for trichinosis, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, S E; Ozaki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Kazuo

    1961-11-30

    Trichinella spiralis has been found in three species of mammals born in Hokkaido so it possibly infects other species in Japan, including man. Although examination of human diaphragms in a small series of 149 autopsies in Hiroshima and 37 autopsies in Nagasaki (by digestion, compression, and microscopic sections) failed to reveal any instance of trichinous infection, it is felt that the existence or absence of human trichinosis inJapan can be determined only by examination covering a larger series of autopsies, and performed in various parts of the country. 6 references.

  2. Leukemia in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors from 1946 to 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkita, Takeshi

    1976-01-01

    In five recent years, 134 deaths from leukemia among Hiroshima citizen were recorded. Of these, 23 cases (17 acute and 6 chronic types) were atomic bomb survivors exposed within 2,000 m of the hypocenter. Fifteen of them (65%) were over 60 years of age. The frequency of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was still low. Although the risk of leukemia was greatly reduced after 1961, and the frequency of chronic granulocytic leukemia (one of the most characteristic type of Hiroshima atomic bomb-induced leukemia) was also decreased, the death rate from leukemia among survivors exposed within 2,000 m or 1,500 m from the hypocenter was about 3 to 4 times higher than the mean death rate in all Japan. Therefore, careful and long-range follow-up surveillance should be continued. A brief review was also made of relevant studies such as the influence of environmental and host factors in the epidemiology of leukemia, the incidence of leukemia in children exposed in utero, and leukemia in offspring of atomic bomb survivors. (Evans, J.)

  3. Radiation therapy among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkston, J.A.; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Russell, W.J.

    1980-10-01

    In the continuing evaluations of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects, not only doses from the A-bombs but those from other radiation sources must be considered, for the latter may be concomitantly acting factors causing bias among these investigations. In the present study, among 73 Hiroshima and 22 Nagasaki Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects who reported receiving radiation therapy, from 1970 through 1979, the medical records of 72 and 20, respectively, were reviewed, and 41 Hiroshima and 14 Nagasaki subjects were confirmed to have received radiation therapy. The data obtained in the present study were pooled with those of the previous investigation on radiation therapy exposures of AHS subjects prior to 1970. A total of 190 subjects have been documented as receiving radiation therapy and their doses were estimated. Energies used in treatments and diseases treated are discussed. Malignancies developed subsequent to radiation therapy in seven cases; five after treatment for malignancies and two after treatment for benign diseases. Neoplasms of 12 AHS subjects may have been induced by earlier radiation therapy; 5 in the earlier study and 7 in the present one. These investigations underscore the need for continued documentation of exposures to ionizing radiation for medical reasons, especially from sources incurring relatively high doses. Bias in assessments of late radiation effects among A-bomb survivors can thus be avoided. (author)

  4. An Attempt to Measure the Gamma Radiation Dosage at Hiroshima from Photosensitive Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brixner, Berlyn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McmIllan, Edwin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-23

    After Japan surrendered in August 1945, a team of Los Alamos scientists entered both Hiroshima and Nagasaki to assess the damage of Little Boy and Fat Man. Two of these scientists, Berlyn Brixner and Edwin McMillan, discovered a stock of photographic film in Hiroshima that had been fogged by the gamma radiation from Little Boy. They devised an experiment that they thought might be used to determine the exposure levels in the city. Below is both their description of the film stock and the attempt to determine the exposure levels at Hiroshima.

  5. A lifelong journey of moving beyond wartime trauma for survivors from Hiroshima and Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Patricia; Nishimura, Chie; Ito, Mio; Wands, Lisa Marie; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    2011-01-01

    This study examines 51 stories of health, shared by people who survived the wartime trauma of Hiroshima and Pearl Harbor, seeking to identify turning points that moved participants along over their lifetime. The central turning point for Hiroshima survivors was "becoming Hibabusha (A-bomb survivor)" and for Pearl Harbor survivors was "honoring the memory and setting it aside." Wartime trauma was permanently integrated into survivors' histories, surfacing steadily over decades for Hiroshima survivors and intermittently over decades for Pearl Harbor survivors. Regardless of experience or nationality, participants moved through wartime trauma by connecting with others, pursuing personal and global peace.

  6. Growth and development studies Hiroshima and Nagasaki: research plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S C; Jablon, S; Hrubec, Zdenek

    1962-03-21

    This report summarizes the research plan for prospective evaluation of growth and development in those exposed to varying amounts of ionizing radiation during childhood or while in utero in Hiroshima or Nagasaki. Some experimental observations are briefly presented to provide background information, and the results of previous studies of growth and development at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) are reviewed. Procedures have been described for determining the top of the growth curve for the in utero exposed and the maximum growth and development of those exposed during childhood in comparison to their nonexposed counterparts. Differences in growth and development found between exposed and nonexposed individuals will be analysed in relation to radiation dose, age at time of exposure, sex, and socioeconomic factors. Attempts will be made to determine whether or not abnormalities in visual acuity are increased in those exposed while in utero or during childhood as compared to nonexposed or comparable ages. 23 references, 2 tables.

  7. Andrew J. Rotter, Hiroshima – The Word’s Bomb

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, André

    2015-01-01

    O livro Hiroshima – The world’s bomb de Andrew J. Rotter descreve, sob várias perspetivas, um dos incidentes mais marcantes do século XX. O alcance das bombas atómicas lançadas sobre o Japão deu a conhecer ao mundo uma arma com um poder destrutivo de tal ordem que Estados em guerra se poderiam destruir mutuamente em segundos. A ameaça atómica esteve no centro de um dos conflitos mais longos do século XX – a Guerra Fria – e está, ainda hoje, no centro de vários conflitos entre potências region...

  8. Unpublished facts about cancer at Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpla, M.

    1985-01-01

    The author shows that, in spite of uncertainties concerning dosimetry, scientists conducting research into radiopathology can still find their best data in the case histories of atomic bomb survivors. Using his original method he finds that the relations between dose and cancer risk have the same staged form at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and also after radiotherapy. The three-stage shift along the dose axis is easy to interpret. The recent modification proposed for dosimetry of bomb radiation only modifies the dose at each stage. This dose-risk correlation makes it possible for him to pinpoint the carcinogenic effect of supraliminal doses from this radiation with a retroactivity of over thirty years [fr

  9. A californium-252 source for radiobiological studies at Hiroshima University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kazuo; Takeoka, Seiji; Kuroda, Tokue; Tsujimura, Tomotaka; Kawami, Masaharu; Hoshi, Masaharu; Sawada, Shozo

    1987-01-01

    A 1.93 Ci (3.6 mg) californium-252 source was installed in the radiation facility of the Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine and Biology, Hiroshima University. This source produces fission neutrons (8.7 x 10 9 n/s at the time of its installation), which are similar to neutron spectrum of the atomic bombs. It is useful for studying biological effects of fission neutrons and neutron dosimetry. An apparatus was dosigned to accomodate this source and to apply it to such studies. It has resulted in profitable fission neutron exposures, while suppressing scattered neutrons and secondary gamma rays. This apparatus incorporates many safety systems, including one which interlocks with all of doors and an elevator serving the exposure room, so as to prevent accidents involving users. (author)

  10. Serum immunoglobulin levels in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, C B; Hall, W J; Ashley, F W; Hamilton, H B

    1972-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulins (SI) were determined in 803 survivors and matched controls. Each subject's age, sex, health, exposure, and medical record were evaluated with respect to serum IgG, IgA, IgM levels. The IgG and IgA levels tended to be higher for this Hiroshima population than for Americans. Past exposure to ionizing radiation showed no significant correlation to SI levels. However, age and sex did influence the SI. IgM was significantly higher in females. With advancing age IgG and IgA increased in males, and IgM decreased in females. Elevated sedimentation rate and increased lymphocytes were accompanied by increased SI levels. Radiographic TB was detected in 45% of the population; IgG and IgA levels were somewhat elevated in these individuals. (DLC)

  11. ABCC-NIH Adult Health Study, Hiroshima, 1959: achlorhydria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knittle, J L

    1960-07-12

    In Hiroshima Adult Health Study 1251 subjects were examined for achlorhydria and the proportion with achlorhydria was analyzed as to age, sex, blood type, and exposure to radiation. Achlorhydria was found to be more prevalent in subjects aged 40 and over,than in similar United States populations, and blood Type A subjects were found more achlorhydric than Type O subjects at ages 30 to 49. No differences were found between exposed and nonexposed, nor between those exposed at greater and lesser distances from the hypocenter. The data suggest that achlorhydria may be related to the high incidence of gastric cancer in Japan and seem consistent with the hypothesis that achlorhydria occurs prior to gastric cancer and may be related to inherited factors. 26 references, 4 tables.

  12. Incidence of leukemia in survivors of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folley, J H; Borges, W; Yamawaki, Takuso

    1959-01-01

    This document contains two reports. The aim of the first investigation was to obtain information concerning all individuals in Hiroshima and Nagasaki having onset of symptoms of leukemia or dying of the disease since the atomic explosion in 1945. Results show that: (1) There is a significant increase in the incidence of leukemia in the exposed populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki as compared with the non-exposed populations of the two cities; (2) there is a significant increase in the incidence of leukemia within the exposed population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in subjects exposed at distances less than 2000 meters from the hypocenter; and (3) The concept that radiation from the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is a leukemogenic agent in man is supported. In the second report, 10 patients were used to study the early hematologic and preclinical phases of leukemia in atomic bomb survivors. Findings are presented. 23 references, 13 figures, 15 tables.

  13. Status of Los Alamos efforts related to Hiroshima and Nagasaki dose estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalen, P.P.

    1981-09-01

    The Los Alamos efforts related to resolution of the Hiroshima, Nagasaki doses are described as follows: (1) Using recently located replicas of the Hiroshima bomb, measurements will be made which will define the upper limit of the Hiroshima yield. (2) Two-dimensional calculations of the neutron and gamma-ray outputs of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki weapons are in progress. Neutron and gamma-ray leakage spectra measurements will be made. Similar measurements on the Mark 9 weapon and on the Ichiban assembly are proposed. These measurements will provide a check for present day cross sections and calculations. (3) Calculations of several air transport experiments are in progress. A comparison of calculated results with experimental results is given. (4) The neutron and gamma-ray output spectra of several devices tested in the atmosphere at the Nevada Test Site are being calculated. The results of these calculations will allow models of the debris cloud contribution to the total dose to be tested

  14. Some demographic characteristics of Hiroshima City, 1958, related to exposure to the Atomic Bomb (Based on the 1958 Interim Urban Population Survey of Hiroshima Prefecture). Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikuni, Naoji; Kato, Hiroo; Matsumoto, Y Scott

    1960-08-17

    Based upon the data obtained by the Interim Urban Population Survey conducted on October 1, 1958, in the cities of Hiroshima Prefecture, a comparison has been made between the demographic characteristics of the Hiroshima City atomic bomb survivors and those of the nonexposed. Analysis of the data revealed: (1) the estimated number of persons exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb and still residing in Hiroshima City on October 1, 1958 was 92,180; (2) the annual mean rates of in-migration and out-migration of the exposed population during the eight year period from 1950 to 1958 were both approximately 2%, while those for the nonexposed were 8% and 4% respectively; (3) the rate of unmarried exposed females tended to be higher than the rate of unmarried women not exposed, while no difference was noted for single males by exposure status; (4) proportionately greater numbers of exposed persons were engaged in primary and secondary industries (agriculture and manufacturing), while a proportionately greater number of nonexposed were engaged in tertiary industry (commerce, government service, and service work); (5) of those in the labor force the ratio of unemployed in the exposed population seemed slightly higher, but due to the small number surveyed, statistical confirmation was not possible. Of those not in the labor force, no difference was noted according to exposure status; (6) in the sickness prevalence rate no difference could be observed between the exposed and nonexposed.

  15. Smoking and serum proteins in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stram, D.O.; Akiba, Suminori; Neriishi, Kazuo; Hosoda, Yutaka; Stevens, R.G.

    1989-09-01

    Associations of smoking habit with serum levels of total protein as well as protein fractions were studied in a population consisting of 4,739 atomic bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima who participated in the 1979-81 period of the Adult Health Study, an on-going health follow-up program of the RERF. Smoking was strongly related to serum protein concentration after correction for age, sex, and body mass index. Among current smokers as compared to nonsmokers, levels of total protein, β globulin, and γ globulin were significantly lower (p 1 and α 2 globulin were significantly higher (p 1 globulin. Duration of smoking (years) was related to increased α 1 and α 2 globulin. Smoking duration was also associated with albumin level but the trend was not monotonic. The radiation exposure effect on serum protein level was significant in several instances but was in general much smaller than the smoking effect. Its inclusion in the regression models did not noticeably affect the association between smoking and serum proteins. (author)

  16. Mail survey on cardiovascular disease study, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroo; Johnson, K G; Yano, Kasuhiko

    1966-07-21

    A mail survey was conducted on 13,000 males in the JNIH-ABCC Life Span Study population aged 40 to 69 in January 1965. The information sought was largely related to what are considered to be risk factors in the development of cerebral and cardiovascular diseases. The questionnaire included such items as residential history, occupation, physical activity, smoking, dietary custom, educational history, medical history, and family history. The final response rate was high (93%) after three mailings and supplemental field visits. As a preliminary analysis, the distribution of these variables was compared by city and exposure status. This analysis revealed that Hiroshima subjects were more educated, were more often managers, clerical workers, and sales workers, performed less physical activity, had more living space and ate a more Western type diet than Nagasaki subjects. It was also shown that the distribution of such variables as place of birth, present address, occupation, marital status, and education differed by the exposure status of subjects. Some methodological problems inherent in a mail survey such as completeness and reliability of obtained information were discussed. 15 references, 1 figure, 28 tables.

  17. Adult health study. Hiroshima preliminary report, 1958-1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Anderson, Jr, P S

    1961-06-28

    The first 4151 clinical examinations of radiation exposed and nonexposed persons in the Hiroshima Adult Health Study have been tabulated and reviewed. No evident differences in past history, medical symptoms, physical examination, laboratory findings, nor disease incidence could be related to the atomic radiation in 1945. The sample is small and represents only a portion of the first cycle of an examination procedure that is planned to continue indefinitely at approximately two year intervals. This report, consisting of a review of the program and the findings in this preliminary sample, includes extensive tabular data (Tables 28-65) from the coded medical information. It was not expected that radiation induced changes would be evident from this sample unless they were of unexpected prominence. The report was prepared primarily to describe the problems inherent in an epidemiologic medical study of this sort, and to review the type of data that can be obtained for future analyses. This analysis was conducted to pinpoint some of the problems; to assist others contemplating this type of medical study; to illuminate for ABCC the data that are being collected; and to suggest ways to use these data most effectively. 16 references, 1 figure, 65 tables.

  18. Malignant lymphoma in survivors of the atomic bomb, Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R E; Ishida, Kenzo

    1964-02-01

    The present study demonstrates an increased prevalence of Hodgkin's disease, lymphosarcoma and multiple myeloma in survivors within 1400 m from the hypocenter in Hiroshima who had surgical or post-mortem examinations at ABCC. Reticulum cell sarcoma appears to have decreased prevalence in this same group. The pathologic material demonstrating these relationships consists of 91 cases of unequivocal malignant lymphoma and is drawn from two essentially independent ABCC sources, the autopsy series and diagnostic lymph node biopsies. A consideration of the epidemiologic characteristics of this material supports the view that the increase in prevalence is a reflection of the occurrence of lymphoma in the general population of survivors within 1400 m of the hypocenter. In addition, among such persons autopsied at ABCC there appears to be a shift to death at an earlier age than is found in the other comparison groups. The possible implications of this are discussed. A comparison of the lymphomas examined shows no morphologic differences in the corresponding diagnostic categories between the various comparison groups. 21 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Genetic radiation effects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srsen, S.

    1984-01-01

    A group of researchers examined persons who had survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs and were irradiated and their progeny with the aim of getting an idea of the genetic effects of these explosions. Teratogenic effects are not discussed. In the lymphocytes of the peripheral blood of persons who had been exposed to high dose irradiation the researchers found a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations by conventional and more recent methods of chromosomal analysis. In parents who had survived the atomic holocaust there were no significant deviations as against the rest of the population in still births, neonatal defects, infant mortality, and mortality of first generation progeny, in neonate weight, the sex ratio, increased occurence of leukosis and chromosomal aberrations in their children. These negative findings in the first generation do not signify that there is no danger from atomic bomb blasts for human kind. They only indicate that the effects of radiation were to small to be found by routine methods or that the methods used were not suitable

  20. Genetic radiation effects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srsen, S. (Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta)

    1984-05-01

    A group of researchers examined persons who had survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs and were irradiated and their progeny with the aim of getting an idea of the genetic effects of these explosions. Teratogenic effects are not discussed. In the lymphocytes of the peripheral blood of persons who had been exposed to high dose irradiation the researchers found a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations by conventional and more recent methods of chromosomal analysis. In parents who had survived the atomic holocaust there were no significant deviations as against the rest of the population in still births, neonatal defects, infant mortality, and mortality of first generation progeny, in neonate weight, the sex ratio, increased occurence of leukosis and chromosomal aberrations in their children. These negative findings in the first generation do not signify that there is no danger from atomic bomb blasts for human kind. They only indicate that the effects of radiation were too small to be found by routine methods or that the methods used were not suitable.

  1. Hyperparathyroidism among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1986-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Ezaki, Haruo; Sposto, R.; Akiba, Suminori; Neriishi, Kazuo; Kodama, Kazunori; Hosoda, Yutaka; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Yoshimitsu, Kengo.

    1990-10-01

    During the two-year period from August 1986 to July 1988, the prevalence of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) was determined among A-bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima. The diagnosis of HPT was determined biochemically, based upon the presence of consistent hypercalcemia and elevated serum parathyroid hormone levels. Among a population of 4,675 individuals (1,527 males, 3,148 females), primary HPT was diagnosed in 22 (3 males, 19 females). Of these, 8 underwent surgery, of whom 6 had a single parathyroid adenoma and 2 had parathyroid hyperplasia. HPT was more prevalent among the A-bomb survivors who received higher radiation doses (p <.001 for linear trend). The prevalence rates predicted from the model were 0.204% (±0.094%) at 0 Gy and 0.893% (±0.237%) at 1 Gy. The background rate of HPT did not differ significantly by sex or by age at the time of the bombing, although the effect of radiation exposure was greater for individuals exposed at a younger age (p <.01). (author)

  2. Radiation therapy among A-bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W J; Antoku, S

    1971-01-01

    The hospitals and clinics responsible for radiation therapy reported by ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study subjects were surveyed to confirm treatment and estimate doses they received. Of 426 cases, 137 were documented by hospital records. Their ABCC medical records were also reviewed for pertinent clinical information. Excluding the cases not verified because of unavailability of records, confirmation rates were 0.46 in Hiroshima and 0.67 in Nagasaki. Radiation therapy doses according to date of treatment, diagnosis, body site, and source of exposure are included. These data are recorded routinely for future reference, along with doses from diagnostic roentgenology for evaluating overall ionizing radiation exposure of A-bomb survivors and their comparison subjects. Radiation therapy by source and by lesion treated is included. There were three cases with malignancies possibly related to their earlier radiation therapy. One was an A-bomb survivor with lung cancer previously reported as due to ionizing radiation from the A-bomb. Radiation therapy she received for breast cancer 11 years earlier was more likely the cause of the lung lesion than was her relatively small A-bomb dose. The importance of recording all diagnostic and therapeutic radiation, especially that received by those under continuing surveillance for late A-bomb effects, is stressed. (auth)

  3. Audiometric changes with age in Hiroshima: a statistical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Ishii, Goro

    1960-10-01

    Audiometry observations were analyzed for 290 irradiated survivors of the 1945 atomic bomb in Hiroshima and in 293 nonirradiated subjects. The study was undertaken in order to determine the age changes in audiology in irradiated and nonirradiated subjects as well as to investigate the pattern of hearing levels in a Japanese population for comparison with patterns in Caucasians. The following statistical observations were made. Correlation between hearing levels for right and left ear. Correlation between hearing levels at various cycles. Changes in hearing levels by age and sex. The relation between age and decibel loss was not linear and correlation ratios with age were 0.45 to 0.72. Audiometry seems to be of some value as one of a battery of tests of physiologic aging designed for detection of irradiation induced nonspecific aging acceleration. In this relatively small sample, no differences in hearing acuity were detected in the atomic bomb survivors as compared with the control sample. 6 references, 3 figures, 9 tables.

  4. Cytogenetics of the in-utero exposed of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neriishi, Shotaro; Shimba, Hachiro

    1978-01-01

    The presence of chimaerism in peripheral lymphocyte chromosome 21 years after A-bomb radiation was examined using 16 males who had been exposed in-utero to radiation from A-bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (10 cases in Hiroshima and 6 cases in Nagasaki). At the same time, doses of in-utero radiation were estimated. It was found that no cells possess XX chromosome by observing 1,600 chromosome metaphases in 16 cases (100 per a person). Estimated dose of in-utero radiation was 44 - 151 rad, or 75.6 rad on the average for 10 cases in Hiroshima and 61 - 197 rad, or 104 rad on the average for 6 cases in Nagasaki. Estimated radiation dose of their mothers used as a basis for estimating in-utero radiation dose was 120 - 149 rad or 207.9 rad on the average for cases in Hiroshima and 148 - 477 rad or 251 rad on the average for cases in Nagasaki. A ratio of total dose given to mother to that given to fetus was 2.75 in cases of Hiroshima and 2.41 in those of Nagasaki. (Iwagami, H.)

  5. Cytogenetics of the in-utero exposed of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Supplemental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neriishi, S; Shimba, H [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Nagasaki (Japan)

    1978-04-01

    The presence of chimaerism in peripheral lymphocyte chromosome 21 years after A-bomb radiation was examined using 16 males who had been exposed in-utero to radiation from A-bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (10 cases in Hiroshima and 6 cases in Nagasaki). At the same time, doses of in-utero radiation were estimated. It was found that no cells possess XX chromosome by observing 1,600 chromosome metaphases in 16 cases (100 per a person). Estimated dose of in-utero radiation was 44 - 151 rad, or 75.6 rad on the average for 10 cases in Hiroshima and 61 - 197 rad, or 104 rad on the average for 6 cases in Nagasaki. Estimated radiation dose of their mothers used as a basis for estimating in-utero radiation dose was 120 - 149 rad or 207.9 rad on the average for cases in Hiroshima and 148 - 477 rad or 251 rad on the average for cases in Nagasaki. A ratio of total dose given to mother to that given to fetus was 2.75 in cases of Hiroshima and 2.41 in those of Nagasaki.

  6. Urinary findings of children exposed in utero to the atomic bombs, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, L R; Keehn, R J

    1966-06-09

    Data from urinalyses at ages 9 to 16 were tabulated for children exposed to ionizing radiation in utero at the time of the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 and for comparable control groups. Proteinuria was detected more often at various ages in boys in Hiroshima and girls in both cities whose mothers were within 1500 m of the bomb hypocenters. However, the differences were statistically significant only in girls ages 13 or 14. Casts were also seen more commonly in Hiroshima girls located at the same distance. Red and white blood cell excretion in the urine and glycosuria did not appear to be related to radiation exposure. Future investigations will be necessary to define the biological significance of these findings. 11 references, 8 tables.

  7. Trace analysis of irradiated steel samples from hiroshima by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, A.I.; Zahran, N.F.

    2000-01-01

    A double focusing (JEOL, PLASMAX2) and quadrupole (ELAN6000, Perkin Elmer) mass spectrometers were used for the quantitative analysis of trace elements in steel samples from Hiroshima. The quantification of the analytical results was carried out using steel 468 as a standard reference material. The relative sensitivity coefficients (RSC's) for most of the elements varied between 0.12 and 2.93. The effect of iron as a matrix and the non-spectroscopic interferences are studied. Comparison of the results obtained on two steel samples from Hiroshima with that obtained on steel 468 standard reference materials demonstrated that there is no significant difference between them. Therefore, it is possible to say that the irradiated steel samples from Hiroshima have nearly the same specifications of trace element content as those of the normal steel samples

  8. Review of the radiological significance of revised dose estimates for the Hiroshima-Nagasaki bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Osborne, R.V.

    1988-03-01

    Recently, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has indicated that new dosimetric and epidemiological data on Japanese bomb survivors will 'raise the risk estimate (for fatal cancers) for the exposed population by a total factor of the order of 2. This change is for a population of all ages, whereas for a worker population of ages 18-65 the changes will be small'. The present report has reviewed the available scientific literature that is relevant to this statement. The topics reviewed in this report include: a) the methods used in previous reports by scientific committees to calculate estimated lifetime risks of radiation-induced fatal cancers; b) recent revisions of the dosimetry for Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors; c) updates on the epidemiological data on the Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors; and d) revised estimates of fatal cancer risk from the Hiroshima-Nagasaki data

  9. Sulfur activation at the Little Boy-Comet Critical Assembly: a replica of the Hiroshima bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Emery, J.F.; Pace, J.V. III.

    1985-04-01

    Studies have been completed on the activation of sulfur by fast neutrons from the Little Boy-Comet Critical Assembly which replicates the general features of the Hiroshima bomb. The complex effects of the bomb's design and construction on leakage of sulfur-activation neutrons were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Our sulfur activation studies were performed as part of a larger program to provide benchmark data for testing of methods used in recent source-term calculations for the Hiroshima bomb. Source neutrons capable of activating sulfur play an important role in determining neutron doses in Hiroshima at a kilometer or more from the point of explosion. 37 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  10. Epidemiological studies. From experience in Hiroshima and Nagasaki to Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Toshiteru

    2011-01-01

    Results of epidemiological studies by Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki over 60 years are described as they are conceivably useful for present health risk assessment, future measures and health problems in Fukushima. The studies conducted in the two Cities on total of about 120,000 people of survivors and unexposed control group have given following findings. Incidence of leukemia is increased several years after A-bomb exposure, and of diseases like thyroidal ones, cataract and solid cancers, at 10-20 years later. Individual dose assessment of these morbid people is established (DS02, Dosimetry published in 2003), which reveals the quantitative relationship between dose and incidence. This relationship is used as a reference to make up an international standard for protection of radiation hazard. Mean of excess relative risk (ERR) on linear non-threshold (LNT) hypothesis of solid cancers is around 0.4/Gy at age of 70 y for people exposed at age 30 y although there is a significant age and sex difference in ERR. As well as survivors, studies are performed on exposed fetuses and second generations from the exposed people, which show the increased incidence of newborn microcephaly from mothers exposed with high dose but overall health abnormality is not seen in offspring from exposed parents. Radiation exposure is mainly instantaneous in the two Cities and is mostly derived from neutron and gamma-ray, which are somehow different from that in Fukushima due to Nuclear Power Plant Accident. The latter involves long term external and internal exposures with alpha-, beta- and gamma-ray hereafter. The difference should be well recognized for risk assessment in Fukushima; exempli gratia (e.g.), at the same dose, instantaneous exposure is mentioned more risky than long term one. (T.T.)

  11. Decline of blood leukocyte counts 1947-59, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, Michito; Ueda, Shoichi; Blaisdell, R K

    1963-03-03

    Earlier reports of progressive decline in leukocyte counts in Hiroshima from about 1948 to 1954 have been confirmed. A similar phenomenon has been observed in Nagasaki. Analysis indicates that this decline in white cell count with time is not related to exposure to the 1945 atomic bombs, to sex, to age, to commonly diagnosed diseases, or to the disproportionate influence of a subgroup. The principal white cells affected were neutrophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils. The precise etiologic factors accounting for the decline, and the biological significance of the present lower range of leukocyte values in Hiroshima and Nagasaki remain to be determined. 16 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  12. Small head size following in utero exposure to atomic radiation, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R W; Blot, W J

    1972-01-01

    There was a progressive increase with dose in the frequency of abnormality among persons whose mothers were exposed before the 18th week of pregnancy. In Hiroshima the minimum dose producing an effect was 10 to 19 rad, but in Nagasaki no effect was observed under 150 rad. At maternal doses of > 150 rad, small head circumference was often accompanied by mental retardation. The low doses in Hiroshima are not directly applicable to medical radiology because of the presence of neutrons and environmental disturbances. (DLC)

  13. Tumor registry data, Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1957-1959: malignant neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Tomin; Ide, Masao; Ishida, Morihiro; Troup, G M

    1963-10-03

    The report concerns three aspects of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki Tumor Registry data, 1957-1959: comparability, reliability and validity of incidence rates of malignant neoplasms obtained from the Tumor Registries and various statistical problems of registered data related to the Life Span Study sample and Adult Health Study sample; incidence rates of main site of malignant neoplasms obtained from the Tumor Registries are compared with those of the United States and Denmark; and incidence of malignant neoplasm among Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. 15 references, 7 figures, 30 tables.

  14. Message of Hiroshima. The memories and comments of a nuclear scientist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, S. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

    1982-01-01

    A review of the research conducted during the Second World War by Japanese scientists and their in-situ experiences on the Hiroshima atomic bomb effects a week after the explosion is given. Details are presented on the activity data of samples from the site, on the results of half-life measurements and of chemical analyses. From these data the site of explosion and the neutron flux on the surface were computed. The damages caused by the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs were compared. Further, an account on the powder from the Bikini H-bomb explosion is given. Finally, the author protests against the military uses of nuclear energy.

  15. Protein variants in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: tales of two cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, J V; Satoh, C; Smouse, P; Asakawa, J; Takahashi, N; Goriki, K; Fujita, M; Kageoka, T; Hazama, R

    1988-12-01

    The results of 1,465,423 allele product determinations based on blood samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, involving 30 different proteins representing 32 different gene products, are analyzed in a variety of ways, with the following conclusions: (1) Sibships and their parents are included in the sample. Our analysis reveals that statistical procedures designed to reduce the sample to equivalent independent genomes do not in population comparisons compensate for the familial cluster effect of rare variants. Accordingly, the data set was reduced to one representative of each sibship (937,427 allele products). (2) Both chi 2-type contrasts and a genetic distance measure (delta) reveal that rare variants (P less than .01) are collectively as effective as polymorphisms in establishing genetic differences between the two cities. (3) We suggest that rare variants that individually exhibit significant intercity differences are probably the legacy of tribal private polymorphisms that occurred during prehistoric times. (4) Despite the great differences in the known histories of the two cities, both the overall frequency of rare variants and the number of different rare variants are essentially identical in the two cities. (5) The well-known differences in locus variability are confirmed, now after adjustment for sample size differences for the various locus products; in this large series we failed to detect variants at only three of 29 loci for which sample size exceeded 23,000. (6) The number of alleles identified per locus correlates positively with subunit molecular weight. (7) Loci supporting genetic polymorphisms are characterized by more rare variants than are loci at which polymorphisms were not encountered. (8) Loci whose products do not appear to be essential for health support more variants than do loci the absence of whose product is detrimental to health. (9) There is a striking excess of rare variants over the expectation under the neutral mutation

  16. ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study. Report 3. 1958-1960 cycle of examinations, Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S C; Anderson, Jr, P S

    1963-10-29

    Results of 10,368 examinations of participants in the ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study, Hiroshima, were tabulated and discussed. About 82% of the entire sample was examined at least once during the 1958-60 cycle. Physical and laboratory findings as well as major diagnoses were considered by comparison group, age, and sex. 8 references, 7 figures, 13 tables.

  17. Background and status of clinical study is determine effects of in utero exposure Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrow, G N; Hrubec, Zdenek, Finch, S.C.

    1964-07-02

    The mortality experience of a cohort of approximately 100,000 persons selected from survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings and a comparison of persons who were not in the cities at the time of bombing (ATB) was studied for the period 1 October 1950-30 September 1959.

  18. Hiroshima: A Study in Science, Politics and the Ethics of War. Teacher and Student Manuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jonathan

    By focusing on the question of whether it was right or wrong to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, this social studies unit seeks to illuminate the political, military, scientific, and moral complexities involved in making far-reaching decisions today. Sections of the unit use primary materials from American, Japanese, and English sources to…

  19. From History to Memory: Alain Resnais’ and Marguerite Duras’ Hiroshima mon amour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah French

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the representation of history and memory in Alain Resnais’ and Marguerite Duras’ 1959 film Hiroshima mon amour. It argues that the film’s privileging of subjective remembrance reflects a broader cultural interest in using memory as a counter discourse to established history. The widely documented cultural preoccupation with memory became particularly prominent in the early 1980s. However, Hiroshima mon amour can be read as an important early example of a film that predates the contemporary ‘memory boom’. For Resnais and Duras, the magnitude of the devastation in Hiroshima exceeds the limits of filmic representation. Their solution to the problem that the historic event is unrepresentable is to approach the event indirectly while focusing on an individual traumatic memory. Through a close analysis and critique of the film I argue that the film’s emphasis on individual memory validates the legitimacy of the personal narrative but problematically subsumes the political events and displaces history from the discursive realm. I also suggest that problems emerge in the film’s depiction of its traumatised female subject. While Hiroshima mon amour represents a complex female subjectivity and interiority, the process of remembrance depicted deprives the woman of agency and renders her trapped within a compulsive repetition of the past.

  20. Neutrons confirmed in Nagasaki and at the Army pulsed radiation Facility: Implications for Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.; Harris, L.J.; Marchett, A.A.; Egbert, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    Recent reports have clearly demonstrated that large discrepancies exist between neutron activation measured in Hiroshima and activation calculated using the current dosimetry system DS86. The reports confirmed previous results for cobalt activation in Hiroshoma that suggested problems, and this has spurred a joint U.S.-Japan effort to identify the source(s) of this discrepancy. Here, new results are presented that appear to eliminate both the measurements of neutron activation and the DS86 air-transport calculations are potential sources of the discrepancy in Hiroshima. Computer transport of DS86 fission neutrons through large distances of air was validated using concrete samples from Nagasaki and chloride detectors placed at selected distances from a bare uranium reactor. In both cases accelerator mass spectrometry was used to measure thermal neutron activation via the reaction. 35 Cl(n, γ) 36 Cl (half-life, 301,000 years). Good agreement was observed between measurements of neutron activation and DS86 calculations for Nagasaki, as well as for the reactor experiment. Thus the large discrepancy observed in Hiroshima appears not to be due to uncertainties in air-transport calculations or in the activation measurements; rather, the discrepancy appears to be due to uncertainties associated with the Hiroshima bomb itself. 15 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs

  1. Technical Basis for Expedited Processing of Radiation Dose Assessments for NTPR Hiroshima and Nagasaki Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    phenomena can include processes such as wind, rainfall runoff and infiltration, and flooding. Although soil samples taken in the area of Nishiyama...1980), weathering effects have been postulated to account for inconsistencies found in measurements of soil samples from the Nishiyama Reservoir...Processing of Radiation Dose Assessments for NTPR Hiroshima and Nagasaki Participants DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution is

  2. Tendency of socio-psychological aftereffects on aged survivors in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kiyoshi; Mishima, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Michiko

    1984-01-01

    Psychosomatic status at the time of A-bomb explosion, behavior and impression immediately after the explosion, aftereffects on life, and mental changes were sought through interview for 80 aged survivors in Hiroshima A-bomb survivor home by psychiatric social workers. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. ABCC-JNIH adult health study 1958-1960, Hiroshima: review of tubercolosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R W; Hollingsworth, D R

    1963-05-15

    The present study was undertaken in Hiroshima to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis among the Adult Health Study comparison groups and to attempt to determine whether a radio-sensitive factor could be inferred in resistance to development of clinical tuberculosis. In addition, the data provided an epidemiologic view of tuberculosis in a modern, urban, industrialized Japanese community. 31 references, 7 tables.

  4. Estimation of the Hiroshima bomb yield and weather conditions at the time of the bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Eizo

    1984-01-01

    The results of the survey made immediately after the bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were compiled in Collection of Reports on the Investigation of the Atomic Bomb Casualties published in 1953. Much valuable information for the reassessment of dose are included in this document. One of the major problems to be solved for the dose reassessment is the yield of the Hiroshima bomb. Two articles with relatively detailed description were selected, and the estimation of the yield was attempted, based on them. The data on roof tile melting were used for the purpose. Assuming the yield of the Nagasaki bomb as 22 kt, the yield of the Hiroshima bomb was given as 12.4 kt. By the experiment using the charred state of cypress boards, the total radiant energy from the bomb was calculated as 4.6 x 10 12 cal, and the yield of the Hiroshima bomb was estimated as 14.2 kt and 13.2 kt. The true value is likely between 12 and 13 kt. The vapor pressure at the time of bombing significantly affected the neutron spectrum. On the day of bombing, Japan was covered by hot, humid maritime air mass, namely summer monsoon pattern. The air density and water vapor content in the atmosphere were determined by the Japan Weather Association, and compared with the data of Dr. Kerr et al. (Kako, I.)

  5. Cytogenetic study of the offspring of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awa, A.A.; Honda, Takeo; Neriishi, Shotaro

    1989-07-01

    This paper describes the results of a cytogenetic study on 8,322 children born to atomic bomb survivors (4,716 in Hiroshima and 3,606 in Nagasaki) and 7,976 controls (5,112 in Hiroshima and 2,864 in Nagasaki). Because no child was examined before age 12, the data may not be considered valid for the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities that impose a high risk of early death. Thus, we will restrict our comparison to the sex-chromosome aneuploids and autosomal structural rearrangements of the balanced type, although other abnormalities encountered in this survey will be enumerated. Among the children born to exposed parents, 19 individuals (0.23 %) exhibited sex chromosome abnormalities and 23 (0.28 %) exhibited autosomal structural rearrangements, whereas among children born to unexposed parents, 24 (0.30 %) and 27 (0.34 %), respectively, were observed to exhibit these abnormalities. Only one child with a karyotype of 47,XY,+21 was found in the Hiroshima exposed group. Thus, there was no statistically significant difference in the overall frequencies of cytogenetically abnormal cases between the exposed (0.52 %) and control (0.64 %) populations. In Hiroshima, frequencies of chromosome abnormalities were similar between exposed and control groups (0.64 % vs 0.65 %). However, the value observed in the exposed group in Nagasaki was slightly lower (0.36 %) - though not statistically significant - than the value observed in the control group (0.63 %). This value of the Nagasaki control group was similar to that in Hiroshima. Family studies on probands with chromosome abnormalities revealed that the majority of cases (about 90 %) with autosomal structural rearrangements of the balanced type were inherited from one or the other parent. The mutation rates for these reaarangements were similar between the exposed and control groups, being 0.98 x 10 -4 per gamete per generation. (author)

  6. The Influence of the Climate Change on Landslide Disasters in Western Japan -Hiroshima's case-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Tetsuya; Aditian, Aril

    2015-04-01

    In last year 2014 and 2012, tremendous landslides due to heavy rainfalls occurred in western Japan. Especially in August 2014, serious landslide disasters induced by the extremely heavy rainfall caused over 70 people's death in Hiroshima. Most of them were caused by debris flows from shallow landslides on granite forest slopes on August 20. In Hiroshima, long-term increase in rainfalls was not obvious, while this trend was found in other area such as Kyushu district. However, in western Japan, the influence of climate change emerged in the increase of vapor concentration caused by rising water surface temperature in East China Sea and that brought the extreme rainfall. The landslide (debris flow) disasters in Hiroshima have distinctive characteristics in terms of followings: (1) the source of debris flows (directly flowing down from mostly shallow landslides), (2) their usual equivalent friction coefficient "Mf" i.e. relative travel distance for Granite (values between 0.174 and 0.554). (3) the peculiar meteorological condition of frontogenesis with vapor convergence on the stationary front and around the Pacific high pressure that can generate the heavy precipitation (above 101 mm/hr, total 256 mm). (4) Contrary to Mf values above, they caused heavy disaster at downstream area with the urban development on hillside slopes. We found that the Mf becomes bigger (relatively short travel distance) as the return period of disasters"Tr"becomes shorter as evaluating in the next formula: Mf = 0.278 Tr^(-3.32). If the return period becomes shorter due to climate change (it is possible), Mf may become bigger. However, the cities such as Hiroshima, Kobe or Nagasaki in western Japan which have the urban area at hillside will be more prone to severe debris flow disasters. (5) Also, theoretically, we may have more slope failures and debris flows per area "N/A" if the rainfall increment "dR" increases. The "increasing ratio in N/A" is given by next equation: (N/A)/(N0/A)=((R0 + d

  7. Distribution of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in relation to summer hypoxia in Hiroshima Bay, Seto Inland Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Jun; Kudoh, Takaya; Takatsuji, Hideyuki; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Kasai, Akihide

    2010-02-01

    Biological and physical surveys were conducted in order to investigate the relationship between environmental conditions and the distribution of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in Hiroshima Bay, western Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Moon jellyfish and ichthyoplankton were collected at 13 stations in Hiroshima Bay during monthly surveys from July to September in 2006 and 2007. Surface temperature in 2006 was significantly lower during the August and September cruises and surface salinity was lower during all cruises than in 2007. Moon jellyfish was the most dominant gelatinous plankton collected, accounting for 89.7% in wet weight. Mean moon jellyfish abundance in 2006 was higher than that in 2007 from July through September, with significant inter-year differences for July and September. Variability in precipitation and nutritional input from the Ohta River, northernmost part of Hiroshima Bay, were suggested as possible factors affecting the inter-annual variability in moon jellyfish abundance in the coastal areas of northern Hiroshima Bay. Moon jellyfish were more abundant in the coastal areas of northern Hiroshima Bay, where the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was lower, while low in the central part of the bay. Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus eggs were most dominant (58.1% in number) among the ichthyoplankton and were abundant in the central area of Hiroshima Bay. Explanatory analysis was conducted to detect possible effects of environmental conditions on the abundance of moon jellyfish and Japanese anchovy eggs during the summer months in Hiroshima Bay. Of the environmental conditions tested (temperature, salinity and DO of surface and bottom layers at each sampling station), bottom DO had the most significant effect on the moon jellyfish abundance: there was a negative correlation between the bottom DO and the moon jellyfish abundance in Hiroshima Bay during summer.

  8. Ophthalmologic changes related to radiation exposure and age in the adult health study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choshi, Kanji; Mishima, Hiromu; Takaku, Isao; Takase, Tomoko; Neriishi, Shotaro.

    1983-11-01

    A two-year ophthalmologic study of age- and radiation-related ophthalmologic lesions among the Adult Health Study (AHS) population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was conducted at RERF in 1978-80. The study population in both cities was composed of all persons exposed to 100+ rad in the AHS, their controls, and all other persons in the AHS sample with a previous record of axial opacities or posterior subcapsular changes, and the in utero clinical sample. The ophthalmologic examination was conducted on 1,582 persons in Hiroshima and 719 persons in Nagasaki belonging to the AHS sample, and 67 persons in Hiroshima and 17 persons in Nagasaki belonging to the in utero clinical sample. Participation in the study was 42% of the eligible AHS sample in Hiroshima and 21% in Nagasaki, and 24% of the eligible in utero sample in Hiroshima and 26% in Nagasaki. Increased lenticular opacities, other lens changes, and loss of visual acuity and accommodation occurred with increasing age in both exposed and control subjects as manifestations of the normal aging process. A highly significant excess risk for all ages in the 300+ rad group in comparison to those in the control group was observed for both axial opacities and posterior subcapsular changes in Hiroshima, but not in Nagasaki. (J.P.N.)

  9. Carcinogenesis in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Observations from ABCC-JNIH pathology and statistical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeldis, L J; Jablon, S; Ishida, Morihiro

    1963-01-01

    Studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki of a possible carcinogenic effect of radiation in survivors of the atomic bombings are included in programs conducted jointly by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and the Japanese National Institute of Health (JNIH) with the collaboration of physicians and medical organizations in both cities. In order to cope with epidemiologic problems that attend these, in common with other studies of human populations, ABCC-JNIH programs are now oriented to the intensive surveillance of health, morbidity, and mortality principally in known, fixed cohorts of the survivors. The data reported here are derived from 3 interrelated programs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: the JNIH-ABCC Life Span Study, Tumor Registry Studies, and Joint ABCC-JNIH Pathology Studies. The population samples utilized in these studies are defined along with summarizing pertinent information concerning their exposure to ionizing radiation.

  10. Carcinogenesis in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Observations from ABCC-JNIH pathology and statistical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeldis, L J; Jablon, S; Ishida, Morihiro

    1963-01-01

    Studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki of a possible carcinogenic effect of radiation in survivors of the atomic bombings are included in programs conducted jointly by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and the Japanese National Institute of Health (JNIH) with the collaboration of physicians and medical organizations in both cities. In order to cope with epidemiologic problems that attend these, in common with other studies of human populations. ABCC-JNIH programs are now oriented to the intensive surveillance of health, morbidity, and mortality principally in known, fixed cohorts of the survivors. The data reported here are derived from 3 interrelated programs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: the JNIH-ABCC Life Span Study, Tumor Registry Studies, and Joint ABCC-JNIH Pathology Studies. The population samples utilized in these studies are defined along with summarizing pertinent information concerning their exposure to ionizing radiation. 11 references, 2 figures, 10 tables.

  11. Memory and Identity in the Emotive Map of Alain Resnais’ Hiroshima Mon Amour (1959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jytte Holmqvist

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is Alain Resnais’ representation of collective and individual memory and identity in Hiroshima Mon Amour (1959. The film is based on Marguerite Duras’ script from 1958 and remains faithful to this original text. With partial reference to Giuliana Bruno’s views on imaginary cities and urban cartography, the screened urban space will here be read as an emotive map in which the individual love story between the protagonists unfolds against the backdrop of their almost equally intimate relationship with the historically abused city of Hiroshima. This, in Bruno’s words helps create an affective “map of love” (243 or a “body-city on a tender map” (242. The paper highlights the fluid relationship between the protagonists and their environment, as well as the semi-documentary aspects of a film that establishes an effective dialogue between past and present.

  12. Neutron and gamma ray calculation for Hiroshima-type atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Endo, Satoru; Takada, Jun [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine; Iwatani, Kazuo; Oka, Takamitsu; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Shoichiro; Hasai, Hiromi

    1998-03-01

    We looked at the radiation dose of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb again in 1986. We gave it the name of ``Dosimetry System 1986`` (DS86). We and other groups have measured the expose dose since 1986. Now, the difference between data of {sup 152}Eu and the calculation result on the basis of DS86 was found. To investigate the reason, we carried out the calculations of neutron transport and neutron absorption gamma ray for Hiroshima atomic bomb by MCNP3A and MCNP4A code. The problems caused by fast neutron {sup 32}P from sulfur in insulator of pole. To correct the difference, we investigated many models and found agreement of all data within 1 km. (S.Y.)

  13. Month of estimated onset of leukemia in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefzger, M D; Hoshino, Takashi; Itoga, Takashi; Yamada, Atsushi; Toyoda, Shigeki

    1963-10-03

    The monthly distribution of onset of leukemia during 1946-61 has been examined in 638 known cases among Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Comparisons were made of sex, city, chronicity, and distance from the hypocenter. A summer excess was most prominent in the group 0-1999 m from the hypocenter, and an autumn deficiency was most consistently seen in the various subgroups. No explanation of these differences can be offered. 1 reference, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Hiroshima. History and topicality of the atomic threat. Baseline material and information for education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfuss, K.; Wunderer, H.

    1995-01-01

    Hiroshima is an important topic for education, not only in history and social sciences classes, but just as well for courses in German, ethics, religion, and in the natural sciences. The material has been compiled to serve as an information source both for specific subjects and for interdisciplinary approaches, and has been arranged in compliance with the didactic principles of multiperspective approach and controversial aspects. (orig.) [de

  15. ABCC-JNIH pathology studies, Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Report No. 1, October 1950-September 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angevine, D M; Jablon, S; Matsumoto, Y S

    1963-06-11

    The report describes a study of autopsies of persons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The factors influencing selection for autopsy were analyzed. The objective was to endow the autopsy program with a high degree of statistical control. The degree of correlation between death certificate diagnoses and the autopsy anatomic diagnoses was determined. The effects of the degree of exposure to radiation on different disease groups, with special emphasis on malignant tumors, was ascertained. 14 references, 22 tables. (ACR)

  16. ABCC-NIH adult health study Hiroshima 1958 to 1959 thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, D R; Hamilton, H B; Tamagaki, Hideya; Beebe, G W

    1962-04-01

    In the matched sample for the Adult Health Study 5553 participants were examined in the ABCC clinic in Hiroshima, Japan during the sixteen month period from July 1958 through October 1959. Thyroid disease was diagnosed for 169 subjects, 152 of whom were female. Simple nontoxic goiter was the most frequently seen thyroid disorder comprising 47 percent of the total, with a sex ratio of 8 to 1 in favor of females. Hiroshima is a coastal city where iodine deficiencies seem unlikely and the various etiological possibilities responsible for nontoxic goiter were reviewed and discussed. Hyperthyroidism was observed in 16 patients of whom 13 were females. One patient with hypothyroidism and 5 with chronic thyroiditis diagnosed by biopsy were seen in the study. Single thyroid nodules were found in 39 patients; the biopsy diagnoses of 19 were listed, 8 of whom were shown to have thyroid carcinoma. Carcinoma of the thyroid was diagnosed microscopically in 12 patients, constituting 7 percent of the total number with thyroid disorders. It was concluded that thyroid disease in Hiroshima warrants further study and it will be of particular interest to carefully observe the Adult Health Study group for the incidence of thyroid nodules and thyroid carcinoma.

  17. Adult health study Hiroshima analysis of participation in examinations, July 1958-December 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Jr, P S

    1961-07-19

    The participation data for Adult Health Study examinations conducted in Hiroshima during the period July 1958 to December 31, 1960, are presented. The continuing medical examination program includes approximately 13,700 individuals who form the Adult Health Study population of ABCC in Hiroshima. The Adult Health Study population is composed of four exposure groups of equal size, matched by age and sex. Participation scores are analyzed with respect to exposure, age, sex, and socioeconomic variables as well as history of previous contact with the ABCC programs. Significant differences were demonstrated between the participation scores by age, marital status, history of prior contact with ABCC, and occupation; this latter category was significant only for males. Although differences were observed for these variables, the significance was usually attributable to one category in each of the variables, often the least populated, such as separated or divorced for marital status; and previous history unknown for prior ABCC contact. A trend was apparent with respect to exposure, with the lowest participation noted in the nonexposed and the highest participation in the exposed group with symptoms. Sex differences were not significant. Although relatively minor differences were demonstrated for some variables, the outstanding features of this program are the remarkable high participation scores. Only 9 percent of the population were in the so-called refusal category and over 80 percent of the living Adult Health Study population, including non-Hiroshima residents, were examined during the period considered by this report. 6 references, 1 figure, 9 tables.

  18. Statistical study of autopsy cases in Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital 1956-1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, T; Ishida, S [H.ma Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Matsushita, Hiroshi

    1976-03-01

    In order to study the differences in the incidence of a variety of disease (excluding tumors), between the cases exposed to the atomic bomb and those who were unexposed, main lesions were studied statistically by autopsy. The subjects were 1230 cases autopsied at the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital or the Hiroshima Red-Cross Hospital. They were divided into 318 cases exposed at a short distance from the bombed area (within 2 km), and 420 cases exposed at a long distance from that area (more than 2 km), including those who had come to Hiroshima later. Four hundred twenty nine unexposed cases were selected as controls. The incidence of tumor, disturbance of circulation, disturbance of the blood vessels in the brain, blood disease, and respiratory disease was higher in the exposed cases than in the unexposed cases. The incidence of cirrhosis of the liver was higher in females than in males, and was lower in cases farther from the bombed area. Cardiac infarction, valvular disease, and endocarditis were more often seen in the cases exposed near the bombed area. The incidence of the blood vessels in the brain was highest in the exposed cases near the bombed area. The incidence of disturbance of circulation, and disturbance of the blood vessels in the brain had a tendency to be higher in the exposed cases than in the unexposed cases. This is considered to be due to the advanced age in the exposed cases.

  19. A statistical study of autopsy cases in Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital 1956-1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao; Ishida, Sadamu; Matsushita, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    In order to study the differences in the incidence of a variety of disease (excluding tumors), between the cases exposed to the atomic bomb and those who were unexposed, main lesions were studied statistically by autopsy. The subjects were 1230 cases autopsied at the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital or the Hiroshima Red-Cross Hospital. They were divided into 318 cases exposed at a short distance from the bombed area (within 2 km), and 420 cases exposed at a long distance from that area (more than 2 km), including those who had come to Hiroshima later. Four hundred twenty nine unexposed cases were selected as controls. The incidence of tumor, disturbance of circulation, disturbance of the blood vessels in the brain, blood disease, and respiratory disease was higher in the exposed cases than in the unexposed cases. The incidence of cirrhosis of the liver was higher in females than in males, and was lower in cases farther from the bombed area. Cardiac infarction, valvular disease, and endocarditis were more often seen in the cases exposed near the bombed area. The incidence of the blood vessels in the brain was highest in the exposed cases near the bombed area. The incidence of disturbance of circulation, and disturbance of the blood vessels in the brain had a tendency to be higher in the exposed cases than in the unexposed cases. This is considered to be due to the advanced age in the exposed cases. (Serizawa, K.)

  20. Contributing factors to long-term psychological consequences in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asukai, Nozomu; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Kato, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Midori; Saeki, Toshinari

    2012-01-01

    The atomic bombing in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, caused an estimated casualty of 140,000 by the end of that year. Survivors faced hideous scenes and many lost family members. Later, in the early 1960s, increased rates of leukemia and other types of cancer were observed among the survivors. These long-term health effects caused serious apprehension to linger. However, only a few studies on psychological consequences among the survivors have been conducted. In 2008, Hiroshima City commissioned our study team to perform a large-scale survey on long-term health effects among the survivors. We delivered a questionnaire by mail to all subjects who were living in Hiroshima City and adjacent towns prior to the release of the A-bomb until the study was implemented. The number of potential subjects was 31,598 and the response rate was 75%. We analyzed a subsample of subjects (n=14,373) whose age at the event was 8 or above. In the multiple regression analysis, hibakusha (A-bomb victims) and those who were exposed to the Black Rain (fall-out) showed poor mental health compared to the comparison group on SF-8, K6 and IES-R scores even after adjusting socio-demographic variables. Although traumatic experiences at the event still affected mental health, anxiety for health effects and social stigma showed greater impact. Our findings suggest that even 63 years after the event, apprehension of health effects and social stigma harm mental health in A-bomb survivors. Our findings may also suggest that long-term risk communication will be vital to mitigate mental health effects among survivors of the Fukushima nuclear disaster. (author)

  1. Contributing factors to long-term psychological consequences in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asukai, Nozomu [Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. of Medical Science, Tokyo (Japan); Sugiyama, Hiromi [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan); Kato, Hiroshi [Hyogo Inst. for Traumatic Stress, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Nakajima, Midori [Hiroshima International Univ., Faculty of Psychological Science, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan); Saeki, Toshinari [Hiroshima Univ., Faculty of Medicine, Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    The atomic bombing in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, caused an estimated casualty of 140,000 by the end of that year. Survivors faced hideous scenes and many lost family members. Later, in the early 1960s, increased rates of leukemia and other types of cancer were observed among the survivors. These long-term health effects caused serious apprehension to linger. However, only a few studies on psychological consequences among the survivors have been conducted. In 2008, Hiroshima City commissioned our study team to perform a large-scale survey on long-term health effects among the survivors. We delivered a questionnaire by mail to all subjects who were living in Hiroshima City and adjacent towns prior to the release of the A-bomb until the study was implemented. The number of potential subjects was 31,598 and the response rate was 75%. We analyzed a subsample of subjects (n=14,373) whose age at the event was 8 or above. In the multiple regression analysis, hibakusha (A-bomb victims) and those who were exposed to the Black Rain (fall-out) showed poor mental health compared to the comparison group on SF-8, K6 and IES-R scores even after adjusting socio-demographic variables. Although traumatic experiences at the event still affected mental health, anxiety for health effects and social stigma showed greater impact. Our findings suggest that even 63 years after the event, apprehension of health effects and social stigma harm mental health in A-bomb survivors. Our findings may also suggest that long-term risk communication will be vital to mitigate mental health effects among survivors of the Fukushima nuclear disaster. (author)

  2. Physical Responses of Convective Heavy Rainfall to Future Warming Condition: Case Study of the Hiroshima Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenshi Hibino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An extreme precipitation event happened at Hiroshima in 2014. Over 200 mm of total rainfall was observed on the night of August 19th, which caused floods and many landslides. The rainfall event was estimated to be a rare event happening once in approximately 30 years. The physical response of this event to the change of the future atmospheric condition, which includes a temperature increase on average and convective stability change, is investigated in the present study using a 27-member ensemble experiment and pseudo global warming downscaling method. The experiment is integrated using the Japan Meteorological Research Institute non-hydrostatic regional climate model. A very high-resolution horizontal grid, 500 m, is used to reproduce dense cumulonimbus cloud formation causing heavy rainfall in the model. The future climate condition determined by a higher greenhouse gas concentration is prescribed to the model, in which the surface air temperature globally averaged is 4 K warmer than that in the preindustrial era. The total amounts of precipitation around the Hiroshima area in the future experiments are closer to or slightly lower than in the current experiments in spite of the increase in water vapor due to the atmospheric warming. The effect of the water vapor increase on extreme precipitation is found to be canceled out by the suppression of convection due to the thermal stability enhancement. The fact that future extreme precipitation like the Hiroshima event is not intensified is in contrast to the well-known result that extreme rainfall tends to be intensified in the future. The results in the present study imply that the response of extreme precipitation to global warming differs for each rainfall phenomenon.

  3. Whole-blood phagocytic and bactericidal activities of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Sumiko; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Toyota, Emiko; Neriishi, Shotaro; Yamakido, Michio; Matsuo, Miyo; Hosoda, Yutaka; Finch, S.C.

    1989-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in aliquots of whole blood from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Any significant effects of exposure to A-bomb radiation could not be detected for both phagocytic and bactericidal activities of whole blood from A-bomb survivors. In addition, there were no significant effects of age categories, sex or city, except in neutrophil counts. (J.P.N.)

  4. Research plan for joint ABCC-NIH pathology studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-07-27

    A program for the conduct of pathology studies within fixed cohorts of Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survirors is described. It is intended that the program serve as a basis for collaborative efforts by community medical institutions and organizations together with ABCC-NIH in both cities. The report describes the scope of the program, together with epidemiologic aspects of the population base and methods of case procurement, and outlines proposed studies. Detailed descriptions of autopsy protocols, surgical pathology reports, coding procedures, and other procedural and operating matters will be considered in a subsequent report. 37 references, 4 figures, 8 tables.

  5. Health effects on individuals and health services of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkita, T.

    1984-01-01

    Human injuries caused by the A-bomb can be categorized as the result of thermal rays, ionizing radiation, or blast. Many persons sustained injuries from more than one cause, any one of which could have been fatal. In addition to such direct injuries, indirect injuries were sustained, caused by fire or the fall of rubble from demolished buildings. The severity of early A-bomb injuries was directly proportional to distance from the hypocentre. Many hospitals and clinics throughout Hiroshima City and Nagasaki City were destroyed or damaged depending on their distance from the hypocentre and the extent to which they were shielded topographically

  6. Mortality statistics by causes of death among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima prefecture, 1973 - 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru

    1985-01-01

    The standardized mortality ratios of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture between 1973 and 1977 were compared with those of non-exposed population in this prefecture. In the malignant neoplasms, the ratios for leukemia, liver, breast, lung, larynx, brain, bone, skin, uterus, bladder and colon were higher than non-exposed. Other than the neoplasms, the ratios for cirrhosis of liver, diabetes, hypertensive diseases and blood and blood-forming organs were higher than nonexposed, while those for heart diseases, cerebro-vascular diseases, senility, gastro-enteritis and accidents were lower than non-exposed. (author)

  7. Deep underground measurements of 60Co in steel exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Mikael; Gasparro, Joël; Vasselli, Roberto; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Arnold, Dirk; Neumaier, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    When using gamma-ray spectrometry performed deep underground, it is possible to measure 60Co activities down to 0.1 mBq in steel samples of some 100 g without any pre-concentration. It is thus still possible to measure 60Co induced by neutrons from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in pieces of steel collected at distances up to about 1200 m slant range. The results of non-destructive measurements of eight steel samples are compared with the 1986 Dose Re-Evaluation (DS86) model calculations.

  8. Deep underground measurements of 60Co in steel exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hult, Mikael; Gasparro, J.Joeel; Vasselli, Roberto; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Arnold, Dirk; Neumaier, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    When using gamma-ray spectrometry performed deep underground, it is possible to measure 60 Co activities down to 0.1 mBq in steel samples of some 100 g without any pre-concentration. It is thus still possible to measure 60 Co induced by neutrons from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in pieces of steel collected at distances up to about 1200 m slant range. The results of non-destructive measurements of eight steel samples are compared with the 1986 Dose Re-Evaluation (DS86) model calculations

  9. Deep underground measurements of {sup 60}Co in steel exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Mikael E-mail: mikael.hult@cec.eu.int; Gasparro, J.Joeel; Vasselli, Roberto; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Arnold, Dirk; Neumaier, Stefan

    2004-09-01

    When using gamma-ray spectrometry performed deep underground, it is possible to measure {sup 60}Co activities down to 0.1 mBq in steel samples of some 100 g without any pre-concentration. It is thus still possible to measure {sup 60}Co induced by neutrons from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in pieces of steel collected at distances up to about 1200 m slant range. The results of non-destructive measurements of eight steel samples are compared with the 1986 Dose Re-Evaluation (DS86) model calculations.

  10. Estimate of person-years at risk among A-bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrubec, Z

    1964-11-19

    Using information from the Supplementary Schedules of the 1950 National Census and from the JNIH-ABCC Life Span Study, cumulative person-years at risk in 1950 to 1960 were estimated by age ATB, sex, distance from hypocenter, radiation dose and symptoms for A-bomb survivors resident in Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities. The number of person-years at risk in 1951 to 1958 was estimated by applying the survivorship in each age group of the Adult Health Study sample during the period 1951 to 1958 to the number of survivors in 1950. To determine the number of person-years at risk from 1959 to 1960, the average yearly loss was evaluated for each exposure group for the period 1955 to 1958 in Hiroshima and for 1953 to 1958 in Nagasaki which was then applied to 1959 and 1960, respectively. The estimate of person-years among the nonexposed groups for this period was obtained from the above estimates, the total population of both cities, and the number of persons born after the A-bombing. Estimates by other associated factors were obtained by the same procedure. 20 references, 25 tables.

  11. The new radiation dosimetry for the A-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Extensive work has been conducted over the past few years to reassess all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the A-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This work has included reviews of the bomb yields, source terms, air transport of neutrons and gamma rays, neutron-induced radioactivity and thermoluminescence in exposed materials, shielding of individuals by buildings, and calculations of organ doses. The results of these theoretical and experimental activities have led to the development of a new dosimetry system which is designated as the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). New DS86 estimates of tissue kerma in air and absorbed dose to fifteen organs are available for 94,787 survivors who were either outside and unshielded, outside and shielded by houses, or inside and shielded by houses (64,408 in Hiroshima and 30,379 in Nagasaki). The organ doses are calculated on an age-dependent basis as follows: infants (less than 3 years old at the time of bombing, ATB), children (3 to 12 years old ATB), and adults (more than 12 years old ATB). Work in progress includes the extension of the DS86 system to Nagasaki survivors who were shielded either by terrain or by factory buildings

  12. Plutonium characteristics in sediments of Hiroshima Bay in the Seto Inland Sea in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiyong Liu; National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba; Jian Zheng; Masatoshi Yamada; Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Aomori; Shaoming Pan; Hodaka Kawahata

    2011-01-01

    Sediment core samples were collected from Hiroshima Bay in the Seto Inland Sea, western Northwest Pacific Ocean, and their 239+240 Pu activities and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios were determined by sector field ICP-MS. The activities of 239+240 Pu ranged from 0.556 ± 0.025 to 0.745 ± 0.023 mBq/g. The atom ratios of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu were almost constant within the whole depth; the average value was 0.227 ± 0.014. This atom ratio was significantly higher than the mean global fallout ratio of 0.18, proving the presence of close-in fallout Pu that originated from the Pacific Proving Ground (PPG). The water masses exchanges between the Kuroshio Current and the Seto Inland Sea brought the PPG source Pu to this area, then Pu was extensively scavenged into sediment particles supplied by the rivers around the bay. The relative contributions of the global fallout Pu and the PPG close-in fallout Pu were evaluated by the two end-member mixing model. The contribution of the PPG close-in fallout was 38-41% of the total Pu in sediment. The remaining 59-62% was attributed to direct global fallout and the land-origin Pu transported by the rivers around the Hiroshima Bay. (author)

  13. The delayed effects of radiation exposure among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.; Moriyama, I.M.

    1980-07-01

    The most important radiation-induced late medical effect in the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been the increased occurrence of certain neoplasms, specifically, leukemia and cancers of the thyroid, lung, and breast. Other definite radiation-related effects include an increase in posterior lenticular opacities, chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and some abnormalities of growth and development following irradiation while in utero or during childhood. Moderate to fairly strong associations between A-bomb exposure and the increased occurrence of stomach cancer, multiple myeloma, and several other types of cancer have been observed. Radiation relationships also are suggestive for alterations of certain aspects of immune mechanisms and the increased occurrence of myelofibrosis. No increase in genetic effects has been demonstrated in the children born of exposed parents, and studies to data have been negative for evidence of increased infertility, accelerated aging, or increased mortality from diseases other than cancer. In general, the radiation dose-response relationships for most positive effects have been higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki, and the shape of the dose-response curves for certain effects is different in the two cities. These differences may be related to differences in the quality of the radiation from the two A-bombs. For several radiation-related effects the latent period following exposure is shorter and the incidence rate is higher in personse exposed when young as compared to exposure later in life. (author)

  14. Atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Takashi

    1986-01-01

    Better atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation dose estimates with a higher accuracy are required for the epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Several scientists have tried to evaluate the free-in-air gamma ray and neutron dose and some weighting factors such as house shielding and body shielding. Since 1965, the tentative 1965 dose (T65D) has been widely used as the basic data for the dose determination of A-bomb survivors in epidemiological studies. In 1976, however, the reevaluation of the T65D dose was proposed by an American scientist who calculated the A-bomb doses on the basis of declassified data on the radiation spectra of the A-bomb. The development of computer technology made it possible to perform complicated dosecalculations for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs. This paper describes the history of A-bomb dosimetry, reviews some issues in the determination of T65D, and discusses the necessity of reassessment of A-bomb dose and the expected values for survivors. (author)

  15. Atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, T.

    1986-01-01

    Better atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation dose estimates with a higher accuracy are required for the epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Several scientists have tried to evaluate the free-in-air gamma ray and neutron dose and some weighting factors such as house shielding and body shielding. Since 1965, the tentative 1965 dose (T65D) had been widely used as the basic data for the dose determination of A-bomb survivors in epidemiological studies. In 1976, however, the reevaluation of the T65D dose was proposed by an American scientist who calculated the A-bomb doses on the basis of declassified data on the radiation spectra of the A-bomb. The development of computer technology made it possible to perform complicated dosecalculations for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs. This paper describes the history of A-bomb dosimetry, reviews some issues in the determination of T65D, and discusses the necessity of reassessment of A-bomb dose and the expected values for survivors

  16. Uncertainties under emergency conditions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 and Bikini accident in 1954

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Y.; Kawai, H.; Shono, N.; Fujita, S.; Matsuoka, H.; Fujiwara, S.; Hosoda, T.

    2000-01-01

    In exploding an atomic bomb, in addition to ionizing radiation, strong non-ionizing radiation, such as infrared, ultraviolet light, visible light, electromagnetic pulse radiation, as well as heat and shock waves are produced. The survivors and those who visited Hiroshima immediately after the atomic bombing could have been subjected to a number of other possible noxious effects in addition to atomic radiation. Hospitals, laboratories, drugstores, pharmaceutical works, storehouses of chemicals, factories, etc. that were situated close to the hypocenter were all completely destroyed and various mutagenic, carcinogenic or teratogenic substances must have been released, many doctors, nurses and chemists were killed. There was no medical care and no food in the region of high dose exposure and the drinking water was contaminated. There would have been various possibilities of infection. Mental stress would also have been much higher in the survivors closer to the hypocenter. It is confusing which factor played a dominant role. In addition, there would be problems in accurately identifying the position of the exposed persons at the time of the atomic bombing and also in estimating the shielding factors. There may be considerable uncertainty in human memory under such conditions. It is also possible that there could have been a large storage of gasoline to be used for transportation of the army corps in Hiroshima. Therefore there is a possibility that various toxic substances, mutagenic or carcinogenic agents such as benzopyrene and other radiomimetic substances, chemical weapons (Yperit, Lewisite, etc.) could have been released from various facilities which were destroyed at the time of the atomic bombing. After the German surrender, in May 1945, it was reported in June, in Japan, that the USA might attempt landing on Japan mainland, and that they might be planning massive use of chemical weapons all over Japan on that occasion. Preparing for such case chemical officers

  17. Activation Measurements for Thermal Neutrons, U.S. Measurements of 36Cl in Mineral Samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki; and Measurement of 63 Ni in Copper Samples From Hiroshima by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tore Straume; Alfredo A. Marchetti; Stephen D. Egbert; James A. Roberts; Ping Men; Shoichiro Fujita; Kiyoshi Shizuma; Masaharu Hoshi; G. Rugel; W. Ruhm; G. Korschinek; J. E. McAninch; K. L. Carroll; T. Faestermann; K. Knie; R. E. Martinelli; A. Wallner; C. Wallner

    2005-01-14

    The present paper presents the {sup 36}Cl measurement effort in the US. A large number of {sup 36}Cl measurements have been made in both granite and concrete samples obtained from various locations and distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements employed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the number of atoms of {sup 36}Cl per atom of total Cl in the sample. Results from these measurements are presented here and discussed in the context of the DS02 dosimetry reevaluation effort for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors. The production of {sup 36}Cl by bomb neutrons in mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki was primarily via the reaction {sup 35}Cl(n,{gamma}){sup 36}Cl. This reaction has a substantial thermal neutron cross-section (43.6 b at 0.025 eV) and the product has a long half-life (301,000 y). hence, it is well suited for neutron-activation detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using AMS more than 50 years after the bombings. A less important reaction for bomb neutrons, {sup 39}K(n,{alpha}){sup 36}Cl, typically produces less than 10% of the {sup 36}Cl in mineral samples such as granite and concrete, which contain {approx} 2% potassium. In 1988, only a year after the publication of the DS86 final report (Roesch 1987), it was demonstrated experimentally that {sup 36}Cl measured using AMS should be able to detect the thermal neutron fluences at the large distances most relevant to the A-bomb survivor dosimetry. Subsequent measurements in mineral samples from both Hiroshima and Nagasaki validated the experimental findings. The potential utility of {sup 36}Cl as a thermal neutron detector in Hiroshima was first presented by Haberstock et al. who employed the Munich AMS facility to measure {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios in a gravestone from near the hypocenter. That work subsequently resulted in an expanded {sup 36}Cl effort in Germany that paralleled the US work. More recently, there have also been {sup 36}Cl measurements made by a Japanese

  18. Education for hydraulics and pnuematics in Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Information Sciences, Hiroshima City University; Hiroshima shiritsudaigaku ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, M. [Hiroshima City University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-03-15

    Described herein is education of hydraulics and pneumatics in Hiroshima City University. Department of Computer Science is responsible for the education, covering a wide educational range from basics of information processing methodology to application of mathematical procedures. This university provides no subject directly related to hydraulics and pneumatics, which, however, can be studied by the courses of control engineering or modern control theories. These themes are taken up for graduation theses for bachelors and masters; 2 for dynamic characteristics of pneumatic cylinders, and one for pneumatic circuit simulation. Images of the terms hydraulics and pneumatics are outdated for students of information-related departments. Hydraulics and pneumatics are being forced to rapidly change, like other branches of science, and it may be time to make a drastic change from hardware to software, because their developments have been excessively oriented to hardware. It is needless to say that they are based on hardware, but it may be worthy of drastically changing these branches of science by establishing virtual fluid power systems. It is also proposed to introduce the modern multi-media techniques into the education of hydraulics and pneumatics. (NEDO)

  19. Photography and nuclear catastrophe. The visual representation of the occurrences in Hiroshima/Nagasaki and Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerkner, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation project seeks to analyse the photographic positions that deal with the atomic bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the accident of the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl. This focus includes press photographs of the events as well as artistic, documentary and touristic images that take an approach towards the disasters often years after and hereby form iconographic or material references to the events. The study reveals central strategies for photographic images of atomic catastrophes, be they of military or civil nature. It is the inability to visualize non-visible nuclear rays or the complexity of processes on an atomic level that has turned out to be crucial. This incapacity of making images, a paradigm of invisibility, substantially coins the cultural role of the events. The question of how a society deals with these abstract potentials of nuclear technology has turned out to be always anew of high relevance in regard to ecological, social and technological policies of images.

  20. ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study, Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1958-1960: height-weight tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigel, D

    1962-11-14

    From measurements taken in the Adult Health Study in Nagasaki and Hiroshima, tables of weight have been compiled. They are presented in the metric system, specific for height, sex, and age group. Five percentiles are presented as a guide for describing the distribution of weights. These values represent smoothing of the original data. This was accomplished by fitting second degree regression equations by least squares to the relationship of the logarithm of weight on height, separately for each age-sex group. This provided medians; other percentiles were obtained by adding or subtracting a term of the form KS, where K was taken from a table of normal deviates, and S was estimated from the data. The use and limitations of the tables were discussed. 10 tables.

  1. Bone marrow cytology in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors 5 years following exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterle, S.N.; Finch, S.C.

    1978-11-01

    Bone marrow aspiration smears obtained from 35 individuals, 5 years following exposure to the Hiroshima atomic bomb, were intensively evaluated for radiation related cytologic abnormalities. No definite radiation related changes were observed, but some findings were very suggestive. The most interesting of these was the occurrence of internuclear bridges joining erythroid precursors in the marrow smears of seven (20%) of the heavily exposed survivors. Although not specific it is likely that this lesion is indicative of residual stem cell damage and some degree of ineffectual erythropoiesis. The bone marrow morphologic lesions may be good markers of residual radiation damage but they are too infrequent in their occurrence to be of value as a biologic dosimeter. The findings in this study also suggest that a gradual disappearance of radiation induced late bone marrow changes continues for periods of 3 to 5 years or more following high dose acute radiation exposure. (author)

  2. Hydrogen isotope ratios of clay minerals constituting clay veins found in granitic rocks in Hiroshima Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Ryuji; Kakitani, Satoru; Kuroda, Yoshimatsu; Matsuo, Sadao; Suzuoki, Tetsuro.

    1980-01-01

    The deuterium content of the constitutional and interlayer water extracted from the clay minerals (illite, montmorillonite, interstratified illite-montmorillonite mineral, kaolinite, halloysite) constituting the clay veins found in the granitic rocks in Hiroshima Prefecture was measured. The clay minerals were heated at 270 deg C to extract the interlayer water, then heated to 1,400 or 1,500 deg C to extract the constitutional water. The deuterium content of the local surface water collected from sampling points was measured. In the clay veins formed along perpendicular joints, the constituent clay minerals change from lower to upper part: illite → montmorillonite → kaolinite → halloysite. The deuterium content values of the constitutional water for illite and montmorillonite were estimated to be -67 to -69% and -86 to -89%, respectively. The deuterium content values of the constitutional water for halloysite range from -68 to -80% and for kaolinite from -63 to -67%. (J.P.N.)

  3. Aging in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors: soluble--insoluble collagen ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R E; Yamamoto, T; Thorslund, T W

    1973-01-01

    The soluble--insoluble collagen ratio was determined in aortas removed at autopsy during the period 1966--70 (21--25 years post-exposure); 261 specimens were examined from persons of both sexes, age 30--89 years at death. A portion of the test samples were from persons located less than 1500 m from the hypocenter at the time of the bomb. The ratio in this group was not significantly different from persons who were not in Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the time of the explosions. However, a possible discrepancy was noted between the two exposure groups involving both males and females who were less than 60 years of age at the time of death with lower average values among the exposed groups. This observation is interpreted and related to the pronounced life-shortening effect of radiation when animals are exposed at a young age. (DLC)

  4. Immunohistochemical analysis of colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masami; Yamamoto, Tetsuro; Hata, Jotaro; Nakagawa, Hitoshi; Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Tahara, Eiichi.

    1987-01-01

    In order to elucidate the biological characteristics of colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, a total of 159 cases of colorectal cancers comprising 73 cases in exposed atomic bomb survivors and 86 cases in non-exposed individuals were examined histologically and immunohistochemically for various functioning proteins. No statistical differences could be demonstrated in the incidence of various marker expressions of colorectal cancers between the exposed group and control group. However, comparison by the site of colorectal cancer showed that sigmoid colon cancers in the exposed group or high dose group showed a significantly higher frequency of glycoproteins such as α 1 -antichymotrypsin (ACT), secretory component (SC), α 1 -antitrypsin (AAT), and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) when compared with the control group. These results correlated well with the epidemiological data that the radiation effect on the incidence of colorectal cancer in atomic bomb survivors was most remarkable in the sigmoid colon. (author)

  5. Correlations between tests of aging in Hiroshima subjects: an attempt to define physiologic age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Hashizume, Asaji; Jablon, Seymour

    1964-12-01

    Nine physiologic functions which change with age were measured in 437 subjects during their regular visits to the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission clinic in Hiroshima, Japan. This pilot study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of collecting such data in a population sample physiologic age score. Tests conducted consisted of: skin elasticity, systolic blood pressure, vital capacity, hand grip strength, light extinction time, vibrometer, visual activity, audiometry, and serum cholesterol. The study demonstrated that adequate sample data could be obtained, and that statistical treatment could construct a physiologic age for individual subjects. However, the tests were of limited value below age 40, and the validation of the concept of physiologic age requires eventual correlation with mortality. Since the ABCC program includes a highly accurate mortality survey, it is hoped that data on physiologic aging can be collected and eventually related to mortality. 11 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  6. Radiation exposure and disease questionnaires of early entrants after the Hiroshima bombing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, T.; Endo, S.; Kawano, N.; Tanaka, K.

    2012-01-01

    It is popularly known that people who entered into the ground-zero area shortly after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffered from various syndromes similar to acute radiation effects. External exposures from neutron-induced radionuclides in soil have recently been reassessed based on DS02 calculations as functions of both distance from the hypo-centres and elapsed time after the explosions. Significant exposure due to induced radiation can be determined for those who entered the area within 1000 m from the hypo-centres shortly after the bombing. Although it was impossible to track the action of each of the survivors over the days or weeks following the bombings in order to make reliable dose estimates for their exposures to soil activation or fallout, four individuals among those early entrants were investigated here to describe useful information of what happened shortly after the bombing. (authors)

  7. A review of 40 years studies of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itsuzo Shigematsu

    1993-01-01

    The late health effects of ionizing radiation have been studied by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) based on a fixed population of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki which had been established in 1950. The results thus far obtained up to the present can be classified into the following three categories: (1) The effects for which a strong association with atomic bomb radiation has been found include malignant neoplasms, cataracts, chromosomal aberrations, small head size and mental retardation among the in utero exposed. (2) A weak association has been found in the several sites of cancers, some non-cancer mortalities and immunological abnormalities. (3) No association has been observed in some types of leukemia, osteosarcoma, accelerated aging, sterility and hereditary effects

  8. Histological review of breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuoka, Shoji; Asano, Masahide; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Sakamoto, Goi; Hartmann, W.H.; Hutter, R.V.P.; Henson, D.E.

    1983-09-01

    A group of pathologists from the United States and Japan reviewed breast cancer material of women exposed to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and controls. The purpose of the review was to verify the diagnoses, establish a base of confirmed cases for epidemiologic study, and provide a reference for other pathology review. Compared to the control group, matched through the Life Span Study extended sample, there were no differences in distribution of tumor type and tumor size. There were also no differences in histological type by age or radiation dose. The peak age for cancer to develop was the same in the exposed and control groups. The type of radiation had no effect on histological type. Atypical changes or residual proliferative lesions were not found in women exposed to radiation but free from cancer. On the basis of this study, it was concluded that radiogenic breast cancer does not differ histologically from spontaneously occurring cancer in Japanese women. (author)

  9. Encounter with disaster: a medical diary of Hiroshima, 1945. Condensed from the original publication, 1965

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebow, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 are described. Immediately after the bombing, Japanese civilian and military authorities mobilized an intense effort to provide help to the damaged cities and their inhabitants. At the same time, research was undertaken by the Japanese in an attempt to determine the nature of the effects of the bombs on the population. Some weeks later, the American armed services and the Manhattan District also organized an investigation of these effects. This memoir describes the early days of the American research effort, its integration with the Japanese program, and the development of a Joint Commission to study the effects of the bombing. After the first rapid survey, described in this paper, the effort was reorganized and continued under the sponsorship of the National Research Councils of America and Japan as the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission

  10. Mental retardation in children exposed in utero to the atomic bomb - Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, J W; Johnson, K G; Omori, Yoshiaki; Kawamoto, Sadahisa; Keehn, R J

    1966-05-19

    Subjects who were exposed in utero to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, along with suitable controls, are examined annually at ABCC. Of the 1613 subjects in the study sample, 30 have gross mental retardation. Within 1500 m from the hypocenter the prevalence of mental retardation is 5 times as high as for the more distal subjects, and 6 to 15 weeks gestation was the most sensitive period. Even when subjects with possible explanations for their retardation are excluded the pattern of differences remains the same. All but two of the retarded subjects had a smaller than average head and for those who were within 1500 m this effect is accentuated. 17 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

  11. Inventory of ABCC-RERF autopsies Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1948-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This is the fourth inventory of ABCC-RERF autopsies which covers those performed from 1948-80 (the other three inventories). For general information the introduction of the third inventory (1948-70) is included with some modification, and deaths and autopsy rates for 1971-80 are added. ABCC-RERF performed 10,096 autopsies (6,555 in Hiroshima and 3,541 in Nagasaki) from 1948 to 1980. Protocols, tissues, sections, smears, etc., assembled by the collaborating institutions were examined by members of the ABCC Department of Pathology who completed ABCC records for each case. Copies of all protocols, gross tissues, and histological sections were placed in a designated repository in the Medical School of each city where they are available to all qualified and interested investigators. (J.P.N.)

  12. Hiroshima - Monday August 6, 1945, 8h15 a.m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersey, John; Belmont, Georges; Haas, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    On 6 August 1945 at 8.15 a.m., Hiroshima was destroyed by the first atom bomb ever dropped on a city, killing one hundred thousand men, women and children in its white fury. This book, John Hersey's journalistic masterpiece, tells what happened on that day. Told through the memories of six civilians who survived against the odds, this timeless, powerful and compassionate document tells the moments that have preceded and followed the atomic explosion. John Hersey's spare, devastating report on the attack was first published in the New Yorker in 1946. Written in the immediate aftermath of the disaster, it is a classic piece of journalism, and a defining moment of the nuclear age

  13. Hospital and clinic survey estimates of medical X-ray exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoku, Shigetoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Sawada, Shozo; Russell, W.J.

    1987-07-01

    The technical factors used during radiological examinations performed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki medical institutions were analyzed. The most frequently performed examination was chest radiography, followed by upper GI series. More than half the radiographic exposures were from upper GI series due to the many spot films made during fluoroscopy. Comparison of the present survey results with those of a previous one showed that relatively high kVp, low mAs and mA, and smaller field sizes are now more widely used. Though there have been decreased in fluoroscopy times and tube currents over the past 10 years, the numbers of spot films used have increased. Based on these technical factors, tables of organ doses from fluoroscopic examinations were compiled. (author)

  14. ABCC-JNIH adult health study: Hiroshima. Serum lysozyme determinations, April-June 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S C; Lamphere, J P; Jablon, S

    1961-01-01

    Serum lysozyme levels were determined on 670 consecutive subjects seen for regularly scheduled clinic examinations of the Adult Health Study in Hiroshima. Serum lysozyme levels were found to vary significantly with the absolute peripheral granulocyte count, age, sex, and month of study. A high level of correlation also was noted between serum lysozyme and diabetes mellitus. This was at least in part attributable to greater average age in patients with diabetes. A suggestive relationship was established between serum lysozyme levels, respiratory diseases, and tuberculosis. These changes are believed to reflect active inflammation with excessive destruction of granulocytes and parenchymal tissues in those patients with the more acute processes. No relationship was found between serum lysozyme and previous exposure to ionizing radiation. These studies indicate that the serum lysozyme level may be useful in the study of the kinetics of leukopoiesis, the aging process, and in the detection of subtle inflammatory processes.

  15. Serum pepsin levels Hiroshima adult health study. Relation to radiation, ABO blood groups, and gastrointestinal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knittle, J L

    1961-07-12

    At the ABCC clinic in Hiroshima 1330 subjects were investigated as to serum pepsin levels over a four month period. The normal mean values compared well with those reported for a United States population using a similar technique. There appeared to be no significant change in serum pepsin level with age, and no difference could be detected among individuals of the ABO blood groups. No relationship was found between serum pepsin level and exposure to ionizing radiation. Patients with gastric and duodenal ulcers had mean levels which were higher than normal mean values, while patients with leukemia had lower than normal mean levels. Patients with gastric polyps and gastric cancer had normal mean values. It is believed that the relation of serum pepsin activity to cancer of the stomach is not settled and deserves further investigation. 23 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  16. Primary intracranial tumors among atomic bomb survivors and controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyama, Shinichi; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Iijima, Soichi; Mori, Kazuo.

    1980-02-01

    An analysis was made of the relationship of radiation dose to the occurrence of primary intracranial tumors among atomic bomb survivors and nonexposed controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in the fixed cohort of the Life Span Study (LSS) extended sample during the period 1961-75, or 16 to 30 years after the A-bombs. Based on various medical sources, 104 cases of primary intracranial tumors were identified among approximately 99,000 LSS extended sample members who were alive as of 1 January 1961. Of these 104 cases, 45 had manifested clinical signs of brain tumors, but, 59 cases were identified incidentally at postmortem examination. The distributions of morphologic type, age, and size of tumor were quite different for those primary intracranial tumors with and without a clinical sign of brain tumor. Glioma was the most frequent type of tumor with a clinical sign and meningioma was the most frequent type without. In relation to radiation dose the incidence rate of primary intracranial tumors with a clinical sign showed a significant excess risk for males in the high dose group who received 100 rad or more after adjustment for age at the time of the bomb (ATB). The standardized relative risk is around 5 in this group. The data also suggest that the crude relative risk of glioma is greater in the high dose group for younger ages ATB. However, there is no increased risk in females. Among the 5,012 autopsy subjects in the LSS extended sample during 1961-75, there is no relationship between radiation dose and the prevalence rate of primary intracranial tumors in those identified incidentally by autopsy. The relative risk of subclinical adenoma of the pituitary gland between high dose subjects and controls was also examined for a sample of 95 sex- and age-matched pairs using Hiroshima autopsy materials for 1961-74, but no relationship to dose was observed. (author)

  17. PREFACE: International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design, Hiroshima, Japan, 3 6 December 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Oguchi, Tamio

    2007-09-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter comprises selected papers from the 1st International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design (QSD2006) held in Hiroshima, Japan, 3-6 December 2006. This conference was organized under the auspices of the Development of New Quantum Simulators and Quantum Design Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT), and Hiroshima University Quantum design is a computational approach to the development of new materials with specified properties and functionalities. The basic ingredient is the use of quantum simulations to design a material that meets a given specification of properties and functionalities. For this to be successful, the quantum simulation should be highly reliable and be applicable to systems of realistic size. A central interest is, therefore, the development of new methods of quantum simulation and quantum design. This includes methods beyond the local density approximation of density functional theory (LDA), order-N methods, methods dealing with excitations and reactions, and so on, as well as the application of these methods to the design of new materials and devices. The field of quantum design has developed rapidly in the past few years and this conference provides an international forum for experimental and theoretical researchers to exchange ideas. A total of 183 delegates from 8 countries participated in the conference. There were 18 invited talks, 16 oral presentations and 100 posters. There were many new ideas and we foresee dramatic progress in the coming years. The 2nd International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design will be held in Tokyo, Japan, 31 May-3 June 2008.

  18. Effect on intelligence test score of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, Masanori; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi.

    1988-10-01

    Analyses of intelligence test scores (Koga) at 10-11 years of age of individuals exposed prenatally to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki using estimates of the uterine absorbed dose based on the recently introduced system of dosimetry, the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86), reveal the following: 1) there is no evidence of a radiation-related effect on intelligence among those individuals exposed within 0-7 weeks after fertilization or in the 26th or subsequent weeks; 2) for individuals exposed at 8-15 weeks after fertilization, and to a lesser extent those exposed at 16-25 weeks, the mean tests scores but not the variances are significantly heterogeneous among exposure categories; 3) the cumulative distribution of test scores suggests a progressive shift downwards in individual scores with increasing exposure; and 4) within the group most sensitive to the occurrence of clinically recognizable severe mental retardation, individuals exposed 8 through 15 weeks after fertilization, the regression of intelligence score on estimated DS86 uterine absorbed dose is more linear than with T65DR fetal dose, the diminution in intelligence score under the linear model is 21-29 points at 1Gy. The effect is somewhat greater when the controls receiving less than 0.01 Gy are excluded, 24-33 points at 1 Gy. These findings are discussed in the light of the earlier analysis of the frequency of occurrence of mental retardation among the prenatally exposed survivors of the A-bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It is suggested that both are the consequences of the same underlying biological process or processes. (author)

  19. Mortality of Hiroshima A-bomb survivors exposed at the black rain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Tonda, Tetsuji

    2012-01-01

    An epidemiological study was performed on the black rain as a death risk factor of survivors in Hiroshima Uda's (U) light to heavy black rain regions using the positional parameters at their exposure. Subjects were 27,610 A-bomb survivors at Jan. 1, 1970 with known positional coordinate and direct dose at explosion, followed until Dec. 31, 2009, whose endpoint was defined to be their all deaths due to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular diseases, pneumonia, cancers, etc. Confounding factors were sex (11,457 males/16,153 females), age at exposure (av. 25 y) and dose (av. 0.045 Gy), with which analysis was done by Cox proportional hazard model. The confounding interaction of the age/U region was found significant: e.g., at the exposed age 25 y, the hazard ratio was calculated to be 1.084, indicating about 8% higher hazard ratio of U region than the area outside of U. When the effect of the sex, exposed age and direct dose were adjusted to be minimized, the risk was found distributed mainly in concentric circle from hypocenter, yet still the effect of indirect exposure was observed though. When the distance instead of the indirect dose was used as an explanatory variable, it resulted in being significant with no significance of the direct exposure dose. Risk map employing the positional information at explosion revealed that the risk distribution was locally different even in U region itself. Thus this study suggested that the black rain was a mortality risk factor in the U raining region of Hiroshima. (T.T.)

  20. Late radiation responses in man: Current evaluation from results from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schull, William J.

    Among the late effects of exposure to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, none looms larger than radiation related malignancies. Indeed, the late effects of A-bomb radiation on mortality appear to be limited to an increase in malignant tumors. At present, it can be shown that cancers of the breast, colon, esophagus, lungs, stomach, thyroid, and urinary tract as well as leukemia and multiple myeloma increase in frequency with an increase in exposure. No significant relationship to radiation can as yet be established for malignant lymphoma, nor cancers of the rectum, pancreas or uterus. Radiation induced malignancies other than leukemia seem to develop proportionally to the natural cancer rate for the attained age. For specific age-at-death intervals, both relative and absolute risks tend to be higher for those of younger age at the time of bombing. Other late effects include radiation-related lenticular opacities, disturbances of growth among those survivors still growing at the time of exposure, and mental retardation and small head sizes among the in utero exposed. Chromosomal abnormalities too are more frequently encountered in the peripheral leucocytes of survivors, and this increase is functionally related to their exposure. Some uncertainty continues to surround both the quantity and quality of the radiation released by these two nuclear devices, particularly the Hiroshima bomb. A recent reassessment suggests that the gamma radiation estimates which have been used in the past may be too low at some distances and the neutron radiation estimates too high at all distances; moreover, the energies of the neutrons released now appear ``softer'' than previously conjectured. These uncertainties not sufficiently large, however, to compromise the reality of the increased frequency of malignancy, but make estimates of the dose response, particularly in terms of gamma and neutron exposures, tentative.

  1. La voix off au féminin : Hiroshima mon amour et Aurélia Steiner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cazenave

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Une étude comparée du grand film moderne d’Alain Resnais, Hiroshima mon amour (1959, et du dyptique de Marguerite Duras, Aurélia Steiner (1979, laisse entrevoir une filiation entre deux films que vingt ans séparent et où s’entrecroisent un certain nombre de fils conducteurs : le lieu et la parole ; l’histoire et la mémoire ; la voix-off au féminin et l’irreprésentable. Il s’agira donc de penser ces deux œuvres cinématographiques à partir du rapport entre le parler féminin et la représentation du passé, soit la tonte des femmes au moment de la libération dans Hiroshima mon amour, soit l’extermination des Juifs d’Europe dans Aurélia Steiner.

  2. An autopsy study of cerebrovascular disease in Japanese men who lived in Hiroshima, Japan and Honolulu, Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuyama, Yoshio; Thompson, L.R.; Hayashi, Takuji; Lee, K.K.; Keehn, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Evidence of cerebrovascular disease at autopsy was compared in two groups of men, 186 long time residents of Hiroshima, Japan and 253 men of Japanese ancestry long resident in Honolulu, Hawaii. They were from 45 to 71 years of age at death. Atherosclerosis of the circle of Willis and its major branches, sclerosis of the intraparenchymal arteries and the frequency of cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarct were compared in the two populations. The Honolulu subjects had significantly more atherosclerosis of the circle of Willis, but less intraparenchymal artery sclerosis and less cerebral infarction. Cerebral hemorrhage was equally frequent in the two cities. It was concluded that cerebral infarction is more frequent in Japanese men in Hiroshima than Honolulu, and that men of Japanese ancestry in Honolulu are spared an appreciable risk of cerebral infarction through decreased frequency of intraparenchymal arterial sclerosis despite higher levels of atherosclerosis of large intracranial arteries. (author)

  3. ABCC-JNTH Adult Health Study. Report 4. 1960-1962 cycle of examinations, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, L R; Fukushima, Kazuko; Seigel, D G

    1963-10-29

    The purpose is to determine by clinical investigation any late medical effects of radiation in persons exposed to the 1945 atomic bombings of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The prevalence and incidence of certain findings were found to be different in Hiroshima and Nasasaki. For example, tuberculosis, neoplasms of the digestive organs, gastric ulcer, diseases of the thyroid, diabetes mellitus, blood diseases, and arteriosclerosis were more frequent in Hiroshima. On the other hand, syphilis, cerebrovascular accidents, intestinal parasitism, liver and kideny disease, and arthritis were more frequent in Nagasaki. The data from the hematological examinations demonstrate a decrease in hemoglobin and hematocrit with increasing age in men. In both sexes total white blood cell counts decreased with age and the values for males were higher than those for females. Total white blood cell counts in Hiroshima were higher than in Nagasaki. The need continues for superimposition of a number of epidemiologic investigations onto the basic structure of the Adult Health Study to better define and explore the differences between cities. These substudies will undoubtedly provide a more precise foundation for the study of radiation effects and further understanding of important diseases. Finally, since this study brings together scientists from two parts of the world, patterns of disease detected in Japan inevitably were compared with personal and published experience in the United States. Many suspected differences between these countries have been commented upon in the medical literature. The Adult Health Study is contributing data which will establish or deny these differences. 147 references, 18 figures, 35 tables.

  4. The report of joint research over 20 years of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and Hiroshima Institute of Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka,Takeshi; Vutova,Katia

    2014-01-01

    The Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Hiroshima Institute of Technology (EC-HIT) started the international joint research with the Laboratory “Physical Problems of Electron Beam technologies” of the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (IE-BAS) from 1994. 20 papers, included a book chapter, were published by implementing the international joint research under 5 Agreements for Academic Cooperation and Exchange between HIT and IEBAS. Our international joint ...

  5. A recalculation of the age dependent dose-effect-relationship of the life span study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottbauer, M.M.; Fleck, C.M.; Schoellnberger, H.

    1996-01-01

    The basis of the presented model is the multistage process of carcinogenesis as a biological effect. It provides simultaneously the age-dependent mortality of spontaneous and radiation induced solid tumors and dose-effect relationships at any age after exposure. The model has been used to describe the solid cancer mortality rates of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It has characteristics of both relative and absolute risk projections depending on the age of exposure. (author)

  6. Hematologic studies of irradiated survivors in Hiroshima, Japan. Refractory anemia occurring in survivors of the atomic bombing in Nagasaki, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasowa, Yoshimichi; Lange, R D; Wright, S W; Tomonaga, Masanobu; Kurasaki, Hirotami; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Matsunaga, Haruji

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 2 reports on the effects of radiation on the survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first report is a hematologic survey conducted 33 to 44 months after the detonation of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, Japan. The hematologic findings on a total of 824 survivors are compared with those on a control group of 1145 residents of Kure. Although statistical differences are apparent in the two groups, when one takes into account errors inherent in the hematologic methods themselves and differences in the possible incidence of parasitism and nutrition it would be unwarranted to attribute the slight changes found to radiation effect. The data presented here seem to indicate that radiation resulting from the explosion of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, on August 6, 1945, has not significantly varied the hematologic values as analyzed in this report over a three-to four-year period. In the second report, the case histories of six Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who developed refractory anemia are presented. Four of these individuals received undoubted radiation injury. The fact that refractory anemia may occur as a late manifestation of exposure to atomic radiation is pointed out. 15 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Autopsy study of small cardiac scars in Japanese men who lived in Hiroshima, Japan and Honolulu, Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steer, A.; Lee, S.S.; Stemmermann, G.N.; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Rhoads, G.G.

    1978-10-01

    Japanese men long resident in Honolulu, Hawaii have significantly more ischemic heart disease, but significantly fewer small cardiac scars than men in Hiroshima, Japan. These scars occur in three forms: 1) small scars in the mural myocardium which account for the difference in frequency of small lesions in the two cities, and are of uncertain etiology; 2) areas of diffuse fibrosis in the papillary muscles. These are equally frequent in the two cities, and are associated with advancing age and sclerosis of papillary muscle arteries; and 3) focal scars in the papillary muscles. These are more frequent in Honolulu than Hiroshima. They are healed infarcts due to ischemic heart disease and are associated with a severe degree of extramural coronary artery sclerosis. Small mural myocardial scars, when present, are usually found in multiple sites, and are not related to age at death or heart weight. They are more common in the presence of sclerosis of intramural small arteries, but this association does not explain their more frequent occurrence in Hiroshima. There is no evidence that they are related to A-bomb radiation exposure. (author)

  8. Study on origin and sedimentary environment of marine sediments from Kii Channel, Hiroshima Bay and Tosa Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Misaki

    2008-01-01

    The trace amounts of elements in the sediments of sea bottom in Kii Channel, Hiroshima Bay and Tosa Bay were determined quantitatively by the neutron activation analysis. The following facts were illustrated particularly from the quantitative analysis of scandium, rare earths, thorium and uranium: 1) It was known from Ce/La ratio that the geological feature in the west part of Japan is reflected in Kii Channel, Hiroshima Bay and Tosa Bay; 2) The rare-earth element pattern and La/Lu ratio suggest the fact that Kii Channel, Hiroshima Bay and Tosa Bay are essentially composed of the materials of which origin is land; 3) From the fact that Ce/La ratio in these sites are slightly under 1.0, these sites are considered to be affected mainly by the materials of which origin is land; 4) The sedimentary environment in the marine bottom of the Japanese coasts has been found to be mostly under a reductive state. (M.H.)

  9. Incidence of leukemia in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki October 1950 - December 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, Michito; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Mikami, Motoko; Yamada, Yasuaki; Ohkita, Takeshi.

    1982-12-01

    The present analysis of leukemia incidence is confined to 189 cases in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The analysis again demonstrates that the risk of all types of leukemia has increased with dose in both cities except among individuals who received less than 100 rad in kerma total dose in Nagasaki. The shape of the dose-response curve is different in the two cities and between the two major types of leukemia (acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia), though the average marrow total dose is quite similar in each total kerma dose class in the two cities. The present findings are quite consistent with those described in the previous report. The excess risk among survivors who received 100 rad or more kerma total dose has gradually declined with years after exposure in both cities. It had disappeared among Nagasaki survivors by 1970 (25 years after exposure) but the risk was still high even after 1970 among exposed survivors in Hiroshima who were 30 years of age or older ATB. The leukemogenic effect of radiation differs in relation to dose, age ATB, and duration after exposure between Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. The analysis has again supported previous observations that the leukemogenic effect of radiation in those individuals exposed at younger ages ATB was greater in the early postbomb period and declined more rapidly in subsequent years, while the effect in older individuals ATB appeared later and persisted longer. (author)

  10. Mathematical phantoms for use in dose estimation of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Takashi

    1990-01-01

    The T65D (Tentative 1965 Dose) was recently revised on the basis of new scientific evidences which were available in accordance with the development of computer techniques and the accumulation of nuclear data. For the dose determinations of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, DS86 (Dosimetric System 1986) is a complete replacement of T65D for the Life Span Study (LSS) in RERF (Radiation Effects Research Foundation). In the DS86, depending on the input data for a survivor, various elements of several data bases are combined to provide the dosimetric variables requested by the user. The quantity finally desired for the LSS is absorbed dose in each organ. The calculation of quantities for converting incident fluence to absorbed dose in the target organ was carried out using Monte Carlo methods. For this calculation, mathematical phantoms were required. This paper describes the background data used for the construction of Japanese survivor phantoms and summarizes the mathematical phantoms employed in the DS86. (author)

  11. ABCC-JNIH pathology studies: Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Report 1, October 1950-September 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angevine, D M; Jablon, S; Matsumoto, Y S

    1962-01-01

    A sample of 100,000 persons in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki was constructed to serve as the basis for the JNIH-ABCC Life Span Study. A subsample of 20,000 is the basis for the ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study. The third element, the pathology program was instituted to endow the autopsy program with the high degree of statistical control characterizing the Life Span and Adult Health studies. A study of the autopsy series (1215 cases) was made to: (1) determine how adequately the more recent cases meet the expectations with respect to age, sex, city, and distance from the hypocenter, and to determine whether any of the original bias still exists and if so, to what extent; (2) ascertain the degree of correlation between death certificate diagnoses and the autopsy anatomic diagnoses; and (3) determine what effect, if any, the degree of exposure to radiation may have had upon different disease groups, with special emphasis on various maligmant tumors. (ACR)

  12. Socio-medical tendency of long-lived exposure in Hiroshima Survivors Home. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, K [Atomic Bomb Survivors Relief Organization, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1976-03-01

    The author is continuing to observe socio-medically long-lived survivors over 90 years of age who are in the Hiroshima Survivors' Home, and this is the first report on them. In spite of a fairly large number of survivors of short-distance exposure, unexpectedly few showed a high dose. There were few medical findings suggestive of the effect of exposure. Although chronic diseases due to aging were observed prominently, no basis suggestive of the promotion of aging due to exposure was obtained. In view of social environments, born in rural districts, many of them tended to be rather unyielding and have endured low-income life, and their body had been hardened by physical labor. Most of them had rather mild somatic disturbances, and unexpectedly few needed complete help or diapers. Very few were judged to be DE by the ADL table. Of the total number of deaths (77) in 5 years, only 5 were above 90 years of age, and the cause was heart disease in 3 and senility in 2.

  13. Electron spin resonance (ESR dose measurement in bone of Hiroshima A-bomb victim.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kinoshita

    Full Text Available Explosion of the bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki corresponds to the only historical moment when atomic bombs were used against civilians. This event triggered countless investigations into the effects and dosimetry of ionizing radiation. However, none of the investigations has used the victims' bones as dosimeter. Here, we assess samples of bones obtained from fatal victims of the explosion by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR. In 1973, one of the authors of the present study (SM traveled to Japan and conducted a preliminary experiment on the victims' bone samples. The idea was to use the paramagnetism induced in bone after irradiation to measure the radiation dose. Technological advances involved in the construction of spectrometers, better knowledge of the paramagnetic center, and improvement in signal processing techniques have allowed us to resume the investigation. We obtained a reconstructed dose of 9.46 ± 3.4 Gy from the jawbone, which was compatible with the dose distribution in different locations as measured in non-biological materials such as wall bricks and roof tiles.

  14. Addressing Practical Issues Related Tto Nursing Care For International Visitors To Hiroshima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Nishikawa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When nine million foreigners visited Japan in 2013, the federal government set a goal to attract an additional two and a half million visitors including medical tourists by 2020. This research investigates the attitudes and concerns of Japanese nurses when they are in a situation dealing with foreign patients. The data were collected from March through September 2010, from 114 nurses at three hospitals, in close proximity to popular tourist destinations in Hiroshima. A questionnaire was developed for this research, named Mari Meter, which included a section to write answers to an open question for the nurses to express their opinions. These responses were examined statistically and by word analysis using Text Mining Studio. Japanese nurses expressed greatest concern about payment options, foreign language skills, and issues of informed consent, when dealing with foreigners. The results confirm that, in order to provide a high quality of patient care, extra preparation and a greater knowledge of international workers and visitors are required by nursing professionals in Japan.

  15. Incidence of thoracic vertebral fractures among adult health study participants, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1958-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Mizuno, Shoichi; Ochi, Yoshimichi; Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Russell, W.J.; Hosoda, Yutaka.

    1990-01-01

    The incidence of thoracic vertebral fractures (TVF) in a fixed Hiroshima and Nagasaki population of 16,027 was determined by sex, age, and atomic bomb ionizing radiation exposure. Diagnosis was based on lateral chest radiographs made from 1 July 1958 to 28 February 1986. Born between 1880 and 1940, the subjects were categorized by sex into 10-year birth cohorts. When examined by birth cohort and age at onset, the age dependency of TVF incidence showed a good fit to a log-linear regression model. In females, TVF incidence tended to be lower in the younger birth cohorts and tended to increase with age in all birth cohorts. With each 10-year increase in age, the incidence among females increased by a factor of 1.7. In males, the incidence was significantly lower in the younger birth cohorts, but did not increase with age. The incidence decreased by a factor of 0.5 in males and 0.6 in females as the birth cohort age became younger. TVF incidence was greater in males until the age of 50, was equal by sex in the sixth decade, and was greater among females, who were 60 years of age or older. TVF incidence did not differ by city, and no correlation with A-bomb radiation exposure was demonstrated. (author)

  16. The LD50 associated with exposure to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Shoichiro; Kato, Hiroo; Schull, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Data on a total of 7,593 persons in Hiroshima who were in 2,518 wooden Japanese houses and exposed to A-bomb within 1.6 km from the hypocenter have been used to estimate the LD 50/60 . The effect of radiation shielding for these people in particularly well-characterized in the new dosimetry system DS86. A range of values emerge, varying slightly with the method of estimation used. This range, derived from DS86 marrow doses, and based on a linear fit to equally weighted estimates of the probabilities of death at various doses, is 2.3-2.6 Gy. A linear estimate in which the probabilities of death at the various doses are weighted by the inverse of their variances is somewhat lower, 2.2 Gy. These values may be underestimates of actual LD 50/60 because of inclusion of deaths in the first day, and the severely injured (burns, trauma) who survived the first day but succumbed later to their injuries. (author)

  17. Natural history and outcome of antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infections in women: Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, L R; Seki, Masafumi; Phair, J P

    1964-04-23

    The present report is a review of data collected from 159 women whose positive urine cultures were detected during 4 years of a study of the late medical effects of ionizing radiation emitted during the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. Although there are always uncertainties in a retrospective analysis of data, a number of unusual features of the present series of patients provided the stimulus for undertaking the review. These features included the relatively unbiased nature of the study population, the finding of a group of patients who were untreated for sizeable intervals of time, the long follow-up after treatment and the use of quantitative bacteriologic techniques during the entire period of observation. Although the entire study population was not screened for urinary infection, the age distribution of patients with infections was similar of that found in surveys of the general population. Treatment was considered successful in about 84% of cases when evaluation was based on follow-up cultures approximately 3 months after the administration of antibiotics. When evaluation was based on 18 months or more follow-up after treatment, only about 50% of patients had negative urine cultures. These results were similar to those reported previously in hospital clinic patients. Observations on a small group of untreated patients suggest that for women, the long term results of gram negative urinary tract infections is not significantly altered by a single short course of antibiotic treatment. 27 references, 7 figures, 5 tables.

  18. Cigarette smoking and radiation exposure in relation to cancer mortality, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prentice, R.L.; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Mason, M.W.

    1983-05-01

    Cancer mortality among 40,498 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents was examined in relation to cigarette smoking habits and estimated atomic bomb radiation exposure. Relative risk models that are either multiplicative or additive in the two exposures (smoking radiation) were emphasized. Most analyses were directed toward all nonhematologic cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, or digestive cancer other than stomach, for which there were, respectively, 1,725, 658, 281, and 338 deaths in the follow-up period of this study. Persons heavily exposed to both cigarette smoke and radiation were found to have significantly lower cancer mortality than multiplcative relative risk models would suggest for all nonhematologic cancer, stomach cancer, and digestive cancer other than stomach. Surprisingly, the relative risk function appeared not only to be submultiplicative for these cancer sites, but to be subadditive as well. The lung cancer relative risk function could not be distinguished from either a multiplicative or an additive form. The number of deaths was sufficient to permit some more detailed study of all nonhematologic cancer mortality: Relative risk functions appeared to be consistent between males and females though a paucity of heavy smoking females limits the precision of this comparison. (author)

  19. Socio-medical tendency of long-lived exposure in Hiroshima Survivors Home, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kiyoshi

    1976-01-01

    The author is continuing to observe socio-medically long-lived survivors over 90 years of age who are in the Hiroshima Survivors' Home, and this is the first report on them. In spite of a fairly large number of survivors of short-distance exposure, unexpectedly few showed a high dose. There were few medical findings suggestive of the effect of exposure. Although chronic diseases due to aging were observed prominently, no basis suggestive of the promotion of aging due to exposure was obtained. In view of social environments, born in rural districts, many of them tended to be rather unyielding and have endured low-income life, and their body had been hardened by physical labor. Most of them had rather mild somatic disturbances, and unexpectedly few needed complete help or diapers. Very few were judged to be DE by the ADL table. Of the total number of deaths (77) in 5 years, only 5 were above 90 years of age, and the cause was heart disease in 3 and senility in 2. (Chiba, N.)

  20. Atmospheric formaldehyde and acetaldehyde at the campus University of Hiroshima, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Naomi Nomi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambient levels of formaldehyde (HCHO and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO were measured at Hiroshima (Japan during spring and summer of 2005. Measurements of O3, NOx, and SO2 were simultaneously conducted, in an attempt to identify temporal profiles and sources for these aldehydes. Atmospheric aldehydes were collected using C18 silica gel cartridges coated with an acidic solution of 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with UV/VIS detection adjusted to 360 nm. Summer concentrations were higher than spring levels. FA concentrations during spring period ranged from 0.50 to 1.05 ppb and AA concentrations ranged from 0.17 to 1.31 ppb; during summer their concentrations ranged from 1.55 to 4.12 ppb and 0. 34 to 2.03 ppb. Average FA/AA in spring and summer were 3.09 and 3.72 suggesting biogenic emissions of aldehydes. The levels of FA and AA, their temporal variations, and their concentration ratio (FA/AA indicated that photochemical reactions contributed significantly to the formation of atmospheric aldehydes at the study site.

  1. A study on aging by physical measurements among female A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hisashi; Kurihara, Minoru; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Ikeuchi, Minoru; Munaka, Masaki

    1978-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-two women living in Hiroshima underwent physical measurements in 1970 and 1976. Those in the short-distance group (60) were directly exposed to the a-bomb within 1 km of the center of explosion. Those in the long-distance group (92) either were directly exposed over 3 km from the center of explosion, entered the city on or following the 4th day after the explosion, or nursed the exposed and disposed of the dead. Changes in physical measurement values were determined. Systolic pressure was more elevated and grasping power and vital capacity decreased more in the short-distance group than in the long-distance group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between both groups. There were few other differences between the groups. Regarding those under the age of 29 at the time of exposure, the physiological age, estimated from physical abilities (8 items were measured), was about 1 year older than the actual age at the time of the investigation. However, as the actual age increased, the physiological age tended to greatly decrease. (Tsunoda, M.)

  2. Comparison of death certificate and autopsy diagnoses - Hiroshima. [Cause of death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, R S; Anderson, Jr, P S

    1960-09-14

    In this report evaluation of the death certificates has been on the basis of comparison with recorded autopsy diagnoses without review of the latter. An attempt has been made to evaluate limitations inherent in this method. The cases analyzed here represent the ABCC Hiroshima autopsy series from 1949 through 1959. Post mortem examinations on stillbirths and neonatal deaths that were collected during the years 1948 through 1953 were excluded from consideration because such cases are not pertinent to the general problems under study. With this limitation 1304 cases were available for matching. In 139 of these cases the death certificates were not available through the mechanisms of the overall study, so 1165 cases remained. Before comparisons are made the most important questions that must be answered about the materials and methods of the present investigation are: (1) is the autopsy-death certificate series a representative sample of all deaths in the population; (2) are the autopsy diagnoses correct; (3) are the death certificates properly understood and coded; and (4) are biologically meaningful groupings chosen for comparison between autopsy cause of death and death certificate cause of death. Because it is not possible to provide exact answers to all of these questions the doubt that they raise must be admitted but evaluated in the perspective of that part of the answer which is known.

  3. Mortality statistics among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture. 1968-1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, M; Munaka, M; Hayakawa, N; Yamamoto, H; Ueoka, H; Ohtaki, M [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1981-12-01

    In a comparative analysis of mortality among atomic bomb survivors versus the non-exposed, both resident in Hiroshima Prefecture, it was found that in addition to leukaemia, malignant lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the thyroid gland, breast, lung, esophagus, stomach, urinary organs and salivary gland which have been reported from the past to be elevated in risk among atomic bomb survivors, cancers of the colon, larynx, accessory sinuses, uterus, ovary and testis, diseases of the blood, cirrhosis of liver, hypertensive disease and diabetes mellitus were elevated in risk, but the risk of cerebrovascular disease, heart disease, peptic ulcer, gastroenteritis, senility, and accidents was lower than the non-exposed. The relationship of atomic bomb exposure to the relative risk of cancers of the lung, breast, uterus, and testis could be readily explained, but the relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the relative risk of cancers of many other sites, diseases of the blood, and other causes of death was inconsistent. One of the reasons why the risk of senility was low and the risk of diseases of the blood, malignant neoplasms, diabetes mellitus, and hypertensive disease was high is considered to be the higher diagnostic accuracy in atomic bomb survivors.

  4. Leukemia among a-bomb survivors living in Hiroshima city, 1971-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Masahito; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ohkita, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Norihiko

    1980-01-01

    The death from leukemia among Hiroshima citizens from 1971 to 1978 was investigated. The total number of dead citizens was 241, and 64 of them were a-bomb survivors. Thirty-seven of a-bomb survivors were exposed to a-bomb within 2 km from hypocenter. Seventy-seven of remaining 177 citizens were born after the explosion of a-bomb, but they were not children of a-bomb survivors exposed directly to a-bomb. The mortality of a-bomb survivors exposed near the hypocenter was 1.67 (within 2 km) - 2.51 (within 1.5 km) times that of those exposed far from the hypocenter. The mortality of a-bomb survivors exposed within 1.5 km was significantly high. The death risk from leukemia was significantly high in women. The estimated exposure dose was over 1 rad in 25 of abovementioned 37 a-bomb survivors, and it was over 10 rad in 21 and over 100 rad in 10 of 25. Seven of 10 a-bomb survivors exposed over 100 rad were women. The age at the exposure was under 10 years in 1, teens in 1, twenties in 2, and over thirty in 6. The type of leukemia was acute in 8 and chronic in 2. Both types were myelogenous leukemia. Five of these 10 a-bomb survivors died after 1976. (Tsunoda, M.)

  5. Autopsy studies of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954-1974)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Masahide; Norman, J.E. Jr.; Kato, Hiroo; Yagawa, Kanichi.

    1978-01-01

    The authors examined 155 autopsy cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the Life Span Study sample including both A-bomb survivors and controls in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954 to 1974). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was classified into lymphoid, diffuse and fibrous types and the following results were obtained. No difference existed in the effects of A-bomb radiation in the incidence and ATB (At the time of the A-bomb). The ration of males to females did not reveal statistical significance, even though reversed ratio was noted in the high dose group. The variation of thyroid gland weight in T65 dose or by variant showed no significant pattern, even though the smallest average weight was found in the highest radiation exposure group. The complication in the patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were noted to have high prevalance of ovarian cancer and low prevalence of stomach cancer and total cancer. Only two patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were found to be complicated with thyroid carcinoma. Among collagen diseases, the prevalence of rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis was high as complication. And the prevance of combined diseases suggested that no late effect of A-bomb radiation existed. (author)

  6. Trace Analysis of Irradiated Granite Samples from Hiroshima by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amr, M.A.; Helal, N.F.; Zahran, N.F.; Becker, J.S.; Pickhardt, C.; Dietze, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is widely accepted as a rapid and sensitive technique for trace elemental analysis of solid materials and for local analysis of inhomogeneous materials (such as geological samples). Due to its direct solid sample analysis capability, LA-ICP-MS (using a quadrupole based ICP-MS and at the Research Center Juelich developed laser ablation system: Nd-YAG-laser, 226 nm, 10 Hz and 5 ns) is applied for the analysis of geological (granite) samples from Hiroshima. In order to prepare homogeneous targets, these samples were melted together with a lithium-borate mixture in a muffle furnace at 1050 degree c. Furthermore, for investigating of matrix effects the powder of these samples is mixed with graphite and pressed as targets for laser ablation. The quantification of the analysis results was carried out using granite (GM) as standard reference material. The relative sensitivity coefficients (RSCs) for most elements, which were determined for correction of the measured values, varied between 0.3 and 3

  7. Electron spin resonance (ESR) dose measurement in bone of Hiroshima A-bomb victim

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Explosion of the bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki corresponds to the only historical moment when atomic bombs were used against civilians. This event triggered countless investigations into the effects and dosimetry of ionizing radiation. However, none of the investigations has used the victims’ bones as dosimeter. Here, we assess samples of bones obtained from fatal victims of the explosion by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR). In 1973, one of the authors of the present study (SM) traveled to Japan and conducted a preliminary experiment on the victims’ bone samples. The idea was to use the paramagnetism induced in bone after irradiation to measure the radiation dose. Technological advances involved in the construction of spectrometers, better knowledge of the paramagnetic center, and improvement in signal processing techniques have allowed us to resume the investigation. We obtained a reconstructed dose of 9.46 ± 3.4 Gy from the jawbone, which was compatible with the dose distribution in different locations as measured in non-biological materials such as wall bricks and roof tiles. PMID:29408890

  8. Noncancer mortality based on the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb survivors registry over 30 years, 1968-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasagi, Keiko

    2002-01-01

    The relation of radiation exposure with noncancer mortality was examined on 44,514 atomic bomb survivors (17,935 males, 26,579 females, and mean age 22.8±15.7 yrs at the time of bombing) registered at Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, based on mortality follow-up over 30 years, 1968-1997. Noncancer mortality was significantly related to radiation dose with relative risk of 1.06 at 1 Sv radiation dose, although weaker than the dose response in solid cancer mortality. The significant dose responses were observed especially in circulatory disease, stroke and urinary organ disease, and suggestive dose response in pneumonia. The temporal pattern in dose response by age at the time of bombing indicated that the relative risk of noncancer mortality was higher with follow-up period, which is contrary to a decreasing dose response in solid cancer mortality with follow-up period. The tendency was remarkable in those survivors younger at the time of bombing. These findings suggest that the significant radiation risk observed in noncancer mortality might increase as the proportion of younger survivors among atomic bomb survivors increases. (author)

  9. Histologic review of breast cancer cases in survivors of atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuoka, S.; Asano, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Tokunaga, M.; Sakamoto, G.; Hartmann, W.H.; Hutter, R.V.; Land, C.E.; Henson, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    A panel of Japanese and American pathologists reviewed existing histologic material used to study breast cancer risk among the A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a population in which incidence studies have found a strong relationship between breast cancer risk and radiation dose. The primary charge to the panel was to define a body of confirmed cases in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation that would require little or no review for inclusion in future studies of breast cancer incidence. Broad agreement on histologic type was reached for 298 of 300 confirmed cases. The distribution of histologic types was, overall, similar to that seen in other studies of breast cancer in Japanese women, and did not appear to depend on dose; thus radiation-induced breast cancer appeared to be no different histologically from other breast cancer. Also, no evidence was found of variation in histologic type by city, age at exposure, age at diagnosis, or calendar time

  10. Hospital and clinic survey estimates of medical x-ray exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Shozo; Land, C.E.; Otake, Masanori; Russell, W.J.; Takeshita, Kenji.

    1980-11-01

    All large hospitals and 40% of the small hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities were surveyed for the X-ray examinations they performed during a 2-week period in 1974. The frequency and type of X-ray examinations received by members of the RERF Adult Health Study (AHS) and the RERF Life Span Study (LSS) extended, excluding AHS (Non-AHS), were compared with the general population in each city. Radiologic exposures of patients at hospitals and clinics were most frequent among the general populations. The number of patients, examinations, and exposures per caput per year in each population were estimated. Since the age distribution differed among the three populations, comparisons were made only after correcting for age. On a per caput per year basis exposure frequency was relatively high in the AHS and low in the general populations, a reflection of the greater number of patients in the AHS than in the general populations. Non-AHS males in Nagasaki had a higher X-ray examination rate than did the AHS subjects. The others in the Non-AHS did not differ appreciably from the general populations. There was no difference among these groups according to body sites examined. (author)

  11. Lung cancer incidence among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950 - 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Kopecky, K.J.; Fujikura, Toshio; Tokuoka, Shoji; Monzen, Tetsuo; Nishimori, Issei; Nakashima, Eiji; Kato, Hiroo.

    1987-05-01

    The incidence of lung cancer during 1950 - 80 in a cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors and controls was investigated. A total of 1,057 cases were identified; 608 of these diagnoses were based on some form of histopathologic examination, and 442 were confirmed by the present investigators. The distributions of histological types varied significantly between the sexes (p < .001), with adenocarcinoma more frequent among women and epidermoid and small cell carcinoma more frequent among men. The distributions of primary sites did not differ significantly between the sexes. The relative risk (RR) of lung cancer increased significantly with A-bomb radiation dose (p < .0001); based on tentative 1965 dose estimates as revised in 1978 (T65DR) and a linear RR model, the estimated RR at 100 rad (± SE) is 1.41 ± 0.09. Among Hiroshima survivors the women experienced radiation-related excess RR nearly twice as great as men (p = .06). RR increased with decreasing age at the time of bombing (p = .07), and after allowing for this effect, there was no significant evidence that RR varied systematically with attained age. Small cell carcinoma displayed somewhat greater sensitivity to radiation than did adenocarcinoma or epidermoid carcinoma; however the variation between the histology-specific RR functions was not statistically significant (p = .44). (author)

  12. Statement by IAEA Director General on the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Full text: No one who has seen the victims, the film footage or photographs of the aftermath of the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of World War II can fail to be horrified by the devastation that was wrought by the use of nuclear weapons. To date, Hiroshima and Nagasaki thankfully remain the only instances in which nuclear weapons have been used, and while it is difficult to speak of any good coming out of such ruin, it has always been hoped that the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki stand as constant reminders of why preventing the further use and proliferation of such weapons - and why nuclear disarmament leading to a nuclear-weapon-free world - is of utmost importance for the survival of humankind and planet Earth. The International Atomic Energy Agency born out of President Eisenhower's 'Atoms for Peace' vision, came at a time when the horrifying consequences and images of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were still fresh. Through its safeguards and verification system in support of the 1968 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and other similar non-proliferation agreements, the IAEA has done a great deal of work to help stem the tide of nuclear proliferation, while ensuring that the benefits of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are made available to all those who want them. While the Agency can effectively verify compliance with non-proliferation undertakings, the value of these efforts can be better realized if they are reinforced by all other components of the nuclear non-proliferation and arms control regime, and accompanied by the political will and dialogue among concerned States to address underlying issues of security and confidence building with a view to achieving a system of collective security that no longer relies on nuclear weapons. A world without nuclear weapons remains a far-off goal and the world continues to be burdened with nearly thirty thousand nuclear warheads. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

  13. Finding peace from Hiroshima. One oncologist's fight to rectify the damage caused by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoufalos, M.N.

    2006-01-01

    The article informs about one oncologist's fight to rectify the damage caused by radiation. In a small town just outside Osaka, Japan, Ritsuko Komaki was born, quite literally, into the atomic age. She was just an infant in 1945 when the first atomic bomb ever detonated on a human population devastated her family's ancestral home of Hiroshima. One of her friends, Sasaki was diagnosed with leukemia, and was later hospitalized with bone marrow suppression. Her grandmother had been exposed to the same chemical radiation that Sasaki had, yet never contracted leukemia despite presenting with all the other side effects of exposure. Komaki wa wondering why her grandmother never had any leukemia, but Sadako did? She never had any cancer, but she had all the symptoms of exposure, e.g. hair loss, diarrhea and bone marrow problems. During medical school, Komaki volunteered her summers at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, the institute the United States built in Japan to examine the victims of atomic exposure. Anyone diagnosed as anemic underwent a bone marrow exam, and Komaki learned a great deal about chromosomal abnormalities by performing blood tests alongside visiting researchers from Yale University and other American hospitals. The bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki had fostered a national paranoia about radiation and radioactivity. In Japan, they hate radiation, and for so many years, they did not want to hear about radiation therapy. Patients had an illogical fear of it that delayed offering it as treatment there. In Japan, the majority of cancer treatment culminated in surgery. Radiation oncology was not a recognized specialization; oncologists were grouped in with diagnostic radiation techs. Yet today, Ritsuko Komaki, MD, is the chief operating officer of one of the most sophisticated radiation oncology treatment facilities in the United States: the 120 million US Dollar M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston. And ironically, the technical equipment that forms

  14. Studies of colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1950-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi

    1985-01-01

    Among the 82,064 subjects, 595 cases of colorectal cancer were confirmed, 395 cases (66.4%) by microscopic examinations of histological specimens and 69 cases (11.6%) by death certificate only. Subjects with unknown exposure dose or who were not in Hiroshima city at the time of the bombing were excluded, and the analysis was based on 60,470 persons with estimated exposure dose. In this population, there were 450 colorectal cancer cases: 239 cases of colon cancer, 203 cases of rectal cancer and eight cases with unknown site. Concerning the relationship between incidence of colorectal cancer and radiation exposure, the following conclusions were obtained: 1. The incidence of colorectal cancer increased with radiation dose, and this tendency was observed in both sexes. 2. The risk of colon cancer increased with dose, and linear trend tests showed that the increase was significant both in males (p<0.05) and females (p<0.01). The effects of radiation on the incidence of colon cancer differed by age at the time of the bombing. Among survivors exposed at young ages (less than 20) the effects were especially remarkable, the relative risk of the 100+ rad group versus the 0 rad group being 6.2, which was significantly greater than unity (p<0.01). Further, by site of colon cancer, radiation dose effects on the incidence of cancer of the right side colon (cecum and ascending colon), and sigmoid colon were observed, while dose effects on the incidence of the transverse colon or descending colon were not. 3. No effects atomic bomb radiation on the incidence of rectal cancer could be demonstrated, even when examined by sex and age at the time of the bombing. 4. For both colon cancer and rectal cancer, no difference in the distribution of tumor histological types could be observed by radiation dose. (J.P.N.)

  15. Severe mental retardation among the prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi; Schull, W.J.

    1988-05-01

    In March 1986, as a result of a comprehensive reevaluatioin of the exposures of the survivors of the A-bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a new method for the estimation of individual doses was introduced, termed the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). In the new system they are computed individually without the use generally of explicit, average correction factors and thus allow better for the scattering of radiant energy that occurs within tissues. The comparisons described here rest on the computed dose to the mother's uterus. The DS86 sample itself consists of 1,544 individuals (96.6 %) of the 1,598 belonging to the clinical sample on whom T65DR doses are available. A variety of models with and without a threshold have been fitted to the individual as well as grouped dose data to ascertain the most suitable dose-response relationship. Briefly the findings of this comparison are as follows: The risk of severe mental retardation due to radiation exposure changes little from one dosimetric system to the other. The highest risk of radiation damage to the embryonic and fetal brain occurs 8 - 15 weeks after fertilization under both the T65DR and DS86 systems. Somewhat more evidence exists under the DS86 system of a threshold to the dose-response relationship in the 8 - 15 week interval than existed with the T65DR doses. However, the location and reality of the threshold are difficult to assess. Damage to the fetus 16 - 25 weeks after fertilization seems linear-quadratically or quadratically related to dose, especially in the DS86 sample, and suggests a threshold in the neighborhood of 0.70 Gy (DS86 dose), under a linear model using the individual dose data, with a lower 95 % confidence bound of 0.21 Gy. Grouped dose data give the same lower bound, but an estimate of the threshold of 0.64 Gy. (author)

  16. Capillary microscopic observations on the superficial minute vessels of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima 1972-73

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuya, Akira; Wakano, Yoichi; Otake, Masanori; Dock, D.S.

    1978-04-01

    Microscopic and photographic studies were conducted in 1972-73 at ABCC in Hiroshima on the morphology of superficial blood vessels of A-bomb survivors to determine whether the somatic effects of radiation still existed 30 years after the A-bomb. Control curves representing the relationship between age and score values assigned to morphological changes of the minute blood vessels of the fingernail fold, labial mucosa, and lingual mucosa, which could be regarded as an index of aging, were obtained. These were compared with similar curves obtained from A-bomb survivors with the aim of evaluating the effect of radiation on the aging process of these vessels. The late somatic effects of irradiation which were demonstrated 10 years after the A-bomb in a previous study (1956-57) were found to persist in the current study (1972-73) conducted 30 years after the A-bomb though not as pronounced as in the earlier study. A significant effect was observed only in the fingernail fold of those exposed to 100 rad or more under the age of 10 at the time of the bomb. A statistically significant difference was not observed for labial mucosa and lingual mucosa because the number of cases available for scoring was small, but a trend was observed for abnormalities of these two sites to be higher in frequency in the 100+ rad group under the age of 10 ATB than that of the control group. No significant difference was observed between the control and exposed with regard to radiation effect on the aging process using the relationship of score values to age as an index of aging. This is in accord with results of studies of A-bomb survivors which suggested that radiation induces life shortening attributable primarily to cancers, but not a general acceleration of the aging phenomenon. (author)

  17. Cytogenetic study of the offspring of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awa, A.A.; Honda, T.; Neriishi, S.

    1987-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to evaluate the radiation sensitivity of human germ-cell chromosomes by measuring the frequency of children with chromosome changes in structure or number induced by radiation in the germ cells of exposed parents. It is expected that stable chromosome aberrations, if induced in the germ cells, would be mot likely transmitted to the offspring. Although there is no evidence of chromosome aneuploidy being induced by radiation exposure in humans, it is difficult to exclude the possibility that abnormalities, such as XYY and XXX, would be induced in the offspring. The present chapter describes the results of somatic chromosome analysis of 8,322 children born to A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Hagasaki and 7,976 children born to parents who had received less than 1 rad (distally exposed) or were not in the cities (NIC) at the time of the bomb (ATB). Chromosome analyses were based mostly on nonbanded preparations throughout the study. Because of the recent, extensive reassessment of A-bomb dosimetry by a US-Japan team of experts, the present study samples have been divided into exposed and control groups based on the T65DR system that has been routinely used until recently at RERF. The data base for the new DS86 dose system has been entered into the RERF computer; however, calculations of the individual dose estimates for each survivor are now in progress, but are not available at this time. For this reason, no attempt has been made to analyze the present data in terms of parental radiation doses

  18. Pathological study on autopsy cases at Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital, September 1956 - March 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambu, Shigeru; Fujihara, Megumu; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi; Hamada, Tadao.

    1990-01-01

    A retrospective review was made of 2,659 autopsy patients obtained during the past 31 years and a half in Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital. Of the patients, 1,328 (49.9%) were A-bomb survivors. Five hundred and six A-bomb survivors (38.1%) had been exposed at up to 2,000 m from the hypocenter. There was no correlation between the incidence of malignancy and the presence of exposure to A-bombing. The incidence of multiple malignancy was slightly higher in A-bomb survivors exposed at the place nearer the hypocenter. In the group of A-bomb survivors, cancer of the lung was the most common for men; and cancer of the stomach was the most common for women. The incidence of malignancy has been high in the exposed group during the early eras of examination; however, this figure has recently become high in the non-exposed group. Regarding the kinds of malignancy, there was no significant difference between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The incidence of leukemia was high during the early eras, and tentatively decreased in both the exposed and non-exposed groups. It has recently increased again. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma rapidly increased during the recent eras, regardless of sex, in both groups; this was marked in women in the exposed group. Thyroid and breast cancers tentatively increased in women in the exposed group. Benign diseases were seen in 35% for the exposed group and 33% for the non-exposed group; liver diseases were most frequent in both groups. In the exposed group, the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and central nervous diseases has recently increased. (N.K.)

  19. Effect on school performance of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Schull, W.J.; Fujikoshi, Yasunori; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi.

    1988-08-01

    As a part of the continuing assessment of the effects on the developing embryonic and fetal brain of exposure to ionizing radiation, the school performances of prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and a suitable comparison group have been studied. In this report, the changes in performance in seven school subjects according to dose are compared under the T65DR dosimetry heretofore used by ABCC-RERF, and the new dosimetry (DS86) installed in 1986. Those survivors with school performance records but without T65DR doses, or not exposed in utero, or without school records are excluded. Thus, the T65DR study group consists of 1,090 children, including 14 clinically diagnosed cases of mental retardation. DS86 tissue doses are not yet available on 161 individuals, mostly those with T65DR doses less than 0.10 Gy. The DS86 sample thus involves 929 children (85.2 %) of the T65DR study group and includes the same 14 severely mentally retarded persons. The findings can be summarized as follows: Damage to the 8 - 15 week fetal brain appears to be linearly related to the fetal absorbed dose, as judged by the simple regression of average school performance score on dose. This is so for both the T65DR study group and the DS86 sample with or without the 14 cases of retardation. Damage to the fetus exposed at 16 - 25 weeks after fertilization appears similar to that seen in the 8 - 15 week group. Canonical and multiple correlations also show a highly significant relationship of exposure 8 - 15 weeks and 16 - 25 weeks after fertilization to achievement in school. This trend is stronger, however, in the earliest years of schooling. In the groups exposed within 0 - 7 weeks following fertilization, or 26 or more weeks after fertilization, there is no evidence of a radiation-related effect on scholastic performance. (author)

  20. Stomach cancer screening in the adult health study population, Hiroshima, 1971--1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, M; Yamakido, M; Otake, M; Belsky, J L; Pastore, J O; Kawamoto, S; Okawa, T; Dock, D S

    1978-04-01

    Examinations for parietal cell antibody (PCA) were performed on 1334 subjects of the Adult Health Study (AHS), Hiroshima, during a 1-year period. Findings revealed PCA in 112 subjects (8.4%), but no difference in frequency was noted by sex. The positive rate was significantly higher in those age 50 or over. No correlation was noted between estimated A-bomb exposure dose and PCA frequency. PCA was found in 58 of the 502 cases presenting achlorhydria on tubeless gastric analysis, and particularly in the age 50 and over group, PCA was demonstrated in 43 of the 302 subjects presenting achlorhydria. PCA was detected in 11 of 152 subjects with low, serum pepsinogen levels and in 20 of 123 subjects with high levels. The frequency of positive PCA in subjects presenting achlorhydria and abnormal (low or high) serum pepsinogen levels was 19 in 100, higher than 7 in 106 in those subjects in whom gastric acidity and serum pepsinogen levels were both normal. The frequency of positive PCA was higher in patients diagnosed on upper gastrointestinal (GI) series as atrophic gastritis than in patients diagnosed as some other gastric disorder. PCA was negative in both of the two cases in whom a definite diagnosis of stomach cancer was established. However, in light of the finding of abnormal Diagnex Blue (DB) tests and positive PCA at a high frequency in the gastritis group and reports that gastritis provides the groundwork for stomach cancer, care should be taken in cases with findings of abnormal DB test, abnormal serum pepsinogen levels, and positive PCA.

  1. Relationship of cigarette smoking and radiation exposure to cancer mortality in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prentice, R.L.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Mason, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    Cancer mortality among 40,498 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents was examined in relation to cigarette smoking habits and estimated atomic bomb radiation exposure level. Relative risk (RR) models that are either multiplicative or additive in the two exposures were emphasized. Most analyses were directed toward all nonhematologic (ANH) cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, or digestive tract cancer other than stomach cancer, for which there were, respectively, 1,725, 658, 281, and 338 deaths in the follow-up period for this study. Persons heavily exposed to both cigarette smoke and radiation were found to have significantly lower cancer mortality than multiplicative RR models would suggest for ANH cancer, stomach cancer, and digestive tract cancer other than stomach cancer. Surprisingly, the RR function appeared not only to be submultiplicative for some of these cancer site categories but also may be subadditive. The lung cancer RR function could not be distinguished from either a multiplicative or an additive form. The number of deaths was sufficient to permit some more detailed study of ANH cancer mortality: RR functions appeared to be consistent between males and females, though a paucity of heavy smoking females limits the precision of this comparison. The submultiplicative nature of the RR function mentioned above was particularly pronounced among persons who were relatively young (less than or equal to 30 yr of age) at the time of radiation exposure. The RR function for these younger subjects depends strongly on both radiation and cigarette smoke exposure levels. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to human carcinogenesis models. As a byproduct, cancer mortality of several sites is significantly related to radiation exposure in this population, after accommodation for the possible confounding effects of cigarette smoking

  2. Breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-69. Pathologic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, D H [Veterans Administration Hospital, Kansas (USA); Land, C E; Choi, K; Tokuoka, S; Liu, P I

    1981-01-01

    The pathological features of 161 cases of breast cancer --7% noninfiltrating carcinoma, 47% nonspecific infiltrating duct carcinoma, 21% nonfiltrating papillary duct carcinoma, 7% comedo carcinoma, 6% medullary carcinoma, 6% colloid carcinoma, 4% lobular carcinoma, and 2% sarcoma-- were investigated and their relation to irradiation dosage due to the atomic bomb was studied. Irradiation dosage was estimated from T65 dosage, the total dosage of ..gamma..-rays and neutrons in unshielded tissue. However, there was no relation between the dosage and any specific tissue type. Breast cancers were classified as either type I, type II, or type III according to the histological grade, and each grade was divided according to the degree of differentiation, multiplicity, and mitiotic activity. The pathological characteristics, lymphatic infiltration, fibrosis, necrosis, localization, calcification, and vascular, perineurial, muscular, and dermal invasion were investigated in each case. The histological grade and the incidence of localized invasion, necrosis, localization, and calcification were lower in the patients who were irradiated with more than 50 rad than in those who were not irradiated. The absolute risk rate for breast cancer was estimated to increase by 1.9 cases/100,000 rad from 1950 to 1969. This increase was much smaller than that estimated from x-ray irradiation during medical treatment in North America. The dose response curves at Hiroshima and Nagasaki were similar and fitted well with a linear model, suggesting that the effect of ..gamma..-rays was analogous to that of neutrons in inducing cancer. The problems involved in the histological classification of breast cancer and the histological differences between cancer patients in Japan and in the U.S.A. were discussed.

  3. Effect on school performance of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Schull, W.J.; Fujikoshi, Yasunori; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi.

    1988-08-01

    As a part of the continuing assessment of the effects on the developing embryonic and fetal brain of exposure to ionizing radiation, the school performances of prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and a suitable comparison group have been studied. In this report, the changes in performance in seven school subjects according to dose are compared under the T65DR dosimetry heretofore used by ABCC-RERF, and the new dosimetry (DS86) installed in 1986. Those survivors with school performance records but without T65DR doses, or not exposed in utero, or without school records are excluded. Thus, the T65DR study group consists of 1,090 children, including 14 clinically diagnosed cases of mental retardation. The findings can be summarized as follows: Damage to the 8-15 week fetal brain appears to be lincarly related to the fetal absorbed dose, as judged by the simple regression of average school performance score on dose. This is so for both the T65DR study group and the DS86 sample with or without the 14 cases of retardation. Damage to the fetus exposed at 16-25 weeks after fertilization appears similar to that seen in the 8-15 week group. Canonical and multiple correlations also show a highly significant relationship of exposure 8-15 weeks and 16-25 weeks after fertilization to achievement in school. This trend is stronger, however, in the earliest years of schooling. In the groups exposed within 0-7 weeks following fertilization, or 26 or more weeks after fertilization, there is no evidence of a radiation-related effect on scholastic performance. These results parallel those previously found in prenatally exposed survivors with respect to achievement in standard intelligence tests in childhood. (author)

  4. Capillary microscopic observation on the superficial minute vessels of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima, 1972--1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuya, A.; Wakano, Y.; Otake, M.; Dock, D.S.

    1977-01-01

    Microscopic and photographic studies were conducted in 1972 to 1973 at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in Hiroshima on the morphology of superficial blood vessels of A-bomb survivors to determine whether the somatic effects of radiation still existed 30 yr after the A-bomb. Control curves representing the relationship between age and score values assigned to morphological changes of the minute blood vessels of the fingernail fold, labial mucosa, and lingual mucosa, which could be regarded as an index of aging, were obtained. These were compared with similar curves obtained from A-bomb survivors with the aim of evaluating the effect of radiation on the aging process of these vessels. The late somatic effects of irradiation which were demonstrated 10 yr after the A-bomb in a previous study (1956 to 1957) were found to persist in the current study (1972 to 1973) conducted 30 yr after the A-bomb, though not as pronounced as in the earlier study. A significant effect was observed only in the nail fold of those exposed to 100 rad or more under the age of 10 at the time of bomb (ATB). A statistically significant difference was not observed with labial and lingual mucosae because the number of cases available for score evaluation was small, but a trend was observed for abnormalities of these two sites to be higher in frequency in the group exposed to 100 rad or more under the age of 10 ATB than that of the control group. No significant difference was observed between the control and exposed with regard to radiation effect on the aging process using the relationship of score values to age as an index of aging

  5. Comparison of medical data of atomic-bomb survivors resident in the U.S. and Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako; Matsubara, Hiroomi; Yamakido, Michio; Yamada, Hiroaki.

    1982-01-01

    The third medical examination of A-bomb survivors residing in the U.S. was performed in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle and Honolulu during the period 6 - 28 May 1981. The test results were studied and the actual state of the survivors in the U.S., was reviewed as explained hereunder. 1) The number of survivors actually registered with the Committee of A-bomb Survivors in the U.S. is 491 (133 males and 358 females) of whom 57.2% are U.S. citizens. Those exposed in Hiroshima accounted for 91.8%. The mean age was 53.3 +- 8.9, thus they were more than 3 years younger than their counterparts in Hiroshima. The present addresses of the survivors are distributed over 15 states, but those in California constitute 77.6% of the total, and when those residing in the states along the west coast and Hawaii are added the rate increases to 95.9%. 2) Those who underwent health examination numbered 166 (45 males and 121 females), and comparison of the U.S. survivors against the Hiroshima survivors showed there to be a difference in the following points. The prevalence of hypertension was lower among the U.S. survivors, but RBC counts and hemoglobin concentration were significantly higher. The same was observed for blood lipids with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia being found at a significantly higher rate in the U.S. survivors. 3) Those free of clinical abnormalities in this survey were 37.3%, and the rest required dietary guidance, follow-up observation, detailed examination of treatment. Those with diseases which are considered would make them eligible for health management allowance if in Japan, accounted for 18.7%. (author)

  6. ABCC-JNIH adult health study Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1961 exposure to medical x-ray. Preliminary survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Russell, W J

    1962-05-16

    A survey was conducted for three months among subjects seen in the medical clinics of ABCC, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, to determine the extent of medical x-ray received in ABCC and other hospitals and clinics. Emphasis was chiefly methodological to prepare for later studies designed to evaluate the contribution of medical x-ray to total radiation dose received by survivors of the atomic bombings and controls. The frequency, the institution in which the subject received x-ray, as well as the types of exposure were the prime considerations in the survey. The data were analyzed for each city by sex, age, and exposure status. 2 references, 5 figures, 11 tables.

  7. Further observations on sex ratio among infants born to survivors of the atomic bombs, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schull, W J; Neel, J V; Hashizume, Asaji

    1965-11-18

    Data are presented on the sex ratio of 47,624 children born in Hiroshima and Nagasaki during 1956 to 1962. The total number of births in these two cities for which information is available is now 140,542, and of this number in 73,994 instances one or both parents were exposed to the atomic bombs. The suggestion of an effect of exposure on sex ratio in the earlier data is not borne out by the present findings. One can argue either that a small early effect has disappeared or that the original observation had no biological significance. 27 references, 4 tables.

  8. As bombas atômicas podem dizimar a humanidade - Hiroshima e Nagasaki, há 70 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKUNO EMICO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo rememora o que aconteceu há 70 anos após o lançamento pelos americanos das bombas atômicas Little Boy e Fat Man, respectivamente, nas cidades japonesas de Hiroshima e Nagasaki. Discorre suscintamente sobre energia nuclear e o Projeto Manhattan, que desenvolveu e produziu essas bombas e suas características. A destruição causada e os efeitos biológicos consequentes na população são também descritos.

  9. NIH-ABCC pathology studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki provisional research plan. 1. Description and scope of program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeldis, L J; Matsumoto, Y Scott

    1961-04-18

    A proposed program for the conduct of pathology studies within fixed cohorts of Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors is described. It is intended that the program may with appropriate modifications serve as a basis for collaborative efforts by community medical institutions and organizations together with ABCC-NIH in both cities. The report describes the scope of the program, together with epidemiologic aspects of the population base and methods of case procurement, and outlines proposed studies. 36 references, 4 figures, 8 tables.

  10. Tissue kerma vs distance relationships for initial nuclear radiation from the atomic devices detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Pace, J.V. III; Scott, W.H. Jr.

    1983-06-01

    Initial nuclear radiation is comprised of prompt neutrons and prompt primary gammas from an exploding nuclear device, prompt secondary gammas produced by neutron interactions in the environment, and delayed neutrons and delayed fission-product gammas from the fireball formed after the nuclear device explodes. These various components must all be considered in establishing tissue kerma vs distance relationships which describe the decrease of initial nuclear radiation with distance in Hiroshima and in Nagasaki. The tissue kerma at ground evel from delayed fission-product gammas and delayed neutrons was investigated using the NUIDEA code developed by Science Applications, Inc. This code incorporates very detailed models which can take into account such features as the rise of the fireball, the rapid radioactive decay of fission products in it, and the perturbation of the atmosphere by the explosion. Tissue kerma vs distance relationships obtained by summing results of these current state-of-the-art calculations will be discussed. Our results clearly show that the prompt secondary gammas and delayed fission-product gammas are the dominant components of total tissue kerma from initial nuclear radiation in the cases of the atomic (or pure-fission) devices detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki

  11. Relation of radiation of gastric carcinoma observed in autopsy cases in a fixed population Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Y; Yamamoto, T [Radiation Effect Research Foundation (Japan)

    1976-03-01

    The relationship between exposure dose and the occurrence of stomach cancer, especially the histological type of the cancer was studied in 535 autopsy cases which had died of stomach cancer from 1961 to 1974 in the Radiation Effect Research Foundation. The incidence of stomach cancer tended to be higher in the group with high exposure dose in Hiroshima, and only in the group with 300 - 399 rads in Nagasaki. The relationship between the incidence of stomach cancer by age at the exposure and the exposure dose was studied by the relative risk (200-499 rads/ 0 rads) of the incidence of stomach cancer by age. The relative risk was 1.56 in the group which had been more than 50 years old at exposure in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The risk of stomach cancer was higher in more aged persons at the exposure. From the aspect of the relationship between histological type of stomach cancer and exposure dose, the incidence of intestinal type or diffuse type tended to be higher in the persons who had much more doses. Because there were small number of cases, there was no statistically significant differences between the incidence of stomach cancer and the exposure dose.

  12. Sensitivity/uncertainty analysis for free-in-air tissue kerma due to initial radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillie, R.A.; Broadhead, B.L.; Pace, J.V. III

    1988-01-01

    Uncertainty estimates and cross correlations by range/survivor have been calculated for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki free-in-air (FIA) tissue kerma obtained from two-dimensional air/ground transport calculations. The uncertainties due to modeling parameter and basic nuclear transport data uncertainties were calculated for 700-, 1000-, and 1500-m ground ranges. Only the FIA tissue kerma due to initial radiation was treated in the analysis; the uncertainties associated with terrain and building shielding and phantom attenuation were not considered in this study. Uncertainties of --20% were obtained for the prompt neutron and secondary gamma kerma and 30% for the prompt gamma kerma at both cities. The uncertainties on the total prompt kerma at Hiroshima and Nagasaki are --18 and 15%, respectively. The estimated uncertainties vary only slightly by ground range and are fairly highly correlated. The total prompt kerma uncertainties are dominated by the secondary gamma uncertainties, which in turn are dominated by the modeling parameter uncertainties, particularly those associated with the weapon yield and radiation sources

  13. Investigation of radiation effects in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using a general Monte Carlo-discrete ordinates coupling scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.; Slater, C.O.

    1990-01-01

    A general adjoint Monte Carlo-forward discrete ordinates radiation transport calculational scheme has been created to study the effects of the radiation environment in Hiroshima and Nagasaki due to the bombing of these two cities. Various such studies for comparison with physical data have progressed since the end of World War II with advancements in computing machinery and computational methods. These efforts have intensified in the last several years with the U.S.-Japan joint reassessment of nuclear weapons dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Three principal areas of investigation are: (1) to determine by experiment and calculation the neutron and gamma-ray energy and angular spectra and total yield of the two weapons; (2) using these weapons descriptions as source terms, to compute radiation effects at several locations in the two cities for comparison with experimental data collected at various times after the bombings and thus validate the source terms; and (3) to compute radiation fields at the known locations of fatalities and surviving individuals at the time of the bombings and thus establish an absolute cause-and-effect relationship between the radiation received and the resulting injuries to these individuals and any of their descendants as indicated by their medical records. It is in connection with the second and third items, the determination of the radiation effects and the dose received by individuals, that the current study is concerned

  14. Public health nutritional studies on the atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munaka, Masaki

    1983-01-01

    The dietary life and socio-economic status of atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima were investigated. The atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a long distance (LDG) was found to take a great quantity of soybean curd, miso and fruit except citrus, while the atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a short distance (SDG) was found to take a significant amount of fish paste products. SDG tends to ingest processed food and in nutrient supply rate the percentage of calcium, iron and vitamin A is low. Judging from a state of food group without a meal rate, we got the result that SDG has a few kinds of ingestion food and takes them partially in each meal. In terms of socio-economic status, the rate of living alone, supporting oneself and living an empty life is high and the rate of living with a partner is low. On the other hand, we analysed the relations of three factors on physique.physical fitness and living status, and then got the following results. (1) ''Volume capacity'', in the cases of ''be married at present'', ''have a large family'', ''ingest a lot of protein and iron'', tends to be large, while in the cases of ''have no dis ease'', ''don't go without a meal'', ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', and ''nutr itional balance is good'', it tends to be small. (2) ''Height'', in the case of ''socio-economical status was good before exposure to the atomic bomb'', tends to increase. (3) ''Synthetic physical fitness'', in the cases of ''health condition is good at present'', ''have no disease at present'', ''ingest a lot of vitamin A'' and ''nutritional balance is good'', tends to be superior; in the cases of ''food cost is high'' and ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', it tends to be low. The significant difference was observed in ''synthetic physical fitness'' between the two age groups of 50-59 years and beyond 70 years. (author)

  15. Public health nutritional studies on the atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munaka, Masaki (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1983-08-01

    The dietary life and socio-economic status of atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima were investigated. The atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a long distance (LDG) was found to take a great quantity of soybean curd, miso and fruit except citrus, while the atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a short distance (SDG) was found to take a significant amount of fish paste products. SDG tends to ingest processed food and in nutrient supply rate the percentage of calcium, iron and vitamin A is low. Judging from a state of food group without a meal rate, we got the result that SDG has a few kinds of ingestion food and takes them partially in each meal. In terms of socio-economic status, the rate of living alone, supporting oneself and living an empty life is high and the rate of living with a partner is low. On the other hand, we analysed the relations of three factors on physique.physical fitness and living status, and then got the following results. (1) ''Volume capacity'', in the cases of ''be married at present'', ''have a large family'', ''ingest a lot of protein and iron'', tends to be large, while in the cases of ''have no dis ease'', ''don't go without a meal'', ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', and ''nutr itional balance is good'', it tends to be small. (2) ''Height'', in the case of ''socio-economical status was good before exposure to the atomic bomb'', tends to increase. (3) ''Synthetic physical fitness'', in the cases of ''health condition is good at present'', ''have no disease at present'', ''ingest a lot of vitamin A'' and ''nutritional balance is good'', tends to be superior; in the cases of ''food cost is high

  16. Air-over-ground calculations of the neutron, prompt, and secondary-gamma free-in-air tissue kerma from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, J.V. III; Knight, J.R.; Bartine, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary results of the two-dimensional discrete-ordinate, calculations for the air-over-ground transport of radiation from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki weapon devices. It was found that the gamma-ray kerma dominated the total kerma for both environments

  17. Activation Measurements for Thermal Neutrons, Part D. U.S. Measurements of 36Cl in Mineral Samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tore Straume; Alfredo A, Marchetti; Stephen D, Egbert; James A, Roberts; Ping Men; Shoichiro Fujita; Kiyoshi Shizuma; Masaharu Hoshi; G, Rugel; W, Ruhm; G, Korschinek; J. E. McAninch; K. L. Carroll; T. Faestermann; K. Knie; R. E. Martinelli; A. Wallner; C. Wallner

    2005-01-01

    The present paper presents the 36 Cl measurement effort in the US. A large number of 36 Cl measurements have been made in both granite and concrete samples obtained from various locations and distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements employed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the number of atoms of 36 Cl per atom of total Cl in the sample. Results from these measurements are presented here and discussed in the context of the DS02 dosimetry reevaluation effort for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors. The production of 36 Cl by bomb neutrons in mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki was primarily via the reaction 35 Cl(n,γ) 36 Cl. This reaction has a substantial thermal neutron cross-section (43.6 b at 0.025 eV) and the product has a long half-life (301,000 y). hence, it is well suited for neutron-activation detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using AMS more than 50 years after the bombings. A less important reaction for bomb neutrons, 39 K(n,α) 36 Cl, typically produces less than 10% of the 36 Cl in mineral samples such as granite and concrete, which contain ∼ 2% potassium. In 1988, only a year after the publication of the DS86 final report (Roesch 1987), it was demonstrated experimentally that 36 Cl measured using AMS should be able to detect the thermal neutron fluences at the large distances most relevant to the A-bomb survivor dosimetry. Subsequent measurements in mineral samples from both Hiroshima and Nagasaki validated the experimental findings. The potential utility of 36 Cl as a thermal neutron detector in Hiroshima was first presented by Haberstock et al. who employed the Munich AMS facility to measure 36 Cl/Cl ratios in a gravestone from near the hypocenter. That work subsequently resulted in an expanded 36 Cl effort in Germany that paralleled the US work. More recently, there have also been 36 Cl measurements made by a Japanese group. The impetus for the extensive 36 Cl and other neutron activation

  18. Swarm slide - debris flow disaster induced by extreme rainfall in Hiroshima, August 2014 and lessons learnt in urban designing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, H.; Wang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Hiroshima city was hit by swarm debris flows along a narrow, and linear-shaped rain band of 2 km x 10 km which appeared in the early morning of August 20, 2014. Most of the flows were induced by shallow slide in the upstream. This disaster claimed 74 death, although this city experienced very similar disaster in 1999, claiming more than 30 residents lives. In the most severely affected debris flow torrent, more than 50 residents were killed. Most of the casualties arose in the wooden, vulnerable houses constructed in front of the exit of torrents. Points and lessons learnt from the disaster are as follows:1. Authors collected two types of sands from the source scar of the initial debris slides which induced debris flows. Tested by the ring shear apparatus under pore-pressure control condition, clear "Sliding surface liquefaction" was confirmed for both samples even under small normal stress, representing the small thickness of the slides. These results shows even instant excess pore pressure could initiate the slides and trigger slide-induced debris flow byundrained loading onto the torrent deposits.2. Apparently long-term land-use change since 1945 affected and raised the vulnerability of the community. Residential area had expanded into hill-slope (mountainous / semi-mountainous area) especially along the torrents. Those communities were developed on the past debris flow fan.3. As the devastated area is very close to downtown of Hiroshima city, it gave large societal impact to the Japanese citizens. After 1999 Hiroshima debris flow disaster, the Landslide disaster reduction law which intends to promote designation of landslide potential risk zones, was adopted in 2000. Immediately after 2014 disaster, national diet approved revision of the bill to promote rapid completion of the designation over the national territory. MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Tranportation and Tourism) decided to install X-band rain radars at more sites to cover whole city zones

  19. Photography and nuclear catastrophe. The visual representation of the occurrences in Hiroshima/Nagasaki and Chernobyl; Fotografie und atomare Katastrophe. Die visuelle Repraesentation der Ereignisse von Hiroshima/Nagasaki und Tschernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerkner, Daniel

    2014-02-13

    The dissertation project seeks to analyse the photographic positions that deal with the atomic bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the accident of the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl. This focus includes press photographs of the events as well as artistic, documentary and touristic images that take an approach towards the disasters often years after and hereby form iconographic or material references to the events. The study reveals central strategies for photographic images of atomic catastrophes, be they of military or civil nature. It is the inability to visualize non-visible nuclear rays or the complexity of processes on an atomic level that has turned out to be crucial. This incapacity of making images, a paradigm of invisibility, substantially coins the cultural role of the events. The question of how a society deals with these abstract potentials of nuclear technology has turned out to be always anew of high relevance in regard to ecological, social and technological policies of images.

  20. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-76: relationship to radiation dose absorbed by marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, M.; Ishimaru, T.; Mikami, M.; Matsunaga, M.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the incidence of multiple myeloma has been examined in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls in the life-span study sample for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From October 1950 to December 1976, 29 cases of multiple myeloma were confirmed in this sample. Our analysis shows that the standardized relative risk (RR) adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of bombings (ATB) increased with marrow-absorbed radiation dose. The increased RR does not appear to differ between cities or sexes and is demonstrable only for those survivors whose age ATB was between 20 and 59 years. The estimated risk in these individuals is approximately 0.48 cases/million person-years/rad for bone marrow total dose. This excess risk did not become apparent in individuals receiving 50 rad or more in marrow total dose until 20 years or more after exposure

  1. Relation of radiation to gastric carcinoma observed in autopsy cases in a fixed population, Hiroshima and nagasaki 1961 - 74

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Shimizu, Yukiko

    1978-01-01

    A study was made of the relation to atomic bomb radiation of 535 cases of gastric carcinoma among 4,694 deaths occurring in a fixed population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were autopsied between 1961 and 1974. The proportion of all autopsies with gastric carcinoma as autopsy diagnosis tended to be high in the high dose group, but it could not be concluded with the present amount of information that there is a relation between gastric carcinoma and radiation in this autopsy study. Although no specific distribution of the histological types of gastric carcinoma was noted by radiation dose, the data indicated increases in the degree of extension of tumor cells in the gastric wall and the degree of metastasis to the lymph nodes seemed to be high in the high dose group. (author)

  2. ABCC-NIH adult health study, Hiroshima 1958-1960. Cardiovascular project report Number 6, heart size norm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Shoichi, Russell, W.J.; Yano, Katsuhiko

    1962-05-01

    Utilizing the information obtained from the detailed clinical examinations of subjects seen at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, standard heart size determinations in the Hiroshima population are provided. A formula has been devised to express the normal transverse cardiac diameter, obtained from the routine posteroanterior chest roentgenogram, in relation to weight, height, and age. The analysis was made for each sex separately. Values computed by using this formula are regarded as standard heart size. Deviations from the standard are interpreted as individual variability in the normal group, with a standard deviation of 9 mm. When this standard was applied to abnormal subjects, a high correlation between the relative heart size and the blood pressure or the presence of overt heart disease was evident. For this reason, the relative heart size for this standard should prove useful, together with other related factors, in the diagnosis and investigation of cardiovascular disease. A nomograph has been devised for practical use. 12 references, 7 figures, 4 tables.

  3. Combined Effect of an Atmospheric River and a Cut-off Low in Hiroshima Flooding Event on August 19, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayabu, Y. N.; Hirota, N.; Kato, M.; Arakane, S.

    2015-12-01

    An extraordinary precipitation over 100 mmhr-1in Hiroshima on August 19, 2014, caused a flash flood which resulted in 74 fatalities and collapse of 330 houses. In order to examine the meteorological background of this flooding event, we carried out a detailed analysis utilizing rain gauge data, satellite precipitation dataset, and a meso scale and a global scale objective analyses provided from the Japan Meteorological Agency. Then, we performed numerical experiments using a nonhydrostatic compressible equation model called the Cloud-Resolving Storm Simulator (CReSS). As a result, a combined effect of an atmospheric river (AR) and a cut-off low (COL) in this flooding event was elucidated. During the event, a filamentary transport of moisture extending from the Indochina Peninsula to the Japanese Islands was observed along the southern side of the subtropical jet, forming an AR. This AR had a deep structure with an amount of free tropospheric moisture comparable to that of the boundary layer. Concurrently, there was a COL, detached from the Mid-Pacific Trough, moving northwestward toward the Japanese Archipelago. With various sensitivity experiments, we concluded that a mid-tropospheric instability associated with the cold core of the COL and a dynamical ascent induced in its foreside, collaboratively worked with the anomalous moisture in the free troposphere associated with the AR, to extraordinarily enhance the precipitation over Hiroshima region. An orographic effect to concentrate the precipitation in this region was also confirmed. An implication on a difference in effects of AR in this event with a climatologically moist boundary layer, from those in the US west coast with a very dry environment, was also obtained. Acknowledgment: This study is supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (2-1503) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, and by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  4. Effect of exposure of parents to the atomic bombs on the first generation offspring in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: preliminary report. Studies on the potential genetic effects of the atomic bombs. Radiation and the sex ratio in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neel, J V; Morton, N E; Schull, W J; McDonald, D J; Kodani, M; Takeshima, K; Anderson, R C; Wood, J; Brewer, R; Wright, S

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 3 separate reports on studies of genetic radiation effects on survivors of the atomic explosions on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each report for inclusion in the Energy Database. (DMC)

  5. Scars remaining in atom bomb survivors: a four year follow-up study. The status of lenticular opacities caused by atomic radiation, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, 1951-1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, W; Tsukifuji, Neal; Sinskey, R M

    1959-01-01

    Two studies on injuries suffered by survivors of the atomic explosions on Hiroshima and Nagasaki are described. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Database. (DMC)

  6. Distribution of onset of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors in the leukemia registry by dose, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1946-75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Ichimaru, Michito; Mikami, Motoko; Yamada, Yasuaki; Tomonaga, Yuu.

    1982-03-01

    The data from the RERF Leukemia Registry for the years 1946-75 were used to determine the distribution of onset of acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia among atomic bomb survivors in relation to city, dose, and age at the time of the bomb (ATB). A total of 509 confirmed leukemia cases (297 in Hiroshima and 212 in Nagasaki) have occurred among A-bomb survivors in the open populations of these cities in these years. Analysis revealed that the onset of both acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia tends to shift to earlier years with increasing dose in Hiroshima, but in Nagasaki, although the onset of both types of leukemia was earlier in the high dose group than in the low dose or control groups, the latter two groups did not differ. The distribution of onset of acute leukemia in the three dose groups also depended upon age ATB. While the distribution of onset of acute leukemia among those survivors whose age ATB was less than 30 differed significantly in the three dose classes, this tendency was not observed among those individuals whose age ATB was 30 years or more. For chronic granulocytic leukemia, the onset was shifted to earlier years in the high dose group than in the control group regardless of age ATB in Hiroshima. These findings support the pattern of leukemogenesis observed in A-bomb survivors in the Life Span Study sample, a fixed cohort, in relation to city, dose, age ATB, and years after exposure. (author)

  7. Primary liver carcinoma and liver cirrhosis in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-75, with special reference to HBs antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Masahide; Kato, Hiroo; Yoshimoto, Keiko; Seyama, Shinichi; Itakura, Hideyo.

    1982-03-01

    During 1961-75, 128 cases of primary liver carcinoma (PLC) in the RERF Life Span Study extended sample and 301 cases of liver cirrhosis in the RERF Pathology Study sample were observed. All cases were assessed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HB sub(s) Ag) using orcein and aldehyde fuchsin staining. The incidence of PLC was 2.0 times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima which was statistically significant, but the prevalence of liver cirrhosis showed hardly any difference between the two cities. Meaningful findings that may possibly explain the higher incidence of PLC in Nagasaki were that the presence of HB sub(s) Ag in the liver of patients without overt liver disease was 2.3 times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima, and the prevalence of liver cirrhosis associated with PLC, especially that of posthepatitic cirrhosis with PLC, was almost 2.0 times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima. In both cities a suggestive relationship of radiation dose with the prevalence of liver cirrhosis was noted but not with PLC. We believe that the higher incidence of PLC in Nagasaki is attributable to HB virus infection, though other factors, such as immunological competence affected by radiation, cannot be excluded. (author)

  8. ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study, Hiroshima 1958-1960. Cardiovascular Project Report 3. Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases related to associated factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Shoichi; Yano, Katsuhiko

    1962-12-12

    A long-term follow-up investigation of cardiovascular disease was organized primarily as an intensive substudy of the ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study and secondarily for epidemiologic comparison with data on the Framingham, Massachusetts, population. One of the purposes of the present cardiovascular studies on a Hiroshima population was to obtain data comparable with that of the Framingham Study. An equally important aspect of the Hiroshima study is to explore radiation effects on the cardiovascular system. The sample is the Adult Health Study population and consists of 13,000 males and females in Hiroshima. This report provides the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the first cross-section examined during 1958-1960 together with certain information on related factors. The overall attrition rate was 25%; 15% was caused by death or migration before the examination and 10% by refusal to participate. No significant difference was found in the blood pressure levels between the nonrespondents and the respondents in comparison with results of prior examinations at ABCC. The prevalence of various cardiovascular diseases was analyzed by sex and age. The analysis also extended to relationship of blood pressure, serum cholesterol, body weight, heart size, and occupation, with the prevalence of coronary heart disease for the sample over 40 years of age. 12 references, 15 tables.

  9. Recent progress in carcinogenesis, progression and therapy of breast cancer: the 20th Hiroshima Cancer Seminar--the 4th Three Universities' Consortium International Symposium, October 2010: 31 October 2010, International Conference Center Hiroshima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toi, Masakazu; Yasui, Wataru; Ito, Hisao; Tahara, Eiichi

    2011-07-01

    The 20th Hiroshima Cancer seminar focused upon breast cancer research and treatment particularly on the mechanism of tumorigenesis and drug resistance and development of novel therapeutics. Several molecules such as retinoblastoma and p16 were raised as key factors in tumorigenesis and invasiveness. Estrogen-related pathways seem to be closely involved in the process. For the tumor lacking hormone receptor and human epidermal growth factor 2, some other mechanisms could be responsible. It seems that MicroRNA 22 directing some putative targets such as SIRT1, Sp1 and CDK6 plays a crucial role in breast tumor growth and metastasis. In addition, ribophorin and the associated molecules might be engaged in breast cancer stemness. Obviously, these molecules provide potential for therapeutic targets. It was also discussed about new drug development such as anti-human epidermal growth factor 2 therapy, anti-angiogenesis, pro-tumor aspects of anti-cancer therapy and application of circulating markers for monitoring, imaging and health-care system. Furthermore, we discussed risk factors, prevention and screening to reduce invasive cancers as well. Throughout the conference, panelists and attendee indicated the importance of translational research and biomarker exploration in order to realize efficient and individualized therapy for breast cancer.

  10. JNIH-ABCC Life Span Study, Hiroshima 1950-59. Multiple causes of death stated in medical certificates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Morihiro; Jablon, S

    1962-08-22

    The applicability to the JNIH-ABCC Life Span Study of secondary causes shown in Hiroshima death certificates is discussed. The analysis is based on 5526 death certificates reported among members of Selection I and II of the Life Span Study sample. Secondary causes appear to be of only limited usefulness to the Life Span Study. Factors such as age, sex, exposure status, which may influence the frequency of entry of secondary causes in medical certificates are analyzed. Age is the only factor which shows a significant relationship and this may be interpreted as resulting from the fact that chronic diseases with multiple illnesses are most prevalent among persons at older ages. The number of secondary causes in the present study is too small to delineate in detail the pattern of complications or contributory causes. However, 9 cases of malignant neoplasms were entered only as complications and were missed in the primary tabulation, representing only about one percent of all malignancies. Secondary causes shown in the death certificates and associated causes found at postmortem examination seem not to be comparably distributed, thus raising a serious problem as to the applicability of the former to the Life Span Study. Both the magnitude and accuracy of entry of the secondary causes are influenced greatly by the ease with which illnesses may be detected clinically. 9 references, 12 tables.

  11. Neutron-induced {sup 63}Ni activity and microscopic observation of copper samples exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi, E-mail: shizuma@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Quantum Energy Applications, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Endo, Satoru [Quantum Energy Applications, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Shinozaki, Kenji [Materials Joining Science and Engineering, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Fukushima, Hiroshi [Materials Physics, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    Fast neutron activation data for {sup 63}Ni in copper samples exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb are important in evaluating neutron doses to the survivors. Up to until now, accelerator mass spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting methods have been applied in {sup 63}Ni measurements and data were accumulated within 1500 m from the hypocenter. The slope of the activation curve versus distance shows reasonable agreement with the calculation result, however, data near the hypocenter are scarce. In the present work, two copper samples obtained from the Atomic bomb dome (155 m from the hypocenter) and the Bank of Japan building (392 m) were utilized in {sup 63}Ni beta-ray measurement with a Si surface barrier detector. Additionally, microscopic observation of the metal surfaces was performed for the first time. Only upper limit of {sup 63}Ni production was obtained for copper sample of the Atomic bomb dome. The result of the {sup 63}Ni measurement for Bank of Japan building show reasonable agreement with the AMS measurement and to fast neutron activation calculations based on the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) neutrons.

  12. Incidence of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors in relation to neutron and gamma dose, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-71

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Otake, Masanori; Ichimaru, Michito.

    1978-03-01

    The incidence of leukemia during 1950-71 in the fixed mortality sample of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been analyzed as a function of individual gamma and neutron kerma and marrow dose. Two dose response models were tested for each of acute leukemia, chronic granulocytic leukemia, and all types of leukemia, respectively. Each model postulates that leukemia incidence depends upon the sum of the separate risks imposed by the gamma ray and neutron doses; in Model I both are assumed to be directly proportional to the respective doses, while Model II assumes that while the risk from neutrons is directly proportional to the dose, the risk from gamma rays is proportional to dose-squared. Weighted regression analyses were performed for each model. When the two models were fitted to the data for all types of leukemia, the estimated regression coefficients corresponding to the neutron and gamma ray doses both differed significantly from zero, for each model. However, when analysis was restricted to acute leukemia, both the neutron and gamma ray coefficients were significant only for Model II, and with respect to chronic granulocytic leukemia, only the coefficient of the neutron dose was significant, using either Model I or Model II. It appeared that the responses of the two leukemia types differed by type of radiation. If the chronic granulocytic and acute leukemias are considered together, the Model II appears to fit the data slightly better than Model I, but neither models is rejected by the data. (author)

  13. Concentration of Antifouling Biocides and Metals in Sediment Core Samples in the Northern Part of Hiroshima Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noritaka Tsunemasa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of Ot alternative antifoulants in sediment is the focus of this research. Much research had been done on surface sediment, but in this report, the accumulation in the sediment core was studied. The Ot alternative antifoulants, Diuron, Sea-Nine211, and Irgarol 1051, and the latter’s degradation product, M1, were investigated in five samples from the northern part of Hiroshima Bay. Ot compounds (tributyltin (TBT and triphenyltin (TPT were also investigated for comparison. In addition, metal (Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn levels and chronology were measured to better understand what happens after accumulation on the sea floor. It was discovered that Ot alternative antifoulant accumulation characteristics in sediment were like Ot compounds, with the concentration in the sediment core being much higher than surface sediment. The concentration in sediment seems to have been affected by the regulation of Ot compounds in 1990, due to the concentration of Ot alternative antifoulants and Ot compounds at the survey point in front of the dock, showing an increase from almost the same layer after the regulation.

  14. Mortality statistics of major causes of death among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima from 1968 to 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Kurihara, Minoru; Munaka, Masaki (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology) (and others)

    1991-01-01

    A comparative study was made on mortality during a 15-year period from 1968 to 1982 between atomic romb survivors resident in Hiroshima Prefecture and non-exposed controls. The mortality rate for all causes of death was lower in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but the rate was higher among those directly exposed within about 1 km than in the non-exposed. The mortality rate for malignant neoplasms was higher in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but that for cerebrovascular disease and heart disease was lower. In examining the rate for malignant neoplasms by site, the site showing a high mortality rate among atomic bomb survivors were almost identical to the results of the Life Span Study. For these sites, the shorter the exposure distance the higher was the mortality rate. The rate for malignant neoplasms of the uterus and stomach, and leukemia was unnaturally high among early entrants whose period after issuance of atomic bomb survivor's health handbook was short. In observing the atomic bomb survivors by the level of family destruction due to the bombing as a socio-economic factor, a tendency ws observed for the mortality rate for malignant neoplasms, diseases of blood-forming organs, and peptic ulcer, to be higher among survivors with severe family destruction. (author).

  15. Mortality statistics of major causes of death among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture from 1968 to 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Ohtaki, Megu; Matsuura, Masaaki; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology); Ueoka, Hiroshi

    1989-06-01

    A comparative study was made on mortality during a 15-year period from 1968 to 1982 between atomic bomb survivors resident in Hiroshima Prefecture and non-exposed controls. The mortality rate for all causes of death was lower in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but the rate was higher among those directly exposed within about 1 km than in the non-exposed. The mortality rate for malignant neoplasms was higher in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but that for cerebrovascular disease and heart disease was lower. In examining the rate for malignant neoplasms by site, the sites showing a high mortality rate among atomic bomb survivors were almost identical to the results of the Life Span Study. For these sites, the shorter the exposure distance the higher was the mortality rate. The rate for malignant neoplasms of the uterus and stomach, and leukemia was unnaturally high among early entrants whose period after issuance of atomic bomb survivor's health handbook was short. In observing the atomic bomb survivors by the level of family destruction due to the bombing as a socio-economic factor, a tendency was observed for the mortality rate for malignant neoplasms, diseases of blood and blood-forming organs, and peptic ulcer, to be higher among survivors with severe family destruction. (author).

  16. Perinatal loss and neurological abnormalities among children of the atomic bomb. Nagasaki and Hiroshima revisited, 1949 to 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, J.N.; Schull, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Studies of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were exposed to ionizing radiation in utero have demonstrated a significant increase in perinatal loss and the vulnerability of the developing fetal brain to injury. These studies have also helped to define the stages in the development of the human brain that are particularly susceptible to radiation-related damage. Exposure at critical junctures in development increases the risk of mental retardation, small head size, subsequent seizures, and poor performance on conventional tests of intelligence and in school. The most critical period, 8 through 15 weeks after fertilization, corresponds to that time in development when neuronal production increases and migration of immature neurons to their cortical sites of function occurs. The epidemiologic data are, however, too sparse to settle unequivocally the nature of the dose-response function and, in particular, whether there is or is not a threshold to damage. If a threshold does exist, it appears to be in the 0.10- to 0.20-Gy fetal-dose range in this vulnerable gestational period

  17. Cerebral vascular disease in Hiroshima. Report of a six-year period of surveillance, 1958 to 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K G; Yano, Katsuhiko; Kato, Hiroo

    1966-08-25

    Cerebral vascular disease (CVD) in the population of Hiroshima, Japan, is described for the period 1958 to 1964. The incidence of CVD in the male population over 30 years of age was 7.4 per 1000 per year and in females 4.1, approximately twice the observed incidence of coronary heart disease. Being based on examined individuals only, these estimates are biased downward, perhaps by a factor of 10%. The frequency of cerebral thrombosis was twice that of cerebral hemorrhage. These findings on incidence and type of CVD are in accord with the known high incidence of this disease in Japan but do not suggest that any disease other than atherosclerosis of the cerebral arteries is responsible. Hypertension, cardiomegaly (ascertained by ECG or chest film), and proteinuria were important factors in the risk of subsequent CVD. The singular association between hypertension and CVD, and the evidence that CVD is declining in Japan, the US and Europe during a period of widespread use of antihypertensive agents, encourage further epidemiologic study in CVD. 30 references, 15 figures, 8 tables.

  18. A chromosome study of 6-thioguanine-resistant mutants in T lymphocytes of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Yoshiaki; Hakoda, Masayuki; Shimba, Hachiro; Awa, A.A.; Akiyama, Mitoshi.

    1989-07-01

    Cytogenetic characterizations were made of lymphocyte colonies established from somatic mutation assays for 6-thioguanine (TG) resistance in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. G-banded chromosomes were analyzed in both TG-resistant (TG r ) and wild-type (not TG-selected) colonies. Included were 45 TG r and 19 wild-type colonies derived from proximally exposed A-bomb survivors, as well as colonies from distally exposed control individuals who were not exposed to a significant level of A-bomb radiation (18 TG r and 9 wild-type colonies). Various structural and numerical abnormalities of chromosomes were observed in both TG r and wild-type colonies. Aberrations of the X chromosome, on which the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) locus is present, were found in six colonies: two resistant colonies from controls [45,X/46,XX; 46,X,ins(X)], three resistant colonies [45,X/46,XX/46,X,+mar; 46,X,t(Xq+;14q-); 46,Y,t(Xq-;5q+)], and one wild-type colony [45,X/47,XXX] from proximally exposed persons. In cases with exchange aberrations, each of the break points on the X chromosome was situated proximally to band q26 where the HPRT locus is known to be assigned. DNA replicating patterns were also studied, and it was found that abnormal X chromosomes showed early replicating patterns, while normal X chromosomes showed late replicating patterns. (author)

  19. Autopsy studies of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954-1974): relation to atomic bomb radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, M. (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Japan); Norman, J.E. Jr.; Kato, H.; Yagawa, K.

    1978-01-01

    The authors examined 155 autopsy cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the Life Span Study sample including both A-bomb survivors and controls in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954 to 1974). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was classified into lymphoid, diffuse and fibrous types and the following results were obtained. No difference existed in the effects of A-bomb radiation in the incidence and ATB. The ratio of males to females did not reveal statistical significance, even though reversed ratio was noted in the high dose group. The variation of thyroid gland weight in T65 dose or by variant showed no significant pattern, even though the smallest average weight was found in the highest radiation exposure group. The complications in the patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were noted to have high prevalance of ovarian cancer and low prevalence of stomach cancer and total cancer. Only two patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were found to be complicated with thyroid carcinoma. Among collagen diseases, the prevalence of rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis was high as complication. And the prevalence of combined diseases suggested that no late effect of A-bomb radiation existed.

  20. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima a-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketomi, Yoshinori; Abe, Tsutomu; Okita, Hajime; Kamada, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi

    1980-01-01

    Certain blood examinations were performed on a-bomb survivors having anemia more than moderate stage (the hemoglobin value under 9.0 g/dl), who were found out by the periodical health examination performed in Hiroshima-A-bomb Survivors Health Control Clinic during the latter period of the fiscal year 1975. The total number of a-bomb survivors who received the periodical health examination was 50,973, and the number of survivors whose hemoglobin value was under 9.0 g/dl was 201 (0.39%). The incidence of such anemia was high in women. There was not a relationship between this anemia and the exposure distance from the hypocenter. The incidence of this anemia was high in young a-bomb survivors, and more than 50% of a-bomb survivors having this anemia was under the age of 50. Iron-deficiency anemia was found in 88% of a-bomb survivors, and the course of their anemia ran in many years in many a-bomb survivors. (Tsunoda, M.)

  1. Prevalence rate of thyroid diseases among autopsy cases of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1951-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Ezaki, Haruo; Etoh, Ryozo; Hiraoka, Toshio; Akiba, Suminori

    1995-01-01

    To examine the radiogenic risk of latent thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma, colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis, the date for 3821 subjects collected in the course of autopsies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima from 1951 to 1985 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) were analyzed using a logistic model. About 80% of the autopsies were performed at RERF and the remainder at local hospitals. The frequencies of the above diseases were not associated with whether the underlying cause of death was cancer. However, note that our results may be influenced by potentially biasing factors associated with autopsy selection. The relative frequency of latent thyroid cancer (greatest dimension ≤1.5 cm but detectable on a routine microscopic slide of the thyroid gland) increased as the radiation dose increased and was about 1.4-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. The relative occurrence of thyroid adenoma also increased as radiation dose increased, and was about 1.5-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. Sex, age at the time of the bombing or period of observation did not significantly modify the radiogenic risks for thyroid adenoma or latent thyroid cancer. No statistically significant association was found between radiation exposure and the rates of colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis. The possible late effect of atomic bomb radiation on the frequency of benign thyroid diseases is discussed on the basis of these data. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Mortality statistics of major causes of death among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture from 1968 to 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Ohtaki, Megu; Matsuura, Masaaki; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru; Ueoka, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study was made on mortality during a 15-year period from 1968 to 1982 between atomic bomb survivors resident in Hiroshima Prefecture and non-exposed controls. The mortality rate for all causes of death was lower in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but the rate was higher among those directly exposed within about 1 km than in the non-exposed. The mortality rate for malignant neoplasms was higher in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but that for cerebrovascular disease and heart disease was lower. In examining the rate for malignant neoplasms by site, the sites showing a high mortality rate among atomic bomb survivors were almost identical to the results of the Life Span Study. For these sites, the shorter the exposure distance the higher was the mortality rate. The rate for malignant neoplasms of the uterus and stomach, and leukemia was unnaturally high among early entrants whose period after issuance of atomic bomb survivor's health handbook was short. In observing the atomic bomb survivors by the level of family destruction due to the bombing as a socio-economic factor, a tendency was observed for the mortality rate for malignant neoplasms, diseases of blood and blood-forming organs, and peptic ulcer, to be higher among survivors with severe family destruction. (author)

  3. Zoonotic onchocerciasis in Hiroshima, Japan, and molecular analysis of a paraffin section of the agent for a reliable identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Japan is a country of high specific diversity of Onchocerca with eight species, the adults of two not yet known. Onchocerca dewittei japonica, a common filarial parasite of wild boar, had been proved to be the agent of five zoonotic onchocerciasis in Kyushu island with morphological and molecular studies. The sixth case, at Hiroshima in the main island, was identified to the same Onchocerca species, based on adult characters observed on histological sections. To consolidate the identification, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1 gene analysis was attempted with the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded parasite specimen. The sequence (196 bp of a CO1 gene fragment of the parasite successfully PCR-amplified agreed well with those of O. dewittei japonica registered in GenBank, confirming the morphological identification. Moreover a comparison with the CO1 gene sequences of six other Onchocerca species in GenBank excluded the possibility that Onchocerca sp. from wild boar and Onchocerca sp. type A from cattle in Japan, were the causative agents in this case. Mitochondrial DNA analysis proved to be a valuable tool to support the morphological method for the discrimination of zoonotic Onchocerca species in a histological specimen.

  4. Reassessment of diagnosis and subtyping of leukemias among atomic bomb survivors, 4. Combined analysis of Hiroshima and Nagasaki cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomonaga, Masao; Kuriyama, Kazutaka; Ichimaru, Michito; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Finch, S C; Imanaka, Fumio; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Kamada, Nanao

    1988-03-01

    In evaluable 456 (60 %) of 750 leukemic patients exposed at less than or equal to9,000 m from the hypocenter, diagnosis and subtypes of leukemia were reevaluated in relation to radiation doses and age at the time of bombing using a new classification method of French-American-British (FAB). The FAB classification diagnosed 63 patients (13.5 %) as acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 181 (39.0 %) as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 26 (5.6 %) as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 106 (22.8 %) as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), 39 (7.5 %) as adult T-cell leukemia, and 5 (0.8 %) as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. According to radiation doses, the incidence of CML increased in the group exposed to one to 99 cGy; the incidences of ALL and MDS increased in the group exposed to greater than or equal to100 cGy. The incidence of CML was definitively higher in Hiroshima than Nagasaki in all groups; this was noted in the group exposed to 0 cGy (approximately 2.5 times higher). The incidences of ALL and MDS showed a tendency to increase in proportion to radiation doses. In the group exposed to greater than or equal to100 cGy, the incidences of ALL, CML, and MDS increased in patients younger than 15 years, those aged 16 - 35 years, and those older than 36 years, respectively, at the time of the bombing. In this group, there were also differences in latent period (10 yr in ALL and CML, 15 yr in AML, and 17 yr in MDS). None of the AML patients in the group exposed to greater than or equal to100 cGy had M3. (Namekawa, K.).

  5. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination, (3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taketomi, Y; Abe, T; Kamada, N; Kuramoto, A; Takahashi, H [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1978-04-01

    The actual condition of polycythemia in atomic bomb survivors was evaluated laying stress on the results of general clinical examinations in Hiroshima A-bomb Survivors Health Control Clinic in 1973. Of 40,410 subjects examined in 1973 (male 15,390; female 25,020), 218 males and 220 females, 438 in total, excluding the patients with cardiopulmonary diseases, satisfied the criteria for polycythemia that males show higher values over 17.1 g/dl of Hb and 51.5% of Ht and females over 15.2 g/dl of Hb and 46.0% of Ht. The incidence of this disease was higher in younger males but it increased with age in females. However, there was no correlationship between the incidence of this disease and the distance from the epicenter. Further, 10 males and 8 females, 18 in total, of these patients satisfied the Komiya's criteria for polycythemia (RBC 6,000,000, Ht 50% in males, and RBC 5,500,000, Ht>50% in females) in 1973 or before, and one of them was diagnosed as polycythemia vera by the present examination (1977). This survey was made on 40,410 subjects, one of which was diagnosed as polycythemia vera. Because of a lower incidence of polycythemia than that of leukemia, it was difficult to give an accurate diagnosis and it was also hard to evaluate the incidence of this disease in atomic bomb survivors comparing with that in healthy people. It is therefore required to pile up the data year after year. In various blood diseases such as chronic myelogenic leukemia and acute leukemia, the foregoing state of myeloid proliferation was sometimes observed preceding the onset of these blood diseases. Therefore, the 18 cases at least which satisfied the Komiya's criteria should be followed up carefully.

  6. G-banding analysis of radiation-induced chromosome damage in lymphocytes of Hiroshima atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtaki, Kazuo; Nakashima, Eiji.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes the G-banding analysis of somatic chromosomes in lymphocytes from 63 atomic-bomb survivors in Hiroshima to determine the type and frequency of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. Summary findings are as follows: (1) The cells with stable-type chromosome aberrations (Cs cells) predominated among the aberrant cells and showed a dose-dependent increase. All stable chromosome aberrations were classified into 9 types: reciprocal translocations (t), translocations of complex type (t-cx), insertions (ins), complex exchanges (e-cx), peri- and paracentric inversions (inv-peri, inv-para), terminal and interstitial deletions (del-ter, del-int), and unidentified rearrangements. Aberration frequencies increased with increasing dose for all aberration categories. Among the chromosome aberrations classified, reciprocal translocations predominated in all dose ranges. The frequencies of complex aberrations were low at the low-dose level but increased sharply as dose increased. (2) The linear model was fitted to test the dose-response relationship for Cs-cell frequencies. With a constant neutron relative biological effectiveness of 10, an estimated linear slope of 15.2%/Sv was obtained for Dosimetry System 1986 bone-marrow dose with an intercept of 2.9% at dose 0. The present observation confirmed a wide variability of Cs-cell frequencies among individual survivors in every dose category.(3) Statistical analysis of data on 3370 break sites showed good correlations between relative DNA content and the distribution of chromosome breaks involved in translocations, although the involvement of chromosome 1 is significantly higher, for as-yet-unknown reasons. (J.P.N.)

  7. Cerebrovascular diseases in a fixed population Hiroshima and Nagasaki with special reference to relationship between type and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chow-How; Shimizu, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroo; Robertson, T.L.; Furonaka, Hiroshi.

    1980-10-01

    A study was made of the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases, their chronological trend, and relationship between the disease types and risk factors on 16,491 subjects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who underwent medical examination at least once between 1958 - 74, and who were free of cerebrovascular disease at the initial examination. During the 16-year period, 1,162 cases of cerebrovascular disease developed in this study population with the diagnosis definite in 621, and the annual incidence was 3.2 per 1,000 population. By type, there were 108 cases of cerebral hemorrhage, 469 cases of cerebral infarction, 33 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 11 cases of other unclassifiable types, with cerebral infarction occurring more frequently than cerebral hemorrhage at the ratio of 4.5 : 1. The incidence of cerebrovascular diseases increased with age in both types, but the proportion of younger subjects in cerebral hemorrhage was greater than that in cerebral infarction. A secular trend of declining incidence was noted for both cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction. As a risk factor of cerebral hemorrhage, elevation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure was the most closely related to onset, and left ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiogram (ECG) and proteinuria were also related. However, a tendency was seen for the risk to be somewhat higher the lower the levels of serum cholesterol. In cerebral infarction, aging, like systolic blood pressure, was a most important risk factor. Left ventricular hypertrophy on ECG, proteinuria, and diabetes could also be risk factors. However, the relation to blood pressure, especially diastolic blood pressure, was not so great as in the case of cerebral hemorrhage. (author)

  8. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketomi, Yoshinori; Abe, Tsutomu; Kamada, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    The actual condition of polycythemia in atomic bomb survivors was evaluated laying stress on the results of general clinical examinations in Hiroshima A-bomb Survivors Health Control Clinic in 1973. Of 40,410 subjects examined in 1973 (male 15,390; female 25,020), 218 males and 220 females, 438 in total, excluding the patients with cardiopulmonary diseases, satisfied the criteria for polycythemia that males show higher values over 17.1 g/dl of Hb and 51.5% of Ht and females over 15.2 g/dl of Hb and 46.0% of Ht. The incidence of this disease was higher in younger males but it increased with age in females. However, there was no correlationship between the incidence of this disease and the distance from the epicenter. Further, 10 males and 8 females, 18 in total, of these patients satisfied the Komiya's criteria for polycythemia (RBC 6,000,000, Ht 50% in males, and RBC 5,500,000, Ht>50% in females) in 1973 or before, and one of them was diagnosed as polycythemia vera by the present examination (1977). This survey was made on 40,410 subjects, one of which was diagnosed as polycythemia vera. Because of a lower incidence of polycythemia than that of leukemia, it was difficult to give an accurate diagnosis and it was also hard to evaluate the incidence of this disease in atomic bomb survivors comparing with that in healthy people. It is therefore required to pile up the data year after year. In various blood diseases such as chronic myelogenic leukemia and acute leukemia, the foregoing state of myeloid proliferation was sometimes observed preceding the onset of these blood diseases. Therefore, the 18 cases at least which satisfied the Komiya's criteria should be followed up carefully. (Ueda, J.)

  9. Comparison of type and frequency of chromosome aberrations by conventional and G-staining methods in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtaki, Kazuo; Shimba, Hachiro; Sofuni, Toshio; Awa, A.A.

    1982-07-01

    Somatic chromosomes derived from cultured lymphocytes of 23 atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima were analyzed to determine the type and frequency of radiation-induced structural aberrations, using in sequence the ordinary staining method (O-method) and the trypsin G-banding method (G-method). Of 896 cells examined, 342 were found to contain induced aberrations, including 31 cells in which the precise identification of the type of aberrations was not possible even by the G-method. The number of chromosome aberrations observed was 376 in the 311 cells where aberrant precise identification was possible. The majority (288 or 76.6%) were intra- or inter-chromosomal symmetric exchanges due to a two-break event, while only 24 were found to be asymmetric exchanges (dicentrics, rings, and interstitial deletions). Further, there were 28 aberrations showing acentric fragments and terminal deletions, and the remaining 36 were complex intra- and inter-chromosomal exchanges involving three or more breaks which result in insertions and double translocations. A comparative karyotype analysis of the same metaphases examined by the sequential 0- And G-methods was carried out independently on 361 aberrations, mostly of the symmetric type. It was found that 78 (21.6%) of the 361 were detected only by the G-method; among these were 14 paracentric inversions, 48 reciprocal interchanges of chromosome segments with either equal length (11) or unequal length (37), 14 minor deletions and 2 complex rearrangements, all of which were nevertheless judged to fall within the normal range of variation by theO-method. In contrast, 25 aberrations detected in O-method chromosomes which were overcontracted or twisted, were shown to have normal banding patterns by the G-method. (author)

  10. Cardiovascular disease in relation to exposure to ionizing radiation. ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study Hiroshima 1958-60. Cardiovascular Project Report 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Katsuhiko; Ueda, Shoichi

    1962-12-12

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors was analyzed for a possible radiation effect. Suggestive differences among comparison groups were observed concerning: High blood pressure in both sexes; Prevalence of coronary heart disease in females; and Age change in serum cholesterol level in males. It is not clear, however, from the present data whether these differences are radiation effects per se or concomitant effects of differences in environmental factors or even in accuracy of diagnosis. These points will be further investigated as follow-up data become available. 15 references, 2 figures, 17 tables.

  11. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Review of Dose Related Factors for the Evaluation of Exposures to Residual Radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Bailiff, Ian K; Beck, Harold L; Belukha, Irina G; Cockayne, John E; Cullings, Harry M; Eckerman, Keith F; Granovskaya, Evgeniya; Grant, Eric J; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kaul, Dean C; Kryuchkov, Victor; Mannis, Daniel; Ohtaki, Megu; Otani, Keiko; Shinkarev, Sergey; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Stricklin, Daniela; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Woda, Clemens; Worthington, Patricia R; Yamamoto, Keiko; Young, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Groups of Japanese and American scientists, supported by international collaborators, have worked for many years to ensure the accuracy of the radiation dosimetry used in studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Reliable dosimetric models and systems are especially critical to epidemiologic studies of this population because of their importance in the development of worldwide radiation protection standards. While dosimetry systems, such as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) and Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), have improved, the research groups that developed them were unable to propose or confirm an additional contribution by residual radiation to the survivor's total body dose. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of residual radiation exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a half-day technical session was held for reports on newer studies at the 59 th Annual HPS Meeting in 2014 in Baltimore, MD. A day-and-a-half workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of the newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposure to atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The process also involved a re-examination of very early surveys of radioisotope emissions from ground surfaces at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and early reports of health effects. New insights were reported on the potential contribution to residual radiation from neutron-activated radionuclides in the airburst's dust stem and pedestal and in unlofted soil, as well as from fission products and weapon debris from the nuclear cloud. However, disparate views remain concerning the actual residual radiation doses received by the atomic bomb survivors at different distances from the hypocenter. The workshop discussion indicated that measurements made using thermal luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, like earlier measurements, especially in very thin layers of the samples, could be expanded to detect possible

  12. Doses to early entrants to the A-bombed areas and to residents of the fallout areas and 137Cs in soil of the 'black rain' area in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Kenji

    1976-01-01

    An external exposure dose from residual activity (induced radioactivity in the fallout areas and radioactive fallout in the ''black rain'' area) caused by an atomic bomb in Hiroshima was estimated. The integrated doses to the infinite time averaged 101 rads in the atomic bombed area of Hiroshima and 32 rads in that area of Nagasaki. According to the measurement by investigators, the integrated doses of the external exposure dose due to radioactive fallout averaged 13 rads. The amount of 137 Cs in soils was determined in the southest slanting surface

  13. Diuron, Irgarol 1051 and Fenitrothion contamination for a river passing through an agricultural and urban area in Higashi Hiroshima City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaonga, Chikumbusko Chiziwa; Takeda, Kazuhiko; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2015-06-15

    A study was conducted on the pesticides Diuron, Irgarol 1051 and Fenitrothion in Kurose River water, Higashi Hiroshima, Japan for a period of one year to assess the contribution of agriculture and urban activities on pesticide pollution of the river. Samples were analysed by a reverse phase HPLC system. The maximum pesticide concentrations were; 4620 ng/L, 50 ng/L and 370 ng/L for Diuron, Irgarol 1051 and Fenitrothion, respectively. While Diuron and Fenitrothion were detected at all sites, Irgarol 1051 was only present at Izumi, a high density urban and industrial area which also registered the highest concentrations of the pesticides. The pattern showed by Diuron and Fenitrothion was linked to farming activities. Also, Diuron and Fenitrothion concentration correlated with pesticide utilization data for Hiroshima Prefecture. Irgarol 1051 showed a different pattern to that of Diuron and Fenitrothion and its source was attributed to paint. It was noted that 78% and 42% of water samples at Izumi sampling site exceeded the European Union (EU) guidelines for Diuron and Fenitrothion, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Action taken by three humans, an American physicist in the bomber, two Japanese with radiation poisoning in Hiroshima and Nagasaki when the atomic bombs were exploded

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Shuji

    2007-01-01

    Luis W. Alvarez of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), University of California, USA, won the Nobel Prize for physics of elementary particle in 1968. He was very famous physicist and concerned the World War II in some ways. He joined the radar research development at MIT Radiation Lab. in 1940, then he developed the magnetron and the ground-controlled approach (GCA) for blind landing of planes. Afterwards he joined the Manhattan Project to fabricate the atomic bombs. His career connecting to those is introduced partly based on his autobiography. In addition, introduced are two reports by two Japanese, the personal experience of Yoko Ota with radiation poisoning in Hiroshima, and the action of Takashi Nagai who assisted the victims of radiation poisoning in Nagasaki even if he had radiation poisoning himself, as well as a letter from Luis W. Alvarez to Ryokichi Sagane, which was put in the tube of atomic bomb energy measuring instruments. Nightmares of the Hiroshima view are also introduced. (S.Y.)

  15. Investigation on circular asymmetry of geographical distribution in cancer mortality of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors based on risk maps: analysis of spatial survival data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Ohtaki, Megu; Sato, Yuya; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi; Tashiro, Satoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    While there is a considerable number of studies on the relationship between the risk of disease or death and direct exposure from the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, the risk for indirect exposure caused by residual radioactivity has not yet been fully evaluated. One of the reasons is that risk assessments have utilized estimated radiation doses, but that it is difficult to estimate indirect exposure. To evaluate risks for other causes, including indirect radiation exposure, as well as direct exposure, a statistical method is described here that evaluates risk with respect to individual location at the time of atomic bomb exposure instead of radiation dose. In addition, it is also considered to split the risks into separate risks due to direct exposure and other causes using radiation dose. The proposed method is applied to a cohort study of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. The resultant contour map suggests that the region west to the hypocenter has a higher risk compared to other areas. This in turn suggests that there exists an impact on risk that cannot be explained by direct exposure. (orig.)

  16. Summary of the studies at ABCC-RERF concerning the late hematologic effects of atomic bomb exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.; Finch, C.A.

    1990-06-01

    The most significant late hematologic effect of atomic bomb radiation exposure in the populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been the increased occurrence of leukemia. The radiation effect for leukemia has disappeared in Nagasaki but slightly elevated rates still exist in Hiroshima. Multiple myeloma also is radiation-related, but there is only a suggestive relationship for malignant lymphoma. No evidence exists of a late radiation effect for primary disturbances of hematopoiesis in the absence of malignant disease. Somatic hematopoietic markers of previous radiation exposure include lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations and an increased frequency of mutant T-lymphocytes deficient in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase. A radiation effect also has been observed for the frequency of mutant erythrocytes lacking expression of glycophorin-A protein on the membrane. There is no evidence for radiation-induced disturbance of granulocyte function, but age-related accelerated decline in the immunological functions of T lymphocytes and age-related alteration in the number of certain subsets of circulating T and B lymphocytes appears to be radiation-related. A number of radiation-related hematology research proposals which might be considered for the future are included in this report. (author) 92 refs

  17. Investigation on circular asymmetry of geographical distribution in cancer mortality of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors based on risk maps: analysis of spatial survival data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Ohtaki, Megu [Hiroshima University, Department of Environmetrics and Biometrics, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan); Sato, Yuya [Hiroshima University, Division of Radiation Information Registry, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan); Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi [Hiroshima University, Department of Epidemiology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan); Tashiro, Satoshi [Hiroshima University, Division of Radiation Information Registry, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan); Hiroshima University, Department of Cellular Biology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan); Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima University, Department of Radiation Biophysics, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    While there is a considerable number of studies on the relationship between the risk of disease or death and direct exposure from the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, the risk for indirect exposure caused by residual radioactivity has not yet been fully evaluated. One of the reasons is that risk assessments have utilized estimated radiation doses, but that it is difficult to estimate indirect exposure. To evaluate risks for other causes, including indirect radiation exposure, as well as direct exposure, a statistical method is described here that evaluates risk with respect to individual location at the time of atomic bomb exposure instead of radiation dose. In addition, it is also considered to split the risks into separate risks due to direct exposure and other causes using radiation dose. The proposed method is applied to a cohort study of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. The resultant contour map suggests that the region west to the hypocenter has a higher risk compared to other areas. This in turn suggests that there exists an impact on risk that cannot be explained by direct exposure. (orig.)

  18. Measurement of radon concentration in water by means of {alpha}, {gamma} spectrometry. Radon concentration in ground and spring water in Hiroshima Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Radon ({sup 222}Rn, T{sub 1/2}=3.8235{+-}0.0003d) is {alpha}-ray releasing nuclide, so that it can not be detected by {gamma}-ray measurement. But, the daughter nuclides {sup 214}Pb (T{sub 1/2}=26.8 min) and {sup 214}Bi (T{sub 1/2}=19.9 min) release {gamma}-ray, accordingly they are measured by Ge detector. Their radioactive equilibrium is kept in the closed vessel, because their half-lives are shorter than that of radon. We developed a measurement method of radon concentration by means of {gamma}-spectrometry. We applied this method to catch radon in the atmosphere by active carbon. The same principle can be applied to radon in water. Radon concentrations in the ground water were measured in 22 points in the Higashi-Hiroshima city and 82 points in the Hiroshima prefecture. The efficiencies of {gamma}-ray were determined. The radon concentration showed between 11 and 459 Bq/l and the average was 123 Bq/l. The high concentration of radon was distributed in the spring of granitic layer and higher concentration of radon were observed in the ground water of fault. (S.Y.)

  19. Relationship of stature to gamma and neutron exposure among atomic bomb survivors aged less than 10 at the time of the bomb, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Amano, Takako; Kawamoto, Sadahisa.

    1982-10-01

    A reanalysis has been undertaken of the relationship of attained adult height of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors aged less than 10 at the time of the bomb (ATB) to radiation dose based upon new dosimetry data. The present analysis aims to examine the relationship of stature to radiation dose in terms of gamma rays and neutrons, separately. The 628 individuals were selected from Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, aged less than 10 ATB, whose doses were available, and whose statures were recorded at the Adult Health Study (AHS) biennial health examination during 1970-72. To ascertain the relationship of attained adult stature to gamma and neutron doses three doseresponse models were applied to the data. The analysis revealed that the attained height is a separate function of exposure to gamma rays and neutrons. The model assuming a squared term dependence on gamma rays and a linear dependence on neutrons provides a better explanation of the data. The regression coefficient associated with the squared gamma dose is -0.00000927 and the coefficient associated with neutron dose is -0.0172. The relative biological effectiveness of neutrons in relation to gamma radiation with respect to the effect for diminished development of stature is estimated as 43.1 / √Dn in kerma (Dn=neutron dose). The 95% confidence limits are 19.3 / √Dn--96.5 / √Dn. (author)

  20. Spatial analysis of 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (Sea-Nine 211) concentrations and probabilistic risk to marine organisms in Hiroshima Bay, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochida, Kazuhiko; Hano, Takeshi; Onduka, Toshimitsu; Ichihashi, Hideki; Amano, Haruna; Ito, Mana; Ito, Katsutoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the spatial distribution of an antifouling biocide, 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (Sea-Nine 211) in the surface water and sediments of Hiroshima Bay, Japan to determine the extent of contamination by this biocide. A quantitative estimate of the environmental concentration distribution (ECD) and species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for marine organisms were derived by using a Bayesian statistical model to carry out a probabilistic ecological risk analysis, such as calculation of the expected potentially affected fraction (EPAF). The spatial distribution analysis supported the notion that Sea-Nine 211 is used mainly for treatment of ship hulls in Japan. The calculated EPAF suggests that approximately up to a maximum of 0.45% of marine species are influenced by the toxicity of Sea-Nine 211 in Hiroshima Bay. In addition, estimation of the ecological risk with a conventional risk quotient method indicated that the risk was a cause for concern in Hiroshima Bay. - Highlights: • Spatial distribution analysis exhibits the dynamics of Sea-Nine 211 in Hiroshima Bay. • Probabilistic ecological risk of the biocide was estimated with a Bayesian approach. • Approximately up to 0.45% of marine species were possibly influenced by the toxicity. • The risk analysis concludes that Sea-Nine 211 should be a priority for further work. - Spatial distribution of an antifouling biocide and quantification of its ecological risk were elucidated

  1. Around Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: progress of dose estimations relevant to the consequences of nuclear tests (a summary of 3rd Dosimetry Workshop on the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area, RIRBM, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, 9-11 of March, 2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Hoshi, Masaharu; Bailiff, Ian K; Ivannikov, Alexander I; Toyoda, Shin; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Simon, Steven L; Matsuo, Masatsugu; Kawano, Noriyuki; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Sasaki, Masao S; Rosenson, Rafail I; Apsalikov, Kazbek N

    2006-02-01

    The paper is an analytical overview of the main results presented at the 3rd Dosimetry Workshop in Hiroshima(9-11 of March 2005), where different aspects of the dose reconstruction around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site(SNTS) were discussed and summarized. The results of the international intercomparison of the retrospective luminescence dosimetry(RLD) method for Dolon' village(Kazakhstan) were presented at the Workshop and good concurrence between dose estimations by different laboratories from 6 countries (Japan, Russia, USA, Germany, Finland and UK) was pointed out. The accumulated dose values in brick for a common depth of 10mm depth obtained independently by all participating laboratories were in good agreement for all four brick samples from Dolon' village, Kazakhstan, with the average value of the local gamma dose due to fallout (near the sampling locations) being about 220 mGy(background dose has been subtracted).Furthermore, using a conversion factor of about 2 to obtain the free-in-air dose, a value of local dose approximately 440 mGy is obtained, which supports the results of external dose calculations for Dolon': recently published soil contamination data, archive information and new models were used for refining dose calculations and the external dose in air for Dolon village was estimated to be about 500 mGy. The results of electron spin resonance(ESR) dosimetry with tooth enamel have demonstrated the notable progress in application of ESR dosimetry to the problems of dose reconstruction around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. At the present moment, dose estimates by the ESR method have become more consistent with calculated values and with retrospective luminescence dosimetry data, but differences between ESR dose estimates and RLD/calculation data were noted. For example mean ESR dose for eligible tooth samples from Dolon' village was estimated to be about 140 mGy(above background dose), which is less than dose values obtained by RLD and

  2. Hiroshima August 6 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villatoux, P.

    2009-01-01

    This book makes a comeback on this key event of the Second World War, from the US decision taken by H. Truman in 1945 to use the atomic bomb in Japan up to the geo-political swing which has been its direct consequence. The book allows to bring back the genesis of the Manhattan project, a herculean scientific and technological secret program, to which about 140000 scientists, technicians and engineers have taken part during less than three years. The design of this terrible weaponry has switched the world into a new era, the nuclear one

  3. Fifty years after Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, R.

    1997-01-01

    Any discussion of the nuclear-proliferation regime in the post-Cold War era, its present role and expected function in the future must take into account the outcome of the New York Non-proliferation Treaty Review Conference held in 1995, and the four factors that shaped the twentieth century: fascism and communism, nuclear energy and environmental concerns, as well as the interaction between them. none of the factors can be handled within the boundaries of a single state. After fifty years of nuclear competition both for military and energy generation purposes, international conferences on disarmament, Non-proliferation Treaty, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, START negotiations and agreements, there are still remaining nuclear issues. Population growth, energy demands and supplies, all related to global environmental changes must be taken into account

  4. ABCC-JNIH pathology studies, Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Report III. The autopsy program and the life span study, January 1951--December 1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steer, A; Moriyama, I M; Shimizu, K

    1973-01-01

    Of the 19,701 deaths in the Life Span cohort between 1951--70, 22% came to autopsy. The autopsy procurement rate reached 45% in 1963 and declined thereafter. Problems and bias are discussed; autopsy rates were directly associated with radiation dose, especially in Hiroshima. Favorable autopsy procurement rates did not result from the rapport with survivors in the Adult Health Study. A study was made of stroke, ischemic heart disease, and cancer. The occurrence of cancer by site and cell type agrees with other data from Japan except for those cancers associated with prior ionizing radiation. Estimated radiation exposure data reveals no significant association for any disease other than some forms of cancer. (45 tables) (DLC)

  5. Italian Mass Media and the Atom in the 1960s: The Memory of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Peaceful Atom (1963-1967)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciglioni, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The chapter investigates the representations of both fears and hopes related to atomic issues in Italian mass media from 1963 to 1967, through the analysis of a selection of highly circulated mass-market magazines (representing a broad spectrum of political cultures) and of television programs broadcast by the two Italian public networks of the time. The fears of the “atomic age” are analyzed through the memory of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which represents one of the privileged venues for both molding representations of the atomic bomb and negotiating fears. “Atomic hopes” are investigated, instead, examining the emergent fascination for the peaceful uses of atomic energy, analyzed as the catalyst for a positive perception of the atom at a time when national energy policies were at a crucial turning point.

  6. Relation of radiation to gastric carcinoma observed in autopsy cases in the life span study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-74

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Shimizu, Yukiko.

    1978-11-01

    A study was made of the relation to atomic bomb radiation of 535 cases of gastric carcinoma among 4,694 deaths occurring in a fixed population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were autopsied between 1961 and 1974. The proportion of all autopsies with gastric carcinoma as autopsy diagnosis tended to be high in the high dose group, but it could not be concluded with the present amount of information that there is a relation between gastric carcinoma and radiation in this autopsy study. Although no specific distribution of the histological types of gastric carcinoma was noted by radiation dose, the data indicated increases in the degree of extension of tumor cells in the gastric wall and the degree of metastasis to the lymph nodes seemed to be high in the high dose group. (author)

  7. Exposure to Atomic Bomb Radiation and Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Later Life: The Hiroshima-Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itakura, Katsumasa; Takahashi, Ikuno; Nakashima, Eiji; Yanagi, Masahide; Kawasaki, Ryo; Neriishi, Kazuo; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Yin; Hida, Ayumi; Ohishi, Waka; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the association between radiation exposure from the atomic bombings and the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among older residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The Adult Health Study is a cohort study of atomic bomb survivors living in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, comprising 2153 participants who underwent examinations with retinal fundus photographs in 2006-2008. The radiation dose to the eye for the analysis was estimated with the revised dosimetry system (DS02). The retinal photographs were graded according to the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System modified for nonstereoscopic retinal images. Early and late AMD were defined according to the type of lesion detected in the worse eye of the participants. Person-specific data were analyzed by using a logistic regression model to assess the association between radiation dose and AMD. Among the 1824 subjects with gradable retinal images (84.7% of the overall participants), the estimated eye dose was widely distributed, with a mean of 0.45 Gy and standard deviation of 0.74 Gy. The prevalence of early and late AMD was 10.5% and 0.3%, respectively. There were no significant associations between radiation dose and AMD, with each 1-Gy increase in exposure, adjusted odds ratio was 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-1.15) for early AMD and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.21-2.94) for late AMD. No significant associations were found between atomic bomb irradiation early in life and the prevalence of early or late AMD later in life among Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

  8. Rediscovery of an old article reporting that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation, indicating that exposure doses of A-bomb survivors were largely underestimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutou, Shizuyo

    2017-09-01

    The A-bomb blast released a huge amount of energy: thermal radiation (35%), blast energy (50%), and nuclear radiation (15%). Of the 15%, 5% was initial radiation released within 30 s and 10% was residual radiation, the majority of which was fallout. Exposure doses of hibakusha (A-bomb survivors) were estimated solely on the basis of the initial radiation. The effects of the residual radiation on hibakusha have been considered controversial; some groups assert that the residual radiation was negligible, but others refute that assertion. I recently discovered a six-decade-old article written in Japanese by a medical doctor, Gensaku Obo, from Hiroshima City. This article clearly indicates that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation. It reports that non-hibakusha who entered Hiroshima soon after the blast suffered from severe acute radiation sickness, including burns, external injuries, fever, diarrhea, skin bleeding, sore throat and loss of hair-as if they were real hibakusha. This means that (i) some of those who entered Hiroshima in the early days after the blast could be regarded as indirect hibakusha; (ii) 'in-the-city-control' people in the Life Span Study (LSS) must have been irradiated more or less from residual radiation and could not function properly as the negative control; (iii) exposure doses of hibakusha were largely underestimated; and (iv) cancer risk in the LSS was largely overestimated. Obo's article is very important to understand the health effects of A-bombs so that the essence of it is translated from Japanese to English with the permission of the publisher. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  9. Rediscovery of an old article reporting that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation, indicating that exposure doses of A-bomb survivors were largely underestimated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutou, Shizuyo

    2017-01-01

    The A-bomb blast released a huge amount of energy: thermal radiation (35%), blast energy (50%), and nuclear radiation (15%). Of the 15%, 5% was initial radiation released within 30 s and 10% was residual radiation, the majority of which was fallout. Exposure doses of hibakusha (A-bomb survivors) were estimated solely on the basis of the initial radiation. The effects of the residual radiation on hibakusha have been considered controversial; some groups assert that the residual radiation was negligible, but others refute that assertion. I recently discovered a six-decade-old article written in Japanese by a medical doctor, Gensaku Obo, from Hiroshima City. This article clearly indicates that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation. It reports that non-hibakusha who entered Hiroshima soon after the blast suffered from severe acute radiation sickness, including burns, external injuries, fever, diarrhea, skin bleeding, sore throat and loss of hair—as if they were real hibakusha. This means that (i) some of those who entered Hiroshima in the early days after the blast could be regarded as indirect hibakusha; (ii) ‘in-the-city-control’ people in the Life Span Study (LSS) must have been irradiated more or less from residual radiation and could not function properly as the negative control; (iii) exposure doses of hibakusha were largely underestimated; and (iv) cancer risk in the LSS was largely overestimated. Obo's article is very important to understand the health effects of A-bombs so that the essence of it is translated from Japanese to English with the permission of the publisher.

  10. Cosmic-ray-induced sup 6 sup 3 Ni -A potential confounder of fast-neutron-induced sup 6 sup 3 Ni in copper samples from Hiroshima

    CERN Document Server

    Rühm, W; Wallner, A; Fästermann, T; Knie, K; Heisinger, B; Nolte, E; Korschinek, G; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Carroll, K L

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the determination of sup 6 sup 3 Ni in copper samples has been suggested as a means to assess fast-neutron fluences in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In those samples, sup 6 sup 3 Ni (half-life: 100.07 years) was produced by MeV neutrons from the A-bomb explosions via the reaction sup 6 sup 3 Cu(n,p) sup 6 sup 3 Ni. For large distances from the hypocenters, cosmic-ray-induced production of sup 6 sup 3 Ni might also be important and, therefore, it is calculated here. The effective probability f sup * which is required to quantify the cosmic-ray-induced production by stopped muons, was measured, and a value of (12.6 +-1.6)% obtained. The cross-section for the cosmic-ray-induced production by fast muons was measured to be (0.64 +-0.33) mb, at a muon energy of 100 GeV. To validate the proposed method, cosmic-ray-induced production of sup 3 sup 2 P in sulfur and of sup 3 sup 9 Ar in granite was also calculated, and reasonable agreement with literature values was found. Our estimates indicate that as many as (4 ...

  11. A comparative study of oral health attitudes and behavior using the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) between dental and civil engineering students in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Jorge A; Jaramillo, Fredy; Kador, Itzjak; Masuoka, David; Tong, Liyue; Ahn, Chul; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Hiroshima University - Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) to compare oral health attitudes and behavior of dental and civil engineering students in Colombia. The HU-DBI's survey consisting of twenty dichotomous responses (agree-disagree) regarding tooth brushing, was completed at University Antonio Narino for the dental students and the University of Cauca for the civil engineering students. The Spanish version of the HU-DBI questionnaire was taken by 182 of 247 dental students and 411 of 762 engineering students. The data was-statistically analyzed by the chi-square test and backward logistic regression. Compared to the engineering students, the dental students were more likely to agree with questions such as "I am bothered by the color of my gums"(OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7),"I think I can clean my teeth well without using toothpaste" (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.5-5.9), "I have used a dye to see how clean my teeth are" (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.3), and "I have had my dentist tell me that I brush very well" (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.1). The dental education curriculum in a dental school compared to a civil engineering school in Colombia indicated that a three-phase curriculum in didactics and clinics increased oral health attitudes and behavior from entry to graduation.

  12. Long-term Radiation-Related Health Effects in a Unique Human Population: Lessons Learned from the Atomic Bomb Survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douple, Evan B.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Cullings, Harry M.; Preston, Dale L.; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimizu, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy E.

    2014-01-01

    For 63 years scientists in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, have been assessing the long-term health effects in the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and in their children. The identification and follow-up of a large population (approximately a total of 200 000, of whom more than 40% are alive today) that includes a broad range of ages and radiation exposure doses, and healthy representatives of both sexes; establishment of well-defined cohorts whose members have been studied longitudinally, including some with biennial health examinations and a high survivor participation rate; and careful reconstructions of individual radiation doses have resulted in reliable excess relative risk estimates for radiation-related health effects, including cancer and noncancer effects in humans, for the benefit of the survivors and for all humankind. This article reviews those risk estimates and summarizes what has been learned from this historic and unique study. PMID:21402804

  13. Ophthalmologic survey of atomic bomb survivors in Japan, 1949. Atomic bomb radiation cataract case report with histopathologic study. Medical examination of Hiroshima patients with radiation cataracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogan, D.G.; Martin, S.F.; Kimura, S.J.; Ikui, Hiroshi; Fillmore, P.G.

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 3 reports dealing with the delayed effects of radiation on the eyes of survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the first study, 1000 persons who were listed as having been in the open and within two kilometers of the hypocenter at the time of the explosion were selected at random from the census files of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission for study. In addition, 231 others, comprising the total available number of surviving persons listed at present in the census files as having been within one kilometer of the hypocenter, were examined, as were several hundred others who were contacted through newspaper publicity, referrals from local ophthalmologists, or through hearsay. The survey resulted in bringing in persons having, or having had, a variety of ocular conditions. Those connected with the atomic bomb included the following diagnoses; multiple injuries of eyes and eyelids; keratoconjunctivitis from ultraviolet and ionizing radiations; thermal burn of the cornea and of the retina; retinitis proliferans; and radiation cataracts. The cataracts were the only delayed manifestations of ocular injury from the atomic bomb. The second paper is a case report of a histopathologic study of atomic bomb radiation cataract. The third paper presents the results of medical examinations of survivors having radiation induced cataracts. 32 references, 8 figures. (DMC)

  14. Dose-response relationship of neutrons and γ rays to leukemia incidence among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki by type of leukemia, 1950--1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, T.; Otake, M.; Ichimaru, M.

    1979-01-01

    The incidence of leukemia during 1950 to 1971 in a fixed mortality sample of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was analyzed as a function of neutron and γ kerma and marrow doses. Two dose-response models were tested for acute leukemia, chronic granulocytic leukemia, and all types of leukemia, respectively. Each model postulates that the leukemia incidence depends upon the sum of separate risks imposed by γ and neutron doses. In Model I the risk from both types of radiation is assumed to be directly proportional to the respective doses, while Model II assumes that whereas the risk from neutrons is directly proportional to the dose, the risk from γ rays is proportional to dose-squared. The analysis demonstrated that the dose-response of the two types of leukemia differed by type of radiation. The data suggested that the response of acute leukemia was best explained by Model II, while the response of chronic granulocytic leukemia depended almost linearly upon neutron dose alone, because the regression coefficients associated with γ radiation for both Models I and II were not significant. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons in relation to γ rays for incidence of acute leukemia was estimated to be approximately 30/(Dn)/sup 1/2/ [95% confidence limits; 17/(Dn)/sup 1/2/ approx. 54/(Dn)/sup 1/2/] for kerma and 32/(Dn)/sup 1/2/ [95% confidence limits; 18/(Dn)/sup 1/2/ approx. 58/(Dn)/sup 1/2/] for marrow dose (Dn = neutron dose). If acute and chronic granulocytic leukemias are considered together as all types of leukemia, Model II appears to fit the data slightly better than Model I, but neither model is statistically rejected by the data

  15. In connection with the aged who have need help to perform all daily chores on general care ward in Hiroshima Survivors Home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kiyoshi; Hirata, Takeshi; Sugiura, Fusako

    1978-01-01

    The aged who are admitted to general care ward of Hiroshima Survivors Home and need help to perform all daily chores as of January 1978 are 3 of 18 aged 60 - 69 years old (16.7%), 18 of 69 ones 70 - 79 years old (26.1%), 21 of 52 ones 80 - 89 years old (40.4%), and 6 of 7 ones more than 90 years old (85.7%), which are 48 of total 146 (32.9%). This phenomenon is recognized more frequently in women than in men. Occurrence of this phenomenon was high in a short-distance group and a group who entered city after the explosion. It was also high in the aged who stayed at this home for more than 7 years. Most diseases from which they suffered are those of bone and joints (19%) and arteriosclerosis (18.7%). Eight of 13 aged with eye diseases suffered from cataract. As advancement of senility with aging and exacerbation lead to increase of care for them, it is necessary to change their general care to special one. The ability of such aged, who are admitted to general ward and need help to perform all daily chores, to act independently was the same as that of those admitted to Yokufukai special care ward. At the present when beds for special care are filled to capacity, treatment of the aged who need special care (30% of those who need general care), personnel management, and health management of staffs are important. (Tsunoda, M.)

  16. Radiation-related posterior lenticular opacities in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors based on T65DR and DS86 dosimetry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Schull, W.J.

    1989-10-01

    This paper investigates the quantitative relationship of ionizing radiation to the occurrence of posterior lenticular opacities among the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, as suggested by the DS86 dosimetry system. DS86 doses are available for 1,983 (93.4%) of the 2,124 A-bomb survivors analyzed in 1982. In the DS86 system, both gamma-ray and neutron regression coefficients for the best-fitting model are positive and highly significant for the estimated energy deposited in the eye, here termed the eye organ dose. The DS86 gamma regression coefficient is almost the same as that associated with the T65DR gamma kerma, the ratio of the two coefficients being 1.1 (95% confidence limits: 0.5 - 2.3) for D86 kerma in the individual data. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values based on the individual gamma and neutron components of the DS86 eye organ dose are estimated to be 32.4 + 0.73/(D ν - 0.06)>0 with the 95% confidence limits ranging from 11.8 to 88.8 + 1.39/(D ν - 0.06)>0, where D ν is the neutron dose in gray. It is suggested that the neutron component could be more important for the eyes than for other sites of the body. Finally, it is interesting to observe that a linear-quadratic gamma and linear neutron model with two thresholds, which fits the data less well, produces very similar estimates of the two thresholds as the linear gamma-linear neutron-response model. In this model, however, the regression coefficient is not significantly associated with the quadratic gamma response. (J.P.N.)

  17. Leukemia in humans following exposure to ionizing radiation. A summary of the findings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and comparison with other human experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brill, A B; Tomonaga, Masanobu; Heyssel, R M

    1960-10-01

    A review of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki leukemia experience thirteen years after the atomic bomb explosion in those two cities, and comparisons with other collected series of leukemia cases following radiation has again demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt the leukemogenic effect of ionizing radiation on humans. In spite of the heterogeneity of the various study groups there are surprisingly consistent findings. An increased risk of leukemia following doses probably as low as 50 to 100 rads (air-entry dose) whole body radiation has been demonstrated. Above this dose the increase in incidence of leukemia may be related linearly to dose of radiation. When extrapolated to zero dose this line intersects the expected spontaneous incidence. In the lower range it is impossible to be certain regarding the presence or absence of a threshold. As in other series the acute lymphocytic variety of leukemia in the very young is most increased. Chronic granulocytic leukemia was seen most commonly among the Japanese in the older age groups. The predilection of the various types of leukemia for specific age groups does not appear to be markedly altered although possibly the incidence of chronic granulocytic leukemia has been shifted to younger ages. Males and children in the age group below ten appear to be most sensitive to induction of leukemia by irradiation. The increased occurrenc of leukemia in an irradiated population appears to start about eighteen months after the event. In Japan the increased risk has persisted for thirteen years with the time of maximum risk approximately four to eight years following radiation. 128 references, 2 figures, 14 tables.

  18. Leukemia in atomic bomb survivors. 1. General observations. Leukemia in survivors of atomic bombing. Cytologic and biochemical studies on the granulocytes in early leukemia among atomic bomb survivors. Leukemogenic effects of ionizing radiation on atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, R D; Moloney, W C; Yamawaki, Tokuso; Kastenbaum, M A

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 4 separate reports on leukemia in survivals of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the first report, observations on seventy-five established cases of leukemia occurring in people exposed to atomic bomb radiation are presented. These data indicate a great increase in the incidence of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors due to a single massive exposure to ionizing radiation. The leukemogenic effects of radiation are manifested equally in both sexes and at all age levels represented in this series. The striking preponderance of chronic myelogenous leukemia compared to chronic lymphatic leukemia has been noted in exposed individuals but it is pointed out that chronic lymphatic leukemia is comparatively rare among the Japanese. Cases of leukemia are still appearing in atomic bomb survivors. However, since 1950 there has been a steady decline in the number of cases. The second report consists of a review of all cases of leukemia referred to the ABCC from 1948 to April 1952, a total of 75 cases. In the third report, hematological and biochemical findings in separated leukocytes of four cases of preclinical myelogenous leukemia developing in atomic bomb survivors are described. The incidence of leukemia among survivors in Hiroshima is the topic of the fourth report. 38 references, 8 figures, 10 tables.

  19. Petrochemical and Sr-Nd isotope investigations of Cretaceous intrusive rocks and their enclaves in the Togouchi-Yoshiwa district, northwest Hiroshima prefecture, SW Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishioka, Jun; Iizumi, Shigeru

    2003-01-01

    Petrographic, petrochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data are presented for granitoids and microdioritic enclaves from two Cretaceous stocks (Togouchi granodiorite and Tateiwayama granite porphyry) from the Togouchi-Yoshiwa district, northwest Hiroshima prefecture, SW Japan. The data are used to examine the genetic relationships between the microdioritic enclaves and their granitoid hosts. The granodiorite, granite porphyry and the microdioritic enclaves are all calc-alkaline in nature, and belong to the I-type ilmenite series. The Togouchi graniodiorite has a Rb-Sr whole rock isochron age of 85.6±4.7 Ma with an initial Sr isotope ratio (SrI) of 0.70634±0.00012 (2σ). The Tateiwayama granite porphyry has a slightly younger Rb-Sr whole isochron age (77.4±3.1 Ma) but similar SrI of 0.70653±0.00015, suggesting that both stocks may have been derived from the same source. Despite diverse whole rock chemistry, the microdioritic enclaves in the respective intrusives have quite similar initial Sr and Nd isotope ratios, suggesting that they formed by fractional crystallization of a single magma, and also that the source of the enclaves in both intrusives had similar geochemical characteristics. In both stocks, however, the enclaves have distinctly lower initial Sr isotope ratios than their respective host rocks, indicating that they were derived from a different source than their hosts. In view of the geochemical and Sr-Nd isotope data, we infer that the enclave magmas were derived from a similar LILE- and LREE-enriched source to that of the Cretaceous basalts and gabbroic-dioritic rocks that are sporadically distributed in SW Japan. Such mafic to intermediate magmas were probably derived from the upper mantle, and transferred both heat and material to the lower crust, thus producing granitic magmas by partial melting. Successive mafic magmas or their differentiates could then have been injected into the granitic magma chamber, trapped and quenched, resulting in the formation

  20. Hiroshima August 6 1945; Hiroshima 6 aout 1945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villatoux, P.

    2009-07-01

    This book makes a comeback on this key event of the Second World War, from the US decision taken by H. Truman in 1945 to use the atomic bomb in Japan up to the geo-political swing which has been its direct consequence. The book allows to bring back the genesis of the Manhattan project, a herculean scientific and technological secret program, to which about 140000 scientists, technicians and engineers have taken part during less than three years. The design of this terrible weaponry has switched the world into a new era, the nuclear one

  1. Ophthalmology research protocol, Hiroshima - Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R J; Fujino, Tadashi; Nefzger, M D

    1964-05-21

    Several large ophthalmic studies have been made at ABCC. However, all preceded the final identification and definition of the Master Sample which unifies the three present major research studies, and T57D estimates were not available. For these reasons it seemed highly desirable to undertake another ophthalmic study which would both relate to the present program and utilize available dose information. Consequently, in 1962 a consultant in ophthalmology, Dr. P.J. Leinfelder visited ABCC to acquaint himself with the ABCC program and facilities, and he prepared the broad plan for this study. The present document describes the detailed working program which developed from this initial plan. For the period 1963 to 1964, investigation will be directed towards detection and evaluation of the following possible late effects of exposure to ionizing radiation: lens opacities; accelerated aging; and decreased acuity. 43 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  2. From Hiroshima to nuclear deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villain, Jacques; Moret, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The authors first propose an overview of nuclear weapons from their origins to 2014: evolution of weapon systems between 1945 and 2014, main treaties related to nuclear weapons, main consequences of the nuclear revolution, brief presentation and assessment of defences against ballistic missiles, cost of nuclear warfare. The second part proposes a perspective for nuclear weapons in tomorrow's world as it seems that the World will remain nuclear: possible evolution of nuclear proliferation, evolution of risks related to nuclear weapons, desirable and possible evolution of nuclear weapons. Appendices propose presentations of the main techniques used for ballistic missiles: propulsion, control, navigation and guiding, atmosphere re-entry, multiple nuclear heads, data processing, relationship between nuclear plants and weapons

  3. Pearl Harbor and Hiroshima : an Ironic Comparison = Pearl Harbor ve Hiroşima Saldırilarının İronik bir Karşılaştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo J. MAHONEY

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past century, veterans of America's wars have shown extraordinary human longevity in the postwar eras. As a result, contemporary public historical interpretations of the American second world war experience have been influenced by veterans' perceptions of historical issues for a longer time than was true of postwar eras before the twentieth centuıy. Public historical debates in the United States have recently focused on the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (1941 and the American attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1945. These events may seem quite dated by now, but they have remarkable contemporary resonance in light of debates over proliferation of nuclear weapons and tactics of so-called pre-emptive warfare. Though the aerial attacks are often related in popular American perception, the truth is they were incommensurate events in terms of their military and political objectives, their physical scale and results, and the natures of their targets.

  4. Early air sampling in Higashi-Hiroshima after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and subsequent sampling in Minami-Souma City from October 2011 to September 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Soon after the accident that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, air sampling was performed in Higashi-Hiroshima (about 800 km from Fukushima). The sampling began on March 20, and a high-volume air sampler was used. The first radionuclide observed was "1"3"1I (on March 30), and "1"3"7Cs, "1"3"4Cs, "1"3"6Cs, and "1"3"2Te were observed thereafter. According to the sampling, the maximum concentration in the air occurred on April 7 and again on April 18. After April 30, no radionuclides released due to the accident were observed. Since "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"4Cs have a long half-life (30 and 2 y, respectively), all of the air filters were measured again in February through March of 2012 using a well-type Ge detector. The results of these measurements showed that "1"3"7Cs was already observed on March 21. Later on, air sampling was performed at Minami-Souma City, Fukushima (October 2011 to September 2012). The purpose of this sampling was to investigate whether any radionuclides were released from the forest and flew up into the air from the ground, or were carried by the wind in winter or via pollen in spring. Results showed that the radioactive concentration was quite low and no seasonal variation occurred, indicating that no radionuclides flew up into the air from the ground, nor were any released from the forest via wind or pollen. (author)

  5. Stopping the greenhouse effect - recommendations submitted by the Bundestag Enquete Commission. - Why nuclear energy cannot solve the global-warming problem - on the urgency of a low-risk, efficient future energy economy. - The latest cancer statistics of the Hiroshima/Nagasaki A-bomb survivors - a higher radiation risk at dose rates below 50cGy (rad) - consequences for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, W.; Kohler, S.; Koehnlein, W.

    1991-01-01

    The report compiles three contributions two of which discuss the issues of global warming, trace gases and ozone depletion. The measures proposed by a German enquete commision to stop the greenhouse effect, i.e. utilization of renewable energy sources, nuclear phaseout because nuclear power is not supposed to solve the global-warming problem, are described. The third contribution gives the latest cancer statistics of the Hiroshima/Nagasaki a-bomb survivors while taking into account the higher radiation risk due to low dose rates. (DG) [de

  6. "Hiroshima, Mon Amour": From Iconography to Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhurst, Martin J.

    1982-01-01

    This iconographic study of Resnais' classic film reconstructs the narrative structure of the film; identifies the various icons, images, sounds, and acts that constitute "marks" in time; and examines these marks to show how they function rhetorically to help interpret the central message or intrinsic meaning of the film. (PD)

  7. Epidemiologic study of uterine cancer, Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke

    1965-12-10

    As a cause of death in females, cancer of the uterus is one of the important cancers in Japan. In 1962 it was responsible for 15.5% of all the deaths due to cancer in women and ranked next to the proportion attributed to cancer of the stomach. The JNIH-ABCC Life Span Study of A-bomb survivors also shows that cancer of the stomach and uterus were the major causes of cancer deaths in the female population. The present study, which was carried out in 1963, was begun in the hope of elucidating some of the relationships of the factors other than radiation possibly associated with the incidence of cancer of the uterus in the Life Span Study (ST 100) sample in Horoshima. Environmental factors considered to play a role in the development of uterine cancer were studied by interview with a close relative of the subject. The data did not clearly support the findings reported elsewhere that residential history, occupational history, history of marital status, smoking and alcohol drinking habits, and socioeconomic factors were associated with the incidence of cancer of the uterus. A brief analysis was also conducted for the accuracy of death certificates. The results suggest that an epidemiologic study should be conducted on morbidity data derived from pathologic findings and a revised plan is desirable to elucidate the factors associated with the incidence of cancer of the uterus using the various recent experimental findings as references. 124 references, 15 tables.

  8. Hiroshima and Nagasaki: the survivors. The reckoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, F.

    1977-01-01

    At a recently held meeting of 44 scientists from 14 countries organised by the International Peace Bureau a great deal of information on the physical, biological, medical, genetic, social and psychological effects of the atomic bombs was made specially available by Japanese scientists including the results of comprehensive surveys of the personal and social disabilities of the survivors. The immediate fire, blast and radiation effects are here summarized and the causes of death upto the end of 1945 are considered. The delayed effects are perhaps the most terrifying and these are examined. (U.K.)

  9. Thermoluminescence results on slices from a Hiroshima tile UHFSFT03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoneham, Doreen

    1987-01-01

    As was reported at the May 1984 Utah thermoluminescence (TL) workshop, high fired tiles and porcelain fragments can be sliced into 200 μm sections with constant surface area. When conventional pre-dose measurements were carried out on these slices the doses evaluated were in good agreement with results obtained by other workers using conventional quartz separation techniques. There are several advantages in using slices. First, less sample is needed as about 50 consecutive slices can be cut from a block measuring typically 1 cm 2 cross section and 2 cm in length. There are no problems with securing grains to the plate or loss of grains during measurement. Hypothetically there is less damage to the grains when they are cut slowly under cold water than when they are crushed. The disadvantage is that other minerals besides quartz are present in the slice and the signal is weaker than that obtained using quartz inclusions

  10. Medical findings and methodology of studies, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Beebe, G W; Ishida, Morihiro; Brill, A B

    1960-09-01

    A description of the population studied and the program of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission to study the late effects of radiation are presented. These include investigations of radiation dose, life span, medical surveys, tumor registries, autopsy program, leukemia survey, morbidity detection, in utero studies, genetic effects, effects on the growth and development of children, radiation cataracts, neoplasia, and fertility. 61 references, 18 figures, 5 tables. (DMC)

  11. The survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: delayed effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollingsworth, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Results of controlled clinical and epidemiological studies of atomic bomb survivors are presented. Fewer than 100 children irradiated in utero suffered brain damage and microcephaly. Many persons who received more than 100 rads developed posterior lenticular cataracts. Up to 15% of lymphocytes of survivors showed some small chromosomal change, and the percentage and degree of abnormality were directly related to radiation dose. The cumulative rate of myelogenous leukemia was highly dose-related, with a 50-fold increase in those receiving 200 rads. Now, more than 35 years after the bombing, the solid tumor rate is still increasing. Data indicate that a dose as small as 10 rads is carcinogenic, making a so-called safe dose threshold unlikely. Psychologic damage has affected all aspects of life

  12. Mortality of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki and Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Okumura, Yutaka; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yokota, Kenichi; Tomonaga, Masao

    2000-01-01

    A data base of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki has been maintained at Division of Scientific Data Registry, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute at Nagasaki University School of Medicine. The data base include personal histories, records of health checks and cause of death. We have published the mortality of non-cancerous disease of A-bomb survivors using old dose estimation system, T65D, elsewhere. The mortality of non-cancerous disease was lower than controls for a dose range 50-99 cGy in male. We reanalyzed the mortality of non-cancerous disease using new dose estimation system, ABS93D. It's result was lower than controls for a dose range 31-40cGy in male. We compared the results of A-bomb survivors in our database with those or LSS's population, RERF. (1) Radiation dose for survivors in Nagasaki have been estimated by Atomic Bomb Survivor 1993 Dose (ABS93D). To study the mortality rates of A-bomb survivors for the period of 1971 through 1994, we selected 2,743 persons (dose estimate available) and age-matched 8,229 persons as control who were alive in 1971. (2) Another population is Life Span Study by Radiation Effect Research Foundation (RERF). RERF opened the data from 1950 to 1985. The data on deaths are stratified by city, sex, age radiation dose, the observed period and cause of death, yielding 3,640 strata. (1) The study resulted in that males exposed to 31-40cGy showed lower mortality from non-cancerous diseases than that of control. (2) Relative risk of mortality from all causes is lower than controls for a dose range 6-19cGy adjusted for sex, age, and period. Relative risk of mortality from non-cancerous disease is significantly lower than controls for a dose range 6-49cGy adjusted for sex, age, and period. But result of adjusted for city is no difference. (author)

  13. From Hiroshima to Chernobyl: epidemiological findings, uncertainties and perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.; Hendry, J.

    2003-01-01

    The effects on persons of ionizing radiation can be quantified on three major pathways. At the present time, it is not possible to understand fully the basis of mechanistic principles of the interaction of ionizing radiation with the critical macromolecules, i.e. DNA, cell nuclei, cells, and body tissue, also because of the stochastic methods to be employed, the many factors influencing the situation, and the complex radiobiological mechanisms. Studies of the effects of radiation on animals, among other things, allow teratogenic changes and carcinogenicity to be studied as a function of many variables, such as the radiation dose and dose rates. However, these findings can be extrapolated to the situation in humans only to a limited extent. Even tighter constraints apply to the extrapolation of possible effects of low doses. On the whole, these studies generate important findings. The most important findings about the health effects of ionizing radiation to this day have arisen from statistical correlations of radiation exposures and the incidence of diseases in exposed groups of the population. The article presents the main results of studies conducted in the past and of ongoing studies, and cites remaining uncertainties. These uncertainties especially relate to the effects of low radiation levels. In this field, substantial problems exist, among other things, in the interpretation of data on the basis of varying environmental factors and the resultant absence of uniform conditions for evaluation and extrapolation to the low-dose range. (orig.) [de

  14. Hiroshima University Research and Technology Guide 2012 Version : Life Science

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Collaborative Research & Community Cooperation,

    2012-01-01

    I Life ScienceDevelopment of Treatment Strategy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma to Improve the Long Term Prognosis / Hiroshi AIKATA...2Development of Revolutional Apatite-implant Complex with Simultaneous Bone Augmentation and Osseointegration / Yasumasa AKAGAWA...3How Do Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease Experience Memory Impairments? / Sawako ARAI...4Development of New Therapies for Chronic Viral Hepatitis Using Human Hepatocyte Chimeric Mice / Kazuaki CHAYAMA...5Identification of High Risk Pa...

  15. Hiroshima and Nagasaki: the survivors. The puzzle of absent effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1977-01-01

    It is argued that the method of basing estimates of the risks of populations exposed to radiation under normal, peace-time activities, on the results obtained from A-bomb survivors may not be justified. Among the survivors there is a definite dose-related increase in the number of malignancies but other radiation effects such as increase in the incidence of leukaemia in children exposed in utero, genetic effects in children conceived by survivors and general increase in mortality, are conspicuously absent. It is felt that estimates of radiation effects on survivors indicate a difference in response to radiation, as far as leukaemia is concerned, between persons exposed to radiation alone, and those who were also subject to mechanical injuries and heat burns. Together with the absence of other expected effects of radiation, and the lower cancer incidence, this indicates that A-bomb victims cannot be assumed a priori to behave in response to radiation in the same way as those exposed to radiation alone, without accompanying physical, psychological and social traumata. Estimates of radiation risk based on observations on the A-bomb survivors may thus turn out to be too low, by a considerable margin. (U.K.)

  16. Serum autoantibodies in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamakido, Michio; Hamilton, H.B.; Kobuke, Kyoko; Fujiwara, Saeko; Hakoda, Masayuki; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Yoshimoto, Keiko; Fujikura, Toshio.

    1983-12-01

    In order to evaluate delayed effects of radiation on humoral immunity, an attempt was made to detect antibodies in the serum of atomic bomb survivors against kidney, liver, and parietal cells from rats. The following results were observed. Comparing by sex and age, the detection frequency of antibodies increased significantly for all three organs in the male group only. Analysis of changes in antibody detection frequencies by age and exposure dose without considering sex showed that the rates for those exposed to 100 + rad showed a trend to increase with age for all three organs (P < 0.01). However, in the 0 rad group, a significant trend to increase with age was noted for antikidney and antiliver antibodies only (P < 0.01 for both). Analysis of changes in antibody detection frequencies by sex, age, and exposure dose showed that the detection frequencies increased significantly with age for all three organs in males exposed to 100 + rad (P < 0.05), but only the antiliver antibody frequency increased significantly with age in males in the 0 rad exposure group. Females failed to show any statistical changes in any exposure group. (author)

  17. Tuberous schlerosis complex and astrocytoma: a case report, Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnick, P A; Hoshino, N; Kitaoka, T; Miura, M

    1961-02-10

    This case report concerned a young woman with cutaneous, osseous, and retinal changes of tuberous sclerosis, referred to ABCC for evaluation of blindness and increased intracranial pressure. A right lateral ventricle astrocytoma was successfully removed, but the patient's sight was not restored. The development of cerebral neoplasms in these patients is discussed. A careful search for resectable brain lesions should be made in all patients with tuberous sclerosis who have signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. 14 references, 6 figures.

  18. Hiroshima and Nagasaki: from fear through science to risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugahara, T.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation summarises the data of Japanese epidemiological studies in the light of the recent progresses made in radiation biology which do not support the present radiation paradigm for cancer risk assessment at low doses. The possible paradigm shift and its effect on the dose limits for protection of individuals is also discussed. (author). 27 refs., 1 tab

  19. Tuberous schlerosis complex and astrocytoma: a case report, Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnick, P.A.; Hoshino, N.; Kitaoka, T.; Miura, M.

    1961-02-10

    This case report concerned a young woman with cutaneous, osseous, and retinal changes of tuberous sclerosis, referred to ABCC for evaluation of blindness and increased intracranial pressure. A right lateral ventricle astrocytoma was successfully removed, but the patient's sight was not restored. The development of cerebral neoplasms in these patients is discussed. A careful search for resectable brain lesions should be made in all patients with tuberous sclerosis who have signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. 14 references, 6 figures.

  20. Nine cases of multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimi, Masanobu; Matsueda, Kazuhiro; Nishida, Kazurou; Kobayashi, Makoto; Kou, Hassei; Mikami, Motoko; Nakamura, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Yoshikiyo; Aisaka, Tadakazu

    1986-03-01

    Nine A-bomb survivors (2 men and 7 women) were diagnosed as having multiple myeloma (MM) 24 years to 38 years after exposure. According to exposure doses, three survivors were exposed at less than or equal to 1,800 m from the hypocenter, three between 2,200 m and 2,500 m, and three between 3,100 m and 4,100 m. Acute atomic radiation injuries, such as epilation and disturbance in bone marrow function, were observed in survivors exposed at less than or equal to 2,400 m. Complications included hypertension in two, diabetes mellitus in one, and cancer of the pharynx in one. Three of the patients are still alive with follow-up periods of 3 years and 6 months to 7 years and 11 months. Two survivors, who showed no evidence of abnormal physical findings, did not meet typical MM criteria according to Abe et al. There has been a continuing discussion regarding the association between A-bomb radiation and intermediate type MM seen in the two survivors. (Namekawa, K.).

  1. ME-55 adult medical survey 1950-1953, Hiroshima new series tabulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Beebe, G W; Yamasaki, Mitsuru

    1961-03-15

    This report was compiled for internal use as basic reference material on the population of patients seen at ABCC under the ME-55 program. These tables afford a means of screening the ME-55 data for suggestions of differences between exposed and nonexposed. This report represents the effort to meet an urgent need for systematic compilation of reference material on medical histories, results of physical examinations, and laboratory data. Such information is of general reference value not only in planning future research projects and analyses, but also in reporting progress of the various investigations currently under way at ABCC. Thus, this set of preliminary tables is intended to be exploratory and provocative rather than decisive. Possible radiation effects are sought on the basis of comparisons of exposed and nonexposed. Apart from any bias which may exist this is a fairly efficient approach, since the exposed were chosen from those within 1500 meters of the hypocenter at the time of the bomb (ATB). However, in the first examination cycle under the ME-55 program age-distributions of the exposed and nonexposed were not homogeneous within sex, and for more refined comparisons both age and sex must be taken into account. Finally, the first cycle ME-55 examination is said to have been attended with a low attrition rate. Overall figures on the original sample are provided. A later adjustment in the ME-55 sample reduced the count from 4196 to 4082 patients examined in the first cycle. 15 references, 1 figure, 107 tables.

  2. Myth, Hiroshima and Fear: How we Overestimated the Usefulness of the Bomb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Wilson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence from World War II and the Cold War shows that nuclear weapons are far less useful as military and political tools than has been believed. Far from giving a madman the power to conquer the world, nuclear weapons are clumsy, dangerous technology with very few real uses — even if you have a monopoly.

  3. Mental retardation occurring in embryo exposed in utero to the atomic bomb (Hiroshima)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimasaki, Akira; Fujiwara, Koichi; Harada, Masazumi; Minami, Ryuichi.

    1978-01-01

    This paper deals with a long term follow-up study on psychological symptoms in four patients with microscopically microcephaly induced by prenatal exposed to atomic bomb. They were exposed to atomic bomb at 8- and 12-week-embryos. The distance from the center of the explosion was 780 - 1180 m. All their mothers had acute radiation hazards. Their growths in the uterus were markedly damaged. Postnatal body weight ranged between 1,300 and 2,000 g. They were commonly characterized by microcephaly, physiological and mental retardation, stigmata of degeneracy, and skin symptoms, who were diagnosed as ''microcephaly induced by early prenatal exposure to atomic bomb'' by the research group for microcephaly in the Ministry of Health and Welfare. These common symptoms such as microcephaly, stigmata of degeneracy, and disturbed growth, but neurological symptoms such as motor aphasia were slighter in these patients than in those having congenital Minamata disease prenatal. These results suggested that the prognosis of these patients in whom 30 years have passed is unexpectedly serious. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Calculation and interpretation of In-Situ measurements of initial radiations at Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewe, W.E.

    1983-01-01

    Cobalt activation calculations will be reviewed, and similar comparisons of sulfur activation interior to electrical insulators on power transmission lines will be discussed. The relationship between neutron tissue kermas one to two kilometers from hypocenter and the particular activations of cobalt and sulfur are reviewed. At present, measured and calculated quantities agree within associated uncertainties, which are substantial. Additional work to shrink these uncertainties will be discussed. Particular cobalt activation topics will include: the sensitivity to thermal neutrons outside the pillar; calculated values using actual Nagasaki concrete composition; and calculational advances to improve modelling of the actual configuration. Particular sulfur activation topics will include: absolute comparisons of measured and calculated ratios of dpm/gm of 32 P at all measured ranges, based on approximate experimental values for insulator attentuation and source radiations; the relationship between sulfur activation within a kilometer of hypocenter and kermas at two kilometers; and calculational advances to improve modelling of the actual configuration

  5. The finish. About the reasons and events leading to the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, S.

    1995-01-01

    The bombing was decided not only for military reasons. For the Manhattan Project managers, and for General Groves in particular, it was a question of justification of their own work and commitment. The bomb may have actually prolonged the war. (orig.) [de

  6. Relationship between epidemiological factors and mortality among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Masanori

    1980-01-01

    In 1965, mail survey on environmental and individual factors was performed for 11,724 male a-bomb survivors, with the age of 40 to 69, selected from the group subjected to joint JNIH-ABCC investigation of life span in a-bomb survivors. During 10 years after the mail survey, 2,834 died. The aim of this mail survey was to clarify the relationship between the mortality and specific environmental, social, and economic factors. There was a relationship between high mortality and low social and economical condition for all causes of death combined, cerebral vascular diseases, all malignant neoplasms, and gastric cancer. Smoking was a significant risk factor to all causes of death combined, ischemic heart diseases, all malignant neoplasms, gastric, tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancers. The mortality due to cardiovascular diseases was significantly higher in a-bomb survivors with heavy weight. The mortality due to all causes of death combined, all malignant neoplasms, lung, and gastric cancer tended to become higher in a-bomb survivors who got married early. (Tsunoda, M.)

  7. Nuclear Strike Against Hiroshima and Nagasaki. War Crime, That Could Be Avoided

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolay Petrovich Parkhitko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the research of the consequences of the US nuclear bombings of Japanese cities in August 6th and 9th 1945. Military, political and psychological aspects, that were crucial for American military planning at the latest stage of the Second World War are taken into consideration. Also the problems of the new reality in the global policy of that period, which made it possible to demonstrate the military power in such a destructive way, are investigated. The author offers some logical alternatives to the real circumstances of the 6thAugust 1945, including both implementing and non-implementing of the nuclear weapons. The author also offers some new conception of the bipolarity considering the «A-bomb factor» in the international relations, which was critical since August 1945 till August 1949. The very fact of the using the most destructive and powerful weapon, developed after the Germans' capitulation but before the capitulation of Japan, corresponds with the political concept, offered by K. Clausevitz in early 19th century. The approach to the problem, advocated by the German military theorist was in details researched in the article. Using some historical and political methodology, the author criticizes the realization of this concept in August 1945th and offers some alternatives in the historical retrospective. Acknowledging, on the whole, the necessity of demonstration of the newest weapon by the United States in global political aspect, the author reveals a number of targets, which seem more optimal for this goal. Bombing of peaceful cities, which caused inadmissible civil losses, is characterized by the author as military crime.

  8. Dental roentgenographic exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Part 4. Critical organ doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoku, S; Kihara, T; Russell, W J

    1972-01-01

    Doses to Adult Health Study subjects from dental x-ray examinations were estimated, based on previous patient and hospital surveys, and by exposing phantom humans containing LiF thermoluminescence dosimeters and ionization chambers. Dose tables were compiled according to representative exposure conditions and average doses were estimated at various body sites during dental roentgenography. Dental roentgenography was found to comprise a relatively small segment of the contaminating sources of ionizing radiation exposure among this population. However, the increasing use of full mouth examinations bides caution in the future (11 tables). (DLC)

  9. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Shimizu, Yukiko

    1984-01-01

    Of 108,739 atomic-bomb (A-bomb) victims enrolled in the population of life span survey by Radiation Effects Research Foundation, 730 victims from October 1950 to December 1980 were selected as subjects of colorectal cancer based on death certificates, autopsy and operative findings, and clinicopathological reconfirmation of colorectal cancer. Tentative dose decided in 1965 (T65D) was used to estimate radiation doses of A-bomb victims. Although the incidence of colon cancer was found to be related to radiation, the relation of the incidence of rectal cancer to radiation was not confirmed. Radiation effects were dependent on the age of A-bomb victims at the time of the bombing, which was noted in A-bomb victims aged less than twenty years at that time. Dose-response relationship was found in cases of cancer of the sigmoid colon. Histological types of cancer were independent of radiation doses. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. The age of the bomb: History of the atomic threat from Hiroshima through today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salewski, M.

    1995-01-01

    The booklet describes the history of the ''bomb'' from the ''Manhattan project'' to the present, tracing the drastic changes provoked by the nuclear weapons for world politics, but also for ethical thought and cultural conception of ourselves. Both the crises at the brink of nuclear war - Suez crisis, Berlin crisis, Cuba crisis - and the development of strategic doctrines, the arms race, the history of arms control, and the anti-atomic movement are dealt with in the contributions written by renowned authorities. The concluding paper on the role of nuclear weapons in a world politics that has become more intricate shows insistently that the age of the bomb is anything but over since the end of the East-West conflict. The example of North Korea or of the ''plutonium transfer deals'' from nuclear installations of the Soviet Union has recently shown that also the future will remain ''atomic''. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Cholelithiasis and its long-term roentgenological aspects; Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Shozo; Kawanami, Takashi; Russell, W.J.

    1979-02-01

    All pertinent radiographs of 83 RERF Adult Health Study patients with radiographically-confirmed cholelithiasis and who met fixed diagnostic and selection criteria, were reviewed retrospectively. The changes in calculus by type and age, the clinical course by age, the correlation of the clinical course and calculus type, and the relation of the clinical course to the X-ray changes were studied. Among all patients at the time of their first radiological examination, 62 (74.7%) were asymptomatic and 21 (25.3%) were symptomatic. Patients in the older age group had fewer symptoms than the younger ones. There was no definite correlation between the radiological changes and the clinical course. Of the biliary calculi 61 (73.5%) remained unchanged radiologically; 16 (19.3%) increased in size and/or number; and 3 (3.6%) decreased in size and/or number. Over the 1 month to 18 1/2 years of observation, there was no notable difference in the changes in appearance among three types of calculi (solitary, multiple, and ''sand-like''). The changes in radiologic appearance were less frequent in the older than in the younger age group. (author)

  12. What do we learn from the mental retardation induced by prenatal exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori

    1991-01-01

    Significant effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the developing brain are seen among those individuals prenatally exposed in the 8th through 25th weeks after fertilization. These effects, particularly in the most sensitive period, 8-15 weeks after fertilization, manifest themselves as an increased frequency of severe mental retardation, a diminution in IQ score and in school performance, and an increase in the occurrence of seizures. Of 30 SMR cases, 18(60%) had small heads. About 10% of the individuals with small head sizes observed among the in utero clinical sample were mentally retarded when we exclude two probable nonradiation-related cases of Down's syndrome from the 19 SMR cases exposed 8-15 weeks after fertilization, the 95% lower bound of the threshold based on the new dosimetry system appears to be in the range of 0.12-0.23 Gy. In the 16-25 weeks period, the 95% lower bound of the threshold is 0.21 Gy both with and without inclusion of two probable nonirradiation retarded cases. In a regression analysis of IQ scores and school performance data, a greater linearity is suggested with the new dosimetry (DS86) than with the old (T65DR), but the changes in the mean IQ scores and school performances in the low dose region are similar to the changes emerging in the control group, particularly so with doses under 0.10Gy. (author)

  13. Effects of atomic radiation: A half-century of studies from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is a notable book. For the first time, a thoroughly experienced scientist has undertaken, as the author says, open-quotes to present the atomic bomb survivor story in all its complexity,close quotes and to aid the reader, Prof. Schull has eschewed the use of technical terms. Where this could not be done, he has defined them in the text or the glossary. The task could only have been done by someone like Prof. Schull, who in various capacities has been involved in the Japanese studies since 1949. The book therefore is not a conventional epidemiological monograph. It is addressed to both the professional and nonprofessional reader, and it includes various elements of biology; it deals with history as well as science; and it considers some of its material as in a personal essay. This is an ambitious, difficult and useful undertaking that provides much information; its writing, however, is not always quite direct and incisive

  14. Why Fukushima after Hiroshima? - An ethic to phase out nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serekian, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima catastrophe has turned a page of history. According to the author, the nuclear age has entered a death agony era. We discover today the improvisations, the corruption and the arbitrary nature of the nuclear adventure. Several problems remain unanswered and are left unsolved to the next generations: wastes and their processing, shutdown and de-construction of power plants. The future of an industry cannot build up forever with an unlimited growth and draw from the public debt at the same time. The Fukushima event closes an historical cycle and, by its human and environmental consequences, reveals again the original and unique military purpose of the nuclear industry. The ten thoughts approached in this book analyse again the historical roots of the 'atomic age' and clarify the ethical urgency of a nuclear phasing out

  15. Why 159°?: a story about the dropping of the Hiroshima atom bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunty, Sean L.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the evasive manoeuvre undertaken by the pilot of the Enola Gay aircraft following the dropping of the first uranium bomb. The pilot was instructed to make a 159° turn following the bomb’s release in order to acquire the greatest distance from the point at which the bomb explodes. Accordingly, the objective here is to investigate why the angle should be exactly 159°. The optimum flight-path to maximize the distance from the detonation point is analysed by considering the escape or exit angle taken by the aircraft following a turning-manoeuvre that points it directly away from the detonation site. A range of escape angles are predicted based on the requirement to exit the turning radius prior to detonation. By using information that appeared in a historical account of the event regarding the manoeuvre undertaken by the pilot following the release of the bomb, an estimate is made of the escape angle. Despite the fact that the result shows reasonable agreement with the value of 159°, some uncertainty is expressed as to the close coincidence obtained. In addition, the location of the aircraft and the time of arrival of the shock wave following detonation are also briefly discussed.

  16. Thyroid carcinoma in the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1958 - 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manabe, Yoshitaka; Toyota, Emiko; Yamamoto, Tsutomu

    1978-01-01

    Relation between radiation dose and incidence rate of thyroid carcinoma in A-bomb survivors exposed with large doses was studied by analyzing 82 cases in total consisting of those reported by Parker et al. from 1956 to 1971 and additional 19 cases lately occurred until 1976. Among them, 40 cases were clinically evident cancer confirmed histologically from clinical findings, and 42 cases were silent cancer confirmed by autopsy findings. The incidence rate of thyroid carcinoma during these 18 years rose along with the increase of radiation dose, and especially, this trend is marked in women. More noticeable dose-response was observed in clinically evident cancer. In a dose-response curve, it was observed that the incidence rate tends to rise higher with an increase of doses. However, in terms of statistics, a significantly higher incidence rate than that of a control group of 0 rad was first observed in the group of 50 - 100 rad. As far as the annual changes of radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma are concerned, the group of over 100 rad still showed an increase of the incidence rate of thyroid carcinoma. By ages when patients were exposed to A-bomb, a group of those exposed under 30 years old showed an increase of the incidence rate since 1968 or 1969, while the group of those exposed at relatively higher ages recorded the high incidence rate already in 1958 and showed no remarkable increase afterwards. Also it was indicated that a noticeable influence given by A-bomb radiation appears after cancer age. By histological types, papillary type and papillary sclerosing type were often observed in clonically evident cancer and silent cancer, respectively. Papillary type was rather often seen in the group of over 100 rad. (Iwagami, H.)

  17. Comparison of SAR and optical sensor data for monitoring of rice plant around Hiroshima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguro, Y.; Suga, Y.; Takeuchi, S.; Ogawa, M.; Konishi, T.; Tsuchiya, K.

    2001-01-01

    Through the research on the application of the multi-temporal data acquired with Landsat-5 TM, SPOT-2 HRV, SPOT-4 HRVIR and RADARSAT-1 SAR to monitoring of rice field following features are clarified. Vegetation indices NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and EVI (Extended Vegetation Index) derived from different optical sensors TM, HVR, HRVIR indicate nearly same characteristics suggesting validity of calibration of respective sensors. It was found that by combined use of multi-temporal vegetation indices NDVI and EVI together with SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data it was found that rice planted area can be estimated with the error less than 2%.

  18. M-proteinemia in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neriishi, Kazuo; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Mikami, Motoko

    1990-01-01

    A comparative analysis of monoclonal gammopathy (M proteinemia) in A-bomb survivors, detected during the period from October 1979 through September 1981 (the first survey) and the period from June 1985 through May 1987 (the second survey), was made by using the 1986 dosimetry system. M-proteinemia was detected in 33 (0.38%) of 8,796 participants in the first survey and in 69 (0.94%) of 7,350 participants in the second survey; the prevalence of M-proteinemia was 2.5 times higher in the second survey than the first survey. It occurred more frequently with aging, especially in the 70 years and older age group. In 9 (27%) of 33 patients detected at the first survey, death was confirmed at the second survey; it was attributable to malignant tumor in 4, multiple myeloma in 2, and colon cancer, lung cancer and prostatic cancer in one each. Follow-up, available in 8 patients diagnosed as benign monoclonal gammopathy at the first survey, revealed the occurrence of immunoglobulin suppression in 4 patients. The relative risk between the persons exposed to 0.01 Gy or more and non-exposed persons was 2.0 for monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and 1.3 for benign monoclonal gammopathy; however, this was not statistically significant. (N.K.) 50 refs

  19. Research on the nutritive actual conditions in a-bomb survivors(women) in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishida, Noriko; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Munaka, Masaki.

    1978-01-01

    A significant difference in amount of uptake was observed in three groups. (1) Short-distance group: 46 women directly exposed to the A-bomb within 1 km of the center of explosion. (2) Great-distance group: 57 women directly exposed over 3 km from the center of explosion, or not directly exposed and entered an area within 2 km after explosion. (3) Non-exposed group: 59 women. There was a higher uptake of cereals, fruits, dairy products, potatoes, and oils and fats in the great-distance group and in the non-exposed group than in the short-distance group. A difference in uptake of daily products, potatoes, and oils and fats was observed in the two exposed groups, a higher uptake being present in the great-distance group. In the three groups, significant differences were observed in amount of uptake of nutritive substances, with the exception of energy and vitamin C. Uptake was high in the great-distance group. Uptake, with the exception of energy, carbohydrate, and vitamin C, was significantly different in the two exposed groups, and was high in the great-distance group. The ratio of nutritive substances, showing significant differences in uptake in the three groups was obtained from the following ratios: energy from cereals to the total uptake energy; energy from protein to the total uptake energy; energy from fats to the total uptake energy; ratio of animal protein to the total uptake protein; original energy ratio. Differences in uptake between the two exposed groups were observed in the ratio of energy from cereals and fats to the total uptake energy and original energy ratio. Differences between maximum and minimum values of amount of uptake of foods and nutritive substances, and the ratio of these substances to the total uptake of energy were large and varied. (Tsunoda, M.)

  20. Estimation of risk map for cohort study of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. 1970-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Sato, Yuya; Maruyama, Hirofomi; Kawakami, Hideshi; Tashiro, Satoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ohtaki, Megu

    2012-01-01

    A risk map (map I) involving the effects of direct A-bomb exposure and of other confounding factors was estimated to analyze the death risk in the geographic distribution, and another risk map (map II) was also made by subtracting the direct exposure effect to see the confounder effect. The cohort was 37,382/157,327 survivors at Jan. 1, 1970, whose positional coordinates at the exposure were known, and was followed up until Dec. 31, 2009. For survival analysis, the endpoint was defined to be death (total 19,119) by regarding other 18,263 as censoring. Confounding factors were sex, age at the exposure, exposed dose and shielded condition. Maps I and II were depicted using the hazard ratio at the exposed position relative to the hypocenter, which was estimated by previously reported hazard model functions. Map I was found to be rather similar to concentric circle of the hypocenter, but to be tended a bit distorted toward northwest area. The distortion was clearer in the map II, indicating that death causes other than direct exposure existed. The confounder was thought to be the indirect exposure through the black rain, residual radiation and/or internal exposure, which awaiting future investigation. (T.T.)

  1. Natural history of disease in atomic bomb exposed twins in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Yukio; Ohmae, Kiyokazu; Okamoto, Naomasa; Abe, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Shoji

    1982-01-01

    The subjects of this study are mainly pairs of monozygotic twins, one of whom was exposed to the atomic bomb and the other not exposed, and the natural history of the diseases of these twins was analyzed to find out genetic and environmental factors of the diseases and some biological effect of the atomic bomb exposure or other. In this study, 13 pairs of monozygotic and 5 pairs of dizygotic twins and other 34 cases of non-twins were examined by means of heart and lung X-ray films and electrocardiograms. The results suggest that most of the monozygotic twins show the similar findings of chest X-ray films, though their electrocardiograms have a tendency to deviate to the left in the QRS axis. These findings will not be enough to clear up the relation between the atomic bomb exposed and the abnormal electrocardiograms. (author)

  2. Proceedings of the 9th annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management 2010 Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    This is the entitled program and proceedings held from December 1st through 3rd of 2010. The sessions including poster, invited/special speeches etc. are exposure reduction and dose level evaluation, shielding design, radioactive waste handling and its effective use, radiation measurement, safety control of radiation source, radioactive waste management (aerosol, liquid), education on radiation, molecular imaging, image analysis, radioactivity in environment, contamination inspection. (J.P.N)

  3. Thyroid carcinoma after exposure to the atomic radiation of Hiroshima, 1958-1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezaki, Haruo; Yasuda, Katsuhiko; Takeichi, Nobuo

    1983-01-01

    Clinical thyroid carcinoma occurred in 125 (15 males and 110 females) of 75,493 subjects on the list of the life span study extended sample of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The crude annual incidence rate in a population of 100,000 was 2.7 for the males and 12.4 for the females, and the risk increased with increasing dosage for both sexes. This tendency was remarkable among young women. In view of the ratio of expected to observed numbers (O/E), the incidence increased with increasing dosage for the two sexes both separately and collectively. Test of linearity revealed dose effects among the females and in the sum of both groups. The younger a subject, the more definite was the dose effect. The relative risk of the group exposed to more than 50 rad against the control group was 4.2. According to the age group, the risk of the group aged below 20 yrs. was as high as 7.9 with statistical significance. Occult carcinoma was found in 155 of the 4,425 autopsied cases in the same period. The relative risk of the group exposed to more than 50 rad was significantly high, 1.9, and the O/E ratio was significant only for the females. (Chiba, N.)

  4. Relationship between epidemiological factors and mortality among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, M [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1980-11-01

    In 1965, mail survey on environmental and individual factors was performed for 11,724 male a-bomb survivors, with the age of 40 to 69, selected from the group subjected to joint JNIH-ABCC investigation of life span in a-bomb survivors. During 10 years after the mail survey, 2,834 died. The aim of this mail survey was to clarify the relationship between the mortality and specific environmental, social, and economic factors. There was a relationship between high mortality and low social and economical condition for all causes of death combined, cerebral vascular diseases, all malignant neoplasms, and gastric cancer. Smoking was a significant risk factor to all causes of death combined, ischemic heart diseases, all malignant neoplasms, gastric, tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancers. The mortality due to cardiovascular diseases was significantly higher in a-bomb survivors with heavy weight. The mortality due to all causes of death combined, all malignant neoplasms, lung, and gastric cancer tended to become higher in a-bomb survivors who got married early.

  5. Gastric cancer in the ABCC-JNIH adult health study sample, Hiroshima-Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K G; Archer, P G; Johnson, M L.T.; Wanebo, C K

    1967-07-10

    This study attempted to identify items that are routinely recorded at physical examination which might be of predictive value concerning the subsequent development of gastric cancer. None of the clinical signs or laboratory results evaluated were found to be of predictive diagnostic value. Screening for gastric cancer to demonstrate achlorhydria or by upper gastrointestinal series would have been an impractical measure as has already been demonstrated in other larger case series. 5 references, 8 tables.

  6. Dosimetric evaluation of 252Cf beam for use in radiobiology studies at Hiroshima University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, M.; Takeoka, S.; Tsujimura, T.; Kuroda, T.; Kawami, M.; Sawada, S.

    1988-01-01

    This report provides reliable tissue kerma in free air data by characterising the 252 Cf irradiating system and by comparing three dosimetry methods, paired chambers (ICRU 1977, 1978), Fricke and thermoluminescence dosemeter. (author)

  7. ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study Hiroshima, 1958 to 1959. Hypertension and ischemic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switzer, S

    1963-11-12

    The interrelations of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, blood lipid levels and ionizing irradiation were investigated among 1051 male and 1872 female members of the ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study. No significant effect of ionizing irradiation upon the cardiovascular system were detected. No major difference in age-sex specific mean blood pressures between Adult Health Study subjects and a suitable American comparison group was found. An accelerated course with fulminating vascular deterioration was suspected in only 1% of the hypertensive subjects. As a result, advanced retinopathy and renal failure were rarely seen. Electrocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy occurred in 7.2% of the hypertensive subjects in this study, and was readily correlated with ambient systolic blood pressure. Evidences of ischemic heart disease and congestive failure were rare and distinctly less common than in American males unselected as to blood pressure levels. In contrast, mortality statistics indicate cerebrovascular disease to be at least as common in Japan as in the United States. Adult Health Study data exhibit low serum cholesterol concentrations by Western standards and elevated levels are predominantly limited to the obese. Both factors appear of importance in the occasional hypertensive subject with ischemic heart disease. The therapeutic implication of this observation is briefly discussed. 57 references, 10 tables.

  8. Public health nutritional studies on the atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munaka, Masaki; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Ohtaki, Megu; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Kishida, Noriko; Ishigai, Keiko.

    1982-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a long distance (LDG) was found to take a great quantity of soybean curd, miso and fruit except citrus, while the atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a short distance (SDG) was found to take a significant amount of fish paste product. SDG tends to ingest processed food and in nutrient supply rate the percentage of calcium, iron and vitamin A is low. Judging from a state of food group without a meal rate, we got the result that SDG has a few kinds of ingestion food and takes them partially in each meal. In terms of socio-economic status, the rate of living alone, supporting oneself and living an empty life is high and the rate of living with a partner is low. On the other hand, we analysed the relations of three factors on physique-physical fitness and living status, and then got the following results. (1) ''Volume capacity'', in the cases of ''be married at present'', ''have a large family'', ''ingest a lot of protein and iron'', tends to be large, while in the cases of ''have no disease'', ''don't go without a meal'', ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', and ''nutritional balance is good'', it tends to be small. (2) ''Height'', in the case of ''socio-economical status was good before exposure to the atomic bomb'', tends to increase. (3) ''Synthetic physical fitness'', in the cases of ''health condition is good at present'', ''have no disease at present'', ''ingest a lot of vitamin A'' and ''nutritional balance is good'', tends to be superior; in the cases of ''food cost is high'' and ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', it tends to be low. The significant difference was observed in ''synthetic physical fitness'' between the two age groups of 50-59 years and beyond 70 years. (J.P.N.)

  9. A study on thyroid disorder of Sjoegren's disease in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noma, Koji; Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikako; Hasegawa, Kazuyo.

    1984-01-01

    Thyroid disorders were seen in eight of 25 atomic bomb survivors with Sjoegren's disease -- simple goiter in 2, chronic thyroiditis in 4, and primary hypothyroidism probably arising from chronic thyroiditis in 2. Thyroid disorders associated with Sjoegren's disease seemed to occur frequently in survivors exposed near the explosion. One of the two survivors with primary hypothyroidism had been exposed to atomic bomb 1.7 km from the explosion. As for the other clinical laboratory findings, there was no significant difference between the group with thyroid disorders and the group without them. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Boundary elements; Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference, Hiroshima, Japan, November 8-11, 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brebbia, C. A.; Futagami, T.; Tanaka, M.

    The boundary-element method (BEM) in computational fluid and solid mechanics is examined in reviews and reports of theoretical studies and practical applications. Topics presented include the fundamental mathematical principles of BEMs, potential problems, EM-field problems, heat transfer, potential-wave problems, fluid flow, elasticity problems, fracture mechanics, plates and shells, inelastic problems, geomechanics, dynamics, industrial applications of BEMs, optimization methods based on the BEM, numerical techniques, and coupling.

  11. The transportation of British nuclear weapons by road. Hiroshima is waiting to happen in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    This leaflet describes the transportation of nuclear weapons on United Kingdom roads. The author seeks to question the safety and desirability of such activities, and points out the potential hazards to humans and the environment should convoy accidents occur. Correspondence is included between the author and various Government sources to illustrate the difficulty of obtaining full, accurate information on the design and safety of weapons transportation vehicles and the reasons and frequency of weapons convoys. The author contrasts these difficulties with the free available government information in the United States of America because of the Freedom of Information Act. Readers are urged to contribute to monitoring the routes and occurrence of UK weapons convoys to assist in data collection. (UK)

  12. Geographical distribution of radiation risk unaccountable by direct exposure dose in hiroshima A-bomb victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Ohani, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Death risks due to solid cancer were estimated from region to region where the A-bomb survivors had been actually exposed, to visualize the risk distribution on the map, which resulting in risk regional difference that had been unaccountable by direct exposure dose estimation. Analysis was performed with 3 hazard models of the previous one, + direct exposed dose as a confounding factor and, further, + spatial distance from the explosion point. Subjects were 37,382 A-bomb survivors at Jan. 1, 1970 with known positional coordinate at explosion, followed until Dec. 31, 2009, whose endpoint was set by 4,371 deaths due to cancer except leukemia, cancers of thyroid and breast. Confounding factors in the previous hazard model were sex, age at the exposure, dose and shielding. With the previous model, risk distribution was observed in a concentric circular region around the hypocenter and in an additional west to northwestern suburbs. The latter risk distribution was also seen with the second model in the same region, where dose decreased with -7 powers of the distance. When adjusted with -3 powers of the distance with the third model, the actual risk distribution was found best fitted, indicating the presence of distance-dependent risk. It was suggested that the region exposed to additional dose possibly derived from fallout had been the actual black rainfall area as those regions agreed with each other. (T.T.)

  13. Incidence of female breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Land, C.E.; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Asano, Masahide; Tokuoka, Shoji; Ezaki, Haruo; Nishimori, Issei.

    1985-10-01

    Ascertainment of breast cancer incidence among the cohort of the RERF Life Span Study extended sample identified 574 breast cancers among 564 cases diagnosed during 1950 - 80, of which 412 cancers were reviewed microscopically. There were no dose-dependent differences with respect to diagnostic certainty or histological type. As in previous studies, the dose response appeared to be roughly linear, and did not differe between the two cities. The most remarkable new finding was the emergence of a radiation-related excess among women aged under 10 at exposure. The risk of radiogenic breast cancer appears to decrease with increasing age at exposure, whether expressed in relative or absolute terms. These results suggest that exposure of female breast tissue to ionizing radiation at any age, even during the premature stage, can cause breast cancer later in life, and that the length of time that tumor promoters such as endogenous hormones operate following exposure has an important influence on the development of radiation-induced breast cancer. (author)

  14. Tentative estimations of genetic hazards for the atomic bomb radiations, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Isao; Ayaki, Toshikazu

    1978-01-01

    The degree of genetic hazards which could appear in the offspring of A-bomb survivors (after F1) was estimated on the basis of a report by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation in 1977. The genetic effects of atomic bomb radiation on humans (insufficient data) were investigated on the basis of data obtained from animal experiments (especially mice). The incidence of chromosome aberration and gene mutation induced by radiation was estimated based on data obtained from experiments with marmosets and mice, respectively. The appearance time and frequency of chromosome aberration and dominant mutation were estimated based on the incidence of mutation induced by radiation. The effects of recessive mutation were determined by estimating the probability of such mutation in a presumed human group by means of a simulation method in which a computer was used. (Tsunoda, M.)

  15. Incidence of female breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, M.; Land, C.E.; Yamamoto, T.; Asano, M.; Tokuoka, S.; Ezaki, H.; Nishimori, I.

    1987-01-01

    Ascertainment of breast cancer incidence among the cohort of the RERF Life Span Study extended sample identified 574 breast cancers among 564 cases diagnosed during 1950-1980 of which 412 cancers were reviewed microscopically. There were no dose-dependent differences with respect to diagnostic certainty or histological type. As in previous studies, the dose response appeared to be roughly linear and did not differ between the two cities. The most remarkable new finding was the emergence of a radiation-related excess among women under 10 years of age at exposure. The risk of radiogenic breast cancer appears to decrease with increasing age at exposure, whether expressed in relative or absolute terms. These results suggest that exposure of female breast tissue to ionizing radiation at any time during the first four decades of life, even during the premature stage, can cause breast cancer later in life, and that the length of time that tumor promoters such as endogenous hormones operate following exposure has an important influence on the development of radiation-induced breast cancer. An unresolved question is whether breast cancer risk is increased by radiation exposure at ages older than 40

  16. Pathological review of lung cancer among A-bomb survivors at Hiroshima Atomic-bomb Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambu, Shigeru; Akamizu, Hiroshi; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi; Hamada, Tadao.

    1989-01-01

    Autopsy findings were reviewed in 161 A-bomb survivors with lung cancer during the period 1956-1987. The overall ratio of male to female was 2.1. In the group of A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤2,000 m from the hypocenter, the ratio of male to female in the incidence of lung cancer was 1.3. According to age groups, it was the highest in people in their seventies. Histology revealed that the incidence was 41.6% for adenocarcinoma, 29.2% for squamous cell carcinoma, 19.9% for small cell carcinoma, 6.8% for large cell carcinoma, and 2.5% for adenosquamous cell carcinoma. The incidence of small cell carcinoma was relatively high in the ≤2,000 m group. For females in the ≤2,000 m group, the incidence of adenocarcinoma was relatively low, and the incidences of squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma tended to be high. The incidence of histologic type of lung cancer varied with time: squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma were the most predominant during the period 1957-1967; since 1968, it has been gradually replacing by adenocarcinoma. In the ≤2,000 m group, however, small cell carcinoma has still been more predominant even since 1984. For 8 A-bomb survivors exposed at the age of 20 years or less, 7 had adenocarcinoma, showing a significantly higher incidence than those exposed at older ages. (Namekawa, K)

  17. Relationship between epidemiological factors and mortality among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Masaki.

    1979-01-01

    Information concerning a number of environmental and individual factors was obtained by a mail questionnaire survey conducted in 1965 on 11,724 males aged 40 - 69 years in the JNIHABCC Life Span Study sample. In the ensuing 10 year period, some 2,834 deaths occurred in this population. This is a study of mortality as related to certain environmental and socioeconomic factors. The following observations may be made from this study: high death rates for all causes of death, cerebrovascular diseases, all malignant neoplasms, and stomach cancer were associated with lower socioeconomic status. Smoking was a significant risk factor for all causes of death, ischemic heart disease, all malignant neoplasms, stomach cancer, and cancers of the trachea, bronchus, and lung. The death rate for cardiovascular disease was significantly higher for those with higher body weight. A tendency was noted for higher death rates for all causes, all malignant neoplasms, lung cancer, and stomach cancer for those who were married earlier in life. This may be related to age at first marriage and social status. (author)

  18. Serum immunoglobulin levels in the ABCC-JNIH adult health study: Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R A; Milton, R C; Hamilton, H B

    1973-05-31

    Immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgA, and IgM) were determined on 2043 individuals in the ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study population, and levels were compared to disease states and the dose of radiation ATB. Mean levels for both cities and sexes combined were IgG = 1577 mg%, IgA = 312 mg%, and IgM = 127 mg%. Differences between these mean levels and those reported in other studies are thought secondary to racial and environmental factors, and technical differences with the methods used for quantitation. Females had higher IgM levels that tended to go down with advancing age. Of the diseases evaluated, rheumatoid arthritis, cirrhosis, and pulmonary tuberculosis affected immunoglobulin levels the greatest. There was no apparent relationship between radiation dose from the atomic bomb and immunoglobulin levels determined more than 25 years after exposure. (6 tables)

  19. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketomi, Yoshinori; Kamada, Nanao; Uchino, Haruto; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ohkita, Takeshi

    1976-01-01

    For investigation of delayed effects on atomic bomb survivors, age, the association with exposure conditions, and individual pathological conditions were examined on 200 survivors for whom hypoplastic anemia was suspected in a year, April 1, 1972-March 31, 1973. Anemia was prevalent among the aged: in the females (170 cases) the incidence according to age was 1.2% in those aged 29 or below, 8.8% in those aged between 30 and 39, 12.4% in those aged between 40 and 49, 21.2% in those aged between 50 and 59, 28.8% in those aged between 60 and 69, and 24.1% aged between 70 and 79. In the males (30 cases) it was 73.3% in those aged 60 or above. The incidence according to exposure distance in the females was 4.1% in the group of 0.9km or less, 36.5% in the group of 1.9km or less, and 41.8% in the group of 2km or more, and the incidence in the males was 43.3% in the group of 1.9km or less. Anemia was not necessarily frequent among the short-distance victims. As for the distribution of hemoglobin, anemia with 10g/dl or less was found in 18%, and a white blood cell count of less than 3000 was rather infrequent (12%). Although, according to age, the amount of hemoglobin showed a slight increase in the subjects aged 70 or above, there was no significant difference. Neither of the values showed any particular decrease in relation to exposure diatance. Up to present, however, anemia has not been improved in many of the subjects in whom a mean of more than 10 years has elapsed. In addition to senile anemia, iron deficiency anemia and posthemorrhagic anemia represented most cases. There were 22 cases of hypoplastic anemia, of which three were aplastic. The exposure distance in these three cases was 1.3km, 1.5km, and 2.5km, but its relation to the incidence was not found because of the small number. (Kanao, K.)

  20. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by periodical health examination, (6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Tsutomu; Dohy, Hiroo; Okita, Hajime

    1980-01-01

    Serum ferritin was determined in A-bomb survivors, and its significance was evaluated. A low-ferritin group included many of the females under the age of 50, who mostly had iron deficient anemia. A high-ferritin group included many older-aged A-bomb survivors who had secondary anemia due to hemochromatosis, paroxismal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), and multiple myeloma. Secondary anemia due to hemochromatosis, PNH, leukemia, and sideroblastic anemia was detected in those who were old and had underlying moderate or severe anemia with a high ferritin level. As the results of this investigation, blood examination combined with serum ferritin determination is valuable for diagnosis of anemia and detection of underlying diseases. (Ueda, J.)

  1. Long term observation on absolute lymphocyte counts in the adult health study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterle, S.N.; Norman, J.E. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Total peripheral blood lymphocytes were evaluated by age and exposure status in the Adult Health Study population during three examination cycles between 1958 and 1972. No radiation effect was observed, but a significant drop in the absolute lymphocyte counts of those aged 70 years and over and a corresponding maximum for persons aged 50 - 59 was observed. (author)

  2. Medical examination of ''Minashi'' atomic bomb survivor in Hiroshima-city, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumazawa, Toshihiko

    1978-01-01

    As it is about one year (three examination terms) since health examinations for ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors has been carried out, conditions of these examinations are described. ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors can receive an a-bomb survivor's health notebook when they suffer from 10 damages designated by the Ministry of Public Welfare, and the number of ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors changes frequently. ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors who received a certificate of a recipient of the examination were 2363 at the end of 1977, and by that time, 665 of them (28.1%) also received an a-bomb survivor's health notebook instead of the certificate. Accordingly, the number of persons recognized as ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors at the end of the year was 1703 (688 men and 1015 women). ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors underwent health examinations at the same time and under the same way as a-bomb survivors. There were no great differences in the undergoing rate of general health examinations, the necessity rate for detailed examinations, the undergoing rate of detailed examinations, the necessity rate for treatment, and kinds of diseases requiring treatment between ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors and those in a-bomb survivors. The undergoing rate of general health examinations was 67.6%, (45.6% in a-bomb survivors), the necessity rate for detailed examinations, 43.1% (50.1%), the undergoing rate of detailed examinations, 91.3% (93.3%), and the necessity rate for treatment, 20.3% (29.0%). The undergoing rate of general health examinations in ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors was higher than that in a-bomb survivors, but the necessity rate for detailed examinations, the undergoing rate of detailed examination, and the necessity rate for treatment in ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors were lower than those in a-bomb survivors. (Tsunoda, M.)

  3. Urinary bladder tumors among atomic bomb survivors Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanefuji, Hayato; Ishimaru, Toranosuke.

    1980-03-01

    A study was made of the relationship of radiation dose to the incidence of urinary bladder tumors among atomic bomb survivors and controls in the RERF Life Span Study extended sample. A total of 112 cases of urinary bladder tumors was identified among approximately 99,000 subjects in this fixed cohort during 1961-72. Morphologic diagnoses were available for 86 cases (76.8%), cystoscopy alone for 21 cases (18.7%), and only the cause of death recorded on death certificates for 5 cases (4.5%). Urothelial carcinoma (transitional cell carcinoma) is the most common type of urinary bladder tumor for which morphologic diagnoses are available. The 1961-72 incidence rate was calculated using 106 cases identified as urinary bladder tumors. Although the crude annual incidence rate in the high dose group (100 rad or more) is elevated in both cities and both sexes, all nine cases with this dose were aged 40 years or more at the time of the bomb (ATB). The standardized relative risk adjusted for city and sex for those of age 40 or more ATB in the high dose group is 1.8 in comparison with the control group and this is a suggestive statistical difference. A statistically significant elevation of risk occurs in the high dose group for urothelial carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder among those aged 40 or more ATB. (author)

  4. Public health nutritional studies on the atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munaka, Masaki; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Ohtaki, Megu; Ueoka, Hiroshi (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology); Kishida, Noriko; Ishigai, Keiko

    1982-09-01

    The atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a long distance (LDG) was found to take a great quantity of soybean curd, miso and fruit except citrus, while the atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a short distance (SDG) was found to take a significant amount of fish paste product. SDG tends to ingest processed food and in nutrient supply rate the percentage of calcium, iron and vitamin A is low. Judging from a state of food group without a meal rate, we got the result that SDG has a few kinds of ingestion food and takes them partially in each meal. In terms of socio-economic status, the rate of living alone, supporting oneself and living an empty life is high and the rate of living with a partner is low. On the other hand, we analysed the relations of three factors on physique-physical fitness and living status, and then got the following results. (1) ''Volume capacity'', in the cases of ''be married at present'', ''have a large family'', ''ingest a lot of protein and iron'', tends to be large, while in the cases of ''have no disease'', ''don't go without a meal'', ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', and ''nutritional balance is good'', it tends to be small. (2) ''Height'', in the case of ''socio-economical status was good before exposure to the atomic bomb'', tends to increase. (3) ''Synthetic physical fitness'', in the cases of ''health condition is good at present'', ''have no disease at present'', ''ingest a lot of vitamin A'' and ''nutritional balance is good'', tends to be superior; in the cases of ''food cost is high'' and ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', it tends to be low. The significant difference was observed in ''synthetic physical fitness'' between the two age groups of 50-59 years and beyond 70 years.

  5. Malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950 - 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuoka, Shoji; Kawai, Kioko; Shimizu, Yukiko; Inai, Kouki; Ohe, Kazuhiko; Fujikura, Toshio; Kato, Hiroo.

    1988-09-01

    For 1950 - 80, 194 ovarian cancer cases were ascertained among the 70,030 females of the RERF Life Span Study (LSS-E85) sample, and 106 autopsied cases with benign ovarian neoplasms were ascertained among all 3,046 autopsies performed in the same sample. On the basis of microscopic review, 66 % of the cancer and 84 % of the benign tumor cases were classified by histological type. The age-adjusted ovarian cancer incidence rates showed a statistically significant increase with increased exposure dose, both in the entire exposed group (P 0.10). The distribution of histological types of both cancer and benign tumor of the ovary did not vary significantly with radiation dose. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that radiation injury of ovaries with secondary excess of gonadotrophic hormones are important causative factors in the development of ovarian neoplasms. (author)

  6. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950 - 76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, Michito; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Mikami, Motoko; Matsunaga, Masako.

    1979-10-01

    The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the occurrence of multiple myeloma has been evaluated in a fixed cohort of approximately 100,000 A-bomb survivors and nonexposed controls during the period from October 1950 to December 1976. Analysis of these data revealed the standardized relative risk adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of the bombs (ATB) to be significantly greater in the group of individuals who received 100 rad or more of radiation than in their controls. An excess risk became apparent in the high dose group about 20 years after exposure. The excess risk of multiple myeloma in those persons aged 20 - 59 ATB is estimated to be approximately 0.24 per million person-years per rad (PYR) in kerma dose and approximately 0.48 per million PYR in bone marrow dose. The interval between radiation exposure and the occurrence of an excess risk for multiple myeloma in the high dose population is considerably longer than that for leukemia. The cases of multiple myeloma observed in the high dose group showed no unusual clinical features. (author)

  7. My Good, what have we done. From Hiroshima to Chernobyl - our way into nuclear disaster. Mein Gott, was haben wir getan. Von Hiroshima nach Tschernobyl - der Weg in das atomare Verhaengnis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaenecke, H

    1987-01-01

    The atomic energy debate has become the life-and-death question of ouer times. But there is great uncertainty, and confusion is increasing. This book leads the reader back to the origin of the atomic age. It describes the progression from a scientific discovery, nuclear fission, to the dropping of the atom bomb - and from the bomb to the supposed blessing of 'peaceful' utilisation of atomic energy. But the bomb and the reactor pose the same threat. After Chernobyl, we know that the apocalypse can happen even without a war. The book is to be read as a narrative in which human personalities play the major roles: Madame Curie, who discovered radioactivity, Edward Teller, the inventor of the hydrogen bomb, the nameless engineers in the control rooms of nuclear power stations who now hold the fate of all of us in their hands. The Appendix contains an interview with Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker.

  8. Peripheral blood changes preceding the development of leukemia in atomic bomb survivors: Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1947--1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, T; Finch, S C; Lamphere, J P; Ishimaru, T

    1975-01-01

    The peripheral blood changes in 44 patients who died of either acute leukemia or chronic granulocytic leukemia were evaluated during the preleukemic phase of their clinical illnesses at the time of routine health examination. The most striking finding was the presence of increased numbers of atypical and abnormal lymphocytes in the peripheral blood for periods of 3 to 4 years prior to establishment of the clinical diagnosis of both acute and chronic leukemia. Moderate leukocytosis with left-shifted myeloid cells and basophilia preceded the diagnosis of chronic granulocytic leukemia by 1 or 2 years. Basophilia did not occur in the absence of leukocytosis. The lymphocyte changes suggest the possibility that the host response to underlying clones of leukemic cells may exist for several years prior to the emergence of clinical leukemia. None of the preleukemic hematologic changes which previously have been defined in the preleukemic syndrome for acute leukemia was observed in any of the patients.

  9. Roentgenographic appearance of ossification centers in the Japanese fetus, stillborn and neonatal death infants, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamoto, Sadahisa

    1964-01-01

    A roentgenographic study of the presence of the ossification centers has been made on a total of 235 cases of miscarriage, therapeutic abortion, stillbirth and neonatal death according to criteria of sex, length of gestational age, and weight at birth. The cases were aged from 16 to 42 gestational weeks. The weight of the cases ranged from 110 g to 3780 g at birth. The order of appearance of the eight centers in fetal life was as follows: Ischium, pubis, calcaneus, talus, distal epiphysis of femur, hyoid, proximal epiphysis of tibia, and cuboid bone. Some of the eight ossification centers appeared earlier in girls than in boys of the same gestational age and birth weight. The osseous development of Japanese fetuses and infants weighing over 2000 g was judged less mature than in similar Caucasian and Negro subjects. 10 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  10. Mental retardation occurring in embryo exposed in utero to the atomic bomb (Hiroshima). After 30 years follow-up study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, H; Shimasaki, A; Fujiwara, K [Saijo Mental Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Harada, M; Minami, R

    1978-11-01

    This paper deals with a long term follow-up study on psychological symptoms in four patients with microscopically microcephaly induced by prenatal exposed to atomic bomb. They were exposed to atomic bomb at 8- and 12-week-embryos. The distance from the center of the explosion was 780 - 1180 m. All their mothers had acute radiation hazards. Their growths in the uterus were markedly damaged. Postnatal body weight ranged between 1,300 and 2,000 g. They were commonly characterized by microcephaly, physiological and mental retardation, stigmata of degeneracy, and skin symptoms, who were diagnosed as ''microcephaly induced by early prenatal exposure to atomic bomb'' by the research group for microcephaly in the Ministry of Health and Welfare. These common symptoms such as microcephaly, stigmata of degeneracy, and disturbed growth, but neurological symptoms such as motor aphasia were slighter in these patients than in those having congenital Minamata disease prenatal. These results suggested that the prognosis of these patients in whom 30 years have passed is unexpectedly serious.

  11. Peripheral blood leukocyte phagocytosis and respiratory response to certain macromolecular substances in the ABCC-JNIH adult health study, Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barerras, R F; Finch, S C

    1974-01-01

    The functional integrity of the peripheral blood leukocytes of 10 heavily exposed subjects and 10 matched controls was evaluated by measuring oxygen consumption following the addition of latex particles and E. coli endotoxin, and measuring sensitized and unsensitized starch granule phagocytosis. There was no significant difference in the responses of leukocytes from exposed subjects and controls following the addition of latex particles. The ultimate response of leukocytes from exposed subjects to the stimulus of E. coli endotoxin was comparable to that of the controls. Depressed early response in 5 of 10 exposed and 1 of 10 control subjects was observed. Interpretation is unclear. No evidence of radiation-related impairment of starch granule phagocytosis was observed. Results fail to demonstrate any late radiation-related functional impairment of peripheral blood leukocytes during phagocytosis. The serum-related changes were inconstant and probably were of little significance. (auth)

  12. A report on results of brain checkup (Brain Dock) in Hiroshima General Hospital of West Japan Railway Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouno, Yuko; Miyamoto, Haruko; Asaoku, Yoshiko; Sakuma, Kazuyo; Takata, Kohki

    2008-01-01

    The brain checkup system (Brain Dock) employing head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography (MRA) has been prevailing only in Japan. Although detection of cerebral and cerebrovascular disorders in the early stage by MR may be expected to prevent their sequelae, the significance and the management of the abnormalities observed on MR images have not been sufficiently established. We investigated whether several medical risk factors might influence the occurrence of early ischemic cerebrovascular changes such as lacuna stroke. From April 2004 to August 2006, in our hospital, we examined 281 cases undergoing head MRI and MRA in addition to ordinary medical checkups. Of those, 159 cases (56.6%) were found normal, and 122 cases (43.4%) were observed to have some abnormalities on the MR images. The most common abnormality was sinusitis (n=41, 14.6%) and the second was ischemic cerebrovascular changes (n=38, 13.5%). The third was unidentified bright objects (UBOs) (n=30, 10.7%), the pathological significance of which is unclear. Ischemic cerebrovascular changes and UBOs tended to increase with age. The medical checkup data were compared between two groups. One group consisted of 38 cases having ischemic cerebrovascular changes on the MR images. The other, normal, group consisted of 195 cases with no notable cerebral or vascular abnormalities. The level of age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c were significantly higher in the cerebral ischemia group as compared to those in the normal group. By logistic regression analysis, the increases of age, blood pressure and FPG were related respectively to the incidence of ischemic cerebrovascular changes, whereas the increase of HbA1c did not reach statistical significance. The results indicate that increase in age, blood pressure or FPG is an independent risk factor of ischemic cerebrovascular changes. We suggest that strict control of blood pressure and plasma glucose level may help to reduce ischemic events in the brain. (author)

  13. Public status toward radiation and irradiated potatoes at 'Youngster's Science Festival' in several cities including Tokyo, Osaka, and Hiroshima, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Hayashi, Toshio; Kakefu, Tomohisa; Nishihara, Hideaki

    2000-01-01

    'Youngster's Science Festival' has been held in several big cities in various districts in Japan for the purpose of induction of young students' interests in science and scientific experiments. On the basis of the survey results from the participants of the 'Radiation Fair' in Osaka, Japan, which was presented at the last IMRP, we expanded the area of survey and distributed questionnaires to the visitors of the above event to inquire their status toward radiation and irradiated products including irradiated potatoes. The survey results indicated the same trends as that of the 'Radiation Fair' survey. That is, more than half of the older visitors (16 years old and upward) indicated that they recognized the word of 'radiation' when they were at elementary school and the most significant sources of this information were school lessons and the mass media. We will discuss the relationship between consumer's image toward radiation and the description of radiation related topic in school textbooks. (author)

  14. International Conference on Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics (5th) Held in Hiroshima, Japan on 24-28 September 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-28

    and centered difference. ...... .. 40tlY IC 65I.U91O0. - -10 -5 - ements, and z -8.0 .. 0.0 is divided also by 120 normalelements. By employment of...dw/dz, the replacement of nodal points on the free surface dnd the employment oi the linear Discussion solution form at the downstream boundary can...problem (1.1)-(1.4) satifying inequa - mum power functional is considered to lity (1.9) has an asymptotical beha- be natural: viour Jf P;V p’ ild.E E (x

  15. Analysis of early mortality rates of survivors exposed within Japanese wooden houses in Hiroshima by exposed distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru; Ohkita, Takeshi.

    1986-01-01

    Mortality for 3,215 A-bomb survivors who were exposed in Japanese wooden houses at ≤ 1,300 m from the hypocenter on August 6, 1945 was examined. An overall mortality was 51 % (1,640/3,215 survivors) within 61 days after the exposure. According to the distance from the hypocenter, it was 100 % in A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤ 600 m, and 20 % in those exposed between 1,201 m and 1,300 m. The mortality decreased with increasing the distance from the hypocenter. In conjunction with the duration after the exposure and the distance from the hypocenter, the mortality was 100 % 12 days after the exposure in survivors exposed at ≤ 600 m. In survivors exposed at > 800 m, the mortality tended to be higher two weeks after the exposure than immediately after that. The distance from the hypocenter causing 50 per cent mortality was estimated to be 1,026 m from August 6 to October 5; 1,002 m from August 6 to September 10; 887 m from August 7 to September 10; and 867 m from August 20 to September 16. However, these figures were probably lower than the real mortality rates, since no information was available when whole family died. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Morality of Weapons of Mass Destruction: A Case Study of the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    34 Paul C. Szasz , “The International Law Concerning Weapons of Mass...downloaded 18 October 2009. Szasz , Paul C., “The International Law Concerning Weapons of Mass Destruction.” In Ethics and Weapons of Mass Destruction

  17. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination, (4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taketomi, Y; Abe, T; Kamada, N; Kuramoto, A; Takahashi, H [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1978-09-01

    Status of leukopenia in a-bomb survivors was studied on 202 cases in which leukopenia (white cell count of below 3900) was recognized during successive 3 years in the periodical health examination of the fiscal years from 1973 to 1975. A white cell count of below 3900 was recogenized in about 4% of the total subjects of the year, and the half overlapped in other years. Incidence of leukopenia was higher in the aged, and there was not a marked difference according to the distance from the explosion center. As to a relationship to anemia, hemoglobin amount of below 11.5 g/dl was recognized in 98 of 202 cases, and aplastic anemia was recognized in 3 cases under medical treatment. Concerning a relationship to other disease, chronic liver dysfunction was recognized in 33 of 202 cases, and anemia, in 14 cases. As to classification of leukocyte, abnormality (neutrocytopenia, lymphocytosis) was not recognized in 70 of 202 cases. About a relationship to anemia and liver dysfunction in cases of lymphocytic abnormality, the incidence of lymphocytic abnormality was higher in cases of liver dysfunction (23 of 33 cases of chronic liver dysfunction, 69.7%), and there was not difference between cases of anemia alone and cases without anemia and liver dysfunction (54 of 84 cases, 64.3%). The incidence of lymphocytic abnormality was higher in cases of liver dysfunction and cases without anemia.

  18. Capsule summary of results of radiation studies on Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 1945-75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, I.M.

    1978-04-01

    This is a summary in capsule form of the more significant findings of studies that have been conducted over the past 30 years. The growth and development in terms of height, weight, and head and chest circumferences were less for children in utero whose mothers were proximally exposed. Smaller head size and mental retardation appeared to be associated with radiation exposure. Mortality especially during infancy, was significantly higher among children exposed in utero, and increased with dose. Delayed effects of disease occurrence, particularly neoplasms, have been observed. Of special significance is the increased leukemia incidence with a clear-cut dose response relationship with the peak coming 6 years after exposure. Although the leukemia rates in the high dose groups have declined persistently from 1950 to 1972, they have not yet reached the level experienced by the general population. For the solid tumors, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, salivary gland tumors, breast cancer, cancer of the esophagus, stomach and the urinary tract, and lymphomas have been found to be associated with A-bomb radiation exposure. The latent period for the solid tumors appears to be less than 20 years. After a latent period of about 15 years, children who received 100 rad or more A-bomb radiation have begun to develop an excess of malignancies. Some 25 years or more after exposure, the accumulated increase of cancer is relatively high, with no indication that a peak has been reached. Radiation induced chromosome aberrations in survivors continue to persist, and the aberration frequency is, in general, proportional to the radiation dose received. To date, there is no evidence of a relationship between radiation dose and the other diseases. (author)

  19. Reassessment of the atomic bomb radiation dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Dosimetry system 2002. DS02. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Robert W.; Kerr, George D.

    2005-01-01

    The extensive efforts to review the dosimetry of the atomic-bomb survivors and formulate the new dosimetry system DS02 have been greatly welcomed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). This accomplishment is a fine tribute to the importance of the epidemiological studies being conducted at RERF. No other study is so informative of the effects of radiation on human health. The gracious participation in the RERF program by the atomic-bomb survivors allows us to contribute to the well being of these individuals, and the high quality of the data obtained allows the RERF results to feature so prominently in the formulation of international guidelines for radiation protection. Such a great effort to improve and substantiate the dosimetry would not otherwise have been justified. RERF greatly appreciates the independent work of the U.S. and Japanese Working Groups on the atomic-bomb dosimetry and the review by the Joint Senior Review Group of this overall effort. We are assured that unbiased development of the new dosimetry system will reflect well in its application in the RERF epidemiology study. The documentation included in this report will serve as reference for the many deliberations concluded. The title publications are divided into 2 volumes. This is the first volume. The 8 of the reports in each chapter are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  20. Reassessment of the atomic bomb radiation dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Dosimetry system 2002. DS02. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Robert W.; Kerr, George D.

    2005-01-01

    The extensive efforts to review the dosimetry of the atomic-bomb survivors and formulate the new dosimetry system DS02 have been greatly welcomed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). This accomplishment is a fine tribute to the importance of the epidemiological studies being conducted at RERF. No other study is so informative of the effects of radiation on human health. The gracious participation in the RERF program by the atomic-bomb survivors allows us to contribute to the well being of these individuals, and the high quality of the data obtained allows the RERF results to feature so prominently in the formulation of international guidelines for radiation protection. Such a great effort to improve and substantiate the dosimetry would not otherwise have been justified. RERF greatly appreciates the independent work of the U.S. and Japanese Working Groups on the atomic-bomb dosimetry and the review by the Joint Senior Review Group of this overall effort. We are assured that unbiased development of the new dosimetry system will reflect well in its application in the RERF epidemiology study. The documentation included in this report will serve as reference for the many deliberations concluded. The title publications are divided into 2 volumes. This is the second volume. The 29 of the reports in each chapter are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  1. Pathological study on breast lesions examined at Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital and Atomic Bomb Survivors Hospital, April 1985-March 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambu, Shigeru; Fujihara, Megumu; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of 312 breast biopsies of 303 patients, performed during a 5-year period from April 1985 through March 1990 in a survey of the effects of exposure to A-bomb radiation, yielded the following findings. Sixty four (20.5%) of the 312 biopsies were in patients who had been exposed to A-bomb radiation or who had entered the city after the A-bombing, 10 of which were in patients exposed at up to 2,000 m from the hypocenter. Of the 64 biopsies performed for breast lesions in the exposed group, 42 (65.6%) yielded breast cancer. This figure was higher when compared with 47.0% (64 biopsies) of 136 patients who had been born before the A-bombing in the non-exposed group. In the exposed group, age distribution at the time of A-bombing was 11.9% in the first decade, 35.7% in the second decade, 31.0% in the third decade, 16.7% in the fourth decade, and 4.8% in the fifth decade. There was no correlation between histology type and exposure history in breast cancer. Nor did correlation exist between the age at the time of A-bombing and histology type in the exposed group. (N.K.)

  2. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketomi, Yoshinori; Abe, Tsutomu; Kamada, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    Status of leukopenia in a-bomb survivors was studied on 202 cases in which leukopenia (white cell count of below 3900) was recognized during successive 3 years in the periodical health examination of the fiscal years from 1973 to 1975. A white cell count of below 3900 was recogenized in about 4% of the total subjects of the year, and the half overlapped in other years. Incidence of leukopenia was higher in the aged, and there was not a marked difference according to the distance from the explosion center. As to a relationship to anemia, hemoglobin amount of below 11.5 g/dl was recognized in 98 of 202 cases, and aplastic anemia was recognized in 3 cases under medical treatment. Concerning a relationship to other disease, chronic liver dysfunction was recognized in 33 of 202 cases, and anemia, in 14 cases. As to classification of leukocyte, abnormality (neutrocytopenia, lymphocytosis) was not recognized in 70 of 202 cases. About a relationship to anemia and liver dysfunction in cases of lymphocytic abnormality, the incidence of lymphocytic abnormality was higher in cases of liver dysfunction (23 of 33 cases of chronic liver dysfunction, 69.7%), and there was not difference between cases of anemia alone and cases without anemia and liver dysfunction (54 of 84 cases, 64.3%). The incidence of lymphocytic abnormality was higher in cases of liver dysfunction and cases without anemia. (Tsunoda, M.)

  3. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination, (9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohy, Hiroo; Taketomi, Yoshinori; Oguma, Nobuo; Takamatsu, Yumiko; Kamada, Nanao

    1984-01-01

    Of 195,146 A-bomb survivors undergoing the periodic health examination, 607 in whom anemia was confirmed were investigated. Iron deficiency anemia was seen in 77.3% of the survivors (mostly consisting of women under the age of 54 years). There was no significant difference in other types of anemia between men and women. Renal anemia was frequent in survivors aged between 60 and 80 years. Refractory anemia was frequent in survivors older than those with renal anemia. The white blood cell count and platelet count were within the normal range in three types of anemia. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketomi, Yoshinori; Kamada, Nanao; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ohkita, Takeshi; Ito, Chikako.

    1976-01-01

    An actual condition of anemia in A-bomb survivors was discussed from the periodical health examination of the fiscal years 1972 and 1973. Under 11.5 g/dl of hemoglobin was determined as anemia. An actual number of cases with anemia in both fiscal years was nearly the same, but ratio of anemia to the total number of recipient of periodical health examination increased 1.9% in the fiscal year 1973. 35.3% of the subjects with anemia in both fiscal years was the same persons. In the following examination of 478 subjects with under 10.0 g/dl of hemoglobin, in the fiscal year 1972, 96 subjects (20.1%) still showed under 10.0 g/dl of hemoglobin in the fiscal year 1975. Characteristics of anemia were that hypochromic anemia was comparatively frequent in the young, and normochromic anemia was frequent in the aged. In the former, marked decrease of value of iron in serum was recognized, and in the latter, fall of hematopoiesis by old age and secondary anemia were recognized. Marked relationship between exposure distance and anemia in each group was not recognized. 17.9% of cases with moderate anemia showed positive in stool guaiac test and 8.9% and past history of duodenal or peptic ulcer. (Kanao, N.)

  5. Delayed effects occurring within the first decade after exposure of young individuals to the Hiroshima atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R W

    1956-01-01

    The review of the literature and the data presented in this report describe the late effects of exposure of young subjects to ionizing radiation or to nuclear weapons as known in the early part of 1955. The new information may be useful in the further definition of the tolerance of humans to ionizing radiation. In 6 years ending in December 1954, 19 persons who were within 2100 meters of the hypocenter have developed leukemia before attaining the age of 19 years. The annual incidence of this disease among those who were within 1500 meters and who were younger than 19 years of age at the time of exposure is 1:1000. There are no cataracts that impair vision among the present pediatic group. An increased incidence of a mild visual disability, the cause of which is thus far indefinite, has been found among those now 16 through 19 years of age who were within 1800 meters of the bomb center. The incidence of chronic otitis media is the same for the 2 exposure groups, as are the means of the hematologic values for the patients with this ailment. There is no increase in the tumor incidence of the exposed children as compared with the nonexposed. There are no data to prove it, but the impression is that among the survivors the fear of late effects may be common and potentially disabling. Of those 19 years of age and younger, there were 2771 within 3000 meters of the hypocenter at the time of detonation of the bomb who were examined in 1954. Twenty-four of these had sequelae of the blast or thermal effects of the bomb other than well-heated scars. No other abnormalities related to atomic bomb exposure have been identified.

  6. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (24th, Hiroshima, Japan, July 23-27, 2000), Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Tadao, Ed.; Koyama, Masataka, Ed.

    The first volume of the 24th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education includes plenary addresses, plenary panel discussions, research forum, project groups, discussion groups, short oral communications, and poster presentations. (ASK)

  7. A recalculation of the dose-effect-relationship of the ''life span study'' of Hiroshima and Nagasaki with the ''single-hit model''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottbauer, M.M.; Fleck, C.M.; Schoellnberger, H.

    1996-01-01

    The basis of this new model is the multistage process of carcinogeneses. The Single-Hit Model is a further development of the Armitage-Doll Model [1] for the special case of a short exposure. It provides simultaneously the age-dependent mortality-rate (incidence-rate) of the spontaneous and radiation induced solid tumors and dose-effect relationships at any age after exposure. The model results in a biologically based dose-effect relationship, which is similar to the Relativ-Risk-Model suggested by the ICRP 60 [2]. The present model is able to describe the increased mortality rate of the bomb survivors more accurate than the Relativ-Risk-Model. (orig.) [de

  8. Is the excess risk of childhood leukemia at Sellafield consistent with the experiences of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to summarize briefly selected studies relevant to the difference between the apparent pre-conception radiation-associated leukemia risks in the offspring born in the area near the Sellafield plant and to the atomic bomb survivors. Although no doubt exists about the hypothesis that radiation damages the genetic material in reproductive cells, it is important to recognize how small the effect in the first generation would be based on the various genetic endpoints. Generally only a small fraction of leukemia cases are inherited -- the proportion among all spontaneous cases does not exceed 10 %. Because there is still uncertainty and controversy about the genetic effects of radiation, the possible complex confounding factors are also briefly mentioned. It is clear that the studies of the atomic bomb survivors are pertinent to the possible genetic effect due to radiation-induced mutations in the spermatogonia and oocytes while the observations in Sellafield are, as suggested by Gardner et al. pertinent to the in post-meiotic stages of spermatogenesis. No significant effect of atomic bomb radiation can be shown on the risk of leukemia as well as other genetic effect endpoints, such as the frequency of mutations associated with specific proteins, cytogenetic abnormalities, survival, and so on. (author)

  9. Public and Private Sectors in Asian Higher Education Systems: Issues and Prospects. Reports from the International Seminar on Higher Education in Asia (3rd, Hiroshima, Japan, 1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Higher Education.

    The roles of public and private sectors of higher education in Asia and relationships to national systems are explored in reports from the Third International Seminar on Higher Education in Asia. The focus was China, Indonesia, Korea, the Philippines, Japan, and Thailand. Patterns by which national systems of higher education are differentiated…

  10. Lung cancer at autopsy in A-bomb survivors and controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961--1970. II. Smoking, occupation and A-bomb exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, T.; Cihak, R.W.; Land, C.E.; Steer, A.; Yamada, A.

    1975-01-01

    The apparent effect of ionizing radiation on lung cancer in A-bomb survivors has not been large enough to still doubts as to its validity. It has seemed essential to determine whether the apparent radiation effect could have resulted from a confounding of heavy smoking and high radiation dose, or if the occupational exposure of high-dose subjects with lung cancer was suggestive of the influence of environmental hazards other than radiation. The available series consists of 204 subjects with lung cancer verified by autopsy, 61 of whom were low-dose (less than 1 rad) and 13 high-dose (200+ rads) subjects. No evidence could be found that the influence of either smoking or occupational exposure upon lung cancer was exerted so as to suggest that the apparent radiation effect is other than real. The study also provides additional evidence of the relationship between lung cancer and smoking in Japan

  11. Issues in Education in Asia and the Pacific: An International Perspective. OECD Documents. Conference Proceedings (Hiroshima, Japan, October 7-9, 1992).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Phillip; Renwick, William

    This document reports on the first international conference in Japan in October 1992 to open up a dialogue among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries and the Dynamic Asian Economies (DAEs) of Hong Kong, Malaysia, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Singapore. Experts from each of the DAEs attended the…

  12. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by periodical health examination, (6). Serum ferritin determination of anemic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, T.; Dohy, H.; Okita, H. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1980-11-01

    Serum ferritin was determined in A-bomb survivors, and its significance was evaluated. A low-ferritin group included many of the females under the age of 50, who mostly had iron deficient anemia. A high-ferritin group included many older-aged A-bomb survivors who had secondary anemia due to hemochromatosis, paroxismal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), and multiple myeloma. Secondary anemia due to hemochromatosis, PNH, leukemia, and sideroblastic anemia was detected in those who were old and had underlying moderate or severe anemia with a high ferritin level. As the results of this investigation, blood examination combined with serum ferritin determination is valuable for diagnosis of anemia and detection of underlying diseases.

  13. The grave is wide: the Hibakusha of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the legacy of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Gerald F

    2016-07-01

    Following the atomic bomb attacks on Japan in 1945, scientists from the United States and Japan joined together to study the Hibakusha - the bomb affected people in what was advertised as a bipartisan and cooperative effort. In reality, despite the best efforts of some very dedicated and earnest scientists, the early years of the collaboration were characterized by political friction, censorship, controversy, tension, hostility, and racism. The 70-year history, scientific output and cultural impact of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation are described in the context of the development of Occupied Japan.

  14. Regional new energy vision for Soryo Town, Hiroshima Prefecture; 2001 nendo Soryo cho chiiki shin energy vision. Chiiki shin energy vision sakutei tou jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    A regional new energy vision was formulated for the town for 'contributing to the solution of environmental problems' and 'contributing to the reenergization of the regional community through utilizing resources in the region.' The final energy consumption of the town is 103,315 times 10{sup 3} MJ, with the transportation sector accounting for a percentage higher than the nation-wide average. The town is characterized in that it has but a small number of manufacturers, offices, or stores. As for new energy, it was estimated that 9117 times 10{sup 3} MJ/year would be gained by methanol produced from cultured weed, 5696 times 10{sup 3} MJ/year by medium/small-scale hydropower generation, 5,233 times 10{sup 3} MJ/year by photovoltaic power generation, and so forth. New energy introduction projects were discussed, which included medium/small-scale hydropower generation at a counter dam; the introduction of photovoltaic power into principal public facilities, general households, and agricultural facilities; introduction of solar heat appliances into principal public facilities and general households; introduction of clean energy automobiles into the town office and general households; and the introduction of pellet-fired stoves into principal public facilities and general households. (NEDO)

  15. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for anorectal tumor with hemorrhoids close to the dentate line: a multicenter study of Hiroshima GI Endoscopy Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaru, Yuzuru; Oka, Shiro; Tanaka, Shinji; Hiraga, Yuko; Kunihiro, Masaki; Nagata, Shinji; Furudoi, Akira; Ninomiya, Yuki; Asayama, Naoki; Shigita, Kenjiro; Nishiyama, Soki; Hayashi, Nana; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2016-10-01

    The lower rectum close to the dentate line has distinct characteristics, making endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of tumors challenging. We assessed clinical outcomes of ESD for such patients with hemorrhoids. Sixty-four patients (mean age, 68 years) underwent ESD for anorectal tumors close to the dentate line. We divided patients into those with (Group A, 45 patients) and without hemorrhoids (Group B, 19 patients). We examined en bloc and histological en bloc resection rates, procedure time, complication rates, and postoperative prognosis after ESD. The mean tumor size was 43 mm. Histologic diagnoses were adenoma (42 %, 27/64), carcinoma in situ (44 %, 28/64), and T1 carcinoma (14 %, 9/64). There was no significant difference in en bloc resection (93 %, 42/45 vs. 95 %, 18/19) or postoperative bleeding rates (16 %, 7/45 vs. 11 %, 2/19) between Groups A and B, respectively. The mean procedural durations were 120 and 124 min, respectively, in Groups A and B. No perforations occurred. There was no significant difference in postoperative anal pain rate between Groups A (18 %, 8/45) and B (16 %, 3/19), and it resolved within a few days in all cases. There was one case of stricture in Group B. Two patients with T1 carcinoma underwent additional surgery, one underwent chemotherapy, and five had no additional treatment. No recurrence occurred during the follow-up period of 38 months. ESD is safe and effective for anorectal tumors close to the dentate line in patients with hemorrhoids.

  16. Clinical study of infectious diseases on aged A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima Welfare Home for aged A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisaka, Tadakazu; Orimen, Akio; Niimi, Masanobu; Simizu, Kiyoshi.

    1978-01-01

    Infections, especially urinary passage and respiratory infections of aged A-bomb survivers under special protective care was examined. Urinary passage infections have recently shown an increasing tendency. These infections are related to the factors such as their basic diseases and wearing napkins rather than a severe degree of protective care. In the case of respiratory infection, diseases such as influenza are observed rather in patients who can walk, but they tend to be aggravated in bedridden patients. It cannot be said that more urinary passage infections are observed in A-bomb survivers than non A-bomb survivers. Both urinary passage infection and respiratory infection tend to recur repeatedly. Aged A-bomb survivers show no significant difference of acquired immunity from that of non A-bomb survivers group. However, a maintenance of neutralizing antibody by vaccination of influenza in the former is worse than in the latter. Bedridden patients show a higher rate of infection to potential urinary passage diseases than patients who can walk, irrespective of sex. Moreover, bedridden patients have a large number of bacteria, but other significant host reaction couldn't be observed. In bedridden patients with potential urinary passage infection, a variety of bacteria, most of which are bacteria resistant to rutinely used broad spectrum antibiotics, is detected. As a main disease or a direct cause of death, pyelonephritis in women and bronchopneumonia are often observed. (Iwagami, H.)

  17. Plutonium Bioassay Testing of U.S. Atmospheric Nuclear Test Participants and U.S. Occupation Forces of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    C H N IC A L R EP O R T This page intentionally left blank. STANDARD FORM 298 (Rev. 8/98) REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No...Program In 1984, the Veterans’ Dioxin and Radiation Exposure Compensation Standards Act (PL 98-542, 1984) called for the study of alternative scientific...quantities of natural uranium (including isotopes of interest such as 238U and 235U). Consequently, 239Pu identification by urinalysis was proposed

  18. Leukemia incidence among individuals exposed in utero, children of atomic bomb survivors, and their controls; Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Ichimaru, Michito; Mikami, Motoko.

    1982-03-01

    The incidence of leukemia has been analyzed in relation to the fetal dose of individuals exposed in utero, and the parental gonadal dose of individuals born to atomic bomb survivors and controls in the two fixed RERF cohorts. Among 3,636 in utero exposed children and controls, 3 leukemia cases have been identified through 1979. No excess risk of leukemia for in utero exposed children is apparent. For children born to exposed parents and controls, 36 leukemia cases have been identified in the years 1946-79 among 50,689 study subjects where the parental gonadal dose is available. Again, no excess risk of leukemia exists. (author)

  19. Cardiovascular studies Hiroshima 1958-1960: Report Number 1. Electrocardiographic findings in relation to the aging process formulation of the problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Shoichi; Yano, Katsuhiko

    1961-03-01

    As a part of ABCC's research program to review the general hypothesis that radiation exposure may accelerate aging processes, a comparative study now is being conducted on the pattern of age changes in electrocardiographic findings for the exposed and controls. In this report, emphasis is placed on the method of formulation of this study for statistical analysis. Two aspects of aging are considered: The frequency of abnormal electrocardiographic findings. Age changes found in normal electrocardiographic tracings. The first problem is an analysis of a three dimensional cross table of prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities by age, exposure group and a third factor (for instance, a socioeconomic or physiological factor). In the analysis of the second problem, an aging index was established in order to analyse effectively age changes in the electrocardiographic tracings. After a study of 22 measurements, QRS axis, Q-T interval, R/sub II/, T/sub I/, SV/sub 1/, RV/sub 1/, and RV/sub 5/ amplitudes were selected and their combination was derived to attain the highest correlation with age. Preliminary analysis was conducted for males for whom data collection had been completed. In the results so far obtained, no statistically significant differences were noted between the exposure groups. However, further detailed analysis should be conducted on these data together with data for females which are now being compiled. 18 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  20. Medical Effects of Atomic Bombs. The Report of the Joint Commission for the Investigation of the Effects of the Atomic Bomb in Japan; Volume 2. Section 4H. Materials and Methods (Hiroshima. Section 4N. Materials and Methods (Nagasaki). Section 5H. Clinical Observations in Hiroshima. Section 5N. Clinical Observations in Nagasaki

    Science.gov (United States)

    1951-04-19

    ansip& 2 fAnc grow of laborztory room (figure 4 ) t o the Joint C o j W s a i a , Therevas rm-ming inter, ovens, balances, sow cheidca3.s and...t he c e l l i?s a whole. respect t o chronosomes and genes , ionizing pa r t i c l e of suf f ic ien t energy will produce changes which may

  1. Some hematological disorders among atomic bomb survivors. Presidential Address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Susumu

    1977-01-01

    Focusing on their hematological disorders, the late radiation effects among Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, including cytogenetic and cytological studies, are summarized and discussed. Because of personal research experience, the data were concentrated on the Hiroshima survivors

  2. Intraocular pressure readings obtained through soft contact lenses using four types of tonometer

    OpenAIRE

    Takenaka J; Kunihara E; Rimayanti U; Tanaka J; Kaneko M; Kiuchi Y

    2015-01-01

    Joji Takenaka,1 Eriko Kunihara,1 Ulfah Rimayanti,2 Junko Tanaka,3 Makoto Kaneko,4 Yoshiaki Kiuchi1 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; 2Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UIN Alauddin Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia; 3Department of Epidemiology, Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; 4Graduate Schoo...

  3. Airway inflammation in Japanese COPD patients compared with smoking and nonsmoking controls

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Nobuhisa; Hattori, Noboru; Kohno, Nobuoki; Kobayashi, Akihiro; Hayamizu, Tomoyuki; Johnson, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Nobuhisa Ishikawa,1 Noboru Hattori,2 Nobuoki Kohno,2 Akihiro Kobayashi,3 Tomoyuki Hayamizu,4 Malcolm Johnson5 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan; 2Department of Molecular and Internal Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; 3Biomedical Data Science Department, 4Medical Affairs Respiratory Department, GlaxoSmithKline Shibuya-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 5Respiratory Global Franchise, GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge, UK Purpose: To assess the impor...

  4. Characteristics of colon cancer among atomic bomb exposure obtained from autopsy specimen at data and specimens center of atomic bomb disaster at Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine and Biology of Hiroshima University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Akihiro; Kagawa, Naoki; Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Fukazawa, Kiichi; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Munaka, Masami

    1989-01-01

    Autopsy data of colon cancer from 135 A-bomb survivors (Group A) found during the period 1952-1981 were analyzed in terms of sex, age, site of occurrence, distance from the hypocenter, and histology. Control data were collected from 72 patients with surgery or biopsy proven colon cancer (Group B) found during the period 1983-1987. Patients consisted of 76 men and 59 women in Group A, and 44 men and 28 women in Group B. According to age groups, patients aged ≤50 years, between the ages of 51 and 70, and ≥71 years accounted for 16%, 44%, and 40%, respectively, in Group A. The corresponding figures in Group B were 18%, 36%, and 46%. The commonest site in Group A was the rectum (45.9%), followed by the descending colon and sigmoid colon (27.4%), and the ileocecum and ascending colon (20%). In Group B, the descending colon and sigmoid colon were the commonest site (41.7%), followed by the rectum (40.3%) and the ileocecum and ascending colon (9.7%). Patients in Group A tended to have colon cancer on the right side; it was observed in 23% of A-bomb survivors exposed at up to 2500 m from the hypocenter and in 14.8% of those exposed at a distance of over 2500 m. Histology revealed well differentiated adenocarcinoma in 78% in both groups. Both poorly differentiated and mucocellular adenocarcinomas occupied 13.4% in Group A, as compared with 4.2% in Group B. (N.K.)

  5. Dose-response relationship of leukemia incidence among atomic bomb survivors and their controls by absorbed marrow dose and two types of leukemia Hiroshima and Nagasaki, October 1950 - December 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Otake, Masanori; Ichimaru, Michito; Mikami, Motoko.

    1982-07-01

    Analysis of the relationship of the incidence of leukemia to gamma and neutron dose among atomic bomb survivors until 1971 has been reported previously by RERF. The present inquiry was prompted by the extension of case finding to 1978 and by the recent availability of new dose estimates for this fixed cohort. It is focused on the relationship of absorbed marrow dose of gamma rays and neutrons to the incidence of two types of leukemia in the fixed cohort of A-bomb survivors and their controls, the Life Span Study extended sample, in the period October 1950-December 1978. Three dose-response models have been fitted to the data on acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia. The relationship of the incidence of acute leukemia to gamma and neutron dose again suggests that the ''best'' fitting model involves a dependence on the square of the gamma dose and a linear dependence on neutrons. The estimated relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons in the induction of acute leukemia is approximately 44/√Dn(Dn = neutron dose) under this model. Based on the 95% confidence limits of the estimated RBE, the risk of this disease is estimated as 0.0026 - 0.0072 cases per million person-years per rem 2 of marrow dose. This analysis has failed, however, to produce a significant dose-response function for the incidence of chronic granulocytic leukemia in relation to the two kinds of radiation. (author)

  6. International Symposium on Disarmament Education: A Report. Proceedings from a World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession and Japan Teachers Union Symposium (Hiroshima, Japan, October 25-29, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japan Teachers Union, Tokyo.

    Proceedings from an international symposium devoted to the cause of disarmament education are presented. Representatives from international and national teacher organizations together with scholars and researchers from 35 countries and all continents attended. The symposium focused on the idea that teachers have a special responsibility to work…

  7. Inquiry close to veterans consequences on health of French nuclear tests. Primary results introduced to the International Conference on French nuclear tests at Hiroshima on the 5. august 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valatx, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    The association of veterans of nuclear tests(A.V.E.N.) has been created on the 9. june 2001. It concerns the military personnel, the Cea personnel and the contractors personnel that took part in nuclear tests in the Algerian Sahara and French Polynesia. A.V.E.N. has for objective information on the consequences of nuclear tests, the entitlement to have access to their medical file and the right to compensation for loss sustained by the victims. The inquiry bearing on 271 veterans brings to light that 93.4% of them have one or several diseases, 28.4% of them have or had one or several cancers. 77% of cancers happened before sixty years old and 36% before fifty years old. 45.4% died before sixty years old. The non cancerous digestive, osteo-muscular and cardiovascular pathologies are the most frequent. The children and grand children present inborn malformations (9.4% and 4.8%) and various diseases (24.3% and 5.5%). Despite that the critics that can be formulated, the results, compared to the British ones incite to go on. This preliminary inquiry must be completed by a greater number of answers. These results are an important argument to ask for an epidemiology inquiry on the whole of military and civil personnel that have participated to the nuclear tests in order to establish in a definite way the effects on health of nuclear tests and to draw consequences of it. (N.C.)

  8. Activation measurements for fast neutrons. Part A. Sulfur (32P) activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, George D.

    2005-01-01

    The sulfur activation measurements at Hiroshima have been useful in refining and verifying the neutron source-term calculations for the Hiroshima bomb (Kerr and Pace 1988). For example, the Riken measurements of sulfur activation at Hiroshima were used to demonstrate that a two dimensional calculation of the neutron leakage was required for the Hiroshima bomb in order to accurately account for the blind spot in the neutron leakage through the nose of the device (Kerr 1982a,b; Kerr et al. 1983; Pace and Kerr 1984). The sulfur activation measurements at Hiroshima are discussed and compared in this section with the results of DS86 and DS02 calculations for the air-over-ground transport of neutrons at Hiroshima. (J.P.N.)

  9. The Changing Academic Profession in Asia: The Formation, Work, Academic Productivity, and Internationalization of the Academy. Report of the International Conference on the Changing Academic Profession Project, 2014. RIHE International Seminar Reports. No. 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Institute for Higher Education, Hiroshima University, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The International Conference on the Changing Academic Profession Project convened in Hiroshima City, Japan, January 24-25, 2014. It was jointly hosted by the Research Institutes of Higher Education at Hiroshima and Kurashiki Sakuyo Universities. The theme of the conference was "The Changing Academic Profession in Asia: The Formation, Work,…

  10. 76 FR 66130 - Mazda North American Operations, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Mazda Motor Corporation of Hiroshima, Japan (Mazda), has determined the lens of the headlamps equipped... December 16, 2009. \\1\\ Mazda Motor Corporation of Hiroshima, Japan (Mazda) is the manufacturer of the...-0141; Notice 2] Mazda North American Operations, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

  11. Thermoluminescence dosimetry for gamma rays. Part B. Comparison of TLD measurements with DS86 and DS02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullings, Harry M.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Egbert, Stephen D.; Maruyama, Takashi; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2005-01-01

    The overall agreement between measurement and calculation continues to be good for DS02, as it was for DS86. In Hiroshima, the overall agreement is somewhat better for DS02 than for DS86. Agreement near the hypocenter in Hiroshima is excellent with DS02 based on the methods described in this work. Agreement at middle and longer distances in Hiroshima is better for DS02 than for DS86, although there remain some indications of measured values exceeding calculated values at longer distances. These indications must be qualified by a careful consideration of issues related to background as described in this chapter. (J.P.N.)

  12. Medical Effects of Atomic Bombs. The Report of the Joint Commission for the Investigation of the Effects of the Atomic Bomb in Japan; Volume 1. Section 1. Introduction. Section 2. Physics. Section 3H. Hiroshima City. Section 3N. Nagasaki City

    Science.gov (United States)

    1951-04-19

    relation to defervescence the pharyn- gitis ceased before or durir^, and the gingivitis after, the end of the febrile period. Recovery was associated...talltlag. SsTere daaage to the concrete stmct-ure. A ne* btiiMing ("Bttsiaess-aea’s Clab") has teen constructed in the interval "between tlie two...3^600. I have had no epilation, no gingivitis , no purpura, and no bleeding. 31(3W) 203 • .20.,••: .."^miXmm :^imcmA-’-𔄀f, the’B&ffll5iag..’.of

  13. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Newland

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain events divide moments in time into ‘before’ and‘after’. Hiroshima ushered in the age of the nuclearthreat; the fall of the Berlin Wall marked the end ofthe Cold War.

  14. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toon, Owen B. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Robock, Alan [Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Turco, Richard P. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2014-05-09

    A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

  15. The Japan Statin Treatment Against Recurrent Stroke (J-STARS: A Multicenter, Randomized, Open-label, Parallel-group Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohisa Hosomi

    2015-09-01

    Funding: This study was initially supported by a grant from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan. After the governmental support expired, it was conducted in collaboration between Hiroshima University and the Foundation for Biomedical Research and Innovation.

  16. Bagatellid / Mirjam Tally

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tally, Mirjam, 1976-

    2007-01-01

    Galina Rostropovitš-Višnevskaja kunstikollektsioon ja Ambrose Gauntletti autogrammikogu oksionidel. Hiroshima aatiomipommirünnakus kahjustada saanud klaver taastatud. Bayreuthi ooperifestival otsib uut juhti Richard Wagneri sugulaste hulgas. Parim poogen valmib pernambuco'st

  17. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    After a brief report on revised Hiroshima and Nagasaki dose estimates, the issue concentrates on three subjects: predicting integrated circuit performance; DYNA3D, computerized modeling of material deformation; and oil and gas resources, predicting the unpredictable

  18. Energy and Technology Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This issue features articles on the MARS fusion reactor, electromagnetic coupling of high-altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulses, and dosimetry estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Individual abstracts were prepared for each article

  19. The last traffic jam: psychologic consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipton, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Probable psychologic problems resulting from a nuclear explosion are described. The attendant stresses are difficult to predict but the behavior of victims of Hiroshima and Nagasaki serve as models. Behavior patterns during evacuation, shelter period and postattack are described

  20. Hullem kui tuumapomm / Urmas Kiil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiil, Urmas

    2007-01-01

    Jaapani kaitseministri Fumio Kyuma arvamusavaldus Hiroshima ja Nagasaki tuumapommide rolli kohta sõja lõpetamisel ja Jaapani terviklikkuse säilitamisel maksid ministrile ametikoha ja tekitasid segadust valimiste-eelses poliitikas

  1. Eripreemia Priit Tenderile

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Eesti Joonisfilmi film "Viola" võitis VIII Hiroshima rahvusvahelisel animafilmide festivalil žürii eripreemia. Peapreemia sai Kanada "When the Day Breaks" : režissöörid Wendy Tilby ja Amanda Forbis

  2. The nuclear deterrence in questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascallon, P.; Paris, H.

    2006-03-01

    Facing the actuality (60. birthday of Hiroshima, the Iran and south Korea atomic ambitions, the United Nations convention against the nuclear terrorism...) the authors wonder about the french nuclear deterrence. (A.L.B.)

  3. The effect of whole-body radiation on the aging process in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    Numerous studies of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have provided no definite evidence of radiation-induced acceleration of aging in man, but several suggestive effects involving tissue markers of the aging process have been demonstrated. The effects have generally been more marked in those persons who were young at the time of exposure. In several studies which were conducted in both cities the age-related radiation effects were greater in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. (Auth.)

  4. 大学運営におけるリーダーシップ : 第44回(2016年度)研究員集会の記録

    OpenAIRE

    広島大学高等教育研究開発センター,; 丸山, 文裕; 菊澤, 研宗; 羽田, 貴史; 藤村, 正司; 大場, 淳; 村澤, 昌崇; 大森, 昭生; 村山, 詩帆; 立石, 慎治; 大膳, 司; 太田, 肇; 阿曽沼, 明裕

    2017-01-01

    This report is a summary of the 44th Annual Study Meeting of Research Institute for Higher Education held at Higashi-Hiroshima campus of Hiroshima University in 2016. The theme of the year was “Leadership, Management, and University Governance” which was supposed to be a key modus operandi to implement university reform in each institution. An inaugural speech was “Leadership from economics and business administration points of view” by Dr. Kikuzawa from Keio University. After the speech, fou...

  5. The Shadow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Barrett

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  ‘The Shadow’ is a reflection on the destruction of the city of Hiroshima by an atomic bomb in 1945. It uses personal observation of the extant traces of the event in the contemporary city of Hiroshima, along with a number of historical sources, in order to understand this particular catastrophe as part of the wider experience of modernity in the twentieth century.

  6. ヒロシマ被爆体験を次世代に継承するための原爆痕跡地図作成 GIS ワークショップ

    OpenAIRE

    岩井,哲; 竹崎,嘉彦; 川瀬,正樹; 太田,弘

    2009-01-01

    The GIS workshop was held in Hiroshima City on July 31, 2006, which was planned for “the Day of the Hiroshima Atomic bomb” on August 6. The workshop attendants, who were a new generation having no Atomic bomb suffering, look for signs of radiation exposure and try making a digital map. The GIS (Geographic Information Systems) workshop constituted of two parts of the morning and the afternoon session. Two groups including several primary and secondary students surveyed objects concerning the a...

  7. Efficiency, safety, and patient preference of switching from dorzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% to brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% while maintaining the prostaglandin F2α analog

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Yoshie; Nakakura,Shunsuke; Nishiyama,Makiko; Tabuchi,Hitoshi; Kiuchi,Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Yoshie Shimizu,1 Shunsuke Nakakura,1 Makiko Nishiyama,1 Hitoshi Tabuchi,1 Yoshiaki Kiuchi2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Saneikai Tsukazaki Hospital, Himeji, 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan Background: We investigated the efficiency, safety and patient preference of switching from dorzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% to brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% while maintaining the prostaglandin F2α analog...

  8. The mutual exchange of the doctors and the information on radiation related medicine between Kazakhstan and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohi Hiroo

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of IPPNW is prevention of nuclear wars. As the first city suffered by Atomic Bomb, Doctors in Hiroshima Medical Community has a strongest wish to peace. IPPNW has been established in 1981 with the co-operative works of US and former Soviet Union. HICARE, Hiroshima International Council for Health Care of the Radiation-Exposed, was established in 1991. The purpose is, for the benefit of radiation-exposed populations in various parts of the world, to make the expertise available that has been accumulated in Hiroshima from the health care of A-bomb survivors and research on A-bomb radiation effects. By the concept of above HICARE accepted 9 researches from Kazakstan from 1992. And HICARE team visited Kazakstan twice. Firstly, in 1998 Professor Kamada visited here. He and other persons attended the second international meeting on the radiation, ecology and health, which was held in Semipalatinsk. They worked with the cooperation with other members from Hiroshima. Secondly, in 1999 five members visited with two Kazakstan researchers studying in Hiroshima. The aim of this mission was technical assistance from the thyroid examination of the people and the decision on the future direction

  9. Some examination on the A-bomb exposed population and the number deceased through the population changes in census, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuzaki, Minoru; Ueoka, Hiroshi

    1976-01-01

    The rise and fall of population of Hiroshima City before and after 1945 and a movement of population in suburban districts, towns and villages corresponding to it were discussed mainly from census in 1944 and 1945, and A-bomb exposed population and the number decreased were estimated. Population in Hiroshima City after A-bomb exposure decreased by two hundred and six thousand which was 60% of that before A-bomb exposure. In contrast with this, population in suburban districts increased 21.8%. Population of the whole prefecture decreased by seventy-seven thousand. Furthermore, the number decreased was estimated in consideration of the general movement of population after the war. As a result, it was estimated that the number decreased of the whole prefecture was one hundred and ten thousand and that of Hiroshima City ranged from eighty-four thousand to one hundred and four thousand. (Takeda, Y.)

  10. Report of the actual conditions of the radiation exposed residents near the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Noriyuki; Taooka, Yasuyuki; Hiraoka, Takashi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Shaimardanovich, Z.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Hiroshima Peace Science Consortium, established in 2002 as part of the local cooperation project of Hiroshima University for peace science, conducted a field research in Semipalatinsk and related areas in 2002 to collect and analyze data on health effects of radiation experiences of people exposed to nuclear test radiation. This book is a report of the research and contains Introductory remarks; 6 chapters of Overview of the study, Medical information analysis on the radiation exposed residents near the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site using questionnaire, Content analysis of testimonies written by hibakusha near the nuclear test site of Semipalatinsk, Comments on the interview, Significance of collecting testimonies of those exposed to radiation in Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan/in comparison with those of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and Future tasks and prospective; Conclusion; and 2 Appendices of Research on the conditions of radiation exposure survey response sheet and Testimonies. (N.I.)

  11. Dose estimation from residual and fallout radioactivity, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Kenji

    1975-01-01

    External dose rates and cumulative doses for early entrants from areal surveys and simulated experiments are reviewed. The average cumulative doses to infinity at the hypocenters were 101 rad in Hiroshima and 32 rad in Nagasaki, with a variation of about 60 percent. Radioactive fallout areas nearly matched the ''black rain'' areas in Nagasaki and in Hiroshima. Radioactivity in the fallout areas was affected by radioactive decay and by the leaching and dissipation by rains. Considering these factors, the cumulative dose to infinity in the fallout area of Hiroshima was estimated to be 13 rad, excluding internal radiation doses from inhaled and ingested radionuclides. Attempts to estimate radiation dose from internally deposited radionuclides are also described. (auth.)

  12. Cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, I.; Kagan, A.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: sampling of atomic bomb survivors and method of cancer detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; tumor and tissue registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the cancer registry in Nagasaki, with atomic bomb survivor data, 1973-1977; cancer mortality; methods for study of delayed health effects of a-bomb radiation; experimental radiation carcinogenesis in rodents; leukemia, multiple myeloma, and malignant lymphoma; cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands; malignant tumors in atomic bomb survivors with special reference to the pathology of stomach and lung cancer; colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors; breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors; and ovarian neoplasms in atomic bomb survirors

  13. Leukemia among atomic bomb survivors during the 1980s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusumi, Shizuyo; Matsuo, Tatsuki

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of the dosimetry system 1986, exposure doses were determined in a cohort of 86,502 subjects for the Life Span Study during the period 1950-1985. A total of 248 people were found to develop leukemia in Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities. This is an analysis of the 248 patients with leukemia in connection with exposure doses, years after A-bombing, age at the time of A-bombing, relative risk, and background. An average exposure dose was 0.20 Gy for Hiroshima and 0.22 Gy for Nagasaki. Relative risk for leukemia tended to show a linear increase in proportion to exposure doses. This was significant for acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), regardless of whether A-bomb survivors came from Hiroshima or Nagasaki. The younger the age at the time of A-bombing was, the higher excess relative risk for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) was. For AML, however, it was independent of the age at that time. These findings were similar in Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, irrespective of age. As for non-exposed group, the incidence of CML was three times higher in Hiroshima citizen than Nagasaki citizen. Similarly, Hiroshima citizen had a 1.6 fold incidence of AML. There was no significant difference in the incidence of ALL between the cities. The incidences of both AML and ALL tended to increase more and more with aging, but the prevalences tended to increase in younger generation. An increased incidence of CML was associated with aging alone. (N.K.)

  14. The signs of ocular-surface disorders after switching from latanoprost to tafluprost/timolol fixed combination: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumichi H

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hideaki Okumichi,1 Yoshiaki Kiuchi,1 Tetsuya Baba,2 Takashi Kanamoto,3 Tomoko Naito,4,5 Shunsuke Nakakura,6 Hitoshi Tabuchi,6 Hiroki Nii,7 Chie Sueoka,7 Yosuke Sugimoto1,8 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Graduate School of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; 2Shirai Eye Hospital, Mitoyo, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Hiroshima Memorial Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Konko Hospital, Asakuchi, Japan; 6Department of Ophthalmology, Saneikai Tsukazaki Hospital, Himeji, Japan; 7Department of Ophthalmology, Hiroshima General Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan; 8Department of Ophthalmology, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan Purpose: To evaluate the ocular-surface safety of a 0.001% benzalkonium chloride-containing tafluprost/timolol fixed combination (TTFC in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG or ocular hypertension who have inadequate intraocular pressure (IOP control with latanoprost monotherapy.Methods: This study is a multicenter, prospective, single-arm, open-label clinical study. Patients with POAG or ocular hypertension who have inadequate IOP control with latanoprost monotherapy were considered eligible. After providing informed consent, patients continued latanoprost monotherapy for 12 weeks, followed by a switch to TTFC. We evaluated the extent of ocular-surface damage using superficial punctate keratopathy (SPK score, tear breakup time (TBUT, hyperemia score, IOP, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and heart rate at 0, 4, and 12 weeks after switching.Results: A total of 68 patients were enrolled, of whom, 64 patients were included in the final analysis. No significant changes in SPK score, TBUT, or hyperemia score were observed at 4 and 12 weeks compared with week 0. IOP decreased significantly at 4 (13.9±2.5 mmHg and 12

  15. Bone maturation in children exposed in utero to the atomic bomb. [Closure of epiphyseal centers in hands and wrists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W J; Keehn, R J; Ihno, Y; Hattori, F; Kogure, T; Imamura, K

    1972-01-20

    Five hundred and fifty-six subjects exposed while in utero to the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bombs, and comparison subjects were observed by posteroanterior hand and wrist roentgenograms for epiphyseal closure. There were delays in closure of 6-7 and 8-9 months for males and females respectively, as compared for Japanese and American children. These findings did not correlate with the A-bomb exposure doses of the mothers of these children. Brachymesophalangia occurred in 11% of males and 19% of females in Hiroshima. Possible contributory factors to the relative delay in maturation are discussed. (auth)

  16. Two cases of giant parathyroid adenoma in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Nobuo; Nishida, Toshihiro; Fujikura, Toshio

    1983-12-01

    In a study of parathyroid tumor among autopsy cases at RERF in Hiroshima, 16 cases of parathyroid adenoma were detected among 4,136 autopsies during 1961-77. Of these, two cases were giant adenoma (5 cm in diameter) accompanied by hyperparathyroidism. Both cases were atomic bomb survivors from Hiroshima. One was exposed to 55 rad at age 51 and died at age 71, and the other was exposed to 28 rad at age 45 and died at age 71. These two cases will be reported together with a review of the literature on parathyroid tumors developed following irradiation on the head and neck. (author)

  17. The Global Refugee Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, David L

    2017-01-01

    IPSHU Research Report Series No.322nd International Symposium 2016 hosted by Institute for Peace Science, Hiroshima University“Migration and Refugee: How the International Society Tackles the Human Rights Crisis”2016年度第2回広島大学平和科学研究センター主催国際シンポジウム移民・難民―国際社会は人権の危機にいかに立ち向かうのか―(英語・日本語版)Editor: Institute for Peace Science, Hiroshima University (Responsibility editors: Shinsuke TOMOTSUGU, Asami OGURA)...

  18. APPLE-II type quasi-periodic variably polarizing undulator at HiSOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shigemi; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Goto, Kiminori

    2012-01-01

    A newly constructed quasi-periodic APPLE-II undulator was installed in the HiSOR ring at Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University during the summer shutdown period in 2011. This 1.8 m-long undulator has a period length of 78 mm. In this article, the mechanism of magnetic field generation for various polarization modes of APPLE undulator, the principle of quasi-periodic undulator and the performance of HiSOR QP-APPLE-II undulator are described. (author)

  19. Activation measurements for thermal neutrons. Part D. 36Cl measurements in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, Tore; Men, Ping; Marchetti, Alfredo A.; Egbert, Stephen D.; Roberts, James A.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2005-01-01

    A large number of measurements were performed in the United States of 36 Cl in both granite and concrete samples obtained from various locations and distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements employed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the number of atoms of 36 Cl per atom of total Cl in the sample. Results of these measurements are presented in this section and discussed in the context of the DS02 dosimetry reevaluation effort for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors. (J.P.N.)

  20. A United States perspective on long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C. R.

    2004-01-01

    The US has far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. This experience base includes the Dept. of Energy's continued follow-up with Hiroshima and Nagasaki from the 1940's at the Radiological Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima (Japan)), the long-term management of the Marshall Islands Programme, the clean-up of the US nuclear weapons complex and the ongoing management of accident sites such as in Palomares (Spain)). This paper discusses the lessons learnt and best practices gained from this far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. (authors)

  1. Injury to the human body, part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Injuries by exposure to the atomic bomb at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and its effects were studied as follows: 1) Injury to the human body following exposure to the atomic bomb; 2) Body injury in the initial stage-acute stage of atomic bomb injury; 3) Aftereffects and genetic effects. (J.P.N.)

  2. Cancer mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.

    1986-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) and its predecessor, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), have conducted mortality surveillance on a fixed sample, the Life Span Study (LSS), of 82,000 atomic bomb survivors and 27,000 nonexposed residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki since 1950. The results of the most recent analysis of the LSS are summarized

  3. Uncertainties under emergency conditions and possible application of fuzzy theory for nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Various uncertainties involved in emergency conditions are discussed, and it is pointed out that uncertainties, in many factors, are fuzzy. As a result, it is proposed to use fuzzy theory as an attempt for analysing cause and effects under emergency conditions such as Hiroshima, Nagasaki and other nuclear accidents and, for fuzzy failure analysis and diagnostics of nuclear power plant

  4. Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes: The Dialogic Narrative in the Educational Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jafar, Ali A.

    2016-01-01

    This study used the story of "Sadako and the thousand paper cranes" by Coerr (1977) to discover similarities between the events of August 1945 in Hiroshima and the events of August 1990 in Kuwait. The participants in a children's literature class at Kuwait University folded paper cranes and wrote in their journals to answer two…

  5. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwell, M.A.; Hutchinson, T.C.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Harwell, C.C.; Grover, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    This book addresses the ecological, agricultural, and human effects of nuclear war. The topics covered include: Ecological principles relevant to nuclear war; Vulnerability of ecological systems to climatic effects on nuclear war; Additional potential effects of nuclear war on ecological systems; Potential effects of nuclear war on agricultural productivity; Food availability after nuclear war; and Experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

  6. Focal and diffuse papillary muscle fibrosis and small vessel sclerosis of the heart. A clinical-pathologic study of 375 autopsies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steer, A; Danzig, M D; Robertson, T L; Kawashima, T; Nakashima, T; Lee, K K

    1975-01-01

    A retrospective clinical-pathologic study was made of papillary muscle fibrosis and small vessel sclerosis of the heart in 375 autopsies from the ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study sample in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The histopathologic findings were correlated with clinical diagnoses which included hypertension, hypertensive heart disease, myocardial infarction, and diabetes mellitus. (7 tables, 5 figures) (auth)

  7. Eesti joonisfilm jälle esimene

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide suurimal animafilmifestivalil Hollywoodis "The World Animation Celebration" sai Pärna joonisfilm "Porgandite öö" esimese preemia 15-30-minutiliste filmide kategoorias. Film on valitud koos Janno Põldma joonisfilmiga "Armastuse võimalikkusest" ja Priit Tenderi filmiga "Viola" augustis Hiroshimas toimuvale festivalile

  8. Eesti animafilmi trump peitub minevikus / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2000-01-01

    Animafilmifestivalil Hollywoodis "The World Animation Celebration" sai Pärna joonisfilm "Porgandite öö" esimese preemia 15-30-minutiliste filmide kategoorias. Film on valitud koos Janno Põldma joonisfilmiga "Armastuse võimalikkusest" ja Priit Tenderi filmiga "Viola" augustis Hiroshimas toimvale festivalile. Eesti animafilmi absurdihuumor, mis pärineb nõukogude perioodist, on selle edu üks nurgakive.

  9. Bomb apologetics: Farm Hall, August 1945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, J. [Professor of Physics at Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken New Jersey (United States); Cassidy, D. [Professor at Hofstra University, in Hempstead, New York (United States)

    1995-08-01

    On hearing the news from Hiroshima, the incredulous internees came up with a self-serving story to explain their failures in nucleus research: To keep Hitler from winning, they had deliberately not developed the atomic bomb. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  10. Die DDR zwischen Einheit und Abgrenzung : Höhepunkte aus der deutschen Geschichte als Paradigmen politischen Wandels : Luther, Friedrich II. und Bismarck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinks, Jan Herman

    1991-01-01

    Im Jahre 1945 befand sich die Geschichte Deutschlands, darin besteht Konsens unter Historikern aller Richtungen, an einem ihrer tiefgreifendsten Wendepunkte. Die Ereignissein Hiroshima und in Potsdam im Sommer jenes Jahres, so urteilt Werner Conze, markieren einschneidenste Zäsuren der europdischen,

  11. Diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W J [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1975-09-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic radiology were studied as possible contaminants in the evaluations of A-bomb survivors in the ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study for radiation effects. Hiroshima and Nagasaki subjects received X-ray examinations elsewhere within three months of their ABCC visits at rates of 23 and 12%, respectively. Medical X-ray examinations were more frequent among survivors than comparison subjects. Hiroshima and Nagasaki radiologic practice steadily increased since 1948, and differed markedly by city. From 1946-70 the Hiroshima and Nagasaki X-ray bone marrow doses were 2,300 and 1,000 g-rads, respectively. By 1970, cumulated medical X-ray doses approximated A-bomb doses at distances from the hypocenters of 2,000 m in Hiroshima and 2,800 m in Nagasaki. ABCC X-ray examination doses per subject are routinely updated for comparison with A-bomb doses. Each subject's reported fluoroscopy, photofluorography and radiation therapy exposure elsewhere are for future reference. Dental radiography, though increasing, was not currently an important contributor to survivors' overall exposure. Radiation therapy exposures of 137 subjects were confirmed, and doses estimated for most. Two-thirds the treatments were for malignancies; therapy differed markedly by city; and five cancers possibly arose from earlier radiation therapy. This underscores the importance of considering diagnostic and therapeutic radiology when attributing diseases to the atomic bombs.

  12. Small head size after atomic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.; Mulvihill, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    A study of children exposed to nuclear explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki showed small head size and mental retardation when exposure occurred less than 18 weeks of gestational age. Increased frequency of small head size occurred when maternal exposure was 10 to 19 rad. Tables and graphs are presented to show relationships between dose, gestational age, and frequency of small head size

  13. History of radiation research. On radiation, radioactivity and radiation protection. Pt. 2. The sword of Damocles. Decade of the atomic bomb 1940-1950

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.

    2006-01-01

    The book includes contributions with the following titles: Szilards bomb; the excess neutrons; Napoleon's successor; Einstein's letter; the interim year 1940; administration and research; the sailor from India; the production facilities; ''I am the death, destroyer of the world''; Heisenberg's bomb; from other horizons; Potsdam and the atomic bomb decision; Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the beginning of nuclear power; renewed contacts; epilogue.

  14. Threshold for somatic radiation effects in man as known at present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R W

    1960-07-15

    A summary is presented on the somatic effects of ionizing irradiation in man. Discussion is presented under the headings: premature aging; small head circumference and mental retardation; cataracts; and leukemia. Most of the findings were obtained from studies of survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. 22 references. (DMC)

  15. 78 FR 38302 - Veterans' Advisory Board on Dose Reconstruction; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... occupation of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan; and veterans who were prisoners of war in those regions at the conclusion of World War II. In addition, the advisory board will assist the VA and DTRA in communicating with... the Veterans' Advisory Board on Dose Reconstruction. Written statements should be no longer than two...

  16. 77 FR 12576 - Veterans' Advisory Board on Dose Reconstruction; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan; and veterans who were prisoners of war in those regions at the conclusion of World War II. In addition, the advisory board will assist the VA and DTRA in communicating with... than two type-written pages and must address the following: the issue, discussion, and recommended...

  17. A study of sibling leukemia in the second generations of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Although the sibling leukemia (SL) is very rare, it is known in 4 families living in Osaka and Hiroshima, of which mothers are A-bomb survivors (2 exposed in Hiroshima/2 in Nagasaki). This study was performed on the 8 cases of SL to examine factors concerned with SL morbidity by comparison with SL in families unrelated to A-bomb exposure. Subjects were 4 cases of SL in Osaka, 4 cases in Hiroshima, and comparative 28 cases of age <20 y in 13 families (1930-1974) in a textbook published in 1979. The SL cases from mothers exposed at ages of 10-20 y were 5 males/3 females, and died at ages of 6-17 y (av. 11 y) due to acute, myeloid/monocytic leukemia. Three mothers' exposures were due to entrance in the City just/1 or 10 days after explosion and 2 mothers had lived in the black rain regions of either Hiroshima or Nagasaki. Comparisons were made on sex, type of L, age at death, parents' exposure, family composition, complication, and parents' consanguineous marriage. Findings of SL specific in the second generations of A-bomb survivors were from exposed mothers, and were mostly myeloid (monocyte) type leukemia, suggesting the effect of exposure. These facts may suggest that oocytes/ovula are of high sensitivity to internal exposure or low dose exposure. (T.T.)

  18. Passage to Progress, The CSIR's Journey of Change, 1945-95

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Basson, N

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available War II, when the bombing Qf Hiroshima and Nagasaki demonstrated the awe­ some power of science and technology. However, that war also illustrated the perversion of scientific research to destroy human life on a previous­ ly unimaginable scale...

  19. The technical Dimensions of Nuclear Warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1977-01-01

    This text, written by Engelbert Broda in 1977 is about the dimensions of nuclear warfare. Broda describes the devastating effects of the nuclear bombs dropped in 1945 in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and compares these effects with the explosive power of Hydrogen weapons. He also expresses his concerns about another nuclear ware and analyses possible worsening situations like change in the military doctrine. (nowak)

  20. Uranium mill tailings and risk estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.

    1984-04-01

    Work done in estimating projected health effects for persons exposed to mill tailings at vicinity properties is described. The effect of the reassessment of exposures at Hiroshima and Nagasaki on the risk estimates for gamma radiation is discussed. A presentation of current results in the epidemiological study of Hanford workers is included. 2 references

  1. Bombsights and Adding Machines: Translating Wartime Technology into Peacetime Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Michael

    2010-01-01

    On 10 February 1947, A.C. Buehler, the president of the Victor Adding Machine Company presented Norden Bombsight #4120 to the Smithsonian Institute. This sight was in service on board the Enola Gay when it dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima. Through this public presentation, Buehler forever linked his company to the Norden Bombsight, the…

  2. MAQUETTE ORL Décembre 2004

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    35- Mtasiwa DM, Imamura N, Inda T et al. Immunophenotype, histology and cli- nical stage: their predictive value in the prognosis of non Hodgkin's lymphomas. Hiroshima J Med Sci 1990; 39(4): 95-102. 36- Hutchison RE, Berard CW, Shuster JJ, Link MP, Pik TE, Murphy SB; B-cell lineage confers a favorable outcome ...

  3. Adverse reproductive outcomes in families of atomic veterans: the feasibility of epidemiologic studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee to Study the Feasibility of, and Need for, Epidemiologic Studies of Adverse Reproductive Outcomes in the Families of Atomic Veterans, Institute of Medicine

    .... One such group are those U.S. servicemen (the "Atomic Veterans" who participated in the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site or in the Pacific Proving Grounds, who served with occupation forces in or near Hiroshima...

  4. The Executive Process, Grade Eight. Resource Unit (Unit III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    This resource unit, developed by the University of Minnesota's Project Social Studies, introduces eighth graders to the executive process. The unit uses case studies of presidential decision making such as the decision to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, the Cuba Bay of Pigs and quarantine decisions, and the Little Rock decision. A case study of…

  5. Necessity of international cooperation for the prevention from nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidayatullah, M.

    1988-01-01

    The lessons learnt from nuclear accidents (Chernobyl and T.M.I.) and atomic bombs effects (Hiroshima, Nakasaki) have served to establish international conventions that insist on regional and international cooperation and on protection of workers and the public against the radiological effects. (author)

  6. Neutrons and carcinogenesis: a cautionary tale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    The best estimates for radiation induced cancer and leukemia are based on the Japanese survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. With the earlier dosimetry systems of the 1960's, it was possible to derive an RBE (relative biological effectiveness) for neutrons from the Japanese data, because it was thought that there was a significant neutron dose at Hiroshima compared with Nagasaki. The estimated RBE of about 20 was consistent with laboratory estimates for oncogenic transformation in vitro and tumors in animals. The revised dosimetry of the 1980's [DS 86] essentially eliminated the neutron component at Hiroshima, and consequently removed the only neutron RBE estimate based on human data. However, recent neutron activation measurements indicate that these may indeed have been thermal neutrons at Hiroshima, and measurements of the ratio of inter- to intra-chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes of survivors also tend to indicate that the biologically effective dose was dominated by neutrons. Another area in which the large biological effectiveness of neutrons assumes importance is the production of photoneutrons in high energy medical linear accelerators (Linacs). An increasing number of accelerators operating in the 18 to 20 MV range are coming into routine clinical use and at this energy, photoneutrons generated largely in the collimators result in a total body dose to the patient. The increased risk of second malignancies must be balanced against the slight improvement in percentage depth doses compared with more conventional machines operating at to 10 MV, below the threshold for photoneutron production. (author)

  7. Live Skin Allograft in the Management of Severe Burns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    skin substitute should in some way be incorporated into the healing wound as ... liquid nitrogen or they may be lyophilized and freeze- dried (4, 5). ... more severe the burn the greater the degree of immunosuppresion. ... Humby knife under spinal anesthesia. .... Alloantibody Effect on Skin Graft Survival in Mice. Hiroshima J ...

  8. Radiation protection in medicine and medical research; Strahlenschutz in der Heilkunde und der medizinischen Forschung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiners, Christoph [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2017-07-01

    Ionizing radiation might have considerable effects on human health as Hiroshima and Chernobyl have shown. According to the author's opinion the public is therefore prone to an overvaluation of radiation hazards. Radiation doses and hazards in case of medical care are discussed. Experiences from patient information are reviewed.

  9. ONR Far East Scientific Bulletin. Volume 10, Number 3, July-September 1985,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    MAZDA HIROSHIMA - Principal Contact: Dr. Hisashi Togii *1 - Main Topics: Automobile manufacturing, diesel engine manufacturing, machine-tool design and...0559) 21-5240, Telex: 3922401 TOKISO 3 - Principal Contact: Mr. Koya Kimura , director and general manager, engineering laboratory - Main Topics...session was coauthored by Yohtaro Matsuo, Eiichi Yasuda, and Shiushichi Kimura . They also investigated estimating time dependent strength distributionboth

  10. Numerical simulation of the fire-spread under a nuclear burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Suochun; Lei Guangyao; Wang Yiren; Huang Weizhang

    1992-01-01

    In the paper, the authors are concerned only with computer simulation of the fires of buildings ignited on urban areas produced by a nuclear burst. Some qualitative results for the simplest model by using the parameters of fire-spread from Japanese Hiroshima are obtained by the numerical test

  11. Bomb apologetics: Farm Hall, August 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, J.; Cassidy, D.

    1995-01-01

    On hearing the news from Hiroshima, the incredulous internees came up with a self-serving story to explain their failures in nucleus research: To keep Hitler from winning, they had deliberately not developed the atomic bomb. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  12. The Occupiers and the Occupied: A Nexus of Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine de Matos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the ‘different, but still possibly significant, status’ of the memories of Australians who occupied Hiroshima Prefecture with the British Commonwealth Occupation Force (BCOF from 1946 to 1952 and the Japanese who lived under Australian occupation.

  13. 76 FR 6766 - Veterans' Advisory Board on Dose Reconstruction; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... occupation of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan; and veterans who were prisoners of war in those regions at the conclusion of World War II. In addition, the advisory board will assist the VA and DTRA in communicating with...; ``Quality Review of Radiation Cases at the Jackson VARO'', by VA STAR Representative; ``Update on the...

  14. Critical commentary on dose-rate evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdy, E.J.; Malenfant, R.E.; Plassmann, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki present a unique problem in dosimetry: the effects of radiation exposure may be inferred although the exposure itself is unknown. Experience with a replica of Little Boy demonstrates the difficulties of measuring dose rates, the problems of comparing measurements with calculations, and the inadequacy of the conventional standards that are used to calibrate dosimeters

  15. USSR Report, Translations from Kommunist No. 9, June 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-13

    Buchenwald , Auschwitz, Khatyn and Oradour and Hiroshima and Nagasaki will no longer allow anyone’s hand to unsheath the sword. Alas, to this day, in...Soviet war veterans, who participate in the mass demonstrations on the grounds of the former death camps, such as Auschwitz, Matthausen, Buchenwald

  16. University Management, Present and Future: How and by Whom? Report of the International Workshop on University Reform, 2011. RIHE International Seminar Reports. No.18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Institute for Higher Education, Hiroshima University, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Research Institute for Higher Education (RIHE) at Hiroshima University, through special funding by the Ministry of Education and Science in 2008, has been implementing a research project on the reform of higher education in the knowledge-based society of the 21st century. Research into the design of the future higher education system,…

  17. 78 FR 37880 - Mazda North American Operations, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ...: Mazda North American Operations (MNAO),\\1\\ on behalf of Mazda Motor Corporation of Hiroshima, Japan (Mazda),\\2\\ has determined that certain Mazda brand motor vehicles manufactured between 2000 and 2012 for...\\ Mazda North American Operations is a U.S. company that manufacturers and imports motor vehicles. \\2...

  18. 77 FR 65051 - Mazda North American Operations, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ...: Mazda North American Operations (MNAO),\\1\\ on behalf of Mazda Motor Corporation of Hiroshima, Japan (Mazda),\\2\\ has determined that certain Mazda brand motor vehicles manufactured between 2007 and 2012 for... North American Operations, is a U.S. company that manufactures and imports motor vehicles. \\2\\ Mazda...

  19. 77 FR 59703 - Mazda North American Operations, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ...: Mazda North American Operations (MNAO),\\1\\ on behalf of Mazda Motor Corporation of Hiroshima, Japan (Mazda),\\2\\ has determined that certain Mazda brand motor vehicles manufactured between 2000 and 2012 for...\\ Mazda North American Operations, is a U.S. company that manufacturers and imports motor vehicles. \\2...

  20. 75 FR 65053 - Mazda North American Operations, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... Noncompliance Mazda North American Operations (MNAO),\\1\\ on behalf of Mazda Motor Corporation of Hiroshima..., Defect and Noncompliance Responsibility and Reports, dated December 18, 2009. \\1\\ Mazda Motor Corporation... noncompliance is inconsequential to motor vehicle safety. This notice of receipt of Mazda's petition is...

  1. Leukemia, multiple myeloma, and malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, M.; Ishimaru, T.; Ohkita, T.

    1986-01-01

    Excess risk of leukemia among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors increased with radiation dose in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The incidence of all types of leukemia, except chronic lymphocytic leukemia, has increased among A-bomb survivors. However, chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is thought to be the most characteristic type of the A-bomb induced leukemias. The highest risk of leukemia among A-bomb survivors was recognized in 1951 and has not yet disappeared in survivors in Hiroshima. Excess risk of leukemia in the younger age at time of bomb (ATB) groups appeared early; however, in older age ATB groups it appeared much later especially among Hiroshima survivors. In both cities the effect of radiation exposure on the occurrence of CML was more clearly observable in the younger age ATB groups and occurred more frequently in Hiroshima. Leukemia among individuals exposed in utero and children of A-bomb survivors has not increased significantly. The relationship between radiation induced leukemia and chromosome abnormalities is discussed. Twenty years after the A-bomb, the risk of multiple myeloma (MM) increased among survivors aged 20-59 years ATB. Non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma also increased among A-bomb survivors and showed roughly the same tendency as MM

  2. Leukemia, multiple myeloma, and malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, Michito; Ohkita, Takeshi; Ishimaru, Toranosuke.

    1986-01-01

    Excess risk of leukemia among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors increased with radiation dose in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The incidence of all types of leukemia, except chronic lymphocytic leukemia, has increased among A-bomb survivors. However, chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is thought to be the most characteristic type of the A-bomb induced leukemias. The highest risk of leukemia among A-bomb survivors was recognized in 1951 and has not yet disappeared in survivors in Hiroshima. Excess risk of leukemia in the younger age at time of bomb (ATB) groups appeared early; however, in the older age ATB groups it appeared much later especially among Hiroshima survivors. In both cities the effect of radiation exposure on the occurrence of CML was more clearly observable in the younger age ATB groups and occurred more frequently in Hiroshima. Leukemia among individuals exposed in utero and children of A-bomb survivors has not increased significantly. The relationship between radiation induced leukemia and chromosome abnormalities is discussed. Twenty years after the A-bomb, the risk of multiple myeloma (MM) increased among survivors aged 20 - 59 years ATB. Non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma also increased among A-bomb survivors and showed roughly the same tendency as MM. (author)

  3. Bomb parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, George D.; Young, Rebert W.; Cullings, Harry M.; Christry, Robert F.

    2005-01-01

    The reconstruction of neutron and gamma-ray doses at Hiroshima and Nagasaki begins with a determination of the parameters describing the explosion. The calculations of the air transported radiation fields and survivor doses from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs require knowledge of a variety of parameters related to the explosions. These various parameters include the heading of the bomber when the bomb was released, the epicenters of the explosions, the bomb yields, and the tilt of the bombs at time of explosion. The epicenter of a bomb is the explosion point in air that is specified in terms of a burst height and a hypocenter (or the point on the ground directly below the epicenter of the explosion). The current reassessment refines the energy yield and burst height for the Hiroshima bomb, as well as the locations of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki hypocenters on the modern city maps used in the analysis of the activation data for neutrons and TLD data for gamma rays. (J.P.N.)

  4. Comparative Assessment of Women Farmers' Status in Japan and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research compared the status of Japanese and Nigerian women farmers. The study was conducted in Sera Chuo, Hiroshima and Ohnan Chuo, Shimane prefecture, Chugoku region of Japan and Southwestern part of Nigeria covering three locations (Omi-Adio, Ijaye and Kila) within the suburban area of Ibadan ...

  5. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Physics Department, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan; RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA; Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan; Tokuyama Women's College, Tokuyama, Yamaguchi 745-8511, Japan; IMC, Hiroshima University, ...

  6. The new recommendations of the ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugier, A.; Metivier, H.

    1991-01-01

    One of the outstanding events that recently occurred in the field of radioprotection is the revision of the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. In fact, the latest studies on the survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki have led the experts to revise downwards the individual dose limits. What are the new elements in this document

  7. Quantifying Faculty Productivity in Japan: Development and Application of the Achievement-Motivated Key Performance Indicator. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.8.16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Misako; Watanabe, Satoshi P.

    2016-01-01

    Universities throughout the world are trending toward more performance based methods to capture their strengths, weaknesses and productivity. Hiroshima University has developed an integrated objective measure for quantifying multifaceted faculty activities, namely the "Achievement-Motivated Key Performance Indicator" (A-KPI), in order to…

  8. Ophthalmology programs at ABCC. A brief review and preliminary plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S C; Jablon, S

    1961-07-19

    A proposal is made for a continuing ophthalmology program for exposed and control subjects at Nagasaki and Hiroshima. This program is based on a fixed population selected from the PE-86 and the ME-200 Adult Health Study samples. 27 references, 4 tables.

  9. Airman Scholar Journal. Volume 15, Fall 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    more. The titles emergent from his hand ranged from Astronomy to On Freedom From Pain. He directed one of the wonders of the ancient world, a...Military Education Adapt?.................................................................... 49 Col Thomas A. Drohan “ Ancient Alexandria...the process of removing radioactive materials from the site. What the nuclear attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki taught us is that nuclear clean-up

  10. Congenital Absence of a Teat in a Japanese Black Heifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elshabrawy Ghanem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of Japanese Black heifer with a congenital absence of teat (athelia was observed at Highashi-Hiroshima Agricultural High School, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. The heifer was born after transfer of embryo from Japanese Black cattle. The sire of the heifer was a proven Japanese Black. The birth weight of the heifer was 27 kg. On physical examination of the heifer at 21 months after birth, the teat at fore left was absent and the remaining three teats were normal in shape without any physical abnormalities. Per rectal palpation of the genital organs revealed the normal cervix and uterine horns. It was difficult to palpate the ovaries due to the fat around the organs. Blood samples were taken for cytogenetic and DNA testing. The heifer had normal chromosomal set. The heifer was culled due to its mammary abnormality. This might be the first to report a case of congenital absence of a teat in Japanese Black heifers.

  11. Epidemiologic evaluation ABCC and Nagasaki University School of Medicine autopsies and ABCC surgical specimens: Nagasaki 1950-59

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samther, T G; Hrubec, Zdenek; Brown, W J; Thomas, G D

    1962-08-22

    This epidemiologic evaluation covered autopsies performed at ABCC Nagasaki and at the Nagasaki University School of Medicine, as well as surgical pathology specimens examined at ABCC Nagasaki during 1950-59. The material was related to the ABCC Master Sample population. Bias was demonstrated with respect to symptom status, exposure, age, death certificate diagnosis, male occupations, and history of previous medical examinations at ABCC. In addition the ABCC autopsy series was found to be biased with regard to sex. Comparison with data from Hiroshima indicated similar bias which is possibly more pronounced in Hiroshima. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that at this time the material is not suitable for broad epidemiologic studies of clinically manifest disease. The material, however, does lend itself to a number of studies of clinically occult disease and other problems which were discussed. 19 references, 32 tables.

  12. Medical and occupational radiation exposure reported by self-administered questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Osamu; Fujita, Shoichiro

    1977-01-01

    Affirmative response rates for diagnostic, therapeutic, and occupational ionizing radiation exposure were ascertained by surveying Hiroshima and Nagasaki aBCC-JNIH Adult Health Study subjects. Half reported diagnostic exposure since last visiting ABCC; 20%, within 3 months of interview. Rates were higher for A-bomb exposed than those not-in-city; possibly because of a higher disease rate or concern therefore among the A-bomb exposed group and/or A-bomb Survivors Medical Treatment Law handbooks' facilitating more examinations of the exposed. The rates did not differ among the A-bomb exposed groups. The respective Hiroshima and Nagasaki rates were 2.6%, and 1.6% for radiation therapy; and 0.5% and 0.2% for occupational exposure. Neither radiation therapy nor occupational exposure rates differed by A-bomb dose. (auth.)

  13. Recent results concerning radiation-induced cancer in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    The most recent data of the prospective study among Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors support the following conclusions: (a) the dose-response relationship is consistent with a straight line through the origin, including the lowest dose group (approx. 3 rad); (b) sensitivity to cancer induction varies considerably by irradiated tissues. (c) most cancers show a radiation effect still increasing 40 years after exposure; (d) a small leukemia excess among those irradiated is still present in Hiroshima; (e) the thyroid cancer excess is declining at present; (g) smoking adds to lung cancer incidence; (g) certain benign tumors show a radiation-related effect; (h) children under 10 years old at time of bombing are presently showing the highest relative cancer risk compared to other survivors at equal attained age. If this effect persists, age-specific cancer risk coefficients are necessary [fr

  14. Why the USA dropped atomic bombs on Japanese cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, B.

    1997-01-01

    Why did the USA use atomic bombs on Japanese cities? Because, by summer 1945, the earlier morality that said you should not kill non-combatants had been chipped away, then eroded, and ultimately destroyed by World War II. After Hitler's viciousness, after the Japanese rape of Nanjing, after the killings in Manila, after the savagery through Asia, after Dresden, after Hamburg, after Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe, Nagoya - over sixty Japanese cities had been bombed before Hiroshima, Hiroshima was inevitable, easy, comfortable, virtually automatic. The transformation was not the use of bomb, but the bombing of non-combatants - massively, intentionally. There was probably a desire to revenge, as well. In addition, there was an expectation that the bombs used on japan would also intimidate the Soviet Union but that was not crucial. Any nation that had the capacity would have used the bomb in righteousness and comfort, self-conceived dignity, amid popular applause from its electorate people

  15. Long-term measurements of radon concentrations in the living environments in Japan: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, T.; Yonehara, H.; Sakanove, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Iwasaki, T.; Mifune, M.; Radford, E.P.; Kato, H.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of indoor radon (Rn-222) concentrations were carried out using bare track detectors (CR-39) in Mihama, Misasa, Hiroshima and Nagasaki for one year and using Terradex SF detectors in Hokkaido for a winter. The highest median value, 31.2 Bq/m/sup 3/, was from the Mihama survey and the lowest, 10.2 Bq/m/sup 3/ was obtained from Nagasaki. The median value for Misasa (a radioactive spa area) was 24.2 Bq/m/sup 3/ and that for Hiroshima was 23.10 Bq/m/sup 3/. The values for Japanese traditional wooden houses were unexpectedly higher than these for ferro-concrete and prefabricated houses. The difference between the first and upper floors was modest. The median value obtained from personal monitoring of 25 people living in Missasa was 23.0 Bq/m/sup 3/, very close to the value found in dwellings in this area

  16. Dosimetry studies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, T.; Kumamoto, Y.; Hashizume, T.

    1982-01-01

    In 1967 the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba estimated the radiation doses in air from the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by using some building materials exposed to the nuclear explosions in both cities. These estimated doses were in good agreement with the doses estimated on the basis of the Ichiban project by the research group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory which were the basis for the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission's tentative 1965 radiation dose (T65D). Recently the radiation doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been reevaluated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In Japan a new research group was started last August, with the intention of making new estimates of doses from the atomic bombs in cooperation with US research groups

  17. The effect of different radiation exposure combined with prolactin on the carcinogenesis of rat mammary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoro Kenjiro

    1984-01-01

    Female W/Fu rats were exposed to various doses of respective radiation and some of these irradiated rats further received a continuous supply of prolactin by means of grafting a prolactin producing pituitary tumor as a promoter to make easier the detection of carcinogenic effect of radiation. The results show that, the carcinogenic effect of 2.0 MeV fission neutrons is surprisingly higher than those of others; being about 30, 14 and 4.5 times as high as X-rays, 14.1 MeV fast neutrons and 0.025 eV thermal neutrons respectively. The irradiation field of fission radiation is equivalent to the atomic bomb that exploded in Hiroshima in 1945, so these experimental findings may have some relevance to the recent study on the reassessment of radiation dose of both neutrons and gamma-rays produced by atomic bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

  18. Health effects models for off-site radiological consequence analysis of nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togawa, Orihiko; Homma, Toshimitsu; Matsuzuru, Hideo; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi

    1991-02-01

    A first version of models has been developed for predicting the number of occurrences of health effects induced by radiation exposure in nuclear reactor accidents. The models are based on the health effects models developed originally by Harvard University (NUREG/CR-4214). These models are revised on the basis of the new information on risk estimates by the reassessment of the radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The models deal with the following effects: (1) early effects models for bone marrow, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, thyroid, skin and reproductive organs, using the Weibull function, (2) late somatic effects models including leukemia and cancers of breast, lungs, thyroid, gastrointestinal tract and so forth, on the basis of the information derived from epidemiological studies on the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, (3) models for late and developmental effects due to exposure in utero. (author)

  19. The DS86 neutron dosimetry enigma: Some missing pieces to the puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.

    1994-01-01

    International programs have been conducted over the last four decades to quantify the exposure of atom bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Unfortunately, the quest for accurate gamma-ray and neutron exposure doses of atom bomb survivors has proven illusive. Efforts in the most recent of these programs, designated as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86), have revealed a serious and persistent discrepancy between neutron transport calculations and thermal neutron activation measurements at the Hiroshima site, which will be called the DS86 neutron dosimetry enigma. It is established that this enigma is a complex puzzle that precludes simple solutions. This conclusion is deduced through the identification of a number of missing pieces to the puzzle. Implications and conclusions that can be inferred from these missing puzzle pieces are advanced

  20. Support of Activities of the NAS in Relation to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douple, Evan B.

    2006-01-01

    The National Academies (NA) provides support for the activities related to the long-term follow up of the health of the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki being conducted by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) laboratories in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. The NA serves as scientific and administrative liaison between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and RERF, and performs tasks in the areas of scientific oversight, information/public interface, fiscal oversight, and personnel management. The project includes recruitment and support of approximately 10 NA employees who work at RERF in Japan. Specific activities are performed consistent with the cooperative agreement's Statement of Work between DOE and NA and consistent with an Annual Work Plan developed by DOE and NA

  1. Importance of Peaceful Utilization of Nuclear Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Frydryšková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the massive destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the end of Second World War, the atom was generally taken to be the primary symbol of the new era, the so-called ‘atomic age’, a prototypical modern conjuncture forever oscillating between the agonies of mass death and standardized terror, and the euphoria of tremendous economic transformation through the permanent resolution of the ever increasing need for electrical energy at little or no cost. After Hiroshima the symbolic meaning and presence of the atom crossed and recrossed the lines between popular culture, lived experience, political protest, strategic discourse, modern design, industry, medicine, and agriculture, that it truly became ‘atomic age’ whether one was in the US, France, China or anywhere else. 

  2. A United States perspective on long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C Rick

    2004-01-01

    The US has far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. This experience base includes the Department of Energy's continued follow-up with Hiroshima and Nagasaki from the 1940s at the Radiological Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima, Japan, the long-term management of the Marshall Islands Programme, the clean-up of the US nuclear weapons complex and the ongoing management of accident sites such as in Palomares, Spain. This paper discusses the lessons learnt and best practices gained from this far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. Copyright 2004 Oxford University Press

  3. Physicians confront the apocalypse: the American medical profession and the threat of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, P.

    1985-01-01

    Physicians figured prominently in the resurgence of nuclear weapons activism and cultural awareness that swept the US in the early 1980s. This discussion seeks to place this activism in historical context. It explores the American medical profession's shifting engagement with the issue of nuclear war. Attention is focused on the period 1945 to 1954, with a brief evaluation of the period 1954 to 1963, the years to which the activism of the 1980s may be traced. Radiation studies are reviewed including Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. Radiological studies were begun within days of Japan's surrender. The delayed effects of radiation exposure on some 14,000 persons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki include hemorrhage, leukocyte destruction, bone marrow damage, anemia, sterility, and the suppression of menstruation. In contrast, the American medical profession in the late 1940s focused much attention on the atom's potential medical benefits, especially the diagnostic and treatment value of radioisotopes. 90 references

  4. Synopsis of the Oxyethira flavicornis species group with new Japanese Oxyethira species (Trichoptera, Hydroptilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oláh, J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A brief synopsis of the Oxyethira flavicornis species group is produced by the examination of type materials. Diagrammatic drawings with similar style were prepared for all the known and for the new species. Short description of genus Oxyethira, subgenus Oxyethira, species group of Oxyethira flavicornis are presented together with the description of five species clusters: O. datra new species cluster, O. ecornuta new species cluster, O. flavicornis new species cluster, O. hiroshima new species cluster, O. tiunovae new species cluster. Five new species are described from the O. flavicornis species group: O chitosea sp. n., O. hena sp. n., O. hiroshima sp. n., O. kakida sp. n., O. mekunna sp. n. One new species is described from the Oxyethira grisea species group: Oxyethira ozea sp. n. and two new species from the Oxyethira ramosa species group: Oxyethira miea sp. n., Oxyethira okinawa sp. n.

  5. Photo Essay: Pictures for Our “Honorable American Friends”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Hideo Yamashita

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An American minister’s outrage over a celebration of the dropping of the atomic bombs on Japan led to a generous gift of school supplies for students at a primary school in Hiroshima City. In gratitude, students at this school sent dozens of drawings and paintings to the minister’s church. This exchange was inspired by the minister’s Unitarian faith and moral decency and realized through the generosity of his parishioners. But the Japanese children’s artwork can be read in several other ways that greatly complicate the story and implicate Cold War narratives of victory and defeat as well as powerful memories of the destruction, death, and suffering caused by the war. This essay accompanies the “Hiroshima Children’s Drawings” photo essay featured in the March 2013 issue of Cross-Currents: East Asian History and Culture Review...

  6. Activation measurements for thermal neutrons. Part A. Cobalt (60Co) activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, George D.; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Maruyama, Takashi; Cullings, Harry M.; Komura, Kazuhisa; Okumura, Yutaka; Egbert, Stephen D.

    2005-01-01

    The 60 Co measurements at Hiroshima and Nagasaki were reviewed and compared with the results of the new DS02 calculations for the two cities. Some corrections were made to previously published data from the 1965 measurements of JNIRS, ground ranges of all of the 60 Co measurements were reviewed and new ground ranges were determined when possible by transforming sample coordinates to the new city maps for Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and transmission factors were investigated for a number of samples used in the 60 Co measurements. Transmission factors were not calculated for all samples used in the 60 Co measurements but some general rules were given for estimating transmission factors for these samples. Experimental measurements of the background 60 Co activity from environmental neutrons were also reviewed, and it was found that the 60 Co background from environmental neutrons was not an important factor in the 60 Co measurements of bomb-induced activity at either city. (J.P.N.)

  7. The articles on atomic bomb of the newspaper in the past 15 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubuki, Satoru; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Matsuura, Masaaki; Hatano, Hiroko

    1990-01-01

    A-bomb hazards are given publicity by journalism every year from the end of the 1960s, especially in July and August, in Japan. This is generally termed 'the publication of A-bomb articles'. This paper outlines 'the publication of A-bomb articles' and introduces the actual conditions of A-bomb hazard problems. Articles were selected from three major national newspapers and two domestic newspapers (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) during the past 15 years from 1975 through 1989. Contents of the articles were divided into 20 categories and subdivided into 92 categories. According to newspaper, the Hiroshima domestic newspaper published the articles in the largest number (approximately 30% of all the articles). Overall, approximately 21% of the articles were published in August. The most common article content was A-bomb survivors' experiences, accounting for 47% before 1981 and 60% since 1982. (N.K.)

  8. Effect of a steam foot spa on geriatric inpatients with cognitive impairment: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Koike Y; Kondo H; Kondo S; Takagi M; Kano Y

    2013-01-01

    Yoshihisa Koike,1 Hideki Kondo,2 Satoshi Kondo,1 Masayuki Takagi,1 Yoshio Kano31Department of Occupational Therapy, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, Mihara, Japan; 2Yoshiigawa Hospital, Okayama, Japan; 3Department of Occupational Therapy, Kibi International University, Takahashi, JapanPurpose: To investigate whether a steam foot spa improves cognitive impairment in geriatric inpatients.Methods: Geriatric inpatients with cognitive impairment were given a steam foot spa treatment at 42&...

  9. Dose response relationship at low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    The data that have accrued in Hiroshima and Nagasaki on the effects of ionizing radiation on the developing human brain are reviewed. Effects considered are severe mental retardation, lowered IQ scores, decline in school performance, seizures, other neuropsychological effects, and small head size. All these factors may be related to radiation doses received by the mother during pregnancy. (L.L.) 3 figs., tab., 7 refs

  10. The Study of the Technical Innovation of Agriculture and the Peasant's Activity in Landholder System, in Meiji-Taisyo Era

    OpenAIRE

    勝部, 眞人

    1997-01-01

    In this article, I analyzed the process of Japanese Modern Technical Innovation of Agriculture by many peasants in Meiji-Taisyo Era, for I think that analysis is the key to link between the study on Japanese Modern Landholder System and the historical study on agricultural technique. This study is made on Hiroshima Prefecture, that had so much population and therefore the smallest-scale farmers in Japan, and Akita Prefecture, that had less population and therefore the most extensive culti...

  11. Fateful discovery almost forgotten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The paper reviews the discovery of the fission of uranium, which took place fifty years ago. A description is given of the work of Meitner and Frisch in interpreting the Fermi data on the bombardment of uranium nuclei with neutrons, i.e. proposing fission. The historical events associated with the development and exploitation of uranium fission are described, including the Manhattan Project, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Shippingport, and Chernobyl. (U.K.)

  12. Damocles' sword: the history of radiation, radioactivity and radiation protection. Second part: the 1940s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, Bo

    1999-01-01

    The main theme of this book is the Manhattan project, the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the military and political background for the development of the nuclear weapons. These facts have been of great importance for the development of nuclear power and for the nuclear power debate, and also for the development of radiation protection, which is the head subject for this series of books

  13. Effects of A-bomb radiation on the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikato; Kamada, Nanao

    1992-01-01

    This publication consists of contributions by 39 authors in Hiroshima who are active in the forefront of research, diagnosis and treatment concerning atomic bomb survivors. Following a brief description on the damage of the atomic bomb, the subjects of malignant tumors, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ocular lesions, dermatologic effects, prenatal exposure, chromosomal aberrations, mutations, sensitivity to radiation, immune function, genetic effects and other effects of radiation are described. All of the 45 chapters are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  14. Automatic shadowing device for electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, F W; Bogitch, S

    1960-01-01

    For the past ten years in the laboratory of the Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology at the University of California, and before that at Rochester, New York, every evaporation was done with the aid of an automatic shadowing device. For several months the automatic shadowing device has been available at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) Hiroshima, Japan with the modifications described. 1 reference.

  15. Combating WMD Journal. Issue 4, Fall/Winter 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Group, released a Mark I atomic bomb called "Little Boy". This was the first atomic bomb used against the Empire of Japan, the tar- get: Hiroshima...second detonation, war with the Empire of Japan officially ceased and an unconditional surren- der was enacted, thus ending the Second World War...of its more notewor- thy uses follows. CW involves the use of chemical substances to inca - pacitate, injure, or kill an enemy or enemy’s

  16. 1996: Disarmament at a critical juncture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The document contains edited transcript of the presentations made by Joseph Rotblat, winner of the Nobel Prize, and by Minoru Ohmuta and Hidehiko Yoko-o, speaking for the Mayors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, at the United Nations on 25 April 1996, excerpts from the panel discussion on South Asia at a Critical Turning Point held on 24 September 1996, and extensive excerpts from the panel discussions held 22-24 October 1996 during Disarmament Week at the United Nations

  17. Disarmament through regional dialogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Yuhei

    1994-01-01

    The role played by the United Nations in the pursuit of peace and disarmament and in support of the construction of a stable order in the region is very great. The attitude of Japan as a 'peace loving state' shown by its support to Non-proliferation is expressed by its high appreciation of the fact that this Second United Nations Conference in Hiroshima has been convened, as such exchanges of views constitute an important aspect of the process of disarmament

  18. Some statistical issues important to future developments in human radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Using his two years experience at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation at Hiroshima, the author tries to outline some of the areas of statistics where methodologies relevant to the future developments in human radiation research are likely to be found. Problems related to statistical analysis of existing data are discussed, together with methodological developments in non-parametric and semi-parametric regression modelling, and interpretation and presentation of results. (Author)

  19. More important vulnerability to radiations among children and elderly people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    from the studies made on the Hiroshima inhabitants having survived to the atomic bombs explosions, M. Alice Stewart showed the danger of radiations for pregnant women, children and elderly people. She has estimated that the risk of dying of a neoplasm is multiplied by two for persons aged of more than 55 years, comparatively with others adults; But for children aged of less than ten years this risk is one thousand time superior than for fifty five years old people. (N.C.)

  20. Critical Infrastructure Protection- Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bofman, Ryan K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-24

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been a key facet of Critical National Infrastructure since the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima exposed the nature of the Laboratory’s work in 1945. Common knowledge of the nature of sensitive information contained here presents a necessity to protect this critical infrastructure as a matter of national security. This protection occurs in multiple forms beginning with physical security, followed by cybersecurity, safeguarding of classified information, and concluded by the missions of the National Nuclear Security Administration.