WorldWideScience

Sample records for hires 90k bionic

  1. Bionic Nanosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Mannoor, Manu

    Direct multidimensional integration of functional electronics and mechanical elements with viable biological systems could allow for the creation of bionic systems and devices possessing unique and advanced capabilities. For example, the ability to three dimensionally integrate functional electronic and mechanical components with biological cells and tissue could enable the creation of bionic systems that can have tremendous impact in regenerative medicine, prosthetics, and human-machine interfaces. However, as a consequence of the inherent dichotomy in material properties and limitations of conventional fabrication methods, the attainment of truly seamless integration of electronic and/or mechanical components with biological systems has been challenging. Nanomaterials engineering offers a general route for overcoming these dichotomies, primarily due to the existence of a dimensional compatibility between fundamental biological functional units and abiotic nanomaterial building blocks. One area of compelling interest for bionic systems is in the field of biomedical sensing, where the direct interfacing of nanosensors onto biological tissue or the human body could stimulate exciting opportunities such as on-body health quality monitoring and adaptive threat detection. Further, interfacing of antimicrobial peptide based bioselective probes onto the bionic nanosensors could offer abilities to detect pathogenic bacteria with bio-inspired selectivity. Most compellingly, when paired with additive manufacturing techniques such as 3D printing, these characteristics enable three dimensional integration and merging of a variety of functional materials including electronic, structural and biomaterials with viable biological cells, in the precise anatomic geometries of human organs, to form three dimensionally integrated, multi-functional bionic hybrids and cyborg devices with unique capabilities. In this thesis, we illustrate these approaches using three representative

  2. Bionic prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    МЫЛЬНИКОВ А.М.

    2015-01-01

    The real achievement in the prosthetics has become artificial joints that function as well as natural joints. Bionic limbs are the most advanced type of prosthesis at the moment. These electronic devices are made from synthetic materials, but the person can manage them using his/her own nervous system through the targeted muscle reinnervation (recovery disturbed innervation of organs and tissues surgically).Principle of operation of bionic prosthesis. After the amputation because of a serious...

  3. Bionic kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomini, V

    2003-05-01

    Bionic Kidney is a project still in progress which aims at replacing all renal functions, which has been carried out in an ideal attempt to improve the overall results of Renal Replacement Therapy. It contains all the requisites for a complete rehabilitation from Uremia. As a futuristic mini-device implanted in the body, it should be a reliable support to Transplantation performance, considering the scarcity of kidney donors.

  4. Hiring Again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hequet, Marc

    2011-01-01

    When hiring starts again after a recession, workers often need a new skill mix. If so, it's the trainer's job to make sure employees--both current and those being hired--have those skills. Now that it's time to consider hiring again, some new complications emerge. After layoffs, remaining workers likely took on more tasks and learned new skills.…

  5. Bionic organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletti, P M

    1991-01-01

    When a lizard loses its tail, a new caudal appendage soon grows to replace the one that is missing. But when a human loses a kidney, severs a peripheral nerve or worse, the spinal cord, that organ is lost forever. Such at least is conventional thinking. But imagine that the victim of an industrial accident with a paralyzed hand could achieve new levels of function by inducing axonal regrowth through a synthetic nerve guidance channel; or that a Parkinsonian patient's symptoms could be relieved by implanting in his brain neural tissue encased in a selectively permeable polymer envelope; or that the inexorable progression of the vascular complications of juvenile diabetes could be stopped, even reversed, by a membrane-protected xenograft of insulin-producing tissue. This is the dream of bionic organ science. It is predicated on two lines of technological achievement: the availability of ultra-thin, biocompatible, selectively permeable polymer membranes which can protect a transplant against immune rejection while allowing solute exchange between the graft and its environment; and the synthesis of novel materials, some biostable, some bioresorbable, which can serve as scaffolding or anchor for tissue regrowth in the geometrically and chemically controlled environment of an implant. The fabrication, growth and survival of composites of living tissues with synthetic polymers, often enhanced by the incorporation of specific cell growth factors or inhibitors, has been demonstrated at the tissue culture level, and extended in vivo to experimental models of human endocrine deficiency or neurological defects. The key to progress with bioartificial organs is the confluence of knowledge ranging from materials science to cell and molecular biology to experimental surgery. Obstacles to clinical implementation of this new therapeutic concept include: large scale procurement of specific tissue structures or isolated postmitotic cells from animal sources; demonstration of safety

  6. The bionic human

    OpenAIRE

    Francalanza, Emmanuel;

    2013-01-01

    Faster, fitter and flawless? What would it take to build a Bionic Human? Emmanuel Francalanza delved into research at the Faculty of Engineering to see how Malta could contribute. 3D Art by Jean Claude Vancell.

  7. A Commentary on Bionics

    OpenAIRE

    Batchala Bharghava

    2015-01-01

    The combination of Engineering and Biology enhances the route for Bionics. As we know engineered materials is usually used to comprise design, characterization, production and application of materials and the scope has nowadays been widened to include systems and devices rather than just materials. Bionics is thus defined as design and fabrication of materials, devices and control systems[1-4]various single-cell-based models have been developed to minimize by implementation in biological and ...

  8. SPAIDE: A Real-time Research Platform for the Clarion CII/90K Cochlear Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykmans P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available SPAIDE (sound-processing algorithm integrated development environment is a real-time platform of Advanced Bionics Corporation (Sylmar, Calif, USA to facilitate advanced research on sound-processing and electrical-stimulation strategies with the Clarion CII and 90K implants. The platform is meant for testing in the laboratory. SPAIDE is conceptually based on a clear separation of the sound-processing and stimulation strategies, and, in specific, on the distinction between sound-processing and stimulation channels and electrode contacts. The development environment has a user-friendly interface to specify sound-processing and stimulation strategies, and includes the possibility to simulate the electrical stimulation. SPAIDE allows for real-time sound capturing from file or audio input on PC, sound processing and application of the stimulation strategy, and streaming the results to the implant. The platform is able to cover a broad range of research applications; from noise reduction and mimicking of normal hearing, over complex (simultaneous stimulation strategies, to psychophysics. The hardware setup consists of a personal computer, an interface board, and a speech processor. The software is both expandable and to a great extent reusable in other applications.

  9. Isolation and functional characterization of the human 90K promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brakebusch, C; Sures, I; Jallal, B

    1999-01-01

    90K is a secreted protein thought to be involved in the body's defense against pathogens and cancer. To elucidate its transcriptional regulation, the promoter of human 90K (HGMW-approved symbol LGAL S3BP) was isolated and characterized. Analysis of the 3. 3-kb 5'-flanking region revealed...... region around the minimal promoter (-99 --> -12) was highly homologous between human and mouse. While both human and mouse minimal promoters contained an interferon-responsive element (IRF-E), the human minimal promoter was not inducible by poly(I). poly(C) in contrast to that of the mouse. Point...... mutations 30 bp upstream of the IRF-E, however, conferred inducibility to the human minimal promoter, suggesting interaction between different promoter elements....

  10. Cochlear bionic acoustic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fuyin; Wu, Jiu Hui; Huang, Meng; Fu, Gang; Bai, Changan

    2014-11-01

    A design of bionic acoustic metamaterial and acoustic functional devices was proposed by employing the mammalian cochlear as a prototype. First, combined with the experimental data in previous literatures, it is pointed out that the cochlear hair cells and stereocilia cluster are a kind of natural biological acoustic metamaterials with the negative stiffness characteristics. Then, to design the acoustic functional devices conveniently in engineering application, a simplified parametric helical structure was proposed to replace actual irregular cochlea for bionic design, and based on the computational results of such a bionic parametric helical structure, it is suggested that the overall cochlear is a local resonant system with the negative dynamic effective mass characteristics. There are many potential applications in the bandboard energy recovery device, cochlear implant, and acoustic black hole.

  11. Bionics in architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugár Viktória

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of the forms and phenomena of nature is not a recent concept. Observation of natural mechanisms has been a primary source of innovation since prehistoric ages, which can be perceived through the history of architecture. Currently, this idea is coming to the front again through sustainable architecture and adaptive design. Investigating natural innovations and the clear-outness of evolution during the 20th century led to the creation of a separate scientific discipline, Bionics. Architecture and Bionics are strongly related to each other, since the act of building is as old as the human civilization - moreover its first formal and structural source was obviously the surrounding environment. Present paper discusses the definition of Bionics and its connection with the architecture.

  12. USA Hire Testing Platform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The USA Hire Testing Platform delivers tests used in hiring for positions in the Federal Government. To safeguard the integrity of the hiring processes and ensure...

  13. Coming Soon: The Bionic Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Colin

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the latest advancement in the development of prosthetic arms. Bionic researchers are making significant advances in creating more agile prosthetics that users can control via their own nervous system. The bionic arm, which is still under development, can not only execute complex, thought-controlled movements, but also can…

  14. [Bionic design of articular cartilage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jun; Zhang, Wenguang; Wu, Gang; Wang, Chengtao

    2008-02-01

    Natural articular cartilage is well known as a special connective tissue with multiple effects and functions, which are important and irreplaceable, in human synovial joints. Biomedical, histological and pathological characteristics of articular cartilage, as well as biomaterial, biomechanical and bio-tribological properties thereof, are summarized from a novel aspect of bionics. Bionic design of articualr cartilage at macro-level and micro-level is carried out from three aspects, i.e., structure, material, and function; and a bionic design model of articular cartilage is set up. As a result, this basic research would be helpful to providing theoretical and practical basis for innovational design and manufacturing of new-style artificial joint with "soft-cushion bearing", and of bionic artificial cartilage.

  15. Hiring without Firing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Araoz, Claudio

    1999-01-01

    Describes the problems related to the hiring of senior-level positions. Suggests that regardless of the hiring process used, between 30% and 50% of executive-level appointments end in firing or resignation. Discusses the most common mistakes used in hiring. (JOW)

  16. [The bionic hand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surke, Carsten; Ducommun Dit Boudry, Pascal; Vögelin, Esther

    2015-08-01

    The loss of the upper extremity implicates a grave insult in the life of the involved person. To compensate for the loss of function different powered prosthetic devices are available. Ever since their first development 70 years ago numerous improvements in terms of size, weight and wearing comfort have been developed, but issues regarding the control of upper extremity prostheses remain. Slow grasping speed, limited grip positions and especially failure to provide a sensory feedback limit the acceptance in patients. Recent developments are aimed to allow a more intuitive control of the prosthetic device and to provide a sensory feedback to the amputee. Targeted reinnervation reassignes existing muscles to different peripheral nerves thereby enabling them to fulfill alternate functions. Implanting electrodes into muscle bellies of the forearm allows a more accurate control of the prosthesis. Promising results are being achieved by implanting nerve electrodes by establishing bilateral communication between patient and prosthesis. The following review summarizes the current developments of bionic prostheses in the upper extremity.

  17. Holographic cosmology from BIonic solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Alireza; Faizal, Mir; Setare, Mohammad Reza; Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we will use a BIonic solution for analyzing the holographic cosmology. A BIonic solution is a configuration of a D3-brane and an anti-D3-brane connected by a wormhole, and holographic cosmology is a recent proposal to explain cosmic expansion by using the holographic principle. In our model, a BIonic configuration will be produced by the transition of fundamental black strings. The formation of a BIonic configuration will cause inflation. As the D3-brane moves away from the anti-D3-brane, the wormhole will get annihilated, and the inflation will end with the annihilation of this wormhole. However, it is possible for a D3-brane to collide with an anti-D3-brane. Such a collision will occur if the distance between the D3-brane and the anti-D3-brane reduces, and this will create tachyonic states. We will demonstrate that these tachyonic states will lead to the formation of a new wormhole, and this will cause acceleration of the universe before such a collision.

  18. Bionic machines and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halme, A.; Paanajaervi, J. (eds.)

    2004-07-01

    Introduction Biological systems form a versatile and complex entirety on our planet. One evolutionary branch of primates, called humans, has created an extraordinary skill, called technology, by the aid of which it nowadays dominate life on the planet. Humans use technology for producing and harvesting food, healthcare and reproduction, increasing their capability to commute and communicate, defending their territory etc., and to develop more technology. As a result of this, humans have become much technology dependent, so that they have been forced to form a specialized class of humans, called engineers, who take care of the knowledge of technology developing it further and transferring it to later generations. Until now, technology has been relatively independent from biology, although some of its branches, e.g. biotechnology and biomedical engineering, have traditionally been in close contact with it. There exist, however, an increasing interest to expand the interface between technology and biology either by directly utilizing biological processes or materials by combining them with 'dead' technology, or by mimicking in technological solutions the biological innovations created by evolution. The latter theme is in focus of this report, which has been written as the proceeding of the post-graduate seminar 'Bionic Machines and Systems' held at HUT Automation Technology Laboratory in autumn 2003. The underlaying idea of the seminar was to analyze biological species by considering them as 'robotic machines' having various functional subsystems, such as for energy, motion and motion control, perception, navigation, mapping and localization. We were also interested about intelligent capabilities, such as learning and communication, and social structures like swarming behavior and its mechanisms. The word 'bionic machine' comes from the book which was among the initial material when starting our mission to the fascinating world

  19. CLEMENTINE HIRES MOSAIC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This CD contains portions of the Clementine HiRes Lunar Mosaic, a geometrically controlled, calibrated mosaic compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer...

  20. Cops for Hire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepe, Markus; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    employment generally, and police employment specifically, are promising domains for such tactics. Timing the hiring of police officers during election periods may increase votes, as these are ‘street-visible’ jobs dealing with politically salient issues. Law-and-order competence signaling makes police hiring...... elections, while conservative party power increases police numbers. Subjectively ‘immediate’ forms of crime (issue salience) and perceived causes of crime such as immigration are also positively associated with police numbers....

  1. The bionic man: restoring mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craelius, William

    2002-02-08

    Bionics engineers are making increasingly bold and successful use of their tools to restore mobility to persons with missing or nonfunctional limbs. These tools include the latest materials, minielectronics and megacomputers, advanced robotic mechanisms, and algorithms. With crucial help from their pioneering users, they are learning how and where the residual sensorimotor system can be tapped in order to transmit its intents to replacement or reactivated body parts.

  2. "Bionic Woman" (2007): Gender, Disability and Cyborgs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Margaret M.; Bates, Benjamin R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores a representation of overlapping categories of gender, disability and cyborgs in "Bionic Woman" (2007). The television show "Bionic Woman" (2007) is a popular culture representation that uniquely brings together these categories. Three themes emerged from an analysis of blogger discourse surrounding the show. The themes reveal…

  3. Hiring the right employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigle, Dale A

    2014-01-01

    Current employees provide the best examples of the type of aptitude, attitude, motivation, and fit we are looking for, or not looking for, in new employees. All four of these attributes are present in star employees. Using what we know about our best and worst employees can assist us in developing questions and scoring templates that will help us categorize current applicants. Hiring managers should formulate questions in a way that elicits informative responses from candidates about past performance in situations similar to those they will face on the job. Nonverbal clues can help provide insight beyond the simple verbal answer given by candidates. Practice, critique, and critical review of the outcomes of our hiring decisions improve our ability to become good hiring managers.

  4. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K.; Johnson, Blake N.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and ‘living’ platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with

  5. Multicentre evaluation of music perception in adult users of Advanced Bionics cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Doris; Ajimsha, Khalid Mohamed; Barberá, Manuel Tomás; Gazibegovic, Dzemal; Gisbert, Javier; Gómez, Justo; Raveh, Eyal; Rocca, Christine; Romanet, Philipe; Seebens, Yvonne; Zarowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    To document musical listening and enjoyment in recipients of Advanced Bionics cochlear implants (CIs) and to compare musical perception in those using early coding strategies with subjects using the newer HiRes and HiRes 120 strategies. A questionnaire was completed by 136 adult subjects, including questions on the ability to identify specific musical features. The subjects were in three groups: those using early coding strategies (n = 29), HiRes (n = 59), and HiRes 120 (n = 48), and results were compared with a group of 84 normally hearing (NH) subjects. Of the CI users, 79% reported listening to music. The NH group rated listening frequency and enjoyment higher than the CI users. Thirty-five users reported that they sang and this group had significantly higher overall performance. There were no significant differences in overall perception of specific musical features among the strategy groups, though some individual questions showed significantly higher performance in the HiRes 120 users. Users of current CI technology show a high level of musical appreciation, though still significantly less than NH subjects. Frequency of listening and enjoyment were significantly correlated and active participation in musical activities, specifically singing, resulted in significantly higher overall performance scores.

  6. Expression of the 90K immunostimulator gene is controlled by a promoter with unique features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brakebusch, C; Jallal, B; Fusco, O

    1997-01-01

    90K is a secreted glycoprotein with tumor suppressive functions, which is up-regulated in various types of cancer and in AIDS. In order to understand the regulation of its expression, the mouse 90K gene was isolated and analyzed. The gene spans about 8.8-kilobase pairs and consists of 6 exons...... and was localized on chromosome 11, region E. RNase protection identified one major transcription start site (+1) and three minor ones (-3, +32, +34). The mouse 90K gene was found to have a TATA-less promoter of unusual structure. The 2. 3-kilobase pair 5'-flanking region exhibited strong promoter activity in NIH 3......T3 cells; however, it contained neither a TATA-box nor a SP1 site and was not GC-rich. No known initiator motif was found around the transcription start site. 5'- and 3'-deletions defined a minimal promoter of 51 base pairs (-66 --> -16), not including the start site, essential and sufficient...

  7. Time-to-Hire Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Agencies report time-to-hire data for all hires made using USAJOBS and report on government-wide mission critical occupations and agency specific mission critical...

  8. For-Hire Vessel Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Directory is maintained as the sample frame for the For-Hire Survey. I contains data on for-hire vessels on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Data include...

  9. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  10. Fermentation based carbon nanotube multifunctional bionic composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M

    2016-01-01

    .... Based on bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at room temperature...

  11. Bionics in secondary school's physics curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Poplavskis, Jānis

    2013-01-01

    Annotation The task of the promotional work "Bionics in secondary school's physics curriculum" - to view the secondary school's physics curriculum, the possibility to involve bionics in physics learning process, to develop a didactical model that integrates the student's knowledge and promotes the development of technological competence and facilitates the growth of interest towards natural sciences. Analysis of literature and educational documentation of the pedagogical and psychological asp...

  12. Regenerative Engineering and Bionic Limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Roshan; Laurencin, Cato T

    2015-03-01

    Amputations of the upper extremity are severely debilitating, current treatments support very basic limb movement, and patients undergo extensive physiotherapy and psychological counselling. There is no prosthesis that allows the amputees near-normal function. With increasing number of amputees due to injuries sustained in accidents, natural calamities and international conflicts, there is a growing requirement for novel strategies and new discoveries. Advances have been made in technological, material and in prosthesis integration where researchers are now exploring artificial prosthesis that integrate with the residual tissues and function based on signal impulses received from the residual nerves. Efforts are focused on challenging experts in different disciplines to integrate ideas and technologies to allow for the regeneration of injured tissues, recording on tissue signals and feed-back to facilitate responsive movements and gradations of muscle force. A fully functional replacement and regenerative or integrated prosthesis will rely on interface of biological process with robotic systems to allow individual control of movement such as at the elbow, forearm, digits and thumb in the upper extremity. Regenerative engineering focused on the regeneration of complex tissue and organ systems will be realized by the cross-fertilization of advances over the past thirty years in the fields of tissue engineering, nanotechnology, stem cell science, and developmental biology. The convergence of toolboxes crated within each discipline will allow interdisciplinary teams from engineering, science, and medicine to realize new strategies, mergers of disparate technologies, such as biophysics, smart bionics, and the healing power of the mind. Tackling the clinical challenges, interfacing the biological process with bionic technologies, engineering biological control of the electronic systems, and feed-back will be the important goals in regenerative engineering over the next

  13. Role and regulation of 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) in signal transduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frödin, M; Gammeltoft, S

    1999-01-01

    Extracellular signals activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades to execute complex cellular programs, like proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In mammalian cells, three MAPK families have been characterized: extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which is activated...... by growth factors, peptide hormones and neurotransmitters, and Jun kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK, which are activated by cellular stress stimulus as well as growth factors. This review describes the family of 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinases (RSK; also known as p90rsk or MAPK-activated protein kinase-1, MAPKAP-K1......), which were among the first substrates of ERK to be discovered and which has proven to be a ubiquitous and versatile mediator of ERK signal transduction. RSK is composed of two functional kinase domains that are activated in a sequential manner by a series of phosphorylations. Recently, a family of RSK...

  14. Agency-Hired Hotel Housekeepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanon, Marie-Anne V.

    2014-01-01

    Hotel housekeepers experience unique workplace hazards and characteristics that increase their risks for poor health outcomes. Today’s agency-hiring practices may further marginalize hotel housekeepers and negatively impact their health. Yet the impact of such hiring practices on the health of this vulnerable worker group remains unexplored. This article presents the debate regarding agency-hiring practices and how these practices may influence the health and well-being of hotel housekeepers. Implications for occupational health nurses are also discussed. PMID:24512722

  15. Hires and Losses Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database contains data about the hires and losses of employees for the Office of Systems-those who join or leave the Office of Systems and those who transfer...

  16. Bionics in Engineering Education Considerations, Experiences and Conclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Ralf Neurohr; Cristian Dragomirescu

    2008-01-01

    During recent years bionics, a new discipline which is in charge with the transfer of the principles of construction, regulation, interaction and organisation of biology into innovative technical solutions, has attracted significant interest from various industries. Based on this request for bionic expertise in engineering, the faculty for teaching engineering in foreign languages (FILS) at ‘Politehnica’ University of Bucharest started a course in bionics in SS 2007, which was supported by th...

  17. Bionic Research on Bird Feather for Drag Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Beibei Feng; Darong Chen; Jiadao Wang; Xingtuan Yang

    2015-01-01

    To reduce friction drag with bionic method in a more feasible way, the surface microstructure of bird feather was analyzed attempting to reveal the biologic features responding to skin friction drag reduction. Then comparative bionic surface mimicking bird feather was fabricated through hot-rolling technology for drag reduction. The microriblet film was formed on a PVC substrate through a self-developed hot-rolling equipment. The bionic surface with micron-scale riblets formed spontaneously d...

  18. Bionic Humans Using EAP as Artificial Muscles Reality and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Yoseph Bar-Cohen

    2004-01-01

    For many years, the idea of a human with bionic muscles immediately conjures up science fiction images of a TV series superhuman character that was implanted with bionic muscles and portrayed with strength and speed far superior to any normal human. As fantastic as this idea may seem, recent developments in electroactive polymers (EAP) may one day make such bionics possible. Polymers that exhibit large displacement in response to stimulation that is other than electrical signa...

  19. Bionics in Engineering Education Considerations, Experiences and Conclusions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neurohr, Ralf; Dragomirescu, Cristian

    2008-01-01

    ... solutions, has attracted significant interest from various industries. Based on this request for bionic expertise in engineering, the faculty for teaching engineering in foreign languages (FILS...

  20. Glycoprotein 90K Promotes E-Cadherin Degradation in a Cell Density-Dependent Manner via Dissociation of E-Cadherin-p120-Catenin Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Yeon; Yoon, Somy; Sun, Eun Gene; Zhou, Rui; Bae, Jeong A; Seo, Young-Woo; Chae, Jung-Il; Paik, Man-Jeong; Ha, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Hangun; Kim, Kyung Keun

    2017-12-02

    Glycoprotein 90K (also known as LGALS3BP or Mac-2BP) is a tumor-associated protein, and high 90K levels are associated with poor prognosis in some cancers. To clarify the role of 90K as an indicator for poor prognosis and metastasis in epithelial cancers, the present study investigated the effect of 90K on an adherens junctional protein, E-cadherin, which is frequently absent or downregulated in human epithelial cancers. Treatment of certain cancer cells with 90K significantly reduced E-cadherin levels in a cell-population-dependent manner, and these cells showed decreases in cell adhesion and increases in invasive cell motility. Mechanistically, 90K-induced E-cadherin downregulation occurred via ubiquitination-mediated proteasomal degradation. 90K interacted with the E-cadherin-p120-catenin complex and induced its dissociation, altering the phosphorylation status of p120-catenin, whereas it did not associate with β-catenin. In subconfluent cells, 90K decreased membrane-localized p120-catenin and the membrane fraction of the p120-catenin. Particularly, 90K-induced E-cadherin downregulation was diminished in p120-catenin knocked-down cells. Taken together, 90K upregulation promotes the dissociation of the E-cadherin-p120-catenin complex, leading to E-cadherin proteasomal degradation, and thereby destabilizing adherens junctions in less confluent tumor cells. Our results provide a potential mechanism to explain the poor prognosis of cancer patients with high serum 90K levels.

  1. Fermentation based carbon nanotube bionic functional composites

    OpenAIRE

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique mechanical and physical properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Based on grape must and bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at r...

  2. [Analogies and analogy research in technical biology and bionics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigall, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The procedural approaches of Technical Biology and Bionics are characterized, and analogy research is identified as their common basis. The actual creative aspect in bionical research lies in recognizing and exploiting technically oriented analogies underlying a specific biological prototype to indicate a specific technical application.

  3. Results of total hip arthroplasty using a bionic hip stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokter, Samo K; Sarler, Taras; Strahovnik, Andrej; Repše-Fokter, Alenka

    2015-06-01

    The trabecular-orientated bionic hip stem was designed to mimic the natural force transmission through the femur in total hip arthroplasty, resulting in supposedly longer prosthesis survivability. The aim of this study was to compare the second-generation bionic hip stem to a standard uncemented hip stem. A group of 18 patients (21 hips) who underwent total hip arthroplasty with a bionic stem (bionic group) was compared with a historic group of 12 patients (12 hips) treated with standard anatomic hip stem (control group). During the first year after the procedure, the densitometric measurements of the bone around the prosthesis were taken. Radiographic and clinical assessments were additionally performed preoperatively and at the three month, six month, one year and three year follow-ups in the bionic group. In the bionic group, one patient was revised for aseptic loosening and 16 patients (19 hips) were available to the final follow-up. A significant decrease of bone mineral density was found in Gruen zones 3, 4 and 5 in the bionic group, and in zone 7 in both groups. The bionic group had a significantly higher bone mineral density in Gruen zone 1 at the one year follow-up. At the final follow-up, all prostheses were radiologically stable in both groups. Provided that a good implant position is achieved, comparable short-term results can be obtained using a bionic stem. Still, a decrease of bone mineral density in Gruen zone 7 occurred in both groups. Further studies are required to determine survivability of the bionic stem.

  4. Whom do new firms hire?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Using the matched employer-employee data set for Denmark and information on the founders of new firms, we analyze the hiring choices of all new firms that entered from 2003 to 2010. We develop a theoretical model in which the quality of a firm’s employees determines its average cost, a firm...

  5. Hiring Effective Secondary School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlothlin, Jason M.; Miller, Lynne Guillot

    2008-01-01

    Today's effective school counselors are integral in education reform, school leadership, and student achievement. It is typically the responsibility of building principals to hire effective school counselors. This article builds on previous literature and provides principals with questions to ask and information to gather that may be helpful in…

  6. Bionics and Biocybernetics Bibliography, Biodynamics and Bioengineering Division 1959-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    the Neural Optics Behind the Eye of the." Fly", Cybernetic Problems in Bionics , Bionics Symposium 1966,% Gordon and Breach Publishers, Inc., NY, pp...Electronics to Represent the Properties of a Frog’s Eye ", Cybernetic Problems in Bionics , Bionics Symposium 1966, Gordon and Breach Publishers, Inc., NY, pp...L 7 D-A±74 948 BIONICS AND BIOCYBERNETICS BIBLIOGRPHY BIODYNANICS AND III1 I BIGENGINEERING DI.. (U) HARRY 0 ARNSTRONG AEROSPACE I MEDICAL RESEARCH

  7. Bionic models for identification of biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerget, O. M.

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes a clinical decision support system that processes biomedical data. For this purpose a bionic model has been designed based on neural networks, genetic algorithms and immune systems. The developed system has been tested on data from pregnant women. The paper focuses on the approach to enable selection of control actions that can minimize the risk of adverse outcome. The control actions (hyperparameters of a new type) are further used as an additional input signal. Its values are defined by a hyperparameter optimization method. A software developed with Python is briefly described.

  8. Tissue bionics: examples in biomimetic tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David W

    2008-09-01

    Many important lessons can be learnt from the study of biological form and the functional design of organisms as design criteria for the development of tissue engineering products. This merging of biomimetics and regenerative medicine is termed 'tissue bionics'. Clinically useful analogues can be generated by appropriating, modifying and mimicking structures from a diversity of natural biomatrices ranging from marine plankton shells to sea urchin spines. Methods in biomimetic materials chemistry can also be used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds with added functional utility that promise human tissues fit for the clinic.

  9. Study of controlled motion bionic mini robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politov, E. N.; Rukavitsyn, A. N.

    2017-10-01

    The article describes a dynamic model of a bionic mini-robot capable of moving on a rough surface or separately from it. Differential equations describing the robot’s motion in the phases of flight and movement on the support surface were obtained. The debalance’s angular velocity was used as the controlled parameter. The results of numerical modelling of the equations of motion supported theoretical conclusions on the character of the dependence of height and length of a jump on the frequency of rotation. It was simultaneously established that the shape of the trajectory of the center of mass depends on the controlled parameter.

  10. The quest for the bionic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Douglas T

    2014-06-01

    The current state of research of upper extremity prosthetic devices is focused on creating a complete prosthesis with full motor and sensory function that will provide amputees with a near-normal human arm. Although advances are being made rapidly, many hurdles remain to be overcome before a functional, so-called bionic arm is a reality. Acquiring signals via nerve or muscle inputs will require either a reliable wireless device or direct wiring through an osseous-integrated implant. The best way to tap into the "knowledge" present in the peripheral nerve is yet to be determined. Copyright 2014 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

  11. Tissue bionics: examples in biomimetic tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, David W [Bone and Joint Research Group, Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, General Hospital, University of Southampton, SO16 6YD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Hindoostuart@googlemail.com

    2008-09-01

    Many important lessons can be learnt from the study of biological form and the functional design of organisms as design criteria for the development of tissue engineering products. This merging of biomimetics and regenerative medicine is termed 'tissue bionics'. Clinically useful analogues can be generated by appropriating, modifying and mimicking structures from a diversity of natural biomatrices ranging from marine plankton shells to sea urchin spines. Methods in biomimetic materials chemistry can also be used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds with added functional utility that promise human tissues fit for the clinic.

  12. Inductive Powering for a Bionic Eye

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Ruiz, Sergi

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of the medicine is largely in the last decade due to the increasing research in the bioengineering field. The implantable medical devices (IMD) have an important role in this improvement. During the decades the IMD have evolved rapidly and a new generation of them has been born, the Wireless Implantable Medical Device (WIMD). In this thesis, it will be shown the tools for designing an inductive power link for a bionic lens eye, trying to make as much as possible batch-fabricated...

  13. Optical function of bionic nanostructure of ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, C X [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Zhu, G P [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Liu, Y J [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Sun, X W [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Li, X [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Liu, J P [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Cui, Y P [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2007-10-15

    A novel bionic network nanostructure of zinc oxide (ZnO), which is similar to the microstructure of a butterfly wing, was first fabricated by a vapor-phase transport method using zinc powder as a source. These bionic nanostructures are composed of three ordered multi-aperture gratings. Similar to the optical effect of butterfly wings, the diffraction patterns of the bionic network of ZnO were observed. The mechanism of the optical function was discussed based on the physical model of multi-aperture diffraction.

  14. Graphite Oxide to Graphene. Biomaterials to Bionics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brianna C; Murray, Eoin; Wallace, Gordon G

    2015-12-09

    The advent of implantable biomaterials has revolutionized medical treatment, allowing the development of the fields of tissue engineering and medical bionic devices (e.g., cochlea implants to restore hearing, vagus nerve stimulators to control Parkinson's disease, and cardiac pace makers). Similarly, future materials developments are likely to continue to drive development in treatment of disease and disability, or even enhancing human potential. The material requirements for implantable devices are stringent. In all cases they must be nontoxic and provide appropriate mechanical integrity for the application at hand. In the case of scaffolds for tissue regeneration, biodegradability in an appropriate time frame may be required, and for medical bionics electronic conductivity is essential. The emergence of graphene and graphene-family composites has resulted in materials and structures highly relevant to the expansion of the biomaterials inventory available for implantable medical devices. The rich chemistries available are able to ensure properties uncovered in the nanodomain are conveyed into the world of macroscopic devices. Here, the inherent properties of graphene, along with how graphene or structures containing it interface with living cells and the effect of electrical stimulation on nerves and cells, are reviewed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Tetragonal-to-orthorhombic structural phase transition at 90 K in the superconductor Fe(1.01)Se.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, T M; Williams, A J; Stephens, P W; Tao, J; Zhu, Y; Ksenofontov, V; Casper, F; Felser, C; Cava, R J

    2009-07-31

    In this Letter we show that superconducting Fe(1.01)Se undergoes a structural transition at 90 K from a tetragonal to an orthorhombic phase but that nonsuperconducting Fe(1.03)Se does not. High resolution electron microscopy at low temperatures further reveals an unexpected additional modulation of the crystal structure of the superconducting phase that involves displacements of the Fe atoms, and that the nonsuperconducting composition shows a different, complex nanometer-scale structural modulation. Finally, we show that magnetism is not the driving force for the phase transition in the superconducting phase.

  16. Tetragonal-to-Orthorhombic Structural Phase Transition at 90K in the Superconductor for Fe 1.01Se

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQueen, T.; Williams, A; Stephens, P; Tao, J; Zhu, Y; Ksenofontov, V; Casper, F; Felser, C; Cava, R

    2009-01-01

    In this Letter we show that superconducting Fe1.01Se undergoes a structural transition at 90 K from a tetragonal to an orthorhombic phase but that nonsuperconducting Fe1.03Se does not. High resolution electron microscopy at low temperatures further reveals an unexpected additional modulation of the crystal structure of the superconducting phase that involves displacements of the Fe atoms, and that the nonsuperconducting composition shows a different, complex nanometer-scale structural modulation. Finally, we show that magnetism is not the driving force for the phase transition in the superconducting phase.

  17. Bionic Design, Materials and Performance of Bone Tissue Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Design, materials, and performance are important factors in the research of bone tissue scaffolds. This work briefly describes the bone scaffolds and their anatomic structure, as well as their biological and mechanical characteristics. Furthermore, we reviewed the characteristics of metal materials, inorganic materials, organic polymer materials, and composite materials. The importance of the bionic design in preoperative diagnosis models and customized bone scaffolds was also discussed, addressing both the bionic structure design (macro and micro structure and the bionic performance design (mechanical performance and biological performance. Materials and performance are the two main problems in the development of customized bone scaffolds. Bionic design is an effective way to solve these problems, which could improve the clinical application of bone scaffolds, by creating a balance between mechanical performance and biological performance.

  18. Bionic Design, Materials and Performance of Bone Tissue Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tong; Yu, Suihuai; Chen, Dengkai; Wang, Yanen

    2017-10-17

    Design, materials, and performance are important factors in the research of bone tissue scaffolds. This work briefly describes the bone scaffolds and their anatomic structure, as well as their biological and mechanical characteristics. Furthermore, we reviewed the characteristics of metal materials, inorganic materials, organic polymer materials, and composite materials. The importance of the bionic design in preoperative diagnosis models and customized bone scaffolds was also discussed, addressing both the bionic structure design (macro and micro structure) and the bionic performance design (mechanical performance and biological performance). Materials and performance are the two main problems in the development of customized bone scaffolds. Bionic design is an effective way to solve these problems, which could improve the clinical application of bone scaffolds, by creating a balance between mechanical performance and biological performance.

  19. Recent Progress in Bionic Condensate Microdrop Self-Propelling Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaojing; Gao, Xuefeng; Jiang, Lei

    2017-08-28

    Bionic condensate microdrop self-propelling (CMDSP) surfaces are attracting increased attention as novel, low-adhesivity superhydrophobic surfaces due to their value in fundamental research and technological innovation, e.g., for enhancing heat transfer, energy-effective antifreezing, and electrostatic energy harvesting. Here, the focus is on recent progress in bionic CMDSP surfaces. Metal-based CMDSP surfaces, which are the most promising in their respective fields, are highlighted for use in future applications. The selected topics are divided into four sections: biological prototypes, mechanism and construction rules, fabrication, and applications of metal-based CMDSP surfaces. Finally, the challenges and future development trends in bionic CMDSP surfaces are envisioned, especially the utilization of potential bionic inspiration in the design of more advanced CMDSP surfaces. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Superhydrophobic bionic surfaces with hierarchical microsphere/SWCNT composite arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Huang, Xing Jiu; Heo, Sung Hwan; Li, Cun Cheng; Choi, Yang Kyu; Cai, Wei Ping; Cho, Sung Oh

    2007-02-13

    Superhydrophobic bionic surfaces with hierarchical micro/nano structures were synthesized by decorating single-walled or multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on monolayer polystyrene colloidal crystals using a wet chemical self-assembly technique and subsequent surface treatment with a low surface-energy material of fluoroalkylsilane. The bionic surfaces are based on the regularly ordered colloidal crystals, and thus the surfaces have a uniform superhydrophobic property on the whole surface. Moreover, the wettability of the bionic surface can be well controlled by changing the distribution density of CNTs or the size of polystyrene microspheres. The morphologies of the synthesized bionic surfaces bear much resemblance to natural lotus leaves, and the wettability exhibited remarkable superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of about 165 degrees and a sliding angle of 5 degrees.

  1. 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase is phosphorylated and activated by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus Antonio Juel; Buch, M B; Krag, T O

    1999-01-01

    90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase-2 (RSK2) belongs to a family of growth factor-activated serine/threonine kinases composed of two kinase domains connected by a regulatory linker region. The N-terminal kinase of RSK2 is involved in substrate phosphorylation. Its activation requires phosphorylation of th...... of Ser(227), Ser(369), and Ser(386). Our study extend recent findings which implicate PDK1 in the activation of protein kinases B and C and p70(S6K), suggesting that PDK1 controls several major growth factor-activated signal transduction pathways.......90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase-2 (RSK2) belongs to a family of growth factor-activated serine/threonine kinases composed of two kinase domains connected by a regulatory linker region. The N-terminal kinase of RSK2 is involved in substrate phosphorylation. Its activation requires phosphorylation...... involvement of ERK, leading to partial activation of RSK2. Similarly, two other members of the RSK family, RSK1 and RSK3, were partially activated by PDK1 in COS7 cells. Finally, our data indicate that full activation of RSK2 by growth factor requires the cooperation of ERK and PDK1 through phosphorylation...

  2. Bionics in Engineering Education Considerations, Experiences and Conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Neurohr

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During recent years bionics, a new discipline which is in charge with the transfer of the principles of construction, regulation, interaction and organisation of biology into innovative technical solutions, has attracted significant interest from various industries. Based on this request for bionic expertise in engineering, the faculty for teaching engineering in foreign languages (FILS at ‘Politehnica’ University of Bucharest started a course in bionics in SS 2007, which was supported by the expertise of the German ‘Bionik-Kompetenz-Netz’, one of the leading organizations in bionics. This is the report on the considerations involved in the course concept, the first experiences with the students' acceptance, some conclusions and future perspectives for extending bionics activities at ‘Politehnica’. Finally, within the last section, the evaluation of a questionnaire, filled in by the students at the end of the course, will be presented. In order to avoid any confusion, considering overlapping or mixing up with other bio-disciplines related to technology, the paper starts with a short introduction, explaining the principles of bionics and providing a clear definition of the field.

  3. Bionic Research on Bird Feather for Drag Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Feng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To reduce friction drag with bionic method in a more feasible way, the surface microstructure of bird feather was analyzed attempting to reveal the biologic features responding to skin friction drag reduction. Then comparative bionic surface mimicking bird feather was fabricated through hot-rolling technology for drag reduction. The microriblet film was formed on a PVC substrate through a self-developed hot-rolling equipment. The bionic surface with micron-scale riblets formed spontaneously due to the elastic-plastic deformation of PVC in high temperature and high pressure environment. Comparative experiments between micro-structured bionic surface and smooth surface were performed in a wind tunnel to evaluate the effect of bionic surface on drag reduction, and significant drag reduction efficiency was obtained. Numerical simulation results show that microvortex induced in the solid-gas interface of bionic surface has the effect of shear stress reduction and the small level of an additional pressure drag resulting from pressure distribution deviation on bird feather like surface, hence reducing the skin friction drag significantly. Therefore, with remarkable drag reduction performance and simple fabrication technology, the proposed drag reduction technique shows the promise for practical applications.

  4. Evaluation of Advanced Bionics high resolution mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechner, Andreas; Frohne-Buechner, Carolin; Gaertner, Lutz; Lesinski-Schiedat, Anke; Battmer, Rolf-Dieter; Lenarz, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the advantages of the Advanced Bionic high resolution mode for speech perception, through a retrospective analysis. Forty-five adult subjects were selected who had a minimum experience of three months' standard mode (mean of 10 months) before switching to high resolution mode. Speech perception was tested in standard mode immediately before fitting with high resolution mode, and again after a maximum of six months high resolution mode usage (mean of two months). A significant improvement was found, between 11 and 17%, depending on the test material. The standard mode preference does not give any indication about the improvement when switching to high resolution. Users who are converted within any study achieve a higher performance improvement than those converted in the clinical routine. This analysis proves the significant benefits of high resolution mode for users, and also indicates the need for guidelines for individual optimization of parameter settings in a high resolution mode program.

  5. Bionic models for new sustainable energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner Inst., Dept. Solare Energetik, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Within the boundary conditions of an abundant, but diluted solar energy supply nature has successfully evolved sophisticated regenerative energy technologies, which are not yet familiar to human engineering tradition. Since until the middle of this century a substantial contribution of renewable energy to global energy consumption is required in order to limit environmental deterioration, bionic technologies may contribute to the development of commercially affordable technical options. Four biological energy technologies have been selected as examples to discuss the challenges, both in scientific and technological terms, as well as the material research aspects involved: photovoltaics based on irreversible kinetics, tensile water technology, solar powered protonic energy circuits, fuel cell catalysis based on abundant transition metals. (orig.)

  6. On just noticeable difference for bionic eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; McCarthy, Chris; Barnes, Nick

    2012-01-01

    We propose to use Just Noticeable Difference (JND) as the principle in visualizing results for image processing modules for prosthetic vision. Current Bionic Eye hardware implants have limited levels of separately perceivable brightness (i.e., low dynamic range in visualizing images). Therefore, it is important to ensure that the critical contrast must remain perceivable by maintaining of visual differences in downsampled images with reduced dynamic range. JND provides a mathematical framework for these psychophysics events. An increase by 1 in JND space corresponds to the smallest detectable change in visual space (i.e., just noticeable). Combining this principle and the dynamic range constraint, we cast the visualization problem to a linear optimization problem, which enables us to generate optimal visualization images. We demonstrate the usefulness of this principle on visualizing ground-plane segmentation. Experiments show that the proposed principle effectively provides critical visual information at different dynamic ranges, and generates consistent results for image sequences.

  7. The Bionic Clicker Mark I & II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Elliott G; Ourselin, S; Nikitichev, Daniil; Vercauteren, T; Vanhoestenberghe, Anne

    2017-08-14

    In this manuscript, we present two 'Bionic Clicker' systems, the first designed to demonstrate electromyography (EMG) based control systems for educational purposes and the second for research purposes. EMG based control systems pick up electrical signals generated by muscle activation and use these as inputs for controllers. EMG controllers are widely used in prosthetics to control limbs. The Mark I (MK I) clicker allows the wearer to change the slide of a presentation by raising their index finger. It is built around a microcontroller and a bio-signals shield. It generated a lot of interest from both the public and research community. The Mark II (MK II) device presented here was designed to be a cheaper, sleeker, and more customizable system that can be easily modified and directly transmit EMG data. It is built using a wireless capable microcontroller and a muscle sensor.

  8. A High-Density Consensus Map of Common Wheat Integrating Four Mapping Populations Scanned by the 90K SNP Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Weie; He, Zhonghu; Gao, Fengmei; Liu, Jindong; Jin, Hui; Zhai, Shengnan; Qu, Yanying; Xia, Xianchun

    2017-01-01

    A high-density consensus map is a powerful tool for gene mapping, cloning and molecular marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding. The objective of this study was to construct a high-density, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based consensus map of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by integrating genetic maps from four recombinant inbred line populations. The populations were each genotyped using the wheat 90K Infinium iSelect SNP assay. A total of 29,692 SNP markers were mapped on 21 linkage groups corresponding to 21 hexaploid wheat chromosomes, covering 2,906.86 cM, with an overall marker density of 10.21 markers/cM. Compared with the previous maps based on the wheat 90K SNP chip detected 22,736 (76.6%) of the SNPs with consistent chromosomal locations, whereas 1,974 (6.7%) showed different chromosomal locations, and 4,982 (16.8%) were newly mapped. Alignment of the present consensus map and the wheat expressed sequence tags (ESTs) Chromosome Bin Map enabled assignment of 1,221 SNP markers to specific chromosome bins and 819 ESTs were integrated into the consensus map. The marker orders of the consensus map were validated based on physical positions on the wheat genome with Spearman rank correlation coefficients ranging from 0.69 (4D) to 0.97 (1A, 4B, 5B, and 6A), and were also confirmed by comparison with genetic position on the previously 40K SNP consensus map with Spearman rank correlation coefficients ranging from 0.84 (6D) to 0.99 (6A). Chromosomal rearrangements reported previously were confirmed in the present consensus map and new putative rearrangements were identified. In addition, an integrated consensus map was developed through the combination of five published maps with ours, containing 52,607 molecular markers. The consensus map described here provided a high-density SNP marker map and a reliable order of SNPs, representing a step forward in mapping and validation of chromosomal locations of SNPs on the wheat 90K array. Moreover, it can be

  9. Bionic Design for Column of Gantry Machining Center to Improve the Static and Dynamic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the machining accuracy of a gantry machining center, structural bionic design for column was conducted. Firstly, the bionic design method for stiffener plate structure was established based on distribution principles of gingko root system. The bionic design method was used to improve column structure of the gantry machining center, and three kinds of bionic columns were put forward. The finite element analysis on original and bionic columns indicates that the mass of the column with the best bionic stiffener plate structure is reduced by 2.74% and the first five order natural frequencies are increased by 6.62% on average. The correctness of column's bionic design method proposed in this paper was verified by the static and dynamic experiments. Finally, the bionic principles for stiffener plate of column were concluded, which provides a new idea for updating traditional design concepts and achieving lightweight structure of machine tool components.

  10. Phase A: calibration concepts for HIRES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huke, Philipp; Origlia, Livia; Riva, Marco; Charsley, Jake; McCracken, Richard; Reid, Derryck; Kowzan, Grzegorz; Maslowski, Piotr; Disseau, Karen; Schäfer, Sebastian; Broeg, Christopher; Sarajlic, Mirsad; Dolon, François; Korhonen, Heidi; Reiners, Ansgar; Boisse, Isabelle; Perruchot, Sandrine; Ottogalli, Sebastien; Pepe, Francesco; Oliva, Ernesto

    2017-06-01

    The instrumentation plan for the E-ELT foresees a High Resolution Spectrograph (HIRES). Among its main goals are the detection of atmospheres of exoplanets and the determination of fundamental physical constants. For this, high radial velocity precision and accuracy are required. HIRES will be designed for maximum intrinsic stability. Systematic errors from effects like intrapixel variations or random errors like fiber noise need to be calibrated. Based on the main requirements for the calibration of HIRES, we discuss different potential calibration sources and how they can be applied. We outline the frequency calibration concept for HIRES using these sources.

  11. Development of a 90kW, Two-Phase, Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter for Power Dense Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urciuoli, Damian; Tipton, C. W; Porschet, Donald

    2004-01-01

    ...) for hybrid electric vehicle applications are presented. The converter was initially designed for sustained operation at 90kW, providing power flow in either direction between the low-voltage vehicle battery pack (nominal 320V...

  12. Association of urinary 90 kDa angiotensin- converting enzyme with family history of hypertension and endothelial function in normotensive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A M S; Plavnik, F L; Fernandes, F B; Marson, O; Christofalo, D M J; Ajzen, S A; Sesso, R; Franco, M C; Casarini, D E

    2008-05-01

    We described angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) isoforms with molecular masses of 190, 90, and 65 kDa in the urine of normotensive offspring of hypertensive subjects. Since they did not appear in equal amounts, we suggested that 90 kDa ACE might be a marker for hypertension. We evaluated the endothelial response in normotensive offspring with or without family history of hypertension and its association with the 90 kDa ACE in urine. Thirty-five normotensive subjects with a known family history of hypertension and 20 subjects without a family history of hypertension, matched for age, sex, body weight, and blood pressure, were included in the study. Endothelial function was assessed by ultrasound and a sample of urine was collected for determination of ACE isoforms. In the presence of a family history of hypertension and detection of 90 kDa ACE, we noted a maximal flow mediated dilation of 12.1 +/- 5.0 vs 16.1 +/- 6.0% in those without a previous history of hypertension and lacking urinary 90 kDa ACE (P < 0.05). In subjects with a family history of hypertension and presenting 90 kDa ACE, there were lower levels of HDL-cholesterol (P < 0.05) and higher levels of triglycerides (P < 0.05). Subjects with 90 kDa ACE irrespective of hypertensive history presented a trend for higher levels of triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol (P = 0.06) compared to subjects without 90 kDa ACE. Our data suggest that the 90 kDa ACE may be a marker for hypertension which may be related to the development of early atherosclerotic changes.

  13. Association of urinary 90 kDa angiotensin- converting enzyme with family history of hypertension and endothelial function in normotensive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.S. Teixeira

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We described angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE isoforms with molecular masses of 190, 90, and 65 kDa in the urine of normotensive offspring of hypertensive subjects. Since they did not appear in equal amounts, we suggested that 90 kDa ACE might be a marker for hypertension. We evaluated the endothelial response in normotensive offspring with or without family history of hypertension and its association with the 90 kDa ACE in urine. Thirty-five normotensive subjects with a known family history of hypertension and 20 subjects without a family history of hypertension, matched for age, sex, body weight, and blood pressure, were included in the study. Endothelial function was assessed by ultrasound and a sample of urine was collected for determination of ACE isoforms. In the presence of a family history of hypertension and detection of 90 kDa ACE, we noted a maximal flow mediated dilation of 12.1 ± 5.0 vs 16.1 ± 6.0% in those without a previous history of hypertension and lacking urinary 90 kDa ACE (P < 0.05. In subjects with a family history of hypertension and presenting 90 kDa ACE, there were lower levels of HDL-cholesterol (P < 0.05 and higher levels of triglycerides (P < 0.05. Subjects with 90 kDa ACE irrespective of hypertensive history presented a trend for higher levels of triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol (P = 0.06 compared to subjects without 90 kDa ACE. Our data suggest that the 90 kDa ACE may be a marker for hypertension which may be related to the development of early atherosclerotic changes.

  14. Work for Hire for Nonacademic Creators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, TyAnna K.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the Work for Hire Doctrine and its importance to technical communication instructors who prepare students to create intellectual products in workplace settings. Explains how the Doctrine operates in practice, charts the progressive legal treatment of work for hire through case law, and notes the developing trend in the courts to support a…

  15. Do Hiring Practices Affect Retention Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Karin S.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the influence of rotational training and direct hire programs on attrition. Survey of graduates (N=311) reveals that there was no significant difference in the respondents' length of stay with their employers, regardless of the organizations' hiring practices. Voluntary departure from employment was attributable more often to young adult…

  16. A bionic eye actuated by ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) artificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Li, Yuxiu; He, Qingsong; Song, Linlin; Dai, Zhendong

    2011-04-01

    This research was conducted with the aim of developing an energy-efficient, noiseless, movable bionic eye for use in bionic toys. This novel bionic eye is actuated by an ionic polymer-metal composite actuator. The overall size of the eye was 39 mm in length, 45 mm in width, and 45 mm in thickness. The experimental results revealed such a bionic eye design is feasible. This type of bionic eye is appropriate for use in toys and robots to increase their visual impact.

  17. EDITORIAL: Special issue on medical bionics Special issue on medical bionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Robert K.; D, Ph

    2009-12-01

    This special section of the Journal of Neural Engineering contains eight invited papers presented as part of the inaugural conference `Medical Bionics: A New Paradigm for Human Health' held in the beautiful seaside village of Lorne, Victoria, Australia from 16-19 November 2008. This meeting formed part of the Sir Mark Oliphant International Conference Series (www.oliphant.org.au) and was generously supported by the Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research of the Australian Government, the Australian Academy of Science and the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering. This meeting was designed to bring experts from a variety of scientific, engineering and clinical disciplines together in a unique environment to discuss current progress in the field of medical bionics and to develop the concepts and techniques required to build the next generation of devices. The field is rapidly expanding, with new engineering solutions for neurological disorders being developed at an astonishing rate. Successful application of emerging engineering technologies into medical bionics devices requires a multidisciplinary research environment in order to deliver clinical solutions that are both safe and effective. Clinical success stories to date include spinal cord stimulators for the management of chronic neurological pain; auditory prostheses that allow the profoundly deaf to hear; and deep brain stimulation to negate movement disorders in Parkinson's disease. Other research programs currently undergoing clinical trials include devices that allow paraplegics to stand and even walk; brain-machine interfaces that provide quadriplegic patients with rudimentary control of a computer but may ultimately provide control of wheel chairs and artificial limbs; devices that detect and suppress epileptic seizures using brief trains of electrical stimulation; and retinal prostheses that will provide vision to the blind. The future for medical bionics is indeed

  18. Fermentation based carbon nanotube multifunctional bionic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-06-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Here we produced living hybrid materials by giving to unicellular organisms the nutrient to grow. Based on bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the CNTs were internalized by the cell after fermentation bridging the cells. Tensile tests on dried composite films have been rationalized in terms of a CNT cell bridging mechanism where the strongly enhanced strength of the composite is governed by the adhesion energy between the bridging carbon nanotubes and the matrix. The addition of CNTs also significantly improved the electrical conductivity along with a higher photoconductive activity. The proposed process could lead to the development of more complex and interactive structures programmed to self-assemble into specific patterns, such as those on strain or light sensors that could sense damage or convert light stimulus in an electrical signal.

  19. Adsorption isotherms and heats of adsorption of neon and hydrogen on zeolite and charcoal between 20 and 90 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamk, R.; Yamk, U.; Heiden, C.; Daunt, J. G.

    1981-12-01

    Measurements have been made of the adsorption isotherms of neon and hydrogen on Linde synthetic zeolite type 13X and on Fisher activated coconut charcoal in the temperature ranges 20 37 and 77 90 K. In the lower temperature range, below the critical points of each adsorbate, it was found that the adsorption isotherms, when plotted giving the volume V, of gas adsorbed in cm3 (STP) per gram of adsorbent as a function of the parameter ( p/p 0)T/100, yielded a unique isotherm curve independent of temperature for each adsorbate-adsorbent system ( p 0 is the saturated vapor pressure at each temperature of measurement). This result is what would be expected from potential theory, as emphasized by Chester et al. in 1974. It was found, moreover, for neon on both charcoal and zeolite 13X that the unique temperature-independent curve for each system was the same for adsorption data taken below the triple point Ttr of bulk neon as for data taken above Ttr. From the data, the isosteric heats of adsorption Qst were calculated at various temperatures and coverages and these showed a marked dependence on coverage, Qst decreasing rapidly with increasing coverage.

  20. Rearrangement of van der Waals stacking and formation of a singlet state at T = 90 K in a cluster magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheckelton, John P.; Plumb, Kemp W.; Trump, Benjamin A.; Broholm, Collin L.; McQueen, Tyrel M.

    2017-01-01

    Insulating Nb3Cl8 is a layered chloride consisting of two-dimensional triangular layers of Seff = 1/2 Nb3Cl13 clusters at room temperature. Magnetic susceptibility measurement show a sharp, hysteretic drop to a temperature independent value below T = 90 K. Specific heat measurements show that the transition is first order, with ΔS ≈ 5 J K-1 mol-1 f.u.-1, and a low temperature T-linear contribution originating from defect spins. Neutron and X-ray diffraction show a lowering of symmetry from trigonal P[3 with combining macron]m1 to monoclinic C2/m symmetry, with a change in layer stacking from –AB–AB– to –AB'–BC'–CA'– and no observed magnetic order. This lowering of symmetry and rearrangement of successive layers evades geometric magnetic frustration to form a singlet ground state. It is the lowest temperature at which a change in stacking sequence is known to occur in a van der Waals solid, occurs in the absence of orbital degeneracies, and suggests that designer 2-D heterostructures may be able to undergo similar phase transitions.

  1. Crashworthiness Design for Bionic Bumper Structures Inspired by Cattail and Bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many materials in nature exhibit excellent mechanical properties. In this study, we evaluated the bionic bumper structure models by using nonlinear finite element (FE simulations for their crashworthiness under full-size impact loading. The structure contained the structural characteristics of cattail and bamboo. The results indicated that the bionic design enhances the specific energy absorption (SEA of the bumper. The numerical results showed that the bionic cross-beam and bionic box of the bionic bumper have a significant effect on the crashworthiness of the structure. The crush deformation of bionic cross-beam and box bumper model was reduced by 33.33%, and the total weight was reduced by 44.44%. As the energy absorption capacity under lateral impact, the bionic design can be used in the future bumper body.

  2. [Theory and practice of bionic cultivation of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dahui; Huang, Luqi; Guo, Lanping; Shao, Aijuan; Chen, Meilan

    2009-03-01

    The bionic cultivation of medicinal plant is an ecological cultivation pattern, which is adopting ecological engineering and modern agricultural techniques to simulate the natural ecosystem of wild medicinal plant community, and has been given greater attention on the agriculture of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It is also the cross subject that combines Chinese traditional medicine, agronomy, horticulture, ecology, agricultural engineering and management. Moreover, it has significant technology advantages of promoting the sustainable utilization of medicinal plant resources, improving the ecological environment and harmonizing man and nature. So it's important to develop the bionic cultivation of TCM.

  3. Increased 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (Rsk activity is protective against mutant huntingtin toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rué Laura

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (Rsk family is involved in cell survival. Rsk activation is regulated by sequential phosphorylations controlled by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2 and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1. Altered ERK1/2 and PDK1 phosphorylation have been described in Huntington's disease (HD, characterized by the expression of mutant huntingtin (mhtt and striatal degeneration. However, the role of Rsk in this neurodegenerative disease remains unknown. Here, we analyzed the protein levels, activity and role of Rsk in in vivo and in vitro HD models. Results We observed increased protein levels of Rsk1 and Rsk2 in the striatum of HdhQ111/Q111 and R6/1 mice, STHdhQ111/Q111 cells and striatal cells transfected with full-length mhtt. Analysis of the phosphorylation of Rsk in Hdh mice and STHdh cells showed reduced levels of phospho Ser-380 (dependent on ERK1/2, whereas phosphorylation at Ser-221 (dependent on PDK1 was increased. Moreover, we found that elevated Rsk activity in STHdhQ111/Q111 cells was mainly due to PDK1 activity, as assessed by transfection with Rsk mutant constructs. The increase of Rsk in STHdhQ111/Q111 cells occurred in the cytosol and in the nucleus, which results in enhanced phosphorylation of both cytosolic and nuclear Rsk targets. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of Rsk, knock-down and overexpression experiments indicated that Rsk activity exerts a protective effect against mhtt-induced cell death in STHdhQ7/Q7 cells transfected with mhtt. Conclusion The increase of Rsk levels and activity would act as a compensatory mechanism with capacity to prevent mhtt-mediated cell death. We propose Rsk as a good target for neuroprotective therapies in HD.

  4. For-hire cost/ earnings survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nearly 1.6 million passengers fished aboard for-hire recreational fishing vessels during 2011 in the Northeast United States (ME - NC). While the National Marine...

  5. The Hi-Ring DCN Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Kamchevska, Valerija; Ding, Yunhong

    2016-01-01

    We will review recent work on the proposed hierarchical ring-based architecture (HiRing) proposed for data center networks. We will discuss the architecture and initial demonstrations of optical switching performance and time-domain synchronization......We will review recent work on the proposed hierarchical ring-based architecture (HiRing) proposed for data center networks. We will discuss the architecture and initial demonstrations of optical switching performance and time-domain synchronization...

  6. Design and Testing of a Bionic Dancing Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Elliott J; Villagaray-Carski, Nathan C; Emerson, Robert W; Herr, Hugh M

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, prosthetic leg research has focused on improving mobility for activities of daily living. Artistic expression such as dance, however, is not a common research topic and consequently prosthetic technology for dance has been severely limited for the disabled. This work focuses on investigating the ankle joint kinetics and kinematics during a Latin-American dance to provide unique motor options for disabled individuals beyond those of daily living. The objective of this study was to develop a control system for a bionic ankle prosthesis that outperforms conventional prostheses when dancing the rumba. The biomechanics of the ankle joint of a non-amputee, professional dancer were acquired for the development of the bionic control system. Subsequently, a professional dancer who received a traumatic transtibial amputation in April 2013 tested the bionic dance prosthesis and a conventional, passive prosthesis for comparison. The ability to provide similar torque-angle behavior of the biological ankle was assessed to quantify the biological realism of the prostheses. The bionic dancing prosthesis overlapped with 37 ± 6% of the non-amputee ankle torque and ankle angle data, compared to 26 ± 2% for the conventional, passive prosthesis, a statistically greater overlap (p = 0.01). This study lays the foundation for quantifying unique, expressive activity modes currently unavailable to individuals with disabilities. Future work will focus on an expansion of the methods and types of dance investigated in this work.

  7. Design and Testing of a Bionic Dancing Prosthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott J Rouse

    Full Text Available Traditionally, prosthetic leg research has focused on improving mobility for activities of daily living. Artistic expression such as dance, however, is not a common research topic and consequently prosthetic technology for dance has been severely limited for the disabled. This work focuses on investigating the ankle joint kinetics and kinematics during a Latin-American dance to provide unique motor options for disabled individuals beyond those of daily living. The objective of this study was to develop a control system for a bionic ankle prosthesis that outperforms conventional prostheses when dancing the rumba. The biomechanics of the ankle joint of a non-amputee, professional dancer were acquired for the development of the bionic control system. Subsequently, a professional dancer who received a traumatic transtibial amputation in April 2013 tested the bionic dance prosthesis and a conventional, passive prosthesis for comparison. The ability to provide similar torque-angle behavior of the biological ankle was assessed to quantify the biological realism of the prostheses. The bionic dancing prosthesis overlapped with 37 ± 6% of the non-amputee ankle torque and ankle angle data, compared to 26 ± 2% for the conventional, passive prosthesis, a statistically greater overlap (p = 0.01. This study lays the foundation for quantifying unique, expressive activity modes currently unavailable to individuals with disabilities. Future work will focus on an expansion of the methods and types of dance investigated in this work.

  8. [The white coat as a cape: doctors, superheroes and bionics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelberts, Connie E; Mevius, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    To study the relationship between doctors and comic books, cartoons, superheroes and bionic prosthetic organs. Descriptive survey. For this study, 341 doctors and medical students filled in a digital survey in the autumn of 2013. The questionnaire contained questions about comic books and cartoons, their superheroes, prosthetic organs and about bionic and non-bionic super powers. As a child more than half of the participants read comic books regularly or often, and most watched cartoons regularly or often. Now their childhood interest in this subject has mostly been lost. In their youth, Suske & Wiske were the favourite, and now it is Donald Duck. The number of doctors with a favourite superhero decreased as aged increased from 52% to 37%. The care givers entertain lively fantasies about having bionic superpowers. According to the participants, the idea doctor would have ultrasonic eyes and all sorts of other super senses. Ninety-one per cent thought that 'the development of prosthetic organs is not a waste of money'. If Batman and Superman come to blows, Catwoman wins.

  9. BIOCONAID System (Bionic Control of Acceleration Induced Dimming). Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Dana B.; And Others

    The system described represents a new technique for enhancing the fidelity of flight simulators during high acceleration maneuvers. This technique forces the simulator pilot into active participation and energy expenditure similar to the aircraft pilot undergoing actual accelerations. The Bionic Control of Acceleration Induced Dimming (BIOCONAID)…

  10. Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics is co-established by CAS, the provincial government of Jiangsu, and the municipal government of Suzhou, a time-honored urban center and picturesque tourist resort in the Yangtze delta.

  11. Bionic Manufacturing: Towards Cyborg Cells and Sentient Microbots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sarvesh Kumar; Yadav, Vikramaditya G

    2017-12-07

    Bio-inspired engineering applies biological design principles towards developing engineering solutions but is not practical as a manufacturing paradigm. We advocate 'bionic manufacturing', a synergistic fusion of biotic and abiotic components, to transition away from bio-inspiration toward bio-augmentation to address current limitations in bio-inspired manufacturing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural Bionic Design for Digging Shovel of Cassava Harvester Considering Soil Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the working performance of cassava harvester, structural bionic design for its digging shovel was conducted. Taking the oriental mole cricket's paws as bionic prototype, a new structural bionic design method for digging shovel was established, which considers the morphology-configuration-function coupling bionic. A comprehensive performance comparison method was proposed, which is used to select the bionic design schemes. The proposed bionic design method was used to improve digging shovel structure of a digging-pulling style cassava harvester, and nine bionic-type digging shovels were obtained with considering the impact of soil mechanics. After conducting mechanical properties comparative analysis for bionic-type digging shovels, the bionic design rules were summed up, and the optimal design scheme of digging shovel was obtained through combining the proposed comprehensive performance comparison method with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Studies have shown that bionic design method not only can improve the overall mechanical properties of digging shovel, but also can help to improve the harvesting effect of cassava harvester, which provides a new idea for crops harvesting machinery's structural optimization design.

  13. Optimization of programming parameters in children with the advanced bionics cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudhuin, Jacquelyn; Cadieux, Jamie; Firszt, Jill B; Reeder, Ruth M; Maxson, Jerrica L

    2012-05-01

    Cochlear implants provide access to soft intensity sounds and therefore improved audibility for children with severe-to-profound hearing loss. Speech processor programming parameters, such as threshold (or T-level), input dynamic range (IDR), and microphone sensitivity, contribute to the recipient's program and influence audibility. When soundfield thresholds obtained through the speech processor are elevated, programming parameters can be modified to improve soft sound detection. Adult recipients show improved detection for low-level sounds when T-levels are set at raised levels and show better speech understanding in quiet when wider IDRs are used. Little is known about the effects of parameter settings on detection and speech recognition in children using today's cochlear implant technology. The overall study aim was to assess optimal T-level, IDR, and sensitivity settings in pediatric recipients of the Advanced Bionics cochlear implant. Two experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 examined the effects of two T-level settings on soundfield thresholds and detection of the Ling 6 sounds. One program set T-levels at 10% of most comfortable levels (M-levels) and another at 10 current units (CUs) below the level judged as "soft." Experiment 2 examined the effects of IDR and sensitivity settings on speech recognition in quiet and noise. Participants were 11 children 7-17 yr of age (mean 11.3) implanted with the Advanced Bionics High Resolution 90K or CII cochlear implant system who had speech recognition scores of 20% or greater on a monosyllabic word test. Two T-level programs were compared for detection of the Ling sounds and frequency modulated (FM) tones. Differing IDR/sensitivity programs (50/0, 50/10, 70/0, 70/10) were compared using Ling and FM tone detection thresholds, CNC (consonant-vowel nucleus-consonant) words at 50 dB SPL, and Hearing in Noise Test for Children (HINT-C) sentences at 65 dB SPL in the presence of four-talker babble (+8 signal

  14. The Productivity Costs of Inefficient Hiring Practices: Evidence from Late Teacher Hiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papay, John P.; Kraft, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    We use matched employee-employer records from the teacher labor market to explore the effects of late teacher hiring on student achievement. Hiring teachers after the school year starts reduces student achievement by 0.042 SD in mathematics and 0.026 SD in reading. This reflects, in part, a temporary disruption effect in the first year. In…

  15. Analysis of North American Newspaper Coverage of Bionics Using the Disability Studies Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Sonum Panesar; Gregor Wolbring

    2014-01-01

    Bionics are a set of technology products that are constantly evolving. Bionics are proposed as body add-ons or replacement for many body parts (ears, eyes, knees, neural prostheses, joints, muscles, kidney, liver, cartilage lungs, discs, pancreas, dental pulp, skin, hippocampus, legs and hands), and functions such as speech. Two main applications of bionic products are discussed; one being for the restoration of body abilities to a species-typical norm and the other being the addition of abi...

  16. From Hearing Aids, Prostheses and Cochlear Implants to "Bionic" Feedback Phonation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petros Stagiopoulos; Dionysios Politis; Georgios Kyriafinis; Miltiadis Tsalighopoulos

    2016-01-01

    .... For aural and oral communication these could be hearing aids, prosthetics, implants or radio-electronic appliances that build up a bionic environment with apparent tendencies for virtualization...

  17. Optimizing the perception of soft speech and speech in noise with the Advanced Bionics cochlear implant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Laura K; Reeder, Ruth M; Firszt, Jill B; Finley, Charles C

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to provide guidelines to optimize perception of soft speech and speech in noise for Advanced Bionics cochlear implant (CI) users. Three programs differing in T-levels were created for ten subjects. Using the T-level setting that provided the lowest FM-tone, sound-field threshold levels for each subject, three additional programs were created with input dynamic range (IDR) settings of 50, 65 and 80 dB. Subjects were postlinguistically deaf adults implanted with either the Clarion CII or 90K CI devices. Sound-field threshold levels were lowest with T-levels set higher than 10% of M-levels and with the two widest IDRs. Group data revealed significantly higher scores for CNC words presented at a soft level with an IDR of 80 dB and 65 dB compared to 50 dB. Although no significant group differences were seen between the three IDRs for sentences in noise, significant individual differences were present. Setting Ts higher than the manufacturer's recommendation of 10% of M-levels and providing IDR options can improve overall speech perception; however, for some users, higher Ts and wider IDRs may not be appropriate. Based on the results of the study, clinical programming recommendations are provided.

  18. On Hiring Library Staff in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sutherland

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been a great deal said in the literature about what would be librarians can do to find a job; less has been said about what would be employers can do if they are having problems recruiting. This article gives some ideas about things that libraries, especially those in rural areas, can do to help them find the employees they need. There are many possibilities discussed, including helping spouses of new hires get jobs in the community, hiring from out of region or country, hiring older workers or new grads, reconsidering what competencies are core for the position and what tasks should be in the job description. The world has changed for job seekers, who must now show that they are more than competent to be competitive, and perhaps it needs to change for employers too. If you don’t think the job you are posting is a great opportunity, then potential applicants likely won’t either.

  19. Who hires physics bachelor's degree recipients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan C.

    2015-04-01

    As we saw last month, over 40% of the students who recently earned bachelor's degrees in physics enter the job market. There are employment opportunities for these graduates in all areas of the economy. When we contact graduates, we ask them where they are working, and we use their responses to compile a list of employers in each state who have recently hired a physics bachelor's degree recipient. We also produce a separate list of firms that have hired three or more physics bachelor's. These lists can be useful tools for students who want to know more about where one can find a job with a bachelor's degree in physics. The lists are available at www.aip.org/whos-hiring-physics-bachelors.

  20. Best Practices in Hiring: Addressing Unconscious Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Caroline E.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that implementing certain hiring practices will increase diversity in the workplace while enhancing academic quality. All of these practices rely on addressing the issue of 'unconscious bias.' A brief overview of unconscious bias--what it is, how it works, and simple measures to counter it--will be presented. Successful strategies, actions, and recommendations for implementing best recruiting and hiring practices, which have been proven to enhance academic excellence by ensuring a deep and diverse applicant pool, will also be presented.

  1. Application of Bionic Design to FRP T-Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Guang-Min; Kuo, Chia-Hung

    2017-09-01

    We applied the concepts of bionics to enhance the mechanical strength of fiberglass reinforced plastic T-joints. The failure modes of the designed arthrosis-like and gum-like joints were determined using three-point bending tests and numerical simulations and compared with those of normal T-joints bonded using structural adhesives. In the simulation, we used cohesive elements to simulate the adhesive interface of the structural adhesive. The experimental and simulation results show that the arthrosis-like joint can effectively delay the failure progress and enhance the bonding strength of T-joints, thus confirming that an appropriate bionic design can effectively control the bonding properties of structural adhesives.

  2. Kinematic Structures Description of Bionic Hand Based on VF Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiancan; Bai, Pengying; Luo, Min; Gao, Meng; Zhan, Qiang

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a method for describing kinematic structure of bionic hand based on VF (virtual finger) set. At first, a 20 DOFs (degrees of freedom) human hand kinematic model is built, which is expressed by five fingers’ kinematic chains consisting of kinematic pairs and symbols that represent geometric relationships of kinematic pairs’ axes. Based on the concept of VF, the hand fingers are divided into two types: VFAA having adduction/abduction motion and VFFE having flexion/extension motion. The concept of VF set comprising VFAAs and VFFEs is defined, human hand and six basic grasp postures are described by VF set. Then, the structures corresponding VFAA and VFFE are given according to active and passive forms of finger joints, and VFFE Structure-Base comprising 20 conventional structures is built. Based on VF set and the structures of VFAA and VFFE, VF sets and kinematic structures of several classic bionic hands are given.

  3. Penalaran Ilmiah dalam Ciptaan-Ciptaan Bionik (Bionic Inventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Hidayat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini membahas tentang penalaran ilmiah dalam hasil ciptaan Bionik. Proses penalaran ilmiah sebagai bagian dari kemampuan berpikir manusia dalam ciptaan-ciptaan Bionik (Bionic Inventions yang diwujudkan pada penelitian-penelitian antara gabungan biologi dan elektronik. Bionik merupakan gabungan dari kata biologi dan elektronik, sistem mekanik makhluk hidup yang berfungsi seperti organ atau anggota tubuh makhluk hidup, mulai dari tangan, kaki, pendengaran, hingga penglihatan, semua bisa diperbaiki atau diganti (prosthesis serta inspirasi teknologi pada semua makhluk hidup. Artikel secara rinci mengungkap konsep-konsep Bionik, ciptaan-ciptaan Bionik pada makhluk hidup (manusia, hewan dan tumbuhan, serta hubungan penalaran ilmiah dengan ciptaan-ciptaan Bionik (Bionic Inventions. Penciptaan Bionik termasuk dalam penalaran ilmiah induktif, deduktif dan abduktif yang berarti terdapat adanya proposisi hukum (rule, proposisi tentang suatu kasus (case, dan terakhir proposisi tentang kesimpulan (result serta probabiltas yang tinggi yang terlepas dari falsifikasi (pseudo science.

  4. [Bionic model for coordinated head-eye motion control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaobo; Chen, Tiejun

    2011-10-01

    The relationships between eye movements and head movements of the primate during gaze shifts are analyzed in detail in the present paper. Applying the mechanisms of neurophysiology to engineering domain, we have improved the robot eye-head coordination. A bionic control strategy of coordinated head-eye motion was proposed. The processes of gaze shifts are composed of an initial fast phase followed by a slow phase. In the fast phase saccade eye movements and slow head movements were combined, which cooperate to bring gaze from an initial resting position toward the new target rapidly, while in the slow phase the gaze stability and target fixation were ensured by the action of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) where the eyes and head rotate by equal amplitudes in opposite directions. A bionic gaze control model was given. The simulation results confirmed the effectiveness of the model by comparing with the results of neurophysiology experiments.

  5. The fluid control mechanism of bionic structural heterogeneous composite materials and its potential application in enhancing pump efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Limei Tian; Jin, E.; Ziyuan Li; Haoran Mei; Yinci Wang; Yangeng Shang

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that the structure of dolphin skin controls fluid media dynamically. Gaining inspiration from this phenomenon, a kind of bionic structural heterogeneous composite material was designed. The bionic structural heterogeneous composite material is composed of two materials: a rigid metal base layer with bionic structures and an elastic polymer surface layer with the corresponding mirror structures. The fluid control mechanism of the bionic structural heterogeneous composite mat...

  6. Bionic forceps for the handling of sensitive tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kölle Lucia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical forceps are used for the handling of sensitive structures in medicine. Structures which are manipulated with these forceps can get damaged or slip out of the grip of the forceps. This paper presents a forceps using the bionic Fin-Ray-Effect inspired by fish-fins in order to handle vulnerable structures in particular. During the process of development, functional models of this forceps were designed, 3D-printed and evaluated.

  7. Real time hardware vision processing for a bionic eye

    OpenAIRE

    Josh, Horace Edmund

    2017-01-01

    A recent objective in medical bionics research is to develop visual prostheses - devices that could potentially restore the sight of blind individuals. The Monash Vision Group is currently working towards implementing a fully autonomous direct-to-brain vision implant called the Gennaris. Although research in this field is progressing quickly, initial implementations of these devices will be quite naive, offering very basic levels of vision. The vision is anticipated to be binary - that is wit...

  8. Erosion resistance of bionic functional surfaces inspired from desert scorpions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiwu, Han; Junqiu, Zhang; Chao, Ge; Li, Wen; Ren, Luquan

    2012-02-07

    In this paper, a bionic method is presented to improve the erosion resistance of machine components. Desert scorpion (Androctonus australis) is a typical animal living in sandy deserts, and may face erosive action of blowing sand at a high speed. Based on the idea of bionics and biologic experimental techniques, the mechanisms of the sand erosion resistance of desert scorpion were investigated. Results showed that the desert scorpions used special microtextures such as bumps and grooves to construct the functional surfaces to achieve the erosion resistance. In order to understand the erosion resistance mechanisms of such functional surfaces, the combination of computational and experimental research were carried out in this paper. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method was applied to predict the erosion performance of the bionic functional surfaces. The result demonstrated that the microtextured surfaces exhibited better erosion resistance than the smooth surfaces. The further erosion tests indicated that the groove surfaces exhibited better erosion performance at 30° injection angle. In order to determine the effect of the groove dimensions on the erosion resistance, regression analysis of orthogonal multinomials was also performed under a certain erosion condition, and the regression equation between the erosion rate and groove distance, width, and height was established.

  9. Nanobionics: the impact of nanotechnology on implantable medical bionic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, G G; Higgins, M J; Moulton, S E; Wang, C

    2012-08-07

    The nexus of any bionic device can be found at the electrode-cellular interface. Overall efficiency is determined by our ability to transfer electronic information across that interface. The nanostructure imparted to electrodes plays a critical role in controlling the cascade of events that determines the composition and structure of that interface. With commonly used conductors: metals, carbon and organic conducting polymers, a number of approaches that promote control over structure in the nanodomain have emerged in recent years with subsequent studies revealing a critical dependency between nanostructure and cellular behaviour. As we continue to develop our understanding of how to create and characterise electromaterials in the nanodomain, this is expected to have a profound effect on the development of next generation bionic devices. In this review, we focus on advances in fabricating nanostructured electrodes that present new opportunities in the field of medical bionics. We also briefly evaluate the interactions of living cells with the nanostructured electromaterials, in addition to highlighting emerging tools used for nanofabrication and nanocharacterisation of the electrode-cellular interface.

  10. Transformative Reality: improving bionic vision with robotic sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Wen Lik Dennis; Browne, Damien; Kleeman, Lindsay; Drummond, Tom; Li, Wai Ho

    2012-01-01

    Implanted visual prostheses provide bionic vision with very low spatial and intensity resolution when compared against healthy human vision. Vision processing converts camera video to low resolution imagery for bionic vision with the aim of preserving salient features such as edges. Transformative Reality extends and improves upon traditional vision processing in three ways. Firstly, a combination of visual and non-visual sensors are used to provide multi-modal data of a person's surroundings. This enables the sensing of features that are difficult to sense with only a camera. Secondly, robotic sensing algorithms construct models of the world in real time. This enables the detection of complex features such as navigable empty ground or people. Thirdly, models are visually rendered so that visually complex entities such as people can be effectively represented in low resolution. Preliminary simulated prosthetic vision trials, where a head mounted display is used to constrain a subject's vision to 25×25 binary phosphenes, suggest that Transformative Reality provides functional bionic vision for tasks such as indoor navigation, object manipulation and people detection in scenes where traditional processing is unusable.

  11. Bionics by examples 250 scenarios from classical to modern times

    CERN Document Server

    Nachtigall, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Bionics means learning from the nature for the development of technology. The science of "bionics" itself is classified into several sections, from materials and structures over procedures and processes until evolution and optimization. Not all these areas, or only a few, are really known in the public and also in scientific literature. This includes the Lotus-effect, converted to the contamination-reduction of fassades and the shark-shed-effect, converted to the  resistance-reduction of airplanes. However, there are hundreds of highly interesting examples that contain the transformation of principles of the nature into technology. From the large number of these examples, 250 were selected for the present book according to "prehistory", "early-history", "classic" and "modern time". Most examples are new. Every example includes a printed page in a homogeneous arrangement. The examples from the field "modern time" are joint in blocks corresponding to the sub-disciplines of bionics.

  12. Advances in Propulsive Bionic Feet and Their Actuation Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Cherelle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, researchers have deeply studied pathological and nonpathological gait to understand the human ankle function during walking. These efforts resulted in the development of new lower limb prosthetic devices aiming at raising the 3C-level (control, comfort, and cosmetics of amputees. Thanks to the technological advances in engineering and mechatronics, challenges in the field of prosthetics have become an important source of interest for roboticists. Currently, most of the bionic feet are still on a research level but show promising results and a preview of tomorrow's commercial prosthetic devices. In this paper, the authors present the current state-of-the-art and the latest advances in propulsive bionic feet with its actuation principles. The context of this review study is outlined followed by a brief description of the basics in human biomechanics and criteria for new prosthetic designs. A new categorization based on the actuation principle of propulsive ankle-foot prostheses is proposed. Based on simulations, the general principles and benefits of each actuation method are explained. The corresponding latest advances in propulsive bionic feet are presented together with their main characteristics and scientific outcomes. The authors also propose to the reader a comparison analysis of the presented devices with a discussion of the general tendencies in new prosthetic feet.

  13. Research on the Integration of Bionic Geometry Modeling and Simulation of Robot Foot Based on Characteristic Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, G.; Zhu, H.; Xu, J.; Gao, K.; Zhu, D.

    2017-09-01

    The bionic research of shape is an important aspect of the research on bionic robot, and its implementation cannot be separated from the shape modeling and numerical simulation of the bionic object, which is tedious and time-consuming. In order to improve the efficiency of shape bionic design, the feet of animals living in soft soil and swamp environment are taken as bionic objects, and characteristic skeleton curve, section curve, joint rotation variable, position and other parameters are used to describe the shape and position information of bionic object’s sole, toes and flipper. The geometry modeling of the bionic object is established by using the parameterization of characteristic curves and variables. Based on this, the integration framework of parametric modeling and finite element modeling, dynamic analysis and post-processing of sinking process in soil is proposed in this paper. The examples of bionic ostrich foot and bionic duck foot are also given. The parametric modeling and integration technique can achieve rapid improved design based on bionic object, and it can also greatly improve the efficiency and quality of robot foot bionic design, and has important practical significance to improve the level of bionic design of robot foot’s shape and structure.

  14. The Role of New Hire Orientation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Steven; Jasinski, Dale

    2009-01-01

    A vital component of a firm's human resource management is its new hire orientation (NHO) program. The authors' review of extant literature suggests that NHO programs can be organized based on a reconceptualization of human capital. Using their typology, a firm can organize the role and scope of its NHO program, assign responsibility for the…

  15. Bionic Design for Reducing Adhesive Resistance of the Ridger Inspired by a Boar's Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianqiao; Yan, Yunpeng; Chirende, Benard; Wu, Xuejiao; Wang, Zhaoliang

    2017-01-01

    The main feature of the boar's head used to root around for food is the front part, which is similar to the ridger in terms of function, load, and environment. In this paper, the boar's head was selected as the biological prototype for developing a new ridger. The point cloud of the head was captured by a 3D scanner, and then, the head surface was reconstructed using 3D coordinates. The characteristic curves of the front part of the boar's head were extracted, and then, five cross-sectional curves and one vertical section curve were fitted. Based on the fitted curves, five kinds of bionic ridgers were designed. The penetrating resistances of the bionic ridgers and traditional ridger were tested at different speeds in an indoor soil bin. The test results showed that bionic ridger B had the best penetrating resistance reduction ratio of 16.67% at 4.2 km/h velocity. In order to further evaluate the performance of the best bionic ridger (bionic ridger B), both the bionic ridger and traditional ridger were tested in a field under the same working conditions. The field results indicate that the bionic ridger reduces penetrating resistance by 6.91% compared to the traditional ridger, and the test results validate that the bionic ridger has an effect on reducing penetrating resistance. PMID:28757796

  16. The Research on Friction Characteristics of Non Smooth Bionic Mesoscopic Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Chunjian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of using friction to transmit power and prevent slippage is very widely used, many animals have very strong adhesion climbing ability, and it has important theoretical significance and wide application prospect to research and the prepare bionic surface to increase transmission friction using the bionic technology. In recent years, the research of foot structure of climbing animals shows that their surface morphology has both macro and micro scale features, and only study from the macro to the micro scale surface structure can be better elucidate the mechanism of increasing-friction of climbing animal. This paper will study bionic surface structure on mesoscopic scale from micron to millimeter level, research the influence of foot structure of climbing animal under mesoscopic scale on characteristics of increasing friction using bionic technology, prepare the bionic non-smooth surface of convex or concave using bionic manufacturing technology, establish the friction model of non-smooth surface, investigate the increasing-friction mechanism of the bionic surface morphology on mesoscopic scales, reveals the influence of surface morphology, layout, size and material properties on the friction characteristics, provide the design of bionic friction surface and calculation method of friction coefficient and provide reliable theoretical basis for engineering application.

  17. Bionic prosthetic hands: A review of present technology and future aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, R G E; Bugler, K E; Oliver, C W

    2011-12-01

    Bionic prosthetic hands are rapidly evolving. An in-depth knowledge of this field of medicine is currently only required by a small number of individuals working in highly specialist units. However, with improving technology it is likely that the demand for and application of bionic hands will continue to increase and a wider understanding will be necessary. We review the literature and summarise the important advances in medicine, computing and engineering that have led to the development of currently available bionic hand prostheses. The bionic limb of today has progressed greatly since the hook prostheses that were introduced centuries ago. We discuss the ways that major functions of the human hand are being replicated artificially in modern bionic hands. Despite the impressive advances bionic prostheses remain an inferior replacement to their biological counterparts. Finally we discuss some of the key areas of research that could lead to vast improvements in bionic limb functionality that may one day be able to fully replicate the biological hand or perhaps even surpass its innate capabilities. It is important for the healthcare community to have an understanding of the development of bionic hands and the technology underpinning them as this area of medicine will expand. Copyright © 2011 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bionic Design for Reducing Adhesive Resistance of the Ridger Inspired by a Boar’s Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiao Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main feature of the boar’s head used to root around for food is the front part, which is similar to the ridger in terms of function, load, and environment. In this paper, the boar’s head was selected as the biological prototype for developing a new ridger. The point cloud of the head was captured by a 3D scanner, and then, the head surface was reconstructed using 3D coordinates. The characteristic curves of the front part of the boar’s head were extracted, and then, five cross-sectional curves and one vertical section curve were fitted. Based on the fitted curves, five kinds of bionic ridgers were designed. The penetrating resistances of the bionic ridgers and traditional ridger were tested at different speeds in an indoor soil bin. The test results showed that bionic ridger B had the best penetrating resistance reduction ratio of 16.67% at 4.2 km/h velocity. In order to further evaluate the performance of the best bionic ridger (bionic ridger B, both the bionic ridger and traditional ridger were tested in a field under the same working conditions. The field results indicate that the bionic ridger reduces penetrating resistance by 6.91% compared to the traditional ridger, and the test results validate that the bionic ridger has an effect on reducing penetrating resistance.

  19. Analysis of North American Newspaper Coverage of Bionics Using the Disability Studies Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonum Panesar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bionics are a set of technology products that are constantly evolving. Bionics are proposed as body add-ons or replacement for many body parts (ears, eyes, knees, neural prostheses, joints, muscles, kidney, liver, cartilage lungs, discs, pancreas, dental pulp, skin, hippocampus, legs and hands, and functions such as speech. Two main applications of bionic products are discussed; one being for the restoration of body abilities to a species-typical norm and the other being the addition of abilities to the body that are not species-typical. Disabled people are one main group perceived to be in need of therapeutic interventions that use various bionic products. So far, therapeutic interventions are about restoration to the species-typical norm. However, therapeutic bionic products increasingly give the wearer beyond normal body abilities (therapeutic enhancements. Many so-called non-disabled people want the same enhanced body-abilities especially through non-invasive bionic products (e.g., non-invasive brain machine interfaces, exoskeletons. The media has the ability to shape public perceptions with numerous consequences. The purpose of this study was to provide quantitative and qualitative data on how bionic technologies and its users are portrayed in North American newspapers. Data was obtained from 1977 to 2013 from the Canadian Newsstand complete database which covers over 300 English language Canadian newspapers and two Canadian newspapers, one with national focus (The Globe and Mail and one with local focus (Calgary Herald, and from 1980–2013 from one American newspaper with national reach (The New York Times. The study found (a an almost always positive portrayal of bionics; (b coverage of bionics mostly within a medical framework; (c a predominantly stereotypical and negative portrayal of individuals with disabilities; and (d a hierarchy of worthiness between different assistive devices such as a reporting bias favoring artificial legs

  20. Ask or Don't Ask? Negligent Hiring and Defamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Burel

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the legal phenomenon of negligent hiring, what it is, how it has evolved, and where it will probably go. Lists ways to avoid a negligent-hiring lawsuit and provides 12 steps for reducing negligent hiring and defamation lawsuits. (MLF)

  1. The Civil Defense Acquisition Workforce: Enhancing Recruitment Through Hiring Flexibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-22

    The Civil Defense Acquisition Workforce: Enhancing Recruitment Through Hiring Flexibilities Kathryn A. Francis Analyst in Government...Organization and Management November 22, 2016 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R44695 The Civil Defense Acquisition Workforce: Hiring...establishment of new flexibilities, staff knowledge of appropriate use, budgetary constraints, and efforts to balance hiring speed with equity. The Civil

  2. Architects: gender-role and hiring decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, A S

    1997-10-01

    To examine architects' judgments of male and female applicants represented by the information in resumés, 204 architects, 156 men and 48 women, licensed in the state of Connecticut participated in a 2(job level) by 2(sex) between-subjects study. Architects were asked how they would rate applicants' potential (including the decision to hire) and gender-role characteristics judged on the basis of one-page resumés. Architects randomly assigned resumés for one of four evaluation conditions (intern or senior architect; male or female), rated the applicant on seven job-related characteristics, e.g., technical skill, potential for advancement, and completed the Bem Sex-role Inventory as they thought items applied to the applicant. Analysis indicated that male architect respondents were more likely to hire male applicants than female applicants as senior architects and that female applicants were judged to be as masculine-typed as were male applicants.

  3. Lessons learned hiring HMO medical directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottensmeyer, D J; Key, M K

    1991-01-01

    A medical director has enormous influence on medical cost and quality in managed care organizations. Little empirical work has been done on the attributes of an effective HMO medical director. The survey discussed in this article sought to examine those desirable traits from the perspective of medical directors who have risen in the ranks to become employers of medical directors. Mailed questionnaires asked 30 experts to rate skills and personality qualities based on what they would look for in a prospective hire. The factors that emerged as significant were communication and interpersonal skills, clinical credibility, ego strength, concern about quality, motivation, data orientation, and leadership qualities, along with organizational/systemic variables. Implications for hiring and physician education are drawn.

  4. Bionic Humans Using EAP as Artificial Muscles Reality and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoseph Bar-Cohen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available For many years, the idea of a human with bionic muscles immediately conjures up science fiction images of a TV series superhuman character that was implanted with bionic muscles and portrayed with strength and speed far superior to any normal human. As fantastic as this idea may seem, recent developments in electroactive polymers (EAP may one day make such bionics possible. Polymers that exhibit large displacement in response to stimulation that is other than electrical signal were known for many years. Initially, EAP received relatively little attention due to their limited actuation capability. However, in the recent years, the view of the EAP materials has changed due to the introduction of effective new materials that significantly surpassed the capability of the widely used piezoelectric polymer, PVDF. As this technology continues to evolve, novel mechanisms that are biologically inspired are expected to emerge. EAP materials can potentially provide actuation with lifelike response and more flexible configurations. While further improvements in performance and robustness are still needed, there already have been several reported successes. In recognition of the need for cooperation in this multidisciplinary field, the author initiated and organized a series of international forums that are leading to a growing number of research and development projects and to great advances in the field. In 1999, he challenged the worldwide science and engineering community of EAP experts to develop a robotic arm that is actuated by artificial muscles to win a wrestling match against a human opponent. In this paper, the field of EAP as artificial muscles will be reviewed covering the state of the art, the challenges and the vision for the progress in future years.

  5. A Bionic Neural Link for peripheral nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong Ping; Yen, Shih-Cheng; Ng, Kian Ann; Liu, Xu; Tan, Ter Chyan

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries with large gaps and long nerve regrowth paths are difficult to repair using existing surgical techniques, due to nerve degeneration and muscle atrophy. This paper proposes a Bionic Neural Link (BNL) as an alternative way for peripheral nerve repair. The concept of the BNL is described, along with the hypothetical benefits. A prototype monolithic single channel BNL has been developed, which consists of 16 neural recording channels and one stimulation channel, and is implemented in a 0.35-µm CMOS technology. The BNL has been tested in in-vivo animal experiments. Full function of the BNL chip has been demonstrated.

  6. The influence of cochlear implant electrode position on performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, K.S. van der; Briaire, J.J.; Verbist, B.M.; Muurling, T.J.; Frijns, J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    To study the relation between variables related to cochlear implant electrode position and speech perception performance scores in a large patient population.The study sample consisted of 203 patients implanted with a CII or HiRes90K implant with a HiFocus 1 or 1J electrode of Advanced Bionics.

  7. Cochlear coordinates in regard to cochlear implantation: a clinically individually applicable 3 dimensional CT-based method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbist, B.M.; Joemai, R.M.; Briaire, J.J.; Teeuwisse, W.M.; Veldkamp, W.J.H.; Frijns, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    SETTING: Cochlear implant (CI)/tertiary referral center. SUBJECTS: Twenty-five patients implanted with an Advanced Bionics HiRes90K HiFocus1J CI. STUDY DESIGN/MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A 3-dimensional cylindrical coordinate system is introduced using the basal turn of the cochlea as the x and y planes

  8. Investigation of the Effect of Dimple Bionic Nonsmooth Surface on Tire Antihydroplaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the idea that bionic nonsmooth surfaces (BNSS reduce fluid adhesion and resistance, the effect of dimple bionic nonsmooth structure arranged in tire circumferential grooves surface on antihydroplaning performance was investigated by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The physical model of the object (model of dimple bionic nonsmooth surface distribution, hydroplaning model and SST k-ω turbulence model are established for numerical analysis of tire hydroplaning. By virtue of the orthogonal table L16(45, the parameters of dimple bionic nonsmooth structure design compared to the smooth structure were analyzed, and the priority level of the experimental factors as well as the best combination within the scope of the experiment was obtained. The simulation results show that dimple bionic nonsmooth structure can reduce water flow resistance by disturbing the eddy movement in boundary layers. Then, optimal type of dimple bionic nonsmooth structure is arranged on the bottom of tire circumferential grooves for hydroplaning performance analysis. The results show that the dimple bionic nonsmooth structure effectively decreases the tread hydrodynamic pressure when driving on water film and increases the tire hydroplaning velocity, thus improving tire antihydroplaning performance.

  9. Noninvasive transcutaneous bionic baroreflex system prevents severe orthostatic hypotension in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masayoshi; Murayama, Yoshinori; Chishaki, Akiko; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    Central baroreflex failure in patients with spinal cord injury results in serious orthostatic hypotension. We examined if transcutaneous electrical stimulation regulates arterial pressure in those patients. We identified skin regions capable of increasing arterial pressure and determined respective transfer function. Using the transfer function, we designed the feedback regulator (i.e., bionic baroreflex system) to control arterial pressure. Orthostatic stress decreased arterial pressure profoundly. Activation of bionic regulator restored and maintained arterial pressure at pre-specified levels. We conclude that the transcutaneous bionic system is noninvasive and capable of stabilizing arterial pressure in patients with spinal cord injury.

  10. Cell-bionics: tools for real-time sensor processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumazou, Chris; Cass, Tony

    2007-08-29

    The accurate monitoring of the physiological status of cells, tissues and whole organisms demands a new generation of devices capable of providing accurate data in real time with minimal perturbation of the system being measured. To deliver on the promise of cell-bionics advances over the past decade in miniaturization, analogue signal processing, low-power electronics, materials science and protein engineering need to be brought together. In this paper we summarize recent advances in our research that is moving us in this direction. Two areas in particular are highlighted: the exploitation of the physical properties inherent in semiconductor devices to perform very low power on chip signal processing and the use of gene technology to tailor proteins for sensor applications. In the context of engineered tissues, cell-bionics could offer the ability to monitor the precise physiological state of the construct, both during 'manufacture' and post-implantation. Monitoring during manufacture, particularly by embedded devices, would offer quality assurance of the materials components and the fabrication process. Post-implantation monitoring would reveal changes in the underlying physiology as a result of the tissue construct adapting to its new environment.

  11. Simulated effect on the compressive and shear mechanical properties of bionic integrated honeycomb plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chenglin; Chen, Jinxiang; Wu, Zhishen; Xie, Juan; Zu, Qiao; Lu, Yun

    2015-05-01

    Honeycomb plates can be applied in many fields, including furniture manufacturing, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, transportation and aerospace. In the present study, we discuss the simulated effect on the mechanical properties of bionic integrated honeycomb plates by investigating the compressive and shear failure modes and the mechanical properties of trabeculae reinforced by long or short fibers. The results indicate that the simulated effect represents approximately 80% and 70% of the compressive and shear strengths, respectively. Compared with existing bionic samples, the mass-specific strength was significantly improved. Therefore, this integrated honeycomb technology remains the most effective method for the trial manufacturing of bionic integrated honeycomb plates. The simulated effect of the compressive rigidity is approximately 85%. The short-fiber trabeculae have an advantage over the long-fiber trabeculae in terms of shear rigidity, which provides new evidence for the application of integrated bionic honeycomb plates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of Multiple Bionic Unit Coupling on Sliding Wear of Laser-Processed Gray Cast Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Zhang, Peng; Sui, Qi; Zhao, Kai; Zhou, Hong; Ren, Luquan

    2017-04-01

    In this study, in effort to improve the sliding wear resistance of gray cast iron under wet lubrication conditions, specimens with different bionic units were manufactured and modified according to bionic theory. Inspired by the structure and appearance of biological wear-resistant skin, two kinds of bionic units were processed by laser on the specimen surfaces. We investigated the wear resistance properties of the samples via indentation method and then observed the wear surface morphology of specimens and the stress distributions. The results indicated that coupling the bionic units enhanced the wear resistance of the cast iron considerably compared to the other samples. We also determined the mechanism of wear resistance improvement according to the results.

  13. Bionic Design of Wind Turbine Blade Based on Long-Eared Owl’s Airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a bionic design for the airfoil of wind turbines inspired by the morphology of Long-eared Owl’s wings. Glauert Model was adopted to design the standard blade and the bionic blade, respectively. Numerical analysis method was utilized to study the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoils as well as the blades. Results show that the bionic airfoil inspired by the airfoil at the 50% aspect ratio of the Long-eared Owl’s wing gives rise to a superior lift coefficient and stalling performance and thus can be beneficial to improving the performance of the wind turbine blade. Also, the efficiency of the bionic blade in wind turbine blades tests increases by 12% or above (up to 44% compared to that of the standard blade. The reason lies in the bigger pressure difference between the upper and lower surface which can provide stronger lift.

  14. Architectural solutions in terms of Bionic urban environment of Olympic Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Kiba

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The principle of architectural bionics, suitable for Olympic Sochi environment was used for promenade designing. The complex solution includes promenade areas and a ‘winter and summer’ platform.

  15. Biomechanical comparison of bionic, screw and Endobutton fixation in the treatment of tibiofibular syndesmosis injuries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Lin; Wang, Baozhi; Xu, Guohui; Song, Zhaohui; Cui, Huixian; Zhang, Yingze

    2016-01-01

    ... fixations.Six normal fresh-frozen legs from amputation surgery were used. After initial tests of intact syndesmosis, screw, bionic and Endobutton fixations were performed sequentially for each specimen...

  16. Bionic Design of Wind Turbine Blade Based on Long-Eared Owl's Airfoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Weijun; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Jiyue; Li, Ming; Ma, Yi; Cong, Qian

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a bionic design for the airfoil of wind turbines inspired by the morphology of Long-eared Owl's wings. Glauert Model was adopted to design the standard blade and the bionic blade, respectively. Numerical analysis method was utilized to study the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoils as well as the blades. Results show that the bionic airfoil inspired by the airfoil at the 50% aspect ratio of the Long-eared Owl's wing gives rise to a superior lift coefficient and stalling performance and thus can be beneficial to improving the performance of the wind turbine blade. Also, the efficiency of the bionic blade in wind turbine blades tests increases by 12% or above (up to 44%) compared to that of the standard blade. The reason lies in the bigger pressure difference between the upper and lower surface which can provide stronger lift.

  17. Design and Implementation of a Bionic Mimosa Robot with Delicate Leaf Swing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Liang Chang; Jin-Long Shie

    2014-01-01

    This study designed and developed a bionic mimosa robot with delicate leaf swing behaviors. For different swing behaviors, this study developed a variety of situations, in which the bionic mimosa robot would display different postures. The core technologies used were Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs), plastic material, and an intelligent control device. The technology particularly focused on the SMAs memory processing bend mode, directional guidance, and the position of SMAs installed inside the pla...

  18. The Research on Friction Characteristics of Non Smooth Bionic Mesoscopic Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Su Chunjian; Li Ning; Xiao Linjing

    2014-01-01

    The application of using friction to transmit power and prevent slippage is very widely used, many animals have very strong adhesion climbing ability, and it has important theoretical significance and wide application prospect to research and the prepare bionic surface to increase transmission friction using the bionic technology. In recent years, the research of foot structure of climbing animals shows that their surface morphology has both macro and micro scale features, and only study from...

  19. Design and Test Research on Cutting Blade of Corn Harvester Based on Bionic Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunpeng Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing corn harvester cutting blades have problems associated with large cutting resistance, high energy consumption, and poor cut quality. Using bionics principles, a bionic blade was designed by extracting the cutting tooth profile curve of the B. horsfieldi palate. Using a double-blade cutting device testing system, a single stalk cutting performance contrast test for corn stalks obtained at harvest time was carried out. Results show that bionic blades have superior performance, demonstrated by strong cutting ability and good cut quality. Using statistical analysis of two groups of cutting test data, the average cutting force and cutting energy of bionic blades and ordinary blades were obtained as 480.24 N and 551.31 N and 3.91 J and 4.38 J, respectively. Average maximum cutting force and cutting energy consumption for the bionic blade were reduced by 12.89% and 10.73%, respectively. Variance analysis showed that both blade types had a significant effect on maximum cutting energy and cutting energy required to cut a corn stalk. This demonstrates that bionic blades have better cutting force and energy consumption reduction performance than ordinary blades.

  20. The fluid control mechanism of bionic structural heterogeneous composite materials and its potential application in enhancing pump efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Tian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that the structure of dolphin skin controls fluid media dynamically. Gaining inspiration from this phenomenon, a kind of bionic structural heterogeneous composite material was designed. The bionic structural heterogeneous composite material is composed of two materials: a rigid metal base layer with bionic structures and an elastic polymer surface layer with the corresponding mirror structures. The fluid control mechanism of the bionic structural heterogeneous composite material was investigated using a fluid–solid interaction method in ANSYS Workbench. The results indicated that the bionic structural heterogeneous composite material’s fluid control mechanism is its elastic deformation, which is caused by the coupling action between the elastic surface material and the bionic structure. This deformation can decrease the velocity gradient of the fluid boundary layer through changing the fluid–solid actual contact surface and reduce the frictional force. The bionic structural heterogeneous composite material can also absorb some energy through elastic deformation and avoid energy loss. The bionic structural heterogeneous composite material was applied to the impeller of a centrifugal pump in a contrast experiment, increasing the pump efficiency by 5% without changing the hydraulic model of the impeller. The development of this bionic structural heterogeneous composite material will be straightforward from an engineering point of view, and it will have valuable practical applications.

  1. Ego-motion based on EM for bionic navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaofeng; Wang, L. J.; Liu, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Researches have proved that flying insects such as bees can achieve efficient and robust flight control, and biologists have explored some biomimetic principles regarding how they control flight. Based on those basic studies and principles acquired from the flying insects, this paper proposes a different solution of recovering ego-motion for low level navigation. Firstly, a new type of entropy flow is provided to calculate the motion parameters. Secondly, EKF, which has been used for navigation for some years to correct accumulated error, and estimation-Maximization, which is always used to estimate parameters, are put together to determine the ego-motion estimation of aerial vehicles. Numerical simulation on MATLAB has proved that this navigation system provides more accurate position and smaller mean absolute error than pure optical flow navigation. This paper has done pioneering work in bionic mechanism to space navigation.

  2. Emergence and expansion of cosmic space in BIonic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehri, A., E-mail: alireza.sepehri@uk.ac.ir [Faculty of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University, P.O. Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahaman, Farook, E-mail: rahaman@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India); Pradhan, Anirudh, E-mail: pradhan@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Mathematics, GLA University, Mathura-281 406, U.P. (India); Sardar, Iftikar Hossain, E-mail: iftikar.spm@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India)

    2015-02-04

    Recently, Padmanabhan [ (arXiv:1206.4916 [hep-th])] argued that the expansion rate of the universe can be thought of as the emergence of space as cosmic time progresses and is related to the difference between the surface degrees of freedom on the holographic horizon and the bulk degrees of freedom inside. The main question arises as to what is the origin of emergence of space in 4D universe. We answer this question in BIonic system. The BIon is a configuration in flat space of a D-brane and a parallel anti-D-brane connected by a thin shell wormhole with F-string charge. We propose a new model that allows that all degrees of freedom inside and outside the universe are controlled by the evolutions of BIon in extra dimension and tend to degrees of freedom of black F-string in string theory or black M2-brane in M-theory.

  3. Bionic intraocular lens with variable focus and integrated structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dan; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Du, Jia-Wei; Xiang, Ke

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a bionic accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) for ophthalmic surgery. The designed lens has a solid-liquid mixed integrated structure, which mainly consists of a support ring, elastic membrane, rigid lens, and optical liquid. The lens focus can be adjusted through the deformation of the lens front surface when compressed. The integrated structure of the IOL is presented, as well as a detailed description of the lens materials and fabrication process. Images under different radial pressures are captured, and the lens deformation process, accommodating range, density, and optical property are analyzed. The designed lens achieves a 14.6 D accommodating range under a radial pressure of 51.4 mN and a 0.24 mm alteration of the lens outer radius. The deformation property of the lens matches well with the characteristic of the eye and shows the potential to help patients fully recover their vision accommodation ability after the cataract surgery.

  4. Bionic balance organs: progress in the development of vestibular prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul F

    2017-09-01

    The vestibular system is a sensory system that is critically important in humans for gaze and image stability as well as postural control. Patients with complete bilateral vestibular loss are severely disabled and experience a poor quality of life. There are very few effective treatment options for patients with no vestibular function. Over the last 10 years, rapid progress has been made in developing artificial 'vestibular implants' or 'prostheses', based on cochlear implant technology. As of 2017, 13 patients worldwide have received vestibular implants and the results are encouraging. Vestibular implants are now becoming part of an increasing effort to develop artificial, bionic sensory systems, and this paper provides a review of the progress in this area.

  5. Management of tractor-hiring entrepreneurship by tractor owners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the management of tractor-hiring entrepreneurship by Tractor Owners and Hiring Facilities Association of Nigeria (TOHFAN). Two-stage sampling technique was used to select respondents. A checklist was used in an in-depth interview to elicit relevant information which was analyzed qualitatively.

  6. Determining Effective Teaching Behaviors through the Hiring Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Gary; Grigsby, Bettye; Vesey, Winona

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: One bad hiring decision can lead to low student achievement. Research supports that teachers are the most influential factor in student success. As a result, principals' current practice of hiring teachers based on intuition and likeability must change. Given the current high stakes era, principals need reassurance that the teachers they…

  7. Sex Typing of Jobs in Hiring: Evidence from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Eunmi

    2010-01-01

    Using unique data on employers' pre-hire preferences, this article examines the effect of sex typing on the gender gap in offered wages and training. Previous studies using post-hire data have not been able to focus directly on the effects of employer behavior, distinct from employee preferences. By analyzing gender-designated job requisitions for…

  8. What Employers Consider Important in Hiring Teachers. ASCUS Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, B. J.; And Others

    This survey of 45 school administrators sought to determine the factors they consider important in hiring beginning teachers, and those that are important in hiring experienced teachers. The questionnaires contained sixteen factors, identical for both experienced and inexperienced teachers, which the respondents rated according to the importance…

  9. 28 CFR 29.9 - Motor vehicles for hire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles for hire. 29.9 Section 29.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.9 Motor vehicles for hire. (a) Any person who is in the business of renting or leasing motor...

  10. Credit Usage, Hire Purchase Costs, and Consumer Protection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adopting a survey and a disguised interview technique, data was collected and analyzed on the usage rate of credit purchases. The hire purchase, which was the most popular form of credit, was examined in greater detail with respect to the costs of hire purchase, their comparison with other types of consumer credit, the ...

  11. The risky business of hiring stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groysberg, Boris; Nanda, Ashish; Nohria, Nitin

    2004-05-01

    With the battle for the best and brightest people heating up again, you're most likely out there looking for first-rate talent in the ranks of your competitors. Chances are, you're sold on the idea of recruiting from outside your organization, since developing people within the firm takes time and money. But the authors, who have tracked the careers of high-flying CEOs, researchers, software developers, and leading professionals, argue that top performers quickly fade after leaving one company for another. To study this phenomenon in greater detail, the authors analyzed the ups and downs of more than 1,000 star stock analysts, a well-defined group for which there are abundant data. The results were striking. After a star moves, not only does her performance plunge, but so does the effectiveness of the group she joins--and the market value of her new company. Moreover, transplanted stars don't stay with their new organizations for long, despite the astronomical salaries firms pay to lure them from rivals. Most companies that hire stars overlook the fact that an executive's performance is not entirely transferable because his personal competencies inevitably include company-specific skills. When the star leaves the old company for the new, he cannot take with him many of the resources that contributed to his achievements. As a result, he is unable to repeat his performance in another company--at least not until he learns to work the new system, which could take years. The authors conclude that companies cannot gain a competitive advantage or successfully grow by hiring stars from outside. Instead, they should focus on cultivating talent from within and do everything possible to retain the stars they create. Firms shouldn't fight the star wars, because winning could be the worst thing that happens to them.

  12. [Design and Preparation of Plant Bionic Materials Based on Optical and Infrared Features Simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-jun; Lu, Xu-liang; Pan, Jia-liang; Zhang, Shuan-qin

    2015-07-01

    Due to the life characteristics such as physiological structure and transpiration, plants have unique optical and infrared features. In the optical band, because of the common effects of chlorophyll and water, plant leafs show spectral reflectance characteristics change in 550, 680, 1400 and 1900 nm significantly. In the infrared wave band, driven by transpiration, plants could regulate temperature on their own initiative, which make the infrared characteristics of plants different from artificial materials. So palnt bionic materials were proposed to simulate optical and infrared characteristics of plants. By analyzing formation mechanism of optical and infrared features about green plants, the component design and heat-transfer process of plants bionic materials were studied, above these the heat-transfer control formulation was established. Based on water adsorption/release compound, optical pigments and other man-made materials, plant bionic materials preparation methods were designed which could simulate the optical and infrared features of green plants. By chemical casting methods plant bionic material films were prepared, which use polyvinyl alcohol as film forming and water adsorption/release compound, and use optical pigments like chrome green and macromolecule yellow as colouring materials. The research conclusions achieved by testings figured out: water adsorption/release testing showed that the plant bionic materials with a certain thickness could absorb 1.3 kg water per square meter, which could satisfy the water usage of transpiration simulation one day; the optical and infrared simulated effect tests indicated that the plant bionic materials could preferably simulate the spectral reflective performance of green plants in optical wave band (380-2500 nm, expecially in 1400 and 1900 nm which were water absorption wave band of plants), and also it had similar daily infrared radiation variations with green plants, daily average radiation temperature

  13. Bionic Design for Mars Sampling Scoop Inspired by Himalayan Marmot Claw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cave animals are often adapted to digging and life underground, with claw toes similar in structure and function to a sampling scoop. In this paper, the clawed toes of the Himalayan marmot were selected as a biological prototype for bionic research. Based on geometric parameter optimization of the clawed toes, a bionic sampling scoop for use on Mars was designed. Using a 3D laser scanner, the point cloud data of the second front claw toe was acquired. Parametric equations and contour curves for the claw were then built with cubic polynomial fitting. We obtained 18 characteristic curve equations for the internal and external contours of the claw. A bionic sampling scoop was designed according to the structural parameters of Curiosity’s sampling shovel and the contours of the Himalayan marmot’s claw. Verifying test results showed that when the penetration angle was 45° and the sampling speed was 0.33 r/min, the bionic sampling scoops’ resistance torque was 49.6% less than that of the prototype sampling scoop. When the penetration angle was 60° and the sampling speed was 0.22 r/min, the resistance torque of the bionic sampling scoop was 28.8% lower than that of the prototype sampling scoop.

  14. Bio-Tribology Properties of Bionic Carp Scale Morphology on Ti6A14V Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Y Wei, X.; Meng, K.; Zhong, L. H.; Wang, Y.; Yu, X. H.

    2017-12-01

    In order to improve the bio-tribology properties of Ti6A14V surface, the bionic carp scale appearance pattern on Ti6A14V surface was prepared by laser surface texturing technology. The ball-disc reciprocating linear tribological experiment under different lubricants with dry friction was carried out by MRTR multifunction friction and wear testing machine using ZrO2/Ti6A14V as friction pair. The wear scar morphology of the sample surface was observed by SEM. The results show that for dry friction, the friction factor of the bionic carp scale morphology Ti6A14V reduces by 0.23 than those without bionic carp scale morphology, a decline of 45%. Under different lubrication conditions, the friction factors of samples with the bionic carp scale are increased in varying degrees with the increase of size of bionic texturing. The friction factor with same specimen under different lubrication conditions according to the ascending order are 0.5g/dl of sodium hyaluronate +0.5g/dl-γglobulin and 0.5g/dl mixed aqueous solution of sodium hyaluronate solution and artificial saliva. The wear volume also showed a similar variation.

  15. A Numerical Study of Aerodynamic Performance and Noise of a Bionic Airfoil Based on Owl Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Noise reduction and efficiency enhancement are the two important directions in the development of the multiblade centrifugal fan. In this study, we attempt to develop a bionic airfoil based on the owl wing and investigate its aerodynamic performance and noise-reduction mechanism at the relatively low Reynolds number. Firstly, according to the geometric characteristics of the owl wing, a bionic airfoil is constructed as the object of study at Reynolds number of 12,300. Secondly, the large eddy simulation (LES with the Smagorinsky model is adopted to numerically simulate the unsteady flow fields around the bionic airfoil and the standard NACA0006 airfoil. And then, the acoustic sources are extracted from the unsteady flow field data, and the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H equation based on Lighthill's acoustic theory is solved to predict the propagation of these acoustic sources. The numerical results show that the lift-to-drag ratio of bionic airfoil is higher than that of the traditional NACA 0006 airfoil because of its deeply concave lower surface geometry. Finally, the sound field of the bionic airfoil is analyzed in detail. The distribution of the A-weighted sound pressure levels, the scaled directivity of the sound, and the distribution of dP/dt on the airfoil surface are provided so that the characteristics of the acoustic sources could be revealed.

  16. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    ABSTRACT: To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed and profiling techniques are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment service (PES) and random search. Jobseekers choose between...... with re-spect to the hiring subsidy. The hiring subsidy raises not only the job destruction rate, but in-creases contrary to the Mortensen-Pissarides model also the duration of unemployment. Like the subsidy, profiling measures, which improve the search effectiveness of the PES, crowd-out the active...

  17. Effect of bionic coupling units' forms on wear resistance of gray cast iron under dry linear reciprocating sliding condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zuobo; Zhou, Hong; Xie, Guofeng; Cong, Dalong; Meng, Chao; Ren, Luquan

    2015-07-01

    In order to get close to the wear form of guide rails, the homemade linear reciprocating wear testing machine was used for the wear test. In order to improve the wear-resistance of gray cast iron guide rail, bionic coupling units of different forms were manufactured by a laser. Wear behavior of gray-cast-iron with bionic-coupling units has been studied under dry sliding condition at room temperature using the wear testing machine. The wear resistance was evaluated by means of weight loss measurement and wear morphology. The results indicated that bionic coupling unit could improve the wear resistance of gray cast iron. The wear resistance of gray cast iron with reticulation bionic coupling unit is the best. When the load and speed changed, reticulation bionic coupling unit still has excellent performance in improving the wear resistance of gray cast iron.

  18. Employers’ Perspectives on Hiring and Accommodating Workers With Mental Illness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shankar, Janki; Liu, Lili; Nicholas, David; Warren, Sharon; Lai, Daniel; Tan, Shawn; Zulla, Rosslynn; Couture, Jennifer; Sears, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    .... Yet, there is little research that has examined the perspectives of employers on hiring and accommodating these workers and the kinds of supports employers need to facilitate their reintegration into the workforce...

  19. Research on anti crack mechanism of bionic coupling brake disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lifeng; Yang, Xiao; Zheng, Lingnan; Wu, Can; Ni, Jing

    2017-09-01

    According to the biological function of fatigue resistance possessed by biology, this study designed a Bionic Coupling Brake Disc (BCBD) which can inhibit crack propagation as the result of improving fatigue property. Thermal stress field of brake disc was calculated under emergency working condition, and circumferential and radial stress field which lead to fatigue failure of brake disc were investigated simultaneously. Results showed that the maximum temperature of surface reached 890°C and the maximum residual tensile stress was 207 Mpa when the initial velocity of vehicle was 200 km/h. Based on the theory of elastic plastic fracture mechanics, the crack opening displacement and the crack front J integrals of the BCBD and traditional brake disc (TBD) with pre-cracking were calculated, and the strength of crack front was compared. Results revealed the growth behavior of fatigue crack located on surface of brake disc, and proved the anti fatigue resistance of BCBD was better, and the strength of crack resistance of BCBD was much stronger than that of TBD. This simulation research provided significant references for optimization and manufacturing of BCBD.

  20. A bionic camera-based polarization navigation sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daobin; Liang, Huawei; Zhu, Hui; Zhang, Shuai

    2014-07-21

    Navigation and positioning technology is closely related to our routine life activities, from travel to aerospace. Recently it has been found that Cataglyphis (a kind of desert ant) is able to detect the polarization direction of skylight and navigate according to this information. This paper presents a real-time bionic camera-based polarization navigation sensor. This sensor has two work modes: one is a single-point measurement mode and the other is a multi-point measurement mode. An indoor calibration experiment of the sensor has been done under a beam of standard polarized light. The experiment results show that after noise reduction the accuracy of the sensor can reach up to 0.3256°. It is also compared with GPS and INS (Inertial Navigation System) in the single-point measurement mode through an outdoor experiment. Through time compensation and location compensation, the sensor can be a useful alternative to GPS and INS. In addition, the sensor also can measure the polarization distribution pattern when it works in multi-point measurement mode.

  1. Biomimetic approaches to bionic touch through a peripheral nerve interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saal, Hannes P; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2015-12-01

    State-of-the-art prosthetic hands nearly match the dexterity of the human hand, and sophisticated approaches have been developed to control them intuitively. However, grasping and dexterously manipulating objects relies heavily on the sense of touch, without which we would struggle to perform even the most basic activities of daily living. Despite the importance of touch, not only in motor control but also in affective communication and embodiment, the restoration of touch through bionic hands is still in its infancy, a shortcoming that severely limits their effectiveness. Here, we focus on approaches to restore the sense of touch through an electrical interface with the peripheral nerve. First, we describe devices that can be chronically implanted in the nerve to electrically activate nerve fibers. Second, we discuss how these interfaces have been used to convey basic somatosensory feedback. Third, we review what is known about how the somatosensory nerve encodes information about grasped objects in intact limbs and discuss how these natural neural codes can be exploited to convey artificial tactile feedback. Finally, we offer a blueprint for how these codes could be implemented in a neuroprosthetic device to deliver rich, natural, and versatile tactile sensations. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Numerical Study on Hydrodynamic Performance of Bionic Caudal Fin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, numerical simulations are conducted to reveal the hydrodynamic mechanism of caudal fin propulsion. In the modeling of a bionic caudal fin, a universal kinematics model with three degrees of freedom is adopted and the flexible deformation in the spanwise direction is considered. Navier-Stokes equations are used to solve the unsteady fluid flow and dynamic mesh method is applied to track the locomotion. The force coefficients, torque coefficient, and flow field characteristics are extracted and analyzed. Then the thrust efficiency is calculated. In order to verify validity and feasibility of the algorithm, hydrodynamic performance of flapping foil is analyzed. The present results of flapping foil compare well with those in experimental researches. After that, the influences of amplitude of angle of attack, amplitude of heave motion, Strouhal number, and spanwise flexibility are analyzed. The results show that, the performance can be improved by adjusting the motion and flexibility parameters. The spanwise flexibility of caudal fin can increase thrust force with high propulsive efficiency.

  3. Culturing functional cartilage tissue under a novel bionic mechanical condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Minglin; Lv, Dan; Zhang, Chunqiu; Zhu, Lei

    2010-12-01

    Bioreactor, which is used for in vitro construction of tissue-engineered cartilage, has been extensively studied by researchers. The growth and development of articular cartilage tissue are affected by biomechanical and biochemical factors, especially mechanical condition. Kinds of mechanical conditions including compressive and shear force, fluid flow, hydrostatic pressure, and tissue deformation, were developed in the past years. However, most mechanical conditions of improved bioreactor involve only one or two external force, which is merely partial for engineering cartilage tissue. No bioreactor which can simulate a normal articular cartilage in terms of structure and function has been reported. Consequently, simulation of bionic mechanical environment of a normal articular cartilage is considered to be the optimal environment for culturing the functional articular cartilage in vitro. Based upon this purpose, we designed a rolling-compression loading bioreactor. It could provide cultures with multi-mechanical stimulations and sufficiently mimic the complex mechanical environment of a normal articular cartilage. We propose that this comprehensive rolling-compression loading bioreactor can enhance the cultivation of functional cartilage constructs in vitro. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nanocarbon-Coated Porous Anodic Alumina for Bionic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Aramesh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A highly-stable and biocompatible nanoporous electrode is demonstrated herein. The electrode is based on a porous anodic alumina which is conformally coated with an ultra-thin layer of diamond-like carbon. The nanocarbon coating plays an essential role for the chemical stability and biocompatibility of the electrodes; thus, the coated electrodes are ideally suited for biomedical applications. The corrosion resistance of the proposed electrodes was tested under extreme chemical conditions, such as in boiling acidic/alkali environments. The nanostructured morphology and the surface chemistry of the electrodes were maintained after wet/dry chemical corrosion tests. The non-cytotoxicity of the electrodes was tested by standard toxicity tests using mouse fibroblasts and cortical neurons. Furthermore, the cell–electrode interaction of cortical neurons with nanocarbon coated nanoporous anodic alumina was studied in vitro. Cortical neurons were found to attach and spread to the nanocarbon coated electrodes without using additional biomolecules, whilst no cell attachment was observed on the surface of the bare anodic alumina. Neurite growth appeared to be sensitive to nanotopographical features of the electrodes. The proposed electrodes show a great promise for practical applications such as retinal prostheses and bionic implants in general.

  5. Design and Implementation of a Bionic Mimosa Robot with Delicate Leaf Swing Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Liang Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study designed and developed a bionic mimosa robot with delicate leaf swing behaviors. For different swing behaviors, this study developed a variety of situations, in which the bionic mimosa robot would display different postures. The core technologies used were Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs, plastic material, and an intelligent control device. The technology particularly focused on the SMAs memory processing bend mode, directional guidance, and the position of SMAs installed inside the plastic material. Performance analysis and evaluation were conducted using two SMAs for mimosa opening/closing behaviors. Finally, by controlling the mimosa behavior with a micro-controller, the optimal strain swing behavior was realized through fuzzy logic control in order to display the different postures of mimosa under different situations. The proposed method is applicable to micro-bionic robot systems, entertainment robots, biomedical engineering, and architectural aesthetics-related fields in the future.

  6. Bionic optimization in structural design stochastically based methods to improve the performance of parts and assemblies

    CERN Document Server

    Gekeler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The book provides suggestions on how to start using bionic optimization methods, including pseudo-code examples of each of the important approaches and outlines of how to improve them. The most efficient methods for accelerating the studies are discussed. These include the selection of size and generations of a study’s parameters, modification of these driving parameters, switching to gradient methods when approaching local maxima, and the use of parallel working hardware. Bionic Optimization means finding the best solution to a problem using methods found in nature. As Evolutionary Strategies and Particle Swarm Optimization seem to be the most important methods for structural optimization, we primarily focus on them. Other methods such as neural nets or ant colonies are more suited to control or process studies, so their basic ideas are outlined in order to motivate readers to start using them. A set of sample applications shows how Bionic Optimization works in practice. From academic studies on simple fra...

  7. Effects of setting angle and chord length on performance of four blades bionic wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z. X.; Li, G. S.; Song, L.; Bai, Y. F.

    2017-11-01

    With the energy crisis and the increasing environmental pollution, more and more efforts have been made about wind power development. In this paper, a four blades bionic wind turbine was proposed, and the outline of wind turbine was constructed by the fitted curve. This paper attempted to research the effects of setting angle and chord length on performance of four blades bionic wind turbine by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The results showed that the setting angle and chord length of the bionic wind turbine has some significant effects on the efficiency of the wind turbine, and within the range of wind speed from 7 m/s to 15 m/s, the wind turbine achieved maximum efficiency when the setting angle is 31 degree and the chord length is 125 mm. The conclusion will work as a guideline for the improvement of wind turbine design

  8. The value of hiring through employee referrals in developed countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    Companies frequently hire new employees based on referrals from existing employees, who often recommend friends or family members. There are numerous possible benefits from this, such as lower turnover, possibly higher productivity, lower recruiting costs, and beneficial commonalities related to shared employee values. On the other hand, hiring through employee referrals may disadvantage under-represented minorities, entail greater firm costs in the form of higher wages, lead to undesirable c...

  9. Don't hire the wrong CEO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, W; O'Toole, J

    2000-01-01

    A disturbing trend is going on in corporate America--CEO churning. Top executives are rapidly coming and going, keeping their jobs for increasingly shorter periods of time. The reason? Most boards are so unclear about the definition of leadership, they are picking the wrong people. CEO churning needn't be, say leadership experts Warren Bennis and James O'Toole. Boards can reverse the trend by following several guidelines. First, boards must come to a shared, accurate definition of leadership. Simply put, leaders must be able to move human hearts--to challenge people and make them want to scale steep peaks. Second, boards should strengthen the CEO selection process by resolving strategic and political conflicts amongst themselves. An agreed-upon strategic direction will make choosing the CEO with the right vision for the company that much easier and can clarify the job for the new CEO. Third, the board needs to measure every CEO candidate's soft qualities. Economic measures are important, but integrity, the ability to provide meaning, and the talent for creating other leaders are critical. Fourth, boards should beware of candidates who act like CEOs. Charisma and glossy pitches can be enticing, but they're rarely the stuff of true leadership. Fifth, boards should accept that real leaders will more than likely overturn the status quo. Sixth, boards need to know that insider heirs usually aren't apparent, and finally, boards should always avoid making a hasty decision. Hiring the right CEO is a slow process at best. Ultimately, the surest way for boards to pick the right CEO is to cultivate and nurture talent in the making.

  10. Outpatient glycemic control with a bionic pancreas in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Steven J; El-Khatib, Firas H; Sinha, Manasi; Magyar, Kendra L; McKeon, Katherine; Goergen, Laura G; Balliro, Courtney; Hillard, Mallory A; Nathan, David M; Damiano, Edward R

    2014-07-24

    The safety and effectiveness of automated glycemic management have not been tested in multiday studies under unrestricted outpatient conditions. In two random-order, crossover studies with similar but distinct designs, we compared glycemic control with a wearable, bihormonal, automated, "bionic" pancreas (bionic-pancreas period) with glycemic control with an insulin pump (control period) for 5 days in 20 adults and 32 adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The automatically adaptive algorithm of the bionic pancreas received data from a continuous glucose monitor to control subcutaneous delivery of insulin and glucagon. Among the adults, the mean plasma glucose level over the 5-day bionic-pancreas period was 138 mg per deciliter (7.7 mmol per liter), and the mean percentage of time with a low glucose level (bionic pancreas, the mean (±SD) glucose level on continuous monitoring was lower than the mean level during the control period (133±13 vs. 159±30 mg per deciliter [7.4±0.7 vs. 8.8±1.7 mmol per liter], Pbionic-pancreas period than during the control period (138±18 vs. 157±27 mg per deciliter [7.7±1.0 vs. 8.7±1.5 mmol per liter], P=0.004), but the percentage of time with a low plasma glucose reading was similar during the two periods (6.1% and 7.6%, respectively; P=0.23). The mean frequency of interventions for hypoglycemia among the adolescents was lower during the bionic-pancreas period than during the control period (one per 1.6 days vs. one per 0.8 days, Pbionic pancreas improved mean glycemic levels, with less frequent hypoglycemic episodes, among both adults and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01762059 and NCT01833988.).

  11. Hiring: take your time but not too much

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Linda

    2010-08-01

    People are any company's greatest asset. Without a great team no company would be able to conceive of a product or service. It would not be able to design or develop a product or service. It could not possibly market or sell that product or service. How a company goes about hiring its talent is one of the most critical components to developing a great team, to having low attrition, and to having a high level of employee faith in management. Far too often I have seen companies when tasked with filling requisitions not take the time to consider, or layout and execute their priorities in hiring. It's a pretty safe assumption that if one doesn't feel they have enough time to be careful and thorough in their hiring approach in order to get the right person the first time - they probably won't have enough time to replace someone they would not have hired had they done it right in the first place! The flip side of this is the problem of letting too much time pass in the process and therefore losing opportunities to hire great people. This paper will point out many mistakes I have seen made in hiring approaches so that hopefully, different strategies can be adopted to avoid those mistakes in the future.

  12. Research on the Bionics Design of Automobile Styling Based on the Form Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aili, Zhao; Long, Jiang

    2017-09-01

    From the heritage of form gene point of view, this thesis has analyzed the gene make-up, cultural inheritance and aesthetic features in the evolution and development of forms of brand automobiles and proposed the bionic design concept and methods in the automobile styling design. And this innovative method must be based on the form gene, and the consistency and combination of form element must be maintained during the design. Taking the design of Maserati as an example, the thesis will show you the design method and philosophy in the aspects of form gene expression and bionic design innovation for the future automobile styling.

  13. 5 CFR 330.504 - Special restrictions after appointment under Part-time Direct Hire Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under Part-time Direct Hire Program. 330.504 Section 330.504 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... To Protect Competitive Principles § 330.504 Special restrictions after appointment under Part-time Direct Hire Program. (a) A person hired under the Part-time Direct Hire Program may not be changed to...

  14. Bionic baroreceptor corrects postural hypotension in rats with impaired baroreceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Kazuya; Ide, Tomomi; Tobushi, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Kazuo; Onitsuka, Ken; Sakamoto, Takafumi; Fujino, Takeo; Saku, Keita; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2012-09-04

    Impairment of the arterial baroreflex causes orthostatic hypotension. Arterial baroreceptor sensitivity degrades with age. Thus, an impaired baroreceptor plays a pivotal role in orthostatic hypotension in most elderly patients. There is no effective treatment for orthostatic hypotension. The aims of this investigation were to develop a bionic baroreceptor (BBR) and to verify whether it corrects postural hypotension. The BBR consists of a pressure sensor, a regulator, and a neurostimulator. In 35 Sprague-Dawley rats, we vascularly and neurally isolated the baroreceptor regions and attached electrodes to the aortic depressor nerve for stimulation. To mimic impaired baroreceptors, we maintained intracarotid sinus pressure at 60 mm Hg during activation of the BBR. Native baroreflex was reproduced by matching intracarotid sinus pressure to the instantaneous pulsatile aortic pressure. The encoding rule for translating intracarotid sinus pressure into stimulation of the aortic depressor nerve was identified by a white noise technique and applied to the regulator. The open-loop arterial pressure response to intracarotid sinus pressure (n=7) and upright tilt-induced changes in arterial pressure (n=7) were compared between native baroreceptor and BBR conditions. The intracarotid sinus pressure-arterial pressure relationships were comparable. Compared with the absence of baroreflex, the BBR corrected tilt-induced hypotension as effectively as under native baroreceptor conditions (native, -39±5 mm Hg; BBR, -41±5 mm Hg; absence, -63±5 mm Hg; P<0.05). The BBR restores the pressure buffering function. Although this research demonstrated feasibility of the BBR, further research is needed to verify its long-term effect and safety in larger animal models and humans.

  15. Study on quantitative relation between characteristics of striature bionic coupling unit and wear resistance of gray cast iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zuobo; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Peng; Cong, Dalong; Meng, Chao; Wang, Chuanwei; Ren, Luquan

    2015-03-01

    In order to improve the wear resistance of gray cast iron guide rail, striature bionic coupling units of different characteristics were manufactured by laser surface remelting. Wear behavior of gray cast iron with striature bionic coupling units has been studied under dry sliding condition at room temperature using a homemade linear reciprocating wear testing machine. The wear resistance was evaluated by means of weight loss measurement and wear morphology. The results indicated that there is a relationship between weight loss and the area of striature bionic coupling units and α: Δm = Δm0 - 0.0212S × cos α - 0.0241S × sin α.

  16. Cosmological dynamics of D-BIonic and DBI scalar field and coincidence problem of dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panpanich, Sirachak; Maeda, Kei-ichi; Mizuno, Shuntaro

    2017-05-01

    We study the cosmological dynamics of a D-BIonic and Dirac-Born-Infeld scalar field, which is coupled to matter fluid. For the exponential potential and the exponential couplings, we find a new analytic scaling solution yielding the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Since it is shown to be an attractor for some range of the coupling parameters, the density parameter of matter fluid can be the observed value, as in the coupled quintessence with a canonical scalar field. Contrary to the usual coupled quintessence, where the value of the matter coupling giving the observed density parameter is too large to satisfy the observational constraint from the cosmic microwave background, we show that the D-BIonic theory can give a similar solution with a much smaller value of matter coupling. As a result, together with the fact that the D-BIonic theory has a screening mechanism, the D-BIonic theory can solve the so-called coincidence problem as well as the dark energy problem.

  17. Auto-bionics – a new paradigm in Regenerative Medicine and Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafian, Hutan; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2013-01-01

    Summary The concept of bionics represents the development of engineering and technology based on natural biological systems. Traditional applications of bionics in healthcare include artificial bionic organs which can be used to replace, mimic and even enhance biological function when compared to native organic equivalents (so-called ‘Exo-bionics’). Recently there has been a new wave of bio-inspired treatments that act through the reorganisation of the existing biological organs in an individual to enhance physiology. Here the technology does not replace biological tissue, but augments function by tissue reorganization and modification – so-called ‘Auto-bionics’. Examples include the Ross (Pulmonary Autograft) Procedure, Cardiomyoplasty, Skeletal-Muscle-Ventricles, Graciloplasty and Metabolic Gastric-Bypass (gastrointestinal rearrangement to modulate hormone release and treat diabetes). These procedures will have an increased role in reconstructive strategies and the treatment of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Auto-bionics can enhance physiological function beyond normality in some cases and represents a new era in bio-inspired versatility. PMID:20210587

  18. Industry 5.0-The Relevance and Implications of Bionics and Synthetic Biology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter Sachsenmeier

    2016-01-01

    Bionics (the imitation or abstraction of the "inventions" of nature) and, to an even greater extent, syn- thetic biology, will be as relevant to engineering development and industry as the silicon chip was over the last 50 years...

  19. Study on the Hydrodynamic Performance of Typical Underwater Bionic Foils with Spanwise Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bionic foils are usually similar in shape to the locomotive organs of animals living in fluid media, which is helpful in the analysis of the motion mode and hydrodynamic mechanisms of biological prototypes. With the design of underwater vehicles as the research background, bionic foils are adopted as research objects in this paper. A geometric model and a motion model are established depending on the biological prototype. In the model, two typical bionic foils―a NACA foil and a crescent-shaped foil―are chosen as research objects. Simulations of the bionic foils are performed using a numerical method based on computational fluid dynamics software. The hydrodynamic forces acting on the foils and flow field characteristics behind the foils are used to analyze the propulsion performance and hydrodynamic mechanism. Furthermore, a spanwise flexibility model is introduced into the motion model. Next, the hydrodynamic mechanism is further analyzed on the basis of hydrodynamic forces and flow field characteristics with different spanwise flexibility parameters. Finally, an experimental verification platform is designed and built to verify the reliability of the numerical results. Agreement between the experimental and numerical results indicates that the numerical results are reliable and that the analysis of the paper is reasonable.

  20. Experimental Study of Reciprocating Friction between Rape Stalk and Bionic Nonsmooth Surface Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. China is the largest producer of rape oilseed in the world; however, the mechanization level of rape harvest is relatively low, because rape materials easily adhere to the cleaning screens of combine harvesters, resulting in significant cleaning losses. Previous studies have shown that bionic nonsmooth surface cleaning screens restrain the adhesion of rape materials, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Objective. The reciprocating friction between rape stalk and bionic nonsmooth metal surface was examined. Methods. The short-time Fourier transform method was used to discriminate the stable phase of friction signals and the stick-lag distance was defined to analyze the stable reciprocating friction in a phase diagram. Results. The reciprocating friction between rape stalk and metal surface is a typical stick-slip friction, and the bionic nonsmooth metal surfaces with concave or convex units reduced friction force with increasing reciprocating frequency. The results also showed that the stick-lag distance of convex surface increased with reciprocating frequency, which indicated that convex surface reduces friction force more efficiently. Conclusions. We suggest that bionic nonsmooth surface cleaning screens, especially with convex units, restrain the adhesion of rape materials more efficiently compared to the smooth surface cleaning screens.

  1. Rena Tangens & padeluun "bionic" / Rena Tangens, Padeluun ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tangens, Rena

    2006-01-01

    1997. a. Bielefeldis tehtud intervjuu sealsete kunstnike Rena Tangensi ja Padeluuniga, kes 1984. a. asutasid galerii "Art d'Ameublement", 1989. a. lõid elektroonilise kirjakasti "Bionic", osalevad Avaliku Liikuva ja Liikumatu Andmeringluse Edendamise Ühingu (FoeBud e. V:) liikmetena kongressidel, küsitlustel jm. ning peavad oma tegevust kunstiteose osaks

  2. Bionic Design of Wind Turbine Blade Based on Long-Eared Owl’s Airfoil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tian, Weijun; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Jiyue; Li, Ming; Ma, Yi; Cong, Qian

    2017-01-01

    .... Also, the efficiency of the bionic blade in wind turbine blades tests increases by 12% or above (up to 44%) compared to that of the standard blade. The reason lies in the bigger pressure difference between the upper and lower surface which can provide stronger lift.

  3. Design and Test Research on Cutting Blade of Corn Harvester Based on Bionic Principle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kunpeng Tian; Xianwang Li; Bin Zhang; Qiaomin Chen; Cheng Shen; Jicheng Huang

    2017-01-01

    .... Using statistical analysis of two groups of cutting test data, the average cutting force and cutting energy of bionic blades and ordinary blades were obtained as 480.24 N and 551.31 N and 3.91 J and 4.38 J, respectively...

  4. Bionic ankle-foot prosthesis normalizes walking gait for persons with leg amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Hugh M; Grabowski, Alena M

    2012-02-07

    Over time, leg prostheses have improved in design, but have been incapable of actively adapting to different walking velocities in a manner comparable to a biological limb. People with a leg amputation using such commercially available passive-elastic prostheses require significantly more metabolic energy to walk at the same velocities, prefer to walk slower and have abnormal biomechanics compared with non-amputees. A bionic prosthesis has been developed that emulates the function of a biological ankle during level-ground walking, specifically providing the net positive work required for a range of walking velocities. We compared metabolic energy costs, preferred velocities and biomechanical patterns of seven people with a unilateral transtibial amputation using the bionic prosthesis and using their own passive-elastic prosthesis to those of seven non-amputees during level-ground walking. Compared with using a passive-elastic prosthesis, using the bionic prosthesis decreased metabolic cost by 8 per cent, increased trailing prosthetic leg mechanical work by 57 per cent and decreased the leading biological leg mechanical work by 10 per cent, on average, across walking velocities of 0.75-1.75 m s(-1) and increased preferred walking velocity by 23 per cent. Using the bionic prosthesis resulted in metabolic energy costs, preferred walking velocities and biomechanical patterns that were not significantly different from people without an amputation.

  5. Bionic ankle–foot prosthesis normalizes walking gait for persons with leg amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Hugh M.; Grabowski, Alena M.

    2012-01-01

    Over time, leg prostheses have improved in design, but have been incapable of actively adapting to different walking velocities in a manner comparable to a biological limb. People with a leg amputation using such commercially available passive-elastic prostheses require significantly more metabolic energy to walk at the same velocities, prefer to walk slower and have abnormal biomechanics compared with non-amputees. A bionic prosthesis has been developed that emulates the function of a biological ankle during level-ground walking, specifically providing the net positive work required for a range of walking velocities. We compared metabolic energy costs, preferred velocities and biomechanical patterns of seven people with a unilateral transtibial amputation using the bionic prosthesis and using their own passive-elastic prosthesis to those of seven non-amputees during level-ground walking. Compared with using a passive-elastic prosthesis, using the bionic prosthesis decreased metabolic cost by 8 per cent, increased trailing prosthetic leg mechanical work by 57 per cent and decreased the leading biological leg mechanical work by 10 per cent, on average, across walking velocities of 0.75–1.75 m s−1 and increased preferred walking velocity by 23 per cent. Using the bionic prosthesis resulted in metabolic energy costs, preferred walking velocities and biomechanical patterns that were not significantly different from people without an amputation. PMID:21752817

  6. Influence of Cycle Temperature on the Wear Resistance of Vermicular Iron Derivatized with Bionic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Qi; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Hong; Liu, Yan; Ren, Luquan

    2016-11-01

    Depending on their applications, such as in brake discs, camshafts, etc., the wear behavior of vermicular iron is influenced by the thermal cycling regime. The failure of a working part during its service life is a consequence of both thermal fatigue and wear. Previously, the wear and thermal fatigue resistance properties of vermicular iron were separately investigated by researchers, rather than a study combining these two factors. In the present work, the effect of cycle temperature on the wear resistance of specimens with bionic units processed by laser has been investigated experimentally. The wear behavior pre- and post-thermal cycling has also been investigated, and the influence of different cycle temperatures on the wear resistance is discussed. The results indicate that the thermal cycling regime brought about negative influences with varying degrees, on the material properties, such as the microstructures, micro-hardness, cracks, and oxidation resistance properties. All these factors synergistically reduced the wear resistance of vermicular iron. In particular, the negative influence apparently increased with an increase in cycle temperature. Nevertheless, the post-thermal-cycle wear resistance of the specimens with bionic units was superior to those without bionic units. Hence, the laser bionic process is an effective way to improve the performance of vermicular iron in combined thermal cycling and wear service conditions.

  7. Drivers of hiring discrimination for individuals with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Brian T; Hurley, Jessica E; Chan, Fong; Rumrill, Philip D; Roessler, Richard

    2008-06-01

    Hiring discrimination in the workplace is defined as failure or refusal by an employer to engage a qualified applicant as an employee due to the existence or consequence of disability. The specific intent of this study is to determine what differentiates an allegation (perception of discrimination) from an actual discriminatory event (Merit Resolution). Researchers used a data-mining approach, the Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID), to examine 19,527 resolved allegations of hiring discrimination in order to differentiate between Merit Resolution and Non-Merit Resolution outcomes. CHAID analysis confirmed that hiring discrimination is a complex matter with a variety of influences. Primary among these is the age of the Charging Party, with younger applicants (16-34) prevailing in their allegations 34% of the time. Within this subgroup, the sequence of predictor variables involves the Charging Party's impairment, followed by the Employer's industry classification. Behavioral disabilities, even among the young, result in generally lower Merit Resolution rates in hiring discrimination. Providers of training and technical assistance regarding hiring and disability may be able to adjust their services accordingly on the basis of findings such as these.

  8. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To explore their effect on employment and wages, we devise a model with two types of unemployed and two methods of search, a public employment service (PES) and random search. The eligibility of a new...... match depends on the applicant's unemployment duration and on the method of search. The hiring subsidy raises job destruction and extends contrary to Mortensen-Pissarides (1999, 2003) the duration of a job search, so that equilibrium unemployment increases. Like the subsidy, organizational reforms...

  9. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    To reduce equilibrium unemployment targeted hiring subsidies and profilin techniques for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these two instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment serviceand random search, jobseekers choose between...... that under both regimes the equilibrium unemployment rate is increasing with respect to the hiring subsidy. The subsidy like the profiling measures, which improve the effectiveness of the public placement service, crowd-out the active jobseekers among the short- and the long-term unemployed and reduce total...

  10. Faculty Hiring and Development at BYU: Perspectives of a Recent Hire and Department Chair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, R. Steven

    2002-04-01

    I will present a personal perspective on the transition from an industrial to an academic physicist. For those planning on a similar transition, I will mention several things that were helpful in preparing myself, marketing myself, and adapting to an academic setting. For instance, a significant difference between academic and industrial physics is the responsibility of classroom teaching. Several things that proved particularly useful in improving my own teaching were mentoring teaching partnerships, student evaluations, help in the tenure and promotion process, and programs available from our Faculty Center. From my current perspective as a department chair, I will further discuss mentoring practices I have found helpful with other new faculty. These include such things as inviting mentors to participate with new faculty in development workshops and providing financial and other recognition for participation as a mentor. In addition to developing professional skills, I have found that good mentoring is particularly critical in encouraging new faculty to adapt to departmental culture. Finally, I will discuss ideas I have found helpful in successfully recruiting new faculty. This involves researching, identifying, and actively recruiting faculty we think will build our department. For us, it has not been sufficient to passively rely on responses from applicants to advertisements and word-of-mouth inquiries. Through careful hiring and effective mentoring, we have developed an excellent record of having our faculty being successful in the tenure process.

  11. Obesity, Attractiveness, and Differential Treatment in Hiring: A Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooth, Dan-Olof

    2009-01-01

    This study presents evidence of differential treatment in the hiring of obese individuals in the Swedish labor market. Fictitious applications were sent to real job openings. The applications were sent in pairs, where one facial photo of an otherwise identical applicant was manipulated to show the individual as obese. Applications sent with the…

  12. Downside Seen in Rush to Hire School-Based Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    With nightmare visions of a gunman stalking school halls, districts often rush to hire police officers to patrol their campuses after news of a school shooting. Critics of that impulsive response, which has been in high gear nationwide since the Sandy Hook Elementary School shootings in December, acknowledge the concern for student and staff…

  13. Leadership Analysis in K-12 Case Study: Superintendent's Hiring Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsobaie, Mohammed Fahad

    2016-01-01

    This paper will seek to analyze of the case "Superintendent's Hiring Dilemma" by Hoy and Tarter (2004) using multiple leadership perspectives. The last section of this analysis of the case study will provide the most effective leadership recommendations for the key players.

  14. 75 FR 27157 - Improving the Federal Recruitment and Hiring Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... seeking and obtaining jobs in the Federal Government. I therefore call on executive departments and... able to apply for Federal jobs through a commonsense hiring process and agencies must be able to select high-quality candidates efficiently and quickly. Moreover, agency managers and supervisors must assume...

  15. Conducting a Hiring Fair Simulation for Teacher Education Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, Brian; Heidorn, Brent; Johnson, Christie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a basic review of a hiring simulation fair, and to describe strategies for successfully implementing a similar organized event in a college/university teacher education program in order to better prepare students for the interview process.

  16. Direct and Contract Hiring of Seasonal Farm Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Walter E., Jr.

    Obtaining a sufficient supply of labor when it is needed is a problem faced by most farmers annually because of the very seasonal nature of farming. Even with mechanization and family labor, most farmers need to hire some help. This report summarizes the results of a survey conducted in 1966 to determine: (1) methods used to obtain seasonal…

  17. Superintendents' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Newly Hired Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Lynn E.; Boyland, Lori G.; Sriver, Shawn K.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the frequency of research-based leadership strategies utilized by newly hired school principals in the workplace. Public school superintendents in Indiana were asked to respond to two open-ended research questions. Through the use of content analysis, their comments were coded for the occurrence of effective leadership…

  18. Key Issue: Teacher Hiring, Placement, and Assignment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrstock, Ellen; Coggshall, Jane G.

    2009-01-01

    The literature on teacher hiring and assignment tends to omit definitions of these key terms. An exception in Cohen-Vogel and Osborne-Lampkin (277), who define teacher assignment as "the reciprocal process between school management and teachers to guide decisions about who will teach, where they will teach, and what they will teach." But the…

  19. The Case for Hiring “Outlier” Employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert D.; Sonne, Thorkil

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the case for hiring outlier employees, or people with autism, and the value they bring to companies and role in establishing workplace environments that enable individual value creation, in bringing out exceptional abilities, or in creating performance management systems....

  20. Training, Degrees, and Credentials in the Hiring of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'donnell, Patrick S.; Dunlap, Linda L.

    2014-01-01

    A national sample of 246 Directors of Pupil Personnel Services and Directors of Special Education were surveyed to assess the importance they place on training, degrees, and credentials in the hiring of school psychologists. High, but varying, levels of importance were found for the content knowledge and skill areas in the National Association of…

  1. The Role of Automatic Obesity Stereotypes in Real Hiring Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerstrom, Jens; Rooth, Dan-Olof

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether automatic stereotypes captured by the implicit association test (IAT) can predict real hiring discrimination against the obese. In an unobtrusive field experiment, job applications were sent to a large number of real job vacancies. The applications were matched on credentials but differed with respect to the applicant's…

  2. Understanding Factors that Contribute to Disproportionality: Administrative Hiring Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Janette K.; Harry, Beth; Felton, Ronald K.

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 12 elementary schools investigated hiring and placement decisions of school district-level personnel and principals. Findings indicate inequities in the quality of leadership and instruction in the inner-city schools exacerbate efforts to reduce disproportionate placements of culturally and linguistically diverse children into…

  3. The Hi-Ring architecture for datacentre networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Kamchevska, Valerija; Ding, Yunhong

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent work on a hierarchical ring-based network architecture (Hi-Ring) for datacentre and short-range applications. The architecture allows leveraging benefits of optical switching technologies while maintaining a high level of connection granularity. We discuss results...

  4. Employers’ Perspectives on Hiring and Accommodating Workers With Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janki Shankar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many individuals with mental illness want to return to work and stay in employment. Yet, there is little research that has examined the perspectives of employers on hiring and accommodating these workers and the kinds of supports employers need to facilitate their reintegration into the workforce. The aim of the current research was to explore the challenges employers face and the support they need to hire and accommodate workers with mental illness (WWMI. A qualitative research design guided by a grounded theory approach was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 employers selected from a wide range of industries in and around Edmonton, Canada. The employers were a mix of frontline managers, disability consultants, and human resource managers who had direct experience with hiring and supervising WWMI. Data were analyzed using the principles of grounded theory. The findings highlight several challenges that employers face when dealing with mental health issues of workers in the workplace. These challenges can act as barriers to hiring and accommodating WWMI.

  5. Hiring Costs of Skilled Workers and the Supply of Firm-Provided Training

    OpenAIRE

    Blatter, Marc; Mühlemann, Samuel; Schenker, Samuel; Wolter, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes how the costs of hiring skilled workers from the external labor market affect a firm's supply of training. Using administrative survey data with detailed information on hiring and training costs for Swiss firms, we find evidence for substantial and increasing marginal hiring costs. However, firms can invest in internal training of unskilled workers and thereby avoid costs for external hiring. Controlling for a firm's training investment, we find that a one standard deviati...

  6. Towards Extending Forward Kinematic Models on Hyper-Redundant Manipulator to Cooperative Bionic Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inderjeet; Lakhal, Othman; Merzouki, Rochdi

    2017-01-01

    Forward Kinematics is a stepping stone towards finding an inverse solution and subsequently a dynamic model of a robot. Hence a study and comparison of various Forward Kinematic Models (FKMs) is necessary for robot design. This paper deals with comparison of three FKMs on the same hyper-redundant Compact Bionic Handling Assistant (CBHA) manipulator under same conditions. The aim of this study is to project on modeling cooperative bionic manipulators. Two of these methods are quantitative methods, Arc Geometry HTM (Homogeneous Transformation Matrix) Method and Dual Quaternion Method, while the other one is Hybrid Method which uses both quantitative as well as qualitative approach. The methods are compared theoretically and experimental results are discussed to add further insight to the comparison. HTM is the widely used and accepted technique, is taken as reference and trajectory deviation in other techniques are compared with respect to HTM. Which method allows obtaining an accurate kinematic behavior of the CBHA, controlled in the real-time.

  7. The UC Softhand: Light Weight Adaptive Bionic Hand with a Compact Twisted String Actuation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Tavakoli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the design and development of the UC-Softhand. The UC Softhand is a low cost, Bionic and adaptive hand that takes advantage of compliant joints. By optimization of the actuation strategy as well as the actuation mechanism, we could develop an anthropomorphic hand that embeds three actuators, transmission mechanisms, controllers and drivers in the palm of the hand, and weighs only 280 g, making it one of the lightest bionic hands that has been created so far. The key aspect of the UC Softhand is utilization of a novel compact twisted string actuation mechanism, that allows a considerable weight and cost reduction compared to its predecessor.

  8. A bionic approach to mathematical modeling the fold geometry of deployable reflector antennas on satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, C. M.; Liu, T. S.

    2014-10-01

    Inspired from biology, this study presents a method for designing the fold geometry of deployable reflectors. Since the space available inside rockets for transporting satellites with reflector antennas is typically cylindrical in shape, and its cross-sectional area is considerably smaller than the reflector antenna after deployment, the cross-sectional area of the folded reflector must be smaller than the available rocket interior space. Membrane reflectors in aerospace are a type of lightweight structure that can be packaged compactly. To design membrane reflectors from the perspective of deployment processes, bionic applications from morphological changes of plants are investigated. Creating biologically inspired reflectors, this paper deals with fold geometry of reflectors, which imitate flower buds. This study uses mathematical formulation to describe geometric profiles of flower buds. Based on the formulation, new designs for deployable membrane reflectors derived from bionics are proposed. Adjusting parameters in the formulation of these designs leads to decreases in reflector area before deployment.

  9. A Super-resolution Algorithm Based on SURF and POCS for 3D Bionics PTZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyu LI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Image super-resolution algorithm improves image resolution in software. Before image tracking, it needs to enhance image resolution to improve the image tracking accuracy of the bionic eye. The traditional super-resolution reconstruction method can’t satisfy the accuracy and real-time system, so this paper proposes super-resolution image reconstruction algorithm based on SURF (Speeded up Robust Features and POCS (Projections Onto Convex Sets. The algorithm applies SURF algorithm on image registration and uses RANSAC (RANdom SAmple Consensus algorithm to kick out fault feature to improve the accuracy of image registration. After motion estimation, this paper applies POCS algorithm to reconstruct a super-resolution image. Finally, some experiments are performed on the platform of a bionic eye, which show that the algorithm can better improve the image resolution and reach real-time requirements to some extent, and providing basis for the subsequent image tracking.

  10. Knee Joint Optimization Design of Intelligent Bionic Leg Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualong Xie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent bionic leg (IBL is an advanced prosthesis which can maximum functionally simulate and approach the motion trajectory of human leg. Knee joint is the most important bone of human leg and its bionic design has great significance to prosthesis performance. The structural components of IBL are introduced and virtual prototype is given. The advantages of 4-bar knee joint are analyzed and are adopted in IBL design. The kinematics model of 4-bar knee joint is established. The objective function, constraint condition, parameters selection and setting of genetic algorithm are discussed in detail. Based on genetic algorithm, the optimization design of IBL knee joint is done. The optimization results indicate that the 4-bar mechanism can achieve better anthropomorphic characteristics of human knee joint.

  11. Effects of setting angle on performance of fish-bionic wind wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G. S.; Yang, Z. X.; Song, L.; Chen, Q.; Li, Y. B.; Chen, W.

    2016-08-01

    With the energy crisis and the increasing environmental pollutionmore and more efforts have been made about wind power development. In this paper, a new type of vertical axis named the fish-bionic wind wheel was proposed, and the outline of wind wheel was constructed by curve of Fourier fitting and polynomial equations. This paper attempted to research the relationship between the setting angle and the wind turbine characteristics by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The results showed that the setting angle of the fish-bionic wind wheel has some significant effects on the efficiency of the wind turbine, Within the range of wind speed from 13m/s to 15m/s, wind wheel achieves the maximum efficiency when the setting angle is at 37 degree. The conclusion will work as a guideline for the improvement of wind turbine design.

  12. The Impact of Collective Bargaining and Urbanicity on the Late Hiring of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubert, Linda; Nelson, F. Howard

    2010-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that urban school districts hire teachers late due to issues related to district size and/or restrictions in collectively bargained teacher contracts affecting teacher hiring and transfers between schools. Our investigation of late teacher hiring and collective bargaining is based on a survey of 40 school districts that…

  13. Who Owns My Work? The State of Work for Hire for Academics in Technical Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, TyAnna K.

    1999-01-01

    Explains the work for hire doctrine and describes the circumstances under which it has been applied in academic workplaces. Enables readers to recognize and understand the legal concepts surrounding work for hire. Explicates related case law and suggests treatment of work for hire by instructors and administrators in rhetoric and technical…

  14. Intelligent fuzzy-neural pattern generation and control of a quadrupedal bionic inspection robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayfeddine, D.; Bulgakov, A. G.

    2017-02-01

    This paper represents a case study on ‘single leg single step’ pattern generation and control of quadrupedal bionic robot movement using intelligent fuzzy-neural approaches. The aim is to set up a flip-flop mechanical configuration allowing the robot to move one step forward. The same algorithm can be integrated to develop a full trajectory pattern as an interconnected task of global path planning for autonomous quadrupedal robots.

  15. Bionic reconstruction to restore hand function after brachial plexus injury: a case series of three patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aszmann, Oskar C; Roche, Aidan D; Salminger, Stefan; Paternostro-Sluga, Tatjana; Herceg, Malvina; Sturma, Agnes; Hofer, Christian; Farina, Dario

    2015-05-30

    Brachial plexus injuries can permanently impair hand function, yet present surgical reconstruction provides only poor results. Here, we present for the first time bionic reconstruction; a combined technique of selective nerve and muscle transfers, elective amputation, and prosthetic rehabilitation to regain hand function. Between April 2011, and May 2014, three patients with global brachial plexus injury including lower root avulsions underwent bionic reconstruction. Treatment occurred in two stages; first, to identify and create useful electromyographic signals for prosthetic control, and second, to amputate the hand and replace it with a mechatronic prosthesis. Before amputation, the patients had a specifically tailored rehabilitation programme to enhance electromyographic signals and cognitive control of the prosthesis. Final prosthetic fitting was applied as early as 6 weeks after amputation. Bionic reconstruction successfully enabled prosthetic hand use in all three patients. After 3 months, mean Action Research Arm Test score increased from 5·3 (SD 4·73) to 30·7 (14·0). Mean Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure score improved from 9·3 (SD 1·5) to 65·3 (SD 19·4). Mean Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand score improved from 46·5 (SD 18·7) to 11·7 (SD 8·42). For patients with global brachial plexus injury with lower root avulsions, who have no alternative treatment, bionic reconstruction offers a means to restore hand function. Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development, Austrian Federal Ministry of Science, Research & Economy, and European Research Council Advanced Grant DEMOVE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Design and Implementation of a Quadruped Bionic Robot Based on Virtual Prototype Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li

    2017-10-01

    Design out a quadruped bionic robot with nine degrees of freedom. Conduct virtual assembly and trotting gait simulation on the robot by using NX software. Present the angular velocity and angular displacement curves of the diagonal two legs’ hip joints and knee joints, thus to instruct the practical assemble and control of the robot. The fact that the movement effect of the physical model is consistent with the simulation verifies the validity and practicability of virtual assembly and motion simulation. both.

  17. Dynamic model and performance analysis of landing buffer for bionic locust mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dian-Sheng; Zhang, Zi-Qiang; Chen, Ke-Wei

    2016-06-01

    The landing buffer is an important problem in the research on bionic locust jumping robots, and the different modes of landing and buffering can affect the dynamic performance of the buffering process significantly. Based on an experimental observation, the different modes of landing and buffering are determined, which include the different numbers of landing legs and different motion modes of legs in the buffering process. Then a bionic locust mechanism is established, and the springs are used to replace the leg muscles to achieve a buffering effect. To reveal the dynamic performance in the buffering process of the bionic locust mechanism, a dynamic model is established with different modes of landing and buffering. In particular, to analyze the buffering process conveniently, an equivalent vibration dynamic model of the bionic locust mechanism is proposed. Given the support forces of the ground to the leg links, which can be obtained from the dynamic model, the spring forces of the legs and the impact resistance of each leg are the important parameters affecting buffering performance, and evaluation principles for buffering performance are proposed according to the aforementioned parameters. Based on the dynamic model and these evaluation principles, the buffering performances are analyzed and compared in different modes of landing and buffering on a horizontal plane and an inclined plane. The results show that the mechanism with the ends of the legs sliding can obtain a better dynamic performance. This study offers primary theories for buffering dynamics and an evaluation of landing buffer performance, and it establishes a theoretical basis for studies and engineering applications.

  18. Bionic ankle–foot prosthesis normalizes walking gait for persons with leg amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Herr, Hugh M; Grabowski, Alena M.

    2011-01-01

    Over time, leg prostheses have improved in design, but have been incapable of actively adapting to different walking velocities in a manner comparable to a biological limb. People with a leg amputation using such commercially available passive-elastic prostheses require significantly more metabolic energy to walk at the same velocities, prefer to walk slower and have abnormal biomechanics compared with non-amputees. A bionic prosthesis has been developed that emulates the function of a biolog...

  19. Kinematics of gait using bionic and hydraulic knee joints in transfemoral amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Uchytil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of new technologies has led to further improvements in prosthetic knee joints. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare angle parameters in knee and hip joints during the gait of transfemoral amputees and to determine the effect of the type of knee joint used on their symmetry. The study also compared pelvic movements in transfemoral amputees using different types of knee joints. Method: Eleven patients (5 female, 6 male, mean age 39.2 ± 10.1 years, height 171.8 ± 9.5 cm, mass 71.5 ± 11.0 kg with a transfemoral amputation (5 used bionic knee, 6 used hydraulic knee participated in this study. The control group consisted of 10 individuals with no locomotion-related problems (2 female, 8 male. Results: Movement was more symmetrical in the hip joint for all monitored parameters in patients with bionic knee joints. Flexion at heel contact and maximum flexion in the swing phase in the knee joint were more symmetrical in the group with hydraulic knee joints; for all other parameters the group with bionic knee joints achieved better symmetry. The kinematics of pelvic movement in the patients using hydraulic knee joints differed from the control group in all monitored parameters. The greatest difference with excellent effect size (ES = 7.96 was found in pelvic tilt. Pelvic tilt was higher when using hydraulic knee joints. Conclusion:  In comparison with the mechanically passive knee joint, gait with the bionic knee joint evinced gait symmetry.

  20. Symmetrical optical imaging system with bionic variable-focus lens for off-axis aberration correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan-Yin; Du, Jia-Wei; Zhu, Shi-Qiang

    2017-09-01

    A bionic variable-focus lens with symmetrical layered structure was designed to mimic the crystalline lens. An optical imaging system based on this lens and with a symmetrical structure that mimics the human eye structure was proposed. The refractive index of the bionic variable-focus lens increases from outside to inside. The two PDMS lenses with a certain thickness were designed to improve the optical performance of the optical imaging system and minimise the gravity effect of liquid. The paper presents the overall structure of the optical imaging system and the detailed description of the bionic variable-focus lens. By pumping liquid in or out of the cavity, the surface curvatures of the rear PDMS lens were varied, resulting in a change in the focal length. The focal length range of the optical imaging system was 20.71-24.87 mm. The optical performance of the optical imaging system was evaluated by imaging experiments and analysed by ray tracing simulations. On the basis of test and simulation results, the optical performance of the system was quite satisfactory. Off-axis aberrations were well corrected, and the image quality was greatly improved.

  1. Design and Analysis of Bionic Cutting Blades Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Praying mantis is one of the most efficient predators in insect world, which has a pair of powerful tools, two sharp and strong forelegs. Its femur and tibia are both armed with a double row of strong spines along their posterior edges which can firmly grasp the prey, when the femur and tibia fold on each other in capturing. These spines are so sharp that they can easily and quickly cut into the prey. The geometrical characteristic of the praying mantis’s foreleg, especially its tibia, has important reference value for the design of agricultural soil-cutting tools. Learning from the profile and arrangement of these spines, cutting blades with tooth profile were designed in this work. Two different sizes of tooth structure and arrangement were utilized in the design on the cutting edge. A conventional smooth-edge blade was used to compare with the bionic serrate-edge blades. To compare the working efficiency of conventional blade and bionic blades, 3D finite element simulation analysis and experimental measurement were operated in present work. Both the simulation and experimental results indicated that the bionic serrate-edge blades showed better performance in cutting efficiency.

  2. Bionic cardiology: exploration into a wealth of controllable body parts in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimachi, Masaru; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Bionic cardiology is the medical science of exploring electronic control of the body, usually via the neural system. Mimicking or modifying biological regulation is a strategy used to combat diseases. Control of ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation by selective vagal stimulation, suppression of ischemia-related ventricular fibrillation by vagal stimulation, and reproduction of neurally commanded heart rate are some examples of bionic treatment for arrhythmia. Implantable radio-frequency-coupled on-demand carotid sinus stimulators succeeded in interrupting or preventing anginal attacks but were replaced later by coronary revascularization. Similar but fixed-intensity carotid sinus stimulators were used for hypertension but were also replaced by drugs. Recently, however, a self-powered implantable device has been reappraised for the treatment of drug-resistant hypertension. Closed-loop spinal cord stimulation has successfully treated severe orthostatic hypotension in a limited number of patients. Vagal nerve stimulation is effective in treating heart failure in animals, and a small-size clinical trial has just started. Simultaneous corrections of multiple hemodynamic abnormalities in an acute decompensated state are accomplished simply by quantifying fundamental cardiovascular parameters and controlling these parameters. Bionic cardiology will continue to promote the development of more sophisticated device-based therapies for otherwise untreatable diseases and will inspire more intricate applications in the twenty-first century.

  3. Bionic Vision, Social Work, and Community Development: A Research Participant's Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Dianne

    2017-11-28

    This article discusses bionic vision through the author's experiences as Australia's first research participant in an early prototype bionic eye trial. During her two-year participation, she drew on various theoretical perspectives, including critical and community development approaches that not only influence her professional social work perspective, but extend to her personal worldview. In a rapidly emerging biotechnological age, this article contributes a holistic perspective, bringing into focus theory and practice; issues of human experience, human rights, and oppressive relationships; tensions between agency and structure (particularly relating to disability from a social model of disability and the medical model); and practical applications of artificial vision. Beyond its practical applications, illuminated is the relevance of community development values and principles such as a sense of connectedness, participation, and empowerment, which are understood in terms of an antioppressive perspective. The article concludes by recognizing the potential benefit of bionic vision for vision-impaired and blind people in their everyday lives. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  4. Exchanging honest employment references: tiptoeing between defamation and negligent hiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    In present day reference checking, many of the same organizations that seek as much information as possible about people they wish to hire resist giving out more than a bare minimum of information to other organizations. The strongest force driving this minimal reference information release is fear of legal action taken because of something said about an individual ("defamation," supposedly). Many employers seem so frightened of being sued for libel or slander that they share nothing of substance, usually not realizing that in supposedly protecting themselves against defamation charges, they are increasing the risk of negligent hiring charges. However, truthful reference information can be provided with minimal risk if it is provided in good faith, given only to those who have a legitimate need to know, is strictly job related, and is not communicated maliciously. References must always be provided objectively with information verifiable in personnel files.

  5. Astronauts For Hire The Emergence of a Commercial Astronaut Corps

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The spaceflight industry is being revolutionized. It is no longer the sole preserve of professional astronauts working on government-funded manned spaceflight programs. As private companies are being encouraged to build and operate launch vehicles, and even spacecraft that can be hired on a contract basis, a new breed of astronauts is coming into being. Astronauts for Hire describes how this commercial astronaut corps will be selected and trained. It provides a unique insight into the kinds of missions and tasks that the astronauts will be involved in, from suborbital science missions to commercial trips to low Earth orbit. The book also describes the new fleet of commercial spaceships being developed - reusable rocket-propelled vehicles that will offer quick, routine, and affordable access to the edge of space. The author also explores the possibility of private enterprise establishing interplanetary spaceports, lunar bases, and outposts on the surface of Mars.

  6. Implicit Age Cues in Resumes: Subtle Effects on Hiring Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derous, Eva; Decoster, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Anonymous resume screening, as assumed, does not dissuade age discriminatory effects. Building on job market signaling theory, this study investigated whether older applicants may benefit from concealing explicitly mentioned age signals on their resumes (date of birth) or whether more implicit/subtle age cues on resumes (older-sounding names/old-fashioned extracurricular activities) may lower older applicants’ hirability ratings. An experimental study among 610 HR professionals using a mixed factorial design showed hiring discrimination of older applicants based on implicit age cues in resumes. This effect was more pronounced for older raters. Concealing one’s date of birth led to overall lower ratings. Study findings add to the limited knowledge on the effects of implicit age cues on hiring discrimination in resume screening and the usefulness of anonymous resume screening in the context of age. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:28848463

  7. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    , which ad­vance the search effectiveness of the PES, crowd out the active jobseekers and reduce overall employment as well as social welfare. Nevertheless, reforms are a visible success for the PES and its target group, as they significantly increase the service's placement rate and lower the duration......To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To explore their effect on employment and wages, we devise a model with two types of unemployed and two methods of search, a public employment service (PES) and random search. The eligibility of a new...... match depends on the applicant's unem­ployment duration and on the method of search. The hiring subsidy raises job destruction and extends contrary to Mortensen-Pissarides (1999, 2003) the duration of a job search, so that equilibrium unemployment increases. Like the subsidy, organizational reforms...

  8. Athletic Directors' Barriers to Hiring Athletic Trainers in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Raso, Samantha R.; Pagnotta, Kelly D.; Stearns, Rebecca L.; Casa, Douglas J.

    2015-01-01

    Context In its best-practices recommendation, the Inter-Association Task Force for Preventing Sudden Death in Secondary School Athletics Programs urged all high schools to have a certified athletic trainer (AT) on staff. Despite the recommendation, many high schools lack the medical services of an AT. Objective To examine the barriers that athletic directors (ADs) face in hiring ATs in public high schools and in providing medical coverage for their student-athletes. Design Qualitative study. Setting Semistructured telephone interviews. Patients or Other Participants Twenty full-time public high school ADs (17 men, 3 women) from various geographical regions of the United States (6 North, 4 South, 4 Midwest, 6 West) participated. Data saturation guided the total number of participants. Data Collection and Analysis We completed telephone interviews guided by a semistructured questionnaire with all participants. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Multiple-analyst triangulation and peer review were included as steps to establish data credibility. We analyzed the data using the principles of the general inductive approach. Results We identified 3 themes. Lack of power represented the inability of an AD to hire an AT, which was perceived to be a responsibility of the superintendent and school board. Budget concerns pertained to the funding allocated to specific resources within a school, which often did not include an AT. Nonbudget concerns represented rural locations without clinics or hospitals nearby; misconceptions about the role of an AT, which led to the belief that first-aid–trained coaches are appropriate medical providers; and community support from local clinics, hospitals, and volunteers. Conclusions Many ADs would prefer to employ ATs in their schools; however, they perceive that they are bound by the hiring and budgeting decisions of superintendents and school boards. Public school systems are experiencing the consequences of national budget

  9. Leaning from multinational companies through hiring: An empirical investigation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Ding

    2015-01-01

    Labor mobility is mechanism for transfer the technology and innovation from multinational firms (MNEs) to non-multinational firms (non-MNEs). In this paper, we use a unique employer-employee data set in Sweden to provide individual-firm match dataset. Using the special research framework, we provide empirical evidence that hiring workers from MNEs can lead to knowledge spillover to non-MNEs and convert to innovation, even after controlling the region, industry and year effect, individuals’ an...

  10. Properly Attired, Hired, or Fired: Aesthetic Labor and Social Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Elmen-Gruys, Kjerstin

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines the relationship between physical appearance and social inequality, exploring how workplace demands for "aesthetic labor" reproduce and legitimize workplace discrimination on the bases of gender, race, class, and body size. The term, aesthetic labor, refers to organizational expectations for workers' attractiveness, style, and interactional mannerisms. These expectations - both formal and informal - influence which people will be hired to do what jobs and how people...

  11. The Absolute Calibration of the HiRes Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, J. N.; Thomas, S. B.; HiRes Collaboration

    2003-07-01

    The HiRes experiment studies ultra high energy cosmic rays using the air fluorescence technique. The experiment uses large mirrors that collect the fluorescence light and fo cus it onto arrays of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The PMTs measure the intensity and time of arrival of the collected light. Our primary system for in situ calibration of the PMTs uses a high stability (16,000 PMTs). To determine the absolute response it is necessary to understand the absolute light output of this source. We have measured the source irradiance using a hybrid photo dio de system, two NIST calibrated photo-dio des, and by observing the photo electron statistics of the PMTs. 2. Introduction The goal of the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) project is to study cosmic rays at the highest energies. An ultra high energy cosmic ray entering the earth's atmosphere collides with atmospheric nuclei triggering the development of an Extensive Air Shower (EAS). The EAS emits fluorescence light as it develops. HiRes uses the air fluorescence signal to measure properties of the primary cosmic ray particle. The fundamental detector elements in HiRes are photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The light from an EAS is collected by large mirrors and fo cused into cameras each consisting of 256 PMTs [1]. Routine monitoring and calibration of the PMTs and associated electronics are crucial to the proper interpretation of the data. The primary system for in situ calibration of the PMTs involves the use of a high stability portable xenon flash lamp. The Roving Xenon Flasher (RXF) offers several advantages. The pulse-to-pulse variation in intensity is very small ˜0.3% and the stability over a night is better than 2%. The emission spectrum of the RXF is sufficiently broad to allow calibration over a wide range of wavelengths. It is also readily transported from camera to camera and site to site. The RXF

  12. Athletic Directors' Barriers to Hiring Athletic Trainers in High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Raso, Samantha R; Pagnotta, Kelly D; Stearns, Rebecca L; Casa, Douglas J

    2015-10-01

    In its best-practices recommendation, the Inter-Association Task Force for Preventing Sudden Death in Secondary School Athletics Programs urged all high schools to have a certified athletic trainer (AT) on staff. Despite the recommendation, many high schools lack the medical services of an AT. To examine the barriers that athletic directors (ADs) face in hiring ATs in public high schools and in providing medical coverage for their student-athletes. Qualitative study. Semistructured telephone interviews. Twenty full-time public high school ADs (17 men, 3 women) from various geographical regions of the United States (6 North, 4 South, 4 Midwest, 6 West) participated. Data saturation guided the total number of participants. We completed telephone interviews guided by a semistructured questionnaire with all participants. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Multiple-analyst triangulation and peer review were included as steps to establish data credibility. We analyzed the data using the principles of the general inductive approach. We identified 3 themes. Lack of power represented the inability of an AD to hire an AT, which was perceived to be a responsibility of the superintendent and school board. Budget concerns pertained to the funding allocated to specific resources within a school, which often did not include an AT. Nonbudget concerns represented rural locations without clinics or hospitals nearby; misconceptions about the role of an AT, which led to the belief that first-aid-trained coaches are appropriate medical providers; and community support from local clinics, hospitals, and volunteers. Many ADs would prefer to employ ATs in their schools; however, they perceive that they are bound by the hiring and budgeting decisions of superintendents and school boards. Public school systems are experiencing the consequences of national budget cuts and often do not have the freedom to hire ATs when other school staff are being laid off.

  13. Algorithm for bionic hand reconstruction in patients with global brachial plexopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Laura A; Sturma, Agnes; Mayer, Johannes A; Pittermann, Anna; Salminger, Stefan; Aszmann, Oskar C

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Global brachial plexus lesions with multiple root avulsions are among the most severe nerve injuries, leading to lifelong disability. Fortunately, in most cases primary and secondary reconstructions provide a stable shoulder and restore sufficient arm function. Restoration of biological hand function, however, remains a reconstructive goal that is difficult to reach. The recently introduced concept of bionic reconstruction overcomes biological limitations of classic reconstructive surgery to restore hand function by combining selective nerve and muscle transfers with elective amputation of the functionless hand and its replacement with a prosthetic device. The authors present their treatment algorithm for bionic hand reconstruction and report on the management and long-term functional outcomes of patients with global brachial plexopathies who have undergone this innovative treatment. METHODS Thirty-four patients with posttraumatic global brachial plexopathies leading to loss of hand function consulted the Center for Advanced Restoration of Extremity Function between 2011 and 2015. Of these patients, 16 (47%) qualified for bionic reconstruction due to lack of treatment alternatives. The treatment algorithm included progressive steps with the intent of improving the biotechnological interface to allow optimal prosthetic hand replacement. In 5 patients, final functional outcome measurements were obtained with the Action Arm Research Test (ARAT), the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP), and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire. RESULTS In all 5 patients who completed functional assessments, partial hand function was restored with bionic reconstruction. ARAT scores improved from 3.4 ± 4.3 to 25.4 ± 12.7 (p = 0.043; mean ± SD) and SHAP scores improved from 10.0 ± 1.6 to 55 ± 19.7 (p = 0.042). DASH scores decreased from 57.9 ± 20.6 to 32 ± 28.6 (p = 0.042), indicating decreased disability. CONCLUSIONS The authors

  14. Respiratory, cardiovascular and metabolic responses during different modes of overground bionic ambulation in persons with motor-incomplete spinal cord injury: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Kressler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of overground bionic ambulation with variable assistance on cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses in persons with motor-incomplete spinal cord injury. Design: Case series. Subjects: Four participants with chronic, motor-incomplete spinal cord injury. Methods: Subjects completed a maximal graded exercise test on an arm-ergometer and 3 6-min bouts of overground bionic ambulation using different modes of assistance, i.e. Maximal, Adaptive, Fixed. Cardiorespiratory (oxygen consumption and metabolic (caloric expenditure and substrate utilization measures were taken using a mobile metabolic cart at each overground bionic ambulation assistance. Results: Cardiorespiratory responses ranged from low (24% VO2peak for the least impaired and fittest individual to supramaximal (124% VO2peak for the participant with the largest impairments and the lowest level of fitness. Different overground bionic ambulation assistive modes elicited small (3–8% VO2peak differences in cardiorespiratory responses for 3 participants. One participant had a large (28% VO2peak difference in cardiorespiratory responses to different modes of overground bionic ambulation. Metabolic responses mostly tracked closely with cardiorespiratory responses. Total energy expenditure ranged from 1.39 to 7.17 kcal/min. Fat oxidation ranged from 0.00 to 0.17 g/min across participants and different overground bionic ambulation modes. Conclusion: Overground bionic ambulation with variable assistance can substantially increase cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses; however, these responses vary widely across participants and overground bionic ambulation modes.

  15. Respiratory, cardiovascular and metabolic responses during different modes of overground bionic ambulation in persons with motor-incomplete spinal cord injury: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kressler, Jochen; Wymer, Tracie; Domingo, Antoinette

    2017-10-25

    To investigate the effects of overground bionic ambulation with variable assistance on cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses in persons with motor-incomplete spinal cord injury. Case series. Four participants with chronic, motor-incomplete spinal cord injury. Subjects completed a maximal graded exercise test on an arm-ergometer and 3 6-min bouts of overground bionic ambulation using different modes of assistance, i.e. Maximal, Adaptive, Fixed. Cardiorespiratory (oxygen consumption) and metabolic (caloric expenditure and substrate utilization) measures were taken using a mobile metabolic cart at each overground bionic ambulation assistance. Cardiorespiratory responses ranged from low (24% VO2peak) for the least impaired and fittest individual to supramaximal (124% VO2peak) for the participant with the largest impairments and the lowest level of fitness. Different overground bionic ambulation assistive modes elicited small (3-8% VO2peak) differences in cardiorespiratory responses for 3 participants. One participant had a large (28% VO2peak) difference in cardiorespiratory responses to different modes of overground bionic ambulation. Metabolic responses mostly tracked closely with cardiorespiratory responses. Total energy expenditure ranged from 1.39 to 7.17 kcal/min. Fat oxidation ranged from 0.00 to 0.17 g/min across participants and different overground bionic ambulation modes. Overground bionic ambulation with variable assistance can substantially increase cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses; however, these responses vary widely across participants and overground bionic ambulation modes.

  16. High-sensitive and high-efficient biochemical analysis method using a bionic electronic eye in combination with a smartphone-based colorimetric reader system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiqi Su; Quchao Zou; Ning Hu; Ping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Bionic electronic eye (Bionic e-Eye), a developed smartphone-based colorimetric reader system, consists of smartphone or pad (iPhone 4s or iPad 3) as detection instrument and portable accessory as illumination provider, integrating with a wide-angle lens, a piece of lowest-power electro luminescent and a custom-made dark hood. A 96-well microtiter plate (MTP) was positioned on the electro luminescent and Bionic e-Eye captures the detection images by the back camera of smartphone. Being similar to human visual system, the hue, saturation and value (HSV, also called hex cone model) color model was employed in image processing algorithm of Bionic e-Eye. Optimized system dimension was determined by the system steadiness experiment of different photograph distances. Moreover, the commercially available BCA protein assay and CCK8 cell number assay were carried out to evaluate this Bionic e-Eye. Analytical performance of Bionic e-Eye had the better precision, higher sensitivity than microtiter plate reader (MTPR) and previous smartphone-based colorimetric reader for both two assays. Also, Bionic e-Eye using optical image detection had simultaneous and synchronous working mode, while MPTR using machine moving detection had asynchronous working mode in high throughput detection. Therefore, Bionic e-Eye will be an ideal point-of-care (POC) colorimetric detection device in the field of clinical application, industrial quality control, environment monitoring, and food assessment.

  17. Dynamic bending of bionic flexible body driven by pneumatic artificial muscles(PAMs) for spinning gait of quadruped robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jingtao; Yu, Huangying; Wang, Tianmiao

    2016-01-01

    The body of quadruped robot is generally developed with the rigid structure. The mobility of quadruped robot depends on the mechanical properties of the body mechanism. It is difficult for quadruped robot with rigid structure to achieve better mobility walking or running in the unstructured environment. A kind of bionic flexible body mechanism for quadruped robot is proposed, which is composed of one bionic spine and four pneumatic artificial muscles(PAMs). This kind of body imitates the four-legged creatures' kinematical structure and physical properties, which has the characteristic of changeable stiffness, lightweight, flexible and better bionics. The kinematics of body bending is derived, and the coordinated movement between the flexible body and legs is analyzed. The relationship between the body bending angle and the PAM length is obtained. The dynamics of the body bending is derived by the floating coordinate method and Lagrangian method, and the driving force of PAM is determined. The experiment of body bending is conducted, and the dynamic bending characteristic of bionic flexible body is evaluated. Experimental results show that the bending angle of the bionic flexible body can reach 18°. An innovation body mechanism for quadruped robot is proposed, which has the characteristic of flexibility and achieve bending by changing gas pressure of PAMs. The coordinated movement of the body and legs can achieve spinning gait in order to improve the mobility of quadruped robot.

  18. Temporal-spatial parameters of gait in transfemoral amputees: Comparison of bionic and mechanically passive knee joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchytil, Jaroslav; Jandacka, Daniel; Zahradnik, David; Farana, Roman; Janura, Miroslav

    2014-06-01

    A symmetrical gait affords the most efficient walking pattern. Bionic prostheses should provide better gait symmetry than mechanically passive prostheses with respect to a nonpathological gait. To compare the basic temporal-spatial parameters of gait in transfemoral amputees fitted with bionic or mechanically passive prosthetic knees with those of subjects with a nonpathological gait. Three-dimensional gait analysis using an optoelectronic device. Eight transfemoral amputees participated in the study. Subjects walked across two dynamometric platforms a total of 15 times. Movement kinematics were measured using optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry. The swing time of the affected limb in patients fitted with a mechanically passive knee joint was longer than that of the nonaffected limb by 0.055 s (effect size = 1.57). Compared with the control group, the swing time of the prosthetic limb in patients fitted with a mechanically passive knee was longer by 0.042 s (effect size = 2.1). Similarly, the stance time of the nonaffected limb was longer by 0.047 s (effect size = 1.07). Compared with a mechanically passive knee joint, a bionic knee joint evinced gait symmetry. Both the stance time and the swing time for amputees with a bionic knee were similar to those of nonamputees. Prosthetists aim to design prostheses that achieve a good symmetry between the healthy and affected limbs. The use of bionic technology achieves a level of symmetry approaching that observed in nonamputees. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2013.

  19. Effect of the microhardness difference between base metal and bionic coupling unit on wear resistance of gray cast iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zuobo; Zhou, Hong; Chang, Fang; Zhang, Peng; Cong, Dalong; Meng, Chao; Wang, Chuanwei; Ren, Luquan

    2015-12-01

    In order to improve the wear resistance of gray cast iron guide rail, the samples with different microhardness difference between bionic coupling units and base metal were manufactured by laser surface remelting. Wear behavior of gray cast iron with bionic coupling units has been studied under dry sliding condition at room temperature using a homemade liner reciprocating wear testing machine. The wear resistance was evaluated by means of weight loss measurement and wear morphology. The results indicated that when the microhardness difference is 561 HV0.2, the wear resistance of sample is the best.

  20. KECK HIRES Spectroscopy of APM 08279+5255

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Sara L.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Pettini, Max; Sargent, Wallace L. W.; Chaffee, Frederic H.; Foltz, Craig B.; Rauch, Michael; Irwin, Mike J.

    1999-01-01

    With an optical R-band magnitude of 15.2, the recently discovered z=3.911 BAL quasar APM 08279+5255 is an exceptionally bright high redshift source. Its brightness has allowed us to acquire a high signal-to-noise ratio (~100), high resolution (~6 km/s) spectrum using the HIRES echelle spectrograph on the 10-m Keck I telescope. Given the quality of the data, these observations provide an unprecedented view of associated and intervening absorption systems. Here we announce the availability of t...

  1. Avoid costly litigation: ten steps to implementing lawful hiring practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Judith H

    2004-01-01

    A malpractice claim or suit can have a devastating effect on a physician's practice and personal life. What is often overlooked is that an employment-related suit or EEOC charge also can extract a heavy toll, personally, professionally, and financially. The number of employment-related suits and claims has risen dramatically in the last few years. According to recent enforcement and litigation statistics released by the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) (1), the total discrimination charges filed by individuals against their employers increased last year to 80,840--the highest level since the mid-1990's. According to the EEOC data, in 2001, employers paid $248 million in connection with charges of discrimination filed with the EEOC by job applicants, employees, and former employees. Employers paid an additional $47 million to the EEOC in connection with lawsuits filed against employers by the EEOC (2). This does not include the millions of dollars employers were forced to pay in settlements, judgments, costs, and attorney's fees incurred in connection with employment-related lawsuits filed in state and federal courts during the same period of time. Employment-related litigation is on the rise, and the healthcare industry is not immune. Physicians as employers can be a target for a wide range of employment-related claims and suits, such as breach of contract, invasion of privacy, sex, race, age, religious and age discrimination, and negligent hiring, just to name a few. The number of jury verdicts rendered against employers is increasing and the verdict awards are often staggering. In addition, defending these suits can be as expensive as defending a complicated malpractice suit. Even worse, employment discrimination suits and charges are generally not covered by malpractice, D & O, or general liability insurance policies, leaving the physician to cope with the financial burden of judgments, settlements, attorney's fees and litigation costs. Most

  2. Design of a Robot End-Effector Grabbing Mechanism Based on a Bionic Snake Mouth

    OpenAIRE

    Fu Zhuang; Zhou Hangfei; Liu Zijuan; Fei Jian; Yan Weixin; Zhao Yanzheng

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by the bite and swallowing function of a snake’s mouth, a robot end‐effector grabbing mechanism was designed. The grabbing movement is realized by the ‘bite’ function of the bionic snake mouth actuator, and the ‘swallowing’ function insures a continuous grip on the object. To implement the continuous grip function of the new robot end‐effector, the complex motion of a snake’s mouth is simplified into three basic movements based on the anatomy of a snake’s mouth and with a combination...

  3. A simple and accurate numerical network flow model for bionic micro heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, M.; Klein, P. [Fraunhofer Institute (ITWM), Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Heat exchangers are often associated with drawbacks like a large pressure drop or a non-uniform flow distribution. Recent research shows that bionic structures can provide possible improvements. We considered a set of such structures that were designed with M. Hermann's FracTherm {sup registered} algorithm. In order to optimize and compare them with conventional heat exchangers, we developed a numerical method to determine their performance. We simulated the flow in the heat exchanger applying a network model and coupled these results with a finite volume method to determine the heat distribution in the heat exchanger. (orig.)

  4. Materials design considerations involved in the fabrication of implantable bionics by metallization of ceramic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sunil; Guenther, Thomas; Dodds, Christopher W D; Kolke, Sergej; Privat, Karen L; Matteucci, Paul B; Suaning, Gregg J

    2013-01-01

    The Pt metallization of co-fired Al2O3/SiO2 substrates containing Pt feedthroughs was shown to be a suitable means to construct implantable bionics. The use of forge welding to join an electrode to such a metallized feedthrough was demonstrated and subsequently evaluated through the use of metallography and electron microscopy. Metallurgical phenomena involved in forge welding relevant to the fabrication of all types of biomedical implants are discussed within this paper. The affect of thermal profiles used in brazing or welding to build implantable devices from metal components is analysed and the case for considered selection of alloys in implant design is put forward.

  5. Real-time processing of EMG signals for bionic arm purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olid Dominguez, Ferran; Wawrzyniak, Zbigniew M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper is connected with the problem of prostheses, that have always been a necessity for the human being. Bio-physiological signals from muscles, electromyographic signals have been collected, analyzed and processed in order to implement a real-time algorithm which is capable of differentiation of two different states of a bionic hand: open and closed. An algorithm for real-time electromyographic signal processing with almost no false positives is presented and it is explained that in bio-physiological experiments proper signal processing is of great importance.

  6. Industry 5.0—The Relevance and Implications of Bionics and Synthetic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Sachsenmeier, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Bionics (the imitation or abstraction of the “inventions of nature) and, to an even greater extent, synthetic biology, will be as relevant to engineering development and industry as the silicon chip was over the last 50 years. Chemical industries already use so-called “white biotechnology” for new processes, new raw materials, and more sustainable use of resources. Synthetic biology is also used for the development of second-generation biofuels and for harvesting the sun's energy with the hel...

  7. Industry 5.0—The Relevance and Implications of Bionics and Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sachsenmeier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bionics (the imitation or abstraction of the “inventions of nature and, to an even greater extent, synthetic biology, will be as relevant to engineering development and industry as the silicon chip was over the last 50 years. Chemical industries already use so-called “white biotechnology” for new processes, new raw materials, and more sustainable use of resources. Synthetic biology is also used for the development of second-generation biofuels and for harvesting the sun's energy with the help of tailor-made microorganisms or biometrically designed catalysts. The market potential for bionics in medicine, engineering processes, and DNA storage is huge. “Moonshot” projects are already aggressively focusing on diseases and new materials, and a US-led competition is currently underway with the aim of creating a thousand new molecules. This article describes a timeline that starts with current projects and then moves on to code engineering projects and their implications, artificial DNA, signaling molecules, and biological circuitry. Beyond these projects, one of the next frontiers in bionics is the design of synthetic metabolisms that include artificial food chains and foods, and the bioengineering of raw materials; all of which will lead to new insights into biological principles. Bioengineering will be an innovation motor just as digitalization is today. This article discusses pertinent examples of bioengineering, particularly the use of alternative carbon-based biofuels and the techniques and perils of cell modification. Big data, analytics, and massive storage are important factors in this next frontier. Although synthetic biology will be as pervasive and transformative in the next 50 years as digitization and the Internet are today, its applications and impacts are still in nascent stages. This article provides a general taxonomy in which the development of bioengineering is classified in five stages (DNA analysis, bio

  8. Study on the Impact Resistance of Bionic Layered Composite of TiC-TiB2/Al from Al-Ti-B4C System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Liang, Yunhong; Zhang, Zhihui; Li, Xiujuan; Ren, Luquan

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical property and impact resistance mechanism of bionic layered composite was investigated. Due to light weight and high strength property, white clam shell was chosen as bionic model for design of bionic layered composite. The intercoupling model between hard layer and soft layer was identical to the layered microstructure and hardness tendency of the white clam shell, which connected the bionic design and fabrication. TiC-TiB2 reinforced Al matrix composites fabricated from Al-Ti-B4C system with 40 wt. %, 50 wt. % and 30 wt. % Al contents were treated as an outer layer, middle layer and inner layer in hard layers. Pure Al matrix was regarded as a soft layer. Compared with traditional homogenous Al-Ti-B4C composite, bionic layered composite exhibited high mechanical properties including flexural strength, fracture toughness, compressive strength and impact toughness. The intercoupling effect of layered structure and combination model of hard and soft played a key role in high impact resistance of the bionic layered composite, proving the feasibility and practicability of the bionic model of a white clam shell. PMID:28773827

  9. Study on the Impact Resistance of Bionic Layered Composite of TiC-TiB2/Al from Al-Ti-B4C System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical property and impact resistance mechanism of bionic layered composite was investigated. Due to light weight and high strength property, white clam shell was chosen as bionic model for design of bionic layered composite. The intercoupling model between hard layer and soft layer was identical to the layered microstructure and hardness tendency of the white clam shell, which connected the bionic design and fabrication. TiC-TiB2 reinforced Al matrix composites fabricated from Al-Ti-B4C system with 40 wt. %, 50 wt. % and 30 wt. % Al contents were treated as an outer layer, middle layer and inner layer in hard layers. Pure Al matrix was regarded as a soft layer. Compared with traditional homogenous Al-Ti-B4C composite, bionic layered composite exhibited high mechanical properties including flexural strength, fracture toughness, compressive strength and impact toughness. The intercoupling effect of layered structure and combination model of hard and soft played a key role in high impact resistance of the bionic layered composite, proving the feasibility and practicability of the bionic model of a white clam shell.

  10. Custom Hiring Services of Power Thresher for Small-Farm Rice Threshing in Kampar Regency, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Paman, Ujang; bahri, saipul; Asrol, Asrol

    2014-01-01

    The availability of power thresher for custom hiring services has accelerated the mechanical power use in small-scale rice threshing operation in Kampar Regency. This research attempts to determine the need, used capacity, and seasonal work of power thresher and to analyze the cost, profit, and break-even of power thresher hire services managed by farmer groups. Data were collected from 15 power threshers from 10 custom-hiring services group selected using purposive sampling technique in sev...

  11. Custom Hiring Services of Power Thresher for Small-Farm Rice Threshing in Kampar Regency, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ujang Paman; Saipul Bahri; Asrol Asrol

    2014-01-01

    The availability of power thresher for custom hiring services has accelerated the mechanical power use in small-scale rice threshing operation in Kampar Regency. This research attempts to determine the need, used capacity, and seasonal work of power thresher and to analyze the cost, profit, and break-even of power thresher hire services managed by farmer groups.  Data were collected from 15 power threshers from 10 custom-hiring services group selected using purposive sampling technique in sev...

  12. Superconducting YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ -Ag Thin Films (TC( 0) = 90 K) by Pulsed Laser Deposition on Polycrystalline Ba 2NdNbO 6; A Novel Substrate for YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Jose; John, Asha; Sajith, Poo; Koshy, Jacob; Pai, Subash; Pinto, Richard

    1998-10-01

    The development and characterisation of \\ba, a novel ceramicsubstrate material for \\yb superconductor, are reported. \\ba hasa complex cubic perovskite structure [\\bb] with lattice constanta = 8.573Å. The dielectric properties of \\ba are in a rangesuitable for its use as a substrate for microwave applications.\\ba was found to have a thermal expansion coefficient of8.6× 10-6{ }\\circC-1 and a thermal conductivityof 87 W·m-1·K-1. Superconducting \\yb-Ag thin filmshave been grown in situ on polycrystalline \\ba by pulsedlaser ablation technique and the optimum conditions have beenestablished. The films exhibited (00l) orientation of anorthorhombic \\yb phase and gave a zero resistivitysuperconducting transition [TC(0)] at 90 K with atransition width of ˜1.5 K and JC ˜3×105 A/cm2 at 77 K.

  13. Investigation into the efficiency of different bionic algorithm combinations for a COBRA meta-heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmedova, Sh; Semenkin, E.

    2017-02-01

    Previously, a meta-heuristic approach, called Co-Operation of Biology-Related Algorithms or COBRA, for solving real-parameter optimization problems was introduced and described. COBRA’s basic idea consists of a cooperative work of five well-known bionic algorithms such as Particle Swarm Optimization, the Wolf Pack Search, the Firefly Algorithm, the Cuckoo Search Algorithm and the Bat Algorithm, which were chosen due to the similarity of their schemes. The performance of this meta-heuristic was evaluated on a set of test functions and its workability was demonstrated. Thus it was established that the idea of the algorithms’ cooperative work is useful. However, it is unclear which bionic algorithms should be included in this cooperation and how many of them. Therefore, the five above-listed algorithms and additionally the Fish School Search algorithm were used for the development of five different modifications of COBRA by varying the number of component-algorithms. These modifications were tested on the same set of functions and the best of them was found. Ways of further improving the COBRA algorithm are then discussed.

  14. Mapping of bionic array electric field focusing in plasmid DNA-based gene electrotransfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, C J; Pinyon, J L; Housley, D M; Crawford, E N; Lovell, N H; Klugmann, M; Housley, G D

    2016-04-01

    Molecular medicine through gene therapy is challenged to achieve targeted action. This is now possible utilizing bionic electrode arrays for focal delivery of naked (plasmid) DNA via gene electrotransfer. Here, we establish the properties of array-based electroporation affecting targeted gene delivery. An array with eight 300 μm platinum ring electrodes configured as a cochlear implant bionic interface was used to transduce HEK293 cell monolayers with a plasmid-DNA green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene construct. Electroporation parameters were pulse intensity, number, duration, separation and electrode configuration. The latter determined the shape of the electric fields, which were mapped using a voltage probe. Electrode array-based electroporation was found to require ~100 × lower applied voltages for cell transduction than conventional electroporation. This was found to be due to compression of the field lines orthogonal to the array. A circular area of GFP-positive cells was created when the electrodes were ganged together as four adjacent anodes and four cathodes, whereas alternating electrode polarity created a linear area of GFP-positive cells. The refinement of gene delivery parameters was validated in vivo in the guinea pig cochlea. These findings have significant clinical ramifications, where spatiotemporal control of gene expression can be predicted by manipulation of the electric field via current steering at a cellular level.

  15. Close-field electroporation gene delivery using the cochlear implant electrode array enhances the bionic ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinyon, Jeremy L; Tadros, Sherif F; Froud, Kristina E; Y Wong, Ann C; Tompson, Isabella T; Crawford, Edward N; Ko, Myungseo; Morris, Renée; Klugmann, Matthias; Housley, Gary D

    2014-04-23

    The cochlear implant is the most successful bionic prosthesis and has transformed the lives of people with profound hearing loss. However, the performance of the "bionic ear" is still largely constrained by the neural interface itself. Current spread inherent to broad monopolar stimulation of the spiral ganglion neuron somata obviates the intrinsic tonotopic mapping of the cochlear nerve. We show in the guinea pig that neurotrophin gene therapy integrated into the cochlear implant improves its performance by stimulating spiral ganglion neurite regeneration. We used the cochlear implant electrode array for novel "close-field" electroporation to transduce mesenchymal cells lining the cochlear perilymphatic canals with a naked complementary DNA gene construct driving expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. The focusing of electric fields by particular cochlear implant electrode configurations led to surprisingly efficient gene delivery to adjacent mesenchymal cells. The resulting BDNF expression stimulated regeneration of spiral ganglion neurites, which had atrophied 2 weeks after ototoxic treatment, in a bilateral sensorineural deafness model. In this model, delivery of a control GFP-only vector failed to restore neuron structure, with atrophied neurons indistinguishable from unimplanted cochleae. With BDNF therapy, the regenerated spiral ganglion neurites extended close to the cochlear implant electrodes, with localized ectopic branching. This neural remodeling enabled bipolar stimulation via the cochlear implant array, with low stimulus thresholds and expanded dynamic range of the cochlear nerve, determined via electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses. This development may broadly improve neural interfaces and extend molecular medicine applications.

  16. Multiadaptive Bionic Wavelet Transform: Application to ECG Denoising and Baseline Wandering Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayadi Omid

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new modified wavelet transform, called the multiadaptive bionic wavelet transform (MABWT, that can be applied to ECG signals in order to remove noise from them under a wide range of variations for noise. By using the definition of bionic wavelet transform and adaptively determining both the center frequency of each scale together with the -function, the problem of desired signal decomposition is solved. Applying a new proposed thresholding rule works successfully in denoising the ECG. Moreover by using the multiadaptation scheme, lowpass noisy interference effects on the baseline of ECG will be removed as a direct task. The method was extensively clinically tested with real and simulated ECG signals which showed high performance of noise reduction, comparable to those of wavelet transform (WT. Quantitative evaluation of the proposed algorithm shows that the average SNR improvement of MABWT is 1.82 dB more than the WT-based results, for the best case. Also the procedure has largely proved advantageous over wavelet-based methods for baseline wandering cancellation, including both DC components and baseline drifts.

  17. Numerical Analysis of Hydrodynamics for Bionic Oscillating Hydrofoil Based on Panel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinematics model based on the Slender-Body theory is proposed from the bionic movement of real fish. The Panel method is applied to the hydrodynamic performance analysis innovatively, with the Gauss-Seidel method to solve the Navier-Stokes equations additionally, to evaluate the flexible deformation of fish in swimming accurately when satisfying the boundary conditions. A physical prototype to mimic the shape of tuna is developed with the revolutionized technology of rapid prototyping manufacturing. The hydrodynamic performance for rigid oscillating hydrofoil is analyzed with the proposed method, and it shows good coherence with the cases analyzed by the commercial software Fluent and the experimental data from robofish. Furthermore, the hydrodynamic performance of coupled hydrofoil, which consisted of flexible fish body and rigid caudal fin, is analyzed with the proposed method. It shows that the caudal fin has great influence on trailing vortex shedding and the phase angle is the key factor on hydrodynamic performance. It is verified that the shape of trailing vortex is similar to the image of the motion curve at the trailing edge as the assumption of linear vortex plane under the condition of small downwash velocity. The numerical analysis of hydrodynamics for bionic movement based on the Panel method has certain value to reveal the fish swimming mechanism.

  18. [Application of bionic technology to speciation analysis and bioavailability assessment of nickel in transgenic soybean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Hui; Li, Shun-Xing; Mou, Yang; Zheng, Feng-Ying; Li, Yan-Cai; Wang, Hui; Zheng, Na-Yan; Xie, He-Fang

    2013-11-01

    The safety of transgenic food has been paid the most attention to by the public and scientists. Trace metal bioavailability could provide information for safety assessment of transgenic food. The critical functional digestion and absorption in the gastrointestinal tract were simulated by bionic gastrointestinal digestion, metabolism of gut microbiota, and bionic biomembrane adsorption with liposome and then used for the pretreatment of transgenic and general soybeans. Ni speciation in the chyme was defined as affinity-liposome and water soluble Ni. Nickel bioavailability was assessed by the content of affinity-liposome Ni. Water soluble Ni was the main species of nickel complex in the chyme. Nickel bioavailability was 4.1% for transgenic soybean and 3.3% for general soybean, which could be enhanced by gastrointestinal digestion and metabolism of gut microbiota. After transgene, nickel bioavailability was increased 24% but the content of affinity-liposome Ni was 122.3 ng x g(-1) for transgenic soybean, just as 36% as that of general soybean.

  19. A salient information processing system for bionic eye with application to obstacle avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Ashley; Li, Yi; Barnes, Nick

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a visual processing system for bionic eye with a focus on obstacle avoidance. Bionic eye aims at restoring the sense of vision to people living with blindness and low vision. However, current hardware implant technology limits the image resolution of the electrical stimulation device to be very low (e.g., 100 electrode arrays, which is approx. 12 × 9 pixels). Therefore, we need a visual processing unit that extracts salient information in an unknown environment for assisting patients in daily tasks such as obstacle avoidance. We implemented a fully portable system that includes a camera for capturing videos, a laptop for processing information using a state-of-the-art saliency detection algorithm, and a head-mounted display to visualize results. The experimental environment consists of a number of objects, such as shoes, boxes, and foot stands, on a textured ground plane. Our results show that the system efficiently processes the images, effectively identifies the obstacles, and eventually provides useful information for obstacle avoidance.

  20. BIonic system: Extraction of Lovelock gravity from a Born-Infeld-type theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Yaghoob; Sepehri, Alireza; Ghaffary, Tooraj; Ghaforyan, Hossein; Ebrahimzadeh, Majid

    It was shown that both Lovelock gravity and Born-Infeld (BI) electrodynamics can be obtained from low effective limit of string theory. Motivated by the mentioned unique origin of the gauge-gravity theories, we are going to find a close relation between them. In this research, we start from the Lagrangian of a BI-type nonlinear electrodynamics with an exponential form to extract the action of Lovelock gravity. We investigate the origin of Lovelock gravity in a system of branes which are connected with each other by different wormholes through a BIonic system. These wormholes are produced as due to the nonlinear electrodynamics which are emerged on the interacting branes. By approaching branes, wormholes dissolve into branes and Lovelock gravity is generated. Also, throats of some wormholes become smaller than their horizons and they transit to black holes. Generalizing calculations to M-theory, it is found that by compacting Mp-branes, Lovelock gravity changes to nonlinear electrodynamics and thus both of them have the same origin. This result is consistent with the prediction of BIonic model in string theory.

  1. Characteristics that perinatal nurse managers desire in new nurse hires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, Emily; Hensel, Desiree

    2012-04-01

    Nursing leaders have proposed that nurses must have the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) competencies to work in complex health care systems. Using the QSEN framework, this study explored what characteristics perinatal nurse managers desired most in new nurses. This study used a survey design and a convenience sample of perinatal nurse managers working in Indiana hospitals (N = 46). Managers were more likely to hire nurses with experience, positive references, and excellent attendance. Of the QSEN competencies, managers looked most for teamwork and collaboration, followed by safety and patient-centered care. In addition to the traditional qualities desired in new nurses, the QSEN competencies are gaining importance among perinatal managers. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Attitudes towards Older People and Managers' Intention to Hire Older Workers: A Taiwanese Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luo; Kao, Shu-Fang; Hsieh, Ying-Hui

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine attitudinal barriers to the managerial intention to hire older workers (aged 60 and above). Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from a sample of managers with hiring power (N = 305). We found that (a) positive attitudes towards older people in general, perceived subjective norm, personal…

  3. Processes Used by Illinois Public School Boards When Hiring a Superintendent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Lonny

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to add to the body of literature on the hiring processes utilized by public school boards of educations in filling the position of the superintendent. Hiring superintendents is one of the most important and challenging duties of a school board. This study will focus on the personal interview, selection methodology, and…

  4. The Glass Door: The Gender Composition of Newly-Hired Workers Across Hierarchical Job Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, W.H.J.; Russo, G.

    This paper examines the gender composition of the flow of new hirees along the organizational hierarchy of jobs. We find that women have a reduced chance to be hired at higher hierarchical levels. We refer to this phenomenon as the “glass door”. The glass door consists of an absolute and a relative

  5. Assessing Teaching Skills Linked to Student Achievement in Candidate Teachers during the Teacher Hiring Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Dale

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project study was to assist school principals in hiring quality teachers by examining existing hiring processes and research-based criteria on teacher practices that influence student achievement. The superintendent in one school district identified a problem of low student achievement and high teacher turnover. The theoretical…

  6. Linking Selective Hiring to Organizational Commitment: Evidence From the Hotel Industry of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nasurdin Aizzat Mohd.; Ahmad Noor Hazlina; Ling Tan Cheng

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between selective hiring and organizational commitment. Analysis using Partial Least Squares technique of data from 290 frontline hotel employees in Peninsular Malaysia revealed that selective hiring has a significant positive effect on organizational commitment. Theoretical discussion, practical implications, limitations, and directions for future research are provided.

  7. Linking Selective Hiring to Organizational Commitment: Evidence From the Hotel Industry of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasurdin Aizzat Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between selective hiring and organizational commitment. Analysis using Partial Least Squares technique of data from 290 frontline hotel employees in Peninsular Malaysia revealed that selective hiring has a significant positive effect on organizational commitment. Theoretical discussion, practical implications, limitations, and directions for future research are provided.

  8. Swedish Collective Agreements and Employers’ Willingness to Hire and Retain Older Workers in Employment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ulander-Wänman, Carin

    2016-01-01

    ... market must support employers' willingness to hire and retain older workers in employment. This article explores employers' attitudes toward regulations in Swedish collective agreements-regulations which are of particular importance if employers are to increase hiring and retention of older workers in employment. KEY WORDS Demography / mainten...

  9. Hiring Good Colleagues: What You Need to Know about Interviewing New Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    Employers need a systematic approach for sorting and selecting the best new hires, and hiring may be enhanced by the use of teachers in the process. This article discusses information-rich job advertisements, behavior-based interview questions, and how to objectively evaluate candidates in preliminary and on-site interviews. Candidates' past…

  10. The Use of Leadership Standards in the Hiring Practices of Effective Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Martha A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Kracht, Ritchie E.

    2013-01-01

    This is a problem based learning project focusing on superintendent use of ISSLC standards in hiring practices for human resource management. Research notes student achievement is affected by effective leadership of principals. School district superintendents charged with hiring effective principals must determine the best candidate for that…

  11. 46 CFR 25.45-2 - Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... stated therein, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), or compressed natural gas (CNG). (b) Cooking systems... the appliance. The valve must be located between the fuel tank and the point where the fuel supply... for hire. (a) No fuel may be used in any cooking system on any vessel carrying passengers for hire...

  12. Getting Hired, Getting Trained; A Study of Industry Practices and Policies on Youth Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee on Employment of Youth, Washington, DC.

    A study was made in 1964 in Hartford, Connecticut, and Winston-Salem and Charlotte, North Carolina, of prospects for employment and upgrading of young male entry workers. Few companies hired workers without a high school diploma; the majority required experience. Personal contact, public employment service, gate hires, and advertisements were the…

  13. Developing a Web-Based Hiring Resource at a State Medical College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drane, Daniel, III

    2017-01-01

    This study uses a sequential, mixed method, action research, quantitative to qualitative research design. The purpose of this study was to develop a useful standardized hiring process at a state medical college that brings clarity to the hiring process and policies. Two conceptual frameworks guided the innovations in this study--communities of…

  14. Interventions that affect gender bias in hiring: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Carol; Lee, Barbara; Carnes, Molly

    2009-10-01

    To systematically review experimental evidence for interventions mitigating gender bias in employment. Unconscious endorsement of gender stereotypes can undermine academic medicine's commitment to gender equity. The authors performed electronic and hand searches for randomized controlled studies since 1973 of interventions that affect gender differences in evaluation of job applicants. Twenty-seven studies met all inclusion criteria. Interventions fell into three categories: application information, applicant features, and rating conditions. The studies identified gender bias as the difference in ratings or perceptions of men and women with identical qualifications. Studies reaffirmed negative bias against women being evaluated for positions traditionally or predominantly held by men (male sex-typed jobs). The assessments of male and female raters rarely differed. Interventions that provided raters with clear evidence of job-relevant competencies were effective. However, clearly competent women were rated lower than equivalent men for male sex-typed jobs unless evidence of communal qualities was also provided. A commitment to the value of credentials before review of applicants and women's presence at above 25% of the applicant pool eliminated bias against women. Two studies found unconscious resistance to "antibias" training, which could be overcome with distraction or an intervening task. Explicit employment equity policies and an attractive appearance benefited men more than women, whereas repeated employment gaps were more detrimental to men. Masculine-scented perfume favored the hiring of both sexes. Negative bias occurred against women who expressed anger or who were perceived as self-promoting. High-level evidence exists for strategies to mitigate gender bias in hiring.

  15. [PREPARATION OF BIONIC COLLAGEN-HEPARIN SULFATE SPINAL CORD SCAFFOLD WITH THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINT TECHNOLOGY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renkun; Tu, Yue; Zhao, Mingliang; Chen, Chong; Liang Haiqian; Wang, Jingjing; Zhang, Sai; Li, Xiaohong

    2015-08-01

    To prepare bionic spinal cord scaffold of collagen-heparin sulfate by three-dimensional (3-D) printing, and provide a cell carrier for tissue engineering in the treatment of spinal cord injury. Collagen- heparin sulfate hydrogel was prepared firstly, and 3-D printer was used to make bionic spinal cord scaffold. The structure was observed to measure its porosity. The scaffold was immersed in simulated body fluid to observe the quality change. The neural stem cells (NSCs) were isolated from fetal rat brain cortex of 14 days pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and cultured. The experiment was divided into 2 groups: in group A, the scaffold was co-cultured with rat NSCs for 7 days to observe cell adhesion and morphological changes; in group B, the NSCs were cultured in 24 wells culture plate precoating with poly lysine. MTT assay was used to detect the cell viability, and immunofluorescence staining was used to identify the differentiation of NSCs. Bionic spinal cord scaffold was fabricated by 3-D printer successfully. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation revealed the micro porous structure with parallel and longitudinal arrangements and with the porosity of 90.25% ± 2.15%. In vitro, the value of pH was not changed obviously. After 8 weeks, the scaffold was completely degraded, and it met the requirements of tissue engineering scaffolds. MTT results showed that there was no significant difference in absorbence (A) value between 2 groups at 1, 3, and 7 days after culture (P > 0.05). There were a lot of NSCs with reticular nerve fiber under light microscope in 2 groups; the cells adhered to the scaffold, and axons growth and neurosphere formation were observed in group A under SEM at 7 days after culture. The immunofluorescence staining observation showed that NSCs could differentiated into neurons and glial cells in 2 groups; the differentiation rate was 29.60% ± 2.68% in group A and was 10.90% ± 2.13% in group B, showing significant difference (t = 17.30, P = 0

  16. Hemocompatibility research on the micro-structure surface of a bionic heart valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xia; Wang, Ze; Zhang, Xianghua; Zhou, Ming; Cai, Lan

    2014-01-01

    In order to study how the geometric parameters and shape of the micro-structure surface of a bionic heart valve affects hemocompatibility, mastoid micro-structures with different periodic space were fabricated using a femtosecond laser on a polyurethane (PU) surface. The apparent contact angles of droplets on the micro-structure surfaces were measured to characterize their wettability. Then a series of blood compatibility experiments, including platelet adhesion, dynamic coagulation and hemolysis were completed. The experimental results showed that the micro-structure on the biomaterial surface helped improve its hydrophobicity and hemocompatibility. Also, the periodic space affected not only the hydrophobicity but also the hemocompatibility of the biomaterial. With the increasing of the periodic space, the apparent contact angle increased, the number of platelet adhesion decreased, the dynamic clotting time became longer and the hemolysis ratio reduced. In addition, the shape of the micro-structure also affected the hemocompatibility of the biomaterial.

  17. Cardiac tissue engineering: from matrix design to the engineering of bionic hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Sharon; Feiner, Ron; Dvir, Tal

    2017-04-01

    The field of cardiac tissue engineering aims at replacing the scar tissue created after a patient has suffered from a myocardial infarction. Various technologies have been developed toward fabricating a functional engineered tissue that closely resembles that of the native heart. While the field continues to grow and techniques for better tissue fabrication continue to emerge, several hurdles still remain to be overcome. In this review we will focus on several key advances and recent technologies developed in the field, including biomimicking the natural extracellular matrix structure and enhancing the transfer of the electrical signal. We will also discuss recent developments in the engineering of bionic cardiac tissues which integrate the fields of tissue engineering and electronics to monitor and control tissue performance.

  18. Experimental Observation of the Skeletal Adaptive Repair Mechanism and Bionic Topology Optimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaysar Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone adaptive repair theory considers that the external load is the direct source of bone remodeling; bone achieves its maintenance by remodeling some microscopic damages due to external load during the process. This paper firstly observes CT data from the whole self-repairing process in bone defects in rabbit femur. Experimental result shows that during self-repairing process there exists an interaction relationship between spongy bone and enamel bone volume changes of bone defect, that is when volume of spongy bone increases, enamel bone decreases, and when volume of spongy bone decreases, enamel bone increases. Secondly according to this feature a bone remodeling model based on cross-type reaction-diffusion system influenced by mechanical stress is proposed. Finally, this model coupled with finite element method by using the element adding and removing process is used to simulate the self-repairing process and engineering optimization problems by considering the idea of bionic topology optimization.

  19. The potential of the second sight system bionic eye implant for partial sight restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yvonne Hsu-Lin; Fukushige, Eka; Da Cruz, Lyndon

    2016-07-01

    Second Sight System bionic eye implant, a commercially available visual prosthesis developed by Second Sight Medical Products, has been implanted in over 125 patients with outer retinal dystrophies such as retinitis pigmentosa. The system has gained regulatory approval in both the USA and Europe, and aims to restore vision by electrical stimulation of the nerve cells of the inner retina. In this review, we present the safety profile of this implant from the international clinical trial and discuss the nature and levels of improvement in visual function achieved by patients implanted with the system. Expert commentary: Future developments for the system will be explored following the discussion of the current usefulness of the device, its limitation as and the areas in which further development is necessary.

  20. Parameters Sensitivity Analysis of Position-Based Impedance Control for Bionic Legged Robots’ HDU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaixian Ba

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For the hydraulic drive unit (HDU on the joints of bionic legged robots, this paper proposes the position-based impedance control method. Then, the impedance control performance is tested by a HDU performance test platform. Further, the method of first-order sensitivity matrix is proposed to analyze the dynamic sensitivity of four main control parameters under four working conditions. To research the parameter sensitivity quantificationally, two sensitivity indexes are defined, and the sensitivity analysis results are verified by experiments. The results of the experiments show that, when combined with corresponding optimization strategies, the dynamic compliance composition theory and the results from sensitivity analysis can compensate for the control parameters and optimize the control performance in different working conditions.

  1. ["Bionic" arm prostheses. State of the art in research and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylatiuk, C; Döderlein, L

    2006-11-01

    A new generation of arm prostheses is being developed worldwide. These so-called bionic prostheses are intended to offer additional functions, such as sensory feedback, extended range of possible movement, intuitive movement control as far as possible, and a more natural cosmetic appearance. In recent years, prosthetic components with much enhanced performance have been developed for use at various levels of the upper limb. Artificial hands that allow for additional grips are are being tested in clinical settings. Innovative methods of signal acquisition and communication with the patient are being intensively researched. Several patients have been provided with prototypes of new arm prostheses. At the moment, the results are limited by the restricted communication between patient and prosthesis. However, we can expect the options for prosthesis control to be extended in the near future.

  2. A DNA Structure-Based Bionic Wavelet Transform and Its Application to DNA Sequence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA sequence analysis is of great significance for increasing our understanding of genomic functions. An important task facing us is the exploration of hidden structural information stored in the DNA sequence. This paper introduces a DNA structure-based adaptive wavelet transform (WT – the bionic wavelet transform (BWT – for DNA sequence analysis. The symbolic DNA sequence can be separated into four channels of indicator sequences. An adaptive symbol-to-number mapping, determined from the structural feature of the DNA sequence, was introduced into WT. It can adjust the weight value of each channel to maximise the useful energy distribution of the whole BWT output. The performance of the proposed BWT was examined by analysing synthetic and real DNA sequences. Results show that BWT performs better than traditional WT in presenting greater energy distribution. This new BWT method should be useful for the detection of the latent structural features in future DNA sequence analysis.

  3. A new time-adaptive discrete bionic wavelet transform for enhancing speech from adverse noise environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniswamy, Sumithra; Duraisamy, Prakash; Alam, Mohammad Showkat; Yuan, Xiaohui

    2012-04-01

    Automatic speech processing systems are widely used in everyday life such as mobile communication, speech and speaker recognition, and for assisting the hearing impaired. In speech communication systems, the quality and intelligibility of speech is of utmost importance for ease and accuracy of information exchange. To obtain an intelligible speech signal and one that is more pleasant to listen, noise reduction is essential. In this paper a new Time Adaptive Discrete Bionic Wavelet Thresholding (TADBWT) scheme is proposed. The proposed technique uses Daubechies mother wavelet to achieve better enhancement of speech from additive non- stationary noises which occur in real life such as street noise and factory noise. Due to the integration of human auditory system model into the wavelet transform, bionic wavelet transform (BWT) has great potential for speech enhancement which may lead to a new path in speech processing. In the proposed technique, at first, discrete BWT is applied to noisy speech to derive TADBWT coefficients. Then the adaptive nature of the BWT is captured by introducing a time varying linear factor which updates the coefficients at each scale over time. This approach has shown better performance than the existing algorithms at lower input SNR due to modified soft level dependent thresholding on time adaptive coefficients. The objective and subjective test results confirmed the competency of the TADBWT technique. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is also evaluated for speaker recognition task under noisy environment. The recognition results show that the TADWT technique yields better performance when compared to alternate methods specifically at lower input SNR.

  4. Hiring a pediatric health care advocate for advisory and support services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Jennalee S; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina A; Cronan, Terry A; Sadler, Melody S

    2013-01-01

    In this study, factors that influence a person's likelihood of hiring a pediatric health care advocate (HCA) for support and/or advisory services were examined. Participants were asked to read vignettes in which a child's symptom severity, probability of mortality, and age were manipulated. A significantly higher likelihood of hiring an HCA for advisory services than for support services was found. A significant interaction between level of mortality and type of service indicated that when mortality was depicted as high, participants reported a greater likelihood of hiring an HCA for support services than for advisory services.

  5. Health Information Research Platform (HIReP)--an architecture pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiweis, Björn; Schneider, Gerd; Eichner, Theresia; Bergh, Björn; Heinze, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Secondary use or single source is still far from routine in healthcare, although lots of data are available either structured or unstructured. As data are stored in multiple systems, using them for biomedical research is difficult. Clinical data warehouses already help overcoming this issue, but currently they are only used for certain parts of biomedical research. A comprehensive research platform based on a generic architecture pattern could increase the benefits of existing data warehouses for both patient care and research by meeting two objectives: serving as a so called single point-of-truth and acting as a mediator between them strengthening interaction and close collaboration. Another effect is to reduce boundaries for the implementation of data warehouses. Taking further settings into account the architecture of a clinical data warehouse supporting patient care and biomedical research needs to be integrated with biomaterial banks and other sources. This work provides a solution conceptualizing a comprehensive architecture pattern of a Health Information Research Platform (HIReP) derived from use cases of the patient care and biomedical research domain. It serves as single IT infrastructure providing solutions for any type of use case.

  6. Self-Efficacy in Newly-Hired Child Welfare Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Cherry

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect in the United States resulted in 676,569 reports in 2011 (U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, 2012. Workers in this field struggle with low pay, high caseloads, inadequate training and supervision, and risk of violence, all of which contribute to worker burnout and poor worker retention rates. Worker self-efficacy is predictive of worker retention, job performance, and persistence in this difficult field. This paper reports the development of a new measure of self-efficacy from a sample of 395 child welfare workers. Factor analysis revealed two domains of self-efficacy, direct practice and indirect practice, which can be modestly predicted by worker characteristics upon hire and the training program the workers attend. Worker self-efficacy can be used to identify vulnerable workers who may be especially in need of strong supervisory support as well as understand who to target for recruitment. A review of the literature of self-efficacy in child welfare workers is included.

  7. Revised regulation on the Hiring of Domestic Staff in Switzerland

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN of the publication of the official translation of the 'Directive on the hiring of private servants by staff members of diplomatic missions, permanent missions, consular posts and international organisations in Switzerland', which came into effect on 1st May 2006. The members of the personnel concerned are reminded that they must comply with the provisions of the revised Directive, which replaces that of 1st May 1998, and present a copy to their domestic staff. The full text of the revised Directive is available on the Swiss Mission's website: http://www.dfae.admin.ch/geneva_miss/f/home/guide/dir.html (original French version); http://www.dfae.admin.ch/geneva_miss/e/home/guide/dir.html (English translation). This notification cancels the information published in document CERN/DSU-DO/RH/9304 on 19 October 1999. Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 relations.secretariat@cern.ch www.cern.ch/relations

  8. A novel in situ device based on a bionic piezoelectric actuator to study tensile and fatigue properties of bulk materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shupeng; Zhang, Zhihui, E-mail: zhzh@jlu.edu.cn; Ren, Luquan; Liang, Yunhong [The Key Laboratory of Engineering Bionics (Ministry of Education) and the College of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Jilin University (Nanling Campus), 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun 130025 (China); Zhao, Hongwei [College of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Jilin University (Nanling Campus), 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun 130025 (China); Zhu, Bing [College of Automotive Engineering, Jilin University (Nanling Campus), 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun 130025 (China)

    2014-06-15

    In this work, a miniaturized device based on a bionic piezoelectric actuator was developed to investigate the static tensile and dynamic fatigue properties of bulk materials. The device mainly consists of a bionic stepping piezoelectric actuator based on wedge block clamping, a pair of grippers, and a set of precise signal test system. Tensile and fatigue examinations share a set of driving system and a set of signal test system. In situ tensile and fatigue examinations under scanning electron microscope or metallographic microscope could be carried out due to the miniaturized dimensions of the device. The structure and working principle of the device were discussed and the effects of output difference between two piezoelectric stacks on the device were theoretically analyzed. The tensile and fatigue examinations on ordinary copper were carried out using this device and its feasibility was verified through the comparison tests with a commercial tensile examination instrument.

  9. A novel in situ device based on a bionic piezoelectric actuator to study tensile and fatigue properties of bulk materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shupeng; Zhang, Zhihui; Ren, Luquan; Zhao, Hongwei; Liang, Yunhong; Zhu, Bing

    2014-06-01

    In this work, a miniaturized device based on a bionic piezoelectric actuator was developed to investigate the static tensile and dynamic fatigue properties of bulk materials. The device mainly consists of a bionic stepping piezoelectric actuator based on wedge block clamping, a pair of grippers, and a set of precise signal test system. Tensile and fatigue examinations share a set of driving system and a set of signal test system. In situ tensile and fatigue examinations under scanning electron microscope or metallographic microscope could be carried out due to the miniaturized dimensions of the device. The structure and working principle of the device were discussed and the effects of output difference between two piezoelectric stacks on the device were theoretically analyzed. The tensile and fatigue examinations on ordinary copper were carried out using this device and its feasibility was verified through the comparison tests with a commercial tensile examination instrument.

  10. [Study on the acid hydrolysis, fiber remodeling and bionics mineralization of rat tail tendon collagen type Ⅰ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhan; Zhang, Chun; Guo, Qiaofeng

    2016-05-25

    Objective: To produce bionic bone material that is consistent with human bone in chemical composition and molecular structure using rat tail tendon collagen type Ⅰ. Methods: The type Ⅰcollagen derived from rat tail was extracted by acetic acid to form collagen fibers. The reconstructed collagen fibers were placed in the mineralized solution to mimic bone mineralization for 2-6 days. Bone mineralization was observed by transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction.Results: Collagen fibers with characteristic D-Band structure were reconstructed by using rat tail tendon collagen type Ⅰ extracted with acid hydrolysis method. Transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction showed that calcium hydroxyapatite precursor infiltrated into the collagen fibers, and the collagen fibers were partially mineralized after 2 days of mineralization; the collagen fibers were completely mineralized and bionic bone material of typeⅠ collagen/calcium hydroxyapatite was formed after 6 days of mineralization.Conclusion: The collagen type Ⅰ can be extracted from rat tail tendon by acid hydrolysis method, and can be reformed and mineralized to form the bionic bone material which mimics human bone in chemical composition and the molecular structure.

  11. Effects of bionic units on the fatigue wear of gray cast iron surface with different shapes and distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-kai; Lu, Shu-chao; Song, Xi-bin; Zhang, Haifeng; Yang, Wan-shi; Zhou, Hong

    2015-03-01

    To improve the fatigue wear resistance of gray cast iron (GCI), GCI samples were modified by a laser to imitate the unique structure of some soil animals alternating between soft and hard phases; the hard phase resists the deformation and the soft phase releases the deformation. Using the self-controlled fatigue wear test method, the fatigue wear behaviors of treated and untreated samples were investigated and compared experimentally. The results show that the bionic non-smooth surface obtains a beneficial effect on improving the fatigue wear resistance of a sample, and the fatigue wear resistance of the bionic sample assembled with reticulate units (60°+0°), whose mass loss was reduced by 62%, was superior to the others. Meanwhile, a finite element (FE) was used to simulate the compression and the distributions of strain and stress on the non-smooth surface was inferred. From these results, we understood that the functions of the bionic unit such as reducing strain and stress, and also obstructing the closure and propagation of cracks were the main reasons for improving the fatigue wear property of GCI.

  12. 2009 Decennial Socio-Economic Survey of the Gulf For-Hire Sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This survey collected data to generate a comprehensive review of the economic and policy status of the recreational for-hire sector in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico,...

  13. Colleges Hire Young Graduates, Dubbed "Green Deans," to Help Run Their Student-Volunteer Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Michele N-K.

    1988-01-01

    As campus student volunteer activities have grown, colleges have acknowledged the need for better organization by hiring recent graduates to coordinate them. The young deans have proven to be both enthusiastic and effective at this task. (MSE)

  14. 2009 Decennial Socio-Economic Survey of the S. Atlantic For-Hire Sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This survey collected data to provide a current perspective on the for-hire fishing sectors of Florida (east coast), Georgia, South and North Carolina. One important...

  15. The history of labour hire in Namibia : a lesson for South Africa : notes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Botes, A

    2013-01-01

    ... of Namibia once again focused the attention on this form of employment. One of the important aspects traversed was the history of labour hire, then known as the contract labour system, and the reasons why it is feared...

  16. EELT-HIRES the high-resolution spectrograph for the E-ELT

    OpenAIRE

    Marconi, A; Di Marcantonio, P; D'Odorico, V; Cristiani, S; Maiolino, R; Oliva, E; Origlia, L; Riva, M; Valenziano, L; Zerbi, FM; Abreu, M; Adibekyan, V; Allende Prieto, C; Amado, PJ; Benz, W

    2016-01-01

    The first generation of E-ELT instruments will include an optic-infrared High Resolution Spectrograph, conventionally indicated as EELT-HIRES, which will be capable of providing unique breakthroughs in the fields of exoplanets, star and planet formation, physics and evolution of stars and galaxies, cosmology and fundamental physics. A 2-year long phase A study for EELT-HIRES has just started and will be performed by a consortium composed of institutes and organisations from Brazil, Chile, Den...

  17. Understanding employers' hiring intentions in relation to qualified workers with disabilities: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Robert T; Johnson, Kurt; Hebert, James; Ajzen, Icek; Copeland, Jana; Brown, Pat; Chan, Fong

    2010-12-01

    As part of the planning process for a larger survey study to examine factors affecting employers' intention to hire and hiring of people with disabilities, a series of three semi-structured focus groups were held with key hiring decision makers, such as Human Resources directors, Chief Operating Officers (COOs), or Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of small, medium, and large Seattle area companies. The chief goals of the focus groups were to elicit and refine the participants' beliefs, normative influences, and perceived control relative to hiring workers with disabilities. Narrative data obtained from the focus group discussion were examined using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to identify themes expressed by the focus group participants within the context of company size. Themes did vary by company size, but a prevailing concern across all companies related to questions about the efficiency/effectiveness of contact with vocational rehabilitation agencies. For both small- and mid-sized companies, there was a belief that people with disabilities could not do the work or were somehow less qualified. For large companies, convincing departmental and team managers that outreaching workers with disabilities would be a worthwhile hiring practice remained a challenge. The themes derived from this study can be used to help occupational rehabilitation professionals develop educational and marketing interventions to improve employers' attitudes toward hiring and retaining individuals with disabilities.

  18. Advanced bionics thin lateral and Helix II electrodes: a temporal bone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Charles G; Roland, Peter S; Kuzma, Janusz

    2005-11-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the insertional properties of two cochlear implant electrodes recently developed by Advanced Bionics Corporation. Anatomic study using human cadaveric temporal bones. The electrode prototypes we tested are the Thin Lateral and Helix II arrays, which incorporate features designed to minimize insertional trauma. A total of eight electrodes (4 of each prototype) were evaluated after insertion into freshly fixed temporal bones. The electrodes were inserted by way of standard cochleostomies, and the specimens were subsequently dissected to assess electrode position, insertion depth, and intracochlear trauma. Quantitative data regarding insertion depths and contact distances from the modiolus are presented for all electrodes tested. The mean insertion depths were 368 degrees for the Thin Lateral electrodes, which are designed to approximate the lateral cochlear wall, and 436 degrees for the Helix II electrodes, which occupy a more medial position in the scala tympani. No evidence of insertional trauma was observed with either electrode. The ease of insertion and absence of trauma were confirmed during additional trials in which electrode behavior was directly observed during insertion into previously opened cochleas. Both electrodes performed favorably in our human temporal bone trials, and both arrays appear promising for clinical use, especially in patients with residual hearing in whom atraumatic insertion is an important objective.

  19. Wear resistance of machine tools' bionic linear rolling guides by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiqiang; Liu, Botao; Guo, Zhengcai

    2017-06-01

    In order to improve the rolling wear resistance (RWR) of linear rolling guides (LRG) as well as prolong the life of machine tools, various shape samples with different units spaces ranged from 1 to 5 mm are designed through the observation of animals in the desert and manufactured by laser cladding. Wear resistance tests reproducing closely the real operational condition are conducted by using a homemade linear reciprocating wear test machine, and wear resistance is evaluated by means of weight loss measurement. Results indicate that the samples with bionic units have better RWR than the untreated one, of which the reticulate treated sample with unit space 3 mm present the best RWR. More specifically, among the punctuate treated samples, the mass loss increases with the increase of unit space; among the striate treated samples, the mass loss changes slightly with the increase of unit space, attaining a minimum at the unit space of 4 mm; among the reticulate treated samples, with the increase of unit space, the mass loss initially decreases, but turns to increase after reaching a minimum at the unit space of 3 mm. Additionally, the samples with striate shape perform better wear resistance than the other shape groups on the whole. From the ratio value of laser treated area to contacted area perspective, that the samples with ratio value between 0.15 and 0.3 possess better wear resistance is concluded.

  20. In vivo estimates of the position of advanced bionics electrode arrays in the human cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Margaret W; Holden, Timothy A; Whiting, Bruce R; Voie, Arne H; Brunsden, Barry; Neely, J Gail; Saxon, Eugene A; Hullar, Timothy E; Finley, Charles C

    2007-04-01

    A new technique for determining the position of each electrode in the cochlea is described and applied to spiral computed tomography data from 15 patients implanted with Advanced Bionics HiFocus I, Ij, or Helix arrays. ANALYZE imaging software was used to register 3-dimensional image volumes from patients' preoperative and postoperative scans and from a single body donor whose unimplanted ears were scanned clinically, with micro computed tomography and with orthogonal-plane fluorescence optical sectioning (OPFOS) microscopy. By use of this registration, we compared the atlas of OPFOS images of soft tissue within the body donor's cochlea with the bone and fluid/ tissue boundary available in patient scan data to choose the midmodiolar axis position and judge the electrode position in the scala tympani or scala vestibuli, including the distance to the medial and lateral scalar walls. The angular rotation 0 degrees start point is a line joining the midmodiolar axis and the middle of the cochlear canal entry from the vestibule. The group mean array insertion depth was 477 degrees (range, 286 degrees to 655 degrees). The word scores were negatively correlated (r = -0.59; p = .028) with the number of electrodes in the scala vestibuli. Although the individual variability in all measures was large, repeated patterns of suboptimal electrode placement were observed across subjects, underscoring the applicability of this technique.

  1. Bionic approach for the prevention of exit-site infections of percutaneous devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großhauser, Johannes; Reiter, Katja; Große-Siestrup, Christian; Kikhney, Judith; Kertzscher, Ulrich; Affeld, Klaus

    2015-06-01

    Exit-site infections remain one of the main complications for percutaneous devices, such as catheters for peritoneal dialysis or drivelines for ventricular assist devices. Many efforts have been made to create a biological seal, yet without long-term success. This study investigates a new kind of percutaneous device which is coated with an extricable polymeric membrane. The bionic approach applies the naturally outwards directed growth of skin structures to technology: by pulling the protective membrane it slowly grows out of the body and a developing sulcus is exposed to dry air and an infection is avoided. In a feasibility study this kind of device was shown to reduce the rate of infection. To further investigate these devices, they were implanted in the skin of goats and observed for a period of more than 500 days. The membranes were pulled with a force of up to 2 N and the resulting movement was recorded. When being pulled, the membranes moved 0.4-0.9 mm per week, showing that the application of a continuously acting, defined force on the protective membrane causes the desired slow movement.

  2. Bionic optical imaging system with aspheric solid-liquid mixed variable-focus lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jia-Wei; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Liang, Dan

    2016-02-01

    A bionic optical imaging system with an aspheric solid-liquid mixed variable-focus lens was designed and fabricated. The entire system mainly consisted of a doublet lens, a solid-liquid mixed variable-focus lens, a connecting part, and a CCD imaging device. To mimic the structure of the crystalline lens, the solid-liquid mixed variable-focus lens consisted of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) lens, a polymethyl methacrylate lens, and the liquid of ethyl silicone oil. By pumping liquid in or out of the cavity using a microinjector, the curvatures of the front and rear surfaces of the PDMS lens were varied, resulting in a change of focal length. The overall structure of the system was presented, as well as a detailed description of the solid-liquid mixed variable-focus lens, material, and fabrication process. Under different injection volumes, the deformation of the PDMS lens was measured and simulated, pictures were captured, and the optical performance was analyzed in simulations and experiments. The focal length of the system ranged from 25.05 to 14.61 mm, and the variation of the diopter was 28.5D, which was larger than that of the human eye.

  3. Butterfly scales as bionic templates for complex ordered nanophotonic materials: A pathway to biomimetic plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakšić, Zoran; Pantelić, Dejan; Sarajlić, Milija; Savić-Šević, Svetlana; Matović, Jovan; Jelenković, Branislav; Vasiljević-Radović, Dana; Ćurčić, Srećko; Vuković, Slobodan; Pavlović, Vladimir; Buha, Jelena; Lačković, Vesna; Labudović-Borović, Milica; Ćurčić, Božidar

    2013-08-01

    In this paper we propose a possible use of butterfly scales as templates for ordered 2D or 3D nanophotonic materials, with complexity not easily reproducible by conventional micro/nanofabrication methods. Functionalization through laminar nanocompositing is utilized to impart novel properties to the biological scaffold. An extremely wide variability of butterfly scale forms, shapes, sizes and fine structures is observed in nature, many of them already possessing peculiar optical properties. Their nanophotonic functionalization ensures a large choice of forms and functions, including enhanced light localization, light and plasmon waveguiding and general metamaterial behavior, to mention a few. We show that one is able to achieve a combination of plasmonics and bionics, resulting in functionalities seldom if ever met in nature. As an illustration we have analyzed the photonic properties of the nanostructured scales on the wings of Purple Emperor butterflies Apatura ilia, Apatura iris and Sasakia charonda. Their intricate nanometer-sized structures produce remarkable ultraviolet-blue iridescence, spectrally and directionally narrow. We present our analysis of their plasmonic/nanophotonic functionalization including preliminary calculations and initial experimental results. As a simple example, we used radiofrequent sputtering to produce nanoaperture-based plasmonic structures at a fraction of the cost and necessary engineering efforts compared to the conventional top-down methods. We conclude that the described pathway to biomimetic plasmonics offers potentials for significant expansion of the nanophotonic and nanoplasmonic material toolbox.

  4. [The hydrophilicity and cell affinity of polylactic acid containg bionic function group of phosphorylcholine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Juan; Wang, Lijian; Chen, Yuanwei; Luo, Xianglin; Chen, Nianchao; Wan, Changxiu; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2008-12-01

    A series of novel biodegradable and bionic functional polymers, PLLA-PC-PLLA, were synthesized using L-lactide ring-opening polymerization by L-a-Glycerophosphorylcholine (PC) from nature source. The hydrophilicity of the polymers was investigated. The results made known that, as PC group was brought into the backbone of PLLA, PLLA-PC-PLLA gained much better hydrophilicity than did PLLA, and polar phosphatidylcholines probably transferred to the sample surface in aqueous environment. The relative growth ratios of ECV304 cells to the lixivium of all PLLA-PC-PLLA were higher than 84% in 5 d culture. The cells adhesion of ECV304 on the films of PLLA-PC-PLLA lagged as compared to that on PLLA, but they could proliferate and cover the films in total. The difference between PLLA-PC-PLLA and PLLA was due to the existence of PC group. Thus, PLLA-PC-PLLA, the same as PLLA, are not cytotoxic, and ECV304 can attach and proliferate on them. PLLA-PC-PLLA have potential applications in the fields of tissue engineering and drug delivery system.

  5. Bionic design. Its idea and present situation; Biotec design. Sono kangaekata to genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, J. [Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-03-05

    This paper explains the idea of a bionic design and the present situation of its research. There are numerous subjects to learn from the structure and system of organisms as well as in the process of their generation, evolution and extinction, in connection with the design of artifacts. These subjects are classified into positions for developing new materials, new mechanisms/structures, and new systems or algorithmic models. In other words, they are the development of materials for self-repairing cracks and defects, development of micro-machines or robots from the moving mechanisms and the like of insects and micro-organisms, development of a mechanism for protecting a gigantic structures or systems through the use of an immunity system by antigen and antibody, and so on. The enamel of teeth is an apatite material with the hardness of 5 but actually provided with a strength comparable to the hardness of 6 to 7. Bamboo resists an external force by varying the distribution of vascular bundles in the thickness direction. Thus, the integration of software and hardware is the characteristic of biomaterials. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Superamphiphobic Bionic Proboscis for Contamination-Free Manipulation of Nano and Core-Shell Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William S Y; Liu, Guanyu; Tricoli, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Manipulation of nanoliter droplets is a key step for many emerging technologies including ultracompact microfluidics devices, 3D and flexible electronic printing. Despite progress, contamination-free generation and release of nanoliter droplets by compact low-cost devices remains elusive. In the present study, inspired by butterflies' minute manipulation of fluids, the authors have engineered a superamphiphobic bionic proboscis (SAP) layout that surpasses synthetic and natural designs. The authors demonstrate the scalable fabrication of SAPs with tunable inner diameters down to 50 µm by the rapid gas-phase nanotexturing of the outer and inner surfaces of readily available hypodermic needles. Optimized SAPs achieve contamination-free manipulation of water and oil droplets down to a liquid surface tension of 26.56 mN m(-1) and a volume of 10 nL. The unique potential of this layout is showcased by the rapid and carefully controlled in-air synthesis of core-shell droplets with well-controlled compositions. These findings provide a new low-cost tool for high-precision manipulation of nanoliter droplets, offering a powerful alternative to established thermal- and electrodynamic-based devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Cities of the future-bionic systems of new urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemińska, Alicja Edyta; Zaręba, Anna Danuta; Dzikowska, Anna; Jarosz, Katarzyna Rozalia

    2017-12-07

    The concepts of the cities we know nowadays, and which we are accustomed to, change at a very rapid pace. The philosophy of their design is also changing. It will base on new standards, entering a completely different, futuristic dimension. This stage is related to changes in the perception of space, location and lack of belonging to definite, national or cultural structures. Cities of the future are cities primarily intelligent, zero-energetic, zero-waste, environmentally sustainable, self-sufficient in terms of both organic food production and symbiosis between the environment and industry. New cities will be able to have new organisational structures-either city states, or, apolitical, jigsaw-like structures that can change their position-like in the case of the city of Artisanopolis, designed as a floating city, close to the land, reminiscent of the legendary Atlantis. This paper is focused on the main issues connected with problems of the contemporary city planning. The purpose of the research was to identify existing technological solutions, whose aim is to use solar energy and urban greenery. The studies were based on literature related to future city development issues and futuristic projects of the architects and city planners. In the paper, the following issues have been verified: futuristic cities and districts, and original bionic buildings, both residential and industrial. The results of the analysis have been presented in a tabular form.

  8. Unifying inflation with late-time acceleration by a BIonic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehri, Alireza, E-mail: alireza.sepehri@uk.ac.ir [Faculty of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University, P.O. Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahaman, Farook, E-mail: rahaman@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India); Setare, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir [Department of Science, Campus of Bijar, University of Kurdistan, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pradhan, Anirudh, E-mail: pradhan@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Mathematics, Institute of Applied Sciences & Humanities, GLA University, Mathura-281 406, U.P. (India); Capozziello, Salvatore, E-mail: capozziello@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Napoli “Federico II”, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), Viale F. Crispi, 7, I-67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Sardar, Iftikar Hossain, E-mail: iftikar.spm@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India)

    2015-07-30

    We propose a cosmological model that unifies inflation, deceleration and acceleration phases of expansion history by a BIonic system. At the beginning, there are k black fundamental strings that transited to the BIon configuration at a given corresponding point. Here, two coupled universes, brane and antibrane, are created interacting each other through a wormhole and inflate. With decreasing temperature, the energy of this wormhole flows into the universe branes and leads to inflation. After a short time, the wormhole evaporates, the inflation ends and a deceleration epoch starts. By approaching the brane and antibrane universes together, a tachyon is born, grows and causes the creation of a new wormhole. At this time, the brane and antibrane universes result connected again and the late-time acceleration era of the universe begins. We compare our model with previous unified phantom models and observational data obtaining some cosmological parameters like temperature in terms of time. We also find that deceleration parameter is negative during inflation and late-time acceleration epochs, while it is positive during the deceleration era. This means that the model is consistent, in principle, with cosmological observations.

  9. Research on the image fusion and target extraction based on bionic compound eye system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaowei; Hao, Qun; Song, Yong; Wang, Zihan; Zhang, Kaiyu; Zhang, Shiyu

    2015-08-01

    People attach more and more importance to bionic compound eye due to its advantages such as small volume, large field of view and sensitivity to high-speed moving objects. Small field of view and large volume are the disadvantages of traditional image sensor and in order to avoid these defects, this paper intends to build a set of compound eye system based on insect compound eye structure and visual processing mechanism. In the center of this system is the primary sensor which has high resolution ratio. The primary sensor is surrounded by the other six sensors which have low resolution ratio. Based on this system, this paper will study the target image fusion and extraction method by using plane compound eye structure. This paper designs a control module which can combine the distinguishing features of high resolution image with local features of low resolution image so as to conduct target detection, recognition and location. Compared with traditional ways, the way of high resolution in the center and low resolution around makes this system own the advantages of high resolution and large field of view and enables the system to detect the object quickly and recognize the object accurately.

  10. Effects of laser parameters on the geometrical characteristics of peg-shaped bionic coupling unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoyu; Zhang, Zhihui; Liang, Yunhong; Yan, Qiongqiong; Ren, Luquan

    2014-12-01

    Peg-shaped bionic coupling unit (PBCU) processed by pulse laser is effective in anti-adhesion, anti-drag, anti-wear and anti-fatigue application. To obtain desired structural and morphological characteristics of the PBCU for industrial manufacturing, selection of proper processing parameters gradually becomes a growing important problem. Traditionally, the procedure of parameter selecting is often cost-plus and time-consuming. In this work, a statistical analysis of fabricating PBCU on the surface of medium carbon steel was conducted. The laser processing parameters utilized in the experiment and analysis are peak power 4-8 kW, pulse duration 6-16 ms and defocusing amount 6-10 mm. A series of mathematical models regarding the relationship between geometrical characteristics of PBCU and laser processing parameters were developed and checked. The results indicate that the developed models can be adequately used to control the structural and morphological characteristics of PBCU within the scope of analysis. Based on the models, the formation mechanism of the structural and morphological characteristics under different laser parameters were analyzed and discussed.

  11. Unifying inflation with late-time acceleration by a BIonic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sepehri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a cosmological model that unifies inflation, deceleration and acceleration phases of expansion history by a BIonic system. At the beginning, there are k black fundamental strings that transited to the BIon configuration at a given corresponding point. Here, two coupled universes, brane and antibrane, are created interacting each other through a wormhole and inflate. With decreasing temperature, the energy of this wormhole flows into the universe branes and leads to inflation. After a short time, the wormhole evaporates, the inflation ends and a deceleration epoch starts. By approaching the brane and antibrane universes together, a tachyon is born, grows and causes the creation of a new wormhole. At this time, the brane and antibrane universes result connected again and the late-time acceleration era of the universe begins. We compare our model with previous unified phantom models and observational data obtaining some cosmological parameters like temperature in terms of time. We also find that deceleration parameter is negative during inflation and late-time acceleration epochs, while it is positive during the deceleration era. This means that the model is consistent, in principle, with cosmological observations.

  12. Women have substantial advantage in STEM faculty hiring, except when competing against more-accomplished men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Williams, Wendy M

    2015-01-01

    Audits of tenure-track hiring reveal faculty prefer to hire female applicants over males. However, audit data do not control for applicant quality, allowing some to argue women are hired at higher rates because they are more qualified. To test this, Williams and Ceci (2015) conducted an experiment demonstrating a preference for hiring women over identically-qualified men. While their findings are consistent with audits, they raise the specter that faculty may prefer women over even more-qualified men, a claim made recently. We evaluated this claim in the present study: 158 faculty ranked two men and one woman for a tenure-track-assistant professorship, and 94 faculty ranked two women and one man. In the former condition, the female applicant was slightly weaker than her two male competitors, although still strong; in the other condition the male applicant was slightly weaker than his two female competitors, although still strong. Faculty of both genders and in all fields preferred the more-qualified men over the slightly-less-qualified women, and they also preferred the stronger women over the slightly-less-qualified man. This suggests that preference for women among identically-qualified applicants found in experimental studies and in audits does not extend to women whose credentials are even slightly weaker than male counterparts. Thus these data give no support to the twin claims that weaker males are chosen over stronger females or weaker females are hired over stronger males.

  13. Recruitment and Hiring Strategies of Private Practitioners and Implications for Practice Management Training of Veterinary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori R; Hellyer, Peter W; Stewart, Sherry M; Dowers, Kristy L

    2015-01-01

    Hiring new employees is one of the most important and difficult decisions all veterinary practice managers and owners face. In an effort to improve hiring decisions, many employers are choosing to screen potential employees more thoroughly through the use of interviews, background checks, personality assessments, and online research including social and professional networking websites. The current study reports results from an anonymous online survey created to evaluate practicing veterinarians' attitudes and practices related to the use of recruitment and hiring tools. Results suggest that, compared to those in other professions, veterinarians underutilize these evaluative tools. The profession could benefit from more opportunities for both practitioners and veterinary students to learn how to utilize a broader range of hiring and recruitment techniques. One area of particular and growing concern is the use of Internet social media for evaluation of potential employees. Despite the fairly low number of participants who indicated they currently research applicants online, a significant number plan to implement this practice in the future. Many students are unaware of how their online postings can affect their future job possibilities and career. It is therefore important to designate time within continuing education programs and professional veterinary curricula to educate these populations about hiring and recruitment tool options and about how to manage their personal Internet interactions (especially social media) to enhance and maintain their professional image (e-professionalism).

  14. [Improvement of blood compatibility of small intestinal submucosa used as engineering vascular scaffolds by nano-bionic surface modification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ben-song; Fan, Cun-yi; Liu, Sheng-he

    2006-08-08

    To investigate the effects of nano-bionic surface modification in improving the blood compatibility of small intestinal submucosa (SIS) used as engineering vascular scaffolds. SIS films were obtained from pig and underwent nano-bionic surface modification with plasma initiation technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphological features, including water contact angle, of the SIS films after nano-bionic surface modification. Modified SIS films were immersed into human platelet-rich plasma for 10 s and then observed for the adhesion of platelet on the surface thereof. Another modified SIS films were immersed into anticoagulant human blood to test the prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and thrombin time (TT). Twenty dogs were randomly divided into 2 equal groups to undergo cutting of bilateral femoral arteries and anastomosis with tube-like scaffolds made of modified or un-modified SIS films. Color Doppler ultrasonography was used to examine the blood flow 1, 3, and 6 weeks after operation. The dogs were killed in batches 2 and 6 weeks after operation to take out the SIS vessels to observe the existence of mural thrombus and undergo microscopy. SEM showed island-like and groove-like surface morphology in the modified SIS films, and the water contact angle decreased from 105.3 degrees to 62.0 degrees. After treatment by anticoagulant human blood the PT, APTT, and TT of the modified SIS films increased from 30.5 s, 9.8 s, and 13.6 s to 81.5 s, 39.6 s, and 50.2 s respectively. SEM showed that the number of adhering platelets was less on the surface of the modified SIS films than on the surface of un-modified SIS films. Animal experiment showed that 4 blood vessels anastomosed with un-modified SIS tube became completely thrombosed within 3 hours, and the other 6 became completely thrombosed 3 days later, and the 10 blood vessels anastomosed with modified SIS tube remained patent till 6 weeks after

  15. Affordable self-sufficient, bionic buildings. The necessity of thermal inertia; Betaalbare autarkische, bionische gebouwen. Thermische traagheid noodzakelijk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, H. [Afdeling Binnenmilieu en Energie, Arcadis Bouw en Vastgoed, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2004-03-01

    An overview is given of the development of low-pressure phase change material (PCM) induction units, which are fundamental elements of self-sufficient and bionic construction. Applications of PCM in buildings for climatization are discussed. [Dutch] Het samenwerkingsverband tussen verschillende bedrijven heeft de ontwikkeling van lagedruk, PCM (Phase Change Materials) inductie-units tot gevolg gehad. Deze units vormen een fundamenteel bestanddeel van het autarkisch en bionisch bouwen, dat zo mogelijk kan leiden tot autarkie (zelfvoorzienendheid op energiegebied). Wat zijn de toepassingen van PCM in gebouwen voor de ruimteklimatisering?.

  16. Gender and class housework inequalities in the era of outsourcing hiring domestic work in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonalons-Pons, Pilar

    2015-07-01

    Many households regularly outsource unpaid domestic labor by purchasing services and products to help with cleaning, cooking, ironing, and other chores. Despite the prevalence of this practice, scholars know little about how it affects inequalities in the time spent on housework. Drawing on data on 3540 dual-earner households in Spain, this article examines the relationship between hiring domestic work and both the within-household gender gap in housework and the class gap in housework among women. I find that women who hire do about 30min less housework per day than non-hiring women, but in relation to their partners these women continue to do the same share of housework. Using counterfactual analysis, I find that the absence of paid domestic work is associated with a 20% decline in the class gap in housework among Spanish women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A regional survey of dentists' preferences for hiring a dental associate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, Meghan C; Lalumandier, James A; Walker, Jonathan D; Houston, James H

    2008-07-01

    For many new dental school graduates, working as an associate may be an attractive option. To provide practical information for new job-seeking dentists, the authors conducted a survey to assess dentists' preferences with regard to hiring an associate. The authors mailed surveys to a random sample of 3,875 general dentists in four states that asked questions about the characteristics they preferred when hiring an associate. Five hundred seventy-four dentists (14.8 percent) responded to the survey. The results of this survey showed a wide variation in the characteristics dentists prefer when hiring an associate, but interpersonal skills appear to be at least as important as technical skills for new dentists' success. Opportunities for associate positions appear to be available to new dentists who have a range of skills, experience and training. Practical Implications. These results provide new dentists with information regarding the variety of career opportunities available for associates.

  18. EELT-HIRES the high-resolution spectrograph for the E-ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, A.; Di Marcantonio, P.; D'Odorico, V.; Cristiani, S.; Maiolino, R.; Oliva, E.; Origlia, L.; Riva, M.; Valenziano, L.; Zerbi, F. M.; Abreu, M.; Adibekyan, V.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amado, P. J.; Benz, W.; Boisse, I.; Bonfils, X.; Bouchy, F.; Buchhave, L.; Buscher, D.; Cabral, A.; Canto Martins, B. L.; Chiavassa, A.; Coelho, J.; Christensen, L. B.; Delgado-Mena, E.; de Medeiros, J. R.; Di Varano, I.; Figueira, P.; Fisher, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Glasse, A. C. H.; Haehnelt, M.; Haniff, C.; Hansen, C. J.; Hatzes, A.; Huke, P.; Korn, A. J.; Leão, I. C.; Liske, J.; Lovis, C.; Maslowski, P.; Matute, I.; McCracken, R. A.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.; Morris, S.; Morris, T.; Nicklas, H.; Niedzielski, A.; Nunes, N. J.; Palle, E.; Parr-Burman, P. M.; Parro, V.; Parry, I.; Pepe, F.; Piskunov, N.; Queloz, D.; Quirrenbach, A.; Rebolo Lopez, R.; Reiners, A.; Reid, D. T.; Santos, N.; Seifert, W.; Sousa, S.; Stempels, H. C.; Strassmeier, K.; Sun, X.; Udry, S.; Vanzi, L.; Vestergaard, M.; Weber, M.; Zackrisson, E.

    2016-08-01

    The first generation of E-ELT instruments will include an optic-infrared High Resolution Spectrograph, conventionally indicated as EELT-HIRES, which will be capable of providing unique breakthroughs in the fields of exoplanets, star and planet formation, physics and evolution of stars and galaxies, cosmology and fundamental physics. A 2-year long phase A study for EELT-HIRES has just started and will be performed by a consortium composed of institutes and organisations from Brazil, Chile, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom. In this paper we describe the science goals and the preliminary technical concept for EELT-HIRES which will be developed during the phase A, as well as its planned development and consortium organisation during the study.

  19. Emergency physician hiring practices: the effects of certain conditions on employability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, R M; Ufberg, J W

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of certain Emergency Physician (EP) conditions on hiring decisions by fellow EPs. An anonymous survey asked 255 Pennsylvania EPs to rate the likelihood of their voting to offer a position in each of six scenarios. Three scenarios consisted of EPs unable to work regular shifts because of periodic migraines, a sleep disorder, and periodic difficulty handling stress. The other scenarios involved an EP with a probable future pregnancy, a recovered alcoholic, and a healthy HIV-positive physician. Most respondents said they were unlikely to recommend hiring colleagues who disclose a disorder restricting their availability for regular shifts. EPs were generally tolerant of recovered alcoholics and plans for pregnancy leave, but nearly half had significant reservations regarding hiring HIV-positive peers. An understanding of which conditions negatively impact an EP's ability to obtain employment in Emergency Medicine may be useful in emergency medicine career counseling or in the process of obtaining disability coverage.

  20. The gender typicality of faces and its impact on visual processing and on hiring decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stockhausen, Lisa; Koeser, Sara; Sczesny, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Past research has shown that the gender typicality of applicants' faces affects leadership selection irrespective of a candidate's gender: A masculine facial appearance is congruent with masculine-typed leadership roles, thus masculine-looking applicants are hired more certainly than feminine-looking ones. In the present study, we extended this line of research by investigating hiring decisions for both masculine- and feminine-typed professional roles. Furthermore, we used eye tracking to examine the visual exploration of applicants' portraits. Our results indicate that masculine-looking applicants were favored for the masculine-typed role (leader) and feminine-looking applicants for the feminine-typed role (team member). Eye movement patterns showed that information about gender category and facial appearance was integrated during first fixations of the portraits. Hiring decisions, however, were not based on this initial analysis, but occurred at a second stage, when the portrait was viewed in the context of considering the applicant for a specific job.

  1. Employers' social contacts and their hiring behavior in a factorial survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stasio, Valentina; Gërxhani, Klarita

    2015-05-01

    We investigate whether referrals from employers' business and professional contacts matter in the hiring process. Additionally, we examine whether the effect of referrals varies depending on: (1) the signaling role of education during the hiring process, and (2) applicants' level of education. Based on a combination of a factorial survey and an experimental design with a sample of English employers, we measure the effect of referrals on employers' hiring assessments. We find only weak evidence that referred applicants are considered more trainable than otherwise identical applicants that do not have a tie with the employer. More detailed analyses show that referrals do matter for employers who consider education a noisy signal, in line with the argument that informal recruitment can represent a strategy for employers to compensate for poor signaling. Referrals are especially beneficial for highly educated applicants, probably because employers need some guarantee against possible wage or turnover costs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. HIRES the high-resolution spectrograph for the E-ELT: dynamics and control of the repositioning mechanism for the E-ELT HIRES polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Varano, I.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Woche, M.

    2016-08-01

    A full Stokes dual channel polarimeter for the E-ELT HIRES spectrograph has been envisioned for the intermediate focus f/4.4, operating within a spectral range of 0.4-1.6 μ. It will feed the EELT- HIRES instrument located on the Nasmyth platform via two pairs of dedicated fibers: one fibre pair optimized for the BVRI, the other one optimized for the JH band or any other feasible combination. The instrument must be retractable within a workspace in fulfillment with the ESO requirements on the allocated volume and the dynamic response of the AO tower. For such purpose a swinging arm has been designed with a rotation provided by 5 revolute joints and a jackscrew. Moreover repeatability in repositioning has to be guaranteed by a parallel manipulator, performing an alignment procedure mainly along 5 axes. Dynamics and control criteria with a feed forward chain to compensate for vibration forces and feedback chain for tracking procedure are hereafter presented.

  3. Competing for jobs: labor queues and gender sorting in the hiring process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Roberto M; Mors, Marie Louise

    2008-12-01

    While much research has documented the pattern and extent of sex segregation of workers once they are employed, few studies have addressed the pre-hire mechanisms that are posited to produce sex segregation in employment. While the notion of a labor queue-the rank order of the set of people that employers choose among-plays a prominent role in pre-hire accounts of job sex sorting mechanisms, few studies have examined the ways in which job candidates are sorted into labor queues. In this paper, we explore the mechanisms by which labor queues contribute to the gendering of jobs by studying the hiring process for all jobs at a call center. Being placed in a queue has a clear gendering effect on the hiring process: the sex distribution of applicants who are matched to queues and those who are rejected at this phase diverge, and among those assigned to queues, women are prevalent in queues for low pay, low status jobs. The screening process also contributes to the gendering of the population of hires at this firm. Females are more prevalent among hires than they are among candidates at initial queue assignment. Among high status jobs, however, males are more prevalent than females. Moreover, there are important wage implications associated with matching to queues. While there are large between-queue sex differences in the paid wages associated with allocation to queues, once allocated to queues the wage differences between male and female candidates are nil. Consequently, the roots of gender wage inequality in this setting lie in the initial sorting of candidates to labor queues.

  4. Hi-Res scan mode in clinical MDCT systems: Experimental assessment of spatial resolution performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Bastida, Juan P; Gomez-Cardona, Daniel; Li, Ke; Sun, Heyi; Hsieh, Jiang; Szczykutowicz, Timothy P; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2016-05-01

    The introduction of a High-Resolution (Hi-Res) scan mode and another associated option that combines Hi-Res mode with the so-called High Definition (HD) reconstruction kernels (referred to as a Hi-Res/HD mode in this paper) in some multi-detector CT (MDCT) systems offers new opportunities to increase spatial resolution for some clinical applications that demand high spatial resolution. The purpose of this work was to quantify the in-plane spatial resolution along both the radial direction and tangential direction for the Hi-Res and Hi-Res/HD scan modes at different off-center positions. A technique was introduced and validated to address the signal saturation problem encountered in the attempt to quantify spatial resolution for the Hi-Res and Hi-Res/HD scan modes. Using the proposed method, the modulation transfer functions (MTFs) of a 64-slice MDCT system (Discovery CT750 HD, GE Healthcare) equipped with both Hi-Res and Hi-Res/HD modes were measured using a metal bead at nine different off-centered positions (0-16 cm with a step size of 2 cm); at each position, both conventional scans and Hi-Res scans were performed. For each type of scan and position, 80 repeated acquisitions were performed to reduce noise induced uncertainties in the MTF measurements. A total of 15 reconstruction kernels, including eight conventional kernels and seven HD kernels, were used to reconstruct CT images of the bead. An ex vivo animal study consisting of a bone fracture model was performed to corroborate the MTF results, as the detection of this high-contrast and high frequency task is predominantly determined by spatial resolution. Images of this animal model generated by different scan modes and reconstruction kernels were qualitatively compared with the MTF results. At the centered position, the use of Hi-Res mode resulted in a slight improvement in the MTF; each HD kernel generated higher spatial resolution than its counterpart conventional kernel. However, the MTF along the

  5. Design and development of a ferroelectric micro photo detector for the bionic eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang

    Driven by no effective therapy for Retinitis Pigmentosa and Age Related Macular Degeneration, artificial vision through the development of an artificial retina that can be implanted into the human eye, is being addressed by the Bionic Eye. This dissertation focuses on the study of a photoferroelectric micro photo detector as an implantable retinal prosthesis for vision restoration in patients with above disorders. This implant uses an electrical signal to trigger the appropriate ocular cells of the vision system without resorting to wiring or electrode implantation. The research work includes fabrication of photoferroelectric thin film micro detectors, characterization of these photoferroelectric micro devices as photovoltaic cells, and Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling of the photoferroelectrics and their device-neuron interface. A ferroelectric micro detector exhibiting the photovoltaic effect (PVE) directly adds electrical potential to the neuron membrane outer wall at the focal adhesion regions. The electrical potential then generates a retinal cell membrane potential deflection through a newly developed Direct-Electric-Field-Coupling (DEFC) model. This model is quite different from the traditional electric current model because instead of current directly working on the cell membrane, the PVE current is used to generate a localized high electric potential in the focal adhesion region by working together with the anisotropic high internal impedance of ferroelectric thin films. General electrodes and silicon photodetectors do not have such anisotropy and high impedance, and thus they cannot generate DEFC. This mechanism investigation is very valuable, because it clearly shows that our artificial retina works in a way that is totally different from the traditional current stimulation methods.

  6. Humanoid monocular stereo measuring system with two degrees of freedom using bionic optical imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jia-Wei; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Zhu, Shi-Qiang

    2017-10-01

    Based on the process by which the spatial depth clue is obtained by a single eye, a monocular stereo vision to measure the depth information of spatial objects was proposed in this paper and a humanoid monocular stereo measuring system with two degrees of freedom was demonstrated. The proposed system can effectively obtain the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of spatial objects of different distances without changing the position of the system and has the advantages of being exquisite, smart, and flexible. The bionic optical imaging system we proposed in a previous paper, named ZJU SY-I, was employed and its vision characteristic was just like the resolution decay of the eye's vision from center to periphery. We simplified the eye's rotation in the eye socket and the coordinated rotation of other organs of the body into two rotations in the orthogonal direction and employed a rotating platform with two rotation degrees of freedom to drive ZJU SY-I. The structure of the proposed system was described in detail. The depth of a single feature point on the spatial object was deduced, as well as its spatial coordination. With the focal length adjustment of ZJU SY-I and the rotation control of the rotation platform, the spatial coordinates of all feature points on the spatial object could be obtained and then the 3-D structure of the spatial object could be reconstructed. The 3-D structure measurement experiments of two spatial objects with different distances and sizes were conducted. Some main factors affecting the measurement accuracy of the proposed system were analyzed and discussed.

  7. Estimation of the age and amount of brown rice plant hoppers based on bionic electronic nose use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sai; Zhou, Zhiyan; Lu, Huazhong; Luo, Xiwen; Lan, Yubin; Zhang, Yang; Li, Yanfang

    2014-09-29

    The brown rice plant hopper (BRPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), is one of the most important insect pests affecting rice and causes serious damage to the yield and quality of rice plants in Asia. This study used bionic electronic nose technology to sample BRPH volatiles, which vary in age and amount. Principal component analysis (PCA), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), probabilistic neural network (PNN), BP neural network (BPNN) and loading analysis (Loadings) techniques were used to analyze the sampling data. The results indicate that the PCA and LDA classification ability is poor, but the LDA classification displays superior performance relative to PCA. When a PNN was used to evaluate the BRPH age and amount, the classification rates of the training set were 100% and 96.67%, respectively, and the classification rates of the test set were 90.67% and 64.67%, respectively. When BPNN was used for the evaluation of the BRPH age and amount, the classification accuracies of the training set were 100% and 48.93%, respectively, and the classification accuracies of the test set were 96.67% and 47.33%, respectively. Loadings for BRPH volatiles indicate that the main elements of BRPHs' volatiles are sulfur-containing organics, aromatics, sulfur-and chlorine-containing organics and nitrogen oxides, which provide a reference for sensors chosen when exploited in specialized BRPH identification devices. This research proves the feasibility and broad application prospects of bionic electronic noses for BRPH recognition.

  8. Estimation of the Age and Amount of Brown Rice Plant Hoppers Based on Bionic Electronic Nose Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sai; Zhou, Zhiyan; Lu, Huazhong; Luo, Xiwen; Lan, Yubin; Zhang, Yang; Li, Yanfang

    2014-01-01

    The brown rice plant hopper (BRPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), is one of the most important insect pests affecting rice and causes serious damage to the yield and quality of rice plants in Asia. This study used bionic electronic nose technology to sample BRPH volatiles, which vary in age and amount. Principal component analysis (PCA), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), probabilistic neural network (PNN), BP neural network (BPNN) and loading analysis (Loadings) techniques were used to analyze the sampling data. The results indicate that the PCA and LDA classification ability is poor, but the LDA classification displays superior performance relative to PCA. When a PNN was used to evaluate the BRPH age and amount, the classification rates of the training set were 100% and 96.67%, respectively, and the classification rates of the test set were 90.67% and 64.67%, respectively. When BPNN was used for the evaluation of the BRPH age and amount, the classification accuracies of the training set were 100% and 48.93%, respectively, and the classification accuracies of the test set were 96.67% and 47.33%, respectively. Loadings for BRPH volatiles indicate that the main elements of BRPHs' volatiles are sulfur-containing organics, aromatics, sulfur- and chlorine-containing organics and nitrogen oxides, which provide a reference for sensors chosen when exploited in specialized BRPH identification devices. This research proves the feasibility and broad application prospects of bionic electronic noses for BRPH recognition. PMID:25268913

  9. Estimation of the Age and Amount of Brown Rice Plant Hoppers Based on Bionic Electronic Nose Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Xu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The brown rice plant hopper (BRPH, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal, is one of the most important insect pests affecting rice and causes serious damage to the yield and quality of rice plants in Asia. This study used bionic electronic nose technology to sample BRPH volatiles, which vary in age and amount. Principal component analysis (PCA, linear discrimination analysis (LDA, probabilistic neural network (PNN, BP neural network (BPNN and loading analysis (Loadings techniques were used to analyze the sampling data. The results indicate that the PCA and LDA classification ability is poor, but the LDA classification displays superior performance relative to PCA. When a PNN was used to evaluate the BRPH age and amount, the classification rates of the training set were 100% and 96.67%, respectively, and the classification rates of the test set were 90.67% and 64.67%, respectively. When BPNN was used for the evaluation of the BRPH age and amount, the classification accuracies of the training set were 100% and 48.93%, respectively, and the classification accuracies of the test set were 96.67% and 47.33%, respectively. Loadings for BRPH volatiles indicate that the main elements of BRPHs’ volatiles are sulfur-containing organics, aromatics, sulfur-and chlorine-containing organics and nitrogen oxides, which provide a reference for sensors chosen when exploited in specialized BRPH identification devices. This research proves the feasibility and broad application prospects of bionic electronic noses for BRPH recognition.

  10. Effect of thermal fatigue on the wear resistance of graphite cast iron with bionic units processed by laser cladding WC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Zhengjun; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Chuanwei; Meng, Chao; Cong, Dalong

    2013-04-01

    Thermal fatigue and wear exist simultaneously during the service life of brake discs. Previous researchers only studied thermal fatigue resistance or abrasion resistance of compact graphite cast iron (CGI), rather than combining them together. In this paper, wear resistance after thermal fatigue of CGI was investigated basing on the principle of bionics, which was close to actual service condition of the brake discs. In the meanwhile, the effect of thermal fatigue on wear resistance was also discussed. Non-smooth bionic units were fabricated by laser cladding WC powder with different proportions (50 wt.%, 60 wt.%, 70 wt.%). Microstructure and microhardness of the units were investigated, and wear mass losses of the samples were also compared. The results indicate that thermal fatigue has a negative effect on the wear resistance. After the same thermal fatigue cycles times, the wear resistance of laser cladding WC samples is superior to that of laser remelting ones and their wear resistance enhances with the increase of WC content.

  11. An Exploration of the Superintendent Hiring Process in Texas Used by School Boards That Utilized Search Consultants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagle, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the superintendent hiring process in Texas. Participating school board presidents were part of a target population who used search consultants and hired a superintendent during 2011. Using survey research methods, data were collected from 17 school board presidents. The Superintendent Profile survey was used to measure how…

  12. Negative Attitudes toward Older Workers and Hiring Decisions: Testing the Moderating Role of Decision Makers' Core Self-Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasbender, Ulrike; Wang, Mo

    2016-01-01

    Organizational hiring practices have been charged for unfair treatment on the grounds of age. Drawing on theories of planned behavior and core self-evaluations, this research investigated the impact of negative attitudes toward older workers on hiring decisions and examined the moderating role of decision-makers' core self-evaluations. We tested our hypotheses based on a structured online questionnaire and a vignette study using a sample of 102 participants working in human resource management across different industries. As predicted, negative attitudes toward older workers were positively related to avoidance of hiring older people, which in turn was negatively related to the likelihood to select the oldest candidate. Because hiring decisions are not only about the hiring subject but also about the decision-maker, we tested the moderating role of decision-makers' core self-evaluations. Results showed that core self-evaluations buffered the relationship between negative attitudes toward older workers and avoidance of hiring older people. Theoretical implications of the findings with regard to hiring decisions about older people and practical recommendations to improve diversity management strategies and age-balanced hiring practices in organizations are discussed.

  13. Comparison of electrically evoked compound action potential thresholds and loudness estimates for the stimuli used to program the Advanced Bionics cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Kyung; Brown, Carolyn J; Etler, Christine P; O'Brien, Sara; Chiou, Li-Kuei; Abbas, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, Cochlear Corporation introduced a cochlear implant (CI) to the market that was equipped with hardware that made it possible to record electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) from CI users of all ages. Over the course of the next decade, many studies were published that compared ECAP thresholds with levels used to program the speech processor of the Nucleus CI. In 2001 Advanced Bionics Corporation introduced the Clarion CII cochlear implant (the Clarion CII internal device is also known as the CII Bionic Ear). This cochlear implant was also equipped with a system that allowed measurement of the ECAP. While a great deal is known about how ECAP thresholds compare with the levels used to program the speech processor of the Nucleus CI, relatively few studies have reported comparisons between ECAP thresholds and the levels used to program the speech processor of the Advanced Bionics CI. To explore the relationship between ECAP thresholds and behavioral measures of perceptual dynamic range for the range of stimuli commonly used to program the speech processor of the Advanced Bionics CI. This prospective and experimental study uses correlational and descriptive statistics to define the relationship between ECAP thresholds and perceptual dynamic range measures. Twelve postlingually deafened adults participated in this study. All were experienced users of the Advanced Bionics CI system. ECAP thresholds were recorded using the commercially available SoundWave software. Perceptual measures of threshold (T-level), most comfortable level (M-level), and maximum comfortable level (C-level) were obtained using both "tone bursts" and "speech bursts." The relationship between these perceptual and electrophysiological variables was defined using paired t-tests as well as correlation and linear regression. ECAP thresholds were significantly correlated with the perceptual dynamic range measures studied; however, correlations were not strong. Analysis of

  14. Medical and Pharmacy Costs for New Hire Nurses Following a Physical Strength Evaluation Screening in a Large Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpeluk, Paul; Rogen, Bruce; Gilliam, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Nurses often encounter situations that require lifting patients, often using awkward body positions. Hiring nurses with strength suitable for these jobs decreases nurses' risk for illness and injury and would be expected to result in more appropriate and lower health care, pharmacy, and disability costs. The physical strength of new hire nurse applicants was assessed using a defensible isokinetic evaluation in the years 2011 and 2012. Health care and pharmacy costs were monitored for the first 12 months following date of hire and compared with costs for nurses hired without screening during the prior 2 years (2009 and 2010). The strength assessment group had significantly (p < .05) lower health care and pharmacy costs per member per month (PMPM) compared with the comparison group. The study suggests that use of physical capability strength assessment is effective in hiring nurses with appropriate strength capability, resulting in significant health care and pharmacy cost avoidance. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. The effect of applicant influence tactics on recruiter perceptions of fit and hiring recommendations: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chad A; Judge, Timothy A

    2004-08-01

    The present study examined the effect of applicant influence-tactic use on recruiter perceptions of fit. Two tactics, ingratiation and self-promotion, were expected to have positive effects on recruiter perceptions of fit and on recruiter hiring recommendations. In addition, the authors expected recruiter fit perceptions to mediate the relationship between applicant influence tactics and recruiter hiring recommendations. Results suggested that ingratiation had a positive effect on perceived fit and recruiter hiring recommendations (and indirectly, on receipt of a job offer). In addition, perceived fit mediated the relationship between ingratiation and hiring recommendations. The effects of self-promotion on fit and hiring recommendations were generally weak and nonsignificant. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. (c) 2004 APA

  16. The Structure Of Labour Market And Demand For Hired Labour For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study uses cross sectional data from randomly selected oil palm famers to describe the struc-ture of the labour market and estimate the factors which influence oil palm farmers' demand for hired labour in the Western Region. Descriptive statistics and the ordinary least square regres-sion techniques have been applied ...

  17. What Indiana School Board Members Look for when Hiring a Superintendent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine whether there are any differences in what school board members look for in the areas of personal characteristics and professional skills when hiring a superintendent. A sample population of school board members who were serving at a school that had an opening for a superintendent during the…

  18. Factors That Influence a Wisconsin School Board's Decision to Hire an Internal Candidate to the Superintendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Annette VanHook

    2012-01-01

    This sequential mixed-methods study determined to what extent the factors identified in the literature were present in the decision to hire an internal candidate to the superintendency in Wisconsin in the last ten years. An initial survey was sent to all 424 Wisconsin public school districts and follow-up surveys sent to school board members in…

  19. Exposing Ideology within University Policies: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Faculty Hiring, Promotion and Remuneration Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzuner-Smith, Sedef; Englander, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Using critical discourse analysis (CDA), this paper exposes the neoliberal ideology of the knowledge-based economy embedded within university policies, specifically those that regulate faculty hiring, promotion, and remuneration in two national contexts: Turkey and Mexico. The paper follows four stages of CDA: (1) focus upon a social wrong in its…

  20. New Challenges for Women Seeking an Academic Career: The Hiring Process in Portuguese Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Teresa; Santiago, Rui

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the potential impact of changes in recruitment and hiring processes in Portuguese higher education institutions--under the New Public Management framework--on the representation of women in academia. Based on official data from the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education, two major…

  1. Does Autonomy over Teacher Hiring Affect Student Math and Science Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngran

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the causal effects of autonomy over teacher hiring on student math and science achievement using the random student assignment policy implemented in Korea. Under this policy, students were randomly assigned to different schools within their school districts which equalized the compositions of student bodies across schools.…

  2. 48 CFR 52.222-42 - Statement of Equivalent Rates for Federal Hires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statement of Equivalent Rates for Federal Hires. 52.222-42 Section 52.222-42 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Not a Wage Determination Employee class Monetary wage—Fringe benefits (End of clause) ...

  3. 14 CFR 91.607 - Emergency exits for airplanes carrying passengers for hire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency exits for airplanes carrying... Emergency exits for airplanes carrying passengers for hire. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, no person may operate a large airplane (type certificated under the Civil Air Regulations...

  4. Does Charter Status Determine Preferences? Comparing the Hiring Preferences of Charter and Traditional Public School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannata, Marisa; Engel, Mimi

    2012-01-01

    The academic success of any school depends on its teachers. However, relatively little research exists on the qualities principals value in teacher hiring, and we know almost nothing about charter school principals' preferences. This article addresses this gap in the literature using survey results for a matched sample of charter and traditional…

  5. Do Perceptions of Hiring Criteria Differ for Sales Managers and Sales Representatives? Implications for Marketing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Mary Anne; Carlson, Les; Hopkins, Christopher D.

    2006-01-01

    Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, this study explores whether perceptions of critical hiring criteria for entry-level sales positions differ across sales managers and sales representatives. This research also examines which classroom activities and skills these individuals perceive to be most important for strengthening the desired…

  6. Effective Middle Level Teaching: Perceptions on the Preparedness of Newly Hired Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Penny B.; Cook, Chris; Faulkner, Shawn A.

    2013-01-01

    This interpretive, exploratory study utilized survey methodology to document middle level principals' perceptions of effective teaching practices and the preparedness of newly hired middle level teachers. The findings suggest that principals' descriptions of effective teaching differ from their descriptions of effective teachers. Additionally,…

  7. Comparison of astrophysical laser frequency combs with respect to the requirements of HIRES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charsley, Jake M.; McCracken, Richard A.; Reid, Derryck T.; Kowzan, Grzegorz; Maslowski, Piotr; Reiners, Ansgar; Huke, Philipp

    2017-06-01

    Precise astronomical spectroscopy with the forthcoming E-ELT and its high resolution spectrograph HIRES will address a number of important science cases,1 e.g. detection of atmospheres of exoplanets. Challenging technical requirements have been identified to achieve these cases, principal among which is the goal to achieve a radial velocity precision on the order of 10 cms-1. HIRES will experience systematic errors like intrapixel variations and random variations like fiber noise, caused by the non-uniform illumination of the coupling fibers, with these and other systematic errors affecting the performance of the spectrograph. Here, we describe the requirements for the calibration sources which may be used for mitigating such systematic errors in HIRES. Precise wavelength calibration with wide-mode-spacing laser frequency combs (LFCs), so called astrocombs, has been demonstrated with different astronomical spectrographs. Here we present a comparison of currently used astrocombs and outline a possible solution to meet the requirements of HIRES with a single broadband astrocomb.

  8. the structure of labour market and demand for hired labour for oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    tions such as the structure of labour of the farmers, farm size, village wage rate and cost of other productive .... is the average age (years) of oil palm trees on .... The average SSS or higher level of education of a household is ex- pected to exert a positive effect on the farmer's demand for hired labour as more educated peo-.

  9. Major Employers' Hiring Practices and the Evolving Function of the Professional Master's Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Sean R.

    2014-01-01

    Across the last decade, master's degree attainment has grown dramatically in the United States, as bachelor's degrees have become more common and economic growth has been driven by knowledge industries. A significant value and purpose of degrees is their use as qualifications for jobs. Despite the prominence of degrees in the hiring process, why…

  10. The Effects of Gender on Salary-at-Hire in the Academic Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumanoff, P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses data compiled from faculty files at a private, doctoral-granting research university to investigate whether or not there are gender-related differences in salary offers at the time of initial appointment. The investigation uses single- and multiple-equation regression models that control for gender, date of hire, experience and…

  11. Hiring, Orientation, Professional Development, and Evaluation: The Administrative Support of Adjunct Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprean, Celeste Pramik

    2012-01-01

    In North Carolina (NC) there are a total of 58 community colleges, each of which provides a unique approach to handling support for adjunct faculty. The NC Community College System provided a good setting to explore how one state in particular compares to current research on administrative support of adjunct faculty in the areas of hiring,…

  12. Disability-Inclusive Employer Practices and Hiring of Individuals with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, William A.; von Schrader, Sarah; Bruyère, M.; VanLooy, Sara A.; Matteson, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine what disability-inclusive policies and practices employers have in place and examine the relationship between these practices and the actual recruitment and hiring of persons with disabilities. Method: A survey 675 of human resources professionals who were members of the Society for Human Resource Management. Results: After…

  13. Health Care Organizations and Policy Leadership: Perspectives on Nonsmoker-Only Hiring Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2018-02-01

    To explore employers' decisions to base hiring policies on tobacco or nicotine use and community perspectives on such policies, and analyze the implications for organizational identity, community engagement, and health promotion. From 2013 to 2016, 11 executives from six health care organizations and one non-health-care organization with nonsmoker-only hiring policies were interviewed about why and how their policies were created and implemented, concerns about the policies, and perceptions of employee and public reactions. Focus groups were conducted with community members (n = 51) who lived in or near cities where participating employers were based, exploring participants' opinions about why an employer would stop hiring smokers and their support (or not) for such a policy. Most employers excluded from employment those using all forms of nicotine. Several explained their adoption of the policy as a natural extension of a smoke-free campus and as consistent with their identity as health care organizations. They regarded the policy as promoting health. No employer mentioned engaging in a community dialogue before adopting the policy or reported efforts to track the policy's impact on rejected applicants. Community members understood the cost-saving appeal of such policies, but most opposed them. They made few exceptions for health care organizations. Policy decisions undertaken by health care organizations have influence beyond their immediate setting and may establish precedents that others follow. Nonsmoker-only hiring policies may fit with a health care organization's institutional identity but may not be congruent with community values or promote public health.

  14. Employers' Perceptions, Attitudes, and Policies on Hiring of Graduates of Online Dietetic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehpahlavan, Jaleh

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative explorative study explored dietetic employers' perceptions, attitudes, and policies regarding hiring of online dietetic graduates; how their perceptions were formed; and factors contributing to their development. Higher educational institutions and learners have embraced online education, evidenced by increased online program…

  15. Employers' Attitudes on Hiring Workers with Intellectual Disabilities in Small and Medium Enterprises: An Italian Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappella, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Employers play a significant role in the process of hiring workers with intellectual disability. Through an in-depth interview, this research aims to investigate the attitudes of 30 representatives of small and medium-sized Italian companies involved in a process of recruitment. The data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach. The results…

  16. Hiring discrimination against people with disabilities under the ADA: characteristics of charging parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Brian T; Roessler, Richard; Rumrill, Philip D; Hurley, Jessica E; West, Steven L; Chan, Fong; Carlson, Linnea

    2008-06-01

    This article describes findings from a causal comparative study of the characteristics of Charging Parties who filed allegations of Hiring discrimination with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) under Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) between 1992 and 2005. Charging Party Characteristics derived from 19,527 closed Hiring allegations are compared and contrasted to 259,680 closed allegations aggregated from six other prevalent forms of discrimination including Discharge and Constructive Discharge, Reasonable Accommodation, Disability Harassment and Intimidation, and Terms and Conditions of Employment. Tests of Proportion distributed as chi-square are used to form comparisons along a variety of factors including age, gender, impairment, and ethnicity. Most allegations of ADA job discrimination fall into the realm of job retention and career advancement as opposed to job acquisition. Hiring allegations, however, tend to be filed by Charging Parties who are disproportionately male, younger or older applicants, white, and coping with physical or sensory disabilities. Prevailing theories about stigma suggest that negative attitudes are more prevalent toward persons with behavioral disabilities. However, this study provides clear evidence that one behavioral manifestation of negative attitudes, Hiring discrimination, is more often directed at persons with physical or sensory impairments. More outreach regarding ADA rights appears indicated for individuals who share the aforementioned characteristics.

  17. Emergent structures in faculty hiring networks, and the effects of mobility on academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowan, Robin; Rossello, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    This paper is about the South African job market for PhDs. PhD to first job mobility involves the preferences of both the hiring institution and the candidate. Both want to make the best choice and here institutional prestige plays a crucial role. A university’s prestige is an emergent property of

  18. The duties of the seller under the civil code and under the Hire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the duties of the seller under the Hire Purchase and Credit Sale Act 1964 (the Act) and under the Civil Code respectively as to the quiet enjoyment of the goods purchased, the right of the seller to sell them and the duty of the seller as to their merchantable quality. A comparison is made between these ...

  19. The Dilemma of Hiring Minorities and Conservative Resistance: The Diversity Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi-Boasiako, Kwame Badu

    2008-01-01

    This paper defines affirmative action in the context of hiring practices in educational institutions and the public sector. It discusses discrimination, gender, equality, and conservative resistance to diversity programs. Cases are cited to illustrate the legal dilemmas of diversity in public and educational institutions. The monograph concludes…

  20. Nurse Educators' Perceptions of Quality in Online Graduate Education as a Credential for Hiring Nursing Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Jerri L.

    2013-01-01

    The problem explored in this study focused on the attitudes of nurse educators toward online degrees in relation to hiring practices. With the proliferation of online courses and degrees, research has shown that the acceptability of online degrees has become a concern for graduates of online programs seeking jobs and for potential employers. A…

  1. 46 CFR 25.45-1 - Heating and lighting systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heating and lighting systems on vessels carrying... UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Cooking, Heating, and Lighting Systems § 25.45-1 Heating and lighting systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire. (a) No fuel may be used in any heating or lighting system on...

  2. Fabrication of Tissue-Engineered Bionic Urethra Using Cell Sheet Technology and Labeling By Ultrasmall Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide for Full-Thickness Urethral Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shukui; Yang, Ranxin; Zou, Qingsong; Zhang, Kaile; Yin, Ting; Zhao, Weixin; Shapter, Joseph G; Gao, Guo; Fu, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Urethral strictures remain a reconstructive challenge, due to less than satisfactory outcomes and high incidence of stricture recurrence. An "ideal" urethral reconstruction should establish similar architecture and function as the original urethral wall. We fabricated a novel tissue-engineered bionic urethras using cell sheet technology and report their viability in a canine model. Small amounts of oral and adipose tissues were harvested, and adipose-derived stem cells, oral mucosal epithelial cells, and oral mucosal fibroblasts were isolated and used to prepare cell sheets. The cell sheets were hierarchically tubularized to form 3-layer tissue-engineered urethras and labeled by ultrasmall super-paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO). The constructed tissue-engineered urethras were transplanted subcutaneously for 3 weeks to promote the revascularization and biomechanical strength of the implant. Then, 2 cm length of the tubularized penile urethra was replaced by tissue-engineered bionic urethra. At 3 months of urethral replacement, USPIO-labeled tissue-engineered bionic urethra can be effectively detected by MRI at the transplant site. Histologically, the retrieved bionic urethras still displayed 3 layers, including an epithelial layer, a fibrous layer, and a myoblast layer. Three weeks after subcutaneous transplantation, immunofluorescence analysis showed the density of blood vessels in bionic urethra was significantly increased following the initial establishment of the constructs and was further up-regulated at 3 months after urethral replacement and was close to normal level in urethral tissue. Our study is the first to experimentally demonstrate 3-layer tissue-engineered urethras can be established using cell sheet technology and can promote the regeneration of structural and functional urethras similar to normal urethra.

  3. A comparison of EEOC closures involving hiring versus other prevalent discrimination issues under the Americans with Disabilities Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Brian T; Hurley, Jessica E; West, Steven L; Chan, Fong; Roessler, Richard; Rumrill, Phillip D

    2008-06-01

    This article describes findings from a causal comparative study of the Merit Resolution rate for allegations of Hiring discrimination that were filed with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) under Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) between 1992 and 2005. An allegation is the Charging Party's perception of discrimination, but a Merit Resolution is one in which the EEOC has determined that a discriminatory event did indeed occur. A Non-Merit Resolution is an allegation that is closed due to a technicality or lacks sufficient evidence to conclude that discrimination occurred. Merit favors the Charging Party; Non-Merit favors the Employer. The Merit Resolution rate of 19,527 closed Hiring allegations is compared and contrasted to that of 259,680 allegations aggregated from six other prevalent forms of discrimination including Discharge and Constructive Discharge, Reasonable Accommodation, Disability Harassment and Intimidation, and Terms and Conditions of Employment. Tests of Proportion distributed as chi-square are used to form comparisons along a variety of subcategories of Merit and Non-Merit outcomes. The overall Merit Resolution rate for Hiring is 26% compared to Non-Hiring at 20.6%. Employers are less likely to settle claims of hiring discrimination without mediation, and less likely to accept the remedies recommended by the EEOC when hiring discrimination has been determined. Hiring is not an unusual discrimination issue in that the overwhelming majority of allegations are still closed in favor of the Employer. However, it is counterintuitive that hiring has a higher merit resolution rate than other prevalent issues. This finding contradicts the assumption that hiring is an "invisible process." Considering that the EEOC makes merit determinations at a competitive rate, it is clear that hiring is sufficiently transparent.

  4. THE HISTORY OF LABOUR HIRE IN NAMIBIA: A LESSON FOR SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anri Botes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Labour hire, the practice of hiring out employees to clients by a labour broker, has been a part of Namibia’s history since the early 1900s in the form of the contract labour system. This form of employment was characterized by inhumanity and unfair labour practices. These employees were subjected to harsh working conditions, inhumane living conditions and influx control. The contract labour system continued until 1977, when it was abolished by the General Law Amendment Proclamation of 1977. It was during the 1990s that the hiring out of employees returned in the form of labour hire. It continued in this form without being regulated until it was banned in the Namibian Labour Act of 2007. In 2009 Africa Personnel Services, Namibia’s largest labour broker, brought a case before the court against the Namibian Government in an attempt to have the ban nullified on grounds of unconstitutionality. It argued that the ban infringed on its right to carry on any trade or business of its choice as contained in section 21(1(j of the Constitution of the Republic of Namibia. APS triumphed. It was not until April 2012 that new legislation was promulgated in order to officially lift the ban and to regulate labour hire in its current form. This new legislation came into force in August 2012. Various very important provisions are contained in the Labour Amendment Act 2 of 2012 concerning labour brokers. Part IV of the Employment Services Act 8 of 2011, containing provisions for the regulation of labour brokers as juristic persons per se, was also introduced and came into force in September 2012. The aim of this note is to serve as a lesson to the South African government as to what could happen if labour brokers continue without legislation properly addressing the pitfalls associated with labour brokers. Also, it could serve as an example as to how the employees of a labour broker should be protected. In this regard the history of labour hire and the current

  5. Wear properties of H13 with micron scale and nano scale grains bionic units processed by laser remelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Cheng-tao; Liu, Yan; Ren, Lu-quan

    2013-12-01

    By simulating the cuticles of some soil animals, a combination of soft part (untreated substrate) and hard part (laser remelting area) structure was designed on metal surface to get an improved performance. Different specimens were prepared which contained units with micro and nano scale grains. The microstructures were observed by environmental field emission scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction was used to identify the phases. The results of these tests indicate that due to the rapid solidification condition in the water, nano scale grains have a high microhardness between 1300 and 1000 HV. Retained austenite was found in it. Some of them transform to martensite in block on ring wear test. Specimens with bionic unit have a better wear resistance. Especially, the units with nano grains bring a further enhancement. The alternate soft and hard in macroscopic (substrate and laser remelting area) and microscopic (austenite and martensite) structure played a key role in improving the H13 wear resistance.

  6. Validation of minimally invasive, image-guided cochlear implantation using Advanced Bionics, Cochlear, and Medel electrodes in a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRackan, Theodore R; Balachandran, Ramya; Blachon, Grégoire S; Mitchell, Jason E; Noble, Jack H; Wright, Charles G; Fitzpatrick, J Michael; Dawant, Benoit M; Labadie, Robert F

    2013-11-01

    Validation of a novel minimally invasive, image-guided approach to implant electrodes from three FDA-approved manufacturers-Medel, Cochlear, and Advanced Bionics-in the cochlea via a linear tunnel from the lateral cranium through the facial recess to the cochlea. Custom microstereotactic frames that mount on bone-implanted fiducial markers and constrain the drill along the desired path were utilized on seven cadaver specimens. A linear tunnel was drilled from the lateral skull to the cochlea followed by a marginal, round window cochleostomy and insertion of the electrode array into the cochlea through the drilled tunnel. Post-insertion CT scan and histological analysis were used to analyze the results. All specimens ([Formula: see text]) were successfully implanted without visible injury to the facial nerve. The Medel electrodes ([Formula: see text]) had minimal intracochlear trauma with 8, 8, and 10 (out of 12) electrodes intracochlear. The Cochlear lateral wall electrodes (straight research arrays) ([Formula: see text]) had minimal trauma with 20 and 21 of 22 electrodes intracochlear. The Advanced Bionics electrodes ([Formula: see text]) were inserted using their insertion tool; one had minimal insertion trauma and 14 of 16 electrodes intracochlear, while the other had violation of the basilar membrane just deep to the cochleostomy following which it remained in scala vestibuli with 13 of 16 electrodes intracochlear. Minimally invasive, image-guided cochlear implantation is possible using electrodes from the three FDA-approved manufacturers. Lateral wall electrodes were associated with less intracochlear trauma suggesting that they may be better suited for this surgical technique.

  7. Slow-releasing rapamycin-coated bionic peripheral nerve scaffold promotes the regeneration of rat sciatic nerve after injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tan; Zhu, Chao; Yin, Jun-Bin; Zhang, Ting; Lu, Ya-Cheng; Ren, Jun; Li, Yun-Qing

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effect of locally slow-released rapamycin (RAPA) from the bionic peripheral nerve scaffold on rat sciatic nerve regeneration in the early phase of nerve injury. Slow-releasing RAPA-polyhydroxy alcohol (PLGA) microspheres were prepared and tested for microsphere diameter and slow-release effect in vitro after loading onto nerve scaffold. A total of 48 male SD rats were randomly divided into control group and 3 experimental groups as follows: group 1: RAPA-PLGA scaffold; group 2: RAPA scaffold; and group 3: scaffold alone. In the control group, a 15mm sciatic nerve was excised and religated reversely. In the experimental groups, the scaffolds were used to bridge a defect of 15mm sciatic nerve. The outcome of nerve regeneration was evaluated using neurophysiological and neuromuscular morphological techniques. The RAPA-PLGA microspheres displayed a smooth exterior. The slow-release of RAPA in group 1 lasted for 14days. The sciatic nerve function index (SFI) and electrophysiological and morphological features were examined 12weeks after the surgery in all groups to reveal various degrees of ipsilateral sciatic nerve regeneration. The SFI values at 12weeks showed no significant difference between the RAPA-PLGA scaffold and control groups; morphological observations revealed that the outcomes of nerve regeneration in the above 2 groups were similar and significantly better than those in the RAPA scaffold and scaffold alone groups. RAPA-PLGA microsphere-loaded bionic peripheral nerve scaffold gradually released RAPA locally in the early phase of sciatic nerve regeneration, reduced the secondary nerve injury, and evidently promoted the regeneration of peripheral nerve. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Employment references: walking scared between the minefield of defamation and the specter of negligent hiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, C R

    2000-12-01

    In present day reference checking, many of the same organizations that seek as much information as possible about people they wish to hire resist giving out more than a bare minimum of information to other organizations. The strongest force driving this minimal reference information release is fear of legal action taken because of something said about an individual (defamation, supposedly). Many employers appear so frightened of being sued for libel or slander that they share nothing of substance, usually not realizing that in trying to protect themselves against defamation charges they are increasing their legal risk associated with negligent hiring charges. However, truthful reference information can be provided with minimal risk if it is provided in good faith, given only to someone who has a legitimate need to know, is related strictly to job in character, and is not communicated maliciously. Also, reference always must be answered completely objectively with information verifiable in the individual's personnel file.

  9. Exchanging honest employment references: avoiding the traps of defamation and negligent hiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    In present-day reference checking, many of the same organizations that seek as much information as possible about people they wish to hire resist giving out more than a bare minimum of information to other organizations. The strongest force driving this minimal reference information release is fear of legal action taken because of something said about an individual in a reference response. Many employers seem so frightened of being sued that they share nothing of substance, usually not realizing that in supposedly protecting themselves against defamation charges they are sometimes increasing the risk of negligent hiring charges. However, truthful reference information can be provided with minimal risk if it is provided in good faith, given only to those who have a legitimate need to know, is strictly job related, and is not communicated maliciously. References must always be provided objectively with information verifiable in personnel files.

  10. Swedish Collective Agreements and Employers’ Willingness to Hire and Retain Older Workers in Employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin Ulander-Wänman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Demographic change is transforming the EU population structure for the coming decades. One challenge that society faces is to preserve social welfare when elderly persons comprise a larger proportion of the total population. Allowing people to work beyond the current retirement age may help slow the growth of the maintenance burden for welfare costs, and creating situations where larger numbers of older employees can work longer and complete more working hours can improve conditions for preserving and developing welfare. However, a prolonged working life presupposes several conditions; one of these is that legal regulation of the labor market must support employers’ willingness to hire and retain older workers in employment. This article explores employers’ attitudes toward regulations in Swedish collective agreements—regulations which are of particular importance if employers are to increase hiring and retention of older workers in employment.

  11. Managing a perilous stigma: Ex-offenders' use of reparative impression management tactics in hiring contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abdifatah A; Lyons, Brent J; Ryan, Ann Marie

    2017-09-01

    Individuals with a criminal record face employment challenges because of the nature of their stigma. In this study, we examined the efficacy of using reparative impression management tactics to mitigate integrity concerns associated with a perilous stigma. Drawing on affect control theory, we proposed that the use of 3 impression management tactics-apology, justification, excuse-would differentially affect hiring evaluations through their influence on perceived remorse and anticipated workplace deviance. Across 3 studies, we found support for our proposed model. Our results revealed the use of an apology or justification tactic when explaining a previous criminal offense had a positive indirect effect on hiring evaluations, whereas the use of an excuse tactic had a negative indirect effect. These findings suggest applicants may benefit from using impression management tactics that communicate remorse when discussing events or associations that violate integrity expectations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: GRB 080810 Keck/HIRES spectrum (Wiseman+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, P.; Perley, D. A.; Schady, P.; Prochaska, J. X.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Kruehler, T.; Yates, R. M.; Greiner, J.

    2017-07-01

    On 2008-08-10 at T0=13:10:12 UT, the Burst Alert Telescope on board Swift triggered on GRB 080810 2008), which at T0+80s was detected as a bright source in Swift's X-ray Telescope (XRT) and Ultra-violet and Optical Telescope (UVOT). Starting 37.6 minutes after the trigger at 13:47:50 UT, GRB 080810 was observed with the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES) mounted on the 10-metre Keck I telescope of the W. M Keck Observatory located at the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii. A series of two exposures of 1000 s each were taken using the C5 decker, providing a FWHM spectral resolution of ~8km/s. The normalised reduced Keck/HIRES spectrum of GRB 080810 in ASCII format. The respective FITS header appears first, and is commented out with #. (2 data files).

  13. Hiring, Developing, and Organizing Individual Employees for New Product Development versus Product-related Service Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Præst; Schleimer, Stephanie

    product-related service innovations, there are also important differences between these. In particular, whilst the educational level of employees has a significant and positive effect on new product development success, hiring highly educated individuals has a significant and negative effect on new...... the value of human resource hiring and developing practices for new product development success; organizations will find it more beneficial to invest predominantly in employees with the highest possible educational level, whilst for product-related service innovations; employees with more general skills...... outcomes. An analysis of 335 survey responses of the multi-topic and multi-country European Manufacturing Survey (EMS) results in a number of interesting findings. First and foremost, although there are commonalities in organizing employees in flexible team arrangements for new product development versus...

  14. Radio-controlled xenon flashers for atmospheric monitoring at the HiRes cosmic ray observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Wiencke, L R; Al-Seady, M; Belov, K; Bird, D J; Boyer, J; Chen, G F; Clay, R W; Dai, H Y; Dawson, B R; Denholm, P; Gloyn, J; He, D; Ho, Y; Huang, M A; Jui, C C H; Kidd, M J; Kieda, D B; Knapp, B; Ko, S; Larson, K; Loh, E C; Mannel, E J; Matthews, J N; Meyer, J R; Salman, A; Simpson, K M; Smith, J D; Sokolsky, P; Steenblik, D; Tang, J K K; Taylor, S; Thomas, S B; Wilkinson, C R

    1999-01-01

    Stable, robust ultraviolet light sources for atmospheric monitoring and calibration pose a challenge for experiments that measure air fluorescence from cosmic ray air showers. One type of light source in use at the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) cosmic ray observatory features a xenon flashbulb at the focal point of a spherical mirror to produce a 1 mu s pulse of collimated light that includes a strong UV component. A computer-controlled touch tone radio system provides remote operation of bulb triggering and window heating. These devices, dubbed 'flashers', feature stand-alone operation, +-5% shot-to-shot stability, weather proof construction and are well suited for long-term field use. This paper describes the flashers, the radio control system, and a 12-unit array in operation at the HiRes cosmic ray observatory

  15. Can being gay provide a boost in the hiring process? Maybe if the boss is female

    OpenAIRE

    Everly, Benjamin A; Unzueta, Miguel M; Shih, Margaret J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study was to investigate whether men and women differentially prefer hiring gay and lesbian job applicants relative to equally qualified heterosexual job applicants.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected from two samples of non-student participants. Each participant evaluated the perceived hirability of an ostensibly real job applicant by reviewing the applicant’s resume. In reality, all participants were randomly assigned to evaluate the same ...

  16. Mix and Match: What Principals Really Look for When Hiring Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas N. Harris; Stacey A. Rutledge; William K. Ingle; Cynthia C. Thompson

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of research and policy related to teacher quality focuses on the supply of teachers and ignores teacher demand. In particular, the important role of school principals in hiring teachers is rarely considered. Using interviews of school principals in a midsized Florida school district, we provide an exploratory mixed methods analysis of the teacher characteristics principals prefer. Our findings contradict the conventional wisdom that principals undervalue content knowledge an...

  17. Gender Discrimination in Hiring: Evidence from 19,130 Resumes in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiangyi; Zhang, Jie; Song, Xuetao

    2013-01-01

    We study gender discrimination in hiring markets by sending 19,130 fictitious matched resumes in response to professional employment advertisements posted on major Internet employment boards in China for positions such as engineers, accountants, secretaries, and marketing professionals in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Wuhan, and Chengdu. Our results show that, in general, state-owned firms tend to prefer male applicants. Foreign and private firms tend to prefer female applicants. On...

  18. Magnetic structural information obtained from the HiRES airborne survey of the Isle of Wight

    OpenAIRE

    White, James; Beamish, David

    2011-01-01

    This study summarises the structural information obtained from a modern high resolution magnetic survey over the Isle of Wight corroborated with additional information derived from existing data available over a much wider area. This new, low-altitude, survey offered the opportunity to compare the UK national baseline magnetic data set (GSGB) acquired during the late 1950s and early 1960s with a high resolution airborne geophysical survey (HiRES) data set. The low level modern survey data, co...

  19. Assessment of USAFs Hiring Potential of Civilian Scientists and Engineers of the Millennial Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY ASSESSMENT OF USAF’S HIRING POTENTIAL OF CIVILIAN SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS OF THE MILLENNIAL GENERATION...government organizations. iv Abstract The Millennial Generation (individuals born 1981-2000) is entering the workforce in large numbers and...of Millennials and what they view as important in their work and social lives revealed policy approaches that could ensure the USAF maximizes it

  20. Middle classes: theoretical principles, contemporary working out, regarding the hired workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Bobkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of defining middle classes. Theoretical principles of social and class structures, including middle classes, are examined. The criteria of reckoning some hired workers as middle classes worked out on the basis of normative methodology (normative criteria are submitted, the most important of them being educational qualifications, occupation, personal income and provision of housing. Methods of statistical and sociologic analysing data are applied. The results of analysing the conformity of the hired workers to the normative criteria of representing middle classes are produced. It is determined that today heads of organizations and their subdivisions as well as certified top and middle management specialists representing middle classes comprise only 2-3 per cent of the total number of the hired workers. It should be noted that there are practically no-one among them who has got a family with two and more children. The low level of wages is the main reason for that. In addition there are some other reasons, too. The results of the research could find application in the state social and economic policy

  1. The end-to-end simulator for the E-ELT HIRES high resolution spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoni, M.; Landoni, M.; Riva, M.; Pariani, G.; Mason, E.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Disseau, K.; Di Varano, I.; Gonzalez, O.; Huke, P.; Korhonen, H.; Li Causi, Gianluca

    2017-06-01

    We present the design, architecture and results of the End-to-End simulator model of the high resolution spectrograph HIRES for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). This system can be used as a tool to characterize the spectrograph both by engineers and scientists. The model allows to simulate the behavior of photons starting from the scientific object (modeled bearing in mind the main science drivers) to the detector, considering also calibration light sources, and allowing to perform evaluation of the different parameters of the spectrograph design. In this paper, we will detail the architecture of the simulator and the computational model which are strongly characterized by modularity and flexibility that will be crucial in the next generation astronomical observation projects like E-ELT due to of the high complexity and long-time design and development. Finally, we present synthetic images obtained with the current version of the End-to-End simulator based on the E-ELT HIRES requirements (especially high radial velocity accuracy). Once ingested in the Data reduction Software (DRS), they will allow to verify that the instrument design can achieve the radial velocity accuracy needed by the HIRES science cases.

  2. HIRING TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS IN EDUCATION: LESSONS LEARNED FROM STRUCTURED EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denver Jade Fowler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the educational setting, hiring transformational leaders is essential to a schools’ success or failure. In this study, we examine Confucianism and country influence on structured employment interviews from both Western (United States and Eastern cultures (Taiwan. Eastern cultures have certain values not prevalent in Western cultures that may reduce the use of transformational leadership questions in job interviews. Eastern cultures have higher levels of uncertainty avoidance, collectivism, and power distance. We examined questions asked in actual job interviews in Taiwan and the United States (N = 178. Additionally, we examined the three dimensions of interview structure including evaluation standardization, question sophistication, and questioning consistency. We found that the number of questions about transformational leadership were less common in Taiwan, with its lower selection ratios, and when question sophistication and consistency were higher. In the United States, we found that the number of questions about transformational leadership increased with selection ratio, question sophistication, and question consistency, but not in Taiwan. The results of this study have important implications to all workplace settings around the globe where it may be argued that it is advantageous to hire transformational leaders to improve any organization. However, the results of this study may have particular importance to the educational setting, in both China and the United States, and globally, where the need to attract and hire transformational leaders can be vital to a schools’ success (or failure.

  3. Day and night glycaemic control with a bionic pancreas versus conventional insulin pump therapy in preadolescent children with type 1 diabetes: a randomised crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Steven J; Hillard, Mallory A; Balliro, Courtney; Magyar, Kendra L; Selagamsetty, Rajendranath; Sinha, Manasi; Grennan, Kerry; Mondesir, Debbie; Ehklaspour, Laya; Zheng, Hui; Damiano, Edward R; El-Khatib, Firas H

    2016-03-01

    The safety and efficacy of continuous, multiday, automated glycaemic management has not been tested in outpatient studies of preadolescent children with type 1 diabetes. We aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of a bihormonal bionic pancreas versus conventional insulin pump therapy in this population of patients in an outpatient setting. In this randomised, open-label, crossover study, we enrolled preadolescent children (aged 6-11 years) with type 1 diabetes (diagnosed for ≥1 year) who were on insulin pump therapy, from two diabetes camps in the USA. With the use of sealed envelopes, participants were randomly assigned in blocks of two to either 5 days with the bionic pancreas or conventional insulin pump therapy (control) as the first intervention, followed by a 3 day washout period and then 5 days with the other intervention. Study allocation was not masked. The autonomously adaptive algorithm of the bionic pancreas received data from a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) device to control subcutaneous delivery of insulin and glucagon. Conventional insulin pump therapy was administered by the camp physicians and other clinical staff in accordance with their established protocols; participants also wore a CGM device during the control period. The coprimary outcomes, analysed by intention to treat, were mean CGM-measured glucose concentration and the proportion of time with a CGM-measured glucose concentration below 3·3 mmol/L, on days 2-5. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02105324. Between July 20, and Aug 19, 2014, 19 children with a mean age of 9·8 years (SD 1·6) participated in and completed the study. The bionic pancreas period was associated with a lower mean CGM-measured glucose concentration on days 2-5 than was the control period (7·6 mmol/L [SD 0·6] vs 9·3 mmol/L [1·7]; p=0·00037) and a lower proportion of time with a CGM-measured glucose concentration below 3·3 mmol/L on days 2-5 (1·2% [SD 1·1] vs 2·8% [1·2

  4. Home use of a bihormonal bionic pancreas versus insulin pump therapy in adults with type 1 diabetes: a multicentre randomised crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khatib, Firas H; Balliro, Courtney; Hillard, Mallory A; Magyar, Kendra L; Ekhlaspour, Laya; Sinha, Manasi; Mondesir, Debbie; Esmaeili, Aryan; Hartigan, Celia; Thompson, Michael J; Malkani, Samir; Lock, J Paul; Harlan, David M; Clinton, Paula; Frank, Eliana; Wilson, Darrell M; DeSalvo, Daniel; Norlander, Lisa; Ly, Trang; Buckingham, Bruce A; Diner, Jamie; Dezube, Milana; Young, Laura A; Goley, April; Kirkman, M Sue; Buse, John B; Zheng, Hui; Selagamsetty, Rajendranath R; Damiano, Edward R; Russell, Steven J

    2017-01-28

    The safety and effectiveness of a continuous, day-and-night automated glycaemic control system using insulin and glucagon has not been shown in a free-living, home-use setting. We aimed to assess whether bihormonal bionic pancreas initialised only with body mass can safely reduce mean glycaemia and hypoglycaemia in adults with type 1 diabetes who were living at home and participating in their normal daily routines without restrictions on diet or physical activity. We did a random-order crossover study in volunteers at least 18 years old who had type 1 diabetes and lived within a 30 min drive of four sites in the USA. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) in blocks of two using sequentially numbered sealed envelopes to glycaemic regulation with a bihormonal bionic pancreas or usual care (conventional or sensor-augmented insulin pump therapy) first, followed by the opposite intervention. Both study periods were 11 days in length, during which time participants continued all normal activities, including athletics and driving. The bionic pancreas was initialised with only the participant's body mass. Autonomously adaptive dosing algorithms used data from a continuous glucose monitor to control subcutaneous delivery of insulin and glucagon. The coprimary outcomes were the mean glucose concentration and time with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) glucose concentration less than 3·3 mmol/L, analysed over days 2-11 in participants who completed both periods of the study. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02092220. We randomly assigned 43 participants between May 6, 2014, and July 3, 2015, 39 of whom completed the study: 20 who were assigned to bionic pancreas first and 19 who were assigned to the comparator first. The mean CGM glucose concentration was 7·8 mmol/L (SD 0·6) in the bionic pancreas period versus 9·0 mmol/L (1·6) in the comparator period (difference 1·1 mmol/L, 95% CI 0·7-1·6; pbionic pancreas period versus 1·9% (1·7

  5. Trends in family labour, hired labour and contract work on french fieldcrop farms: the role of agricultural policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dupraz, Pierre; Latruffe, Laure

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the factors driving the evolution of on-farm labour use, including own family labour, hired labour and contract work, in French fieldcrop farms during 1990-2007. Particular attention is given to the level and type of agricultural support. The increase in the farm labour force over the years is due to increases in hired labour and contract work which are complements for each other rather than substitutes, and complement for family labour. Crop area payments and Single Far...

  6. Male clients' behaviours with and perspectives about their last male escort encounter: comparing repeat versus first-time hires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Margaret M; Grov, Christian; Smith, Michael D; Koken, Juline A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-01-01

    Research on men who have sex with men suggests that condomless anal intercourse occurs more frequently in established sexual relationships. While comparable data regarding male-for-male escorting is unavailable, research implies that many clients seek emotional as well as physical connections with the men they hire. In 2012, 495 male clients, recruited via daddysreviews.com completed an online survey about their last hiring experience. Most participants were from the USA (85.7%), the UK and Canada (3.2% each). In total, 75% of encounters involved an escort hired for the first time; 25% were with a previously hired escort ('repeat encounter'). The client's age, lifetime number of escorts hired and number hired in the past year were positively associated with the last encounter being a repeat encounter. Cuddling, sharing a meal, drinking alcohol, taking a walk, watching a show and shopping were also positively associated with repeat encounters. Conversely, none of the sexual behaviours were significantly associated with repeat encounters. Repeat encounters were significantly more likely to include non-sexual behaviours alongside sexual activities, but no more likely to involve condomless anal intercourse. Moreover, clients' knowledge of escorts' HIV status was not significantly associated with engaging in condomless anal intercourse with repeat encounters.

  7. Now Hiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stix, Margaret; von Nostitz, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Even before the Great Recession began, an alarming number of young adults in New York City between the ages of 18 and 24 were neither in school nor working. The employment challenges for these New Yorkers have only magnified in recent years. There are now an estimated 172,000 of these "disconnected youth" in the five boroughs. Though the…

  8. Hiring Freeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2010-01-01

    Recession reduces job opportunities in the professoriate, particularly in areas where minorities are clustered. It's a tough time to want to be a professor or try to climb the faculty ranks, particularly for minority faculty, as Dr. Christopher Tudico, a Mexican-American, and others are finding. The recession and its go-slow recovery have cut the…

  9. Perancangan Motor Induksi 3 Phasa 90 kW

    OpenAIRE

    Lumban Gaol, David

    2011-01-01

    Motor induksi tiga phasa merupakan jenis motor yang paling banyak digunakan pada perindustrian. Motor inilah yang akan digunakan untuk memutar beban yang ada di perindustrian. Motor induksi tiga phasa keluaran besarannya berupa torsi untuk menggerakkan beban. Jika torsi beban yang dipikul motor induksi tiga phasa lebih besar, maka motor induksi tiga phasa tidak akan berputar. Untuk mendukung suatu perindustrian yang membutuhkan motor dengan rating dan rancangan tertentu, maka diperlukan s...

  10. Thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient of high purity iron and selected iron alloys from 90 K to 400 K. [Fe--1. 14 Cr, Fe--2. 96 Cr, Fe--1. 15 Cr--1. 30 Ni, and Fe--3. 15 Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holder, T.K.

    1977-06-01

    The thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, and Seebeck coefficient of high-purity iron, two iron--chromium alloys, one iron--nickel alloy, and one iron--chromium--nickel alloy were measured over the temperature range from 90 K to 400 K. Smoothed values for the thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity were used to calculate the electronic thermal conductivity, the lattice conductivity, and the Lorenz function by means of a binary alloy separation technique. The lattice conductivity and Lorenz function exhibited little change due to the addition of chromium; however, the addition of small amounts of nickel resulted in significant property changes. The lattice conductivity at high temperatures was calculated from theory and compared to experimental results. Good agreement between theory and experimental data was obtained. 17 figures, 29 tables.

  11. Age-based hiring discrimination as a function of equity norms and self-perceived objectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Lindner

    Full Text Available Participants completed a questionnaire priming them to perceive themselves as either objective or biased, either before or after evaluating a young or old job applicant for a position linked to youthful stereotypes. Participants agreed that they were objective and tended to disagree that they were biased. Extending past research, both the objective and bias priming conditions led to an increase in age discrimination compared to the control condition. We also investigated whether equity norms reduced age discrimination, by manipulating the presence or absence of an equity statement reminding decision-makers of the legal prohibitions against discrimination "on the basis of age, disability, national or ethnic origin, race, religion, or sex." The presence of equity norms increased enthusiasm for both young and old applicants when participants were not already primed to think of themselves as objective, but did not reduce age-based hiring discrimination. Equity norms had no effect when individuals thought of themselves as objective - they preferred the younger more than the older job applicant. However, the presence of equity norms did affect individuals' perceptions of which factors were important to their hiring decisions, increasing the perceived importance of applicants' expertise and decreasing the perceived importance of the applicants' age. The results suggest that interventions that rely exclusively on decision-makers' intentions to behave equitably may be ineffective.

  12. Generating Human-Like Velocity-Adapted Jumping Gait from sEMG Signals for Bionic Leg’s Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the case of dynamic motion such as jumping, an important fact in sEMG (surface Electromyogram signal based control on exoskeletons, myoelectric prostheses, and rehabilitation gait is that multichannel sEMG signals contain mass data and vary greatly with time, which makes it difficult to generate compliant gait. Inspired by the fact that muscle synergies leading to dimensionality reduction may simplify motor control and learning, this paper proposes a new approach to generate flexible gait based on muscle synergies extracted from sEMG signal. Two questions were discussed and solved, the first one concerning whether the same set of muscle synergies can explain the different phases of hopping movement with various velocities. The second one is about how to generate self-adapted gait with muscle synergies while alleviating model sensitivity to sEMG transient changes. From the experimental results, the proposed method shows good performance both in accuracy and in robustness for producing velocity-adapted vertical jumping gait. The method discussed in this paper provides a valuable reference for the sEMG-based control of bionic robot leg to generate human-like dynamic gait.

  13. Influence of Orientations of Bionic Unit Fabricated by Laser Remelting on Fatigue Wear Resistance of Gray Cast Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Kai; Zhou, Ti; Zhang, Hai-feng; Yang, Wan-shi; Zhou, Hong

    2015-06-01

    Fatigue wear resistance improvements were researched by studying experimental samples with gray cast iron fabricated with bionic units in different orientations. Experimental samples were modified by laser surface remelting, including parallel, vertical, and gradient units to the wear direction. The remelting pool was then studied to determine the micro-hardness, microstructure, alteration of phase, and etc. Lab-control fatigue wear test method was applied with the treated and untreated samples tested under the laboratorial conditions. Wear resistance result was considered as the rolling contact fatigue (RCF) resistance and mechanisms of the modified samples were experimentally investigated and discussed. Results suggested that all treated samples demonstrated the beneficial effect on the RCF improvement due to lack of graphite and reinforcement of treated region. Results also indicated the sample with fastigiated units was more effective than that with vertical units or parallel units to the wear direction. Influence of the sample unit's angle which intensely depended on the conditions of actual application, however, was not identified.

  14. Factors associated with RTCs among for-hire three-wheeler drivers in Sri Lanka: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Poudel, Krishna C; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Jayatilleke, Achini C; Jimba, Masamine

    2015-12-01

    For-hire three-wheeler crashes are a growing burden in Sri Lanka. We conducted this study to examine the factors associated with road traffic crashes (RTCs) among for-hire three-wheeler drivers in Sri Lanka. We conducted a case-control study in Kandy, Sri Lanka between August 2008 and March 2009. Cases were all the for-hire three-wheeler drivers involved in crashes in Kandy between 1 January and 31 December 2007 (n=88). Controls were non-crash-involved for-hire three-wheeler drivers in Kandy, matched to the ages of the cases (n=88). We examined participants' sociodemographic characteristics, job characteristics, driving behaviours and the characteristics of their three wheelers. We used conditional logistic regression analysis to examine the factors associated with for-hire three-wheeler crashes. Three factors were positively associated with for-hire three-wheeler crashes. They were as follows: taking more than three passengers in the passenger seat (adjusted OR (AOR)=8.03, 95% CI 1.16 to 55.71), higher age of the three wheelers (AOR=1.38, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.84), and being convicted by police for traffic law violations during the past 12 months (AOR=1.74, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.58). We identified three factors that might lead to for-hire three-wheeler crashes in Sri Lanka. They were as follows: carrying excessive passengers, higher three-wheeler age and drivers' traffic law violations. To prevent three-wheeler crashes, laws should prevent three wheelers carrying more than three passengers. Yearly examinations should be mandated to ensure proper driving conditions of for-hire three wheelers. Police should enforce traffic laws to prevent traffic law violations by three-wheeler drivers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Case-study of a user-driven prosthetic arm design: bionic hand versus customized body-powered technology in a highly demanding work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Wolf; Thali, Michael J; Egger, David

    2018-01-03

    Prosthetic arm research predominantly focuses on "bionic" but not body-powered arms. However, any research orientation along user needs requires sufficiently precise workplace specifications and sufficiently hard testing. Forensic medicine is a demanding environment, also physically, also for non-disabled people, on several dimensions (e.g., distances, weights, size, temperature, time). As unilateral below elbow amputee user, the first author is in a unique position to provide direct comparison of a "bionic" myoelectric iLimb Revolution (Touch Bionics) and a customized body-powered arm which contains a number of new developments initiated or developed by the user: (1) quick lock steel wrist unit; (2) cable mount modification; (3) cast shape modeled shoulder anchor; (4) suspension with a soft double layer liner (Ohio Willowwood) and tube gauze (Molnlycke) combination. The iLimb is mounted on an epoxy socket; a lanyard fixed liner (Ohio Willowwood) contains magnetic electrodes (Liberating Technologies). An on the job usage of five years was supplemented with dedicated and focused intensive two-week use tests at work for both systems. The side-by-side comparison showed that the customized body-powered arm provides reliable, comfortable, effective, powerful as well as subtle service with minimal maintenance; most notably, grip reliability, grip force regulation, grip performance, center of balance, component wear down, sweat/temperature independence and skin state are good whereas the iLimb system exhibited a number of relevant serious constraints. Research and development of functional prostheses may want to focus on body-powered technology as it already performs on manually demanding and heavy jobs whereas eliminating myoelectric technology's constraints seems out of reach. Relevant testing could be developed to help expediting this. This is relevant as Swiss disability insurance specifically supports prostheses that enable actual work integration. Myoelectric and

  16. CARMENES: Commissioning and first scientific results at the telescope. A precursor for HIRES@E-ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, P. J.; The Carmenes Consortium

    2017-03-01

    CARMENES is the next generation instrument built for the CAHA 3.5m telescope by a large international consortium of 11 institutes in Spain and Germany. It consists of two separate highly-stabilized, high-resolution echelle spectrographs covering both the visible, from 550 to 950 nm, and the near-IR, from 950 to 1700 nm, wavelength ranges with spectral resolution of R=82,000. They are fed by fibres from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope and were designed and built to achieve high-accuracy radial velocities of nearby M-dwarf stars. This contribution overviews the main and unique design characteristics of CARMENES. The instrument MAIV phase was achieved in the last two years (2014-2015) and started commissioning in November 2015. The commissioning phases, both technical and scientific, took six full weeks in the last two months of 2015. They have shown that the instrument is well within requirements and performing to be able to achieve its objective, not proven before in the near-infrared, of providing radial velocities precisions of 5 ms^{-1}, with a goal of 1 ms^{-1}. The Guaranteed Time Observations (GTO) program has started in January 1st, 2016. CARMENES is, therefore, currently conducting a radial-velocity survey of 300 M dwarfs with a precision sufficient for detecting Earth-like planets in their habitable zones. It is also being offered in open time by the CAHA. Its modular design is the idea in which HIRES, the next very high-resolution, high-fidelity spectrograph with wide wavelength coverage at the E-ELT, is based on. This E-ELT instrument might consist of four different high-resolution spectrographs covering the blue, the visible, the near-infrared (Y, J and H bands) and the K band. A proposal to the ESO call for Phase-A studies for a HIRES at the E-ELT was submitted by the HIRES consortium last December. This proposal was accepted by ESO and the Phase-A kick-off meeting between ESO and the consortium took place in March 22, 2016.

  17. Design and preparation of polyurethane-collagen/heparin-conjugated polycaprolactone double-layer bionic small-diameter vascular graft and its preliminary animal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guang; Cui, Shi-Jun; Geng, Xue; Ye, Lin; Chen, Bing; Feng, Zeng-Guo; Zhang, Jian; Li, Zhong-Zhi

    2013-04-01

    People recently realized that it is important for artificial vascular biodegradable graft to bionically mimic the functions of the native vessel. In order to overcome the high risk of thrombosis and keep the patency in the clinical small-diameter vascular graft (SDVG) transplantation, a double-layer bionic scaffold, which can offer anticoagulation and mechanical strength simultaneously, was designed and fabricated via electrospinning technique. Heparin-conjugated polycaprolactone (hPCL) and polyurethane (PU)-collagen type I composite was used as the inner and outer layers, respectively. The porosity and the burst pressure of SDVG were evaluated. Its biocompatibility was demonstrated by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazol)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test in vitro and subcutaneous implants in vivo respectively. The grafts of diameter 2.5 mm and length 4.0 cm were implanted to replace the femoral artery in Beagle dog model. Then, angiography was performed in the Beagle dogs to investigate the patency and aneurysm of grafts at 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-transplantation. After angiography, the patent grafts were explanted for histological analysis. The double-layer bionic SDVG meet the clinical mechanical demand. Its good biocompatibility was proven by cytotoxicity experiment (the cell's relative growth rates (RGR) of PU-collagen outer layer were 102.8%, 109.2% and 103.5%, while the RGR of hPCL inner layer were 99.0%, 100.0% and 98.0%, on days 1, 3, and 5, respectively) and the subdermal implants experiment in the Beagle dog. Arteriography showed that all the implanted SDVGs were patent without any aneurismal dilatation or obvious anastomotic stenosis at the 2nd, 4th, and 8th week after the operation, except one SDVG that failed at the 2nd week. Histological analysis and SEM showed that the inner layer was covered by new endothelial-like cells. The double-layer bionic SDVG is a promising candidate as a replacement of native small-diameter vascular graft.

  18. Observational strategies for varying constants with ESPRESSO and ELT-HIRES .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, P. O. J.; Leite, A. C. O.; Martins, C. J. A. P.

    The observational evidence for the acceleration of the universe demonstrates that canonical theories of cosmology and particle physics are incomplete, if not incorrect. Several few-sigma hints of new physics, discussed in this workshop, are arguably smoke without a smoking gun. Forthcoming high-resolution ultra-stable spectrographs will play a crucial role in this quest for new physics, by enabling a new generation of precision consistency tests. Here we focus on astrophysical tests of the stability of nature's fundamental couplings, discussing the improvements that can be expected with ESPRESSO and ELT-HIRES and their impact on fundamental cosmology. We find that the current E-ELT configuration has the potential to constrain dark energy more strongly than standard surveys with thousands of low-redshift (z<2) supernovas.

  19. Home health agency preferences for staff nurse qualifications, and practices in hiring and orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnins, I

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe home health agency preferences with respect to staff nurse qualifications, and practices in hiring and orienting new staff. An 85-item home health staff nurse selection and orientation questionnaire was used to collect data from a random sample of 287 midwestern home health agencies in 12 states. Qualifications rated most highly were medical-surgical experience, venipuncture skills, completion of a physical assessment course, intravenous therapy skills, and patient-teaching skills. With agency sponsorship (traditional, proprietary, and hospital-based) as the independent variable, the three types of agencies were significantly different on ratings of six qualifications and six orientation topics. None of the agencies rated a BSN degree as very important or required, and the same was true for completion of a student experience in community health nursing. Preference for qualifications in this study is consistent with increasing acuteness of patients' illness and technologic complexity of home care.

  20. Obesity Discrimination in the Workplace: “You’re Hired!”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart W Flint

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to first identify whether obese people are discriminated against when hiring employees. Employees of workforces that vary due to the physical demand of their job, will rate hypothetical applicants on their suitability for employment using Likert-type responses to a range of questions. Applicants’ curriculum vitae will be manipulated by weight status and gender. Implicit and explicit attitudes towards obese people will also be examined using existing measures with strong psychometric properties as reported in extant research. Second, using focus group discussions with employees of either sedentary or physically active workforces, this study will explore why and in what ways obese people are discriminated against in the workplace.

  1. The ethno-racial segmentation jobs: The impacts of the occupational stereotypes on hiring decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndobo, André; Faure, Alice; Boisselier, Jeanne; Giannaki, Stella

    2017-10-12

    This paper considers both the division of the labor market and the occupational stereotyping as explanatory mechanisms of discrimination in hiring decisions. It hypothesized that recruiters would favor candidates applying for a position that is stereotypically identified with their ethnic category. We solicited 146 recruiters in order to evaluate the hireability of either a native-born or an immigrant candidate, either competent or not competent, for either a prestigious or a low-skill occupation, and to justify their decision in writing. As predicted, both the hireability ratings and the narrative comments produced by recruiters showed that native-born applicants were preferred for prestigious jobs while immigrants tended to be selected more often for low-skill positions.The discussion addresses various issues related to decision-making in recruitment settings.

  2. Bridging the Generation Gap: A Rapid Early Career Hire Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieber, Richard R.; Coffee, Thomas; Dong, Shuonan; Infield, Samantha I.; Kilbride, Kendra B.; Seibert, Michael A.; Solish, Benjamin S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a training program to provide Early Career Hires (ECHs) in the aerospace industry with real, rapid, hands-on exposure to multiple phases and multiple disciplines of flight project development. Such a program has become necessary to close the Generation Gap and ensure that aerospace organizations maintain a highly skilled workforce as experienced personnel begin to retire. This paper discusses the specific motivations for and implementation of such a program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. However, the essential features are widely applicable to other NASA centers and organizations delivering large llight systems. This paper details the overall program concept, stages of participation by an ECH, oversight and mentoring, program assessment, training project selection, and facilities requirements.

  3. A comparison of exposure meter systems for three exoplanet-hunting spectrometers: Hamilton, HIRES and APF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibrick, R. I.; Clarke, D. A.; Deich, W. T. S.; Tucker, D.

    2006-06-01

    The majority of extra-solar planets discovered to date have been found using Doppler-shift measurements obtained with the Hamilton Spectrometer at Lick Observatory and the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES) at Keck Observatory. Each of these spectrometers employs an integral exposure meter which enables observers to optimize exposure times so as to achieve the required signal-to-noise and to determine the photon-weighted midpoint of each science exposure (which is needed to correct the Doppler shift to the Solar System barycenter). In both of these systems, a propeller mirror located behind the spectrometer slit picks off a few percent of the light and directs it to a photo-multiplier tube (PMT) used to measure the exposure level versus time. In late 2006, the new Automated Planet Finder (APF) Telescope and APF Spectrometer are scheduled to begin operations at Lick Observatory; both will be dedicated exclusively to the search for extra-solar planets. Like the Hamilton and HIRES Spectrometers, the APF Spectrometer will employ an integral exposure meter, but one with a significantly different design. The APF exposure meter will employ a stationary pellicle located ahead of the slit to pick off 4% of the light and direct it to the guide camera. That camera will produce images typically at a 1 Hz rate, and those images will be used both for autoguiding and for computing the exposure level delivered to the spectrometer. In each guide camera image obtained during a science exposure, the time-tagged signal from the pixels that correspond to the spectrometer slit will be integrated in software to determine the current exposure level and the photon-weighted midpoint of that science exposure. We compare these two different design approaches, and describe the significant hardware and software features of each of these systems.

  4. The health worker recruitment and deployment process in Kenya: an emergency hiring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adano, Ummuro

    2008-09-16

    Despite a pool of unemployed health staff available in Kenya, staffing levels at most facilities were only 50%, and maldistribution of staff left many people without access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Because in the current system it takes one to two years to fill vacant positions, even when funding is available, an emergency approach was needed to fast-track the hiring and deployment process. A stakeholder group was formed to bring together leaders from several sectors to design and implement a fast-track hiring and deployment model that would mobilize 830 additional health workers. This model used the private sector to recruit and deploy new health workers and manage the payroll and employment contracts, with an agreement from the government to transfer these staff to the government payroll after three years. The recruitment process was shortened to less than three months. By providing job orientation and on-time pay checks, the program increased employee retention and satisfaction. Most of the active roadblocks to changes in the health workforce policies and systems are 'human' and not technical, stemming from a lack of leadership, a problem-solving mindset and the alignment of stakeholders from several sectors. It is essential to establish partnerships and foster commitment and collaboration to create needed change in human resource management (HRM). Strengthening appointment on merit is one of the most powerful, yet simplest ways in which the health sector and governments that seek to tackle the challenges of corruption and poor governance can improve their image and efficiency. The quality and integrity of the public health sector can be improved only through professionalizing HRM, reformulating and consolidating the currently fragmented HR functions, and bringing all the pieces together under the authority and influence of HR departments and units with expanded scopes. HR staff must be specialists with strategic HR functions and not generalists who are

  5. Hiring and Retention: Key Factors in Increasing Gender Diversity in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, M.; O'Connell, S.; Frey, C.

    2004-12-01

    Graduation and hiring data of geoscientists over the last ten years indicate that the largest leak in the academic pipeline for women geoscientists is at hiring into tenure-track positions. Anecdotal explanations for this leak generally cite a lack of females in the applicant pool, but women in tenure-track positions anecdotally cite a lack of family-friendly practices by academic departments. Both ideas are currently being tested via surveys of geoscience departments. Is there a way to attract more women to the field to increase the applicant pool? Results of focus groups of geoscientists indicate that both men and women are attracted into the field of geosciences by the same types of events: over one-third became a geoscientist by randomly walking into an undergraduate class and finding themselves captivated by the topic and/or a dynamic instructor. The subject matter itself attracts another one-fourth, and family members encourage another one-fifth of geoscientists to initially enter the field. Slightly more women cite the first attractor of undergraduate class, but the principal draw for our future workforce, male and female, is good instruction of freshman courses. Retention of women in academia is another key issue. The proportion that considers leaving after working towards one or more degrees is highly skewed by gender: one-half of female and only one-third of male geoscientists considered leaving the field at some time in their career. The reasons for considering leaving also differ by gender. Males cite financial issues, including an uncertain job market. Females cite two principal reasons for considering leaving: family issues and difficulties with a graduate advisor. Strategies currently exist for "family issues", including stop-the-clock (of tenure for family needs), assignment shift, on-campus daycare facilities, and unflinching administrative support for such practices. Graduate advising is a learnable skill, and more attention needs to be paid to

  6. The health worker recruitment and deployment process in Kenya: an emergency hiring program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adano Ummuro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite a pool of unemployed health staff available in Kenya, staffing levels at most facilities were only 50%, and maldistribution of staff left many people without access to antiretroviral therapy (ART. Because in the current system it takes one to two years to fill vacant positions, even when funding is available, an emergency approach was needed to fast-track the hiring and deployment process. A stakeholder group was formed to bring together leaders from several sectors to design and implement a fast-track hiring and deployment model that would mobilize 830 additional health workers. This model used the private sector to recruit and deploy new health workers and manage the payroll and employment contracts, with an agreement from the government to transfer these staff to the government payroll after three years. The recruitment process was shortened to less than three months. By providing job orientation and on-time pay checks, the program increased employee retention and satisfaction. Most of the active roadblocks to changes in the health workforce policies and systems are 'human' and not technical, stemming from a lack of leadership, a problem-solving mindset and the alignment of stakeholders from several sectors. It is essential to establish partnerships and foster commitment and collaboration to create needed change in human resource management (HRM. Strengthening appointment on merit is one of the most powerful, yet simplest ways in which the health sector and governments that seek to tackle the challenges of corruption and poor governance can improve their image and efficiency. The quality and integrity of the public health sector can be improved only through professionalizing HRM, reformulating and consolidating the currently fragmented HR functions, and bringing all the pieces together under the authority and influence of HR departments and units with expanded scopes. HR staff must be specialists with strategic HR functions

  7. Restoration of vision in blind individuals using bionic devices: a review with a focus on cortical visual prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Philip M; Ackland, Helen M; Lowery, Arthur J; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V

    2015-01-21

    The field of neurobionics offers hope to patients with sensory and motor impairment. Blindness is a common cause of major sensory loss, with an estimated 39 million people worldwide suffering from total blindness in 2010. Potential treatment options include bionic devices employing electrical stimulation of the visual pathways. Retinal stimulation can restore limited visual perception to patients with retinitis pigmentosa, however loss of retinal ganglion cells precludes this approach. The optic nerve, lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex provide alternative stimulation targets, with several research groups actively pursuing a cortically-based device capable of driving several hundred stimulating electrodes. While great progress has been made since the earliest works of Brindley and Dobelle in the 1960s and 1970s, significant clinical, surgical, psychophysical, neurophysiological, and engineering challenges remain to be overcome before a commercially-available cortical implant will be realized. Selection of candidate implant recipients will require assessment of their general, psychological and mental health, and likely responses to visual cortex stimulation. Implant functionality, longevity and safety may be enhanced by careful electrode insertion, optimization of electrical stimulation parameters and modification of immune responses to minimize or prevent the host response to the implanted electrodes. Psychophysical assessment will include mapping the positions of potentially several hundred phosphenes, which may require repetition if electrode performance deteriorates over time. Therefore, techniques for rapid psychophysical assessment are required, as are methods for objectively assessing the quality of life improvements obtained from the implant. These measures must take into account individual differences in image processing, phosphene distribution and rehabilitation programs that may be required to optimize implant functionality. In this review, we

  8. Verifying with tests the improved dynamic and passive damping behavior of components: structural optimization based on bionic principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Johannes; Maier, Martin; Herrmann, Hans-Georg; Steibler, Philipp

    2004-07-01

    In the automotive industry, the need for affordable lightweight structures rises as new fuel consumption regulations tighten and customers demand for performance increases. One way of achieving a cost-effective and weight-optimal design is by means of structural optimization. In 1991, A. Baumgartner, S. Burkhardt and C. Mattheck published their first paper on topology optimization based on bionic principles. Nature is inevitably dependent on the most efficient use of the body's mass. Using a fully-stressed-method, the original SKO-method is able to optimize engineering components with regard to maximum strength and stiffness. For several years now, the SKO-method has been successfully applied and enhanced for complex structural optimization at the Research & Technology Division of DaimlerChrysler AG. The subject presented in this paper was investigated in cooperation with the Institut fur Verbundwerkstoffe GmbH at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern. The aim is to present the new developments concerning the SKO-method. Starting with a short introduction to the original SKO-method, the newly implemented FreedOpt (Frequency and Damping Optimization) module is explained afterwards. FreedOpt can tune natural frequencies to a desired level. In cases were the tuning of frequencies is not sufficient, damping is needed. The new module is able to optimize the utilization of damping material with a new approach based on maximizing the dissipated vibration energy. The main focus of the paper is on the verification of the simulation results with physical tests. Finally, the new tool is applied to automotive parts. Concluding, the authors give an outlook for future work.

  9. Assessment of the effects of carbon fiber and bionic foot during overground and treadmill walking in transtibial amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delussu, Anna Sofia; Brunelli, Stefano; Paradisi, Francesco; Iosa, Marco; Pellegrini, Roberto; Zenardi, Daniele; Traballesi, Marco

    2013-09-01

    To determine the energy cost of walking (ECW) of a bionic foot (Proprio-Foot®) during ambulation on floor and on treadmill (at different slopes) compared to walking with a dynamic carbon fiber foot (DCF). We evaluated transtibial amputees (TTAs) perceived mobility with the prosthesis and their walking ability on stairs and ramps. TTAs were enrolled. The ECW tests were conducted on a regular floor surface and on treadmill with -5%, 0% and 12% slopes. In all conditions, TTAs were asked to walk at their own self-selected speed. Metabolic and cardiac data were collected using a portable gas analyzer. Tests were performed at six data collection points: first with a standard suction system (SSS) and the DCF; second, with the DCF after 7 weeks of using a hypobaric suspension system (HSS) with the DCF; third, after 1 h of Proprio-Foot® use together with the HSS; three more testing sessions were carried out at 30-day intervals, i.e., after 30, 60 and 90 days of Proprio-Foot® use together with the HSS. TTAs perceived mobility using the prosthesis and walking ability on stairs and ramps were assessed. Ten TTAs completed the measurements. ECW with the Proprio-Foot® obtained in the final floor-walking test was significantly lower than ECW with the DCF (p=0.002). No significant improvements were observed for perceived mobility or walking ability. Results suggest that use of the Proprio-Foot® can lower the ECW for TTAs in spite of its added weight compared to DCF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Hiring Process Matters: The Role of Person-Job and Person-Organization Fit in Teacher Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Christina; Skidmore, Susan Troncoso; Combs, Julie P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Teachers' satisfaction with their jobs has reached the lowest point in 25 years. One contributing factor is when teachers experience information-poor hiring processes and do not obtain an accurate preview of their positions, their person-organization (P-O) fit, and person-job (P-J) fit. Sparked by a renewed focus on the variables that can…

  11. Use of ePortfolios in K-12 teacher hiring in North Carolina: Perspectives of School Principals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdou Ndoye

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the perceptions of principals involved in the hiring process of K–12 teachers in 11 counties in southeastern North Carolina. Forty-nine principals responded to a survey on ePortfolio use in the hiring process: the pros and cons, desirable artifacts, stage of use, preferred delivery method, and improvements that can increase their usage. We examined each of these questions and whether certain factors (prior use, technology skills, and years as a hiring agent predict principals’ ePortfolio use. Our findings suggest that ePortfolios provide improved and current information about teacher candidates that is easily accessible and organized. Collectively, this allows principals to assess teacher candidates’ suitability for employment. Although there are problems associated with ePortfolio use during hiring, which are detailed below, the results suggest that principals most frequently use ePortfolios during the interview process, prefer delivery via a website address, and that prior use is the best predictor of future ePortfolio use.

  12. The Relationship of HR Professionals' Online Experiences with Perceptions of Organizational Hiring and Promotion of Online Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupins, Gundars Egons; Wanek, James Edward; Coco, Malcolm Paulin

    2014-01-01

    Based on a survey of 264 human resources professionals from 10 Society for Human Resource Management chapters in Texas, the authors investigated how human resources professionals accept online degrees compared to degrees based on face-to-face coursework for hiring and promotion purposes. If respondents were satisfied with their own online course…

  13. Giving Christian Universities a Scarlet Letter: Examining the Canadian Association of University Teachers' Opposition to Faith-Based Hiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008 the Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT) has launched investigations into five Canadian faith-based universities to determine if they violate CAUT's particular understanding of academic freedom. The source of the violation concerns the universities' faith-based hiring requirements, which CAUT maintains violates the…

  14. Born–Infeld extension of Lovelock brane gravity in the system of M0-branes and its application for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in BIonic superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehri, Alireza, E-mail: alireza.sepehri@uk.ac.ir [Faculty of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University, P.O. Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-07-01

    Recently, some authors (Cruz and Rojas, 2013 [1]) have constructed a Born–Infeld type action which may be written in terms of the Lovelock brane Lagrangians for a given dimension p. We reconsider their model in M-theory and study the process of birth and growth of nonlinear spinor and bosonic gravity during the construction of Mp-branes. Then, by application of this idea to BIonic system, we construct a BIonic superconductor in the background of nonlinear gravity. In this model, first, M0-branes link to each other and build an M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane connected by an M2-brane. M0-branes are zero dimensional objects that only scalars are attached to them. By constructing higher dimensional branes from M0-branes, gauge fields are produced. Also, if M0-branes don't link to each other completely, the symmetry of system is broken and fermions are created. The curvature produced by fermions has the opposite sign the curvature produced by gauge fields. Fermions on M5-branes and M2 plays the role of bridge between them. By passing time, M2 dissolves in M5's and nonlinear bosonic and spinor gravities are produced. By closing M5-branes towards each other, coupling of two identical fermions on two branes to each other causes that the square mass of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states are created. For removing these tachyons, M5-branes compact, the sign of gravity between branes reverses, anti-gravity is produced which causes that branes and identical fermions get away from each other. This is the reason for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in Bionic system. Also, the spinor gravity vanishes and its energy builds a new M2 between M5-branes. We obtain the resistivity in this system and find that its value decreases by closing M5 branes to each other and shrinks to zero at colliding point of branes. This idea has different applications. For example, in cosmology, universes are located on M5-branes and M2-brane has the role of bridge

  15. Delays in hiring Air Traffic Collegiate Training Initiative (AT-CTI) graduates and the impact on their training success rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Terra A.

    This research project identified three distinct groups of individuals the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) utilizes when filling the employee ranks of Air Traffic Controllers (ATC). After a nationwide strike, President Reagan fired the entire ATC workforce in 1981 (Pavel, 2012). Since then the FAA has worked very diligently in filling the vacant positions. Now three decades later the impending retirements and attrition of those hired earlier is estimated at nearly 14,000 controllers over the next 10 years (FAA CWP, 2012). In response to this shortage it would be advantageous for the FAA to minimize the time lapsed in the selection, hiring and training processes. If the hiring process time was decreased, it would save the FAA money in terms of a reduction in the initial cost of training Air Traffic Controllers (GAO, 2012; IRP, 2011). Traditionally the FAA hires from three distinct groups of people. The first is those with prior ATC experience which was usually obtained through the military. Second the general public with no experience and third the Air Traffic Collegiate Training Initiative (AT-CTI) candidates. The AT-CTI program is a valued partner with the FAA that helps educate the next generation of Air Traffic Controllers; however in the past the program has had difficulty producing the total number of replacement controllers needed. Due to the delay some CTI graduates may choose other career paths rather than wait and be hired to go to the FAA Academy which will further reduce the number of candidates for the FAA to hire. To date, no public research has been done pertaining to the time delay in the hiring process of AT-CTI candidates and the impact on training success at the FAA Academy and at the CTI's first FAA facility. This study used a survey tool to gather information on how long AT-CTI graduates wait to be hired to attend the FAA Academy. Information was gathered on the factors that may affect the time lapse between graduation and the time they

  16. HiRes camera and LIDAR ranging system for the Clementine mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledebuhr, A.G.; Kordas, J.F.; Lewis, I.T. [and others

    1995-04-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed a space-qualified High Resolution (HiRes) imaging LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) system for use on the DoD Clementine mission. The Clementine mission provided more than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth, and stars, including the first ever complete systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to near-infrared spectral regions. This article describes the Clementine HiRes/LIDAR system, discusses design goals and preliminary estimates of on-orbit performance, and summarizes lessons learned in building and using the sensor. The LIDAR receiver system consists of a High Resolution (HiRes) imaging channel which incorporates an intensified multi-spectral visible camera combined with a Laser ranging channel which uses an avalanche photo-diode for laser pulse detection and timing. The receiver was bore sighted to a light-weight McDonnell-Douglas diode-pumped ND:YAG laser transmitter that emmitted 1.06 {micro}m wavelength pulses of 200 mJ/pulse and 10 ns pulse-width, The LIDAR receiver uses a common F/9.5 Cassegrain telescope assembly. The optical path of the telescope is split using a color-separating beamsplitter. The imaging channel incorporates a filter wheel assembly which spectrally selects the light which is imaged onto a custom 12 mm gated image intensifier fiber-optically-coupled into a 384 x 276 pixel frame transfer CCD FPA. The image intensifier was spectrally sensitive over the 0.4 to 0.8 {micro}m wavelength region. The six-position filter wheel contained 4 narrow spectral filters, one broadband and one blocking filter. At periselene (400 km) the HiRes/LIDAR imaged a 2.8 km swath width at 20-meter resolution. The LIDAR function detected differential signal return with a 40-meter range accuracy, with a maximum range capability of 640 km, limited by the bit counter in the range return counting clock.

  17. Understanding therapeutic benefits of overground bionic ambulation: exploratory case series in persons with chronic, complete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kressler, Jochen; Thomas, Christine K; Field-Fote, Edelle C; Sanchez, Justin; Widerström-Noga, Eva; Cilien, Deena C; Gant, Katie; Ginnety, Kelly; Gonzalez, Hernan; Martinez, Adriana; Anderson, Kimberley D; Nash, Mark S

    2014-10-01

    To explore responses to overground bionic ambulation (OBA) training from an interdisciplinary perspective including key components of neuromuscular activation, exercise conditioning, mobility capacity, and neuropathic pain. Case series. Academic research center. Persons (N=3; 2 men, 1 woman) aged 26 to 38 years with complete spinal cord injury (SCI) (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale grade A) between the levels of T1 and T10 for ≥1 year. OBA 3d/wk for 6 weeks. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of responses to OBA, an array of measures were obtained while walking in the device, including walking speeds and distances, energy expenditure, exercise conditioning effects, and neuromuscular and cortical activity patterns. Changes in spasticity and pain severity related to OBA use were also assessed. With training, participants were able to achieve walking speeds and distances in the OBA device similar to those observed in persons with motor-incomplete SCI (10-m walk speed, .11-.33m/s; 2-min walk distance, 11-33m). The energy expenditure required for OBA was similar to walking in persons without disability (ie, 25%-41% of peak oxygen consumption). Subjects with lower soleus reflex excitability walked longer during training, but there was no change in the level or amount of muscle activity with training. There was no change in cortical activity patterns. Exercise conditioning effects were small or nonexistent. However, all participants reported an average reduction in pain severity over the study period ranging between -1.3 and 1.7 on a 0-to-6 numeric rating scale. OBA training improved mobility in the OBA device without significant changes in exercise conditioning or in neuromuscular or cortical activity. However, pain severity was reduced and no severe adverse events were encountered during training. OBA therefore opens the possibility to reduce the common consequences of chronic, complete SCI such as reduced functional mobility and neuropathic

  18. Hired Hands: Casualised Technology and Labour in the Teaching of Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieryn McKay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the uptake and application of podcasting in a particular higher education context, drawing on the the authors' experience in late 2008 when both were employed as casual tutors on large-scale first-year communications and cultural studies courses at the University of Western Sydney. The article maps out the limits of technological innovation within the teaching of cultural studies, as well as its limits in promoting the radical potential of a cultural studies approach. It also charts some of the effects and affects of an over-reliance on casualised labour, which we argue can have a profoundly destabilising and atomising impact on academic practice and student engagement. We argue there is a parallel between the appropriation of popular media technologies into the university and the current system of casual academic employment in Australia, in that both the podcast and the casual academic represent ‘new’ interfaces of outsourced academic labour. Stipulated from our positions as casual teachers in cultural studies, this article is written from an embedded perspective which conceptualises both the podcast and the casual academic in line with the most prevalent mode of their employment in the academy: as ‘hired hands’, appendages to traditional models of pedagogy.

  19. Optical and mechanical architecture for the E-ELT HIRES polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Varano, I.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Woche, M.; Weber, M.; Laux, U.; Yuan, S.; Covino, S.; Riva, M.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Genoni, M.; Landoni, M.; Li Causi, G.; Mason, E.

    2017-06-01

    We introduce the opto-mechanical architecture of a high precision, full Stokes vector, dual-channel polarimeter for the European Extremely Large Telescope's High Resolution spectrograph (E-ELT HIRES). It is foreseen to feed two spectrograph modules simultaneously through the standard Front End subunit located on the Nasmyth platform via two fiber bundles; one optimized for the optical (BVRI), the other optimized for the infrared (zYJH) bands. The polarimeter is located below M4 in the f/4.4 intermediate focus, representing the only rotationally symmetric focus available, and is retractable. We illustrate the strategy of repositioning and aligning the instrument, provided that it has to withstand wind and earthquake loads and that the PSF is varying in width and position due to the active compensation by the co-phasing corrections. Preliminary results of its expected polarimetric sensitivity and accuracy are also analyzed for several configurations of M1 segments and suggest a stunning performance in the intermediate focus with cross talks of the order of 10-7 but 10-2 if it were located in the Nasmyth focus.

  20. Obesity discrimination in the recruitment process: You’re not Hired!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart William Flint

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous literature reports that obese persons are discriminated in the workplace. Evidence suggests that obese people are perceived as having less leadership potential, and in comparison to normal weight peers, are expected to be less successful. This study examined whether obese people are discriminated against when applying for employment. Three hypotheses were offered in line with previous research: 1 obese people are less likely to be assessed positively on personnel suitability than normal weight people; 2 obese people in active employment are more likely to be discriminated against than people in non-active employment; and 3 obese women are more likely to be discriminated against than obese men. 181 Participants were sampled from sedentary, standing, manual and heavy manual occupations. Participants rated hypothetical candidates on their suitability for employment. Employees also completed measures of implicit and explicit attitudes towards obesity. MANOVA was conducted to examine if obese candidates were discriminated against during the recruitment procedure. Results demonstrated that participants rated obese candidates as less suitable compared with normal weight candidates and when the weight status of the candidate was not revealed for work across the four workplace groups. Participant gender and weight status also impacted perceptions of candidates’ suitability for work and discrimination towards obese candidates was higher in participants from more physically demanding occupations. The study findings contribute to evidence that obese people are discriminated against in the hiring process and support calls for policy development.

  1. Obesity Discrimination in the Recruitment Process: "You're Not Hired!".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Stuart W; Čadek, Martin; Codreanu, Sonia C; Ivić, Vanja; Zomer, Colene; Gomoiu, Amalia

    2016-01-01

    Previous literature reports that obese persons are discriminated in the workplace. Evidence suggests that obese people are perceived as having less leadership potential, and in comparison to normal weight peers, are expected to be less successful. This study examined whether obese people are discriminated against when applying for employment. Three hypotheses were offered in line with previous research: (1) obese people are less likely to be assessed positively on personnel suitability than normal weight people; (2) obese people in active employment are more likely to be discriminated against than people in non-active employment; and (3) obese women are more likely to be discriminated against than obese men. 181 Participants were sampled from sedentary, standing, manual and heavy manual occupations. Participants rated hypothetical candidates on their suitability for employment. Employees also completed measures of implicit and explicit attitudes toward obesity. MANOVA was conducted to examine if obese candidates were discriminated against during the recruitment procedure. Results demonstrated that participants rated obese candidates as less suitable compared with normal weight candidates and when the weight status of the candidate was not revealed for work across the four workplace groups. Participant gender and weight status also impacted perceptions of candidates' suitability for work and discrimination toward obese candidates was higher in participants from more physically demanding occupations. The study findings contribute to evidence that obese people are discriminated against in the hiring process and support calls for policy development.

  2. Attributes and qualifications that employers seek when hiring dietitians in business and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, D; Shanklin, C W; Gorman, M A

    1989-04-01

    A study was conducted to assess the employment trends of dietitians in business and industry and to identify attributes and qualifications essential to succeed in this segment of the industry. Results of the delphi process were utilized in the design of a questionnaire which would identify attributes and qualifications essential for success. The questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 300 members of the Dietitians in Business and Industry Practice Group and 300 prospective and current employers of dietitians. Response rates of 45.7% (no. = 137) and 29.0% (no. = 87) were attained for the dietitians and employers, respectively. The majority of current employers (72%) and prospective employers (62%) and dietitians (73%) responded that the trend of hiring dietitians in business and industry was increasing. Both dietitians (53%) and employers (41%) reported that new positions were being created for dietitians in their organizations. Operational experience was more important for positions in sales, whereas clinical experience was more important for positions in manufacturing organizations. Employers ranked a master's degree in business administration (MBA) as the second most important qualification; dietitians rated the MBA as fifteenth in importance. Dietitians ranked registration status (RD) as, fourth in importance; however, employers rated registration status as least important of the qualifications. Both employers and dietitians ranked communication skills as essential to succeed in business and industry positions.

  3. Optical parametric evaluation model for a broadband high resolution spectrograph at E-ELT (E-ELT HIRES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoni, M.; Riva, M.; Pariani, G.; Aliverti, M.; Moschetti, M.

    2016-08-01

    We present the details of a paraxial parametric model of a high resolution spectrograph which can be used as a tool, characterized by good approximation and reliability, at a system engineering level. This model can be exploited to perform a preliminary evaluation of the different parameters as long as different possible architectures of high resolution spectrograph like the one under design for the E-ELT (for the moment called E-ELT HIRES in order to avoid wrong association with the HIRES spectrograph at Keck telescope). The detailed equations flow concerning the first order effects of all the spectrograph components is described; in addition a comparison with the data of a complete physical ESPRESSO spectrograph model is presented as a model proof.

  4. Can Heterosexist Music Cause Hiring Discrimination Against Sexual Minority Men? Testing the Effects of Prejudicial Media Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Kevin; Ward, L Monique

    2016-01-01

    Workplace heterosexism is a pervasive issue affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) employees. This study investigated the influence of heterosexist media on hiring decisions by exposing 171 heterosexual undergraduate men to heterosexist rap music, nonheterosexist rap music, or no music and measuring their evaluations of a heterosexual and gay male professorial job applicant immediately afterward. As expected, participants exposed to the heterosexist music provided lower evaluations of the gay applicant than those exposed to no music, for two of the eight dimensions measured. Also, participants exposed to heterosexist messages were less willing to recommend and meet one-on-one with a gay candidate than a heterosexual one. Music condition effects remained, even with demographic factors controlled. These findings suggest that media heterosexism may affect hiring decisions for GBT men and may also influence the treatment of these men in a workplace environment.

  5. Trends in family labour, hired labour and contract work on French and Swiss crop farms: the role of agricultural policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dupraz, Pierre; Latruffe, Laure; Mann, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyse the trends in on-farm labour use, including own family labour, hired labour and contract work, and to assess the factors driving their evolution in France and in Switzerland during 1990-2007. A particular attention is given to agricultural policies, namely the level and type of support. Results indicate that crop area payments discourage the different labour demands in both countries, while environment and investment payments favour contract and hir...

  6. Trends in family, hired and contract labour use on French and Swiss crop farms: The role of agricultural policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dupraz, Pierre; Latruffe, Laure; Mann, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyse the trends in on-farm labour use, including own family labour, hired labour and contract work, and to assess the factors driving their evolution in France and in Switzerland during 1990-2007. A particular attention is given to agricultural policies, namely the level and type of support. Results indicate that crop area payments discourage the different labour demands in both countries. No other subsidies have a significant influence on labour use in ...

  7. Influence of processing medium on frictional wear properties of ball bearing steel prepared by laser surface melting coupled with bionic principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Hong, E-mail: wangct08@mails.jlu.edu.c [Key Lab of Automobile Materials, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130025 (China); Wang Chengtao [Key Lab of Automobile Materials, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130025 (China); Faw-Volkswagen Automotive Company Ltd., Changchun 130011 (China); Guo Qingchun [Key Lab of Automobile Materials, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130025 (China); Brilliance Automobile Engineering Research Institute, Shenyang 110141 (China); Yu Jiaxiang [Key Lab of Automobile Materials, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130025 (China); Wang Mingxing [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Beisihuanxi Road, Beijing 100190 (China); Liao Xunlong [Technical Management Department, CNNC China Zhongyuan Engineering Corp. Ltd., No 487 Tianlin Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Zhao Yu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changchun University of Technology, Changchun 130012 (China); Ren Luquan [Key Lab of Terrain Machinery Bionics Engineering, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130025 (China)

    2010-09-03

    Coupling with bionic principles, an attempt to improve the wear resistance of ball bearing steel (GCr15) with biomimetic units on the surface was made using a pulsed Nd: YAG laser. Air and water film was employed as processing medium, respectively. The microstructures of biomimeitc units were examined by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction was used to describe the microstructure and identify the phases as functions of different mediums as well as water film with different thicknesses. The results indicated that the microstructure zones in the biomimetic specimens processed with water film were more refined and had better wear resistance increased by 55.8% in comparison with that processed in air; a significant improvement in microhardness was achieved by laser surface melting. The application of water film provided considerable microstructural changes and much more regular grain shape in biomimetic units, which played a key role in improving the wear resistance of ball bearing steel.

  8. Born-Infeld extension of Lovelock brane gravity in the system of M0-branes and its application for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in BIonic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Alireza

    2016-07-01

    Recently, some authors (Cruz and Rojas, 2013 [1]) have constructed a Born-Infeld type action which may be written in terms of the Lovelock brane Lagrangians for a given dimension p. We reconsider their model in M-theory and study the process of birth and growth of nonlinear spinor and bosonic gravity during the construction of Mp-branes. Then, by application of this idea to BIonic system, we construct a BIonic superconductor in the background of nonlinear gravity. In this model, first, M0-branes link to each other and build an M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane connected by an M2-brane. M0-branes are zero dimensional objects that only scalars are attached to them. By constructing higher dimensional branes from M0-branes, gauge fields are produced. Also, if M0-branes don't link to each other completely, the symmetry of system is broken and fermions are created. The curvature produced by fermions has the opposite sign the curvature produced by gauge fields. Fermions on M5-branes and M2 plays the role of bridge between them. By passing time, M2 dissolves in M5's and nonlinear bosonic and spinor gravities are produced. By closing M5-branes towards each other, coupling of two identical fermions on two branes to each other causes that the square mass of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states are created. For removing these tachyons, M5-branes compact, the sign of gravity between branes reverses, anti-gravity is produced which causes that branes and identical fermions get away from each other. This is the reason for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in Bionic system. Also, the spinor gravity vanishes and its energy builds a new M2 between M5-branes. We obtain the resistivity in this system and find that its value decreases by closing M5 branes to each other and shrinks to zero at colliding point of branes. This idea has different applications. For example, in cosmology, universes are located on M5-branes and M2-brane has the role of bridge between

  9. BUILDING THE FORCE OF THE FUTURE: A NEW CALL TO ATTRACT, HIRE AND RETAIN THE BEST AND BRIGHTEST TO AIR FORCE CIVIL SERVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-25

    Veteran Authority (30 Percent DVA ) 5 U.S.C. 3112; 5 CFR 316.402(b)(4); 5 CFR 315.707 Provides agencies an effective way to quickly hire eligible...Opportunities (VEOA), Veterans Recruitment Appointment (VRA) and the Disabled Veteran Authority ( DVA ), making federal recruitment a complex undertaking...First, the DVA allows agencies to quickly hire a veteran with 30% or more documented injuries from combat related service without announcing the job

  10. SU-E-T-570: Management of Radiation Oncology Patients with Cochlear Implant and Other Bionic Devices in the Brain and Head and Neck Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, F.Q; Chen, Z; Nath, R [Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States); Yale UniversitySchool of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the current status of clinical usage of cochlear implant (CI) and other bionic devices (BD) in the brain and head and neck regions (BH and N) and their management in patients during radiotherapy to ensure patient health and safety as well as optimum radiation delivery. Methods: Literature review was performed with both CIs and radiotherapy and their variants as keywords in PubMed, INSPEC and other sources. The focus was on CIs during radiotherapy, but it also included other BDs in BHȦN, such as auditory brainstem implant, bionic retinal implant, and hearing aids, among others. Results: Interactions between CIs and radiation may cause CIs malfunction. The presence of CIs may also cause suboptimum dose distribution if a treatment plan was not well designed. A few studies were performed for the hearing functions of CIs under irradiations of 4 MV and 6 MV x-rays. However, x-rays with higher energies (10 to 18 MV) broadly used in radiotherapy have not been explored. These higher energetic beams are more damaging to electronics due to strong penetrating power and also due to neutrons generated in the treatment process. Modern CIs are designed with more and more complicated integrated circuits, which may be more susceptible to radiation damage and malfunction. Therefore, careful management is important for safety and treatment outcomes. Conclusion: Although AAPM TG-34, TG-63, and TG-203 (update of TG-34, not published yet) reports may be referenced for management of CIs and other BDs in the brain and H and N regions, a site- and device-specified guideline should be developed for CIs and other BDs. Additional evaluation of CI functions under clinically relevant set-ups should also be performed to provide clinicians with better knowledge in clinical decision making.

  11. Analysis of Differences in the Motivation of the Owner-Managers and Hired Managers of Regional Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Valentinovna Mukhacheva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the differences in the motivation of owner-managers and hired managers. The purpose of the article is to identify the signs of the differences and similarities in the motivation of hired managers and owner-managers on the basis of the analysis of the results of the study of these issues by other authors, as well as with the help of our research. The hypothesis of the study consists in the assumption that the motivational profile of owner-managers differs from the motivational profile of hired managers in greater riskiness and thrift. The research methodology involves conducting a sociological survey of 100 managers of small and medium-sized enterprises in Kemerovo, half of which are employed and the other half are business owners. Questioning was carried out by several methods: oral, by e-mail, in writing through the Center for Business Support and through other means. The data we processed in the SPSS Statistic program. The results of the study unexpectedly have rejected a basic hypothesis: the average data for the degree of risk and thrift of hired managers is highly competitive with the received indices of owner-managers. There is the only difference in the distribution of characteristics. The level of riskiness and thrift of the hired managers tends to the be average among them and has a slight variation in the estimates, while the owner-managers much differ from each other on these parameters, have a large variation in the values of indicators, show a lot of the diametrically opposed estimates. The study of the motives of of owner-managers activity allows to the authorities to develop recommendations on the improvement of the existing and new programmes for the support of small and medium-sized business; on the formation of executive candidate pool. It also can contribute to revealing the categories of population with expressed entrepreneurial and managerial motivational profiles at a stage of professional education

  12. National hiring experiments reveal 2:1 faculty preference for women on STEM tenure track.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wendy M; Ceci, Stephen J

    2015-04-28

    National randomized experiments and validation studies were conducted on 873 tenure-track faculty (439 male, 434 female) from biology, engineering, economics, and psychology at 371 universities/colleges from 50 US states and the District of Columbia. In the main experiment, 363 faculty members evaluated narrative summaries describing hypothetical female and male applicants for tenure-track assistant professorships who shared the same lifestyle (e.g., single without children, married with children). Applicants' profiles were systematically varied to disguise identically rated scholarship; profiles were counterbalanced by gender across faculty to enable between-faculty comparisons of hiring preferences for identically qualified women versus men. Results revealed a 2:1 preference for women by faculty of both genders across both math-intensive and non-math-intensive fields, with the single exception of male economists, who showed no gender preference. Results were replicated using weighted analyses to control for national sample characteristics. In follow-up experiments, 144 faculty evaluated competing applicants with differing lifestyles (e.g., divorced mother vs. married father), and 204 faculty compared same-gender candidates with children, but differing in whether they took 1-y-parental leaves in graduate school. Women preferred divorced mothers to married fathers; men preferred mothers who took leaves to mothers who did not. In two validation studies, 35 engineering faculty provided rankings using full curricula vitae instead of narratives, and 127 faculty rated one applicant rather than choosing from a mixed-gender group; the same preference for women was shown by faculty of both genders. These results suggest it is a propitious time for women launching careers in academic science. Messages to the contrary may discourage women from applying for STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) tenure-track assistant professorships.

  13. SCUBA and HIRES Results for Protostellar Cores in the MON OB1 Dark Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf-Chase, G.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Fich, M.; Barsony, M.

    1999-05-01

    We have used HIRES-processing of IRAS data and point-source modelling techniques (Hurt & Barsony 1996; O'Linger 1997; Barsony et al. 1998), together with submillimeter continuum imaging using the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) on the 15-meter James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), to search CS cores in the Mon OB1 dark cloud (Wolf-Chase, Walker, & Lada 1995; Wolf-Chase & Walker 1995) for deeply embedded sources. These observations, as well as follow-up millimeter photometry at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) 12-meter telescope on Kitt Peak, have lead to the identification of two Class 0 protostellar candidates, which were previously unresolved from two brighter IRAS point sources (IRAS 06382+0939 & IRAS 06381+1039) in this cloud. Until now, only one Class 0 object had been confirmed in Mon OB1; the driving source of the highly-collimated outflow NGC 2264 G (Ward-Thompson, Eiroa, & Casali 1995; Margulis et al. 1990; Lada & Fich 1996), which lies well outside the extended CS cores. One of the new Class 0 candidates may be an intermediate-mass source associated with an H_2O maser, and the other object is a low-mass source which may be associated with a near-infrared jet, and possibly with a molecular outflow. We report accurate positions for the new Class 0 candidates, based on the SCUBA images, and present new SEDs for these sources, as well as for the brighter IRAS point sources. A portion of this work was performed while GWC held a President's Fellowship from the University of California. MB and GWC gratefully acknowledge financial support from MB's NSF CAREER Grant, AST97-9753229.

  14. Getting hired: successfully employed people with disabilities offer advice on disclosure, interviewing, and job search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Lita H; Kaye, H Stephen; Jones, Erica C

    2012-06-01

    Many people with disabilities want to work, but face employment barriers that have resulted in dismal employment rates. Successfully employed people with disabilities have valuable experience that can help others seeking employment, yet research literature provides little information about their strategies for discussing disabilities with employers and negotiating the hiring process. In five focus groups, 41 people competitively employed for at least 5 years discussed employment experiences related to their varied disabilities. The sample excluded people in disability-related jobs or self-employed. Data were coded and analyzed using a grounded theory method. Disclosure and discussion decisions were influenced by the nature of disability (visible, hidden, stigmatized, multiple), whether and when people needed accommodations, and the perceived "disability-friendliness" of organizations. Qualitative data analysis suggested guidelines for whether, when, and how to discuss disability, while acknowledging the complexity of decision-making depending on workplace culture and personal choices. Interview strategies included ways to emphasize strengths, gather information about duties and work environment, handle inappropriate questions, and address unspoken employer concerns. Participants gave disability-specific advice to help job-seekers balance their abilities and interests, and use networking and other approaches to find favorable opportunities. Concluding that people with disabilities must work harder than others to get a job, they described approaches and tools to help others achieve success. Findings suggest approaches to assist job-seekers to make decisions about disclosing or discussing their disability, present themselves in a straight-forward, disability-positive manner, and find satisfying work based on their skills and interests.

  15. Technical and Soft Skills Expectations During the Transition from Recent Graduate to New Hire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, C. M.

    2001-12-01

    Employer-applicant skill compatibility represents a major component of the career development process, particularly for new entrants to the job market. Newly minted geoscientists largely bring a distinct set of skills learned during their formal education and training, which combined with a broader view of the person are evaluated for career potential in today's major employers. University departments possess a strong view of their role in educating future geoscientists, including the skill sets imparted, the basis of education provided, and the expectation for how their students will evolve into colleagues in the profession. Regretfully, based on numerous surveys by both the American Geological Institute's Human Resources program and other independent studies, the formally transferred skills and expectations do not necessarily match those of many geoscience employers. While academia has increased its focus on increasing technical skills and greater specialization, most geoscience employers have further increased the technology gap between themselves and academia, leading most employers to seek broadly trained and well-educated graduates. Additionally, soft skills represent an area of major disagreement between what is considered important and what is considered feasible in a formal education. While debate continues both within industry and academia over the ideal set of soft skills, the great variance in soft skill demands lead to better opportunities for matching of graduate to employer. This debate further enhances the ongoing discussion of the role of the university, the importance of employer needs, and the health of the geoscience discipline within society. Fundamentally, the hiring and career development process remains as sequence of compromises for both the employer and the recent graduate.

  16. The Bionic Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Harold

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the information crisis focuses on possible new forms of library collections. Topics discussed include the rising quantity and costs of publications; improvements in access through new technologies; vendors' plans using electronic text; information flow; economics factors, including user fees; and the role of the commercial sector.…

  17. A bionics chemical synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanapitak, Surachoke; Toumazou, Christofer

    2013-06-01

    Implementation of the current mode CMOS circuit for chemical synapses (AMPA and NMDA receptors) with dynamic change of glutamate as the neurotransmitter input is presented in this paper. Additionally, circuit realisation for receptor GABA(A) and GABA(B) with an electrical signal which symbolises γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) perturbation is introduced. The chemical sensor for glutamate sensing is the modified ISFET with enzyme (glutamate oxidase) immobilisation. The measured results from these biomimetics chemical synapse circuits closely match with the simulation result from the mathematical model. The total power consumption of the whole chip (four chemical synapse circuits and all auxiliary circuits) is 168.3 μW. The total chip area is 3 mm(2) in 0.35-μm AMS CMOS technology.

  18. The Bionic Amoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Emmett L.

    1979-01-01

    A demonstration is described that encourages students to engage in inquiry in biology. Using chemicals and an overhead projector, the instructor can simulate a living organism projected onto a screen. The reaction can aid students in defining the characteristics of life. (SA)

  19. The Bionic Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Neville

    2009-05-01

    Four hundred years after children in a spectacle makers workshop accidentally discovered the telescope, the development of this device has been a continuous replacement of the ``natural'' by the deliberate. The human eye is gone. The lens is gone. The tube is gone. The dome is on the verge of going. The size of the optics are ceasing to be set by transportation limits. Adaptive optics are preferred to stable optics. We deliberately break the Lagrange invariant. We focus on lasers instead of stars, and natural observing environments are being replaced by adaptive environments. The goals for the new ground based telescope encompass the oldest and newest ideas, to find signs of life elsewhere, and to find how all the universe developed.

  20. Bionic (Nano) Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matovic, Jovan; Jakšić, Zoran

    The goal of this chapter is to offer a concise and clear picture of the most important artificial nanomembrane-related procedures and technologies, including those for fabrication and functionalization, and to present the main properties and potential applications, stressing recent results in the field contributed by the authors. Nanomembranes are probably the most ubiquitous building block in biology and at the same time one of the most primordial ones. Every living cell, from bacteria to the cells in human bodies, has nanomembranes acting as interfaces between the cytoplasm and its surroundings. All metabolic processes proceed through nanomembranes and involve their active participation. Functionally, the man-made nanomembrane strives to mimic this most basic biological unit. The existence of the life itself is a proof that such a fundamental task can be performed. When designing artificial nanomembranes, the whole wealth of structures and processes already enabling and supporting life is at our disposal to recreate, tailor, fine-tune, and utilize them. In some cases, the obstacles are formidable, but then the potential rewards are stunning.

  1. Bionic ear imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerini, R; Faccioli, N; Barillari, M; De Iorio, M; Carner, M; Colletti, V; Pozzi Mucelli, R

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the different imaging features of middle and inner ear implants, brainstem implants and inferior colliculus implants. We retrospectively reviewed the computed tomography (CT) images of 468 patients with congenital or acquired transmissive or neurosensory hearing loss who underwent surgery. The implants examined were: 22 Vibrant Soundbridge implants, 5 at the long limb of the incus and 17 at the round window, 350 cochlear implants, 95 brainstem implants and 1 implant at the inferior colliculus. All patients underwent a postoperative CT scan (single or multislice scanner) and/or a Dentomaxillofacial cone-beam CT scan (CBCT) (axial and multiplanar reconstruction), and/or a plain-film radiography to visualise the correct position of the implant. The CBCT scan depicts Vibrant site of implant better than plain-film radiography, with a lower radiation dose compared to CT. For cochlear implants, a single plain radiograph in the Stenvers projection can directly visualise the electrodes in the cochlea. All patients with brainstem or inferior colliculus implants underwent postoperative CT to exclude complications and the assess correct implantation, but the follow-up of these implants can be performed by plain radiography alone. CT and CBCT scans are reliable and relatively fast methods for precisely determining the location of middle ear implants. CBCT is preferable to CT because of the lower radiation dose administered; a single plain-film radiograph is enough to visualise and follow-up cochlear, brainstem and inferior colliculus implants.

  2. Longitudinal Pulmonary Function in Newly Hired, Non-World Trade Center-Exposed Fire Department City of New York Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fen; Hall, Charles B.; Webber, Mayris P.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Dinkels, Michael; Cosenza, Kaitlyn; Weiden, Michael D.; Nolan, Anna; Christodoulou, Vasilios; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Few longitudinal studies characterize firefighters’ pulmonary function. We sought to determine whether firefighters have excessive FEV1 decline rates compared with control subjects. Methods: We examined serial measurements of FEV1 from about 6 months prehire to about 5 years posthire in newly hired male, never smoking, non-Hispanic black and white firefighters, hired between 2003 and 2006, without prior respiratory disease or World Trade Center exposure. Similarly defined Emergency Medical Service (EMS) workers served as control subjects. Results: Through June 30, 2011, 940 firefighters (82%) and 97 EMS workers (72%) who met study criteria had four or more acceptable posthire spirometries. Prehire FEV1% averaged higher for firefighters than EMS workers (99% vs 95%), reflecting more stringent job entry criteria. FEV1 (adjusted for baseline age and height) declined by an average of 45 mL/y both for firefighters and EMS workers, with Fire − EMS decline rate differences averaging 0.2 mL/y (CI, −9.2 to 9.6). Four percent of each group had FEV1 less than the lower limit of normal before hire, increasing to 7% for firefighters and 17.5% for EMS workers, but similar percentages of both groups had adjusted FEV1 decline rates ≥ 10%. Mixed effects modeling showed a significant influence of weight gain but not baseline weight: FEV1 declined by about 8 mL/kg gained for both groups. Adjusting for weight change, FEV1 decline averaged 38 mL/y for firefighters and 34 mL/y for EMS workers. Conclusions: During the first 5 years of duty, firefighters do not show greater longitudinal FEV1 decline than EMS control subjects, and fewer of them develop abnormal lung function. Weight gain is associated with a small loss of lung function, of questionable clinical relevance in this fit and active population. PMID:23188136

  3. "Experience Keeps a Dear School": the Effects of Ethnicity and Caregiving Experience on Hiring a Healthcare Advocate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Liew, Charles; Santoro, Maya; Kothari, Dhwani; Wooldridge, Jennalee; Cronan, Terry A

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, ethnic differences in evaluating the severity and associated needs of medical complications experienced by an elderly man and the likelihood of seeking professional assistance (i.e., hire a healthcare advocate [HCA]) to care for him, and for one's own family or parent should they become ill, as a function of previous caregiving experience, were investigated. The 974 participants were White, Black, Hispanic, or Asian/Pacific Islander. They read a hypothetical vignette about a 75-year-old man, Daryl, who was experiencing health problems. Participants were instructed to imagine that they were James, Daryl's son, and asked to indicate how severe his condition(s) were, how much medical assistance he would require, and how likely they would be to hire an HCA to assist him. They were also asked to report whether they previously had assisted a parent with activities of daily living (Assistance) and whether they would be likely to hire an HCA in the future if 1) a family member or 2) a parent, specifically, became ill. Two, 2 (Assistance) × 4 (Ethnicity) multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVA) were performed to assess differential responses among individuals of different ethnicities as a function of previous caregiver experience. A priori interaction contrasts were examined to determine whether Black, Hispanic, or Asian/Pacific Islander participants differed on the outcomes from White participants as a function of previous caregiver experience. There were no significant differences between Black or Asian/Pacific Islander and White participants, but Hispanic participants assigned significantly higher severity and need for medical assistance ratings and were significantly more likely to indicate that they would seek assistance from an HCA with respect to the vignette and for their own parents in the future if they had provided caregiving to a parent in the past, whereas White participants were less likely to seek assistance from an HCA if they had

  4. Screening for Common Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse among Temporary Hired Cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RA Abbas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egypt. All participants were invited to complete a structured questionnaire through a semi-structured interview which included the self-reporting questionnaire 20 items (SRQ-20 and the work stress scale. Assessment of drug use included urine-based screening tests for common substances abused. Results: The prevalence of job stress, common mental disorders and substance abuse, particularly tramadol and cannabis (Bango, was significantly higher in the studied temporary cleaners compared to permanent cleaners. Risk factors associated with increased susceptibility of the temporary cleaners to common mental disorders were family history of substance abuse, high crowding index, history of physical illness, low educational level, and smoking; while being unmarried, male sex, family history of mental disorder, age ≥40 years, smoking, and length of service ≥8 years, were associated with substance abuse among the same group. Conclusion: Temporary hired hospital cleaners suffered from impaired mental health more than permanent cleaners. Therefore, expanding the coverage of current laws and occupational safety and health standards to cover workers in the informal sector especially in developing countries is recommended.

  5. A cross-cultural study of employers' concerns about hiring people with psychotic disorder: implications for recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Hector W H; Angell, Beth; Corrigan, Patrick W; Lee, Yueh-Ting; Shi, Kan; Lam, Chow S; Jin, Shenghua; Fung, Kevin M T

    2007-09-01

    Employment discrimination is considered as a major impediment to community integration for people with serious mental illness, yet little is known about how the problem manifests differently across western and non-western societies. We developed a lay model based on Chinese beliefs and values in terms of Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, and folk religions which may be used to explain cross-cultural variation in mental illness stigma, particularly in the arena of employment discrimination. In this study, we tested this lay approach by comparing employers' concerns about hiring people with psychotic disorder for entry-level jobs in US and China. One hundred employers (40 from Chicago, 30 from Hong Kong, and 30 from Beijing) were randomly recruited from small size firms and interviewed by certified interviewers using a semi-structured interview guide designed for this study. Content analysis was used to derive themes, which in turn were compared across the three sites using chi-square tests. Analyses reveal that employers express a range of concerns about hiring an employee with mental illness. Although some concerns were raised with equal frequency across sites, comparisons showed that, relative to US employers, Chinese employers were significantly more likely to perceive that people with mental illness would exhibit a weaker work ethic and less loyalty to the company. Comparison of themes also suggests that employers in China were more people-oriented while employers in US were more task-oriented. Cultural differences existed among employers which supported the lay theory of mental illness.

  6. Gait training after spinal cord injury: safety, feasibility and gait function following 8 weeks of training with the exoskeletons from Ekso Bionics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach Baunsgaard, Carsten; Vig Nissen, Ulla; Katrin Brust, Anne; Frotzler, Angela; Ribeill, Cornelia; Kalke, Yorck-Bernhard; León, Natacha; Gómez, Belén; Samuelsson, Kersti; Antepohl, Wolfram; Holmström, Ulrika; Marklund, Niklas; Glott, Thomas; Opheim, Arve; Benito, Jesus; Murillo, Narda; Nachtegaal, Janneke; Faber, Willemijn; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2017-11-06

    Prospective quasi-experimental study, pre- and post-design. Assess safety, feasibility, training characteristics and changes in gait function for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) using the robotic exoskeletons from Ekso Bionics. Nine European rehabilitation centres. Robotic exoskeleton gait training, three times weekly over 8 weeks. Time upright, time walking and steps in the device (training characteristics) were recorded longitudinally. Gait and neurological function were measured by 10 Metre Walk Test (10 MWT), Timed Up and Go (TUG), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI) II and Lower Extremity Motor Score (LEMS). Fifty-two participants completed the training protocol. Median age: 35.8 years (IQR 27.5-52.5), men/women: N = 36/16, neurological level of injury: C1-L2 and severity: AIS A-D (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale). Time since injury (TSI)  1 year, N = 27. No serious adverse events occurred. Three participants dropped out following ankle swelling (overuse injury). Four participants sustained a Category II pressure ulcer at contact points with the device but completed the study and skin normalized. Training characteristics increased significantly for all subgroups. The number of participants with TSI  1 year and gait function, increased from 41 to 44% and TUG and BBS results improved (P < 0.05). Exoskeleton training was generally safe and feasible in a heterogeneous sample of persons with SCI. Results indicate potential benefits on gait function and balance.

  7. Interventions for hiring, retaining and training district health systems managers in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockers, Peter C; Bärnighausen, Till

    2013-04-30

    District managers are playing an increasingly important role in determining the performance of health systems in low- and middle-income countries as a result of decentralization. To assess the effectiveness of interventions to hire, retain and train district health systems managers in low- and middle-income countries. We searched a wide range of international databases, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE. We also searched online resources of international agencies, including the World Bank, to find relevant grey literature. Searches were conducted in December 2011. District health systems managers are those persons who are responsible for overseeing the operations of the health system within a defined, subnational geographical area that is designated as a district. Hiring and retention interventions include those that aim to increase the attractiveness of district management positions, as well as those related to hiring and retention processes, such as private contracting. Training interventions include education programs to develop future managers and on-the-job training programs for current managers. To be included, studies needed to use one of the following study designs: randomized controlled trial, nonrandomized controlled trial, controlled before-and-after study, and interrupted time series analysis. We report measures of effect in the same way that the primary study authors have reported them. Due to the varied nature of interventions included in this review we could not pool data across studies. Two studies met our inclusion criteria. The findings of one study conducted in Cambodia provide low quality evidence that private contracts with international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) for district health systems management ('contracting-in') may improve health care access and utilization. Contracting-in increased use of antenatal care by 28% and use of public facilities by 14%. However, contracting

  8. Six-fold over-representation of graduates from prestigious universities does not necessitate unmeritocratic selection in the faculty hiring process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Miuccio

    Full Text Available To achieve faculty status, graduating doctoral students have to substantially outperform their peers, given the competitive nature of the academic job market. In an ideal, meritocratic world, factors such as prestige of degree-granting university ought not to overly influence hiring decisions. However, it has recently been reported that top-ranked universities produced about 2-6 times more faculty than did universities that were ranked lower [1], which the authors claim suggests the use of un-meritocratic factors in the hiring process: how could students from top-ranked universities be six times more productive than their peers from lower-ranked universities? Here we present a signal detection model, supported by computer simulation and simple proof-of-concept example data from psychology departments in the U.S., to demonstrate that substantially higher rates of faculty production need not require substantially (and unrealistically higher levels of student productivity. Instead, a high hiring threshold due to keen competition is sufficient to cause small differences in average student productivity between universities to result in manifold differences in placement rates. Under this framework, the previously reported results are compatible with a purely meritocratic system. Whereas these results do not necessarily mean that the actual faculty hiring market is purely meritocratic, they highlight the difficulty in empirically demonstrating that it is not so.

  9. How Newcomers Learn the Social Norms of an Organization: A Case Study of the Socialization of Newly Hired Engineers. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Russel

    2009-01-01

    Current scholarship views organizational socialization as a learning process that is primarily the responsibility of the newcomer. Yet recent learning research recognizes the importance of the social interactions in the learning process. This study investigated how newly hired engineers at a large manufacturing company learned job-related tasks…

  10. The Impact of a Direct Care Training Program on the Self-Efficacy of Newly Hired Direct Care Employees at State Mental Health Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marcus Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Self-efficacy has been shown to be an important element in the success of individuals in a variety of different settings. This research examined the impact of a two week new employee orientation training program on the general and social self-efficacy of newly hired direct care employees at state mental health facilities. The research showed that…

  11. Validation of Minimally-Invasive, Image-guided Cochlear Implantation Using Advanced Bionics, Cochlear, and Medel Electrodes in a Cadaver Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRackan, Theodore R; Balachandran, Ramya; Blachon, Grégoire S; Mitchell, Jason E; Noble, Jack H; Wright, Charles G; Fitzpatrick, J. Michael; Dawant, Benoit M; Labadie, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Validation of a novel minimally-invasive, image-guided approach to implant electrodes from three FDA-approved manufacturers—Medel, Cochlear, and Advanced Bionics—in the cochlea via a linear tunnel from the lateral cranium through the facial recess to the cochlea. Methods Custom microstereotactic frames that mount on bone-implanted fiducial markers and constrain the drill along the desired path were utilized on seven cadaver specimens. A linear tunnel was drilled from the lateral skull to the cochlea followed by a marginal, round-window cochleostomy and insertion of the electrode array into the cochlea through the drilled tunnel. Post-insertion CT scan and histological analysis were used to analyze the results. Results All specimens (N=7) were successfully implanted without visible injury to the facial nerve. The Medel electrodes (N=3) had minimal intracochlear trauma with 8, 8, and 10 (out of 12) electrodes intracochlear. The Cochlear lateral wall electrodes (straight research arrays) (N=2) had minimal trauma with 20 and 21 of 22 electrodes intracochlear. The Advanced Bionics electrodes (N=2) were inserted using their insertion tool; one had minimal insertion trauma and 14 of 16 electrodes intracochlear while the other had violation of the basilar membrane just deep to the cochleostomy following which it remained in scala vestibuli with 13 of 16 electrodes intracochlear. Conclusions Minimally invasive, image-guided cochlear implantation is possible using electrodes from the three FDA-approved manufacturers. Lateral wall electrodes were associated with less intracochlear trauma suggesting that they may be better suited for this surgical technique. PMID:23633113

  12. Bionics: prcise color tuning by interference in nature and technology-applications in surface-micromachined 1.55μm vertical air-cavity filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmer, Hartmut; Daleiden, Juergen; Prott, Cornelia; Irmer, Soeren; Roemer, Friedhard; Ataro, Edwin; Tarraf, Amer; Ruehling, H.; Maniak, Markus; Strassner, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Bionics transfers the principles of success of nature into natural science, engineering disciplines and applications. Often generation and detection of different spectral colors play key roles in communication in both, nature and technology. The latter one refers e.g. to dense wavelength division multiplex optical communication systems. This paper shows interesting parallels in tunable spectral light filtering by butterfly wings and by tunable optical filters used in optical communication systems. In both cases light interferes constructively and destructively with nano- and microstructures of appropriate shape, dimensions and materials. In this paper methodology is strongly emphasized. We demonstrate that tailored scaling allows the effectiveness of physical effects to be enhanced in nature and technology. These principles are rigorously applied in micromachined 1.55μm vertical-resonator-based filters, capable of wide, continuous, monotonic and kink-free tuning by a single control parameter. Tuning is achieved by mechanically actuating one or several membranes embedded by air-gaps in a vertical resonator including two ultra-highly reflective DBR mirrors. The layers of mirrors reveal a very strong refractive index contrast. Filters including InP/air-gap DBR's (3.5 periods) using GaInAs sacrificial layers reveal a continuous tuning of >9% of the absolute wavelength. Varying a reverse voltage (U=0 .. -3.2V) between the membranes, a tuning range up to 142nm was obtained due to electrostatic actuation. Appropriate miniaturization is shown to increase the mechanical stability and the effectiveness of spectral tuning by electrostatic actuation since the relative significance of the fundamental physical forces can be shifted considerably by appropriate scaling.

  13. Determining the effect of environmental accidents on responses to a Gulf of Mexico recreational for-hire fishing industry survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, M A; Kazmierczak, R F; Caffey, R H

    2013-10-01

    A survey designed to collect economic, attitudinal and policy data from the recreational for-hire (RFH) fishing industry in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico was conducted before and during the largest marine oil spill in U.S. history (the April 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout). Respondents were grouped into two time periods based on when the survey was completed, where the break in groups was determined through the examination of the Pew Research Center's media coverage index and the per cent of fishing area closures due to the oil spill. A logistic regression was used to test variables that might predict the time period of a response. Results indicated that recall bias was not present in the financial variables examined, but that firm operating and demographic characteristics (i.e. vessel size, annual number of trips, number of vessels operating in the firm, tenure and household income) were significant in explaining the time period in which surveys were completed. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Implementation of a Trailing-Edge Flap Analysis Model in the NASA Langley CAMRAD.MOD1/Hires Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    Continual advances in rotorcraft performance, vibration and acoustic characteristics are being sought by rotary-wing vehicle manufacturers to improve efficiency, handling qualities and community noise acceptance of their products. The rotor system aerodynamic and dynamic behavior are among the key factors which must be addressed to meet the desired goals. Rotor aerodynamicists study how airload redistribution impacts performance and noise, and seek ways to achieve better airload distribution through changes in local aerodynamic response characteristics. One method currently receiving attention is the use of trailing-edge flaps mounted on the rotor blades to provide direct control of a portion of the spanwise lift characteristics. The following work describes the incorporation of a trailing-edge flap model in the CAMRAD.Mod1/FHUS comprehensive rotorcraft analysis code. The CAM-RAD.Mod1/HIRES analysis consists of three separate executable codes. These include the comprehensive trim analysis, CAMRAD.Mod1, the Indicial Post-Processor, IPP, for high resolution airloads, and AIRFOIL, which produces the rotor airfoil tables from input airfoil section characteristics. The modifications made to these components permitting analysis of flapped rotor configurations are documented herein along with user instructions detailing the new input variables and operational notes.

  15. Performance of the Harmony™ behind-the-ear processor with the first generation of Advanced Bionics™ implant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Martina; Rottmann, Tobias; Lenarz, Thomas; Buechner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    When new cochlear implant (CI) sound processors are being introduced by the manufacturers, usually the newest generation implants benefit first from the new technology in order to release the full potential of the new hardware. Subsequently, for the Advanced Bionics system the Harmony behind-the-ear processor was only compatible to the newer generation implants, i.e. the CII and HiRes90K, at the time of market release. After further development of a new Digital Signal Processing code the Harmony could also support the first implant generation, the 'C1' (Clarion 1.0 and 1.2). This study reports on a field trial with a new sound processor designed to be used with older generation CIs from Advanced Bionics, focussing on ergonomic and performance benefits. Speech perception tests (Freiburger monosyllables, HSM sentence tests) were performed at a baseline appointment with the subject's clinical processor, followed by the fitting of the Harmony. After a 1 month take-home period the tests were repeated with the Harmony. Additionally, subjective evaluation through questionnaires and a structured interview were administered after upgrading to the sound processor 'C1 Harmony'. Adult users of Advanced Bionics C1 series CIs (n = 29) participated in this study. The new processor provided superior performance in many, though not all, of the speech recognition measurements. Subjective reports indicated certain practical benefits from the new processor, particularly for previous users of body-worn processors. Overall, 80% of the subjects preferred the new processor. The positive outcomes from this trial have resulted in the decision to make the new C1 Harmony processor available to all existing users of the early C1 devices.

  16. Scanning Auger microscopy analysis of 90 K Y--Ba--Cu--O superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, L.; Morales de la Garza, L.; Hirata, G.; Martinez, L.; Orozco, E.; Carrillo, E.; Mendoza, A.; Albarran, J.L.; Fuentes-Maya, J.; Boldu, J.L.; and others

    1988-05-01

    The oxide superconductor Y--Ba--Cu--O is studied using Auger scanning microscopy. The chemical depth profiles of the samples were obtained. It is concluded that two phases are present in the sample, one corresponding to the standard composition and another that is Ba enriched. The first shows a platelet shape and the second a granular appearence that covers the surface of the sample.

  17. The bionic eye: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jong Min; da Cruz, Lyndon

    2012-01-01

    Visual prostheses including artificial retinal devices are a novel and revolutionary approach to the treatment of profound visual loss. The development of the field of visual prosthesis began with cortical prosthetic devices but since then, a variety of devices which target different sites along the visual pathway have been developed with the retinal prosthesis being the most advanced. We present a review of the history of these devices, an update on the current state of play and future prospects of this field. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  18. Hydro-Bionics Serves Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-18

    nekton animals (predominantly cetaceous and cephalopods ), since it is long ago established that their relative power expenditures for achievement of...depend on mode of life, and in connection with this and from speed of motion. Nature in the process of evolution optimized the DOC - 91123900 PAGE 5...thoracic and caudal fins participate in heat exchange. Cephalopods - marine mollusks (squids, octopi, cuttles) have body, in form close to body of

  19. Audiometric evaluation short and medium term in cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Luján, Laura R; Gutiérrez-Farfán, Ileana; Luna-Reyes, Francisco A; Chamlati-Aguirre, Laura E; Durand Rivera, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose is report the results of cochlear implant program in this Institute, since our first surgery from November 2007, until December 2012. A cross-sectional study, observational, descriptive, analyzing the information about thresholds before and after implantation, using patients files (diagnosis, onset of hearing loss, brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), implanted ear, brand and model of cochlear implants (CI) and audiometric studies before and after the CI. We report the evolution of 68 patients, age ranged 1 year 8 months to 39 years 3 months old. 94% patients (n = 64) had pre-lingual hearing loss being hereditary non-syndromic hearing loss the most common etiology (29.4%). 100% patients had auditory brainstem responses showing bilateral profound hearing loss, in the 77.9% type A tympanograms were obtained (Jerger's classification), and 100% had absence of stapedial reflexes and otoacoustic emissions with low reproducibility. CT reported as normal in 85.2% of patients, the findings: 5.8% had chronic mastoiditis changes, other findings reported in 1.4% of patients were: digastric right facial nerve, facial nerve canal dehiscence, enlarged vestibular aqueduct, occupation and poor pneumatization of mastoid air cells, lateral semicircular canals agenesis, incomplete partition of the cochlea with wide vestibular and vestibular aqueduct dilatation. Most frequent MR findings of skull with cerebellopontine angle approach were vascular loops of internal auditory canals unilaterally. In 10.2%, 55.8% of patients (n = 38) were implanted in the right ear, 56 (82.3%) with a CI from Advanced Bionics, HiRes 90K model, the remaining with Cochlear, Freedom and Nucleus 5 models. Developments in CI results by audiometric tests: prior to placement was 106.2 dB averages at frequencies assessed, one month later 62.4 dB, at 6 months 44 dB, and with satisfactory threshold 32.9 dB. 55.8% of patients (n = 38) with

  20. Percepção da fala de usuários de implante coclear com a estratégia HiRes 120: revisão sistemática Speech perception in cochlear implant users with the HiRes 120 strategy: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mendes de Melo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Apesar dos avanços tecnológicos empregados nas estratégias de processamento do sinal, um dos obstáculos ainda existentes são as lacunas de detalhes espectrais na informação elétrica transmitida. Considerando a sua importância na percepção da fala, pesquisadores investigaram mecanismos para otimizar o detalhamento espectral, por meio dos canais espectrais virtuais. A aplicação clínica desta técnica resultou em uma nova estratégia de processamento de sinal - a HiRes 120. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desempenho auditivo de usuários de Implante Coclear com a HiRes 120. METODOLOGIA: Levantamento bibliográfico conduzido em base eletrônica de dados, com busca padronizada até o ano de 2011, utilizando-se palavras-chave específicas. Para a seleção e avaliação dos estudos científicos levantados na busca, foram estabelecidos critérios, contemplando os aspectos: tipo de estudo, participantes, intervenção adotada e avaliação dos resultados. CONCLUSÃO: As evidências científicas apontam uma melhora do desempenho auditivo nas situações de ruído com a estratégia HiRes 120, mas tal fato não ocorre nas situações de silêncio. A otimização da percepção da fala com o uso da estratégia está intimamente relacionada com a idade do usuário de implante coclear, com o tempo de privação sensorial e o tempo de aclimatização necessário para o aproveitamento das informações espectrais da estratégia.Despite technological advances employed in signal processing strategies, one of the remaining obstacles are spectral gap details on the information transmitted. Considering its importance in speech perception, researchers have investigated mechanisms to optimize spectral details through virtual spectral channels. The clinical application of this technique resulted in a new approach to signal processing - the HiRes 120. OBJECTIVE: To assess the auditory performance of cochlear implant users with the HiRes 120 strategy. METHODOLOGY: The

  1. Jamming of fingers: an experimental study to determine force and deflection in participants and human cadaver specimens for development of a new bionic test device for validation of power-operated motor vehicle side door windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohendorff, Bernd; Weidermann, Christian; Pollinger, Philipp; Burkhart, Klaus J; Müller, Lars Peter

    2013-02-01

    The deformability of human fingers is central to addressing the real-life hazard of finger jamming between the window and seal entry of a power-operated motor vehicle side door window. The index and little fingers of the left hand of 109 participants and of 20 cadaver specimens were placed in a measurement setup. Participants progressively jammed their fingers at five different dorsal-palmar jam positions up to the maximum tolerable pain threshold, whereas the cadaver specimens were jammed up to the maximum possible deflection. Force-deflection curves were calculated corresponding to increasing deflection of the compressed tissue layers of the fingers. The average maximum force applied by the participants was 42 N to the index finger and 35 N to the little finger. In the cadaver fingers, the average of the maximum force applied was 1886 N for the index finger and 1833 N for the little finger. In 200 jam positions, 25 fractures were observed on radiographs; fractures occurred at an average force of 1485 N. These data assisted the development of a prototype of a bionic test device for more realistic validation of power-operated motor vehicle windows.

  2. Racial and Gender Report Card, 2003: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Hiring Practices of the National Basketball Association, National Football League, National Hockey League, Major League Baseball, Major League Soccer, Women's National Basketball Association, and NCAA and Its Member Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapchick, Richard E.

    This is the 12th issue of the "Racial and Gender Report Card," which assesses hiring practices of women and people of color in U.S. professional and amateur sports and sporting organizations. It considers the composition of players, coaches, and front office/athletic department employees in the leading sports organizations. Each organization is…

  3. Comparación de series de precipitación con los GCM CCSM3, ECHAM5, HADGEM1 y MIROC 3.2 Hires, para el siglo XX en Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo Aristizábal, Lina Alexandra; Poveda Jaramillo, Germán

    2008-01-01

    Se compara la precipitación resultante de la simulación para el siglo XX (20C3M) de los modelos CCSM3, ECHAM5, HADGEMI y MIROC 3.2 Hires con la informacion puntual de la misma variable sobre Colombia.

  4. Hired crop worker injuries on farms in the United States: A comparison of two survey periods from the National Agricultural Workers Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonozzi, Theresa R; Layne, Larry A

    2016-05-01

    Hired crop workers in the United States are at high risk of occupational injury. Targeted surveillance is important for effective occupational safety efforts. The National Agricultural Workers Survey was utilized to collect injury data during the years 1999, 2002-2004 (period I) and 2008-2010 (period II). The overall injury rate declined between the two periods from 4.3 to 2.9/100 per full-time week-based equivalents (FTEWB ). Injury rates remained high during both periods for those with greater than 20 years farm experience (3.6 and 3.8/100 FTEWB ) and pesticide handling work (4.9 and 5.0/100 FTEWB ). Overexertion, contact with objects and equipment, and falls from height were common during both periods. Older workers comprised a greater proportion of injury cases in period II. Overexertion that leads to sprains/strains, dangerous ladder use, and pesticide use should be targeted as important risk exposures on the farm. © 2016 Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Bionic energy system based on an air breathing chemoelectric converter (fuel cell) with biomass-derived glucose as hydrogen transfer medium and assessment of renewable glucose production; Bionisches Energiesystem auf der Basis eines luftatmenden chemoelektrischen Wandlers (Brennstoffzelle) mit Glucose aus Biomasse als Wasserstoffuebertraeger sowie Abschaetzung des Potentials an nachwachsender Glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radebold, R.; Radebold, W.

    2001-07-01

    The fundamental principles and thermodynamics of the biological energy system as well as the role of glucose and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the photosynthesis and breathing processes are briefly explained. Transposition of the principles in a bionic energy system is discussed, and resulting engineering aspects and advantages of a bionic energy system based on renewable biomass-derived glucose are shown and compared with conventional energy systems based on fossil fuels. The potential of inland production of suitable biomass is assessed. (orig./CB) [German] Funktion und Thermodynamik des biologischen Energiesystems sowie die Rollen von Glucose und H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in Photosynthese und Atmung werden kurz erlaeutert, ueber die Umsetzung dieser Prinzipien zu einem bionischen Energiesystem wird berichtet. Technische Konsequenzen und Vorteile eines bionischen Energiesystems mit Glucose aus nachwachsender Biomasse werden im Vergleich zum heutigen technischen Energiesystems mit fossilen Brennstoffen eroertert. Eine Schaetzung des heimischen Potentials an nachwachsender, fuer diese Zwecke geeigneter Biomasse wird vorgelegt: rund die Haelfte der heutigen Nutzenergie koennte ueber ein bionisches Energiesystem bereitgestellt werden. (orig.)

  6. Experiences of the use of FOX, an intelligent agent, for programming cochlear implant sound processors in new users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaerenberg, Bart; Govaerts, Paul J; de Ceulaer, Geert; Daemers, Kristin; Schauwers, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the application of the software tool "Fitting to Outcomes eXpert" (FOX) in programming the cochlear implant (CI) processor in new users. FOX is an intelligent agent to assist in the programming of CI processors. The concept of FOX is to modify maps on the basis of specific outcome measures, achieved using heuristic logic and based on a set of deterministic "rules". A prospective study was conducted on eight consecutive CI-users with a follow-up of three months. Eight adult subjects with postlingual deafness were implanted with the Advanced Bionics HiRes90k device. The implants were programmed using FOX, running a set of rules known as Eargroup's EG0910 advice, which features a set of "automaps". The protocol employed for the initial 3 months is presented, with description of the map modifications generated by FOX and the corresponding psychoacoustic test results. The 3 month median results show 25 dBHL as PTA, 77% (55 dBSPL) and 71% (70 dBSPL) phoneme score at speech audiometry and loudness scaling in or near to the normal zone at different frequencies. It is concluded that this approach is feasible to start up CI fitting and yields good outcome.

  7. The influence of cochlear implant electrode position on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Marel, Kim S; Briaire, Jeroen J; Verbist, Berit M; Muurling, Tjeerd J; Frijns, Johan H M

    2015-01-01

    To study the relation between variables related to cochlear implant electrode position and speech perception performance scores in a large patient population. The study sample consisted of 203 patients implanted with a CII or HiRes90K implant with a HiFocus 1 or 1J electrode of Advanced Bionics. Phoneme and word score averages for the 1- and 2-year follow-up were calculated for 41 prelingually deaf and 162 postlingually deaf patients. Analyses to reveal correlations between these performance outcomes and 6 position-related variables (angle of most basal electrode contact, surgical insertion angle, surgical insertion, wrapping factor, angular insertion depth, linear insertion depth) were executed. The scalar location, as an indication for the presence of intracochlear trauma, and modiolus proximity beyond the basal turn were not evaluated in this study. In addition, different patient-specific variables (age at implantation, age at onset of hearing loss, duration of deafness, preoperative phoneme and word scores) were tested for correlation with performance. The performance scores of prelingual patients were correlated with age at onset of hearing loss, duration of deafness and preoperative scores. For the postlingual patients, performance showed correlations with all 5 patient-specific variables. None of the 6 position-related variables influenced speech perception in cochlear implant patients. Although several patient-specific variables showed correlations with speech perception outcomes, not one of the studied angular and linear position-related variables turned out to have a demonstrable influence on performance.

  8. More talented engineers for hire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2005-04-01

    The great shortage of professional personnel in industry is discussed and what at least one province is doing in facilitating foreign trained professionals to qualify for professional positions in Canadian industry. The story is about the Calgary Catholic Immigration Society's Engineering and Technology Upgrading for new Canadian Engineers. The program provides a combination of classroom training and practical professional work at Canadian companies, sufficient in length to make participants eligible for licensing by the engineering licensing body in Alberta. The Calgary Catholic Immigration Service is a non-profit agency, funded provincially and federally to assist immigrants and refugees in their resettlement and integration into Canadian society. Some 9,000 clients are assisted each year; the program is greatly diversified; besides professional engineers, it is assisting people qualified as millwrights, electricians, and drilling technicians. This partnering program with the Alberta labour market has had an 85 per cent success rate in placing its graduates into full-time professional positions after graduation.

  9. A large scale gene-centric association study of lung function in newly-hired female cotton textile workers with endotoxin exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruyang Zhang

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to endotoxin is associated with decrements in pulmonary function, but how much variation in this association is explained by genetic variants is not well understood.We aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are associated with the rate of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 decline by a large scale genetic association study in newly-hired healthy young female cotton textile workers.DNA samples were genotyped using the Illumina Human CVD BeadChip. Change rate in FEV1 was modeled as a function of each SNP genotype in linear regression model with covariate adjustment. We controlled the type 1 error in study-wide level by permutation method. The false discovery rate (FDR and the family-wise error rate (FWER were set to be 0.10 and 0.15 respectively.Two SNPs were found to be significant (P<6.29×10(-5, including rs1910047 (P = 3.07×10(-5, FDR = 0.0778 and rs9469089 (P = 6.19×10(-5, FDR = 0.0967, as well as other eight suggestive (P<5×10(-4 associated SNPs. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions were also observed, such as rs1910047 and rs1049970 (P = 0.0418, FDR = 0.0895; rs9469089 and age (P = 0.0161, FDR = 0.0264. Genetic risk score analysis showed that the more risk loci the subjects carried, the larger the rate of FEV1 decline occurred (P trend = 3.01×10(-18. However, the association was different among age subgroups (P = 7.11×10(-6 and endotoxin subgroups (P = 1.08×10(-2. Functional network analysis illustrates potential biological connections of all interacted genes.Genetic variants together with environmental factors interact to affect the rate of FEV1 decline in cotton textile workers.

  10. Cambios en la contratación de recursos humanos: el caso del Programa de Salud de la Familia en Brasil Changes in the hiring of health personnel: the family health program in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Dal Poz

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los procedimientos y los procesos de contratación de trabajadores de salud en el Programa de Salud de la Familia en el Brasil, discutiendo los méritos, problemas y resultados relativos de cada uno de los mecanismos utilizados para la contratación de médicos, enfermeras y agentes de salud comunitarios. Antes de iniciar propiamente el análisis de los mecanismos de contratación, el autor hace una breve descripción de la importancia y del papel del Programa de Salud de la Familia para el sistema de salud brasileño. Ahí, el artículo procura demostrar las características y el impacto sobre el desarrollo de los recursos humanos de este programa clave, que es considerado como la «reforma de la reforma» o la «contrarreforma» del sistema único de salud. Finalmente, después de presentar y analizar los datos disponibles sobre las formas de contratación y los sueldos para médicos y enfermeras en algunos estados y municipios del Brasil, el autor llama la atención sobre el nuevo contexto social, donde son los propios gobiernos, en los distintos niveles, quienes estimulan el incumplimiento de reglas y leyes laborales que es su responsabilidad mantener. Esto sólo refuerza la hipótesis de que una nueva etapa de reformas ya se ha puesto en marcha.This article analyzes the procedures involved in the hiring of health personnel in the Family Program in Brazil. We examine the values, problems and relative outcomes of each of the processes used in hiring doctors, nurses and health community workers. Before analyzing hiring procedures, the author briefly describes the importance and role of the Family Health Program of the Brazilian health care system. Based on these factors, this article aims to demonstrate the characteristics and effects of this key program, considered a pivotal reform in the Brazilian health system, on the development of human resources. Finally, after presenting and analyzing the data available on the

  11. Current steering and current focusing in cochlear implants: comparison of monopolar, tripolar, and virtual channel electrode configurations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berenstein, C.K.; Mens, L.H.M.; Mulder, J.J.S.; Vanpoucke, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of Monopole (Mono), Tripole (Tri), and "Virtual channel" (Vchan) electrode configurations on spectral resolution and speech perception in a crossover design. DESIGN: Nine experienced adults who received an Advanced Bionics CII/90K cochlear implant participated in a

  12. Bionic robot arm with compliant actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehl, Bernhard

    2000-10-01

    Traditional robotics uses non-compliant materials for all components involved in the production of movement. Elasticity is avoided as far as possible, because it leads to hazardous oscillations and makes control of precise movements very difficult. Due to this deliberate stiffness, robots are typically heavy and clumsy structures in comparison to their living counterparts (i.e. man and animals). Yet, moving systems in nature cope not only with the difficulties introduced by compliant materials, they also take advantage of the elasticity in muscles and tendons to produce smooth and even rapid movements. It is understood, that elasticity in a multi-jointed moving system requires sophisticated control mechanisms- as provided by a nervous system or a suitably programmed computer. In this contribution I shall describe a two-jointed robot with purpose-built elasticity in its actuators. This is accomplished by spiral springs places in series with a conventional electric motor and a tendon to the arm. It is shown that, with sufficiently soft elasticity, oscillations can be avoided by active oscillation damping. (Such active oscillation damping presumably also governs movement control in man and animals.) Furthermore, once the major problem has been overcome, elasticity is found to offer a wide spectrum of valuable advantages, as far as the most serious problems in traditional robotics are concerned. They are summarized by terms such as less dangerous, position tolerant, lightweight construction, controlled forces, and ballistic movements. These will be explained in detail and presented for discussion.

  13. Bionic Hearing: the Science and the Experience

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Cochlear implants are the first device to successfully restore neural function.  They have instigated a popular but controversial revolution in the treatment of deafness, and they serve as a model for research in neuroscience and biomedical engineering.  After a visual tour of the physiology of natural hearing the function of cochlear implants will be described in the context of electrical engineering, psychophysics, clinical evaluation, and my own personal experience.  The audience will have the opportunity to experience speech and music heard through a cochlear implant. The social implications of cochlear implantation and the future outlook for auditory prostheses will also be discussed.                              ...

  14. Bionics: A Step toward Artificial Intelligence Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Robert E.

    1970-01-01

    Recent developments and future prospects in the borrowing of biological principles to build problem solving relationships between human intelligence and the information storage and manipulation capacities of computers. Twenty-one references. (LY)

  15. Bionic Design Methods - A practical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepler, Jørgen Asbøll; Stokholm, Marianne Denise J.

    2004-01-01

    Nature has served as inspiration for product design throughout history. Applications range from poetic translations of form to utilization of primary functional principles. This paper describes a generally applicable design methodology for transforming natural functional principles to feasible pr...

  16. Human mimetic forearm mechanism towards bionic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Minsang; Kim, Hogyun; Choi, Youngjin

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents a mechanical forearm mechanism to extend the pronation and supination (P/S) movement of the trans-radial amputee when he/she is able to conduct the P/S motion partially with his/her remaining forearm. The P/S motions of the existing prostheses and robotic arms developed till now are completely different from those of the human. When we are to develop the robotic prostheses for the amputees, two important issues should be considered such as cosmetic issue to look like normal arm and motion harmony issue between robotic prosthesis and the amputated living arm. Most prostheses do not realize the human-like P/S motion, but the simple rotational motion at the wrist by using the electric motor. In this paper, the well-known spatial four-bar mechanism is adopted in order to mimic human P/S motion as if the person does, because it is one of the best candidates to describe actual human forearm movement. To obtain the design parameters of the mechanism, first, 3D data of the amputated arm as well as the opposite side non-amputated arm are captured by using MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) and 3D scanner. The design parameters such as link lengths, joint locations, and volumetric shape are determined from the measured data. Second, mathematical analysis is performed to simulate one degree-of-freedom P/S motion realized from the spatial four-bar mechanism, and the simulation results are suggested to confirm whether or not it acts like the relative movement between human ulnar and radius bones. Finally the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism is verified through two ADL (activities of daily living) tests.

  17. Bionic limbs: clinical reality and academic promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Dario; Aszmann, Oskar

    2014-10-08

    Three recent articles in Science Translational Medicine (Tan et al. and Ortiz-Catalan et al., this issue; Raspopovic et al., 5 Feb 2014 issue, 222ra19) present neuroprosthetic systems in which sensory information is delivered through direct nerve stimulation while controlling an action of the prosthesis--in all three cases, arm and hand movement. We discuss such sensory-motor integration and other key issues in prosthetic reconstruction, with an emphasis on the gap existing between clinically available systems and more advanced, custom-designed academic systems. In the near future, osseointegration, implanted muscle, and nerve electrodes for decoding and stimulation may be components of prosthetic systems for clinical use, available to a large patient population. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Bionic Running for Unilateral Transtibial Military Amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, 12, 24-31. Bohler, A.W., Hollander, K.W., Sugar, T.G., and Shin, D., 2008...ankle exoskeleton ,” Journal of Biomechanics, 43, 203-209. Kerdok, A.E., Biewener, A.A., McMahon, T.A., Weyand, P.G., and Herr, H.M...Powered Ankle Foot Orthosis, “ 2007 IEEE 10 th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR), 28- 34. Rao, S.S, Boyd, L.A., Mulroy, S.J

  19. Bionic ommatidia based on microlens array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Liu; Sihai, Chen; Shan, Dong; Xinjian, Yi

    2009-06-01

    A simple method is reported to manufacture a planar compound eye using a microlens array. The compound eye, inspired by insects, consists of a microlens array and a waveguide coupled with it. A microlens array with lenses of 50 μm in diameter is fabricated by melting AZ1500 photoresist and then transferring it onto SU-8. With the self-focus method applied, a waveguide array is formed, and each is exactly coupled to a lens. The formation of the waveguide is simulated using finite difference time domain (FDTD) arithmetic, resembling the ommatidia produced in our experiment. The ommatidia is also testified to astrict beam, just as the natural compound eyes do.

  20. Bionic vision: system architectures: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Thomas; Lovell, Nigel H; Suaning, Gregg J

    2012-01-01

    The concept of an electronic visual prosthesis has been investigated since the early 20th century. While the first generation of long-term implantable devices were defined by the turn of the millennium, the greatest progress has been achieved in the past decade. This review describes the current state of the art of visual prosthesis investigated by more than two dozen active groups in this field of research. The focus is on technological solutions in regard to long-term safety of materials, electrode-tissue interfaces and encapsulation technologies. Furthermore, we critically assess the maximum number of stimulating electrodes each technological approach is likely to provide.

  1. Setting and Reaching Targets with Computer-Assisted Cochlear Implant Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Vaerenberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The paper aims to demonstrate the feasibility of defining a substantial set of psychoacoustic outcome measures with preset targets and to adopt a systematic methodology for reaching these targets in a large group of subjects, by more than one clinical centre. Design. Retrospective data analysis. Setting. Multicentre with 14 participating centres. Patients. 255 adults and children using the Advanced Bionics HiRes90k cochlear implant. Intervention. Target driven fitting with the fitting to outcomes expert (FOX system. Main Outcome Measures. For each patient, 66 measurable psychoacoustical outcomes were recorded several times after cochlear implantation: free field audiometry (6 measures and speech audiometry (4, spectral discrimination (20, and loudness growth (36, defined from the A§E test battery. These outcomes were reduced to 22 summary variables. The initial results were compared with the latest results. Results. The state of the fitting process could be well monitored by means of the measured variables. The use of the FOX computer assisted CI-programming significantly improved the proportion of the 22 variables on target. When recipients used the automated MAPs provided at switch-on, more than half (57% of the 22 targets were already achieved before any further optimisation took place. Once the FOX system was applied there was a significant 24% (P<0.001 increase in the number of targets achieved. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that it is feasible to set targets and to report on the effectiveness of a fitting strategy in terms of these targets. FOX provides an effective tool for achieving a systematic approach to programming, allowing for better optimisation of recipients' MAPs. The setting of well-defined outcome targets allowed a range of different centres to successfully apply a systematic methodology to monitoring the quality of the programming provided.

  2. Reducing Channel Interaction Through Cochlear Implant Programming May Improve Speech Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. Bierer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Speech perception among cochlear implant (CI listeners is highly variable. High degrees of channel interaction are associated with poorer speech understanding. Two methods for reducing channel interaction, focusing electrical fields, and deactivating subsets of channels were assessed by the change in vowel and consonant identification scores with different program settings. The main hypotheses were that (a focused stimulation will improve phoneme recognition and (b speech perception will improve when channels with high thresholds are deactivated. To select high-threshold channels for deactivation, subjects’ threshold profiles were processed to enhance the peaks and troughs, and then an exclusion or inclusion criterion based on the mean and standard deviation was used. Low-threshold channels were selected manually and matched in number and apex-to-base distribution. Nine ears in eight adult CI listeners with Advanced Bionics HiRes90k devices were tested with six experimental programs. Two, all-channel programs, (a 14-channel partial tripolar (pTP and (b 14-channel monopolar (MP, and four variable-channel programs, derived from these two base programs, (c pTP with high- and (d low-threshold channels deactivated, and (e MP with high- and (f low-threshold channels deactivated, were created. Across subjects, performance was similar with pTP and MP programs. However, poorer performing subjects (scoring  2. These same subjects showed slightly more benefit with the reduced channel MP programs (5 and 6. Subjective ratings were consistent with performance. These finding suggest that reducing channel interaction may benefit poorer performing CI listeners.

  3. Culinary Arts Dictionary 2. Project HIRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, David C.; And Others

    Designed as supplemental material to on-going instruction in the vocational program, this second of three picture dictionary booklets in the Culinary Arts series is intended to assist the learning handicapped student to master the core vocabulary taught in the trade. Intended for individual or small group instruction with minimal supervision, this…

  4. Culinary Arts Teachers Manual. Project HIRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, David C.; And Others

    Designed as supplemental material to on-going instruction in the vocational program, this teacher's manual to the Culinary Arts series is intended to accompany three dictionary booklets (available as CE 024 415-417) for use by handicapped students to help them master the core vocabulary taught in the trade. Information presented in the manual…

  5. Culinary Arts Dictionary 1. Project HIRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, David C.; And Others

    Designed as supplemental material to on-going instruction in the vocational program, this first of three picture dictionary booklets in the Culinary Arts series is intended to assist the learning handicapped student to master the core vocabulary taught in the trade. Intended for individual or small group instruction with minimal supervision, this…

  6. Culinary Arts Dictionary 3. Project HIRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, David C.; And Others

    Designed as supplemental material to on-going instruction in the vocational program, this third of three picture dictionary booklets in the Culinary Arts series is intended to assist the learning handicapped student to master the core vocabulary taught in the trade. Intended for individual or small group instruction with minimal supervision, this…

  7. HIRES NIMS GASPRA SPECTRAL IMAGE CUBE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data volume contains a 17 channel spectral image cube of asteroid 951 Gaspra ranging from 0.7 to 5.2 micrometers in wavelength in cgs units of radiance. The...

  8. HIRES NIMS IDA SPECTRAL IMAGE CUBES

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data volume contains 17 channel spectral image cubes of asteroid 243 Ida ranging from 0.7 to 5.2 micrometers in wavelength in cgs units of radiance. These data...

  9. Inclusive recruitment? Hiring discrimination against older workers

    OpenAIRE

    Drydakis, Nick; MacDonald, Peter; Bozani, Vasiliki; Chiotis, Vangelis

    2017-01-01

    Addressing population ageing requires a rise in the activity rates of older workers. In this study, a field experiment for the period 2013-2015 in the UK, suggests that age discrimination persists at alarming levels. It shows that when two applicants engage in an identical job search, the older applicant would gain fewer invitations for interviews regardless of her/his experience or superiority for the appointment. The results also suggest that older applicants face higher occupational access...

  10. Hiring Help at Home: The Basic Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... binding contract. It is a tool to maintain clarity in the relationship. You might want to re-examine it ... Friday at end of day.) Personal Requirements (For example, your smoking policy, phone usage, ...

  11. Causal Attributions for Success in Hiring Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Carol A.; And Others

    Attribution theory suggests four major explanations for behavioral outcomes: ability, effort, luck, and task-ease. The theory suggests that explanations given for an applicant's success-potential may influence evaluations of that applicant. The research indicates male and female applicants may be affected differently by gender-stereotyped…

  12. Functional characterization of human RSK4, a new 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase, reveals constitutive activation in most cell types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dümmler, Bettina A; Hauge, Camilla; Silber, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    characterization of a predicted new human RSK homologue, RSK4. We showed that RSK4 is a predominantly cytosolic protein with very low expression and several characteristics of the RSK family kinases, including the presence of two functional kinase domains and a C-terminal docking site for ERK. Surprisingly......, however, in all cell types analyzed, endogenous RSK4 was maximally (constitutively) activated under serum-starved conditions where other RSKs are inactive due to their requirement for growth factor stimulation. Constitutive activation appeared to result from constitutive phosphorylation of Ser232, Ser372...

  13. Potential Fit to the Department Outweighs Professional Criteria in the Hiring Process in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Wang, Z. & Guarria, C. (2010. Unlocking the mystery: What academic library search committees look for in filling faculty positions. Technical Services Quarterly, 27, 66–86.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Hultman Özek

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To identify key factors affecting the probability of obtaining an interview and being hired for an academic library position.Design – An online survey was distributed via the following electronic mail lists: ACRL, LITA, COLLIB, METRO, ACQNET, COLLDV, ULS, EQUILIBR, and ALF. The questionnaire was posted via StudentVoice, an assessment survey provider.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – The 242 academic library search committees that responded to the online survey.Methods – The authors reviewed the literature on the hiring process in academic libraries. A questionnaire for an online survey was developed. The instrument contained closed questions with the option to add comments. The survey was available for completion June 3 to June 15, 2008.Main Results – Skills and performance of job requirements were rated as the most important criteria by 90% of the 242 academic library search committees that responded to the survey. Previous academic library experience was rated as essential by 38%. The findings also showed that committees are positive towards hiring recent graduates, and over 90% check references. In addition, 75% of the respondents emphasized the importance of skills in bibliographic instruction (BI, particularly when choosing staff for public services.Furthermore, of the 242 respondents, 47.52%, answering the corresponding question indicated that a relevant cover letter, correct spelling, and declaration of the candidate’s activities over all time periods are crucial aspects.Those in favour of using a weighted scoring system, 37% of 218 respondents, felt that it served as a tool to level the playing field for gathering accurate information, and it also helped to improve the efficiency as well as speed of the hiring process. However, 62.84% of the respondents commented that a weighted scoring system is too prescribed, and some universities did not allow the use of this method. Of 218

  14. Organic, bionics & blob design - conceptual and methodological clarification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl

    2015-01-01

    approach as a possible method to clarify meaning and as an aid to students' development of a technical terminology. The concepts must be used in the same context, in this example the context is Natural Design, and represent different analytical angles on scientific issues. The three concepts of Organic...

  15. Chip-scale hermetic feedthroughs for implantable bionics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Thomas; Dodds, Christopher W D; Lovell, Nigel H; Suaning, Gregg J

    2011-01-01

    Most implantable medical devices such as cochlear implants and visual prostheses require protection of the stimulating electronics. This is achieved by way of a hermetic feedthrough system which typically features three important attributes: biocompatibility with the human body, device hermeticity and density of feedthrough conductors. On the quest for building a visual neuroprosthesis, a high number of stimulating channels is required. This has encouraged new technologies with higher rates of production yield and further miniaturization. An Al(2)O(3) based feedthrough system has been developed comprising up to 20 platinum feedthroughs per square millimeter. Ceramics substrates are shown to have leak rates below 1 × 10(-12) atm × cc/s, thus exceeding the resolution limits of most commercially available leak detectors. A sheet resistance of 0.05 Ω can be achieved. This paper describes the design, fabrication process and hermeticity testing of high density feedthroughs for use in neuroprosthetic implants.

  16. Bionic hand exoprosthesis--perspectives for the future in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogarasteanu, M E; Barbilian, A G

    2014-01-01

    Prosthetics is a modern area of interest and a challenge in Orthopedics. Over time, there has been a transition from an artisanal method of prosthetics production to modern concepts and materials, including a re-education through virtual reality. The conditions for an efficient fitting of a prosthesis include the necessity that the prosthesis respects the form and function of the lost limb, both anatomically and biomechanically. Prosthetics are made individually, personalized according to sex, age, physiological characteristics, profession and preference. In our country, thoracic limb prosthetics has a relatively short-recorded history of approximately a century, the most preeminent centers being in Iasi, Cluj and Bucharest. Currently, thoracic limb prosthetics, and particularly hand prosthetics, are in a period of development. A technique for amputation and stump reamputation called "circumferential osteoneuromioplasty" (CONM) is currently being used in the Orthopedics and Trauma Clinic of the Central Military University Emergency Hospital in Bucharest. The method was created with the purpose of obtaining distinct myoelectric signals of better quality, following the contraction of each muscle. The CONM method can be used in conjuncture with both the new hand prostheses that are currently available in Romania, and with the model that is being developed by a mixed team from the Polytechnic University in Bucharest, in collaboration with the Central Military University Emergency Hospital in Bucharest.

  17. Bionic Vision-Based Intelligent Power Line Inspection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingwu; Ma, Yunpeng; He, Feijia; Xi, Shuya; Xu, Jinxin

    2017-01-01

    Detecting the threats of the external obstacles to the power lines can ensure the stability of the power system. Inspired by the attention mechanism and binocular vision of human visual system, an intelligent power line inspection system is presented in this paper. Human visual attention mechanism in this intelligent inspection system is used to detect and track power lines in image sequences according to the shape information of power lines, and the binocular visual model is used to calculate the 3D coordinate information of obstacles and power lines. In order to improve the real time and accuracy of the system, we propose a new matching strategy based on the traditional SURF algorithm. The experimental results show that the system is able to accurately locate the position of the obstacles around power lines automatically, and the designed power line inspection system is effective in complex backgrounds, and there are no missing detection instances under different conditions.

  18. Bionics, biological systems and the principle of optimal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, A I

    The living world is an exciting and inexhaustible source of high performance solutions to the multitude of biological problems, which were attained as a result of a natural selection, during the millions and millions years evolution of life on Earth. This work presents and comments some examples of high performances of living beings, in the light of the universal principle governing the realm of living matter: Optimal Design Principle. At the same time, the transfer of these optimal solutions, from living matter to the technologies, is also discussed. This transfer is offering new and fertile perspectives to future technologies, which must be more efficient, cheaper and in perfect harmony with the biosphere.

  19. Numerical simulation of bionic foils in tandem arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the backgrounds of underwater propulsors with high hydrodynamic performance, the article focuses on the flapping foils in tandem arrangement and tries to formulate the physical mode and mathematical model of flapping propulsion. Using the commercial software Fluent, the governing equations are discretized by the finite volume method, and dynamic mesh method is adopted to solve the moving boundaries. In order to verify validity and feasibility of the method, hydrodynamic performance of single flapping foil is analyzed. The present results of single flapping foil compare well with those in experimental researches. After that, numerical simulations of flapping foils in tandem arrangement are conducted to reveal the energy absorption mechanisms. By extracting performance parameters and characteristics of the flow field, the interaction between upstream foil and downstream foil is analyzed. The results indicate that the vortices shedding from upstream foil have a significant effect on the hydrodynamic performance of downstream foil, and the downstream foil can use energy from the flow field to improve the hydrodynamic performance. Therefore, the hydrodynamic performance of the system can be improved by adjusting the locations of foils and motion parameters.

  20. [Synthesis and characteristics of integrated bionic mandibular condylar scaffold].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihong, Xi; Zhen, Wang; Hong-shui, Zhu; Xiaofeng, Li; Yuanfei, Xiong

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE This study aims to construct a chitosan (CS)-polycaprolactone (PCL)-hydroxyapatite (HA) composite biomimetic scaffold to replace condyle and to explore the tissue engineering applications of condylar. A resin mold of the mandibular condyle was prepared by using rapid prototyping techniques. A mandibular condylar integrated biomimetic scaffold model was prepared by solution casting-ice Lek. PCL and CS were mixed at a ratio of 4:1. HA at quality ratios of 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70% was added to groups a, b, c, and d, respectively. The microscopic morphology, porosity, infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction pattern, and mechanical properties of the scaffold were observed. The scaffold that includes both upper and lower parts displayed the same features (i.e., shape, yellow-white appearance, and hard texture) as the mandibular condyle. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the composite scaffold had a 3D network spatial structure, 70%-85% porosity, and 10-200 µm pore size. Infrared spectra showed that the peak intensity reduced with decreasing HA content. X-ray diffraction showed that the diffraction peak decreased with increasing HA content. Suitable tensile and compressive and flexural strength were discovered in the presence of 50% HA. The scaffold prepared by solution casting-ice Lek shows favorable comprehensive features and is expected to replace human condylar.