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Sample records for hip muscle function

  1. Hip adductor muscle function in forward skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ryan; Turcotte, Rene; Pearsall, David

    2009-09-01

    Adductor strain injuries are prevalent in ice hockey. It has long been speculated that adductor muscular strains may be caused by repeated eccentric contractions which decelerate the leg during a stride. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of skating speed with muscle activity and lower limb kinematics, with a particular focus on the role of the hip adductors. Seven collegiate ice hockey players consented to participate. Surface electromyography (EMG) and kinematics of the lower extremities were measured at three skating velocities 3.33 m/s (slow), 5.00 m/s (medium) and 6.66 m/s (fast). The adductor magnus muscle exhibited disproportionately larger increases in peak muscle activation and significantly prolonged activation with increased speed. Stride rate and stride length also increased significantly with skating velocity, in contrast, hip, knee and ankle total ranges of motion did not. To accommodate for the increased stride rate with higher skating speeds, the rate of hip abduction increased significantly in concert with activations of adductor magnus indicating a substantial eccentric contraction. In conclusion, these findings highlight the functional importance of the adductor muscle group and hip abduction-adduction in skating performance as well as indirectly support the notion that groin strain injury potential increases with skating speed.

  2. The morphology and functions of the muscles around the hip joint after a unilateral transfemoral amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaegers, Sonja Maria Héléne José

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the consequences of a transfemoral amputation for the morphology and functions of the muscles around the hip joint. Knowledge about and insight into the changes appearing in the morphology and functions of the hip muscles of transfemoral amputees are important to

  3. Postoperative Recovery of Mechanical Muscle Function in Hip Replacement Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten; Aagaard, Per; Overgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    the posterior-lateral approach. Prior to surgery no training program was initiated but the patients were encouraged to live as usual. Post surgery all patients were allowed fully weight-bearing and they were instructed to follow a conventional home-based rehabilitation, but were otherwise not engaged in any......-test for between group comparisons while ANOVA was used for repeated measures for comparisons over time (α=0.05)   RESULTS The results were calculated as deficits in percentages of the unaffected side (A-NA/NA)*100)) in order to evaluate degree of asymmetry. Our overall side-to-side deficits for peak torque ranged...... from 32.6 to 0.4% and hip flexion deficit being significantly more impacted then the other muscle groups (32.6%).  At baseline all muscle groups showed a significant torque deficit. At 8 weeks post surgery that asymmetry had increased for 4 out of 6 muscle groups. At 26 weeks the hip adduction and hip...

  4. Muscle power is an important measure to detect deficits in muscle function in hip osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieler, Theresa; Magnusson, Stig Peter; Christensen, Helle Elisabeth; Kjaer, Michael; Beyer, Nina

    2017-07-01

    To investigate between-leg differences in hip and thigh muscle strength and leg extensor power in patients with unilateral hip osteoarthritis. Further, to compare between-leg differences in knee extensor strength and leg extensor power between patients and healthy peers. Seventy-two patients (60-87 years) with radiographic and symptomatic hip osteoarthritis not awaiting hip replacement and 35 healthy peers (63-82 years) were included. Hip and thigh muscle strength and leg extensor power were measured in patients and knee extensor strength and leg extensor power in healthy. The symptomatic extremity in patients was significantly (p hip muscles (8-17%), knee extensors (11%) and leg extensor power (19%). Healthy older adults had asymmetry in knee extensor strength (6%, p hip osteoarthritis. Implications for Rehabilitation Even in patients with mild symptoms not awaiting hip replacement a generalized muscle weakening of the symptomatic lower extremity seems to be present. Between-leg differences in leg extensor power (force × velocity) appears to be relatively large (19%) in patients with unilateral hip osteoarthritis in contrast to healthy peers who show no asymmetry. Compared to muscle strength the relationship between functional performance and leg extensor power seems to be stronger, and more strongly related to power of the symptomatic lower extremity. Our results indicate that exercise interventions focusing on improving leg extensor power of the symptomatic lower extremity and reducing asymmetry may be beneficial for patients with mild symptoms not awaiting hip replacement.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF IN VIVO MECHANICAL MUSCLE FUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH OSTEOARTHRITIS (OA) OF THE HIP; RELIABILITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten; Overgaard, Søren; Aagaard, Per

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Muscle function in patients with hip OA is not well-studied. We established a new setup of tests in order to monitor patients before and after surgery with total hip arthroplasty (THA). A test-retest protocol was designed to evaluate the reproducibility of single- and multi-joint str...

  6. Exercise induced effects on muscle function and range of motion in patients with hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, Theresa; Siersma, Volkert; Magnusson, S Peter

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with hip osteoarthritis have impairments in muscle function (muscle strength and power) and hip range of motion (ROM), and it is commonly believed that effective clinical management of osteoarthritis should address these impairments to reduce pain and disability......-two patients were randomized to either 4 months of physiotherapist-supervised, moderate, progressive, strength training (n = 50), physiotherapist-supervised NW (n = 50), or unsupervised HBE (n = 52). Maximal isometric hip and thigh muscle strength and leg extensor power and active hip ROM were assessed...... at baseline 2, 4, and 12 months. RESULTS: Intention-to-treat-analyses did not show any significant between-group differences for improvements in muscle strength and power or ROM at any time points. Short-term significant (p

  7. The efficacy of modified direct lateral versus posterior approach on gait function and hip muscle strength after primary total hip arthroplasty at 12months follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenlund, Signe; Broeng, Leif; Overgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    -spatial parameters and range of motion. Isometric maximal hip muscle strength in abduction, flexion and extension was also tested. FINDINGS: Post-operatively, no between-group difference in gait function was observed. However, both hip abductor and flexor muscle strength improved more in the posterior approach group......BACKGROUND: The lateral and the posterior approach are the most commonly used procedures for total hip arthroplasty. Due to the detachment of the hip abductors, lateral approach is claimed to cause reduced hip muscle strength and altered gait pattern. However, this has not been investigated...... in a randomised controlled trial. The aim was to compare the efficacy of total hip arthroplasty performed by lateral or posterior approach on gait function and hip muscle strength up to 12months post-operatively. We hypothesised that posterior approach would be superior to lateral approach. METHODS: Forty...

  8. Muscle power is an important measure to detect deficits in muscle function in hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, Theresa; Magnusson, Stig Peter; Christensen, Helle Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    that exercise interventions focusing on improving leg extensor power of the symptomatic lower extremity and reducing asymmetry may be beneficial for patients with hip osteoarthritis. Implications for Rehabilitation Even in patients with mild symptoms not awaiting hip replacement a generalized muscle weakening......: The symptomatic extremity in patients was significantly (p asymmetry in knee extensor strength (6%, p ... in patients, but had no asymmetry in leg extensor power. CONCLUSIONS: Patients had generalized weakening of the affected lower extremity and numerically the largest asymmetry was evident for leg extensor power. In contrast, healthy peers had no asymmetry in leg extensor power. These results indicate...

  9. Surgery-induced changes and early recovery of hip-muscle strength, leg-press power, and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Thorborg, Kristian; Husted, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    By measuring very early changes in muscle strength and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA), post-operative rehabilitation, introduced soon after surgery, can be designed to specifically target identified deficits.......By measuring very early changes in muscle strength and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA), post-operative rehabilitation, introduced soon after surgery, can be designed to specifically target identified deficits....

  10. A NEW CLINICAL MUSCLE FUNCTION TEST FOR ASSESSMENT OF HIP EXTERNAL ROTATION STRENGTH: AUGUSTSSON STRENGTH TEST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, Jesper

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic clinical tests of hip strength applicable on patients, non-athletes and athletes alike, are lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to develop and evaluate the reliability of a dynamic muscle function test of hip external rotation strength, using a novel device. A second aim was to determine if gender differences exist in absolute and relative hip strength using the new test. Fifty-three healthy sport science students (34 women and 19 men) were tested for hip external rotation strength using a device that consisted of a strap connected in series with an elastic resistance band loop, and a measuring tape connected in parallel with the elastic resistance band. The test was carried out with the subject side lying, positioned in 45 ° of hip flexion and the knees flexed to 90 ° with the device firmly fastened proximally across the knees. The subject then exerted maximal concentric hip external rotation force against the device thereby extending the elastic resistance band. The displacement achieved by the subject was documented by the tape measure and the corresponding force production was calculated. Both right and left hip strength was measured. Fifteen of the subjects were tested on repeated occasions to evaluate test-retest reliability. No significant test-retest differences were observed. Intra-class correlation coefficients ranged 0.93-0.94 and coefficients of variation 2.76-4.60%. In absolute values, men were significantly stronger in hip external rotation than women (right side 13.2 vs 11.0 kg, p = 0.001, left side 13.2 vs 11.5 kg, p = 0.002). There were no significant differences in hip external rotation strength normalized for body weight (BW) between men and women (right side 0.17 kg/BW vs 0.17 kg/BW, p = 0.675, left side 0.17 kg/BW vs 0.18 kg/BW, p = 0.156). The new muscle function test showed high reliability and thus could be useful for measuring dynamic hip external rotation strength in patients, non-athletes and athletes

  11. Agreement and Reliability of Functional Performance and Muscle Power in Patients with Advanced Osteoarthritis of the Hip or Knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Allan; Roos, Ewa M; Overgaard, Søren

    2012-01-01

    -time repeated chair stands, and repeated unilateral knee bending). RESULTS: For single-joint and multijoint maximal peak power and functional performance measures, we demonstrated poor (CVws, approximately 25%, single-joint hip extension) and moderate (CVws, approximately 15%, multijoint leg extension press......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test the reproducibility and clinical feasibility of three functional performance measures and five single-joint or multijoint muscle power measures. DESIGN: Twenty patients with a mean age of 68.7 ± 7.2 yrs with severe hip or knee osteoarthritis were...... assessed for test-retest reliability and agreement on two occasions 1 wk apart. The outcomes were maximal single-joint muscle power (hip extension/abduction and knee extension/flexion), maximal muscle power during multijoint leg extension press, and functional performance measures (20-m walk, five...

  12. Role of preoperative pain, muscle function, and activity level in discharge readiness after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Bandholm, Thomas; Lunn, Troels Haxholdt

    2014-01-01

    therefore investigated the role of preoperative pain and functional characteristics in discharge readiness and actual LOS in fast-track THA and TKA. METHODS: Before surgery, hip pain (THA) or knee pain (TKA), lower-extremity muscle power, functional performance, and physical activity were assessed...

  13. Intra-rater reliability and agreement of muscle strength, power and functional performance measures in patients with hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, Theresa; Magnusson, S Peter; Kjær, Michael

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the reliability and agreement of measures of lower extremity muscle strength, power and functional performance in patients with hip osteoarthritis at different time intervals, and to compare these with the same measures in healthy peers. DESIGN: Intra-rater test...... extensor power, and functional performance (8-foot Up & Go, stair climbing, chair stand and 6-min walk) were measured in patients, and quadriceps strength, leg extensor power and functional performance were measured in healthy peers. Systematic error, reliability and agreement were calculated. RESULTS......-retest separated by 1, 2, or 2.5 weeks in patients, and 1 week in healthy peers. SUBJECTS: Patients with hip osteoarthritis (age range 61-83 years) with 1 (n = 37), 2 (n = 35), or 2.5 weeks (n = 15) between tests, and 35 healthy peers (age range 63-82 years). METHODS: Maximal isometric hip and thigh strength, leg...

  14. Automatic assessment of volume asymmetries applied to hip abductor muscles in patients with hip arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemt, Christian; Modat, Marc; Pichat, Jonas; Cardoso, M. J.; Henckel, Joahnn; Hart, Alister; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2015-03-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasties have been utilised over the last 15 years to restore hip function for 1.5 million patients worldwide. Althoug widely used, this hip arthroplasty releases metal wear debris which lead to muscle atrophy. The degree of muscle wastage differs across patients ranging from mild to severe. The longterm outcomes for patients with MoM hip arthroplasty are reduced for increasing degrees of muscle atrophy, highlighting the need to automatically segment pathological muscles. The automated segmentation of pathological soft tissues is challenging as these lack distinct boundaries and morphologically differ across subjects. As a result, there is no method reported in the literature which has been successfully applied to automatically segment pathological muscles. We propose the first automated framework to delineate severely atrophied muscles by applying a novel automated segmentation propagation framework to patients with MoM hip arthroplasty. The proposed algorithm was used to automatically quantify muscle wastage in these patients.

  15. Surgery-induced changes and early recovery of hip-muscle strength, leg-press power, and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Holm

    Full Text Available By measuring very early changes in muscle strength and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA, post-operative rehabilitation, introduced soon after surgery, can be designed to specifically target identified deficits.Firstly, to quantify changes (compared to pre-operative values in hip muscle strength, leg-press power, and functional performance in the first week after THA, and secondly, to explore relationships between the muscle strength changes, and changes in hip pain, systemic inflammation, and thigh swelling.Prospective, cohort study.Convenience sample of patients receiving a THA at Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark, between March and December 2011.Thirty-five patients (65.9 ± 7.2 years undergoing THA.Hip muscle strength, leg-press power, performance-based function, and self-reported disability were determined prior to, and 2 and 8 days after, THA (Day 2 and 8, respectively. Hip pain, thigh swelling, and C-Reactive Protein were also determined.Five patients were lost to follow-up. Hip muscle strength and leg press power were substantially reduced at Day 2 (range of reductions: 41-58%, P<0.001, but less pronounced at Day 8 (range of reductions: 23-31%, P<0.017. Self-reported symptoms and function (HOOS: Pain, Symptoms, and ADL improved at Day 8 (P<0.014. Changes in hip pain, C-Reactive Protein, and thigh swelling were not related to the muscle strength and power losses.Hip muscle strength and leg-press power decreased substantially in the first week after THA - especially at Day 2 - with some recovery at Day 8. The muscle strength loss and power loss were not related to changes in hip pain, systemic inflammation, or thigh swelling. In contrast, self-reported symptoms and function improved. These data on surgery-induced changes in muscle strength may help design impairment-directed, post-operative rehabilitation to be introduced soon after surgery.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01246674.

  16. Impaired hip muscle strength in patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Signe; Mechlenburg, Inger; Lund, Bent; Søballe, Kjeld; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-12-01

    Patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) experience hip pain as well as decreased function and lowered quality of life. The aim was to compare maximal isometric and isokinetic muscle strength (MVC) during hip flexion and extension and rate of force development (RFD) during extension between patients with FAI and a matched reference group. Secondary, the aim was to compare patient hips and subgroups defined by gender and age as well as to investigate associations between hip muscle strength and self-reported outcomes. Design Cross-sectional, comparative study Methods Sixty patients (36±9 years, 63% females) and 30 age and gender matched reference persons underwent MVC tests in an isokinetic dynamometer. During hip flexion and extension, patients' affected hip showed a strength deficit of 15-21% (phip of the patients was significantly weaker than their contralateral hip. RFD was significantly decreased for both patient hips compared to the reference group (phip muscle strength. Patients with FAI demonstrate decreased hip flexion and extension strength when compared to (1) reference persons and (2) their contralateral hip. There seems to be a gender specific affection which should be investigated further and addressed when planning training protocols. Furthermore, self-reported measures were associated with isometric muscle strength, which underlines the clinical importance of the reduced muscle strength. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The anatomy of the hip abductor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, N A M S; Nicholson, H D; Woodley, S J

    2014-03-01

    The anatomy of the hip abductors has not been comprehensively examined, yet is important to understanding function and pathology in the gluteal region. For example, pathology of the hip abductor muscle-tendon complexes can cause greater trochanteric pain syndrome, and may be associated with gluteal atrophy and fatty infiltration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detailed morphology of gluteus medius (GMed), gluteus minimus (GMin), and tensor fascia lata (TFL), and determine whether the muscles comprised anatomical compartments. The gluteal region from 12 cadavers was dissected and data collected on attachment sites, volume, fascicular and tendinous anatomy, and innervation. Three sites of GMed origin were identified (gluteal fossa, gluteal aponeurosis, and posteroinferior edge of the iliac crest) and the distal tendon had lateral and posterior parts. GMed was the largest in volume (27.6 ± 11.6 cm(3); GMin 14.1 ± 11.1 cm(3); TFL 1.8 ± 0.8 cm(3)). Fascicles of GMin originated from the gluteal fossa, inserting onto the deep surface of its distal tendon and the hip joint capsule. TFL was encapsulated in the fascia lata, having no bony attachment. Primary innervation patterns varied for GMed, with three or four branches supplying different regions of muscle. Distinct secondary nerve branches entered four regions of GMin; no differential innervation was observed for TFL. On the basis of architectural parameters and innervation, GMed, and GMin each comprise of four compartments but TFL is a homogenous muscle. It is anticipated that these data will be useful for future clinical and functional studies of the hip abductors. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Comparison of the effects of knee and hip and single knee muscles strengthening/ stretching exercises on pain intensity and function in athletes with patellofemoral pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Mazloum

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is a common musculoskeletal condition among athletes. The evidence emphasizes on the importance of hip musculature strengthening exercises for such patients. Objective: To investigate the effects of strengthening-stretching knee muscles exercises and hip posterolateral musculature exercises in athletes with PFPS. Methods: In this clinical trial, 28 athletes with age average of 22.7±2.4 years with PFPS were allocated into conventional knee muscles exercises (CKME (n=14 and posterolateral hip muscles exercises (PHME (n=14. The subjects of both groups performed the supervised exercise protocols in 12 sessions. The Visual Analogue Scale and 6-minute walking tests were administrated respectively to evaluate pain intensity and function. The data were analyzed using Shapiro-wilk test, Independent-sample t test, and Repeated Measure ANOVA test. Findings: Demographic, pain intensity, and physical function data were similar between groups at baseline. Both groups significantly improved in pain intensity and function following a 4-week exercise program. Additionally, the athletes in PHME group had higher level of decreased pain intensity and improved function in follow-up assessment than the subjects in CKME group. Conclusion: Using hip posterolateral musculature exercises in addition to the knee conventional exercises is more effective for athletes with PFPS.

  19. COMPLEX FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF THE HIP JOINT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya S. Krastanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In relation to the study reporting the effects of applying phased complex rehabilitation in patients with total hip arthroplasty, it has been concluded that the everyday clinical practice in Bulgaria does not apply complex examination, giving an objective picture about the extent of functional status of patients with trauma and diseases of the hip. Aim: The main goal of this report is to present a test which incorporates all known and routine research and in which the total number of points determines the functional status of patients with trauma and diseases of the hip. Material and Methods: Based on the Hip dysfunction and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, the Harris Hip Score modified test, scale D’Aubigne and Postel and Iowa’s test for complex functional evaluation of the hip joint, we have developed a test including information about the degree of pain; goniometry and manual muscle testing of the hip; locomotor test – type of gait and adjuvants; test for Daily Activities of Life. The test has been developed on the basis of expert assessment by doctors and physiotherapists of the proposed indicators for evaluation and determination of the weighting factors’ contribution to the general condition of the patient. Conclusion: The developed and tested method of complex functional assessment of the hip joint enables our colleagues, dealing with trauma and diseases of the hip, to use it in various research and scientific projects, as well as in general medical practice.

  20. Muscle-tendon-related abnormalities detected by ultrasonography are common in symptomatic hip dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell; Bolvig, Lars; Hölmich, Per

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hip dysplasia is characterized by reduced acetabular coverage of the femoral head leading to an increased mechanical load on the hip joint and the acting hip muscles. Potentially, the muscles and tendons functioning close to the hip joint may present with overuse......-related ultrasonography findings. The primary aim was to report the prevalence of muscle-tendon-related abnormalities detected by ultrasonography in 100 patients with symptomatic hip dysplasia. The secondary aim was to investigate correlations between muscle-tendon-related abnormalities detected by ultrasonography......-tendon-related abnormalities detected by ultrasonography in the hip and groin region are common in patients with symptomatic hip dysplasia, and the ultrasonography findings of the iliopsoas and gluteus medius/minimus tendons are weakly to moderately correlated to pain related to muscles and tendons in these structures. Both...

  1. Hip flexor muscle size, strength and recruitment pattern in patients with acetabular labral tears compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, M Dilani; Wilson, Stephen J; Hayes, David A; Watts, Mark C; Hides, Julie A

    2014-10-01

    Acetabular labral tears are a source of hip pain and are considered to be a precursor to hip osteoarthritis. Hip flexor muscles contribute to hip joint stability and function but it is unknown if their size and function is altered in the presence of labral pathology. This study aimed to investigate hip flexor muscle size, strength and recruitment pattern in patients with hip labral pathology compared to control subjects. 12 subjects diagnosed with an unilateral acetabular labral tear were compared to 12 control subjects matched for age and gender. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of their lumbo-pelvic region. Average muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the iliacus, psoas, iliopsoas, sartorius, tensor fascia latae and rectus femoris muscles were measured. Hip flexion strength was measured by an externally fixed dynamometer. Individual muscle recruitment pattern during a resisted hip flexion exercise task was measured by muscle functional MRI. Hip flexor muscle strength was found to be decreased in patients with labral pathology compared to control subjects (p muscle size (all p > 0.17) and recruitment pattern (all p > 0.53). Decreased hip flexor muscle strength may affect physical function in patients with hip labral pathology by contributing to altered gait patterns and functional tasks. Clinical rehabilitation of these patients may need to include strengthening exercises for the hip flexor muscles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of therapeutic hip exercise with abdominal core activation on recruitment of the hip muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mandy Ky; Chow, Ka Wai; Lai, Alfred Ys; Mak, Noble Kc; Sze, Jason Ch; Tsang, Sharon Mh

    2017-07-21

    Core stabilization has been utilized for rehabilitation and prevention of lower limb musculoskeletal injuries. Previous studies showed that activation of the abdominal core muscles enhanced the hip muscle activity in hip extension and abduction exercises. However, the lack of the direct measurement and quantification of the activation level of the abdominal core muscles during the execution of the hip exercises affect the level of evidence to substantiate the proposed application of core exercises to promote training and rehabilitation outcome of the hip region. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of abdominal core activation, which is monitored directly by surface electromyography (EMG), on hip muscle activation while performing different hip exercises, and to explore whether participant characteristics such as gender, physical activity level and contractile properties of muscles, which is assessed by tensiomyography (TMG), have confounding effect to the activation of hip muscles in enhanced core condition. Surface EMG of bilateral internal obliques (IO), upper gluteus maximus (UGMax), lower gluteus maximus (LGMax), gluteus medius (GMed) and biceps femoris (BF) of dominant leg was recorded in 20 young healthy subjects while performing 3 hip exercises: Clam, side-lying hip abduction (HABD), and prone hip extension (PHE) in 2 conditions: natural core activation (NC) and enhanced core activation (CO). EMG signals normalized to percentage of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) were compared between two core conditions with the threshold of the enhanced abdominal core condition defined as >20%MVIC of IO. Enhanced abdominal core activation has significantly promoted the activation level of GMed in all phases of clam exercise (P recruitment in Clam, HABD and PHE exercises, and this enhancement is correlated with higher physical activity and stiffer hip muscle. Our results suggest the potential application of abdominal core activation for

  3. Femoral Neck Strain during Maximal Contraction of Isolated Hip-Spanning Muscle Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Martelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate femoral neck strain during maximal isometric contraction of the hip-spanning muscles. The musculoskeletal and the femur finite-element models from an elderly white woman were taken from earlier studies. The hip-spanning muscles were grouped by function in six hip-spanning muscle groups. The peak hip and knee moments in the model were matched to corresponding published measurements of the hip and knee moments during maximal isometric exercises about the hip and the knee in elderly participants. The femoral neck strain was calculated using full activation of the agonist muscles at fourteen physiological joint angles. The 5%±0.8% of the femoral neck volume exceeded the 90th percentile of the strain distribution across the 84 studied scenarios. Hip extensors, flexors, and abductors generated the highest tension in the proximal neck (2727 με, tension (986 με and compression (−2818 με in the anterior and posterior neck, and compression (−2069 με in the distal neck, respectively. Hip extensors and flexors generated the highest neck strain per unit of joint moment (63–67 με·m·N−1 at extreme hip angles. Therefore, femoral neck strain is heterogeneous and muscle contraction and posture dependent.

  4. Extraocular muscle function testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003397.htm Extraocular muscle function testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. ...

  5. The Gait Deviation Index Is Associated with Hip Muscle Strength and Patient-Reported Outcome in Patients with Severe Hip Osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenlund, Signe; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Overgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    ) and with severe primary hip osteoarthritis underwent 3-dimensional gait analysis. Mean Gait Deviation Index, pain after walking and maximal isometric hip muscle strength (flexor, extensor, and abductor) were recorded. All patients completed the 'Physical Function Short-form of the Hip disability...... was to investigate associations between Gait Deviation Index as a measure of gait 'quality' and hip muscle strength and between Gait Deviation Index and patient-reported outcomes in patients with primary hip osteoarthritis. METHOD: Forty-seven patients (34 males), aged 61.1 ± 6.7 years, with BMI 27.3 ± 3.4 (kg/m2...... and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS-Physical Function) and the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscales for pain (HOOS-Pain) and quality-of-life (HOOS-QOL). RESULTS: Mean Gait Deviation Index was positively associated with hip abduction strength (pstrength (p = 0...

  6. Perceived loading and muscle activity during hip strengthening exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Thorborg, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    hip muscle activity during hip abduction and hip adduction exercises using elastic resistance and isotonic machines, using electromyography (EMG). METHODS: EMG activity was recorded from 11 muscles at the hip, thigh and trunk during hip adduction and hip abduction exercises in 16 untrained women......, using elastic resistance and isotonic exercise machines. These recordings were normalized to maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) EMG (nEMG). The exercises were performed at four levels of perceived loading reported using the Borg CR10: light (Borg ≤2), moderate (Borg >2-... (r =0.62±0.54). The abduction exercise performed with elastic resistance displayed significantly higher gluteus medius nEMG recruitment than the in machine exercise. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that the Borg CR10 scale can be a useful tool for estimating intensity levels during...

  7. Hip and trunk muscles activity during nordic hamstring exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narouei, Shideh; Imai, Atsushi; Akuzawa, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Kiyotaka; Kaneoka, Koji

    2018-01-01

    The nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a dynamic lengthening hamstring exercise that requires trunk and hip muscles activation. Thigh muscles activation, specifically hamstring/quadriceps contractions has been previously examined during NHE. Trunk and hip muscles activity have not been enough studied. The aim of this study was to analyze of hip and trunk muscles activity during NHE. Surface electromyography (EMG) and kinematic data were collected during NHE. Ten healthy men with the age range of 21–36 years performed two sets of two repetitions with downward and upward motions each of NHE. EMG activity of fifteen trunk and hip muscles and knee kinematic data were collected. Muscle activity levels were calculated through repeated measure analysis of variance in downward and upward motions, through Paired t-test between downward and upward motions and gluteus maximus to erector spine activity ratio (Gmax/ES ratio) using Pearson correlation analyses were evaluated. Semitendinosus and biceps femoris muscles activity levels were the greatest in both motions and back extensors and internal oblique muscles activity were greater than other muscles (Phamstrings contractions. It could be important for early assessment of subjects with hamstring injury risk. PMID:29740557

  8. Hip and trunk muscles activity during nordic hamstring exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narouei, Shideh; Imai, Atsushi; Akuzawa, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Kiyotaka; Kaneoka, Koji

    2018-04-01

    The nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a dynamic lengthening hamstring exercise that requires trunk and hip muscles activation. Thigh muscles activation, specifically hamstring/quadriceps contractions has been previously examined during NHE. Trunk and hip muscles activity have not been enough studied. The aim of this study was to analyze of hip and trunk muscles activity during NHE. Surface electromyography (EMG) and kinematic data were collected during NHE. Ten healthy men with the age range of 21-36 years performed two sets of two repetitions with downward and upward motions each of NHE. EMG activity of fifteen trunk and hip muscles and knee kinematic data were collected. Muscle activity levels were calculated through repeated measure analysis of variance in downward and upward motions, through Paired t -test between downward and upward motions and gluteus maximus to erector spine activity ratio (Gmax/ES ratio) using Pearson correlation analyses were evaluated. Semitendinosus and biceps femoris muscles activity levels were the greatest in both motions and back extensors and internal oblique muscles activity were greater than other muscles ( P hamstrings contractions. It could be important for early assessment of subjects with hamstring injury risk.

  9. Pelvic floor muscle training decreases hip adductors isometric peak torque in incontinent women: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasiéla Nascimento Correia

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The pelvic floor muscle (PFM training is the most common treatment for urinary incontinence (UI, however many women performed the contraction of PFM with associated contraction of abdominal, gluteus and hip adductors muscles. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of pelvic floor muscle (PFM training on isometric and isokinetic hip adductors peak torque (PT among women suffering from urinary incontinence (UI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a longitudinal and prospective exploratory study. This study included 15 physically active women aged 45 years old and over, who presented complaints of UI. The PFM function (digital evaluation and perineometry, isometric and isokinetic hip adductors PT and one hour pad test were performed before and after treatment. The PFM training was performed in group, one hour once a week for 12 sessions. RESULTS: Significant improvement of PFM function and pressure level (p = 0.003, and significant decrease of hip adductors isometric PT and one-hour pad test, were found post-treatment. Moderate negative correlations between PFM contraction pressure and hip adductors isokinetic PT for dominant side (DS (r = -0.62; p = 0.03 and non-dominant side (NDS (r = -0.64; p = 0.02; and between PFM fast fibers contraction and hip adductors isometric PT for DS (r = -0.60; p = 0.03 and NDS (r = -0.59; p = 0.04 were also found. CONCLUSIONS: The PFM training decreased hip adductors PT and improved PFM functions and UI.

  10. Hip and ankle range of motion and hip muscle strength in young female ballet dancersand controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, K.; Khan, K. M.; Matthews, B.; De Gruyter, M.; Cook, E.; Holzer, K.; Wark, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the hip and ankle range of motion and hip muscle strength in 8-11 year old novice female ballet dancers and controls. METHODS: Subjects were 77 dancers and 49 controls (mean (SD) age 9.6 (0.8) and 9.6 (0.7) years respectively). Supine right active hip external rotation (ER) and internal rotation (IR) were measured using an inclinometer. A turnout protractor was used to assess standing active turnout range. The measure of ER achieved from below the hip during turnout (non-hip ER) was calculated by subtracting hip ER range from turnout range, and hip ER:IR was derived by dividing ER range by IR range. Range of right weight bearing ankle dorsiflexion was measured in a standing lunge using two methods: the distance from the foot to the wall (in centimetres) and the angle of the shank to the vertical via an inclinometer (in degrees). Right calf muscle range was measured in weight bearing using an inclinometer. A manual muscle tester was used to assess right isometric hip flexor, internal rotator, external rotator, abductor, and adductor strength. RESULTS: Dancers had less ER (pballetic training. 


 PMID:10522638

  11. Repair of gluteus medius muscle avulsion following transgluteal hip replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, Diederik; van Ooij, Andre; Haverkamp, Daniel; Morrenhof, Wim

    2011-01-01

    During a transgluteal approach to the hip joint the anterior part of the gluteus medius and minimus muscles are detached and subsequently reattached to the greater trochanter. Avulsion or rupture of these muscles may result in weak abduction, pain and/or instability. 15 patients with these symptoms

  12. Isometric hip muscle strength in posttraumatic below-knee amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandrić Slavica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Traumas and war injuries, next to chronic occlusive artery disease and diabetes mellitus-derived complications, are the most frequent cause of the lower limbs amputation. They affect mostly younger population that need a higher level of activities as compared with the elderly. Medical rehabilitation is very significant for the muscle performance improvement in this population providing their social reintegration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of below-knee amputation on the hip isometric muscle strength and effect of rehabilitation on improvement of hip muscle strength in below-knee amputees, secondary to war wounding. Methods. Forty below-knee amputees (after war wounding, average age 35.6±10.6 years, that were included in primary rehabilitation program with prosthetics, were examined. Objective parameters were used to evaluate therapeutical effects. Isometric muscle strength of hip flexors, extensors, abductors and adductors was measured by dynamometer and expressed in Newton (N at admission, control and discharge for each patient. Average length of the treatment was 51 ± 34.1 days. Results. For isometric hip flexors (t = - 1.99346, p < 0.05, extensors (t = -4.629073, p < 0.001, abductors (t = -4.9408, p < 0.001 and adductors (t = -2.00228, p < 0.05, muscle strength was significantly less on the amputated than on nonamputated side. The highest differences in muscle strength between amputated and nonamputated limbs were noted for hip abductors (26.6% and extensors (23.3%. There was significant improvement of mean values of strength for all examined hip muscles after rehabilitation and prosthetics for both legs in comparison to beginning of the therapy. The hip abductor on the amputated side was for 19.4% weaker after rehabilitation in comparison to the nonamputated limb. Conclusion. Decreases of isometric muscle strength in all examined hip muscles were observed, more in the amputated limb. Rehabilitation

  13. Gluteal muscle fibrosis with abduction contracture of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bayati, Mohammed Ali; Kraidy, Bakir Kadhum

    2016-03-01

    Gluteal muscle fibrosis with hip contracture is a rare condition and causes major disability; literature reports are sparse. The aim of this study is to present, for the first time in Iraq and the region, a case series of gluteal fibrosis and the results of surgical treatment. Seven children--six boys and one girl--diagnosed as having gluteal muscle fibrosis with hip contracture, were investigated and treated by open surgical release of fibrotic bands and physiotherapy. All patients improved dramatically over the subsequent weeks, and were able to sit and squat in the normal position. Gluteal muscle fibrosis with hip contracture is present in Iraq and more awareness is needed for early diagnosis. Surgical treatment provided excellent results. More studies are needed to delineate the aetiology of the condition.

  14. Muscle-tendon-related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia: prevalence and associations with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell; Hølmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    The primary aim was to identify muscle-tendon-related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia. The secondary aim was to test whether muscle-tendon-related pain is associated with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength in patient with hip dysplasia. One hundred patients (17 men......-tendon-related pain and hip extension a significant inverse linear association between muscle-tendon-related pain and muscle strength was found ranging from -0.11 to - 0.12 Nm/kg in the adjusted analysis (P hip dysplasia with a high prevalence......) with a mean age of 29 years (SD 9) were included. Clinical entity approach was carried out to identify muscle-tendon-related pain. Associations between muscle-tendon-related pain and self-reported hip disability and muscle strength were tested with multiple regression analysis, including adjustments for age...

  15. Lower extremity muscle functions during full squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, D G E; Wilson, Jean-Marie J; St Pierre, Taunya A

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the functions of the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, soleus, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles about their associated joints during full (deep-knee) squats. Muscle function was determined from joint kinematics, inverse dynamics, electromyography, and muscle length changes. The subjects were six experienced, male weight lifters. Analyses revealed that the prime movers during ascent were the monoarticular gluteus maximus and vasti muscles (as exemplified by vastus lateralis) and to a lesser extent the soleus muscles. The biarticular muscles functioned mainly as stabilizers of the ankle, knee, and hip joints by working eccentrically to control descent or transferring energy among the segments during scent. During the ascent phase, the hip extensor moments of force produced the largest powers followed by the ankle plantar flexors and then the knee extensors. The hip and knee extensors provided the initial bursts of power during ascent with the ankle extensors and especially a second burst from the hip extensors adding power during the latter half of the ascent.

  16. The hip adductor muscle group in caviomorph rodents: anatomy and homology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Esponda, César M; Candela, Adriana M

    2015-06-01

    Anatomical comparative studies including myological data of caviomorph rodents are relatively scarce, leading to a lack of use of muscular features in cladistic and morphofunctional analyses. In rodents, the hip adductor muscles constitute an important group of the hindlimb musculature, having an important function during the beginning of the stance phase. These muscles are subdivided in several distinct ways in the different clades of rodents, making the identification of their homologies hard to establish. In this contribution we provide a detailed description of the anatomical variation of the hip adductor muscle group of different genera of caviomorph rodents and identify the homologies of these muscles in the context of Rodentia. On this basis, we identify the characteristic pattern of the hip adductor muscles in Caviomorpha. Our results indicate that caviomorphs present a singular pattern of the hip adductor musculature that distinguishes them from other groups of rodents. They are characterized by having a single m. adductor brevis that includes solely its genicular part. This muscle, together with the m. gracilis, composes a muscular sheet that is medial to all other muscles of the hip adductor group. Both muscles probably have a synergistic action during locomotion, where the m. adductor brevis reinforces the multiple functions of the m. gracilis in caviomorphs. Mapping of analyzed myological characters in the context of Rodentia indicates that several features are recovered as potential synapomorphies of caviomorphs. Thus, analysis of the myological data described here adds to the current knowledge of caviomorph rodents from anatomical and functional points of view, indicating that this group has features that clearly differentiate them from other rodents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Muscle atrophy and metal-on-metal hip implants: a serial MRI study of 74 hips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Reshid; Khoo, Michael; Cook, Erica; Guppy, Andrew; Hua, Jia; Miles, Jonathan; Carrington, Richard; Skinner, John; Hart, Alister

    2015-06-01

    Muscle atrophy is seen in patients with metal-on-metal (MOM) hip implants, probably because of inflammatory destruction of the musculo-tendon junction. However, like pseudotumors, it is unclear when atrophy occurs and whether it progresses with time. Our objective was to determine whether muscle atrophy associated with MOM hip implants progresses with time. We retrospectively reviewed 74 hips in 56 patients (32 of them women) using serial MRI. Median age was 59 (23-83) years. The median time post-implantation was 83 (35-142) months, and the median interval between scans was 11 months. Hip muscles were scored using the Pfirrmann system. The mean scores for muscle atrophy were compared between the first and second MRI scans. Blood cobalt and chromium concentrations were determined. The median blood cobalt was 6.84 (0.24-90) ppb and median chromium level was 4.42 (0.20-45) ppb. The median Oxford hip score was 34 (5-48). The change in the gluteus minimus mean atrophy score between first and second MRI was 0.12 (p = 0.002). Mean change in the gluteus medius posterior portion (unaffected by surgical approach) was 0.08 (p = 0.01) and mean change in the inferior portion was 0.10 (p = 0.05). Mean pseudotumor grade increased by 0.18 (p = 0.02). Worsening muscle atrophy and worsening pseudotumor grade occur over a 1-year period in a substantial proportion of patients with MOM hip implants. Serial MRI helps to identify those patients who are at risk of developing worsening soft-tissue pathology. These patients should be considered for revision surgery before irreversible muscle destruction occurs.

  18. A review of the anatomy of the hip abductor muscles, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and tensor fascia lata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Natasha Amy May Sparks; Nicholson, Helen D; Woodley, Stephanie Jane

    2012-09-01

    The hip abductor muscles have the capability to contribute to numerous actions, including pelvic stabilization during gait, and abduction and rotation at the hip joint. To fully understand the role of these muscles, as well as their involvement in hip joint dysfunction, knowledge of their anatomical structure is essential. The clinical literature suggests anatomical diversity within these muscles, and that gluteus medius (GMed) and gluteus minimus (GMin), in particular, may be comprised of compartments. This systematic review of the English literature focuses on the gross anatomy of GMed, GMin, and tensor fascia lata (TFL) muscles. Although studies of this muscle group have generated useful descriptions, comparison of results is hindered by methodological limitations. Furthermore, there is no single comprehensive anatomical investigation of all three muscles. Several aspects of the morphology of attachment sites are unknown or unclear. There is little data on fascicle orientation, the interface between fascicles and tendons, and the specific patterning of the superior gluteal nerve. Consequently, the existence of anatomical compartmentalization within the hip abductor muscles is difficult to assess. Further research of the architecture and innervation of the hip abductor muscle group is required; a better understanding of the precise anatomy of these muscles should improve our understanding of their specific functions and their contribution to the pathogenesis of disorders affecting the hip joint. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Coordination of deep hip muscle activity is altered in symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Laura E; Van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Bennell, Kim L; Wrigley, Tim V; Hinman, Rana S; O'Donnell, John; Hodges, Paul W

    2017-07-01

    Diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is increasing, yet the associated physical impairments remain poorly defined. This morphological hip condition can cause joint pain, stiffness, impaired function, and eventually hip osteoarthritis. This exploratory study compared coordination of deep hip muscles between people with and without symptomatic FAI using analysis of muscle synergies (i.e., patterns of activity of groups of muscles activated in synchrony) during gait. Fifteen individuals (11 males) with symptomatic FAI (clinical examination and imaging) and 14 age- and sex-comparable controls without morphological FAI underwent testing. Intramuscular fine-wire and surface electrodes recorded electromyographic activity of selected deep and superficial hip muscles. A non-negative matrix factorization algorithm extracted three synergies which were compared between groups. Information regarding which muscles were activated together in the FAI group (FAI group synergy vector) was used to reconstruct individual electromyography patterns and compare groups. Variance accounted for (VAF) by three synergies was less for the control (94.8 [1.4]%) than FAI (96.0 [1.0]%) group (p = 0.03). VAF of obturator internus was significantly higher in the FAI group (p = 0.02). VAF of the reconstructed individual electromyography patterns with the FAI or control group vector were significantly higher for the FAI group (p hip muscles in the synergy related to hip joint control during early swing differed between groups. This phase involves movement towards the impingement position, which has relevance for the interpretation of synergy differences and potential clinical importance. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1494-1504, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Muscle-tendon related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia: prevalence and associations with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Intra-articular injury has been described as primary cause of pain in hip dysplasia. At this point, it is unknown whether external muscle-tendon related pain coexists with intra-articular pathology. The primary aim was to identify muscle-tendon related pain in 100 patients with hip...... dysplasia. The secondary aim was to test if muscle-tendon related pain is linearly associated to self-reported hip disability and muscle strength in patients with hip dysplasia. Materials and methods One hundred patients (17 men) with a mean age of 29+9 years were included. Clinical entity approach...... (phip dysplasia with a high...

  1. Muscle-tendon-related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia: prevalence and associations with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell; Hölmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim was to identify muscle-tendon-related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia. The secondary aim was to test whether muscle-tendon-related pain is associated with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength in patient with hip dysplasia. One hundred patients (17 men......-tendon-related pain and hip extension a significant inverse linear association between muscletendon- related pain and muscle strength was found ranging from 0.11 to0.12 Nm/kg in the adjusted analysis (Phip dysplasia with a high prevalence......) with a mean age of 29 years (SD 9) were included. Clinical entity approach was carried out to identify muscle-tendon-related pain. Associations between muscle-tendon-related pain and self-reported hip disability and muscle strength were tested with multiple regression analysis, including adjustments for age...

  2. Measuring hip muscle strength in patients with femoroacetabular impingement and other hip pathologies: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, E; Memarzadeh, A; Raut, P; Arora, A; Khanduja, V

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on measurement of muscle strength in patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and other pathologies and to suggest guidelines to standardise protocols for future research in the field. The Cochrane and PubMed libraries were searched for any publications using the terms 'hip', 'muscle', 'strength', and 'measurement' in the 'Title, Abstract, Keywords' field. A further search was performed using the terms 'femoroacetabular' or 'impingement'. The search was limited to recent literature only. A total of 29 articles were reviewed to obtain information on a number of variables. These comprised the type of device used for measurement, rater standardisation, the type of movements tested, body positioning and comparative studies of muscle strength in FAI versus normal controls. The studies found that hip muscle strength is lower in patients with FAI; this is also true for the asymptomatic hip in patients with FAI. Current literature on this subject is limited and examines multiple variables. Our recommendations for achieving reproducible results include stabilising the patient, measuring isometric movements and maximising standardisation by using a single tester and familiarising the participants with the protocol. Further work must be done to demonstrate the reliability of any new testing method.Cite this article: E. Mayne, A. Memarzadeh, P. Raut, A. Arora, V. Khanduja. Measuring hip muscle strength in patients with femoroacetabular impingement and other hip pathologies: A systematic review. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:66-72. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.61.BJR-2016-0081. © 2017 Khanduja et al.

  3. Factors affecting functional prognosis of patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M T

    2011-01-01

    to just one or two single factors. The current article reviews important factors affecting the functional prognosis, and clinicians are encouraged to include all factors potentially influencing the outcome of patients with hip fracture in their individualised treatment and rehabilitation plan. Especially......Having a hip fracture is considered one of the most fatal fractures for elderly people, resulting in impaired function, and increased morbidity and mortality. This challenges clinicians in identifying patients at risk of worse outcome, in order to optimise and intensify treatment in these patients....... A variety of factors such as age, prefracture function and health status, fracture type, pain, anaemia, muscle strength, and the early mobility level have been shown to influence patient outcome. Thus, the outcome of patients with hip fracture is considered multi-factorial, and can therefore not be related...

  4. Routine functional assessment for hip fracture patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tonny J; Lauritsen, Jens M

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - Pre-fracture functional level has been shown to be a consistent predictor of rehabilitation outcomes in older hip fracture patients. We validated 4 overall pre-fracture functional level assessment instruments in patients aged 65 or more, used the prediction of outcome at 4...... months post-fracture, and assessed cutoff values for decision making in treatment and rehabilitation. Patients and methods - 165 consecutive patients with acute primary hip fracture were prospectively included in the study. Pre-fracture Barthel-20, Barthel-100, cumulated ambulation score, and new...... investigation of usage for guidance of clinical and rehabilitation decisions concerning hip fracture patients is warranted....

  5. Muscle-tendon related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia: prevalence and associations with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell

    2017-01-01

    dysplasia. The secondary aim was to test if muscle-tendon related pain is linearly associated to self-reported hip disability and muscle strength in patients with hip dysplasia. Materials and methods One hundred patients (17 men) with a mean age of 29+9 years were included. Clinical entity approach...

  6. Activation of the gluteus maximus and hamstring muscles during prone hip extension with knee flexion in three hip abduction positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sun-Young; Jeon, Hye-Seon; Kwon, Ohyun; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Choi, Boram

    2013-08-01

    The direction of fiber alignment within a muscle is known to influence the effectiveness of muscle contraction. However, most of the commonly used clinical gluteus maximus (GM) exercises do not consider the direction of fiber alignment within the muscle. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of hip abduction position on the EMG (electromyography) amplitude and onset time of the GM and hamstrings (HAM) during prone hip extension with knee flexion (PHEKF) exercise. Surface EMG signals were recorded from the GM and HAM during PHEKF exercise in three hip abduction positions: 0°, 15°, and 30°. Thirty healthy subjects voluntarily participated in this study. The results show that GM EMG amplitude was greatest in the 30° hip abduction position, followed by 15° and then 0° hip abduction during PHEKF exercise. On the other hand, the HAM EMG amplitude at 0° hip abduction was significantly greater than at 15° and 30° hip abduction. Additionally, GM EMG onset firing was delayed relative to that of the HAM at 0° hip abduction. On the contrary, the GM EMG onset occurred earlier than the HAM in the 15° and 30° hip abduction positions. These findings indicate that performing PHEKF exercise in the 30° hip abduction position may be recommended as an effective way to facilitate the GM muscle activity and advance the firing time of the GM muscle in asymptomatic individuals. This finding provides preliminary evidence that GM EMG amplitude and onset time can be modified by the degree of hip abduction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hip Abductor Muscle Volume and Strength Differences Between Women With Chronic Hip Joint Pain and Asymptomatic Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastenbrook, Matthew J; Commean, Paul K; Hillen, Travis J; Salsich, Gretchen B; Meyer, Gretchen A; Mueller, Michael J; Clohisy, John C; Harris-Hayes, Marcie

    2017-12-01

    Study Design Secondary analysis, cross-sectional study. Background Chronic hip joint pain (CHJP) can lead to limitations in activity participation, but the musculoskeletal factors associated with the condition are relatively unknown. Understanding the factors associated with CHJP may help develop rehabilitation strategies to improve quality of life of individuals with long-term hip pain. Objectives To compare measures of hip abductor muscle volume and hip abductor muscle strength between women with CHJP and asymptomatic controls. Methods Thirty women, 15 with CHJP and 15 matched asymptomatic controls (age range, 18-40 years), participated in this study. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine the volume of the primary hip abductor muscles, consisting of the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, a small portion of the gluteus maximus, and the tensor fascia latae, within a defined region of interest. Break tests were performed using a handheld dynamometer to assess hip abductor strength. During the strength test, the participant was positioned in sidelying with the involved hip in 15° of abduction. Independent-samples t tests were used to compare muscle volume and strength values between those with CHJP and asymptomatic controls. Results Compared to asymptomatic controls, women with CHJP demonstrated significantly increased gluteal muscle volume (228 ± 40 cm 3 versus 199 ± 29 cm 3 , P = .032), but decreased hip abductor strength (74.6 ± 16.8 Nm versus 93.6 ± 20.2 Nm, P = .009). There were no significant differences in tensor fascia lata muscle volume between the 2 groups (P = .640). Conclusion Women with CHJP appear to have larger gluteal muscle volume, but decreased hip abductor strength, compared to asymptomatic controls. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(12):923-930. Epub 9 Oct 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7380.

  8. Changes of gluteus medius muscle in the adult patients with unilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu RuiYu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gluteus medius muscle is essential for gait and hip stability. Changes that occur in the gluteus medius muscles in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH are not well understood. A better understanding of DDH related changes will have positive repercussions toward hip soft tissue reconstruction. Methods 19 adult patients with unilateral DDH scheduled for total hip arthroplasty were assessed for: cross-sectional area (CSA, radiological density (RD and the length of gluteus medius using computed tomograhpy(CT (scanned before THA. Hip abductor moment arm and gluteus medius activation angle were also measured via hip anteroposterior radiographs. Results Both CSA and RD of gluteus medius muscle were significantly reduced (p  Conclusions The gluteus medius showed substantial loss of CSA, RD as well as decreased length in patients with DDH in the affected hip. These changes should be considered in both hip reconstruction and postoperative rehabilitation training in patients with DDH.

  9. Hamstring Muscle Use in Females During Hip-Extension and the Nordic Hamstring Exercise: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Daniel J; Bourne, Matthew N; Williams, Morgan D; Al Najjar, Aiman; Shield, Anthony J

    2018-04-23

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Background Understanding hamstring muscle activation patterns in resistance training exercises may have implications for the design of strength training and injury prevention programs. Unfortunately, surface electromyography studies have reported conflicting results with regard to hamstring muscle activation patterns in women. Objectives To determine the spatial patterns of hamstring muscle activity during the 45º hip-extension and Nordic hamstring exercises, in females using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Methods Six recreationally active females with no history of lower limb injury underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on both thighs before and immediately after 5 sets of 6 bilateral eccentric contractions of the 45º hip-extension or Nordic exercises. Using fMRI, the transverse (T2) relaxation times were measured from pre- and post- exercise scans and the percentage increase in T2 was used as an index of muscle activation. Results fMRI revealed a significantly higher biceps femoris long head (BF LongHead ) to semitendinosus ratio during the 45° hip-extension than the Nordic exercise (P = .028). The T2 increase after 45° hip-extension was greater for BF LongHead (P Nordic exercise, the T2 increase for semitendinosus was greater than that of BF ShortHead (P Nordic exercise preferentially recruits that muscle while the hip extension more evenly activates all of the biarticular hamstrings. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 23 Apr 2018. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7748.

  10. Strengthening of the Hip and Core Versus Knee Muscles for the Treatment of Patellofemoral Pain: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferber, Reed; Bolgla, Lori; Earl-Boehm, Jennifer E.; Emery, Carolyn; Hamstra-Wright, Karrie

    2015-01-01

    Context: Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is the most common injury in running and jumping athletes. Randomized controlled trials suggest that incorporating hip and core strengthening (HIP) with knee-focused rehabilitation (KNEE) improves PFP outcomes. However, no randomized controlled trials have, to our knowledge, directly compared HIP and KNEE programs. Objective: To compare PFP pain, function, hip- and knee-muscle strength, and core endurance between KNEE and HIP protocols after 6 weeks of rehabilitation. We hypothesized greater improvements in (1) pain and function, (2) hip strength and core endurance for patients with PFP involved in the HIP protocol, and (3) knee strength for patients involved in the KNEE protocol. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Four clinical research laboratories in Calgary, Alberta; Chicago, Illinois; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; and Augusta, Georgia. Patients or Other Participants: Of 721 patients with PFP screened, 199 (27.6%) met the inclusion criteria (66 men [31.2%], 133 women [66.8%], age = 29.0 ± 7.1 years, height = 170.4 ± 9.4 cm, weight = 67.6 ± 13.5 kg). Intervention(s): Patients with PFP were randomly assigned to a 6-week KNEE or HIP protocol. Main Outcome Measure(s): Primary variables were self-reported visual analog scale and Anterior Knee Pain Scale measures, which were conducted weekly. Secondary variables were muscle strength and core endurance measured at baseline and at 6 weeks. Results: Compared with baseline, both the visual analog scale and the Anterior Knee Pain Scale improved for patients with PFP in both the HIP and KNEE protocols (P HIP protocol were reduced 1 week earlier than in the KNEE group. Both groups increased in strength (P HIP protocol gained more in hip-abductor (P = .01) and -extensor (P = .01) strength and posterior core endurance (P = .05) compared with the KNEE group. Conclusions: Both the HIP and KNEE rehabilitation protocols produced improvements in PFP, function, and strength over 6

  11. Hypertrophy of the tensor fascia lata muscle as a complication of total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Roiz, Juan Miguel; Bori, Guillem; Tomas, Xavier; Fernández-Valencia, Jenaro A; García-Díez, Ana Isabel; Pomés, Jaume; Garcia, Sebastián

    2017-02-01

    Hypertrophy of the tensor fascia lata muscle (HTFLM) is a rare complication after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and is a potential source of pain, palpable mass, or both. We retrospectively analyzed 1285 primary THAs and 482 THA revisions (THAR) performed at our center from 2008 to 2014. Among these, five patients had HTFLM (average age 68.8 years). The type of surgery and symptoms were evaluated, as were imaging studies (CT or MRI) of both hips (10 hips), and functional outcomes with the Merle d'Aubigné score. The suspected diagnosis was established at an average of 30.2 months after surgery. Four cases occurred after THA and one case after THAR. A modified Hardinge approach was used in four cases and a Röttinger approach in one case. Two cases had pain and palpable mass in the trochanteric region and three cases only pain. The asymmetric HTFLM of the THA side against the nonsurgical side was confirmed by measuring the cross section of the tensor fascia lata muscle on imaging. The sartorius muscle was measured for reference in each case. The Merle d'Aubigne scale had a mean value of 16.6 (range 13-18) at 38 months after the procedure. HTFLM after THA is a benign condition that could be mistaken for a tumor when presenting as a palpable mass. We propose that it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pain in the lateral aspect of hips that have previously undergone THA.

  12. Does hip joint positioning affect maximal voluntary contraction in the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, tensor fasciae latae and sartorius muscles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J; Beldame, J; Van Driessche, S; Brunel, H; Poirier, T; Guiffault, P; Matsoukis, J; Billuart, F

    2017-11-01

    Minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty (THA) is presumed to provide functional and clinical benefits, whereas in fact the literature reveals that gait and posturographic parameters following THA do not recover values found in the general population. There is a significant disturbance of postural sway in THA patients, regardless of the surgical approach, although with some differences between approaches compared to controls: the anterior and anterolateral minimally invasive approaches seem to be more disruptive of postural parameters than the posterior approach. Electromyographic (EMG) study of the hip muscles involved in surgery [gluteus maximus (GMax), gluteus medius (GMed), tensor fasciae latae (TFL), and sartorius (S)] could shed light, the relevant literature involves discordant methodologies. We developed a methodology to assess EMG activity during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the GMax, GMed, TFL and sartorius muscles as a reference for normalization. A prospective study aimed to assess whether hip joint positioning and the learning curve on an MVC test affect the EMG signal during a maximal voluntary contraction. Hip positioning and the learning curve on an MVC test affect EMG signal during MVC of GMax, GMed, TFL and S. Thirty young asymptomatic subjects participated in the study. Each performed 8 hip muscle MVCs in various joint positions recorded with surface EMG sensors. Each MVC was performed 3 times in 1 week, with the same schedule every day, controlling for activity levels in the preceding 24h. EMG activity during MVC was expressed as a ratio of EMG activity during unipedal stance. Non-parametric tests were applied. Statistical analysis showed no difference according to hip position for abductors or flexors in assessing EMG signal during MVC over the 3 sessions. Hip abductors showed no difference between abduction in lateral decubitus with hip straight versus hip flexed: GMax (19.8±13.7 vs. 14.5±7.8, P=0.78), GMed (13.4±9.0 vs. 9.9±6

  13. Anterior greater trochanteric muscle pedicle bone grafting: a viable graft option adjunct to hip osteotomy or fracture surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpaphayom, Noppachart; Osateerakun, Phatcharapa; Wilairatana, Vajara; Prasongchin, Pairatch

    2017-05-12

    The objectives were to evaluate a technique, outcome and complications following anterior greater trochanteric with gluteus medius muscle pedicle bone graft (AMG) procedure in the treatment of adolescent and active adult hip disorders. 20 patients (20 hips) with a mean age of 22.7 ± 15.6 (range 10.0-63.5) years who had undergone AMG and been followed up more than 12 months postoperative were retrospectively enrolled in our study. The AMG procedure was performed in conjunction with subcapital osteotomy for slipped capital femoral epiphysis in 12 and open reduction for fracture/dislocation in 8 hips. At the most recent evaluation, patient functional status was rated by the Harris Hip Score (HHS) and radiographic changes were graded according to Tönnis criteria. Complications were defined as Tönnis grade >2 or hip requiring further surgery. Univariate analysis was used to explore factors associated with complications. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated between HHS and Tönnis grading. At mean follow-up of 4.4 ± 2.6 (range 1.1-9.5) years, mean HHS was 87.4. Tönnis grading was rated as 0 in 10 hips, 1 in 5 hips, 2 in 2 hips, and 3 in 3 hips. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head as a complication developed in 3 hips (15%). Clinical parameters including age at surgery, duration of follow-up and diagnosis were not significantly associated with postoperative complications. A negative correlation between HHS and Tönnis grade was shown by Spearman's rank correlation (rs = -0.49, p = 0.03). The AMG can be safely recommended as an adjunct bone graft procedure when performing anterior open reduction of adolescent and active adult hip disorders.

  14. [Evaluation of the Function and Quality of Life after Total Hip Arthroplasty by Different Approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Paulo; Machado, Luís; Cadavez, Duarte; Mónaco, Lisete; Januário, Filipa; Luís, Lisete; Bártolo, Mafalda

    2017-09-29

    To assess the function and quality of life in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty distinguishing two surgical approaches (posterior / anterolateral) used by the Orthopedics department of Centro Hospitalar de Leiria. Retrospective study of 94 patients subject to unilateral hip replacement surgery, using the 'Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Score' (HOOS LK 2.0) questionnaire, the Trendelenburg test and evaluation of muscle strength of the hip abductor muscles with dynamometer. Patients were evaluated at six months, 12 months, 18 months and 24 months after surgery. The study revealed that 97.9% patients completed the rehabilitation program. The postoperative evolution (six to 24 months) does not appear to have any differences in results when comparing both approaches. At six months the patient operated by the anterolateral approach showed worse results when compared with the posterior approach, in particular in Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Score pain, in Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Score symptoms and Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Score activities of daily living. After 24 months, no differences between the two surgical approaches were found. Of the 94 patients evaluated, the Trendelenburg test was positive in 31% of patients of which 81.9% corresponds to patients operated by the anterolateral approach. Muscle strength of the abductors of the operated hip was clearly lower in the anterolateral approach at six months, 12 months, and 24 months. This study showed that, in the first six months after total hip arthroplasty, the patients operated by the posterior approach were, according to the HOOS questionnaire, less symptomatic, and presented with better quality of life and less impact on activities of daily living and in sport and leisure when compared with the patients operated by the anterolateral approach. However, these differences were matched over the 24 months. Moreover, the results of muscle strength of the abductor muscles of the hip were clearly superior in

  15. Treatment Challenges of Prosthetic Hip Infection with Associated Iliacus Muscle Abscess: Report of 5 Cases and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenz, Joshua M; Mesko, Nathan W; Higuera, Carlos A; Molloy, Robert M; Simpfendorfer, Claus; Babic, Maja

    2017-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infection is an unfortunate though well-recognized complication of total joint arthroplasty. An iliacus and/or iliopsoas muscle abscess is a rarely documented presentation of hip prosthetic joint infection. It is thought an unrecognized retroperitoneal nidus of infection can be a source of continual seeding of the prosthetic hip joint, prolonging attempts to eradicate infection despite aggressive debridement and explant attempts. The current study presents five cases demonstrating this clinical scenario, and discusses various treatment challenges. In each case we report the patient's clinical history, pertinent imaging, management and outcome. Diagnosis of the iliacus muscle abscess was made using computed tomography imaging. In brief, the mean number of total drainage procedures (open and percutaneous) per patient was 4.2, and outcomes consisted of one patient with a hip girdlestone, two patients with delayed revisions, and two patients with retained prosthesis. All patients ended with functional pain and on oral antibiotic suppression with an average follow up of 18 months. This article highlights an iliacus muscle abscess as an unrecognized source of infection to a prosthetic hip. It demonstrates resilience to standard treatment protocols for prosthetic hip infection, and is associated with poor patient outcomes. Aggressive surgical debridement appears to remain critical to treatment success, and early retroperitoneal debridement of the abscess should be considered.

  16. Isokinetic muscle performance of the hip and ankle muscles in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetişgin, Alparslan; Tiftik, Tülay; Kara, Murat; Karabay, İlkay; Akkuş, Selami; Ersöz, Murat

    2016-06-01

    To compare isokinetic muscle performances of a proximal (hip) and a distal (ankle) muscle of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients with those of age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy subjects. Thirty female patients with FMS (mean age: 41.5 ± 6.7 years [range, 27-54]) and 30 age- (mean age: 40.6 ± 6.0 years [range, 27-54]) and BMI-matched female healthy controls were consecutively enrolled. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were recorded. Isokinetic measurements of hip and ankle flexion and extension at angular velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s, peak torques, flexor-extensor torque ratios, muscle fatigue resistance values and average power were obtained. Mean disease duration of FMS patients was 2.4 ± 1.9 years. Mean weight, height and BMI values were 70.4 ± 12.5 kg, 159.5 ± 6.0 cm and 27.7 ± 4.7 kg/m² (FMS patients) and 69.3 ± 10.1 kg, 161.7 ± 6.2 cm and 26.6 ± 4.3 kg/m² (control subjects), respectively (all P > 0.05). All isokinetic values were statistically decreased in the FMS group when compared with the control group, except for the peak torques at angular velocity of 180°/s on flexion of the hip and extension of the ankle and the total work and average power on extension of the ankle. We did not find any correlation between isokinetic values and disease related parameters of FMS patients. In the light of our results, we may conclude that muscle strength and muscle fatigue seem to decrease in FMS patients' both proximal and distal lower extremity muscles. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. A qualitative study of Functioning, Disability, and Rehabilitation of patients after hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlers, Monica Milter

    2013-01-01

    A qualitative study of functioning, disability, and rehabilitation of patients after hip fracture surgery Monica Milter Ehlers PhD student, MSc in Nursing Merete Bender Bjerrum* PhD, MA, Associate Professor Claus Vinther Nielsen* Professor, PhD, MD, Specialist in Clinical Social Medicine...... *Department of Public Health, Aarhus University Introduction Hip fractures cause the greatest consumption of bed days in Danish hospitals. The need for rehabilitation of hip fracture patients older than 65 years is increasing because of a growing number of elderly people in Denmark. Rehabilitation of hip...... fracture patients consists primarily of muscle training and daily mobilisation. Patients' functioning, disability, and involvement in their rehabilitation process have not been investigated in scientific studies. Aims To establish a specific research-based knowledge for functioning, disability...

  18. Evaluation of the Function and Quality of Life after Total Hip Arthroplasty by Different Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Araújo

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: After 24 months post total hip arthroplasty there are no differences between the two approaches with regard to function or quality of life. However, the patients operated by the anterolateral approach had greater muscle strength deficits and higher percentage of positive Trendelenburg test.

  19. Muscle function loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or head are damaged, you may have difficulty chewing and swallowing or closing your eyes. In these ... Medical Professional Muscle paralysis always requires immediate medical attention. If you notice gradual weakening or problems with ...

  20. Muscle optimization techniques impact the magnitude of calculated hip joint contact forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, M.; Derikx, L.C.; de Groote, F.; Bartels, W.; Meyer, C.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph; Jonkers, I.

    2015-01-01

    In musculoskeletal modelling, several optimization techniques are used to calculate muscle forces, which strongly influence resultant hip contact forces (HCF). The goal of this study was to calculate muscle forces using four different optimization techniques, i.e., two different static optimization

  1. Prone Hip Extension Muscle Recruitment is Associated with Hamstring Injury Risk in Amateur Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuermans, Joke; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Witvrouw, Erik

    2017-09-01

    'Core stability' is considered essential in rehabilitation and prevention. Particularly with respect to hamstring injury prevention, assessment and training of lumbo-pelvic control is thought to be key. However, supporting scientific evidence is lacking. To explore the importance of proximal neuromuscular function with regard to hamstring injury susceptibility, this study investigated the association between the Prone Hip Extension (PHE) muscle activation pattern and hamstring injury incidence in amateur soccer players. 60 healthy male soccer players underwent a comprehensive clinical examination, comprising a range of motion assessments and the investigation of the posterior chain muscle activation pattern during PHE. Subsequently, hamstring injury incidence was recorded prospectively throughout a 1.5-season monitoring period. Players who were injured presented a PHE activation pattern that differed significantly from those who did not. Contrary to the controls, hamstring activity onset was significantly delayed (p=0.018), resulting in a shifted activation sequence. Players were 8 times more likely to get injured if the hamstring muscles were activated after the lumbar erector spinae instead of vice versa (p=0.009). Assessment of muscle recruitment during PHE demonstrated to be useful in injury prediction, suggesting that neuromuscular coordination in the posterior chain influences hamstring injury vulnerability. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. EMG of the hip adductor muscles in six clinical examination tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Gregory A; Blanch, Peter D; Barnes, Christopher J

    2012-08-01

    To assess activation of muscles of hip adduction using EMG and force analysis during standard clinical tests, and compare athletes with and without a prior history of groin pain. Controlled laboratory study. 21 male athletes from an elite junior soccer program. Bilateral surface EMG recordings of the adductor magnus, adductor longus, gracilis and pectineus as well as a unilateral fine-wire EMG of the pectineus were made during isometric holds in six clinical examination tests. A load cell was used to measure force data. Test type was a significant factor in the EMG output for all four muscles (all muscles p stronger than Hips 45, Hips 90 and Side lay. BMI (body mass index) was a significant factor (p Muscle EMG varied significantly with clinical test position. Athletes with previous groin injury had a significant fall in some EMG outputs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Differences in Knee and Hip Adduction and Hip Muscle Activation in Runners With and Without Iliotibial Band Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert L; Souza, Richard B; Rauh, Mitchell J; Fredericson, Michael; Rosenthal, Michael D

    2018-04-26

    Iliotibial band syndrome has been associated with altered hip and knee kinematics in runners. Previous studies have recommended further research on neuromuscular factors at the hip. The frontal plane hip muscles have been a strong focus in strength comparison but not for electromyography investigation. To compare hip surface electromyography, and frontal plane hip and knee kinematics, in runners with and without iliotibial band syndrome. Observational cross-sectional study. Thirty participants were tested for motion capture at the hip and knee and muscle activation in the lateral and posterior hip. Biomechanics research laboratory within a university. Thirty subjects were recruited consisting of 15 injured runners with iliotibial band syndrome and 15 gender-, age-, and body mass index-matched controls. In each group, 8 were male runners and 7 were female runners. Inclusion criteria for the injured group were pain within 2 months related to iliotibial band syndrome and a positive Noble compression test. Participants were excluded if they reported other lower extremity diagnoses within the last year or active lower extremity or low back pain not related to iliotibial band syndrome. Controls were excluded if they reported a history of iliotibial band syndrome. Convenience sampling was used based on referrals from local running clinics and orthopedic clinics. Three-dimensional motion capture was performed with 10 high-speed cameras synchronized with wireless surface electromyography during a 30-minute run. The first data point was at 3 minutes, using a constant speed of 2.74 meters per second. A second data point was at 30 minutes, using a self-selected pace by the participant to allow for a challenging run until completion at 30 minutes. Motion capture was reported as peak kinematic values from heel strike to peak knee flexion for hip adduction and knee adduction. Surface electromyography was reported as a percentage of maximal voluntary contraction for the gluteus

  4. Frontal plane hip and ankle sensorimotor function, not age, predicts unipedal stance time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allet, Lara; Kim, Hogene; Ashton-Miller, James; De Mott, Trina; Richardson, James K.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Changes occur in muscles and nerves with aging. This study aimed to explore the relationship between unipedal stance time (UST) and frontal plane hip and ankle sensorimotor function in subjects with diabetic neuropathy. Methods UST, quantitative measures of frontal plane ankle proprioceptive thresholds, and ankle and hip motor function were tested in forty-one persons with a spectrum of lower limb sensorimotor function, ranging from healthy to moderately severe diabetic neuropathy. Results Frontal plane hip and ankle sensorimotor function demonstrated significant relationships with UST. Multivariate analysis identified only composite hip strength, composite ankle proprioceptive threshold, and age to be significant predictors of UST (R2=0.73); they explained 46%, 24% and 3% of the variance, respectively. Discussion/Conclusions Frontal plane hip strength was the single best predictor of UST and appeared to compensate for less precise ankle proprioceptive thresholds. This finding is clinically relevant given the possibility of strengthening the hip, even in patients with significant PN. . PMID:22431092

  5. Muscle Damage After Total Hip Arthroplasty Through the Direct Anterior Approach for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Masashi; Hasegawa, Yukiharu; Okura, Toshiaki; Ochiai, Satoshi; Fujibayashi, Takayoshi

    2017-08-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) through the direct anterior approach (DAA) is known to cause less muscle damage than other surgical approaches. However, more complex primary cases, such as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), might often cause muscle damage. The objective of the present study was to clarify the muscle damage observed 1 year after THA through the DAA for DDH using magnetic resonance imaging. We prospectively compared the muscle cross-sectional area (M-CSA) and fatty atrophy (FA) in muscles by magnetic resonance imaging and the Harris hip score before and at 1-year follow-up after THA through the DAA in 3 groups: 37 patients with Crowe group 1 DDH (D1), 13 patients with Crowe group 2 and 3 DDH (D2 + 3), and 12 patients with osteonecrosis as a control. THA through the DAA for D1 displayed significantly decreased M-CSA and significantly increased FA in the gluteus minimus (Gmini), the tensor fasciae latae (TFL), and the obturator internus (OI). Patients with D2 + 3 group did not have decreased M-CSA in the TFL or increased FA in the Gmini. Postoperatively, a significant negative correlation was observed between the M-CSA and FA for the OI in patients with D1 and D2 + 3. THA through the DAA for DDH caused the damage in the Gmini, the TFL, and the OI; severe damage was observed in the OI, showing increased FA with decreased M-CSA in patients with both D1 and D2 + 3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neuromuscular Activation of the Vastus Intermedius Muscle during Isometric Hip Flexion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Saito

    Full Text Available Although activity of the rectus femoris (RF differs from that of the other synergists in quadriceps femoris muscle group during physical activities in humans, it has been suggested that the activation pattern of the vastus intermedius (VI is similar to that of the RF. The purpose of present study was to examine activation of the VI during isometric hip flexion. Ten healthy men performed isometric hip flexion contractions at 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction at hip joint angles of 90°, 110° and 130°. Surface electromyography (EMG was used to record activity of the four quadriceps femoris muscles and EMG signals were root mean square processed and normalized to EMG amplitude during an isometric knee extension with maximal voluntary contraction. The normalized EMG was significantly higher for the VI than for the vastus medialis during hip flexion at 100% of maximal voluntary contraction at hip joint angles of 110° and 130° (P < 0.05. The onset of VI activation was 230-240 ms later than the onset of RF activation during hip flexion at each hip joint angle, which was significantly later than during knee extension at 100% of maximal voluntary contraction (P < 0.05. These results suggest that the VI is activated later than the RF during hip flexion. Activity of the VI during hip flexion might contribute to stabilize the knee joint as an antagonist and might help to smooth knee joint motion, such as in the transition from hip flexion to knee extension during walking, running and pedaling.

  7. Recovery in mechanical muscle strength following resurfacing vs standard total hip arthroplasty - a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten; Aagaard, Per; Overgaard, S

    2011-01-01

    rather than implant design per se. Thus, the present data failed to support the hypothesis that R-THA would result in an enhanced strength rehabilitation compared to S-THA. Further, between-limb asymmetry remained present for hip flexors and adductors after 52 wks. Trial registration: NCT01229293....... randomised into (A) standard total hip arthroplasty (S-THA) and (B) resurfacing total hip arthroplasty (R-THA). Pre-surgery assessment and follow-up were conducted (8, 26 and 52 wks). Maximal isometric muscle strength (Nm) and between-limb asymmetry for the knee extensors/flexors, hip adductors....../abductors, hip extensors/flexors were analysed. RESULTS: Maximal knee extensor and hip abductor strength were higher in S-THA than R-THA at 52 wks post-surgery (P ≤ 0.05) and hip extensors tended to be higher in S-THA at 52 wks (P = 0.06). All muscle groups showed substantial between-limb strength asymmetry (7...

  8. Gait analysis, bone and muscle density assessment for patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Magnússon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Total hip arthroplasty (THA is performed with or without the use of bone cement. Facing the lack of reliable clinical guidelines on decision making whether a patient should receive THA with or without bone cement, a joint clinical and engineering approach is proposed here with the objective to assess patient recovery developing monitoring techniques based on gait analysis, measurements of bone mineral density and structural and functional changes of quadriceps muscles. A clinical trial was conducted with 36 volunteer patients that were undergoing THA surgery for the first time: 18 receiving cemented implant and 18 receiving non-cemented implant. The patients are scanned with Computer Tomographic (CT modality prior-, immediately- and 12 months post-surgery. The CT data are further processed to segment muscles and bones for calculating bone mineral density (BMD. Quadriceps muscle density Hounsfield (HU based value is calculated from the segmented file on healthy and operated leg before and after THA surgery. Furthermore clinical assessment is performed using gait analysis technologies such as a sensing carpet, wireless electrodes and video. Patients undergo these measurements prior-, 6 weeks post - and 52 weeks post-surgery. The preliminary results indicate computational tools and methods that are able to quantitatively analyze patient’s condition pre and post-surgery: The spatial parameters such as step length and stride length increase 6 weeks post op in the patient group receiving cemented implant while the angle in the toe in/out parameter decrease in both patient groups.

  9. Isokinetic Evaluation of the Hip Flexor and Extensor Muscles: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapparoli, Fabricio Yuri; Riberto, Marcelo

    2017-11-01

    Isokinetic dynamometry testing is a safe and reliable method accepted as the "gold standard" in the evaluation of muscle strength in the open kinetic chain. Isokinetic hip examinations face problems in the standardization of the position of the equipment axis, in the individual being examined, and in the adjustment of the lever arm and in stabilization strategies for the patients during the tests. Identification of the methodologic procedures with best reproducibility is also needed. To review the literature to evaluate the parameters used for the isokinetic evaluation of the hip flexor and extensor muscles and its reproducibility. This is a systematic literature review of the Cochrane, LILACS, PEDro, PubMed, and SciELO databases. The inclusion criteria were articles on the evaluation of hip flexor and/or extensor muscular strength with an isokinetic dynamometer and articles that analyzed the ICC or Pearson's reproducibility. The information extracted was positioning of the patient; positioning of the dynamometer axis; positioning of the lever arm; angular speed; sample size, pathology; type of contraction; and ICC and Pearson's results. 204 articles were found, from which 14 were selected that evaluated hip flexor and extensor muscles, involving 550 individuals who were submitted to an isokinetic hip evaluation. Five articles obtained the best result in reproducibility and had their methodology analyzed. To obtain better reproducibility of the isokinetic evaluation of the hip flexor and extensor muscles, the following recommendations must be followed: the individual must be positioned in the supine position and the dynamometer axis must be aligned with the greater trochanter of the femur. The positioning of the lever arm must be in the most distal region of the thigh possible. The angular speed used to analyze torque peak and muscle work was 60°/s, and to evaluate the muscle power it was 180°/s, with concentric and eccentric contractions being analyzed.

  10. IMPROVING THE ELASTICITY OF HIP MUSCLES AMONG THE POPULATION OF DEBRECEN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Nagy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing tendency of daily physical activity can be observed in the population of Debrecen University students. We started a physical education at the University of Debrecen which was called spine gymnastic. At the beginning of the semester we surveyed the health status and the health behaviour of the students focused on physical activity. The elasticity of hip muscles was also measured at the beginning and the end of the semester. After completing a 14-week spine gymnastic course, which included auto stretching and strengthening exercises, we found that all measured hip muscles improved.

  11. Muscle strength and areal bone mineral density at the hip in women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, Julie A; Holloway, Kara L; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Moloney, David J; Kotowicz, Mark A

    2015-05-24

    Muscle strengthening exercises are promoted for building and maintaining a healthy skeleton. We aimed to investigate the relationship between muscle strength and areal bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip in women aged 26-97 years. This cross-sectional study utilises data from 863 women assessed for the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Measures of hip flexor and abductor strength were made using a hand-held dynamometer (Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester). The maximal measure from three trials on each leg was used for analyses. BMD was measured at the hip using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA; Lunar DPX-L). Total lean mass, body fat mass and appendicular lean mass were determined from whole body DXA scans. Linear regression techniques were used with muscle strength as the independent variable and BMD as the dependent variable. Models were adjusted for age and indices of body composition. Measures of age-adjusted hip flexor strength and hip abductor strength were positively associated with total hip BMD. For each standard deviation (SD) increase in hip flexor strength, the increase in mean total hip BMD (SD) was 10.4 % (p = 0.009). A similar pattern was observed for hip abductor strength, with an increase in mean total hip BMD of 22.8 % (p = 0.025). All associations between hip muscle strength and total hip BMD were independent of height, but were nullified after adjusting for appendicular lean mass or total lean mass. There was a positive association observed between muscle strength and BMD at the hip. However, this association was explained by measures of lean mass.

  12. Anaemia impedes functional mobility after hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, N.B.; Kristensen, M.T.; Kehlet, H.

    2008-01-01

    mobility in the early post-operative phase after a hip fracture surgery and is an independent risk factor for patients not being able to walk post-operatively. The potential for a liberal transfusion policy to improve the rehabilitation potential in hip fracture patients with anaemia should be investigated......BACKGROUND: the impact of anaemia on the outcome after a hip fracture surgery is controversial, but anaemia can potentially decrease the physical performance and thereby impede post-operative rehabilitation. We therefore conducted a prospective study to establish whether anaemia affected functional...... mobility in the early post-operative phase after a hip fracture surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: four hundred and eighty seven consecutive hip fracture patients, treated according to a well-defined multimodal rehabilitation programme with a uniform, liberal transfusion threshold, were studied. Hb...

  13. Characteristics of acute groin injuries in the hip flexor muscles - a detailed MRI study in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serner, A; Weir, A; Tol, J L

    2018-01-01

    acute hip flexor muscle injury were included. A total of 156 athletes presented with acute groin pain of which 33 athletes were included, median age 26 years (range 18-35). There were 16 rectus femoris, 12 iliacus, 7 psoas major, 4 sartorius, and 1 tensor fascia latae injury. Rectus femoris injuries...

  14. Changes in hip joint muscle-tendon lengths with mode of locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Patrick O; Franz, Jason; Dicharry, Jay; Kerrigan, D Casey

    2010-02-01

    We have reported that peak hip extension is nearly identical in walking and running, suggesting that anatomical constraints, such as flexor muscle tightness may limit the range of hip extension. To obtain a more mechanistic insight into mobility at the hip and pelvis we examined the lengths of the muscle-tendons units crossing the hip joint. Data defining the three-dimensional kinematics of 26 healthy runners at self-selected walking and running speeds were obtained. These data were used to scale and drive musculoskeletal models using OpenSIM. Muscle-tendon unit (MTU) lengths were calculated for the trailing limb illiacus, rectus femoris, gluteus maximus, and biceps femoris long head and the advancing limb biceps femoris and gluteus maximus. The magnitude and timing of MTU length peaks were each compared between walking and running. The peak length of the right (trailing limb) illiacus MTU, a pure hip flexor, was nearly identical between walking and running, while the maximum length of the rectus femoris MTU, a hip flexor and knee extensor, increased during running. The maximum length of the left (leading limb) biceps femoris was also unchanged between walking and running. Further, the timing of peak illiacus MTU length and peak contralateral biceps femoris MTU length occurred essentially simultaneously during running, at a time during gait when the hamstrings are most vulnerable to stretch injury. This latter finding suggests exploring the role for hip flexor stretching in combination with hamstring stretching to treat and/or prevent running related hamstring injury. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Musculoskeletal Geometry, Muscle Architecture and Functional Specialisations of the Mouse Hindlimb (Open Access)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-26

    example, studies in cats [18], guinea pigs [16] and rabbits [19] have shown that the hamstring muscles, a bi-articular group of muscles which act around...energy in compliant tendons [20, 21], whereas others, such as the hamstrings (hip extensors and knee flexors), function to produce fast contractions

  16. Difference in the recruitment of hip and knee muscles between back squat and plyometric squat jump.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihide Sugisaki

    Full Text Available Athletes who aim to improve both muscular endurance and power often perform exercises that involve similar joint actions under different lifting conditions, such as changes in the load or speed, which are implemented at different times during a periodized exercise program or simultaneously. The prescribed exercises are considered to recruit the same muscles even if the lifting conditions differ to each other. The present study aimed to clarify this by examining whether the recruitment of individual hip and knee muscles during the squat exercise differs between lifting conditions adopted for muscular endurance and power training regimens. Moderately trained men performed back squats (BS, with a load of approximately 60% of one repetition maximum, as a muscular endurance training exercise, and they performed plyometric squat jumping (PSJ for power training. During each exercise, the lower limb joint torques and the recruitment of five hip and knee muscles were determined with inverse-dynamics and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. While the maximal and mean knee joint torques were greater during PSJ than during BS (p<0.01, the T2 values for the quadriceps femoris muscle did not differ between the exercises. In contrast, the T2 values of the gluteus maximus and hip adductor muscles were higher during PSJ (p<0.05 than during BS, although there was no significant difference in the mean hip extension torque between the two exercises. The current results indicate that the individual use of the agonist muscles differs between BS and PSJ, and it does not always correspond with the joint kinetics during the exercises. Therefore, in addition to the exercise type, the lifting condition should also be taken into consideration as a determinant of the major muscles trained during a resistance exercise.

  17. Psychological factors as risk factors for poor hip function after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benditz A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Achim Benditz,1 Petra Jansen,2 Jan Schaible,1 Christina Roll,1 Joachim Grifka,1 Jürgen Götz1 1Department of Orthopedics, University Medical Center Regensburg, Asklepios Klinikum Bad Abbach, Bad Abbach, 2Department of Sport Science, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany Abstract: Recovery after total hip arthroplasty (THA is influenced by several psychological aspects, such as depression, anxiety, resilience, and personality traits. We hypothesized that preoperative depression impedes early functional outcome after THA (primary outcome measure. Additional objectives were perioperative changes in the psychological status and their influence on perioperative outcome. This observational study analyzed depression, anxiety, resilience, and personality traits in 50 patients after primary unilateral THA. Hip functionality was measured by means of the Harris Hip Score. Depression, state anxiety, and resilience were evaluated preoperatively as well as 1 and 5 weeks postoperatively. Trait anxiety and personality traits were measured once preoperatively. Patients with low depression and anxiety levels had significantly better outcomes with respect to early hip functionality. Resilience and personality traits did not relate to hip functionality. Depression and state anxiety levels significantly decreased within the 5-week stay in the acute and rehabilitation clinic, whereas resilience remained at the same level. Our study suggests that low depression and anxiety levels are positively related to early functionality after THA. Therefore, perioperative measurements of these factors seem to be useful to provide the best support for patients with risk factors. Keywords: total hip arthroplasty, psychological factors, depression, state anxiety, trait anxiety, resilience, personality traits

  18. The influence of heterotopic ossification on functional status of hip joint following total hip arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, F.; Seufert, J.; Flentje, M.; Koelbl, O. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Tauscher, A.; Springorum, H.W. [Caritas Krankenhaus Bad Mergentheim (Germany). Orthopedic Clinic; Lehmann, H. [Caritas Krankenhaus Bad Mergentheim (Germany). Inst. of Radiology

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: The functional failure induced by heterotopic ossification (HO) following total hip arthroplasty (THA) was analyzed and correlated to the radiologic failure. Patients and methods: From July 1997 to July 2001, 315 patients (345 hips) received THA indicated by a hypertrophic osteoarthritis of higher degree (Kellgren grade III, IV). All patients were irradiated prophylactically for prevention of HO on the evening before surgery with a 7-Gy single fraction. The patients' median age was 66.3 years. Radiologic failure was assessed by comparison of pre- and postoperative hip X-rays (immediately and 6 months after surgery). Analysis of radiographs was performed according to the Brooker Score. Clinical failure was appraised by measurement of passive range of motion (ROM) of the hip joint with a standard goniometer. The t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results: 281 patients (81.5%) did not develop HO. HO of Brooker grade I or II was found in 58 patients (16.8%). Six patients (1.7%) developed HO Brooker grade III or IV. There was a significant negative correlation between the degree of radiologic and clinical failure. ROM differed significantly between patients with HO Brooker grade 0, I, II and patients with HO Brooker grade III, IV. Comparing the pre- and postoperative ROM, all patients with Brooker grade 0, I and II showed a significant improvement of flexion, internal and external rotation, abduction and adduction movement. Patients with HO Brooker grade III and IV showed no improvement of ROM in the postoperative follow-up. Conclusion: The development of HO following THA influences the physical function of the hip joint dependent on the degree of ossification. HO of lower degree (Brooker I, II) does not influence the clinical outcome, whereas HO of higher degree (Brooker III, IV) reduces the function of hip arthroplasty. Therefore, the purpose of a prophylactic therapy must be to reduce HO of higher degree. (orig.)

  19. Effects of wide step walking on swing phase hip muscle forces and spatio-temporal gait parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajelan, Soheil; Nagano, Hanatsu; Sparrow, Tony; Begg, Rezaul K

    2017-07-01

    Human walking can be viewed essentially as a continuum of anterior balance loss followed by a step that re-stabilizes balance. To secure balance an extended base of support can be assistive but healthy young adults tend to walk with relatively narrower steps compared to vulnerable populations (e.g. older adults and patients). It was, therefore, hypothesized that wide step walking may enhance dynamic balance at the cost of disturbed optimum coupling of muscle functions, leading to additional muscle work and associated reduction of gait economy. Young healthy adults may select relatively narrow steps for a more efficient gait. The current study focused on the effects of wide step walking on hip abductor and adductor muscles and spatio-temporal gait parameters. To this end, lower body kinematic data and ground reaction forces were obtained using an Optotrak motion capture system and AMTI force plates, respectively, while AnyBody software was employed for muscle force simulation. A single step of four healthy young male adults was captured during preferred walking and wide step walking. Based on preferred walking data, two parallel lines were drawn on the walkway to indicate 50% larger step width and participants targeted the lines with their heels as they walked. In addition to step width that defined walking conditions, other spatio-temporal gait parameters including step length, double support time and single support time were obtained. Average hip muscle forces during swing were modeled. Results showed that in wide step walking step length increased, Gluteus Minimus muscles were more active while Gracilis and Adductor Longus revealed considerably reduced forces. In conclusion, greater use of abductors and loss of adductor forces were found in wide step walking. Further validation is needed in future studies involving older adults and other pathological populations.

  20. 38 CFR 4.78 - Muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Muscle function. 4.78... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Organs of Special Sense § 4.78 Muscle function. (a) Examination of muscle function. The examiner must use a Goldmann perimeter chart that identifies the four major quadrants (upward...

  1. Renal function after elective total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perregaard, Helene; Damholt, Mette B; Solgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased short-term and long-term mortality in intensive care populations and in several surgical specialties, but there are very few data concerning orthopedic populations. We have studied the incidence of AKI and the prevale......Background and purpose - Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased short-term and long-term mortality in intensive care populations and in several surgical specialties, but there are very few data concerning orthopedic populations. We have studied the incidence of AKI...... and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in an elective population of orthopedic patients undergoing primary total hip replacement, hypothesizing that chronic kidney disease predisposes to AKI. Patients and methods - This was a single-center, population-based, retrospective, registry-based cohort study...... involving all primary elective total hip replacements performed from January 2003 through December 2012. Patient demographics and creatinine values were registered. We evaluated the presence of CKD and AKI according to the international guidelines for kidney disease (KDIGO Acute Kidney Injury Workgroup 2013...

  2. Hip orthosis powered by pneumatic artificial muscle: voluntary activation in absence of myoelectrical signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Breno Gontijo; Vimieiro, Claysson Bruno Santos; Nagem, Danilo Alves Pinto; Pinotti, Marcos

    2008-04-01

    Powered orthosis is a special class of gait assist device that employs a mechanical or electromechanical actuator to enhance movement of hip, knee, or ankle articulations. Pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) has been suggested as a pneumatic actuator because its performance is similar to biological muscle. The electromyography (EMG) signal interpretation is the most popular and simplest method to establish the patient voluntary control of the orthosis. However, this technique is not suitable for patients presenting neurological lesions causing absence or very low quality of EMG signal. For those cases, an alternative control strategy should be provided. The aim of the present study is to develop a gait assistance orthosis for lower limb powered by PAMs controlled by a voluntary activation method based on the angular behavior of hip joint. In the present study, an orthosis that has been molded in a patient was employed and, by taking her anthropometric parameters and movement constraints, the adaptation of the existing orthosis to the powered orthosis was planned. A control system was devised allowing voluntary control of a powered orthosis suitable for patients presenting neurological lesions causing absence or very low quality of EMG signal. A pilot clinical study was reported where a patient, victim of poliovirus, successfully tested a hip orthosis especially modified for the gait test evaluation in the parallel bar system. The hip orthosis design and the control circuitry parameters were able to be set to provide satisfactory and comfortable use of the orthosis during the gait cycle.

  3. EMG activity of hip and trunk muscles during deep-water running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Koichi; Sato, Daisuke; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Nomura, Takeo

    2009-12-01

    The present study used synchronized motion analysis to investigate the activity of hip and trunk muscles during deep-water running (DWR) relative to land walking (LW) and water walking (WW). Nine healthy men performed each exercise at self-determined slow, moderate, and fast paces, and surface electromyography was used to investigate activity of the adductor longus, gluteus maxima, gluteus medius, rectus abdominis, oblique externus abdominis, and erector spinae. The following kinematic parameters were calculated: the duration of one cycle, range of motion (ROM) of the hip joint, and absolute angles of the pelvis and trunk with respect to the vertical axis in the sagittal plane. The percentages of maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC) of each muscle were higher during DWR than during LW and WW. The %MVC of the erector spinae during WW increased concomitant with the pace increment. The hip joint ROMs were larger in DWR than in LW and WW. Forward inclinations of the trunk were apparent for DWR and fast-paced WW. The pelvis was inclined forward in DWR and WW. In conclusion, the higher-level activities during DWR are affected by greater hip joint motion and body inclinations with an unstable floating situation.

  4. High throughput mutagenesis for identification of residues regulating human prostacyclin (hIP receptor expression and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Bill

    Full Text Available The human prostacyclin receptor (hIP receptor is a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR that plays a critical role in vascular smooth muscle relaxation and platelet aggregation. hIP receptor dysfunction has been implicated in numerous cardiovascular abnormalities, including myocardial infarction, hypertension, thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Genomic sequencing has discovered several genetic variations in the PTGIR gene coding for hIP receptor, however, its structure-function relationship has not been sufficiently explored. Here we set out to investigate the applicability of high throughput random mutagenesis to study the structure-function relationship of hIP receptor. While chemical mutagenesis was not suitable to generate a mutagenesis library with sufficient coverage, our data demonstrate error-prone PCR (epPCR mediated mutagenesis as a valuable method for the unbiased screening of residues regulating hIP receptor function and expression. Here we describe the generation and functional characterization of an epPCR derived mutagenesis library compromising >4000 mutants of the hIP receptor. We introduce next generation sequencing as a useful tool to validate the quality of mutagenesis libraries by providing information about the coverage, mutation rate and mutational bias. We identified 18 mutants of the hIP receptor that were expressed at the cell surface, but demonstrated impaired receptor function. A total of 38 non-synonymous mutations were identified within the coding region of the hIP receptor, mapping to 36 distinct residues, including several mutations previously reported to affect the signaling of the hIP receptor. Thus, our data demonstrates epPCR mediated random mutagenesis as a valuable and practical method to study the structure-function relationship of GPCRs.

  5. High throughput mutagenesis for identification of residues regulating human prostacyclin (hIP) receptor expression and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, Anke; Rosethorne, Elizabeth M; Kent, Toby C; Fawcett, Lindsay; Burchell, Lynn; van Diepen, Michiel T; Marelli, Anthony; Batalov, Sergey; Miraglia, Loren; Orth, Anthony P; Renaud, Nicole A; Charlton, Steven J; Gosling, Martin; Gaither, L Alex; Groot-Kormelink, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    The human prostacyclin receptor (hIP receptor) is a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that plays a critical role in vascular smooth muscle relaxation and platelet aggregation. hIP receptor dysfunction has been implicated in numerous cardiovascular abnormalities, including myocardial infarction, hypertension, thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Genomic sequencing has discovered several genetic variations in the PTGIR gene coding for hIP receptor, however, its structure-function relationship has not been sufficiently explored. Here we set out to investigate the applicability of high throughput random mutagenesis to study the structure-function relationship of hIP receptor. While chemical mutagenesis was not suitable to generate a mutagenesis library with sufficient coverage, our data demonstrate error-prone PCR (epPCR) mediated mutagenesis as a valuable method for the unbiased screening of residues regulating hIP receptor function and expression. Here we describe the generation and functional characterization of an epPCR derived mutagenesis library compromising >4000 mutants of the hIP receptor. We introduce next generation sequencing as a useful tool to validate the quality of mutagenesis libraries by providing information about the coverage, mutation rate and mutational bias. We identified 18 mutants of the hIP receptor that were expressed at the cell surface, but demonstrated impaired receptor function. A total of 38 non-synonymous mutations were identified within the coding region of the hIP receptor, mapping to 36 distinct residues, including several mutations previously reported to affect the signaling of the hIP receptor. Thus, our data demonstrates epPCR mediated random mutagenesis as a valuable and practical method to study the structure-function relationship of GPCRs.

  6. Measuring hip muscle strength in patients with femoroacetabular impingement and other hip pathologies

    OpenAIRE

    Mayne, E; Memarzadeh, A; Raut, P; Arora, A; Khanduja, Vikas

    2017-01-01

    $\\textbf{Objectives}$ The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on measurement of muscle strength in patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and other pathologies and to suggest guidelines to standardise protocols for future research in the field. $\\textbf{Methods}$ The Cochrane and PubMed libraries were searched for any publications using the terms ‘hip’, ‘muscle’, ‘strength’, and ‘measurement’ in the ‘Title, Abstract, Keywords’ field. A further sea...

  7. Botulinum toxin type A injections for the management of muscle tightness following total hip arthroplasty: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delanois Ronald E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of hip adductor, tensor fascia lata, and rectus femoris muscle contractures following total hip arthroplasties are quite common, with some patients failing to improve despite treatment with a variety of non-operative modalities. The purpose of the present study was to describe the use of and patient outcomes of botulinum toxin injections as an adjunctive treatment for muscle tightness following total hip arthroplasty. Methods Ten patients (14 hips who had hip adductor, abductor, and/or flexor muscle contractures following total arthroplasty and had been refractory to physical therapeutic efforts were treated with injection of botulinum toxin A. Eight limbs received injections into the adductor muscle, 8 limbs received injections into the tensor fascia lata muscle, and 2 limbs received injection into the rectus femoris muscle, followed by intensive physical therapy for 6 weeks. Results At a mean final follow-up of 20 months, all 14 hips had increased range in the affected arc of motion, with a mean improvement of 23 degrees (range, 10 to 45 degrees. Additionally all hips had an improvement in hip scores, with a significant increase in mean score from 74 points (range, 57 to 91 points prior to injection to a mean of 96 points (range, 93 to 98 at final follow-up. There were no serious treatment-related adverse events. Conclusion Botulinum toxin A injections combined with intensive physical therapy may be considered as a potential treatment modality, especially in difficult cases of muscle tightness that are refractory to standard therapy.

  8. Reproducibility of range of motion and muscle strength measurements in patients with hip osteoarthritis – an interrater study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Erik; Christensen, Henrik Wulff; Penny, Jeannette Østergaard

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Assessment of range of motion (ROM) and muscle strength is fundamental in the clinical diagnosis of hip osteoarthritis (OA) but reproducibility of these measurements has mostly involved clinicians from secondary care and has rarely reported agreement parameters. Therefore......, the primary objective of the study was to determine the inter-rater reproducibility of ROM and muscle strength measurements. Furthermore, the reliability of the overall assessment of clinical hip OA was evaluated. Reporting is in accordance with proposed guidelines for the reporting of reliability...... differentiate between hips with or without osteoarthritis....

  9. Muscle MRI and functional outcome measures in Becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barp, Andrea; Bello, Luca; Caumo, Luca; Campadello, Paola; Semplicini, Claudio; Lazzarotto, Annalisa; Sorarù, Gianni; Calore, Chiara; Rampado, Alessandro; Motta, Raffaella; Stramare, Roberto; Pegoraro, Elena

    2017-11-22

    Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is a neuromuscular disorder allelic to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), caused by in-frame mutations in the dystrophin gene, and characterized by a clinical progression that is both milder and more heterogeneous than DMD. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed as biomarker of disease progression in dystrophinopathies. Correlation with clinically meaningful outcome measures such as North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) and 6 minute walk test (6MWT) is paramount for biomarker qualification. In this study, 51 molecularly confirmed BMD patients (aged 7-69 years) underwent muscle MRI and were evaluated with functional measures (NSAA and 6MWT) at the time of the MRI, and subsequently after one year. We confirmed a pattern of fatty substitution involving mainly the hip extensors and most thigh muscles. Severity of muscle fatty substitution was significantly correlated with specific DMD mutations: in particular, patients with an isolated deletion of exon 48, or deletions bordering exon 51, showed milder involvement. Fat infiltration scores correlated with baseline functional measures, and predicted changes after 1 year. We conclude that in BMD, skeletal muscle MRI not only strongly correlates with motor function, but also helps in predicting functional deterioration within a 12-month time frame.

  10. Gait Characteristics, Symptoms, and Function in Persons With Hip Osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eitzen, I.; Fernandes, L.; Kallerud, H.

    2015-01-01

    did not undergo THR were made using independent t tests or Mann-Whitney U tests. Comparisons of baseline measures and 6- to 7-year follow-up for the nonoperated individuals were conducted with paired-samples t tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests (P......, 58.9 years) with radiographic and symptomatic hip osteoarthritis participated. Outcome measures included 3-D gait analysis; self-reported pain; stiffness, and function; hip range of motion; and the six-minute walk test. Baseline comparisons between individuals who later underwent THR and those who...

  11. The Influence of Body Mass Index, Sex, & Muscle Activation on Pressure Distribution During Lateral Falls on the Hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Steven P; Martel, Daniel R; Laing, Andrew C

    2017-12-01

    Hip fracture incidence rates are influenced by body mass index (BMI) and sex, likely through mechanistic pathways that influence dynamics of the pelvis-femur system during fall-related impacts. The goal of this study was to extend our understanding of these impact dynamics by investigating the effects of BMI, sex, and local muscle activation on pressure distribution over the hip region during lateral impacts. Twenty participants underwent "pelvis-release experiments" (which simulate a lateral fall onto the hip), including muscle-'relaxed' and 'contracted' trials. Males and low-BMI individuals exhibited 44 and 55% greater peak pressure, as well as 66 and 56% lower peripheral hip force, compared to females and high-BMI individuals, respectively. Local muscle activation increased peak force by 10%, contact area by 17%, and peripheral hip force by 11% compared to relaxed trials. In summary, males and low-BMI individuals exhibited more concentrated loading over the greater trochanter. Muscle activation increased peak force, but this force was distributed over a larger area, preventing increased localized loading over the greater trochanter. These findings suggest potential value in incorporating sex, gender, and muscle activation-specific force distributions as inputs into computational tissue-level models, and have implications for the design of personalized protective devices including wearable hip protectors.

  12. Striated Muscle Function, Regeneration, and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadrin, I.Y.; Khodabukus, A.; Bursac, N.

    2016-01-01

    As the only striated muscle tissues in the body, skeletal and cardiac muscle share numerous structural and functional characteristics, while exhibiting vastly different size and regenerative potential. Healthy skeletal muscle harbors a robust regenerative response that becomes inadequate after large muscle loss or in degenerative pathologies and aging. In contrast, the mammalian heart loses its regenerative capacity shortly after birth, leaving it susceptible to permanent damage by acute injury or chronic disease. In this review, we compare and contrast the physiology and regenerative potential of native skeletal and cardiac muscles, mechanisms underlying striated muscle dysfunction, and bioengineering strategies to treat muscle disorders. We focus on different sources for cellular therapy, biomaterials to augment the endogenous regenerative response, and progress in engineering and application of mature striated muscle tissues in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we discuss the challenges and perspectives in translating muscle bioengineering strategies to clinical practice. PMID:27271751

  13. Mechanical modeling of skeletal muscle functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, B.J.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    For movement of body or body segments is combined effort needed of the central nervous system and the muscular-skeletal system. This thesis deals with the mechanical functioning of skeletal muscle. That muscles come in a large variety of geometries, suggest the existence of a relation between muscle

  14. The Immediate Effect of Neuromuscular Joint Facilitation (NJF) Treatment on Hip Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongdan; Huo, Ming; Huang, Qiuchen; Li, Desheng; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the change in hip muscle strength of younger persons after neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 45 healthy young people, who were divided into two groups: a NJF group and a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) group. The NJF group consisted of 21 subjects (11 males, 10 females), and the PNF group consisted of 24 subjects (11 males, 13 females). [Methods] Participants in the NJF group received NJF treatment. We measured the maximal flexor strength and the maximal extensor strength during isokinetic movement of the hip joint before and after intervention in both groups. The angular velocities used were 60°/sec and 180°/sec. [Results] The NJF group showed significant increases in the maximal flexor strength and the maximal extensor strength after the intervention at each angular velocity. In the PNF group, the maximal flexor strength of 60°/sec and the maximal extensor strength of 180°/sec were significant increases. [Conclusion] These results suggest that there is an immediate effect of NJF intervention on hip muscle strength.

  15. Activation of the hip adductor muscles varies during a simulated weight-bearing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hides, Julie A; Beall, Paula; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M; Stanton, Warren; Miokovic, Tanja; Richardson, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the pattern of muscle activation of the individual hip adductor muscles using a standardised simulated unilateral weight-bearing task. A repeated measures design. Laboratory. 20 healthy individuals (11 females, 9 males) participated in the study. Age ranged from 20 to 25 years. Surface electromyography recordings from adductor magnus and adductor longus muscles were taken at levels representing 10-50% of body weight during a simulated weight-bearing task. Electromyography (EMG) data were normalised to maximal voluntary isometric contraction. The adductor magnus was recruited at significantly higher levels than the adductor longus muscle during a simulated weight-bearing task performed across 10-50% of body weight (p bearing task. This information should be considered when selecting exercises for management and prevention of groin strains. Closed chain exercises with weight-bearing through the lower limb are more likely to recruit the adductor magnus muscle over the adductor longus muscle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A study on the relationship between muscle function, functional mobility and level of physical activity in community-dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patrícia A; Dias, João M D; Dias, Rosângela C; Santos, Priscilla; Zampa, Camila C

    2011-01-01

    to evaluate the relationship between lower extremity muscle function, calf circumference (CC), handgrip strength (HG), functional mobility and level of physical activity among age groups (65-69, 70-79, 80+) of older adults (men and women) and to identify the best parameter for screening muscle function loss in the elderly. 81 community-dwelling elderly (42 women and 39 men) participated. Walking speed (Multisprint Kit), HG (Jamar dynamometer), hip, knee and ankle muscle function (Biodex isokinetic dynamometer), level of physical activity (Human Activity Profile) and CC (tape measure) were evaluated. ANOVA, Pearson correlation and ROC curves were used for statistical analysis. Dominant CC (34.9±3 vs 37.7±3.6), habitual (1.1±0.2 vs 1.2±0.2) and fast (1.4±0.3 vs 1.7±0.3) walking speed, HG (23.8±7.5 vs 31.8±10.3), average peak torque and average hip, knee and ankle power (pphysical activity level among age groups. Moderate significant correlations were found between muscle function parameters, walking speed and HG; a fair degree of relationship was found between muscle function parameters, CC and level of physical activity (pwomen (p=0.03). This study demonstrated an association between muscle function, HG and fast walking speed, a decrease in these parameters with age and the possibility of using HG to screen for muscle function of the lower extremities.

  17. Is a sphygmomanometer a valid and reliable tool to measure the isometric strength of hip muscles? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Liam Anthony; De Noronha, Marcos; Taylor, Carolyn; Thomas, James

    2015-02-01

    Muscle strength measurement is a key component of physiotherapists' assessment and is frequently used as an outcome measure. A sphygmomanometer is an instrument commonly used to measure blood pressure that can be potentially used as a tool to assess isometric muscle strength. To systematically review the evidence on the reliability and validity of a sphygmomanometer for measuring isometric strength of hip muscles. A literature search was conducted across four databases. Studies were eligible if they presented data on reliability and/or validity, used a sphygmomanometer to measure isometric muscle strength of the hip region, and were peer reviewed. The individual studies were evaluated for quality using a standardized critical appraisal tool. A total of 644 articles were screened for eligibility, with five articles chosen for inclusion. The use of a sphygmomanometer to objectively assess isometric muscle strength of the hip muscles appears to be reliable with intraclass correlation coefficient values ranging from 0.66 to 0.94 in elderly and young populations. No studies were identified that have assessed the validity of a sphygmomanometer. The sphygmomanometer appears to be reliable for assessment of isometric muscle strength around the hip joint, but further research is warranted to establish its validity.

  18. Hip muscle and hand-grip strength to differentiate between older fallers and non-fallers: a cross-sectional validity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafner SC

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Simone C Gafner,1,2 Caroline H Bastiaenen,2,3 Serge Ferrari,4 Gabriel Gold,5 Philippe Terrier,6,7 Roger Hilfiker,8 Lara Allet1,91Department of Physiotherapy, HES-SO University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Western Switzerland, Geneva, Switzerland; 2Department of Epidemiology, Research Program Functioning and Rehabilitation, CAPHRI, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands; 3Department of Health, School of Health Professions, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur, 4Department of Internal Medicine Specialties, 5Department of Internal Medicine, Rehabilitation and Geriatrics, University Hospitals and University of Geneva, Geneva, 6Department of Research, Clinique romande de réadaptation SUVACare, 7Department of Research, Institute for Research in Rehabilitation, Sion, 8Department of Physiotherapy, School of Health Sciences, HES-SO Valais-Wallis, University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Western Switzerland, Valais, 9Department of Community Medicine, University Hospitals and University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland Background: Hip muscle weakness in older people seems to be an influencing factor of falls. Currently, it is unclear which muscles out of the hip muscle group play an important role in older people. A validating process in the measurement regarding muscle strength related to falls is necessary before answering that question.Objective: Firstly, we aimed to investigate which hip muscle group strength shows an acceptable level of distinction between older adult fallers and non-fallers compared to a predefined external criterion regarding falling. Secondly, we aimed to compare the same outcomes and questions for hand-grip strength in relation to the same external criterion.Design: This study was a cross-sectional validity study.Methods: The maximum voluntary isometric strength (MVIS and the rate of force generation of hip abductors (ABD, adductors, internal and external rotators, extensors, and flexors were measured

  19. Association of Hip Radiograph Findings With Pain and Function in Patients Presenting With Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Heidi; Cheng, Abby; Steger-May, Karen; Maheshwari, Vaibhav; VanDillen, Linda

    2018-01-01

    Relationships between low back pain (LBP) and the hip in patient cohorts have been described primarily in patients with moderate to severe hip osteoarthritis (OA). Less is known about the links of LBP with hip radiographic findings of hip deformity and minimal OA. To describe the incidence of radiographic hip deformity or hip OA; to describe and compare spine- and hip-related pain and function in the subset of patients who were found to have radiographic hip deformity or hip OA; and to compare patients with evidence of radiographic hip deformity or hip OA to patients without hip radiographic findings. Prospective cohort study with cross-sectional design. Tertiary university. A total of 63 patients (40 women, 23 men) with a mean age of 48.5 ± 14 years with LBP and a minimum of one positive provocative hip test. Hip radiographs were assessed by an independent examiner for hip OA and deformity. Comparisons of hip and lumbar spine pain and function were completed for patients with radiographic findings of hip OA or deformity. Moderate to severe hip OA was found in 12 of 60 patients (20.0%). At least one measurement of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) was found in 14 of 60 patients (23.3%) to 33 of 45 patients (73.3%). At least one measurement of developmental hip dysplasia (DDH) was found in 7 of 60 patients (11.6%) to 11 of 63 patients (17.4%). Greater pain and reduced hip and lumbar spine function were found in the patients with moderate to severe hip OA. Patients with LBP and FAI were found to have significantly greater extremes of pain and reduced lumbar spine function. Links between the hip and the spine affecting pain and function may be found in patients with LBP and hip deformity and before the onset of radiographic hip OA, and may be associated with hip deformity. Further investigation is needed to better understand these links and their potential impact on prognosis and treatment of LBP. II. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Physical Medicine and

  20. Functional outcome measures in a surgical model of hip osteoarthritis in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Dianne; Johnson, Stephen; Hash, Jonathan; Olson, Steven A.; Estes, Bradley T.; Moutos, Franklin T.; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.; Guilak, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    Background The hip is one of the most common sites of osteoarthritis in the body, second only to the knee in prevalence. However, current animal models of hip osteoarthritis have not been assessed using many of the functional outcome measures used in orthopaedics, a characteristic that could increase their utility in the evaluation of therapeutic interventions. The canine hip shares similarities with the human hip, and functional outcome measures are well documented in veterinary medicine, pr...

  1. Reliability and Validity of the Hip Stability Isometric Test (HipSIT): A New Method to Assess Hip Posterolateral Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Gabriel Peixoto Leão; das Neves Rodrigues, Helena Larissa; de Freitas, Bruno Wesley; de Paula Lima, Pedro Olavo

    2017-12-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Background The Hip Stability Isometric Test (HipSIT) evaluates the strength of the hip posterolateral stabilizers in a position that favors greater activation of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius and lower activation of the tensor fascia lata. Objectives To check the validity and reliability of the HipSIT and to evaluate the HipSIT in women with patellofemoral pain (PFP). Methods The HipSIT was evaluated with a handheld dynamometer. During testing, the participants were sidelying, with their legs positioned at 45° of hip flexion and 90° of knee flexion. Participants were instructed to raise the knee of the upper leg while keeping the upper and lower heels in contact. To establish reliability and validity, 49 women were tested with the HipSIT by 2 different evaluators on day 1, and then again 7 days later. The strength of the hip extensors, abductors, and external rotators was also evaluated. Twenty women with unilateral PFP were also evaluated. Results The HipSIT has excellent intrarater and interrater reliability. The standard error of measurement was 0.01 kgf/kg, and the minimal detectable change was 0.036 kgf/kg. The HipSIT showed good validity in isolated hip abduction, external rotation, and extension (Pstrength deficits in women with PFP. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(12):906-913. Epub 9 Oct 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7274.

  2. Q-angle in patellofemoral pain: relationship with dynamic knee valgus, hip abductor torque, pain and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Peixoto Leão Almeida

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the q-angle and anterior knee pain severity, functional capacity, dynamic knee valgus and hip abductor torque in women with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS. METHODS: This study included 22 women with PFPS. The q-angle was assessed using goniometry: the participants were positioned in dorsal decubitus with the knee and hip extended, and the hip and foot in neutral rotation. Anterior knee pain severity was assessed using a visual analog scale, and functional capacity was assessed using the anterior knee pain scale. Dynamic valgus was evaluated using the frontal plane projection angle (FPPA of the knee, which was recorded using a digital camera during step down, and hip abductor peak torque was recorded using a handheld dynamometer. RESULTS: The q-angle did not present any significant correlation with severity of knee pain (r = -0.29; p = 0.19, functional capacity (r = -0.08; p = 0.72, FPPA (r = -0.28; p = 0.19 or isometric peak torque of the abductor muscles (r = -0.21; p = 0.35. CONCLUSION: The q-angle did not present any relationship with pain intensity, functional capacity, FPPA, or hip abductor peak torque in the patients with PFPS.

  3. Measures of Functional Performance and Their Association With Hip and Thigh Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollock, Roger; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.; Ringleb, Stacie I.; Oñate, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Insufficient hip and thigh strength may increase an athlete's susceptibility to injury. However, screening for strength deficits using isometric and isokinetic instrumentation may not be practical in all clinical scenarios. Objective: To determine if functional performance tests are valid indicators of hip and thigh strength. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Sixty-two recreationally athletic men (n = 30, age = 21.07 years, height = 173.84 cm, mass = 81.47 kg) and women (n = 32, age = 21.03 years, height = 168.77 cm, mass = 68.22 kg) participants were recruited. Intervention(s): During session 1, we measured isometric peak force and rate of force development for 8 lower extremity muscle groups, followed by an isometric endurance test. During session 2, participants performed functional performance tests. Main Outcome Measure(s): Peak force, rate of force development, fatigue index, hop distance (or height), work (joules), and number of hops performed during the 30-second lateral-hop test were assessed. The r values were squared to calculate r 2. We used Pearson correlations to evaluate the associations between functional performance and strength. Results: In men, the strongest relationship was observed between triple-hop work and hip-adductor peak force (r2 = 50, P ≤ .001). Triple-hop work also was related to hip-adductor (r2 = 38, P ≤ .01) and hip-flexor (r2 = 37, P ≤ .01) rate of force development. For women, the strongest relationships were between single-legged vertical-jump work and knee-flexor peak force (r2 = 0.44, P ≤ .01) and single-legged vertical-jump height and knee-flexor peak force (r2 = 0.42, P ≤ .01). Single-legged vertical-jump height also was related to knee-flexor rate of force development (r2 = 0.49, P ≤ .001). The 30-second lateral-hop test did not account for a significant portion of the variance in strength endurance. Conclusions: Hop tests alone did not

  4. Rose hip (Rosa canina L: A functional food perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Fan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rose hip (Rosa canina L. is the pseudo-fruit of the rose plant, which is widely known as a valuable source of polyphenols and vitamin C. Both in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated that this fruit exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiobesogenic activities. The health benefits of Rose hip (RH have been attributed to its wide range of bioactive compounds including the anti-inflammatory galactolipid: (2S-1,2-di-O-[(9Z,12Z,15Z-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoyl]-3-O-β-D galactopyranosyl glycerol (GOPO, vitamin C, phenolics, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and other carotenoids. As cyclooxygenase inhibitors, RH compounds may reduce the risk of cancer, heart disease, and various inflammatory conditions. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the functional, medical, and physiological properties of RH.

  5. Comparison of the responsiveness of the Harris Hip Score with generic measures for hip function in osteoarthritis of the hip.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, H.L.; Ende, C.H.M. van den; Ronday, H.K.; Heering, A.; Breedveld, F.C.; Dekker, J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare responsiveness of the Harris Hip Score with generic measures (that is, the Short Form-36 (SF-36), and a test of walking speed and pain during walking) in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. METHOD: The first 75 cases within the population of a randomised clinical

  6. [Effects of surgery on muscles on clinical and radiographic findings in the hip joint region in cerebral palsy patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schejbalová, A; Havlas, V

    2008-10-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Isolated or combined surgical procedures on muscles around the hip joint are currently indicated by many authors. In cerebral palsy patients they are regarded as essential intervention. MATERIAL In the years 2005-2007, surgery in the hip joint region was essential for 150 children between 3 and 18 years of age. At the time of surgery, the patients' locomotion ranged from stage 1 to stage 7 of the Vojta system. METHODS The outcome was evaluated by clinical and radiographic examination at 2 and 6 months post-operatively and hip migration percentage and Wiberg's CE angle were measured. RESULTS The best clinical and radiographic outcomes were achieved in children younger than 6 years of age. On the other hand, isolated transfer of the distal rectus femoris muscle significantly affected pelvis anteflexion in adolescent patients. The most marked decrease in migration percentage was found after adductor tenotomy combined with surgery on the iliopsoas muscle (55.6 %) or when the two procedures were combined with distal rectus femoris transfer. DISCUSSION Combined surigical procedures, i.e., adductor tenotomy, surgery on the iliopsoas muscle or rectus femoris muscle and medial hamstrings, with fixation using an abduction modified Atlanta brace, are effective in patients with marked lateral hip migration who are younger that 6 years. Isolated adductor tenotomy and distal transfer of the rectus femoris muscle markedly improve standing position in walking patients. CONCLUSION An appropriate combination of surgical procedures on muscles in the hip region and on medial hamstrings can significantly improve the patient's locomotion and, if lateral migration is present, help to avoid surgery on bones.

  7. AMPK in skeletal muscle function and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Hingst, Janne Rasmuss; Fentz, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable ability to adapt to various physiologic conditions. AMPK is a sensor of intracellular energy status that maintains energy stores by fine-tuning anabolic and catabolic pathways. AMPK's role as an energy sensor is particularly critical in tissues displaying...... highly changeable energy turnover. Due to the drastic changes in energy demand that occur between the resting and exercising state, skeletal muscle is one such tissue. Here, we review the complex regulation of AMPK in skeletal muscle and its consequences on metabolism (e.g., substrate uptake, oxidation......, and storage as well as mitochondrial function of skeletal muscle fibers). We focus on the role of AMPK in skeletal muscle during exercise and in exercise recovery. We also address adaptations to exercise training, including skeletal muscle plasticity, highlighting novel concepts and future perspectives...

  8. Effects of weekly and fortnightly therapeutic exercise on physical function and health-related quality of life in individuals with hip osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jigami, Hirofumi; Sato, Daisuke; Tsubaki, Atsuhiro; Tokunaga, Yuta; Ishikawa, Tomoji; Dohmae, Yoichiro; Iga, Toshiroh; Minato, Izumi; Yamamoto, Noriaki; Endo, Naoto

    2012-11-01

    Most previous studies on the effects of therapeutic exercise on osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip joint included participants with knee OA or postoperative participants. Moreover, although some systematic reviews recommend therapeutic exercise for hip OA, a consensus on the effective interventional frequency has not been reached. This study aimed to investigate the effects of therapeutic exercise performed at different frequencies on physical function and health-related quality of life in participants with hip OA. Individuals diagnosed with hip OA (36 women, age 42-79 years; 19 in 2009 and 17 in 2010) were recruited from the cooperating medical institutions. They were divided into two groups depending on the frequency of therapeutic exercise: fortnightly in 2009 (fortnightly group) and weekly in 2010 (weekly group). Participants in each group performed the same land-based and aquatic exercises on the same day for a total of ten sessions. Muscle strength of the lower extremity, "timed up and go" (TUG), time of one-leg standing with open eyes (TOLS), Harris Hip Score, and scores of the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 questionnaire, were measured before and after interventions. The fortnightly group had no significant changes in lower-extremity muscle strength following intervention, but the strength of all muscles in the weekly group improved significantly after intervention. Further, in both groups, TUG and TOLS of the worse side of the hip joint significantly improved after interventions. Weekly exercise improves muscle strength of the lower extremity and may therefore be an effective interventional technique for managing hip OA. In addition, in persons with hip OA, therapeutic exercise consisting of both land- and water-based exercises markedly improved physical function.

  9. Vitamin D and muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2017-10-01

    Muscle weakness is a hallmark of severe vitamin D deficiency, but the effect of milder vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency on muscle mass and performance and risk of falling is uncertain. In this presentation, I review the evidence that vitamin D influences muscle mass and performance, balance, and risk of falling in older adults. Special consideration is given to the impact of both the starting 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and the dose administered on the clinical response to supplemental vitamin D in older men and women. Based on available evidence, older adults with serum 25(OH)D levels vitamin D dose range of 800-1000 IU per day has been effective in many studies; lower doses have generally been ineffective and several doses above this range have increased the risk of falls. In conclusion, older adults with serum 25(OH)D levels vitamin D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A clinical observational study on patient-reported outcomes, hip functional performance and return to sports activities in hip arthroscopy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, M.P.W.; Cingel, R.E. van; Visser, E de; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe data of short- and midterm results of hip arthroscopy patients based on patient-reported hip function, hip functional performance and return to sports activities. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Sports medical center. PARTICIPANTS: 37 recreational athletes (21

  11. Carryover effect of hip and knee exercises program on functional performance in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed Hamada, Hamada; Hussein Draz, Amira; Koura, Ghada Mohamed; Saab, Ibtissam M

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] This study was carried out to investigate the carryover effect of hip and knee exercises program on functional performance (single legged hop test as functional performance test and Kujala score for functional activities). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome were randomly assigned into two equal groups. Group (A) consisted of 15 patients undergoing hip strengthening exercises for four weeks then measuring all variables followed by additional four weeks of knee exercises program then measuring all variables again. Group (B): consisted of 15 patients undergoing knee exercises program for four weeks then measuring all variables followed by additional four weeks of hip strengthening exercises then measuring all variables. Functional abilities and knee muscles performance were assessed using Kujala questionnaire and single legged hop test respectively pre and after the completion of the first 4 weeks then after 8 weeks for both groups. [Results] Significantly increase in Kujala questionnaire in group A compared with group B was observed. While, there were significant increase in single legged hop performance test in group B compared with group A. [Conclusion] Starting with hip exercises improve the performance of subjects more than functional activities while starting with knee exercises improve the functional activities of subjects more than performance.

  12. Measurement of Function Post Hip Fracture: Testing a Comprehensive Measurement Model of Physical Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Barbara; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Hicks, Gregory; Ostir, Glen; Klinedinst, N Jennifer; Orwig, Denise; Magaziner, Jay

    2016-07-01

    Measurement of physical function post hip fracture has been conceptualized using multiple different measures. This study tested a comprehensive measurement model of physical function. This was a descriptive secondary data analysis including 168 men and 171 women post hip fracture. Using structural equation modeling, a measurement model of physical function which included grip strength, activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, and performance was tested for fit at 2 and 12 months post hip fracture, and among male and female participants. Validity of the measurement model of physical function was evaluated based on how well the model explained physical activity, exercise, and social activities post hip fracture. The measurement model of physical function fit the data. The amount of variance the model or individual factors of the model explained varied depending on the activity. Decisions about the ideal way in which to measure physical function should be based on outcomes considered and participants. The measurement model of physical function is a reliable and valid method to comprehensively measure physical function across the hip fracture recovery trajectory. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  13. Hip Joint Effusion-Synovitis Is Associated With Hip Pain and Sports/Recreation Function in Female Professional Ballet Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan; Ferris, April-Rose; Smith, Peter; Cook, Jill

    2018-03-23

    To compare hip joint effusion-synovitis prevalence in professional ballet dancers with nondancing athletes and to evaluate the relationship between effusion-synovitis and clinical measures and cartilage defects. Case-control study. Elite ballet and sport. Forty-nine professional ballet dancers and 49 age-matched and sex-matched athletes. Group (dancers/athletes), sex, age, years of training, Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Scores (HAGOSs), hip rotation range of motion (ROM), generalized joint hypermobility (GJH), and hip cartilage defect scores. Hip joint effusion-synovitis (absent, grade 1 = 2-4 mm, grade 2 = >4 mm) scored with 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Hip joint effusion-synovitis was found in 22 (45%) dancers and 13 (26.5%) athletes (P = 0.06). Grade 2 effusion-synovitis was only found in dancers (n = 8, r = 0.31, P = 0.009). The prevalence of effusion-synovitis was similar in men (n = 11, 26%) and women (n = 24, 43%, P = 0.09). Female dancers with effusion-synovitis had lower HAGOS pain (r = 0.63, P = 0.001) and sports/recreation scores (r = 0.66, P = 0.001) compared with those without effusion-synovitis. The HAGOS scores were not related to effusion-synovitis in male dancers or female and male athletes (P > 0.01 for all). Effusion-synovitis was not related to hip ROM, GJH, or cartilage defect scores (P > 0.05 for all). Hip joint effusion-synovitis was related to higher levels of pain and lower sports/recreation function in female ballet dancers. Effusion-synovitis was not related to hip rotation ROM, GJH or cartilage defects. Larger sized joint effusion-synovitis was exclusively found in dancers.

  14. Affective functioning after delirium in elderly hip fracture patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slor, Chantal J; Witlox, Joost; Jansen, René W M M; Adamis, Dimitrios; Meagher, David J; Tieken, Esther; Houdijk, Alexander P J; van Gool, Willem A; Eikelenboom, Piet; de Jonghe, Jos F M

    2013-03-01

    Delirium in elderly patients is associated with various long-term sequelae that include cognitive impairment and affective disturbances, although the latter is understudied. For a prospective cohort study of elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, baseline characteristics and affective and cognitive functioning were assessed preoperatively. During hospital admission, presence of delirium was assessed daily. Three months after hospital discharge, affective and global cognitive functioning was evaluated again in patients free from delirium at the time of this follow-up. This study compared baseline characteristics and affective functioning between patients with and without in-hospital delirium. We investigated whether in-hospital delirium is associated with increased anxiety and depressive levels, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms three months after discharge. Among 53 eligible patients, 23 (43.4%) patients experienced in-hospital delirium after hip fracture repair. Patients who had experienced in-hospital delirium showed more depressive symptoms at follow-up after three months compared to the 30 patients without in-hospital delirium. This association persisted in a multivariate model controlling for age, baseline cognition, baseline depressive symptoms, and living situation. The level of anxiety and symptoms of PTSD at follow-up did not differ between both groups. This study suggests that in-hospital delirium is associated with an increased burden of depressive symptoms three months after discharge in elderly patients who were admitted to the hospital for surgical repair of hip fracture. Symptoms of depression in patients with previous in-hospital delirium cannot be fully explained by persistent (sub)syndromal delirium or baseline cognitive impairment.

  15. Lower-limb pain, disease, and injury burden as determinants of muscle strength deficit after hip fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portegijs, Erja; Rantanen, Taina; Kallinen, Mauri; Heinonen, Ari; Alen, Markku; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hip fracture may result in an asymmetrical lower-limb strength deficit. The deficit may be related to the trauma, surgical treatment, pain, or disuse of the fractured limb. However, disease and injury burden or musculoskeletal pain in the other limb may reduce muscle strength on that

  16. Gastrocnemius Myoelectric Control of a Robotic Hip Exoskeleton Can Reduce the User's Lower-Limb Muscle Activities at Push Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazi, Lorenzo; Crea, Simona; Parri, Andrea; Molino Lova, Raffaele; Micera, Silvestro; Vitiello, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    We present a novel assistive control strategy for a robotic hip exoskeleton for assisting hip flexion/extension, based on a proportional Electromyography (EMG) strategy. The novelty of the proposed controller relies on the use of the Gastrocnemius Medialis (GM) EMG signal instead of a hip flexor muscle, to control the hip flexion torque. This strategy has two main advantages: first, avoiding the placement of the EMG electrodes at the human–robot interface can reduce discomfort issues for the user and motion artifacts of the recorded signals; second, using a powerful signal for control, such as the GM, could improve the reliability of the control system. The control strategy has been tested on eight healthy subjects, walking with the robotic hip exoskeleton on the treadmill. We evaluated the controller performance and the effect of the assistance on muscle activities. The tuning of the assistance timing in the controller was subject dependent and varied across subjects. Two muscles could benefit more from the assistive strategy, namely the Rectus Femoris (directly assisted) and the Tibialis Anterior (indirectly assisted). A significant correlation was found between the timing of the delivered assistance (i.e., synchronism with the biological hip torque), and reduction of the hip flexors muscular activity during walking; instead, no significant correlations were found for peak torque and peak power. Results suggest that the timing of the assistance is the most significant parameter influencing the effectiveness of the control strategy. The findings of this work could be important for future studies aimed at developing assistive strategies for walking assistance exoskeletons. PMID:29491830

  17. Gastrocnemius Myoelectric Control of a Robotic Hip Exoskeleton Can Reduce the User's Lower-Limb Muscle Activities at Push Off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazi, Lorenzo; Crea, Simona; Parri, Andrea; Molino Lova, Raffaele; Micera, Silvestro; Vitiello, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    We present a novel assistive control strategy for a robotic hip exoskeleton for assisting hip flexion/extension, based on a proportional Electromyography (EMG) strategy. The novelty of the proposed controller relies on the use of the Gastrocnemius Medialis (GM) EMG signal instead of a hip flexor muscle, to control the hip flexion torque. This strategy has two main advantages: first, avoiding the placement of the EMG electrodes at the human-robot interface can reduce discomfort issues for the user and motion artifacts of the recorded signals; second, using a powerful signal for control, such as the GM, could improve the reliability of the control system. The control strategy has been tested on eight healthy subjects, walking with the robotic hip exoskeleton on the treadmill. We evaluated the controller performance and the effect of the assistance on muscle activities. The tuning of the assistance timing in the controller was subject dependent and varied across subjects. Two muscles could benefit more from the assistive strategy, namely the Rectus Femoris (directly assisted) and the Tibialis Anterior (indirectly assisted). A significant correlation was found between the timing of the delivered assistance (i.e., synchronism with the biological hip torque), and reduction of the hip flexors muscular activity during walking; instead, no significant correlations were found for peak torque and peak power. Results suggest that the timing of the assistance is the most significant parameter influencing the effectiveness of the control strategy. The findings of this work could be important for future studies aimed at developing assistive strategies for walking assistance exoskeletons.

  18. Gastrocnemius Myoelectric Control of a Robotic Hip Exoskeleton Can Reduce the User's Lower-Limb Muscle Activities at Push Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Grazi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel assistive control strategy for a robotic hip exoskeleton for assisting hip flexion/extension, based on a proportional Electromyography (EMG strategy. The novelty of the proposed controller relies on the use of the Gastrocnemius Medialis (GM EMG signal instead of a hip flexor muscle, to control the hip flexion torque. This strategy has two main advantages: first, avoiding the placement of the EMG electrodes at the human–robot interface can reduce discomfort issues for the user and motion artifacts of the recorded signals; second, using a powerful signal for control, such as the GM, could improve the reliability of the control system. The control strategy has been tested on eight healthy subjects, walking with the robotic hip exoskeleton on the treadmill. We evaluated the controller performance and the effect of the assistance on muscle activities. The tuning of the assistance timing in the controller was subject dependent and varied across subjects. Two muscles could benefit more from the assistive strategy, namely the Rectus Femoris (directly assisted and the Tibialis Anterior (indirectly assisted. A significant correlation was found between the timing of the delivered assistance (i.e., synchronism with the biological hip torque, and reduction of the hip flexors muscular activity during walking; instead, no significant correlations were found for peak torque and peak power. Results suggest that the timing of the assistance is the most significant parameter influencing the effectiveness of the control strategy. The findings of this work could be important for future studies aimed at developing assistive strategies for walking assistance exoskeletons.

  19. Electromyographic activity of the trunk extensor muscles: effect of varying hip position and lumbar posture during Roman chair exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, John M; Verna, Joe L; Manini, Todd M; Mooney, Vert; Graves, James E

    2002-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of hip position and lumbar posture on the surface electromyographic activity of the trunk extensors during Roman chair exercise. Descriptive, repeated measures. University-based musculoskeletal research laboratory. Twelve healthy volunteers (7 men, 5 women; age range, 18-35y) without a history of low back pain were recruited from a university setting. Not applicable. Surface electromyographic activity was recorded from the lumbar extensor, gluteal, and hamstring musculature during dynamic Roman chair exercise. For each muscle group, electromyographic activity (mV/rep) was compared among exercises with internal hip rotation and external hip rotation and among exercises by using a typical lumbar posture (nonbiphasic) and a posture that accentuated lumbar lordosis (biphasic). For the lumbar extensors, electromyographic activity during exercise was 18% greater with internal hip rotation than external hip rotation (Phamstrings, there was no difference in electromyographic activity between internal and external hip rotation or between biphasic and nonbiphasic postures (P >.05). The level of recruitment of the lumbar extensors can be modified during Roman chair exercise by altering hip position and lumbar posture. Clinicians can use these data to develop progressive exercise protocols for the lumbar extensors with a variety of resistance levels without the need for complex equipment. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  20. ASSOCIATION OF ISOMETRIC STRENGTH OF HIP AND KNEE MUSCLES WITH INJURY RISK IN HIGH SCHOOL CROSS COUNTRY RUNNERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedke, Lace E; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; Williams, D S Blaise; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2015-11-01

    High school cross country runners have a high incidence of overuse injuries, particularly to the knee and shin. As lower extremity strength is modifiable, identification of strength attributes that contribute to anterior knee pain (AKP) and shin injuries may influence prevention and management of these injuries. To determine if a relationship existed between isometric hip abductor, knee extensor and flexor strength and the incidence of AKP and shin injury in high school cross country runners. Sixty-eight high school cross country runners (47 girls, 21 boys) participated in the study. Isometric strength tests of hip abductors, knee extensors and flexors were performed with a handheld dynamometer. Runners were prospectively followed during the 2014 interscholastic cross country season for occurrences of AKP and shin injury. Bivariate logistic regression was used to examine risk relationships between strength values and occurrence of AKP and shin injury. During the season, three (4.4%) runners experienced AKP and 13 (19.1%) runners incurred a shin injury. Runners in the tertiles indicating weakest hip abductor (chi-square = 6.140; p=0.046), knee extensor (chi-square = 6.562; p=0.038), and knee flexor (chi-square = 6.140; p=0.046) muscle strength had a significantly higher incidence of AKP. Hip and knee muscle strength was not significantly associated with shin injury. High school cross country runners with weaker hip abductor, knee extensor and flexor muscle strength had a higher incidence of AKP. Increasing hip and knee muscle strength may reduce the likelihood of AKP in high school cross country runners. 2b.

  1. Validity and reliability of isometric muscle strength measurements of hip abduction and abduction with external hip rotation in a bent-hip position using a handheld dynamometer with a belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramaki, Hidefumi; Katoh, Munenori; Hiiragi, Yukinobu; Kawasaki, Tsubasa; Kurihara, Tomohisa; Ohmi, Yorikatsu

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the relatedness, reliability, and validity of isometric muscle strength measurements of hip abduction and abduction with an external hip rotation in a bent-hip position using a handheld dynamometer with a belt. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy young adults, with a mean age of 21.5 ± 0.6 years were included. Isometric hip muscle strength in the subjects' right legs was measured under two posture positions using two devices: a handheld dynamometer with a belt and an isokinetic dynamometer. Reliability was evaluated using an intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC); relatedness and validity were evaluated using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient. Differences in measurements of devices were assessed by two-way ANOVA. [Results] ICC (1, 1) was ≥0.9; significant positive correlations in measurements were found between the two devices under both conditions. No main effect was found between the measurement values. [Conclusion] Our findings revealed that there was relatedness, reliability, and validity of this method for isometric muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer with a belt.

  2. Testosterone Replacement, Muscle Strength, and Physical Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Seon Nam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength and physical function decrease in older men, as do testosterone levels. Nonetheless, the effects of testosterone replacement therapy on muscle strength and physical function remain inconclusive and equivocal. We conducted a rapid systematic review, the results of which showed that testosterone replacement does not affect muscle strength (measured by hand grip strength and leg muscle strength, although it may increase physical function (measured by the 6-minute walk test, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly score, and other physical performance tests. However, most of the studies were conducted in the United States or Europe and did not include participants from Asian or other ethnic backgrounds; therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of testosterone replacement in a broader population.

  3. Isokinetic imbalance of adductor-abductor hip muscles in professional soccer players with chronic adductor-related groin pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhaj, K; Meftah, S; Mahir, L; Lmidmani, F; Elfatimi, A

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to compare the isokinetic profile of hip abductor and adductor muscle groups between soccer players suffering from chronic adductor-related groin pain (ARGP), soccer players without ARGP and healthy volunteers from general population. Study included 36 male professional soccer players, who were randomly selected and followed-up over two years. Of the 21 soccer players eligible to participate in the study, 9 players went on to develop chronic ARGP and 12 players did not. Ten healthy male volunteers were randomly selected from the general population as a control group. Comparison between the abductor and adductor muscle peak torques for players with and without chronic ARGP found a statistically significant difference on the dominant and non-dominant sides (p muscle significantly stronger than the adductor muscle. In the group of healthy volunteers, the adductor muscle groups were significantly stronger than the abductor muscle groups on both dominant and non-dominant sides (p muscle strength was also significantly decreased on the affected side. This imbalance appears to be a risk factor for adductor-related groin injury. Therefore, restoring the correct relationship between these two agonist and antagonist hip muscles may be an important preventative measure that should be a primary concern of training and rehabilitation programmes.

  4. The Fate of the Iliopsoas Muscle in Long-term Follow-up After Open Reduction With a Medial Approach in Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip. Part 2: Isokinetic Muscle Strength Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Serdar; Aksahin, Ertugrul; Ersoz, Murat; Bicimoglu, Ali

    2017-09-01

    The impact on long-term weakness of hip flexion of complete iliopsoas tenotomy during open reduction of developmental hip dysplasia with a medial approach has not yet been fully clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the isokinetic muscle strength (IMS) of hip flexor and extensor muscles in these patients and also to analyze the effect of spontaneous reattachment of the iliopsoas muscle on IMS measurements. The study included 20 patients. Earlier magnetic resonance imaging examination of all the patients revealed spontaneous reattachment of the iliopsoas in 18 (90%) patients. IMS measurements were performed at 60 and 150 degrees/s. The peak torque, total work (TW), average power (AP), work fatigue, and agonist to antagonist muscle ratio of the operated and nonoperated hips were recorded separately for flexors and extensors. The effect of iliopsoas reattachment on IMS was also evaluated. The mean follow-up period was 16.65±2.16 (13 to 20) years. Total work (P=0.013) and average power (P=0.009) of the flexor muscles and work fatigue of the extensor muscles (P=0.030) of the operated hip were significantly decreased when compared with the nonoperated hips at 150 degrees/s. There was no significant difference between the flexor muscles of the operated and nonoperated hips (Phips. Flexor muscle strength was decreased in the operated hip against low resistance in long-term follow-up after iliopsoas tenotomy. This may reflect that hip muscle strength was decreased after prolonged activities such as sports. However, in forceful activities flexor muscle strength was retained due to iliopsoas reattachment. On the basis of this study we thought that spontaneous reattachment of the iliopsoas tendon substantially preserves muscle strength. Nonetheless possible efforts should be made to surgically reattach the psoas tendon to preserve strength of the muscle. Therapeutic level IV.

  5. Effect of statins on skeletal muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Beth A; Capizzi, Jeffrey A; Grimaldi, Adam S; Clarkson, Priscilla M; Cole, Stephanie M; Keadle, Justin; Chipkin, Stuart; Pescatello, Linda S; Simpson, Kathleen; White, C Michael; Thompson, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    Many clinicians believe that statins cause muscle pain, but this has not been observed in clinical trials, and the effect of statins on muscle performance has not been carefully studied. The Effect of Statins on Skeletal Muscle Function and Performance (STOMP) study assessed symptoms and measured creatine kinase, exercise capacity, and muscle strength before and after atorvastatin 80 mg or placebo was administered for 6 months to 420 healthy, statin-naive subjects. No individual creatine kinase value exceeded 10 times normal, but average creatine kinase increased 20.8±141.1 U/L (Pmuscle strength or exercise capacity with atorvastatin, but more atorvastatin than placebo subjects developed myalgia (19 versus 10; P=0.05). Myalgic subjects on atorvastatin or placebo had decreased muscle strength in 5 of 14 and 4 of 14 variables, respectively (P=0.69). These results indicate that high-dose atorvastatin for 6 months does not decrease average muscle strength or exercise performance in healthy, previously untreated subjects. Nevertheless, this blinded, controlled trial confirms the undocumented impression that statins increase muscle complaints. Atorvastatin also increased average creatine kinase, suggesting that statins produce mild muscle injury even among asymptomatic subjects. This increase in creatine kinase should prompt studies examining the effects of more prolonged, high-dose statin treatment on muscular performance. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00609063.

  6. Functional exercise after total hip replacement (FEATHER a randomised control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaghan Brenda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged physical impairments in range of movement, postural stability and walking speed are commonly reported following total hip replacement (THR. It is unclear from the current body of evidence what kind of exercises should be performed to maximize patient function and quality of life. Methods/design This will be a single blind multi centre randomized control trial with two arms. Seventy subjects post primary total hip arthroplasty will be randomized into either an experimental group (n=35, or to a control group (n=35. The experimental group will attend a functional exercise class twice weekly for a six week period from week 12 to week 18 post surgery. The functional exercise group will follow a circuit based functional exercise class supervised by a chartered Physiotherapist. The control group will receive usual care. The principal investigator (BM will perform blinded outcome assessments on all patients using validated measures for pain, stiffness, and function using the Western Ontario and Mc Master Universities Osteoarthritis index (WOMAC. This is the primary outcome measurement tool. Secondary outcome measurements include Quality of life (SF-36, 6 min walk test, Visual Analogue Scale, and the Berg Balance score. The WOMAC score will be collated on day five post surgery and repeated at week twelve and week eighteen. All other measurements will be taken at week 12 and repeated at week eighteen. In addition a blinded radiologist will measure gluteus medius cross sectional area using real time ultrasound for all subjects at week 12 and at week 18 to determine if the functional exercise programme has any effect on muscle size. Discussion This randomised controlled trial will add to the body of evidence on the relationship between muscle size, functional ability, balance, quality of life and time post surgery in patients following total hip arthroplasty. The CONSORT guidelines will be followed to throughout. Ethical

  7. Transitioning to the direct anterior approach in total hip arthroplasty. Is it a true muscle sparing approach when performed by a low volume hip replacement surgeon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, Dan-Viorel; Caterev, Sergiu; Bolboacă, Sorana-Daniela; Cosma, Dan; Lucaciu, Dan Osvald Gheorghe; Todor, Adrian

    2017-11-01

    We conducted this study to establish if the transition from a lateral approach (LA) to the direct anterior approach (DAA) for a low volume hip arthroplasty surgeon during the steep learning curve can be performed maintaining the muscle sparing approach of the DAA without increasing the complication rates. In this controlled, prospective, randomized clinical study we investigated 70 patients (35 DAA, 35 LA) with similar demographics that underwent a total hip arthroplasty. Assessment of the two approaches consisted of determining the invasiveness through serum markers for muscle damage (i.e. myoglobin, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase), the operative parameters such as post-operative pain and rescue medication consumption, the component positioning and complication rates. Post-operative myoglobin levels were higher (p < 0.001) in the LA group (326.42 ± 84.91 ng/mL) as compared to the DAA group (242.80 ± 71.03 ng/mL), but with no differences regarding other biomarkers for muscle damage. Pain levels were overall lower in the DAA group, with a statistical and clinical difference during surgery day (p < 0.001) associated with lower (p < 0.001) rescue medication consumption (median 1 (1; 3) mg morphine vs. 3 (2; 4) mg morphine). Most patients in the LA group reported chronic post-operative pain throughout all three evaluated months, while the majority of patients in the DAA group reported no pain after week six. Component positioning did not differ significantly between groups and neither did complication rates. The DAA can be transitioned from the LA safely, without higher complication rates while maintaining its muscle spearing advantages when performed by a low volume hip arthroplasty surgeon.

  8. Abdominal muscle function and incisional hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K K; Kjaer, M; Jorgensen, L N

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although ventral incisional hernia (VIH) repair in patients is often evaluated in terms of hernia recurrence rate and health-related quality of life, there is no clear consensus regarding optimal operative treatment based on these parameters. It was proposed that health-related quality...... of life depends largely on abdominal muscle function (AMF), and the present review thus evaluates to what extent AMF is influenced by VIH and surgical repair. METHODS: The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for articles following a systematic strategy for inclusion. RESULTS: A total of seven...... studies described AMF in relation to VIH. Five studies examined AMF using objective isokinetic dynamometers to determine muscle strength, and two studies examined AMF by clinical examination-based muscle tests. CONCLUSION: Both equipment-related and functional muscle tests exist for use in patients...

  9. Pre-hospital dietary intake correlates with muscle mass at the time of fracture in older hip fractured patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo eCalvani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Failure to meet an adequate dietary intake is involved in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia and osteoporosis, which in turn increase the risk for falls and fractures, respectively. Older people with hip fracture are often protein-malnourished at hospitalization. Whether low protein-energy intake is associated with muscle atrophy in hip fractured patients is presently unknown. This information is necessary for the development of novel strategies to manage this especially vulnerable patient population. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the relationship between dietary intake and muscle mass in older hip fractured patients.Methods. Analyses were conducted in hip fractured elderly admitted to an orthopedic and trauma surgery ward (University Hospital. Muscle mass was estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis within 24 h from admission. Dietary information was collected via 24-h dietary recall and nutrient intakes calculated by a nutrition software.Results. Among 62 hip fractured patients (mean age 84.6±7.6 years, 84% women, the average energy intake was 929.2±170.3 Kcal/day, with higher values reported by men (1.046.8±231.4 Kcal/day relative to women (906.5±148.3 Kcal/day; p=0.01. Absolute and normalized protein intake was 50.0±13.5 g/day and 0.88±0.27 g/kg (body weight/day, respectively, with no gender differences. A positive correlation was determined between total energy intake and muscle mass (r=0.384; p=0.003. Similarly, protein and leucine consumption was positively correlated with muscle mass (r=0.367 and 0.311, respectively; p=0.005 for both.Conclusions. A low intake of calories, protein and leucine is associated with reduced muscle mass in hip fractured elderly. Given the relevance of sarcopenia as a risk factor for adverse outcomes in this patient population, our findings highlight the importance of a comprehensive dietary assessment for the detection of nutritional deficits predisposing to or aggravating

  10. [Range of Hip Joint Motion and Weight of Lower Limb Function under 3D Dynamic Marker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Q; Zhang, M; Gao, D; Xia, W T

    2017-12-01

    To explore the range of reasonable weight coefficient of hip joint in lower limb function. When the hip joints of healthy volunteers under normal conditions or fixed at three different positions including functional, flexed and extension positions, the movements of lower limbs were recorded by LUKOtronic motion capture and analysis system. The degree of lower limb function loss was calculated using Fugl-Meyer lower limb function assessment form when the hip joints were fixed at the aforementioned positions. One-way analysis of variance and Tamhane's T2 method were used to proceed statistics analysis and calculate the range of reasonable weight coefficient of hip joint. There were significant differences between the degree of lower limb function loss when the hip joints fixed at flexed and extension positions and at functional position. While the differences between the degree of lower limb function loss when the hip joints fixed at flexed position and extension position had no statistical significance. In 95% confidence interval, the reasonable weight coefficient of hip joint in lower limb function was between 61.05% and 73.34%. Expect confirming the reasonable weight coefficient, the effects of functional and non-functional positions on the degree of lower limb function loss should also be considered for the assessment of hip joint function loss. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  11. Serum vitamin E concentrations among highly functioning hip fracture patients are higher than in nonfracture controls

    OpenAIRE

    D’Adamo, Christopher R.; Shardell, Michelle D.; Hicks, Gregory E.; Orwig, Denise L.; Hochberg, Marc C.; Semba, Richard D.; Yu-Yahiro, Janet A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Magaziner, Jay S.; Miller, Ram R.

    2011-01-01

    Malnutrition after hip fracture is common and associated with poor outcomes and protracted recovery. Low concentrations of vitamin E have been associated with incident decline in physical function among older adults and may, therefore, be particularly important to functionally compromised patients hip fracture patients. Serum concentrations of α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, the 2 major forms of vitamin E, were assessed in 148 female hip fracture patients 65 years or older from the Baltimore H...

  12. Trunk and hip muscle recruitment patterns during the prone leg extension following a lateral ankle sprain: A prospective case study pre and post injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehman Gregory J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and case presentation The prone leg extension (PLE is commonly used to identify dysfunction of muscle recruitment patterns. The prone leg extension is theorized to identify proximal muscle disturbances which are a result of distal injury or dysfunction (i.e. an ankle sprain. This case study compares the trunk and hip muscle (bilateral lower erector spine, ipsilateral hamstring and ipsilateral gluteus maximus timing during a PLE of a 27 year old female runner during a healthy state (pre ankle sprain and 2 and 8 weeks post ankle sprain. Results and discussion The gluteus maximus muscle onsets at 8 weeks post injury appeared to occur earlier compared with 2 weeks post injury. The Right Erector Spinae at 8 weeks post injury was also active earlier compared with the participant's non-injured state. A large degree of variability can be noted within trials on the same day for all muscle groups. Conclusion An acute ankle injury did not result in a delay in gluteus maximus muscle activation. The utility of the prone leg extension as a clinical and functional test is questionable due to the normal variability seen during the test and our current inability to determine what is normal and what is dysfunctional.

  13. Test-retest reliability of maximal leg muscle power and functional performance measures in patients with severe osteoarthritis (OA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Allan; Roos, Ewa M.; Overgaard, Søren

    Abstract : Purpose To evaluate the reliability of single-joint and multi-joint maximal leg muscle power and functional performance measures in patients with severe OA. Background Muscle power, taking both strength and velocity into account, is a more functional measure of lower extremity muscle...... and scheduled for unilateral total hip (n=9) or knee (n=11) replacement. Patients underwent a test battery on two occasions separated by approximately one week (range 7 to 11 days). Muscle power was measured using: 1. A linear encoder, unilateral lower limb isolated single-joint dynamic movement, e.g. knee...... flexion 2. A leg extension press, unilateral multi-joint knee and hip extension Functional performance was measured using: 1. 20 m walk usual pace 2. 20 m walk maximal pace 3. 5 times chair stands 4. Maximal number of knee bends/30sec Pain was measured on a VAS prior to and after conducting the entire...

  14. Anatomy and function of the hypothenar muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquella, John A; Levine, Pam

    2012-02-01

    The hypothenar eminence is the thick soft tissue mass located on the ulnar side of the palm. Understanding its location and contents is important for understanding certain aspects of hand function. Variation in motor nerve distribution of the hypothenar muscles makes surgery of the ulnar side of the palm more challenging. To avoid injury to nerve branches, knowledge of these differences is imperative. This article discusses the muscular anatomy and function, vascular anatomy, and nerve anatomy and innervation of the hypothenar muscles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationships between Isometric Muscle Strength, Gait Parameters, and Gross Motor Function Measure in Patients with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyung Ik; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Seung Yeol; Lee, In Hyeok; Park, Moon Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the correlation between isometric muscle strength, gross motor function, and gait parameters in patients with spastic cerebral palsy and to find which muscle groups play an important role for gait pattern in a flexed knee gait. Twenty-four ambulatory patients (mean age, 10.0 years) with spastic cerebral palsy who were scheduled for single event multilevel surgery, including distal hamstring lengthening, were included. Preoperatively, peak isometric muscle strength was measured for the hip flexor, hip extensor, knee flexor, and knee extensor muscle groups using a handheld dynamometer, and three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis and gross motor function measure (GMFM) scoring were also performed. Correlations between peak isometric strength and GMFM, gait kinematics, and gait kinetics were analyzed. Peak isometric muscle strength of all muscle groups was not related to the GMFM score and the gross motor function classification system level. Peak isometric strength of the hip extensor and knee extensor was significantly correlated with the mean pelvic tilt (r=-0.588, p=0.003 and r=-0.436, p=0.033) and maximum pelvic obliquity (r=-0.450, p=0.031 and r=-0.419, p=0.041). There were significant correlations between peak isometric strength of the knee extensor and peak knee extensor moment in early stance (r=0.467, p=0.021) and in terminal stance (r=0.416, p=0.043). There is no correlation between muscle strength and gross motor function. However, this study showed that muscle strength, especially of the extensor muscle group of the hip and knee joints, might play a critical role in gait by stabilizing pelvic motion and decreasing energy consumption in a flexed knee gait.

  16. Correlation between hip function and knee kinematics evaluated by three-dimensional motion analysis during lateral and medial side-hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hiromitsu; Takiguchi, Kohei; Shibata, Yohei; Okubo, Satoshi; Yoshiya, Shinichi; Kuroda, Ryosuke

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] Kinematic and kinetic characteristics of the limb during side-hopping and hip/knee interaction during this motion have not been clarified. The purposes of this study were to examine the biomechanical parameters of the knee during side hop and analyze its relationship with clinical measurements of hip function. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven male college rugby players were included. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to assess motion characteristics of the knee during side hop. In addition, hip range of motion and muscle strength were evaluated. Subsequently, the relationship between knee motion and the clinical parameters of the hip was analyzed. [Results] In the lateral touchdown phase, the knee was positioned in an abducted and externally rotated position, and increasing abduction moment was applied to the knee. An analysis of the interaction between knee motion and hip function showed that range of motion for hip internal rotation was significantly correlated with external rotation angle and external rotation/abduction moments of the knee during the lateral touchdown phase. [Conclusion] Range of motion for hip internal rotation should be taken into consideration for identifying the biomechanical characteristics in the side hop test results.

  17. Fear of falling and changed functional ability following hip fracture among community-dwelling elderly people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesmark, Annette; Herling, Suzanne Forsyth; Egerod, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the study were to assess self-reported fear of falling (FOF) and functional ability among community-dwelling elderly people 3-6 months post hospital discharge after a hip fracture, to investigate the association between FOF and functional ability, and to explore the lived experience...... of FOF and disability when recovering from a hip fracture....

  18. Mechanomyogram for muscle function assessment: a review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Anamul Islam

    Full Text Available Mechanomyography (MMG has been extensively applied in clinical and experimental practice to examine muscle characteristics including muscle function (MF, prosthesis and/or switch control, signal processing, physiological exercise, and medical rehabilitation. Despite several existing MMG studies of MF, there has not yet been a review of these. This study aimed to determine the current status on the use of MMG in measuring the conditions of MFs.Five electronic databases were extensively searched for potentially eligible studies published between 2003 and 2012. Two authors independently assessed selected articles using an MS-Word based form created for this review. Several domains (name of muscle, study type, sensor type, subject's types, muscle contraction, measured parameters, frequency range, hardware and software, signal processing and statistical analysis, results, applications, authors' conclusions and recommendations for future work were extracted for further analysis. From a total of 2184 citations 119 were selected for full-text evaluation and 36 studies of MFs were identified. The systematic results find sufficient evidence that MMG may be used for assessing muscle fatigue, strength, and balance. This review also provides reason to believe that MMG may be used to examine muscle actions during movements and for monitoring muscle activities under various types of exercise paradigms.Overall judging from the increasing number of articles in recent years, this review reports sufficient evidence that MMG is increasingly being used in different aspects of MF. Thus, MMG may be applied as a useful tool to examine diverse conditions of muscle activity. However, the existing studies which examined MMG for MFs were confined to a small sample size of healthy population. Therefore, future work is needed to investigate MMG, in examining MFs between a sufficient number of healthy subjects and neuromuscular patients.

  19. Lower-limb pain, disease and injury burden as determinants of muscle strength deficit after hip fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Portegijs, Erja; Rantanen, Taina; Kallinen, Mauri; Heinonen, Ari; Alén, Markku; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hip fracture may result in an asymmetrical lower-limb strength deficit. The deficit may be related to the trauma, surgical treatment, pain, or disuse of the fractured limb. However, disease and injury burden or musculoskeletal pain in the other limb may reduce muscle strength on that side, reducing the asymmetrical deficit. Our study aim was to explore the asymmetrical strength deficit and to determine potential underlying factors in persons 6 months to 7 years afte...

  20. Effect of combined actions of hip adduction/abduction on the force generation and maintenance of pelvic floor muscles in healthy women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda C Amorim

    Full Text Available Pelvic floor muscle (PFM force and coordination are related to urinary incontinence severity and to sexual satisfaction. Health professionals frequently combine classic PFM exercises with hip adduction/abduction contraction to treat these disorders, but the real benefits of this practice are still unknown. Based on a theoretical anatomy approach whereby the levator ani muscle is inserted into the obturator internus myofascia and in which force generated by hip movements should increase the contraction quality of PFMs, our aim was to investigate the effects of isometric hip adduction and abduction on PFM force generation. Twenty healthy, nulliparous women were evaluated using two strain-gauge dynamometers (one cylinder-like inside the vaginal cavity, and the other measuring hip adduction/abduction forces around both thighs while performing three different tasks: (a isolated PFM contraction; (b PFM contraction combined with hip adduction (30% and 50% maximum hip force; and (c PFM contraction combined with hip abduction (30% and 50% maximum hip force. Data were sampled at 100Hz and subtracted from the offset if existent. We calculated a gradient between the isolated PFM contraction and each hip condition (Δ Adduction and Δ Abduction for all variables: Maximum force (N, instant of maximum-force occurrence (s, mean force in an 8-second window (N, and PFM force loss (N.s. We compared both conditions gradients in 30% and 50% by paired t-tests. All variables did not differ between hip conditions both in 30% and 50% of maximum hip force (p>.05. PFM contraction combined with isometric hip abduction did not increase vaginal force in healthy and nulliparous women compared to PFM contraction combined with isometric hip adduction. Therefore, so far, the use of hip adduction or abduction in PFM training and treatments are not justified for improving PFM strength and endurance.

  1. Functioning Before and After Total Hip or Knee Arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.B. de Groot (Ingrid)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOsteoarthritis (OA) of the hip or knee is a common locomotor disease characterized by degradation of articular cartilage. In the Netherlands, in the year 2000 about 257,400 persons above the age of 55 years had hip OA and about 335,700 persons had knee OA. Because the prevalence of OA

  2. Musculoskeletal Geometry, Muscle Architecture and Functional Specialisations of the Mouse Hindlimb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Charles

    Full Text Available Mice are one of the most commonly used laboratory animals, with an extensive array of disease models in existence, including for many neuromuscular diseases. The hindlimb is of particular interest due to several close muscle analogues/homologues to humans and other species. A detailed anatomical study describing the adult morphology is lacking, however. This study describes in detail the musculoskeletal geometry and skeletal muscle architecture of the mouse hindlimb and pelvis, determining the extent to which the muscles are adapted for their function, as inferred from their architecture. Using I2KI enhanced microCT scanning and digital segmentation, it was possible to identify 39 distinct muscles of the hindlimb and pelvis belonging to nine functional groups. The architecture of each of these muscles was determined through microdissections, revealing strong architectural specialisations between the functional groups. The hip extensors and hip adductors showed significantly stronger adaptations towards high contraction velocities and joint control relative to the distal functional groups, which exhibited larger physiological cross sectional areas and longer tendons, adaptations for high force output and elastic energy savings. These results suggest that a proximo-distal gradient in muscle architecture exists in the mouse hindlimb. Such a gradient has been purported to function in aiding locomotor stability and efficiency. The data presented here will be especially valuable to any research with a focus on the architecture or gross anatomy of the mouse hindlimb and pelvis musculature, but also of use to anyone interested in the functional significance of muscle design in relation to quadrupedal locomotion.

  3. Effect of squatting velocity on hip muscle latency in women with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Chavez, Ignacio; Mendez-Rebolledo, Guillermo

    2018-03-01

    [Purpose] Neuromuscular activity has been evaluated in patellofemoral pain syndrome but movement velocity has not been considered. The aim was to determine differences in onset latency of hip and knee muscles between individuals with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome during a single leg squat, and whether any differences are dependent on movement velocity. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four females with patellofemoral pain syndrome and 24 healthy females participated. Onset latency of gluteus maximus, anterior and posterior gluteus medius, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris during a single leg squat at high and low velocity were evaluated. [Results] There was an interaction between velocity and diagnosis for posterior gluteus medius. Healthy subjects showed a later posterior gluteus medius onset latency at low velocity than high velocity; and also later than patellofemoral pain syndrome subjects at low velocity and high velocity. [Conclusion] Patellofemoral pain syndrome subjects presented an altered latency of posterior gluteus medius during a single leg squat and did not generate adaptations to velocity variation, while healthy subjects presented an earlier onset latency in response to velocity increase.

  4. Structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle provides inspiration for design of new artificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yingxin; Zhang, Chi

    2015-03-01

    A variety of actuator technologies have been developed to mimic biological skeletal muscle that generates force in a controlled manner. Force generation process of skeletal muscle involves complicated biophysical and biochemical mechanisms; therefore, it is impossible to replace biological muscle. In biological skeletal muscle tissue, the force generation of a muscle depends not only on the force generation capacity of the muscle fiber, but also on many other important factors, including muscle fiber type, motor unit recruitment, architecture, structure and morphology of skeletal muscle, all of which have significant impact on the force generation of the whole muscle or force transmission from muscle fibers to the tendon. Such factors have often been overlooked, but can be incorporated in artificial muscle design, especially with the discovery of new smart materials and the development of innovative fabrication and manufacturing technologies. A better understanding of the physiology and structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle will therefore benefit the artificial muscle design. In this paper, factors that affect muscle force generation are reviewed. Mathematical models used to model the structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle are reviewed and discussed. We hope the review will provide inspiration for the design of a new generation of artificial muscle by incorporating the structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle into the design of artificial muscle.

  5. Structure–function relationship of skeletal muscle provides inspiration for design of new artificial muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yingxin; Zhang, Chi

    2015-01-01

    A variety of actuator technologies have been developed to mimic biological skeletal muscle that generates force in a controlled manner. Force generation process of skeletal muscle involves complicated biophysical and biochemical mechanisms; therefore, it is impossible to replace biological muscle. In biological skeletal muscle tissue, the force generation of a muscle depends not only on the force generation capacity of the muscle fiber, but also on many other important factors, including muscle fiber type, motor unit recruitment, architecture, structure and morphology of skeletal muscle, all of which have significant impact on the force generation of the whole muscle or force transmission from muscle fibers to the tendon. Such factors have often been overlooked, but can be incorporated in artificial muscle design, especially with the discovery of new smart materials and the development of innovative fabrication and manufacturing technologies. A better understanding of the physiology and structure–function relationship of skeletal muscle will therefore benefit the artificial muscle design. In this paper, factors that affect muscle force generation are reviewed. Mathematical models used to model the structure–function relationship of skeletal muscle are reviewed and discussed. We hope the review will provide inspiration for the design of a new generation of artificial muscle by incorporating the structure–function relationship of skeletal muscle into the design of artificial muscle. (topical review)

  6. Hip abduction-adduction strength and one-leg hop tests: test-retest reliability and relationship to function in elite ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kea, J; Kramer, J; Forwell, L; Birmingham, T

    2001-08-01

    Single group, test-retest. To determine: (1) hip abduction and adduction torques during concentric and eccentric muscle actions, (2) medial and lateral one-leg hop distances, (3) the test-retest reliability of these measurements, and (4) the relationship between isokinetic measures of hip muscle strength and hop distances in elite ice hockey players. The skating motion used in ice hockey requires strong contractions of the hip and knee musculature. However, baseline scores for hip strength and hop distances, their test-retest reliability, and measures of the extent to which these tests are related for this population are not available. The dominant leg of 27 men (mean age 20 +/- 3 yrs) was tested on 2 occasions. Hip abduction and adduction movements were completed at 60 degrees.s(-1) angular velocity, with the subject lying on the non-test side and the test leg moving vertically in the subject's coronal plane. One-leg hops requiring jumping from and landing on the same leg without losing balance were completed in the medial and lateral directions. Hip adduction torques were significantly greater than abduction torques during both concentric and eccentric muscle actions, while no significant difference was observed between medial and lateral hop distances. Although hop test scores produced excellent ICCs (> 0.75) when determined using scores on 1 occasion, torques needed to be averaged over 2 test occasions to reach this level. Correlations between the strength and hop tests ranged from slight to low (r = -0.26 to 0.27) and were characterized by wide 95% confidence intervals (-0.54 to 0.61). Isokinetic tests of hip abduction and adduction did not provide a strong indication of performance during sideways hop tests. Although isokinetic tests can provide a measure of muscular strength under specific test conditions, they should not be relied upon as a primary indicator of functional abilities or readiness to return to activity.

  7. Changes in hip and ankle range of motion and hip muscle strength in 8–11 year old novice female ballet dancers and controls: a 12 month follow up study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, K; Khan, K; Matthews, B; Singleton, C

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To evaluate in a 12 month longitudinal study changes in hip and ankle range of motion and hip muscle strength in young female novice ballet dancers. Methods—Fifty three of the original 77 (69%) female dancers aged 8–11 years and 40 of the original 49 (82%) controls returned for follow up measurements one year later. Supine right active hip external (ER) and internal (IR) rotation were measured using an inclinometer. A turnout protractor was used to assess standing active turnout range. Range of right weight bearing ankle dorsiflexion and calf muscle length were measured in a standing lunge position using an inclinometer. A manual muscle tester was used to assess right hip flexor, IR, ER, abductor and adductor strength. Results—The mean (SD) 12 month change in hip ER did not differ between dancers (11.7 (11.3)°) and controls (8.1 (17.6)°). Dancers gained 12.5 (13.5)° hip IR which was significantly greater than controls (0.5 (13.9)°). Greater IR change was associated with improved IR strength (r = 0.34, pballet students and controls at this young age. However, ankle dorsiflexion did not, which is probably due to this movement being blocked by bony apposition, rather than soft tissue stretch. This has implications for ballet teachers, as it has long been accepted that this movement could be improved with training. Dancers had greater increases in hip strength after 12 months compared with controls in muscles specific for ballet, suggesting that hip strength can be trained at this young age. Whether these gains are permanent requires further study. Key Words: dance; ballet; range of motion; muscle strength PMID:11157464

  8. Functional outcome measures in a surgical model of hip osteoarthritis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Dianne; Johnson, Stephen; Hash, Jonathan; Olson, Steven A; Estes, Bradley T; Moutos, Franklin T; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Guilak, Farshid

    2016-12-01

    The hip is one of the most common sites of osteoarthritis in the body, second only to the knee in prevalence. However, current animal models of hip osteoarthritis have not been assessed using many of the functional outcome measures used in orthopaedics, a characteristic that could increase their utility in the evaluation of therapeutic interventions. The canine hip shares similarities with the human hip, and functional outcome measures are well documented in veterinary medicine, providing a baseline for pre-clinical evaluation of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of hip osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a surgical model of hip osteoarthritis in a large laboratory animal model and to evaluate functional and end-point outcome measures. Seven dogs were subjected to partial surgical debridement of cartilage from one femoral head. Pre- and postoperative pain and functional scores, gait analysis, radiographs, accelerometry, goniometry and limb circumference were evaluated through a 20-week recovery period, followed by histological evaluation of cartilage and synovium. Animals developed histological and radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis, which was correlated with measurable functional impairment. For example, Mankin scores in operated limbs were positively correlated to radiographic scores but negatively correlated to range of motion, limb circumference and 20-week peak vertical force. This study demonstrates that multiple relevant functional outcome measures can be used successfully in a large laboratory animal model of hip osteoarthritis. These measures could be used to evaluate relative efficacy of therapeutic interventions relevant to human clinical care.

  9. Affective functioning after delirium in elderly hip fracture patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slor, C.J.; Witlox, J.; Jansen, R.W.M.M.; Adamis, D.; Meagher, D.J.; Tieken, E.; Houdijk, A.P.J.; van Gool, W.A.; Eikelenboom, P.; de Jonghe, J.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Delirium in elderly patients is associated with various long-term sequelae that include cognitive impairment and affective disturbances, although the latter is understudied. Methods: For a prospective cohort study of elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, baseline

  10. Functional Recovery Following Pertrochanteric Hip Fractures Fixated with the Dynamic Hip Screw vs. the Percutaneous Compression Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yocheved Laufer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS is currently the most frequently used implant for the treatment of pertrochanteric hip fractures. The Percutaneous Compression Plate (PCCP is a recently developed, alternative device that involves minimal invasive surgery. The objective of the present study was to compare functional recovery following these two surgical procedures. A total of 76 consecutive elderly subjects (mean age and standard deviation, 80.6 ± 5.5 following pertrochanteric hip fracture fixation were evaluated prospectively. Functional recovery was assessed 3 and 12 weeks and 2 years following surgery. Differences between groups 3 weeks postsurgery were found only in pain level during ambulation and in the weight-bearing capability of the operated extremity, which were both in favor of the PCCP. By 3 months, both groups had improved in all measures, but did not reach their preinjury level of independence. However, the PCCP group ambulated with fewer assistive devices and demonstrated better recovery of basic activities of daily living (BADL. While the majority of the subjects from both groups ambulated independently 2 years postsurgery, the PCCP group exhibited less pain during ambulation, was more independent in ADL, and required fewer assistive devices for ambulation. To summarize, the PCCP presents enhanced short- and long-term recovery of functional abilities in comparison to DHS. However, given the limited number of patients, further studies are necessary to substantiate these results.

  11. Measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in hip and knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobson, F; Hinman, R S; Hall, M

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in people with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Electronic searches were performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO up to the end of June 2012. Two...... investigating measurement properties of performance measures, including responsiveness and interpretability in people with hip and/or knee OA, is needed. Consensus on which combination of measures will best assess physical function in people with hip/and or knee OA is urgently required....

  12. Total hip arthroplasty in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: Midterm radiologic and functional results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Saglam

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Revision incidence was similar in between ankylosed and non-ankylosed hips. While complication rates are high, significant functional improvement can be achieved after THA in patients with AS.

  13. The Effect of Ratio of Contraction to Relaxation Durations in PNF Exercises on the Muscle Strength and Range of Motion of Hip Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rashedi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of ratios of contraction- Relaxation on the muscle strength and range of motion of hip joint in PNF exercises. Methods: Thirty nine nonathletic male students (Mean±SD; age, 13±1.2 years; body mass, 55±9.8 kg were assigned .Three groups designated as I, II and III groups. The ratios of contraction to relaxation periods for groups were 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Training program included three sessions per week (CR-PNF for 6 weeks. Measurements of hip extensors muscles stretch and strength were performed at the beginning and at the end of training using an inclinometer (during leg raise test and dynamometer. Data were analyzed using dependent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA. Results: The results of the present study showed significant increases in hip extensor muscles flexibility and strength for three groups. This increase the in the strength in group I equaled 6 kg, in group II 4 kg and in group III 7 kg. The amount of increase in the hip extensor muscles flexibility in group I, II and II were 15, 8 and 12 degrees, respectively. The increase in these two variables was significant and similar in all three groups. Conclusion: Different contraction to relaxation ratio normally, 0.5, 1 and 2, did not show any meaningful differences on hip extensor muscular strength and hip range of motion.

  14. Muscle enzyme release does not predict muscle function impairment after triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritis, I; Tessier, F; Verdera, F; Bermon, S; Marconnet, P

    1999-06-01

    We sought to determine the effects of a long distance triathlon (4 km swim, 120 km bike-ride, and 30 km run) on the four-day kinetics of the biochemical markers of muscle damage, and whether they were quantitatively linked with muscle function impairment and soreness. Data were collected from 2 days before until 4 days after the completion of the race. Twelve triathletes performed the triathlon and five did not. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), muscle soreness (DOMS) and total serum CK, CK-MB, LDH, AST and ALT activities were assessed. Significant changes after triathlon completion were found for all muscle damage indirect markers over time (p triathlon. Long distance triathlon race caused muscle damage, but extent, as well as muscle recovery cannot be evaluated by the magnitude of changes in serum enzyme activities. Muscle enzyme release cannot be used to predict the magnitude of the muscle function impairment caused by muscle damage.

  15. Bone marrow mesenchymal cells improve muscle function in a skeletal muscle re-injury model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno M Andrade

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle injury is the most common problem in orthopedic and sports medicine, and severe injury leads to fibrosis and muscle dysfunction. Conventional treatment for successive muscle injury is currently controversial, although new therapies, like cell therapy, seem to be promise. We developed a model of successive injuries in rat to evaluate the therapeutic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMMC injected directly into the injured muscle. Functional and histological assays were performed 14 and 28 days after the injury protocol by isometric tension recording and picrosirius/Hematoxilin & Eosin staining, respectively. We also evaluated the presence and the fate of BMMC on treated muscles; and muscle fiber regeneration. BMMC treatment increased maximal skeletal muscle contraction 14 and 28 days after muscle injury compared to non-treated group (4.5 ± 1.7 vs 2.5 ± 0.98 N/cm2, p<0.05 and 8.4 ± 2.3 vs. 5.7 ± 1.3 N/cm2, p<0.05 respectively. Furthermore, BMMC treatment increased muscle fiber cross-sectional area and the presence of mature muscle fiber 28 days after muscle injury. However, there was no difference in collagen deposition between groups. Immunoassays for cytoskeleton markers of skeletal and smooth muscle cells revealed an apparent integration of the BMMC within the muscle. These data suggest that BMMC transplantation accelerates and improves muscle function recovery in our extensive muscle re-injury model.

  16. The effects of hip external rotator exercises and toe-spread exercises on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking in subjects with pronated foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Young-Mi; Kim, Da-Yeon; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of toe-spread (TS) exercises and hip external rotator strengthening exercises for pronated feet on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 20 healthy adults with no present or previous pain, no past history of surgery on the foot or the ankle, and no foot deformities. Ten subjects performed hip external rotator strengthening exercises and TS exercises and the remaining ten subjects performed only TS exercises five times per week for four weeks. [Results] Less change in navicular drop height occurred in the group that performed hip external rotator exercises than in the group that performed only TS exercises. The group that performed only TS exercises showed increased abductor hallucis muscle activity during both stair-climbing and -descending, and the group that performed hip external rotator exercises showed increased muscle activities of the vastus medialis and abductor hallucis during stair-climbing and increased muscle activity of only the abductor hallucis during stair-descending after exercise. [Conclusion] Stair-walking can be more effectively performed if the hip external rotator muscle is strengthened when TS exercises are performed for the pronated foot.

  17. Functional recovery of older people with hip fracture: does malnutrition make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsiao-Juan; Cheng, Huey-Shinn; Liang, Jersey; Wu, Chi-Chuan; Shyu, Yea-Ing Lotus

    2013-08-01

    To report a study of the effects of protein-energy malnutrition on the functional recovery of older people with hip fracture who participated in an interdisciplinary intervention. It is not clear whether protein-energy malnutrition is associated with worse functional outcomes or it affects the interdisciplinary intervention program on the functional recovery of older people with hip fracture. A randomized experimental design. Data were collected between 2002-2006 from older people with hip fracture (N = 162) in Taiwan. The generalized estimating equations approach was used to evaluate the effect of malnutrition on the functional recovery of older people with hip fracture. The majority of older patients with hip fracture were malnourished (48/80, 60% in the experimental group vs. 55/82, 67% in the control group) prior to hospital discharge. The results of the generalized estimating equations analysis demonstrated that subjects suffering from protein-energy malnutrition prior to hospital discharge appeared to have significantly worse performance trajectories for their activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, and recovery of walking ability compared with those without protein-energy malnutrition. In addition, it was found that the intervention is more effective on the performance of activities of daily living and recovery of walking ability in malnourished patients than in non-malnourished patients. Healthcare providers should develop a nutritional assessment/management system in their interdisciplinary intervention program to improve the functional recovery of older people with hip fracture. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Affective functioning after delirium in elderly hip fracture patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slor, Chantal J.; Witlox, Joost; Jansen, René W. M. M.; Adamis, Dimitrios; Meagher, David J.; Tieken, Esther; Houdijk, Alexander P. J.; van Gool, Willem A.; Eikelenboom, Piet; de Jonghe, Jos F. M.

    2013-01-01

    Delirium in elderly patients is associated with various long-term sequelae that include cognitive impairment and affective disturbances, although the latter is understudied. For a prospective cohort study of elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, baseline characteristics and affective and

  19. STUDY OF FUNCTIONAL RESULTS OF CEMENTED TOTAL HIP REPLACEMENT BY MOORE’S APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The total hip replacement (THR has probably become the surgical procedure of choice for vide variety of hip joint disabling diseases. The prosthesis used for THR is often grouped into cemented, cement-less and hybrid ones. There has been increasing trends in use of cement-less components citing more number of complications namely loosening, increased infection rate etc. however with additional cost factors as well. We conducted this study to ascertain whether in a developing country like ours should we really switch over to un-cemented hip replacements dreading such complications or can we still use cemented prosthesis with equally good if not better results. METHODS A study of functional results of cemented total hip replacement was done in patients with varied age groups ranging from 40 years to 75 years with the average age being 54.8 years. 20 patients with 21 diseased hips were treated with cemented total hip replacement by Moore’s posterior approach at NSCB Subharti medical college, Meerut, UP from December 2010 to December 2013 and reviewed thereafter with an average follow-up period of 4.2 years. Average surgical time required was one and half hour. Patients were asked to come for follow up on 1st month, 3rd month and 6th month and then every 6 months and were assessed as per modified Harris Hip Score. RESULTS All the patients were evaluated according to the Modified Harris Hip Scoring system. The results showed 14(67% hips with excellent results, 4(19% with good results, and 3(14% hips with fair results. No poor outcome was noted in this study. 2 cases of dislocation (10% were noted one on the 5th post-operative day and the other occurred after the patient was discharged from the institution. CONCLUSIONS The management of diseased and destroyed hips with chronic pain with cemented total hip replacement is effective and gives stable, mobile and painless hip joint to the patient. Functional results are excellent and

  20. Relationship between lower limb muscle strength, self-reported pain and function, and frontal plane gait kinematics in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Kyoon; Kobsar, Dylan; Ferber, Reed

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between muscle strength, gait biomechanics, and self-reported physical function and pain for patients with knee osteoarthritis is not well known. The objective of this study was to investigate these relationships in this population. Twenty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis and 24 healthy controls were recruited. Self-reported pain and function, lower-limb maximum isometric force, and frontal plane gait kinematics during treadmill walking were collected on all patients. Between-group differences were assessed for 1) muscle strength and 2) gait biomechanics. Linear regressions were computed within the knee osteoarthritis group to examine the effect of muscle strength on 1) self-reported pain and function, and 2) gait kinematics. Patients with knee osteoarthritis exhibited reduced hip external rotator, knee extensor, and ankle inversion muscle force output compared with healthy controls, as well as increased peak knee adduction angles (effect size=0.770; p=0.013). Hip abductor strength was a significant predictor of function, but not after controlling for covariates. Ankle inversion, hip abduction, and knee flexion strength were significant predictors of peak pelvic drop angle after controlling for covariates (34.4% unique variance explained). Patients with knee osteoarthritis exhibit deficits in muscle strength and while they play an important role in the self-reported function of patients with knee osteoarthritis, the effect of covariates such as sex, age, mass, and height was more important in this relationship. Similar relationships were observed from gait variables, except for peak pelvic drop, where hip, knee, and ankle strength remained important predictors of this variable after controlling for covariates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Poor physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care is related to muscle strength rather than to measures of sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Julie L; Iuliano-Burns, Sandra; King, Susannah J; Strauss, Boyd J; Walker, Karen Z

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and investigate relationships among body composition, muscle strength, and physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care. Sixty-three ambulatory women (mean age 86 years) participated in this cross-sectional study where body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); ankle, knee, and hip strength by the Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester; and physical function by 'timed up and go' (TUG) and walking speed (WS) over 6 meters. Body composition data from a female reference group (n = 62, mean age 29 years) provided cut-off values for defining sarcopenia. Elderly women had higher body mass index (P sarcopenia (defined by appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height squared) whereas 37% had relative sarcopenia class II (defined by percentage skeletal muscle mass). Scores for TUG and WS indicated relatively poor physical function, yet these measures were not associated with muscle mass or indices of sarcopenia. In multivariate analysis, only hip abductor strength predicted both TUG and WS (both P = 0.01). Hip strength is a more important indicator of physical functioning than lean mass. Measurement of hip strength may therefore be a useful screening tool to detect those at risk of functional decline and requirement for additional care. Further longitudinal studies with a range of other strength measures are warranted.

  2. The Effect of Hypotensive Anesthesia on Hepatic Function in Hip Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Zagrekov V.I.; Zhirova T.A.; Ezhov I.Y.; Taranyuk А.V.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the work is to assess the influence of spinal and epidural anesthesia with controlled hypotensive effect on hepatic function in patients in total hip replacement. Materials and Methods. There has been studied the dynamics of hepatic enzymes and bilirubin indexes in 80 patients in hip replacement. Depending on the anesthesia method, three groups were considered: with spinal and epidural anesthesia with controlled hypotensive effect and normotensive spinal anesthesia using ...

  3. Hip Labral Tear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that joint in the future. Prevention Hip labral tears are often associated with sports participation. If your sport puts a lot of strain on your hips, condition the surrounding muscles with strength and flexibility exercises. Try to avoid ...

  4. The Effect of an Isometric Hip Muscle Strength Training Protocol on Valgus Angle During a Drop Vertical Jump in Competitive Female Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin M. Jackson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hip muscle weakness is associated with higher peak knee valgus angles (VA during drop vertical jumps (DVJ and linked to ACL injury risk. Objective: To determine if isometric strengthening (IST of the hip extensor, abductor, and external rotator muscle groups would reduce VA exhibited during a DVJ. Methodology:  Fourteen female volleyball players (7 training (TG, 7 control (CG, VA≥9˚ during DVJ participated. Pre- and post-test gluteal, quadriceps and hamstring strength were measured with a digital force gauge. Three-dimensional kinematics were collected during 15 DVJ trials. TG participated in a 6-week IST program that targeted the hip extensor, abductor, and external rotator muscle groups. Two-way mixed ANOVAs compared mean differences of VA and strength. Single-participant analyses examined if athlete-specific adaptations went undetected in the analyses of aggregated data. Results: TG hip extension, abduction, and knee flexion strength increased, respectively, by 20.5%, 27.5% and 23.5% (P<0.05. No group-level changes in VA were detected. Unilateral VA decreased for 5 TG participants, and bilateral VA decreased in 2 TG participants. Conclusions: IST increased isometric hip muscle strength, but its effect on VA is inconclusive based on group-level analyses. Using single-participant designs, future studies should assess IST and/or dynamic resistance/neuromuscular training in a larger sample to determine its effect on ACL injury risk factors.

  5. THE CLINICAL, FUNCTIONAL AND BIOMECHANICAL PRESENTATION OF PATIENTS WITH SYMPTOMATIC HIP ABDUCTOR TENDON TEARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Jay R; Retheesh, Theertha; Mutreja, Rinky; Janes, Gregory C

    2016-10-01

    Hip abductor tendon (HAT) tearing is commonly implicated in greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS), though limited information exists on the disability associated with this condition and specific presentation of these patients. To describe the clinical, functional and biomechanical presentation of patients with symptomatic HAT tears. Secondary purposes were to investigate the association between these clinical and functional measures, and to compare the pain and disability reported by HAT tear patients to those with end-stage hip osteoarthritis (OA). Prospective case series. One hundred forty-nine consecutive patients with symptomatic HAT tears were evaluated using the Harris (HHS) and Oxford (OHS) Hip Scores, SF-12, an additional series of 10 questions more pertinent to those with lateral hip pain, active hip range of motion (ROM), maximal isometric hip abduction strength, six-minute walk capacity and 30-second single limb stance (SLS) test. The presence of a Trendelenburg sign and pelvis-on-femur (POF) angle were determined via 2D video analysis. An age matched comparative sample of patients with end-stage hip OA was recruited for comparison of all patient-reported outcome scores. Independent t-tests investigated group and limb differences, while analysis of variance evaluated pain changes during the functional tests. Pearson's correlation coefficients investigated the correlation between clinical measures in the HAT tear group. No differences existed in patient demographics and patient-reported outcome scores between HAT tear and hip OA cohorts, apart from significantly worse SF-12 mental subscale scores (p = 0.032) in the HAT tear group. Patients with HAT tears demonstrated significantly lower (p presentation of these patients. Level 3 case-controlled study, with matched comparison.

  6. Muscle type-specific responses to NAD+ salvage biosynthesis promote muscle function in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrablik, Tracy L; Wang, Wenqing; Upadhyay, Awani; Hanna-Rose, Wendy

    2011-01-15

    Salvage biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) from nicotinamide (NAM) lowers NAM levels and replenishes the critical molecule NAD(+) after it is hydrolyzed. This pathway is emerging as a regulator of multiple biological processes. Here we probe the contribution of the NAM-NAD(+) salvage pathway to muscle development and function using Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans males with mutations in the nicotinamidase pnc-1, which catalyzes the first step of this NAD(+) salvage pathway, cannot mate due to a spicule muscle defect. Multiple muscle types are impaired in the hermaphrodites, including body wall muscles, pharyngeal muscles and vulval muscles. An active NAD(+) salvage pathway is required for optimal function of each muscle cell type. However, we found surprising muscle-cell-type specificity in terms of both the timing and relative sensitivity to perturbation of NAD(+) production or NAM levels. Active NAD(+) biosynthesis during development is critical for function of the male spicule protractor muscles during adulthood, but these muscles can surprisingly do without salvage biosynthesis in adulthood under the conditions examined. The body wall muscles require ongoing NAD(+) salvage biosynthesis both during development and adulthood for maximum function. The vulval muscles do not function in the presence of elevated NAM concentrations, but NAM supplementation is only slightly deleterious to body wall muscles during development or upon acute application in adults. Thus, the pathway plays distinct roles in different tissues. As NAM-NAD(+) biosynthesis also impacts muscle differentiation in vertebrates, we propose that similar complexities may be found among vertebrate muscle cell types. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Serum vitamin E concentrations among highly functioning hip fracture patients are higher than in nonfracture controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adamo, Christopher R; Shardell, Michelle D; Hicks, Gregory E; Orwig, Denise L; Hochberg, Marc C; Semba, Richard D; Yu-Yahiro, Janet A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Magaziner, Jay S; Miller, Ram R

    2011-03-01

    Malnutrition after hip fracture is common and associated with poor outcomes and protracted recovery. Low concentrations of vitamin E have been associated with incident decline in physical function among older adults and may, therefore, be particularly important to functionally compromised patients hip fracture patients. Serum concentrations of α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, the 2 major forms of vitamin E, were assessed in 148 female hip fracture patients 65 years or older from the Baltimore Hip Studies cohort 4 around the time of fracture (baseline) and at 2, 6, and 12 month postfracture follow-up visits (recovery). It was hypothesized that mean concentrations of both forms of vitamin E among these hip fracture patients would be lowest at the baseline visit and increase at each study visit during the year after fracture. Linear regression and generalized estimating equations were used to assess changes in vitamin E concentrations after adjustment for covariates and to determine predictors of vitamin E concentrations at baseline and throughout recovery. It was also hypothesized that vitamin E concentrations shortly after hip fracture would be lower than those in nonfracture controls after adjustment for covariates. To evaluate this hypothesis, linear regression was used to perform adjusted comparisons of baseline vitamin E concentrations among Baltimore Hip Studies cohort 4 participants to 1076 older women without history of hip fracture from the Women's Health and Aging Study I, Invecchiare in Chianti Study, and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Mean α-tocopherol was lowest at baseline, and time from fracture to blood draw was positively associated with baseline α-tocopherol (P = .005). Mean γ-tocopherol did not change appreciably throughout the year after fracture, although it fluctuated widely within individuals. Serum concentrations of α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol were highest among the hip fracture population after adjustment (P hip

  8. [Vestibular function, falls and hip fracture in elderly--a relationship study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zur, Oz; Carmeli, Eli; Himellfarb, Mordechi; Berner, Yitshal N

    2004-03-01

    Falling is the main reason for which people over 70 arrive at emergency rooms. Over 90% of hip fractures occur as a direct result of falling. To examine the relationship between the function of the vestibular system and hip fractures following falls in elderly. The research group (n = 84) undergone hip surgery as a result of a fall and were then hospitalized in a rehabilitative geriatric care unit at the Meir Hospital in Kfar Sava. The control group (n = 85)--without any history of a hip fracture and living in a retirement home. Four clinical tests were given to each examinee in order to locate any impairment of the vestibular system. Three of the clinical examinations concentrated on testing the VOR while the fourth test was especially used to locate BPPV (Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo). Sociodemographic status and medical history were taken. A significant difference was found between the two groups (those with a hip fracture and those without any hip fracture) with regard to the functioning of the VOR, age, endocrine disease and medications for treating diabetic. However, there was no significant difference found in the appearance of the BPPV. It is important to locate the elderly who are at risk of falling in nursing homes and the community at large by performing the four simple clinical tests. Correct diagnosis and early treatment of the vestibular impairment in elderly patient can prevent the next fall.

  9. Physical Rehabilitation Improves Muscle Function Following Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-19

    synergistic effect of treadmill running on stem -cell transplantation to heal injured skeletal muscle. Tissue Eng Part A 2010, 16(3):839–849. 20. Brutsaert...U:::-’ 0:: 0 Uninjured Injured Figure 7 c E 14 w cu12 • SED * (/) Cll < 10 ~ ~ 8 c 6 Cll Cl 4 z ..!!! ::> 0 2 0::: u 0 Uninjured Injured

  10. Stem Cell Antigen-1 in Skeletal Muscle Function

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Harold S.; Samad, Tahmina; Cholsiripunlert, Sompob; Khalifian, Saami; Gong, Wenhui; Ritner, Carissa; Aurigui, Julian; Ling, Vivian; Wilschut, Karlijn J.; Bennett, Stephen; Hoffman, Julien; Oishi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) is a member of the Ly-6 multigene family encoding highly homologous, glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins. Sca-1 is expressed on muscle-derived stem cells and myogenic precursors recruited to sites of muscle injury. We previously reported that inhibition of Sca-1 expression stimulated myoblast proliferation in vitro and regulated the tempo of muscle repair in vivo. Despite its function in myoblast expansion during muscle repair, a role for Sca-1...

  11. Skeletal muscle aging: stem cell function and tissue homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Victor, Pedro Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Muscle aging, in particular, is characterized by the reduction of tissue mass and function, which are particularly prominent in geriatric individuals undergoing sarcopenia. The age-associated muscle wasting is also associated with a decline in regenerative ability and a reduction in resident muscle stem cell (satellite cell) number and function. Although sarcopenia is one of the major contributors to the general loss of physiological function, the mechanisms involved in age-related loss of mu...

  12. Change of residence and functional status within three months and one year following hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariza-Vega, Patrocinio; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Kristensen, Morten Tange

    2014-01-01

    those patients who lived alone in their own home at pre-fracture. Implications for Rehabilitation One year after fracture, patients did not recover their previous function, and the activities most affected at the one-year follow-up were: dressing lower body, bathing/showering, transfer bathtub....../shower and walking up/down stairs. After a hip fracture, most recovery of the function happens within the first three months, though some functional activities continue recovering over the first year. Rehabilitation programs cannot be based only on mobility activities, the recovery of other daily living activities......PURPOSE: To study the recovery of patients in terms of 18 activities of daily living and change of residence within the year following a hip fracture. METHOD: This prospective cohort study was carried out in a trauma service of an acute hospital in southern Spain including 159 patients with a hip...

  13. Effect of Implementing a Discharge Plan on Functional Abilities of Geriatric Patients with Hip Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL Khayya, Hatem; El Geneidy, Moshera; Ibrahim, Hanaa; Kassem, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Hip fracture is considered one of the most fatal fractures for elderly people, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality and impaired functional capacity, particularly for basic and instrumental activities of daily living. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of implementing a discharge plan on functional abilities of geriatric…

  14. Risk factors for functional decline in osteoarthritis of the hip or knee.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.; Dijk, G.M. van; Veenhof, C.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent studies on risk factors for functional decline (i.e. worsening of pain and activity limitations) in osteoarthritis of the hip or knee; after a long period of neglect, information on risk factors for functional decline has markedly improved in recent years.

  15. Muscle satellite cells are functionally impaired in myasthenia gravis: consequences on muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Mohamed; Maurer, Marie; Robinet, Marieke; Le Grand, Fabien; Fadel, Elie; Le Panse, Rozen; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Berrih-Aknin, Sonia

    2017-12-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular disease caused in most cases by anti-acetyl-choline receptor (AChR) autoantibodies that impair neuromuscular signal transmission and affect skeletal muscle homeostasis. Myogenesis is carried out by muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SCs). However, myogenesis in MG had never been explored. The aim of this study was to characterise the functional properties of myasthenic SCs as well as their abilities in muscle regeneration. SCs were isolated from muscle biopsies of MG patients and age-matched controls. We first showed that the number of Pax7+ SCs was increased in muscle sections from MG and its experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) mouse model. Myoblasts isolated from MG muscles proliferate and differentiate more actively than myoblasts from control muscles. MyoD and MyoG were expressed at a higher level in MG myoblasts as well as in MG muscle biopsies compared to controls. We found that treatment of control myoblasts with MG sera or monoclonal anti-AChR antibodies increased the differentiation and MyoG mRNA expression compared to control sera. To investigate the functional ability of SCs from MG muscle to regenerate, we induced muscle regeneration using acute cardiotoxin injury in the EAMG mouse model. We observed a delay in maturation evidenced by a decrease in fibre size and MyoG mRNA expression as well as an increase in fibre number and embryonic myosin heavy-chain mRNA expression. These findings demonstrate for the first time the altered function of SCs from MG compared to control muscles. These alterations could be due to the anti-AChR antibodies via the modulation of myogenic markers resulting in muscle regeneration impairment. In conclusion, the autoimmune attack in MG appears to have unsuspected pathogenic effects on SCs and muscle regeneration, with potential consequences on myogenic signalling pathways, and subsequently on clinical outcome, especially in the case of muscle stress.

  16. Associations of maximal voluntary isometric hip extension torque with muscle size of hamstring and gluteus maximus and intra-abdominal pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayashiki, Kota; Hirata, Kosuke; Ishida, Kiraku; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Naokazu

    2017-06-01

    Muscle size of the hamstring and gluteus maximus (GM) as well as intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) are considered as factors affecting the torque development during hip extension. This study examined the associations of torque development during maximal voluntary isometric hip extension with IAP and muscle size of the hamstring and GM. Anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) of the hamstring and thickness of GM were determined in 20 healthy young males using an ultrasonography apparatus (Experiment 1). Torque and IAP were simultaneously measured while subjects performed maximal voluntary isometric hip extension. The IAP was measured using a pressure transducer placed in the rectum and determined at the time at which the developed torque reached to the maximal. In Experiment 2, torque and IAP were measured during maximal voluntary isometric hip flexion in 18 healthy young males. The maximal hip extension torque was significantly correlated with the IAP (r = 0.504, P = 0.024), not with the ACSA of the hamstring (r = 0.307, P = 0.188) or the thickness of GM (r = 0.405, P = 0.076). The relationship was still significant even when the ACSA of the hamstring and the thickness of GM were adjusted statistically (r = 0.486, P = 0.041). The maximal hip flexion torque was not significantly correlated with the IAP (r = -0.118, P = 0.642). The current results suggest that IAP can contribute independently of the muscle size of the agonists to maximal voluntary hip extension torque.

  17. Outcomes of Open Versus Endoscopic Repair of Abductor Muscle Tears of the Hip: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Sivashankar; Lodhia, Parth; Gui, Chengcheng; Vemula, S Pavan; Martin, Timothy J; Domb, Benjamin G

    2015-10-01

    To compare the outcome of open versus endoscopic gluteal tendon repair. An extensive review of PubMed was conducted by 2 independent reviewers for articles containing at least 1 of the following search terms: gluteus medius, gluteus medius tear, gluteus medius tendinopathy, gluteus medius repair, hip abductors, hip abductor tears, hip abductor repair, hip rotator cuff, hip rotator cuff repair, trochanteric bursa, trochanteric bursitis, trochanteric bursectomy, peritrochanteric procedures, peritrochanteric repair, and peritrochanteric arthroscopy. This yielded 313 articles. Of these articles, 7 satisfied the following inclusion criteria: description of an open or endoscopic gluteal repair with outcomes consisting of patient-reported outcome scores, patient satisfaction, strength scores, pain scores, and complications. Three studies on open gluteal repairs and 4 on endoscopic gluteal repairs met the inclusion criteria. In total, there were 127 patients who underwent open procedures and 40 patients who underwent endoscopic procedures. Of the 40 patients who underwent endoscopic procedures, 15 had concomitant intra-articular procedures documented, as compared with 0 in the open group. The modified Harris Hip Score was common to 1 study on open repairs and 3 studies on endoscopic repairs. The scores were similar for follow-up periods of 1 and 2 years. Visual analog pain scale scores were reported in 1 study on open gluteal repairs and 1 study on endoscopic repairs and were similar between the 2 studies. Improvement in abductor strength was also similarly reported in selected studies between the 2 groups. The only difference between the 2 groups was the reported incidence of complications, which was higher in the open group. Open and endoscopic gluteal repairs have similar patient-reported outcome scores, pain scores, and improvement in abduction strength. Open techniques have a higher reported complication rate. Randomized studies of sufficient numbers of patients are

  18. Predictors of pain and physical function at 3 and 12 months after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plews, Sarah; Løvlund Nielsen, Randi; Overgaard, Søren

    Background: Few studies have combined preoperative patient-reported and objective outcome measures to predict outcomes after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Purpose / Aim of Study: to identify predictors of outcome 3 and 12 months after THA Materials and Methods: A cohort of 107 consecutive patients...... with primary hip osteoarthritis responded to Hip dysfunction and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) questionnaires prior to and 3 and 12 months after THA. Preoperative pain intensity; joint space width (JSW), age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) were used to predict changes in pain and physical function....... Conclusions: Preoperative pain predicted changes in pain and physical function up to one year after THA. Such knowledge should be taken into consideration, when assessing OA patients prior to surgery. This study provides useful insight for clinicians, regarding the overall improvement patients can expect...

  19. L-acetylcarnitine enhances functional muscle re-innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Brunetti, O; Carobi, C; Della Torre, G; Grassi, S

    1991-01-01

    The efficacy of L-acetylcarnitine and L-carnitine treatment on motor re-innervation was analyzed by evaluating different muscular parameters describing functional muscle recovery after denervation and re-innervation. The results show that L-acetylcarnitine markedly enhances functional muscle re-innervation, which on the contrary is unaffected by L-carnitine. The medial gastrocnemius muscle was denervated by cutting the nerve at the muscle entry point. After 20 days the sectioned nerve was resutured into the medial gastrocnemius muscle, and the extent of re-innervation was monitored 45 days later. L-acetylcarnitine-treated animals show significantly higher twitch and tetanic tensions of re-innervated muscle. Furthermore the results, obtained by analysing the twitch time to peak and tetanic contraction-relaxation times, suggest that L-acetylcarnitine mostly affects the functional re-innervation of slow motor units. The possible mechanisms by which L-acetylcarnitine facilitates such motor and nerve recovery are discussed.

  20. Stem cell antigen-1 in skeletal muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Harold S; Samad, Tahmina; Cholsiripunlert, Sompob; Khalifian, Saami; Gong, Wenhui; Ritner, Carissa; Aurigui, Julian; Ling, Vivian; Wilschut, Karlijn J; Bennett, Stephen; Hoffman, Julien; Oishi, Peter

    2013-08-15

    Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) is a member of the Ly-6 multigene family encoding highly homologous, glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins. Sca-1 is expressed on muscle-derived stem cells and myogenic precursors recruited to sites of muscle injury. We previously reported that inhibition of Sca-1 expression stimulated myoblast proliferation in vitro and regulated the tempo of muscle repair in vivo. Despite its function in myoblast expansion during muscle repair, a role for Sca-1 in normal, post-natal muscle has not been thoroughly investigated. We systematically compared Sca-1-/- (KO) and Sca-1+/+ (WT) mice and hindlimb muscles to elucidate the tissue, contractile, and functional effects of Sca-1 in young and aging animals. Comparison of muscle volume, fibrosis, myofiber cross-sectional area, and Pax7+ myoblast number showed little differences between ages or genotypes. Exercise protocols, however, demonstrated decreased stamina in KO versus WT mice, with young KO mice achieving results similar to aging WT animals. In addition, KO mice did not improve with practice, while WT animals demonstrated conditioning over time. Surprisingly, myomechanical analysis of isolated muscles showed that KO young muscle generated more force and experienced less fatigue. However, KO muscle also demonstrated incomplete relaxation with fatigue. These findings suggest that Sca-1 is necessary for muscle conditioning with exercise, and that deficient conditioning in Sca-1 KO animals becomes more pronounced with age.

  1. Function of the epaxial muscles during trotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Nadja; Carrier, David R

    2009-04-01

    In mammals, the epaxial muscles are believed to stabilize the trunk during walking and trotting because the timing of their activity is not appropriate to produce bending of the trunk. To test whether this is indeed the case, we recorded the activity of the m. multifidus lumborum and the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum at three different sites along the trunk (T13, L3, L6) as we manipulated the moments acting on the trunk and the pelvis in dogs trotting on a treadmill. Confirming results of previous studies, both muscles exhibited a biphasic and bilateral activity. The higher burst was associated with the second half of ipsilateral hindlimb stance phase, the smaller burst occurred during the second half of ipsilateral hindlimb swing phase. The asymmetry was noticeably larger in the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum than in the m. multifidus lumborum. Although our manipulations of the inertia of the trunk produced results that are consistent with previous studies indicating that the epaxial muscles stabilize the trunk against accelerations in the sagittal plane, the responses of the epaxial muscles to manipulations of trunk inertia were small compared with their responses when moments produced by the extrinsic muscles of the hindlimb were manipulated. Our results indicate that the multifidus and longissimus muscles primarily stabilize the pelvis against (1) vertical components of hindlimb retractor muscles and (2) horizontal components of the hindlimb protractor and retractor muscles. Consistent with this, stronger effects of the manipulations were observed in the posterior sampling sites.

  2. A Maximum Muscle Strength Prediction Formula Using Theoretical Grade 3 Muscle Strength Value in Daniels et al.’s Manual Muscle Test, in Consideration of Age: An Investigation of Hip and Knee Joint Flexion and Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Usa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to develop a formula for predicting maximum muscle strength value for young, middle-aged, and elderly adults using theoretical Grade 3 muscle strength value (moment fair: Mf—the static muscular moment to support a limb segment against gravity—from the manual muscle test by Daniels et al. A total of 130 healthy Japanese individuals divided by age group performed isometric muscle contractions at maximum effort for various movements of hip joint flexion and extension and knee joint flexion and extension, and the accompanying resisting force was measured and maximum muscle strength value (moment max, Mm was calculated. Body weight and limb segment length (thigh and lower leg length were measured, and Mf was calculated using anthropometric measures and theoretical calculation. There was a linear correlation between Mf and Mm in each of the four movement types in all groups, excepting knee flexion in elderly. However, the formula for predicting maximum muscle strength was not sufficiently compatible in middle-aged and elderly adults, suggesting that the formula obtained in this study is applicable in young adults only.

  3. ALTERATION OF MUSCLE FUNCTION AFTER ELECTRICAL STIMULATION BOUT OF KNEE EXTENSORS AND FLEXORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Vanderthommen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to study the effects on muscle function of an electrical stimulation bout applied unilaterally on thigh muscles in healthy male volunteers. One group (ES group, n = 10 received consecutively 100 isometric contractions of quadriceps and 100 isometric contractions of hamstrings (on-off ratio 6-6 s induced by neuromuscular electrical stimulations (NMES. Changes in muscle torque, muscle soreness (0-10 VAS, muscle stiffness and serum creatine kinase (CK activity were assessed before the NMES exercise (pre-ex as well as 24h (d+1, 48h (d+2 and 120h (d+5 after the bout. A second group (control group, n = 10 were submitted to the same test battery than the ES group and with the same time-frame. The between-group comparison indicated a significant increase in VAS scores and in serum levels of CK only in the ES group. In the ES group, changes were more pronounced in hamstrings than in quadriceps and peaked at d+2 (quadriceps VAS scores = 2.20 ± 1.55 a.u. (0 at pre-ex; hamstrings VAS scores = 3.15 ± 2.14 a.u. (0 at pre-ex; hip flexion angle = 62 ± 5° (75 ± 6° at pre-ex; CK activity = 3021 ± 2693 IU·l-1 (136 ± 50 IU·l-1 at pre-ex. The results of the present study suggested the occurrence of muscle damage that could have been induced by the peculiar muscle recruitment in NMES and the resulting overrated mechanical stress. The sensitivity to the damaging effects of NMES appeared higher in the hamstrings than in quadriceps muscles

  4. Neuropathic Pain-like Alterations in Muscle Nociceptor Function Associated with Vibration-induced Muscle Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaojie; Green, Paul G.; Levine, Jon D.

    2010-01-01

    We recently developed a rodent model of the painful muscle disorders induced by occupational exposure to vibration. In the present study we used this model to evaluate the function of sensory neurons innervating the vibration-exposed gastrocnemius muscle. Activity of 74 vibration-exposed and 40 control nociceptors, with mechanical receptive fields in the gastrocnemius muscle, were recorded. In vibration-exposed rats ~15% of nociceptors demonstrated an intense and long-lasting barrage of actio...

  5. Evaluating Swallowing Muscles Essential for Hyolaryngeal Elevation by Using Muscle Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, William G.; Hindson, David F.; Langmore, Susan E.; Zumwalt, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Reduced hyolaryngeal elevation, a critical event in swallowing, is associated with radiation therapy. Two muscle groups that suspend the hyoid, larynx, and pharynx have been proposed to elevate the hyolaryngeal complex: the suprahyoid and longitudinal pharyngeal muscles. Thought to assist both groups is the thyrohyoid, a muscle intrinsic to the hyolaryngeal complex. Intensity modulated radiation therapy guidelines designed to preserve structures important to swallowing currently exclude the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles. This study used muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI) in normal healthy adults to determine whether both muscle groups are active in swallowing and to test therapeutic exercises thought to be specific to hyolaryngeal elevation. Methods and Materials: mfMRI data were acquired from 11 healthy subjects before and after normal swallowing and after swallowing exercise regimens (the Mendelsohn maneuver and effortful pitch glide). Whole-muscle transverse relaxation time (T2 signal, measured in milliseconds) profiles of 7 test muscles were used to evaluate the physiologic response of each muscle to each condition. Changes in effect size (using the Cohen d measure) of whole-muscle T2 profiles were used to determine which muscles underlie swallowing and swallowing exercises. Results: Post-swallowing effect size changes (where a d value of >0.20 indicates significant activity during swallowing) for the T2 signal profile of the thyrohyoid was a d value of 0.09; a d value of 0.40 for the mylohyoid, 0.80 for the geniohyoid, 0.04 for the anterior digastric, and 0.25 for the posterior digastric-stylohyoid in the suprahyoid muscle group; and d values of 0.47 for the palatopharyngeus and 0.28 for the stylopharyngeus muscles in the longitudinal pharyngeal muscle group. The Mendelsohn maneuver and effortful pitch glide swallowing exercises showed significant effect size changes for all muscles tested, except for the thyrohyoid. Conclusions

  6. Evaluating Swallowing Muscles Essential for Hyolaryngeal Elevation by Using Muscle Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, William G., E-mail: bp1@bu.edu [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hindson, David F. [Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Langmore, Susan E. [Department of Otolaryngology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Speech and Hearing Sciences, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Zumwalt, Ann C. [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Reduced hyolaryngeal elevation, a critical event in swallowing, is associated with radiation therapy. Two muscle groups that suspend the hyoid, larynx, and pharynx have been proposed to elevate the hyolaryngeal complex: the suprahyoid and longitudinal pharyngeal muscles. Thought to assist both groups is the thyrohyoid, a muscle intrinsic to the hyolaryngeal complex. Intensity modulated radiation therapy guidelines designed to preserve structures important to swallowing currently exclude the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles. This study used muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI) in normal healthy adults to determine whether both muscle groups are active in swallowing and to test therapeutic exercises thought to be specific to hyolaryngeal elevation. Methods and Materials: mfMRI data were acquired from 11 healthy subjects before and after normal swallowing and after swallowing exercise regimens (the Mendelsohn maneuver and effortful pitch glide). Whole-muscle transverse relaxation time (T2 signal, measured in milliseconds) profiles of 7 test muscles were used to evaluate the physiologic response of each muscle to each condition. Changes in effect size (using the Cohen d measure) of whole-muscle T2 profiles were used to determine which muscles underlie swallowing and swallowing exercises. Results: Post-swallowing effect size changes (where a d value of >0.20 indicates significant activity during swallowing) for the T2 signal profile of the thyrohyoid was a d value of 0.09; a d value of 0.40 for the mylohyoid, 0.80 for the geniohyoid, 0.04 for the anterior digastric, and 0.25 for the posterior digastric-stylohyoid in the suprahyoid muscle group; and d values of 0.47 for the palatopharyngeus and 0.28 for the stylopharyngeus muscles in the longitudinal pharyngeal muscle group. The Mendelsohn maneuver and effortful pitch glide swallowing exercises showed significant effect size changes for all muscles tested, except for the thyrohyoid. Conclusions

  7. OARSI recommended performance-based tests to assess physical function in people diagnosed with hip or knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobson, F; Hinman, R S; Roos, Ewa M.

    2013-01-01

    To recommend a consensus-derived set of performance-based tests of physical function for use in people diagnosed with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) or following joint replacement.......To recommend a consensus-derived set of performance-based tests of physical function for use in people diagnosed with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) or following joint replacement....

  8. Total hip replacement infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complicated by Addison disease and psoas muscle abscess: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Nardo Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Prosthetic joint infection due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis is occasionally encountered in clinical practice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a prosthetic joint infection due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complicated by psoas abscesses and secondary Addison disease. Case presentation A 67-year-old immunocompetent Caucasian woman underwent total left hip arthroplasty because of osteoarthritis. After 18 months, she underwent arthroplasty revision for a possible prosthetic infection. Periprosthetic tissue specimens for bacteria were negative, and empirical antibiotic therapy was unsuccessful. She was then admitted to our department because of complications arising 22 months after arthroplasty. A physical examination revealed a sinus tract overlying her left hip and skin and mucosal pigmentation. Her levels of C-reactive protein, basal cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and sodium were out of normal range. Results of the tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON-TB Gold test were positive. Computed tomography revealed a periprosthetic abscess and the inclusion of the left psoas muscle. Results of microbiological tests were negative, but polymerase chain reaction of a specimen taken from the hip fistula was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our patient's condition was diagnosed as prosthetic joint infection and muscle psoas abscess due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and secondary Addison disease. She underwent standard treatment with rifampicin, ethambutol, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide associated with hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone. At 15 months from the beginning of therapy, she was in good clinical condition and free of symptoms. Conclusions Prosthetic joint infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncommon. A differential diagnosis of tuberculosis should be considered when dealing with prosthetic joint infection, especially when repeated smears and histology examination from infected

  9. Comparison of hip function and quality of life of total hip arthroplasty and resurfacing arthroplasty in the treatment of young patients with arthritis of the hip joint at 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Matthew L; Achten, Juul; Foguet, Pedro; Parsons, Nicholas R

    2018-03-12

    To compare the medium-term clinical effectiveness of total hip arthroplasty and resurfacing arthroplasty. Single centre, two-arm, parallel group, assessor blinded, randomised controlled trial with 1:1 treatment allocation. A large teaching hospital in England. 122 patients older than 18 years with severe arthritis of the hip joint, suitable for resurfacing arthroplasty of the hip. Patients were excluded if they were considered to be unable to adhere to trial procedures or complete questionnaires. Total hip arthroplasty (replacement of entire femoral head and neck); hip resurfacing arthroplasty (replacement of the articular surface of femoral head only, femoral neck remains intact). Both procedures replaced the articular surface of the acetabulum. The outcome measures were hip function assessed using the Oxford Hip Score (OHS) and health-related quality of life assessed using the EuroQol (EQ-5D). Patients were followed up annually for a minimum of 5 years. Outcome data were modelled using the generalised estimating equation methodology to explore temporal variations during follow-up. 60 patients were randomly assigned to hip resurfacing arthroplasty and 62 to total hip arthroplasty. 95 (78%) of the 122 original study participants provided data at 5 years. There was a small decrease in both hip functions and quality of life in both groups of patients each year during the 5-year follow-up period. However, there was no evidence of a significant difference between treatments group in the OHS (P=0.333) or the EQ-5D (P=0.501). We previously reported no difference in outcome in the first year after surgery. The current medium-term results also show no evidence of a difference in hip function or health-related quality of life in the 5 years following a total hip arthroplasty versus resurfacing arthroplasty. ISRCTN33354155. UKCRN 4093. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use

  10. Correlation of Functional and Nutritional Status in Elderly Hip Fracture in a Hospital of High Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Chavarro, Diego Andrés; Hospital Universitario San Ignacio; Gutiérrez, William Arbey; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Cañón, Arleth Patricia; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2014-01-01

    The importance of hip fractures is given not only by their high frequency, but also the associated mortality, morbidity and high economic and social cost.Aim: To determine the functionality of the individual after suffering a fall and consequently a hip fracture.Methods: Prospective observational study analytical. Results: 44 patients who met the inclusion criteria were included. The average age was 81.8 SD ± 8; 59 % were women. Of the total of 44 patients revealed that 13 patients were indep...

  11. Hemorrhagic iliopsoas bursitis complicating well-functioning ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Soon; Diwanji, Sanket R; Kim, Hyung Keun; Song, Eun Kyoo; Yoon, Taek Rim

    2009-08-01

    Iliopsoas bursitis has been increasingly recognized as a complication of total hip arthroplasty and is usually associated with polyethylene wear. Here, the authors report a case of hemorrhagic iliopsoas bursitis complicating an otherwise well-functioning ceramic-on-ceramic arthroplasty performed by minimal invasive modified 2-incision technique. The bursitis in turn resulted in femoral nerve palsy and femoral vein compression. In this report, there was no evidence to support that the bursitis was due to an inflammatory response to ceramic wear particles or any other wear particles originating from the total hip arthroplasty.

  12. Early patient-reported outcomes versus objective function after total hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luna, I E; Kehlet, H; Peterson, B

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: The purpose of this study was to assess early physical function after total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA), and the correlation between patient-reported outcome measures, physical performance and actual physical activity (measured by actigraphy). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 80...... patients aged 55 to 80 years undergoing THA or TKA for osteoarthritis were included in this prospective cohort study. The main outcome measure was change in patient reported hip or knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (HOOS/KOOS) from pre-operatively until post-operative day 13 (THA) or 20 (TKA...

  13. Comparative responsiveness of measures of pain and function after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsdotter, A K; Roos, Ewa M.; Westerlund, J P

    2001-01-01

    To compare the responsiveness of the Functional Assessment System (FAS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form (SF-36) in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) scheduled for total hip replacement....

  14. Functional exercise after total hip replacement (FEATHER): a randomised control trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Monaghan, Brenda

    2012-11-01

    Prolonged physical impairments in range of movement, postural stability and walking speed are commonly reported following total hip replacement (THR). It is unclear from the current body of evidence what kind of exercises should be performed to maximize patient function and quality of life.

  15. Adiposity, muscle mass and muscle strength in relation to functional decline in older persons.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, L.A.; Koster, A.; Visser, M.

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with changes in body composition and muscle strength. This review aimed to determine the relation between different body composition measures and muscle strength measures and functional decline in older men and women. By use of relevant databases (PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL) and

  16. Functional morphology of the radialis muscle in shark tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammang, Brooke E

    2010-03-01

    The functional morphology of intrinsic caudal musculature in sharks has not been studied previously, though the kinematics and function of body musculature have been the focus of a great deal of research. In the tail, ventral to the axial myomeres, there is a thin strip of red muscle with fibers angled dorsoposteriorly, known as the radialis. This research gives the first anatomical description of the radialis muscle in sharks, and addresses the hypothesis that the radialis muscle provides postural stiffening in the tail of live swimming sharks. The radialis muscle fibers insert onto the deepest layers of the stratum compactum, the more superior layers of which are orthogonally arrayed and connect to the epidermis. The two deepest layers of the stratum compactum insert onto the proximal ends of the ceratotrichia of the caudal fin. This anatomical arrangement exists in sharks and is modified in rays, but was not found in skates or chimaeras. Electromyography of the caudal muscles of dogfish swimming steadily at 0.25 and 0.5 body lengths per second (Ls(-1)) exhibited a pattern of anterior to posterior activation of the radialis muscle, followed by activation of red axial muscle in the more anteriorly located ipsilateral myomeres of the caudal peduncle; at 0.75 L s(-1), only the anterior portion of the radialis and white axial muscle of the contralateral peduncular myomeres were active. Activity of the radialis muscle occurred during periods of the greatest drag incurred by the tail during the tail beat and preceded the activity of more anteriorly located axial myomeres. This nonconformity to the typical anterior to posterior wave of muscle activation in fish swimming, in combination with anatomical positioning of the radialis muscles and stratum compactum, suggests that radialis activity may have a postural function to stiffen the fin, and does not function as a typical myotomal muscle.

  17. Similar range of motion and function after resurfacing large-head or standard total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Ovesen, Ole; Varmarken, Jens-Erik

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Large-size hip articulations may improve range of motion (ROM) and function compared to a 28-mm THA, and the low risk of dislocation allows the patients more activity postoperatively. On the other hand, the greater extent of surgery for resurfacing hip arthroplasty (RHA......° (35), 232° (36), and 225° (30) respectively, but the differences were not statistically significant. The 3 groups were similar regarding Harris hip score, UCLA activity score, step rate, and sick leave. INTERPRETATION: Head size had no influence on range of motion. The lack of restriction allowed...... for large articulations did not improve the clinical and patient-perceived outcomes. The more extensive surgical procedure of RHA did not impair the rehabilitation. This project is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under # NCT01113762....

  18. [Correlation analysis between residual displacement and hip function after reconstruction of acetabular fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kunlong; Fang, Yue; Luan, Fujun; Tu, Chongqi; Yang, Tianfu

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the relationships between residual displacement of weight-bearing and non weight-bearing zones (gap displacement and step displacement) and hip function by analyzing the CT images after reconstruction of acetabular fractures. The CT measures and clinical outcome were retrospectively analyzed from 48 patients with displaced acetabular fracture between June 2004 and June 2009. All patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation, and were followed up 24 to 72 months (mean, 36 months); all fractures healed after operation. The residual displacement involved the weight-bearing zone in 30 cases (weight-bearing group), and involved the non weight-bearing zone in 18 cases (non weight-bearing group). The clinical outcomes were evaluated by Merle d'Aubigné-Postel criteria, and the reduction of articular surface by CT images, including the maximums of two indexes (gap displacement and step displacement). All the data were analyzed in accordance with the Spearman rank correlation coefficient analysis. There was strong negative correlation between the hip function and the residual displacement values in weight-bearing group (r(s) = -0.722, P = 0.001). But there was no correlation between the hip function and the residual displacement values in non weight-bearing group (r(s) = 0.481, P = 0.059). The results of clinical follow-up were similar to the correlation analysis results. In weight-bearing group, the hip function had strong negative correlation with step displacement (r(s) = 0.825, P = 0.002), but it had no correlation with gap displacement (r(s) = 0.577, P = 0.134). In patients with acetabular fracture, the hip function has correlation not only with the extent of the residual displacement but also with the location of the residual displacement, so the residual displacement of weight-bearing zone is a key factor to affect the hip function. In patients with residual displacement in weight-bearing zone, the bigger the step displacement is, the

  19. Knee joint motion and muscle activation patterns are altered during gait in individuals with moderate hip osteoarthritis compared to asymptomatic cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Derek; Moreside, Janice; Wong, Ivan

    2015-07-01

    Knee replacements are common after hip replacement for end stage osteoarthritis. Whether abnormal knee mechanics exist in moderate hip osteoarthritis remains undetermined and has implications for understanding early osteoarthritis joint mechanics. The purpose of this study was to determine whether three-dimensional (3D) knee motion and muscle activation patterns in individuals with moderate hip osteoarthritis differ from an asymptomatic cohort and whether these features differ between contra- and ipsilateral knees. 3D motions and medial and lateral quadriceps and hamstring surface electromyography were recorded on 20 asymptomatic individuals and 20 individuals with moderate hip osteoarthritis during treadmill walking, using standardized collection and processing procedures. Principal component analysis was used to derive electromyographic amplitude and temporal waveform features. 3D stance-phase range of motion was calculated. A 2-factor repeated analysis of variance determined significant within-group leg and muscle differences. Student's t-tests identified between group differences, with Bonferroni corrections where applicable (α=0.05). Lower sagittal plane motion between early and mid/late stance (5°, P=0.004, effect size: 0.96) and greater mid-stance quadriceps activity was found in the osteoarthritis group (P=0.01). Compared to the ipsilateral knee, a borderline significant increase in mid-stance hamstring activity was found in the contra-lateral knee of the hip osteoarthritis group (P=0.018). Bilateral knee mechanics were altered, suggesting potentially increased loads and knee muscle fatigue. There was no indication that one knee is more susceptible to osteoarthritis than the other, thus clinicians should include bilateral knee analysis when treating patients with hip osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Calcium ion in skeletal muscle: its crucial role for muscle function, plasticity, and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berchtold, M W; Brinkmeier, H; Müntener, M

    2000-01-01

    in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. In addition, a multitude of Ca(2+)-binding proteins is present in muscle tissue including parvalbumin, calmodulin, S100 proteins, annexins, sorcin, myosin light chains, beta-actinin, calcineurin, and calpain. These Ca(2+)-binding proteins may either exert an important role in Ca(2......Mammalian skeletal muscle shows an enormous variability in its functional features such as rate of force production, resistance to fatigue, and energy metabolism, with a wide spectrum from slow aerobic to fast anaerobic physiology. In addition, skeletal muscle exhibits high plasticity that is based...... on the potential of the muscle fibers to undergo changes of their cytoarchitecture and composition of specific muscle protein isoforms. Adaptive changes of the muscle fibers occur in response to a variety of stimuli such as, e.g., growth and differentition factors, hormones, nerve signals, or exercise...

  1. Spot light on skeletal muscles: optogenetic stimulation to understand and restore skeletal muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bremen, Tobias; Send, Thorsten; Sasse, Philipp; Bruegmann, Tobias

    2017-08-01

    Damage of peripheral nerves results in paralysis of skeletal muscle. Currently, the only treatment option to restore proper function is electrical stimulation of the innervating nerve or of the skeletal muscles directly. However this approach has low spatial and temporal precision leading to co-activation of antagonistic muscles and lacks cell-type selectivity resulting in pain or discomfort by stimulation of sensible nerves. In contrast to electrical stimulation, optogenetic methods enable spatially confined and cell-type selective stimulation of cells expressing the light sensitive channel Channelrhodopsin-2 with precise temporal control over the membrane potential. Herein we summarize the current knowledge about the use of this technology to control skeletal muscle function with the focus on the direct, non-neuronal stimulation of muscle fibers. The high temporal flexibility of using light pulses allows new stimulation patterns to investigate skeletal muscle physiology. Furthermore, the high spatial precision of focused illumination was shown to be beneficial for selective stimulation of distinct nearby muscle groups. Finally, the cell-type specific expression of the light-sensitive effector proteins in muscle fibers will allow pain-free stimulation and open new options for clinical treatments. Therefore, we believe that direct optogenetic stimulation of skeletal muscles is a very potent method for basic scientists that also harbors several distinct advantages over electrical stimulation to be considered for clinical use in the future.

  2. Function of skeletal muscle tissue formed after myoblast transplantation into irradiated mouse muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernig, A; Zweyer, M; Irintchev, A

    2000-01-15

    1. Pretreatment of muscles with ionising radiation enhances tissue formation by transplanted myoblasts but little is known about the effects on muscle function. We implanted myoblasts from an expanded, male-donor-derived, culture (i28) into X-ray irradiated (16 Gy) or irradiated and damaged soleus muscles of female syngeneic mice (Balb/c). Three to 6 months later the isometric contractile properties of the muscles were studied in vitro, and donor nuclei were visualised in muscle sections with a Y chromosome-specific DNA probe. 2. Irradiated sham-injected muscles had smaller masses than untreated solei and produced less twitch and tetanic force (all by about 18 %). Injection of 106 myoblasts abolished these deficiencies and innervation appeared normal. 3. Cryodamage of irradiated solei produced muscle remnants with few (1-50) or no fibres. Additional myoblast implantation led to formation of large muscles (25 % above normal) containing numerous small-diameter fibres. Upon direct electrical stimulation, these muscles produced considerable twitch (53 % of normal) and tetanic forces (35 % of normal) but innervation was insufficient as indicated by weak nerve-evoked contractions and elevated ACh sensitivity. 4. In control experiments on irradiated muscles, reinnervation was found to be less complete after botulinum toxin paralysis than after nerve crush indicating that proliferative arrest of irradiated Schwann cells may account for the observed innervation deficits. 5. Irradiation appears to be an effective pretreatment for improving myoblast transplantation. The injected cells can even produce organised contractile tissue replacing whole muscle. However, impaired nerve regeneration limits the functional performance of the new muscle.

  3. Hip ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinoli, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.martinoli@libero.it [Radiologia, DISC, Università di Genova, Largo Rosanna Benzi 8, I-16132 Genoa (Italy); Garello, Isabella; Marchetti, Alessandra; Palmieri, Federigo; Altafini, Luisa [Radiologia, DISC, Università di Genova, Largo Rosanna Benzi 8, I-16132 Genoa (Italy); Valle, Maura [Radiologia, Gaslini Children Hospital, Genova (Italy); Tagliafico, Alberto [Radiologia, National Institute for Cancer Research, Genoa (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    In newborns, US has an established role in the detection and management of developmental dysplasia of the hip. Later in childhood, when the limping child is a major diagnostic dilemma, US is extremely helpful in the identification of the varied disease processes underlying this condition, as transient synovitis, septic arthritis, Perthes disease and slipped femoral capital epiphysis. In adolescent practicing sporting activities, US is an excellent means to identify apophyseal injures about the pelvic ring, especially when avulsions are undisplaced and difficult-to-see radiographically. Later on, in the adulthood, US is an effective modality to diagnose tendon and muscle injuries about the hip and pelvis, identify effusion or synovitis within the hip joint or its adjacent bursae and guide the treatment of these findings. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the most common pathologic conditions about the hip, in which the contribution of US is relevant for the diagnostic work-up.

  4. Hip arthroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Antônio Berwanger de Amorim Cabrita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hip arthroscopy is a safe method for treating a variety of pathological conditions that were unknown until a decade ago. Femoroacetabular impingement is the commonest of these pathological conditions and the one with the best results when treated early on. The instruments and surgical technique for hip arthroscopy continue to evolve. New indications for hip arthroscopy has been studied as the ligamentum teres injuries, capsular repair in instabilities, dissection of the sciatic nerve and repair of gluteal muscles tears (injuries to the hip rotator cuff, although still with debatable reproducibility. The complication rate is low, and ever-better results with fewer complications should be expected with the progression of the learning curve.

  5. Chronological changes in functional cup position at 10 years after total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanoue, Yusuke; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Takaya, Shogo; Izumi, Masashi; Aso, Koji; Kawakami, Teruhiko

    2017-09-19

    This study aims to clarify the chronological changes in functional cup position at a minimum follow-up of 10 years after total hip arthroplasty (THA), and to identify the risk factors influencing a significant difference in functional cup position during the postoperative follow-up period. We evaluated the chronological changes in functional cup position at a minimum follow-up of 10 years after THA in 58 patients with unilateral hip osteoarthritis. Radiographic cup position was measured on anteroposterior pelvic radiographs with the patient in the supine position, whereas functional cup position was recorded in the standing position. Radiographs were obtained before, 3 weeks after, and every 1 year after surgery. Functional cup anteversion (F-Ant) increased over time, and was found to have significantly increased at final follow-up compared to that at 3 weeks after surgery (p10° anteriorly. Preoperative posterior pelvic tilt in the standing position and vertebral fractures after THA were significant predictors of increasing functional cup anteversion. Although chronological changes in functional cup position do occur after THA, their magnitude is relatively low. However, posterior impingement is likely to occur, which may cause edge loading, wear of the polyethylene liner, and anterior dislocation of the hip. We believe that, for the combined anteversion technique, the safe zone should probably be 5°-10° narrower in patients predicted to show considerable changes in functional cup position compared with standard cases.

  6. Self-Reported Functional Status as Predictor of Observed Functional Capacity in Subjects with Early Osteoarthritis of the Hip and Knee : A Diagnostic Study in the CHECK Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieleman, H. J.; Reneman, M. F.; van Ittersum, M. W.; van der Schans, C. P.; Groothoff, J. W.; Oosterveld, F. G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) may experience functional limitations in work settings. In the Cohort Hip and Cohort Knee study (CHECK) physical function was both self-reported and measured performance-based, using Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE). Relations between

  7. Effect of pelvic floor muscle exercises on pulmonary function

    OpenAIRE

    Han, DongWook; Ha, Misook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the correlation between pelvic floor muscle strength and pulmonary function. In particular, we examined whether pelvic floor muscle exercises can improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] Thirty female college students aged 19?21 with no history of nervous or musculoskeletal system injury were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. [Methods] For the pulmonary function test, spirometry items included forced vital capacity and maximal volunta...

  8. Cryopreservation of human skeletal muscle impairs mitochondrial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Wright-Paradis, C; Gnaiger, E

    2012-01-01

    functionality after long term cryopreservation (1 year). Skeletal muscle samples were preserved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for later analysis. Human skeletal muscle fibres were thawed and permeabilised with saponin, and mitochondrial respiration was measured by high-resolution respirometry. The capacity...

  9. Pelvic floor muscle function in women with pelvic floor dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the level of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function in women with pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) referred by gynaecologists and urologists for in-hospital pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), and to identity associated factors for a low level of PFM...

  10. Muscle function and origin of pain in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, R M; Jacobsen, Søren

    1994-01-01

    It may be concluded that both peripheral and central mechanisms may operate in the pathophysiology of both impaired muscle function and pain in FM. These mechanisms may in part be attributable to physical deconditioning and disuse of muscle secondary to the characteristic pain and fatigue so ofte...

  11. Articular soft tissue anatomy of the archosaur hip joint: Structural homology and functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Henry P; Holliday, Casey M

    2015-06-01

    Archosaurs evolved a wide diversity of locomotor postures, body sizes, and hip joint morphologies. The two extant archosaurs clades (birds and crocodylians) possess highly divergent hip joint morphologies, and the homologies and functions of their articular soft tissues, such as ligaments, cartilage, and tendons, are poorly understood. Reconstructing joint anatomy and function of extinct vertebrates is critical to understanding their posture, locomotor behavior, ecology, and evolution. However, the lack of soft tissues in fossil taxa makes accurate inferences of joint function difficult. Here, we describe the soft tissue anatomies and their osteological correlates in the hip joint of archosaurs and their sauropsid outgroups, and infer structural homology across the extant taxa. A comparative sample of 35 species of birds, crocodylians, lepidosaurs, and turtles ranging from hatchling to skeletally mature adult were studied using dissection, imaging, and histology. Birds and crocodylians possess topologically and histologically consistent articular soft tissues in their hip joints. Epiphyseal cartilages, fibrocartilages, and ligaments leave consistent osteological correlates. The archosaur acetabulum possesses distinct labrum and antitrochanter structures on the supraacetabulum. The ligamentum capitis femoris consists of distinct pubic- and ischial attachments, and is homologous with the ventral capsular ligament of lepidosaurs. The proximal femur has a hyaline cartilage core attached to the metaphysis via a fibrocartilaginous sleeve. This study provides new insight into soft tissue structures and their osteological correlates (e.g., the antitrochanter, the fovea capitis, and the metaphyseal collar) in the archosaur hip joint. The topological arrangement of fibro- and hyaline cartilage may provide mechanical support for the chondroepiphysis. The osteological correlates identified here will inform systematic and functional analyses of archosaur hindlimb evolution and

  12. The architectural design of the gluteal muscle group: implications for movement and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Samuel R; Winters, Taylor M; Blemker, Silvia S

    2010-02-01

    The organization of fibers within a muscle (architecture) defines the performance capacity of that muscle. In the current commentary, basic architectural terms are reviewed in the context of the major hip muscles and then specific illustrative examples relevant to lower extremity rehabilitation are presented. These data demonstrate the architectural and functional specialization of the hip muscles, and highlight the importance of muscle physiology and joint mechanics when evaluating and treating musculoskeletal disorders.

  13. Communication between functional and denervated muscles using radiofrequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Doreen K; Stefko, Susan Tonya; Hackworth, Steven A; Lovell, Michael R; Mickle, Marlin H

    2006-05-01

    This article focuses on establishing communication between a functional muscle and a denervated muscle using a radiofrequency communications link. The ultimate objective of the project is to restore the eye blink in patients with facial nerve paralysis. Two sets of experiments were conducted using the gastrocnemius leg muscles of Sprague-Dawley rats. In the initial tests, varying magnitudes of voltages ranging from 0.85 to 2.5 V were applied directly to a denervated muscle to determine the voltage required to produce visible contraction. The second set of experiments was then conducted to determine the voltage output from an in vivo muscle contraction that could be sensed and used to coordinate a signal for actuation of a muscle in a separate limb. After designing the appropriate external communication circuitry, a third experiment was performed to verify that a signal between a functional and a denervated muscle can be generated and used as a stimulus. Voltages below 2 V at a 10-millisecond pulse width elicited a gentle, controlled contraction of the denervated muscle in vivo. It was also observed that with longer pulse widths, higher stimulation voltages were required to produce sufficient contractions. It is possible to detect contraction of a muscle, use this to generate a signal to an external base station, and subsequently cause a separate, denervated muscle to contract in response to the signal. This demonstration in vivo of a signaling system for pacing of electrical stimulation of 1 muscle to spontaneous contraction of another, separate muscle, using radiofrequency communication without direct connection, may be used in numerous ways to overcome nerve damage.

  14. Pelvic floor muscle strength and sexual function in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinara Sacomori

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction : Pelvic floor (PF muscles react to sexual stimuli with increased local blood circulation and involuntary contractions during orgasm. The training of the PF musculature helps in the improvement of the female sexual function. Objective : To verify the association between PF muscle strength and sexual function in women, controlling age and parity. Method : Cross-sectional study based on associations. The study included women who attended a reference center in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, for a uterine cancer smear test. The Functional Evaluation of the Pelvic Floor and the Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire were used. Statistical procedures included Mann-Whitney U tests, Spearman correlation and Poisson Regression Analysis, with p < .05. Results : The mean age of the women (n = 177 was 39.05 years (SD = 13.3. Regarding PF function, 53.7% of participants presented weak or not palpable PF muscle function. Women with "good" muscle function (able to maintain contraction under examiner's resistance had significantly better indexes of sexual desire, excitement, lubrication and orgasm than women with weak/poor function. We identified that 52.5% of the women presented sexual dysfunction. Women with "poor" PF function and aged over 50 years had, respectively, 1.36 (CI95% 1.01 - 1.82 and 1.77 (CI95% 1.41 - 2.23 higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction than women with "good" PF function. Conclusions : Adult women with better PF muscle function also presented better sexual function.

  15. Muscle Functions and Functional Performance among Older Persons with and without Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Azizah Ishak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare muscle functions and functional performances between older persons with and without low back pain (LBP and to determine the association between muscle functions and functional performances. This is a cross-sectional study, involving 95 older persons (age = 70.27±7.26 years. Anthropometric characteristics, muscle functions, and functional performances were measured. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation, and multiple linear regression. The functional performances showed no significant differences (females LBP versus non-LBP, males LBP versus non-LBP (p<0.05. For muscle functions, significant differences were found (females LBP versus non-LBP for abdominal muscle strength (p=0.006 and back muscle strength (p=0.07. In the LBP group, significant correlations were found between back and abdominal muscle strength and hand grip strength (r=0.377 and r=0.396, resp., multifidus control and lower limb function (r=0.363 in females, and back muscle strength and lower limb function (r=0.393 in males (all p<0.05. Regression analysis showed that abdominal and back muscle strengths were significant predictors of hand grip strength (p=0.041 and p=0.049, resp., and multifidus control was a significant predictor of lower limb function in females (p=0.047. This study demonstrates that older women with LBP exhibit poorer muscle functions compared to older women without LBP.

  16. Growth factors, muscle function, and doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldspink, Geoffrey; Wessner, Barbara; Tschan, Harald; Bachl, Norbert

    2010-03-01

    This article discusses the inevitable use of growth factors for enhancing muscle strength and athletic performance. Much effort has been expended on developing a treatment of muscle wasting associated with a range of diseases and aging. Frailty in the aging population is a major socioeconomic and medical problem. Emerging molecular techniques have made it possible to gain a better understanding of the growth factor genes and how they are activated by physical activity. The ways that misuse of growth factors may be detected and verified in athletes and future challenges for detecting manipulation of signaling pathways are discussed. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Poor physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care is related to muscle strength rather than to measures of sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L Woods

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Julie L Woods1, Sandra Iuliano-Burns2, Susannah J King1, Boyd J Strauss1, Karen Z Walker11Nutrition and Dietetics Department, Monash University, Victoria, Australia; 2Endocrine Centre of Excellence, Department of Medicine, Austin Health, University of Melbourne, West Heidelberg, AustraliaPurpose: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and investigate relationships among body composition, muscle strength, and physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care.Subjects and methods: Sixty-three ambulatory women (mean age 86 years participated in this cross-sectional study where body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; ankle, knee, and hip strength by the Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester; and physical function by ‘timed up and go’ (TUG and walking speed (WS over 6 meters. Body composition data from a female reference group (n = 62, mean age 29 years provided cut-off values for defining sarcopenia.Results: Elderly women had higher body mass index (P < 0.001, lower lean mass (P < 0.001, and higher fat mass (P < 0.01 than the young reference group. Only a small proportion (3.2% had absolute sarcopenia (defined by appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height squared whereas 37% had relative sarcopenia class II (defined by percentage skeletal muscle mass. Scores for TUG and WS indicated relatively poor physical function, yet these measures were not associated with muscle mass or indices of sarcopenia. In multivariate analysis, only hip abductor strength predicted both TUG and WS (both P = 0.01.Conclusion: Hip strength is a more important indicator of physical functioning than lean mass. Measurement of hip strength may therefore be a useful screening tool to detect those at risk of functional decline and requirement for additional care. Further longitudinal studies with a range of other strength measures are warranted.Keywords: aged care, body composition, muscle strength, sarcopenia 

  18. Muscle glycogen and cell function--Location, location, location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørtenblad, N; Nielsen, J

    2015-12-01

    The importance of glycogen, as a fuel during exercise, is a fundamental concept in exercise physiology. The use of electron microscopy has revealed that glycogen is not evenly distributed in skeletal muscle fibers, but rather localized in distinct pools. In this review, we present the available evidence regarding the subcellular localization of glycogen in skeletal muscle and discuss this from the perspective of skeletal muscle fiber function. The distribution of glycogen in the defined pools within the skeletal muscle varies depending on exercise intensity, fiber phenotype, training status, and immobilization. Furthermore, these defined pools may serve specific functions in the cell. Specifically, reduced levels of these pools of glycogen are associated with reduced SR Ca(2+) release, muscle relaxation rate, and membrane excitability. Collectively, the available literature strongly demonstrates that the subcellular localization of glycogen has to be considered to fully understand the role of glycogen metabolism and signaling in skeletal muscle function. Here, we propose that the effect of low muscle glycogen on excitation-contraction coupling may serve as a built-in mechanism, which links the energetic state of the muscle fiber to energy utilization. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Developing a risk prediction model for the functional outcome after hip arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Patrick; Röling, Maarten A; Mathijssen, Nina M C; Hannink, Gerjon; Bloem, Rolf M

    2018-04-19

    Hip arthroscopic treatment is not equally beneficial for every patient undergoing this procedure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a clinical prediction model for functional outcome after surgery based on preoperative factors. Prospective data was collected on a cohort of 205 patients having undergone hip arthroscopy between 2011 and 2015. Demographic and clinical variables and patient reported outcome (PRO) scores were collected, and considered as potential predictors. Successful outcome was defined as either a Hip Outcome Score (HOS)-ADL score of over 80% or improvement of 23%, defined by the minimal clinical important difference, 1 year after surgery. The prediction model was developed using backward logistic regression. Regression coefficients were converted into an easy to use prediction rule. The analysis included 203 patients, of which 74% had a successful outcome. Female gender (OR: 0.37 (95% CI 0.17-0.83); p = 0.02), pincer impingement (OR: 0.47 (95% CI 0.21-1.09); p = 0.08), labral tear (OR: 0.46 (95% CI 0.20-1.06); p = 0.07), HOS-ADL score (IQR OR: 2.01 (95% CI 0.99-4.08); p = 0.05), WHOQOL physical (IQR OR: 0.43 (95% CI 0.22-0.87); p = 0.02) and WHOQOL psychological (IQR OR: 2.40 (95% CI 1.38-4.18); p = prediction model of successful functional outcome 1 year after hip arthroscopy. The model's discriminating accuracy turned out to be fair, as 71% (95% CI: 64-80%) of the patients were classified correctly. The developed prediction model can predict the functional outcome of patients that are considered for a hip arthroscopic intervention, containing six easy accessible preoperative risk factors. The model can be further improved trough external validation and/or adding additional potential predictors.

  20. Muscle glycogen and cell function - Location, location, location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørtenblad, N; Nielsen, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The importance of glycogen, as a fuel during exercise, is a fundamental concept in exercise physiology. The use of electron microscopy has revealed that glycogen is not evenly distributed in skeletal muscle fibers, but rather localized in distinct pools. In this review, we present the available...... evidence regarding the subcellular localization of glycogen in skeletal muscle and discuss this from the perspective of skeletal muscle fiber function. The distribution of glycogen in the defined pools within the skeletal muscle varies depending on exercise intensity, fiber phenotype, training status......, and immobilization. Furthermore, these defined pools may serve specific functions in the cell. Specifically, reduced levels of these pools of glycogen are associated with reduced SR Ca(2+) release, muscle relaxation rate, and membrane excitability. Collectively, the available literature strongly demonstrates...

  1. Functional and nutritional status correlation in elderly patients with hip fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Ramón González González

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hip fractures in elderly patients are related to several factors, among which nutrition and functionality stand out. The presence of alterations in the nutritional state has been related directly with the functional state. Objective: To determine the previous functional state of the patient with a hip fracture, the nutritional state at the moment of admittance and the correlation between both parameters as risk factors for the fracture. Materials and methods: 78 elderly patients with a hip fractured were studied from February 1st, 2009 to December 31st of 2009. The functional and nutritional stated were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and inferential analysis were used with contingency tables to test association with c2. Results: 46.1% were functionally independent and 53.9% had functional impairment. 14.1% presented malnourishment, 48.7% were at risk of malnutrition and 37.2% had normal nutrition. Only the 36.7% with the “nutritional problem” (MNA24 who were independent.

  2. Personality, function and satisfaction in patients undergoing total hip or knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaesh, Rishikesan; Jenkins, Paul; Lane, Judith V; Knight, Sara; Macdonald, Deborah; Howie, Colin

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between personality and joint-specific function, general physical and general mental health in patients undergoing total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA). One hundred and eighty-four patients undergoing THA and 205 undergoing TKA were assessed using the Eysneck Personality Questionnaire, brief version (EPQ-BV). General physical and mental health was measured using the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) questionnaire and the EuroQol (EQ-5D). Joint-specific function was measured using the Oxford hip or knee score. The "unstable introvert" personality type was associated with poorer pre-operative function and health in patients with hip arthrosis. In patients with knee arthrosis, there was poorer general health in those with "stable extrovert" and "unstable introvert" types. Personality was not an independent predictor of outcome following TKA or THA. The main predictor was pre-operative function and health. Comorbidity was an important covariate of both pre-operative and postoperative function. Personality may play a role in the interaction of these disease processes with function and health perception. It may also affect the response and interpretation of psychometric and patient-reported outcome measures. It may be important to characterise and identify these traits in potential arthroplasty patients as it may help deliver targeted education and management to improve outcomes in certain groups.

  3. Individual Muscle use in Hamstring Exercises by Soccer Players Assessed using Functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gonzalo, R; Tesch, P A; Linnehan, R M; Kreider, R B; Di Salvo, V; Suarez-Arrones, L; Alomar, X; Mendez-Villanueva, A; Rodas, G

    2016-06-01

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare individual muscle use in exercises aimed at preventing hamstring injuries. Thirty-six professional soccer players were randomized into 4 groups, each performing either Nordic hamstring, flywheel leg curl, Russian belt or conic-pulley exercise. MRIs were performed before and immediately after a bout of 4 sets of 8 repetitions. Pre-post exercise differences in contrast shift (T2) were analyzed for the long (BFLh) and short head (BFSh) of biceps femoris, semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM) and gracilis (GR) muscles. Flywheel leg curl increased (Phamstring, GR (39%), ST (16%) and BFSh (14%) showed increased T2 (Phamstring and GR muscle use. However, no single exercise executed was able to increase T2 of all hamstring and synergist muscles analyzed. It is therefore suggested that multiple exercises must be carried out to bring in, and fully activate all knee flexors and hip extensors. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Functional Echomyography of the human denervated muscle: first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Zanato

    2011-03-01

    . The very high energy needed to stimulate the denervated muscles according to the Vienna home-based Functional Electrical Stimulation (h-b FES strategy demonstrates that the explored muscles are denervated. This pilot study confirms the usefulness of Functional EchoMyography in the follow-up and the positive effects of h-b FES of denervated/reinnervating muscles.

  5. The development of a short measure of physical function for hip OA HOOS-Physical Function Shortform (HOOS-PS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, A M; Perruccio, A V; Canizares, M

    2008-01-01

    : The daily activity and sports and recreational items of the HOOS were reduced to five items achieving a feasible, short measure of physical function with interval level properties. This tool has potential for use as the function component of an OA severity scoring system. Further testing of this measure......OBJECTIVE: To derive a cross-culturally valid, short measure of physical function using function subscales (daily living and sports and recreation) of the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS). METHODS: Rasch analysis was conducted on data from individuals from multiple countries...... who had hip osteoarthritis (OA). Fit of the data to the Rasch model was evaluated by model chi(2) and item fit statistics (chi(2), size of residual, and F-test). Differential item functioning was evaluated by gender, age and country. Unidimensionality was evaluated by factor analysis of residuals...

  6. The influence of optimism on functionality after total hip replacement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balck, Friedrich; Lippmann, Maike; Jeszenszky, Csilla; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Kirschner, Stephan

    2016-08-01

    Among other factors, optimism has been shown to significantly influence the course of some diseases (cancer, HIV, coronary heart disease). This study investigated whether optimism of a patient before a total hip replacement can predict the functionality of the lower limbs 3 and 6 months after surgery. A total of 325 patients took part in the study (age: 58.7 years; w: 55%). The functionality was measured with the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities arthrosis index, and optimism with the Life Orientation Test. To analyse the influences of age, gender and optimism, general linear models were calculated. In optimistic patients, functionality improved significantly over time. The study showed a clear influence of dispositional optimism on the recovery after total hip replacement in the first 3 months after surgery. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Avoidance of activity and limitations in activities in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: a 5 year follow-up study on the mediating role of reduced muscle strength.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisters, M.F.; Veenhof, C.; Dijk, G.M. van; Dekker, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mediating role of reduced muscle strength in the relationship between avoidance of activity and limitations in activities in patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: A longitudinal cohort study with 5 years follow-up was conducted. Patients with knee or hip

  8. Avoidance of activity and limitations in activities in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: a 5 year follow-up study on the mediating role of reduced muscle strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisters, M.F.; Veenhof, C.; van Dijk, G.M.; Dekker, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mediating role of reduced muscle strength in the relationship between avoidance of activity and limitations in activities in patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: A longitudinal cohort study with 5 years follow-up was conducted. Patients with knee or hip

  9. Transient impairments in single muscle fibre contractile function after prolonged cycling in elite endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, L G; Gejl, Kasper Degn; Bech, R D

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged muscle activity impairs whole-muscle performance and function. However, little is known about the effects of prolonged muscle activity on the contractile function of human single muscle fibres. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged exercise and subsequent...... recovery on the contractile function of single muscle fibres obtained from elite athletes....

  10. Fragility fracture risk and skeletal muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, F R; Ara, I

    2016-01-01

    Low-intensity fractures are closely related with age-related musculoskeletal disorders, including osteoporosis, muscle dysfunction and sarcopenia, age-related chronic diseases, and pharmacological treatments. During the last years, a huge amount of information and recommendations has been released in relation to bone metabolism and mineral content. Muscle dysfunction and sarcopenia are highly prevalent during the second half of life, especially in older subjects. The development of sarcopenia may be slowed through healthy lifestyle changes, which include adequate dietary protein, vitamin D and mineral intakes, and regular physical activity. Prevention of falls should be integral, including correction in major involved factors in order to reduce fragility fracture, improve quality of life and appropriately focus clinical and economic resources. Therefore, to obtain better results a global approach is needed to prevent age-related fractures in frail patients that is not only centered on bone metabolism and antiresorptive drugs.

  11. Lower limb asymmetry in mechanical muscle function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, M J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, W

    2015-01-01

    .05), and the final phase of the SJ (P AI in the CMJ concentric phase (r = 0.57, P Future research is required to assess the role of the CMJ and SJ phase-specific kinetic impulse AI......-R). Elite alpine skiers with ACL-R (n = 9; 26.2 ± 11.8 months post-op) and uninjured skiers (n = 9) participated in neuromuscular screening. Vertical ground reaction force during the CMJ and SJ was assessed using dual force plate methodology to obtain phase-specific bilateral asymmetry indices (AIs......) for kinetic impulse (CMJ and SJ phase-specific kinetic impulse AI). Dual x-ray absorptiometry scanning was used to assess asymmetry in lower body muscle mass. Compared with controls, ACL-R skiers had increased AI in muscle mass (P AI in the CMJ concentric phase (P 

  12. Early interdisciplinary hospital intervention for elderly patients with hip fractures : functional outcome and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Tarazona-Santabalbina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Hip fractures are associated with high levels of co-morbidity and mortality. Orthogeriatric units have been shown to be effective with respect to functional recovery and mortality reduction. The aim of this study is to document the natural history of early multidisciplinary intervention in elderly patients with hip fractures and to establish the prognostic factors of mortality and walking ability after discharge. METHODS: This observational, retrospective study was performed in an orthogeriatric care unit on patients aged >70 years with a diagnosis of hip fracture between 2004 and 2008. This study included 1363 patients with a mean age of 82.7 + 6.4 years. RESULTS: On admission to the unit, the average Barthel score of these patients was 77.2 + 27.8 points, and the average Charlson index score was 2.14 + 2.05. The mean length of stay was 8.9 + 4.26 days, and the readmission rate was 2.3%. The in-hospital mortality rate was 4.7%, and the mortality rates at one, six, and 12 months after discharge were 8.7%, 16.9%, and 25.9%, respectively. The Cox proportional hazards model estimated that male sex, Barthel scale, heart failure, and cognitive impairment were associated with an increased risk of death. With regard to functionality, 63.7% of the patients were able to walk at the time of discharge, whereas 77.4% and 80.1% were able to walk at one month and six months post-discharge, respectively. The factors associated with a worse functional recovery included cognitive impairment, performance status, age, stroke, Charlson score, and delirium during the hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: Early multidisciplinary intervention appears to be effective for the management of hip fracture. Age, male sex, baseline function, cognitive impairment and previous comorbidities are associated with a higher mortality rate and worse functional recovery.

  13. Effects of a deep-water running program on muscle function and functionality in elderly women community dwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Alberti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract AIMS The aim of the study was to determine the effects of deep-water running on muscle function and functionality in community dwelling old women. METHODS Older women (n=19 were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: deep-water running (DWR: n=09, 64.33±4.24 years, 75.15±12.53 kg, 160.45±7.52 cm; or control group CG: n=10, 64.40±4.22 years, 74.46±12.39 kg, 158.88±5.48 cm. The DWR group carried out 18 weeks of deep-water running, twice/week 50 min sessions. Dynamic isokinetic strength for the lower limb and functionality was assessed before and after intervention. RESULTS DWR group increased peak torque, total work and average power of the knee and hip flexors and extensors. Additionally showed better performance on gait speed, timed up and go test, five-times-sit-to-stand-test repetitions from a chair as well as the six-minute walk test. CONCLUSION The deep-water running program was effective to improve muscle function and functionality.

  14. Physical function and muscle strength in sporadic inclusion body myositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders N; Aagaard, Per; Nielsen, Jakob L

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In this study, self-reported physical function, functional capacity, and isolated muscle function were investigated in sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) patients. METHODS: The 36-item Short Form (SF-36) Health Survey and 2-min walk test (2MWT), timed up & go test (TUG), and 30-s...

  15. [The hip joint in neuromuscular disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, W M

    2009-07-01

    Physiologic motor and biomechanical parameters are prerequisites for normal hip development and hip function. Disorders of muscle activity and lack of weight bearing due to neuromuscular diseases may cause clinical symptoms such as an unstable hip or reduced range of motion. Disability and handicap because of pain, hip dislocation, osteoarthritis, gait disorders, or problems in seating and positioning are dependent on the severity of the disease, the time of occurrence, and the means of prevention and treatment. Preservation of pain-free and stable hip joints should be gained by balancing muscular forces and by preventing progressive dislocation. Most important is the exact indication of therapeutic options such as movement and standing therapy as well as drugs and surgery.

  16. TAK1 regulates skeletal muscle mass and mitochondrial function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindi, Sajedah M.; Sato, Shuichi; Xiong, Guangyan; Bohnert, Kyle R.; Gibb, Andrew A.; Gallot, Yann S.; McMillan, Joseph D.; Hill, Bradford G.

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass is regulated by a complex array of signaling pathways. TGF-β–activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is an important signaling protein, which regulates context-dependent activation of multiple intracellular pathways. However, the role of TAK1 in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass remains unknown. Here, we report that inducible inactivation of TAK1 causes severe muscle wasting, leading to kyphosis, in both young and adult mice.. Inactivation of TAK1 inhibits protein synthesis and induces proteolysis, potentially through upregulating the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy. Phosphorylation and enzymatic activity of AMPK are increased, whereas levels of phosphorylated mTOR and p38 MAPK are diminished upon inducible inactivation of TAK1 in skeletal muscle. In addition, targeted inactivation of TAK1 leads to the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria and oxidative stress in skeletal muscle of adult mice. Inhibition of TAK1 does not attenuate denervation-induced muscle wasting in adult mice. Finally, TAK1 activity is highly upregulated during overload-induced skeletal muscle growth, and inactivation of TAK1 prevents myofiber hypertrophy in response to functional overload. Overall, our study demonstrates that TAK1 is a key regulator of skeletal muscle mass and oxidative metabolism. PMID:29415881

  17. The Effect of Statins on Skeletal Muscle Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Beth A.; Capizzi, Jeffrey A.; Grimaldi, Adam S.; Clarkson, Priscilla M.; Cole, Stephanie M.; Keadle, Justin; Chipkin, Stuart; Pescatello, Linda S.; Simpson, Kathleen; White, C. Michael; Thompson, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many clinicians believe that statins cause muscle pain, but this has not been observed in clinical trials and the effect of statins on muscle performance has not been carefully studied. Methods and Results The Effect of STatins On Skeletal Muscle Function and Performance (STOMP) study assessed symptoms and measured creatine kinase (CK), exercise capacity, and muscle strength before and after atorvastatin 80 mg or placebo were administered for 6 months to 420 healthy, statin-naive subjects. No individual CK value exceeded 10 times normal, but average CK increased 20.8 ± 141.1 U/L (pmuscle strength or exercise capacity with atorvastatin, but more atorvastatin than placebo subjects developed myalgia (19 vs 10; p = 0.05). Myalgic subjects on atorvastatin or placebo decreased muscle strength in 5 of 14 and 4 of 14 variables respectively (p = 0.69). Conclusions These results indicate that high-dose atorvastatin for 6 months does not decrease average muscle strength or exercise performance in healthy, previously untreated subjects. Nevertheless, this blinded, controlled trial confirms the undocumented impression that statins increase muscle complaints. Atorvastatin also increased average CK suggesting that statins produce mild muscle injury even among asymptomatic subjects. This increase in CK should prompt studies examining the effects of more prolonged, high-dose statin treatment on muscular performance. Clinical Trial Registration Information: www.clinicaltrials.gov; Identifier: NCT00609063. PMID:23183941

  18. Resistance training, insulin sensitivity and muscle function in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Kjaer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Ageing is associated with a loss in both muscle mass and in the metabolic quality of skeletal muscle. This leads to sarcopenia and reduced daily function, as well as to an increased risk for development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. A major part, but not all, of these changes......, and likewise to improve muscle strength in both elderly healthy individuals and in elderly individuals with chronic disease. The increased strength is coupled to improved function and a decreased risk for fall injuries and fractures. Elderly individuals have preserved the capacity to improve muscle strength...... are associated with an age-related decrease in the physical activity level and can be counteracted by increased physical activity of a resistive nature. Strength training has been shown to improve insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in both healthy elderly individuals and patients with manifest diabetes...

  19. A three-dimensional muscle activity imaging technique for assessing pelvic muscle function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingchun; Wang, Dan; Timm, Gerald W.

    2010-11-01

    A novel multi-channel surface electromyography (EMG)-based three-dimensional muscle activity imaging (MAI) technique has been developed by combining the bioelectrical source reconstruction approach and subject-specific finite element modeling approach. Internal muscle activities are modeled by a current density distribution and estimated from the intra-vaginal surface EMG signals with the aid of a weighted minimum norm estimation algorithm. The MAI technique was employed to minimally invasively reconstruct electrical activity in the pelvic floor muscles and urethral sphincter from multi-channel intra-vaginal surface EMG recordings. A series of computer simulations were conducted to evaluate the performance of the present MAI technique. With appropriate numerical modeling and inverse estimation techniques, we have demonstrated the capability of the MAI technique to accurately reconstruct internal muscle activities from surface EMG recordings. This MAI technique combined with traditional EMG signal analysis techniques is being used to study etiologic factors associated with stress urinary incontinence in women by correlating functional status of muscles characterized from the intra-vaginal surface EMG measurements with the specific pelvic muscle groups that generated these signals. The developed MAI technique described herein holds promise for eliminating the need to place needle electrodes into muscles to obtain accurate EMG recordings in some clinical applications.

  20. Sex steroids do not affect muscle weight, oxidative metabolism or cytosolic androgen reception binding of functionally overloaded rat Plantaris muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, S. R.; Rance, N.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of sex steroids on muscle weight and oxidative capacity of rat planaris muscles subjected to functional overload by removal of synergistic muscles were investigated. Ten weeks after bilateral synergist removal, plantaris muscles were significantly hypertrophic compared with unoperated controls. After this period, the ability of the muscles to oxide three substrates of oxidative metabolism was assessed. Experimental procedures are discussed and results are presented herein. Results suggest a lack of beneficial effect of sex hormone status on the process of hypertrophy and on biochemical changes in overloaded muscle. Such findings are not consistent with the idea of synergistic effects of sex steroids and muscle usage.

  1. Hip proprioceptors preferentially modulate reflexes of the leg in human spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onushko, Tanya; Hyngstrom, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Stretch-sensitive afferent feedback from hip muscles has been shown to trigger long-lasting, multijoint reflex responses in people with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). These reflexes could have important implications for control of leg movements during functional activities, such as walking. Because the control of leg movement relies on reflex regulation at all joints of the limb, we sought to determine whether stretch of hip muscles modulates reflex activity at the knee and ankle and, conversely, whether knee and ankle stretch afferents affect hip-triggered reflexes. A custom-built servomotor apparatus was used to stretch the hip muscles in nine chronic SCI subjects by oscillating the legs about the hip joint bilaterally from 10° of extension to 40° flexion. To test whether stretch-related feedback from the knee or ankle would be affected by hip movement, patellar tendon percussions and Achilles tendon vibration were delivered when the hip was either extending or flexing. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) and joint torques were recorded from both legs. Patellar tendon percussions and Achilles tendon vibration both elicited reflex responses local to the knee or ankle, respectively, and did not influence reflex responses observed at the hip. Rather, the movement direction of the hip modulated the reflex responses local to the joint. The patellar tendon reflex amplitude was larger when the perturbation was delivered during hip extension compared with hip flexion. The response to Achilles vibration was modulated by hip movement, with an increased tonic component during hip flexion compared with extension. These results demonstrate that hip-mediated sensory signals modulate activity in distal muscles of the leg and appear to play a unique role in modulation of spastic muscle activity throughout the leg in SCI. PMID:23615544

  2. In-season monitoring of hip and groin strength, health and function in elite youth soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollin, Martin; Thorborg, Kristian; Welvaert, Marijke

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary purpose of this study was to describe an early detection and management strategy when monitoring in-season hip and groin strength, health and function in soccer. Secondly to compare pre-season to in-season test results. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. METHODS: Twenty......-seven elite male youth soccer players (age: 15.07±0.73years) volunteered to participate in the study. Monitoring tests included: adductor strength, adductor/abductor strength ratio and hip and groin outcome scores (HAGOS). Data were recorded at pre-season and at 22 monthly intervals in-season. Thresholds.......09, CI95%: 0.04, 0.13 respectively). HAGOS subscale scores were lowest at baseline with all, except Physical Activity, showing significant improvements at time-point one (ptime-loss were classified minimal or mild. CONCLUSIONS: In-season monitoring aimed at early detection...

  3. Vardenafil inhibiting parasympathetic function of tracheal smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fei-Peng; Chao, Pin-Zhir; Wang, Hsing-Won

    2018-07-01

    Levitra, a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitor, is the trade name of vardenafil. Nowadays, it is applied to treatment of erectile dysfunction. PDE5 inhibitors are employed to induce dilatation of the vascular smooth muscle. The effect of Levitra on impotency is well known; however, its effect on the tracheal smooth muscle has rarely been explored. When administered for sexual symptoms via oral intake or inhalation, Levitra might affect the trachea. This study assessed the effects of Levitra on isolated rat tracheal smooth muscle by examining its effect on resting tension of tracheal smooth muscle, contraction caused by 10 -6  M methacholine as a parasympathetic mimetic, and electrically induced tracheal smooth muscle contractions. The results showed that adding methacholine to the incubation medium caused the trachea to contract in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of Levitra at doses of 10 -5  M or above elicited a significant relaxation response to 10 -6  M methacholine-induced contraction. Levitra could inhibit electrical field stimulation-induced spike contraction. It alone had minimal effect on the basal tension of the trachea as the concentration increased. High concentrations of Levitra could inhibit parasympathetic function of the trachea. Levitra when administered via oral intake might reduce asthma attacks in impotent patients because it might inhibit parasympathetic function and reduce methacholine-induced contraction of the tracheal smooth muscle. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  4. Relationship of Lower Extremity Muscle Strength with Balance and Lower Extremity Functions in Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi Başkurt

    2018-03-01

    Conclusions: Functional score, mobility and balance are related to lower extremity muscle strength in elderly women. Increasing muscle strength will reduce the risk of falls and increase independence.

  5. Hip abductors and thigh muscles strength ratios and their relation to electromyography amplitude during split squat and walking lunge exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Stastny

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hip abductors (HAB, quadriceps (Q and hamstrings (H reciprocal strength ratios are predictors of electromyography (EMG amplitude during load carrying walking at moderate intensity. Therefore, these strength ratios might predict also the EMG during the exercises as walking lunge (WL or split squat (SSq at submaximal intensity. Objective: To determine whether the EMG amplitude of vastus mediali (VM, vastus laterali (VL, biceps femoris (BF and gluteus medius (Gmed is associated with muscle strength ratio during SSqs and WLs. To determine whether the EMG amplitude differs between individuals with HAB/H ratio above and below one and between individuals with H/Q or HAB/Q ratio above and below 0.5 during SSqs and WLs. Methods: 17 resistance-trained men (age 29.6 ± 4.6 years with at least 3 years of strength training performed in cross-sectional design 5 s maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC on an isokinetic dynamometer for knee extension, knee flexion, and hip abduction. The MVIC was used to normalize the EMG signal and estimate the individual strength ratios. Than participants performed WL and SSq for a 5 repetition maximum, to find out muscle activity at submaximal intensity of exercise. Results: The H/Q ratio was associated by Kendall's tau (τ with VM (τ = .33 and BF (τ = -.71 amplitude, HAB/Q ratio was associated with BF (τ = -.43 and Gmed (τ = .38 amplitude, as well as HAB/H was associated with VM (τ = -.41 and Gmed (τ = .74 amplitude. ANOVA results showed significant differences between SSq and WL (F(4, 79 = 10, p < .001, ηp2 = .34 in Gmed amplitude, where WL resulted in higher Gmed amplitude compared to SSq. Other significant differences were found between H/Q groups (F(4, 29 = 3, p = .04, ηp2 = .28 in VM and Gmed amplitude, where group with H/Q > 0.5 showed higher VMO amplitude and lower Gmed amplitude. Furthermore, significant difference was found

  6. Bilateral Total Hip Arthroplasty in Femoral Head Avascular Necrosis: Functional Outcomes and Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Taheriazam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total hip arthroplasty (THA is one of the successful and cost-benefit surgical treatments. One-stage bilateral THA (BTHA offers many benefits. However, there are concerns about the safety of the procedure and higher complications. We aimed to evaluate the complications and outcomes of one-stage BTHA with Hardinge approach for femoral head avascular necrosis patients. A total of 60 patients from April 2009 and May 2013, were underwent one-stage bilateral total hip arthroplasty (BTHA in Milad and Erfan hospitals, Tehran, Iran. A prospective analysis of the functional outcomes and complications of one-stage BTHA through Hardinge approach in patients with femoral head avascular necrosis (AVN performed. We evaluated all patients clinically and radiologically with serial follow-ups. A clinical hip score based upon the modified Harris Hip Score (MHHS was performed preoperatively and again postoperatively. During period of study 44 men (73.3% and 16 women (26.6% with a mean age of 31.40±4.08 years (range 25 to 36 years at the time of presentation were entered. The mean surgical time was 2.6±0.38 hrs. The mean hospital stay was 3 .50±0.72 days. Hemoglobin level decreased significa ntly after operation (P= 0.046. There was no reported patient with perioperative death, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, infection, dislocation, periprosthetic fracture or heterotrophic ossification. The mean preoperative MHHS score was 47.93±7.33 in patients. MHHS score i mproved to 95.06±3.47 in the last follow-up (P=0.0001.Our results recommend the use of one-stage BTHA through Hardinge approach in femoral head avascular necrosis patients.

  7. Neuropathic pain-like alterations in muscle nociceptor function associated with vibration-induced muscle pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Green, Paul G; Levine, Jon D

    2010-11-01

    We recently developed a rodent model of the painful muscle disorders induced by occupational exposure to vibration. In the present study we used this model to evaluate the function of sensory neurons innervating the vibration-exposed gastrocnemius muscle. Activity of 74 vibration-exposed and 40 control nociceptors, with mechanical receptive fields in the gastrocnemius muscle, were recorded. In vibration-exposed rats ∼15% of nociceptors demonstrated an intense and long-lasting barrage of action potentials in response to sustained suprathreshold mechanical stimulation (average of 2635 action potentials with frequency of ∼44Hz during a 1min suprathreshold stimulus) much greater than that has been reported to be produced even by potent inflammatory mediators. While these high-firing nociceptors had lower mechanical thresholds than the remaining nociceptors, exposure to vibration had no effect on conduction velocity and did not induce spontaneous activity. Hyperactivity was not observed in any of 19 neurons from vibration-exposed rats pretreated with intrathecal antisense for the IL-6 receptor subunit gp130. Since vibration can injure peripheral nerves and IL-6 has been implicated in painful peripheral neuropathies, we suggest that the dramatic change in sensory neuron function and development of muscles pain, induced by exposure to vibration, reflects a neuropathic muscle pain syndrome. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. MAXIMAL HIP AND KNEE MUSCLE STRENGTH ARE NOT RELATED TO NEUROMUSCULAR PRE-ACTIVITY DURING SIDECUTTING MANEUVER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus S; Bencke, Jesper; Hölmich, Per

    2018-01-01

    recorded during a sidecutting maneuver (high-risk movement) in adolescent female soccer and handball athletes. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Eighty-five adolescent (age 16.9 ± 1.2 years) female elite handball and soccer athletes were assessed for maximal hip extensor, hip abductor and knee...

  9. TREATMENT OF NEUROLOGICAL CONGENITAL HIP LUXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian ICLEANU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hip luxation is a disorder which evolves in time. Teratological hip dislocation is a distinct form of hip luxation, which usually appears with other disorders. These hips are dislocated before birth. In this thesis we will try to elaborate a recovery program, through physical exercises, which will help us realize our treatment objectives: diminishing articular stiffness, increasing articular mobility, increasing muscle strength, recalibration of agonist and antagonist balances and reeducating gait. The specific objectives of the study consist of the particularization of the recovery programs based on age, illness stage (dysplasia or luxation and either surgical or non-surgical intervention. To show the importance of physiotherapy in gait rehabilitation of a child with hip dislocation we started from the hypothesis: using an adequate rehabilitation program after an individualized methodology, optimizes the functional recovery and ensures the gains of hip stability and the formation of an engram of gait as close as it could be to the normal one. We present a case of neurological congenital hip dislocation where the treatment initiated early is showing good results. Results obtained are significantly different and we came to the conclusion that starting an untimely analytical kinetic treatment and globally personalizing it to every patient has better biomechanical results for the hip.

  10. Increased pain sensitivity but normal function of exercise induced analgesia in hip and knee osteoarthritis--treatment effects of neuromuscular exercise and total joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, E; Roos, E M; Ageberg, E; Nilsdotter, A

    2013-09-01

    To assess exercise induced analgesia (EIA) and pain sensitivity in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to study the effects of neuromuscular exercise and surgery on these parameters. The dataset consisted of knee (n = 66) and hip (n = 47) OA patients assigned for total joint replacement at Lund University Hospital undergoing pre-operative neuromuscular exercise and 43 matched controls. Sensitivity to pressure pain was assessed by pressure algometry at 10 sites. Subjects were then instructed to perform a standardized static knee extension. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed at the contracting quadriceps muscle (Q) and at the resting deltoid muscle (D) before and during contraction. The relative increase in PPTs during contraction was taken as a measure of localized (Q) or generalized (D) EIA. Patients were assessed at baseline, following on average 12 weeks of neuromuscular exercise and 3 months following surgery. We found a normal function of EIA in OA patients at baseline. Previous studies have reported beneficial effects of physical exercise on pain modulation in healthy subjects. However, no treatment effects on EIA were seen in OA patients despite the increase in muscle strength following neuromuscular exercise and reduced pain following surgery. Compared to controls, OA patients had increased pain sensitivity and no beneficial effects on pain sensitivity were seen following treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first study of EIA in OA patients. Despite increased pain sensitivity, OA patients had a normal function of EIA. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hip Fracture-Related Pain Strongly Influences Functional Performance of Patients With an Intertrochanteric Fracture Upon Discharge From the Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange

    2013-01-01

    .7 seconds to perform the TUG. No significant differences were observed in baseline characteristics or pain medication given for patients with a cervical versus an intertrochanteric fracture (P ≥ .22), but patients with an intertrochanteric fracture presented more often with moderate to severe pain during......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether functional performance upon hospital discharge is influenced by pain in the region of the hip fracture or related to the fracture type. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: A 20-bed orthopedic hip fracture unit. PATIENTS: Fifty-five cognitively intact...... patients (20 men and 35 women; ages 75.8 ± 10 years), 33 with a cervical hip fracture and 22 with an intertrochanteric hip fracture, all of whom were allowed to bear full weight after surgery. METHODS: All patients were evaluated upon discharge from the hospital to their own homes at a mean of 10 ± 6 days...

  12. The Promotion of a Functional Fibrosis in Skeletal Muscle with Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury Following the Transplantation of Muscle-ECM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    Zou K, Boppart MD. Eccentric exercise facil- itates mesenchymal stem cell appearance in skeletal muscle. PLoS One 2012; 7:e29760. [40] Matziolis G...remaining muscle mass leading to additional improvements in functional capacity; how- ever, no study has explicitly studied these effects . The purpose of...muscles were isolated from donor Lewis rats. The tendon and fascia were removed and TA muscle decellularization was performed using an enzymatic and

  13. Association between preterm labour and pelvic floor muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aran, Turhan; Pekgöz, Ipek; Bozkaya, Hasan; Osmanagaoglu, Mehmet A

    2018-03-23

    We hypothesised that the pressure on the cervix increases with advancing gestation and it may lead to a cervical shortening and cause preterm labour in women with weak pelvic floor muscles. The aim of this prospective study was to measure vaginal resting pressure and pelvic floor muscle strength in the first trimester of pregnancy and to investigate their effects on labour. A study was conducted on the pregnant women with a low risk for preterm birth. The pelvic floor muscle strength and vaginal resting pressure were assessed in 320 pregnant women at their first trimester with a vaginal pressure measurement device. Fifty-two pregnant women were hospitalised for tocolytic therapy because of spontaneous preterm labour. Thirty-two of them (10.2%) had a preterm delivery despite the tocolytic therapy. Both the vaginal resting pressure (p = .009, 95%CI: 0.8; 5.9) and the pelvic floor muscle strength (p = .01, 95%CI: 3.5; 13.1) were significantly lower in the women with a preterm labour. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? The pelvic floor muscles have an essential role in continence and provide support to the pelvic organs. They also have an impact on labour. The pelvic floor muscles should distend to allow the passage of the foetus during labour. The rotation and flexion of the foetal head is due to the pelvic floor resistance. The effect of a vaginal birth on the pelvic floor's function is readily understood. On the other hand, the effect of the pelvic floor muscle function on labour is still controversial. What do the results of this study add? This prospective study showed that there is a negative association between the pelvic floor muscle strength and preterm labour. This is the first clinical study indicating that weak pelvic floor muscles may cause a preterm labour. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Pelvic floor physical therapy may be an alternative preventive strategy to reduce

  14. A longitudinal study of quality of life and functional status in total hip and total knee replacement patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandzuk, Lynda L; McMillan, Diana E; Bohm, Eric R

    2015-05-01

    Primary total hip and primary total knee surgeries are commonly performed to improve patients' quality of life and functional status. This longitudinal retrospective study (N = 851) examined self-reported quality of life and functional status over the preoperative and postoperative periods: 12 months prior to surgery, one month prior to surgery and 12 months following surgery. A linear mixed effects model was used to analyze the changes in quality of life and functional status over the sampling period. Patients in the convenience sample reported improvements in quality of life and functional status utilizing the SF-12 and Oxford Hip and Oxford Knee, although differences were noted by procedure and gender. Total hip patients tended to demonstrate greater improvement than total knee patients and males reported higher levels of physical and mental quality of life as well as functional status when compared to females. Of particular note was that mental health scores were consistently lower in both total hip and total knee replacement patients across the perioperative period and up to one year postoperative. This study identifies an opportunity for health care providers to proactively address the mental health of total hip and total knee replacement patients throughout their joint replacement trajectory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improved functional outcome after hip fracture is associated with duration of rehabilitation, but not with waiting time for rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tonny Jaeger; Bogh, Louise Nicole Bie; Lauritsen, Jens Martin

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between “waiting time to onset of municipal rehabilitation”, “length of municipal rehabilitation” and the attained level of function four months after the hip fracture. METHODS: Among a consecutive series of 156 patients, the 116...... duration of municipal rehabilitation and outcome, also at four months. No marked differences in these results were found when subgrouped by pre-fracture level of function as assessed with the Barthel-20 index. CONCLUSIONS: Waiting times from hospital discharge to initiation of municipal rehabilitation...... seems not to correlate with functional level four months after the hip fracture. In contrast, the amount of municipal rehabilitation time does correlate with a better functional level four months after the hip fracture. Furthermore, large-sample studies are warranted to clarify this relationship....

  16. OPTIMAL IMPROVEMENT IN FUNCTION AFTER TOTAL HIP AND KNEE REPLACEMENT: HOW DEEP DO YOU KNOW YOUR PATIENT’S MIND?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, M F; Vicenti, G; Abate, A; Picca, G; Leoncini, V; Lomuscio, M; Casalino, A; Solarino, G; Moretti, B

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and knee causes pain and loss of joint mobility, leading to limitations in physical function. When conservative treatment fails total hip and knee replacement is a cost-effective surgical option. Patients have high expectations regarding functional outcome after these procedures. If such expectations are not met, they may still be dissatisfied with the outcome of a technically successful procedure. Recently, numerous studies reported that psychological factors can influence the outcome of total knee replacement (tkr) and total hip artrhoplasty with total hip replacement (thr). We conducted a prospective study on a consecutive sample of 280 patients affected by hip or knee OA who underwent total joint replacement. At patients’ admission, Harris Hip Score (HHS) and Knee Society Score (KSS) were used to assess pain and function. Furthermore, SF-36, Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (BRIEF-COPE) and the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) were administered. Patients had clinical and radio graphical follow up at 1, 3 and 6 months post-operatively. The HHS and KSS values before surgery showed a linear correlation with both SCL-90-R and MMSE. None of the investigated variables influenced post-operative HHS and KSS scores; however, the improvement of functional scores resulted conditioned by SCL-90-R values, VAS score, schooling and MMSE. Psychological factors and mental status in primary total hip and knee replacement can affect outcome and patient satisfaction. Strategies focused on identification and facing of these conditions must be considered to improve outcome of total replacement.

  17. Predictive factors of hospital stay, mortality and functional recovery after surgery for hip fracture in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja Sierra, T; Bartolomé Martín, I; Rodríguez Solís, J; Bárcena Goitiandia, L; Torralba González de Suso, M; Morales Sanz, M D; Hornillos Calvo, M

    Due to its high prevalence and serious consequences it is very important to be well aware of factors that might be related to medical complications, mortality, hospital stay and functional recovery in elderly patients with hip fracture. A prospective study of a group of 130 patients aged over 75 years admitted for osteoporotic hip fracture. Their medical records, physical and cognitive status prior to the fall, fracture type and surgical treatment, medical complications and functional and social evolution after hospitalization were evaluated. Patients with greater physical disability, more severe cognitive impairment and those who lived in a nursing home before the fracture had worse functional recovery after surgery. Treatment with intravenous iron to reduce transfusions reduced hospital stay and improved walking ability. Infections and heart failure were the most frequent medical complications and were related to a longer hospital stay. The prescription of nutritional supplements for the patients with real indication improved their physical recovery after the hip fracture CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of physical, cognitive and social status prior to hip fracture should be the basis of an individual treatment plan because of its great prognostic value. Multidisciplinary teams with continuous monitoring of medical problems should prevent and treat complications as soon as possible. Intravenous iron and specific nutritional supplements can improve functional recovery six months after hip fracture. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Abdominal muscle function and incisional hernia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, K K; Kjaer, M; Jorgensen, L N

    2014-08-01

    Although ventral incisional hernia (VIH) repair in patients is often evaluated in terms of hernia recurrence rate and health-related quality of life, there is no clear consensus regarding optimal operative treatment based on these parameters. It was proposed that health-related quality of life depends largely on abdominal muscle function (AMF), and the present review thus evaluates to what extent AMF is influenced by VIH and surgical repair. The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for articles following a systematic strategy for inclusion. A total of seven studies described AMF in relation to VIH. Five studies examined AMF using objective isokinetic dynamometers to determine muscle strength, and two studies examined AMF by clinical examination-based muscle tests. Both equipment-related and functional muscle tests exist for use in patients with VIH, but very few studies have evaluated AMF in VIH. There are no randomized controlled studies to describe the impact of VIH repair on AMF, and no optimal surgical treatment in relation to AMF after VIH repair can be advocated for at this time.

  19. Effects of aging on muscle mechanical function and muscle fiber morphology during short-term immobilization and subsequent retraining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars; Aagaard, Per; Justesen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Very little attention has been given to the combined effects of aging and disuse as separate factors causing deterioration in muscle mechanical function. Thus the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 wk of immobilization followed by 4 wk of retraining on knee extensor muscle...... to the deleterious effects of short-term muscle disuse on muscle fiber size and rapid force capacity than YM. Furthermore, OM seems to require longer time to recover and regain rapid muscle force capacity, which may lead to a larger risk of falling in aged individuals after periods of short-term disuse....

  20. Electromiography comparison of distal and proximal lower limb muscle activity patterns during external perturbation in subjects with and without functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Khadijeh; Arab, Amir Massoud; Abdollahi, Iraj; López-López, Daniel; Calvo-Lobo, César

    2017-10-01

    Ankle sprain is one of the most common injuries among athletes and the general population. Most ankle injuries commonly affect the lateral ligament complex. Changes in postural sway and hip abductor muscle strength may be generated after inversion ankle sprain. Therefore, the consequences of ankle injury may affect proximal structures of the lower limb. The aim is to describe and compare the activity patterns of distal and proximal lower limb muscles following external perturbation in individuals with and without functional ankle instability. The sample consisted of 16 women with functional ankle instability and 18 healthy women were recruited to participate in this research. The external perturbation via body jacket using surface electromyography, amplitude and onset of muscle activity of gluteus maximums, gluteus medius, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus was recorded and analyzed during external perturbation. There were differences between the onset of muscles activity due to perturbation direction in the two groups (healthy and functional ankle instability). In the healthy group, there were statistically significant differences in amplitude of proximal muscle activity with distal muscle activity during front perturbation with eyes open and closed. In the functional ankle instability group; there were statistically significant differences in amplitude of proximal muscle activity with distal muscle activity during perturbation of the front and back with eyes open. There were statistically significant differences in the onset of muscle activity and amplitude of muscle activity, with-in and between groups (Pankle instability, activation patterns of the lower limb proximal muscles may be altered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-weight-bearing status compromises the functional level up to 1 yr after hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariza-Vega, Patrocinio; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Kristensen, Morten Tange

    2014-01-01

    , age, health status, and cognitive impairment of the patient were associated negatively with the 1-yr functional outcome (P ≤ 0.03). Prefracture functional level and non-WB status were the strongest determinants of functional level (β = 0.599 and -0.204, respectively; P ... after surgery, in addition to prefracture function, cognitive status, health status, age and fracture type, was found to be an independent predictor of the 1-yr functional outcome in hip fracture patients....

  2. Usability Test of Exercise Games Designed for Rehabilitation of Elderly Patients After Hip Replacement Surgery: Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Ling (Yun); L.P.D.M. ter Meer (Louis); Z. Yumak (Zerrin); R.C. Veltkamp (Remco)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractBACKGROUND: Patients who receive rehabilitation after hip replacement surgery are shown to have increased muscle strength and better functional performance. However, traditional physiotherapy is often tedious and leads to poor adherence. Exercise games, provide ways for increasing

  3. Caspase-12 ablation preserves muscle function in the mdx mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorwood, Catherine; Barton, Elisabeth R.

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating muscle wasting disease caused by mutations in dystrophin. Several downstream consequences of dystrophin deficiency are triggers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, including loss of calcium homeostasis, hypoxia and oxidative stress. During ER stress, misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER lumen and the unfolded protein response (UPR) is triggered, leading to adaptation or apoptosis. We hypothesized that ER stress is heightened in dystrophic muscles and contributes to the pathology of DMD. We observed increases in the ER stress markers BiP and cleaved caspase-4 in DMD patient biopsies, compared with controls, and an increase in multiple UPR pathways in muscles of the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse. We then crossed mdx mice with mice null for caspase-12, the murine equivalent of human caspase-4, which are resistant to ER stress. We found that deleting caspase-12 preserved mdx muscle function, resulting in a 75% recovery of both specific force generation and resistance to eccentric contractions. The compensatory hypertrophy normally found in mdx muscles was normalized in the absence of caspase-12; this was found to be due to decreased fibre sizes, and not to a fibre type shift or a decrease in fibrosis. Fibre central nucleation was not significantly altered in the absence of caspase-12, but muscle fibre degeneration found in the mdx mouse was reduced almost to wild-type levels. In conclusion, we have identified heightened ER stress and abnormal UPR signalling as novel contributors to the dystrophic phenotype. Caspase-4 is therefore a potential therapeutic target for DMD. PMID:24879640

  4. Kinesiophobia, Pain, Muscle Functions, and Functional Performances among Older Persons with Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Azizah Ishak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aims (1 to determine the association between kinesiophobia and pain, muscle functions, and functional performances and (2 to determine whether kinesiophobia predicts pain, muscle functions, and functional performance among older persons with low back pain (LBP. Methods. This is a correlational study, involving 63 institutionalized older persons (age = 70.98±7.90 years diagnosed with LBP. Anthropometric characteristics (BMI and functional performances (lower limb function, balance and mobility, and hand grip strength were measured. Muscle strength (abdominal and back muscle strength was assessed using the Baseline® Mechanical Push/Pull Dynamometer, while muscle control (transverse abdominus and multifidus was measured by using the Pressure Biofeedback Unit. The pain intensity and the level of kinesiophobia were measured using Numerical Rating Scale and Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, respectively. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients and multivariate linear regressions. Results. No significant correlations were found between kinesiophobia and pain and muscle functions (all p>0.05. Kinesiophobia was significantly correlated with mobility and balance (p=0.038, r=0.263. Regressions analysis showed that kinesiophobia was a significant predictor of mobility and balance (p=0.038. Conclusion. We can conclude that kinesiophobia predicted mobility and balance in older persons with LBP. Kinesiophobia should be continuously assessed in clinical settings to recognize the obstacles that may affect patient’s compliance towards a rehabilitation program in older persons with LBP.

  5. Functional Improvement in Geriatric Hip Fractures: Does Vitamin D Deficiency Affect the Functional Outcome of Patients With Surgically Treated Intertrochanteric Hip Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, W R D; Belani, M H; Ramason, R; Naidu, G; Doshi, H K

    2015-09-01

    The "Integrated Care Pathway" for geriatric intertrochanteric (IT) fractures in Singapore's Tan Tock Seng Hospital has shown significant functional recovery in patients' activities of daily living. However, the influence of preoperative vitamin D on functional recovery remains equivocal. This retrospective study therefore aims to determine whether patients with preoperative vitamin D deficiency have poorer functional outcomes. A total of 171 patients who had surgical treatment for IT fractures were recruited in the study. They were categorized into group A (vitamin D deficient) and group B (normal vitamin D). Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score and nutritional parameters including hemoglobin, albumin, and adjusted calcium levels on admission were recorded. The Modified Barthel Index (MBI) score was used to measure functional recovery at the following time intervals: at pre-fall, at discharge after surgery, at 6 months, and at 1-year follow-up. The mean age of both the groups (A: 79.7 years, n = 45; B: 83.0 years, n = 126) was statistically different (P < .05). However, the mean CCI (A: 9.42 and B: 10.13), hemoglobin (A: 12.4 and B 11.1), adjusted calcium (A: 2.39 and B: 2.38), and mean albumin (A: 33.6 and B: 33.0) of the groups were not significantly different. Furthermore, the MBI scores were not significantly different for both groups at preinjury (A: 91.5 and B: 89.4), at discharge (A: 55.2 and B: 58.9), at 6 months (A: 70.9 and B: 75.1), and at 1 year (A: 75.8 and B: 79.4). In our cohort, patients with vitamin D deficiency were younger. However, vitamin D deficiency at time of injury had no significant influence on functional recovery in patients with surgically treated hip fracture in our Integrated Care Pathway. In addition, patients who had a normal vitamin D levels had similar functional scores and improvement postoperatively and at 1 year (A: 82.8% and B: 88.9%).

  6. Hip Abductor Strengthening Improves Physical Function Following Total Knee Replacement: One-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Harikesavan, Karvannan; Chakravarty, Raj D.; Maiya, Arun G; Hegde, Sanjay P.; Y. Shivanna, Shivakumar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Total knee replacement (TKR) is the commonest surgical procedure for patients with severe pain and impaired physical function following end stage knee osteoarthritis. The hip abductors are well renowned in stabilization of the trunk and hip during walking, maintaining the lower limb position, and transferring the forces from the lower limbs to the pelvis. Objective: To assess the efficacy of hip abductor strengthening exercise on functional outcome using performance based outcome ...

  7. Peripheral Nerve Function and Lower Extremity Muscle Power in Older Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ward, Rachel E; Caserotti, Paolo; Faulkner, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether sensorimotor peripheral nerve function is associated with muscle power in community-dwelling older men.......To assess whether sensorimotor peripheral nerve function is associated with muscle power in community-dwelling older men....

  8. Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Function in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Rasmus; Svendsen, Pernille Maj; Skovbro, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps (40 mU/min/m2) and muscle biopsies were performed on 23 women with PCOS (9 lean (body mass index (BMI) 25 kg/m2)) and 17 age- and weight-matched controls (6 lean and 11 obese). Western blotting and high-resolution respirometry was used to determine mitochondrial function. Results......Objective Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with skeletal muscle insulin resistance, which has been linked to decreased mitochondrial function. We measured mitochondrial respiration in lean and obese women with and without PCOS using high-resolution respirometry. Methods...... Insulin sensitivity decreased with PCOS and increasing body weight. Mitochondrial respiration with substrates for complex I and complex I+II were similar in all groups, and PCOS was not associated with a decrease in mitochondrial content as measured by mtDNA/genomicDNA. We found no correlation between...

  9. Biomechanical analysis of psoas major muscle by MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagura, Takeo

    1997-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the biomechanical function of the psoas major muscle. First, we carried out anatomical and function-morphological observation of 2 cadavers (46-year-old man and 86-year-old woman). Second, we reconstituted the three-dimensional geometrical models of the psoas major muscle using MR multi-laminograms of the lumber spine regions from 15 normal adult men. Third, we calculated the moment against the lumber hip joint region and the lumber pelvic region. We also examined, the functional change of the psoas major muscle associated with various positional changes by using the model. The psoas major muscle developed the lateroflection moment and the axial compression force against the lumber vertebra and the anterior shear force against the lower lumber vertebra, and posterior shear force against the pelvic at the iliopubic eminence region. The lateroflection moment is largest at the hip joint. We could find no individual differences of the function in the psoas major muscle and a few change in functional activity by the positional change between the lumber and the hip joint. These results suggest that the psoas major muscle has the function to support and stabilize the lumber by compression force and the pelvic-hip joint by posterior shear force, and also the function as an actuator for the hip joint. These suggest that the psoas major muscle has the sufficient function and structure for human to take orthograde by 2 feet. (K.H.)

  10. Functional Effects of Hyperthyroidism on Cardiac Papillary Muscle in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Furtado Vieira

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Hyperthyroidism is currently recognized to affect the cardiovascular system, leading to a series of molecular and functional changes. However, little is known about the functional influence of hyperthyroidism in the regulation of cytoplasmic calcium and on the sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX in the cardiac muscle. Objectives: To evaluate the functional changes in papillary muscles isolated from animals with induced hyperthyroidism. Methods: We divided 36 Wistar rats into a group of controls and another of animals with hyperthyroidism induced by intraperitoneal T3 injection. We measured in the animals' papillary muscles the maximum contraction force, speed of contraction (+df/dt and relaxation (-df/dt, contraction and relaxation time, contraction force at different concentrations of extracellular sodium, post-rest potentiation (PRP, and contraction force induced by caffeine. Results: In hyperthyroid animals, we observed decreased PRP at all rest times (p < 0.05, increased +df/dt and -df/dt (p < 0.001, low positive inotropic response to decreased concentration of extracellular sodium (p < 0.001, reduction of the maximum force in caffeine-induced contraction (p < 0.003, and decreased total contraction time (p < 0.001. The maximal contraction force did not differ significantly between groups (p = 0.973. Conclusion: We hypothesize that the changes observed are likely due to a decrease in calcium content in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, caused by calcium leakage, decreased expression of NCX, and increased expression of a-MHC and SERCA2.

  11. Functional Effects of Hyperthyroidism on Cardiac Papillary Muscle in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabricio Furtado; Olivoto, Robson Ruiz; Silva, Priscyla Oliveira da; Francisco, Julio Cesar; Fogaça, Rosalvo Tadeu Hochmuller

    2016-12-01

    Hyperthyroidism is currently recognized to affect the cardiovascular system, leading to a series of molecular and functional changes. However, little is known about the functional influence of hyperthyroidism in the regulation of cytoplasmic calcium and on the sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) in the cardiac muscle. To evaluate the functional changes in papillary muscles isolated from animals with induced hyperthyroidism. We divided 36 Wistar rats into a group of controls and another of animals with hyperthyroidism induced by intraperitoneal T3 injection. We measured in the animals' papillary muscles the maximum contraction force, speed of contraction (+df/dt) and relaxation (-df/dt), contraction and relaxation time, contraction force at different concentrations of extracellular sodium, post-rest potentiation (PRP), and contraction force induced by caffeine. In hyperthyroid animals, we observed decreased PRP at all rest times (p < 0.05), increased +df/dt and -df/dt (p < 0.001), low positive inotropic response to decreased concentration of extracellular sodium (p < 0.001), reduction of the maximum force in caffeine-induced contraction (p < 0.003), and decreased total contraction time (p < 0.001). The maximal contraction force did not differ significantly between groups (p = 0.973). We hypothesize that the changes observed are likely due to a decrease in calcium content in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, caused by calcium leakage, decreased expression of NCX, and increased expression of a-MHC and SERCA2.

  12. Alfacalcidol improves muscle power, muscle function and balance in elderly patients with reduced bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacht, E; Ringe, Johann D

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of daily therapy with 1 mcg alfacalcidol (Doss(®)-TEVA/AWD-pharma) on muscle power, muscle function, balance performance and fear of falls in an open, multi-centered, uncontrolled, prospective study on a cohort of patients with reduced bone mass. Among the 2,097 participants, 87.1% were post-menopausal women and 12.9% were men. Mean age was 74.8 years and mean body mass index (BMI) 26.3 kg/m². A total of 75.3% of the study population had osteoporosis, 81% a diagnosis of "increased risk of falls" and 70.1% had a creatinine clearance (CrCl) of power tests at onset and after 3 and 6 months: the timed up and go test (TUG) and the chair rising test (CRT). At baseline and after 6 months, participants performed the tandem gait test (TGT) and filled out a questionnaire evaluating fear of falling. Successful performance in the muscle tests is associated with a significantly lower risk of falls and non-vertebral fractures in elderly patients (successful test performance: TUG ≤ 10 s (sec), CRT ≤ 10 s, TGT ≥ 8 steps). A significant improvement in the performance of the two muscle tests was proved already after 3 months of treatment with alfacalcidol and further increased by the end of the therapeutic intervention. There were significant increases in the number of participants able to successfully perform the tests: 24.6% at baseline and 46.3% at the end of trial for the TUG (P balance test (TGT) increased from 36.0% at onset to 58.6% at the end of the trial (P power, muscle function and balance and reduces fear of falls. The significant improvement in the three muscle and balance tests and fear of falls may have a preventative effect on falls and fractures. We suggest that the quantitative risk tests used in this study could be reliable surrogate parameters for the risk of falls and fractures in elderly patients.

  13. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES OF HIP ARTHROSCOPY IN AN ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY POPULATION UTILIZING A CRITERION-BASED EARLY WEIGHT BEARING PROGRESSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, K Aaron; Jacobs, Jeremy M; Evanson, J Richard; Pniewski, Josh; Dickston, Michelle L; Mueller, Terry; Bojescul, John A

    2017-10-01

    Hip arthroscopy allows surgeons to address intra-articular pathology of the hip while avoiding more invasive open surgical dislocation. However the post-operative rehabilitation protocols have varied greatly in the literature, with many having prolonged periods of limited motion and weight bearing. The purpose of this study was to describe a criterion-based early weight bearing protocol following hip arthroscopy and investigate functional outcomes in the subjects who were active duty military. Active duty personnel undergoing hip arthroscopy for symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement were prospectively assessed in a controlled environment for the ability to incorporate early postoperative weight-bearing with the following criteria: no increased pain complaint with weight bearing and normalized gait pattern. Modified Harris Hip (HHS) and Hip Outcome score (HOS) were performed preoperatively and at six months post-op. Participants were progressed with a standard hip arthroscopy protocol. Hip flexion was limited to not exceed 90 degrees for the first three weeks post-op, with progression back to running beginning at three months. Final discharge was dependent upon the ability to run two miles at military specified pace and do a single leg broad jump within six inches of the contralateral leg without an increase in pain. Eleven participants met inclusion criteria over the study period. Crutch use was discontinued at an average of five days following surgery based on established weight bearing criteria. Only one participant required continued crutch use at 15 days. Participants' functional outcome was improved postoperatively, as demonstrated by significant increases in HOS and HHS. At the six month follow up, eight of 11 participants were able to take and complete a full Army Physical Fitness Test. Following completion of the early weight bearing rehabilitation protocol, 81% of participants were able to progress to full weight bearing by four days post

  14. Effects of acupuncture on symptoms and muscle function in delayed-onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübscher, Markus; Vogt, Lutz; Bernhörster, Marcus; Rosenhagen, Andreas; Banzer, Winfried

    2008-10-01

    This study was done to investigate the effects of a standardized acupuncture treatment on symptoms and muscle function in exercise-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). A prospective, randomized, controlled, observer and subject-blinded trial was undertaken. Twenty-two (22) healthy subjects (22-30 years; 10 males and 12 females) were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: real acupuncture (deep needling at classic acupuncture points and tender points; n = 7), sham-acupuncture (superficial needling at nonacupuncture points; n = 8), and control (no needling; n = 7). DOMS of the nondominant elbow-flexors was experimentally induced through eccentric contractions until exhaustion. The outcome measures were pain perception (visual analogue scale; VAS; range: 0-10 cm), mechanical pain threshold (MPT; pressure algometer), and maximum isometric voluntary force (MIVF; force transducer). Treatment was applied immediately, 24 and 48 hours after DOMS induction. Measurements of MPT and MIVF were made prior to DOMS induction as well as before and after every treatment session. VAS data were acquired after DOMS induction as well as pre- and post-treatment. Final pain, MPT, and MIVF measurements were performed 72 hours after DOMS induction. Following nonparametric testing, there were no significant differences between groups in outcome measures at baseline. After 72 hours, pain perception (VAS) was significantly lower in the acupuncture group compared to the sham acupuncture and control subjects. However, the mean MPT and MIVF scores were not significantly different between groups. Although acupuncture seemed to have no effects on mechanical pain threshold and muscle function, it proved to reduce perceived pain arising from exercise-induced muscle soreness.

  15. Effects of aging on muscle mechanical function and muscle fiber morphology during short-term immobilization and subsequent retraining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars; Aagaard, Per; Justesen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    to the deleterious effects of short-term muscle disuse on muscle fiber size and rapid force capacity than YM. Furthermore, OM seems to require longer time to recover and regain rapid muscle force capacity, which may lead to a larger risk of falling in aged individuals after periods of short-term disuse.......Very little attention has been given to the combined effects of aging and disuse as separate factors causing deterioration in muscle mechanical function. Thus the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 wk of immobilization followed by 4 wk of retraining on knee extensor muscle...... mechanical function (e.g., maximal strength and rapid force capacity) and muscle fiber morphology in 9 old (OM: 67.3 ± 1.3 yr) and 11 young healthy men (YM: 24.4 ± 0.5 yr) with comparable levels of physical activity. Following immobilization, OM demonstrated markedly larger decreases in rapid force capacity...

  16. New function of the myostatin/activin type I receptor (ALK4) as a mediator of muscle atrophy and muscle regeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasteuning-Vuhman, S.; Boertje-van der Meulen, J.; van Putten, M.; Overzier, M.; ten Dijke, P; Kiełbasa, S.M.; Arindrarto, W.; Wolterbeek, R.; Lezhnina, K.V.; Ozerov, I.V.; Aliper, A.M.; Hoogaars, W.; Aartsma-Rus, A; Loomans, C.J.

    Skeletal muscle fibrosis and impaired muscle regeneration are major contributors to muscle wasting in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Muscle growth is negatively regulated by myostatin (MSTN) and activins. Blockage of these pathways may improve muscle quality and function in DMD. Antisense

  17. Muscle function in aged women in response to a water-based exercises program and progressive resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Paulo Cesar Barauce; Rodacki, André Luiz Felix

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of a water-based exercise program on muscle function compared with regular high-intensity resistance training. Older women (n = 87) were recruited from the local community. The inclusion criteria were, to be aged 60 years or older, able to walk and able to carry out daily living activities independently. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: water-based exercises (WBG), resistance training (RTG) or control (CG). The experimental groups carried out 12 weeks of an excise program performed on water or on land. The dynamic strength, the isometric peak, and rate of torque development for the lower limbs were assessed before and after interventions. The water-based program provided a similar improvement in dynamic strength in comparison with resistance training. The isometric peak torque increased around the hip and ankle joints in the water-based group, and around the knee joint in the resistance-training group (P water-based group around the hip extensors muscles (P Water-based programs constitute an attractive alternative to promote relevant strength gains using moderate loads and fast speed movements, which were also effective to improve the capacity to generate fast torques. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  18. Postoperative anemia and early functional outcomes after fast-track hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Øivind; Bandholm, Thomas; Kurbegovic, Sorel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative anemia is prevalent in fast-track hip arthroplasty (THA) where patients are mobilized and discharged early, but whether anemia impairs functional recovery after discharge has not been adequately evaluated previously. This study aimed to evaluate whether postoperative...... anemia influenced recovery of mobility and quality of life (Qol) during the first 2 weeks after discharge from THA. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a prospective observational study in 122 THA patients more than 65 years of age. Mobility and Qol were assessed pre- and postoperatively by the 6-minute...... walk test (6MWT; primary outcome), the timed up-and-go test, and the FACT-anemia subscale. Twenty-four-hour mobility at home was assessed by activity monitoring on Days 1 to 6 after discharge. Hemoglobin (Hb) at discharge (HbD) and the Hb decrease from preoperatively (ΔHb) were compared to mobility...

  19. The Fate of Iliopsoas Muscle in the Long-term Follow-up After Open Reduction of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip by Medial Approach. Part 1: MRI Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Serdar; Aksahin, Ertugrul; Duran, Semra; Bicimoglu, Ali

    2017-09-01

    There has been little information about the long-term status of the iliopsoas, which is the main flexor of the hip, after iliopsoas tenotomy in the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The aim of this study was to assess the status of the iliopsoas muscle and other flexors and extensors of the hip in long-term follow-up with magnetic resonance imaging after complete iliopsoas tenotomy in patients with unilateral DDH treated with open reduction with a medial approach. The study included 20 patients who underwent open reduction with a medial approach for unilateral DDH and had long-term follow-up. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of iliopsoas, rectus femoris, tensor fasia lata, sartorius, and gluteus maximus muscles was applied and the muscles of the hip that was operated on were compared with the unoperated hip. In addition, the iliopsoas muscle was examined for reattachment and the effect of reattachment was evaluated. The mean age at the time of operation was 10.53±3.61 months (range, 5 to 18 mo), and mean follow-up was 16.65±2.16 years (range, 13 to 20 y). Spontaneous reattachment of the iliopsoas was observed in 18 patients (90%), either in the lesser trochanter (65%) or the superior part of it (25%). There was no significant difference between the hips that were operated on and those that were not with regard to the mean cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the tensor fascia lata, rectus femoris, sartorius, and gluteus maximus muscles. The CSA of the tensor fascia lata, rectus femoris, sartorius, and gluteus maximus muscles showed no significant difference (P>0.05); however, CSA of iliopsoas muscle was significantly reduced in the operated hip (P<0.001). Although the iliopsoas tendon was atrophied after complete iliopsoas tenotomy, it was reattached in 90% of the patients spontaneously in long-term follow-up. There was no statistically significant compensatory hypertrophy in any muscles in response to iliopsoas atrophy. Level IV-Therapeutic.

  20. Measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in hip and knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobson, F.; Hinman, R.S.; Leverstein-van Hall, M.A.; Terwee, C.B.; Roos, E.M.; Bennell, K.L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To systematically review the measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in people with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: Electronic searches were performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO up to the end of June 2012. Two reviewers

  1. Magnetic-resonance-imaging-based three-dimensional muscle reconstruction of hip abductor muscle volume in a person with a transfemoral bone-anchored prosthesis : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijendekkers, Ruud A.; Marra, Marco A.; Ploegmakers, Marieke J.M.; Van Hinte, Gerben; Frölke, Jan Paul; Van De Meent, Hendrik; Staal, J. Bart; Hoogeboom, Thomas J.; Verdonschot, Nico

    2018-01-01

    Background: Persons with transfemoral amputation typically have severe muscle atrophy of the residual limb. The effect of bone-anchored prosthesis use on existing muscle atrophy is unknown. A potentially feasible method to evaluate this is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based three-dimensional

  2. The use of clinical analysis of movements in evaluation of motor functional status of patients after total hip replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romakina N.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to estimate functional status of coxarthrosis in patients requiring total hip replacement of the two hip joints. Material and methods. The biomechanical examination of 94 patients with bilateral primary coxarthrosis before and after total hip replacement was performed using clinical stabilometric software complex. The ability to perceive the mechanical load during standing and walking was evaluated at different stages of the treatment. The difference between the samples was estimated with the use of Mann — Whitney U-test. The rank correlation of biomechanical parameters was measured by Spearman coefficient. Results. It was revealed that the most responsive indicators are the transfer period, the first and second periods of double support and the deviation of the center of pressure relative to the average position in the frontal plane. Conclusion. After surgical treatment there was observed some improvement: the-left-and-right-step asymmetry decrease, rhythm rate increase, improved ability to maintain body balance, jog reactions increase.

  3. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle extracellular matrix with aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, T W; Kjaer, M; Mackey, A L

    2011-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle is critical for force transmission and for the passive elastic response of skeletal muscle. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the deterioration in muscle mechanical properties with aging....... Structural changes include an increase in the collagen concentration, a change in the elastic fiber system, and an increase in fat infiltration of skeletal muscle. Biochemical changes include a decreased turnover of collagen with potential accumulation of enzymatically mediated collagen cross...

  4. Relationship between Muscle Function, Muscle Typology and Postural Performance According to Different Postural Conditions in Young and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Although motor output of the postural function clearly influences postural performance in young and older subjects, no relationship has been formally established between them. However, the relationship between lower-extremity muscle strength/power and postural performance is often pointed out, especially in older subjects. In fact, the influence of motor output may vary according to the postural condition considered (e.g., static, dynamic, challenging, disturbing). In static postural condition, there may be a relationship between lower-extremity muscle strength and postural performance when the value of muscle strength is below a certain threshold in older subjects. Above this threshold of muscle strength, this relationship may disappear. In dynamic postural condition, lower-extremity muscle power could facilitate compensatory postural actions, limiting induced body imbalance likely to generate falls in older subjects. In young subjects, there could be a relationship between very early rapid torque of the leg extensor muscles and postural performance. In the case of postural reaction to (external) perturbations, a high percentage of type II muscle fibers could be associated with the ability to react quickly to postural perturbations in young subjects, while it may enable a reduction in the risk of falls in older subjects. In practice, in older subjects, muscle strength and/or power training contributes to reducing the risk of falls, as well as slowing down the involution of muscle typology regarding type II muscle fibers.

  5. Muscle activation levels of the gluteus maximus and medius during standing hip-joint strengthening exercises using elastic-tubing resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdas, James W; Adams, Kady E; Bertucci, John E; Brooks, Koel J; Nelson, Meghan M; Hollman, John H

    2014-02-01

    No published studies have compared muscle activation levels simultaneously for the gluteus maximus and medius muscles of stance and moving limbs during standing hip-joint strengthening while using elastic-tubing resistance. To quantify activation levels bilaterally of the gluteus maximus and medius during resisted lower-extremity standing exercises using elastic tubing for the cross-over, reverse cross-over, front-pull, and back-pull exercise conditions. Repeated measures. Laboratory. 26 active and healthy people, 13 men (25 ± 3 y) and 13 women (24 ± 1 y). Subjects completed 3 consecutive repetitions of lower-extremity exercises in random order. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were normalized to peak activity in the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) trial and expressed as a percentage. Magnitudes of EMG recruitment were analyzed with a 2 × 4 repeated-measures ANOVA for each muscle (α = .05). For the gluteus maximus an interaction between exercise and limb factor was significant (F3,75 = 21.5; P tubing.

  6. Self-organization of muscle cell structure and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grosberg

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The organization of muscle is the product of functional adaptation over several length scales spanning from the sarcomere to the muscle bundle. One possible strategy for solving this multiscale coupling problem is to physically constrain the muscle cells in microenvironments that potentiate the organization of their intracellular space. We hypothesized that boundary conditions in the extracellular space potentiate the organization of cytoskeletal scaffolds for directed sarcomeregenesis. We developed a quantitative model of how the cytoskeleton of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes organizes with respect to geometric cues in the extracellular matrix. Numerical results and in vitro assays to control myocyte shape indicated that distinct cytoskeletal architectures arise from two temporally-ordered, organizational processes: the interaction between actin fibers, premyofibrils and focal adhesions, as well as cooperative alignment and parallel bundling of nascent myofibrils. Our results suggest that a hierarchy of mechanisms regulate the self-organization of the contractile cytoskeleton and that a positive feedback loop is responsible for initiating the break in symmetry, potentiated by extracellular boundary conditions, is required to polarize the contractile cytoskeleton.

  7. Self-organization of muscle cell structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosberg, Anna; Kuo, Po-Ling; Guo, Chin-Lin; Geisse, Nicholas A; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Adams, William J; Sheehy, Sean P; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2011-02-01

    The organization of muscle is the product of functional adaptation over several length scales spanning from the sarcomere to the muscle bundle. One possible strategy for solving this multiscale coupling problem is to physically constrain the muscle cells in microenvironments that potentiate the organization of their intracellular space. We hypothesized that boundary conditions in the extracellular space potentiate the organization of cytoskeletal scaffolds for directed sarcomeregenesis. We developed a quantitative model of how the cytoskeleton of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes organizes with respect to geometric cues in the extracellular matrix. Numerical results and in vitro assays to control myocyte shape indicated that distinct cytoskeletal architectures arise from two temporally-ordered, organizational processes: the interaction between actin fibers, premyofibrils and focal adhesions, as well as cooperative alignment and parallel bundling of nascent myofibrils. Our results suggest that a hierarchy of mechanisms regulate the self-organization of the contractile cytoskeleton and that a positive feedback loop is responsible for initiating the break in symmetry, potentiated by extracellular boundary conditions, is required to polarize the contractile cytoskeleton.

  8. Fish axial muscle : structure-function relationships on a micro-level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierts, I.L.Y.

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses some examples of strong correlations between functions and structures in axial fish muscle on a micro-level. Muscle tissue needs a certain elasticity to cope with the diverse functional requirements necessary for swimming. During fast-starts of carp, muscles can be stretched up

  9. Relationship Between Functional Mobility and Balance and Dependency in Activity of Daily Living in Elderly After “Hip Arthroplasty”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hassan Mirzaie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate correlation between functional mobility with balance and dependency in activity of daily living in elderly after “hip arthroplasty” (HA and its comparison with healthy subjects. Methods & Materials: The current cross-sectional study was done on 15 patients with age mean and standard deviation (72±9.6 with hip osteoarthritis 6 months after “hip arthroplasty” (HA and 15 healthy subjects with age mean and standard deviation (72.7±1.4 as control group. Patient group was assigned with non- probability convenient sampling and control group selected with matched assignment. Functional mobility measured with Timed Up & Go Test (TUG, functional balance with Functional Reach (FR and Berg Balance Scale (BBS and dependency in activity of daily living measured with Modified Barthel Index (MBI. Pearsons correlation coefficient used for stastistical analysis. Results: Results of this study indicated significantly and stronge correlation between functional mobility and balance and dependency in activity of daily living in patient group (r>0.50. Also medium correlation existed between functional mobility and balance with dependency in activity of daily living in control group (r>0.30. Conclusion: Functional mobility and balance and dependency in activity of daily living in the elderly who had HA showed significant positive correlation. In addition correlation between functional mobility and balance and dependency in activity of daily living in patient group is better and higher than healthy group.

  10. A three-dimensional study of the musculotendinous and neurovascular architecture of the gracilis muscle: application to functional muscle transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, A Y; Ravichandiran, K; Zuker, R M; Agur, A M R

    2013-09-01

    Muscle transfer is used to restore function typically using a single vector of contraction. Although its use with two independently functional muscular units has been employed, in order to refine this concept we endeavoured to detail the intramuscular anatomy of gracilis, a muscle commonly used for transfer. A novel method to capture intramuscular fibre bundle and neurovascular arrangement was used to create a three-dimensional (3D) digital model that allowed for accurate representation of the relationships between all the intramuscular structures to facilitate flap planning. Twenty gracilis muscles were harvested from 15 cadavers. All components of the muscle were digitised using a Microscribe G2 Digitiser. The data were exported to the 3D animation software Autodesk(®) Maya(®) 2012 whereupon it was rendered into a 3D model that can be exported as static images or videos. Neurovascular anatomy and muscle architecture were analysed from these models, and fibre bundle length, pennation angle and physiological cross-sectional area were calculated from digitised data. The muscle is composed of a variable number of distinct longitudinal segments with muscle fibres spiralling onto the tendon. The main artery to the muscle has three main intramuscular patterns of distribution. The venae comitantes drain discrete zones without intramuscular macroscopic anastomoses. The minor pedicles form an anastomotic chain along the anterior border of the muscle and all vessels were biased to the deep surface. The nerve is related to the vessels in a variable manner and both run between longitudinal muscular compartments. The digitisation technique may be used to advance knowledge of intramuscular architecture and it demonstrated that the gracilis muscle is comprised of four to seven muscular compartments, each representing a functional unit that may theoretically be differentially activated and could be harnessed for more sophisticated muscle transfers. Copyright © 2013 British

  11. Do hip muscle weakness and dynamic knee valgus matter for the clinical evaluation and decision-making process in patients with patellofemoral pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Nayra Deise Dos Anjos; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia

    Patellofemoral pain is a very common musculoskeletal condition. In the last years, evidence regarding this disease increased exponentially. Although widely investigated, this problem still frustrates patients and clinicians for having an unfavorable prognosis. Some gaps still exist in the understanding and managing of patellofemoral pain. Numerous cross-sectional association studies show an association between gluteus muscular strength and dynamic knee valgus in patients with patellofemoral pain. In spite of this biological plausibility, many evidences challenge the direct relationship between these factors. Recent studies have concluded that women with patellofemoral pain show muscular weakness of the hip based on the cross-sectional studies, however prospective studies indicate that hip weakness cannot be considered a risk for development of patellofemoral pain. In addition, some clinical trials have demonstrated that strength training of the gluteal muscles promotes significant improvement in symptoms but not alter the kinematics of the patients with patellofemoral pain. These findings cast doubt on whether the cause of this condition is really being treated, whether all individuals suffering from patellofemoral pain present dynamic knee valgus or if this is a disturbance present in only a subgroup of patients and whether the strengthening of the hip musculature is an option to consider for prevention of patellofemoral pain. Certainly, more studies should be conducted to clarify the influence of mechanical patterns on this condition, but with the existing evidence so far, the importance given to these issues in the evaluation and clinical decision on treatment of these patients seems questionable. Therefore, this masterclass explores the understanding about patellofemoral pain, highlighting mainly the importance of muscular strength and dynamic knee valgus, as well as other possible factors that must be consider during the evaluation and the decision making in

  12. Effects of protein supplements on muscle damage, soreness and recovery of muscle function and physical performance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Lieberman, Harris R; McLellan, Tom M

    2014-05-01

    Protein supplements are frequently consumed by athletes and recreationally-active individuals, although the decision to purchase and consume protein supplements is often based on marketing claims rather than evidence-based research. To provide a systematic and comprehensive analysis of literature examining the hypothesis that protein supplements enhance recovery of muscle function and physical performance by attenuating muscle damage and soreness following a previous bout of exercise. English language articles were searched with PubMed and Google Scholar using protein and supplements together with performance, exercise, competition and muscle, alone or in combination as keywords. Inclusion criteria required studies to recruit healthy adults less than 50 years of age and to evaluate the effects of protein supplements alone or in combination with carbohydrate on performance metrics including time-to-exhaustion, time-trial or isometric or isokinetic muscle strength and markers of muscle damage and soreness. Twenty-seven articles were identified of which 18 dealt exclusively with ingestion of protein supplements to reduce muscle damage and soreness and improve recovery of muscle function following exercise, whereas the remaining 9 articles assessed muscle damage as well as performance metrics during single or repeat bouts of exercise. Papers were evaluated based on experimental design and examined for confounders that explain discrepancies between studies such as dietary control, training state of participants, sample size, direct or surrogate measures of muscle damage, and sensitivity of the performance metric. High quality and consistent data demonstrated there is no apparent relationship between recovery of muscle function and ratings of muscle soreness and surrogate markers of muscle damage when protein supplements are consumed prior to, during or after a bout of endurance or resistance exercise. There also appears to be insufficient experimental data

  13. Hip, Hip, Soret!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Plathe, Florian

    Many years ago, Ludwig did detect the behaviour now called the Soret effect. Sodium sulphate in eighteen-fifty-six did not obediently follow Fick's first law. But if he cooled down one side the salt went left, the water to the right. He was surprised in every way. Hip, hip, Soret!

  14. Muscle Functional Morphology in Paleobiology: The Past, Present, and Future of "Paleomyology".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jonathan M G; Prufrock, Kristen A

    2018-03-01

    Our knowledge of muscle anatomy and physiology in vertebrates has increased dramatically over the last two-hundred years. Today, much is understood about how muscles contract and about the functional meaning of muscular variation at multiple scales. Progress in muscle anatomy has profited from the availability of broad comparative samples, advances in microscopy have permitted comparisons at increasingly finer scales, and progress in muscle physiology has profited from many carefully designed and executed experiments. Several avenues of future work are promising. In particular, muscle ontogeny (growth and development) is poorly understood for many vertebrate groups. We consider which types of advances in muscle functional morphology are of use to paleobiologists. These are only a modest subset for muscle anatomy and a very small subset for muscle physiology. The relationship between muscle and bone - spatially and mechanically-is critical to any future advances in "paleomyology". Anat Rec, 301:538-555, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Thigh and knee circumference, knee-extension strength, and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Husted, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To (1) quantify changes in knee-extension strength and functional-performance at discharge after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA) and (2) investigate whether these changes correlate to changes in thigh and knee circumference (ie, swelling) or pain. DESIGN: A prospective, descrip......OBJECTIVE: To (1) quantify changes in knee-extension strength and functional-performance at discharge after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA) and (2) investigate whether these changes correlate to changes in thigh and knee circumference (ie, swelling) or pain. DESIGN: A prospective......, descriptive, hypothesis-generating study. SETTING: A special unit for fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty operations at a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four patients (20 women and 4 men; ages 69 ± 6.1 years) scheduled for primary unilateral THA. METHODS: All patients were evaluated before surgery......, except for hip pain. The average loss in knee-extension strength after surgery (32%, P = .01) did not correlate with increased thigh circumference (6%, P

  16. Functional compartmentalization of the human superficial masseter muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A Guzmán-Venegas

    Full Text Available Some muscles have demonstrated a differential recruitment of their motor units in relation to their location and the nature of the motor task performed; this involves functional compartmentalization. There is little evidence that demonstrates the presence of a compartmentalization of the superficial masseter muscle during biting. The aim of this study was to describe the topographic distribution of the activity of the superficial masseter (SM muscle's motor units using high-density surface electromyography (EMGs at different bite force levels. Twenty healthy natural dentate participants (men: 4; women: 16; age 20±2 years; mass: 60±12 kg, height: 163±7 cm were selected from 316 volunteers and included in this study. Using a gnathodynamometer, bites from 20 to 100% maximum voluntary bite force (MVBF were randomly requested. Using a two-dimensional grid (four columns, six electrodes located on the dominant SM, EMGs in the anterior, middle-anterior, middle-posterior and posterior portions were simultaneously recorded. In bite ranges from 20 to 60% MVBF, the EMG activity was higher in the anterior than in the posterior portion (p-value = 0.001.The center of mass of the EMG activity was displaced towards the posterior part when bite force increased (p-value = 0.001. The topographic distribution of EMGs was more homogeneous at high levels of MVBF (p-value = 0.001. The results of this study show that the superficial masseter is organized into three functional compartments: an anterior, a middle and a posterior compartment. However, this compartmentalization is only seen at low levels of bite force (20-60% MVBF.

  17. Functional coordination of muscles underlying changes in behavioural dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernooij, Carlijn A; Rao, Guillaume; Perdikis, Dionysios; Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K; Temprado, Jean-Jacques

    2016-06-10

    The dynamical systems approach addresses Bernstein's degrees of freedom problem by assuming that the neuro-musculo-skeletal system transiently assembles and dismantles its components into functional units (or synergies) to meet task demands. Strikingly, little is known from a dynamical point of view about the functioning of the muscular sub-system in this process. To investigate the interaction between the dynamical organisation at muscular and behavioural levels, we searched for specific signatures of a phase transition in muscular coordination when a transition is displayed at the behavioural level. Our results provide evidence that, during Fitts' task when behaviour switches to a different dynamical regime, muscular activation displays typical signatures of a phase transition; a reorganisation in muscular coordination patterns accompanied by a peak in the variability of muscle activation. This suggests that consistent changes occur in coordination processes across the different levels of description (i.e., behaviour and muscles). Specifically, in Fitts' task, target size acts as a control parameter that induces a destabilisation and a reorganisation of coordination patterns at different levels of the neuro-musculo-skeletal system.

  18. Muscle cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower leg/calf Back of the thigh (hamstrings) Front of the thigh (quadriceps) Cramps in the ... Names Cramps - muscle Images Chest stretch Groin stretch Hamstring stretch Hip stretch Thigh stretch Triceps stretch References ...

  19. In hip osteoarthritis, Nordic Walking is superior to strength training and home based exercise for improving function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, T.; Siersma, Volkert; Magnusson, S. P.

    2017-01-01

    in 60+-year-old persons (n = 152) with hip osteoarthritis (OA) not awaiting hip replacement. Functional performance [i.e., 30-s chair stand test (primary outcome), timed stair climbing, and 6-min walk test] and self-reported outcomes (i.e., physical function, pain, physical activity level, self-efficacy......This observer-blinded, randomized controlled trial compared the short- and long-term effects of 4 months of supervised strength training (ST) in a local fitness center, supervised Nordic Walking (NW) in a local park, and unsupervised home-based exercise (HBE, control) on functional performance...... activity and to both ST and HBE for improving (P exercise modality compared with ST and HBE....

  20. Effect of isometric quadriceps exercise on muscle strength, pain, and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of isometric quadriceps exercise on muscle strength, pain, and function in knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Outpatients (N=42, 21 per group; age range 40-65 years; 13 men and 29 women) with osteoarthritis of the knee participated in the study. The experimental group performed isometric exercises including isometric quadriceps, straight leg raising, and isometric hip adduction exercise 5 days a week for 5 weeks, whereas the control group did not performed any exercise program. The outcome measures or dependent variables selected for this study were pain intensity, isometric quadriceps strength, and knee function. These variables were measured using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), strength gauge device, and reduced WOMAC index, respectively. All the measurements were taken at baseline (week 0) and at the end of the trial at week 5. [Results] In between-group comparisons, the maximum isometric quadriceps strength, reduction in pain intensity, and improvement in function in the isometric exercise group at the end of the 5th week were significantly greater than those of the control group (pisometric quadriceps exercise program showed beneficial effects on quadriceps muscle strength, pain, and functional disability in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

  1. The Changes of Muscle Strength and Functional Activities During Aging in Male and Female Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Jung Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: We noted that the muscle strength and functional activities were decreased earlier in female than male individuals. The decrease of functional activities during the aging process seems to be earlier than the decrease of muscle strength. It is important to implement functional activities training in addition to strengthening exercise to maintain functional levels of the geriatric population.

  2. Relationship between muscle strength and motor function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene F. Nunes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Measuring muscle strength and motor function is part of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD assessment. However, the relationship between these variables is controversial. Objective To investigate the relationship between muscle strength and motor function and between these variables and age. Method Muscle strength was measured by Medical Research Council (MRC scale and motor function, by Motor Function Measure (MFM, in 40 non-ambulatory patients. Spearman tests investigated the relationships between muscle strength, motor function and age. Results Total MRC and MFM scores were strongly related to each other (r = 0.94; p 0.05. Strong and moderate relationships between partial muscle strength and motor function scores were found. Higher correlation coefficients were found between total scores and Dimensions 2 (axial/ proximal control and 3 (distal control of MFM. Conclusion Muscle strength and motor function are strongly correlated and seem to decrease proportionally in DMD.

  3. HAMSTRING ARCHITECTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ADAPTATIONS FOLLOWING LONG VS. SHORT MUSCLE LENGTH ECCENTRIC TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Guex

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most common preventive eccentric-based exercises, such as Nordic hamstring do not include any hip flexion. So, the elongation stress reached is lower than during the late swing phase of sprinting. The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of hamstring architectural (fascicle length and pennation angle and functional (concentric and eccentric optimum angles and concentric and eccentric peak torques parameters following a 3-week eccentric resistance program performed at long (LML versus short muscle length (SML. Both groups performed eight sessions of 3-5x8 slow maximal eccentric knee extensions on an isokinetic dynamometer: the SML group at 0° and the LML group at 80° of hip flexion. Architectural parameters were measured using ultrasound imaging and functional parameters using the isokinetic dynamometer. The fascicle length increased by 4.9% (p<0.01, medium effect size in the SML and by 9.3% (p<0.001, large effect size in the LML group. The pennation angle did not change (p=0.83 in the SML and tended to decrease by 0.7° (p=0.09, small effect size in the LML group. The concentric optimum angle tended to decrease by 8.8° (p=0.09, medium effect size in the SML and by 17.3° (p<0.01, large effect size in the LML group. The eccentric optimum angle did not change (p=0.19, small effect size in the SML and tended to decrease by 10.7° (p=0.06, medium effect size in the LML group. The concentric peak torque did not change in the SML (p=0.37 and the LML (p=0.23 groups, whereas eccentric peak torque increased by 12.9% (p<0.01, small effect size and 17.9% (p<0.001, small effect size in the SML and the LML group, respectively. No group-by-time interaction was found for any parameters. A correlation was found between the training-induced change in fascicle length and the change in concentric optimum angle (r=-0.57, p<0.01. These results suggest that performing eccentric exercises lead to several architectural and functional adaptations. However

  4. Training-induced changes in muscle CSA,muscle strength, EMG and rate of force development in elderly subjects after long-term unilateral disuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte; Aagaard, Per; Rosted, Anne

    2004-01-01

    , maximal isometric strength, RFD, and muscle activation in elderly men and women recovering from long-term muscle disuse and subsequent hip surgery. The improvement in both muscle mass and neural function is likely to have important functional implications for elderly individuals........ Thirty subjects completed the trial. In the strength-training group, significant increases were observed in maximal isometric muscle strength (24%, P impulse (27-32%, P

  5. Total hip arthroplasty outcomes assessment using functional and radiographic scores to compare canine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, D; Broun, H C; Black, A P; Preston, C A; Anderson, G I

    2008-01-01

    A retrospective multi-centre study was carried out in order to compare outcomes between cemented and uncemented total hip arthoplasties (THA). A quantitative orthopaedic outcome assessment scoring system was devised in order to relate functional outcome to a numerical score, to allow comparison between treatments and amongst centres. The system combined a radiographic score and a clinical score. Lower scores reflect better outcomes than higher scores. Consecutive cases of THA were included from two specialist practices between July 2002 and December 2005. The study included 46 THA patients (22 uncemented THA followed for 8.3 +/- 4.7M and 24 cemented THA for 26.0 +/- 15.7M) with a mean age of 4.4 +/- 3.3 years at surgery. Multi-variable linear and logistical regression analyses were performed with adjustments for age at surgery, surgeon, follow-up time, uni- versus bilateral disease, gender and body weight. The differences between treatment groups in terms of functional scores or total scores were not significant (p > 0.05). Radiographic scores were different between treatment groups. However, these scores were usually assessed within two months of surgery and proved unreliable predictors of functional outcome (p > 0.05). The findings reflect relatively short-term follow-up, especially for the uncemented group, and do not include clinician-derived measures, such as goniometry and thigh circumference. Longer-term follow-up for the radiographic assessments is essential. A prospective study including the clinician-derived outcomes needs to be performed in order to validate the outcome instrument in its modified form.

  6. Association between coping skills, past injury and hip pain and function in adolescent elite female ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, Jessica L; Stracciolini, Andrea; Griffith, Kelsey L; D'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Owen, Michael; Sugimoto, Dai

    2018-01-18

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between coping skills and current hip pain and function scores in ballet dancers. Secondly, we examined the relationship between coping skills and past injuries. Thirdly, we investigated the association between past injuries and current pain and function scores. This was a cross-sectional observational study. Twenty-six young elite female dancers (mean age 15.9 years, range 14-17 years) participated. Participants completed surveys indicating past injury history, rating pain and function on the short International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-12), and assessing coping skills on the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory Score (ACSI-28). Independent t-tests, Cohen's d, effect size, chi-square and correlation coefficient and determination analyses were conducted. There was no significant relationship between iHOT-12 scores and ACSI-28 scores (r = -0.250, p = 0.087). There was no significant difference (p = 0.289) in past injuries comparing those with ACSI-28 scores above and below the mean ACSI-28. A significant moderate negative correlation was detected between both iHOT-12 scores and total past injuries (r = -0.609, p < 0.001), and iHOT-12 scores and past non-hip injuries (r = -0.628, p < 0.001). Past injuries may influence current hip pain and function in young female dancers. Correlation determination (r 2 ) indicated that 37% of current pain and function scores were explained by total past injuries in a small group of young high-level ballet dancers. Further research should engage a prospective design to investigate the predictive ability of findings.

  7. Sensory nerve cross-anastomosis and electrical muscle stimulation synergistically enhance functional recovery of chronically denervated muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willand, Michael P; Holmes, Michael; Bain, James R; de Bruin, Hubert; Fahnestock, Margaret

    2014-11-01

    Long-term muscle denervation leads to severe and irreversible atrophy coupled with loss of force and motor function. These factors contribute to poor functional recovery following delayed reinnervation. The authors' previous work demonstrated that temporarily suturing a sensory nerve to the distal motor stump (called sensory protection) significantly reduces muscle atrophy and improves function following reinnervation. The authors have also shown that 1 month of electrical stimulation of denervated muscle significantly improves function and reduces atrophy. In this study, the authors tested whether a combination of sensory protection and electrical stimulation would enhance functional recovery more than either treatment alone. Rat gastrocnemius muscles were denervated by cutting the tibial nerve. The peroneal nerve was then sutured to the distal tibial stump following 3 months of treatment (i.e., electrical stimulation, sensory protection, or both). Three months after peroneal repair, functional and histologic measurements were taken. All treatment groups had significantly higher muscle weight (pstimulation or sensory protection alone. The combined treatment also produced motor unit counts significantly greater than sensory protection alone (p<0.05). The combination treatment synergistically reduces atrophy and improves reinnervation and functional measures following delayed nerve repair, suggesting that these approaches work through different mechanisms. The authors' research supports the clinical use of both modalities together following peripheral nerve injury.

  8. Could a functional artificial skeletal muscle be useful in muscle wasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, Claudia; Cannata, Stefano; Gargioli, Cesare

    2016-05-01

    Regardless of the underlying cause, skeletal muscle wasting is detrimental for a person's life quality, leading to impaired strength, locomotion, and physiological activity. Here, we propose a series of studies presenting tissue engineering-based approaches to reconstruct artificial muscle in vitro and in vivo. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering is attracting more and more attention from scientists, clinicians, patients, and media, thanks to the promising results obtained in the last decade with animal models of muscle wasting. The use of novel and refined biomimetic scaffolds mimicking three-dimensional muscle environment, thus supporting cell survival and differentiation, in combination with well characterized myogenic stem/progenitor cells, revealed the noteworthy potential of these technologies for creating artificial skeletal muscle tissue. In vitro, the production of three-dimensional muscle structures offer the possibility to generate a drug-screening platform for patient-specific pharmacological treatment, opening new frontiers in the development of new compounds with specific therapeutic actions. In vivo, three-dimensional artificial muscle biomimetic constructs offer the possibility to replace, in part or entirely, wasted muscle by means of straight reconstruction and/or by enhancing endogenous regeneration. Reports of tissue engineering approaches for artificial muscle building appeared in large numbers in the specialized press lately, advocating the suitability of this technology for human application upon scaling up and a near future applicability for medical care of muscle wasting. http://links.lww.com/COCN/A9

  9. Femoral Medialization, Fixation Failures, and Functional Outcome in Trochanteric Hip Fractures Treated With Either a Sliding Hip Screw or an Intramedullary Nail From Within a Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Christopher P; Parker, Martyn J

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if femoral medialization influences residual pain and mobility and to determine if fixation method or fracture pattern influences the tendency to medialize. This study used data from within a randomized controlled trial. Peterborough City Hospital, UK. Eight hundred forty-four patients presenting with a trochanteric hip fracture were randomized. Five hundred thirty-eight were available for 1-year follow-up. Fractures were classified according to OTA/AO classification as 31 A1, A2, and A3. Randomized to fixation with a Targon proximal femoral nail or sliding hip screw (SHS). Femoral medialization was calculated from follow-up x-rays at a minimum of 28 days post-fixation. Pain and mobility scores were assessed at 1 year by an independent blinded observer. Fixation failure and revision procedures were assessed at a minimum of 1 year from injury. Patients with >50% medialization had worse pain (P = 0.012) and mobility scores (P = 0.013) at 1 year. They also had more fracture healing complications (P = 0.021) and required more revision procedures (P = 0.014). Fractures treated with SHS were more likely to medialize >50% compared with intramedullary nail (P fractures were more likely to medialize, and A3 fractures were more likely to undergo >50% medialization (P fractures treated with SHS to undergo femoral medialization and correlates this with worse functional outcomes. It supports the use of intramedullary nails for A3 fractures, which have a significant tendency to medialize. Prognostic level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  10. Muscle fibre types of fishes : structural and functional specialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akster, H.A.

    1984-01-01

    Muscles of fishes are active in a variety of movements that differ in velocity, duration and excursion length. To investigate how muscles meet the, often conflicting, demands imposed upon them by these movements, the fibre type composition of several muscles was determined. The ultrastructural and

  11. Imaging of sports-related hip and groin injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischuk, Andrew W; Dorantes, Thomas M; Wong, William; Haims, Andrew H

    2010-05-01

    A normally functioning hip joint is imperative for athletes who use their lower extremities with running, jumping, or kicking activities. Sports-related injuries of the hip and groin are far less frequent than injuries to the more distal aspect of the extremity, accounting for less than 10% of lower extremity injuries. Despite the lower incidence, hip and groin injuries can lead to significant clinical and diagnostic challenges related to the complex anatomy and biomechanical considerations of this region. Loads up to 8 times normal body weight have been documented in the joint in common daily activities, such as jogging, with significantly greater force expected during competitive athletics. Additionally, treatment for hip and groin injuries can obviate the participation of medical and surgical specialties, with a multidisciplinary approach frequently required. Delay in diagnosis and triage of these injuries may cause loss of time from competition and, potentially, early onset of degenerative changes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the hip has proven to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of sports-related hip and groin injuries in the setting of negative radiographs. With its exquisite soft tissue contrast, multiplanar capabilities, and lack of ionizing radiation, MRI is unmatched in the noninvasive diagnosis of intra-articular and extra-articular pathology, as well as intraosseous processes. This review focuses on MRI of common athletic injuries of the hip and groin, including acetabular labral tears, femoral acetabular impingement syndrome, muscle injuries around the hip and groin (including athletic pubalgia), and athletic osseous injuries.

  12. Extreme Kinematics in Selected Hip Hop Dance Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Shaw; Ojofeitimi, Sheyi; Woo, Helen

    2015-09-01

    Hip hop dance has many styles including breakdance (breaking), house, popping and locking, funk, streetdance, krumping, Memphis jookin', and voguing. These movements combine the complexity of dance choreography with the challenges of gymnastics and acrobatic movements. Despite high injury rates in hip hop dance, particularly in breakdance, to date there are no published biomechanical studies in this population. The purpose of this study was to compare representative hip hop steps found in breakdance (toprock and breaking) and house and provide descriptive statistics of the angular displacements that occurred in these sequences. Six expert female hip hop dancers performed three choreographed dance sequences, top rock, breaking, and house, to standardized music-based tempos. Hip, knee, and ankle kinematics were collected during sequences that were 18 to 30 sec long. Hip, knee, and ankle three-dimensional peak joint angles were compared in repeated measures ANOVAs with post hoc tests where appropriate (pHip hop maximal joint angles exceeded reported activities of daily living and high injury sports such as gymnastics. Hip hop dancers work at weight-bearing joint end ranges where muscles are at a functional disadvantage. These results may explain why lower extremity injury rates are high in this population.

  13. IL-6 signaling blockade increases inflammation but does not affect muscle function in the mdx mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostek Matthew C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine that modulates inflammatory responses and plays critical roles in muscle maintenance and remodeling. In the mouse model (mdx of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, IL-6 and muscle inflammation are elevated, which is believed to contribute to the chronic inflammation and failure of muscle regeneration in DMD. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of blocking IL-6 signaling on the muscle phenotype including muscle weakness and pathology in the mdx mouse. Methods A monoclonal antibody against the IL-6 receptor (IL-6r mAb that blocks local and systemic IL-6 signaling was administered to mdx and BL-10 mice for 5 weeks and muscle function, histology, and inflammation were examined. Results IL-6r mAb treatment increased mdx muscle inflammation including total inflammation score and ICAM-1 positive lumens in muscles. There was no significant improvement in muscle strength nor muscle pathology due to IL-6r mAb treatment in mdx mice. Conclusions These results showed that instead of reducing inflammation, IL-6 signaling blockade for 5 weeks caused an increase in muscle inflammation, with no significant change in indices related to muscle regeneration and muscle function. The results suggest a potential anti-inflammatory instead of the original hypothesized pro-inflammatory role of IL-6 signaling in the mdx mice.

  14. Systemic Inflammation in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Association with Muscle Function and Nutritional Status

    OpenAIRE

    Oriana del Rocío Cruz-Guzmán; Maricela Rodríguez-Cruz; Rosa Elena Escobar Cedillo

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation described in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) may be related to loss of muscle function or to obesity. It is unknown if circulating proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1, and TNF-α) levels are associated with muscle function. The purpose was to evaluate whether an association exists between systemic inflammation with muscle function and nutritional status in DMD patients. In 66 DMD patients without corticosteroid treatment, the following were evaluated in serum: cy...

  15. Phosphodiesterases regulate airway smooth muscle function in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krymskaya, Vera P; Panettieri, Reynold A

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of structure, regulation, and kinetic properties, phosphodiesterases (PDEs) represent a superfamily of enzymes divided into 11 subfamilies that catalyze cytosolic levels of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) or 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) to 5'-AMP or 5'-GMP, respectively. PDE4 represents the major PDE expressed in inflammatory cells as well as airway smooth muscle (ASM), and selective PDE4 inhibitors provide a broad spectrum of anti-inflammatory effects such as abrogating cytokine and chemokine release from inflammatory cells and inhibiting inflammatory cell trafficking. Due to cell- and tissue-specific gene expression and regulation, PDEs modulate unique organ-based functions. New tools or compounds that selectively inhibit PDE subfamilies and genetically engineered mice deficient in selective isoforms have greatly enhanced our understanding of PDE function in airway inflammation and resident cell function. This chapter will focus on recent advances in our understanding of the role of PDE in regulating ASM function.

  16. Bioactive peptides from meat muscle and by-products: generation, functionality and application as functional ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarga, Tomas; Hayes, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Bioactive peptides are sequences of between 2-30 amino acids in length that impart a positive health effect to the consumer when ingested. They have been identified from a range of foods, including milk and muscle sources including beef, chicken, pork and marine muscles. The myriad of peptides identified from these sources have known antihypertensive, opioid, antioxidant, antithrombotic and other bioactivities. Indeed, bioactive peptides could play a role in the prevention of diseases associated with the development of metabolic syndrome and mental health diseases. The aim of this work is to present an overview of the bioactive peptides identified in muscle proteins and by-products generated during the processing of meat. The paper looks at the isolation, enrichment and characterisation strategies that have been employed to date to generate bioactive peptides and the potential future applications of these peptides in functional foods for the prevention of heart and mental health problems and obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Systemic down-regulation of delta-9 desaturase promotes muscle oxidative metabolism and accelerates muscle function recovery following nerve injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Hussain

    Full Text Available The progressive deterioration of the neuromuscular axis is typically observed in degenerative conditions of the lower motor neurons, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Neurodegeneration in this disease is associated with systemic metabolic perturbations, including hypermetabolism and dyslipidemia. Our previous gene profiling studies on ALS muscle revealed down-regulation of delta-9 desaturase, or SCD1, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids. Interestingly, knocking out SCD1 gene is known to induce hypermetabolism and stimulate fatty acid beta-oxidation. Here we investigated whether SCD1 deficiency can affect muscle function and its restoration in response to injury. The genetic ablation of SCD1 was not detrimental per se to muscle function. On the contrary, muscles in SCD1 knockout mice shifted toward a more oxidative metabolism, and enhanced the expression of synaptic genes. Repressing SCD1 expression or reducing SCD-dependent enzymatic activity accelerated the recovery of muscle function after inducing sciatic nerve crush. Overall, these findings provide evidence for a new role of SCD1 in modulating the restorative potential of skeletal muscles.

  18. Effect of strength training on muscle function in elderly hospitalized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, C; Magnusson, S P; Beyer, N

    2007-01-01

    Immobilization due to hospitalization and major surgery leads to an increased risk of morbidity, disability and a decline in muscle function especially in frail elderly individuals. In fact, many elderly patients fail to regain their level of function and self-care before admission to hospital....... Given that reduced lower limb muscle strength and loss of skeletal muscle mass (i.e. sarcopenia) have been associated with functional impairments and disability with aging, attempts to counteract this process seem highly relevant. In recent years, strength training has emerged as an effective method...... to induce muscle hypertrophy and increase muscle strength and functional performance in frail elderly individuals. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that strength training is an effective method to restore muscle function in post-operative patients and in patients with chronic diseases. Despite this...

  19. Engineered matrices for skeletal muscle satellite cell engraftment and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Woojin M; Jang, Young C; García, Andrés J

    2017-07-01

    Regeneration of traumatically injured skeletal muscles is severely limited. Moreover, the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle declines with aging, further exacerbating the problem. Recent evidence supports that delivery of muscle satellite cells to the injured muscles enhances muscle regeneration and reverses features of aging, including reduction in muscle mass and regenerative capacity. However, direct delivery of satellite cells presents a challenge at a translational level due to inflammation and donor cell death, motivating the need to develop engineered matrices for muscle satellite cell delivery. This review will highlight important aspects of satellite cell and their niche biology in the context of muscle regeneration, and examine recent progresses in the development of engineered cell delivery matrices designed for skeletal muscle regeneration. Understanding the interactions of muscle satellite cells and their niche in both native and engineered systems is crucial to developing muscle pathology-specific cell- and biomaterial-based therapies. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of neuromuscular training (NEMEX-TJR) on patient-reported outcomes and physical function in severe primary hip or knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ageberg, Eva; Nilsdotter, Anna; Kosek, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of exercise in mild and moderate knee or hip osteoarthritis (OA) are apparent, but the evidence in severe OA is less clear. We recently reported that neuromuscular training was well tolerated and feasible in patients with severe primary hip or knee OA. The aims of this controlled bef...... before-and-after study were to compare baseline status to an age-matched population-based reference group and to examine the effects of neuromuscular training on patient-reported outcomes and physical function in patients with severe primary OA of the hip or knee.......The benefits of exercise in mild and moderate knee or hip osteoarthritis (OA) are apparent, but the evidence in severe OA is less clear. We recently reported that neuromuscular training was well tolerated and feasible in patients with severe primary hip or knee OA. The aims of this controlled...

  1. Respiratory Muscle Training and Cognitive Function Exercising at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quackenbush, Joseph; Duquin, Aubrey; Helfer, Samuel; Pendergast, David R

    2016-01-01

    Hiking and trekking often occur at altitudes up to 12,000 ft altitude. The hypoxia-induced hyperventilation at altitude paradoxically reduces arterial CO2 (Paco2). A reduction in Paco2 results in vasoconstriction of the blood vessels of the brain and thus in local hypoxia. The local hypoxia likely affects cognitive function, which may result in reduced performance and altitude accidents. Recent publications have demonstrated that voluntary isocapnic hyperventilatory training of the respiratory muscles (VIHT) can markedly enhance exercise endurance as it is associated with reduced ventilation and its energy cost. VIHT may be useful in blunting the altitude-induced hyperventilation leading to higher Paco2 and improved cognitive function. This study examined the effects of VIHT, compared to control (C) and placebo (PVIHT) groups, on selected measures of executive functioning, including working memory and processing speed (i.e., Stroop Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, and Digit Span Forward) at simulated altitude up to 12,000 ft. Associated physiological parameters were also measured. The Digit Span Forward Test did not show improvements after VIHT in any group. The VIHT group, but not C or PVIHT groups, improved significantly (17-30%) on the Stroop Test. Similarly the VIHT group, but not the C and PVIHT groups, improved correct responses (26%) and number of attempts (24%) on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test. In addition, reaction time was also improved (16%). VIHT improved processing speed and working memory during exercise at altitude.

  2. Functional heterogeneity of side population cells in skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uezumi, Akiyoshi; Ojima, Koichi; Fukada, So-ichiro; Ikemoto, Madoka; Masuda, Satoru; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2006-01-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration has been exclusively attributed to myogenic precursors, satellite cells. A stem cell-rich fraction referred to as side population (SP) cells also resides in skeletal muscle, but its roles in muscle regeneration remain unclear. We found that muscle SP cells could be subdivided into three sub-fractions using CD31 and CD45 markers. The majority of SP cells in normal non-regenerating muscle expressed CD31 and had endothelial characteristics. However, CD31 - CD45 - SP cells, which are a minor subpopulation in normal muscle, actively proliferated upon muscle injury and expressed not only several regulatory genes for muscle regeneration but also some mesenchymal lineage markers. CD31 - CD45 - SP cells showed the greatest myogenic potential among three SP sub-fractions, but indeed revealed mesenchymal potentials in vitro. These SP cells preferentially differentiated into myofibers after intramuscular transplantation in vivo. Our results revealed the heterogeneity of muscle SP cells and suggest that CD31 - CD45 - SP cells participate in muscle regeneration

  3. Normal values for inspiratory muscle function in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellies, Uwe; Stehling, Florian; Dohna-Schwake, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of inspiratory muscle function (IMF) is limited in children with neuromuscular disorders, because respiratory muscle tests are poorly standardized and valid normative data are unavailable. We investigated maximum inspiratory pressure after exhalation to residual volume (MIP), mouth occlusion pressure (P0.1) and time of inspiration during quiet breathing and derived inspiratory muscle load (P0.1/MIP), and tension time index (TTI) in 301 healthy schoolchildren 6–16 years old. Gender-specific and age-dependent percentile curves for MIP were drawn with the median, 5%, 10%, 25%, 75% and 95% percentile. P0.1 was equal in boys and girls (0.23  ±  0.11 kPa), while MIP was significantly higher in boys (6.8  ±  2.2 versus 5.8  ±  2.4 kPa). Consequently, P0.1/MIP (4.8% ± 3.2% versus 4.0% ± 3.1%) and TTI (0.2  ±  0.14 versus 0.16  ±  0.14) were significantly higher in girls. MIP was 2.90 + 0.36 × age (kPa) and 3.19 + 0.24 × age (kPa) in boys and girls, respectively. The 95% confidence intervals for boys and girls, respectively, were MIP, 6.3–7.3 kPA and 5.4–6.2 kPa; P0.1/MIP, 3.5%–4.5% and 4.3%–5.3%; TTI, 0.14–0.18 and 0.18–0.22; and P0.1, 0.20–0.24 kPa for both. IMF in children has a wide interindividual variability; however percentile curves facilitate a longitudinal assessment of individual patients. Furthermore, narrow confidence intervals allow for comparisons of study populations, making IMF an appropriate endpoint for clinical trials. (paper)

  4. Suboptimal Muscle Synergy Activation Patterns Generalize their Motor Function across Postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, M Hongchul; Ting, Lena H

    2016-01-01

    We used a musculoskeletal model to investigate the possible biomechanical and neural bases of using consistent muscle synergy patterns to produce functional motor outputs across different biomechanical conditions, which we define as generalizability. Experimental studies in cats demonstrate that the same muscle synergies are used during reactive postural responses at widely varying configurations, producing similarly-oriented endpoint force vectors with respect to the limb axis. However, whether generalizability across postures arises due to similar biomechanical properties or to neural selection of a particular muscle activation pattern has not been explicitly tested. Here, we used a detailed cat hindlimb model to explore the set of feasible muscle activation patterns that produce experimental synergy force vectors at a target posture, and tested their generalizability by applying them to different test postures. We used three methods to select candidate muscle activation patterns: (1) randomly-selected feasible muscle activation patterns, (2) optimal muscle activation patterns minimizing muscle effort at a given posture, and (3) generalizable muscle activation patterns that explicitly minimized deviations from experimentally-identified synergy force vectors across all postures. Generalizability was measured by the deviation between the simulated force direction of the candidate muscle activation pattern and the experimental synergy force vectors at the test postures. Force angle deviations were the greatest for the randomly selected feasible muscle activation patterns (e.g., >100°), intermediate for effort-wise optimal muscle activation patterns (e.g., ~20°), and smallest for generalizable muscle activation patterns (e.g., synergy force vector was reduced by ~45% when generalizability requirements were imposed. Muscles recruited in the generalizable muscle activation patterns had less sensitive torque-producing characteristics to changes in postures. We

  5. BUILDING A BETTER GLUTEAL BRIDGE: ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF HIP MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING MODIFIED SINGLE-LEG BRIDGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehecka, B J; Edwards, Michael; Haverkamp, Ryan; Martin, Lani; Porter, Kambry; Thach, Kailey; Sack, Richard J; Hakansson, Nils A

    2017-08-01

    Gluteal strength plays a role in injury prevention, normal gait patterns, eliminating pain, and enhancing athletic performance. Research shows high gluteal muscle activity during a single-leg bridge compared to other gluteal strengthening exercises; however, prior studies have primarily measured muscle activity with the active lower extremity starting in 90 ° of knee flexion with an extended contralateral knee. This standard position has caused reports of hamstring cramping, which may impede optimal gluteal strengthening. The purpose of this study was to determine which modified position for the single-leg bridge is best for preferentially activating the gluteus maximus and medius. Cross-Sectional. Twenty-eight healthy males and females aged 18-30 years were tested in five different, randomized single-leg bridge positions. Electromyography (EMG) electrodes were placed on subjects' gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris of their bridge leg (i.e., dominant or kicking leg), as well as the rectus femoris of their contralateral leg. Subjects performed a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for each tested muscle prior to performing five different bridge positions in randomized order. All bridge EMG data were normalized to the corresponding muscle MVIC data. A modified bridge position with the knee of the bridge leg flexed to 135 ° versus the traditional 90 ° of knee flexion demonstrated preferential activation of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius compared to the traditional single-leg bridge. Hamstring activation significantly decreased (p bridge by flexing the active knee to 135 ° instead of 90 ° minimizes hamstring activity while maintaining high levels of gluteal activation, effectively building a bridge better suited for preferential gluteal activation. 3.

  6. Structure and function of masticatory muscles in a case of muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, M; Kirkeby, S; Jensen, B L

    1990-01-01

    Histologic examination of muscle biopsies and functional examination comprising electromyography and force measurements in a 19-yr-old boy with muscular dystrophy showed different wasting patterns of mandibular elevator and depressor muscles. Pronounced histopathologic changes were present...... depressor strength corresponded more to reference values. This difference of muscular wasting might be caused by protective enzymes in the digastric muscle and/or functionally induced damage of the masseter. As affection from muscular dystrophy may vary greatly between the masticatory muscles, structural...... in the masseter muscle, whereas pathologic findings in the anterior digastric muscle were limited to increased number of cells in slightly enlarged interfiber connective tissue. The masticatory pattern was distorted, and strength of mandibular elevator muscles was less than one third of the norm, whereas...

  7. Hip Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hip fractures in people of all ages. In older adults, a hip fracture is most often a result of a fall from a standing height. In people with very weak bones, a hip fracture can occur simply by standing on the leg and twisting. Risk factors The rate of hip fractures increases substantially with ...

  8. Influence of temperature on muscle recruitment and muscle function in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rome, L C

    1990-08-01

    Temperature has a large influence on the maximum velocity of shortening (Vmax) and maximum power output of muscle (Q10 = 1.5-3). In some animals, maximum performance and maximum sustainable performance show large temperature sensitivities, because these parameters are dependent solely on mechanical power output of the muscles. The mechanics of locomotion (sarcomere length excursions and muscle-shortening velocities, V) at a given speed, however, are precisely the same at all temperatures. Animals compensate for the diminished power output of their muscles at low temperatures by compressing their recruitment order into a narrower range of locomotor speeds, that is, recruiting more muscle fibers and faster fiber types at a given speed. By examining V/Vmax, I calculate that fish at 10 degrees C must recruit 1.53-fold greater fiber cross section than at 20 degrees C. V/Vmax also appears to be an important design constraint in muscle. It sets the lowest V and the highest V over which a muscle can be used effectively. Because the Vmax of carp slow red muscle has a Q10 of 1.6 between 10 and 20 degrees C, the slow aerobic fibers can be used over a 1.6-fold greater range of swim speeds at the warmer temperature. In some species of fish, Vmax can be increased during thermal acclimation, enabling animals to swim at higher speeds.

  9. Functional connectivity between core and shoulder muscles increases during isometric endurance contractions in judo competitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawczyński, Adam; Samani, Afshin; Mroczek, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    endurance contraction consisting of bilateral arm abduction at 90°. The normalized mutual information (NMI) was computed between muscle pairs as an index indicating functional connectivity. Results: The NMIs increased significantly during endurance test for 10 of the 15 muscle pairs (P ... : We concluded that the increases in NMIs highlighted functional changes in the interplay between core and shoulder muscles during an endurance contraction in elite judokas....

  10. The effect of posterior and lateral approach on patient-reported outcome measures and physical function in patients with osteoarthritis, undergoing total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenlund, Signe; Broeng, Leif; Jensen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Total hip replacement provides pain relief and improves physical function and quality of life in patients with end-stage hip osteoarthritis. The incidence of hip replacement operations is expected to increase due to the growing elderly population. Overall, the posterior approach...... Outcome Score, subscale of "Physical function Short form" (HOOS-PS) Secondary outcome measures include two other subscales of HOOS ("Pain" and "Hip related Quality of Life"), physical activity level (UCLA activity score), limping (HHS) and general health status (EQ-5D-3L). Explorative outcomes include...... physical function and pain; however, this has not been investigated in a randomised controlled trial with a twelve-month follow-up. We hypothesized that the lateral approach has an inferior outcome in patient-reported outcome compared with the posterior approach after one year. METHODS/DESIGN: The trial...

  11. Hip Strength Testing of Soccer Players With Long-Standing Hip and Groin Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafn, Bolette S; Tang, Lars; Nielsen, Peter Martin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether self-reported pain during hip strength testing correlates to a large degree with hip muscle strength in soccer players with long-standing unilateral hip and groin pain. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Clinical assessments at Sports Orthopaedic Research...... Center-Copenhagen (SORC-C), Arthroscopic Centre Amager, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four male soccer players with unilateral long-standing hip and groin pain. INTERVENTIONS: The soccer players performed 5 reliable hip muscle strength tests (isometric hip flexion...... strength (Spearman rho = -0.44, P = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported pain during testing does not seem to correlate with the majority of hip muscle strength tests used in soccer players with long-standing hip and groin pain....

  12. Muscle biopsies from human muscle diseases with myopathic pathology reveal common alterations in mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunitha, Balaraju; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Kumar, Manish; Keshava Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya; Nalini, Atchayaram; Padmanabhan, Balasundaram; Srinivas Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda

    2016-07-01

    Muscle diseases are clinically and genetically heterogeneous and manifest as dystrophic, inflammatory and myopathic pathologies, among others. Our previous study on the cardiotoxin mouse model of myodegeneration and inflammation linked muscle pathology with mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether human muscle diseases display mitochondrial changes. Muscle biopsies from muscle disease patients, represented by dysferlinopathy (dysfy) (dystrophic pathology; n = 43), polymyositis (PM) (inflammatory pathology; n = 24), and distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV) (distal myopathy; n = 31) were analyzed. Mitochondrial damage (ragged blue and COX-deficient fibers) was revealed in dysfy, PM, and DMRV cases by enzyme histochemistry (SDH and COX-SDH), electron microscopy (vacuolation and altered cristae) and biochemical assays (significantly increased ADP/ATP ratio). Proteomic analysis of muscle mitochondria from all three muscle diseases by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis demonstrated down-regulation of electron transport chain (ETC) complex subunits, assembly factors and Krebs cycle enzymes. Interestingly, 80 of the under-expressed proteins were common among the three pathologies. Assay of ETC and Krebs cycle enzyme activities validated the MS data. Mitochondrial proteins from muscle pathologies also displayed higher tryptophan (Trp) oxidation and the same was corroborated in the cardiotoxin model. Molecular modeling predicted Trp oxidation to alter the local structure of mitochondrial proteins. Our data highlight mitochondrial alterations in muscle pathologies, represented by morphological changes, altered mitochondrial proteome and protein oxidation, thereby establishing the role of mitochondrial damage in human muscle diseases. We investigated whether human muscle diseases display mitochondrial changes. Muscle biopsies

  13. Subacute pain and function after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Østergaard; Gaarn-Larsen, L; Kristensen, B B

    2009-01-01

    In a well-defined fast-track setup for total hip and knee arthroplasty, with a multimodal analgesic regimen consisting of intra-operative local anaesthetic infiltration and oral celecoxib, gabapentin and paracetamol for 6 days postoperatively, we conducted a prospective, consecutive, observationa...

  14. Functional ability and muscle force in healthy children and ambulant Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenakker, EAC; Maurits, NM; Fock, JM; Brouwer, OF; van der Hoeven, JH

    2005-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders are characterised by progressive muscle weakness, which in time causes functional impairment. To quantify the extent of disease progression, muscle force and functional ability can be measured. Which of these parameters changes most depends on the disease stage. In a previous

  15. Pain, activities of daily living and sport function at different time points after hip arthroscopy in patients with femoroacetabular impingement: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Signe; Langeskov-Christensen, Martin; Lund, Bent; Naal, Florian D; Mechlenburg, Inger; Dalgas, Ulrik; Casartelli, Nicola C

    2017-04-01

    To investigate pain, activities of daily living (ADL) function, sport function, quality of life and satisfaction at different time points after hip arthroscopy in patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Systematic review with meta-analysis. Weighted mean differences between preoperative and postoperative outcomes were calculated and used for meta-analysis. EMBASE, MEDLINE, SportsDiscus, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and PEDro. Studies that evaluated hip pain, ADL function, sport function and quality of life before and after hip arthroscopy and postoperative satisfaction in patients with symptomatic FAI. Twenty-six studies (22 case series, 3 cohort studies, 1 randomised controlled trial (RCT)) were included in the systematic review and 19 in the meta-analysis. Clinically relevant pain and ADL function improvements were first reported between 3 and 6 months, and sport function improvements between 6 months and 1 year after surgery. It is not clear when quality of life improvements were first achieved. On average, residual mild pain and ADL and sport function scores lower than their healthy counterparts were reported by patients following surgery. Postoperative patient satisfaction ranged from 68% to 100%. On average, patients reported earlier pain and ADL function improvements, and slower sport function improvements after hip arthroscopy for FAI. However, average scores from patients indicate residual mild hip pain and/or hip function lower than their healthy counterparts after surgery. Owing to the current low level of evidence, future RCTs and cohort studies should investigate the effectiveness of hip arthroscopy in patients with FAI. CRD42015019649. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Contribution of elastic tissues to the mechanics and energetics of muscle function during movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Muscle force production occurs within an environment of tissues that exhibit spring-like behavior, and this elasticity is a critical determinant of muscle performance during locomotion. Muscle force and power output both depend on the speed of contraction, as described by the isotonic force-velocity curve. By influencing the speed of contractile elements, elastic structures can have a profound effect on muscle force, power and work. In very rapid movements, elastic mechanisms can amplify muscle power by storing the work of muscle contraction slowly and releasing it rapidly. When energy must be dissipated rapidly, such as in landing from a jump, energy stored rapidly in elastic elements can be released more slowly to stretch muscle contractile elements, reducing the power input to muscle and possibly protecting it from damage. Elastic mechanisms identified so far rely primarily on in-series tendons, but many structures within muscles exhibit spring-like properties. Actomyosin cross-bridges, actin and myosin filaments, titin, and the connective tissue scaffolding of the extracellular matrix all have the potential to store and recover elastic energy during muscle contraction. The potential contribution of these elements can be assessed from their stiffness and estimates of the strain they undergo during muscle function. Such calculations provide boundaries for the possible roles these springs might play in locomotion, and may help to direct future studies of the uses of elastic elements in muscle. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. The association of visually-assessed quality of movement during jump-landing with ankle dorsiflexion range-of-motion and hip abductor muscle strength among healthy female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Alon; Einstein, Ofira; Kozol, Zvi

    2018-05-01

    To explore the association between ankle dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM), and hip abductor muscle strength, to visually-assessed quality of movement during jump-landing. Cross-sectional. Gymnasium of participating teams. 37 female volleyball players. Quality of movement in the frontal-plane, sagittal-plane, and overall (both planes) was visually rated as "good/moderate" or "poor". Weight-bearing Ankle DF ROM and hip abductor muscle strength were compared between participants with differing quality of movement. Weight-bearing DF ROM on both sides was decreased among participants with "poor" sagittal-plane quality of movement (dominant side: 50.8° versus 43.6°, P = .02; non-dominant side: 54.6° versus 45.9°, P = .01), as well as among participants with an overall "poor" quality of movement (dominant side: 51.8° versus 44.0°, P movement (53.9° versus 46.0°, P = .02). No differences in hip abductor muscle strength were noted between participants with differing quality of movement. Visual assessment of jump-landing can detect differences in quality of movement that are associated with ankle DF ROM. Clinicians observing a poor quality of movement may wish to assess ankle DF ROM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Skeletal muscle function and hypertrophy are diminished in old age.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degens, H.; Alway, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    Muscle loss occurs during aging. To investigate whether the hypertrophic response is attenuated at old age, we used male Fischer 344 (26 months old; n = 5) and Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats (6, 9, and 33 months old; n = 8, 10, and 6, respectively). Hypertrophy of the left plantaris muscle was

  19. Histochemical and functional fibre typing of the rabbit masseter muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredman, J. J.; Weijs, W. A.; Moorman, A. F.; Brugman, P.

    1990-01-01

    The fibre-type distribution of the masseter muscle of the rabbit was studied by means of the myosin-ATPase and succinate dehydrogenase reactions. Six different fibre types were found and these were unequally distributed between and within the anatomical compartments of the muscle. Most of the

  20. Comparison of muscle/lean mass measurement methods: correlation with functional and biochemical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehring, B; Siglinsky, E; Krueger, D; Evans, W; Hellerstein, M; Yamada, Y; Binkley, N

    2018-03-01

    DXA-measured lean mass is often used to assess muscle mass but has limitations. Thus, we compared DXA lean mass with two novel methods-bioelectric impedance spectroscopy and creatine (methyl-d3) dilution. The examined methodologies did not measure lean mass similarly and the correlation with muscle biomarkers/function varied. Muscle function tests predict adverse health outcomes better than lean mass measurement. This may reflect limitations of current mass measurement methods. Newer approaches, e.g., bioelectric impedance spectroscopy (BIS) and creatine (methyl-d3) dilution (D3-C), may more accurately assess muscle mass. We hypothesized that BIS and D3-C measured muscle mass would better correlate with function and bone/muscle biomarkers than DXA measured lean mass. Evaluations of muscle/lean mass, function, and serum biomarkers were obtained in older community-dwelling adults. Mass was assessed by DXA, BIS, and orally administered D3-C. Grip strength, timed up and go, and jump power were examined. Potential muscle/bone serum biomarkers were measured. Mass measurements were compared with functional and serum data using regression analyses; differences between techniques were determined by paired t tests. Mean (SD) age of the 112 (89F/23M) participants was 80.6 (6.0) years. The lean/muscle mass assessments were correlated (.57-.88) but differed (p Lean mass measures were unrelated to the serum biomarkers measured. These three methodologies do not similarly measure muscle/lean mass and should not be viewed as being equivalent. Functional tests assessing maximal muscle strength/power (grip strength and jump power) correlated with all mass measures whereas gait speed was not. None of the selected serum measures correlated with mass. Efforts to optimize muscle mass assessment and identify their relationships with health outcomes are needed.

  1. Relationships of Muscle Function and Subjective Knee Function in Patients After ACL Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, Stephan; Goetschius, John; Hertel, Jay; Hart, Joe

    2017-07-01

    After anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), relationships between objective measures of muscle function and patient-reported outcomes may change over time. Examining these measures at different time frames after surgery may help develop individualized approaches to improve post-ALCR analysis. To examine the associations between subjective knee function and lower-extremity muscle function in individual patients at various time points after ACLR. Descriptive laboratory study. Fifty-one participants who underwent primary, unilateral ACLR (15 males, 36 females; mean age, 22.9 ± 4.5 years; mean height, 172.4 ± 10.1 cm; mean weight, 68.7 ± 13.1 kg) were separated into 3 groups depending on time since surgery (early, 5 years). Subjective knee function was quantified using the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee form and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). Isometric knee extension and flexion strength were collected at 90 deg/s. Single-leg hop performance was measured using the single hop, triple hop, cross-over hop, and 6-m timed hop. Coefficient correlations were calculated between subjective knee function and objective measures of muscle function for each group. The early group demonstrated moderate correlations between the KOOS and unilateral measures of flexion peak torque ( r = 0.514, P = .035) and flexion power ( r = 0.54, P = .027). The middle group demonstrated the strongest correlations between the KOOS and symmetry measures of the single hop ( r = 0.69, P = .002) and extension work ( r = 0.71, P = .002) as well as unilateral measures of the triple hop ( r = 0.52, P = .034) and extension work ( r = 0.66, P = .004). The late group demonstrated strong correlations between the 6-m timed hop symmetry and the IKDC ( r = 0.716, P = .001) and KOOS ( r = 0.71, P = .001). Patients with a post-ACLR status of less than 2 years exhibited stronger relationships with unilateral strength measures to subjective

  2. Assessment of muscle function using hybrid PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddock, Bryan; Holm, Søren; Poulsen, Jákup M.

    2017-01-01

    -FDG while activating the quadriceps of one leg with repeated knee extension exercises followed by hand-grip exercises for one arm. Immediately following the exercises, the subjects were scanned simultaneously with 18F-FDG PET/MRI and muscle groups were evaluated for increases in 18F-FDG uptake and MRI T2......Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between relative glucose uptake and MRI T2 changes in skeletal muscles following resistance exercise using simultaneous PET/MRI scans. Methods: Ten young healthy recreationally active men (age 21 – 28 years) were injected with 18F...... values. Results: A significant linear correlation between 18F-FDG uptake and changes in muscle T2 (R2 = 0.71) was found. for both small and large muscles and in voxel to voxel comparisons. Despite large intersubject differences in muscle recruitment, the linear correlation between 18F-FDG uptake...

  3. Epidemiological investigation of muscle-strengthening activities and cognitive function among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-06-01

    Limited research has examined the association of muscle-strengthening activities and executive cognitive function among older adults, which was this study's purpose. Data from the 1999-2002 NHANES were employed (N = 2157; 60-85 years). Muscle-strengthening activities were assessed via self-report, with cognitive function assessed using the digit symbol substitution test. After adjusting for age, age-squared, gender, race-ethnicity, poverty level, body mass index, C-reactive protein, smoking, comorbid illness and physical activity, muscle-strengthening activities were significantly associated with cognitive function (βadjusted = 3.4; 95% CI: 1.7-5.1; P cognitive function score. In conclusion, muscle-strengthening activities are associated with executive cognitive function among older U.S. adults, underscoring the importance of promoting both aerobic exercise and muscle-strengthening activities to older adults. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Differential activation of an identified motor neuron and neuromodulation provide Aplysia's retractor muscle an additional function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Jeffrey M; Lu, Hui; Cullins, Miranda J; Chiel, Hillel J

    2014-08-15

    To survive, animals must use the same peripheral structures to perform a variety of tasks. How does a nervous system employ one muscle to perform multiple functions? We addressed this question through work on the I3 jaw muscle of the marine mollusk Aplysia californica's feeding system. This muscle mediates retraction of Aplysia's food grasper in multiple feeding responses and is innervated by a pool of identified neurons that activate different muscle regions. One I3 motor neuron, B38, is active in the protraction phase, rather than the retraction phase, suggesting the muscle has an additional function. We used intracellular, extracellular, and muscle force recordings in several in vitro preparations as well as recordings of nerve and muscle activity from intact, behaving animals to characterize B38's activation of the muscle and its activity in different behavior types. We show that B38 specifically activates the anterior region of I3 and is specifically recruited during one behavior, swallowing. The function of this protraction-phase jaw muscle contraction is to hold food; thus the I3 muscle has an additional function beyond mediating retraction. We additionally show that B38's typical activity during in vivo swallowing is insufficient to generate force in an unmodulated muscle and that intrinsic and extrinsic modulation shift the force-frequency relationship to allow contraction. Using methods that traverse levels from individual neuron to muscle to intact animal, we show how regional muscle activation, differential motor neuron recruitment, and neuromodulation are key components in Aplysia's generation of multifunctionality. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Effects of combination of whey protein intake and rehabilitation on muscle strength and daily movements in patients with hip fracture in the early postoperative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niitsu, Masaya; Ichinose, Daisuke; Hirooka, Taku; Mitsutomi, Kazuhiko; Morimoto, Yoshitaka; Sarukawa, Junichiro; Nishikino, Shoichi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Kaoru

    2016-08-01

    Elderly patients can be at risk of protein catabolism and malnutrition in the early postoperative period. Whey protein includes most essential amino acids and stimulates the synthesis of muscle protein. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training in combination with whey protein intake in the early postoperative period. We randomized patients to a whey protein group or a control group. The former group received 32.2 g of whey protein pre- and post-rehabilitation in the early postoperative period for two weeks. Outcomes were knee extension strength on either side by Biodex 4.0, and the ability of transfer, walking, toilet use and stair use by the Barthel Index (BI). We performed initial and final assessments in the second and tenth rehabilitation sessions. A total of 38 patients were recruited: 20 in the whey protein group and 18 in the control group. Participants in the whey protein group showed significantly greater improvement in knee extension strength in the operated limb compared with the control group (F = 6.11, P = 0.02). The non-operated limb also showed a similar tendency (F = 3.51, P = 0.07). The abilities of transfer, walking and toilet use showed greater improvements in the whey protein group than in the control group by BI (P patients with hip fracture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle extracellular matrix with aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Kjaer, M; Mackey, A L

    2011-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle is critical for force transmission and for the passive elastic response of skeletal muscle. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the deterioration in muscle mechanical properties with aging......-links and a buildup of advanced glycation end-product cross-links. Altered mechanotransduction, poorer activation of satellite cells, poorer chemotactic and delayed inflammatory responses, and a change in modulators of the ECM are important cellular changes. It is possible that the structural and biochemical changes...... in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the increased stiffness and impairment in force generated by the contracting muscle fibers seen with aging. The cellular interactions provide and potentially coordinate an adaptation to mechanical loading and ensure successful regeneration after muscle injury. Some...

  7. Whole-muscle reimplantation with microneurovascular anastomoses. A functional and histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, F. J.; McGeachie, J. K.; Edis, R. H.; Allbrook, D.

    1977-01-01

    Whole tibialis anterior muscles were removed from a number of dogs and were then reimplanted in the original sites. Microsurgical anastomoses of the major nerve, artery, and vein were performed. Biopsy revealed some minor regenerative changes in the muscle a few weeks after the operation. Electromyographic recordings 6-9 months after implantation showed near-complete functional recovery of the muscles. This was confirmed histologically. The study demonstrates not only that whole-muscle reimplantation is technically feasible but that a functionally satisfactory result may be expected. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:900796

  8. Impaired Arterial Smooth Muscle Cell Vasodilatory Function In Methamphetamine Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaemeh Nabaei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Methamphetamine use is a strong risk factor for stroke. This study was designed to evaluate arterial function and structure in methamphetamine users ultrasonographically. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 20 methamphetamine users and 21 controls, aged between 20 and 40years, were enrolled. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT marker of early atherogenesis, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD determinants of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, and nitroglycerine-mediated dilatation (NMD independent marker of vasodilation were measured in two groups. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding demographic and metabolic characteristics. The mean (±SD CCA-IMT in methamphetamine users was 0.58±0.09mm, versus 0.59±0.07mm in the controls (p=0.84. Likewise, FMD% was not significantly different between the two groups [7.6±6.1% in methamphetamine users vs. 8.2±5.1% in the controls; p=0.72], nor were peak flow and shear rate after hyperemia. However, NMD% was considerably decreased in the methamphetamine users [8.5±7.8% in methamphetamine users vs. 13.4±6.2% in controls; p=0.03]. Conclusion: According to our results, NMD is reduced among otherwise healthy methamphetamine users, which represents smooth muscle dysfunction in this group. This may contribute to the high risk of stroke among methamphetamine users.

  9. Effect of a home-based exercise program on functional recovery following rehabilitation after hip fracture: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Nancy K; Harris, Bette Ann; Bean, Jonathan F; Heeren, Timothy; Goodyear, Christine; Zawacki, Stacey; Heislein, Diane M; Mustafa, Jabed; Pardasaney, Poonam; Giorgetti, Marie; Holt, Nicole; Goehring, Lori; Jette, Alan M

    2014-02-19

    For many older people, long-term functional limitations persist after a hip fracture. The efficacy of a home exercise program with minimal supervision after formal hip fracture rehabilitation ends has not been established. To determine whether a home exercise program with minimal contact with a physical therapist improved function after formal hip fracture rehabilitation ended. Randomized clinical trial conducted from September 2008 to October 2012 in the homes of 232 functionally limited older adults who had completed traditional rehabilitation after a hip fracture. The intervention group (n = 120) received functionally oriented exercises (such as standing from a chair, climbing a step) taught by a physical therapist and performed independently by the participants in their homes for 6 months. The attention control group (n = 112) received in-home and telephone-based cardiovascular nutrition education. Physical function assessed at baseline, 6 months (ie, at completion of the intervention), and 9 months by blinded assessors. The primary outcome was change in function at 6 months measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB; range 0-12, higher score indicates better function) and the Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC) mobility and daily activity (range, 23-85 and 9-101, higher score indicates better function). Among the 232 randomized patients, 195 were followed up at 6 months and included in the primary analysis. The intervention group (n=100) showed significant improvement relative to the control group (n=95) in functional mobility (mean SPPB scores for intervention group: 6.2 [SD, 2.7] at baseline, 7.2 [SD, 3] at 6 months; control group: 6.0 [SD, 2.8] at baseline, 6.2 [SD, 3] at 6 months; and between-group differences: 0.8 [95% CI, 0.4 to 1.2], P daily activity scores for intervention group: 57.4 [SD, 13.7] at baseline, 61.3 [SD, 15.7] at 6 months; control group: 58.2 [SD, 15.2] at baseline, 58.6 [SD, 15.3] at 6 months; and

  10. Respiratory muscle function and exercise limitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charususin, Noppawan; Dacha, Sauwaluk; Gosselink, Rik; Decramer, Marc; Von Leupoldt, Andreas; Reijnders, Thomas; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Langer, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Respiratory muscle dysfunction is common and contributes to dyspnea and exercise limitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Improving dynamic function of respiratory muscles during exercise might help to reduce symptoms and improve exercise capacity. Areas covered: The aims of this review are to 1) summarize physiological mechanisms linking respiratory muscle dysfunction to dyspnea and exercise limitation; 2) provide an overview of available therapeutic approaches to better maintain load-capacity balance of respiratory muscles during exercise; and 3) to summarize current knowledge on potential mechanisms explaining effects of interventions aimed at optimizing dynamic respiratory muscle function with a special focus on inspiratory muscle training. Expert commentary: Several mechanisms which are potentially linking improvements in dynamic respiratory muscle function to symptomatic and functional benefits have not been studied so far in COPD patients. Examples of underexplored areas include the study of neural processes related to the relief of acute dyspnea and the competition between respiratory and peripheral muscles for limited energy supplies during exercise. Novel methodologies are available to non-invasively study these mechanisms. Better insights into the consequences of dynamic respiratory muscle dysfunction will hopefully contribute to further refine and individualize therapeutic approaches in patients with COPD.

  11. Functional muscle ischemia in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) comprise a spectrum of devastating X-linked muscle wasting disease for which there is no treatment. DMD/BMD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin, a cytoskeletal protein that stabilizes the muscle membrane and also targets other proteins to the sarcolemma. Among these is the muscle-specific isoform of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOSµ) which binds spectrin-like repeats within dystrophin’s rod domain and the adaptor pro...

  12. Isometric and isokinetic hip strength and agonist/antagonist ratios in symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Laura E; Wrigley, Tim V; Hinman, Rana S; Hodges, Paul W; O'Donnell, John; Takla, Amir; Bennell, Kim L

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated isometric and isokinetic hip strength in individuals with and without symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The specific aims were to: (i) determine whether differences exist in isometric and isokinetic hip strength measures between groups; (ii) compare hip strength agonist/antagonist ratios between groups; and (iii) examine relationships between hip strength and self-reported measures of either hip pain or function in those with FAI. Cross-sectional. Fifteen individuals (11 males; 25±5 years) with symptomatic FAI (clinical examination and imaging (alpha angle >55° (cam FAI), and lateral centre edge angle >39° and/or positive crossover sign (combined FAI))) and 14 age- and sex-matched disease-free controls (no morphological FAI on magnetic resonance imaging) underwent strength testing. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength of hip muscle groups and isokinetic hip internal (IR) and external rotation (ER) strength (20°/s) were measured. Groups were compared with independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. Participants with FAI had 20% lower isometric abduction strength than controls (p=0.04). There were no significant differences in isometric strength for other muscle groups or peak isokinetic ER or IR strength. The ratio of isometric, but not isokinetic, ER/IR strength was significantly higher in the FAI group (p=0.01). There were no differences in ratios for other muscle groups. Angle of peak IR torque was the only feature correlated with symptoms. Individuals with symptomatic FAI demonstrate isometric hip abductor muscle weakness and strength imbalance in the hip rotators. Strength measurement, including agonist/antagonist ratios, may be relevant for clinical management of FAI. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in hip and knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, F; Hinman, R S; Hall, M; Terwee, C B; Roos, E M; Bennell, K L

    2012-12-01

    To systematically review the measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in people with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA). Electronic searches were performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO up to the end of June 2012. Two reviewers independently rated measurement properties using the consensus-based standards for the selection of health status measurement instrument (COSMIN). "Best evidence synthesis" was made using COSMIN outcomes and the quality of findings. Twenty-four out of 1792 publications were eligible for inclusion. Twenty-one performance-based measures were evaluated including 15 single-activity measures and six multi-activity measures. Measurement properties evaluated included internal consistency (three measures), reliability (16 measures), measurement error (14 measures), validity (nine measures), responsiveness (12 measures) and interpretability (three measures). A positive rating was given to only 16% of possible measurement ratings. Evidence for the majority of measurement properties of tests reported in the review has yet to be determined. On balance of the limited evidence, the 40 m self-paced test was the best rated walk test, the 30 s-chair stand test and timed up and go test were the best rated sit to stand tests, and the Stratford battery, Physical Activity Restrictions and Functional Assessment System were the best rated multi-activity measures. Further good quality research investigating measurement properties of performance measures, including responsiveness and interpretability in people with hip and/or knee OA, is needed. Consensus on which combination of measures will best assess physical function in people with hip/and or knee OA is urgently required. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Titanium-Based Hip Stems with Drug Delivery Functionality through Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuidenhout, Martin B; Dimitrov, Dimitar M; van Staden, Anton D; Oosthuizen, Gert A; Dicks, Leon M T

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative infections are a major concern in patients that receive implants. These infections generally occur in areas with poor blood flow and pathogens do not always respond to antibiotic treatment. With the latest developments in nanotechnology, the incorporation of antibiotics into prosthetic implants may soon become a standard procedure. The success will, however, depend on the ability to control the release of antibiotics at concentrations high enough to prevent the development of antibiotic-resistant strains. Through additive manufacturing, antibiotics can be incorporated into cementless femoral stems to produce prosthetic devices with antimicrobial properties. With the emerging increase in resistance to antibiotics, the incorporation of antimicrobial compounds other than antibiotics, preferably drugs with a broader spectrum of antimicrobial activity, will have to be explored. This review highlights the microorganisms associated with total hip arthroplasty (THA), discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the latest materials used in hip implants, compares different antimicrobial agents that could be incorporated, and addresses novel ideas for future research.

  15. Phosphorylation and function of DGAT1 in skeletal muscle cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jinhai; Li, Yiran; Zou, Fei; Xu, Shimeng; Liu, Pingsheng

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant intramuscular triacylglycerol (TAG) storage in human skeletal muscle is closely related to insulin insensitivity. Excessive lipid storage can induce insulin resistance of skeletal muscle, and under severe conditions, lead to type 2 diabetes. The balance of interconversion between diacylglycerol and TAG greatly influences lipid storage and utilization. Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) plays a key role in this process, but its activation and phosphorylation requires further d...

  16. Vitamin D and muscle function in the elderly: the elixir of youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgis, Christian M

    2014-11-01

    Circumstantial evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency may contribute to age-related changes in skeletal muscle. This review discusses recent clinical trials examining effects of vitamin D on muscle function in the elderly, and poses the important question: can vitamin D reverse muscle ageing? Observational studies report an association between vitamin D and muscle atrophy/weakness in elderly subjects. Interventional studies suggest that frail, elderly subjects may benefit from vitamin D supplementation by displaying reduced falls, improved muscle function and increased muscle fibre size. However, meta-analyses do not report convincing effects of vitamin D in the elderly. This may be because of multiple factors including lack of standardized endpoints for muscle function, variable study design and different doses of vitamin D supplementation amongst these studies. The evidence base is therefore inconsistent. Vitamin D deficiency may exacerbate ageing of skeletal muscle. However, current evidence that vitamin D supplementation reverses age-related muscle dysfunction is equivocal and does not justify stringent vitamin D targets in the elderly. Until these issues are clarified, the safest option is to aim for conservative vitamin D targets that are sufficient for normal calcium homeostasis.

  17. Revision of failed hip resurfacing to total hip arthroplasty rapidly relieves pain and improves function in the early post operative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muirhead-Allwood Sarah K

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We reviewed the results of 25 consecutive patients who underwent revision of a hip resurfacing prosthesis to a total hip replacement. Revisions were performed for recurrent pain and effusion, infection and proximal femoral fractures. Both components were revised in 20 cases. There were 12 male and 13 female patients with average time to revision of 34.4 and 26.4 months respectively. The mean follow up period was 12.7 months (3 to 31. All patients reported relief of pain and excellent satisfaction scores. Two patients experienced stiffness up to three months post operatively. Pre operative Oxford, Harris and WOMAC hip scores were 39.1, 36.4 and 52.2 respectively. Mean post operative scores at last follow up were 17.4, 89.8 and 6.1 respectively (p

  18. Hip pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from a chair, walking, climbing stairs, and driving Hamstring strain Iliotibial band syndrome Hip flexor strain Hip ... and cool down afterward. Stretch your quadriceps and hamstrings. Avoid running straight down hills. Walk down instead. ...

  19. Preoperative prediction of inpatient recovery of function after total hip arthroplasty using performance-based tests: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosting, Ellen; Hoogeboom, Thomas J; Appelman-de Vries, Suzan A; Swets, Adam; Dronkers, Jaap J; van Meeteren, Nico L U

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of conventional factors, the Risk Assessment and Predictor Tool (RAPT) and performance-based functional tests as predictors of delayed recovery after total hip arthroplasty (THA). A prospective cohort study in a regional hospital in the Netherlands with 315 patients was attending for THA in 2012. The dependent variable recovery of function was assessed with the Modified Iowa Levels of Assistance scale. Delayed recovery was defined as taking more than 3 days to walk independently. Independent variables were age, sex, BMI, Charnley score, RAPT score and scores for four performance-based tests [2-minute walk test, timed up and go test (TUG), 10-meter walking test (10 mW) and hand grip strength]. Regression analysis with all variables identified older age (>70 years), Charnley score C, slow walking speed (10 mW >10.0 s) and poor functional mobility (TUG >10.5 s) as the best predictors of delayed recovery of function. This model (AUC 0.85, 95% CI 0.79-0.91) performed better than a model with conventional factors and RAPT scores, and significantly better (p = 0.04) than a model with only conventional factors (AUC 0.81, 95% CI 0.74-0.87). The combination of performance-based tests and conventional factors predicted inpatient functional recovery after THA. Two simple functional performance-based tests have a significant added value to a more conventional screening with age and comorbidities to predict recovery of functioning immediately after total hip surgery. Patients over 70 years old, with comorbidities, with a TUG score >10.5 s and a walking speed >1.0 m/s are at risk for delayed recovery of functioning. Those high risk patients need an accurate discharge plan and could benefit from targeted pre- and postoperative therapeutic exercise programs.

  20. AMPKγ3 is dispensable for skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by functional overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Isabelle; Osler, Megan E; Björnholm, Marie; Egan, Brendan; Nader, Gustavo A; Chibalin, Alexander V; Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-03-15

    Mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle growth involve a balance between the activity of serine/threonine protein kinases, including the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The contribution of different AMPK subunits to the regulation of cell growth size remains inadequately characterized. Using AMPKγ3 mutant-overexpressing transgenic Tg-Prkag3(225Q) and AMPKγ3-knockout (Prkag3(-/-)) mice, we investigated the requirement for the AMPKγ3 isoform in functional overload-induced muscle hypertrophy. Although the genetic disruption of the γ3 isoform did not impair muscle growth, control sham-operated AMPKγ3-transgenic mice displayed heavier plantaris muscles in response to overload hypertrophy and underwent smaller mass gain and lower Igf1 expression compared with wild-type littermates. The mTOR signaling pathway was upregulated with functional overload but unchanged between genetically modified animals and wild-type littermates. Differences in AMPK-related signaling pathways between transgenic, knockout, and wild-type mice did not impact muscle hypertrophy. Glycogen content was increased following overload in wild-type mice. In conclusion, our functional, transcriptional, and signaling data provide evidence against the involvement of the AMPKγ3 isoform in the regulation of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Thus, the AMPKγ3 isoform is dispensable for functional overload-induced muscle growth. Mechanical loading can override signaling pathways that act as negative effectors of mTOR signaling and consequently promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. An education program about pelvic floor muscles improved women's knowledge but not pelvic floor muscle function, urinary incontinence or sexual function: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Roberta Leopoldino; Bø, Kari; Antonio, Flavia Ignácio; Driusso, Patricia; Mateus-Vasconcelos, Elaine Cristine Lemes; Ramos, Salvador; Julio, Monica Pitanguy; Ferreira, Cristine Homsi Jorge

    2018-04-01

    Does an educational program with instructions for performing 'the Knack' improve voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles, reduce reports of urinary incontinence, improve sexual function, and promote women's knowledge of the pelvic floor muscles? Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis and blinded assessors. Ninety-nine women from the local community. The experimental group (n=50) received one lecture per week for 4 weeks, and instructions for performing 'the Knack'. The control group (n=49) received no intervention. The primary outcome was maximum voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles measured using manometry. Secondary outcomes were: ability to contract the pelvic floor muscles measured using vaginal palpation; severity of urinary incontinence measured by the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) scored from 0 to 21; self-reported sexual function; and knowledge related to the pelvic floor. Outcomes were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks. The intervention did not significantly improve: maximum voluntary contraction (MD 2.7 cmH 2 O higher in the experimental group, 95% CI -0.5 to 5.9); ability to contract the pelvic floor muscles (RR 2.18, 95% CI 0.49 to 9.65); or self-reported severity of urinary incontinence (MD 1 point greater reduction in the experimental group, 95% CI -3 to 1). Sexual function did not significantly differ between groups, but very few of the women engaged in sexual activity during the study period. The educational program did, however, significantly increase women's knowledge related to the location, functions and dysfunctions of the pelvic floor muscles, and treatment options. Education and teaching women to perform 'the Knack' had no significant effect on voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles, urinary incontinence or sexual function, but it promoted women's knowledge about the pelvic floor. Brazilian Registry of Clinical

  2. An education program about pelvic floor muscles improved women’s knowledge but not pelvic floor muscle function, urinary incontinence or sexual function: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Leopoldino de Andrade

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Question: Does an educational program with instructions for performing ‘the Knack’ improve voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles, reduce reports of urinary incontinence, improve sexual function, and promote women’s knowledge of the pelvic floor muscles? Design: Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis and blinded assessors. Participants: Ninety-nine women from the local community. Intervention: The experimental group (n = 50 received one lecture per week for 4 weeks, and instructions for performing ‘the Knack’. The control group (n = 49 received no intervention. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was maximum voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles measured using manometry. Secondary outcomes were: ability to contract the pelvic floor muscles measured using vaginal palpation; severity of urinary incontinence measured by the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF scored from 0 to 21; self-reported sexual function; and knowledge related to the pelvic floor. Outcomes were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks. Results: The intervention did not significantly improve: maximum voluntary contraction (MD 2.7 cmH2O higher in the experimental group, 95% CI –0.5 to 5.9; ability to contract the pelvic floor muscles (RR 2.18, 95% CI 0.49 to 9.65; or self-reported severity of urinary incontinence (MD 1 point greater reduction in the experimental group, 95% CI –3 to 1. Sexual function did not significantly differ between groups, but very few of the women engaged in sexual activity during the study period. The educational program did, however, significantly increase women’s knowledge related to the location, functions and dysfunctions of the pelvic floor muscles, and treatment options. Conclusion: Education and teaching women to perform ‘the Knack’ had no significant effect on voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles

  3. Athletic Hip Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T Sean; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Historically, athletic hip injuries have garnered little attention; however, these injuries account for approximately 6% of all sports injuries and their prevalence is increasing. At times, the diagnosis and management of hip injuries can be challenging and elusive for the team physician. Hip injuries are seen in high-level athletes who participate in cutting and pivoting sports that require rapid acceleration and deceleration. Described previously as the "sports hip triad," these injuries consist of adductor strains, osteitis pubis, athletic pubalgia, or core muscle injury, often with underlying range-of-motion limitations secondary to femoroacetabular impingement. These disorders can happen in isolation but frequently occur in combination. To add to the diagnostic challenge, numerous intra-articular disorders and extra-articular soft-tissue restraints about the hip can serve as pain generators, in addition to referred pain from the lumbar spine, bowel, bladder, and reproductive organs. Athletic hip conditions can be debilitating and often require a timely diagnosis to provide appropriate intervention.

  4. Physical activity as intervention for age-related loss of muscle mass and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Christian Skou; Garde, Ellen; Reislev, Nina Linde

    2016-01-01

    insights into training-induced promotion of functional ability and independency after retirement and will help to formulate national recommendations regarding physical activity schemes for the growing population of older individuals in western societies. Results will be published in scientific peer......INTRODUCTION: Physical and cognitive function decline with age, accelerating during the 6th decade. Loss of muscle power (force×velocity product) is a dominant physical determinant for loss of functional ability, especially if the lower extremities are affected. Muscle strength training is known...... to maintain or even improve muscle power as well as physical function in older adults, but the optimal type of training for beneficial long-term training effects over several years is unknown. Moreover, the impact of muscle strength training on cognitive function and brain structure remains speculative...

  5. Orientation-weighted local Minkowski functionals in 3D for quantitative assessment of trabecular bone structure in the hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, H. F.; Bitterling, H.; Weber, C.; Kuhn, V.; Eckstein, F.; Reiser, M.

    2007-03-01

    Fragility fractures or pathologic fractures of the hip, i.e. fractures with no apparent trauma, represent the worst complication in osteoporosis with a mortality close to 25% during the first post-traumatic year. Over 90% of hip fractures result from falls from standing height. A substantial number of femoral fractures are initiated in the femoral neck or the trochanteric regions which contain an internal architecture of trabeculae that are functionally highly specialized to withstand the complex pattern of external and internal forces associated with human gait. Prediction of the mechanical strength of bone tissue can be achieved by dedicated texture analysis of data obtained by high resolution imaging modalities, e.g. computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance tomography (MRI). Since in the case of the proximal femur, the connectivity, regional distribution and - most of all - the preferred orientation of individual trabeculae change considerably within narrow spatial limits, it seems most reasonable to evaluate the femoral bone structure on an orientation-weighted, local scale. In past studies, we could demonstrate the advantages of topological analysis of bone structure using the Minkowski Functionals in 3D on a global and on a local scale. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that the prediction of the mechanical competence of the proximal femur by a new algorithm considering orientational changes of topological properties in the trabecular architecture is feasible and better suited than conventional methods based on the measurement of the mineral density of bone tissue (BMD).

  6. Hsp72 preserves muscle function and slows progression of severe muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrig, Stefan M; van der Poel, Chris; Sayer, Timothy A; Schertzer, Jonathan D; Henstridge, Darren C; Church, Jarrod E; Lamon, Severine; Russell, Aaron P; Davies, Kay E; Febbraio, Mark A; Lynch, Gordon S

    2012-04-04

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe and progressive muscle wasting disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene that result in the absence of the membrane-stabilizing protein dystrophin. Dystrophin-deficient muscle fibres are fragile and susceptible to an influx of Ca(2+), which activates inflammatory and muscle degenerative pathways. At present there is no cure for DMD, and existing therapies are ineffective. Here we show that increasing the expression of intramuscular heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) preserves muscle strength and ameliorates the dystrophic pathology in two mouse models of muscular dystrophy. Treatment with BGP-15 (a pharmacological inducer of Hsp72 currently in clinical trials for diabetes) improved muscle architecture, strength and contractile function in severely affected diaphragm muscles in mdx dystrophic mice. In dko mice, a phenocopy of DMD that results in severe spinal curvature (kyphosis), muscle weakness and premature death, BGP-15 decreased kyphosis, improved the dystrophic pathophysiology in limb and diaphragm muscles and extended lifespan. We found that the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA, the main protein responsible for the removal of intracellular Ca(2+)) is dysfunctional in severely affected muscles of mdx and dko mice, and that Hsp72 interacts with SERCA to preserve its function under conditions of stress, ultimately contributing to the decreased muscle degeneration seen with Hsp72 upregulation. Treatment with BGP-15 similarly increased SERCA activity in dystrophic skeletal muscles. Our results provide evidence that increasing the expression of Hsp72 in muscle (through the administration of BGP-15) has significant therapeutic potential for DMD and related conditions, either as a self-contained therapy or as an adjuvant with other potential treatments, including gene, cell and pharmacological therapies.

  7. Lack of Glycogenin Causes Glycogen Accumulation and Muscle Function Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testoni, Giorgia; Duran, Jordi; García-Rocha, Mar; Vilaplana, Francisco; Serrano, Antonio L; Sebastián, David; López-Soldado, Iliana; Sullivan, Mitchell A; Slebe, Felipe; Vilaseca, Marta; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura; Guinovart, Joan J

    2017-07-05

    Glycogenin is considered essential for glycogen synthesis, as it acts as a primer for the initiation of the polysaccharide chain. Against expectations, glycogenin-deficient mice (Gyg KO) accumulate high amounts of glycogen in striated muscle. Furthermore, this glycogen contains no covalently bound protein, thereby demonstrating that a protein primer is not strictly necessary for the synthesis of the polysaccharide in vivo. Strikingly, in spite of the higher glycogen content, Gyg KO mice showed lower resting energy expenditure and less resistance than control animals when subjected to endurance exercise. These observations can be attributed to a switch of oxidative myofibers toward glycolytic metabolism. Mice overexpressing glycogen synthase in the muscle showed similar alterations, thus indicating that this switch is caused by the excess of glycogen. These results may explain the muscular defects of GSD XV patients, who lack glycogenin-1 and show high glycogen accumulation in muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Does self-efficacy mediate functional change in older adults participating in an exercise program after hip fracture? A randomized control trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Nancy K.; Ni, Pengsheng; Jette, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examined whether self-efficacy mediated the effect of the HIP Rehab exercise program on activity limitations in older adults after hip fracture, and whether the mediation effect was different between different gender and age groups. Design Randomized controlled trial (RCT) Setting Community Participants Two hundred and thirty two participants aged 79±9.4 years with hip fracture were randomly assigned to intervention (n=120) or attention control (n=112) groups. Interventions The 6-month intervention, the HIP Rehab, is a functionally-oriented, home-based exercise program. Data was collected at baseline, post-intervention (6 months), and follow-up (9 months). Main outcome measure Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC) Results The mediation effect of the HIP Rehab exercise program on Basic Mobility function through self-efficacy for exercise was significant at 9 months (βindirect=0.21). Similarly, the mediation effect of the intervention on Daily Activity function through self-efficacy for exercise was significant at 9 months (βindirect=0.49). In subgroup analyses, the mediation effect was significant at 9 months in the younger group (≤79 years old) in comparison to the older group, and was significant in females in comparison to males. Conclusion Self-efficacy may play a partial mediating role for the effect on some longer-term functional outcomes in the HIP Rehab intervention. The results suggest that program components that target self-efficacy should be incorporated in the future hip fracture rehabilitation interventions. Age and gender of the targeted participants may also need to be considered when developing interventions. PMID:25701101

  9. Does self-efficacy mediate functional change in older adults participating in an exercise program after hip fracture? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Hang; Latham, Nancy K; Ni, Pengsheng; Jette, Alan M

    2015-06-01

    To examine whether self-efficacy mediated the effect of the Home-based Post-Hip Fracture Rehabilitation program on activity limitations in older adults after hip fracture and whether the mediating effect was different between sex and age groups. Randomized controlled trial. Community. Participants with hip fracture (N=232; mean age ± SD, 79±9.4y) were randomly assigned to intervention (n=120, 51.7%) and attention control (n=112, 48.3%) groups. The 6-month intervention, the Home-based Post-Hip Fracture Rehabilitation, is a functionally oriented, home-based exercise program. Data were collected at baseline, postintervention (6mo), and follow-up (9mo). Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care. The mediating effect of the Home-based Post-Hip Fracture Rehabilitation program on Basic Mobility function through self-efficacy for exercise was significant at 9 months (βindirect=.21). Similarly, the mediating effect of the intervention on Daily Activity function through self-efficacy for exercise was significant at 9 months (βindirect=.49). In subgroup analyses, the mediating effect was significant at 9 months in the younger group (age, ≤79y) in comparison to the older group and was significant in women in comparison to men. Self-efficacy may play a partial mediating role in the effect on some longer-term functional outcomes in the Home-based Post-Hip Fracture Rehabilitation intervention. The results suggest that program components that target self-efficacy should be incorporated in future hip fracture rehabilitation interventions. Age and sex of the targeted participants may also need to be considered when developing interventions. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A physiologically based, multi-scale model of skeletal muscle structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver eRöhrle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Models of skeletal muscle can be classified as phenomenological or biophysical. Phenomenological models predict the muscle's response to a specified input based on experimental measurements. Prominent phenomenological models are the Hill-type muscle models, which have been incorporated into rigid-body modelling frameworks, and three-dimensional continuum-mechanical models. Biophysically based models attempt to predict the muscle's response as emerging from the underlying physiology of the system. In this contribution, the conventional biophysically based modelling methodology is extended to include several structural and functional characteristics of skeletal muscle. The result is a physiologically based, multi-scale skeletal muscle finite element model that is capable of representing detailed, geometrical descriptions of skeletal muscle fibres and their grouping. Together with a well-established model of motor unit recruitment, the electro-physiological behaviour of single muscle fibres within motor units is computed and linked to a continuum-mechanical constitutive law. The bridging between the cellular level and the organ level has been achieved via a multi-scale constitutive law and homogenisation. The effect of homogenisation has been investigated by varying the number of embedded skeletal muscle fibres and/or motor units and computing the resulting exerted muscle forces while applying the same excitatory input. All simulations were conducted using an anatomically realistic finite element model of the Tibialis Anterior muscle. Given the fact that the underlying electro-physiological cellular muscle model is capable of modelling metabolic fatigue effects such as potassium accumulation in the T-tubular space and inorganic phosphate build-up, the proposed framework provides a novel simulation-based way to investigate muscle behaviour ranging from motor unit recruitment to force generation and fatigue.

  11. Feasibility of Early-Initiated Progressive Resistance Training after Total Hip Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Mechlenburg, Inger; Petersen, Annemette Krintel

    during the exercises were measured at each training session. Isometric muscle strength was measured before and 4 weeks after the THR. Findings / Results: Pain during exercises and resting pain before and after each training session was unchanged or decreased during the 4 weeks of training. Averaged...... across exercises pain during training decreased from 3.6 (sd: 2.8) at the first session to 1.52 (sd: 1.8) VAS-mm at the last session, ptraining load increased progressively for all 4 exercises during the 4 weeks of training. For example: 2nd, 5th and 8th training session. Hip......Background: Muscle atrophy, reduced hip muscle strength and function are documented within the first weeks after Total Hip Replacement (THR). Purpose / Aim of Study: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of early-initiated progressive resistance training (PRT) after THR...

  12. Effects of isokinetic calf muscle exercise program on muscle strength and venous function in patients with chronic venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Sabriye; Çetin, Cem; Yavuz, Turhan; Demir, Hilmi M; Atalay, Yurdagül B

    2018-05-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to observe the change of the ankle joint range of motion, the muscle strength values measured with an isokinetic dynamometer, pain scores, quality of life scale, and venous return time in chronic venous insufficiency diagnosed patients by prospective follow-up after 12-week exercise program including isokinetic exercises. Methods The patient group of this study comprised 27 patients (23 female, 4 male) who were diagnosed with chronic venous insufficiency. An exercise program including isokinetic exercise for the calf muscle was given to patients three days per week for 12 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks, five of the patients left the study due to inadequate compliance with the exercise program. As a result, control data of 22 patients were included. Ankle joint range of active motion, isokinetic muscle strength, pain, quality of life, and photoplethysmography measurements were assessed before starting and after the exercise program. Results Evaluating changes of the starting and control data depending on time showed that all isokinetic muscle strength measurement parameters, range of motion, and overall quality of life values of patients improved. Venous return time values have also increased significantly ( p < 0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, increase in muscle strength has been provided with exercise therapy in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. It has been determined that the increase in muscle strength affected the venous pump and this ensured improvement in venous function and range of motion of the ankle. In addition, it has been detected that pain reduced and quality of life improved after the exercise program.

  13. Changes in the Muscle strength and functional performance of healthy women with aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Mousavikhatir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Lower limbs antigravity muscles weakness and decreased functional ability have significant role in falling. The aim of this study was to find the effects of aging on muscle strength and functional ability, determining the range of decreasing strength and functional ability and relationship between them in healthy women. Methods: Across-section study was performed on 101 healthy women aged 21-80 years. The participants were divided into six age groups. The maximum isometric strength of four muscle groups was measured using a hand-held dynamometer bilaterally. The functional ability was measured with functional reach (FR, timed get up and go (TGUG, single leg stance (SLS, and stairs walking (SW tests. Results: Muscle strength changes were not significant between 21-40 years of age, but decreased significantly thereafter. Also, there was a significant relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in age groups. Conclusion: Both muscle strength and functional ability is reduced as a result of aging, but the decrease in functional ability can be detected earlier.

  14. Hip joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hip arthroplasty; Total hip replacement; Hip hemiarthroplasty; Arthritis - hip replacement; Osteoarthritis - hip replacement ... Your hip joint is made up of 2 major parts. One or both parts may be replaced during surgery: ...

  15. TREATMENT OF HIP DYSPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian ICLEANU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this thesis, our purpose is to show that using physiotherapy on patients with hip dysplasia from the very beginning, in the first months of life, helps treating them faster. Common literature proposes to use physiotherapy on patients with hip dysplasia either after their recovery or in the terminal phase of recovery, claiming that any earlier intervention will prolong the hip recovery. The effects of hip dysplasia reflect over the whole musculoskeletal system, while it hinders the knees (genu valgum, the ankles (ankle valgus, calcaneal valgus and the spine (scoliosis especially at the lumbar level. The most spectacular are at the hip level, that is why we made an analytical evaluation only for this joint. To show the importance of physiotherapy for children with hip dysplasia we started from the hypothesis: untimely treatment for children with hip dysplasia has improved results in functional recovery and in obtaining a better stability, without the necessity of orthopedics or surgical interventions. The research methods used in this study are: the observation method, the bibliographic study method, the experimental method, the graphics method and the statistical mathematical method to process the data and to represent the results graphically. In the end, the results obtained are significantly different from the initial evaluations and we came to the conclusion that starting an untimely analytical kinetic treatment and globally personalizing it to every patient improves stability and biomechanical parameters for the hip.

  16. The Link between Dietary Protein Intake, Skeletal Muscle Function and Health in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie I. Baum

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle mass and function are progressively lost with age, a condition referred to as sarcopenia. By the age of 60, many older adults begin to be affected by muscle loss. There is a link between decreased muscle mass and strength and adverse health outcomes such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Data suggest that increasing dietary protein intake at meals may counterbalance muscle loss in older individuals due to the increased availability of amino acids, which stimulate muscle protein synthesis by activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORC1. Increased muscle protein synthesis can lead to increased muscle mass, strength and function over time. This review aims to address the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA for protein and whether or not this value meets the needs for older adults based upon current scientific evidence. The current RDA for protein is 0.8 g/kg body weight/day. However, literature suggests that consuming protein in amounts greater than the RDA can improve muscle mass, strength and function in older adults.

  17. [Correlations Between Joint Proprioception, Muscle Strength, and Functional Ability in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yoa; Yu, Yong; He, Cheng-qi

    2015-11-01

    To establish correlations between joint proprioception, muscle flexion and extension peak torque, and functional ability in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Fifty-six patients with symptomatic knee OA were recruited in this study. Both proprioceptive acuity and muscle strength were measured using the isomed-2000 isokinetic dynamometer. Proprioceptive acuity was evaluated by establishing the joint motion detection threshold (JMDT). Muscle strength was evaluated by Max torque (Nm) and Max torque/weight (Nm/ kg). Functional ability was assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index physical function (WOMAC-PF) questionnaire. Correlational analyses were performed between proprioception, muscle strength, and functional ability. A multiple stepwise regression model was established, with WOMAC-PF as dependent variable and patient age, body mass index (BMI), visual analogue scale (VAS)-score, mean grade for Kellgren-Lawrance of both knees, mean strength for quadriceps and hamstring muscles of both knees, and mean JMDT of both knees as independent variables. Poor proprioception (high JMDT) was negatively correlated with muscle strength (Pcoefficient (B) = 0.385, P<0.50 and high VAS-scale score (B=0.347, P<0.05) were significant predictors of WOMAC-PF score. Patients with poor proprioception is associated with poor muscle strength and limitation in functional ability. Patients with symptomatic OA of knees commonly endure with moderate to considerable dysfunction, which is associated with poor proprioception (high JMDT) and high VAS-scale score.

  18. Cavin4b/Murcb Is Required for Skeletal Muscle Development and Function in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housley, Michael P; Njaine, Brian; Ricciardi, Filomena; Stone, Oliver A; Hölper, Soraya; Krüger, Marcus; Kostin, Sawa; Stainier, Didier Y R

    2016-06-01

    Skeletal muscles provide metazoans with the ability to feed, reproduce and avoid predators. In humans, a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases, termed muscular dystrophies (MD), lead to skeletal muscle dysfunction. Mutations in the gene encoding Caveolin-3, a principal component of the membrane micro-domains known as caveolae, cause defects in muscle maintenance and function; however it remains unclear how caveolae dysfunction underlies MD pathology. The Cavin family of caveolar proteins can form membrane remodeling oligomers and thus may also impact skeletal muscle function. Changes in the distribution and function of Cavin4/Murc, which is predominantly expressed in striated muscles, have been reported to alter caveolae structure through interaction with Caveolin-3. Here, we report the generation and phenotypic analysis of murcb mutant zebrafish, which display impaired swimming capacity, skeletal muscle fibrosis and T-tubule abnormalities during development. To understand the mechanistic importance of Murc loss of function, we assessed Caveolin-1 and 3 localization and found it to be abnormal. We further identified an in vivo function for Murc in Erk signaling. These data link Murc with developmental defects in T-tubule formation and progressive muscle dysfunction, thereby providing a new candidate for the etiology of muscular dystrophy.

  19. Cavin4b/Murcb Is Required for Skeletal Muscle Development and Function in Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Housley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscles provide metazoans with the ability to feed, reproduce and avoid predators. In humans, a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases, termed muscular dystrophies (MD, lead to skeletal muscle dysfunction. Mutations in the gene encoding Caveolin-3, a principal component of the membrane micro-domains known as caveolae, cause defects in muscle maintenance and function; however it remains unclear how caveolae dysfunction underlies MD pathology. The Cavin family of caveolar proteins can form membrane remodeling oligomers and thus may also impact skeletal muscle function. Changes in the distribution and function of Cavin4/Murc, which is predominantly expressed in striated muscles, have been reported to alter caveolae structure through interaction with Caveolin-3. Here, we report the generation and phenotypic analysis of murcb mutant zebrafish, which display impaired swimming capacity, skeletal muscle fibrosis and T-tubule abnormalities during development. To understand the mechanistic importance of Murc loss of function, we assessed Caveolin-1 and 3 localization and found it to be abnormal. We further identified an in vivo function for Murc in Erk signaling. These data link Murc with developmental defects in T-tubule formation and progressive muscle dysfunction, thereby providing a new candidate for the etiology of muscular dystrophy.

  20. Expression and functional characterization of Smyd1a in myofibril organization of skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Li, Junling; Li, Bao-Jun; Yagil, Ezra; Zhang, Jianshe; Du, Shao Jun

    2014-01-01

    Smyd1, the founding member of the Smyd family including Smyd-1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, is a SET and MYND domain containing protein that plays a key role in myofibril assembly in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that zebrafish genome contains two highly related smyd1 genes, smyd1a and smyd1b. Although Smyd1b function is well characterized in skeletal and cardiac muscles, the function of Smyd1a is, however, unknown. To investigate the function of Smyd1a in muscle development, we isolated smyd1a from zebrafish, and characterized its expression and function during muscle development via gene knockdown and transgenic expression approaches. The results showed that smyd1a was strongly expressed in skeletal muscles of zebrafish embryos. Functional analysis revealed that knockdown of smyd1a alone had no significant effect on myofibril assembly in zebrafish skeletal muscles. However, knockdown of smyd1a and smyd1b together resulted in a complete disruption of myofibril organization in skeletal muscles, a phenotype stronger than knockdown of smyd1a or smyd1b alone. Moreover, ectopic expression of zebrafish smyd1a or mouse Smyd1 transgene could rescue the myofibril defects from the smyd1b knockdown in zebrafish embryos. Collectively, these data indicate that Smyd1a and Smyd1b share similar biological activity in myofibril assembly in zebrafish embryos. However, Smyd1b appears to play a major role in this process.

  1. Effect of the Abdominal Hollowing and Bracing Maneuvers on Activity Pattern of the Lumbopelvic Muscles During Prone Hip Extension in Subjects With or Without Chronic Low Back Pain: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlaee, Amir H; Ghamkhar, Leila; Arab, Amir M

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of abdominal hollowing (AH) and abdominal bracing (AB) maneuvers on the activity pattern of lumbopelvic muscles during prone hip extension (PHE) in participants with or without nonspecific chronic low back pain (CLBP). Twenty women with or without CLBP participated in this cross-sectional observational study. The electromyographic activity (amplitude and onset time) of the contralateral erector spinae (CES), ipsilateral erector spinae (IES), gluteus maximus, and biceps femoris muscles was measured during PHE with and without abdominal maneuvers. A 3-way mixed model analysis of variance and post hoc tests were used for statistical analysis. Between-group comparisons showed that the CES onset delay during PHE alone was greater (P = .03) and the activity level of IES, CES, and biceps femoris in all maneuvers (P .05). Performance of the AH maneuver decreased the erector spinae muscle AMP in both groups, and neither maneuver altered the onset delay of any of the muscles in either group. The low back pain group showed higher levels of activity in all muscles (not statistically significant in gluteus maximus during all maneuvers). The groups were similar according to the onset delay of any of the muscles during either maneuver. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The association between sarcopenia and functional outcomes among older patients with hip fracture undergoing in-hospital rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, F; Calvani, R; Ortolani, E; Salini, S; Martone, A M; Santoro, L; Santoliquido, A; Sisto, A; Picca, A; Marzetti, E

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluates the prevalence of sarcopenia among older people admitted to a rehabilitation unit after hip fracture and the association between sarcopenia and functional outcomes. The results show that sarcopenia had a negative impact on functional recovery. The assessment of sarcopenia among older adults receiving rehabilitation programs is crucial. Sarcopenia is a highly prevalent geriatric syndrome associated with adverse outcomes, including falls, disability, institutionalization, and mortality. Few studies assessed sarcopenia among older adults receiving rehabilitation programs. Patients aged 70 years or more consecutively admitted to in-hospital rehabilitation programs that had suffered from hip fracture entered the study. Sarcopenia was defined according to the Foundation for National Institutes of Health (FNIH) criteria. Multivariable linear regression models were used to analyze the association between the sarcopenia and functional recovery. The recruited population was composed of 127 patients, with a mean age of 81.3 ± 4.8 years, predominantly females (64.6%). Using the criteria proposed by the FNIH, patients with a diagnosis of sarcopenia were 43 (33.9%). After adjustment for potential confounders, participants with sarcopenia had a significant increased risk of incomplete functional recovery compared with non-sarcopenic patients (OR 3.07, 95% CI 1.07-8.75). Compared with participants without sarcopenia, those with sarcopenia showed lower Barthel index scores at the time of discharge from the rehabilitation unit (69.2 versus 58.9, respectively; p sarcopenia among older adults receiving rehabilitation programs to assist in the development of personalized treatment plans aimed at improving functional outcomes.

  3. Phytochemical composition and in vitro functional properties of three wild rose hips and their traditional preserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nađpal, Jelena D; Lesjak, Marija M; Mrkonjić, Zorica O; Majkić, Tatjana M; Četojević-Simin, Dragana D; Mimica-Dukić, Neda M; Beara, Ivana N

    2018-02-15

    The aim of the present study was investigation of the phenolic profile, ascorbic acid content, antioxidant, anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of rose hips and the preserves (purée and jam) of three insufficiently examined Rosa species: Rosa dumalis Bechst., R. dumetorum Thuill. and R. sempervirens L. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis resulted in quantification of 14 of the 45 phenolic compounds examined, with ellagic acid as the most dominant. Notable antioxidant activity of all three species was confirmed through several assays. Moderate inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by extracts of all investigated Rosa species was observed. Several extracts of examined Rosa species demonstrated inhibition potency towards production of some monitored eicosanoids in cyclooxygenase-1 and 12-lipoxygenase pathways. Two R. sempervirens extracts exerted cytotoxic activity against HeLa and HT-29 cell lines, but were inactive towards MRC-5 and MCF7. The results support the potential of these rose hips as food with health-promoting properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Titanium-Based Hip Stems with Drug Delivery Functionality through Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin B. Bezuidenhout

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative infections are a major concern in patients that receive implants. These infections generally occur in areas with poor blood flow and pathogens do not always respond to antibiotic treatment. With the latest developments in nanotechnology, the incorporation of antibiotics into prosthetic implants may soon become a standard procedure. The success will, however, depend on the ability to control the release of antibiotics at concentrations high enough to prevent the development of antibiotic-resistant strains. Through additive manufacturing, antibiotics can be incorporated into cementless femoral stems to produce prosthetic devices with antimicrobial properties. With the emerging increase in resistance to antibiotics, the incorporation of antimicrobial compounds other than antibiotics, preferably drugs with a broader spectrum of antimicrobial activity, will have to be explored. This review highlights the microorganisms associated with total hip arthroplasty (THA, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the latest materials used in hip implants, compares different antimicrobial agents that could be incorporated, and addresses novel ideas for future research.

  5. Vascular and Skeletal Muscle Function in Gulf War Veterans Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    DNA, RNA, and protein from muscle tissue samples. Prepare cDNA from RNA samples. 4-28 Pending Complete qPCR and Western Blot to assess genes and...Lab from cDNA samples 24-30 Pending Interpret results and identify candidate genes related to Gulf War Illness 24-30 Pending Milestone: Complete

  6. Functional and morphological variety in trunk muscles of Urodela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Ayano; Anzai, Wataru; Endo, Hideki

    2014-03-01

    Trunk musculature in Urodela species varies by habitat. In this study, trunk musculature was examined in five species of adult salamanders representing three different habitats: aquatic species, Amphiuma tridactylum and Necturus maculosus; semi-aquatic species, Cynops pyrrhogaster; terrestrial species, Hynobius nigrescens and Ambystoma tigrinum. More terrestrial species have heavier dorsal and ventral trunk muscles than more aquatic forms. By contrast, the lateral hypaxial musculature was stronger in more aquatic species. The number of layers of lateral hypaxial musculature varied among Urodela species and did not clearly correlate with their habitats. The M. rectus abdominis was separated from the lateral hypaxial musculature in both terrestrial and semi-aquatic species. In aquatic species, M. rectus abdominis was not separated from lateral hypaxial musculature. Lateral hypaxial musculature differed in thickness among species and was relatively thinner in terrestrial species. In more terrestrial species, dorsal muscles may be used for stabilization and ventral flexing against gravity. Ventral muscle may be used in preventing dorsally concave curvature of the trunk by dorsal muscles and by weight. The lengthy trunk supported by limbs needs muscular forces along the ventral contour line in more terrestrial species. And, the locomotion on well-developed limbs seems to lead to a decrease of the lateral hypaxial musculature.

  7. Thigh muscle volume predicted by anthropometric measurements and correlated with physical function in the older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B B; Shih, T T F; Hsu, C Y; Yu, C W; Wei, S Y; Chen, C Y; Wu, C H; Chen, C Y

    2011-06-01

    (1) to correlate thigh muscle volume measured by magnetic resonance image (MRI) with anthropometric measurements and physical function in elderly subjects; (2) to predict MRI-measured thigh muscle volume using anthropometric measurements and physical functional status in elderly subjects. Cross-sectional, nonrandomized study. Outpatient clinic in Taiwan. Sixty-nine elderly subjects (33 men and 36 women) aged 65 and older. The anthropometric data (including body height, body weight, waist size, and thigh circumference), physical activity and function (including grip strength, bilateral quadriceps muscle power, the up and go test, chair rise, and five meters walk time) and bioelectrical impedance analysis data (including total body fat mass, fat-free mass, and predictive muscle size) were measured. MRI-measured muscle volume of both thighs was used as the reference standard. The MRI-measured thigh volume was positively correlated with all anthropometric data, quadriceps muscle power and the up and go test as well as fat-free mass and predictive muscle mass, whereas it was negatively associated with age and walk time. In predicting thigh muscle volume, the variables of age, gender, body weight, and thigh circumference were significant predictors in the linear regression model: Muscle volume (cm3) =4226.3-42.5 × Age (year)-955.7 × gender (male=1, female=2) + 45.9 × body weight(kg) + 60.0 × thigh circumference (cm) (r2 = 0.745, P estimate = 581.6 cm3). The current work provides evidence of a strong relationship between thigh muscle volume and physical function in the elderly. We also developed a prediction equation model using anthropometric measurements. This model is a simple and noninvasive method for everyday clinical practice and follow-up.

  8. Mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle following high-altitude exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Boushel, Robert; Wright-Paradis, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Studies regarding mitochondrial modifications in human skeletal muscle following acclimatization to high altitude are conflicting, and these inconsistencies may be due to the prevalence of representing mitochondrial function through static and isolated measurements of specific mitochondrial...... characteristics. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate mitochondrial function in response to high-altitude acclimatization through measurements of respiratory control in the vastus lateralis muscle. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from 10 lowland natives prior to and again after a total of 9......-11 days of exposure to 4559 m. High-resolution respirometry was performed on the muscle samples to compare respiratory chain function and respiratory capacities. Respirometric analysis revealed that mitochondrial function was largely unaffected, because high-altitude exposure did not affect the capacity...

  9. Functional capacity of people with early osteoarthritis : a comparison between subjects from the cohort hip and cohort knee (CHECK) and healthy ageing workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieleman, H. J.; van Ittersum, M. W.; Groothoff, J. W.; Oostveen, J. C. M.; Oosterveld, F. G. J.; van der Schans, C. P.; Soer, R.; Reneman, M. F.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) increases, but the impact of the disorder on peoples' functional capacity is not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare self-reported health status and functional capacity of subjects with early OA of hip and/or knee to reference data of

  10. Reasons for and functional results of repeated hip arthroscopy: A continuous prospective study of 17 revisions out of 295 primary hip arthroscopies at mean 28months' follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, C; Merlini, L; Mercier, M; Bonin, N

    2017-09-01

    The rate of iterative arthroscopy has been increasing over the last decade as the technique has grown. The results of and reasons for these revision procedures, however, are not exactly known. We therefore conducted a prospective study to shed light on: 1) functional results and patient satisfaction following repeated arthroscopy, and 2) the relevant indications. Functional scores and patient satisfaction increase following repeated arthroscopy. MATERIALS AND METHOD: A single-center continuous prospective study without control group included patients undergoing repeated hip arthroscopy between September 2010 and September 2014, with a mean 28months' follow-up (median, 23.3months; range, 12-62months). Preoperative and follow-up functional assessment used the modified Harris hip, WOMAC and Christensen (NHAS) questionnaires, and a satisfaction scale. On etiological analysis, repeated arthroscopy was indicated if a cause of recurrent or persistent pain accessible to arthroscopic treatment was identified. Seventeen patients were included out of 295 primary arthroscopies (5.7%): 9 male, 8 female; median age, 29.6years (range, 16-48years). Indications for primary arthroscopy comprised 13 cases of femoroacetabular impingement, 3 labrum lesions with instability, 1 chondromatosis and 1 case of osteoarthritis. Eleven of the 17 primary lesions showed persistence, including 9 of the 13 cases of femoroacetabular impingement. There were 3 failures in 17 repeated arthroscopies. All functional scores improved, with a gain of 7 points (P<0.06) on modified Harris hip score, 25 points (P<0.0006) on WOMAC score, and 27 points (P<0.001) on NHAS score. Ten of the 17 patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the repeated arthroscopy (59%). Although less good than on primary arthroscopy, functional results on repeated hip arthroscopy were satisfactory in the short term. The main reason for repeated arthroscopy was persistence of initial abnormality due to insufficient treatment

  11. Impaired physical function, loss of muscle mass and assessment of biomechanical properties in critical ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jesper Brøndum

    2012-01-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) admission is associated with muscle weakness and ICU survivors report sustained limitation of physical capacity for years after discharge. Limited information is available on the underlying biomechanical properties responsible for this muscle function impairment. A plaus......Intensive care unit (ICU) admission is associated with muscle weakness and ICU survivors report sustained limitation of physical capacity for years after discharge. Limited information is available on the underlying biomechanical properties responsible for this muscle function impairment....... A plausible contributor to the accentuated catabolic drive in ICU patients is a synergistic response to inflammation and inactivity leading to loss of muscle mass. As these entities are predominantly present in the early phase of ICU stay, interventions employed during this time frame may exhibit the greatest...... potential to counteract loss of muscle mass. Despite the obvious clinical significance of muscle atrophy for the functional impairment observed in ICU survivors, no preventive therapies have been identified as yet. The overall aim of the present dissertation is to characterize aspects of physical function...

  12. The effect of the inspiratory muscle training on functional ability in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Nam-Jin; Na, Sang-Su; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Hwangbo, Gak

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] This study was to find out an inspiratory muscle training (IMT) program therapeutic effects on stroke patients' functional ability. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty stroke patients were assigned to one of two groups: inspiratory muscle training (n=10), and control (n=10), randomization. The inspiratory muscle training participants undertook an exercise program for 30 minute per times, 5 times a week for 6 weeks. The investigator measured the patients' trunk impairment scale (TIS) and 6 minute walking test (6MW) for functional ability before and after IMT. [Results] The TIS appeared some significant differences in both groups before and after the training. The 6MW test showed some significant differences in the inspiratory muscle training group, but didn't show any significant difference in the control group. And the differences in both groups after depending the inspiratory muscle training were significantly found in the tests of TIS and 6MW test [Conclusion] The results showed that the inspiratory muscle training in stroke patients are correlated with the trunk stability and locomotion ability, suggesting that physical therapist must take into consideration the inspiratory muscle training, as well as functional training to improve physical function in stroke patients.

  13. Traditional versus functional strength training: Effects on muscle strength and power in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Seiler, Hilde Lohne; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Anderssen, Sigmund A.

    2013-01-01

    Published versiom of an article in the journal:Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. Also available from Human Kinetics: http://http://journals.humankinetics.com/japa-back-issues/japa-volume-21-issue-1-january/traditional-versus-functional-strength-training-effects-on-muscle-strength-and-power-in-the-elderly The aim was to determine whether strength training with machines vs. functional strength training at 80% of one-repetition maximum improves muscle strength and power among the elderl...

  14. Concomitant upper limb fractures and short-term functional recovery in hip fracture patients: does the site of upper limb injury matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Monaco, Marco; Castiglioni, Carlotta; Vallero, Fulvia; Di Monaco, Roberto; Tappero, Rosa

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate functional recovery in a subgroup of hip fracture patients who sustained a simultaneous fracture at the upper limb, taking into account the site of upper limb injury. Of 760 patients admitted consecutively to the authors' rehabilitation hospital because of a fall-related hip fracture, 700 were retrospectively investigated. Functional outcome was assessed using Barthel Index scores. In 49 of the 700 patients, a single fall resulted in both a hip fracture and a fracture of either wrist (n = 34) or proximal humerus (n = 15). The patients with concomitant shoulder fractures had lower median Barthel Index scores after rehabilitation (70 vs. 90, P = 0.003), lower median Barthel Index effectiveness (57.1 vs. 76.9, P = 0.018), and prolonged median length of stay (42 vs. 36 days, P = 0.011) than did the patients with isolated hip fractures. Significant differences persisted after adjustment for six potential confounders. The adjusted odds ratio for achieving a Barthel Index score lower than 85 was 6.71 (95% confidence interval, 1.68-26.81; P = 0.007) for the patients with concomitant shoulder fractures. Conversely, no prognostic disadvantages were associated with concomitant wrist fractures. Data show a worse functional recovery and a prolonged length of stay in the subgroup of hip fracture patients who sustained a concomitant fracture at the proximal humerus, but not at the wrist.

  15. In-season monitoring of hip and groin strength, health and function in elite youth soccer: Implementing an early detection and management strategy over two consecutive seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollin, Martin; Thorborg, Kristian; Welvaert, Marijke; Pizzari, Tania

    2018-03-14

    The primary purpose of this study was to describe an early detection and management strategy when monitoring in-season hip and groin strength, health and function in soccer. Secondly to compare pre-season to in-season test results. Longitudinal cohort study. Twenty-seven elite male youth soccer players (age: 15.07±0.73years) volunteered to participate in the study. Monitoring tests included: adductor strength, adductor/abductor strength ratio and hip and groin outcome scores (HAGOS). Data were recorded at pre-season and at 22 monthly intervals in-season. Thresholds for alerts to initiate further investigations were defined as any of the following: adductor strength reductions >15%, adductor/abductor strength ratio time-point one (ptime-loss were classified minimal or mild. In-season monitoring aimed at early detection and management of hip and groin strength, health and function appears promising. Hip and groin strength, health and function improved quickly from pre-season to in-season in a high-risk population for ongoing hip and groin problems. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  16. Joint proprioception, muscle strength, and functional ability in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Esch, M; Steultjens, M; Harlaar, J; Knol, D; Lems, W; Dekker, J

    2007-06-15

    To test the hypotheses that poor knee joint proprioception is related to limitations in functional ability, and poor proprioception aggravates the impact of muscle weakness on limitations in functional ability in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Sixty-three patients with symptomatic OA of the knee were tested. Proprioceptive acuity was assessed by establishing the joint motion detection threshold (JMDT) in the anteroposterior direction. Muscle strength was measured using a computer-driven isokinetic dynamometer. Functional ability was assessed by the 100-meter walking test, the Get Up and Go (GUG) test, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index physical function (WOMAC-PF) questionnaire. Correlation analyses were performed to assess the relationship between proprioception, muscle strength, and functional ability. Regression analyses were performed to assess the impact of proprioception on the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability. Poor proprioception (high JMDT) was related to more limitation in functional ability (walking time r = 0.30, P < 0.05; GUG time r = 0.30, P < 0.05; WOMAC-PF r = 0.26, P <0.05). In regression analyses, the interaction between proprioception and muscle strength was significantly related to functional ability (walking time, P < 0.001 and GUG time, P < 0.001) but not to WOMAC-PF score (P = 0.625). In patients with poor proprioception, reduction of muscle strength was associated with more severe deterioration of functional ability than in patients with accurate proprioception. Patients with poor proprioception show more limitation in functional ability, but this relationship is rather weak. In patients with poor proprioception, muscle weakness has a stronger impact on limitations in functional ability than in patients with accurate proprioception.

  17. Impact of Functional Appliances on Muscle Activity: A Surface Electromyography Study in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Krzysztof; Piątkowska, Dagmara; Szyszka-Sommerfeld, Liliana; Buczkowska-Radlińska, Jadwiga

    2015-01-01

    Background Electromyography (EMG) is the most objective tool for assessing changes in the electrical activity of the masticatory muscles. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the tone of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles in growing children before and after 6 months of treatment with functional removable orthodontic appliances. Material/Methods The sample conisted of 51 patients with a mean age 10.7 years with Class II malocclusion. EMG recordings were performed by using a DAB-Bluetooth instrument (Zebris Medical GmbH, Germany). Recordings were performed in mandibular rest position, during maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and during maximum effort. Results The results of the study indicated that the electrical activity of the muscles in each of the clinical situations was the same in the group of girls and boys. The factor that determined the activity of the muscles was their type. In mandibular rest position and in MVC, the activity of the temporalis muscles was significantly higher that that of the masseter muscels. The maximum effort test indicated a higher fatigue in masseter than in temporalis muscles. Conclusions Surface electromyography is a useful tool for monitoring muscle activity. A 6-month period of functional therapy resulted in changes in the activity of the masticatory muscles. PMID:25600247

  18. Association between selenium plasma levels and muscle function in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena B Stockler-Pinto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is a well-known antioxidant with a critical role in the proper functioning of nervous and muscle functions. In the last decade, many authors have suggested that Se may be a potent protective agent for neurons and myocytes through selenoprotein expression in the brain, as well as in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Low Se status has been associated with reduced coordination, motor speed and muscle strength. Reduced muscle function is common in hemodialysis (HD patients; however, no study evaluated the association between muscle function and Se levels in HD patients. The objective of this study was to correlate muscle function with Se plasma levels in HD patients. Twenty HD patients (12 men, 54.5±15.2 yr; 81.7±52.8 months on HD from RenalCor Clinic at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were studied. Blood samples were collected during fasting, before a regular HD session. The Se plasma levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with hydride generation (Hitachi, Z-500 and handgrip strength (HGS was measured three times with a mechanical dynamometer (Jamar after HD sessions in the non-fistula side and the highest value was used for analysis. HGS values less than the 10th percentile of an age-, gender- and regional specific reference were considered as muscle function loss. Plasma Se levels (31.9±14.8 μg/L were below the normal range (60-120 μg/L and all patients were Se deficient. HGS values were significantly greater in males (31.0±11.5 kg vs 14.0±6.8 kg for females (p=0.001 and the muscle function loss was observed in 50% of patients and, those with muscle function loss presented low Se levels (26.5±12.1 μg/L when compared to patients with preserved muscle function (39.12±14.5 μg/L (p=0.05. These data suggest that Se can have an important role on muscle function in HD patients. However, more research is needed to better understand this possible relationship in CKD patients.

  19. Synaptic and functional linkages between spinal premotor interneurons and hand-muscle activity during precision grip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiko eTakei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Grasping is a highly complex movement that requires the coordination of a number of hand joints and muscles. Previous studies showed that spinal premotor interneurons (PreM-INs in the primate cervical spinal cord have divergent synaptic effects on hand motoneurons and that they might contribute to hand-muscle synergies. However, the extent to which these PreM-IN synaptic connections functionally contribute to modulating hand-muscle activity is not clear. In this paper, we explored the contribution of spinal PreM-INs to hand-muscle activation by quantifying the synaptic linkage (SL and functional linkage (FL of the PreM-INs with hand-muscle activities. The activity of 23 PreM-INs was recorded from the cervical spinal cord (C6–T1, with EMG signals measured simultaneously from hand and arm muscles in two macaque monkeys performing a precision grip task. Spike-triggered averages (STAs of rectified EMGs were compiled for 456 neuron–muscle pairs; 63 pairs showed significant post-spike effects (i.e., SL. Conversely, 231 of 456 pairs showed significant cross-correlations between the IN firing rate and rectified EMG (i.e., FL. Importantly, a greater proportion of the neuron–muscle pairs with SL showed FL (43/63 pairs, 68% compared with the pairs without SL (203/393, 52%, and the presence of SL was significantly associated with that of FL. However, a significant number of pairs had SL without FL (SL∩!FL, n = 20 or FL without SL (!SL∩FL, n = 203, and the proportions of these incongruities exceeded the number expected by chance. These results suggested that spinal PreM-INs function to significantly modulate hand-muscle activity during precision grip, but the contribution of other neural structures is also needed to recruit an adequate combination of hand-muscle motoneurons.

  20. Impact of Resistance Training on Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis, Content, and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groennebaek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle metabolic and contractile properties are reliant on muscle mitochondrial and myofibrillar protein turnover. The turnover of these specific protein pools is compromised during disease, aging, and inactivity. Oppositely, exercise can accentuate muscle protein turnover, thereby counteracting decay in muscle function. According to a traditional consensus, endurance exercise is required to drive mitochondrial adaptations, while resistance exercise is required to drive myofibrillar adaptations. However, concurrent practice of traditional endurance exercise and resistance exercise regimens to achieve both types of muscle adaptations is time-consuming, motivationally demanding, and contended to entail practice at intensity levels, that may not comply with clinical settings. It is therefore of principle interest to identify effective, yet feasible, exercise strategies that may positively affect both mitochondrial and myofibrillar protein turnover. Recently, reports indicate that traditional high-load resistance exercise can stimulate muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial respiratory function. Moreover, fatiguing low-load resistance exercise has been shown capable of promoting muscle hypertrophy and expectedly entails greater metabolic stress to potentially enhance mitochondrial adaptations. Consequently, fatiguing low-load resistance exercise regimens may possess the ability to stimulate muscle mitochondrial adaptations without compromising muscle myofibrillar accretion. However, the exact ability of resistance exercise to drive mitochondrial adaptations is debatable, not least due to some methodological challenges. The current review therefore aims to address the evidence on the effects of resistance exercise on skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, content and function. In prolongation, a perspective is taken on the specific potential of low-load resistance exercise on promoting mitochondrial adaptations.

  1. Do different types of bearings and noise from total hip arthroplasty influence hip-related pain, function, and quality of life postoperatively?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varnum, Claus; Pedersen, Alma B; Kjærsgaard-Andersen, Per

    2016-01-01

    with metal-on-metal (MoM) THAs to scores from patients with metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) THAs, and to determine the influence of THA-related noise on PROM scores. Patients and methods - We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional questionnaire survey in a cohort of patients identified from the Danish Hip......, and 12% with MoP THAs reported noise from their hip. For the 3 types of bearings, PROM scores from patients with a noisy THA were statistically significantly worse than those from patients with a silent MoP THA. The exception was noisy CoC and MoM THAs, which had the same mean UCLA activity score...

  2. The Trochanteric Localization is a Mediator of Slower Short-Term Functional Recovery in Overweight and Obese Elderly Women with Recent Hip Fracture: The BREAK Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Rossi, Stefania; Siviero, Paola; Maggi, Stefania; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Nuti, Ranuccio

    2015-12-01

    The hypothesis tested in this study, carried out on elderly Italian women with recent hip fracture, was to assess the extent to which the effect of a condition of being overweight/obese on short-term functional recovery as evaluated by the "time to permitted load" could be explained by a mediator variable (type of hip fracture). We studied 727 women aged 60 years or over with a recent low trauma surgically treated hip fracture and for whom an information on post-surgery complications and on the time to permitted load was available. To assess for mediation, the statistical analyses were carried out following the procedure described by Baron and Kenny. In this study, 46 % of women with hip fracture presented a time to permitted load of ≥ 10 days. The women with a post-surgery time to permitted load of ≥ 10 days showed a significantly higher proportion of trochanteric fracture localization (72.1 vs 42 %), of total overweight/obesity (46.5 vs 36.8 %) and of post-surgery complications (38.8 vs 18.8 %). The mediating effect of hip fracture localization on the association between overweight/obesity and the time of permitted load was demonstrated and confirmed in a multivariate logistic regression model. This study, carried out using a "mediator" statistical analysis, suggests that in elderly women with hip fracture being overweight/obese is associated with a slower short-term functional recovery as evaluated by the time to permitted load and that this association is mediated by the trochanteric localization of hip fracture.

  3. The effects of stretching on the flexibility, muscle performance and functionality of institutionalized older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gallon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Stretching has been widely used to increase the range of motion. We assessed the effects of a stretching program on muscle-tendon length, flexibility, torque, and activities of daily living of institutionalized older women. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were according to Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE (>13, Barthel Index (>13 and Lysholm Scoring Scale (>84. Seventeen 67 ± 9 year-old elderly women from a nursing home were divided into 2 groups at random: the control group (CG, N = 9 participated in enjoyable cultural activities; the stretching group (SG, N = 8 performed active stretching of hamstrings, 4 bouts of 1 min each. Both groups were supervised three times per week over a period of 8 weeks. Peak torque was assessed by an isokinetic method. Both groups were evaluated by a photogrammetric method to assess muscle-tendon length of uni- and biarticular hip flexors and hamstring flexibility. All measurements were analyzed before and after 8 weeks by two-way ANOVA with the level of significance set at 5%. Hamstring flexibility increased by 30% in the SG group compared to pre-training (76.5 ± 13.0° vs 59.5 ± 9.0°, P = 0.0002 and by 9.2% compared to the CG group (76.5 ± 13.0° vs 64.0 ± 12.0°, P = 0.0018. Muscle-tendon lengths of hip biarticular flexor muscles (124 ± 6.8° vs 118.3 ± 7.6°, 5.0 ± 7.0%, P = 0.031 and eccentric knee extensor peak torque were decreased in the CG group compared to pre-test values (-49.4 ± 16.8 vs -60.5 ± 18.9 Nm, -15.7 ± 20%, P = 0.048. The stretching program was sufficient to increase hamstring flexibility and a lack of stretching can cause reduction of muscle performance.

  4. Insulin resistance and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2013-01-01

    are used in the attempt to resolve the mechanisms of insulin resistance. In this context, a dysfunction of mitochondria in the skeletal muscle has been suggested to play a pivotal role. It has been postulated that a decrease in the content of mitochondria in the skeletal muscle can explain the insulin...... resistance. Complementary to this also specific defects of components in the respiratory chain in the mitochondria have been suggested to play a role in insulin resistance. A key element in these mechanistic suggestions is inability to handle substrate fluxes and subsequently an accumulation of ectopic...... intramyocellular lipids, interfering with insulin signaling. In this review we will present the prevailing view-points and argue for the unlikelihood of this scenario being instrumental in human insulin resistance. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Bioenergetic dysfunction....

  5. Epigenetic regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell function in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Hannes M; Kahles, Florian K; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2013-04-01

    Epigenetics involve heritable and acquired changes in gene transcription that occur independently of the DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a hierarchic upper-level of transcriptional control through complex modifications of chromosomal components and nuclear structures. These modifications include, for example, DNA methylation or post-translational modifications of core histones; they are mediated by various chromatin-modifying enzymes; and ultimately they define the accessibility of a transcriptional complex to its target DNA. Integrating epigenetic mechanisms into the pathophysiologic concept of complex and multifactorial diseases such as atherosclerosis may significantly enhance our understanding of related mechanisms and provide promising therapeutic approaches. Although still in its infancy, intriguing scientific progress has begun to elucidate the role of epigenetic mechanisms in vascular biology, particularly in the control of smooth muscle cell phenotypes. In this review, we will summarize epigenetic pathways in smooth muscle cells, focusing on mechanisms involved in the regulation of vascular remodeling.

  6. Neuromuscular exercise improves functional performance in patients with severe hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Allan; Overgaard, Søren; Larsen, Anders Holsgaard

    . Randomized controlled trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01003756). 84 patients, 51% female, mean age 68.6±7.8 years, BMI 28.7±4.7 scheduled for total hip replacement at Svendborg Community Hospital, Odense University Hospital, Denmark were included. Intervention. Participants were randomized...... to an eight-week neuromuscular exercise (NEMEX-TJR) intervention or care-as-usual (verbal and written preoperative information). Intervention was supervised and offered twice a week with each session lasting one hour. The program is considered feasible and safe in this patient group and previously described......±4 sessions (Table 1). In favor of the intervention group, the between-group difference was significant for 20-m walk (2.2 seconds, p=.009), chair stands (1.7 seconds, p=.022) and leg extension for the non operated leg (.17 W/kg, p=.049) (Table 2). Conclusion. Eight weeks neuromuscular exercise according...

  7. Eicosahexanoic Acid (EPA and Docosahexanoic Acid (DHA in Muscle Damage and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisuke Ochi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional supplementation not only helps in improving and maintaining performance in sports and exercise, but also contributes in reducing exercise fatigue and in recovery from exhaustion. Fish oil contains large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3. It is widely known that omega-3 fatty acids are effective for improving cardiac function, depression, cognitive function, and blood as well as lowering blood pressure. In the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids and exercise performance, previous studies have been predicted improved endurance performance, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses, and effectivity against delayed-onset muscle soreness. However, the optimal dose, duration, and timing remain unclear. This review focuses on the effects of omega-3 fatty acid on muscle damage and function as evaluated by human and animal studies and summarizes its effects on muscle and nerve damage, and muscle mass and strength.

  8. Effects of Functional Training Program in Core Muscles in Women with Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Darío Pinzón-Ríos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the effects of a program of functional muscles core training targeting women with fibromyalgia. Materials and methods: A quasi-experimental type trial was conducted, before and after an intervention, for 20 days, often three days/week, 60 minutes each session. In a single-group of eight women, changes in muscle strength, pain, quality of life related to health and physical activity were evaluated. Results: An increase in repetitions of the test trunk flexion, time on the left and right bridge testing lateral and prone bridge the test were found. All features of pain decreased, and, according to the S-FIQ, a decrease in morning fatigue, stiffness and anxiety was reported. Also Met’s/minute-weeks increased after intervention. Conclusion: These data suggest that functional program core muscle training is effective in increasing muscle strength, pain modulation, functional performance optimization, and increased levels of physical activity in women with fibromyalgia.

  9. Functional alteration of breast muscle fatty acid profile by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast muscle fatty acid (FA) profile was studied in broiler chickens fed at different levels of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratios in 4 treatment groups; very high level of n-6:n-3 ratios (VH), high level of n-6:n-3 ratios (H), low level of n-6:n-3 ratios (L), very low level of n-6:n-3 ratios (VL) and control, respectively.

  10. Architectural design of the pelvic floor is consistent with muscle functional subspecialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Lori J; Nguyen, Olivia T; Cook, Mark S; Alperin, Marianna; Shah, Sameer B; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

    2014-02-01

    Skeletal muscle architecture is the strongest predictor of a muscle's functional capacity. The purpose of this study was to define the architectural properties of the deep muscles of the female pelvic floor (PFMs) to elucidate their structure-function relationships. PFMs coccygeus (C), iliococcygeus (IC), and pubovisceral (PV) were harvested en bloc from ten fixed human cadavers (mean age 85 years, range 55-102). Fundamental architectural parameters of skeletal muscles [physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), normalized fiber length, and sarcomere length (L(s))] were determined using validated methods. PCSA predicts muscle-force production, and normalized fiber length is related to muscle excursion. These parameters were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc t tests, as appropriate. Significance was set to α = 0.05. PFMs were thinner than expected based on data reported from imaging studies and in vivo palpation. Significant differences in fiber length were observed across PFMs: C = 5.29 ± 0.32 cm, IC = 7.55 ± 0.46 cm, PV = 10.45 ± 0.67 cm (p design shows individual muscles demonstrating differential architecture, corresponding to specialized function in the pelvic floor.

  11. Muscle Co-activation: Definitions, Mechanisms, and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, Mark L

    2018-03-28

    The phenomenon of agonist-antagonist muscle co-activation is discussed with respect to its consequences for movement mechanics (such as increasing joint apparent stiffness, facilitating faster movements, and effects on action stability), implication for movement optimization, and involvement of different neurophysiological structures. Effects of co-activation on movement stability are ambiguous and depend on the effector representing a kinematic chain with a fixed origin or free origin. Further, co-activation is discussed within the framework of the equilibrium-point hypothesis and the idea of hierarchical control with spatial referent coordinates. Relations of muscle co-activation to changes in one of the basic commands, the c-command, are discussed and illustrated. A hypothesis is suggested that agonist-antagonist co-activation reflects a deliberate neural control strategy to preserve effector-level control and avoid making it degenerate and facing the necessity to control at the level of signals to individual muscles. This strategy, in particular, allows stabilizing motor actions by co-varied adjustments in spaces of control variables. This hypothesis is able to account for higher levels of co-activation in young healthy persons performing challenging tasks and across various populations with movement impairments.

  12. Two functionally different muscle fibre types in some salps?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Bone

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the structure and operation of the fibres in the locomotor muscle bands of several salp species. In many species, for example Thalia democratica or Pegea confoederata, all the muscle fibres of the locomotor muscle bands are similar in width and structure. In others, for example Salpa fusiformis and S. maxima, although fibre structure is similar, the marginal fibres edging the bands may be some 3-4 times the width of those in the centre of the band. In Ihlea punctata, not only is there a more striking difference in width between the marginal and central fibres of the bands, but also the two differ in structure. The marginal fibres are up to 10 times the width of the central fibres and the two differ in myofibrillar and mitochondrial content. Intracellular recordings from the fibres show that the normally compound spike potentials do not overshoot resting potentials (up to -70 mV, and are decremental. The two types of fibre may be separately activated. It is suggested that in Ihlea punctata, the wide marginal fibres may be involved in slow swimming, the central narrow fibres in `escape´ swimming.

  13. Effects of functional exercise training on performance and muscle strength after meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, Y B; Dahlberg, L E; Roos, E M

    2008-01-01

    Muscular deficits and functional limitations have been found years after meniscectomy of the knee. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effect of functional exercise training on functional performance and isokinetic thigh muscle strength in middle-aged patients...... subsequent to meniscectomy for a degenerative tear. Four years after meniscectomy, 45 patients (29 men, 16 women) were randomized to functional exercise training, supervised by a physical therapist, three times weekly for 4 months or to no intervention. The exercise program comprised of postural stability...... training and functional strength and endurance exercises for leg and trunk muscles. Outcomes were three functional performance tests and isokinetic muscle strength. Thirty patients (16 exercisers/14 controls) completed the study. Compared with control patients, the exercise group showed significant...

  14. Prevalence of skeletal muscle mass loss and its association with swallowing function after cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Takahashi, Rimiko; Watanabe, Naoko; Oritsu, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Yoshitaka

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of skeletal muscle mass loss and its association with swallowing function in patients with dysphagia after cardiovascular surgery. A retrospective cohort study was performed in 65 consecutive patients with dysphagia after cardiovascular surgery who were prescribed speech therapy. Skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated as total psoas muscle area assessed via abdominal computed tomography divided by height squared. Cutoff values were 6.36 cm 2 /m 2 for men and 3.92 cm 2 /m 2 for women. The Food Intake Level Scale (FILS) was used to assess the swallowing function. Univariate and ordered logistic regression analyses were applied to examine the associations between skeletal muscle mass loss and dysphagia. The study included 50 men and 15 women (mean age 73 ± 8 y). The mean SMI was 4.72 ± 1.37 cm 2 /m 2 in men and 3.33 ± 1.42 cm 2 /m 2 in women. Skeletal muscle mass loss was found in 53 (82%) patients. Twelve had tracheostomy cannula. Thirteen were non-oral feeding (FILS levels 1-3), 5 were oral food intake and alternative nutrition (levels 4-6), and 47 were oral food intake alone (levels 7-9) at discharge. The FILS at discharge was significantly lower in patients with skeletal muscle mass loss. Ordered logistic regression analysis of swallowing function showed that skeletal muscle mass loss and tracheostomy cannula were associated independently with the FILS at discharge. The prevalence of skeletal muscle mass loss is very high, and skeletal muscle mass loss is associated with swallowing function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Enzymatically modified isoquercitrin supplementation intensifies plantaris muscle fiber hypertrophy in functionally overloaded mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Akiko; Machida, Masanao; Setoguchi, Yuko; Ito, Ryouichi; Sugitani, Masanori; Maruki-Uchida, Hiroko; Inagaki, Hiroyuki; Ito, Tatsuhiko; Omi, Naomi; Takemasa, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    Enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ) is produced from rutin using enzymatic hydrolysis followed by treatment with glycosyltransferase in the presence of dextrin to add glucose residues. EMIQ is absorbed in the same way as quercetin, a powerful antioxidant reported to prevent disused muscle atrophy by targeting mitochondria and to have ergogenic effects. The present study investigated the effect of EMIQ on skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by functional overload. In Study 1, 6-week-old ICR male mice were divided into 4 groups: sham-operated control, sham-operated EMIQ, overload-operated control, and overload-operated EMIQ groups. In Study 2, mice were divided into 3 groups: overload-operated whey control, overload-operated whey/EMIQ (low dose), and overload-operated whey/EMIQ (high dose) groups. The functional overload of the plantaris muscle was induced by ablation of the synergist (gastrocnemius and soleus) muscles. EMIQ and whey protein were administered with food. Three weeks after the operation, the cross-sectional area and minimal fiber diameter of the plantaris muscle fibers were measured. In Study 1, functional overload increased the cross-sectional area and minimal fiber diameter of the plantaris muscle. EMIQ supplementation significantly increased the cross-sectional area and minimal fiber diameter of the plantaris muscle in both the sham-operated and overload-operated groups. In Study 2, EMIQ supplementation combined with whey protein administration significantly increased the cross-sectional area and minimal fiber diameter of the plantaris muscle. EMIQ, even when administered as an addition to whey protein supplementation, significantly intensified the fiber hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle in functionally overloaded mice. EMIQ supplementation also induced fiber hypertrophy of the plantaris in sham-operated mice.

  16. Human lung mast cells modulate the functions of airway smooth muscle cells in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhouri, H; Hollins, F; Moir, L M; Brightling, C E; Armour, C L; Hughes, J M

    2011-09-01

    Activated mast cell densities are increased on the airway smooth muscle in asthma where they may modulate muscle functions and thus contribute to airway inflammation, remodelling and airflow obstruction. To determine the effects of human lung mast cells on the secretory and proliferative functions of airway smooth muscle cells from donors with and without asthma. Freshly isolated human lung mast cells were stimulated with IgE/anti-IgE. Culture supernatants were collected after 2 and 24 h and the mast cells lysed. The supernatants/lysates were added to serum-deprived, subconfluent airway smooth muscle cells for up to 48 h. Released chemokines and extracellular matrix were measured by ELISA, proliferation was quantified by [(3) H]-thymidine incorporation and cell counting, and intracellular signalling by phospho-arrays. Mast cell 2-h supernatants reduced CCL11 and increased CXCL8 and fibronectin production from both asthmatic and nonasthmatic muscle cells. Leupeptin reversed these effects. Mast cell 24-h supernatants and lysates reduced CCL11 release from both muscle cell types but increased CXCL8 release by nonasthmatic cells. The 24-h supernatants also reduced asthmatic, but not nonasthmatic, muscle cell DNA synthesis and asthmatic cell numbers over 5 days through inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphatidylinositol (PI3)-kinase pathways. However, prostaglandins, thromboxanes, IL-4 and IL-13 were not involved in reducing the proliferation. Mast cell proteases and newly synthesized products differentially modulated the secretory and proliferative functions of airway smooth muscle cells from donors with and without asthma. Thus, mast cells may modulate their own recruitment and airway smooth muscle functions locally in asthma. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Cold water immersion enhances recovery of submaximal muscle function after resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Llion A; Nosaka, Kazunori; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2014-10-15

    We investigated the effect of cold water immersion (CWI) on the recovery of muscle function and physiological responses after high-intensity resistance exercise. Using a randomized, cross-over design, 10 physically active men performed high-intensity resistance exercise followed by one of two recovery interventions: 1) 10 min of CWI at 10°C or 2) 10 min of active recovery (low-intensity cycling). After the recovery interventions, maximal muscle function was assessed after 2 and 4 h by measuring jump height and isometric squat strength. Submaximal muscle function was assessed after 6 h by measuring the average load lifted during 6 sets of 10 squats at 80% of 1 repetition maximum. Intramuscular temperature (1 cm) was also recorded, and venous blood samples were analyzed for markers of metabolism, vasoconstriction, and muscle damage. CWI did not enhance recovery of maximal muscle function. However, during the final three sets of the submaximal muscle function test, participants lifted a greater load (P work during subsequent training sessions, which could enhance long-term training adaptations. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Neck muscle function in violinists/violists with and without neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Anke; Claus, Andrew; Hodges, Paul W; Jull, Gwendolen A

    2016-04-01

    Neck pain is associated with changes in neuromuscular control of cervical muscles. Violin and viola playing requires good function of the flexor muscles to stabilize the instrument. This study investigated the flexor muscle behaviour in violin/viola players with and without neck pain using the craniocervical flexion test (CCFT). In total, 12 violin/viola players with neck pain, 21 violin/viola players without neck pain in the preceding 12 weeks and 21 pain-free non-musicians were included. Activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCM) was measured with surface electromyography (EMG) during the CCFT. Violin/viola players with neck pain displayed greater normalised SCM EMG amplitudes during CCFT than the pain-free musicians and non-musicians (P neck pain in violinists/violists is associated with altered behaviour of the superficial neck flexor muscles consistent with neck pain, despite the specific use of the deep and superficial neck flexors during violin playing.

  19. Effect of generalized joint hypermobility on knee function and muscle activation in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente Rona; Olesen, Annesofie T.; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We investigated muscle activation strategy and performance of knee extensor and flexor muscles in children and adults with generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) and compared them with controls. Methods: Muscle activation, torque steadiness, electromechanical delay, and muscle strength...... were evaluated in 39 children and 36 adults during isometric knee extension and flexion. Subjects performed isometric maximum contractions, submaximal contractions at 25% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and explosive contractions. Results: Agonist activation was reduced, and coactivation ratio...... was greater in GJH during knee flexion compared with controls. Torque steadiness was impaired in adults with GJH during knee flexion. No effect of GJH was found on muscle strength or electromechanical delay. Correlation analysis revealed an association between GJH severity and function in adults. Conclusions...

  20. A Physiologically Based, Multi-Scale Model of Skeletal Muscle Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrle, O.; Davidson, J. B.; Pullan, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Models of skeletal muscle can be classified as phenomenological or biophysical. Phenomenological models predict the muscle’s response to a specified input based on experimental measurements. Prominent phenomenological models are the Hill-type muscle models, which have been incorporated into rigid-body modeling frameworks, and three-dimensional continuum-mechanical models. Biophysically based models attempt to predict the muscle’s response as emerging from the underlying physiology of the system. In this contribution, the conventional biophysically based modeling methodology is extended to include several structural and functional characteristics of skeletal muscle. The result is a physiologically based, multi-scale skeletal muscle finite element model that is capable of representing detailed, geometrical descriptions of skeletal muscle fibers and their grouping. Together with a well-established model of motor-unit recruitment, the electro-physiological behavior of single muscle fibers within motor units is computed and linked to a continuum-mechanical constitutive law. The bridging between the cellular level and the organ level has been achieved via a multi-scale constitutive law and homogenization. The effect of homogenization has been investigated by varying the number of embedded skeletal muscle fibers and/or motor units and computing the resulting exerted muscle forces while applying the same excitatory input. All simulations were conducted using an anatomically realistic finite element model of the tibialis anterior muscle. Given the fact that the underlying electro-physiological cellular muscle model is capable of modeling metabolic fatigue effects such as potassium accumulation in the T-tubular space and inorganic phosphate build-up, the proposed framework provides a novel simulation-based way to investigate muscle behavior ranging from motor-unit recruitment to force generation and fatigue. PMID:22993509

  1. Functional Segregation within the Muscles of Aquatic Propulsion in the Asiatic Water Monitor (Varanus salvator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Arthur Young

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Water monitor lizards (Varanus salvator swim using sinusoidal oscillations generated at the base of their long (50% of total body length tail. In an effort to determine which level of the structural/organizational hierarchy of muscle is associated with functional segregation between the muscles of the tail base, an array of muscle features — myosin heavy chain profiles, enzymatic fiber types, twitch and tetanic force production, rates of fatigue, muscle compliance, and electrical activity patterns — were quantitated. The two examined axial muscles, longissimus and iliocaudalis, were generally similar at the molecular, biochemical, and physiological levels, but differed at the biomechanics level and in their activation pattern. The appendicular muscle examined, caudofemoralis, differed from the axial muscles particularly at the molecular and physiological levels, and it exhibited a unique compliance profile and pattern of electrical activation. There were some apparent contradictions between the different structural/organizational levels examined. These contradictions, coupled with a unique myosin heavy chain profile, lead to the hypothesis that there are previously un-described molecular/biochemical specializations within varanid skeletal muscles.

  2. Targeting deregulated AMPK/mTORC1 pathways improves muscle function in myotonic dystrophy type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockhoff, Marielle; Rion, Nathalie; Chojnowska, Kathrin; Wiktorowicz, Tatiana; Eickhorst, Christopher; Erne, Beat; Frank, Stephan; Angelini, Corrado; Furling, Denis; Rüegg, Markus A; Sinnreich, Michael; Castets, Perrine

    2017-02-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) is a disabling multisystemic disease that predominantly affects skeletal muscle. It is caused by expanded CTG repeats in the 3'-UTR of the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) gene. RNA hairpins formed by elongated DMPK transcripts sequester RNA-binding proteins, leading to mis-splicing of numerous pre-mRNAs. Here, we have investigated whether DM1-associated muscle pathology is related to deregulation of central metabolic pathways, which may identify potential therapeutic targets for the disease. In a well-characterized mouse model for DM1 (HSALR mice), activation of AMPK signaling in muscle was impaired under starved conditions, while mTORC1 signaling remained active. In parallel, autophagic flux was perturbed in HSALR muscle and in cultured human DM1 myotubes. Pharmacological approaches targeting AMPK/mTORC1 signaling greatly ameliorated muscle function in HSALR mice. AICAR, an AMPK activator, led to a strong reduction of myotonia, which was accompanied by partial correction of misregulated alternative splicing. Rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor, improved muscle relaxation and increased muscle force in HSALR mice without affecting splicing. These findings highlight the involvement of AMPK/mTORC1 deregulation in DM1 muscle pathophysiology and may open potential avenues for the treatment of this disease.

  3. Extrapulmonary features of bronchiectasis: muscle function, exercise capacity, fatigue, and health status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozalp Ozge

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited number of studies investigating extrapulmonary manifestations of bronchiectasis. The purpose of this study was to compare peripheral muscle function, exercise capacity, fatigue, and health status between patients with bronchiectasis and healthy subjects in order to provide documented differences in these characteristics for individuals with and without bronchiectasis. Methods Twenty patients with bronchiectasis (43.5 ± 14.1 years and 20 healthy subjects (43.0 ± 10.9 years participated in the study. Pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength (maximal expiratory pressure – MIP - and maximal expiratory pressure - MEP, and dyspnea perception using the Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (MMRC were determined. A six-minute walk test (6MWT was performed. Quadriceps muscle, shoulder abductor, and hand grip strength (QMS, SAS, and HGS, respectively using a hand held dynamometer and peripheral muscle endurance by a squat test were measured. Fatigue perception and health status were determined using the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS and the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ, respectively. Results Number of squats, 6MWT distance, and LCQ scores as well as lung function testing values and respiratory muscle strength were significantly lower and MMRC and FSS scores were significantly higher in patients with bronchiectasis than those of healthy subjects (p p p p p  Conclusions Peripheral muscle endurance, exercise capacity, fatigue and health status were adversely affected by the presence of bronchiectasis. Fatigue was associated with dyspnea and health status. Respiratory muscle strength was related to peripheral muscle strength and health status, but not to fatigue, peripheral muscle endurance or exercise capacity. These findings may provide insight for outcome measures for pulmonary rehabilitation programs for patients with bronchiectasis.

  4. Rbfox-regulated alternative splicing is critical for zebrafish cardiac and skeletal muscle function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Thomas L.; Arribere, Joshua A.; Geurts, Paul A.; Exner, Cameron R. T.; McDonald, Kent L.; Dill, Kariena K.; Marr, Henry L.; Adkar, Shaunak S.; Garnett, Aaron T.; Amacher, Sharon L.; Conboy, John G.

    2012-01-01

    Rbfox RNA binding proteins are implicated as regulators of phylogenetically-conserved alternative splicing events important for muscle function. To investigate the function of rbfox genes, we used morpholino-mediated knockdown of muscle-expressed rbfox1l and rbfox2 in zebrafish embryos. Single and double morphant embryos exhibited changes in splicing of overlapping sets of bioinformatically-predicted rbfox target exons, many of which exhibit a muscle-enriched splicing pattern that is conserved in vertebrates. Thus, conservation of intronic Rbfox binding motifs is a good predictor of Rbfox-regulated alternative splicing. Morphology and development of single morphant embryos was strikingly normal; however, muscle development in double morphants was severely disrupted. Defects in cardiac muscle were marked by reduced heart rate and in skeletal muscle by complete paralysis. The predominance of wavy myofibers and abnormal thick and thin filaments in skeletal muscle revealed that myofibril assembly is defective and disorganized in double morphants. Ultra-structural analysis revealed that although sarcomeres with electron dense M- and Z-bands are present in muscle fibers of rbfox1l/rbox2 morphants, they are substantially reduced in number and alignment. Importantly, splicing changes and morphological defects were rescued by expression of morpholino-resistant rbfox cDNA. Additionally, a target-blocking MO complementary to a single UGCAUG motif adjacent to an rbfox target exon of fxr1 inhibited inclusion in a similar manner to rbfox knockdown, providing evidence that Rbfox regulates the splicing of target exons via direct binding to intronic regulatory motifs. We conclude that Rbfox proteins regulate an alternative splicing program essential for vertebrate heart and skeletal muscle function. PMID:21925157

  5. Rbfox-regulated alternative splicing is critical for zebrafish cardiac and skeletal muscle functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Thomas L; Arribere, Joshua A; Geurts, Paul A; Exner, Cameron R T; McDonald, Kent L; Dill, Kariena K; Marr, Henry L; Adkar, Shaunak S; Garnett, Aaron T; Amacher, Sharon L; Conboy, John G

    2011-11-15

    Rbfox RNA binding proteins are implicated as regulators of phylogenetically-conserved alternative splicing events important for muscle function. To investigate the function of rbfox genes, we used morpholino-mediated knockdown of muscle-expressed rbfox1l and rbfox2 in zebrafish embryos. Single and double morphant embryos exhibited changes in splicing of overlapping sets of bioinformatically-predicted rbfox target exons, many of which exhibit a muscle-enriched splicing pattern that is conserved in vertebrates. Thus, conservation of intronic Rbfox binding motifs is a good predictor of Rbfox-regulated alternative splicing. Morphology and development of single morphant embryos were strikingly normal; however, muscle development in double morphants was severely disrupted. Defects in cardiac muscle were marked by reduced heart rate and in skeletal muscle by complete paralysis. The predominance of wavy myofibers and abnormal thick and thin filaments in skeletal muscle revealed that myofibril assembly is defective and disorganized in double morphants. Ultra-structural analysis revealed that although sarcomeres with electron dense M- and Z-bands are present in muscle fibers of rbfox1l/rbox2 morphants, they are substantially reduced in number and alignment. Importantly, splicing changes and morphological defects were rescued by expression of morpholino-resistant rbfox cDNA. Additionally, a target-blocking MO complementary to a single UGCAUG motif adjacent to an rbfox target exon of fxr1 inhibited inclusion in a similar manner to rbfox knockdown, providing evidence that Rbfox regulates the splicing of target exons via direct binding to intronic regulatory motifs. We conclude that Rbfox proteins regulate an alternative splicing program essential for vertebrate heart and skeletal muscle functions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeren, Melih; Demir, Rengin; Yigit, Zerrin; Gurses, Hulya N

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation. Prospective randomized controlled single-blind study. Cardiology department of a university hospital. A total of 38 patients with permanent atrial fibrillation were randomly allocated to either a treatment group (n = 19; age 66.2 years (8.8)) or a control group (n = 19; age 67.1 years (6.4)). The training group received inspiratory muscle training at 30% of maximal inspiratory pressure for 15 minutes twice a day, 7 days a week, for 12 weeks alongside the standard medical treatment. The control group received standard medical treatment only. Spirometry, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures and 6-minute walking distance was measured at the beginning and end of the study. There was a significant increase in maximal inspiratory pressure (27.94 cmH 2 O (8.90)), maximal expiratory pressure (24.53 cmH 2 O (10.34)), forced vital capacity (10.29% (8.18) predicted), forced expiratory volume in one second (13.88% (13.42) predicted), forced expiratory flow 25%-75% (14.82% (12.44) predicted), peak expiratory flow (19.82% (15.62) predicted) and 6-minute walking distance (55.53 m (14.13)) in the training group (p  0.05). Inspiratory muscle training can improve pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Functional electrical stimulation of intrinsic laryngeal muscles under varying loads in exercising horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Cheetham

    Full Text Available Bilateral vocal fold paralysis (BVCP is a life threatening condition and appears to be a good candidate for therapy using functional electrical stimulation (FES. Developing a working FES system has been technically difficult due to the inaccessible location and small size of the sole arytenoid abductor, the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA muscle. A naturally-occurring disease in horses shares many functional and etiological features with BVCP. In this study, the feasibility of FES for equine vocal fold paralysis was explored by testing arytenoid abduction evoked by electrical stimulation of the PCA muscle. Rheobase and chronaxie were determined for innervated PCA muscle. We then tested the hypothesis that direct muscle stimulation can maintain airway patency during strenuous exercise in horses with induced transient conduction block of the laryngeal motor nerve. Six adult horses were instrumented with a single bipolar intra-muscular electrode in the left PCA muscle. Rheobase and chronaxie were within the normal range for innervated muscle at 0.55±0.38 v and 0.38±0.19 ms respectively. Intramuscular stimulation of the PCA muscle significantly improved arytenoid abduction at all levels of exercise intensity and there was no significant difference between the level of abduction achieved with stimulation and control values under moderate loads. The equine larynx may provide a useful model for the study of bilateral fold paralysis.

  8. The relationship between nutritional status of hip fracture operated elderly patients and their functioning, comorbidity and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren-Hakim, Tamar; Weiss, Avraham; Hershkovitz, Avital; Otzrateni, Irena; Grosman, Boris; Frishman, Sigal; Salai, Moshe; Beloosesky, Yichayaou

    2012-12-01

    Malnutrition is common in hip fracture elderly patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the Mini Nutrition Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) and cognitive, functional status, comorbidity and outcome of operated patients. Clinical data, MNA, functioning, cognition were prospectively determined. Retrospectively, the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics (CIRS-G) were applied. The study consisted of 95 well-nourished (WN), 95 at risk of malnutrition (ARM) and 25 malnourished (MN) patients. More WN patients were independent vs. partially or fully dependent; more WN patients were cognitively normal vs. cognitively impaired (p patients and CCI was higher in MN and ARM vs. WN patients (p patients were readmitted, with less readmissions in the WN group (p = 0.024). During a 36 month follow-up, 79 patients died. The mortality rate was lower in the WN group (p = 0.01). Stepwise regression analysis found that the only independent variables for mortality were CCI and functioning (p Patients with higher cognitive and functional status were in superior nutritional condition. Poor nutritional status was associated with higher comorbidity indices, mortality and readmissions. However, we found that only comorbidity and low functioning can predict long-term mortality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional deltoid muscle reconstruction following an extensive squamous cell carcinoma resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Weng Jun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma frequently occurs in an individual with albinism. In this case, the growth of the squamous cell carcinoma was aggressive that it invaded the deltoid muscle. After an oncologic resection, there was a huge defect which required near total resection of the deltoid muscle. Loss of deltoid muscle will lead to the loss of abduction and anterior flexion at the shoulder. This could be debilitating in a person’s normal daily life and activities. Restoration of the shoulder abduction and flexion function with a pedicle bipolar latissimus dorsi flap transfer was chosen in this case due to the versatility and reliability of the flap.

  10. [Progress in isokinetic technology in testing and training for assessment of muscle function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Ting; Fan, Li-Hua; Gao, Dong; Xia, Qing; Zhang, Min

    2013-02-01

    Isokinetic technology in testing and training is the most advanced practical technique in the evaluation of muscle function. This method is a continuous dynamic test in the full range of the joint motion which has strong pertinence at the aspect of assessing muscle strength, and is an objective and quantitative method for reflecting each point's muscle strength in the range of the joint motion. This article reviews the key concepts, brief history of development and influencing factors of isokinetic technology in testing and training, introduces the progress in the field of rehabilitation medicine and sport science, etc., and discusses the future exploration in forensic science.

  11. Performance on the Functional Movement Screen Is Related to Hop Performance But Not to Hip and Knee Strength in Collegiate Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willigenburg, Nienke; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-03-01

    To define the relationship between Functional Movement Screen (FMS) scores and hop performance, hip strength, and knee strength in collegiate football players. Cross-sectional cohort. Freshmen of a Division I collegiate American football team (n = 59). The athletes performed the FMS, and also a variety of hop tests, isokinetic knee strength, and isometric hip strength tasks. We recorded total FMS score, peak strength, and hop performance, and we calculated asymmetries between legs on the different tasks. Spearman correlation coefficients quantified the relationships between these measures, and χ analyses compared the number of athletes with asymmetries on the different tasks. We observed significant correlations (r = 0.38-0.56, P ≤ 0.02) between FMS scores and hop distance but not between FMS scores and hip or knee strength (all P ≥ 0.21). The amount of asymmetry on the FMS test was significantly correlated to the amount of asymmetry on the timed 6-m hop (r = 0.44, P hip or knee strength asymmetries between limbs (all P ≥ 0.34). Functional Movement Screen score was positively correlated to hop distance, and limb asymmetry in FMS tasks was correlated to limb asymmetry in 6-m hop time in football players. No significant correlations were observed between FMS score and hip and knee strength or between FMS asymmetry and asymmetries in hip and knee strength between limbs. These results indicate that a simple hop for distance test may be a time-efficient and cost-efficient alternative to FMS testing in athletes and that functional asymmetries between limbs do not coincide with strength asymmetries.

  12. Venous muscle pump function during pregnancy. Assessment by ambulatory strain-gauge plethysmography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struckmann, J R; Meiland, H; Bagi, P

    1990-01-01

    The venous muscle pump function was quantitatively assessed through pregnancy weeks 16, 30, 38 and 3 months (week 53) following delivery, in 24 pregnant women who completed a normal pregnancy. A statistically significant increase was found in the mean venous reflux (P less than 0.01), which was r...... primarily by mechanical obstruction, or hormonal influence other than that of estradiol, estriol or progesterone. 17% (4.7-37%) of the women with a normal pregnancy developed a pathological venous muscle pump function....... virtually disappeared post partum, corresponding to the muscle pump normalization. No statistical correlation was found between venous muscle pump values and changes in hormone concentrations of estradiol, estriol and progesterone. It is suggested that venous insufficiency development in pregnancy is caused...

  13. Decreased Respiratory Muscle Function Is Associated with Impaired Trunk Balance among Chronic Stroke Patients: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeongbong; Cho, Ji-Eun; Hwang, Dal-Yeon; Lee, WanHee

    2018-06-01

    The abdominal muscles play a role in trunk balance. Abdominal muscle thickness is asymmetrical in stroke survivors, who also have decreased respiratory muscle function. We compared the thickness of the abdominal muscles between the affected and less affected sides in stroke survivors. In addition, the relationship between respiratory muscle function and trunk balance was evaluated. Chronic stroke patients (18 men, 15 women; mean age, 58.94 ± 12.30 years; Mini-Mental Status Examination score ≥ 24) who could sit without assist were enrolled. Abdominal muscle thickness during rest and contraction was measured with ultrasonography, and the thickening ratio was calculated. Respiratory muscle function assessment included maximum respiratory pressure, peak flow, and air volume. Trunk function was evaluated using the Trunk Impairment Scale, and trunk balance was estimated based on the center of pressure velocity and path length within the limit of stability in sitting posture. Abdominal muscles were significantly thinner on the affected side, and the thickening ratio was lower in the affected side (P respiratory muscle function was significantly correlated with higher level of trunk function and balance in stroke patients (P respiratory muscle function has positive correlation with trunk function and balance. We propose that respiratory muscle training should be included as part of trunk balance training in chronic stroke patients.

  14. Muscle function-dependent sarcopenia and cut-off values of possible predictors in community-dwelling Turkish elderly: calf circumference, midarm muscle circumference and walking speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın, S; Mucuk, S; Öztürk, A; Mazıcıoğlu, M; Göçer, Ş; Arguvanlı, S; Şafak, E D

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of muscle strength-based sarcopenia and to determine possible predictors. This is a cross-sectional population-based study in the community-dwelling Turkish elderly. Anthropometric measurements, namely body height, weight, triceps skin fold (TSF), mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), waist circumference (WC) and calf circumference (CC), were noted. The midarm muscle circumference (MAMC) was calculated by using MUAC and TSF measurement. Sarcopenia was assessed, adjusted for body mass index (BMI) and gender, according to muscle strength. Physical performance was determined by 4 m walking speed (WS; m/s). The receiver operating curve analysis was performed to determine cut-offs of CC, MAMC and 4 m WS. A total of 879 elderly subjects, 50.1% of whom were female, were recruited. The mean handgrip strength (HGS) and s.d. was 24.2 (8.8) kg [17.9 (4.8) female, 30.6 (7.1) male]. The muscle function-dependent sarcopenia was 63.4% (female 73.5%, male 53.2%). The muscle mass-dependent sarcopenia for CC (sarcopenia. An adequate muscle mass may not mean a reliable muscle function. Muscle function may describe sarcopenia better compared with muscle mass. The CC, MAMC and 4 m WS cut-offs may be used to assess sarcopenia in certain age groups.

  15. Lactate dehydrogenase regulation in aged skeletal muscle: Regulation by anabolic steroids and functional overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Tyrone A; Healey, Julie M; Thompson, Raymond W; Lowe, Larry L; Carson, James A

    2014-09-01

    Aging alters the skeletal muscle response to overload-induced growth. The onset of functional overload is characterized by increased myoblast proliferation and an altered muscle metabolic profile. The onset of functional overload is associated with increased energy demands that are met through the interconversion of lactate and pyruvate via the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Testosterone targets many of the processes activated at the onset of functional overload. However, the effect of aging on this metabolic plasticity at the onset of functional overload and how anabolic steroid administration modulates this response is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine if aging would alter overload-induced LDH activity and expression at the onset of functional overload and whether anabolic steroid administration would modulate this response. Five-month and 25-month male Fischer 344xF1 BRN were given nandrolone decanoate (ND) or sham injections for 14days and then the plantaris was functionally overloaded (OV) for 3days by synergist ablation. Aging reduced muscle LDH-A & LDH-B activity 70% (pyoung muscle. Our study provides evidence that aging alters aspects of skeletal muscle metabolic plasticity normally induced by overload and anabolic steroid administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effectiveness of water-based Liuzijue exercise on respiratory muscle strength and peripheral skeletal muscle function in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu W

    2018-05-01

    beneficial effects on COPD patients’ respiratory muscle strength and peripheral skeletal muscle function, and additional benefits may exist in endurance of upper limbs and strength and endurance of lower limbs when compared with land-based Liuzijue exercise. Keywords: COPD, Liuzijue exercise, water-based exercise, respiratory muscle strength, isokinetic muscle strength, quantitative assessment

  17. Volumetric Muscle Loss: Persistent Functional Deficits Beyond Frank Loss of Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    and fascia covering the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle were bluntly separated from the musculature. The tissue covering all aspects of the middle...testing system.5 Peak TA muscle isometric torque was determined with the ankle at a right angle 0˚ and 20˚ of dorsi- or plantar flexion, assuming a moment...of plantar and dorsiflexion). At all joint angles, VML resulted in a significant functional deficit, although a greater torque deficit was observed

  18. Muscle activity during functional coordination training: implications for strength gain and rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Andersen, Lars Louis; Kirk, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if different types, body positions, and levels of progression of functional coordination exercises can provide sufficiently high levels of muscle activity to improve strength of the neck, shoulder, and trunk muscles. Nine untrained women were familiarized...... to the maximal EMG activity during maximal voluntary contractions, and a p value 60% of maximal EMG activity). Type of exercise played a significant role...

  19. Preoperative home-based physical therapy versus usual care to improve functional health of frail older adults scheduled for elective total hip arthroplasty: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, E.; Jans, M.P.; Dronkers, J.J.; Naber, R.H.; Dronkers-Landman, C.M.; Appelman-De Vries, S.M.; Meeteren, N.L. van

    2012-01-01

    Preoperative home-based physical therapy versus usual care to improve functional health of frail older adults scheduled for elective total hip arthroplasty: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Objective: To investigate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a home-based intensive exercise

  20. Increasing Muscle Mass Improves Vascular Function in Obese (db/db) Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shuiqing; Mintz, James D.; Salet, Christina D.; Han, Weihong; Giannis, Athanassios; Chen, Feng; Yu, Yanfang; Su, Yunchao; Fulton, David J.; Stepp, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background A sedentary lifestyle is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and exercise has been shown to ameliorate this risk. Inactivity is associated with a loss of muscle mass, which is also reversed with isometric exercise training. The relationship between muscle mass and vascular function is poorly defined. The aims of the current study were to determine whether increasing muscle mass by genetic deletion of myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle growth, can influence vascular function in mesenteric arteries from obese db/db mice. Methods and Results Myostatin expression was elevated in skeletal muscle of obese mice and associated with reduced muscle mass (30% to 50%). Myostatin deletion increased muscle mass in lean (40% to 60%) and obese (80% to 115%) mice through increased muscle fiber size (PMyostatin deletion decreased adipose tissue in lean mice, but not obese mice. Markers of insulin resistance and glucose tolerance were improved in obese myostatin knockout mice. Obese mice demonstrated an impaired endothelial vasodilation, compared to lean mice. This impairment was improved by superoxide dismutase mimic Tempol. Deletion of myostatin improved endothelial vasodilation in mesenteric arteries in obese, but not in lean, mice. This improvement was blunted by nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor l‐NG‐nitroarginine methyl ester (l‐NAME). Prostacyclin (PGI2)‐ and endothelium‐derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)‐mediated vasodilation were preserved in obese mice and unaffected by myostatin deletion. Reactive oxygen species) was elevated in the mesenteric endothelium of obese mice and down‐regulated by deletion of myostatin in obese mice. Impaired vasodilation in obese mice was improved by NADPH oxidase inhibitor (GKT136901). Treatment with sepiapterin, which increases levels of tetrahydrobiopterin, improved vasodilation in obese mice, an improvement blocked by l‐NAME. Conclusions Increasing muscle mass by genetic deletion of

  1. Effects of anabolic hormones on structural, metabolic and functional aspects of skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Oliveira Pires

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n3p350   This study reviewed information regarding the effects of anabolic hormones on strength gain and muscle hypertrophy, emphasizing the physiological mechanisms that may increase muscle strength. Structural, metabolic and functional aspects were analyzed and special attention was paid to the dose-response relationship. The Pubmed database was searched and studies were selected according to relevance and date of publication (last 15 years. The administration of high testosterone doses (~600 mg/week potentiates the effects of strength training, increasing lean body mass, muscle fiber type IIA and IIB cross-sectional area, and the number of myonuclei. There is no evidence of conversion between MHC isoforms. The interaction between testosterone administration and strength training seems to modify some metabolic pathways, increasing protein synthesis, glycogen and ATP-CP muscle stores and improving fat mobilization. Changes in 17-estradiol concentration or in the ACTH-cortisol and insulin-glucagon ratios seem to be associated with these metabolic alterations. Regarding performance, testosterone administration may improve muscle strength by 5-20% depending on the dose used. On the other hand, the effects of growth hormone on the structural and functional aspects of skeletal muscle are not evident, with this hormone more affecting metabolic aspects. However, strictly controlled human studies are necessary to establish the extent of the effects of anabolic hormones on structural, metabolic and functional aspects.

  2. Effects of anabolic hormones on structural, metabolic and functional aspects of skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Oliveira Pires

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reviewed information regarding the effects of anabolic hormones on strength gain and muscle hypertrophy, emphasizing the physiological mechanisms that may increase muscle strength. Structural, metabolic and functional aspects were analyzed and special attention was paid to the dose-response relationship. The Pubmed database was searched and studies were selected according to relevance and date of publication (last 15 years. The administration of high testosterone doses (~600 mg/week potentiates the effects of strength training, increasing lean body mass, muscle fiber type IIA and IIB cross-sectional area, and the number of myonuclei. There is no evidence of conversion between MHC isoforms. The interaction between testosterone administration and strength training seems to modify some metabolic pathways, increasing protein synthesis, glycogen and ATP-CP muscle stores and improving fat mobilization. Changes in 17-estradiol concentration or in the ACTH-cortisol and insulin-glucagon ratios seem to be associated with these metabolic alterations. Regarding performance, testosterone administration may improve muscle strength by 5-20% depending on the dose used. On the other hand, the effects of growth hormone on the structural and functional aspects of skeletal muscle are not evident, with this hormone more affecting metabolic aspects. However, strictly controlled human studies are necessary to establish the extent of the effects of anabolic hormones on structural, metabolic and functional aspects.

  3. Optogenetic probing of nerve and muscle function after facial nerve lesion in the mouse whisker system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandi, Akhil; Vajtay, Thomas J.; Upadhyay, Aman; Yiantsos, S. Olga; Lee, Christian R.; Margolis, David J.

    2018-02-01

    Optogenetic modulation of neural circuits has opened new avenues into neuroscience research, allowing the control of cellular activity of genetically specified cell types. Optogenetics is still underdeveloped in the peripheral nervous system, yet there are many applications related to sensorimotor function, pain and nerve injury that would be of great benefit. We recently established a method for non-invasive, transdermal optogenetic stimulation of the facial muscles that control whisker movements in mice (Park et al., 2016, eLife, e14140)1. Here we present results comparing the effects of optogenetic stimulation of whisker movements in mice that express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) selectively in either the facial motor nerve (ChAT-ChR2 mice) or muscle (Emx1-ChR2 or ACTA1-ChR2 mice). We tracked changes in nerve and muscle function before and up to 14 days after nerve transection. Optogenetic 460 nm transdermal stimulation of the distal cut nerve showed that nerve degeneration progresses rapidly over 24 hours. In contrast, the whisker movements evoked by optogenetic muscle stimulation were up-regulated after denervation, including increased maximum protraction amplitude, increased sensitivity to low-intensity stimuli, and more sustained muscle contractions (reduced adaptation). Our results indicate that peripheral optogenetic stimulation is a promising technique for probing the timecourse of functional changes of both nerve and muscle, and holds potential for restoring movement after paralysis induced by nerve damage or motoneuron degeneration.

  4. Functional recovery of denervated skeletal muscle with sensory or mixed nerve protection: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Tian Li

    Full Text Available Functional recovery is usually poor following peripheral nerve injury when reinnervation is delayed. Early innervation by sensory nerve has been indicated to prevent atrophy of the denervated muscle. It is hypothesized that early protection with sensory axons is adequate to improve functional recovery of skeletal muscle following prolonged denervation of mixed nerve injury. In this study, four groups of rats received surgical denervation of the tibial nerve. The proximal and distal stumps of the tibial nerve were ligated in all animals except for those in the immediate repair group. The experimental groups underwent denervation with nerve protection of peroneal nerve (mixed protection or sural nerve (sensory protection. The experimental and unprotected groups had a stage II surgery in which the trimmed proximal and distal tibial nerve stumps were sutured together. After 3 months of recovery, electrophysiological, histological and morphometric parameters were assessed. It was detected that the significant muscle atrophy and a good preserved structure of the muscle were observed in the unprotected and protective experimental groups, respectively. Significantly fewer numbers of regenerated myelinated axons were observed in the sensory-protected group. Enhanced recovery in the mixed protection group was indicated by the results of the muscle contraction force tests, regenerated myelinated fiber, and the results of the histological analysis. Our results suggest that early axons protection by mixed nerve may complement sensory axons which are required for promoting functional recovery of the denervated muscle natively innervated by mixed nerve.

  5. Muscle function and body composition profile in adolescents with restrictive anorexia nervosa: does resistance training help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-del-Valle, Maria; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Morande-Lavin, Gonzalo; Perez Ruiz, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of short-term resistance training on the body composition profile and muscle function in a group of Anorexia Nervosa restricting type (AN-R) patients. The sample consisted of AN-R female adolescents (12.8 ± 0.6 years) allocated into the control and intervention groups (n = 18 each). Body composition and relative strength were assessed at baseline, after 8 weeks and 4 weeks following the intervention. Body mass index (BMI) increased throughout the study (p = 0.011). Significant skeletal muscle mass (SMM) gains were found in the intervention group (p = 0.045, d = 0.6) that correlated to the change in BMI (r = 0.51, p  0.60) with change in BMI in both the groups. Significant relative strength increases (p Anorexia Nervosa Restricting Type (AN-R) AN-R is a psychiatric disorder that has a major impact on muscle mass content and function. However, little or no attention has been paid to muscle recovery. High intensity resistance training is safe for AN-R after hospitalization and enhances the force generating capacity as well as muscle mass gains. Skeletal muscle mass content and muscular function improvements are partially maintained for a short period of time when the exercise program ceases.

  6. Upper Extremity Muscle Volumes and Functional Strength After Resistance Training in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Melissa; Vidt, Meghan E.; Eggebeen, Joel D.; Simpson, W. Greg; Miller, Michael E.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Saul, Katherine R.

    2014-01-01

    Aging leads to a decline in strength and an associated loss of independence. The authors examined changes in muscle volume, maximum isometric joint moment, functional strength, and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) after resistance training (RT) in the upper extremity of older adults. They evaluated isometric joint moment and muscle volume as predictors of functional strength. Sixteen healthy older adults (average age 75 ± 4.3 yr) were randomized to a 6-wk upper extremity RT program or control group. The RT group increased 1RM significantly (p strength (p = .003), isometric shoulder-adduction moment (p = .041), elbow-flexor volume (p = .017), and shoulder-adductor volume (p = .009). Shoulder-muscle volumes and isometric moments were good predictors of functional strength. The authors conclude that shoulder strength is an important factor for performing functional reaching and pulling tasks and a key target for upper extremity RT interventions. PMID:22952203

  7. Danish Hip Arthroscopy Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind-Klavsen, Bjarne; Grønbech Nielsen, Torsten; Maagaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Danish Hip Arthroscopy Registry (DHAR) was initiated in 2012 as a web-based prospective registry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and report the epidemiologic and perioperative data of the first 2000 procedures in a Danish hip arthroscopy population and to describe the development of DHAR...... was 0.65 and HAGOS sub-scores were 51 (pain), 49 (symptoms), 53 (ADL), 35 (sport), 20 (physical activity) and 29, respectively. We conclude that patients undergoing hip arthroscopy report considerable pain, loss of function, reduced level of activity and reduced quality-of-life prior to surgery....... The problems with development and maintaining a large clinical registry are described and further studies are needed to validate data completeness. We consider the development of a national clinical registry for hip arthroscopy as a successful way of developing and maintaining a valuable clinical...

  8. Is the relationship between increased knee muscle strength and improved physical function following exercise dependent on baseline physical function status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; van der Esch, Martin; van der Leeden, Marike; Kasza, Jessica; Wrigley, Tim V; Metcalf, Ben R; Dobson, Fiona; Bennell, Kim L

    2017-12-08

    Clinical guidelines recommend knee muscle strengthening exercises to improve physical function. However, the amount of knee muscle strength increase needed for clinically relevant improvements in physical function is unclear. Understanding how much increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved physical function could assist clinicians in providing appropriate strength gain targets for their patients in order to optimise outcomes from exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved self-reported physical function following exercise; and whether the relationship differs according to physical function status at baseline. Data from 100 participants with medial knee osteoarthritis enrolled in a 12-week randomised controlled trial comparing neuromuscular exercise to quadriceps strengthening exercise were pooled. Participants were categorised as having mild, moderate or severe physical dysfunction at baseline using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Associations between 12-week changes in physical function (dependent variable) and peak isometric knee extensor and flexor strength (independent variables) were evaluated with and without accounting for baseline physical function status and covariates using linear regression models. In covariate-adjusted models without accounting for baseline physical function, every 1-unit (Nm/kg) increase in knee extensor strength was associated with physical function improvement of 17 WOMAC units (95% confidence interval (CI) -29 to -5). When accounting for baseline severity of physical function, every 1-unit increase in knee extensor strength was associated with physical function improvement of 24 WOMAC units (95% CI -42 to -7) in participants with severe physical dysfunction. There were no associations between change in strength and change in physical function in participants with mild or moderate physical

  9. Choroba zwyrodnieniowa stawów biodrowych - pacjent i problemy funkcjonalne = The hip joint Osteoarthritis - patient and functional problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Biegański

    2015-08-01

      Streszczenie             Coxarthrosis to przewlekłe schorzenie powodujące destrukcje w obrębie stawu biodrowego i tkanek okołostawowych. Choroba zwyrodnieniowa stawów jest jednym z najczęściej spotykanych schorzeń ortopedycznych i drugim po chorobach układu krążenia powodujące niepełnosprawność. Pacjenci najczęściej borykają się z bólem i sztywnością, które wpływają na spadek możliwości lokomocji, samoobsługi i jakości życia. Stanowi to wyzwanie dla zespołu medycznego, który ma zadanie  utrzymywać sprawność pacjenta jak najdłużej.   Abstract             Coxarthrosis is a chronic illness which makes destruction in the area of joint and tissues surrounding  it. The hip joint Osteoarthritis  is one of the most popular orthopaedic disease and second after  cardiovascular disease causing disability. Patients generally feel pain and stiffness which causes decrease the possibility of locomotion, self-servive and quality of life. It is challenge for medical team to maintain efficiency as long as it is possible.   Słowa kluczowe: coxarthrosis, choroba zwyrodnieniowa stawu biodrowego, ból, problemy funkcjonalne. Key word: coxarthrosis, hip joint osteoarthrosis, pain, functional problems.

  10. Impaired exercise performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in rats with secondary carnitine deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal BOUITBIR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The effects of carnitine depletion upon exercise performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function remain largely unexplored. We therefore investigated the effect of N-trimethyl-hydrazine-3-propionate (THP, a carnitine analogue inhibiting carnitine biosynthesis and renal carnitine reabsorption, on physical performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in rats.Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were treated daily with water (control rats; n=12 or with 20 mg/100 g body weight THP (n=12 via oral gavage for 3 weeks. Following treatment, half of the animals of each group performed an exercise test until exhaustion.Results: Distance covered and exercise performance were lower in THP-treated compared to control rats. In the oxidative soleus muscle, carnitine depletion caused atrophy (-24% and impaired function of complex II and IV of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The free radical leak (ROS production relative to oxygen consumption was increased and the cellular glutathione pool decreased. Moreover, mRNA expression of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial DNA were decreased in THP-treated compared to control rats. In comparison, in the glycolytic gastrocnemius muscle, carnitine depletion was associated with impaired function of complex IV and increased free radical leak, whilst muscle weight and cellular glutathione pool were maintained. Markers of mitochondrial proliferation and mitochondrial DNA were unaffected.Conclusions: Carnitine deficiency is associated with impaired exercise capacity in rats treated with THP. THP-induced carnitine deficiency is associated with impaired function of the electron transport chain in oxidative and glycolytic muscle as well as with atrophy and decreased mitochondrial DNA in oxidative muscle.

  11. Expression and functional characterization of Smyd1a in myofibril organization of skeletal muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smyd1, the founding member of the Smyd family including Smyd-1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, is a SET and MYND domain containing protein that plays a key role in myofibril assembly in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that zebrafish genome contains two highly related smyd1 genes, smyd1a and smyd1b. Although Smyd1b function is well characterized in skeletal and cardiac muscles, the function of Smyd1a is, however, unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the function of Smyd1a in muscle development, we isolated smyd1a from zebrafish, and characterized its expression and function during muscle development via gene knockdown and transgenic expression approaches. The results showed that smyd1a was strongly expressed in skeletal muscles of zebrafish embryos. Functional analysis revealed that knockdown of smyd1a alone had no significant effect on myofibril assembly in zebrafish skeletal muscles. However, knockdown of smyd1a and smyd1b together resulted in a complete disruption of myofibril organization in skeletal muscles, a phenotype stronger than knockdown of smyd1a or smyd1b alone. Moreover, ectopic expression of zebrafish smyd1a or mouse Smyd1 transgene could rescue the myofibril defects from the smyd1b knockdown in zebrafish embryos. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, these data indicate that Smyd1a and Smyd1b share similar biological activity in myofibril assembly in zebrafish embryos. However, Smyd1b appears to play a major role in this process.

  12. Adjustment of muscle function to flight in bats; Komori no kinkino no hiko eno tekio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, M. [Institute of the Space and Astronautical Science,Tokyo (Japan); Choi, I.H.

    1999-12-05

    This paper outlines the muscle of bats that generates a motive force for flight. The weight of the muscle is less compared with that of birds. The energy required for flight is twice as much as that for running. Conversely, in view of metabolic cost (transporting cost) for moving a unit mass for a unit distance, the transporting cost of bats for flying is one fifth. The acquisition of this flight ability through evolution can be inferred from the fossils of reptiles. Bats, having a stream-lined body shape and a small body mass, are capable of efficient flight. A fast durable flight is possible by having the pectoral muscle constituted of speed muscles of oxidation/glycolysis muscle fiber, a well-developed oxygen transporting system, the arrangement around the capillary of mitochondria and fat grains that are cell organs for producing energy, and a high-density contact between the capillary and the muscle fiber. The muscle functions at low body temperature and imparts adaptability to hibernation with the body temperature lowered. The flight is controlled by the cycle and synchronized with this biological clock, optical cycle and change in temperature. (NEDO)

  13. The functional significance of hamstrings composition: is it really a "fast" muscle group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelidis, Pavlos E; Massey, Garry J; Ferguson, Richard A; Wheeler, Patrick C; Pain, Matthew T G; Folland, Jonathan P

    2017-11-01

    Hamstrings muscle fiber composition may be predominantly fast-twitch and could explain the high incidence of hamstrings strain injuries. However, hamstrings muscle composition in vivo, and its influence on knee flexor muscle function, remains unknown. We investigated biceps femoris long head (BFlh) myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition from biopsy samples, and the association of hamstrings composition and hamstrings muscle volume (using MRI) with knee flexor maximal and explosive strength. Thirty-one young men performed maximal (concentric, eccentric, isometric) and explosive (isometric) contractions. BFlh exhibited a balanced MHC distribution [mean ± SD (min-max); 47.1 ± 9.1% (32.6-71.0%) MHC-I, 35.5 ± 8.5% (21.5-60.0%) MHC-IIA, 17.4 ± 9.1% (0.0-30.9%) MHC-IIX]. Muscle volume was correlated with knee flexor maximal strength at all velocities and contraction modes (r = 0.62-0.76, P hamstrings strain injury. Hamstrings muscle volume explained 38-58% of the inter-individual differences in knee flexor maximum strength at a range of velocities and contraction modes, while BFlh muscle composition was not associated with maximal or explosive strength. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Hip Strength Testing of Soccer Players With Long-Standing Hip and Groin Pain: What are the Clinical Implications of Pain During Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafn, Bolette S; Tang, Lars; Nielsen, Martin P; Branci, Sonia; Hölmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian

    2016-05-01

    To investigate whether self-reported pain during hip strength testing correlates to a large degree with hip muscle strength in soccer players with long-standing unilateral hip and groin pain. Cross-sectional study. Clinical assessments at Sports Orthopaedic Research Center-Copenhagen (SORC-C), Arthroscopic Centre Amager, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. Twenty-four male soccer players with unilateral long-standing hip and groin pain. The soccer players performed 5 reliable hip muscle strength tests (isometric hip flexion, adduction, abduction, isometric hip flexion-modified Thomas test, and eccentric hip adduction). Muscle strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer, and the players rated the pain during testing on a numerical rating scale (0-10). In 4 tests (isometric hip adduction, abduction, flexion, and eccentric adduction), no significant correlations were found between pain during testing and hip muscle strength (Spearman rho = -0.28 to 0.06, P = 0.09-0.39). Isometric hip flexion (modified Thomas test position) showed a moderate negative correlation between pain and hip muscle strength (Spearman rho = -0.44, P = 0.016). Self-reported pain during testing does not seem to correlate with the majority of hip muscle strength tests used in soccer players with long-standing hip and groin pain.

  15. The recognition and evaluation of patterns of compensatory injury in patients with mechanical hip pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Sommer; Bedi, Asheesh; Voos, James E; Mauro, Craig S; Kelly, Bryan T

    2014-03-01

    In active individuals with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), the resultant reduction in functional range of motion leads to high impaction loads at terminal ranges. These increased forces result in compensatory effects on bony and soft tissue structures within the hip joint and hemipelvis. An algorithm is useful in evaluating athletes with pre-arthritic, mechanical hip pain and associated compensatory disorders. A literature search was performed by a review of PubMed articles published from 1976 to 2013. Level 4. Increased stresses across the bony hemipelvis result when athletes with FAI attempt to achieve supraphysiologic, terminal ranges of motion (ROM) through the hip joint required for athletic competition. This can manifest as pain within the pubic joint (osteitis pubis), sacroiliac joint, and lumbosacral spine. Subclinical posterior hip instability may result when attempts to increase hip flexion and internal rotation are not compensated for by increased motion through the hemipelvis. Prominence of the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) at the level of the acetabular rim can result in impingement of the anterior hip joint capsule or iliocapsularis muscle origin against the femoral head-neck junction, resulting in a distinct form of mechanical hip impingement (AIIS subspine impingement). Iliopsoas impingement (IPI) has also been described as an etiology for anterior hip pain. IPI results in a typical 3-o'clock labral tear as well as an inflamed capsule in close proximity to the overlying iliopsoas tendon. Injury in athletic pubalgia occurs during high-energy twisting activities in which abnormal hip ROM and resultant pelvic motion lead to shearing across the pubic symphysis. Failure to recognize and address concomitant compensatory injury patterns associated with intra-articular hip pathology can result in significant disability and persistent symptoms in athletes with pre-arthritic, mechanical hip pain. B.

  16. The effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on muscle strength, functional capacity and body composition in haemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent Esteve

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: (1 NMES improved muscle strength, functional capacity and quadriceps muscle composition in our patients. (2 Based on the results obtained, NMES could be a new therapeutic alternative to prevent muscle atrophy and progressive physical deterioration. (3 However, future studies are necessary to establish the potential beneficial effects of NMES in HD patients.

  17. In vivo generation of a mature and functional artificial skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, Claudia; Rizzi, Roberto; Biondo, Antonella; Longa, Emanuela; Mascaro, Anna; Shapira-Schweitzer, Keren; Kossovar, Olga; Benedetti, Sara; Salvatori, Maria L; Santoleri, Sabrina; Testa, Stefano; Bernardini, Sergio; Bottinelli, Roberto; Bearzi, Claudia; Cannata, Stefano M; Seliktar, Dror; Cossu, Giulio; Gargioli, Cesare

    2015-04-01

    Extensive loss of skeletal muscle tissue results in mutilations and severe loss of function. In vitro-generated artificial muscles undergo necrosis when transplanted in vivo before host angiogenesis may provide oxygen for fibre survival. Here, we report a novel strategy based upon the use of mouse or human mesoangioblasts encapsulated inside PEG-fibrinogen hydrogel. Once engineered to express placental-derived growth factor, mesoangioblasts attract host vessels and nerves, contributing to in vivo survival and maturation of newly formed myofibres. When the graft was implanted underneath the skin on the surface of the tibialis anterior, mature and aligned myofibres formed within several weeks as a complete and functional extra muscle. Moreover, replacing the ablated tibialis anterior with PEG-fibrinogen-embedded mesoangioblasts also resulted in an artificial muscle very similar to a normal tibialis anterior. This strategy opens the possibility for patient-specific muscle creation for a large number of pathological conditions involving muscle tissue wasting. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  18. Acute effects of inspiratory muscle warm-up on pulmonary function in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdal, Mustafa

    2016-06-15

    The acute effects of inspiratory muscle warm-up on pulmonary functions were examined in 26 healthy male subjects using the pulmonary function test (PFT) in three different trials. The control trial (CON) did not involve inspiratory muscle warm-up, while the placebo (IMWp) and experimental (IMW) trials involved inspiratory muscle warm-up. There were no significant changes between the IMWp and CON trials (p>0.05). All the PFT measurements, including slow vital capacity, inspiratory vital capacity, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, maximal voluntary ventilation, and maximal inspiratory pressure were significantly increased by 3.55%, 12.52%, 5.00%, 2.75%, 2.66%, and 7.03% respectively, in the subjects in the IMW trial than those in the CON trial (pcooperation of the upper thorax, neck, and respiratory muscles, and increased level of reactive O2 species in muscle tissue, and potentially improvement of muscle O2 delivery-to-utilization. However, further investigation is required to determine the precise mechanisms responsible from among these candidates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Vascular Function and Regulation of Blood Flow in Resting and Contracting Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin

    importance. The present work provides new insight in to vasodilator interactions important for exercise hyperemia and sheds light on mechanisms important for vascular function and regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow in essential hypertension (high blood pressure) and aging and identifies mechanisms......The precise matching of blood flow, oxygen delivery and metabolism is essential as it ensures that any increase in muscle work is precisely matched by increases in oxygen delivery. Therefore, understanding the control mechanisms of skeletal muscle blood flow regulation is of great biological...... in the regulation of exercise hyperemia. Furthermore, blood flow to contracting leg skeletal muscles is reduced both in essential hypertension and with aging. The potential difference in vasoactive system(s) responsible for the reduction in blood flow in the two conditions is in agreement with the suggestion...

  20. The application of functional MRI in evaluating ischemic injuries of lower limb skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Caifeng; Gu Jianping

    2011-01-01

    The ischemic injury of lower limb skeletal muscle is caused by various reasons that lead to limb arterial blood flow insufficiency and subsequent muscle tissue hypoxia. Exact and correct evaluation of the ischemic degree of the skeletal muscle is very important for the physicians to guide the clinical treatment, to assess the therapeutic effect and to judge the prognosis. With the development and updating of scanning hardware and software, together with the use of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), etc. the application of MRI has been dramatically expanded both in clinical practice and scientific researches. Nowadays, functional MRI can accurately reflect the physiological structures and pathologic changes in detail. This article aims mainly to make a comprehensive review about the application of these techniques in assessing the ischemic injuries of lower limb skeletal muscle. (authors)

  1. Live imaging of muscles in Drosophila metamorphosis: Towards high-throughput gene identification and function analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puah, Wee Choo; Wasser, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Time-lapse microscopy in developmental biology is an emerging tool for functional genomics. Phenotypic effects of gene perturbations can be studied non-invasively at multiple time points in chronological order. During metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster, time-lapse microscopy using fluorescent reporters allows visualization of alternative fates of larval muscles, which are a model for the study of genes related to muscle wasting. While doomed muscles enter hormone-induced programmed cell death, a smaller population of persistent muscles survives to adulthood and undergoes morphological remodeling that involves atrophy in early, and hypertrophy in late pupation. We developed a method that combines in vivo imaging, targeted gene perturbation and image analysis to identify and characterize genes involved in muscle development. Macrozoom microscopy helps to screen for interesting muscle phenotypes, while confocal microscopy in multiple locations over 4-5 days produces time-lapse images that are used to quantify changes in cell morphology. Performing a similar investigation using fixed pupal tissues would be too time-consuming and therefore impractical. We describe three applications of our pipeline. First, we show how quantitative microscopy can track and measure morphological changes of muscle throughout metamorphosis and analyze genes involved in atrophy. Second, our assay can help to identify genes that either promote or prevent histolysis of abdominal muscles. Third, we apply our approach to test new fluorescent proteins as live markers for muscle development. We describe mKO2 tagged Cysteine proteinase 1 (Cp1) and Troponin-I (TnI) as examples of proteins showing developmental changes in subcellular localization. Finally, we discuss strategies to improve throughput of our pipeline to permit genome-wide screens in the future. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a functional food or drug against unloading-mediated muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikawa, Takeshi; Nakao, Reiko; Kagawa, Sachiko; Yamada, Chiharu; Abe, Manami; Tamura, Seiko; Kohno, Shohei; Sukeno, Akiko; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Okumura, Yuushi; Ishidoh, Kazumi

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is a primary regulator of muscle protein turnover, providing a mechanism for selective degradation of regulatory and structural proteins. This pathway is constitutively active in muscle fibers and mediates both intracellular signaling events and normal muscle protein turnover. However, conditions of decreased muscle use, so called unloading, remarkably stimulate activity of this pathway, resulting in loss of muscle protein. In fact, we previously reported that expression of several ubiquitin ligase genes, such as MuRF-1, Cbl-b, and Siah-1A, which are rate-limiting enzymes of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway, are significantly up-regulated in rat skeletal muscle during spaceflight. Moreover, we found that Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1, an important intermediates of IGF-1 signal transduction, contributes to muscle atrophy during unloading. Therefore, we hypothesized that inhibition of Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1 leads to prevention of muscle atrophy during unloading. In this study, we aimed to evaluate oligopeptide as an inhibitor against ubiquitination of IRS-1 by Cbl-b. We synthesized various oligopeptides that may competitively inhibit the binding of Cbl-b to IRS-1 on the basis of their structures and screened inhibitory effects of these synthesized oligopeptides on Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination of IRS-1 using in vitro ubiquitination systems. We found that two synthetic oligopeptides with specific amino acid sequences effectively inhibited interaction with Cbl-b and IRS-1, resulting in decreased ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1 (Patent pending). In contrast, we also found inhibitory activity against Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination of IRS-1 in soy protein-derived oligopeptides, whereas their inhibitory effects were weaker than those of synthetic oligopeptides. Our results suggest that specific oligopeptides may be available as a functional food against the muscle

  3. Functional Task Test: 3. Skeletal Muscle Performance Adaptations to Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Wickwire, P. J.; Buxton, R. E.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2011-01-01

    The functional task test is a multi-disciplinary study investigating how space-flight induced changes to physiological systems impacts functional task performance. Impairment of neuromuscular function would be expected to negatively affect functional performance of crewmembers following exposure to microgravity. This presentation reports the results for muscle performance testing in crewmembers. Functional task performance will be presented in the abstract "Functional Task Test 1: sensory motor adaptations associated with postflight alternations in astronaut functional task performance." METHODS: Muscle performance measures were obtained in crewmembers before and after short-duration space flight aboard the Space Shuttle and long-duration International Space S