Department of National Parks and Wildlife Management, Salisbury, Zimbabwe. Sable, Hippotragus niger niger (Harris, 1838) were studied in the Rhodes Matopos National Park, Zimbabwe. They spent more time feeding during the hot dry months than the hot wet months, cropped grass at 40 to 140 mm above the ground,.
Niger is two-thirds Sahara desert and the rest savannah with an area irrigated by the Niger River valley. The 6.2 million people are therefore either nomadic herdsmen or subsistence farmers, coping with a hot, dry climate. There are 5 or more ethnic groups, 2 main languages other than the official French, and most people are Muslim. The growth rate is 3.1%; children make up 45% of the population; infant mortality is 145/1000; life expectancy is 44.5 years. The constitutional government has been suspended by a military regime. A multi-layered structure called "development society" has been instituted. Per capita income is about $265. Niger has uranium, coal, iron, tin and phosphates, and farm products include peanuts, millet, sorghum, beans, cotton, rice and cowpeas. Niger received assistance from France, US, West Germany, Canada, Saudi Arabia, as well as international organizations and military assistance from several countries.
Hahonou, Eric Komlavi
The chapter provides knowledge about the role of non-state actors in security provision in Niger. It argues that it is of upmost importance to dig into the causes of ongoing armed conflicts and volatile situations. It points out the long-term decline of public service provision (including the rol...
Additives such as low molecular weight alcohols, trace metals, phytate, lipids etc have been reported to stimulate citric acid production. Hence the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of stimulating the metabolic activity of activity of Aspergillus niger for the purpose of improved citric acid production from ...
Tutvustavat näitlejate ja nende rollide juurde J.K. Rowling'u Harry Potteri lugude teises filmis "Harry Potter ja saladuste kamber" ("Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets") : režissöör Chris Columbus. Filmi esilinastumisest New Yorgis
Comber, Barbara; Nixon, Helen
Notes that while many adults seem to be rejoicing in the fact that the Harry Potter books have brought the pleasures of book reading to a new generation of young readers, Harry Potter is also entering the realm of popular media culture. Discusses and analyses the effect Harry Potter books have on children and on society. (SG)
J. K. Rowlingult on ilmumas Harry Potteri lugude kuues köide "Harry Potter ja segavereline prints". Vaata ka: Postimees, 11. juuli, lk. 17, pealkirjaga: "Kuuendat Harry Potterit saab osta laupäevast" ; Postimees, 14. juuli, lk. 17, pealkirjaga ""Harry Potter" tuleb Tallinnas öömüüki" ; SL Õhtuleht, 15. juuli, lk. 12, pealkirjaga "Täna öösel saab osta Potteri uue raamatu"
Hahonou, Eric Komlavi
This paper investigates international security intervention in Niger, a key country in western strategy against global Jihad and trans-border activities (including criminal activities and migrations toward Europe). A few actors, in particular France and the EU, but also the US, dominate internati......This paper investigates international security intervention in Niger, a key country in western strategy against global Jihad and trans-border activities (including criminal activities and migrations toward Europe). A few actors, in particular France and the EU, but also the US, dominate...... rule constitute the only realistic path to defend their own interests. The report suggests that international support of Nigerien security forces could be counter-productive for the re-establishment of state authority and legitimacy in the long-term. Brutal repression and violation of human rights...
This article considers limitations on agency for characters in the Harry Potter novels, in particular, how far they are driven by an addictive yearning for their beloved dead. As well as Harry's yearning for his dead parents, Dumbledore's guilt, Snape's longing and Slughorn's craving can be read as evidence of addiction rather than love, while the…
Saltman, Judith; Denton, Peter H.; Opar, Tamara
Includes three articles: Harry Potter's Family Tree; What Could Be Wrong with Harry Potter?; Why Do Children Love Harry? that discuss the Harry Potter books by J.K. Rowling. Highlights include censorship issues; their place in children's literature; relationships to other authors; the appeal to adult readers; characterization; criticism of the…
To everyone who knew and had worked with him, the death of Harry Sands on January 3, 2007, three days before his 90th birthday, resounded as though a mighty oak had fallen. Harry was a giant of a man, both as a human being and as a psychologist. Harry was born January 6, 1917, on the Lower East Side of Manhattan to Russian immigrant parents who ran a laundry. His bachelor's degree in psychology (1941) and his doctoral degree (1952) were both earned at New York University. Harry became a member of the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1943. With his breadth of experience and knowledge, as well as his firm foundation in management and finance, he eventually became a financial advisor to the APA Practice Directorate as well as to the American Psychological Foundation. As the executive director of the Postgraduate Center for Mental Health, Harry made creative strides to improve both the public awareness of the organization as well as its fiscal health. Harry was an active writer and researcher, with a particular interest in epilepsy and various psychoanalytic topics. 2009 APA, all rights reserved
Wagner, Meaghan M.; Lachance, Andrea
The current popularity of the Harry Potter books (Rowling 1998, 1999a, 1999b, 2000, 2003) gives teachers a new and unique opportunity to integrate literature with mathematics. Often, books that are connected to mathematical explorations are picture books, which teachers can read easily in one sitting to a group of children. The books in the Harry…
Pye, Harry, 1973-
Briti kunstimetseenist Russell Herronist ja tema kunstikogusse kuulunud maalide, skulpuuride ja fotode näitusest "See oli nüüd" ("This was now")Londonis 2009. Loetelu näitusel esinenud kunstnikest ja üheksa kunstniku kommentaarid oma tööde kohta. Näituse kuraator Harry Pye
Good fiction helps children address their emotional dilemmas by evoking repressed content, and offering strategies and meaningful values that help them work towards resolutions. Because certain fundamental conflicts continue to be revisited and reworked throughout adulthood, it follows that masterful children's literature might enthrall adults as well. Given the extraordinary, worldwide success of the Harry Potter stories with both children and adults, it might be inferred that they, indeed, are among such literature. Common object relations themes, as well as other intrapsychic processes, are presented in such an imaginative and resonant way that the unconscious is readily engaged. The character of Harry Potter, specifically, embodies such universal (repressed) torments as the agony of destroying and losing the mother; the ominous perception of good and bad objects at war within the self; and the earnest reparative efforts offered to save the self from eternal separation from the beloved other.
Rand, Oliver, 1971-
Simon Wiesenthali keskus teeb järjekordse katse tõestamaks Venezuelas elava Harry Männili süüd natsistlikes sõjakuritegudes. Vt. samas intervjuu Harry Männiliga. Harry Männili eluloolisi andmeid
Evans, Allen D.
The "Harry Potter" series has become a phenomenal success with children. "Harry Potter" books in print worldwide is in excess of 116 million, and they have been translated into 47 languages. What might account for this huge popularity? While the characters and events are certainly engaging, funny, original, and creative, they…
Discusses the Harry Potter series by J.K. Rowling, explaining how to use it to enhance reading and writing instruction. The article presents a brief interview with J.K. Rowling, a Harry Potter time line, and ideas for working on writing and editing paragraphs, creating dynamic dialogue, and fixing grammar and punctuation. Other fantasy books are…
In July 2000, a Harry Potter camp was held at the University of Windsor Faculty of Education to reenact and celebrate J. K. Rowling's novel Harry Potter. As a result of this camp, a new sport was invented--Quidditch--which soon took hold in Ontario, Canada. Quidditch has since been played by teams at Chatham Kent Secondary School, Chatham…
DeMitchell, Todd A.; Carney, John J.
For multitudes of children Harry Potter is a hero. He fights evil and stands up for his friends. However, not all adults agree. Instead, he is perceived as a threat by many. This article discusses how some adults on a school board reacted to this perceived threat. The majority of a school board voted to restrict access to Harry Potter books in the…
Full Text Available In spite of the celebration of Harry Potter, JK Rowling as the author was accused as teaching and disseminating occultism among her readers. It is said that Harry Potter could turn children to become demons. This accusation raised concerns among parents and educators, especially Christians. Furthermore, a priest from New Mexico, Jack Brock, was threatening to burn Harry Potter volumes. Responding to the threat, JK Rowling was reported calm. Harry Potter still wins the heart of thousands children all over the world. A semiotic analysis toward Harry Potter books concludes that reality and imagination were created (not depicted, or mirrored in the world of wizardry. Furthermore, an ideological analysis has successfully disclosed some imperialism signs being downplayed in the story plot.
Dec 2, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. Three wells A1, A2 and A3 were identified on the 'T-X' field in onshore Niger Delta. A comprehensive petrophysical analysis on one of the wells (well A1) was carried out in order to come up with physical properties such as shale volume, porosity (Φ), permeability (K), fluid saturation, and net ...
May 26, 2009 ... For nearly three decades, conflicts surrounding environmental degradation, human security, and international development have dominated news about the ... Permanent night light sources as documented by United States Air Force Defense Meteorological Program shows flaring trouble in the Niger Delta ...
Sep 10, 2007 ... actions of the oil multinational corporations, with severe implications for Nige- ..... practice of supporting divisions of the Nigerian armed forces with opera- .... creeks) and fish, forest and human resources, the Niger Delta also supports ..... greatly undermined the global influence of Nigeria as Africa's most ...
Jul 21, 2015 ... Ditch cutting samples from well 'Y' retrieved from the Niger Delta Basin were made available by. Chevron Nigeria Ltd for this study. The sampling .... temperatures as indicated with the increase in the quantities of Monoporites annulatus. Vermoere et al. (1999) in a study in SW Turkey reported that high.
IDRC has supported research in. Niger since 1974. This support has been sporadic in the absence of democratic stability in the country. It has nonetheless enabled researchers to develop ways to counter deforestation and test varieties of cereal and legume crops that can resist drought conditions. Research on the effects of ...
May 26, 2009 ... slave mart in West Africa. In the first thirty years of the nineteenth century when the trade in palm oil had begun to displace the ... shows flaring trouble in the Niger Delta region. Data from 1995 are represented in blue, 2000 in green and 2006 in red. The gas flares associated with petroleum industry are ...
Loog, Marco; Lauze, Francois Bernard
An elementary characterization of the map underlying Harris corners, also known as Harris interest points or key points, is provided. Two principal and basic assumptions made are: 1) Local image structure is captured in an uncommitted way, simply using weighted raw image values around every image...... location to describe the local image information, and 2) the lower the probability of observing the image structure present in a particular point, the more salient, or interesting, this position is, i.e., saliency is related to how uncommon it is to see a certain image structure, how surprising it is......, the characterization provides a compelling case in favor of Harris interest points over other approaches....
Seven books in the Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling have broken sales records worldwide. They have been made into films which have also attracted millions of fans, and the Harry Potter brand has been a hallmark since the beginning of the new millennium. Fifteen years after publishing the first book in the heptalogy, e-books again made more than 1 million pounds in just three days in April 2012. The article "Cross-Culturalism of Harry Potter" examines what attracted readers to the first an...
Pye, Harry, 1973-
Londoni kirjanik ja kunstnik Harry Pye Lõuna-Londoni linnaosast Elephant & Castle, mille võlu ta avastab koos sõpradega linnaosast näituse jaoks fotosid tehes. Fotod eksponeeritakse grupinäitusel "Tõeline elu"
Pye, Harry, 1973-
Kuraator, kunstnik ja kirjanik Harry Pye kirjeldab Jim Jarmuschi filmist inspireeritud näitust "Night on Earth" Ida-Londonis, endises Viktooria-aegses koolimajas - erinevate inimeste muljed ühest õhtust maakera erinevates paikades koos kunstnike illustratsioonidega
Joanne Rowling'u lasteraamatu "Harry Potter ja Tarkade kivi" ekraniseeringu esilinastus Eestis on 21. detsembril Coca-Cola Plazas. Selle USA filmi režissöör on Chris Columbus ja peaosas 12-aastane Daniel Radcliffe
Claims that although the Harry Potter stories--with their old-fashioned plots, settings, and characterizations--entertain richly, they rarely provoke, question, or inform. Suggests other contemporary writers who are pushing forward are equally exciting. (NH)
Aab, Jaak, 1960-
Töötajate usaldusisiku seaduse eelnõust ja ametiühingute rollist töötajate huvide kaitsmisel. Kommentaar artiklile: Taliga, Harri. Tankistist minister pistis pea luugist välja // SL Õhtuleht 20. mai 2006, lk. 8. Sama ka Põhjarannik 26. mai 2006, lk. 2 ; Meie Maa 27. mai 2006, lk. 2, pealkiri kujul : Harri Taliga - uljas tankist ; Hiiu Leht 30. mai 2006, lk. 2 ; Nädaline 20. juuni 2006, lk. 3
This paper analyzes the exemplary mental development that Harry Potter undertakes after the massive traumatic loss of his parents at the early age of 15 months and the following neglect by his relatives until he becomes a mature adult. On the basis of his internalized mothers love and by identification with his father and his paternally friend Dumbledore Harry gains increasing self-confidence and new friends in his peer group in the course of time. After passing numerous conflicts and experiencing friendship Harry reaches the stage of initiation into the world of the adults. On the oedipal level he finally is able to deidealize his father and Dumbledore. And at the end Harry is not seduced by absolute power and the triumph over death itself. On the contrary he is ready to sacrifice himself for his friends and thus can overcome the fragmented Voldemort. Readers can identify with Harry, can recognize their own experiences and conflicts and can deal with the proposed conflict resolution patterns on different levels. This contemporary "Bildungsroman" deals with important typical interpersonal and cultural issues for young people. This is what leads young readers to strong resonance and identification processes and explains the great success of the Harry Potter story.
Full Text Available Harry Potter is a very successful series of novels, mainly addressed to children and adolescents. The story is set in a magical world, parallel to our own; it revolves around the lives of the young wizard Harry Potter and his friends, each novel narrating a year of their lives as they go to school, study the magic arts, and fight against the evil wizard Voldemort (Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, 1997; Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, 1998; Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, 1999; Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, 2000; Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, 2003; Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, 2005; Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, 2007.
Jan 24, 2012 ... leadership that we are going to consider the state of security in the Niger. Delta region. Vol. ... what Bolade and Adelemo. National Security and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: Challenges from the Niger Delta .... development theory adopts a holistic approach that is mindful of the future implications of ...
Edlyne E Anugwom: Ethnicity, Federalism and Revenue Allocation in a Democratic Nigeria: The Niger Delta Problem. Ethnicity, Federalism and_Revenue. Allocation in a Democratic Ni eria. The Niger Delta Prob em. By Edlyne E. Anugwom. Department of Sociology/Anthropology,. University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Nigeria.
Niger is the second poorest country in the world but it has natural resources underground in the form of uranium ores deposits. This uranium is currently mined by two companies incorporated under Nigerian law: Somair and Cominak, operated by the principal shareholder Areva (through its subsidiary Cogema). After a presentation of Somair and Cominak key figures, this document details the working conditions and radiological protection, the environmentally friendly operations, the production traceability, the local economic development, the strengthening of the health care system and the development of the infrastructure. (A.L.B.)
This article will explore J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter (2004) literary series from a psychoanalytical perspective. The author draws out the main themes of the Harry Potter stories to see if they can be employed clinically to assist in psychotherapeutic work with children and adolescents. The article begins by discussing Bettelheim's (1976) extensive work on children's fairytales and their therapeutic value, moving on to discuss Rustin and Rustin's (2005) more recent insights into narrative therapy and children's fiction. A clinical example is given of how the storylines were implemented to enhance a psychotherapeutic group process for adolescents. The author hopes to illustrate the power of symbolism and metaphor in the Harry Potter storylines and elucidate why these books may appeal to young people with mental health difficulties.
Purdy, G. Michael; Solomon, Sean C.
Sean C. Solomon received the Harry H. Hess Medal at the 2005 Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on 7 December in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is given for outstanding achievements in research on the constitution and evolution of the Earth and other planets. It is a privilege to present Sean C. Solomon as the American Geophysical Union's Harry H. Hess Medal recipient. During more than 30 years of accomplished research he has established himself as one of the remarkable leadersin geophysical research today.
Photo 01: Dr William C. Harris, Director-General, Science Foundation Ireland (left) with R. Cashmore. Photos 02, 03: Dr William C. Harris, Director-General, Science Foundation Ireland signing the CERN guest book with R. Cashmore.
Harry Kingissepa fondi stipendiumi said tänavu Saaremaa ühisgümnaasiumi lõpetanud Annika Kask õpinguteks Tallinna Tervishoiu Kõrgkoolis farmatseudi erialal, Mari Munk õpinguteks Tallinna Ülikoolis riigiteaduste erialal ja Laura Uustulnd õpinguteks Eesti Lennuakadeemias lennuliikluse juhtimise erialal
Raichel, Daniel R.
Cyril M. Harris belongs to that rare breed of technologists who excel in more than one aspect of acoustics. His achievements are legendary in the realms of architectural acoustics, physical acoustics, ultrasound, and speech processes. He coauthored with Vern O. Knudsen a classic text on architectural acoustics and served as editor of several major references. He also excelled as a teacher and mentor. When the author set up the Acoustics Research Center at the Cooper Union, Dr. Harris came over to see the new facility. At my invitation, he gave a lecture before an audience constituted of engineering and architectural students; one surely had to rate this event as one of the best seminars ever given at that institution. When I wrote The Science and Applications of Acoustics, Dr. Harris was generous in giving me permission to use a number of figures from his published texts. He also sent me students from Columbia to use the acoustic facilities at Cooper. One of his referees, a master's degree candidate, conducted a major study on Guastavino tiles for this thesis, which resulted in a prize-winning publication. The manifold accomplishments, influence, and legacy of Cyril Harris will surely resonate for generations to come.
Prewitt, Charles T.; Liebermann, Robert C.; Navrotsky, Alexandra
Alexandra Navrotsky was awarded the Harry H. Hess Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting honors ceremony, which was held on 13 December 2006 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal recognizes outstanding achievements in research in the constitution and evolution of Earth and other planets.
Drake, Michael J.; Melosh, H. Jay
H. Jay Melosh was awarded the 2008 Harry H. Hess Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held 17 December 2008 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is for ``outstanding achievements in research in the constitution and evolution of Earth and sister planets.''
USA suursaadik Eestis Aldona Wos otsustas KUMU avamisüritusele mitte minna, kuna sellel osales ka väliseestlasest Venezuela ärimees Harry Männil, keda ameeriklased peavad endiselt süüdlaseks Teise maailmasõja päevil sooritatud inimsusevastastes kuritegudes
Liivrand, Harry, 1961-
Filmiajaloo kümme parimat filmi kunstnikest: Vincente Minnelli "Elujanu", Peter Webber "Tütarlaps pärlkõrvarõngaga", Andrei Tarkovski "Andrei Rubljov", Julie Taymor "Frida", James Ivory "Picasso: looja ja hävitaja", Ed Harris "Pollock", Julian Schnabel "Basquiat", Konrad Wolf "Goya ehk tunnetuse salakaval tee", Raoul Ruiz "Klimt", Oliver Hirschbiegel "Allakäik"
Liivrand, Harry, 1961-
Eduard Wiiralti graafikapreemia näituse kokkupanemisest ja preemiate jagamisest. Peapreemia anti Avo Keerendile, noore kunstniku preemia Ülle Marksile ja Jüri Kassile. Näitust "Eesti graafikat 1998-2001" ekponeeritakse Eesti Rahvusraamatukogus, näituse kujundaja Mari Kurismaa. Preemiat annavad välja kunstimetseenid Harry Männil ja Henry Radevall
Briti koomiku Sacha Baron Coheni loodud peategelasega USA filmi "Borat - kultuurialased õppetunnid Ameerikast abiks suursuguse Kasahstani riigi ülesehitamisel" lõputiitrites on kasutatud Nõukogude Eestis valminud reklaamiklippe, millede autoriks on Harry Egipt. Lisaks tutvustus "Reklaami sünd"
Liivrand, Harry, 1961-
Viviann Napa galeriis (senine Galerie Passage) Harry Liivranna kureeritud Kaido Ole ja Marko Mäetamme näitus "Design Jet 5000". Kunstnikud on viinud Veneetsia biennaalil eksponeeritud kosmoseteemalised maalid digitrüki tehnikasse ning liitnud sarjaga oma Veneetsia näituse kataloogi illustratsioonid
Crowther, David T.
In this lesson, students use Bertie Bott's Every Flavor Beans--a "wild" candy written about in the Harry Potter books and now available in stores--to learn about classification and dichotomous keys. In these activities, students sort jelly beans according to a key and then construct a key for a "new" flavor of beans. Students then build on their…
Describes one teacher's success with using "Harry Potter" in a program to teach elementary school English language learners. Provides comprehension strategies incorporated to help learners understand the story. Highlights the importance of creating a classroom environment with a low level of anxiety, the implications of the program, and the value…
Strimel, Courtney B.
This article claims that J. K. Rowling's "Harry Potter" series, with its use of magic, frightening storylines, and character ambiguity is beneficial to children who are dealing with issues related to terror and terrorism. The author explains that the scenarios presented in Rowling's series teach children strategies for coping with both physical…
2000/2001. õ.a.-l alguse saanud õpilaste interaktiivsest kirjandusprojektist "R-LIIT", mis sai hiljem nimeks "Lugeda on mõnus". Projekti käigus valiti üks raamat (2001.a. - J.K. Rowling "Harry Potter ja tarkade kivi") ning arutleti selle üle nii koolides kui Interneti vahendusel
Booth, Margaret Zoller; Booth, Grace Marie
The United States has been swept up in the "Harry Potter" phenomenon, with film adaptations, companion readers, and literary critique and analysis following J. K. Rowling's books on the adolescent wizard's adventures. The book has also touched off a reaction from conservative Christian institutions seeking to ban the books in school…
This article focuses on the enchantment of the Harry Potter series in the development of gifted imagination, self-concept, and worldview in light of Bruno Bettelheim's work, "The Uses of Enchantment." As the processes are discussed, suggestions to guide parents and teachers in facilitating them are included. (Contains references.)…
Halsey, A. H.
Has Harry Judge's career reproduced in a lifetime the centuries-old history of Brasenose College and the University of Oxford? His biography and the history of his college in relation to Christian belief and modern university reform are briefly recapitulated. All tell a story of adaptation and modernisation, the man short, the college long, the…
I wish to react to the Harris-Hatang article published in the last issue of the ESARBICA Journal (no. 19 of 2000) entitled “Archives, Identity and Place: A Dialogue on What it ( Might ) Mean(s) to be an African Archivist”. The article by the duo raises several provocative issues which merit responses. Discussions regarding the ...
Harry Potter is a very successful series of novels, mainly addressed to children and adolescents. The story is set in a magical world, parallel to our own; it revolves around the lives of the young wizard Harry Potter and his friends, each novel narrating a year of their lives as they go to school, study the magic arts, and fight against the evil wizard Voldemort (Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, 1997; Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, 1998; Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Az...
Sheftell, Fred; Steiner, Timothy J; Thomas, Hallie
Headache disorders are common in children and adolescents. Even young male Wizards are disabled by them. In this article we review Harry Potter's headaches as described in the biographical series by JK Rowling. Moreover, we attempt to classify them. Regrettably we are not privy to the Wizard system of classifying headache disorders and are therefore limited to the Muggle method, the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). Harry's headaches are recurrent. Although conforming to a basic stereotype, and constant in location, throughout the 6 years of his adolescence so far described they have shown a tendency to progression. Later descriptions include a range of accompanying symptoms. Despite some quite unusual features, they meet all but one of the ICHD-II criteria for migraine, so allowing the diagnosis of 1.6 Probable migraine.
Full Text Available Ca y est, « il » est là, et bien de retour. Qui ça ? Harry Potter, bien sûr, depuis la nuit du 20 juillet. Et avec lui assurément le cortège de toutes les mauvaises langues qui ne manqueront pas de snober avec dédain un produit mercantile, ou de dépravation des jeunes adolescents contemporains qui ne liraient pas suffisamment de « choses sérieuses » telles que les sciences sociales. Mais avec le come back de Harry Potter, c’est aussi un nouvel épisode qui s’est joué ...
Tiido, Harri, 1953-
Ilmunud ka: Estonija 29. okt. lk. 11. Eesti suursaadik NATO-s Harri Tiido analüüsib riigikaitsedebatti Eestis. Autor taunib NATO-t mitteusaldava mõtteviisi levikut. Diagramm: Kaitsejõudude ja NATO usaldus rahva seas. Kommenteerivad NATO peasekretär George Robertson, USA presidendi julgeolekunõunik Condoleezza Rice, Soome majandus- ja poliitikauuringute keskuse EVA julgeolekuraporti autor Pentti Vartia
Full Text Available The article explores the extcnt to which the features of trivial literature appear in the Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling.This is done in comparison with another popular children's series, The Famous Five by Enid Blyton, which was analysed by Igor Saksida. The main focus of the analysis is on the schematic representation of plot, characters and the exotic nature of the setting and time of the stories.
Full Text Available Seven books in the Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling have broken sales records worldwide. They have been made into films which have also attracted millions of fans, and the Harry Potter brand has been a hallmark since the beginning of the new millennium. Fifteen years after publishing the first book in the heptalogy, e-books again made more than 1 million pounds in just three days in April 2012. The article "Cross-Culturalism of Harry Potter" examines what attracted readers to the first and then subsequent books in the Harry Potter series and presents some of the cross-cultural implications in socio-linguistic, educational and psychological areas. It analyzes the reasons for the sales records around the world and why the books appeal to both young and adult population. It also includes some controversy following the series' world success. The research methods include: evaluation of the primary sources (seven books in the series, the media coverage, literary reviews by scholars such as Bloom and Thomas, literary critics' essays, and a survey of English language instructors in an educational institution. The main contributing factors to the global popularity of the series are: highly entertaining, well-plotted text with fantastic setting but also realistic references to the modern era; the text which continues the archetypal story-telling traditions, incorporating the contemporary socio-economic, political and educational issues; smart marketing; excessive media coverage; the Internet; the film industry involvement; and the universal human need to believe that good can triumph over evil.
, the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique du Niger (INRAN) is a public institution under the technical and administrative auspices of the Ministry of Agriculture. Its mission: to contribute to food security and rural development in Niger ...
Allwardt, Alan O.
Harry Hess's hypothesis of sea-floor spreading brought together his long-standing interests in island arcs, oceanic topography, and the oceanic crust. The one unique feature of Hess's hypothesis was the origin of the oceanic crust as a hydration rind on the top of the mantle -- an idea that was not well received, even by the early converts to sea-floor spreading. Hess never changed his mind on this issue, and his stubbornness illuminates the logic of his discovery. Published and archival reco...
Mysen, Bjorn; Kushiro, Iko
Ikuo Kushiro was awarded the Harry H. Hess Medal at the AGU Spring Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on June 2, 1999, in Boston, Massachusetts. The medal recognizes outstanding achievements in the research of the constitution and evolution of Earth and its sister planets.Characterization of rock-forming processes requires laboratory experiments to determine the physicochemical properties of materials or their analog model compounds at high temperatures and high pressures. The experimental data, however, are not particularly useful unless integrated with observational and theoretical information. Ikuo Kushiro, this year's winner of the Harry H. Hess Medal, approaches experiments with this integrated view as his guiding light. He does experimental petrology, geochemistry and geophysics, but always with the understanding that the experimental data provide only a piece of a more complex puzzle. It is perhaps in part because of this attitude that Ikuo and his colleagues have provided the fundamental experimental data on phase equilibria, element partitioning, and equation-of-state of molten silicate applicable to most major rock-forming processes in the Earth. All too often we ask what we can do with our instrumentation and proceed from there. Ikuo first asks the real question and then designs the experiment.
This article deals with the use of alternative texts, such as the Harry Potter book series in classroom teaching. In this article, the author discusses a wide range of themes that could be addressed in the classroom. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone deals with issues of greed, self-sacrifice, fear of the unknown, and self-confidence. Harry…
This article describes teaching a course called Harry Potter and Politics. Focusing on aspects of political culture, the class tackled themes of identity, institutional behavior, and globalization. Teaching Harry Potter has several benefits. Students are both familiar with the wizarding world and yet have enough distance to examine it…
Reading Harry Potter aloud to the class one autumn sparked the students imaginations and also the authors'. As a result, that semester the author designed and taught a thematic unit based on Harry Potter. The students were able to identify with the 11-year old wizard and his adventures in a strange new world. In mathematics, language arts, and…
Eaton, Sarah Elaine
This guidebook for teachers documents the "Harry Potter in Translation" project undertaken at the Language Research Centre at the University of Calgary. The guide also offers 5 sample lesson plans for teachers of grades three to twelve for teaching world languages using the Harry Potter books in translation to engage students. (Contains…
Center, Emily R.
There has been a recent surge in the popularity of youth fantasy books; this can be partially attributed to the popularity of J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter series. Librarians and others who recommend books to youth are having a difficult time suggesting other fantasy books to those who have read the Harry Potter series and want to read other similar…
Looks at the alternate and fantastic world of Harry Potter because it has so captured the imaginations of children and adults alike, garnering unprecedented weeks on the New York Times bestseller list. Describes many specific examples in which readers can connect and relate to the Harry Potter books. (SG)
Czubek, Todd A.; Greenwald, Janey
Every so often there are stories that take the world by storm and make such an impact that they become part of our everyday world. These stories, characters, and themes become established elements of cultural literacy. This is exactly what has happened with J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series. Harry and his cohort of wizards, witches, and their…
Kressa, Kaarel, 1983-
19. novembril 2010 esilinastub Eestis Harry Potteri sarja uue filmi "Harry Potter ja surma vägised" (USA, Suurbritannia, 2010) 1. osa, režissöör David Yates. Filmi juba näinud kriitikute arvamusest. Filmi 2. osa linastub 2011. a. juulis
In 1998, both Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador carried out independent seismic prospecting in the Gulf of St Lawrence. This resulted in the discovery of an oil and natural gas deposit. The government of Quebec imposed a moratorium until 2012 on hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, because of possible damage to blue whales and the ecosystems of the region. The Newfoundland and Labrador government decided to continue the exploration and in October 2010 authorised a Halifax company, Corridor Resources, to proceed with seismic work near the Old Harry deposit. Quebec reacted because of two main concerns, the effect on the environment and the risk of Newfoundland overstepping into Quebec hydrocarbon limits. By pursuing hydrocarbon exploitation, Quebec could create employment and improve its commercial balance, but it could also end up in competition with its own hydroelectricity. Old Harry will force our society to question its vision of energy, economic viability and sustainable development.
Costa, Carina Pedrosa; Gonçalves Silva, Diogo; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Almeida, Adelaide; Rocha, Sílvia M
An in-depth exploration of the headspace content of Aspergillus niger cultures was performed upon different growth conditions, using a methodology based on advanced multidimensional gas chromatography...
13-aastane inglise poiss Daniel Radcliffe, kes mängib Harry Potterit ka J.K. Rowling'u Harry Potteri lugude teises filmis "Harry Potter ja saladuste kamber" ("Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets") : režissöör Chris Columbus : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2002
Kwon, Min Jin
The research described in this thesis aims to get more fundamental insights in the molecular mechanisms used by Aspergillus niger in relation to control morphology and protein secretion. Knowledge on these two aspects is highly relevant to further optimization of A.niger as a cell factory
Areche, Carlos; Vaca, Inmaculada; Labbe, Pamela; Soto-Delgado, Jorge; Astudillo, Luis; Silva, Mario; Rovirosa, Juana; San-Martin, Aurelio
Biological transformation of the meroditerpenoid, stypotriol triacetate ( 1) by the fungi Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella elegans, Gibberella fujikuroi and Mucor plumbeus was studied. The incubation of 1 with A. niger yielded the new compound 6',14-diacetoxy-stypol-4,5-dione ( 2) whose structure was established by 1H, 13C and 2D NMR and supported by DFT/GIAO.
Aspergillus niger is abundantly found in nature. It degrades dead material of plants and animals but can also be a pathogen of these organisms. Aspergillus niger is also important for mankind because it is one of the main organisms used for the industrial production of enzymes. These enzymes are
Andrew Ryan Rico
On April 20, 1999, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold murdered 12 students and one teacher at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, in what was then the deadliest school shooting in American history...
Explores the Harry Potter phenomenon with college students in a university course. Compares the first book with the first movie. Presents an in-depth discussion of the movie and how it relates to the book. (SG)
Martson, Ilona, 1970-
Eile oli Londonis Joanne Rowling'u lasteraamatu "Harry Potter ja Tarkade kivi" ekraniseeringu esilinastus. Selle 125 miljonit dollarit maksnud USA filmi režissöör on Chris Columbus ja peaosas 12-aastane Daniel Radcliff
Benjamin A. Okonofua
Full Text Available The armed conflict between militias and government forces in Nigeria’s Niger Delta region has spanned for more than two decades, defying all solutions. A disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR program was established in August 2015 in effort to end the violence and has remained in place. It is a radically different approach from past approaches that displayed zero tolerance to all political challenges to oil production or the allocation of oil profits. The approach appeared to be immediately successful in that it forced a ceasefire, engaged militants in planned programs to rehabilitate and reintegrate them into civilian society, and opened up the oil wells (many of which had been shut due to the crisis with the effect of increasing government revenue, which depends 85% on oil exports. Yet, few studies have attempted to understand the dynamics within the country that are responsible for the design and implementation of this broad policy shift or to understand whether and how the current initiative is able to end the conflict and institute peace beyond the short term. This study, therefore, is important because it provides a critical perspective that anticipates and explains emerging issues with the Niger Delta Amnesty Program, which have implications for DDR adaptation and implementation all over the world. Ultimately, the research demonstrates how the DDR program both transforms the Niger Delta conflict and becomes embroiled in intense contestations not only about the mechanism for transforming the targeted population but also whether and how the program incorporates women who are being deprioritized by the program.
Niu, Yaoling; O'Hara, Michael John
Michael John O'Hara was awarded the 2007 Harry H. Hess Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 12 December 2007 in San Francisco, Calif. The Harry H. Hess Medal recognizes ``outstanding achievements in research in the constitution and evolution of Earth and other planets.'' It is thus most appropriate that Mike O'Hara receive the 2007 Hess Medal of the American Geophysical Union.
The Harry Potter series focuses upon the toilet as a site for heroic action and a threshold between worlds as well as a more traditional place for boys to be bullied and girls to weep. This article offers a Kristevan reading of the toilets as abject in Harry Potter, and shows how this concept helps us make sense of wider issues within the series,…
Winters, Sarah Fiona
This article argues that Harry Potter fan vids can be used in the classroom as works of secondary criticism about J. K. Rowling's primary text. It makes two claims: the first is that vids can be read as criticism of a particular text (in this case Harry Potter) alongside other critical essays on that text; the second is that the practice of…
(Musila et al., 2001). A major problem facing wildlife conservation is increasing rate of habitat loss due to human activities through the destruction of their natural ..... water and feeding in Riparian habitat during dry season. It was also observed that Roan frequently visited salt licks close to Roan gate and Oli river complex.
This paper seeks to examine the Niger Delta crisis and security implications for the Nigeria state. Its focus on the Niger Delta is because of the festering crisis in the region which is of critical importance to Nigeria. The Niger Delta is the nation's treasure base, the Niger Delta provides over 80 percent of government revenue, ...
incompatibility systems in the Rubiaceae of a tropical lowland wet forest. Amer. J. Bot. 70(9): 1281-1288. 3. Crowe, L.K. (1954). Incompatibility in Cosmos bipinnatus. Heredity 8:1—11. 4. de Nettancourt, D. (1977). Incompatibility in Angiosperms.
Full Text Available This study focuses on the role of the female characters in Harry Potter series. It aims to find out the ways the female characters, Hermione Granger, Ginny Weasley, and Luna Lovegood take a mother role for Harry, whereas they are in their teenage years. Using Barthes’ theory on myths, this study identifies that there are two myths that are in operation, the myth that girls are supposed to be mothers and the myth that mothers are supposed to protect, nurture, and educate. As the agents of the myths,the three teenage girls willingly take their role as mothers role that are assigned to them. These three female characters take their roles as mothers to Harry in how they protect, nurture, and educate Harry. In response to this, Harry also succumbs to the position of being protected, nurtured and educated by these three girls. Despite Rowling’s claims on her being a feminist when she said that “I’ve always considered myself as a feminist” (Rowling, 2011, she cannot escape the myths on girls and women. Rowling sees that being a mother is the most powerful role for girls and women
This paper is trying to analyze the protagonist named Harry Potter in Harry Potter series, interpreting the influence to the Harry Potter's growth. Through the analysis of his family, his own family and relatives, his school and teachers who are very caring for him, as well as his best friends who grow up with him together, readers can know each person showed up in Harry Pot-ter's life had contributed to his growth. At the same time, this paper emphatically elaborates factors of Harry Potter's growth. It explains why Harry Potter can grow from a ordinary person to a hero who saved the world.%#
Full Text Available Harris corner detectors, which depend on strong invariance and a local autocorrelation function, display poor detection performance for infrared (IR images with low contrast and nonobvious edges. In addition, feature points detected by Harris corner detectors are clustered due to the numerous nonlocal maxima. This paper proposes a modified Harris corner detector that includes two unique steps for processing IR images in order to overcome the aforementioned problems. Image contrast enhancement based on a generalized form of histogram equalization (HE combined with adjusting the intensity resolution causes false contours on IR images to acquire obvious edges. Adaptive nonmaximal suppression based on eliminating neighboring pixels avoids the clustered features. Preliminary results show that the proposed method can solve the clustering problem and successfully identify the representative feature points of IR breast images.
This paper contributes to inquiries into scientific personae by employing a rhetorical approach. It analyzes the persuasive strategies of Judith Rich Harris in The Nurture Assumption: Why Children Turn Out the Way They Do (1998). Rhetorical analysis of Harris' self-fashioning in this remarkable best-seller and the reactions of the press to her persona demonstrates the resilience of specific archaic cultural repertoires for constructing scientific identities. While historical studies investigate how repertoires for scientific self-fashioning evolve through time, rhetoric reveals how identity models from an earlier age may be appropriated in the present.
Haugann, Martine Juritzen
This thesis seeks to explore the way constructions of animality present problematic discourses of race, gender and human ethnic groups in the Harry Potter series. This is done with special emphasis on the third novel, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, the fifth, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, and the seventh, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. The overall claim is that problematic representations of animality constructions in the series reinforce, rather than resist, st...
who visited India, Pakistan, states in Latin America and Russia will testify, you will find such sought-after works at reasonable prices. To some extent, this also ... war without any consideration for the death of their countrymen – or shall we say. 'subjects' and cannon fodder? At the time of the publication of this book, Harry ...
Harry Smith is a scholar, mentor, internationally renowned researcher, eloquent speaker and author, pioneering journal editor and highly valued colleague who has contributed greatly in multiple ways to plant science and the community. He richly deserves the honour of the Molecular Ecology Prize....
This study cover ed the automation of Circulation and OPAC operation of John Harris library, University of Benin. System analysis of the existing system was carried out; the elicited information was employed in building a web - based application programme, designed, developed a nd implemented in PHP and MySQL ...
Agee, Carl B.; Walker, David
David Walker was awarded the 2010 Harry H. Hess Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 15 December 2010 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is for “outstanding achievements in research of the constitution and evolution of Earth and other planets.”
Solomon, Sean C.
Maria T. Zuber was awarded the 2012 Harry H. Hess Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 5 December 2012 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is for "outstanding achievements in research on the constitution and evolution of Earth and other planets."
Henry J. B. Dick was awarded the 2011 Harry H. Hess Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 7 December 2011 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is for "outstanding achievements in research on the constitution and evolution of Earth and other planets."
Rowley, David B.; Richter, Frank M.
Frank M. Richter was awarded the 2009 Harry H. Hess Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 16 December 2009 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is for “outstanding achievements in research in the constitution and evolution of Earth and other planets.”
Dick, Henry J. B.
Henry J. B. Dick was awarded the 2011 Harry H. Hess Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 7 December 2011 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is for "outstanding achievements in research on the constitution and evolution of Earth and other planets."
Martson, Ilona, 1970-
Joanne Rowling'u lasteraamatu "Harry Potter ja Tarkade kivi" ekraniseeringu esilinastus Eestis on 21. detsembril Coca Cola Plazas. Selle 125 miljonit dollarit maksnud USA filmi režissöör on Chris Columbus ja peaosas 12-aastane Daniel Radcliff
Hernán Rodríguez Castelo
Full Text Available Harry Potter es el fenómeno más notable en el campo de la literatura infantil y juvenil de finales del siglo XX y XXI, dice el autor y presenta un análisis y crítica del mismo.
Johnson, Melissa C.
This essay is grounded in the scholarship of teaching and learning and will focus specifically on the ways in which the Harry Potter books highlight the diversity of learning and teaching styles; privilege active experiential learning and problem solving over passive rote learning; and emphasize the benefits of collaboration over competition.…
Eesti kauplustes saadab suur müügiedu kõikvõimalikke mänguasju, kleepse ja muud atribuutikat mis seondub Joanne Rowling'u Potteri-raamatutega ja nüüd ka meie kinno jõudnud "Harry Potter ja Tarkade kivi" ekraniseeringuga
2000.a. viie Tallinna kooli osavõtul toimunud projektist R-LIIT, mille käigus valiti üks raamat (J.K. Rowling "Harry Potter ja tarkade kivi") ning arutleti selle üle nii koolides kui Interneti vahendusel. Osalesid eesti ja vene õppekeelega koolid, projektiga lisandus eri rahvusest noorte integratsiooni idee
Carney, John; DeMitchell, Todd
J. K. Rowling's series about the young, orphaned Harry Potter who escapes his often hostile, nonmagical Muggle (or human) existence for a world of ghosts, spells, and potions, magical objects, and exotic creatures to be found at the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry has captivated a worldwide audience. Since the publication in England of…
Radigan, Winifred M.
Explains that the author reads the Harry Potter books because of their impact on middle-school-age kids and their appeal to children ages 9 to 15. Explains also that she works in professional development, especially literacy, and that she connects kids and teachers to the books. Admits that she reads the books because "they are wonderful." (SG)
Barta, Jim; L'Ai, Linda
Literacy curriculum connections through books give advantage to teachers to use adventure to enhance mathematical learning among children. The way the children enhanced their mathematical competence by developing exciting mathematical activities and applications by using Harry Potter book episodes is discussed.
The formative power of children's literature is both great and suspicious. As a resource of socialization, the construction and experience of children's literature can be seen as modes of disciplinary coercion such as Michel Foucault has anatomized. "Harry Potter", as a "craze" phenomenon, has attracted particular…
19. novembril 2010 Eestis kinodesse jõudnud režissöör David Yates´i film "Harry Potter ja surma vägised" 1. osa (USA, Suurbritannia, 2010) kogus avanädalavahetusel 18138 vaatajat. Filmi edust mujal maailmas
Madrid, Juan P.; Massaro, Francesco; Cheung, Teddy
Our friend and colleague, Daniel E. Harris, died on December 6th 2015. Dan was a passionate astronomer and world traveller. He led a rich and scientifically productive life until the end. Dan was the first person to receive a PhD in radio astronomy at Caltech where he was a student of John Bolton, one of the fathers of Radio Astronomy and the founder of the Owens Valley Radio Observatory that Dan used for his thesis and first publications. One of Dan's first projects was with Jim Roberts to measure improved positions and flux densities for radio sources in the newly released 3C catalog. During this study, Dan discovered the first flat spectrum radio sources, which he named CTA 21, CTA 26, and CTA 102 and which were later identified as quasars. His PhD thesis resulted in the then definitive study of the evolution of supernova remnants. Later Dan worked on radio galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGN) first at radio and then at X-ray wavelengths with the Einstein, ROSAT, and Chandra Observatories where he pioneered the new field of relativistic X-ray jets and how they relate to radio galaxies and AGN. After graduating from Caltech in 1961, Dan wanted to see the world. Beginning in 1962, Dan lived in Bologna, Italy, where he worked with Professor Marcello Ceccarelli and the radio astronomy group and was active in the construction of the Northern Cross Radio Observatory ("la Croce"), the first Italian radio telescope. He left Bologna in the Spring of 1964 as his friends remember him to "divenir del mondo esperto e de li vizi umani e del valore"1, as he joined V. Radhakrishnan (Rad) and Dave Morris to sail in a 36-ft trimaran from England to Puerto Rico where he took a position at the Arecibo Observatory working with Marshall Cohen on interplanetary scintillations. After five years at the Arecibo Observatory, Dan went on to work at the Argentinian Institute of Radio Astronomy, Harvard University, the Dwingeloo Radio Observatory in the Netherlands, and at the Dominion
Edewor Uyoyou Nelson O
Full Text Available Edewor Nelson (b. 1970 is a sculptor whose works depict configurations that espouse contexts associated with inimical and exploitative tendencies of petroleum oil exploration and exploitation in the Niger Delta region. His expressions represent a new formalism that is iconic of the region’s reality in terms of environmental degradation and fundamental human rights abuses. This motivation became imperative in the seemingly failure of other artistic explorations on the subject to adequately reflect modern formal archetypes for which the region’s dilemma can be expressed. The challenge of analytic study of this effort for attaining interpretative insights into this studio practice is pertinent. To realize this, corresponding Ivri traditional art form associated with the past in the region has been studied alongside petroleum drilling–related forms. This provides the fulcrum on which this article approaches an analysis of contextual and conceptual applications attributable to the stylistic oeuvre of Edewor’s practice since 1997. It uses formalism and iconography interpretative tools for its critical discourse.
... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental... Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc., for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1...: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1--Final Report (NUREG-1437, Supplement 33).'' Agencies...
Alates 21. juulist saab osta seitsmendat ja ühtlasi viimast J. K. Rowlingu Potteri-sarja raamatut "Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows". Raamatu ilmumise ja äsja esilinastunud Harry Potteri viienda filmi "Harry Potter ja Fööniksi ordu" taustal kirjanik Joanne Rowlingu elust ja Potteri filmide fenomenist
Lühiarvustus DVD-le Harry Potteri viiendast filmist "Harry Potter ja Fööniksi ordu" ("Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix"), režissöör David Yates : Ameerika Ühendriigid-Suurbritannia 2007
Two manuscripts of the Iliad acquired in the middle of the nineteenth century by Anthony Charles Harris, the famous “Harris Homers,” are usually said to have been discovered at “the Crocodile Pit at Maabdeh.” The British Museum eventually bought both manuscripts. Yet, the details of both Harris...
Oil politics and violence in postcolonial Niger Delta drama. ... African state and an oppressive colonial or neo-colonial European power. ... and as such contemporary postcolonial Niger Delta drama can be described as drama of individualism ...
Perrone, Giancarlo; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena
Aspergillus section Nigri is an important group of species for food and medical mycology, and biotechnology. The Aspergillus niger ‘aggregate’ represents its most complicated taxonomic subgroup containing eight morphologically indistinguishable taxa: A. niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus...
He, Fei; Lian, Bin; Liu, Shirong; Gong, Guohong
The research objective is to induce hydroxyapatite (HAP) synthesis by using fungus. We used the PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar Medium) liquid medium containing different concentrations of Na2HPO4 and CaCO3 to study the way Aspergillus niger synthesize HAP, to observe the induced mineral crystal structure and to analyze the induced mineral type with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The main results are as follows: (1) A. niger can induce HAP synthesis in PDA liquid medium with the proper concentration of Na2HPO4 and CaCO3. (2) The reaction of A. niger inducing HAP synthesis depends on the time of the response system. Longer time is more advantageous in producing HAP. The main reason for A. niger inducing HAP crystals formation are as follows: fungal metabolism produces the acidic substances to dissolve CaCO, and the growth mycelia absorbing Ca2+ lead to Ca2+ enriched on the surface, to promote the production of secondary mineral apatite and further transform into HAP in the mycelia spheres. A. niger can inducing HAP crystals formation in PDA liquid medium containing Na2HPO4 and CaCO3. Considering the importance of HAP in bio-medicine materials and its costly prices, our method for HAP bio-induction is of the temperate response condition, simple preparation craft, and lower cost, which has the potential application prospect.
Hydrolysis of raw tuber starches by amylase of Aspergillus niger AM07 isolated from the soil. ... The crude amylase preparation of A. niger AM07 had temperature and pH optima activities at 60oC and 4.0 respectively. The optimum substrate concentration was 3 %. The action of the crude amylase of A. niger on raw tuber ...
Nutrient composition of niger seed (Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass.) cultivated in different parts of Ethiopia. ... significant correlations among some metals in the niger seed. The study revealed that niger seed is good source of essential metals and free from toxic metal such as Cd and hence safe for human consumption.
A South African birder, Mr. Jubber originally identified these birds as M. niger but included them as M. leucomelas after reading that the former did not occur in Tanzania. Map 1. The distribution in Tanzania of M. niger, M. leucomelas and M. albiventris from the. Map 2. The distribution of Southern Black Tit M. niger suggested ...
employment and strategic benefits preferentially to their ethnic brethren. Discrimination against the Niger Delta ethnic groups in the award of contract jobs and employment became the order to the day. The Niger Delta .... roads and bridges across the Niger Delta will not reduce the unemployment problem, which is the ...
Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe Marie
of struggles over water and pastures in Diffa, Signe Marie Cold-Ravnkilde accounts for the outcome of conflict and cooperation and explains why herders, like people in other cultures, conceive of their rights in a contradictory manner: as requiring adoption to cultural specific conditions and yet applies...... the 1990s customary practices are increasingly recognised in legal frameworks. "Struggling for water and pastures in Niger" explores the philosophical assumptions behind the rules governing rights to water and pastures in the pastoral areas of the Diffa region in Niger. The book shows how these assumptions...
Schuster, E.; Dunn-Coleman, N.; Frisvad, Jens Christian
Administration. In addition, A. niger is used for biotransformations and waste treatment. In the last two decades, A. niger has been developed as an important transformation host to over-express food enzymes. Being pre-dated by older names, the name A. niger has been conserved for economical and information......Aspergillus niger is one of the most important microorganisms used in biotechnology. It has been in use already for many decades to produce extracellular (food) enzymes and citric acid. In fact, citric acid and many A. niger enzymes are considered GRAS by the United States Food and Drug...
The enormous popularity of the Harry Potter books points to the deep resonance readers feel with the psychological issues they bring to life. Three developmental issues provide central themes: the necessity for partial disenchantment and increasing attunement to reality, while retaining a capacity for wonder; repudiation or endorsement of the narcissistic solution to life's difficulties; and aggression and castration fantasies while growing into adult power. These developmental issues are particularly acute during adolescence but start earlier and continue to be reworked throughout the life span, accounting for the books' appeal to a wide age-range of readers despite their apparent focus on adolescence. These developmental themes are explored in order to better understand the Harry Potter books, as, conversely, the books are explored in order to better understand these themes.
Andrew Ryan Rico
On April 20, 1999, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold murdered 12 students and one teacher at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, in what was then the deadliest school shooting in American history. Despite causing a national panic and serving as a flash point for larger narratives on bullying, gun control, and media violence, both boys have gained active online fans. These fandoms dedicated to the Columbine shooters are widely referred to as dark examples of Internet communities, while t...
Zhang, Nan; Hou, Jue; Wang, Rongwu
A great improvement of SIFT algorithm were made, which lower the dimension of SIFT feature descriptor in a higher speed and more simple computation. On this basis, a scheme of microscopic image acquisition and image mosaicking was designed. A series of images were acquired in turn automatically and then they were mosaicked to a large image through the improved Harris_SIFT algorithm in real time.
Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 26. juuli lk. 6. Kindlustajate arvates on suurem osa Eesti elamufondist alakindlustatud. Vt. samas: Pangad kinnisvara alakindlustust ei tunneta; Alver Kivirüüt. Ostuhind erineb taastamishinnast; Harri Kahl. Taastamishind algab 8000 krooni juures; Kalli krundi omanik alakindlustatust ei karda; Margus Mändmets. Alakindlustuse vastu aitab ülekindlustus. Lisa: Vale kindlustussumma võib tekitada suurt kahju. Diagrammid
The marine crustose lichen Pyrenocollema halodytes (Nyl.) R. Harris is known to grow on substrates such as limestone, chalk, molluscan shells and barnacles and is consequently considered as a marine lichen. It was formerly placed under the genus Arthopyrenia but together with other lichens from this genus all containing cyanobacteria as the symbiont photobiont was placed under the genus Pyrenocoliema. In this review Pyrenocollema halodytes is being recorded for the first time from the Maltese...
violence kidnapping and youth restiveness which we are currently witnessing in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. ... Economic dependence, gender in-equality, deprivation and unemployment are some of the causes of conflict in the region. ..... perceived influence on governments in her coverage of global events. Similarly, it is ...
Utilization of three petroleum hydrocarbons (Mobil SAE 40 Engine Oil, Diesel and Bonny light Crude Oil) by four bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio harveyi, V. fisheri, Photobacterium leiognathi and P. Phosphoreum isolated from the Bonny estuary in the Niger Delta, Nigeria was investigated. Microbial utilization was monitored ...
Keywords: Intrinsic velocity anisotropy, Niger Delta, Thomsen's parameters, vertical i transverse isotropy (VT!) Introduction. In seismology, a layer is anisotropic if seismic waves propagate through it at different velocities in different directions. Sedimentary rocks possess some degree of intrinsic velocity anisotropy (Jones and.
Basten, E.J.W.; Moers, A.P.H.A.; Ooyen, van A.J.J.; Schaap, P.J.
We have cloned a gene (papA) that encodes a prolyl aminopeptidase from Aspergillus niger. Homologous genes are present in the genomes of the Eurotiales A. nidulans, A. fumigatus and Talaromyces emersonii, but the gene is not present in the genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell extracts
One of the cellulases produced in this fashion by species of Aspergillus is β- glucosidase. .... the crude enzyme (sample) or nutrient broth (Control) was placed and incubated for 2 .... 7: Multiple sequence alignment of β-glucosidases amino acids from Aspergillus niger AnBg11, ANRA12.6 and ANRA12.9. [Symbols: Catalytic ...
Baker, Scott E.
Aspergillus niger is a filamentous ascomycete fungus that is ubiquitous in the environment and has been implicated in opportunistic infections of humans. In addition to its role as an opportunistic human pathogen, A. niger is economically important as a fermentation organism used for the production of citric acid. Industrial citric acid production by A. niger represents one of the most efficient, highest yield bioprocesses in use currently by industry. The genome size of A. niger is estimated to be between 35.5 and 38.5 megabases (Mb) divided among eight chromosomes/linkage groups that vary in size from 3.5 - 6.6 Mb. Currently, there are three independent A. niger genome projects, an indication of the economic importance of this organism. The rich amount of data resulting from these multiple A. niger genome sequences will be used for basic and applied research programs applicable to fermentation process development, morphology and pathogenicity.
Full Text Available Harry Tavitian, like any other creator, is in a continuous motion, quest and development, with free mind and spirit. Harry Tavitian was born in Constanta, in 1952, in an Armenian family, who is always in his heart, as he says. The study of the piano was so useful, that, in his late teens, he is already exploring the blues. Before graduating the Ciprian Porumbescu Conservatory in Bucharest in 1978, the artist founded, with a deliberate enthusiasm, a band called Creative, which would always express itself recreatively, in the spirit of a permanent renewal. His concerts, initially thought with an exigence that shows through the creation, are not repeatable, cannot be quantified with a measure of a weight or linearity, but with one of depth and veracity of the message, of liberty, joy and simplicity. The piano, the one that helps him and us to grow through music is the instrument which comes to support the improvisation and the variations. Thus springs the original esthetics called ethno-jazz, a genre nurtured from the fertile soil of the Romanian folklore, thus building and promoting a valuable South-Eastern European school of jazz. In his language both the avant-garde jazz and the traditional blues are amplified and also supplemented with Romanian and Armenian flavors. The cavalcade of improvisation is defining, Harry Tavitian being spontaneous in the original harmonic lacing in which he always wraps his creations and performances. The aftermath is always the same, an audience that hardly recovers from the dreamy ambience of every concert.
... cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Aspergillus niger is classified as follows: Class, Deuteromycetes; order, Moniliales; family, Moniliaceae...
Full Text Available This article will argue that the recent turn towards lived theology or religion in practical theology can offer a useful hermeneutic to interpret the impact of the Harry Potter series on the spiritual formation and identity creation of adolescents. In practical theology there has been a turn towards lived theology or religion as lived religion has moved out of institutions into social–cultural phenomena as people seek to find meaning and purpose for their lives in alternative places to institutionalised religion.
Full Text Available This article will argue that the recent turn towards lived theology or religion in practical theology can offer a useful hermeneutic to interpret the impact of the Harry Potter series on the spiritual formation and identity creation of adolescents. In practical theology there has been a turn towards lived theology or religion as lived religion has moved out of institutions into social–cultural phenomena as people seek to find meaning and purpose for their lives in alternative places to institutionalised religion.
Full Text Available Fan activists have struggled to defend series from cancellation, defend themselves from cease and desist orders, promote alternative representations, and raise money for charity. Building on this background, this article examines how the Harry Potter Alliance encourages young people to speak out as fans on a broad range of human rights and social justice issues through what the group's leader, Andrew Slack, calls "cultural acupuncture." The group's practice of mapping the fictional content world onto real-world concerns helps empower young people to become civicly engaged and politically active.
Full Text Available Among the large group of Harry Potter fans who write their own stories about the boy wizard, his friends, and his foes, and publish them on the Internet, some are interested in the exploration of the erotic and romantic bond between identical twins. Because the Harry Potter saga features two sets of identical twin pairs of different gender—the Weasley brothers and the Patil sisters—the series not only provides a unique playground for the recipients in terms of the possibilities for twincest stories; more importantly, it offers ample opportunity for researchers to examine how fans actually use such pairings. In this essay, the examination of twin relationships as portrayed within Rowling's works, the movies, and in twincest fan fiction are confronted with each other to outline how Rowling's different concepts of the sibling pairs and the author's general ongoing interest in doubling motifs is consistently expanded by fan fiction writers to discuss the complex relationship between source and fan text.
Lynch, Mervin D.; Foley-Peres, Kathleen D.; Sullivan, Stefanie S.
The purposes of this study were to see if the items from the Piers Harris Self Concept Scale and the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory had construct and predictive validity. Items used in this study were 50 items from the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and 80 items from the Piers Harris Self-Concept Scale. Construct measures were obtained using…
... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0... of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP). The license provides, among other things... for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage...
... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0... Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1. The license provides, among other things, that the facility is...) 50.46, ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light- water nuclear power...
... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption 1.0... License No. NPF-63, which authorizes operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1... nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage,'' published as a final rule in the Federal Register...
JK Rowling's "Harry Potter" novels situate their child protagonists in a fantastical world side by side with present day British society. Through the characters' choices and realizations, young readers are introduced to the complexities and ambiguities of the contemporary world. Harry and his friends embrace these qualities of postmodern…
McDaniel, Kathryn N.
A significant image of classroom lectures is the one presented in J. K. Rowling's "Harry Potter" series. At Harry's Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, the most torturous class is easily History of Magic, which is, incidentally, the only class in the school taught by a ghost. Being taught by a ghost could be quite exciting: not so in…
Cambridge'is sündinud, üle 20 aasta Soomes elanud T. Harris on 1999. aastast linnaehituse ja -planeerimise professor Helsingi Tehnikaülikooli arhitektuurikateedris, tegutseb büroos Harris-Kjisik Architects & Planners. Enda sattumisest Soome, soome praegusest arhitektuurist, lühidalt Tallinna kesklinnast ja sadamaalast. 5 ill
Thomas, Julia Anne
A sample of 234 fifth- and 259 sixth-grade students scaled the items of the Piers-Harris, Tennessee, Coopersmith, and Lipsett self-concept measures. The scaling of the Piers-Harris and the Tennessee inventories was examined in reference to their subscales. The present technique placed items on a bivariate plane of two orthogonal dimensions…
Järjekorras neljas Potteri ekraniseering "Harry Potter ja tulepeeker" ("Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire") jõudis Eestisse. Režissöör Mike Newell : Suurbritannia-USA 2005. Lisatud lühike sisukokkuvõte "Harryl mure mure otsa" ning filmi kinoedu tutvustav "Edetabelite tipus"
McKie, J; Kuhse, H; Richardson, J; Singer, P
Harris levels two main criticisms against our original defence of QALYs (Quality Adjusted Life Years). First, he rejects the assumption implicit in the QALY approach that not all lives are of equal value. Second, he rejects our appeal to Rawls's veil of ignorance test in support of the QALY method. In the present article we defend QALYs against Harris's criticisms. We argue that some of the conclusions Harris draws from our view that resources should be allocated on the basis of potential improvements in quality of life and quantity of life are erroneous, and that others lack the moral implications Harris claims for them. On the other hand, we defend our claim that a rational egoist, behind a veil of ignorance, could consistently choose to allocate life-saving resources in accordance with the QALY method, despite Harris's claim that a rational egoist would allocate randomly if there is no better than a 50% chance of being the recipient.
Aims: To determine the prevalence of homosexuality among migrant oil workers in Niger Delta. Methods: A prospective questionnaire – based study was conducted among migrant oil workers in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The design was to determine the prevalence of homosexuality in the workers in oil workers.
Conclusions: Three new β-galactosidases belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 35 from A. niger F0215 were cloned and biochemically characterized. In addition to the known LacA, A. niger has at least three β-galactosidase family members with remarkably different biochemical properties.
developing world. This study aims to determine the pattern of complicated unsafe abortions in Niger delta. University Teaching Hospital (NDUTH) Okolobiri. Methods: The study is a four-year retrospective analysis of cases of complicated unsafe abortion managed at the. Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital Okolobiri,.
Oct 12, 2011 ... assessed by evaluating the CO2 released during the fermentation in minibioreactors. Key words: Aspergillus niger, biofilm, mathematical modeling, endogenous respiration, Cryo-SEM. INTRODUCTION. Aspergillus niger is currently one of the microbial species of main biotechnological importance because ...
Our aim in this paper is to make a comparative analysis of Caribbean piracy and youth restiveness in Niger Delta of Nigeria. It will not be out of place to carry out such an analysis having seen, heard or read of the ongoing chaos, insecurity in the. Niger Delta Zone in Nigeria. We have to look at the past to find out such similar
Odoni, Dorett I.; van Gaal, Merlijn P.; Schonewille, Tom; Tamayo-Ramos, Juan A.; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A. P.; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Schaap, Peter J.
Aspergillus niger has an innate ability to secrete various organic acids, including citrate. The conditions required for A. niger citrate overproduction are well described, but the physiological reasons underlying extracellular citrate accumulation are not yet fully understood. One of the less understood culture conditions is the requirement of growth-limiting iron concentrations. While this has been attributed to iron-dependent citrate metabolizing enzymes, this straightforward relationship does not always hold true. Here, we show that an increase in citrate secretion under iron limited conditions is a physiological response consistent with a role of citrate as A. niger iron siderophore. We found that A. niger citrate secretion increases with decreasing amounts of iron added to the culture medium and, in contrast to previous findings, this response is independent of the nitrogen source. Differential transcriptomics analyses of the two A. niger mutants NW305 (gluconate non-producer) and NW186 (gluconate and oxalate non-producer) revealed up-regulation of the citrate biosynthesis gene citA under iron limited conditions compared to iron replete conditions. In addition, we show that A. niger can utilize Fe(III) citrate as iron source. Finally, we discuss our findings in the general context of the pH-dependency of A. niger organic acid production, offering an explanation, besides competition, for why A. niger organic acid production is a sequential process influenced by the external pH of the culture medium. PMID:28824560
The aim of this Thesis was to study mechanism involved in zonal secretion in colonies of A. niger with emphasis on sporulation inhibited secretion. These mechanisms may be targets to improve A. nigeras a cell factory. I focused in particular on A. niger homologues of fluG and veA that are known
Farm Input Management Strategies In Small Scale Farming In Niger State, Nigeria. ... Tools used for analysis were frequency distribution tables and percentages. The results showed preference for the ... quality of their lives. Keywords: Adoption, effective farm input management, income generation, strategies, Niger State
The production of extracellular cellulases by Aspergilus niger NRRL 567 on corn stover was studied in liquid state fermentation. In this study, three cellulases, exoglucanase (EXG), endoglucanase (EG) and β-glucosidase (BGL) were produced by A. niger NRRL 567. The optimal pH, temperature and incubation time for ...
Fungi isolated included Aspergillus candidus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. tamarii, Mucor rouxii, Penicillium notatum and Rhizopus sp. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger were selected for heavy metals bioaccumulation studies on PDB-amended with lagoon water in ratios of 1:1, 1:3 and 1:5 respectively for 3 weeks.
ABSTRACT. The study involved the screening of fourteen isolates of Aspergillus niger for citric acid production from glucose. The study was aimed at screening and improving local strains of Aspergillus niger with potential for citric acid production. All the isolates screened produced varying amounts of citric acid, the highest ...
These common consumption goods have eluded ordinary Nigerians with more devastating effect in the Niger Delta region owing to ineptitude of state actors and their accomplices in Multinational Oil Corporations. This paper therefore investigated the sudden emergence of Niger Delta Avengers militant group. It also raised ...
Polygalacturonase (PG) was isolated from Aspergillus niger (A. niger) (SA6), partially purified and characterized. The PG showed two bands on SDS-PAGE suggesting an “endo and exo PG with apparent molecular weights of 35 and 40 KDa, respectively. It was purified 9-fold with a yield of 0.18% and specific activity of 246 ...
In this thought-provoking review of the 2006 UNDP Niger Delta Human Development Report, the author examines the multidimensional nature of the problems of the Niger Delta and its effect on income, education, life expectancy of the host communities, and environmental sustainability, which has undermined the ...
Odoni, Dorett I.
The aim of the thesis was to increase the understanding of organic acid production in Aspergillus niger and other filamentous fungi, with the ultimate purpose to improve A. niger as biotechnological production host. In Chapter 1, the use of microbial cell-factories for the
Abstracts. There is no ecological zone which has been so degraded and laid waste than the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The bounties of nature bestowed on this geographical area have gradually been turned into its instruments of poverty and squalor. The coastal area, mainly the Niger Delta from which much of. Nigeria's ...
There is also the reality that much of the sufferings and abuses to which the Niger Delta peoples and its environment are subjected are manmade, avoidable and unjustified. The environmental problems that have pervaded the Niger Delta include oil spillage, gas flaring, corporate deforestation, poverty, loss of biodiversity, ...
This study investigated the effects of Aspergillus niger CSA35 pretreated-cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peel feed (CPFG) on the body weight gain and some selected biochemical parameters of pigs. Cassava peels treated with biomass of A. niger CSA35 for a period of three weeks to initiate enzymatic digestion of ...
Hofmann, Albrecht W.
As Harry Hess recognized over 50 years ago, mantle melting is the fundamental motor for planetary evolution and differentiation. Melting generates the major divisions of crust mantle and core. The distribution of chemical elements between solids, melts, and gaseous phases is fundamental to understanding these differentiation processes. Bernie Wood, together with Jon Blundy, has combined experimental petrology and physicochemical theory to revolutionize the understanding of the distribution of trace elements between melts and solids in the Earth. Knowledge of these distribution laws allows the reconstruction of the source compositions of the melts (deep in Earth's interior) from their abundances in volcanic rocks. Bernie's theoretical treatment relates the elastic strain of the lattice caused by the substitution of a trace element in a crystal to the ionic radius and charge of this element. This theory, and its experimental calibrations, brought order to a literature of badly scattered, rather chaotic experimental data that allowed no satisfactory quantitative modeling of melting processes in the mantle.
Reijers, T. J. A.
During the Cenozoic, until the Middle Miocene, the Niger Delta grew through pulses of sedimentation over an oceanward-dipping continental basement into the Gulf of Guinea; thereafter progradation took place over a landward-dipping oceanic basement. A 12,000 m thick succession of overall regressive, offlapping sediments resulted that is composed of three diachronous siliciclastic units: the deep-marine pro-delta Akata Group, the shallow-marine delta-front Agbada Group and the continental, delta-top Benin Group. Regionally, sediment dispersal was controlled by marine transgressive/regressive cycles related to eustatic sea-level changes with varying duration. Differential subsidence locally influenced sediment accumulation. Collectively, these controls resulted in eleven chronostratigraphically confined delta-wide mega-sequences with considerable internal lithological variation. The various sea-level cycles were in or out of phase with each other and with local subsidence, and interfered with each other and thus influenced the depositional processes. At the high inflection points of the long-term eustatic sea-level curve, floodings took place that resulted in delta-wide shale markers. At the low inflection points, erosional channels were formed that are often associated, downdip, with turbidites in low-stand sediments (LSTs). The megasequences contain regional transgressive claystone units (TST) followed by a range of heterogeneous fine-to-coarse progradational or aggradational siliciclastic (para)sequence sets formed during sea-level high-stand (HST). An updated biostratigraphic scheme for the Niger Delta is presented. It also updates a sedimentation model that takes into consideration local and delta-wide effects of sea-level cyclicity and delta tectonics. Megasequences were formed over time intervals of ~5 Ma within individual accurate megastructures that laterally linked into depobelts. The megasequences form the time-stratigraphic frame of the delta and are the
Pratap, Jeffrey J.
A rotating bioreactor was developed to simulate microgravity and its influence was studied on fungal growth. The reactor was designed to simulate microgravity using 'free fall' principle, which creates an apparent weightlessness for a brief period of time. In this experiment, a sealed vertically rotating tube is the reactor in which the cells are grown. For the first time vertically rotating tubes were used to obtain 'free fall' thereby simulating microgravity. Simulated microgravity served significant in the alteration of growth and productivity of Aspergillus niger, a common soil fungi. Two other sets of similar cultures were maintained as still and shake control cultures to compare with the growth and productivity of cells in rotating culture. It was found increased growth and productivity occurred in simulated microgravity. Since this experiment involves growth of cells in a liquid medium, the fluidic effects must also be studied which is a limitation.
Cheryl Fracasso; Zeno Franco; Douglas MacDonald; Harris Friedman
Harris Friedman has made a unique contribution to science by constructing the first explicitly transpersonal measure, helping to bring transpersonal psychology into the realm of more conventional science...
Edlin, Richard; McCabe, Christopher; Round, Jeff; Wright, Judy; Claxton, Karl; Sculpher, Mark; Cookson, Richard
We summarise and evaluate Harris' criticisms of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and the alternative processes he commends to health care decision makers. In contrast to CEA, Harris' asserts that individuals have a right to life-saving treatment that cannot be denied on the basis of their capacity to benefit. We conclude that, whilst Harris' work has challenged the proponents of CEA and quality-adjusted life years to be explicit about the method's indirect discriminatory characteristics, his arguments ignore important questions about what 'lives saved' mean. Harris also attempts to avoid opportunity cost by advocating the same chance of treatment for every person desiring treatment. Using a simple example, we illustrate that an 'equal chances' lottery is not in the interest of any patient, as it reduces the chance of treatment for all patients by leaving some of the health budget unspent.
Black, Mary S.; Eisenwine, Marilyn J.
Examines the "Harry Potter" books for the messages they convey about schools, teachers, and education. Asserts that the present positive images of schooling as well as moral dilemmas and their resolution. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)
Hoover, Robert M.; Taylor, Ashton
To contribute to a project such as Benaroya Hall, now the home of the Seattle Symphony Orchestra, as team members of acoustical giant Cyril M. Harris was a golden opportunity for Robert M. Hoover and Ashton Taylor. Their involvement in the project and association with Cyril began at the early stages of the project as consultants in noise control. During the schematic design phase, Cyril dictated to the LMN Architects design team that authority for all noise control decisions rested with Bob Hoover. This led to good working relationships, especially with the mechanical engineering firm and the air-conditioning contractor. Throughout the project, Cyril insisted upon the highest standards of materials and workmanship, and relied on the expertise of his acoustical design team, even if it went against his initial idea on some issue. At the beginning with the setting of noise criteria and in the finished building when measuring background sound, Cyril participated in the noise control process. Benaroya Hall has been critically acclaimed by the media and musicians, it was an honor for both Bob Hoover and Ashton Taylor to be part of that success.
Andrew Ryan Rico
Full Text Available On April 20, 1999, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold murdered 12 students and one teacher at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, in what was then the deadliest school shooting in American history. Despite causing a national panic and serving as a flash point for larger narratives on bullying, gun control, and media violence, both boys have gained active online fans. These fandoms dedicated to the Columbine shooters are widely referred to as dark examples of Internet communities, while the fans are also frequently denigrated as unstable and violent outcasts. Such dark online fandoms are yet to permeate mainstream culture or to challenge the preexisting perception of these communities as breeding grounds for the next wave of school shooters. While studies have covered the types of fans and their myriad interests, the field remains focused on more conventional examples of fan communities. In an effort to challenge and expand the object of focus when we study fandom, this qualitative study examines Columbine fans and their activity in order to understand the dominant motives they appear to have for engaging with and around such controversial figures and then concludes by exploring how this community might help us reflect more broadly on our concept of fandom. Redeeming these fans as part of diverse and complex communities of social relevance can demonstrate how even a dark fandom such as that of these Columbine shooters provides valuable cultural insights and benefits the field of fan studies.
Full Text Available This article arises from a 2011 interview with producer Andy Harries. Earlier that year the BBC had aired three ninety-minute adaptations of the detective novels by Michael Dibdin featuring the character Aurelio Zen. The interview and subsequent article focus on the process by which the novels were chosen, the intended audience, casting, international co-financing, changes between page and screen, and the adaptations’ relationship to other texts - notably Wallander - also produced by Harries.
This thesis consists of a comprehensive character analysis of the protagonist and antagonist in the Harry Potter series, on the basis of existential psychology. It is argued that the outlook of this branch of psychology provides a thorough framework for the interpretation of characters and objects in Rowling’s fictional world. Harry Potter and Lord Voldemort are not only the protagonist and antagonist of the series, but also represent two sides of the spectrum of existential psychology. By ma...
This study deals with the analysis of situation types in the novel Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. It was conducted to discover the four types of situation porposed by Vendler (1967) namely : states, activities, achievements and accomplishment. The objectives of this research are to find out the situation types, the dominant situation type and the reason for the dominant type. This study uses a descriptive qualitative method. The data are taken from a novel,Harry Pott...
Liivrand, Harry, 1961-
Saksamaal ja Eestis korraldatavast August von Kotzebue uurimisele pühendatud interdistsiplinaarsest konverentsisarjast "Kotzebue kõnelused". Saksamaal ilmus Wehrhahni teaduskirjastuses August von Kotzebue loomingu uurimisele pühendatud artiklikogumik "August von Kotzebue im estnisch-deutschen Dialog", koostajad ja toimetajad Klaus Gerlach, Harry Liivrand ja Kristel Pappel. Intervjuu Harry Liivranna ja Kristel Pappeliga Eesti-Saksa kultuuri- ja teadussuhetest Kotzebue näitel
exploratory qualitative study was carried out to identify pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's perceptions of conventional .... formal medical practice should be considered12. .... writing process, literature was used to support the.
Aich, Valentin; Koné, Bakary; Hattermann, Fred; Paton, Eva
This study analyses the increasing number of catastrophic floods in the Niger River Basin, focusing on the relation between long term hydro-climatic variability and flood risk over the last 40 to 100 years...
Keni, Sarita; Punekar, Narayan S
Aspects of manganese metabolism during normal and acidogenic growth of Aspergillus niger were explored. Arginase from this fungus was a Mn[II]-enzyme. The contribution of the arginase protein towards A. niger manganese metabolism was investigated using arginase knockout (D-42) and arginase over-expressing (ΔXCA-29) strains of A. niger NCIM 565. The Mn[II] contents of various mycelial fractions were found in the order: D-42 strain niger mycelia harvested from acidogenic growth media contain substantially less Mn[II] as compared to those from normal growth media. Nevertheless, acidogenic mycelia harbor considerable Mn[II] levels and a functional arginase. Altered levels of mycelial arginase protein did not significantly influence citric acid production. The relevance of arginase to cellular Mn[II] pool and homeostasis was evaluated and the results suggest that arginase regulation could occur via manganese availability.
Short communications: The Southern Black Tit Melaniparus niger in Tanzania with comments on the Northern Black Tit M. leucomelas , White-shouldered Black Tit M. guineensis and the White-bellied Tit M. albiventris.
David, Helga; Åkesson, Mats Fredrik; Nielsen, Jens
The topology of central carbon metabolism of Aspergillus niger was identified and the metabolic network reconstructed, by integrating genomic, biochemical and physiological information available for this microorganism and other related fungi. The reconstructed network may serve as a valuable...
modern health facilities, quality education, efficient communication network and .... include migrants and bonded labourers, refugees and internally displaced ..... Niger Delta Region, such genuine organizations include the movement for the ...
-PG), pectin lyase (PL), and pectin methylesterase (PE), produced by Aspergillus niger URM 4645, were studied in solid state fermentation (SSF) using yellow passion fruit peels as substrate. The effect of substrate amount, initial moisture ...
Diepeningen, van A.D.; Pal, K.; Lee, T.; Hoekstra, R.F.; Debets, A.J.M.
Heterokaryon incompatibility among Aspergillus niger strains is a widespread phenomenon that is observed as the inability to form stable heterokaryons. The genetic basis of heterokaryon incompatibility reactions is well established in some sexual filamentous fungi but largely unknown in presumed
Mohammed A. Jebor
This study was conducted in the laboratories of Biology Department, College of Science, which deals with isolation and purification of peroxidase and optimization of process parameters to achieve maximum yield of peroxidase by Aspergillus niger. Solid-state fermentation of Aspergillus niger was carried out for enhanced production of peroxidase using hydrogen peroxide as the substrate of enzyme maximum activity of the enzyme was achieved under optimum growth conditions. The optimum conditi...
Kubicek, C P; Röhr, M
In view of the often-cited theory that citric acid accumulation is caused by an inhibition of aconitase activity, the equilibrium of the reaction of aconitase was investigated by comparing in vivo steady-state concentrations of citrate and isocitrate in Aspergillus niger grown under various citric acid-producing conditions. With the equilibrium catalyzed by the A. niger enzyme in vitro, similar values were obtained. The validity of our in vivo measurements was verified by the addition of the ...
The Harry Potter books are centered around the psychic development of a traumatised young boy starting from his internalised early experience of being loved by his mother to the sudden loss of both of his parents at the anal stage and the later cumulative traumatisation by being negleced and mistreated by his relatives up to the present times. By identifying with his father and other father replacements Harry Potter finally acquires self-assurance and wins new friends. Harry goes through different stages of initiation into the adult world with all its conflicts and rivalries but also friendships. He stands up to his fears and symptoms resulting from his early childhood traumata and thereby helps to encourage readers of all ages to handle their own conflicts. On the oedipal level Harry Potter finally has to deidealize his father and Dumbledore, but also their opponent the dark Lord Voldemort, who thereby becomes more human, understandable and in the long run probably defeatable. The reader can identify himself with Harry and/ or a wide range of other characters. He can recognize his own experiences in life and conflicts in the story and argue internally with the demonstrated conflict solving patterns on different levels. It is the skillfully displayed and logically constructed story of the psychic development of a child that is traumatised at an early age and the possibilities the reader has to identify selectively with the different characters that constitutes the attractiveness of the Harry Potter novels.
Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard
Fumonisins is a well-studied group of mycotoxins, mainly produced in maize by Fusarium species. However with the recent discovery of a fumonisin production by Aspergillus niger, other food commodities are at risk, since A. niger is a ubiquitous contaminant of many food and feed products. The obje......Fumonisins is a well-studied group of mycotoxins, mainly produced in maize by Fusarium species. However with the recent discovery of a fumonisin production by Aspergillus niger, other food commodities are at risk, since A. niger is a ubiquitous contaminant of many food and feed products....... The objective of this thesis was to determine the significance and occurrence of fumonisins from Aspergillus niger in food, the frequency of fumonisin production in A. niger isolates, as well as studies of the effect of physiological factors affecting fumonisin production. Major findings in this context have...... isolation of 47 black Aspergilli, who all turned out to be A. acidus and did not produce neither ochratoxin or fumonisins, no significant risk from these toxins were associated with this intake. Single kernel analysis of maize showed that fumonisins were present in 15% of the kernels at varying...
Geoffrey Harris is chiefly known for his demonstration of the control of the pituitary gland by the portal vessels coming from the hypothalamus. This does not do justice to his extraordinary contribution to biology. Harris' life's work was central in demonstrating the brain/body interactions by which animals and humans adapt to their environment, and above all the control of that most crucial and proximate of all evolutionary events - reproduction. In this brief review, I have tried to put Geoffrey Harris' work in the context of the scientific thinking at the time when he began his work, and above all, the contribution of his mentor, FHA Marshall, on whose towering shoulders Harris rose. But this is mainly my personal story, in which I have tried to show the debt that my work owed to Harris and especially to my dear friend, the late Keith Brown-Grant in Harris' team. I myself was never an endocrinologist, but over a short period in the early 1970s, under the influence of such inspirational mentors, and using purely anatomical methods, I was able to demonstrate sexual dimorphism and hormone-dependent sexual differentiation in the connections of the preoptic area, regeneration of the median eminence, the ultrastructure of apoptosis, the requirement for the suprachiasmatic nuclei in reproductive rhythms, the existence of non-rod or cone photoreceptors in the albino rat retina and, later, the expression of vasopressin by solitary (one in 600) magnocellular neurons in the polydipsic di/di Brattleboro mutant rat; this phenomenon was subsequently shown to be due to a+1 reading frameshift. I end this brief overview by mentioning some of the abiding and fascinating mysteries of the endocrine memory of the brain that arise from Harris' work on the control of the endocrines, and by pointing out how the current interest in chronobiology emphasises what a Cinderella the endocrine mechanisms have become in current brain imaging studies. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.
Observations were made with the naked eyes and where distances were far, binocular was used in observing food plants and feeding habits (graze /browse) of Roan. The result on food plants and feeding habits of roan showed that eight forage plants were fed upon by roan from four different families (Poaceae, Rubiaceae, ...
Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, H.K.; Frisvad, Jens Christian
Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta...
Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, Henrik Klitgaard; Frisvad, Jens Christian
Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta...
Richter, Lennart; Wanka, Franziska; Boecker, Simon; Storm, Dirk; Kurt, Tutku; Vural, Özlem; Süßmuth, Roderich; Meyer, Vera
Filamentous fungi can each produce dozens of secondary metabolites which are attractive as therapeutics, drugs, antimicrobials, flavour compounds and other high-value chemicals. Furthermore, they can be used as an expression system for eukaryotic proteins. Application of most fungal secondary metabolites is, however, so far hampered by the lack of suitable fermentation protocols for the producing strain and/or by low product titers. To overcome these limitations, we report here the engineering of the industrial fungus Aspergillus niger to produce high titers (up to 4,500 mg • l-1) of secondary metabolites belonging to the class of nonribosomal peptides. For a proof-of-concept study, we heterologously expressed the 351 kDa nonribosomal peptide synthetase ESYN from Fusarium oxysporum in A. niger. ESYN catalyzes the formation of cyclic depsipeptides of the enniatin family, which exhibit antimicrobial, antiviral and anticancer activities. The encoding gene esyn1 was put under control of a tunable bacterial-fungal hybrid promoter (Tet-on) which was switched on during early-exponential growth phase of A. niger cultures. The enniatins were isolated and purified by means of reverse phase chromatography and their identity and purity proven by tandem MS, NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The initial yields of 1 mg • l-1 of enniatin were increased about 950 fold by optimizing feeding conditions and the morphology of A. niger in liquid shake flask cultures. Further yield optimization (about 4.5 fold) was accomplished by cultivating A. niger in 5 l fed batch fermentations. Finally, an autonomous A. niger expression host was established, which was independent from feeding with the enniatin precursor d-2-hydroxyvaleric acid d-Hiv. This was achieved by constitutively expressing a fungal d-Hiv dehydrogenase in the esyn1-expressing A. niger strain, which used the intracellular α-ketovaleric acid pool to generate d-Hiv. This is the first report demonstrating that A
Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to investigate the biosorption of pentachlorophenol on Aspergillus niger biomass as a method for removal of pentachlorophenol from aqueous solutions. Methods: Modified A. niger biomass with NaOH was used to absorb the pentachlorophenol. The impacts of various experimental parameters like primary pentachlorophenol concentration, pH of the solution, contact time, and biomass dosage on the biosorption of pentachlorophenol were investigated. Results: The correlation of contact time, pH and initial concentration with the biosorption of pentachlorophenol by A. niger biomass was statistically significant (P<0.001. Pentachlorophenol removal increased with decreasing pH of the solution and the maximum efficiency was obtained at pH=3. The equilibrium adsorption capacity was increased from 4.23 to 11.65 mg/g by increasing initial pentachlorophenol concentration from 10 to 40 mg/L, while pentachlorophenol removal efficiency decreased from 87 to 55%. Both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms efficiently described adsorption equilibrium of pentachlorophenol on A. niger biomass. Correlation coefficients for the second order kinetic model were almost equal to one. Conclusion: A. niger biomass can be used to reduce the toxicity of aqueous solutions containing pentachlorophenol in acidic pH conditions.
Perrone, Giancarlo; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena; Varga, János; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A
Aspergillus section Nigri is an important group of species for food and medical mycology, and biotechnology. The Aspergillus niger 'aggregate' represents its most complicated taxonomic subgroup containing eight morphologically indistinguishable taxa: A. niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus acidus, Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus costaricaensis, Aspergillus lacticoffeatus, Aspergillus piperis, and Aspergillus vadensis. Aspergillus awamori, first described by Nakazawa, has been compared taxonomically with other black aspergilli and recently it has been treated as a synonym of A. niger. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences generated from portions of three genes coding for the proteins β-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM), and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (TEF-1α) of a population of A. niger strains isolated from grapes in Europe revealed the presence of a cryptic phylogenetic species within this population, A. awamori. Morphological, physiological, ecological and chemical data overlap occurred between A. niger and the cryptic A. awamori, however the splitting of these two species was also supported by AFLP analysis of the full genome. Isolates in both phylospecies can produce the mycotoxins ochratoxin A and fumonisin B₂, and they also share the production of pyranonigrin A, tensidol B, funalenone, malformins, and naphtho-γ-pyrones. In addition, sequence analysis of four putative A. awamori strains from Japan, used in the koji industrial fermentation, revealed that none of these strains belong to the A. awamori phylospecies. Copyright © 2011 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB). Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases) and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases) cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol. PMID:22008461
Goldman Gustavo H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB. Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol.
Diversity of the chironomidae (diptera) of river Niger related to water pollution at Niamey (Niger). Bassirou Alhou, Jean-Claude Micha, Boudewijn Goddeeris. Abstract. This paper presents the first results on the water quality of the River Niger at Niamey based on the Chironomidae. Artificial substrata of stones covered with ...
This paper examines oil and security in Nigeria, with special reference to the crisis-ravaged Niger Delta. Its focus on the Niger Delta and its festering crisis stems from that region's critical importance to Nigeria. As the nation's treasure base, the Niger Delta provides over 80 percent of government revenues, 95 percent of ...
This essay is an outline interpretation of Niger Delta indigenous religions. It examines the structure of indigenous religions in the Niger-Delta region. Its interest is to point out the heterogeneous and diversed nature of the people of Niger Delta and those religions which are indigenous to them. The essay discovered that one ...
Lisia Cristina Paiva Nunes Nunes
Os livros da série Harry Potter tiveram seu primeiro volume publicado em 1997 e o último em 2007. Desde o princípio, a série passou a exercer um forte apelo sobre leitores de todas as idades e de todos os lugares. O objetivo desta dissertação é investigar esse fenômeno, a fim de identificar os motivos pelos quais a resposta às obras provou ser tão intensa. O corpus de investigação compreende os sete livros que formam a saga: Harry Potter e a Pedra Filosofal, Harry Potter e a Câmara Secreta, H...
Julio Javier Masquijo
Full Text Available Introducción Las fracturas Salter-Harris VI (SHVI son lesiones que se caracterizan por presentar ablación del anillo pericondral. Son infrecuentes en niños pero potencialmente devastadoras. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el mecanismo de producción, el tratamiento y los resultados funcionales de estas lesiones localizadas en el pie y el tobillo. Material y métodos Se analizaron retrospectivamente todos los pacientes con lesiones SHVI de tobillo y pie tratadas entre Enero de 2010 y Enero de 2013. Se documentaron datos demográficos, clasificación, mecanismo de lesión, tipo de lesiones asociadas y número de cirugías que requirieron. Los pacientes fueron evaluados funcionalmente con el score de AOFAS y radiográficamente para determinar la viabilidad de la fisis, acortamiento del miembro o deformidad angular. Resultados Se analizaron 5 fracturas en 4 pacientes (3 masculinos y 1 femenino. La edad promedio al momento de la lesión fue de 7.5 años (rango, 6 a 10 años. El seguimiento promedio fue de 26.2 meses (rango, 12 - 37 meses. De acuerdo a la subclasificación de Peterson 3 pertenecían al grupo A, 1 al B y 1 al C. 3 lesiones se produjeron como consecuencia de accidentes de moto y 2 por auto versus peatón. Todos los casos se acompañaron de pérdida de sustancia, el 75% presentaba lesiones en más de un hueso y el 50% lesiones tendinosas asociadas. Cada paciente requirió un promedio de 3.2 cirugías (rango, 2 a 5. El score AOFAS promedio fue de 79.8 puntos (rango, 62 – 100 puntos. Radiográficamente, solo el 40% de las fisis afectadas permanecían viables al último control. Conclusión Las fracturas SHVI se acompañan de una gran variedad de lesiones asociadas, requieren múltiples cirugías y suelen producir un cierre precoz de la fisis y algún grado de discapacidad. Se requieren medidas de prevención para evitar la exposición de los niños a este tipo de lesiones. El tratamiento temprano es fundamental para
Miyazaki, Hiroo; Gemma, Hitoshi; Uemura, Keiichi; Ono, Takahisa; Masuda, Masafumi; Sano, Takehisa; Sato, Masaki; Koshimizu, Naoki; Suda, Takafumi; Chida, Kingo
A 52-year-old woman was hospitalized because of severe cough in August 1994. She had engaged in culturing roses in greenhouses since 1968, and had developed a cough during the summer of 1990. Chest radiography showed diffuse ground-glass opacity in both lung fields, and she suffered from hypoxemia (PaO2 = 45.6 torr) while breathing room air. The lymphocyte count in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was increased, and transbronchial lung biopsy specimens showed lymphocyte alveolitis in the alveolar spaces. After admission, the patient's symptoms improved rapidly without medication. However, on her return to work, the cough and hypoxemia reappeared. In her rose culture, she had used Rockwool, and Aspergillus niger was detected predominantly in the Rockwool. Precipitins against the extracts of Aspergillus niger were detected with the double immunodiffusion test and the inhalation provocation test yielded clinical symptoms. Our diagnosis was hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by Aspergillus niger.
Kutyła-Olesiuk, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Urszula E.; Ciosek, Patrycja; Wróblewski, Wojciech, E-mail: email@example.com
Highlights: • Citric acid fermentation process (production) by Aspergillus niger. • Qualitative/quantitative monitoring of standard culture and culture infected with yeast. • Electronic tongue based on potentiometric and voltammetric sensors. • Evaluation of the progress and the correctness of the fermentation process. • The highest classification abilities of the hybrid electronic tongue. - Abstract: Hybrid electronic tongue was developed for the monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. The system based on various potentiometric/voltammetric sensors and appropriate chemometric techniques provided correct qualitative and quantitative classification of the samples collected during standard Aspergillus niger culture and culture infected with yeast. The performance of the proposed approach was compared with the monitoring of the fermentation process carried out using classical methods. The results obtained proved, that the designed hybrid electronic tongue was able to evaluate the progress and correctness of the fermentation process.
Shiv Mohan Singh,
Full Text Available Many filamentous fungi were isolated from the soils of Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, Svalbard, and were screened in vitro for their phosphate solubilizing ability. Two strains of Aspergillus niger showed good tricalcium phosphate (TCP solubilizing ability in Pikovskaya's medium. The TCP solubilization index was calculated at varying levels of pH and temperatures. The ability of Aspergillus niger strain-1 to solubilize and release inorganic-P was 285 µg ml–1, while Aspergillus niger strain-2 solubilized 262 µg ml–1 from 0.5% TCP after seven days. This is the first report of TCP solubilization by Arctic strains that may serve as very good phosphate solubilizers in the form of biofertilizer.
Full Text Available In many Muslim countries in West Africa and beyond, “protests against Charlie Hebdo” occurred when citizens went out on the streets following Friday prayers on 16 January 2015. However, only in Niger did these protests turn extremely violent. This report analyses the social, political and religious workings behind the protests in Niger. In doing so, it shows that the so-called “protests against Charlie Hebdo” are only superficially linked to the Muhammad cartoons by the French satirical magazine. Similarly violent protests have occurred in Niger – often in the town of Zinder – for quite different reasons and on different occasions in recent years. The report therefore argues against simplistic notions of religious fundamentalism and shows that the protests can be explained more appropriately in terms of politics and socio-economic exclusion.
Nitovuori, M. (Maiju)
Tiivistelmä Tässä tutkimuksessa käsitellään lastenkirjallisuutta, kirjallisuuden nimistöntutkimusta, Harry Potter -kirjasarjan henkilöhahmojen sukupuolisuutta sekä henkilönnimistön ilmentämää sukupuolisuutta. Tutkimuksen teoriaosuudessa käsitellään ensin mainittuja ja analyysiosio koostuu henkilönnimistön sukupuolisuuden tarkastelusta. Ensisijainen tutkimuskysymys on “Miten Harry Potter -sarjan henkilönnimistö ilmentää suku...
Gladden, John Michael
Enzymes can be used to catalyze a myriad of chemical reactions and are a cornerstone in the biotechnology industry. Enzymes have a wide range of uses, ranging from medicine with the production of pharmaceuticals to energy were they are applied to biofuel production. However, it is difficult to produce large quantities of enzymes, especially if they are non-native to the production host. Fortunately, filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, are broadly used in industry and show great potential for use a heterologous enzyme production hosts. Here, we present work outlining an effort to engineer A. niger to produce thermophilic bacterial cellulases relevant to lignocellulosic biofuel production.
Kutyła-Olesiuk, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Urszula E; Ciosek, Patrycja; Wróblewski, Wojciech
Hybrid electronic tongue was developed for the monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. The system based on various potentiometric/voltammetric sensors and appropriate chemometric techniques provided correct qualitative and quantitative classification of the samples collected during standard Aspergillus niger culture and culture infected with yeast. The performance of the proposed approach was compared with the monitoring of the fermentation process carried out using classical methods. The results obtained proved, that the designed hybrid electronic tongue was able to evaluate the progress and correctness of the fermentation process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Frisvad, Jens Christian; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Mogensen, Jesper
Introduction: Fumonisins are toxic seconday metabolites from Fusarium verticillioides and other Fusaria, from Tolypocladium and Aspergillus niger 1,2. Being a generalist Aspergillus niger is the workhorse in a very large number of industrial applications, and is also a common contaminant in foods...... of approximately 6% of the strains. None of the other species in the black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. One strain (NRRL 337), called the “food fungus”, because it is used for single cell protein based on cheap growth substrates, produced both fumonisins and ochratoxin A. Industrial citric acid producers...
Center for Public Policy Priorities, 2005
The Houston KIDS COUNT data book examines the status of children in Houston and Harris County and identifies trends in their general welfare. These data provide a portrait of Harris County's children that can be used for developing sound and effective local policy. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Children in Families; (2)…
Full Text Available The project “Problemes négligés du système de santé au Niger” focusses on a core set of often-neglected issues that nevertheless have an overall negative impact on health system effectiveness in Niger. For example, poor quality maternal health services result from challenges related to the midwifery profession and from pressures from addressing the effects of illegal termination of pregnancy. Overall health system governance is undermined by weak management of human resources and health information systems as well as problems related to decentralisation of health care provision and dependence on external funding for health projects. LASDEL applies a rapid assessment and qualitative research approach to working with patients and health care professionals to identify the scale and characteristics of these problems. The project goal is to develop an evidence base to support tackling these neglected issues. Développer des recherches sur les « problèmes négligés » dans la gouvernance de la santé, et sur cette base contribuer à des réformes des systèmes de santé permettant une meilleure qualité des soins pour les populations vulnérables. "Develop research on "neglected problems" in the provision of health systems, and through this work, contribute to health system reforms, that provide better quality of care for vulnerable populations." As can be seen above, many of these issues relate to reproductive health and more generally to health issues of disadvantaged groups. Some issues are neglected for political or social reasons meaning that they are not recognised or acknowledged and in some cases are criminalised. Therefore there are profound issues of participant privacy, protection and even safety for this project. Data sharing therefore requires thoughtful anonymisation and selection. The project group is Francophone with limited English language knowledge and the researchers and the context is largely in French. In common with
Groot, de M.J.L.; Prathumpai, W.; Visser, J.; Ruijter, G.J.G.
A mathematical model of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway of Aspergillus niger was constructed based on the kinetic properties of the enzymes. For this purpose L-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and D-xylose reductase were purified using dye-affinity chromatography, and their
Odunuga, S.; Adegun, O.; Raji, S. A.; Udofia, S.
Floods are devastating natural disasters with a significant impact on human life and the surrounding environment. This paper analyses historical and recent flood (2012 extreme) peak flow at strategic locations, land use activities and Floodplain Vulnerability Index analyses of the Niger-Benue River Floodplain. The 2012 peak flow at Jederbode on the Niger River was about 50% above the long term average. At Jebba (Niger), the 2012 peak flow of 1567 m3 s-1 was also far higher than the long term mean annual peak flow of 1159 m3 s-1. The 2012 peak flow at Lokoja was also about 50 % above the historical average. The Benue River at Makurdi had peak flow of 16 387 m3 s-1 which was also unusually higher than the historical average while Wuroboki (Benue) had peak flow of 3362 m3 s-1 which was also much higher that the historical average (694 m3 s-1). The mixed land use which supported diverse ecosystem services has the largest cover of 5654 km2 (36.85%) of the Niger-Benue floodplain. The flood vulnerability of the various land uses within the floodplain include; medium, high and very high levels. A four levels hierarchical implementation adaptation strategy for sustainable agricultural practices along the rivers flood plain was proposed. The implementation hierarchy includes: Community Concern, Local Authority Concern, State Concern and National Concern.
Feb 16, 2012 ... Key words: Aspergillus niger, phytase, phosphatase, amylase, protease, starch. ... biological production of phytases is of great significance in research. The researchers focus their attention mainly on finding appropriate strains and on their ... substrate, 200 μl of the enzyme extract and 200 μl 25 mMol of.
There has been an increasing awareness of the need to pay special focus on the adolescent and their sexual and reproductive health. This article reviews the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents in the Niger Delta region (NDR) of Nigeria. The objective is to bring to focus these important issues in the region.
This study therefore, examines the fundamental causes of the collapse of agricultural activities in some selected cities of the Niger delta with a view to provide policy options for their sustainability. Data for the exercise were obtained from a stratified random sampling of 180 respondents including youths and opinion leaders ...
Jul 26, 2012 ... This study gives a perspective analysis of the Niger Delta Environmental. Crisis in Nigeria. Right from the time ... However, the region had been infested with a lot of crises or problems which demanded urgent solutions and .... Oil industry practice in the management of waste and environmental pollution is ...
Abiala creek is a typical aquatic weed infested creek in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. Examination of the aquatic vegetation revealed seven weed species dominated by Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solm - Laub. The presence of these aquatic weeds negatively affected the plankton species diversity in the creek.
The efficacy of laboratory produced xylanase enzyme from Aspergillus niger on highly fibrous feeds and feedstuffs was investigated. Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) from grass hay and rice husk (Oryza sativa) from crop by-product characterised with high fibre content served as substrates (Feeds and Feedstuffs) for the ...
Aim: To evaluate the development of tetanus from intramuscular injection in children inWarri, Niger Delta of Nigeria Materials and Methods; Retrieval and analysis of case notes of all children with tetanus seen between 1999 and 2008 at Central Hospital Warri with referrals from surrounding General Hospitals and GN ...
As a conceptual background typical types of minorities and typical sources of minority conflict are outlined. A historical overview is given of the problems Niger Delta minorities have been experiencing. Their grievances and demands are highlighted, and the responses of different Nigerian governments are discussed.
Paleoecology of the Neogene Agbada formation, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Bankole Samson, Eckart Schrank, Peter Adeonipekun. Abstract. Abundant and well preserved assemblages of pollen, spores, dinoflagellates, freshwater algae and fungal remains had been encountered and documented from three selected wells within ...
of gas flared. Keyword: Emissions inventory; greenhouse gas; black carbon; millennium development goals; Niger Delta; flared ... The act of gas flaring is one of the most demanding and important energy and environmental problems confronting the world. Atmospheric contaminants ..... For some applications with a given.
Linden, O.; Moffat, D.; Singh, J.
The Niger Delta is one of the world's largest wetlands and includes by far the largest mangrove forest in Africa. Within this extremely valuable ecosystem, oil activities are widespread - Rivers State and Delta State produce 75 percent of Nigeria's petroleum, which represents over 50 percent of national government revenues. However, despite its vast oil reserves, the region remains poor. G...
The Ibani is of the Ijo extraction in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. The belief in a Supreme Being called Tamuno but also on multitude of deities because of the environment in which they live. They believe that these deities perform social functions that stabilize society. Ibani cosmology revolve round the tripod – God, deities and ...
1895 Movement, ELIMOTU, the Arogbo Freedom Fighters, Iduwini Volunteer Force. (IVF), the Niger Delta People's Salvation Front (NDPSF), the Coalition for Militant. Action (COMA), the Greenlanders, Deebam, Bush Boys, KKK, Black Braziers,. Icelanders and a raft of others. During that period about 120-150 high risk and ...
In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to find out cholesterol and total free fatty acid content in Niger seed oil which is the most available edible oil in Ethiopia. Acid value, peroxide value, saponification value and cholesterol content were determined. The analysis performed using Liebermann-Burchard ...
Aug 6, 2014 ... presenting a pectinolytic index of 0.51 (Table 2). Bezerra et al. (2012) reported that among 24 endophytic fungal isolates of Opuntia ficus-indica (forage cactus), only A. japonicus and Penicillium glandicola showed pectinolytic activity. Production of pectinolytic enzymes. A. niger URM 4645 was the isolate ...
The comparative study of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. in the biodegradation of automotive gas oil (AGO) and premium motor spirit (PMS) was carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of using these microorganisms in cleaning and restoring the ecosystem when polluted by petroleum products. These fungi were ...
Waste cellulosic materials (corncob, sawdust and sugarcane pulp) and crystalline cellulose induced cellulase production in wild strains of Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum and Trichoderma harzianum isolated from a wood-waste dump in Lagos, Nigeria. Cellulose-supplemented media gave the maximum ...
Production of pectinase and cellulase by Aspergillus niger from corn cob was examined. The organism was screened for enzymatic activity using Carboxyl Methyl Cellulose (CMC) and Pectin as substrate. The result revealed a clear zone of inhibition in the agar plates. The organism was subjected to different optimum ...
The results show that soil erosion output scenarios predict greater soil erosion in the study area from 2070 onwards. They suggest that human disturbance and topographic factors are the main impact factors in the affected areas. Key words: Tillabéry landscape (Niger), sheet and rill erosion modelling, data mining.
Oct 12, 2011 ... other hand, A. niger biofilm growth followed a logistic model having higher maximal specific growth rate than submerged cultures (0.061 ... applications in the food industry, beverages, textiles, agriculture, pulp and paper and ..... curves showed the same trend over time (Figure 4A). However, in submerged ...
:1, 1:3 and 1:5 respectively for. 3 weeks. ... ability of A. fumigatus and A. niger to bioaccumulate less toxic metals such as Iron, Lead and Zinc at high concentrations in the ... ability to remediate industrial wastewater containing.
Ferracin, L.M.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Taniwaki, M.H.
We analyzed the genetic relationships between 51 fungal isolates previously identified as A. niger aggregate, obtained from dried fruit samples from worldwide origin and 7 A. tubingensis obtained from Brazilian coffee beans samples. Greater fungal diversity was found in black sultanas. Aspergillus...
single cell protein) production was investigated. Aspergillus niger was grown in unsupplemented and supplemented (glucose or nitrogen sources [(NH4)2SO4, NaNO3, NH4Cl, NH4NO3 and KNO3]) BSG liquor by submerge fermentation on rotary ...
Chloroxylenol is a very toxic phenolic derivative and it represents potential hazard towards human health and to the environment. Aspergillus niger, local isolate, is an efficient fungus to degrade 99.72% of 2 mg/L of chloroxylenol after 7 days of fermentation. It also has a high capacity to degrade 91.83% of higher ...
Cellulases are a group of hydrolytic enzymes and are capable of degrading lignocellulosic materials. Cellulases have wide range of applications. This work focuses on factors relevant for improvement of enzymatic hydrolysis of saw dust by using Aspergillus niger. Different cultural conditions were examined to assess their ...
Their activities which have come under the radar include the supply of arms to Nigeria's Armed Forces and the Polic;, the detention, trial and execution of a popular Niger Delta activist, Ken Saro Wiwa and the distribution of money to chiefs and the youth. This paper offers historical explanations to debunk the popular view ...
Livelihood responses to climate change in the Niger-delta: implications for food security in Nigeria. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review. Journal Home ... Today, climatic changes coupled with oil exploration activeities in the region have negatively impacted on the environment. This has ...
... use them for criminal activities spell doom for any nation. Hence, drawing from scholarly publications and internet works, this study looks at armament and disarmament in Nigeria. It also juxtaposes Niger Delta militancy/disarmament and Boko Haram insurgence in Northern Nigeria, baring their similarities and differences.
Gender Sensitive Blindness Prevention Intervention in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria II: A report of a free cataract surgical service for women. ... Extra capsular cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation was performed in 185 out of the 261 eye surgeries. Of the 4239 women who presented, a total of nine hundred ...
This research focused on the effect of acid rain on the water quality of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Three hundred water samples were collected: 100 water samples from rain, 100 from open wells and 100 from rivers. The water samples were analysed using the paired t-test and multiple correlation analysis to ascertain ...
that the law would contribute to free and fair electoral processes. Putting this controversy in a broader context, I suggest looking at the genealogy of the instrumentalization of the Qur'an in. Niger's sociopolitical history, and also the identity politics to which state officials are increasingly compelled to respond. I also argue that ...
Abstract. At present there is under utilization of maternity service provision in Nigeria, with only a third of childbearing women electing to deliver in ... exploratory qualitative study was carried out to identify pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's perceptions of ..... participants criticised personal attributes of some.
Abstract. The geo-political regions of Nigeria even though unequal in size has one natural endowment or the other in commercial quantities. Some of these natural resources are yet to be explored for the benefit of the host communities and the nation at large. The reason is, oil was discovered early in Niger Delta.
Based on a recent gravity data collected over the area, the Lower Niger and Lower Benue basins are interpreted to comprise five major structural zones. The locations, trends, extent and relationships between most previously known structures in the area are confirmed and detailed by the data. However, the structure ...
At the end of November 1960, the Leiden Museum received an interesting collection of animals, mostly fishes, from the Niger delta. All specimens were collected by Mr. H. J. G. Beets, at the time employed by Shell B.P. — Delta Investigations, during the period May to August 1960, and in the region
In this paper, stochastic models based on autoregressive integrated moving average models of various orders and its seasonalized versions are presented, with a view to identifying the optimal model for some meteorological outcomes in some cities in Niger Delta region of Nigeria, using Normalized Bayesian Information ...
Changes in some climatic factors in five locations in the Niger delta region of Nigeria (long. 30E-90E and lat.4030'N-5020'N) have been examined with a view to identify the effect of climate change. Data from 1989 to 1996, used for the study were provided by the Meteorological records of the Nigerian meteorological ...
The physical and chemical characteristics of Atakpo River, Niger Delta, Nigeria were investigated for six months from March to August 2011. Three designated stations were chosen along the river course corresponding to areas where various human activities are carried out. Water samples were collected monthly from the ...
The major aim of this research work is to determine the stratigraphy and engineering geological properties of foundation subsoils of Yenagoa, the fast growing capital city of Bayelsa state in the Niger Delta, which can be used as reference database for future infrastructure and environmental development of the area. A total ...
Teertstra, Wieke R.; Tegelaar, Martin; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Golovina, Elena A.; Ohm, Robin A.; Wösten, Han A.B.
Conidia of Aspergillus niger are produced on conidiophores. Here, maturation of conidia on these asexual reproductive structures was studied. Pigmented conidia that had developed on conidiophores for 2, 5, and 8 days were similarly resistant to heat and were metabolically active as shown by CO2
Aspergillus niger ATCC 10864 was grown on bubble minicolumns aerated with pure oxygen either as biofilm or free-mycelium submerged systems. Growth kinetics was followed by estimating biomass from released carbon dioxide using a titration method and mathematical models. Submerged cultures showed increased ...
Five newspapers were studied, three of which were privately-owned dailies while the others were dailies owned by the Niger Delta States. The research techniques used in the study were content analysis and survey. Simple percentages were used. The study revealed that the five newspapers collectively published 0.56 ...
Jun 14, 2010 ... The comparative study of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. in the biodegradation of automotive gas oil (AGO) and premium motor spirit (PMS) was carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of using these microorganisms in cleaning and restoring the ecosystem when polluted by petroleum products.
Using survey research method and a before-and-after study evaluation design, the study concludes that because of systemic constraints arising from the hegemonic interests of the dominant coalitions in the Nigerian Social formation, NDDC is less likely to meet, the expectation of its initiators and the people of the Niger ...
Conclusion: Teenage pregnancy in the Niger Delta is concentrated among women with less formal education, who are unemployed, unmarried and with inadequate antenatal care and obstetric risks for poor pregnancy outcome. The provision an appropriate contraceptive method and to look with priority after any pregnancy ...
The causes of the East-West highway failure in the Niger Delta Sedimentary basin have been investigated. The Vertical Electrical Sounding using the Schlumberger techniques was utilized. The aim of the investigation was to delineate the geoelectric and geologic parameters of the subsurface as a means of determining the ...
Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Thrane, Ulf
Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regard...
This study gives a perspective analysis of the Niger Delta Environmental Crisis in Nigeria. Right from the time the first oil well was struck in 1956 in Oloibiri, an Ijaw town in the present day Bayelsa State, till now, oil has become the mainstay of the Nigerian economy accounting for about 98% of her annual earnings; while ...
Due to oil exploration and other human activities in the Niger Delta region, there is evidence of environmental degradation all over the area (Oronto, 1998). Environmental degradation is occasioned by consistent flow of industrial waste, oil spills, gas flares, fire disaster, acid rain, flooding erosion, etc., which has led to the ...
Antarctica. (Ed. Kulke, H), Berlin, Gebrüder. Borntraeger, 8: 143-172. 1995. . Oyedele, K. F., Oladele S., Ogagarue, D. O. and. Bakare, K. Sequence Stratigraphic Approach to. Hydrocarbon Exploration in Bobsaa Field, Onshore. Niger Delta, Journal of Petroleum and Gas. Exploration Research, 2(6): 106-114. 2012. .
Anonby, Erik John
Mambay is an Adamawa (Niger-Congo) language spoken by 15,000 people in Chad and Cameroon. The study opens with historical and linguistic background. A phonological inventory of the language is then presented and distribution patterns are examined. Some striking phenomena include a profoundly
This paper examines the socio-political problems emanating from the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria. The paper identifies the genesis of the problems, which are connected to oil prospecting and the attendant environmental degradation in the region. Various violent protests have been staged in the process of seeking for ...
The proliferation of ethnic militia and their activities in Nigeria, particularly in the Niger Delta region has moved from the closing of flow stations to kidnapping for ransom. The aim of these militia groups have changed from asking for fairness and equity in the distribution of the wealth of the Nigerian state into a serious form of ...
The capacity of A.niger to accumulate metabolites is remarkable. Under all conditions polyols accumulate in the cell and when mycelium in later developmental stages is considered, depending on the carbon source, aeration and external pH, polyols
The Niger Delta wetland ecosystem is of high economic importance to the local dwellers and the nation in general. The region is rich in both aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity and serves as a main source of livelihood for rural dwellers as well as stabilizing the ecosystem. Tremendous changes have occurred recently in the ...
31 août 2017 ... RESUME. Le Cours National de Paludologie (CNP) est une formation organisée depuis 2011 par le Centre de Recherche. Médicale et Sanitaire (CERMES) de Niamey en collaboration avec le Programme National de Lutte contre le. Paludisme (PNLP) du Niger, la Faculté des Sciences de la Santé (FSS) ...
Evolution of the Niger Delta is closely linked to the geodynamics related to the separation of the African and South American continents and the tectonics of the formation of the Benue Trough. Tectonic activities, climate and eustasy are the major factors responsible for transgression and regression through the entrant point ...
The mantle electrical conductivity-depth profile of the Niger delta region in Nigeria has been determined using solar quiet day ionospheric current (Sq).The magnetometer data obtained in 2010 from geomagnetic stations installed in Lagos by magnetic dataset (MAGDAS) in 2008 and data from magnetometers installed in ...
Traditional wrestling occupies pride of place in Niger, compared to other sports and cultural activities. Interest in traditional wrestling is widespread among Nigériens from all walks of life: young men, adults, senior citizens, young women, mature women, adult men, handicapped persons, prisoners, peasant farmers, civil ...
Despite being present in relatively low amounts, pentosans and hemicelluloses play an important role in dough rheology and bread properties. The aim of this work is to understand how the xylanases from Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma sp. influence dough rheology, such as elasticity, extensibility, strength and stability.
Aug 17, 2011 ... properties of the gluten make the dough more viscous than elastic, which does not provide increased volume or ... the flour and the effect of enzymes in it. The method recommended by AACC 54-10 (1995) ... Table 1, the xylanase from A. niger did not affect the stability of the flour. Xylanase derived from the.
Tutu Agyeman, Osei
This short country report, a result of larger Information for Development Program (infoDev) - supported survey of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education in Africa, provides a general overview of current activities and issues related to ICT use in education in the country. The Republic of Niger is mostly desert and it is the poorest country in the world. Subsisten...
Finfish Species distribution and seasonality in Odi River, Niger Delta, Nigeria. ... absent in rainy season and Aplocheilichthys kingii, Barbus aboinensis absent in the dry season. Fish caught and its seasonality in number did not show any significant difference. Key Words: Fish population, Distribution, Seasonality, Odi River ...
This study examines the vulnerability of buildings to flooding and the danger posed at Sabo Gari area of Minna, Niger State. Sabon-Gari which is one of the 22 neighborhoods found in Minna is a highly populated area as people who cannot afford to stay in the low density areas (Government Reserve Area - G.R.A) move to ...
The protracted conflict in the Niger Delta communities is currently being diagnosed with a view to understanding the nature of the resource struggle. From the 1980s, the region's cry of marginalization and exclusion from oil revenue allocation was couched in a wave of environmentalism. Environmental activism had ...
Feb 19, 2005 ... in the region, which often, impede oil activities. In response, the state has mostly resorted to repression and militarisation of the region to ensure unimpeded oil flow. The paper concludes that until this contradiction is resolved, violent conflicts may continue in the Niger Delta. KEYWORDS: Human security ...
managing the conflicts. The study revealed that the underlying cause of the conflict is the prolonged discrimination against the ethnic nationalities in the. Niger Delta in the sharing of the economic and political benefits of the oil and gas wealth of the region. Also the displacement of labour from the traditional farming and ...
This article assesses the viability of ethnicity as an explanation for the worsening orgy of conflict and militarisation in Nigeria's oil producing region. This is against the background that the Niger Delta crisis, despite being widely portrayed as turning on an ethnic pivot, reveals attributes that should compel a rethink of its ...
Prior to August 2009, the Niger Delta region of Nigeria witnessed widespread violent conflicts between the government, multinational oil corporations (MNCs) and militant groups. This conflict was widely attributed to deplorable human security, which deprived the indigenes of the region access to their sources of livelihoods ...
security on the outbreak of violence in the Niger Delta and the impact of the. Amnesty ... and violent conflicts. Successive military and democratic governments in the country have tried to find a lasting solution to the volatile situation in the region. ..... 45 Darlington Ashamole, 'Youth, Masculinity and Intergenerational Conflict:.
Saharan Africa. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria among long distance truck drivers in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Methods: A total of one hundred consecutively recruited long distance truck drivers aged ...
fermentation and incubated for O (control), 4,8 and 10 days to evaluate the changes in crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid ... inoculation of Cassava peel meal (CPM) with Aspergillus niger, the crude protein increased from 3.50% to 7.0% and to 5.25% on inoculation with Rhizopus spp.
de Groot, M.J.L.; Prathumpai, Wai; Visser, J.
A mathematical model of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway of Aspergillus niger was constructed based on the kinetic properties of the enzymes. For this purpose L-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and D-xylose reductase were purified using dye-affinity chromatography, and thei...
Apart from the execution of the Quick Impact Projects (QIP) to kick- start the efforts at ensuring sustainable Development in the Niger Delta Region, the Act establishing the NDDC, also mandated the Commission to evolve a comprehensive Regional Development Master Plan that will involve the contributions of all ...
matrix thermal conductivity in the Niger Delta sedimentary basin. There is a decrease of thermal conductivity with increasing shale fraction. The bulk conductivity also show an increase with increasing sandstone fraction. Increase in porosity results in a decrease in bulk conductivity. Thermal conductivity values and variations ...
A research work on Trichomonas vaginalis infection in some parts of Niger Delta Region, Nigeria was carried out. Vaginal swab/urethral swab and urine samples were collected from 500 subjects sampled in three zones. From the zonal prevalence of trichomoniasis, Zone B recorded the highest infection rate (9.7%). Out of ...
Ruijter, G.J.G.; Bax, M.; Patel, H.; Flitter, S.J.; Vondervoort, van de P.J.I.; Vries, de R.P.; Kuyk, van P.A.; Visser, J.
D-Mannitol is the predominant carbon compound in conidiospores of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger and makes up 10 to 15% of the dry weight. A number of physiological functions have been ascribed to mannitol, including serving as a reserve carbon source, as an antioxidant, and to store
This study investigated the economics of artisanal fishing along River Niger in Onitsha North Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. A total of 80 fishermen were randomly selected for the study. Data were collected by the use of structured set of questionnaires. Four research questions guided the study. Results ...
Walraven, van K.; Abbink, G.J.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Walraven, van K.
One of the least-studied revolts in postcolonial Africa, the invasion of Niger in 1964 by guerrillas of the outlawed Sawaba party, was a dismal failure and culminated in a failed attempt on the life of President Diori in the spring of 1965. Personal aspirations for higher education, access to jobs
This paper focuses on the fundamental problem of the relation between the novel produced in Niger and the Nigérien society, and by extension, the relation between Nigérien literature and the society from which it is emerging. Based on a thematic study, in the spirit of socio-criticism, an attempt will be made to place a ...
Vegetation and plant diversity patterns of Central Eastern Niger grasslands were investigated following phytosociological methods. Vegetation data collected on 76 plots by using the Braun-Blanquet's (1932) coverabundance scale were analyzed through five multivariate analyses (TWINSPAN, NMS, DCA, ISA and MRPP) ...
It has being shown that the Niger Delta Basin has spectacularly maintained a thick sedimentary apron and certain petroleum geological features favourable for petroleum generation. This study reports the petroleum potential and well log evaluation of logs in three wells to characterize the reservoir sand bodies. The well log ...
Erelt, Pekka, 1965-
Endisest diplomaadist Albert Tattarist (1901-1989), kelle initsiatiivil asutati Venezuelas Caracases 1951. aastal kaubandustööstuslik suurfirma Aco Group. Firma teised asutajad olid Harry Männil ja Arnold Orav, 1970. aastal loovutas Tattar firma juhtimise üle H. Männilile
Intervjuu 13.-15. aprillil Eestit külastanud maailma juhtivate hotelli- ja turismikoolide organisatsiooni Euhofa International presidendi Filiep Defraye ja peasekretäri Harry de Bruijn´iga, kes tutvusid Pärnu kolledži ja EHTE valmisolekuga organisatsiooni 50. kongressi korraldamiseks 2011. aastal
Wamper, Kim E.; Sierevelt, Inger N.; Poolman, Rudolf W.; Bhandari, Mohit; Haverkamp, Daniël
The Harris hip score (HHS), a disease-specific health status scale that is frequently used to measure the outcome of total hip arthroplasty, has never been validated properly. A questionnaire is suitable only when all 5 psychometric properties are of sufficient quality. We questioned the usefulness
... Afrikaans-speaking readers in the rich cultural heritage represented by the fantasy, Gothic and school series genres. These texts can furthermore challenge the readers to think critically about the implied intertexts in order to construct their own identity and moral choices. In relation to the aesthetic value of the Harry Potter ...
Guiton, Gretchen W.; Zachary, Robert A.
It was hypothesized in this document that lowered self-concept would be associated with children exhibiting problems such as delinquency or childhood depression. The differences in self-concept between 97 clinic and 485 nonclinic children were investigated by administration of the Piers-Harris Children's Self Concept Scale. The reported…
Chen, Johnathan [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, 1218 Lee Street, Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Children' s Hospital of Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Abel, Mark F. [University of Virginia, Department of Orthopedics, P.O. Box 801016, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Fox, Michael G. [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, 1218 Lee Street, Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States)
Salter Harris II fractures of the distal femur are associated with a high incidence of complications, especially premature physeal closure. Many risk factors for this high rate of premature physeal closure have been proposed. More recently, entrapment of periosteum within the physis has been suggested as an additional predisposing factor for premature physeal closure. The radiographic diagnosis of entrapped soft tissues, including periosteum, can be suggested in the setting of a Salter-Harris II fracture when the fracture does not reduce and physeal widening >3 mm remains. We report a patient who sustained a distal femoral Salter-Harris II fracture following a valgus injury. The patient had persistent distal medial physeal widening >5 mm following attempted reduction. A subsequent MRI revealed a torn periosteum entrapped within the distal femoral physis. Following removal of the periosteum, the patient developed a leg length discrepancy which required physiodesis of the contralateral distal femur. We present this case to raise awareness of the importance of having a high index of suspicion of periosteal entrapment in the setting of Salter-Harris II fractures since most consider entrapped periosteum an indication for surgery. (orig.)
Hollandi heliloojast Louis Andriessenist ja tema loomingust. 19. ja 20. sajandi ooperi erinevusest. Ka 1999. a. Amsterdamis esietendunud Louis Andriesseni ja Peter Greenaway ooperist "Writing to Vermeer", mis on pühendatud Jan Vermeer van Delfti ühele elulõigule 1672. a. Kommenteerinud Harry Liivrand, Olari Elts
Full Text Available of reliable iris features. This work proposes a fusion of Phase congruency and Harris algorithm to detect corner features found within the arrangement of iris patterns. This fusion produces a feature vector with the exact location of corner features...
... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment... plant safety and would not have a significant adverse effect on the probability of an accident occurring..., ``Physical Protection of Plants and Materials,'' for Renewed Facility Operating License No. NPF-63, issued to...
Rosa, Daniela Botti da
O presente artigo, uma reflexão crítica sobre o sujeito da contemporaneidade a partir de um de seus produtos - a literatura, especificamente a saga de Harry Potter - parte de quatro premissas básicas ligadas à teoria psicanalítica...
Journal for Language Teaching ... These criteria are discussed to enter the debate about the value of Harry Potter in the lives of young and developing minds. ... the article focuses on the interaction between the text and the reader and the extent to which reading these books can satisfy the needs of young learners in the ...
Shropshire , Ralph M. Peck, Milton Brown, John Ganz and Rodney Metzger of the Harry Diamond Laboratories. All gave generously of their time and providedr...Entrance. Journal of Geology 73:201-229. Hutton, Henry I. 1903. Tombstones of the Scarlet Family. William and Mary Quarterly Series 1, 11:145. Jennings
Castro Morán, Paula
Se analizan las distintas partes y etapas de la primera adaptación al cine de la saga, Harry Potter y la piedra filosofal. Desde la idea inicial, pasando por el reparto, la creación de distintos escenarios y objetos mágicos, hasta la promoción del film y su posterior éxito
This article critically explores Harry Torrance's four-volume edited collection "Qualitative Research Methods in Education." The author argues that this text is an important intervention in the constitution of a meta-discourse on qualitative research today. Torrance pays particular attention to the field of education, providing much needed…
Libraries are constantly challenged to find ways to demonstrate their value to their institutions. Can hosting a National Library of Medicine (NLM) exhibition increase a library's impact? In 2012 the University of Toledo engaged their constituents by hosting and developing programming for the NLM exhibit Harry Potter's World: Renaissance Science,…
Abigail De Kosnik
Full Text Available Lisa S. Brenner, editor. Playing Harry Potter: Essays and interviews on fandom and performance. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2015, paperback, $29.95 (238p ISBN 978-0-7864-9657-0; e-book $14.43 (5374 KB ISBN 978-1-4766-2136-4, ASIN B012E9G0R6.
Years after the publication of its seventh and final volume in 2007 and the completion of the film series in 2011, the "Harry Potter" series is still studied and cited by professionals in fields ranging from science and economics to law and theology (for recent examples see Gierzynski and Eddy; Reagin; Bassham). Its continuing popularity…
Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.
Teachers can build on students' familiarity with and respect for the Harry Potter books to create source-based vocabulary lessons. The idea is to work with the Latin roots that J. K. Rowling uses to create original names for places, people, and magical charms and then to extend students' knowledge through exploration of additional English words…
Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.
Considers that the comparison between children's success in learning new names in the Harry Potter books versus the relative failure of adults to learn new names connected to the September 11th attacks provides a real-world situation from which principles can be deduced to help educators succeed in teaching vocabulary lessons. Offers classroom…
Palmer, Laura K.
This lesson uses characters from the Harry Potter series of novels as a "hook" to stimulate students' interest in introductory forensic science. Students are guided through RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis using inexpensive materials and asked to interpret data from a mock crime scene. Importantly, the lesson provides an…
Marshall, Joanne M.
Notes that at the school level and in the classroom, English educators can lead the way in open discussion, particularly discussion about books such as the Harry Potter series. Offers a seven-step framework as a way to begin an open discussion. Concludes that the framework acknowledges those concerns and provides a voice for them while also…
Belcher, Catherine L.; Stephenson, Becky Herr
Given the current educational climate of high stakes testing, standardized curriculum, and "approved" reading lists, incorporating unauthorized, often controversial, popular literature into the classroom becomes a political choice. The authors examine why teachers choose to read "Harry Potter", how they use the books and incorporate new media, and…
Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Kim, Angie L.; Schwalen, Courtney E.; Harris, Paul L.
Based on the testimony of others, children learn about a variety of figures that they never meet. We ask when and how they are able to differentiate between the historical figures that they learn about (e.g., Abraham Lincoln) and fantasy characters (e.g., Harry Potter). Experiment 1 showed that both younger (3- and 4-year-olds) and older children…
Dempster, Steve; Oliver, Alice; Sunderland, Jane; Thistlethwaite, Joanne
This article reports findings from a small-scale focus-group study funded by the British Academy. Drawing on Herbert Marsh and Richard Shavelson's notion of "Academic Self-Concept" and David Barton and Mary Hamilton's view of literacy as context-specific social practices, the authors examine what young British "Harry Potter"…
Bercaw, Lynne A.
Describes the author's interactions with prospective teachers' resistances to books in the "Harry Potter" series and how she dealt with these situations. Recognizes that her role as a teacher educator includes honoring her students' beliefs, upholding the integrity of the academic discipline of children's literature, and adhering to the…
Frank, Andrew J.; McBee, Matthew T.
This article examines the process of identity development in gifted adolescents and provides a theoretical and research-based explanation of its importance for influencing achievement and quality of life in adulthood. Teachers, counselors, and parents can use "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" (Rowling, 1997) as a springboard into discussion…
This article explores the intrinsic criteria that are applied to discover the literary value of the Harry Potter texts. The aim of the article is to equip educators of Afrikaans in the intermediate and senior school phases with background knowledge by providing an overview of discussions and commentaries on the literary genres in ...
Gibson, Donna M.
In this article, the popular children's book Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone (J. K. Rowling, 1997) is discussed as the basis for an activity in teaching and eliciting empathy from beginning-level school counseling students. A description of the application of the book to this activity, the students' evaluations, and teaching recommendations…
The "Harry Potter" series has proven to be immensely popular to readers of all ages worldwide. In particular, the series has strong appeal to boys. This paper examines selected characters and events from the books in light of the "male spiritual journey," a concept currently being explored by Richard Rohr and others. A general definition of…
Martson, Ilona, 1970-
Alice Randalli romaan "Tuul on läinud" - samad sündmused kui Margaret Mitchelli romaanis "Tuulest viidud", ainult neegerorjade vaatevinklist. Nancy Stofferi raamatud "Larry Potter ja tema parim sõber Lilly" ja "Legend Rah'ist ja Mugudest" ilmusid 1984. a. Joanne Kathleen Rowlingi "Harry Potter" lood aga valmisid hiljem
Many children view favourite feature films repeatedly at home and develop understandings of them. This article discusses findings from a study which focused on the understandings that 9- and 10-year-old children showed about character in "Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets." These findings are reported in terms of a framework…
Martinez, Diana; Murray, Kristy O; Reyna, Martin; Arafat, Raouf R; Gorena, Roberto; Shah, Umair A; Debboun, Mustapha
Since 2002, West Nile virus (WNV) has been detected every year in Houston and the surrounding Harris County, Texas. In 2014, the largest WNV outbreak to date occurred, comprising 139 cases and causing 2 deaths. Additionally, 1,286 WNV-positive mosquito pools were confirmed, the most reported in a single mosquito season.
Warnick, Bryan R.
Harry Brighouse has advanced an intriguing set of arguments about the place of human flourishing in liberal educational theory. In his book "On Education", Brighouse argues that autonomy can be justified instrumentally because it promotes flourishing. He links flourishing to the psychological concept of "subjective wellbeing" and he spells out the…
Fleischmann, Ayan; Siqueira, Vinícius; Paris, Adrien; Collischonn, Walter; Paiva, Rodrigo; Gossett, Marielle; Pontes, Paulo; Calmant, Stephane; Biancamaria, Sylvain; Crétaux, Jean-François; Tanimoune, Bachir
The Upper Niger Basin is located in Western Africa, flowing from Guinea Highlands towards the Sahel region. In this area lies the seasonally inundated Niger Inland Delta, which supports important environmental services such as habitats for wildlife, climate and flood regulation, as well as large fishery and agricultural areas. In this study, we present the application of MGB-IPH large scale hydrologic and hydrodynamic model for the Upper Niger Basin, totaling c.a. 650,000 km2 and set up until the city of Niamey in Niger. The model couples hydrological vertical balance and runoff generation with hydrodynamic flood wave propagation, by allowing infiltration from floodplains into soil column as well as representing backwater effects and floodplain storage throughout flat areas such as the Inland Delta. The model is forced with TRMM 3B42 daily precipitation and Climate Research Unit (CRU) climatology for the period 2000-2010, and was calibrated against in-situ discharge gauges and validated with in-situ water level, remotely sensed estimations of flooded areas (classification of MODIS imagery) and satellite altimetry (JASON-2 mission). Model results show good predictions for calibrated daily discharge and validated water level and altimetry at stations both upstream and downstream of the delta (Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency>0.7 for all stations), as well as for flooded areas within the delta region (ENS=0.5; r2=0.8), allowing a good representation of flooding dynamics basinwide and simulation of flooding behavior of both perennial (e.g., Niger main stem) and ephemeral rivers (e.g., Niger Red Flood tributaries in Sahel). Coupling between hydrology and hydrodynamic processes indicates an important feedback between floodplain and soil water storage that allows high evapotranspiration rates even after the flood passage around the inner delta area. Also, representation of water retention in floodplain channels and distributaries in the inner delta (e.g., Diaka river
Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Thrane, Ulf; Meijer, Martin; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A.; Nielsen, Kristian F.
Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B2, B4, and B6) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use of the remaining biomass as animal feed. In conclusion it is recommended to use strains of A. niger with inactive or inactivated gene clusters for fumonisins and ochratoxins, or to choose isolates for biotechnological uses in related non-toxigenic species such as A. tubingensis, A. brasiliensis, A vadensis or A. acidus, which neither produce fumonisins nor ochratoxins. PMID:21853139
Jens C Frisvad
Full Text Available Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe. However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B(2, B(4, and B(6 were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use of the remaining biomass as animal feed. In conclusion it is recommended to use strains of A. niger with inactive or inactivated gene clusters for fumonisins and ochratoxins, or to choose isolates for biotechnological uses in related non-toxigenic species such as A. tubingensis, A. brasiliensis, A vadensis or A. acidus, which neither produce fumonisins nor ochratoxins.
Silva, E.P.; Barros Junior, L.M.; Duarte, M.M.L.; Macedo, G.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Biosorption is a property of certain types of inactive, dead, microbial biomass to bind and concentrate heavy metals from even very dilute aqueous solutions. Biomass exhibits this property, acting just as a chemical substance, as an ion exchanger of biological origin. It is particularly the cell wall structure of certain algae, fungi and bacteria which was found responsible for this phenomenon. Some of the biomass types come as a waste by-product of large-scale industrial fermentations (the mold Rhizopus or the bacterium Bacillus subtilis). Other metal-binding biomass types, certain abundant seaweeds (particularly brown algae e.g. Sargassum, Ecklonia), can be readily collected from the oceans. These biomass types, serving as a basis for metal biosorption processes, can accumulate in excess of 25% of their dry weight in deposited heavy metals: Pb, Cd, U, Cu, Zn, even Cr and others. Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. (author)
Gokhale, D V; Patil, S G; Bastawde, K B
Aspergillus niger NCIM 1207 produces high levels of extracellular beta-glucosidase and xylanase activities in submerged fermentation. Among the nitrogen sources, ammonium sulfate, ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate, and corn-steep liquor were the best for the production of cellulolytic enzymes by A. niger. The optimum pH and temperature for cellulase production were 3.0-5.5 and 28 degrees C, respectively. The cellulase complex of this strain was found to undergo catabolite repression in the presence of high concentrations of glucose. Glycerol at all concentrations caused catabolite repression of cellulase production. The addition of glucose (up to 1% concentration) enhanced the production of cellulolytic enzymes, but a higher concentration of glucose effected the pronounced repression of enzymes. Generally the growth on glucose- or glycerol-containing medium was accompanied by a sudden drop in the pH of the fermentation medium to 2.0.
Kareem, S. O.
Full Text Available A solid state fermentation was developed for citric acid production from pineapple waste by Aspergillus niger KS-7. The medium was supplemented with different concentration of glucose, sucrose, ammonium nitrate and ammonium phosphate. It was found that pineapple waste with 15% (w/v sucrose and ammonium nitrate (0.25% w/v gave the optimum citric acid secretion (60.61 g/kg in the presence of methanol (2% v/v when fermented for 5 days at 30 °C with the initial moisture content of 65%. The yield was more than 90% based on the amount of fermentable sugar consumed. These results present the use of pineapple peel as a cheap medium for the production of commercially valuable organic acid by A. niger.
Meijer, Susan Lisette; De Jongh, Willem Adriaan; Olsson, Lisbeth
that a basal level of FacB activity exists under glucose-repressive conditions. In the present study, the effect of deletion of acuB on the physiology of A. niger was assessed. Differences in organic acid and acetate production, enzyme activities and extracellular amino and non-amino organic acid production...... were determined under glucose-repressing and -derepressing conditions. Furthermore, consumption of alternative carbon sources (e.g. xylose, citrate, lactate and succinate) was investigated. It was shown that AcuB has pleiotropic effects on the physiology of A. niger. The results indicate that metabolic...... pathways that are not directly involved in acetate metabolism are influenced by acuB deletion. Clear differences in organic acid consumption and production were detected between the a dagger acuB and reference strain. However, the hypothesis that AcuB is responsible for basal AcuA activity necessary...
Parjo Umi Kalthsom
Full Text Available Good indoor environmental quality is desired for a healthy indoor environment. The microbial growth under indoor environments contribute to the poor indoor environmental quality that can cause various of health problems. In this study, the applications of three types of antifungals to prevent microbial migration, subsequent growth and bio-deterioration of the substrates. The aim of this research was to evaluate the coating-bio resistance in remediation of indoor fungal using three types of antifungals with different types of wall finishing materials. The treatment was exposed to optimum temperature and relative humidity at 30°C and 90% respectively. The potassium sorbate, zinc salicylate and calcium benzoate are tested against Aspergillus niger which is collected from indoor rooms. This study has revealed the growth of A. niger are more affected by the potassium sorbate on thick wallpaper, which is the percentage growth are 47%.
Zhu, Ping; Wang, Zechen; Bonofiglo, Phillip
A magnetic reconnection process in the generalized Harris sheet has been revealed to be intrinsically three-dimensional both geometrically and dynamically despite the spatial invariance of the original current sheet in the equilibrium current direction. The spatial distribution and structure of the quasi-separatrix layers, as well as their temporal emergence and evolution, indicate that the associated magnetic reconnection can only occur in a three-dimensional geometry which is irreducible to a two-dimensional reconnection process. Such a three-dimensional reconnection process is induced by the nonlinear development of an ideal MHD ballooning instability in the generalized Harris sheet, which is itself an intrinsically three-dimensional dynamic process.
Jiang, Zetao; Liu, Min
This paper proposes a fast image mosaic algorithm based on the improved Harris-SIFT algorithm, according to such problems as more memory consumption, greater redundancy quantity of feature points, slower operation speed, and so on, resulting from using the SIFT algorithm in the image matching stage of the image mosaic process. Firstly in the matching stage of the algorithm, the corner point is extracted by using the multi-scale Harris, feature descriptor is constructed by the 88-dimensional vector based on the SIFT feature, the coarse matching is carried out by the nearest neighbor matching method, and then the precise matching point pair and image transformation matrix are obtained by the RANSAC method. The seamless mosaic can be achieved by using the weighted average image fusion. The experimental results show that this algorithm can not only achieve precise seamless mosaic but also improve operation efficiency, compared with the traditional algorithm.
Primeau, Charlotte; Jakobsen, Lykke Schrøder; Lynnerup, Niels
This paper is the first to systematically investigate computer tomography (CT) images vs. ordinary flat plane radiography for evaluating Harris Lines (HL) on tibiae. Harris Lines are traditionally investigated using radiographic images and recorded as either present or absent, or by counting...... the number of HL. Seventy-four pairs of human sub-adult and adult archaeological tibiae were used in this study. Both image methods were tested for intra- and inter-observer agreement and the methods were then compared. Analysis was performed with the tibiae divided into younger (n = 19) and older sub......-adults (n = 26) and adults (n = 29), as well as all tibiae combined (n = 74). This study found that the intra- and inter-observer agreement was very similar for each method, but both image methods performed less well for counting the number of HL. Direct comparison between CT images and radiographic images...
Wang, Fengfeng; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Hulsman, Marc; de Bekker, Charissa; Müller, Wally H; Reinders, Marcel; de Vries, Ronald P; Wösten, Han A B
Colonies of Aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. For instance, the glucoamylase gene glaA is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. As a consequence, its encoded protein GlaA is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. Here, multiple copies of amyR were introduced in A. niger. Most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed heterogeneous glaA expression and GlaA secretion. However, heterogeneity was abolished in transformant UU-A001.13 by expressing glaA and secreting GlaA throughout the mycelium. Sequencing the genome of UU-A001.13 revealed that transformation had been accompanied by deletion of part of the fluG gene and disrupting its 3' end by integration of a transformation vector. Inactivation of fluG in the wild-type background of A. niger also resulted in breakdown of starch under the whole colony. Asexual development of the ∆fluG strain was not affected, unlike what was previously shown in Aspergillus nidulans. Genes encoding proteins with a signal sequence for secretion, including part of the amylolytic genes, were more often downregulated in the central zone of maltose-grown ∆fluG colonies and upregulated in the intermediate part and periphery when compared to the wild-type. Together, these data indicate that FluG of A. niger is a repressor of secretion.
Jan Kopcewicz; Gabriela Centkowska
Gibberellins (GA4+7) and gibberellin-like substances isolated from generatively induced black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger L.) bring about the growth of shoots and a partial differentiation of axillary meristem in black henbane plants grown under non-inductive light conditions. Long-lasting application of gibberellins, however, did not result in full development of flowers in the majority of the plants investigated. Thus, it seems, that gibberellins are not specific flowering hormones in black h...
The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the Aspergillus niger 551 strain to produce phytases and phosphatases in 24 days shake cultures at a pH adjusted to 5.5 and a changing (uncontrolled) pH, in a medium containing 0.5% of glucose and 4% of starch. The fermentation process of the culture performed ...
Tabac et pauvreté au Niger. La majorité des pays africains sud du Sahara sont au premier stade de l'épidémie du tabac mais la consommation du tabac augmente rapidement. Consciente de la menace mondiale, l'Organisation mondiale de santé (OMS) a initié la Convention-cadre pour la lutte anti-tabac et la majorité des ...
30 juin 2015 ... RÉSUMÉ. Objectif : L'objectif de ce travail est de faire une évaluation des principales espèces des Acrididae consommées au Niger. Méthodologie et résultats : Un questionnaire porté sur les caractéristiques de la zone, les méthodes de collecte des criquets, les espèces d'Acrididae et la quantité collectée ...
Full Text Available The industrial A. niger strain producing citric acid was mutagenized with the use of new chemical mutagens: free nitroxyl radicals. Strains of higher citric acid production yield were obtained. Citric acid was produced in a shorter time compared to the initial strain. During 6-12 months of storage most of the strains preserved their positive features which proves that mutants with profitable biotechnological properties were obtained. These mutants are used in industrial process.
H.R Samadlouie; Sh Gharanjik
Among the various fungal strains screened for citric acid production, Aspergillus niger is known to produce considerable amounts of citric acid and other organic acids when cultivated in submerge fermentation. In this study, optimization of the medium components was carried out using "one-factor-at-a-time" and response surface methods (RSM). One-factor-at-a-time indicated that the amount of citric acid production was increased along with the increasing of agitation speed (from 150 to 200 rpm)...
design. The first stage was the purposive selection of state. One state out of the nine states. (Delta state) in the Niger-Delta region was purposively selected for the .... Bicycle repairer. 5. 2.3. 16. Medicine selling. 5. 2.3. 17. Tailoring. 11. 5.3. 18. Vulcanizing. 4. 1.9. 19. Welder. 6. 2.6. 21. Daily wage labourer. 12. 6.0. Total. 212.
11 (1), SERIAL NO. 45, JANUARY, 2017: 171-181. ISSN 1994-9057 (Print). ISSN 2070-0083 (Online). DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/afrrev.v11i1.12. Oil Politics and Violence in Postcolonial Niger Delta Drama. Otu, Oyeh O. Department of English Studies,. University of Port Harcourt,. East-West Road, Choba, P.M.B. 5323,.
International Monetary Fund
IMF engagement with Niger since 2005 has remained constructive. IMF-supported programs have contributed to the authorities’ goals of macroeconomic stability, growth, and human development progress. Development of Niger’s uranium and petroleum resources provides an important opportunity to raise the living standards of Niger’s citizens. Institutional reforms aimed at enhancing the efficient use of resource revenues and transparency of public finances will remain critical to maximize benefits a...
Yukata, Kiminori; Nakai, Sho; Ikeda, Masaki; Hamawaki, Jun-Ichi
We describe a case of isolated physeal fracture of ulna distal end in a 13-year-old boy. This fracture type is uncommon, especially Salter-Harris type III of this injury has not been reported. Plain radiographs showed a small vertical fracture line at the ulnar distal end and an enlargement of epiphyseal plate at the base of ulnar styloid process. The present case was successfully managed with conservative treatment because of its minimal displacement.
Kak, Avinash C
All code examples in the book are available for download on a companion site with resources for readers and instructors A refreshing alternative to the rather abstract and dry explanations of the object-oriented design patterns in much of the existing literature on the subject In 24 chapters, Designing with Objects explains well-known design patterns by relating them to stories from the Harry Potter series
As we prepare for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), we should be on the lookout for celestial events which we can use not only to popularise the IYA2009 and practise our outreach skills, but which also have natural connections to popular culture. The Venus-Jupiter conjunction this autumn is such an opportunity, given several direct connections to the use of astronomy in J. K. Rowling's famous Harry Potter universe.
Boerman-Cornell, William; Klanderman, David; Schut, Alexa
The Harry Potter series is a favorite for out-of-school reading and has been used in school, largely as an object of study in language arts. Using a content analysis to highlight the ways in which J.K. Rowling's work could be used to teach higher dimensionality in math, the authors argues that the content is sufficient in such books to engage the…
Ada Cristina Machado da Silveira
Full Text Available O artigo analisa a construção das narrativas da saga Harry Potter. Utilizamos, para isso, o esquema estabelecido por Umberto Eco, o qual se propõe a ver a narrativa como um jogo. Focamos na contribuição feminina para formação do personagem principal, analisando o percurso gerativo de sentido obtido através do mapa semiótico.
Full Text Available This study analyses the increasing number of catastrophic floods in the Niger River Basin, focusing on the relation between long term hydro-climatic variability and flood risk over the last 40 to 100 years. Time series for three subregions (Guinean, Sahelian, Benue show a general consistency between the annual maximum discharge (AMAX and climatic decadal patterns in West Africa regarding both trends and major changepoints. Variance analysis reveals rather stable AMAX distributions except for the Sahelian region, implying that the changes in flood behavior differ within the basin and affect mostly the dry Sahelian region. The timing of the floods within the year has changed only downstream of the Inner Niger Delta due to retention processes. The results of the hydro-climatic analysis generally correspond to the presented damage statistics on people affected by catastrophic floods. The damage statistics shows positive trends for the entire basin since the beginning in the 1980s, with the most extreme increase in the Middle Niger.
Aich, V.; Koné, B.; Hattermann, F. F.; Müller, E. N.
This study addresses the increasing flood risk in the Niger basin and assesses the damages that arise from flooding. Statistics from three different sources (EM-DAT, Darthmouth Flood Observatory, NatCat Munich RE) on people affected by floods show positive trends for the entire basin beginning in the 1980s. An assessment of four subregions across the Niger basin indicates even exponential trends for the Sahelian and Sudanian regions. These positive trends for flooding damage match up to a time series of annual maximum discharge (AMAX): the strongest trends in AMAX are detected in the Sahelian and Sudanian regions, where the population is also increasing the fastest and vulnerability generally appears to be very high. The joint effect of these three factors can possibly explain the exponential increase in people affected by floods in these subregions. In a second step, the changes in AMAX are attributed to changes in precipitation and land use via a data-based approach within a hypothesis-testing framework. Analysis of rainfall, heavy precipitation and the runoff coefficient shows a coherent picture of a return to wet conditions in the basin, which we identify as the main driver of the increase in AMAX in the Niger basin. The analysis of flashiness (using the Richards-Baker Index) and the focus on the "Sahel Paradox" of the Sahelian region reveal an additional influence of land-use change, but it seems minor compared to the increase in precipitation.
Mohammed A. Jebor
Full Text Available This study was conducted in the laboratories of Biology Department, College of Science, which deals with isolation and purification of peroxidase and optimization of process parameters to achieve maximum yield of peroxidase by Aspergillus niger. Solid-state fermentation of Aspergillus niger was carried out for enhanced production of peroxidase using hydrogen peroxide as the substrate of enzyme maximum activity of the enzyme was achieved under optimum growth conditions. The optimum conditions were the isolated of Aspergillus niger from soil and growth in synthetic medium, it gave high titer of peroxidase activity, the fructose as carbon source, peptone as nitrogen source, after 12 days of incubation, incubation temperature 25 °C and pH = 6.5. Peroxidase purified in four purification steps; precipitation with 70% saturation of ammonium sulfate, step of dialysis, the third by ion exchange chromatography using DEAE-Cellulose and fourth by gel filtration throughout Sephadex G-100. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 150U/mg with 7.75 folds. The peroxidase was shown to have molecular weight of 40kDa in SDS-PAGA and about 40kDa in gel filtration.The optimum pH and temperature for peroxidase activity 7 and 35 C0 respectively.
Carla Regina Baptista Gordin
Full Text Available Niger is an oleaginous species whose cultivation has been spreading, but there is not much information on the adverse conditions during its seedling establishment. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of substrate water availability and seed water content on niger germination. Seeds were moistened using the humid atmosphere method for 0; 24; 48; and 72 hours, obtaining the water contents of 7.0 %, 12.8 %, 16.8 % and 32.2 %. Then, they were sown in substrate moistened with PEG 6000 solutions with different osmotic potentials: 0.0 MPa (control, -0.1 MPa, -0.2 MPa, -0.3 MPa and -0.4 MPa. A completely randomized design, in a 4 x 5 factorial scheme (water content x osmotic potential, with four replications of 50 seeds, was used. First count and germination percentage, germination speed index and mean time, shoot and root length and seedlings dry weight were evaluated. The reduction in the substrate osmotic potential decreases the niger seed germination and seedling growth, regardless of water content, but with a higher evidence in seed water contents below 32.2 % and 12.8 %, respectively.
Alio, Amina P; Merrell, Laura; Roxburgh, Kimberlee; Clayton, Heather B; Marty, Phillip J; Bomboka, Linda; Traoré, Salamatou; Salihu, Hamisu M
To explore the psycho-social impact of vesico-vaginal fistula (VVF) on women in Niger. We conducted a qualitative study on 21 women in convalescence at the DIMOL Reproductive Health Center in Niamey, Niger, in 2008 and 2009. The women had undergone 1-3 fistula repair operations and all had stillborn infants. Women reported many psychological consequences of VVF including depression, feelings of shame, and loneliness. Others reported feeling devalued as a woman and wanting to end their lives. Social consequences of fistula reported by these women included rejection from society, isolation, rejection from husband and/or divorce. Almost half of the women reported of having lost their social network and support as a result of the fistula. Women with VVF were deemed unworthy, and their illness was often attributed to some fault of their own. Our findings support the notion that socio-economic factors, though they certainly contribute to obstetric fistula, are not the primary reason for fistula, particularly in Niger. Fistula is a direct result of lack of access to skilled birth attendants and emergency obstetric care.
Ouedraogo, Itengre; McConley, Regina; Payne, Christopher; Heller, Alison; Wall, L Lewis
The objective was to determine the contribution of female genital cutting to genital fistula formation in Niger from the case records of a specialist fistula hospital. A retrospective review was undertaken of the records of 360 patients seen at the Danja Fistula Center, Danja, Niger, between March 2014 and September 2016. Pertinent clinical and socio-demographic data were abstracted from the cases identified. A total of 10 fistulas resulting from gurya cutting was obtained: 9 cases of urethral loss and 1 rectovaginal fistula. In none of the cases was genital cutting performed for obstructed labor or as part of ritual coming-of-age ceremonies, but all cutting procedures were considered "therapeutic" within the local cultural context as treatment for dyspareunia, lack of interest in or unwillingness to engage in sexual intercourse, or female behavior that was deemed to be culturally inappropriate by the male spouse, parents, or in-laws. Clinical cure (fistula closed and the patient continent) was obtained in all 10 cases, although 3 women required more than one operation. Gurya cutting is an uncommon, but preventable, cause of genital fistulas in Niger. The socio-cultural context which gives rise to gurya cutting is explored in some detail.
Shi, Changyou; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Daiwen
.... To further understand possible mechanism of solid state fermentation, the composition of extracellular enzymes secreted by Aspergillus niger during fermentation was analysed using two-dimentional...
Full Text Available Nowadays the demand for identifying the authenticity of an image is much increased since advanced image editing software packages are widely used. Region duplication forgery is one of the most common and immediate tampering attacks which are frequently used. Several methods to expose this forgery have been developed to detect and locate the tampered region, while most methods do fail when the duplicated region undergoes rotation or flipping before being pasted. In this paper, an efficient method based on Harris feature points and local binary patterns is proposed. First, the image is filtered with a pixelwise adaptive Wiener method, and then dense Harris feature points are employed in order to obtain a sufficient number of feature points with approximately uniform distribution. Feature vectors for a circle patch around each feature point are extracted using local binary pattern operators, and the similar Harris points are matched based on their representation feature vectors using the BBF algorithm. Finally, RANSAC algorithm is employed to eliminate the possible erroneous matches. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively detect region duplication forgery, even when an image was distorted by rotation, flipping, blurring, AWGN, JPEG compression, and their mixed operations, especially resistant to the forgery with the flat area of little visual structures.
Watts, Alan G.
In November 1955 Geoffrey Harris published a paper based on the Christian A. Herter Lecture he had given earlier that year at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. The paper reviewed the contemporary research that was starting to explain how the hypothalamus controlled the pituitary gland. In the process of doing this Harris introduced a set of properties that would help define the neuroendocrine hypothalamus. They included: a) three criteria that putative releasing factors for adenohypophysial hormones would have to fulfill; b) an analogy between the representation of body parts in sensory and motor cortices and the spatial localization of neuroendocrine function in the hypothalamus; and c) the idea that neuroendocrine neurons were motor neurons, with the pituitary stalk functioning as a Sherringtonian final common pathway through which the impact of sensory and emotional events on neuroendocrine neurons had to pass to control pituitary hormone release. Were these properties a sign that the major neuroscientific discoveries being made in the early 1950s were beginning to influence neuroendocrinology? The present article discusses two main points: the context and significance of Harris's Herter Lecture for how our understanding of neuroendocrine anatomy (particularly as it relates to the control of the adenohypophysis) has developed since 1955; and within this framework, how novel and powerful techniques are taking our understanding of the structure of the neuroendocrine hypothalamus to new levels. PMID:25994006
STUDIES Part 1: Ground Stone Implements , by Michael Piont- kowski, pp. 1-25 Part II: Hematite in the Harry S. Truman Reservoir Area, by Deborah E...264 IV. Coded References for Historical Cazetteer .. . 329 V. Mitigation of the Impact of the Harry S. Truman Dam and Reservoir on the Cultural...WRM Yolo Post Office (Henry) N Springfield T., established in the store of C. C. Masters and named for Yolo , California, where his son received his
Beintema, A.J.; Fofana, B.; Faye, A.; Huiskes, H.P.J.
Flood forests have a special place in the Inner Niger Delta, Mali. They have a great economic value for the local populations, and are hotspots of biodiversity in the delta. This report reviews the status of all flood forests in the Inner Niger Delta, Mali, that are presently known, or have been
Abstract. Oil detection in the Niger Delta has had multifarious effects on the Nigerian nation and its citizenry. Along with the enormous wealth accruing to. Government coffers is the devaluation of the socio-economic life of the immediate community in the Niger-Delta. It has on record various devastating and unprintable ...
Pel, Herman J.; de Winde, Johannes H.; Archer, David B.
The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is widely exploited by the fermentation industry for the production of enzymes and organic acids, particularly citric acid. We sequenced the 33.9-megabase genome of A. niger CBS 513.88, the ancestor of currently used enzyme production strains. A high level...
Yuan, X.L.; Goosen, C.; Kools, H.J.; Maarel, van der M.J.; Hondel, van den C.A.M.J.J.; Dijkhuizen, L.; Ram, A.F.
As a soil fungus, Aspergillus niger can metabolize a wide variety of carbon sources, employing sets of enzymes able to degrade plant-derived polysaccharides. In this study the genome sequence of A. niger strain CBS 513.88 was surveyed, to analyse the gene/enzyme network involved in utilization of
Fekete, E.; de Vries, R.P.; Seiboth, B.; vanKuyk, P.A.; Sandor, E.; Metz, B.; Kubicek, C.P.; Karaffa, L.
The majority of black Aspergilli (Aspergillus section Nigri), including Aspergillus niger, as well as many other Ascomycetes fail to germinate on d-galactose as a sole carbon source. Here, we provide evidence that the ability of A. niger to transport d-galactose is growth stage dependent, being
This paper examined the problem of media influence and violent crimes in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The objective was to show that unregulated viewing of visual media and computer games by youths exacerbate violent behaviours and crimes in the Niger Delta. Much of the research on media and violent crimes ...
It further discusses the impact of ethnic militarism in the Niger Delta area on security as it affects the country. The paper concludes that efforts should be made to bring this major national problem to an end considering the fact that the lingering violence and insecurity in the Niger Delta have inhibited and might continue to ...
Poor community-company relations in the Niger Delta have drawn attention to the practice of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the region. Since the 1960s, transnational oil corporations operating in the Niger Delta have adopted various CSR strategies, yet community-company relations remain adversarial. This article examines community…
Li, A.; Pfelzer, N.; Zuijderwijk, R.; Brickwedde, A.; Zeijl, C. van; Punt, P.
Aspergillus niger has an extraordinary potential to produce organic acids as proven by its application in industrial citric acid production. Previously, it was shown that expression of the cis-aconitate decarboxylase gene (cadA) from Aspergillus terreus converted A. niger into an itaconic acid
Straat, van der L.; Vernooij, M.; Lammers, M.; Berg, van den W.A.M.; Schonewille, T.; Cordewener, J.; Meer, van der I.; Koops, A.J.; Graaff, de L.H.
BACKGROUND: Aspergillus terreus is a natural producer of itaconic acid and is currently used to produce itaconic acid on an industrial scale. The metabolic process for itaconic acid biosynthesis is very similar to the production of citric acid in Aspergillus niger. However, a key enzyme in A. niger,
This essay is an outline and interpretation of Niger Delta indigenous religion. It examines the structure of the indigenous religion and points out that as heterogeneous and diverse as the people of Niger Delta are, so also is the indigenous religion of the people. Thus, an ethnic group may emphasize a belief system or an ...
Adav, S.S.; Li, A.A.; Manavalan, A.; Punt, P.; Sze, S.K.
The natural lifestyle of Aspergillus niger made them more effective secretors of hydrolytic proteins and becomes critical when this species were exploited as hosts for the commercial secretion of heterologous proteins. The protein secretion profile of A. niger and its mutant at different pH was
Aspergillus niger produces a wide variety of carbohydrate hydrolytic enzymes which have potential applications in the baking, starch, textile, food and feed industries. The goal of this thesis is to unravel the molecular mechanisms of starch and inulin modifying network of A. niger, in order to
While much attention has focused on the South African case, there has been little systematic analysis of the Niger Delta amnesty program's effectiveness, implications, and sustainability. This study seeks to conduct an in-depth assessment of the Niger Delta's amnesty program to evaluate: -the essential conditions that ...
Wadman, Mayken W; de Vries, Ronald P; Kalkhove, Stefanie I C; Veldink, Gerrit A; Vliegenthart, Johannes F G
BACKGROUND: Aspergillus niger is an ascomycetous fungus that is known to reproduce through asexual spores, only. Interestingly, recent genome analysis of A. niger has revealed the presence of a full complement of functional genes related to sexual reproduction 1. An example of such genes are the
Thermal conductivity estimates are computed from nineteen petroleum wells in the northwestern Niger Delta, Nigeria, using a geometric mean model. Sonic and gamma-ray logs were digitised and used in the estimation of in situ conductivity. The Niger Delta is composed of three major diachronous lithostratigraphic units of ...
More than a century ago, in 1889, A. Fernbach presented a detailed report about the invertase of Aspergillus niger in the third edition of “Annales De L'institut Pasteur”. Since then, many of the enzymes secreted by A. niger have found a broad range of applications, and today they are produced on an
Pel, Herman J.; de Winde, Johannes H.; Archer, David B.; Dyer, Paul S.; Hofmann, Gerald; Schaap, Peter J.; Turner, Geoffrey; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Andersen, Mikael R.; Bendtsen, Jannick D.; Benen, Jacques A. E.; van den Berg, Marco; Breestraat, Stefaan; Caddick, Mark X.; Contreras, Roland; Cornell, Michael; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Danchin, Etienne G. J.; Debets, Alfons J. M.; Dekker, Peter; van Dijck, Piet W. M.; van Dijk, Alard; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; d'Enfert, Christophe; Geysens, Steven; Groot, Gert S. P.; de Groot, Piet W. J.; Guillemette, Thomas; Henrissat, Bernard; Herweijer, Marga; van den Hombergh, Johannes P. T. W.; van den Hondel, Cees A. M. J. J.; van der Heijden, Rene T. J. M.; van der Kaaij, Rachel M.; Klis, Frans M.; Kools, Harrie J.; Kubicek, Christian P.; van Kuyk, Patricia A.; Lauber, Juergen; Lu, Xin; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Meulenberg, Rogier; Menke, Hildegard; Mortimer, Martin A.; Nielsen, Jens; Oliver, Stephen G.; Olsthoorn, Maurien; Pal, Karoly; van Peij, Noel N. M. E.; Ram, Arthur F. J.; Rinas, Ursula; Roubos, Johannes A.; Sagt, Cees M. J.; Schmoll, Monika; Sun, Jibin; Ussery, David; Varga, Janos; Vervecken, Wouter; de Vondervoort, Peter J. J. van; Wedler, Holger; Wosten, Han A. B.; Zeng, An-Ping; van Ooyen, Albert J. J.; Visser, Jaap; Stam, Hein; Enfert, Christophe d’; Lauber, Jürgen; Goosen, Coenie; de Vries, Ronald P.
The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is widely exploited by the fermentation industry for the production of enzymes and organic acids, particularly citric acid. We sequenced the 33.9-megabase genome of A. niger CBS 513.88, the ancestor of currently used enzyme production strains. A high level of
Pel, H.J.; Winde, J.H. de; Archer, D.B.; Dyer, P.S.; Hofmann, G.; Schaap, P.J.; Turner, G.; Vries, R.P. de; Albang, R.; Albermann, K.; Andersen, M.R.; Bendtsen, J.D.; Benen, J.A.; Berg, M. van den; Breestraat, S.; Caddick, M.X.; Contreras, R.; Cornell, M.; Coutinho, P.M.; Danchin, E.G.; Debets, A.J.; Dekker, P.; Dijck, P.W. van; Dijk, A. van; Dijkhuizen, L.; Driessen, A.J.; D'Enfert, C.; Geysens, S.; Goosen, C.; Groot, G.S.; Groot, P.W. de; Guillemette, T.; Henrissat, B.; Herweijer, M.; Hombergh, J.P. van den; Hondel, C.A. van den; Heijden, R.T.J.M. van der; Kaaij, R.M. van der; Klis, F.M.; Kools, H.J.; Kubicek, C.P.; Kuyk, P.A. van; Lauber, J.; Lu, X.; Maarel, M.J. van der; Meulenberg, R.; Menke, H.; Mortimer, M.A.; Nielsen, J.; Oliver, S.G.; Olsthoorn, M.; Pal, K.; Peij, N.N. van; Ram, A.F.; Rinas, U.; Roubos, J.A.; Sagt, C.M.; Schmoll, M.; Sun, J.; Ussery, D.; Varga, J.; Vervecken, W.; Vondervoort, P.J. van de; Wedler, H.; Wosten, H.A.; Zeng, A.P.; Ooyen, A.J. van; Visser, J.C.; Stam, H.
The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is widely exploited by the fermentation industry for the production of enzymes and organic acids, particularly citric acid. We sequenced the 33.9-megabase genome of A. niger CBS 513.88, the ancestor of currently used enzyme production strains. A high level of
Full Text Available Abstract Background The health authorities of Niger have implemented several malaria prevention and control programmes in recent years. These interventions broadly follow WHO guidelines and international recommendations and are based on interventions that have proved successful in other parts of Africa. Most performance indicators are satisfactory but, paradoxically, despite the mobilization of considerable human and financial resources, the malaria-fighting programme in Niger seems to have stalled, as it has not yet yielded the expected significant decrease in malaria burden. Indeed, the number of malaria cases reported by the National Health Information System has actually increased by a factor of five over the last decade, from about 600,000 in 2000 to about 3,000,000 in 2010. One of the weaknesses of the national reporting system is that the recording of malaria cases is still based on a presumptive diagnosis approach, which overestimates malaria incidence. Methods An extensive nationwide survey was carried out to determine by microscopy and RDT testing, the proportion of febrile patients consulting at health facilities for suspected malaria actually suffering from the disease, as a means of assessing the magnitude of this problem and obtaining a better estimate of malaria morbidity in Niger. Results In total, 12,576 febrile patients were included in this study; 57% of the slides analysed were positive for the malaria parasite during the rainy season, when transmission rates are high, and 9% of the slides analysed were positive during the dry season, when transmission rates are lower. The replacement of microscopy methods by rapid diagnostic tests resulted in an even lower rate of confirmation, with only 42% of cases testing positive during the rainy season, and 4% during the dry season. Fever alone has a low predictive value, with a low specificity and sensitivity. These data highlight the absolute necessity of confirming all reported
V Kishor Kumar
Full Text Available Background: Helleborus niger L (Ranunculaceae is used Ayurvedic and Unani systems and other herbal medicine systems. The roots of H. niger have a good medicinal value. Aims: To conduct a pharmacognostical and phytochemical study of H. niger. Materials and Methods: The pharmacognostical studies on roots including parameters such as taxonomical, macroscopic, microscopic characters, physico-chemical, ultra-violet analysis and phytochemical studies are established. Results: Macroscopically, the roots are brownish-black in colour, cylindrical in shape, feeble odour, slightly acrid taste with irregularly branched. Microscopically the root showed the presence of epidermis, air-chambers, fissure periderm, periderm, inner cortex, pith, phloem, xylem, vessels and xylem vessels. Microscopic examination of the powder showed the presence of parenchyma cells, parenchyma mass, periderm, cell inclusion, laticifer, lateral wall pith, perforation, xylem bundle and xylem elements. Ultra-violet and ordinary light analyses with different reagents were conducted to identify the drug in powder form. Physico-chemical evaluation established, Ash values - Total, acid insoluble, water soluble and sulphated ash values were 7.3%, 4.1%, 3.7% and 5.2%, respectively. Extractive values - Alcohol soluble, water soluble and ether soluble extractive values were 22.8%, 7.4% and 5.6%, respectively. Loss on drying was 3.3%. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, saponins, flavonoid, phytosterols, tannins and phenolic compounds. Conclusions: The results of the study can serve as a valuable resource of pharmacognostic and phytochemical information. This will serve as appropriate, standards for discovery of this plant material in future investigations and applications and also contribute towards establishing pharmacopoeial standards.
Walther, Olivier; Tenikué, Michel; Kuepié, Mathias
The objective of this methodological paper is to identify a number of products or sectors whose trade is relevant for border regions in West Africa. Focusing on Niger, Benin and Nigeria, we start with contextualising the importance of border markets by quantifying the changes in the relative values...... and volumes of imports and exports passing through border posts. In a second step, we determine which are the products most commonly found among the imports and exports of the border posts. The study shows that seven products are recognised as being heavily imported, subject to significant trade from large...
Full Text Available Gibberellins (GA4+7 and gibberellin-like substances isolated from generatively induced black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger L. bring about the growth of shoots and a partial differentiation of axillary meristem in black henbane plants grown under non-inductive light conditions. Long-lasting application of gibberellins, however, did not result in full development of flowers in the majority of the plants investigated. Thus, it seems, that gibberellins are not specific flowering hormones in black henbane - a long-day plant.
ORBAK, Zerrin; TAN, Hüseyin; KARAKELLEOĞLU, Cahit; ALP, Handan; AKDAĞ, Recep
in the region of Erzurum in East Anatolia, in Spring, typical atropine poisoning is seen in children who eat the roots and leaves of henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) known here as "Deli Bat Bat", in this article we have discussed 216 patients who were admitted to our hospital during the years 1981-1995. VVİthin 24 hours the most patients were out of danger from the intoxication and showed improvement due to the use of only sufficient amounts of intravenous fluid to force diuresis. AH the ...
Hofmann, Gerald; Diano, Audrey; Nielsen, Jens
The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is used extensively for the production of enzymes and organic acids. A major problem in industrial fermentations with this fungus is to ensure sufficient supply of oxygen required for respiratory metabolism of the fungus. In case of oxygen limitation...... behind the strong gpdA promoter from Aspergillus nidulans. Analysis of secreted metabolites, oxygen uptake, CO2 evolution and biomass formation points towards a relief of stress in the mutant expressing VHB when it is exposed to oxygen limitation. Our findings therefore point to an interesting strategy...
Some 230 foreigners and dozens of Nigerians have been kidnapped in the Niger Delta since the beginning of 2006. Last August. Port Harcourt. home of the petroleum industry and capital of the oil-rich Rivers State, saw the worst fighting in years as criminal gangs went on a rampage. The situation was defused only after Nigerian government forces launched a massive counter offensive and rebels and politicians agreed to talk. Will the tender peace last? Will the arrest of Jomo Gbomo, a militant leader, bring stability? An analysis of the security situation is presented (author) (ml)
Chaves, Karina Oliveira; Monteiro, Carlo Rannyêr Lopes; Muniz, Celli Rodrigues; Gomes, Raimundo Bemvindo; Buarque, Hugo Leonardo de Brito
As indústrias têxteis geram efluentes ricos em corantes durante toda a sua cadeia produtiva. Neste estudo, ensaios cinéticos foram realizados utilizando biomassas mortas de Aspergillus niger, diferentemente tratadas, como adsorvente para a remoção de índigo carmim a partir de soluções aquosas. Ensaio cinético com carvão ativado comercial também foi realizado para comparação. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a biomassa fúngica sem tratamento algum foi capaz de remover 95% do índigo carmim da ...
Keywords. Conductivity profile; Niger delta; solar quiet day current; spherical harmonic analysis (SHA); mantle; ... The method of analysis involves the differential .... cos mφ + b m n sinmφ)X m n. (θ) (5a). D= ∑ n. ∑ m. (−bm n cos mφ + a m n sinmφ)Y m n. (θ) (5b). Z = ∑ n. ∑ m. (C m n cos mφ + d m n sinmφ)P m n. (θ) (5c).
Diego Antonio Pineda Rivera
Full Text Available Este trabajo recoge algunas ideas generales en torno a la novela de Matthew Lipman El descubrimiento de Harry. La pretensión del artículo es ofrecer "claves de lectura" que ayuden a los maestros que leen la novela, o la trabajan con su grupo de alumnos en un salón de clase, a comprender su significado filosófico. Para ello el artículo describe el contexto definido por las cuatro novelas del programa completo de "Filosofía para niños" que propone el autor y, a partir de allí, aborda cinco elementos que resultan orientadores para el lector potencial: cuál es el descubrimiento de Harry, la estructura teórica y narrativa de la novela, la relación de la lógica con otros problemas filosóficos, las "formas del pensamiento superior", y algunas sugerencias para trabajar la novela en el aula de clase. Recorre en el proceso aspectos propios de la filosofía que la novela asume, como las proposiciones categóricas, que constituyen el principal descubrimiento de Harry, la construcción del lenguaje de la lógica formal, los actos mentales y los mecanismos de validación de los razonamientos, así como la relación que se da entre pensamiento y lenguaje, y sus implicaciones en el abordaje de problemas desde los diversos ámbitos de la filosofía: cosmológicos, políticos, estéticos, epistemológicos, éticos, etc.
Geoffrey Harris, while still a medical student at Cambridge, was the first researcher (1937) to provide experimental proof for the then tentative view that the anterior pituitary gland was controlled by the CNS. The elegant studies carried out by Harris in the 1940s and early 1950s, alone and in collaboration with John Green and Dora Jacobsohn, established that this control was mediated by a neurohumoral mechanism that involved the transport by hypophysial portal vessel blood of chemical substances from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland. The neurohumoral control of anterior pituitary secretion was proved by the isolation and characterisation of the 'chemical substances' (mainly neuropeptides) and the finding that these substances were released into hypophysial portal blood in a manner consistent with their physiological functions. The new discipline of neuroendocrinology - the way that the brain controls endocrine glands and vice versa - revolutionised the treatment of endocrine disorders such as growth and pubertal abnormalities, infertility and hormone-dependent tumours, and it underpins our understanding of the sexual differentiation of the brain and key aspects of behaviour and mental disorder. Neuroendocrine principles are illustrated in this Thematic Review by way of Harris' major interest: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal control. Attention is focussed on the measurement of GnRH in hypophysial portal blood and the role played by the self-priming effect of GnRH in promoting the onset of puberty and enabling the oestrogen-induced surge or pulses of GnRH to trigger the ovulatory gonadotrophin surge in humans and other spontaneously ovulating mammals. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.
Full Text Available El presente trabajo se centra en el acontecimiento traumático de la guerra, la posibilidad del sujeto de realizar una experiencia y sostenerse en cuanto tal, pese a la anulación que recae sobre él. El análisis se lleva a cabo en dos poemarios del poeta chileno Tomás Harris: "Encuentros al fin de la batalla" (de Encuentros con hombres oscuros y "Balada del soldado de Oklahoma" (de Tridente. Ambos poemarios entran en diálogo y choque, puesto que uno aborda la Segunda Guerra Mundial y el segundo la guerra mediática del Golfo. La poesía pone a prueba sus propias posibilidades y nos muestra un sujeto que oscila entre el duelo y la melancolía y que se niega a ser reducido a un mero espectador pasivo.This article aims at exploring the possibility of surviving and realizing an experience from the traumatic event of war. The analysis is focused on two works by the Chilean poet Tomás Harris: "Encuentros al fin de la batalla" of Encuentros con hombres oscuros and "Balada del soldado de Oklahoma " of Tridente. Both poems are related to the issue of war trauma: in the first work, it approaches World War II and the second, the mediatic Gulf War Thus, the poetry of Harris questions its own limits by means of a subject who oscillates between mourning and melancholy and rejects to be reduced to a mere passive spectator
Flahive, Mon-hsin Wang; Chuang, Ying-Chih; Li, Chien-Mo
A multimedia version of Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale 2 (Piers-Harris 2) was created with audio and cartoon animation to facilitate the measurement of self-concept among younger children. This study aimed to assess the psychometric qualities of the computer version of Piers-Harris 2 scores, examine its score equivalence with the paper-and-pencil version, and survey the respondent preference of the two versions. Two hundred and forty eight Taiwanese students from the first to fourth grade were recruited. In regard to the psychometric properties, high internal consistency (α = .91) was found for the total score of multimedia Piers-Harris 2. High interscale correlations (.77 to .83) of the multimedia Piers-Harris 2 scores and the results of confirmatory factor analysis suggested the multimedia Piers-Harris 2 contained good structural characteristics. The scores of the multimedia Piers-Harris 2 also had significant correlations with the scores of the Elementary School Children's Self Concept Scale. The equality of convergence and criterion-related validities of Piers-Harris 2 scores for the multimedia and paper-and-pencil versions and the results of ICCs between the scores of the multimedia and paper-and-pencil Piers-Harris 2 suggested their high level of equivalence. Participants showed more positive attitudes towards the multimedia version.
Flahive, Mon-hsin Wang; Chuang, Ying-Chih; Li, Chien-Mo
A multimedia version of Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale 2 (Piers-Harris 2) was created with audio and cartoon animation to facilitate the measurement of self-concept among younger children. This study aimed to assess the psychometric qualities of the computer version of Piers-Harris 2 scores, examine its score equivalence with the paper-and-pencil version, and survey the respondent preference of the two versions. Two hundred and forty eight Taiwanese students from the first to fourth grade were recruited. In regard to the psychometric properties, high internal consistency (α = .91) was found for the total score of multimedia Piers-Harris 2. High interscale correlations (.77 to .83) of the multimedia Piers-Harris 2 scores and the results of confirmatory factor analysis suggested the multimedia Piers-Harris 2 contained good structural characteristics. The scores of the multimedia Piers-Harris 2 also had significant correlations with the scores of the Elementary School Children’s Self Concept Scale. The equality of convergence and criterion-related validities of Piers-Harris 2 scores for the multimedia and paper-and-pencil versions and the results of ICCs between the scores of the multimedia and paper-and-pencil Piers-Harris 2 suggested their high level of equivalence. Participants showed more positive attitudes towards the multimedia version. PMID:26252499
Vallejo, Luis Fernando; Wolff, Martha
The number of species in the genus Phyllophaga Harris (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) in Colombia is updated to 33. This group represents one of the most common components of the "white grubs" complex, known to damage important agricultural crops, especially in the Colombian Andean Mountains. A commented taxonomic history of the genus is provided, including five new records for the country (P. schizorhina, P. onoreana, P. densata, P. guanacasteca, and P. gigantea) and Phyllophaga tesorito is described as a new species. A key to the identification of male specimens of 30 species is included with a catalogue illustrating their key structures. Finally, aspects related to their ecological importance, geographic distribution, and phenology are discussed.
Rodrigo de Sales
Full Text Available The studies of library classification generally interact with the historical contextualization approach and with the classification ideas typical of Philosophy. In the 19th century, the North-American philosopher and educator William Torrey Harris developed a book classification at the St. Louis Public School, based on Francis Bacon and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. The objective of this essay is to analyze Harris’s classification, reflecting upon his theoretical and philosophical backgrounds. To achieve such objective, this essay adopts a critical-descriptive approach for analysis. Results show some influences of Bacon and Hegel in Harris’s classification.
Letícia M. Rezende
Full Text Available
A sintaxe transformacional de Harris não menciona a noção de elipse, mas reserva um lugar explícito e um tratamento específico aos fenômenos conhecidos como apagamento (cuja tipologia esboçaremos no §1. Essa abordagem dos "fenômenos de apagamento" remete a um conjunto de questões teóricas semelhantes às levantadas pelo recurso tradicional à noção de elipse (§2.
Complex representations of identity abound in children or youth’s fantasy literature, particularly in texts that employ the shape-shifting motif. In two of the most studied youth’s fantasy literature texts, A Wizard of Earthsea and The Sword in the Stone, Ursula K. Le Guin and T. H. White link shape-shifting to the identity and development of their protagonists. J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter series also serves as an excellent case study, and her use of the motif, and its connected themes of id...
Nesa Nabifar; Hamed Kazemzad
Grammatical Metaphor (GM) is one of the fresh language phenomena introduced by Halliday (1985) in the framework of functional grammar. Thompson (2004) states that the salient source of GM would be ‘Nominalization’ where a noun form attempts to represent a verb form or in other words, a verb form with its different process is represented in a noun form. He continues that any wording is ought to be either metaphorical or congruent wording. In this study the story of Harry Potter and the Prisone...
Smith, Stephen P; Forbes, Neil A
Feather destructive behavior is an ever-increasing problem in captive birds of prey and any associated self-mutilation can be challenging to manage. This clinical report describes a noninvasive, nonpainful, temporary beak modification technique used to prevent self-mutilation in 3 Harris' hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus), when other methods and husbandry modifications had failed. The technique was successful in all 3 birds, and no adverse effects were observed. Further investigations are required to further evaluate if this beak modification technique causes any psychologic or physical stress to the avian patient.
Aung, Khin Moh Moh; Ting, Yen-Peng
The use of the fungus Aspergillus niger for the bioleaching of heavy metals from spent catalyst was investigated, with fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst as a model. Bioleaching was examined in batch cultures with the spent catalysts at various pulp densities (1-12%). Chemical leaching was also performed using mineral acids (sulphuric and nitric acids) and organic acids (citric, oxalic and gluconic acids), as well as a mixture of organic acids at the same concentrations as that biogenically produced. It was shown that bioleaching realised higher metal extraction than chemical leaching, with A. niger mobilizing Ni (9%), Fe (23%), Al (30%), V (36%) and Sb (64%) at 1% pulp density. Extraction efficiency generally decreased with increased pulp density. Compared with abiotic controls, bioleaching gave rise to higher metal extractions than leaching using fresh medium and cell-free spent medium. pH decreased during bioleaching, but remained relatively constant in both leaching using fresh medium and cell-free spent medium, thus indicating that the fungus played a role in effecting metal extraction from the spent catalyst.
Malau, N. D.; Sianturi, M.
Molecular dynamics methods we have applied as a tool in designing thermostable Aspergillus niger Xylanase, by examining Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) and The Stability of the Secondary Structure of enzymes structure at its optimum temperature and compare with its high temperature behavior. As RMSD represents structural fluctuation at a particular temperature, a better understanding of this factor will suggest approaches to bioengineer these enzymes to enhance their thermostability. In this work molecular dynamic simulations of Aspergillus niger xylanase (ANX) have been carried at 400K (optimum catalytic temperature) for 2.5 ns and 500K (ANX reported inactive temperature) for 2.5 ns. Analysis have shown that the Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) significant increase at higher temperatures compared at optimum temperature and some of the secondary structures of ANX that have been damaged at high temperature. Structural analysis revealed that the fluctuations of the α-helix and β-sheet regions are larger at higher temperatures compared to the fluctuations at optimum temperature.
Background The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required. For each type of hemicellulose, a complex mixture of enzymes is required for complete conversion to fermentable monosaccharides. In plant-biomass degrading fungi, these enzymes are regulated and released by complex regulatory structures. In this study, we present a methodology for evaluating the potential of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list of 188 genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes from Aspergillus niger, thus forming an analysis framework, which can be queried. Combination of this information network with gene expression analysis on mono- and polysaccharide substrates has allowed elucidation of concerted gene expression from this organism. One such example is the identification of a full set of extracellular polysaccharide-acting genes for the degradation of oat spelt xylan. Conclusions The mapping of plant polysaccharide structures along with the corresponding enzymatic activities is a powerful framework for expression analysis of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Applying this network-based approach, we provide the first genome-scale characterization of all genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes identified in A. niger. PMID:22799883
Assi, Tina-Marie; Brown, Shawn T; Kone, Souleymane; Norman, Bryan A; Djibo, Ali; Connor, Diana L; Wateska, Angela R; Rajgopal, Jayant; Slayton, Rachel B; Lee, Bruce Y
Since many of the world's vaccine supply chains contain multiple levels, the question remains of whether removing a level could bring efficiencies. We utilized HERMES to generate a detailed discrete-event simulation model of Niger's vaccine supply chain and compared the current four-tier (central, regional, district, and integrated health center levels) with a modified three-tier structure (removing the regional level). Different scenarios explored various accompanying shipping policies and frequencies. Removing the regional level and implementing a collection-based shipping policy from the district stores increases vaccine availability from a mean of 70-100% when districts could collect vaccines at least weekly. Alternatively, implementing a delivery-based shipping policy from the central store monthly in three-route and eight-route scenarios only increases vaccine availability to 87%. Restricting central-to district vaccine shipments to a quarterly schedule for three-route and eight-route scenarios reduces vaccine availability to 49%. The collection-based shipping policy from district stores reduces supply chain logistics cost per dose administered from US$0.14 at baseline to US$0.13 after removing the regional level. Removing the regional level from Niger's vaccine supply chain can substantially improve vaccine availability as long as certain concomitant adjustments to shipping policies and frequencies are implemented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aboubakr Gambo Boukary
Full Text Available Niger faces many natural and human constraints explaining the erratic evolution of its agricultural production over time. Unfortunately, this is likely to cause a decline in the food supply. This study attempts to identify factors affecting rural households’ resilience to food insecurity in Niger. For this, we first create a resilience index by using principal component analysis and later apply structural equation modeling to identify its determinants. Data from the 2010 National Survey on Households’ Vulnerability to Food Insecurity done by the National Institute of Statistics is used. The study shows that asset and social safety net indicators are significant and have a positive impact on households’ resilience. Climate change approximated by long-term mean rainfall has a negative and significant effect on households’ resilience. Therefore, to strengthen households’ resilience to food insecurity, there is a need to increase assistance to households through social safety nets and to help them gather more resources in order to acquire more assets. Furthermore, early warning of climatic events could alert households, especially farmers, to be prepared and avoid important losses that they experience anytime an uneven climatic event occurs.
Full Text Available Distal femoral physeal fractures are not common but have a high rate of complications. They generally follow one of the patterns described in the Salter-Harris classification. We present a case of combination of Salter-Harris type III and type IV injury. Our case was a 15-year-old boy who had a motor vehicle accident. There was swelling, ecchymosis, severe pain, and valgus deformity, because of medial proximal fracture fragment, on the left knee. We deemed that Salter-Harris type III and type IV combination fracture in our case has not been previously reported. We prepared this paper in consideration of its contribution to the literature.
Wamper, Kim E; Sierevelt, Inger N; Poolman, Rudolf W; Bhandari, Mohit; Haverkamp, Daniël
The Harris hip score (HHS), a disease-specific health status scale that is frequently used to measure the outcome of total hip arthroplasty, has never been validated properly. A questionnaire is suitable only when all 5 psychometric properties are of sufficient quality. We questioned the usefulness of the HHS by investigating its content validity. We performed a systematic review based on a literature search in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for descriptive studies published in 2007. 54 studies (59 patient groups) met our criteria and were included in the data analysis. To determine the content validity, we calculated the ceiling effect (percentage) for each separate study and we pooled data to measure the weighted mean. A subanalysis of indications for THA was performed to differentiate the populations for which the HHS would be suitable and for which it would not. A ceiling effect of 15% or less was considered to be acceptable. Over half the studies (31/59) revealed unacceptable ceiling effects. Pooled data across the studies included (n = 6,667 patients) suggested ceiling effects of 20% (95%CI: 18-22). Ceiling effects were greater (32%, 95%CI:12-52) in those patients undergoing hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Although the Harris hip score is widely used in arthroplasty research on outcomes, ceiling effects are common and these severely limit its validity in this field of research.
Javier Monserrat Monserrat
Full Text Available El tipo de ateísmo de San Harris es distinto del de otros autores porque se funda exclusivamente en la ponderación de la fe religiosa irracional como fuente de la violencia, del terror, del enfrentamiento social —interior a las naciones e internacional— que acaba por hacer imposible toda forma de cohesión social. Es evidente que Harris da por descontado que las creencias religiosas son irracionales y esto por dos razones. Primero porque la razón, en la ciencia y en la filosófica, no puede aducir argumento alguno para pensar que Dios o los dioses sean reales y existentes. Segundo porque las afirmaciones mismas de las religiones presentan un contenido que, por las buenas, no se puede creer, repugna inmediatamente a la razón, como puedan ser, por ejemplo, hablar de una «encarnación» de Dios o de que Mahoma ascendió al Cielo a lomos de un caballo alado, y otras afirmaciones de similar irracionalidad.
Full Text Available This paper aims at describing the reflection of social reality of Minangkabau Society in the short story entitled “Si Padang” written by Harris Effendi Thahar. The theory used in this study is the sociology of literature by using the mimetic approach. The analysis begins from the text by explaining the social factors in the text, then examining the social factors in the society that become the topic of the story. The result of the analysis shows that the short story “Si Padang”is the short story that is able to describe the social reality of Minangkabau society at present that is the inharmonious relation between maternal uncle and his nephew. As the reflection of the Minangkabau social reality this short story is social justification of Hoggart’s opinion that states the literary work at all level is enlightened by the prescript values and applied values. Because of that what Harris has written shows that his work is truly integrated with the individual and society life in the structure of the society.
Full Text Available Considered as literary pieces of fantasy and secondarily a possible version of magic realism, J.K. Rowling’s seven Harry Potter (1997-2007 novels have been involving the readers of different age groups and succeeded in unleashing the target imagination. Taking into account the different probable associations, it is of novelty to draw comparisons between the magical world of Harry Potter (1997-2007 and that of Tlon in Jorge Luis Borges’ short story “Tlon, Uqbar, Orbis, Tertius" (1941. In both worlds there exist images and implied notions that serve to naturalize the supernatural and to blur the line between the real and the imaginary. Making use of Berkeleyan theory of idealism, the power of mind is emphasized upon due to its capability of bringing into existence any object, concept or incident that seems materially and logically impossible. Meanwhile, an abstract force that is Love is highlighted in the novels that could be assumed as functioning like the omniscient God of Berkeley holding the universe together with its mere presence. Therefore, a new perspective in discovering a truth of life would be dragged into view as a result of the products of one’s mind.
Parjo, U. K.; Sunar, N. M.; Leman, A. M.; Gani, P.; Embong, Z.; Tajudin, S. A. A.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the Aspergillus niger (A. niger) growth on substrates after incorporates with different compounds of antifungals which is normally used in food industry. The antifungals named as potassium sorbate (PS), calcium benzoate (CB) and zinc salicylate (ZS) were applied on concrete substrate covered with different wall finishing such as acrylic paint (AP), glycerol based paint (GBP), thin wallpaper (THIN) and thick wallpaper (THICK). The concrete substrate were inoculated with spore suspension, incubated at selected temperature (30oC) and relative humidity (90%)in plant growth chamber. The observations were done from the Day 3 until Day 27. The results showed that the growth of the A. niger for concrete treated by PS for AP, GBP, THIN, and THICK were 64%, 32%, 11% and 100%, respectively. Meanwhile for CB, the growth of A. niger on AP, GBP, THIN, and THICK were 100%, 12%, 41%, and 13%, respectively. Similarly, treated concrete by ZS revealed that the growth of A. niger on the same substrate cover were 33%, 47%, 40%, and 39%, respectively. The results obtained in this study provide a valuable knowledge on the abilities of antifungals to remediate A. niger that inoculated on the concrete substrate. Consequently, this study proved that the PS covering with THIN more efficiency compares CB and ZS to prevent A. niger growth.
Xie, G; West, T P
To determine which citric acid-producing strain of Aspergillus niger utilized wet corn distillers grains most effectively to produce citric acid. Citric acid and biomass production by the fungal strains were analysed on the untreated grains or autoclaved grains using an enzyme assay and a gravimetric method respectively. Fungal citric acid production on the grains was found to occur on the untreated or autoclaved grains. The highest citric acid level on the grains was produced by A. niger ATCC 9142. The autoclaved grains supported less citric acid production by the majority of strains screened. Biomass production by the fungal strains on the untreated or autoclaved grains was quite similar. The highest citric acid yields for A. niger ATCC 9142, ATCC 10577, ATCC 11414, ATCC 12846 and ATCC 26550 were found on the untreated grains. Treatment of the grains had little effect on citric acid yields based on reducing sugars consumed by A. niger ATCC 9029 and ATCC 201122. It is feasible for citric acid-producing strains of A. niger to excrete citric acid on wet corn distillers grains whether the grains are treated or untreated. The most effective citric acid-producing strain of A. niger was ATCC 9142. The study shows that the ethanol processing co-product wet corn distillers grains could be utilized as a substrate for the commercial production of citric acid by A. niger without treatment of the grains.
Kumar, Sunil; Saragadam, Tejaswani; Punekar, Narayan S
Agmatine, a significant polyamine in bacteria and plants, mostly arises from the decarboxylation of arginine. The functional importance of agmatine in fungi is poorly understood. The metabolism of agmatine and related guanidinium group-containing compounds in Aspergillus niger was explored through growth, metabolite, and enzyme studies. The fungus was able to metabolize and grow on l-arginine, agmatine, or 4-guanidinobutyrate as the sole nitrogen source. Whereas arginase defined the only route for arginine catabolism, biochemical and bioinformatics approaches suggested the absence of arginine decarboxylase in A. niger. Efficient utilization by the parent strain and also by its arginase knockout implied an arginase-independent catabolic route for agmatine. Urea and 4-guanidinobutyrate were detected in the spent medium during growth on agmatine. The agmatine-grown A. niger mycelia contained significant levels of amine oxidase, 4-guanidinobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase, 4-guanidinobutyrase (GBase), and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, but no agmatinase activity was detected. Taken together, the results support a novel route for agmatine utilization in A. niger. The catabolism of agmatine by way of 4-guanidinobutyrate to 4-aminobutyrate into the Krebs cycle is the first report of such a pathway in any organism. A. niger GBase peptide fragments were identified by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The corresponding open reading frame from the A. niger NCIM 565 genome was located and cloned. Subsequent expression of GBase in both Escherichia coli and A. niger along with its disruption in A. niger functionally defined the GBase locus (gbu) in the A. niger genome. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Ehrlich, K C; Montalbano, B G; Mullaney, E J; Dischinger, H C; Ullah, A H
An Aspergillus niger (ficuum) genomic DNA lambda EMBL3 library was probed with a 354-bp DNA fragment obtained by polymerase chain reaction of A. niger DNA with oligonucleotides based on partial amino acid sequence of a pH 2.5 optimum acid phosphatase. A clone containing a 1605 bp segment (phyB) encoding the 479 amino acid enzyme was isolated and found to contain four exons. Global alignment revealed 23.5% homology to Aspergillus niger phytase (PhyA); four regions of extensive homology were identified. Some of these regions may contain catalytic sites for phosphatase function.
Takeuchi, R; Boureima, D; Mizuguchi, D; Awazawa, T; Kato, Y; Akiyama, T; Nonaka, D; Kobayashi, J
Award schemes and self-evaluation systems have been developed to implement the 'Health-Promoting School (HPS)' concept in European and Asian countries. While there have been many successes in these regions, the implementation of HPS in African countries has been minimal. This study evaluated the impact of a self-evaluation system on school health in Niger. A school health activity guide was developed and distributed to 1999 primary schools in the Niger Tahoua region to raise awareness and solve problems related to school health and hygiene. The number of schools that planned or implemented health-related activities, and the budget and implementation status of their activities was compared over 3 years (before, soon after, and 1 year after distribution). Focus group discussions (FGDs) were also conducted targeting Conseillers Pédagogiques (CPs), who supervise primary schools and teachers, primary school principals and members of Comité de Gestion des Etablissement Scolaire (COGES), which is a type of school steering committee. The number of schools planning at least one health-related activity increased from 47% to 79% soon after distribution of the guide (p <0.001).The number of schools implementing activities increased from 44% to 65% one year after distribution (p <0.001). Health-related budget per school also increased after distribution (p <0.0001) and increases were maintained 1 year after the intervention (p=0.8414). Fulfilment or partial fulfilment rates for health-related activities were lower compared with other (non-health) activities in all three years (80%, 77% & 84% in health-related activities vs 88%, 90% & 91% in others; p <0.001, p <0.001, & p=0.004, respectively). Most FGD participants expressed a positive impression of the program and noted the usefulness of the guide. However, some respondents reported difficulties, especially in relation to budget. The introduction of a health activity guide for self-assessment was effective in increasing
Full Text Available Internationally, the exponential demand for ‘cultural/heritage’ tourism is increasingly being viewed by tourism stakeholders as an opportunity for value adding revenue generation, wherein both specialist and ‘media programmed’ tourists can seek out designated cultural attractions to satisfy their respective quests for authentic, and/or emotionally charged experiences. Indeed, this international ‘demand’ re-alignment is exemplified in the growth of churches and cathedrals who openly promote their artistic content as ‘must see attractions’. However, despite such utilitarian attractiveness, one wonders if the counter-influences of indifference, protectionism, or fear of heritage commodification, might act to scupper an opportunity to re-envision Harry Clarke’s iconic stained glass church windows as tourist attractions in Ireland? Born in Dublin in 1889, into a city consumed with the heady mix of Catholic Emancipation and artistic rebirth, Harry Clarke grew to pre-eminence among international stained glass artists at the turn of the twentieth century. Yet, despite being universally acclaimed as a master of stained glass creativity, his oeuvre, from a tourism perspective, has been sadly overlooked, with most promotion of Ireland’s twentieth century cultural renaissance being focused both on its literary giants (Joyce, Wilde, Swift, Beckett, Yeats and Stoker, and its traditional music culture. However, with the attendant economic spinoff offered by religious and cultural tourism growth, one wonders if the ubiquitous presence in Irish churches of Harry Clarke’s ecclesiastical stained glass windows might be re-imagined by core and peripheral stakeholders as marketable tourist attractions? Employing a qualitative methodology, involving semi structured interviews with key informants, this paper explores stakeholder awareness of Clarke’s significance as a potential tourist attractor, in addition to the appropriateness of promoting
Full Text Available Four wild type strains of A. niger were collected from soil and stream sediments representing environments with variable level of As, Sb, Al, Fe, Cd, Cu, and Zn contamination. Banská Štiavnica-Šobov (S, Pezinok-Kolársky vrch (P and Slovinky (Sl represent contaminated localities. Locality Gabčíkovo (G was as a control site. The influence of toxic elements in these substrates on fungal growth, colony size, enzymatic activity, production of organic acids and their pelletization in water suspensions with montmorillonite was studied. The aim of our study was to find out how the wild type strains from (contaminated environment will behave in different model solutions. We also wanted to add some new information in this area of study, because that there is some gap in the available knowledge.
Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Arentshorst, Mark; Allijn, Iris E; Ram, Arthur F J; de Vries, Ronald P; Gelber, Isabelle Benoit
To evaluate the potential of adaptive evolution as a tool in generating strains with an improved production of plant biomass degrading enzymes. An Aspergillus niger cellulase mutant was obtained by adaptive evolution. Physiological properties of this mutant revealed a five times higher cellulose production than the parental strain. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the expression of noxR, encoding the regulatory subunit of the NADPH oxidase complex, was reduced in the mutant compared to the parental strain. Subsequent analysis of a noxR knockout strain showed the same phenotypic effect as observed for the evolution mutant, confirming the role of NoxR in cellulose degradation. Adaptive evolution is an efficient approach to modify a strain and activate genes involved in polysaccharide degradation.
Yeo S., L.; Shazilah, K.; Suhaila, S.; Abu Bakar F., D.; Murad A. M., A.
Genomic data mining was carried out and revealed a total of seventeen β-glucosidases in filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger. Two of them belonged to glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1) while the rest belonged to genes in family 3 (GH3). These proteins were then named according to the nomenclature as proposed by the International Union of Biochemistry (IUB), starting from the lowest pI and glycoside hydrolase family. Their properties were predicted using various bionformatic tools showing the presence of domains for signal peptide and active sites. Interestingly, one particular domain, PA14 (protective antigen) was present in four of the enzymes, predicted to be involved in carbohydrate binding. A phylogenetic tree grouped the two glycoside hydrolase families with GH1 and GH3 related organisms. This study showed that the various domains present in these β-glucosidases are postulated to be crucial for the survival of this fungus, as supported by other analysis.
Loske, Achim M; Fernández, Francisco; Magaña-Ortíz, Denis; Coconi-Linares, Nancy; Ortíz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A
Filamentous fungi are used in several industries and in academia to produce antibiotics, metabolites, proteins and pharmaceutical compounds. The development of valuable strains usually requires the insertion of recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid; however, the protocols to transfer DNA to fungal cells are highly inefficient. Recently, underwater shock waves were successfully used to genetically transform filamentous fungi. The purpose of this research was to demonstrate that the efficiency of transformation can be improved significantly by enhancing acoustic cavitation using tandem (dual-pulse) shock waves. Results revealed that tandem pressure pulses, generated at a delay of 300 μs, increased the transformation efficiency of Aspergillus niger up to 84% in comparison with conventional (single-pulse) shock waves. This methodology may also be useful to obtain new strains required in basic research and biotechnology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
RésuméRécemment, le Niger a vécu une transformation politique vers la démocratie et le pluralisme et le remplacement du gouvernement autocratique par un gouvernement démocratique a donné l'espoir que l'Etat sera doté d'une nouvelle légitimité. Néanmoins, la situation économique du pays est pitoyable et les nouveaux politiciens ne sont en mesure ni d'éprouver la croissance économique ni de promouvoir un développement social à court ou moyen terme. Le domaine où le rendement politique est imméd...
Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Giese, Malene; de Vries, Ronald P.
Background: The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required...... of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results: Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list...... of 188 genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes from Aspergillus niger, thus forming an analysis framework, which can be queried. Combination of this information network with gene expression analysis on mono-and polysaccharide substrates has allowed elucidation of concerted gene expression from...
Friedrich, J.; Cimerman, A.; Perdih, A.
The bioconversion of waste material remaining after apple brandy distillation was investigated. Different cellulolytic fungi were tested for their ability to convert the waste organic substances into microbial biomass. An Aspergillus niger strain was chosen as the most convenient microorganism. By growing this mold on the apple slop the following results were obtained: filtration time was shortened by 30 times, reduction of the chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase in the range of 50-80% depending on the substrate dilution and a dry filter cake enriched with fungal biomass to about 12 g/l containing up to 22% raw proteins and certain amounts of cellulolytic enzymes in the filtrate. The influence of the initial pH, the salt addition and the dilution of the substrate were studied as well. 12 references.
Barton, L L; Georgi, C E; Lineback, D R
Low levels of glucoamylase are produced when Aspergillus niger is grown on sorbitol, but substitution of the latter by glucose, maltose, or starch results in greater formation of glucoamylase as measured by enzymatic activity. Both glucoamylase I and glucoamylase II are formed in a yeast extract medium; however, glucoamylase I appears to be the only form produced when ammonium chloride is the nitrogen source. Maltose or isomaltose (1.4 x 10(-4)m), but no other disaccharides or monosaccharides, dextrins, dextrans, or starches, stimulated glucoamylase formation when added to mycelia pregrown on sorbitol-ammonium salts. The induction of glucoamylase by maltose was independent of sulfate concentration but showed a dependency on low pH and the absence of utilizable carbon sources.
Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gogoi, Robin; Srivastava, Chitra; Gopal, Madhuban; Subhramanyam, B. S.; devakumar, C.; Goswami, Arunava
Elemental sulfur (S0), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.
Jongh, Wian de; Nielsen, Jens
The effect of inserting genes involved in the reductive branch of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle on citrate production by Aspergillus niger was evaluated. Several different genes were inserted individually and in combination, i.e. malate dehydrogenase (mdh2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two...... truncated, cytosolic targeted, fumarases (Fum1s and FumRs) from S. cerevisiae and Rhizopus oryzae, respectively, and the cytosolic soluble fumarate reductase (Frds1) from S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of these genes in their native strain backgrounds has been reported to lead to alterations...... in the intracellular cytosolic dicarboxylate concentrations. It was found that all the transformant strains had enhanced yield and productivities of citrate compared with the wild-type strain. The transformants also had the ability to produce citrate in trace-manganese-contaminated medium, where the wild type...
Pays pauvre, le Niger espère connaître un second boom de l'uranium. La course aux matières premières à laquelle se livrent les pays du Nord et les pays émergents lui a permis d'engranger des recettes financières importantes. De plus, cette compétition a instauré un climat de concurrence marqué par une redistribution géopolitique et économique des cartes, qui s'est traduite par la fin du monopole de la France sur ses exportations de yellow cake (concentré d'uranium) : l'hégémonie du groupe Are...
Andersen Mikael R
Full Text Available Abstract Background The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required. For each type of hemicellulose, a complex mixture of enzymes is required for complete conversion to fermentable monosaccharides. In plant-biomass degrading fungi, these enzymes are regulated and released by complex regulatory structures. In this study, we present a methodology for evaluating the potential of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list of 188 genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes from Aspergillus niger, thus forming an analysis framework, which can be queried. Combination of this information network with gene expression analysis on mono- and polysaccharide substrates has allowed elucidation of concerted gene expression from this organism. One such example is the identification of a full set of extracellular polysaccharide-acting genes for the degradation of oat spelt xylan. Conclusions The mapping of plant polysaccharide structures along with the corresponding enzymatic activities is a powerful framework for expression analysis of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Applying this network-based approach, we provide the first genome-scale characterization of all genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes identified in A. niger.
Pamminger, T; Buttstedt, A; Norman, V; Schierhorn, A; Botías, C; Jones, J C; Basley, K; Hughes, W O H
Reproduction has been shown to be costly for survival in a wide diversity of taxa. The resulting trade-off, termed the reproduction-survival trade-off, is thought to be one of the most fundamental forces of life-history evolution. In insects the pleiotropic effect of juvenile hormone (JH), antagonistically regulating reproduction and pathogen resistance, is suggested to underlie this phenomenon. In contrast to the majority of insects, reproductive individuals in many eusocial insects defy this trade-off and live both long and prosper. By remodelling the gonadotropic effects of JH in reproductive regulation, the queens of the long-lived black garden ant Lasius niger (living up to 27 years), have circumvented the reproduction-survival trade off enabling them to maximize both reproduction and pathogen resistance simultaneously. In this study we measure fertility, vitellogenin gene expression and protein levels after experimental manipulation of hormone levels. We use these measurements to investigate the mechanistic basis of endocrinological role remodelling in reproduction and determine how JH suppresses reproduction in this species, rather then stimulating it, like in the majority of insects. We find that JH likely inhibits three key aspects of reproduction both during vitellogenesis and oogenesis, including two previously unknown mechanisms. In addition, we document that juvenile hormone, as in the majority of insects, has retained some stimulatory function in regulating vitellogenin expression. We discuss the evolutionary consequences of this complex regulatory architecture of reproduction in L. niger, which might enable the evolution of similar reproductive phenotypes by alternate regulatory pathways, and the surprising flexibility regulatory role of juvenile hormone in this process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Lei; Ding, Ruxian; Chai, Yourong; Bonfill, Mercedes; Moyano, Elisabet; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Xu, Tiefeng; Pi, Yan; Wang, Zinan; Zhang, Hanming; Kai, Guoyin; Liao, Zhihua; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan
Scopolamine is a pharmaceutically important tropane alkaloid extensively used as an anticholinergic agent. Here, we report the simultaneous introduction and overexpression of genes encoding the rate-limiting upstream enzyme putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) and the downstream enzyme hyoscyamine 6 β-hydroxylase (H6H) of scopolamine biosynthesis in transgenic henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) hairy root cultures. Transgenic hairy root lines expressing both pmt and h6h produced significantly higher (P < 0.05) levels of scopolamine compared with the wild-type and transgenic lines harboring a single gene (pmt or h6h). The best line (T3) produced 411 mg/liter scopolamine, which was over nine times more than that in the wild type (43 mg/liter) and more than twice the amount in the highest scopolamine-producing h6h single-gene transgenic line H11 (184 mg/liter). To our knowledge, this is the highest scopolamine content achieved through genetic engineering of a plant. We conclude that transgenic plants harboring both pmt and h6h possessed an increased flux in the tropane alkaloid biosynthetic pathway that enhanced scopolamine yield, which was more efficient than plants harboring only one of the two genes. It seems that the pulling force of the downstream enzyme (the faucet enzyme) H6H plays a more important role in stimulating scopolamine accumulation in H. niger whereas the functioning of the upstream enzyme PMT is increased proportionally. This study provides an effective approach for large-scale commercial production of scopolamine by using hairy root culture systems as bioreactors. PMID:15084741
Zhang, Lei; Ding, Ruxian; Chai, Yourong; Bonfill, Mercedes; Moyano, Elisabet; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Xu, Tiefeng; Pi, Yan; Wang, Zinan; Zhang, Hanming; Kai, Guoyin; Liao, Zhihua; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan
Scopolamine is a pharmaceutically important tropane alkaloid extensively used as an anticholinergic agent. Here, we report the simultaneous introduction and overexpression of genes encoding the rate-limiting upstream enzyme putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) and the downstream enzyme hyoscyamine 6 beta-hydroxylase (H6H) of scopolamine biosynthesis in transgenic henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) hairy root cultures. Transgenic hairy root lines expressing both pmt and h6h produced significantly higher (P < 0.05) levels of scopolamine compared with the wild-type and transgenic lines harboring a single gene (pmt or h6h). The best line (T(3)) produced 411 mg/liter scopolamine, which was over nine times more than that in the wild type (43 mg/liter) and more than twice the amount in the highest scopolamine-producing h6h single-gene transgenic line H(11) (184 mg/liter). To our knowledge, this is the highest scopolamine content achieved through genetic engineering of a plant. We conclude that transgenic plants harboring both pmt and h6h possessed an increased flux in the tropane alkaloid biosynthetic pathway that enhanced scopolamine yield, which was more efficient than plants harboring only one of the two genes. It seems that the pulling force of the downstream enzyme (the faucet enzyme) H6H plays a more important role in stimulating scopolamine accumulation in H. niger whereas the functioning of the upstream enzyme PMT is increased proportionally. This study provides an effective approach for large-scale commercial production of scopolamine by using hairy root culture systems as bioreactors.
Schucknecht, A.; Meroni, M.; Kayitakire, F.; Rembold, F.; Boureima, A.
Livestock plays a central economic role in Niger, but it is highly vulnerable due to the high inter-annual variability of rain and hence pasture production. This study aims to develop an approach for mapping pasture biomass production to support activities of the Niger Ministry of Livestock for effective pasture management. Our approach utilises the observed spatiotemporal variability of biomass production to build a predictive model based on ground and remote sensing data for the period 1998-2012. Measured biomass (63 sites) at the end of the growing season was used for the model parameterisation. The seasonal cumulative Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (CFAPAR), calculated from 10-day image composites of SPOT-VEGETATION FAPAR, was computed as a phenology-tuned proxy of biomass production. A linear regression model was tested aggregating field data at different levels (global, department, agro-ecological zone, and intersection of agro-ecological and department units) and subjected to a cross validation (cv) by leaving one full year out. An increased complexity (i.e. spatial detail) of the model increased the estimation performances indicating the potential relevance of additional and spatially heterogeneous agro-ecological characteristics for the relationship between herbaceous biomass at the end of the season and CFAPAR. The model using the department aggregation yielded the best trade-off between model complexity and predictive power (R2 = 0.55, R2cv = 0.48). The proposed approach can be used to timely produce maps of estimated biomass at the end of the growing season before ground point measurements are made available.
Zhang, Wei; Xue, Beibei; Li, Mengmeng; Mu, Yang; Chen, Zhihui; Li, Jianping; Shan, Anshan
...) was able to degrade aflatoxin B₁ after screening. ND-1 isolate, identified as a strain of Aspergillus niger using phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 18S rDNA, could remove 26.3% of aflatoxin B₁...
Buren, Emiel B J Ten; Karrenbelt, Michiel A P; Lingemann, Marit; Chordia, Shreyans; Deng, Ying; Hu, JingJing; Verest, Johanna M; Wu, Vincen; Gonzalez, Teresita J Bello; Heck, Ruben G A van; Odoni, Dorett I; Schonewille, Tom; Straat, Laura van der; Graaff, Leo H de; Passel, Mark W J van
Aspergillus niger is a filamentous fungus that is extensively used in industrial fermentations for protein expression and the production of organic acids. Inherent biosynthetic capabilities, such as the capacity to secrete these biomolecules in high amounts, make A. niger an attractive production host. Although A. niger is renowned for this ability, the knowledge of the molecular components that underlie its production capacity, intercellular trafficking processes and secretion mechanisms is far from complete. Here, we introduce a standardized set of tools, consisting of an N-terminal GFP-actin fusion and codon optimized eforRed chromoprotein. Expression of the GFP-actin construct facilitates visualization of the actin filaments of the cytoskeleton, whereas expression of the chromoprotein construct results in a clearly distinguishable red phenotype. These experimentally validated constructs constitute the first set of standardized A. niger biomarkers, which can be used to study morphology, intercellular trafficking, and secretion phenomena.
BURT P. KOTLER; JOEL S. BROWN; MICHAEL HICKEY
...: its present value for immediate consumption and its future value if stored. We explored some properties of caching in the context of a food's future value using free-living fox squirrels (Sciurus niger...
Hossain, A.H.; Li, A.; Brickwedde, A.; Wilms, L.; Caspers, M.; Overkamp, K.; Punt, P.J.
Background: The industrially relevant filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is widely used in industry for its secretion capabilities of enzymes and organic acids. Biotechnologically produced organic acids promise to be an attractive alternative for the chemical industry to replace petrochemicals.
Mohamed A. Yassin
Full Text Available Coffee bean-contaminating fungi were determined in random samples collected in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, using the direct plating technique. Forty-five samples were examined and 12 fungal species belonging to 5 genera were isolated. Aspergillus niger was the most widely distributed and most frequently isolated fungus (86.67%. The ability of the predominant fungus, A. niger, to produce oxalic acid was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography. About 50% of the tested A. niger isolates produced oxalic acid; the amount produced was in the range of 90–550 ppm of oxalic acid. Because A. niger was the predominant and most widely distributed toxigenic fungus in the examined samples, more efforts should be directed to minimize the risk of oxalic acid contamination of commoditized coffee beans in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
... before; words that reflect WoDaaBe nomads' concern for their present situation. Repeated droughts in the Sahel area of Niger have led to losses of livestock and reduced the possibility of maintaining a nomadic way of life...
Allium cepa L.) and leek (Allium porrum L.) were investigated against Aspergillus niger. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of aqueous, ethyl alcohol and acetone extracts were determined by ...
Conclusions: We have identified two recombinant HBV forms and rare genotypic patterns in Niger that may affect hepatitis B surface antigen antigenicity, and improve current knowledge of epidemiological, clinical and virological patterns of hepatitis B in this country.
Citric acid is regarded as a metabolite of energy metabolism, of which the concentration will rise to appreciable amounts only under conditions of substantive metabolic imbalances. Citric acid fermentation conditions were established during the 1930s and 1940s, when the effects of various medium components were evaluated. The biochemical mechanism by which Aspergillus niger accumulates citric acid has continued to attract interest even though its commercial production by fermentation has been established for decades. Although extensive basic biochemical research has been carried out with A. niger, the understanding of the events relevant for citric acid accumulation is not completely understood. This review is focused on citric acid fermentation by A. niger. Emphasis is given to aspects of fermentation biochemistry, membrane transport in A. niger and modeling of the production process.
TSUCHIYAMA, Moriyasu; SAKAMOTO, Tatsuji; TANIMORI, Shinji; MURATA, Shuichi; KAWASAKI, Haruhiko
We found that hydroxycinnamic acid (HA) glycerol esters such as 1-sinapoyl glycerol and 1-p-coumaroyl glycerol can be synthesized through a direct esterification reaction using a type A feruloyl esterase from Aspergillus niger...
Pirota, R. D. P. B; Miotto, L. S; Delabona, P. S; Farinas, C. S
...) on the recovery of endoglucanases produced by Aspergillus niger cultivated under SSF. Statistical analysis revealed that only the solid to liquid ratio had a significant influence on endoglucanase extraction...
Huebner, E. Scott
Study investigated the relationships between a children's life satisfaction measure, the Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS), and a self-concept measure, the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale (PHSCS). Analyses demonstrated a strong relationship between the SLSS and one PHSCS subscale, providing support for the construct validity of the SLSS.…
Morris, Edward K
Relations between behavior analysis and ecological psychology have been strained for years, notwithstanding the occasional comment on their affinities. Harry Heft's (2001) Ecological Psychology in Context provides an occasion for reviewing anew those relations and affinities. It describes the genesis of ecological psychology in James's radical empiricism; addresses Holt's neorealism and Gestalt psychology; and synthesizes Gibson's ecological psychology and Barker's ecobehavioral science as a ...
Lauen, Joanna; Henderson, Dorothy; White, Barbara; Kohchi, Joaniko
Achieving reproductive health and justice matters to family and child well-being. These two ideals are, however, often put at odds in public policies and discourse that shape the systems and programs that affect pregnant women and families. This article describes the Irving Harris Foundation's historic approach to investing in early childhood and…
Hoeksma, H.L.; Ende, C.H.M. van den; Ronday, H.K.; Heering, A.; Breedveld, F.C.; Dekker, J.
OBJECTIVE: To compare responsiveness of the Harris Hip Score with generic measures (that is, the Short Form-36 (SF-36), and a test of walking speed and pain during walking) in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. METHOD: The first 75 cases within the population of a randomised clinical
This is a draft Landsat Data Mosaic, which contains remote sensing information for Montgomery County, Texas Harris County, Texas Fort Bend County, Texas Brazoria County, Texas Galveston County, and Texas Imagery dates on the following dates: October 6, 1999 and September 29, 200...
Graham, Patricia Albjerg
Twenty-five years ago when Harry Judge published "American Graduate Schools of Education: a view from abroad", he referred to his subject as a "puzzle". These institutions were in the midst of a transition from a focus upon the education of academically talented children mostly from affluent backgrounds to the schooling of children of disparate…
Full Text Available The Harry Potter Alliance (HPA has invited thousands of Harry Potter fans to view politics and activism through the lens of Harry Potter. HPA members have signed petitions, sent letters, made videos, and raised money in efforts to affect laws and public policies. These activities circulate and operate within the public sphere through an engagement with others. If we are to consider the political actions of fans, we must consider how fans insert arguments into the public sphere, constitute publics, and ultimately assert their own public subjectivities. By drawing on social movement and public sphere theory, I first develop the theoretical concept of the "public engagement keystone." I conceptualize the public engagement keystone as a touch point, worldview, or philosophy that makes other people, actions, and institutions intelligible. Next, I use the case of the HPA to demonstrate how the Harry Potter story operates as a public engagement keystone, opening the door to public subjectivities on par with the healthy public formation of John Dewey, Doug McAdam, or Peter Dahlgren. I offer an interdisciplinary approach to how fandom encourages and invites civic engagement. By doing so, public sphere theory can better account for a wider variety of types of civic engagement, including fandom activism.
This article combines interview data from a group of boys of color at an urban single-sex school and content analysis of "The Autobiography of Malcolm X" and "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" to demonstrate the complexities of readers' responses to literature. Textual relevance, or the ability to construct personal…
Gelman, Susan A.; Frazier, Brandy N.; Noles, Nicholaus S.; Manczak, Erika M.; Stilwell, Sarah M.
Adults attach special value to objects that link to notable people or events--authentic objects. We examined children's monetary evaluation of authentic objects, focusing on four kinds: celebrity possessions (e.g., Harry Potter's glasses), original creations (e.g., the very first teddy bear), personal possessions (e.g., your…
Abigail De Kosnik
Full Text Available Review of Lisa S. Brenner, editor. Playing Harry Potter: Essays and interviews on fandom and performance. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2015, paperback, $29.95 (238p ISBN 978-0-7864-9657-0, e-book $14.43 (5374 KB ISBN 978-1-4766-2136-4, ASIN B012E9G0R6.
Clement Nicholas D
Full Text Available Abstract We present a case of a Salter-Harris II injury to the proximal tibia associated with both vascular compromise and compartment syndrome. The potential complications of this injury are limb threatening and the neurovasular status of the limb should be continually monitored. Maintaining anatomic reduction is difficult and fixation may be needed to achieve optimal results.
A. H. Chapman
Full Text Available Uma das maiores contribuições do psiquiatra norte-americano Harry Stack Sullivan (1892-1949 foi a de eliminar o conceito de mente do seu pensamento psiquiátrico. Ele baseou todos os seus conceitos sobre o desenvolvimento da personalidade, e a natureza das doenças psiquiátricas que são causadas por fatores emocionais, sobre relações interpessoais. Relações interpessoais, em contraste com o funcionamento da mente, podem ser diretamente observadas, e quaisquer princípios baseados em relações interpessoais podem ser submetidos a pesquisas que podem ser provadas ou refutadas por investigadores psiquiátricos. Assim, as obras de Sullivan fornecem um caminho pelo qual a psicologia e psiquiatria podem tornar-se, com o tempo, em especialidades verdadeiramente científicas.
The effect of the slave system on demography can be revealed by examining the age-sex structure of slave populations. The age-sex structure of slaves in Harris County, Texas is investigated using the 1850 and 1860 slave schedules. Median ages for black and mulatto slaves suggest that the population was young. Population pyramids exhibit a narrow base and top with a broad middle. The high proportion of slaves between 10 and 30 years of age and the increase in population size between 1850 and 1860 were mainly related to the importation of slaves and only partly due to natural increase. The data also show that black slaves were older on small plantations while mulattoes were older on larger farms. It is suggested that differential treatment in terms of purchase practices, assignment of tasks, food allocation, and/or differential susceptibility to infectious diseases may account for this pattern.
Full Text Available Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. Harry Pickstone, a China indigenous fruit, is widely produced and consumed in countries such as Japan and Brazil. The practice of thinning is common in horticulture and the fruits removed are discarded as waste. Like the great majority of vegetables, these thinning discards also contain essential oils which have not been investigated until the present time. The extraction of the plum thinning discards volatile oil, through the hydrodistillation method, produced a yield of 0.06% (m/m and a total of 21 components were identified, with 11 of them being responsible for 72,9% of the total oil composition. The major compounds determined through GC and GC-MS were Z-α-bisabolene (13.7%, n-hexadecanoic acid (12.7%, phytol (12.7%, and β-caryophyllene (10.4%.
Peter Bille Larsen
Full Text Available For the past decade, narrative portrayals of non-governmental organisations (NGOs growing big, 'ugly', and business-minded have become common in both social science and public discourse. At a time when both engagement within NGOs as well as critical analysis from the outside has blossomed, how are the social sciences and anthropology in particular responding? This article suggests that a set of meta-narratives characterise much of the literature analysing conservation NGOs. Such narratives respectively position NGOs as doing good, turning ugly or acting pragmatically through what I label 'Dirty Harry' characteristics. While the critique of conservation NGOs offers a much needed 'reality check', it is time to revisit dichotomies of the 'good' past and the ugly present. The article reviews trends in the literature and offers a case study from the Peruvian Amazon. The final synthesis emphasises the need for a less essentialist perspective tracing heterogeneity and change of NGO activity over time.
Santos, Maria Manuela Rocha Teixeira dos
Com o presente trabalho pretende-se fazer uma abordagem ao processo de crescimento de Harry Potter, tendo por base a sua condição de órfão e o modo como se adaptou às circunstâncias, concretamente ao mundo da feitiçaria, deixando para trás o que havia adquirido enquanto membro da família Dursley. Neste âmbito, são abordadas relevantes teorias do desenvolvimento, com o intuito de explicar as transformações ocorridas, assim como a apresentação da escola de Hogwarts como instituição de efetiva s...
Prof. Dr. Antônio Jackson de Souza Brandão
Full Text Available Apesar de todo o sucesso que a obra de J. K. Rowling representou para o mundo editorial, em especial para o segmento juvenil, Harry Potter foi, como grande parte dos best-sellers que atingem tais proporções, execrado por intelectuais, críticos, professores e pais. Este artigo, no entanto, pretende mostrar como a comunidade escolar perdeu a chance de aproveitar o sucesso do livro em benefício dos próprios jovens que, ávidos, leram suas centenas de páginas. Assim, se não fosse devido a ideias preconcebidas, nossos alunos poderiam ter aprendido muito mais com as aventuras do pequeno bruxo, se seus professores (com o aval dos pais pudessem ter tirado o máximo de proveito da obra e de seu mundo moral, ético, cultural e imagético
Full Text Available Translation is undoubtedly an important but at the same time difficult work. Metaphors are among the potential areas of translation problem. This study aimed at describing how metaphors in the novel Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets are translated from English to Indonesian, and evaluating the appropriateness of the translation results. Findings showed certain strategies were applicable and determinant to the appropriateness of the English metaphor translation to Indonesian: adoption or reproduction, adaptation or replacement with Indonesian metaphors, conversion to simile, adoption plus sense, conversion to sense, and deletion. Metaphor translation appropriateness shall be arrived if it qualifies referential and contextual accuracy. Missing one or either two of the accuracy kinds may result in less and inappropriate metaphor translation respectively.
Luis Gómez Romero
Full Text Available Este ensayo acomete una crítica radical de las ideologías legalistas mediante una revisión de las fuentes del derecho en clave pluralista. Los textos literarios –concretamente, las novelas de Harry Potter– son catalogados como fuentes del derecho. A estos efectos, se considera que el derecho inscrito en los mundos narrativos ficticios concierne al derecho en el mundo y las vidas de los públicos que los leen. El derecho es literatura, y la literatura es derecho. Sobre esta base, el artículo analiza la fabulación sobre el imperio de la ley en las novelas potterianas desde una perspectiva republicana.
Diaa M. Uliyan
Full Text Available Region duplication forgery where a part of the image itself is copied and pasted onto a different part of the same image grid is becoming more popular in image manipulation. The forgers often apply geometric transformations such as rotation and scaling operations to make the forgery imperceptible. In this study, an image region duplication forgery detection algorithm is proposed based on the angular radial partitioning and Harris key-points. Two standard databases have been used: image data manipulation and MICC-F220 (Media Integration and Communication Center– of the University of Florence for experimentation. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed technique can detect rotated regions in multiples of 30 degrees and can detect region duplication with different scaling factors from 0.8, to 1.2. More experimental results are presented to confirm the effectiveness of detecting region duplication that has undergone other changes, such as Gaussian noise, and JPEG compression.
Enwere Chidimma Loveline
Wetlands perform a wide variety of functions that include flood control, ground water recharge, shore line stabilization, storm protection and climate moderation. However, despite these huge wetland functions, it has witnessed poor appreciation and dreadful conditions. Niger Delta has witnessed constant coastal erosion and rising sea level, this has led to large portions of the landmass being eroded. This paper aims to review some environmental effects of flooding in the Niger Delta region o...
Aspergillus niger has the ability to synthesise large amounts of acids and proteins, and to secrete these into the environment. This particular property is used in biotechnology to produce platform chemicals and industrial enzymes. Despite impressive metabolic activities, there is still a need for research to optimise product yields of A. niger using genetic and engineering approaches. This work therefore focuses on using genetic approaches to adapt synthetic gene switches, such as tetracy...
Li An; Pfelzer Nina; Zuijderwijk Robbert; Punt Peter
Abstract Background Aspergillus niger was selected as a host for producing itaconic acid due to its versatile and tolerant character in various growth environments, and its extremely high capacity of accumulating the precursor of itaconic acid: citric acid. Expressing the CAD gene from Aspergillus terreus opened the metabolic pathway towards itaconic acid in A. niger. In order to increase the production level, we continued by modifying its genome and optimizing cultivation media. Results Base...
Vermeulen, E; Maertens, J; Meersseman, P; Saegeman, V; Dupont, L; Lagrou, K
The incidence of invasive infections caused by the Aspergillus niger species complex was 0.043 cases/10 000 patient-days in a Belgian university hospital (2005-2011). Molecular typing was performed on six available A. niger complex isolates involved in invasive disease from 2010 to 2011, revealing A. tubingensis, which has higher triazole minimal inhibitory concentrations, in five out of six cases. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
Le Niger fait partie des pays les plus vulnérables au monde en raison du contexte lié à son climat, son environnement et à son économie. Le pays se classe au bas de l'échelle sur la quasi-totalité des indicateurs de développement humain. L'agriculture est le secteur le plus important de l'économie du Niger.
Full Text Available Aspergillus niger is usually considered to be a low virulence fungus, not commonly reported to cause invasive infections. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis due to Aspergillus niger was diagnosed in a 43-year-old woman following bilateral lung transplantation. Intravenous voriconazole failed to control progression of the disease. Despite salvage therapy with a combination of voriconazole and caspofungin for 23 days, the patient developed massive hemoptysis leading to death. The authors report the clinical features and treatment of this case.
Dolores Agúndez Leal; Soumana Douma; javier Madrigal; Almudena Gómez-Ramos; Barbara Vicenti; Ricardo Alía; Ali Mahamane
Aim of study: Indigenous woody species play an important role as a complement on the diet of rural populations in Niger, especially in periods of food scarcity. However, these species are nowadays overexploited and management programmes are necessary to conserve them. In order to design a conservation programme for edible woody species, this paper presents a sociological analysis about the use of edible woody species and their products during shortage periods in Niger. Area of study: Four...
Holm, Dorte Koefoed; Petersen, Lene Maj; Klitgaard, Andreas
We have elucidated the mode of biosynthesis of the meroterpenoid compound Yanuthone D in Aspergillus niger. We have successfully deleted all cluster genes, and identified a number of intermediates. Structures of the intermediates were solved using a combined approach comprising classical 1D- and ......-NMR and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In this study we have confirmed that Yanuthone D is of meroterpenoid origin, and we have identified an unexpected precursor, which has not before been reported for Aspergillus niger....
Kiel, Hildegard; Guvrin, Rumia; Henis, Yigal
The possible use of cotton waste as a carbohydrate source of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger was examined. No citric acid was produced when A. niger was grown on cotton waste as a sole carbon source. In two-stage fermentations, however, mycelium obtained from surface cultures in cotton waste medium yielded more citric acid when transferred to sucrose-containing media than when directly inoculated to sucrose-containing media. It is concluded that cotton waste can be used for saving...
Larsen, Rasmus Kløcker; Mamosso, Christiane Alzouma
Niger is well known in international media as one of the world's poorest countries, struggling with chronic structural hunger and malnutrition. What is less well known to many is that Niger also hosts the fourth largest uranium production in the world. Export values totaled over 348 million Euros in 2010 alone, representing more than twice the total development assistance finance received during the same year. The exploitation of the mineral wealth (incl. uranium, gold, phosphate, coal) by in...
Oil was discovered in large quantities in Nigeria in 1956 and exploration began in the same year. Before oil, agriculture and fishing had assured the Niger Delta people of a bright future. Since 1956, oil has been extracted from the Niger Delta with destructive consequences on the environment, bringing about environmental degradation and destruction of the people’s primary means of livelihood. Land and water were badly polluted, and the health of the people affected because of leaks from oil ...
Drap, P.; Papini, O.; Pruno, E.; Nucciotti, M.; Vannini, G.
The paper presents some reflexions concerning an interdisciplinary project between Medieval Archaeologists from the University of Florence (Italy) and ICT researchers from CNRS LSIS of Marseille (France), aiming towards a connection between 3D spatial representation and archaeological knowledge. It is well known that Laser Scanner, Photogrammetry and Computer Vision are very attractive tools for archaeologists, although the integration of representation of space and representation of archaeological time has not yet found a methodological standard of reference. We try to develop an integrated system for archaeological 3D survey and all other types of archaeological data and knowledge through integrating observable (material) and non-graphic (interpretive) data. Survey plays a central role, since it is both a metric representation of the archaeological site and, to a wider extent, an interpretation of it (being also a common basis for communication between the 2 teams). More specifically 3D survey is crucial, allowing archaeologists to connect actual spatial assets to the stratigraphic formation processes (i.e. to the archaeological time) and to translate spatial observations into historical interpretation of the site. We propose a common formalism for describing photogrammetrical survey and archaeological knowledge stemming from ontologies: Indeed, ontologies are fully used to model and store 3D data and archaeological knowledge. Xe equip this formalism with a qualitative representation of time. Stratigraphic analyses (both of excavated deposits and of upstanding structures) are closely related to E. C. Harris theory of "Stratigraphic Unit" ("US" from now on). Every US is connected to the others by geometric, topological and, eventually, temporal links, and are recorded by the 3D photogrammetric survey. However, the limitations of the Harris Matrix approach lead to use another representation formalism for stratigraphic relationships, namely Qualitative Constraints
Daniela Botti da Rosa
Full Text Available O presente artigo, uma reflexão crítica sobre o sujeito da contemporaneidade a partir de um de seus produtos - a literatura, especificamente a saga de Harry Potter - parte de quatro premissas básicas ligadas à teoria psicanalítica. As duas primeiras ligam-se aos estudos de Bruno Bettelheim acerca dos contos de fadas, e mostram as possibilidades de identificação do sujeito com as histórias infantis bem como a necessidade e pertinência do acesso à fantasia no mundo anímico da criança. A terceira toma de empréstimo a uma analista junguiana - Marie Louise von Franz - a noção de que as histórias podem funcionar como compensação de algo que está faltando aos sujeitos ou a uma época. A quarta premissa traz a marca da releitura freudiana feita por Jacques Lacan acerca da carência paterna no mundo contemporâneo, que se manifesta - entre outras possibilidades - na dissolução de traços nítidos de demarcação entre gerações e no afrouxamento do ato educativo. Procuramos questionar, neste artigo, partindo desses pressupostos, como a saga de Harry Potter pode sustentar novos traços identitários a partir de novas condições de subjetivação.
Full Text Available Grammatical Metaphor (GM is one of the fresh language phenomena introduced by Halliday (1985 in the framework of functional grammar. Thompson (2004 states that the salient source of GM would be ‘Nominalization’ where a noun form attempts to represent a verb form or in other words, a verb form with its different process is represented in a noun form. He continues that any wording is ought to be either metaphorical or congruent wording. In this study the story of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban was explored in search of GMs deployed throughout the first two chapters. This study tended to identify the instances of nominalization types of GM in the first two chapters of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and offer the congruent wording. As the next step, the congruent wordings were compared with metaphorical wording in order to find out the lexical density of each wording. The lexical density was obtained by Concordance software. The result of study illustrated , in a very crystal-clear way, the advantage of GM in adult writing which is stated to be one of the noticeable points regarding GM by Halliday (1985.The result obtained statistically revealed that the deployment of GM increases the lexical density, which again was claimed by Halliday (2004 as one of the other salient points about GM. Based on the findings of this study, some implications can be drawn for academic writing and reading as well as for teachers involved in writing and reading pedagogy.
Mamadou, I.; Descroix, L.; Costard Gautier, E.; Brunstein, D.; Le-Breton, E.; Bouzou Moussa, I.; Faran Maiga, O.; Abba, B.; Malam Abdou, M.; Yero Souley, K.
In the region of Niamey (Niger), the Niger river is subjected to recent important morphodynamic changes, because of the increasing activity of numerous tributaries ("koris", haoussa term for oued). These seasonal tributaries, recently formed, are responsible of an important increase of the sediment supply in the Niger river near Niamey (Niger), they provoke an important sedimentation in the river bed. The first aim of this study is to highlight the koris evolution and its impact on the Niger river. The second part of the study consists of the determination of factors explaining this recent evolution. External factors (mainly rainfall frequency and intensity ) and human impacts (mainly land use changes) are investigated. Different methods are carried out at different spatial and temporal scales: i) water and sediment measurements are conducted during the floods in the koris; precise topographic surveys allow the quantification of the sediment remobilisation in the kori bed and on their alluvial fan; ii) A rainfall statistical study is also realized to determine the possibility of an increase in extreme rainfall events; iii) at the koris basin scale, on the basis of aerial pictures and satellite images, diachronic analyses are conducted to determine the evolution of the landscape. It appears that the main factor is the soil use change. In the 1950's cultivated areas represented 10% of the Sahelian territory. Today, those areas are almost entirely cultivated. In the koris basin, these changes generate runoff and soil loss increases. Keywords: Niamey region; endoreic; koris; Niger river; human impacts: extreme rainfall events; soil use change
Li, Lianwei; Lu, Hongzhong; Xia, Jianye; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang
Carbon-limited continuous culture was used to study the relationship between the growth of Aspergillus niger and the production of glucoamylase. The result showed that when the specific growth rate was lower than 0.068 h(-1), the production of glucoamylase was growth-associated, when the specific growth rate was higher than 0.068 h(-1), the production of glucoamylase was not growth-associated. Based on the result of continuous culture, the Monod dynamics model of glucose consumption of A. niger was constructed, Combining Herbert-Pirt equation of glucose and oxygen consumption with Luedeking-Piret equation of enzyme production, the black-box model of Aspergillus niger for enzyme production was established. The exponential fed-batch culture was designed to control the specific growth rate at 0.05 h(-1) by using this model and the highest yield for glucoamylase production by A. niger reached 0.127 g glucoamylase/g glucose. The black-box model constructed in this study successfully described the glucoamylase production by A. niger and the result of the model fitted the measured value well. The black-box model could guide the design and optimization of glucoamylase production by A. niger.
Dave, Khyati K.; Punekar, Narayan S.
Different engineered organisms have been used to produce L-lactate. Poor yields of lactate at low pH and expensive downstream processing remain as bottlenecks. Aspergillus niger is a prolific citrate producer and a remarkably acid tolerant fungus. Neither a functional lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from nor lactate production by A. niger is reported. Its genome was also investigated for the presence of a functional ldh. The endogenous A. niger citrate synthase promoter relevant to A. niger acidogenic metabolism was employed to drive constitutive expression of mouse lactate dehydrogenase (mldhA). An appraisal of different branches of the A. niger pyruvate node guided the choice of mldhA for heterologous expression. A high copy number transformant C12 strain, displaying highest LDH specific activity, was analyzed under different growth conditions. The C12 strain produced 7.7 g/l of extracellular L-lactate from 60 g/l of glucose, in non-neutralizing minimal media. Significantly, lactate and citrate accumulated under two different growth conditions. Already an established acidogenic platform, A. niger now promises to be a valuable host for lactate production. PMID:26683313
Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Thrane, Ulf
The recent discovery of fumonisin production in Aspergillus niger, raises concerns about the presence of these mycotoxins in grapes and raisins as well as other commodities where A. niger is a frequent contaminant. Here we investigate the potential production of fumonisins in A. niger cultured...... on grapes and raisins. Sixty-six A. niger, 4 A. tubingensis, and 16 A. acidus strains isolated from raisins were tested for fumonisin production on laboratory media. Neither A. tubingensis nor A. acidus strains produced fumonisins, but 77% of A. niger strains did. None of the strains produced ochratoxin A....... Ten selected fumonisin producing A. niger strains were further able to produce fumonisin B2 and fumonisin B4 on grapes in the range 171−7841 μg fumonisin B2/kg and 14−1157 μg fumonisin B4/kg. Four selected strains were able to produce fumonisin B2 (5−6476 μg/kg) and fumonisin B4 (12−672 μg...
Damak, Naourez; Abdeljalil, Salma; Taeib, Noomen Hadj; Gargouri, Ali
The rhg gene encoding a rhamnogalacturonase was isolated from the novel strain A1 of Aspergillus niger. It consists of an ORF of 1.505 kb encoding a putative protein of 446 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 47 kDa, belonging to the family 28 of glycosyl hydrolases. The nature and position of amino acids comprising the active site as well as the three-dimensional structure were well conserved between the A. niger CTM10548 and fungal rhamnogalacturonases. The coding region of the rhg gene is interrupted by three short introns of 56 (introns 1 and 3) and 52 (intron 2) bp in length. The comparison of the peptide sequence with A. niger rhg sequences revealed that the A1 rhg should be an endo-rhamnogalacturonases, more homologous to rhg A than rhg B A. niger known enzymes. The comparison of rhg nucleotide sequence from A. niger A1 with rhg A from A. niger shows several base changes. Most of these changes (59 %) are located at the third base of codons suggesting maintaining the same enzyme function. We used the rhamnogalacturonase A from Aspergillus aculeatus as a template to build a structural model of rhg A1 that adopted a right-handed parallel β-helix.
Dave, Khyati K; Punekar, Narayan S
Different engineered organisms have been used to produce L-lactate. Poor yields of lactate at low pH and expensive downstream processing remain as bottlenecks. Aspergillus niger is a prolific citrate producer and a remarkably acid tolerant fungus. Neither a functional lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from nor lactate production by A. niger is reported. Its genome was also investigated for the presence of a functional ldh. The endogenous A. niger citrate synthase promoter relevant to A. niger acidogenic metabolism was employed to drive constitutive expression of mouse lactate dehydrogenase (mldhA). An appraisal of different branches of the A. niger pyruvate node guided the choice of mldhA for heterologous expression. A high copy number transformant C12 strain, displaying highest LDH specific activity, was analyzed under different growth conditions. The C12 strain produced 7.7 g/l of extracellular L-lactate from 60 g/l of glucose, in non-neutralizing minimal media. Significantly, lactate and citrate accumulated under two different growth conditions. Already an established acidogenic platform, A. niger now promises to be a valuable host for lactate production.
Sepúlveda, Leonardo; de la Cruz, Reynaldo; Buenrostro, José Juan; Ascacio-Valdés, Juan Alberto; Aguilera-Carbó, Antonio Francisco; Prado, Arely; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal Noé
Fungal hydrolysis of ellagitannins produces hexahydroxydiphenic acid, which is considered an intermediate molecule in ellagic acid release. Ellagic acid has important and desirable beneficial health properties. The aim of this work was to identify the effect of different sources of ellagitannins on the efficiency of ellagic acid release by Aspergillus niger. Three strains of A. niger (GH1, PSH and HT4) were assessed for ellagic acid release from different polyphenol sources: cranberry, creosote bush, and pomegranate used as substrate. Polyurethane foam was used as support for solid-state culture in column reactors. Ellagitannase activity was measured for each of the treatments. Ellagic acid was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. When pomegranate polyphenols were used, a maximum value of ellagic acid (350.21 mg/g) was reached with A. niger HT4 in solid-state culture. The highest amount of ellagitannase (5176.81 U/l) was obtained at 8h of culture when cranberry polyphenols and strain A. niger PSH were used. Results demonstrated the effect of different polyphenol sources and A. niger strains on ellagic acid release. It was observed that the best source for releasing ellagic acid was pomegranate polyphenols and A. niger HT4 strain, which has the ability to degrade these compounds for obtaining a potent bioactive molecule such as ellagic acid. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Selvaggi, Thomas A; Walco, Jeremy P; Parikh, Sujal; Walco, Gary A
We sought to determine if sufficient redundancy exists between specific IgE testing for Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger to eliminate one of the assays in determining Aspergillus hypersensitivity. We reviewed regional laboratory results comparing A fumigatus-specific IgE with A niger-specific IgE using the Pharmacia UniCAP system (Pharmacia, Kalamazoo, MI). By using the Fisher exact test as an index of concordance among paired results, we showed a significant difference between 109 paired samples for the presence of specific IgE to A fumigatus and A niger (P niger; no specimen was positive for A niger and negative for A fumigatus. We conclude that A fumigatus-specific IgE is sufficient to detect Aspergillus hypersensitivity. The assay for A niger-specific IgE is redundant, less sensitive, and unnecessary if the assay for specific IgE for A fumigatus is performed.
van der Straat, Laura; Vernooij, Marloes; Lammers, Marieke; van den Berg, Willy; Schonewille, Tom; Cordewener, Jan; van der Meer, Ingrid; Koops, Andries; de Graaff, Leo H
Aspergillus terreus is a natural producer of itaconic acid and is currently used to produce itaconic acid on an industrial scale. The metabolic process for itaconic acid biosynthesis is very similar to the production of citric acid in Aspergillus niger. However, a key enzyme in A. niger, cis-aconitate decarboxylase, is missing. The introduction of the A. terreus cadA gene in A. niger exploits the high level of citric acid production (over 200 g per liter) and theoretically can lead to production levels of over 135 g per liter of itaconic acid in A. niger. Given the potential for higher production levels in A. niger, production of itaconic acid in this host was investigated. Expression of Aspergillus terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase in Aspergillus niger resulted in the production of a low concentration (0.05 g/L) of itaconic acid. Overexpression of codon-optimized genes for cis-aconitate decarboxylase, a mitochondrial transporter and a plasma membrane transporter in an oxaloacetate hydrolase and glucose oxidase deficient A. niger strain led to highly increased yields and itaconic acid production titers. At these higher production titers, the effect of the mitochondrial and plasma membrane transporters was much more pronounced, with levels being 5-8 times higher than previously described. Itaconic acid can be produced in A. niger by the introduction of the A. terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase encoding cadA gene. This results in a low itaconic acid production level, which can be increased by codon-optimization of the cadA gene for A. niger. A second crucial requirement for efficient production of itaconic acid is the expression of the A. terreus mttA gene, encoding a putative mitochondrial transporter. Expression of this transporter results in a twenty-fold increase in the secretion of itaconic acid. Expression of the A. terreus itaconic acid cluster consisting of the cadA gene, the mttA gene and the mfsA gene results in A. niger strains that produce over